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Full text of "Report of the land revenue settlement of the Dera Ismail Khan District of the Punjab, 1872-79"

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InMati litstilttte, ^dA 

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Ho, t69, dated Lahore, 16th if ay 168^. 

k— F. C. CBlvimro, Esquire, Senior Secretary to FinaDcial Commiuionet, Pan jab, 
to— The Secretary to Government, Ponjab. 

The final report of the settlement of the Dera Ismail 

Submit, the (Smii report of ^hau District was suhmitted by the 
^he wttiement of the Dera Settlement 0£Bicer, Mr. Tucker, in April 

I.m«a Khan Oirtrict. jg^g . ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^_ 

intended by Mr. Lyall^ as Settlement Commissioner, almost 
up to its close« the Report was, with his permission, received 
in this ofBce without any review by Major Wace. Some 
time was ocdupied in passing the Iteport through the t^ress, 
And since then the pressure of other duties has prevented 
Mr. Lyall from i*evietring it. 1 am now directed to forward 
it f ot the orders of Oovernnient, and to submit the following 
it remarks by the Ij^inancial Oomniissioner. 

2. Part I, which contains a geographical and physical 

Bemarki dn Part I of th^ aCCOUUt of the district^ which is the 

^•p**"** largest in the Punjab^ calls for no. 

special remarks. It is well and clearly written^ and gives 
an excellent and accurate description of the district, with 
its scanty rainfall, its peculiar Systems of Cultivation on 
the lands in the Damdn tract to the West of the Indus, 
crossed by streams from the Suleimdn hills, its dreary Thai 
or desert to tbe east of that ritrer, and its fertile alluvial 
lands in the Indus Valley. 

3. In Part 11 of the !&eport, Mr. fucker, after notice 
Hifltory of the district and Ing that nothing is kuowu of the early 

iti coioDiiatioD. history of the district, which apparently 

was at the; beginning of the fifteenth century aliHost uiipo^ 
pulated, gives an acdotint of that double colonization, partly 
by Jdts and Biluchis from the south, and partly by Fowindha 
Pathins from the north-west, which has produced the present 
distribution of the population. The colonisation from the 
^ north-west may, in fact, be said to be still in progress j 

Marwats and Bhitannis have migrated into the district in 
late years, and Waziris are now anxious to settle. But for 
the restraining influence of the British power, the rude and 
fierce hill tribes would repeat the history of past generations, 
and mn by the sword settlements in the plains from the 



( 2 ) 

older colonists, grown more wealthy but less warlike ; now 
under British rule they have to settle as dependents or to 
beg for grants of waste land. Mr. Tucker then relates in 
some detail the local history of the last three centuries, — a 
somewhat confusing picture of the rise and fall of families, 
but one which will be both interesting and useful to those 
who are brought into contact with the present represent- 

Note.^\n pariL 107, line ^^^^f^ ^^ the old ruling tribcs and rule 
34, forMuiraj, read Sawan families. As clscwhere in the Punjab, 
^"" the Sikh succeeded to that of the local 

chiefs, and this, in 1819 was followed by annexation to the 
British dominions. 

4. With reference to the other matters treated of in 
Population according to this part of thc B/Cport, it wiU bc suffi- 

late census. cicnt to uoticc that the population of 

the district by the late census has been returned as 441,649, 
including Powindahs. This result, compared with that of 
the census of 1 868, seems to show that the Settlement census 
cannot have been very reliable. One cause of this is that, as 
the Settlement Officer points out, the floating population, 
owing to the system adopted, escaped enumeration in the 
Settlement census. 

5. The weights and measures customary in the district 
Diversity of weighte and are morc than usually diverse : it would 

'»*'*»*^'^®«- be well if in all Government records 

some uniform standard were adopted for the seer and topa, 
as has been done in the case of the land measures (paragraph 
155) ; from paragraph 154 this apparently is not the case 
at present. 

6. One of the most important duties which devolved 
The tenures of the dis- ou the Settlement Officer was to in- 

trict ; general remarks. vestigatc and rccord the character of 

the peculiar and complicated tenures, which have had their 
origin partly in the history of the colonization of the country, 
partly in the old method of taking the revenue in kind, and 
partly in the low value of unimposed and unirrigated land. 
From these causes have arisen severally the double system 
of ownership, the somewhat intricate methods of dividing 
the produce among the several right holders, and the rights 
gained by men who have by their improvements rendered 
the soil capable of cultivation, such as the ' lathbands ' and 
' hitimars.' From the very detailed account of the tenures^ 



( 3 ) 

which is given in Part III. of the Report, it is evident that 
Mr. Tucker has discliarged this part of his duty in an able 
and painstaking manner, and has thus laid the foundation for 
successful revenue administration and intelligent judicial 
decisions. 

7. In the Cis-Indus tahsils the country appears to 
Origin of unureg in the havc been vcry thinly populated. Tlie 

Ci«- Indus tabsiis. zamluddrs were obliged to offer very 

easy terms to induce cultivators to settle on their extensive 
estates. Hence arose their practice of leasing land to culti- 
vators, to hold permanently on payment of the revenue and a 
light quit-rent only, in consideration of a small sum of ready 
cash called jhuri, which was paid when the lease was first 
made. These lessees, and a few other old tenants at last 
summary settlement, were held to be inferior proprietors of 
the lands in their occupation. The greater part of the culti- 
vation is in these men's hands. 

The title of the village zamindars or superior proprie- 
tors in some cases appears to be founded on first settling in 
the waste, or on grants of large blocks from the State. In 
other cases Mr. Lyall thinks the ancestor of the family was 
made headman of the village by the ruler of the day, and 
that he and his descendants have gradually turned their 
title of office into a proprietary title. The superior pro* 
prietorship is almost always held undividedly : any indi- 
vidual superior proprietor who cultivates is himself an 
inferior proprietor quoad his cultivation. 

8. In paragraphs 180 to 184, Mr. Tucker gives an 

ReBpecti.e right, of supe- accouut of the Tules which havc bccn 
nor and inferior proprietors laid dowu f or regulating the rclatious 
in cu-indu8 tohsiiB. bctwecn thc superior and inferior pro- 

prietors in the Cis-Indus tahsfls. These rules have been 
established by general consent, and Mr. Lyall considers 
that they have a full justification in the circumstances of 
the complicated tenure and in the relative rights of the 
parties, and that they will probably have considerable effect 
in guiding the relations of the two parties. But at the same 
time Mr. Lyall thinks it inevitable that, as time goes on and 
waste land becomes more valuable, the tendency will be for 
the rights in the waste of the superior proprietors to increase 
at the expense of those of the inferior proprietors. 



( 4 ) 

9. As to the arrangements described in para. 184, with 

EifectofdiiQFionoiirigbti TcfereDoe to the claims of inferior 
of inferior proprietora and proprietors to reoover land lost by 
p.:cupancy tenant., diluvion. Mr. Lyall docs not think that 

any better rule than that which has been adopted could hare 
been fixed. The rule perhaps will seem rather loose, but 
this defect was, in the Financial Commissioner's opinion, 
unavoidable under the circumstances of the case; rules 
of practice, founded more or less upon this general rule, will 
no doubt grow up in different estates. Mr. Lyall agrees 
in the correctness of Mr. Tucker's assertion that the rights 
of occupancy tenants cease altogether when the whole of a 
plot held by them is washed away ; there is a clear custom 
to that effect in the district. 

Tenn™. in the i>«i.. ^^- ^^ dealing with the tenure 

indoa tiaha&i. of the Traus-Iudus tahsils, Mr. Tucker 

divides the country into : — 

I. — The J&t-Biluch tract, including nearly the 
whole of the Dera Ismail Khan Tahsfl, and 
the Dera Fatteh Ehan ilaqua, which he calls by 
the old name Makkalwad. 

II.— The Tank Tahsll. 

II I.^— The lands held by Fathin tribes in the Dera 
Ismail Khan and Kulachi tahsils. 

In the Makkalwad, as in the Ois- Indus tahsils, there 

are in the great majority of the villages 

M^kL^Id *^**** ^ *^ *^^ ^^ ^^ proprietors; but of these 

the title of the superior proprietors 
when non-resident in the village, as is often the case, 
has generally dwindled down to a right to collect a small 
ti^ukd&ri fee ; when resident they generally also retain 
proprietorship of the waste, the irdEerior proprietors owning 
only their respective holdings. But the Trans- Indus differs 
from the Ois-Indus oounti^, in that here, as regards the 
body of proprietors, whether auperior or inferior, the old 
native system of demand and collection of revenue had 
remained in force up to this settlement : at the summary 
settlement the right to collect the old customary share of 
produce and cesses was leased for fixed jamas or sun)s of 
cash to one or more leading men of the village, sometimes 
of tbe superior, sometimes of the inferior body, and, occasion- 
outsiders. These lesseeSi or mushaksad^ as they 



( B ) 

are locally called, had, in the Makkalwad, always been looked 
upon as mere farmers, and a cash settlement has now been 
made either with the superior or inferior proprietors, most 
commonly with the latter ; and the old lessees have been to 
some extent compensated for the loss of their leases by the 
grant of inams. 

11. In the Tank Tahsil the Settlement Officer first 

Twnret of t b e Tank tr©^*? of the tcnurcs in the Jatatar 

Taiwfl, Jautar oiroia. Oirclc and the Sirkdri villages generally, 

where a double tenure of the land has 
generally been established. This had its origin in the strong 
position, both as ruler and proprietor, assumed by Sarwar 
Khan, the strong Naw&b of Tank, who died in 1886, the 
lapsing of these rights to the British Government at 
annexation, and the leases granted by Major Nicholson at 
the first summary settlement in 1864, to men whom he 
stated to be the dominant class in each village, and whom 
he recommended for recognition as proprietors. Mr. Tucker 
gives an account of the orders subsequently passed, and 
the result of them may be thus stated. The superior 
proprietors are Major Nicholson's village lessees where 
they had not lost possession. In cases where these original 
lessees had lost possession, which are comparatively few, 
they are the men who succeeded them in the leases, or 
men who have now claimed as descendants of the old pre« 
annexation malliks or village headmen. All the other land-* 
holders in the villages whose occupation dates from before 
annexation, or who, though they came later, were not put in 
by the men now made superior propritors, have been made 
inferior proprietors. The nature and incidents of this 
doubled proprietary right will be the same here as in most 
parts of Tahsil Dera, where, as before noted, it is the 
common form of village tenure. This double tenure, com- 
plicated as it at first sight appears, was found very well 
suited to meet the relative claims of both parties in Tank, 
and had the advantage of being familiarly known to them. 
In fact the people naturally conformed* their respective 
claims to the incidents of this tenure. 



12. In the Bhitanni Oircle the tenures are simple, , the 

T«oi«.<ifBhiteBiuCiroia ^^^ "© ahuost exclusivcly held by 
Md the QumteVaUej. cultivating proprietors, the revenue has 

been always coUeoted in kind ; and the 



( 6 ) 

proprietors^ being given the option of the continuance of 
the old system or a cash assessment of Rs. 7,200, * elected 
for the former. The inams to Mr. Tucker refers in para. 
257 were, under the orders contained in Secretary to Govern- 
ment's No. 1146, of 2lst May 1879, disallowed for the 
present, on account of the complicity of the tribe in the 
raid on Tank. In the Gumal Valley also' the tenures are 
simple and need no special notice. 

13. In the Kundi country the past history nf the tract 
ii .V tr J. bas given rise to the enjoyment, by the 

Tenares of the Knndi . ? -t ^ o j^ • rri i j -r^ -i i • 

country. two families of Sardari Ehels and Dnkki 

Khels, of a due known as the panch- 
daham or fifteenth. As to this, some* of the Sarddri Khels 
attempt to make ort that they enjoyed it, or something 
equivalent, before Sarwar Khan conquered the Kundis. 
They say, in fact, that the chief tainship of the clan belonged 
to their section, and that the panch-daham is a remnant of 
chieftain dues. No doubt, however, Mr. Tucker is right in 
supposing that the actual panch«daham originated in a grant 
by Sarwar Khan to Mian Khan, in return for service and 
by way of " mallik " or headman's fees ; but the fact 
that he gave the fee for the whole of the Kundi country to 
Mian Khan, goes to prove that the Sarddri Kbel had some 
claim to a'chiefdom of the clan. 

Mr. Lyall holds, therefore, that the panch-daham has 
been rightly treated at this settlement as of the nature of a 
talukd^i due. Some small part of it has been mortgaged 
in past years, which shows that it has be6n regarded as a 
proprietary right. At the present settlement it has been 
commuted to a cash cess or talukddri due of 25 per cent on 
the Government revenue. The subordinate tenures are 
comparatively simple; the custom of vesh or periodical 
redistribution of lands, which formerly prevailed in part of 
the tract, has now been disallowed as obsolete, and the lands 
are now mainly held on a bhai^htok tenure by cultivating 
proprietors. 

U. In dealing with the tenures of the Path&n tribes 

..V /. ^ ^ the Dera Ismail Khan and Kulaohi 

TenuresoftheGnBdapur.. t^^^sils, Mr. Tuckcr treats first of the 

country of the Gundapurs. Here the land tenure is very 
curious and compUcated, and has been a great puazle to the 

• Nom-In pm. m, line 1, for Bi. 7^000 tomI Bi. 7»M0. 



( 7 ) 

courts and to district officers. Without a survey and a 
detailed inquiry, such as has been made in this settlement, 
it was scarcely possible to comprehend it thoroughly. The 
whole Oundapurs' territory is one estate, the tribal property 
of the Gundapur clan, and is held on shares. Many Gunda« 
purs have sold some or all of their shares, but the purchasers 
have o^enerally been members of the clan. The clan has divided, 
at different times almost the whole area among its six main 
stems or nallahs ; only a little remains shdmiJat or common 
property of the clan. Each nallah received in this division 
numerous blocks in various scattered positions ; most of these 
blocks have again beensub-dividedby the nallah among its 
different branches or sections. In some cases the section 
has again sub-divided among its sub-sections : and in a few 
cases sub-division has gone down to single families or 
individuals, but this is rare. Although, therefore, many 
Gundapur proprietors cultivate, yet with very few exceptions 
they cultivate as tenants, like the Jdts ; for the land they 
so occupy is either not their property, or, being shdmilat, 
is only their property partly and in an undivided way. A 
great number of the Gundapurs have never taken to farming 
as an occupation, partly perhaps on account of the difficulty 
of getting hold of a good plot they can call their own. In 
former days the Gundapurs were an independent clan, 
paying at most only tribute, and taking for themselves the 
whole *' mahsul," or ruler's share of the produce of the 
land. Of late years the Government has taken three- tenths 
of this mahsul and left one-tenth to the proprietors as 
malikana ; what has been done with the remaining six- 
tenths of the produce, which is called the " rihkam," will 
appear from the following description of the system of 
cultivation. 

The bands or embanked fields are of very large size, 
and when much water comes down, a large area has to be 
rapidly ploughed and eown ; hence the pustom is that 
cultivation is carried on by haldras, or comlbanies of 
cultivators. The headman of the company is called the 
sardamma, and it is he alone who is considwed to hold 
the lease, and who is recognized by the Government and by 
the proprietors as the tenant ; the others are looked upon 
as his private associates. Most of them bring their own 
ploughs and oxen, and are known as the sardamma's jorewdls 
or bhaiwdh. The rihkam or tenant's share of produce is 



( 8 ) 

divided by the haUra upon the number of ploughs eontribut' 
ed ; but the sardamma gets from the associates^ in return 
for his management of the whole enterprise, an extra share^ 
varying in amount, and known as the muajora haUra. 

Some of these tenants have acquired a right of occupancy 
on the grounds of having effected the lathbandi or first 
embankment of the fields. In such case they hold on, of 
course, to the same set of fields instead of changing about 
as the others do* But like the sardamma -tenants-at-will 
they commonly associate jorewdls with themselves in the 
cultivation, and take a small share of the rihkam as 
*' muajora " from them. Sometimes, however, they sub-let 
their holding or a part of it to a sub-tenant to be cultivated 
separately, and take from the sub-tenant a *' muajota." Thi« 
** muajora," when taken from sub-tenants or partners in 
cultivation by lathbands (f. e., occupancy tenants), is called 
'* muajora lathbandi." There is, generallv, a middleman 
between the proprietors and the actual cultivators ; this ig 
the ni^wdddr. He is the result of the complicated proprie- 
tary tenure of the Oundapurs, and of the mutual jealousy 
which always eitist among Pathdn clansmen. A middleman 
was clearly necessary to take the place of managing farmer 
over the actual cultivators which is commonly held by 
Indian village landlords, and which, in respect to shamildt 
lands, is held in ordinary villages by the lambarddr. This 
place in the Oundapur territory is held by the nidwdddr ; he 
may be manager for the whole clan, for a branch, a section, 
or a single family ; that depends upon the degree to which 
division has been carried in regard to the plot he holds. 
He constantly manages the cultivation of many adjacent plots, 
holding each from a different set of proprietors ; sometimes^ 
he is himself a shareholder in the proprietorship of the plot, 
and sometimes not. As a sign that he is only their agent 
and can be evicted on repayment, and as a fine in considera-< 
tion of letting him take the land, or of not evicting him^ 
the proprietors exact certain sums from the nidwdddr ; these 
sums are called nidwa money, and must be repaid before 
the niiw&ddr can be evicted. They are sometimes taken 
when the nidwdd&r first gets possession, sometimes afterwards. 
Perhaps at first only a few of the proprietors may have taken 
money in respect to their shares of a plot, and have handed 
it over to a nidwdddr, but afterwards the other shareholders 
will demand something on aocount of their shares from him* 



( 9 T 

The money paid to ^ach shareholder is scored against his 
name in account books. One shareholder may have taken 
more, and another less ; to secure himself against CTiction, 
the nidwdddr goes on making adyances to importunate 
shareholders* 

The share of produce which the nidwdddr gets as his 
profit must come of course either from the proprietor's 
malikana, or tenant's rihkam, or from both. As a rule he 
now-a*days gets from one-seventh to one*twentieth of the 
rihkam, and no share of the malikana ; what he gets is called 
the "muajora murtahun." Almost all the large blocks of 
shamil&t land and many of the small are held in nidwa ; 
many of the nidwdddrs cultivate part of the land they hold 
in nidwa themselves, and are, quoad such fields, tenants as 
well as nidwdddrs. There are a few small Htdwdddrs who 
cultivate the whole of their holdings ; th» fact is that these 
men began as mere tenants, and the proprietors have 
borrowed money from them on a pledge of the tenancy. 
Many of these nidwdddrs have been now found by the 
Settlement Officers' awards, passed in attestation, to have 
acquired extensive rights of occupancy which would survive 
repayment of the nidwa money. Mr. Lyall's own view was 
and is adverse to the validity of their claims to occupancy 
right, unless in very exceptional cases ; but as the Settlement 
Officers' orders in attestation were supported more or less 
clearly by a decision of the Chief Court, which was taken 
as a precedent, Mr. Lyall, as Settlement Commissioner, did 
not think it right to interfere by executive order. The point 
did come before him judicially in two or three civil appeals^ 
and orders for re-decision after further inquiry as to the 
custom were passed in these cases; but the Settlement 
Officers adhered to their decisions, and the appeals were 
not persevered in. 

Many of the nidwdddrs are resident in villages the 
whole or greater part of the lands of which they hold in 
nidwa. These men really manage and superintend all the 
fanning. Others, however, live at a distance from the lands 
they hold in nidwa, and have not much more connection 
with them than is involved in the collection of their dues, 
which they generally manage through some local agent, 
using the Government khdm tahsf I papers as a check. 

The cultivation is almost entirely carried on by tenants, 
of whom two-thirds are tenants-at-wiU. When the cultivators 



( 10 ) 

under the eye of the watchman hare harrested their crop, 
they are confronted by the tahsil officials, the jamaw&ls or 
proprietors, rent-collectors, the Tillage servants, and the 
nidw^ddr. If the land, as is ordinarily the case, is held in 
nidwa, all take their shares, and the balance is left to the 
haldra, or company of cultivators, to be divided upon ploughs 
as described above. Sometimes^ however, they may have to 
pay something even out of this balance to a lath band 
occupancy tenant, who has ceased to cultivate himself. But 
the tahsf 1 officials do not carry away the Government share ; 
they return it to the sardamma or head tenant, who engages 
to pay its cash value into the tahsil. 

Generally speaking, all the members of the haUra share 
this contract with the head tenant, though the tahsil officials 
deal only with him. In a few cases where the tenant seems 
very impecunious or untrustworthy, the tahsil officials take 
security from him, or deposit the grain on his behalf with 
some village banker and grain merchant. 

15. The above is the system which was found in force 

ArraAgemeritB forpayment ^t this Settlement, and the qucstiou 
of the revenue made in the naturally arosc to wbich class should a 
Gundapnr. ^^^ asscssmcut bc oflFcred. The revenue 

had hitherto been paid by the cultivators, but it was not 
desirable to ofFer the settlement to them even if the provisions 
of the Land Revenue Act had not been opposed to this course, 
as between the nidwdddrs and the proprietors opinions varied ; 
but the orders of Government passed on the Kevenue Bate 
Report were, in accordance with Mr. Lyall's opinion, that 
the offer should be firut made to the proprietors conditionally 
on their making suitable arrangements. In the Eori and 
Takwdra portions the of tract, cash assessments were 
accordingly accepted by the proprietors ; but in the Kulachi 
ox Fradu country, the cash assessment of which would have 
been Es. 19,915, the owners refused a khatauniwdr assessr 
ipent, and wanted to engage for a cash assessment to be 
paid by them according to their tribal shares in the superior 
ownership. This plan was, however, considered unworkable, 
and it being, after full consideration, held inexpedient to make 
the settlement with the nidwdddrs or with the lathband class^ 
it was finally ruled, in letter from Secretary to Govemmentj 
No. 774, oi 1st April 1879, that the existing system of khdm 
tahsil must be continued. The reduction proposed by the 
Settlement Officer in the rate of the Qovermnent demand 



( n ) 

from Bs. 82 to Rs. 28-6-8 per cent was at tbe same time 
disallowed, except for the poor tracts lying west of the Luni, 
and some other tracts of Daggar land, where it was allowed 
on the condition that in the event of the extension of Luni 
irrigation thither the full rates must be taken there also. 

16. The Yarkanni country needs no special notice, but 
Tennret of the Mian Kbei the Mian Khel Circle is more important. 
^^^^•- This circle is the territory of the 

Mian Khel Fathdns, who are Powindahs by origin, and 
still trade to great distances beyond the border. It 
is divided into M usezdi, a strip of country taken as its share 
by one section of the clan, and Draban, the country retain* 
ed by the remaining sections. Both Musez&i and Draban 
have again been sub-divided in the very curious fashion 
explained in paragraphs 304 to 308 by Mr. Tucker. These 
two countries have again been parcelled out into a number 
of mauzas or villages, formed with reference to residence of 
cultivators or other reasons unconnected with the bounda* 
ries of proprietary right, as determined in the partitions 
effected from time to time* by the clan proprietors. In their 
eyes each country is still, as it were, a single estate. 

Mr. Tucker gives a good fiscal history of the circle. It 
will be seen that the Nawab of Dera took tribute only, and 
that the Sikhs took one-seventh in kind, leaving a malikana 
of two-sevenths to the proprietors. Afterwards Major 
Edwardes, on behalf of the Darbdr, raised the Government 
share to one-fifth produce, leaving a one-fifth malikana to 
the proprietors, and made a cash settlement on this basis. 
Major Edwardes's award as to the respective shares of Go- 
vernment and the proprietors in the net produce was adop- 
ted at both summary settlements as the standard of 
assessment ; but, to encourage the lessees or mushaksaddrs 
to engage, a proviso was added entitling them to half the 
proprietor's one-fifth malikana in years when the one-fifth 
Government share of produce did not cover the demand. 
The mnshaksad&rs were generally leading men of the clan ; 
in a few cases they were selected men from among the 3&t 
cultivators. The assessment was made with the proprietary 
body for the lands round the village of Draban only ; all the 
other 46 villages, excepting two or three which have been 
held khAm tahsll, were settled with mushaksadira. In eight 
villages in the Draban country Mr. Tucker has awarded the 
iommary settlement lessees the status of sub-proprietors. 



( 12 ) 

These are villages foanded in waste lands on the border of 
the Mian Khel territory with the permission of the elan, by 
the lessees or their ancestors. Many of the Mian Khel vil- 
lages appear to have been founded in this way, but the con- 
nection of the founders with them has remained unbroken 
in these cases only. Originally the founders appear to have 
held from the olan on a tenure similar to that of the mazduri 
khors of the Chandw&n Circle. The reasons for awarding 
these men a special status are in every case substantial, and 
the awards appear to have been accepted by the clan. 

In these eight villages the settlement has been made 
with the ex-lessee sub-proprietors, who . will collect the 
mahsul, or Government share of produce, as before, from the 
cultivators. Most of the land in these villages is held by 
lathband occupancy tenants ( generally Jdts), who pay only 
the two-fifths mahsul and malikana, and take muajora or 
rent from sub-tenants for land they do not; cultivate them- 
selves. The ex-lessees are themselves lathbands in their 
villages, but not to any large extent. 

The arrangement by which the lessees in case of loss took 
half the malikana has been modified ; of the 8-20th paid by the 
cultivators, 5-20th instead of 4t-20th, as heretofore, has been 
declared mahsul or the right of the subordinate proprietors, 
and the clan proprietors will take the remaining 3-20th, and 
will no longer be liable to any deductions on account of losses. 
In all the other villages of the Draban Mian Khels the 
settlement has been made with the proprietors, as has been 
done also in the Musazdi country, except in two villages, 
where an arrangement similar to that in the eight villages 
above noted has been made. 

17. The next circle is the territory of the Babdrs of 
*.t. »v^ Chandwdn. The whole of it has been 

Tenures of the Baoftra. 3» > 3 :% iv-i'iv j. x* « 

divided among the different section of 
the clan ; the process has been gradual, as new land has 
•been brought into cultivation, or sometimes as a prelimin* 
ary to so doing the clan has stepped in and divided the 
block among its sections. Each section therefore holds plot 
scattered over the whole territory. These divisions were 
originally made to enable each section to collect its 
proprietary share of produce separately, and not, as a rule, 
with any view to separate cultivation ; but now-a-days the 
proprietors, as far as possiblci have their own tenants for 
their own holdings. 



( 18 ) 

Tlie maadari khor, of whom the Settlement Officer 
g^ves an accoant in paragraph 323, was originally a sort of 
middleman, who occupied in this circle a position similar to 
that held by the nidwdddr in the Gunddpor conntry. He 
was the o^pring of the same necessities caused by the 
same tribal system. In return for management of the 
cultivation, the clan allowed him a small share of the net 
produce as his masduri ; this share was larger if he was 
breaking up waste, or if the situation was an exposed one. 
J ust as the Gunddpur took money from the nidwddirs as 
a proof of their power to evict on repay-ment, so the 
Babdrs put in the masduri khors by written leases for fixed 
terms, to prevent them from acquiring a permanent title. 
If they renewed the term or allowed the masduri khor to 
hold on, they generally reduced the amount of masduri ; 
sometimes this reduction was general ; sometimes it was 
made only in respect to the shares of certain individuals who 
insisted on it, just as each individual Ounddpur commonly 
has his separate ni&wa money account with the niiwdddr. 
Mr. Tucker mentions that in two or three special cases the 
mazduri khors have been held in attestation to have acquired 
a permanent title. The clan in one of these cases brought a 
regular suit in the Extra Assistant Settlement Officer's Court 
to oust the mazduri khor, and obtained a decree ; in appeal, 
Mr. Lyall, as Settlement Commissioner, reversed this decision 
and upheld the order passed in attestation, but with some 
modifications of detail : there were special reasons of a sub- 
stantial kind for holding the status to be permanent in these 
cases. The settlement has been made here, as elsewhere, 
with the clan proprietors, not with the mazduri khor. The 
separation of rights in land from rights in the kalapani or 
perennial water is peculiar to this circle, and may some day 
cause a difficulty. A similar separation exists in part of the 
irrigated country near Bannu. 



18. The tenure of the TJshtenna Girde, which is 

T^«.af»beU.hi«o«. ^i^. ^ PW^P^ 880 of the 

Beport^ 18 now smiple, each proprietor 
owning his own fields in severalty, although these, owing to 
the mode in which the original tribal partition was effected, 
are now scattered over the circle. Up to this settlement the 
revenue has been always collected in kind, at the exception- 
ally light rate of one-tenth of the gross produce, — ^a con- 
cession made to the TJshtoranas owing to their living in t^' 



1 



( 1* ) 

hills and to the great uncertainty of their harvests. A 
light cash assessment has now heen suhstituted for this 
arrangement. The Deputy Commissioner, in his last Revenue 
Report', has stated his opinion that, owing to the difficulty 
of collecting a cash assessment from the Ushteranas, it may 
he necessary to revert to grain collections ; but Mr. Lyall 
does not believe that the clan as a hody will agree to this, 
and he thinks that, if necessary, force should be employed 
to compel payment of the cash assessment, which is a very 
light one. 

19. In the Kasrani country also possession is the 
„ • , ,^ ^ measure of ri^ht; the Kasrani squatters 

T«DaT«i of the Easraoi » .. ., • mi j. i • ii 

country. of the outlyiug Villages are technically 

classed as inferior proprietors, because 
of the small customary grain fee paid in recognition of the 
manorial title of a family of Kulachi Biluchis ; hut this is 
the only point which distinguishes them from full proprie- 
tors, and the settlement has been made with them. Before 
this settlement the revenue of this tract, which is even 
worse than that of the Ushteranas, was taken in kind, 
generally at one-fourth the gross produce, — a high rate, 
which had its origin in the insignificance of the tribe and 
the country heing held in jagir, and which was continued 
owing to their turhulence and misconduct. 

20. The Ehetrans are a Fathdn clan, though as- 
Tii« Khotmnt, Biinehif. similatcd to the Biluchis in manners 

MbeT^ the Independent and customs, and the tenure on which 

they hold their lands, though now 
mainly hhai^hdra, to some extent resembles that of the 
Fathin Circle ; for instance, the kalapani lands are held in 
common upon water shares, and many large blocks exist, 
owned undividedly by many shareholders, which must, Mr. 
Lyall thinks, he the relics of a primary tribal division. The 
corporations of proprietors who own these blocks collect 
from the cultivators in kind, and pay the revenue of the 
block upon their shares. 

Mr. Tucker's accounts of the Biluch country of the 
Pathdn tribes of the Khasor range and of the Marwat 
country do not call for any special notice. Nor is it necessary 
in the present review to ii^otice the interesting accounts of 
the Independent Tribes beyond the border and of the 
Powindahs ; the information on these subjects recorded by 



( 15 ) . 

the Settlement OfBcer will be very valuable to all who have 
to manage the relations of the British Government with 
these tribes. 



21. In paragraphs 379 to 387 of the Report, Mr. Tucker 
Riparian boondsries on gives an accouut of the measufos taken 
the indui, with reference to the settling of the 

boundaries of villages, tahsils^ and districts along the Indus. 
The custom in force is that of fixed village boundaries, and 
the whole of the river-bed has been mapped and divided into 
separate estates. The existing rule as to transfers of juris* 
diction is that all alluvial lands belonging to estates, of which 
the village site or the greater part of the area is situated on 
one side of the river, shall be considered to belong to the 
tahsfl on that side. . In paragraph 387, Mr. Tucker dwells on 
the inconveniences which arise from the transfer of a village 
from one jurisdiction to another during the course of a settle- 
ment, and urges that as far as possible such transfers should 
be avoided, and should not be permitted except when the 
alteration in the position of village in relation to the deep- 
stream is likely to be of a lasting character. In his argu* 
ment he refers to the effect of transfers between the Dera 
Ghdzi Ehan and Muzaffargarh districts ; but this is a separate 
matter. References have been made to the Financial Com- 
missioner, in connection with questions which have arisen as 
to transfers between these districts, and orders have been' 
passed. As to the boundary between the Leiah Tahsil and 
the Saoghar Tahsil of Dera Ghdzi Khan, the Financial Com- 
missioner agrees with Mr. Tucker that it will be probably 
unadvisable to change the boundary laid down at settlement : 
there are already by that boundary certain parts of villages 
which belong to the Sanghar Tahsil^ although situated on 
the Leiah side of the deep-stream, and no inconvenience has 
as yet been found to result from this arrangement. If it 
is hereafter found necessary for special reasons to alter the 
boundary now fixed, and to transfer villages from one district 
to the other, special orders will have to be given at the time 
as to how the settlement arrangements and engagements are 
to be maintained. As to the boundary between the different 
tahsils of Dera Ismail £han and between Dera Tahsil and 
the Midnw&li Tahsfl of BannUy Mr. Lyall agrees that trans- 
fers of villages should only be made for special reasons and 



( 16 ) 

iirhere the alteration in position is likely to be of a lasting 
character. If this principle is adopted, such transfers will be 
few ; and there is no such difference of assessment between 
the different tahsf Is of Dera Ismail Khan as would give rise 
to any practical difficulty ; nor indeed is there now any such 
difference between the Dera and Midnwdli assessments. Un- 
der the arrangements finally sanctioned for Midnw^li, there 
is only one full fluctuating rate on cultivation with a half- 
rate for new lands, and a grazing rate assessed in only a few 
villages. If Dera villages were transferred to Mi^nwdli, it 
would be easy to maintain their particular rate on culti- 
vation and to exempt them from liability to a grazing 
rate. 

22. The system of irrigation arrangements on the 
, . ,. , ^.„ ^ larger hill streams described in para* 

Imffation from niu ■ireamt. « a#x^ ^ ^^-^ # xi •«-» ^ 

graphs 399 and 401 of the Report prac- 
tically resembles the cher labour arrangements still in force 
for the maintenance of the inundation canals in Mooltan and 
Muzaffargarh; but owing to the exceedingly irregular action 
of the torrents and the constantly changing character of 
their banks and beds, the system is exceedingly loose, and 
great power of changing the arrangements is necessarily en- 
trusted to the leading men of the people under the super- 
vision of the d&roghds, the tahsflddrs and the Deputy Com- 
missioner. The Financial Commissioner does not see how 
this looseness of system can, under the circumstances, be 
avoided ; he agrees with Mr. Tucker in considering that the 
liability to supply labour is part of the land tenure. It may 
be necessary eventually to attempt to systematize ihe arrange- - 
ments and to give them a legal basis ; but the task will be 
immensely difficult, and as all the people concerned recognize 
the absolute necessity of the present arrangements, it is to ' 
be hoped that with good administration by the Deputy Com- 
missioner the present system will not break down. The 
schemes for the improvement of the Luni, to which the Set- 
tlement Officer refers in paragraphs 402 and 403, were 
referred to the Financial Commissioner for his opinion. This 
was submitted io the Joint-Secretary to Government, Punjab, 
Irrigation Branch, in this office letters Nos. 78 S. C. of 21st 
August 1878, and 1165 of 28th February 1879, and was in 
favour of carrying out the first or smaller scheme for the 
construction of weir only. 



( 17 ) 

23. Speaking broadly, the Dera Ismail Khan Dis* 

Five great tracts contain- tllCt COIlsistS Of five tiacts : 

cd in the district. 

I. — The Damdn, where cultivation is carried on in 
embanked fields by means of irrigation from 
the streams which issue from the Suleiman 
range. 

II. — The {'aniala and Khasor country, consisting of the 
tracts within or bordering upon the small hill 
ranges between Sheikh Bud in and the Indus. 
Here the cultivation, when the soil is light 
and sandy, as most of it is, depends upon the 
local rainfall, but part of the cultivation de- 
pends upon springs and small hill torrents. 

i 

III, — The B/Ug-Paharpur tract, which in part resembles 
the Indus alluvial tract, but is mainly depend- 
ent for irrigation on wells, inimdation canals, 
and the drainage from the Khasor range. 

IV. — The Kachi or the alluvial lands of the Indus. 

V. — The Thai or Cis-Indus sandy plain. 

24. In the Damdn the cultivated area is especially liable . 
Account of the Daman, ^q yary from vcar to vcar ; the culturable 

and of tbc STstem oi asschs- .'' •'. •"^-ijii 

ment introdnced. area IS vcry cxtensivc, but the area actu« 

ally cultivated in any year depends, first upon the rainfall in 
the Afghdn hills beyond our border, which feeds the hill 
streams which flow out upon the Damdn, and secondly upon 
the successful erection and maintenance of the dams across 
these hill streams. The rainfall may be deficient and the 
supply of water scanty, or the torrents may come down in 
such force as to sweep away the dams and thus make it 
impossible to lead the water where it is required ; and owing 
to the right of the upper villages to irrigate their lands be- 
fore allowing the floods to pass on to the lower villages, the 
former may in years of somewhat scanty rainfall be well 
watered and prosperous, while the latter are dry and waste. 
In consequence of this liability of the tract to great fluctu- 
ations of the yield, and in order to facilitate the in|;roduction 
of cash payments by the individual landholders, and the 
abolition of the hitherto existent mushaksad&r or lambardar 
lessee systemj it was decided at this settlement that some 



( 18 ) 

system of assessment less rigid than that of a fixed demand 
should be adopted ; and, therefore, after framing estimates 
for fixed village assessments, only one-fourth of these was in 
each case announced as the fixed assessment, and in lieu of 
the other three-fourths it was arranged that crop rates fixed 
for each circle would be charged on the cultivated area each 
harvest. 

The objects aimed at in keeping one-fourth of the reve- 
ntie fixed were to stimulate cultivation and to relieve the 
cultivator from an excessive demand in years of super-abun- 
dant harvests and low prices. The crop rates assessed are 
given in paragraph 447 of the Beport. Some corrections 
needed in this table are pointed out in the note below.* 

These rates were purposely pitched low for the reasons 
stated in paragraphs 448 and 449 of the Beport, and therefore 
claim to the lower rates devised for the inferior cultivation 
known as rel and lalmi should be granted charily ; while at 
the same time the system must not, as Mr. Tucker points out 
in paragraph 467, be worked so stiffly in exceptionally un- 
favourable years as to injure the people's resources and check 
cultivation. In paragraphs 453, 454, 465 and 466 the Settle- 
ment Officer notes some directions for the working of the 
system, t which should for the present be observed. If ex- 
perience shows that some modification of these rules is re- 
quired, the matter should be reported for orders. As already 
noted, a system of collection by appraisement of a share of 
the produce has been maintained with the consent of the pro- 
prietors in the Bhitanni tract and in part of the Gundapur 
country. The reasons are fully given in the correspondence. 

25. The Faniala tract and that part of the Khasor 
Assessmeni o€ the Faniala couutry which is uot in the bed of the 

and Khasor country. Indus havc becu givcu a fixed assess- 

ment. Most of the cultivation, which is very scanty, depends 
on the local rainfall, and there were no special reasons for 
abandoning the usual system of assessment. 

26. The greater part of the cultivation of the Rug- 
Assessment of the Rng- Faharpur tract is tolerably secure, and 

Piiharpnr tract. has also been settled at a fixed demand, 

* Note.-^The rate on barley in Gumal Takwira, 2nd class, is Re. 0-9-0> and in 3rd 
class Re. 0-S*0, instead of vice vend. 

The rate on hajra in Lnni Gudh Toal, 2nd class, is Re. 0-7-0. 

t iVo^tf.— In paragraph 4$6« role 2 lino 2, for "caltiratod*' read " ancnltiratod." 



( 19 ) 

but a few villages have been brought under the fluctuating 
system of assessment for riyer lands. 

27. The Kachi or Indus alluvial tract is over 800,000 
* 4. C4^u V w acres in. extent, and includes portions of 

AsseMment of the Eachi. .. :_.^ _. '.. _-. it- i t • -r*! i 

the Dera Ismail Khan, Kulachi, Bhak- 
kar and Leiah tahsOs; the fluctuations both in the area undev 
cultivation and the yield per acre are much less marked here 
than in the Daman ; but both for reasons which apply gene- 
rally to tracts of this character and for others which apply 
specially to the Dera Ismail Khan District, it was considered 
desirable to introduce a system of fluctuating assessments. 
These reasons it will be advisable to now state in some detail, 
because Mr. Tucker in his Eeport has written little on the 
subject, and because in the Bannu district, the Report of 
which has been already submitted, it was not necessary to 
say much on the subject, as the Settlement Officer there only 
continued and improved an already existing system of flue* 
tuating assessments. The ordinary system in force for the 
treatment of lands affected by river action is that prescribed 
by Chapter D. II. of the rules under the Land Revenue Act. 
Under that system the settlement malguzari area (i. ^., the 
area entered as cultivated or culturable in the Settlement 
papers) is all considered to be assessed in the Settlement 
jama, and no improvement of it by new cultivation or allu- 
vial deposit will justify the Deputy Commissioner in en- 
hancing such assessment. He can remit on account of land 
rendered unculturable by the direct action of the river, e.g,, 
land carried away or spoiled by deposit of sand ; but under 
Rule 18 he ought not to so remit, if he finds that there has 
been an equivalent improvement of some other part of the 
estate, in whcih case he ought to refer the individual land- 
holder injured to a new bdchh, or redistribution of the reve- 
nue, as his remedy. Although the Deputy Commissioner 
can remit on account of land spoiled by direct river action,, 
he cannot under the rules remit for land which becomes un- 
culturable by failure of river action. The rules fail to recog-^ 
nize the fact that in the south-west of the Punjab, where 
the rainfall is too small for rain cultivation in the absence 
of wells or canals, the question whether land is culturable 
or unculturable depends upon whether it does or does not 
get moisture from the river by flood or by percolation, and 
as the rivers frequently change their channels or the direc- 
tions of their floodsi land which is culturable one year 



( 20 ) 

becomes unculturable another year, and may remain so for 
many years in succession. On the other hand« for the same 
reason large tracts previously unculturable become easily 
culturable, and remain so for uncertain periods. The rules 
are therefore unsuitable for this part of the Punjab, and, if 
strictly adhered to in practice, le&d in the currency of settle- 
ments to great inequaliti(»s of assessment, some villages losing 
most of their cultivation but getting no remission, while 
others are able to immensely increase their cultivation with- 
out having to pay any additional revenue. In the Upper 
Punjab, on the other hand, the authorized system carried out 
with a moderate discretion works well enough. In the first 
place, the culturable waste of river-side estates is not nearly 
so extensive in comparison to the cultivated area as in the 
Lower Punjab, and is much less liable to change in character 
and extent ; for the action of the rivers is not so capricious 
and violent. Moreover, the waste does not depend on the 
floods for' cultivation : the moisture of the soil and the rain- 
fall are sufficient, and therefore a Settlement Officer can rea- 
sonably take the culturable waste into account in assessing 
in the Upper Punjab. 

But in the Lower Punjab culturable waste lands in 
river-side estates are ordinarily very extensive as compared 
to the cultivated area, and no dependence can be placed on 
their remaining culturable for any time ; radical changes in 
the quality of large areas of soil occur frequently, and 
land culturable one year may become practically uncultur- 
able the next, without change of quality of soil, from a 
change in the nature or direction of the floods. Practically, 
therefore, a Settlement Officer cannot take into account cul- 
turable waste when assessing river villages in the Lower 
Punjab. Nor would there practically be any inequality 
caused in the Lower Punjab by assessing river-side villages 
on lands broken up from culturable waste, while the up-land 
villages are exempt from such assessment. 

In such a country, where little or no barani cultivation 
is possible, it is only the river-side villages which can break 
up waste of considerable extent without expenditure of 
capital ; the up-land villages must make new wells or canal 
cuts before they can break up their waste, so that in practice 
it is not unequal treatment to treat the culturable waste as 
in one case included in the assessment, and not in the other 



( 21 ) 

Another point in which the Lower differs from the 
Upper Punjah, is the suitableness of a new re-distribution 
of the revenue as an alternative to a reduction of the demand. 
In the Upper Punjab the villages are much smaller and are 
nearly always owned by one or perhaps two families, which 
have divided the land so that each man has a share in each 
quarter of the estate, and ordinary river action affects each 
man's holding much alike. These families also have common 
lands and common funds to fall back upon, — a circumstance 
which much facilitates a new b^chh. Bat in the Lower 
Punjab the village areas are generally distributed into inde- 
pendent holdings formed of single blocks known as wells or 
pattis ; there are generally no common lands and no common 
income, or if there are common lands, they are often not 
available to all. Thus where there are in the same estate 
superior and inferior proprietors, each of the latter often 
only holds his cultivated plot and has no power to break up 
waste without permission. In the Lower Punjab, therefore, 
the river action makes changes in individual holdings too 
great to be properly adjusted by a new bdchh, and, more- 
over, a new b&chh is from the tenure of the village a very 
difficult operation. 

Again, the power of remitting revenue on land cut away 
or covered with sand is sufficient in tlie Upper Punjab, but 
in the Lower Punjab power is wanted to remit also on land 
thrown out of cultivation by failure of flood as above noted. 

Owing to the partial unsuitability of the authorized 
system, other systenos grew up in some districts in an 
unauthorized sort of way ; e.g.^ the plan of annual revision of 
assessment of whole villages or river chaks of villages of 
remitting or increasing at fixed rates on actual cultivation, 
which, as noted in the Bannu B/cport, prevailed before settle- 
ment in Midnwdli. A similar plan, as reported by Mr. Purser, 
prevailed in Mamdot of Ferozepore, and also in the Fizilka 
Tahsfl of the Sirsa District ; and the practice in Muzaffargarh 
and in the Trans-Indus Tahsfls of Dera Ismail Khan, of 
assessing annually all new cultivation without reference to 
the question whether the land was recorded as culturable 
waste at settlement or not. These considerations led Mr. 
Lyall to question whether some such system as that in force 
in Mi&nw41i ought not to be adopted in the districts of the 
Mooltan and Derajdt Divisions for all villages or parts of 
villages really subject to riyer action, as the authorized 



( 22 ) 

system was not sufficiently elastic, and was also very unequal 
in its effects on different villages. He had ascertained that 
a certain number of villages on the Sutlej and Ravi had been 
either completely ruined or seriously impoverished by it ; 
their old sailaba lands had fallen out of cultivation owing to 
changes in the .direction or in the character of floods ; and 
they had failed to obtain remissions of revenue, as the cause 
of their distress was not a cause recognized by the rules as 
giving a claim to reduction. Sometimes the floods had gone 
right away from the villages, which in some cases had lost 
all sailab cultivation till the river might take another turn ; 
sometimes the floods had only changed their direction a 
little, and the villagers had been able to cultivate new 
sailaba land in place of the old. But this land happened to 
have been formed after settlement^ so a separate assessment 
was put on it in enhancement of the former jama ; and this 
proceeding, though clearly unfair, is not wrong by the letter 
of the rules ; for in Rule 18 it is not said that the rule will 
apply conversely to the assessment of new lands on behalf 
of Government when the assets of the whole estate are found 
to be from any cause not larger than at settlement. 

On the Ohenab and Indus cases of villages actually 
ruined by failure of floods did not come under Mr. Lyall's 
notice : the floods from these rivers are more certain, and 
the rates of assessment had been lighter ; but in all the 
Mooltan and Derdjat districts it appeared to Mr. Lyall that 
the authorized system had a tendency to produce very un- 
equal effects ; for, as above explained, a Settlement Officer 
cannot practically assess the culturable waste which happens 
to be in the village at time of settlement ; so that a village, 
which happens to have much culturable waste at settlement 
time, may have for the whole term of settlement a great 
advantage over another which happened in that year to have 
little or none. 

These reasons, which had before caused Mr. VansAgnew, 
Colonel Hamilton and other officers connected with the 
Mooltan Division to press for a recognition of the necessity 
of a special system of assessment for these lands, led Mr. 
LyaU, after consulting the Settlement Officers working under 
him, to propose a fluctuating system of assessment on river 
lands in the Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Mooltan, and 
Muzaffargarh districts ; in Jhang, for reasons which will be 

mention^ wliea the report of the settlement of that district 



( 23 ) 

comes under review, the system was extended to only a few 
of the river villages. But besides the above general reasons, 
there were in Dera Ismail Khan special circumstances in 
favour of the introduction of such a system. The revenue 
rates proposed by the Settlement OfBlcer, and by Mr. Lyall, 
for a fixed assessment, which would cover future cultivation 
of culturable waste, though low, gave great increases of 
assessment, which they were somewhat afraid to take, as the 
villages were temporarily in rather a depressed state, owing 
to dsunage caused by high floods and to low prices ; and they 
thought that lower rates with a fluctuating system would 
give a lower demand at first, but an equally large revenue 
on the whole term of settlement. 

For these reasons a fluctuating system of assessment for 
the river lands was proposed and approved ; but, as noticed 
by Mr. Tucker in paragraphs 501 and 502 of his Report, 
the details of the system, as originally proposed and sanc- 
tioned, were afterwards modified. The assessments of these 
lands, given by Mr. Tucker in his Eeport, are only nominal ; 
they represent the result of the application of the rates 
finally adopted to the settlement measurements area. As 
will be shown hereafter, the actual assessments for the first 
year in which the system was brought into force fell short 
of this estimate. This might of course be due to the year 
being a year of smaller cultivation than the year of the 
settlement measurements ; but the fact appears to Mr. Lyall 
from subsequent general experience to be that the settle- 
ment measurements somewhat exaggerated the real area of 
cultivation of that year. This seems to be the case from the 
experience of all subsequent years ; only now, as will appear 
from the figures given further on, is the Government at last 
beginning to get a revenue equal to Mr. Tucker's estimate. 

28. The main features of the system of fluctuating 

Description of the system asscssmcut iutroduccd iuto this tract as 
of flnctuatiDg assessment finally modified axo as follows : the 
introduced into tbe Kachi. ^j^^^^ cultivated area of each village 

including chahi land is annually assessed at the uniform 
rate per acre fixed at settlement for that village, new cultiva- 
tion being charged half rates for two years. In., addition to 
this, wells were assessed with a light fixed lump-sum 
(abiana), which was distributed by the people over all the 
wells and jhallars of the village. If a masonry well falls in 
owing to floods, or is carried away by the Indus, the abiana 



( 24 ) 

ftssessed on it is to be remitted ; but no remission can be 
claimed merely because the well has ceased to be worked, 
while on the other hand new wells will not be assessed. The 
assessment on a jhallar, on the contrary, will be remitted, 
if the ihallar is thrown entirely out of use, and new jhallars 
will be assessed at the village rate. In Bhakkar and Leiah 
tahsils all lands not assessed as cultivated, except waste 
sand and river-bed, are to be annually assessed in their 
grazing aspect at Rs. 8-8-0 per 100 acres: no such assessment 
has been imposed in Dera and Kuldchi tahsils; this differ- 
ence is due to the past history of the trinni or cattle-assess- 
ment, to which reference will be made hereafter. 

In this district the same instructions have been issued 
as in Bannu as to the statements to be annually' prepared 
for these lands ; similar statements will be submitted by the 
Deputy Commissioner, and the assessments will be similarly 
sanctioned by the Commissioner, who has been furnished 
with key statements to facilitate his check. The results of 
the assessments of the Sailaba, Daman, and Kham tahsil 
lands are annually registered in this oflace. 

29. The Thai, which lies in the Bhakkar and Leiah 

tahsils, contains a total area of 2,945,843 
Assessment of the Thai, ^cres, of which a little ovcr two per 

cent, is under cultivation. The cultivated lands have been 
given a fixed assessment of the usual kind, and the waste 
lands (excluding the Government rakhs) have been assessed 
with grazing rates in lieu of the old assessment on cattle : 
this grazing assessment the people have generally kept dis- 
tinct and arranged to distribute it year by year over the 
then existing cattle, but in some cases they have thrown 
the whole or a portion on to the cultivated lands. 

30 Before this settlement the theory was that both 
TreatmeJtofgmingiaod. Ois-Iudus and Traus- ludus all wastc 
at this settlement. lauds wcrc opcu freely to the ^azmg 

of all cattle without regard to village boundaries ; in the 
Trans-Indus tahsils no trinni or grazing-tax was ever levied, 
owing to the bare nature of the Daman country and the 
small extent of waste land in the Kachi ; the grazing and 
cattle-farming in the Trans-Indus country have always been 
of minor importance, and here no change has been made at 
the present settlement ; no grazing tax has been imposed 
and the grazing on the wastelands will continue as of old 



( 26 ) 

theoretically free to all, although naturally the tendency in 
practice is for each Tillage to graze its cattle in the neigh- 
bouring waste, and to object to its grazing being unduly 
interfered with by strangers. 

In the Cis-Indus tahsils the villages were assessed with 
a grazing jama, based on the number of cattle owned by 
them at settlement ; and in the Kachi the theory of free 
grazing open to all had gradually been supplanted by a feeling 
that each village was entitled to exclude from the waste 
within its boundaries the cattle of strangers. In paragraph 
516 of his Report, Mr. Tucker shows why the system of a 
trinni assessment based on the number of cattle failed to 
work satisfactorily, and at this settlement it was decided to 
substitute for it the assessment of the village grazing lands, 
which has been referred to in the mention of the system of 
assessment in force in the Kachi and Thai tracts. The 
revenue rate taken for assessing the Thai lands included 
within village boundaries was rupee 1-4-0 per 100 acres ; in 
actual assessment, however, the incidence of this jama varied 
very greatly in different estates. This grazing jama and 
that of rupees 3-8-0 per 100 acres in the Kachi does not, like 
the old trinni assessment, cover camel- grazing ; the camel 
trinni will be leased separately to contractors, and camels 
will, as before, graze freely over the waste lands of the 
tahsfl without regard to village boundaries. In the Kachi 
there was no necessity to interfere with the village boun- 
daries ; the sense of proprietary right was strong, and the 
areas held by the villages not excessive. But in the Thai 
the waste had generally been looked upon to some extent as 
the property of Government, subject to certain rather indefi* 
nite claims of certain families to exclude outsiders from 
sinking wells without their permission. Mr. Tucker, in 
paragraphs 518 to 526, gives an account of the various pro- 
posals made, and finally a demarcation of village boundaries 
was rnade^ which partook of the nature of a partition : the 
zamfnddrs were allowed grazing lands sufficient for their re* 
quirements, calculated on a liberal scale, with the power of 
excluding outsiders from grazing, and the sm*plus waste was 
formed into rakhs, the undoubted property of the Govern- 
ment, who can lease them to whomsoever it may choose. 
The Thai area now held by (Government as rakh land in Leiah 
and Bhakkar is 700|714 acres out of the total Thai area of 



( 26 ) 

2 945,845 acres : of this 700,714 acres, 406,707 acres repre- 
sent the area of rakhs belonging to Government before the 
recent demarcations. 

31 The system on which these Thai rakhs are leased 
M.«^m«.t d Qoven.. is described in paragraph 634 of the 
ment nShs. report : the rates at which the contrac- 

tors are authorized to charge are, no doubt, low, but they 
were purposely pitched low for the same reasons as m the 
MiAnwdli Tahsil of Bannu. The grazing in the rakhs is 
merely supplementary ; almost every grazer has had to pay 
erazine rates or a fixed assessment on his grazing lands 
elsewhere, and Mr. Lyall thinks that the rates shotild not be 
altered without the sanction of the Financial Commissioner, 
and" that the contracts should not be let at sums so high as 
to make it probable that the lessees will act oppressively m 
order to recoup themselves. Mr. Lyall also concurs in Mr. 
Tucker's remarks in paragraph 547, on the leasmg of the 
oamel trinni contracts. 

In the Trans-Indus country there were a few rakhs 
which had always been in the possession of Government, 
and in 1865, when fuel was in great demand for the Indus 
Flotilla, the whole of the river-side tract for about thurty 
miles from Dera Fatteh Khan to Vahoa was formed into a 
Government rakh by the Deputy Commissioner. It was 
found, however, that this demarcation could not with justice 
to the' people be maintained, and under the orders contained 
in Secretary to Government's letter No. 1812 of 1st August 
1874, most of these lands were restored to the villages; 
whUe two new rakhs were formed in the northern part of 
the Makkalwad out of large waste areas to which the 
surrounding villages had no sufficient title. 

32. In the Dera, Bhakkar and Leiah tahslls the Gov- 
ernment demand on account of date 

Asseaiment o£ date trees. ^^^ ^^ ^^^ Settled with the OWUCrS 

of the lands on which the trees stand, or, where there are 
not the owners of the trees, with the latter. In Tink the 
groves are all situated in TAnk Khds, and are nearly all 
owned by the Nawab, who is also the Jagirdar of the estate. 
In the KulAohi Tahsil there are only a few small clumps, 
which have not been specially assessed, although something 
has been put on them in the btohh. 



( 27 ) 

Under native rule the date groves in the Cis* Indus 
tahsils were generally considered the property of the Govern- 
ment, which took the whole produce : now the only re- 
maining vestige of this ownership of the trees hy Govern- 
ment is the necessity of obtaining the permission of the 
TahsfldAr or the District OfiScer before a date palm is cut. 

33. No special assessment was placed on water-mills* 

Wftter-mina. although Rs. 369 or about Rs. 8 per 

mill was assessed on them in the bdchh. 
No new mills can be constructed without the consent of the 
District OfBiCQT, and this consent should not be given too 
readily. 

34 Taking the fluctuating revenue by crop rates on 

oenenj ftnaocid n»Dit of t^® Daman lauds at three times the 
thereaMetsmeDtiiiMtiinated fixed revcuue, and the fluctuating 
bj the Settlement Officer. assessmcuts ou the rfvcr lauds at the 

amount obtained by applying the sailaba rates now assessed 
to the cultivated area by settlement measurements, the 
Settlement Officer states the financial result of the settle- 
ment as follows: — In the Dera Tahsfl an increase from 
Rs. 96,165 to Rd. 1,20,368, or by 26 per cent. ; in the 
Tdnk TahsU (taking the Bbitanni collection at Rs. 7,667) 
an increase from Rs. 67,867 to Rs. 76,329, or by 11 per 
cent.; in the Euldchi Tahsfl (taking the Eham tahsil coUect- 
tions at Rs. 30,476) decrease from Rs. 1,09,096 to 
Rs. 1,06,607, or by 3 per cent. ; in the Bhakkar Tahsfl an 
increase from Rs. 1,01,880 to Rs. 1,31,376, or by 29 per 
cent.; and in Leiah an increase from Rs. 99,037 tQ 
Rs. 1,29,216, or by 31 per cent. ; — in the whole district a 
rise from Bs. 4,74,046 to Rs. 5,61,796, or by Rs. 87,760, or 
by 18 per cent. : of this sum, however, Rs. 6,946 is tempo- 
rarily postponed on account of protective leases and 
progressive jamas. 



The detail of the full demand of Ra. 5,61,795 is given 
by the SettlemeDt Officer as follows ; — 







Lane 


Bbvihoi. 










u 










1 










t 




1 
























1 


1 


■2 
























n 






s 


?, 


11 


1 


1 


1 




i 


, 


^ 


1 


i 

s 





























35. A comparison of the actual working of the 

Financial reanit of the Settlement, hlthcrto with the Settlement 

""^iToJk^r'^"'""' Officer's estimate, shows that the 

average annual gains and losses have 

been aa follows : — 





Gain. 


Loaa. 


Khiiin tahBll laDds ... 

Kakha and Camel trinni \[] 

Daman landa 

Sailab lands [][ 


Ba. 

16,713 
2,950 


Kg. 

10,'99S 
26,161 




19,69S 


87,143 


■ Neilos 




17,450 



( 29 ) 

The increase in the full assessment of the district, accord- 
ing to the Settlement Of&cer's estimate, has heen above stated 
at Rs. 87,750; hut after allowing for the above Rs. 17,450 the 
increase stands at Rs. 60,800. The details of this comparison 
vrill now be given. 

36. The Settlement Officer's estimate of the income 
Achud resniti in lands from Kham tahsil lauds was Rs. 7,667 

nnder direct management. ij^ Tduk OU the BWtanni lauds, and 

lis. 30,475, in KuUchi on the Gundapur Fradu lands. The 
actual results have been — 



Year. 


Gandapur lands. 


Bhitanni lands. 






Bs. 


Rs. 


1878-79 


• I • 


60,086 


7,853 


1879-80 


• • • 


61,860- 


12,273 


1880-81 


• • t 


46,670 


7,037 


1881-82 




87,811 


7,448 


TOTAI. 


1,84,926 


34,611 


Atbragb 


46,232 


8,663 



The average excess over the Settlement Officer's estimate then 
has been Rs. 15,767 in the Gundapur lands, and Rs. 986 
in the Shitanni lands^^or Rs. 16,7^ in all. 

The value of the Government share per acre in the last 
two years was in the Gundapur lands Rs. 2-11.4 in 1880-81, 
and Rs. 2-4-1 in 1881-82; and in the Bhitanni lands 
Rs. 1-12-2, and Rs. 2-3-0. 

37. Mr. Tucker's estimates in this table of the income 
Actual resalu for Govern- from the rakh Icascs and camcl trinni are 

meiit rakhs sod camel trinai. Rg. 8^445 ^^ Rg^ y^sQQ respectively. 



( 30 ) 



The sums for wMoh the leases have actaally sold hare 
been — 



Tbab. 



Bakhs. 



1878-79 
1879-80 
1880-81 
1881-82 
1882.83 

Total 

Avbbaob 



Rs. 

8,598 

9,494 

10,233 

10,932 

11,090 



Camel Trinni. 



50,347 



10,069 



Rs. 

7,416 
8,025 
9,500 
9,489 
9,701 



44,131 



8,826 



These figures show an annual average gain on the Settlement 
Officer's estimate of Rs. 2,950. 

38. In this statement the Settlement Officer estimates 

Actual retniu in Daman the coUections f rom crop ratcs on the 

lADds. Daman at Bs. 47,304 in the Dera Tahsil, 

and Bs. 14,040 in the Euldshi Tahsil, or Rs. 61,344 in the 

whole district. The actual results have been as follows :— 





Khanf and Rabbi. 






Dera Tahral. 




1877-78 
1878-79 
1879-80 
1880-81 

1878-79 
1879-80 
1880-Sl 


• a. • • • 

• •. •• • 

• • • ... 
#• • • • . 

Total 

AVBBAGB 

*•• ••# 
••• ••« 
•.. ... 

Total 
Avbbaob 


• a ■ 

• • • 

• • 
... 

• a . 

• at 

• a t 

• «• 

• •• 

• •t 

• •• 


.. • 

• •f 

• at 
a • • 

• a • 

• •• 

• a a 

• •• 

• •• 

..a 

• a. 


Bs. 
26,312 
63,601 
28,166 
61,486 




1,68,464 




42,114 




Eal&ohi Tahsil. 




Bs. 

7,798 

6,236 

10,680 




24,718 




8,238 



( 31 ) 

The total arerage result then, up to the rabbi of 1881, 
the latest period for which complete annual statistics are at 
present available, has been Bs. 60,362, or Es. 10,992 below 
the Settlement Officer's estimate. In his Beyenue Report 
for the year 1881-82, the Deputy Commissioner, Major 
Macaulay, reviews the results of the Daman fluctuating 
system up to and including the kharff of 1881, and shows 
that the system had on the average since its introduction 
yielded more than the Settlement Officer's estimate, at three 
times the fixed jama in the Gumal Takwara, Luni Awal, 
Luni Duyam, and Kacha circles of the Dera Tahsil ; but in 
the Luni Gudh Toah Circle of Dera Tahsfl; and in the 
Kuldchi Tahsil, the results had fallen very considerably 
below the Settlement Officer's estimate. Both circles, he 
remarks, had been very unfortunate, especially the Luni 
Gudh Toah Circle, owing to the constant failure of the prin- 
cipal bund on which its irrigation depends. As to this circle 
he formerly, in December 1879, wrote : " The irrigation of 
this circle is very fitful, and a complete absence of a harvest, 
or a bumper one, is more likely to be the rule than the 
exception. Its circumstances are, in fact, more precarious 
than the rest of the Daman. Irrigation improvements are, 
however, being carried out in it, which may, I hope, lead to 
a better and more certain state of cultivation in the circle." 

In the Kuldchi Tahsil the system was at first worked 
too slackly, unduly large areas being charged at less than 
full rates ; this was pointed out by the Financial Commis- 
sioner, and since then the results have been more favourable. 

The great fluctuations in the annual revenue, shown 
by the figures given above, are a strong proof of the neces- 
sity of the system, which was indeed absolutely necessary to 
prevent a breaking down of a cash settlement under these 
extreme variations of the amount of produce; before this 
settlement the Mushaksaddrs or lessees were the persons 
responsible for the cash assessment, and being men of some 
capital, they were able to bear the losses of unfavourable 
years ; but the smaller owners, now admitted to a cash settle- 
ment, would have been quite unable to bear up against the 
vicissitudes of bad years. Another reason for the introduce 
tion of this system lay in the fact that it was proposed that 
Grovernment should execute large works to improve the irri- 
gation from the Luni. With a fixed assessment it would 
have been extremely difficult to touch existing irrigation 



( 32 ) 

arrangements in any way. However much the irrigation of 
a village might be improved, the owners would deny the 
fact, and object to make any inoreased payment, and a large 
number of villages would assert, with or without foundation, 
that their irrigation land deteriorated, and would demand 
reduction of assessment. On the other hand, under this 
fluctuating system, it would be possible to re-distribute the 
water more or less without complaint, and to secure for 
Government a proper share in the increased produce to which 
this improvement would give existence. The crop rates no 
doubt are very light, but the tract is on. the frontier ; and 
in comparing them with the results of the direct collections 
in the Gundapur Pradu tract, it must be remembered that 
the proportion of the produce which the Government there 
takes is much above the share which it would take if a cash 
assessment on the half net asset standard were introduced. 

Major Macaulay, who has taken great interest in the 
working of the system, and has exerted himself to ensure its 
success, writes about it as follows in his last revenue report, 
submitted just before his departure on furlough from the 
district which he has so long administered : — 

" I think the system may be viewed as having worked 
successfully. • It is one very well adapted for the exceptional 
circumstances of this tract. Its elasticity is acceptable to 
the people, and its results up to date are, in a financial point 
of view, on the whole, not unfavourable. There is at the 
same time every prospect of continued improvement in the 
extension of works for the further utilization of the hill 
torrents on which this tract depends for irrigation. The past 
season was by no means an exceptionally favourable one as 
regards its rain fall or the frequent and timely descent of 
the hill torrents, and yet the Daman kharlf crop was consi* 
derably over a full jama, and I think the coming rabbi will 
also prove to be above the average. 

" The Daman field-work is easily and quickly done, and 
need never fall behindhand, provided the Tahsflddr takes 
ordinary trouble to supervise and check it. The crop rates 
are remarkably light, so that a too frequent exercise of dis- 
cretion in their application is not required. At the same 
time the work of assessment should not be done in a per- 
functory and indiscriminate manner, as officials are apt to 
do who take no interest in the efficient performance of their 
revenue duties.'' 



( 83 ) 



93. In the Dera TaKsil the Settlement Officer estimated 

Actual result, of flnctua- ^^^ fluctuating revcnue hy sailaba rates 
tiog asaessmenta of latUba at B>s. 24^456. The actua] rcsults have 

been — 



lands. 



Tear of measurement. 



1876-77 
1877-78 
1878-79 
1879*80 
1880-81 

Total 

AyXBAGB 



Rs. 18,750 
„ 1M41 
„ 15,846 
M 16,994 
„ 21,840 



Rs. 87,871 



Rs. 17,474 



I'he great di£Ference between estimate and results is 
due, in ps^, to the river having done much damage in this 
tahsil since settlement by erosion of cultivated land. 

In the Kuldchi Tahsfl the Settlement Officer's estimate 
of the income by sailaba rates was Rs. 2,664. The results 
have been — 



Year of measarement. 



1877-78 
1878-79 
1879-80 
1880-81 

Total ... 

Afbbagb ... 



Rs. 8,658 
„ 8,179 
,, 2,095 
« 2,771 



Rs. 9,697 



Rs. 8,424 



In the Bhakkar Tahsil, the Settlement Officer estimated 
the fluctuating assessment by sailaba rates at Bs. 82,623| 
and by grazing rates at Bs. 4,554. 



< 8* ) 



The actual results liaye been- 



Year of meMorement 


Gratixig rates. 


Oo ccdttration. 


1876-77 
1877-78 
1878-79 
1879-80 
1880-81 


••• ••• ••• ' ••• 

••• ••• ••• ••• 

■•• ••• ••• ••• 

§•• ••• '•• ••• 

••• •«• ••• ••• 

TOTAX 

Amioi 


••1 

••• 
■•• 
••• 
••• 

••• 


Bt. 
4.228 
4.626 
6.163 
4.784 
4,696 


Be. 
76.902 
74.769 
66.434 
76.088 
88.627 




88,846 


8,76,710 




4,669 


76,142 



In Leiah the Settlement Offioer's estimate was, by sailaba 
rates, Bs. 68,734, and by grazing rates Bs. 6,122. The aetual 
figures have teen — 





Tear of meaearement 




By 


grating ratet. 

• 


On coltiTalion. 


1877-78 
1878-79 
1879-80 
1880-81 


••• 
••• 


• M •«• ••• 

••• ••• ••• 

••• ••. ••• 

Total 
Ayisagi 


■•« 
••• 

!•• 

• •■ 
••• 


Be. 
6,248 
6,017 
6,0U 
6,081 


Ks. 
64,867 
66b222 
68,061 
61,891 




20,802 


2,81,041 




6,060 


r6,260 



In this tahsll there are many Tillages whose sailaba 
lands lie at a great distance from the main channels of the 
river, and depend for their flooding mainly upon certain 
minor channels which often bring down very Uttlo water. 
Under the old settlement the area of cultivation in many 
of these villages often fluctuated violently, and the 
revenue, though light, was, in bad years, collected with 
difficulty. 

In the first tliree years after settlement there appears 
to have been a decrease in cultivation due to the same 
causes. 



( 3B ) 



For the whole district the Settlement Officer's estimates 
of the fluctuating revenue of the Kaohi,. according to Appen- 
dix XXII.5 are—* 





- 




Ov CuvnYATiov. 


Ov QBAenre Lavd. 




EhftlsB. 


Jagir. 


Khalia. 


Jagir. 








Rfl. 


Bb. 


. Rs. 


Bs. 


Dera ... 


••« ••# 


••■ 


10,482 


14,169 


••• 


••• 


Knl^hi ... 


••«- •»• 


••• 


2,664 


•«t 


••• 


••• 


• Bbakkar .•• 


t«« ••• 


••• 


74,226 


8,400 


4,001 


650 


Leiah ••« 


«•• ••• 

Total 


• M 

• •• 


68,784 


••• 


6,122 


< •• 




1,56,066 


22,669 


9,123 


650 
J. 




1,76,626 


9,678 



The actual figures for the whole district since 1877-7S, 
when the system was first in force in all four tahsfls, have 
been — 



Va«. 


m 


' 


Oh CvLrzTATiov. 


Ojt Obaziko Lajts. 


Year ox mvmsurvmeau 








*w 






Ehalsa. 
R«. 


Jagir. 
Rs. 


KhalM. 
Bb. 


Jagir« 








Rk. 


1877-78 


• t« 


• •• ••• ••• 


1,80,271 


16,448 


9,167 


601 


1878-79 


• •• 


••• ••• §#• 


1,22,914 


16,767 


9,879 


801 


1879.80 


••• 


• •• ••• ••• 


1,82,628 


20,810 


9,085 


710 


1880-81 


••• 


•M ••• ••• 

TOTAl 


144,842 


26,187 


9,072 


65& 




6,80,156 


79,ai2 


86,668 


2,76r 

> 






AVSBAOK ... 


1,82,689 


19,768- 


9,168 


692. 




1,52) 


»292 


9,C 


166 



* Nora.— In tbe Bhakkar TtauQ the Settlement Officer*! estimate in App«ndiz ZXII 
doee not enable the flnctuating revenue in partly Jagir villagea to be diacriminated from, 
the Kbalaa revenae. Tbe di?i8ion between KhaUa and Jiag^r is, titerefore, appiozimatft 
•nlj. 



( 36 ) 

The average general result then of the four years as 
compared with the Settlement Officer's estimate has been an 
annual loss — 

In Khalsa revenue, of .., .... lis. 23,477 

In Jagir revenue, of ... ... „ 2,674 



In both together, of ... ... » 26,161 



This deficiency is chiefly due to the Leiah Tahsfl ; the 
Financial Oommissioner has already in paragraph 27 noted 
his belief that the settlement measurements somewhat 
exaggerated the cultivated area on which the Settlement 
Officer's estimate was based. The returns for 1882-83, based 
on the measurements made in the cold season of 1881-82, 
are not yet quite complete, but, on the whole district, show 
a result but very little different from that of the previous 
year. There has been a falling-off in Leiah and a rise in 
the other tahsils. 

40. Here again it will be useful to quote from his 
Bemarks by Major Macau- Bevenuc Report for 1881-82, Major 

S^'thf^k^At^'flr^ Macaulay's remarks on the working 
tuattng Msessments of saiiab of the system. ^ Hc writcs as foUows : — 
^*''^'- ** The system has worked lately with 

most success in the Bhakkar Tahsil, and this year the result 
of the measurements just completed shows an increase of 
Bs. 2|099 in the fluctuating revenue of this tahsfl over last 
year's figures, and an excess of Rs. 3,067 over Mr. Tucker's 
forecast. 

''These satisfactory results are attributable partly to 
the present favourable set of the river towards the Bhakkar 
Tahsil, especially in its northern section, and partly to the 
zeal and attention the Tafasildir brings to bear on the subject. 
During periods when the set of the river is adverse, as it is at 
present to the Leiah Tahsil, the special attention of the 
Tahsil ddr is required in the matter of opening up and clear- 
ing out all irrigational outs in the cold weather, while much 
over- watering in places and under- watering in others can 
be prevented by an accurate knowledge of the country, and 
by a careful distribution of the water when the floods are 
out. Serious loss may ensue from a want of knowledge and 



( 87 ) 

firmness on the part of the Tahsflddr when the time oomes 
to gradually cut the dams above for the benefit of the 
villages below. 

*' Last year the most favourable floods for the Leiah 
Tahsil came somewhat out of season, and the people did 
not make the most of them, expecting that they would come 
at the usual time too, which they did not. Their floods were 
at no time very copious during the hot weather, but had the 
best been made of what they got, their irrigated area might, 
I think, have been larger tiian it actually proved at the end 
of the flood season. At the same time, though the floods 
were not perhaps made the most of in this tahsil from their 
not coming at the most opportune time, I still think that 
the Tahsildir paid considerable attention to the subject, and 
I trust that the efforts which have been made this cold 
weather to put all the irrigational channels in good working 
order in this tahsil will make certain of better results this 
year. The experience gained by Ali Muhammad last year 
in the work will also, I hope, stond him in good stead this 
flood season. The loss this year in the Leiah Tahsil 
amounts to Bs. 3,623 as compared with the flgures of the 
previous year, and to Bs. 11,000, in round numbers^ as 
compared with the Settlement Officer's forecast. 

'' Both Dera and Kuldchi show a steady and decided 
improvement. Dera is still Bs. 2,045 under Mr. Tucker's 
forecast, while Kuldchi has already overshot it. I think the 
people generally like the system. I have inspected its 
working closely and constantly this cold weather, and, as far 
as I can judge, should say the people, as a rule, are very 
well satisfied with it. It may possibly tend to increase the 
fallow,, as half rates for two years are a temptation to break 
up new land as soon as there is any deterioration in the old. 

<< The new 'jamabandi'* form is undoubtedly a great 
improvement. It simplifies and accelerates the work, and 
leaves no room for excuse as to the overpowering quantity of 
work to be done : throughout this season the Patwiris have 
been well abreast of their work wherever their supervision 
by the Bevenue Staff was efficient. 

<< As usualt Dera was behindhand ; the total results of 
the measurements in the Bhakkar, Leiah and EuUchi tahsils 
were known to me by the 15th March, but Dem has only 

• That preicribed by Bock CircaUr I. of liSl. 



( 38 ) 

just completed its ^Oirddwari.' In future I see no 
reason why all the field-work should not be completed by 
the 10th March. The 16th December is about the earliest 
date that the field-work can be started, as sowings go on in 
the Nasheb till the end of the year. But the Patw^ri and 
Oird^wars know which village to commence with, and which 
to leave for the present on account of its sowings not being 
completed. 

** The following are the points requiring the constant 
attention of the supervising establishment :— < 

1. That the result of the day's girddwari work be 

entered every evening in the jamabandi; also 
that the pages of the khasra gird^wari be totalled 
up regularly ; 

2. That the slips with the measurements of each 

* khdta * on completion be promptly issued to the 
owners ; 

3. That the work of one village be fully completed 

before another is taken in hand. 

*' If these precautions are carefully enforced (and the 
Edntigo and Oird&war e^hould be punished if they are not), 
then opportunities for intentional error and fraud are to a 
great extent precluded. 

*< The Extra Assistant Commissioner should also be 
very careful to see that the work is done by the Revenue 
Staff generally with the least possible fuss, and with the 
least possible trouble to the people. There are patw&r- 
khdnd's now in every circle at which there is ample room, 
for the Kantigo and girdawar to put up, so that there should 
be no living on the people practised : too great attention 
caxmot be paid by the Extra Assistant Commissioner to 
these points, as the popularity of the system in the long run 
will much depend on its smooth working and freedom from 
the drawbacks indicated." 

41. It is indubitable that the annual assessments re- 

Bem«k.bytii6Pinancw q^^^ed by the systcm of fluctuating 
CommiBiioner on tbe work- asscssmcnt must causc Considerable 
ingof thesyitem. trouWc both to the people and to the 

Bevenue Officers, and must involve some risk of demoraliza* 
tion of the people and the petty official. Mr. Lyall 



! 



( M ) 

therefore, has always been opposed to the introduction of 
the system except where its advantages seemed to clearly 
outweigh its disadyantages. But it may be noticed that in 
countries like the Dera Ismail Khan, Daman, and parts of 
the Kachi, where the cultiyation can only be maintained by 
strong common action on the part of the number of villages 
in the matter of erection of dams, clearance of channels, &c., 
it has always been found necessary for the District Officer 
to assist the village by direction and supervision. This 
assistance is given systematically and energetically when 
the Government revenue as well as the harvest of the land- 
holders depend on the success of the action taken. When 
the assessment is fixed, the duty of assistance tends to be 
more and more neglected and overlooked. The Financial 
Commissioner has observed with satisfaction the good feeling 
which generally prevails between the Revenue Officers and 
the zamfnddrs in these tracts, where under Major Macaulay's 
administration the Revenue Officials take an active part in 
the works necessary for the maintenance of the cultivation ; 
and the intimate knowledge of the condition and circum- 
stances of the villages which these ^officials acquire is very 
remarkable. 

With reference to what Major Macaulay writes as to the 
system tending to increase the fallow area, the Financial 
Commissioner remarks that Mr. Tucker thought this one of 
the good points of the system, as there was a great deal of 
land in the Kachi which was getting exhausted, and that it 
would be well if the system induced the people to let this 
land have a rest : and with reference to the Deputy Commis- 
sioner's remarks on the subject of irrigation channels in the 
Leiah Tahsfl, the Financial Commissioner observes that 
before the recent settlement some villages had been suffering 
from changes in the course of the river and from consequent 
variations in the amount of water sent down the old branches 
of the river to some villages now far inland. If the assess- 
ment had not become very light owing to the great increase 
of cultivation after Captain Mackenzie's settlement, many 
estates would have broken down ; and, as it was, a break- 
down was only averted by very strong action on the part of 
the District authorities, in the way of inducing the people 
to unite to clear out the channels and erect damS| and thus 
bring flood waters to the suffering villages. 



( 40 ) . 

42. The remarks which Mr. Tacker makes in para- 
Tutore working of the graphs 604, 606, 606, 607 and 608 of 

aettiement. the report Oil the character of his 

assessments, and the manner in which they should be 
worked, deserye careful study by the District Officers ; they 
have the complete concurrence of the Financial Commis- 
sioner. 

43. The dates fixed for the payment of the instalments 
j^ of land revenue, are noted in para- 
graph 610 ; the rabbi dates are some- 
what earlier than those fixed for the greater part of the 
Bannu District, but the crops ripen somewhat sooner in Dera 
Ismail Khan, and Mr. LyaU does not think that the dates 
fixed can be said to be too early. 

44. The figures supplied by the Settlement Officer in 

Ami ed Tevena ^^^ ^^ ^^ report show that at the 

angn wtenue. ^.^^ ^^^ report was written nearly 35 

per cent, of the land revenue of the district was assigned ; 
the largest jagirdars being the Multdni Pathins. 

Before the present settlement many of the jagirdars 
collected in kind from the village-owners, but, under the 
orders quoted by Mr. Tucker in paragraph 654, the village, 
owners were given the option of engaging for cash assess- 
ments, and compensation, payable for the life of present 
holders, was granted to those jagirdars whose income was 
found to be seriously diminished, when compared with the 
average receipts of the twelve years previous. In some 
cases the villagers agreed to pay in kind, and Mr. Tucker 
contends that in these cases the agreeements should be up- 
held, and that the proprietors should not be let ofE on the 
ground of want of consideration, as at the time these agree- 
ments were made it was doubtful whether the jagirdar 
would not lose by them ; and in this view the Financial 
Commissioner concurs. 

45. With reference to the Settlement Officer's para- 
zaiidUkri in£ms to be dedacted g»ph 618, it may bc noted that it 

from the revenne. has bccu tulcd that hcrc, as in Baunu, 

the zaildiri indms will be deducted from the revenue and 
not paid from the treasury. 

46. The arrangements sanctioned with reference to 
f, M^^ ^ > / j^ sailddrs and inamddrs are detailed in 
zaddteand>£mdT». QYiB]ftQT V. of Part V. The zaUdiri 



( 41 ) 

system was introduced into the Cis-Indus tahsils and into 
part of the Dera Tahsil : their allowances were charged as a 
cess on the revenue in Dera, but as an indm out of revenue 
in the Gis-Indus Tahsils^ and they were supplemented by the 
grant of sufedposhi indms in all tahsils, and by lump-sum 
indms attached to the office of Zailddr in Dera : full details 
are given in the table on page 337. 

These indms were in part proposed in the Cis-Indus 
Tahsils as a compensation to the superior proprietary class 
for the low rate at which the malikana had been fixed at 
the Summary Settlements, and which it was not thought 
advisable to raise, and in the Dera Tahsil, as a compensation 
to the old lessees (mushaksaddrs). Orders on the Kul^chi 
indms and zaild^ri allowances were passed in Secretary to 
Government letter No. 1876 of 26th August 1881; by 
these orders in^ms and allowances, amounting to Bs. 3,487, 
were sanctioned, subject to 9^ reduction of Es. 200 on the 
death of two of the present holders. Final orders as to the 
terms on which the sufedposhi indms now sanctioned are to 
be held were contained in letter from Secretary to Gov- 
ernment, No. 1320 of 30th August 1880 : it was there 
directed that rules I. to V., of the Hazdra rules (quoted at 
length by Mr, Tucker in paragraph 662) should be held to 
apply to the whole district, and that rule VII. should be 
held to be in force in T^nk and ]E^ul^chi: under these 
orders the indms of the rest of the district are now sanc- 
tioned finally, but those for Tdnk and Kuldchi, for the 
term of settlement only. In the case of all allowances 
granted out of the fluctuating revenue of particular villages, 
the grant will be a first charge on such revenue, but if in 
any year the revenue is not sufficient to meet the allowance, 
the grantee should bear the loss, and the Financial Com- 
missioner has issued instructions accordingly. 

47. In part YI. of the Report, Mr. Tucker gives a good 
Renmrbi on part VI. of description of the agricultural produce 
ibe EqK)rt. of the district. Wheat is by far the 

most important crop, and after that bajra : these two con- 
tribute 2,600,000 maunds out of an estimated total production 
of food grains amounting to 2,870,000 maunds. 

Mr* Tucker's remarks on the trade of the district, its 
cattle, and agricultural processes will also be found valuable. 



( 42 ) 

He correctly describes the vaiious classes of mortgages 
in use ; and his remarks at the end of paragraph 712, on the 
selling price of agricultural land, are concurred in by the 
Financial Commissioner. 

With reference to Mr. Tucker's remarks on the large 
increase in the number and pay of Chaukiddrs made in 
1876, Mr. Lyall observes that he was at the time inclined to 
think that in the Bhakkar and Leiah tahsils the increase 
in t^e number .of Chaukiddrs was greater than was neces- 
sary ; and he is disposed to concur with Mr. Tucker as to 
the desirability of keeping the number of these men as low 
as possible ; but the subject is not one which falls under the 
supervision of this office ; and it is possible that since then 
the number may have been again reduced. 

The dues to which the Settlement Officer refers in 
paragraph 736 were abolished by the orders contained in 
letter from Secretary to Government, No. 1154 of 22nd 
May 1879 : in Ohandwdn the cess was simply abolished ; 
in Fahdrpur and Chahikan the assessments were reduced 
by the amount of the cess abolished ; and in Panidla life 
indms were allowed in compensation to the former recipients. 
Mr. Lyall concurs in the views expressed by Mr. Tucker in 
paragraph 737, that the system of insisting on licenses for 
the possession of skins for crossing rivers is of little practical 
utility, and is a source of annoyance to the people. He 
remarked on the subject when reviewing the Bannu Beport« 

48. In Part VII. the Settlement Officer gives a history 
Remarks on the Settlement of the Settlement Operations, which 
operations. commeuccd iu March 1872 and lasted 

imtil January 1879. 

Generally speaking, measurements were concluded by 
the beginning of 1874, and attestation was finished by the 
beginning of 1876. Fairing was commenced in 1875 and 
concluded in 1878. The new assessments came into force 
in the Indus villages of the Dera and Bhakkar tahsils from 
the rabbi of 1877 ; in the Daman villages of those tahsils 
and in Tdnk from the kharif of 1877, in Leiah, from the 
rabbi of 1879 ; and in Kuldchi and in the Miran and Kuhiri 
circles of the Dera Tahsil, from the kharif of 1878. 

The total expenditure on the settlement ( exclusive of 
patw^ri cess) was Rs. 5,14,948, or 92 per cent, of the revenue 
of the district ; and the net cost to the Imperial exchequer 
was Rs. 4,01,702. 



( 43 ) 

la considering the cost and duration of the settlement, 
it must be remembered that this was the first Regular 
Settlement of a Frontier district, and that much of the 
work was especially difficult. 

The record of rights has been prepared with especial care 
and thoroughness : and this part of the Settlement officer's 
work was rendered particularly arduous owing to the great 
variety of tenures. The Financial Commissioner desires to 
draw especial attention to the Surabdeh records referred to 
in paragraph 7di5 of the report : these represent the results 
of very careful enquiry, and should be sedulously preserved, 
as they show the grounds upon which the different classes of 
rights were awarded. 

The Judicial cases were not numerous; but they were 
often very complicated and difficult to decide, and, Mr. Lyall 
thinks, were usually well decided. 

49. In sanctioning the arrangements for grading 

Grading p^twdri., and Patwdrfs and appointing a certain 
appointment of Sadar Pat- nun^bor of Sadar Patwdris, which are 
^^^' detailed in paragraphs 762 to 767 of 

the report, Mr. Lyall remarked that at first sight the pro- 
posed supervising establishment appeared to be stronger and 
more highly paid than was really required ; but that until 
the fluctuating assessments had begun to work easily, it 
would be advisable to maintain an establishment of the 
proposed strength. A strong and well paid supervising 
establishment will always be required in order to ensure 
the proper maintenance of the records of the complicated 
tenures; but if, in future, the establishment is found 
unnecessarily strong, reductions should be made; or, if, 
owing to increase of cultivation, the income is found greater 
than expected, the rate of the cess should be reduced. 

60. In paragraph 775 Mr. Tucker notes that it has 

Protective leases ; ^^^ ^ ^^^7 viUagcs arranged and enter- 
speciaiciaoseinadminis- ed iu the administration paper, that the 
tration paper. village communitics in their distribution 

of the revenue will not be bound to observe the full period 
of exemption granted by Government to the constructors of 
new wells. The provision is perhaps opposed to the general 
theory on the subject ; but Mr. Lyall remarks that he pre- 
sumes that all the owners in such villages have agreed to 



V 



( 44 ) 

the entry^ dnd they are the parties really interested in the 
matter : if any individual hereafter disputes the entry, it will 
then be necessary to decide as to its validity. 

51. The result of the comparison between the Settle- 
Comparison of Settlement mcut and the Survey areas will, 

and Survey areas. ]\jr^ Lyall thiuks, bc cousidered satis- 

factory. The differences between the boundaries laid down 
in the two surveys, which Mr, Tucker notices in paragraph 
781, are regretable ; but what was possible to rectify these 
differences has been done by the preparation of supple- 
mentary maps. 

Mr. Lyall hopes that the maps of the village boundaries 
in the Indus bed, which have been prepared both by the 
Revenue Survey and by the Settlement Staff, will be found 
useful in deciding future disputes as to the ownership of 
these lands ; he is able to state, from his personal knowledge, 
that the maps in question are very good. 

52. Mr. Tucker recommends that the settlement now 

Period for which tiesettie- ni^dc should be Sanctioned for a period 
mcnt should he sanctioned, pf thirty vcars ; but iu this recom- 

oanction asked to the , . ••' •' , JL. • j r^ • • 

assessments and to the record mendatiQu tuc Jj manciai uommissioncr 
^^ "«*»*«• does not feel able to concur. 

Mr. Tucker argues that any further increase of assess- 
ment at the next settlement must be mainly due to an 
enhancement of the rates, and that the tendency of the new 
settlements has been to lower, and not to enhance, the rates- 
Mr. Lyall admits this remark is true as to the past; but 
this tendency to diminish the rates is, in great measure, due 
to the fact that the proportion of the net assets claimed by 
Government as the standard of assessment has been gradually 
reduced, and he thinks that in future the tendency will be 
in the other direction, especially in the case of a remote 
district like Dera Ismail Khan, the communications with 
which are gradually being improved, and where the improve- 
ment of commuDications will probably lead to a rise in the 
value of produce, or at least to a more steady high level of 
prices. And seeing that the Sailab and Daman fluctuating 
rates are without doubt very light, having been purposely 
lowered because they were expected to yield a larger increase 
of assessment than now appears probable, the Financial 
Commissioner recommends that the assessments be sanction"* 
pd for only twenty years : at the expiration of that term. 



( 45 ) 

it will perhaps be found advisable to raise only the rates 
used in the fluctuating assessments and to let the settlement 
of the rest of the district run on tor a further period : these 
rates could, of course, be raised so much per cent, after a 
simple inquiry involving no remeasurements or alteration of 
the records. It would only be necessary to decide upon the 
new rates, and to invite the villages to execute new engage- 
ments accordingly. The Einancial Commissioner therefore 
asks that the record of rights may be formally sanctioned, 
and that the assessments may be sanctioned for twenty years 
from the date of their introduction. 

53. In conclusion, the Financial Commissioner begs to 
« , ^ sav that in his opinion Mr. Tucker's 

Bemanrs on officers. " , ^ , ^ , x* xi • 

services m makmg and reporting this 
settlement thoroughly deserve to be highly commended by 
Government. He is an officer of great industry and fine 
common sense, and has a special power of accurately investi« 
gating and comprehending land tenures and other^ agricul- 
tural conditions. He also showed special facility and ability 
in dealing with figures and the problems which have to be 
solved in making land revenue assessments. He had a 
thorough control over the progress of the Settlement in all 
its branches, which was not easy, as almost every Taloqua 
in the District had its own marked peculiarities. He was 
indefatigable in his tours of supervision at all seasons of 
the year. He was ably assisted by the Extra Assistant 
Settlement Officer Munshi Chiranjit Ldl, and by Munshis 
Auldd Husain, Hdkfm-ud-din and Khush^l Singh among 
the Tahsll Superintendents. 



Proceediogs of tlie Hon'bic the Lleutcnant-Qovernor of the Pnnjab in tbe Foreign 
Depftztmeut, No. 679 » dated Simla, 19th September 1384, 

Bead — 

The Seitlement "Report of the Dera Ismail Khan District by Mr. H. 

St. George Tncker, c s., late Settlement Officer of Dera Ismail 

Khan, dated 7th April 1879. 
Letter from the Senior Secretary to Pcaincial Commissioner, Punjab, 

No. 769, dated 16th May 1883, submitting the above report. 

Resolution. — Tho Dera Igmail Khan District, which 
in its present shape was constituted in 1861, is bounded 
on the north by the district of Bannu and on the south 
l)y the districts of Dera Ghdzi Khan and MuzalTargarh. 
Tho Jhang and Shahpur Districts form its eastern boundary, 
•while on the west it stretches up to the foot of the Suleman 
Range and its off-shoots, which are held by the independent 
tribes of the Bhitannfs, Mahsud Waziris, Shiranis, Ushtard- 
lias and Kasrdnfs. Two-fifths of its area, comprising the 
sub-divisions of Dera Ismail Khan, Tdnk and Kuldchi, are 
situated trans-Indus ; the remaining three-fifths, divided 
into the tahsfls of Bhakkar and Leiah, lie cis Indus. Speak- 
ing generally the district consists of three long strips of coun- 
try running north and south, viz., firat^ the Daman, com- 
prising all the flat level tract trans-Indus lying between the 
river and the hills, and consisting almost entirely of a clay 
soil called " pat," which in parts is greatly cut up into 
ravines ; nextj the Kachi, or low lands, situated on both 
sides of the Indus, and for the most part subject to its 
floods ; and, lastly , the great expanse of sand which bounds 
the district to the east, called the Thai. Two small 
tracts situated on the northern boundary of the Cis-Indus 
portion of the district also call for mention, viz.^ the 
Rag Pahdrpur circle, and the country round Panidla and the 
Khasor range, which are described by the Settlement Officer 
in paragraphs 23 — 31 of his report. The average length of 
the district is 110 miles and the breadth 80 miles. The total 
area is 9,296 square miles, which is the largest comprised in 
any district in the Punjab. Only one-seventh of this area, 
howevpr, is cultivated, and Dera Ismail Khan does not stand 
higher than thirteenth among the districts of the Province in. 
point of extent of cultivation. The river Indus when in flood 
covers a vast area, and the constant shif tings of its course 
from year to year are apt to cause great changes in tho 
agricultural conditions of the Kachi, though the actual 



( 2 ) 

damage caused thereby is less than in the adjoining district of 
Bannu. There are no other rivers in the district. The 
hill torrents, however, form a marked feature of the Damdn 
country. The principal streams are the Takwara, the Liini 
which issues from the Gumal Pass, and the Vlhoa, The 
water of all the torrents is extensively utilised for irrigat- 
ing the lands between the hills and the river bed. The 
perennial supply of water in these torrents is known as 
Kdla Pdni. 

2. Little is known of tlie early history of the district. 
About the 15th century various tribes of Jdts, followed 
shortly by Biluchfs, immigrated from the south on both 
sides of the riveri and at the same time miscellaneous tribes 
of Pathdns and Powindahs came down from the hills in the 
north* west and settled in the upper portion and along the 
western border of the Trans- Indus tracts. The greater part 
of the Cis-Indus country is now inhabited by Jdts, by which 
term all miscellaneous tribes not included among PathAns 
and Biliichis are denoted ; the southern portion of the Trans- 
Indus tract is inhabited principally by Biluchls, while to 
the north Pathdns predominate. Jats and Biluchfs, how- 
ever, are found in every part of the country. Mention is 
made of the district by the Emperor Baber, who marched 
through it in the beginning of the 16th century. 
It formed a part of the Moghul Empire until A. D. 
1738, when Nddir Shah entered it, and the Trans-Indus 
portion was incorporated in the DurAni Kingdom. Dur- 
ing the 60 years which followed this event, the coun- 
try was dominated by various governors who ruled either 
on behalf of the Durdni Kings or as semi-independent 
chiefs, and was finally held for a few years before the Sikhs 
appeared upon the scene by the Nawdbs of Mankerah, now 
represented by the family of Multani Pathdns. Mahdrdja 
Ranjit Singh annexed the Cis-Indus portion of the present 
district in 1821, and the Trans-Indus in 1836. Long before 
the latter date, liowever, heavy tribute was exacted by the 
Sikhs from the rulers of Dera Ismail Khan itself. 

3. The cultivated area of the district, according to the 
measurements of the late settlement, amounts to 806,000 
acres, of which rather more than half is unirrigated. The 
average rainfall is somewhat less than nine inches, and the 
area of unirrigated cultivation is therefore liable to consider- 
able fluctuations at times. The area irrigated by the river 



( 3 ) 

floods is stated to be 190,000 acres ; by wells 93,000 acres ; 
and by the mountain torrents 81,000 acres. Tlie lands 
affected by the Indus floods depend largely for their irriga- 
tion on the construction of bunds in the minor branches of 
the river. Of the cultivated area 326,000 acres are held by 
Jits, 245,000 acres by Pathdns, and 134,000 acres by 
Eildchis. The principal crops are wheat (319,000 acres), 
bdjra (263,000 acres), sarson, cotton, jowdr and usstin or 
t4ra mira. The proportion of the area cultivated by tenants 
is unusually large, as in all Muhammadan districts, and 
amounts to 320,000 acres, or nearly one-third of the whole. 
The area held by occupancy tenants numbering 9,668 is 
131,000 acres. The population of the district, according to 
the late census, was 441,6^49, which gives a rate of 47 per 
square mile of the total area, and 351 per square mile of the 
cultivated area. The number of Hindiis is only 54,000. 
The Pashtu language is said to be rapidly dying out of use 
even among the Pathans. 

4. The Settlement OflBcer does not give any separate 
account of the present material prosperity of the district as 
a whole, or of the advance which it has made since it came 
under the British rule, but has left this to be gathered from 
the general information recorded in his report. There 
appears, however, to be no reason for anxiety on either 
point. In the Bhakkar tahsil for instance the cultivated 
area is now more than twice as large as that recorded at 
the summary settlements, and the number of wells and 
jhaUrs has increased from 645 to 726. Similarly, in the 
Leiah tahsfl the cultivated area is more than double that of 
1854 and 1862, and the number of wells and jhalars has 
increased from 2,055 to 2,749. The selling price of land has 
also increased greatly during the same period. With the 
progress of order and the development of communications, 
the people have generally settled down to regular agricul- 
tural pursuits, and on the whole may be considered fairly 
well to do. A great deal has been effected of late years 
towards rendering the irrigation from the hill streams more 
certain and permanent, and efforts in this direction will be 
continued in future. The improvement of the road between 
Dera Ismail Khan and Mooltan, and the construction of the 
Thai road from Bhakkar to Chichawatni, on the Sindh, 
Punjab and Delhi Railway, have done much to connect the 
district with the outer world ; and the prolongation of the 



( 4 ) 

railway from Pind Diidan Khan to the Thai bank opposite 
Diirti Isuuiil Khan, and possibly further south, would com- 
I)letely secure the communications of the district, and 
doubtless give a great impulse to trade and cultivation. 
The one unsatisfactory feature in the present material 
condition of the district is the amount of mortgage debt 
existing in it, especially in the Cis-Indus tracts. This 
subject is discussed by the Settlement Officer in paragraphs 
702 — 711 of the report, and has been under the separate 
consideration of the Punjab Government since the report 
was submitted (Proceedings, June 1883, No. 9 A., General, 
Foreign). The state of things described by Mr. Tucker is 
no doubt to be regretted, but the Lieutenant-Governor 
agrees with Mr. Lyall that, ordinarily, it is not possible for 
Government to interfere in the matter beyond the extent 
indicated in paragraph lO^L 

5. The tenures of the district, of which Mr. Tucker 
has given a very full account in Part III of his report, are 
exceedingly complicated and possess features which aro 
markedly different from those found in any other part of 
the Punjab. An excellent summary of their main charac- 
teristics is contained in paragraphs 10 — 20 of the review by 
the financial Commissioner, Mr. J. B. Lyall, and it will 
be sufficient to refer to them very briefly on the present 
occasion. In the greater part of the district there are both 
superior and inferior proprietors. In the Trans- Indus 
country the limits of the superior proprietorship often do 
not correspond with those of the inferior proprietorship, 
but ois-Indus these rights are generally conterminous. 
This difference is due to the fact that in the latter case the 
•'hads " or tracts into which the country was divided by the 
first settlers remained for various reasons much more closely 
under their control ; while across the Indus the original 
proprietors were either too weak to maintain their position 
completely, as in the Makhalwad (the portion of the tract 
held by the Jdts and Biluchis), or else adopted a system 
specially suited to their democratic tendencies, as in the 
Pathdn. settlements along the border. In the Cis-Indus 
tahsils the superior proprietors of each " had " are usually 
few in number, having under them a large mixed body of 
inferior proprietors' and tenants. The superior proprietors 
themselves also hold land as inferior proprietors and culti- 
vate them on the same tenure as any other class. The 



• ( 5 ) 

superior proprietorship, which consists of a payment of 
Re. 1-12-0 per cent, on the revenue, together with certain 
rights in the common land, (which is generally considered 
the property of the superior proprietors, subject to certain 
privileges enjoyed by the other members of the community), 
is usually held undivided under the zamfnd^ri form of 
tenure. Besides the inferior proprietors proper, there is a 
class of right-holders called " butimar," that is, cultivators 
who have broken up and cultivated waste. In some parts 
of the district these persons have been awarded inferior 
proprietary rights ; in others, rights of occupancy only. The 
settlement cis-lndus has, as a general rule, been made with 
the inferior proprietors, the superior proprietors being 
responsible for the revenue to the extent of their status as 
inferior proprietors only, and receiving a seigniorage due, 
as above explamed, from the inferior proprietors, which, in 
the present settlement, has been largely supplemented by 
the grant of indmsto the leading men among them. Here- 
tofore the boundaries of villages had not been demarcated 
in the great Thai tract, and the rights in the waste were in 
an undefined condition. Portions of the waste have now 
been separated off as Government property, and the remainder 
has been given in proprietary right to the several villages. 
The rules laid down for the management of the common 
waste (paragraph 180) and the rights recorded in melon 
lands andjand trees (paragraphs 193 and 191) are interest- 
ing, as showing the growth of customs under peculiar 
physical and social circumstances. A good account of the 
Sikh system of revenue collections in Leiah and Bhakkar 
is given by the Settlement OflBcer in paragraphs 157 — 164 
of his report. 

6, An important difference between the Cis-lndus and 
Trans-Indus portions of the district, which must not be 
overlooked, is the fact that, while the present revenue 
arrangements have been in force in the former ever since the 
first summary settlements were made, in the latter they 
have for the most part been introduced now for the first 
time. In the Jat-Biliich tract trans-Indus, the summary 
settlements were made in the first instance with the 
resident headmen of the villages, who appear to have kept 
the whole management in their own hands, levying in kind 
from the other proprietors and the tenants, and paying the 
cash assessment into the Qoyeriunent treasury. In this 



( 6 ) 

portion of the district, therefore, it was necessary to deal 
with another body of right-holders called Mushaksddars 
in addition to the superior proprietors, here known by 
the name of bdni&ddar, the breakers up of waste (biltimAr) 
and the " lathbands *' or constructors of embanked fields, on 
which the cultivation of the Damdn almost entirely depends. 
As a general rule, the two latter classes have been considered 
entitled to the rights of inferior proprietors, and the settle- 
ment has been made with them. The old lessees as such 
possessed no claims to engage for the payment of the 
revenue^ as they have stood virtually in the same position 
to the land as a jdgfrdar stands ; but in some parts, where 
the position of the superior proprietors appeared to be 
stronger than usual, the settlement has been made with them. 
The seigniorage dues received by the superior proprietors in 
this tract are much higher than in the Cis-Indus tahsils, 
and have been treated as equivalent to a rate of Rs. 6-4 
per cent, on the revenue. In a few cases only is the general 
system of tenure so simple as that above described. In the 
great majority of villages it is varied in extraordinary ways, 
and the different rights overlap one another in a manner 
which at first is hopelessly puzzling to revenue officers. 

7. The rights of the superior and inferior proprietors 
in the alluvial lands on both sides of the Indus have been 
so settled that the boundaries of the superior proprietary 
right remain constant, but those of the inferior right are 
liable to change. When land held by an individual of the 
latter class is destroyed by the river, he is not entitled to 
receive a plot on the same site when land is re-formed there, 
but he obtains an equal allotment from the waste. From 
enquiry made during the course of the settlement^ it was 
ascertained that the rule of the fixed boundary had long 
been adopted by local custom, and this has now been autho- 
ritatively declared to be the case as between villages situated 
in the.Dera Ismail Khan District. To facilitate there-laying 
of boundaries, bench marks have been laid down on both 
banks of the Indus beyond the reach of the floods. The 
question of the boundary between Dera Ismail Khan and 
the adjoining districts was separately decided in accordance 
with the orders of Government. The remarks made by the 
Financial Commissioner, in paragraph 21 of his review, 
regarding the transfer of villages, should be borne in mind 
by the local officersc Unnecessary transfers of villages from 



( 7 ) 

one jurisdiction to another, merely by reason of a turn in the 
course of the river, should be avoided as much as possible, 
especially in cases where it is proposed to transfer villages 
under one system of assessment to a jurisdiction in which 
another system of fluctuating assessments is in force. 

8. In the Tdnk tahsil the Government undoubtedly 
once possessed the right of proprietorship in a great part of 
the land, and the fact was duly recorded at the second sum- 
mary settlement. These rights, however, had not been 

• Letter from Secrete to ^^^f^^^ed for some ycars, and it was 
GorernroeDt'^f ludu. For- decided by the Govemmcnt of India* 

^h JaS^rT874L°' *^* ^^ that where the original lessees of reve- 
anuary 4 ^^^^ ^^ their descendants, were still 

in possession, the settlement should be made with them, 
otherwise with the persons considered most entitled to it. 
These orders have been duly carried out, and have resulted 
in the creation of a double tenure in most parts of the tahsil, 
the old lessees having been constituted superior proprietors 
and declared entitled to receive a proprietary due of 
Ks. 15-10-0 per cent. 

.9. The extraordinary variety of tenure prevailing 
among the Pathdn settlers od the border may be judged 
from the fact that the Settlement OflBcer was obliged to 
divide the western strip of the Tdnk and KuWchi tahsils into 
no less than eleven circles, viz,y Jatatar, Bhitanni, Gumal, 
Kundi, Qandapur, Zarkanni, Mian Khel, Bdbar, XJshtar^na, 
Kasrani and Khetrdn. The account given of the various 
systems by Mr. Tucker is exceedingly clear, and the main 
features are ably summarized in the review of the Financial 
Commissioner. No useful end would be served by any 
attempt to deal with them in the present place ; but this 
much may be said that, until the investigation of the Settle- 
ment Officer was made, the real nature of the various com- 
plications of tenure was in many cases not understood, and 
that the lucid explanation of these complications now placed 
on record will enable officers to avoid blunders in future in 
deciding cases regarding rights in land and water. Two of 
the most important circles, those of the Bhitannls and 
Gandapurs, have elected to contiDue to pay their revenue 
in kind as heretofore ; the system of collection in these cases 
is described by the Settlement Officer in paragraphs 256 and 
287 to 290 of his Report^ and by the Financial Commissioner 



( 8 ) 

in paragraph 14 of his review. In paragraph 260 a curious 
custom is mentioned as obtaining in the Gumal valley in 
connection with rice cultivation. Here there is no double 
tenure, the land being almost all under cultivating proprietors 
with small holdings. The cultivation of rice is nevertheless 
carried on "by proprietors and non -proprietors on equal 
terms on any convenient lands without regard to their pro- 
prietorship. A certain share of the crop is taken by the 
village proprietary body as * mahsul,' or sometimes a sum 
of Rs. 3 or Rs. 4 per cultivator. But the actual owner of 
the lands cultivated gets nothing." Rice cultivation is 
supposed to strengthen the soil for wheat, and so no one 
objects to the temporary expropriation. In the Kundi 
circle the custom of periodical redistribution of the land, 
termed locally vesh, formerly prevailed,but has now died out. 
The gradual modification of the system under varying cir- 
cumstances, which is described by the Settlement OflBcer 
in paragraph 267 of his Report, is interesting. The vesh 
system was once in force in the Gandapur country also, 
but ceased early in the present century. 

■ 

10. The curious incidents which may become attached 
to a land tenure under special physical conditions, and 
among a people too uncivilized to simplify their original 
system, can nowhere be better seen than in the case of the 
Gandapur circle. Hero many hands are required to rapidly 
plough and sow the large embanked fields at the right time, 
and the work is accordingly carried on by associations of 
cultivators, all of whom provide ploughs and cattle. These 
associations are supervised by a head ploughman, who 
receives an extra portion of the tenant's share of the pro- 
duce, which is divided over the number of ploughs contri- 
buted. The arrangements for the cultivation of land by 
bands of tenants are usually made by a class of middlemea 
called Nidwaddr. These men, whose origin has sprung from 
the undivided ownership of land and the mutual jealousies 
of the joint-owners, obtain their position by advancing sums 
of money to the proprietors, and cannot be evicted until they 
are repaid these sums; to secure themselves, the Nidwdddrs 
go on making advances to the owners, to one more and to 
another less, until the whole account presents an appearance 
of hopeless confusion. In former days the rights of a 
Nidwdddr ceased when the sums which ho had advanced 
were repaid, but under the British rule he has been allowed 



( 9 ) 

to acquire occupancy rights in lands which he has hrou^ht 
under cultiration hy constructing retaining embankments or 
of which, in the local phrase, he is lathband. The settle- 
ment in this circle has been made with the proprietors, 
not with the middlemen. Among the Babars also there is a 
class of middlemen, called Mazdtirikhors, somewhat similar 
to those among the Gandapurs. TheBhitannis, Ushtardnas, 
Kasranis and Ehetrans are the only tribes which have 
regular locations in the Dera Ismail Khan District as well 
as in the hills. 

11. Prom the above account, brief as it is, it will 
readily be perceived that the irrigation arrangements made 
by the villagers have had as great an influence as any other 
consideration in determining the present form of land 
tenures in the western portion of the district. A full account 
-,. , - , -, oA, OAO of the irrigation from 

Tank Zam ) Paras. 241— 248 ^ ^^^ i ° .n i i* i 

Gumal Zam f and 264. hill StreamS Will bC fOUnd 

°S"«r**"° '""'!'! Par.. 278 ^^ paragraphs S88-404 

Tarkanni irrigation ... „ 292 of the RcpOrt, aud a 

^S^,.^I« ::: ^r Z""' detailed account of the 

Tthoa Zam ... „ 341 divisiou 01 Water m the 

paragraphs noted in the 
margin. On the whole the present arrangements work fairly 
well under the supervision of the Deputy Commissioner ; 
and, under the revised Canal Act, greater powers of control 
will be taken which can be exercised on occasions of necessity. 
The liability to supply labour assessed in accordance with 
the irrigated area is one of the incidents of the land tenure of 
these tracts, and it must be distinctly understood that the 
present assessment is sanctioned subject to this condition. 
The Lieutenant-Governor presumes that an entry to this 
efifect has been made in the tenders of engagement and in 
the village administration papers, as in the case of the 
•*chher" clearance labour, which forms part of the land 
tenure in the Mooltan and Muzaffargarh Districts. If this 
has not been done, the necessary entries should be made 
now. The possible development of existing irrigation 
works can be most conveniently considered in connection 
with the general report on Famine Preventive Works in the 
Derajat. 

12. An interesting account of the independent tribes 
beyond the border, and of the Powindah carriers, is given 



( 10 ) 

T)y the Settlement Officer in parao^rapbs 347—376 of his 
Report. The misconduct of the Mahstid Wazfrfs, who are 
extraordinarily democratic in their ideas and institutions, 
culminated in an attack on the town of Ttok in January 
1879, in which oertain Powindahs joined. This led to 
the second Waziri expedition in the spring of 1881. 
The results of the expedition were completely successful ; 
£anigoram and Makin were occupied almost without re« 
fiistance, and the principal instigators of the Tdnk outrage 
were delivered up to the British Government. Since their 
punishment the tribe has shown a laudable desire to behave 
veil, and to respect the rights of British subjects ; and, in 
consequence of this, and of the assistance afforded by them 
in the recent survey of the Takht-i-Sulemi,n and Gumal 
Pass, the Lieutenant-Governor, with the approval of the 
Government of India, released the survivors of the six 
prisoners on visiting Dera Ismail Khan in January last, 
with the exception of Mashak, who has also since been 
allowed to return to his country. A number of hostages 
for the good conduct of the tribe (Chalvishtis), which has 
still to pay a large part of the fine imposed upon it, are 
retained by the Deputy Commissioner. The service grant of 
the Bhrtanm's, which was suspended on account of their 
complicity in the Tdnk raid, has now been restored to the 
tribe. During 1883 the Shirdnis gave some trouble, and 
were blockaded for a few months. Ultimately they gave 
in, and made amends for their misconduct by their attitude 
during the expedition undertaken for the accomplishment 
of the survey of the Takht-i-Sulemdn. 

13. Soon after annexation, summary settlements of the 
district were made by Mr. Simson and Major laf terwards Sir 
Herbert) Edwardes in the Trans-Indus territory, and by 
Captain Hollings cis-Indus. Other summary settlements 
were afterwards made by Mr. Simson (1854) and Captain 
Mackenzie (1862) cis-Indus, and by Lieutenant Busk and 
Captain Coxe, trans-Indus. Captain Mackenzie's settle* 
ment was virtually of the nature of a regular settlement, 
as rights were investigated and recorded, though no maps 
were made. The first regular settlement was begun in 
1872 by Mr. Tucker, who conducted its operations through- 
out. In considering the results of Mr. Tucker's work it 
will be most convenient to notice briefly the main points 
regarding each of the principal tracts of the district. 



C 11 ) 

14. Fractieally, the wliole of the area oF the Damdn ur 
cnlturahle hy means of irrigation, which is applied by a system 
of em banked fields fed with water brought down by the hilt 
torrents. The floods vary considerably in volume, and* 
apparently a year of moderate rainfall is more favorable for 
this tract than any other. When the fall is scanty, only the* 
lands nearest the hills obtain water; while if, on the other- 
hand, the floods are violent, they carry away the dams and 
sweep over the land, doing' more harm^than good. It is 
evident that in such a tract there must be great flnctaa- 
tions in the area under crop, and, after carefully consider- 
ing the matter, the Settlement Officer and Mr. Lyalbarrived' 
at the conclusion that a fixed assessment according to the- 
usual method would probably entail great hardship on the 
people in some cases, and cause a> needless loss of revenue to 
the Government in others. It was therefore determined, 
to apply an assessment that should be partly fixed and 
partly fluctuating^ as follows : — A. fair cash assessment^ 
having been calculated, one-fourth was applied as fixed 
assessment, and, in place of the remaining three-fourths,, 
fluctuating rates were fixed,, varying according to^ the crop 
grown, and will be applied annually to the cultivated area.. 
These crop rates, which are detailed in paragraph 4i47 of 
the Report, are undoubtedly light. But they, were 
accepted by Sir Robert Egerton as adequate in view of the 
special circumstances of the tract, and Sir Charles AitclHsoa- 
sees^ no reason to doubt the correctness of this decision. 
Of a total demand of Bs. SS^OOO assessable in accordance 
with the estimates- of the Settlement Officer on the lands 
under the fluctuating, system, Rs. 22,000| according to tho 
final arrangements made, represented the fixed demand, and,. 
Rsi 61>000 the fluctuating demand, which is realisable from 
the Dera Ismail Khan and Kuldehi tahsiis in the proportion 
of Rs. 47,000 and Rs. 14,000. The actual average collec- 
tions during the years since settlement have been Rs. 42,000 
and Rs» 8,200, as shown in paragraph 38 of tl>e Einancial 
Gommisaioner's Review. These sums are very, considerably 
less than those realised during.the period of five years preced- 
ing the settlement, but the seasons since 1876-77 have by 
no means been favourable as a whole, and there is some 
reason to believe that the fluctuating assessment was worked 
too leniently at first. In any case, however, the great flucr 
tuations in the revenue collected from year to year in the 



( 12 ) 

Dera Ismait Khan tahsfl show, as pointed out hj Mr. Lyall, 
the necessity of the present system, and it may be hoped 
that in the future the loss which has hitherto fallen upon the 
Government will gradually be made good. Much has been 
done towards the development of irrigation in the Damdn 
tract by the late Deputy Commissioner, Colonel Macaulay, 
and the works begun by him are being satisfactorily pro- 
moted by the present Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Thorburn. 
As Colonel Macaulay has now retired from the service of 
Government, the Lieutenant-Governor desires to take this 
opportunity of placing on record his sense of the services 
rendered by that oflBcer in connection with the extension of 
irrigation from the hill streams in Dera Ismail Khan. 

16. A fluctuating assessment was also introduced into 
the portions of the district forming the Indus Kachi. The 
reasons for this measure are fully explained in paragraph 
27 of the Review of the Financial Commissioner, which con- 
tains a very able sketch of the policy which has been follow- 
ed in assessing riverain lands in the south-western tracts of 
the Province. Crop rates are not employed in the Kachi 
system, and the cultivated area is uniformly assessed at a 
single rate fixed for each village at the time of settlement, 
nothing being charged on l^inds out of cultivation, and 
only half rates being levied for two years on lands newly 
cultivated. Well lands are assessed at a rate over and above 
the fixed village rate for ordinary lands, which represents 
the difference between the rates for land irrigated by wells 
and by floods. The rates adopted for the assessment of the 
Kachi are decidedly lower than those in the adjoining dis- 
tricts ; but the increase yielded by them, 27 per cent., was 
considered as large as it was safe to take at one time. So 
far the financial results of this system also show a con- 
siderable loss to Government, which has occmrred princi- 
pally in the Leiah tahsil. The Financial Commissioner is 
of opinion that the cultivated area recorded at settlement 
was above the true average area. Possibly this was so, but 
it seems doubtful if the present annual loss of Es. 26,000 
per annum, resulting from a comparison with the estimate 
of the Settlement Officer, will ever be made good in future 
under the existing system. 

16. The net results of the collections in kind in 
the Bhitanni and Gandapur tracts show, on the other hand, 
an annual gain to Government of Es. 16,000. The fluctua^- 



( 13 ) 

tions in these collections, as shown in paragraph 36 of Mr. 
LyalFs Review, would seem to prove that the people were 
wise in wishing to ahide hy their old system of payments 
in kind and declining to make any engagement to pay a 
fixed cash revenue. 

17. Of the Thai assessment it is not necessary to say 
more than that it is very light by reason of the great physi- 
cal difficulties under which cultivation is prosecuted in. 
this desert tract. The area irrigated by wells at the present 
settlement was recorded as 54,000 acres as against 43,000 
at the second summary settlement ; but the total assess- 
ment was only raised from Rs. 39,600 to Rs. 40,600, a 
reduction being granted in the case of the Leiah tahsIL 

18. The result of the demarcation of boundaries in the 
Thai has been to increase the area of Government rakhs 
from 636 to 1,095 square miles, or an area which com- 
prises one quarter of the whole Thai tract. The total area 
under Government rakhs both cis and trans-Indus is 1,261 
square miles. The grazing land in the Thai, included with- 
in the village boundaries, has been assessed at a light rate, 
and over this land the proprietors have full control as re- 
gards the grazing of kine, sheep and goats. The leases for 
camel grazing are sold separately, and apply to all village 
grazing lands. The camels of the Powindahs are taxed as 
they enter British territory, and are then allowed to graze 
free unless they enter the Government rakhs. The Lieu- 
tenant-Governor concurs generally in the remarks of the 
Financial Commissioner in paragraph 31 of his review 
regarding the principle on which the Government rakhs 
should be managed. The observations of the Settlement 
Officer in paragraph 553 of the Report regarding the general 
inadvisability of making grants of land from the principal 
rakhs are also approved by His Honor. 

19. The assessment on date groves has been increased 
froqi Rs. 4,650 to Rs. 6,104, which gives an average of 
one anna per fruit-bearing tree. The number of water-mills 
in the district is insignificant, and no tax has been levied 
on them, though the people have in some villages assessed 
them in making their own distribution of the revenue. 

20. An exact comparison of the old and new revenue 
demand of the district is somewhat difficult, as so much of 
the former reyenue was paid in kindi and as a large portion 



( 1* ) 

of the new assessment is fluctuating. Approximately^ 
however, the results are as follows : — 



TiH6IL. 

* 


Former 
Rerenoe. 


(Tew assess- 
ment. 


iNCaSASB OB 

Dbcrkasb. 


Amount. 


Percentage. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 




Dera 


9e,16S 


1,«0,368 


+ 24,203 


+ 25 


Tdnk 


67.867 


75>329 


+ 7,462 


+ 11 


Kul&chi 


1,09,096 


1,05,507 


— 3,589 


— 8 


Bhakkar 


l,frl,880 


1,31,876 


+29,496 


+ 2» 


Leiah 


99,037 


1,29,215 


+30,178 


+ 31 


Total DiBtrict ... 


4,74,045 


5,61,795 


+ 87,760 


+ 18 



The sums entered in the ahove table as the new assess- 
ments of the Tdnk and Euldchi tahsils include the average 
value of the grain where the revenue is collected in kind, 
and the total for the district includes Bs. 5,946 temporarily 
postponed on account of protective leases and progressive 
assessments. A comparison of this estimate with the actual 
working of the settlement for the four years from 1878-79 
to 1881-82 shows, as above noted, that Mr. Tucker under- 
estimated the amount of the grain collections by Rs. 16,743, 
and the rakh and ** tirni '* receipts by Rs. 2,950, while he 
over-estimated the assessment of the Daman lands by 
Rs. 10,992, and of the Eachi by Rs. 26,151. The estimate 
of the increase of revenue yielded by the revision of 
settlement must therefore be corrected according to the 
statistics of these four years. This necessitates a reduction 
of Rs. 17,450, which leaves the actual increase in the 
assessment at Rs. 60,309, or about 12^ per cent. Of this 
sum nearly Rs. 20,000 have been devoted to indms to 
zailddrs and other leading men ; Rs. 12,000 haye been 
granted to jdgirddrs in compensation for losses caused 
by the abolition of their collections in kind; and Rs. 22,000 
iutye been alienated in providing jdgfrs for Naw&bs Hassan 



( 16 ) 

Eh&n and Atta Muhammad Ehdn. The net immediate 
addition to the fisc of the State caused by the settlement 
is therefore almost inappreciable, though this is owing to 
special circumstances unconnected with the assessment of 
the Settlement Officer. 

21. The Lieutenant-Governor trusts that the remarks 
of Colonel Macaulay, quoted by Mr. Lyall in paragraph 40 
of his Review, regarding the working of the system of fluc- 
tuating assessment with the least possible trouble to the 
people, will be duly borne in mind by the Deputy Commis- 
sioner of the district. It is very necessary that all Revenue 
Officers of sub-divisions, where much of the revenue is 
fluctuatinor, should be really efficient and trustworthy 
men, and the Financial Commissioner will no doubt arrange 
for this. Sir Charles Aitchison concurs with Mr. Lyall 
that the Settlement Officer's valuable remarks on the future- 
working of the settlement in paragraphs 604 — 608 should 
be carefully studied by all officers connected with the 
district. The fear expressed by Mr. Tucker that the district 
may suffer in the future from a depression of prices is no t, 
in His lienor's opinion, likely to be realised. 

22. No alterations have been made in the dates for 
the payment of the instalments of revenue. The rabi 
instalments are due 15 days earlier than in Bannu, but, 
as the Financial Commissioner has observed, the crops here 
ripen somewhat sooner than in that district. It does not 
appear, therefore, that the dates can be considered too 
early, and Sir Robert Egerton was of opinion that sufficient 
reason had not been shown for their alteration. Should the 
Deputy Commissioner, however, wish to make any further 
representation on this subject, he is at full liberty to do so. 
The proportion of the revenue payable at each harvest 
was rightly left to the revenue-payers to decide. 

23. The revenue ssignments, which are very numer- 
ous in this district, have been carefully enquired into during 
the settlement. The amount of revenue enjoyed by private 
persons and Government servants in 1878 was as follows :-~ 

Jfigirs ... Kg. 1,14,239 

Ordinary M&fiR ... ,, 3^809 

Bar&t, Sufedposhi, and other allowances deducted 

from the revenue .... ^, 22,843 

Cash allowances paid from the treasury ... „ 50,402 

Total ... ... „ 1,91,293 



( 16 ) 

Most of the jiSgfrs are enjoyed by the Multani Fathdns 
of Dera Ismail Khan. The greater part of the cash payments 
made from the treasury consists of the allowance to the 
Nawdb of Tdnk, who until lately received a share of the 
revenue of that tahsil. Nawdb Shah Nawdz Ehdn of Tank 
has died since the report of the Settlement Officer was writ- 
ten, and has been succeeded by his grandson Ghuldm Kdsim 
Kh&n. During this interval death has also removed one of 
the most loyal and devoted servants of the British Govern- 
ment, the late Nawdb Sir Ghuldm Hassan Khdn, k.g.s.i., 
who has been succeeded by his eldest son Nawab Abdullah 
Khdn. A sum of Us. 12,400, which, as already noted, is 
paid to jdglrddrs as compensation for the conversion of col- 
lections in kind to payments in cash, is included in the 
cash allowances. The Settlement Officer has recorded his 
opinion tliat the few villages which have knowingly elected 
to continue grain payments to the j&gfrddrs should not be 
allowed hereafter to commute these payments into cash. 
The Financial Commissioner agrees in this view, and the 
Lieutenant-Governor also concurs that no change should be 
allowed during the currency of the present settlement with- 
out the consent of both parties. At the next settlement 
the people will again have the option of electing for cash 
payments. The zailddri system has been introduced in the 
Cis-Indus tract and in part of the Dera tahsil. It was 
not possible of course to extend it to the democratic Pathdn 
tribes of the western border. 

24. The Deputy Commissioner should be requested to 
take into consideration and report on the following matters, 
alluded to in paragraph 47 of the Financial Commissioner's 
letter :— 

(1). The chaukfddri arrangements (paragraph 717 
of the Eeport.) 

(2). The restrictions placed on the use of inflated 
skins on the Indus (paragraph 737). 

25. The settlement lasted rather over 6]^ years, and 
was effected at a net cost to Imperial funds of Ks. 4,04,702. 
A sum of Es. 51,000 has been realised from the jdgirddrs 
on account of their jigir villages. Considering that the 
district is very large and thinly populated, and that the work 
done was of a most intricate and important character, the 
liieutenant-GoTernor does not consider the expenditure to 



( w ) 

have been excessiye ; and His Honor is fully satisfied that 
the benefit conferred upon the district by the preparation of 
the excellent record of rights which Mr. Tucker has com^ 
pleted will outweigh the expenditure incurred many times 
over. The attestation of the record of rights was for the 
most part carried out in the Tillages. It has now been 
definitely decided that the disadvantages of local attestation 
are far less than the advantages, and it has become an estab- 
lished rule that attestation of every kind shall be conducted 
on the spot* 

26. Satisfactory arrangements appear to have been 
made regarding the Fatwdris and Lambarddrs. The former 
have been graded, and Sadr Fatwdrfs have been selected for 
their supervision, one being appointed for every six Fatwdrf s. 
The Lieutenant-Governor concurs in the observations of the 
Financial Commissioner in paragraph 49 on this subject. 

27. The desirability of granting protective leases for 
new wells has not been overlooked in the Dera Ismail Ehan 
District, and a revenue demand of Bs. 5,300 has been 
deferred for various periods on account of 827 leases granted 
in accordance with the existing rules on the subject. It 
appears from paragraph 775 of the Settlement Officer's 
Beport that in some cases the villagers have agreed among 
themselves to limit the period of exemption from payment 
of revenue to a shorter term than that permitted by the rules. 
Where this has been done with the free consent of all con- 
cerned, the Lieutenant-Governor agrees with the Financial 
Commissioner that the agreement should be upheld ; other- 
wise any proprietor sinking a new well will be entitled to 
the full period of exemption as regards the proprietary body 
as well as regards the Government. In order to encourage 
the sinking of wells on the Thai road between Bhakkar 
and Ohah Bahreri, and to provide shade and water without 
which it is impossible for wayfarers to use this route in the 
summer months, exemption from assessment during the 
pleasure of Government has been conceded in the case of 
a number of new wells in the Thai the owners of which 
have undertaken to maintaii^ trees for half a mile along the 
road, and to assist in keeping the road in repair when 
required. As the amount of revenue leviable from each 
well would not usually exceed Bs. 20 or Bs. 25, and as the 
cost of sinking such wells is not less than Bst 600 and 



( 18 ) 

occasionally amounts to twice that sum, the oonoession 
made in these cases cannot be considered excessive in view 
of the advantages which are thereby secured. 

28. Sir Charles Aitchison notices with satisfaction 
that the character of the measurements carried out under 
Mr. Tucker's supervison was good^ and that the difference 
between them and those of the Revenue Survey, which was 
made simultaneously, was very small. Arrangements have 
been made, as proposed by the Settlement Officer, that survey 
sheets prepared under professional supervision, and contain- 
ing the naain features of a village, should in future be 
supplied to Patwdrfs before they commence their measure- 
ments, so that, as far as possible, their work may be confined 
to plotting the fields on the skeleton sheets provided for 
them. 

29. The Financial Commissioner has not made any 
special reference to the village note books, but the Lieutenant- 
Governor has no doubt that these were prepared by Hr. Tucker 
as carefully as the papers which form the record of rights, 
and that they have since been duly maintained by the Deputy 
Commissioner. His Honor considers that a very useful end 
is served by appending to final settlement reports a state- 
ment of the records made over to the district office, as has 
been done in Appendix XIX to the present Beport ; and if 
the Financial Commissioner agrees, general instructions 
nught be issued requiring this in all cases. 

30. The Settlement Officer has recommended that 
the settlement be confirmed for a period of 30 years, but in 
paragraph 52 of his Review Mr. Lyall has given reaoons for 
considering that a shorter period is desirable. In view of 
the fact that the rates of the fluctuating assessment on the 
Damin and Eachi are undeniably light, that the district 
may possibly be connected by railway with the rest of the 
Province before long, and that it is under contemplation to 
organise a series of inundation canals from the Indus, from 
Muzaffargarh up to Kdldbdgh, the Lieutenant-Qovemor 
agrees with the Financial Commissioner that it is not desir- 
able to sanction the present settlement for the full period 
of 30 years, and he is accordingly pleased to sanction it for 
20 years only from the date when the new assessment of 
tiie district was completely introduced. The Settlement 
Officer does not seem to have stated in his Beport the amount 



( 19 ) 

of fhe cesses levied in each tahsH ; but these have akeady 
been sanctioned in connection with the assessment reports 
of the district, and that sanction is now confirmed by the 
Lieutenant«Ooyemor. The record of rights prepared at the 
recent settlement is also hereby dnly sanctioned. 

31. Sir Charles Aitchison cordially endorses the com- 
mendation bestowed by Mr. Lyall on the work of the Settle- 
ment Officer. The settlement entrusted to him was an 
extremely difficult one, but Mr. Tucker has carried it out with 
great industry and ability, and he is entitled to the highest 
praise both for his work and for the very valuable report 
that he has written. His Honor thinks, however, that it 
is to be regretted that the great length of the report was 
not somewhat curtailed. The thanks of Government are 
also due to Messrs. Steedman and Fanshawe, Assistant 
Settlement Officers, to Munshi Ohiranjft L&l, Extra Assistant 
Settlement Officer, and to Munshls Au&d Husein, Hakim-ud- 
din and Khush&l Singh, all of whom gave great assistance 
to the Settlement Officer. The Lieutenant-Oovemor regrets 
that untimely death should have removed both of the first 
named Native Officers before an opportunity of publicly 
acknowledging their services had been afforded to him. 

32« In conclusion. Sir Charles Aitchison desires to 
repeat what he has already recorded in the Review of the 
Bannu Settlement, that the Punjab Government is greatly 
indebted for the satisfactory results of this settlement to 
Mr. J. B. Lyall (now Besident at Mysore), imder whose 
supervision, as Settlement Commissioner, nearly the whole 
of the work was carried out. 



OsDEB.— Ordered, that the above Besolution be com- 
municated to the Financial Commissioner for information 
and guidance, and to Mr. Tucker for information. Also 
that the Besolution and the papers read in the preamble be 
submitted to the Government of India in the Foreign 
Department for the confirmation of the settlement for a 
penod of 20 years. 



No. 341. 

From 

H. St.G. tucker, Esquim, 

Settlement Officer^ 

Dbra Ismail Ehan. 

To 

Major E- G. WAGE, 

Settlement Commissioner^ 

MOOLTAN AND DeRAJAT DIVISIONS. 

Dated Dera Ismail Khan^ 1th April 1879. 

Sir, 

I have the honor to forward herewith the final report on 
the Regular Settlement of the Dera Ismail Ehan District now 
concluded. The Annual Demand Statement and the other pre- 
scribed Statements wiU be found among the Appendices to the 
Report. Owing to so much of the Revenue being fluctuating, 
the Annual Demand Statement is of but little practical use. I 
have prepared, however, detailed Village Statements classified 
in a way that will, I believe, render comparatively easy the 
work of checking the actual assessments for each year. I have 
also added an alphabetical list of villages, in order to facilitate 
reference to the Statements. 

As the Report is rather a long one, I have prepared an 
alphabetical index m addition to the ordinary index of contents. 

The following matters connected with this Settlement have 
still to be disposed of : — 



( 2 ) 

Ist. — Final orders have not yet been issued with regard to 
the Settlement of the Gundapur country , though I presume 

that the arrangements now in force will be approved of and 
sanctioned ; 

2nd. — The proposak with regard to mfed^paaJd inams and 
zaildari arrangements for the Kulachi tahsil have not yet been 
sanctioned ; 

3rd.— The mode of charging zaildari and mfedposhi inams 
in the accounts has not yet been definitely laid down, though 
I have acted on the presumption that they will take the 
form of cash remissions from village jamas. 

Three maps are attached to the Report showing : — 

\st — Physical features and tribes ; 
2nrf. — Assessment Circles ; 
Zrd. — Jagirs and Rakhs. 

I have the honor to be. 

Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

H. St.G. tucker. 

Settlement Officer. 



OP THE 

DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 



PART I. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND PHYSICAL. 



GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT OP THE DISTRICT. 

1. Thb Dbra Ismail Khan district comprises the country on both 

P 't' f th D'at • t *^^®® ^^ *^® Indus from the district of Bannu 

on the north to the districts of Dera Gh&zi 
Khan and Mutaffargarh on the south. On the east it adjoins the Jhang 
and Shahpur districts, and on the west it stretches up to the foot 
of the independent hills that divide India from Afghanistan. It lies 
between degrees 31 and 32 — 34 north latitude, and degrees 70 — 6 

and 71 — 3 east longitude. Its average length 
from north to south is about a hundrea and ten 
miles, and its width about eighty miles. It has an area of 9,296 square 
miles. 

2. The district is divided by the Indus into cis-Indus and trans- 

Indus. The bed of the Indus is broad and 
Intersected by the InduB. sandy, and the channels are numerous and per- 

HiSTh^*"«d SS^to!' Pet'^'% shifting. The tract actoally occupied 

by the main stream is about four miles in width, 
containing nnmerous islands and sand banks, but for nearly the whole 
length along the left or cis-Indus bank, there is a broad belt of alluvial 
land known as the Nasheb or Kachi. This low-lying tract is more or 
less intersected by streams from the Indus, and the whole is liable to be 
flooded when the river rises in the rainy season. The high sandy tract 
to the east of this is called the Thai; the high plain trans^Indus is known 
as the Daman. 

« 

3. The trans-Indus tract is surrounded on all sides except the 
Bonndarieaof the district. 8o«th by natural boundaries. On the north are 

Transfer of the liuldsal the low ranges, of which Shekh-Budfn is the 
Tillages. highest point, that separate it from Bannu, and 

on the west the low hills that form the outer fringe of the Suliman 
range. Formerly the uniformity of the boundary to the north was 
broken by the Mulazai villages, which belonged to the Bannu district, 
but these were transferred in 1875 to this district, which thus includes 
the whole country on this side of the hills-.* 

^ The Tillage of Chnnda had been transferred to this district from Bannu, 1867, 



The boundary between Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan now rnna 
Bonndaiy line between from the Bain Pass eastwards throngh the 
this and neigfaboaring die* centre of the Bhittanni range. Excluding 
*"*^^*' Peyzn, a village situated at the month of the 

Pass of that name, which is now the only Bannu village south of the 
Bhittanni range,* it passes over the erest of the Shekh-Budfn hill, 
and then along the crest of the Nilah Koh range, nearly to the end of 
the Largi valley. It crosses the Largi valley, and after including 
the northern end of the Khasor hills and the adjoining Kachi, it 
crosses the Indus into the Thai. The boundary through the Thai, down 
to the Muzaffargarh district, is marked by no natural features. On rejoin- 
ing the Indus, the boundary between this and the Dera Ghszi Khan 
district runs north following the course of the Indus for some-20 miles. 
It then again crosses the Indus and meets the Suliman range by the 
Litra Pass below Vahoa. Towards the independent hills from Vahoa to 
the Bain Pass, the point from which we started, there is no clearly laid 
down boundary. As a rule, British jurisdiction is supposed to extend to 
the mouths of the Passes only, but this is merely a matter of convenience ; 
and in the Tank tahsil the posts of Gimi and Kot Khirgi have been 
advanced a few miles inside the hills. 

4. The trans-Indus tract stretches along the Indus for 110 miles. 

It is broadest to the north, where the distance 

•dw teS^t. "*' *'"'''" f"^^"^ ^^^ I°^«» ^ ^t® independent hills is 50 

miles. These hills gradually close into the 
south, and the plain narrows, till opposite Dera Fatteh Khan it is not 
more than 20 miles across. This plain stretches on in an unbroken 
sweep to the south, where it forms the Dera Gh&zi Khan paehad. 

The boundary between the two districts is quite arbitrary, and has 

Bonndary to south. '^©^^ twice altered : first in 1866,t when Vahoa 

TransferB of Vahoa and with the rest of the ELhetran country was trans- 

'^^^^ ferred to this district, and again in 187 l,t when 

Tibbi and some other Kasrdni villages were transferred from this dis* 

trict to Dera Gh&zi Khan. 

The cis-Indus tract is about 100 miles long and about seventy miles 

„ . ^ . ^ J ^ M. across in the centre where it is widest. It oon- 
Extent of cifl-Indus tract. ^^.^^^^ ^^^ j^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ . .^^^^^ 

The Dera Ismail Khan district, therefore, forms an oblong block, out 
^^^ . in two by the Indus, hemmed in on the north-west 

^^ ^ ' and west by hills, but stretching away on the 

south and east into the great open plain of the Punjab. The boundaries 
in diese latter directions have been arbitrarily fixed, and are based neither 
on the natural features of the country nor on ethnographical distinctions. 



* The Tillage of Chanda had been tiansf erred to this district from Banna in 1S67. 

t Transfer of Vahoa sanctioned by Secretary to Goyernment Punjab, No, 278 of 26th 
May 1866, and of Tibbi by Notification No. 429 of Idth July 1871. 



5. The district in its present shape was first formed in 18G1. Be- 
The district as now con- ^^^e annexation the cis-Indus tract was inclnded 

•titated formed in 1861, in the Government of Diwan Sdwan Mai. 
when the old Leiah district JJogt of the trans-Indus tract was under Diw4n 
was broken np. -p^^j^^ jj^j ^^ , ^^ ^^^^ arrangement of dis- 

tricts, the trans-Indus tahsils of the present Dera Ismail Khan and 
Banna districts were formed into the Dera Ismail Khan disti-ict with 
bead -quarters at Bannu. The cis-Indus tahsils, that is Mi&nwalij 
Bhakkar and Leiah, and till 1859, the Kot Add tahsil of Muzaffargarh, 
formed the Leiah tahsil with head-quarters at Leiah.* This arrange- 
ment, though in many respects more convenient than the present one, 
was set asido-in 1861, as the charge of so long a border was considered 
too heavy for the Deputy Commissioner of Dera Ismail Khan. The 
Bortbem portions of the two districts were then formed into the present 
Bannu district ; the southern into the present Dera Ismail Khan dis- 
trict. The original division was longitudinal, the Indus being the 
boundary. The present division is transverse, sections of the country 
on both sides of the Indus being included in each district. 

The present Dera Ismail Khan district consists of 5 tahsfls. Of 

Division into tahsils. *^®^ ^^^^ Ismail Khan, Kulachi and Tank are 

trans-Indus, and Leiah and Bhakkar are 
cis-Indos. On the breaking up of the old Leiah district, the head- 

Juarters of the Commissionership were transferred from Leiah to Dera 
smail Khan, which from being an out-statipn is now the capital town 
of the Division. 

6. Ebiving given this preliminary sketch I will now proceed to 
Geographical featores of describe more fully the geographical features 

the district. of the district, t shall commence with the 

trans-Indofl tahsils, starting from the central point of Dera Ismail Elhan. 



THE TRANS-INDUS TAHSILS. 

7. The town of Dera Ismail Khan is situated close to the right 
Bitaation of town of bank of the Indus, and occupies a central posi- 

Dera lanudl Khan. tion half way between the northern and south- 

TheDam^ ®^" boundaries of the district. The broad 

plains of the Damdn stretch away from it in an 
uninterrupted sweep to the north, west and south, the view to the west 
being bounded by the Suliman range, of which the broad crest of the 
Takht Suliman, 11,293 feet high, forms the most distinguishing feature. 

8. The term Damdn originally applied only to that portion of the 

trans-Indus tract lying immediately under the hills and forming the 

JDamdn or skirt of the hills. The eastern portion of the tract towards 

■m. m^ 1.1. 1 xj the Indus was known as Makkalwad. The 

The i&akkalwad. , t^ / • i* j • i* • • i^i j. 

term Daman is now applied inuiscmninately to 

* The old Leiah district also contained the talaqaas of KhashAb, Mitha-Taw&na 
«nd Karpar. Khoshib was transferred to the Shahpur district in 1358-64, Mitha- 
Tawina in 1S67, Mnrpnr in 1862, and Adhikot in 1S68. 



iho whole conn try from the Indus to the hills. The term Makkalwad 
has fallen out o'f use altogether, though I intend to employ it 6ccasion- 
ally, when I wish to distinguish the country towards the Indus from the 
sub^montane tracts^ which are mainly occupied by Path&n tribes. 

The Dam&n country includes the whole area of the trans-Indus 
Extent of the Dam&n. Its tahsils, except a narrow strip of rirer land along 
appearance. the Indus and a tract to the north, which has 

been formed into the Pah^rpur, Fanniala and Khasor circles. There is 
but little variation in the character of the country. Where uncultivated 
the Dam&n stretches out in level plains, flat as a billiard-table, generally 
without a tree or particle of vegetation, except a few scattered bushes of 
lana» Grass does not grow on it naturally, and even the lana dis* 
appears in places, leaving nothing to break the uniformity of ihe 
mud-colored expanse. 

This sort of bare level ground is locally known as the pat. The 
j^ ^ soil is a clay, firm when dry, though generally 

to a certain extent elastic and yielding, and 
delightful to galop over. Water does not sink into it readily, and ordi- 
nary rain runs off at once ; but wherever water stands for any time, or 
after long continued rain, the soil for a few inches in depth becomes a 
soft tenacious mud, and roads very soon become almost impassible. 

The soil of the Daman is generally very fertile, consisting of sili 
Sou of the Damin. depositel)rought down by hill torrents. Wher- 

ever the ground is good, it can be readily 
broken up for cultivation. In places, owing to the action of water, it 
becomes bard and unfruitful to such an extent sometimes as to be quite 
iinculturable. The hardest soil turns when wet into the worst mud. It 
preserves also all inequalities caused by cattle trampling over it when 
wet, or in similar ways. This trampled ground petrifies as it dries, and 
is then known as kurbin. 

9. Although water soaks into the Daman soil with difficulty, yet 
Damin much cut up by that soil is very readily cut up by running 
ravines. streams. Even the rain water running off 

forms ravines, and the hill torrents all make deep beds for themselves far 
below the level of the surrounding pat. These ravines intersect the 
Dam&n in all directions, forming deep cracks in ihe otherwise level 
expanse. The banks of these torrent beds are very precipitous, and the 
water supply of the country runs away in them much too far below the 
level of the country to benefit it in any way ; while the falling in of the banks 
and the force of the current prevent the growth of trees even in their 
immediate vicinity. Sometimes, however, a fringe of /arew* trees 
springs up in places where the torrent bed has been widened by 
erosion, so as to leave room for a strip of low ground between the 
Eacbes or low-ljing stream and the bank. A strip of land of this 
tracts in torrent beds. sort is called a kach, and some of these kaches 

when cultivated are very productive, 

* TamariBk orientalis, 



10. The pat extends up to the mouths of the stony gorges from 

ivhich the hill torrents issue. Between these 
Skirts of the hiUs. Gene- gorges along the skirt of the hills, the pat gene- 
nJ appearance of the rally gives way to stony slopes covered with 
couu ry. coarse grass. There are a few natural depres- 

sions in the Damdn, where water lies, and where grass and jungle 
bushes grow freely, but these are the exception, and its distinctive 
features are the bare level pat and its intersecting ravines. 

These ravines are dry for the greater part of the year. After rain 

„.„ , they are occupied by roaring torrents, which 

Hill torrenta. . "^ -V x i ° 'j-x ai_ • 

pass away with greater or less rapidity as their 

sources are in the immediate vicinity^ or in the more distant hills 

towards Ghazni. 

11. All the more important of the hill streams have a small peren- 
Perennial streams. nial flow, which is, however, expended long be* 
KalapanL fore it reaches the Indus. The perennial sup- 
ply is known as the Kalapani or black watery on account of its clear colour, 
to distinguish it from the axifed panij or white water ^ the latter being the 
discolored silty water that issues after rain. These perennial springs 
are known by the local name of zam. Thus we have the Chacdwan 
zarrij the Tank zam^ &c. The cold weather flow of these springs 
varies frem about 200 cubic feet per second in the Gumal zantj to 
from 20 to 40 cubic feet in the I)r4ban and Chandw^n zame. Like 
the flood waters, this Kalapani also, if left to itself, would run to waste 
in the torrent beds, leaving the surrounding country as dry as before. 

12. Owing to the small rain-fall, and to the fact that but little of the 
Dam&n naturally harren. rain that falls even, sinks into the ground, and 
System of irrigation. that the ravines, by which the drainage of the 

tract is carried ofi^, run too far below the level of the country to benefit 
it in any way, the Daman, if left to a state of nature, would always re- 
main a desert. To bring it under cultivation it is necessary to arrest 
the water, which is running to waste in the ravines, and to spread it 
over the barren pat. The unirrigated pat will hardly produce even a 
poor crop in the most favorable seasons. Cultivation can only be 

l^^^^^^.^ «*i^- «. Carried on in embanked fields, called bands. The 
smDanKca neias or ,, i*ii. /*ii y • \ 

hands, embankments surroundmg these fields, which 

are from three to five feet high, are called laths, 
Laths and lath^hands. ^^^j ^^^ constructor a lath-band. If the culti- 

PaU, Larras, Tator is trusting to the local rain-fall only, he 

leaves the upper end of the field open, ana runs 
long embankments called pdls and larras across the pat so as to inter- 
cept as much of the rain water as possible, and bring it down to the 
embanked field. The water which runs off the pat collects at the 
lower end of the field, where it is left to soak in. When the ground 
is Bufiiciently dry, it is ploughed and sown, and with one or two sub- 
sequent showers the cultivators may expect a crop. It is only the 
portion of the band which has been actually submerged that can be 



cultivated. With light rain these embanked fields do not fill at all. 
Heavy rain is required, and the more rain there is the larger is the 
portion of the field that gets flooded sufficiently to allow of cultivation. 
Barani or daggar culti- This cultivation is generally called baranij to 
▼atioii. distinguish it from cultivation with aid of hill 

torrent irrigation. It is also called daggavy which is the term that I 
shall apply to it, reserving the term barani for lands like those in 
ttie L&rgi valley, which are dependent on rain alone, and do not re- 
quire the aid of embankments. The signification of the words pat and 
daggar is much the same, but pat is used to express the general appear- 
ance of the open plains from a landscape point of view, while daggar is 
used rather in an agricultural sense to express unembanked lands, the 
rain water from which runs off freely. This daggar cultivation is poor 
and fitful. The crops are uncertain, and the land does not get the benefit 
of the rich silt brought down by the hill torrents. The bulk of the land 
in daggar villages, even when mese are cultivated up to their full extent, 
. is generally a bare plain, differing little in appearance from the ordinary 
paty as in order to get water enough to cultivate one field, the proprie- 
tor must have ten fields waste, and the proportion of waste to cultivated 
is in consequence always very large. 

13. To develop the full capacities of the Dam&n, it is necessary 

to fill up these embanked fields or bands with the 

Irrigation from hUl siHr-bearing waters of the hill torrents. Opportunity 

JS'JSJl ^^''"*™''**^'* is taken of a time when the torrent bed is dry. 

The zemindars of the neighbouring villages collect 
with their plough oxen. The lands round the selected site are ploughed 
up, and the earth dragged by means of a board called a K^ drawn by 
oxen, and heaped up ffo as to form a dam. These oxen work one pair 
after another in a very methodical way. The dam thus thrown up ia 
entirely of earth, except that the up-stream side is strengthened with 
fascines of brushwood. The dam is raised to a level somewhat above 
that of the adjoining pat. Flanking embankments (pals) are then carried 
so as to keep the water from falling back into the ravine, and shallow 
channels, called kindahsy are excavated so as to carry off the watery 
when it arrives, to the lands to be irrigated. The water generally comes 
down with a rush. This is the trying moment : sometimes it stops the 
dam, and then of course all is over. At other times a leak breaKs out 
in the dam. These leaks are difficult to stop, and generally lead to 
the dam^s breaking. In this case the labor of the cultivators for the 
season is lost. The dam cannot be repaired till the floods go down again. 
If, however, the dam stands the first burst, the stream fills up to the 
level of the side channels, which carry off the water, and the amount 
of silt deposited is so large that the dam very soon is perfectly seoore. 
In this way a yawning ravine 20 feet deep is silted up in a row days 
almost to the level of the surrounding pat. Whether a dam stands or 
not depends much on the soil of whi<m it is made : good soil binds well 
and quickly ; bad soil is apt to let the water form holes and leak 
through, lliere are places where it is almost hopeless in oonaeqaenoe 
t9 construct a dam. The more dams there are on a stream the better 



as they keep up the level of the bed, and the work of constmciing dams 
becomes easier and easier as ihe level of the bed 'below the dam rises 
nearer to that of the lands to be irrigated. 

14. The water brought down by the torrent is thus led away 
Irrigation Mrangements through the kindahs, by which it is distributed 

Cor the diBtribatkui of the among the smaller channels, from which the 
water supply. bands are filled. ^ In a torrent>-watered country 

these bands are no longer left open on the up*side. The embankment is 
carried all round the field. The water is let in at the head of the band ; 
and when the band is filkd, the mouth is closed and the water passes 
down the channel to the next band. Where necessary small embank- 
ments are thrown across these side channels, Vhich are cut when the 
band has been filled. The upper fields on a channel get watered first, 
in turn, down to the last fields. This is the arrangement when the 
flow of water is small and under control ; but ^when a oig stream comes 
down, and the dams are standing, Hbe water floods the country for miles ; 
it runs from band to bandy breaking the embankments and sometimes 
sweeping them away altogether^ As a rule the quantity of water is too 
large to allow of its regular distribution. The irrigating channels are 
full, and every one fills his bands as fast as he can, and then closes their 
mouths. If tne latfis break before the CTound is saturated and the silt 
deposited, it is a chance whether the cultivator will get a crop or not. 
Sometimes, however, a high flood covers up the lathsj or embankments 
by which Uie bands are surrounded, burying them in a deep layer of 
silt. Such deposits are very fertile, and grow first class crops if* culti- 
vated at once ; though the lands have to be re-embanked before the 
next season. There are a succession of dams on each hill stream. 
When the villages dependent on a dam have been irrigated, the dam is 
cut and the water let down to the next, and so on till the lowest dam 
is reached and cut, after which the water runs to waste in the Indus. 
Sometimes a sudden fresh sweeps away in succession all the dams on a 
stream, and much inconvenience is occasioned by the fact that in such 
^ - n . , cases they cannot be repaired till the torrent 

the lands at the head of a stream or channel are first entided to be 
watered and after them the lower lands in succession, is known by the 
local name of Saroba Paind, 

15. Where a hill torrent is under eflective control and cultivators 
yv 1-1^ « T% A *^re sufficient, the character of the adjoinin^r pat 
Q«.l.tj<»f D«nia crop., altogether changes. From a bare waste itW 

comes a sheet of cultivation, the wheat crops are equal to those on 
manured well lands, the bajra, jowar and cotton are magnificent. To get 
really good crc^s however, the first irrigation previous to sowing is not 
Vore than one watering sufficient. A second irrigation or a certain 
»<l«»»d- amount o( rain is required while the crop is 

growing. On the best lands however, provided that the bands have been 
thoroughly saturated, fair crops will often be produced without any sub- 
sequent watering, and with little or no rain. The larger bands in torrent 



8 

irrigated tracts are filled up with water to a depth of four feet and eren 
more at the lower end. All this water is allowed to soak in gradaally, 
and as the soil is tenacious of water, this takes time. Sometimes in the 
cold weather, when the bands have been filled up late in the season, and 
the cultivator is in a hurry to sow his crop, he expedites matters by 
cutting the laths and letting off the water after it has stood for only two 
or three daj's, taking the chance of a shower of rain or a second irrigation 
coming in time to save the crop before the half saturated land dries up. 
Half irrigated lands are generally sown with bajra and sarsoriy the seed 
of which costs very little, and it is seldom that insufficiently irrigated 
lands are sown with wheat, the seed of which is too valuable to be risked. 

16. In all the bettec; cultivated portions of the Damdn, /ara« trees 
Natural vegetation iu the spring up in great abundance along the banks 

Dam&n. ^aro* trees. of the water channels and round the edges of 

the fields. In places the country gets almost a wooded appearance, and 
with its growing crops and the background of blue hills looks at times 
quite picturesque. 

Except iiie/aras there are very few trees in the Daman. Bound 

the villages there are generally some scattered 

®' ^^^' her and kikar trees ; and in places, especially to 

ihe south, in the Ustarana and Khetran country, the skirts of the hills 
are thickly fringed with her trees. As a rule the country is bare of 
treeS| and those that there may be, are of a poor description. 

As regards the smaller descriptions of junglo^rowth, the ground is 

. , generally more or less overgrown with different 

8m er jang e grow . ^^^^^ ^^ lanay which is mucin grazed by camels, 

and in places it is thickly covered with large bushes of karil ( kariia ). 

17. There are very few wells in the Dam&n, except in the imme- 
Abaence of wellB. Drink- diate vicinity of the Indus.* The people gene- 

ing water obtained from rally trust for drinking water to the reservoirs 
nallahB and tanks. formed by the dams thrown across the hill 

torrents. If a dam breaks, the water supply goes. Some villages have 
kacha tanks, but the supply in these, though safer, is not so abundant 
as in the former, and it is apt to cause guinea-worm. In places water 
can be procured by excavating shallow pits in the sandy beds of the hill 
torrents ; and of course, where there is a perennial spring of Kalapani, 
there is no difficulty about the matter. As a rule however, the want of 
water is a crying evil, and in dry weather the people have often to go 
miles for it. In the dryer parts of the district to the south, they often 
abandon their villages during the hot weather, abd move down with their 
cattle to the Indus. 

18. Partly owing to this want of water, which leada the people to 
Appearance and sitnation collect round places where there may be a tank 

of villages in the Damdn. or reservoir, and partly to the old revenue 

* At Shor and Tikan, both some miles from the Indus, there are wells of good 
drinking water. At Eulachi, Uarwali and along the Dera Qhikti Khan road, the well 
water is bitter and bad. • 



system, by wbich the prodnoe of lar^e tracts is swept together to a single 
threshing floor, the population of the Daman is all collected together in 
villages. There are none of those detached farms and cottages, which 
form so pleasing a feature in many parts of the country. Here and 
there, as in the Sheru ilaqna, where irrigation is unusually certain and 
the country' is all cultivated, the villages lie close together in the middle 
of their fields. Generally, however, Uiey are far apart, with intervals 
of some miles between them. Except in daggar tracts, villages are 
always surrounded with a high bank to keep out the flood waters when 
the fields are being irrigated, as the level of the surrounding country 
rises in consequence of the annual deposits of fresh silt, the level of the 
village gradually sinks below that of the surrounding plain. Villages,. 
40 or 50 years old, often lie quite in a hollow, ihe fields outside being on 
a level with the roofs of the houses ; but sooner or later a flood comes, 
which breaks the protecting embankment and drowns the people out* 
They then remove to some fresh site, which is again subjected to th^ 
same silting process. 

The houses are mean-looking. They are built of mud bricks, with 

Dwelling hoases ^** ^^^^^' There are no pakka houses, and 

hardly a pakka mosque from Shekh-Budln to 
Vahoa. 

19. The dreary appearance of the country is to some extent broken, 

Kalapani watered tracts. Z^^'^\^I * P®^^""^^' stream issues from the hills. 

The cold clear water running over its somgly 

bed is caught in small embankments of stones and brushwood, and Ted 

away from the stony, torrent bed to the side, where cuttings in the 

clay soil bring it down to the cultivated fields. The heads of these 

channels are generally bordered with shisham trees which grow to a 

fair size, and here and there are little water mills with a row of willows 

along each side of the mill race. The Kalapani cultivation is of two 

TamdoH or Umd cultiya- sorts — tdnd or tandobi and vicfiobu In tdnd culti- 

^^^^' vation the water is laid on to open fields divided 

into strips and .plots with small ridges between, like those used in 

Viehobi caUirtLtioru ^^^' cultivation. The vic/iobi cultivation re- 

sembles the ordinary hill torrent cultivation, to 
which the expression is often applied. Embanked fields are filled up 
with water, which is allowed to soak in, after which the field is ploughed 
and sown. As a rule tdnd cultivation is onlv carried on near the 
BjBUm of Kalapani iniga* head of a stream. It gives less trouble, but 
*»oii. requires more water, as the crop has to be 

irrigated every ten days or a fortnight. Where the water of a stream 
belongs to a tribe on shares, the bulk of the Kalapani is used in tdnd 
cultivation, the surplus being employed in vichobi cultivation. Often 
after rain the amount of Kalapani increases greatlj*-, though the water 
can still be kept in hand and distributed in ordinary Kalapani fashion ; 
but there is a point, when it is impossible to distinguish the Kalapani 
or dry weather flow, from the rodkoi or torrent flow. When the torrents 
come down in force, they usually carry away all the little embankment^ 



10 

for diverting the Kalapani, and the whole water supply sweeps awajr 
through the main channel. By catting deep heads, nowever, to their 
side channels, the Kalapani proprietors can generally ensure a safticient 
and sometimes an over-abundant supply, even during the continuance of 
a flush. The laths round the fields used in vichchi cultivation are gene- 
rally smaller than in torrent cultivation, but the fields get watered 
oflener. The Kalapani water brings down little or no silt, and while the 
Absence of silt and ne- rodkoi lands can be cultivated continuously, with- 
cessity for fallows. out any deterioration in the natural luxuriance 

of the crops, Kalapani lands, especially when cultivated tdnd fashion, re- 
quire constant fallows. As a rule, the people like to leave tdnd lands 
fallow for two years out of three. In consequence of this, even the 
Kalapani irrigated tracts do not look as green as might be expected, 
and tne country, owing to the large amount of fallow, has a half culti- 
vated look, which is unpleasing to the English eye. 

20. This general description of the Daman tract applies, as I have 
« . . , , .„ . . said, to the whole country from Tank to Vahoa. 

Principal hill torrents. t i ii i n i a j -i r n a^i. 

1 shall have afterwards to describe more fully the 
irrigation arrangements connected with the different streams, but I may 
here mention the names of the principal, with the general directions in 
which they run. These are the Takwara, which collects the flood waters 
from the Tank zam and some other passes, and irrigates the northern 
portion of the tract ; the Liini, which is the largest of all, and which 
issuing from the Odmal Pass, takes a south-easterly course, and falls 
into the Indus some fifteen miles below the town of Dera Ismail Khan ; 
and the Vahoa, which waters the southern portion of the Daman, round 
Torrents intersect and the towns of Dera Fatteh Khan and Vahoa. 
form a net-work of irrigat- Few of these streams have a clearly marked 
inc: channels. channel of their own for any distance from the 

hills. Owing to the irrigation system in force, the waters of one are 
thrown into another, till the channels form a complete net-work. Owing 
to this, the oi-igiiial name of a stream is, as a rule, very soon 
lost. Its waters get sub-divided and carried off in different channels, 
where they mix with those of other hill streams, and each of these 
channels gets a local name of its own. The nomenclature therefore 

^ . . . becomes somewhat confusing. Hardly a 

Confusion as to names. • i < • i l ?i_ "^ 

smgle stream is known by the same name 
for its whole course from the hills to the Indus. 

21. Except in the Kalapani tracts, the proportion of the Dam&n 
Principal crops grown in cultivated area under the different crops varies 

the Dam&n. Uncertain cha* greatly. One year the cultivation is all rabbi ; 
racter of Dam4u agrical- the next year it is all kharif. The principal 

rabbi crop is wheat. Barley is grown very 
little, and gram seldom or never, sarson and assdn ( torn mira ) are 
extensively grown, especially in years when more land has been irrigat- 
ed than is required for the wheat cultivation. In the spring the culti- 
vators sow melons, cotton, and early bajra and jowar. lie melons ar*- 
generally sown in the cotton and jowar fields. They ripen during Juue^ 



^ 



[ 



^ 



11 

and come to an end in the beginning of July, when the rains set in. Iii 

abandant years they are so plentiful as to be almost unsaleable, and are 

given in large quantities to cattle. Some of the varieties are very 

ftuperior. In July and August the people sow the main bc^ra and 

joufar crops. Bajra sowing goes on till the beginning of September, after 

which it is too late for it, and the people sow sarson instead. Thev often 

sow baJra in the central portion of the band that dries first, an^ sarson 

in the kambel, or depression along the edge of the band, from which 

earth has been taken to construct the lat/iSf and in *which water lies 

longer than in thb field generally. The spring bajra and jowar grow 

very high, nine or ten feet, and are very valuable for fodder, but yield 

less grain than the later sown or Sdwan crops, which are often not more 

than three or four feet in height. The Daman system of cultivation is 

not suitable for tobacco and garden crops, which are grown only on 

well lands. A certain amount of vegetables are, however, grown on 

Crops on Kalapani lands, tdnd-irrigaied Kalapani lands. The crops 

Vichfibi crops. grown on vichobi lands are much the same as 

Tdnd crops. [^ tliQ torrent-irrigated portions of the Dam6n. 

On tdnd lands cotton and bajra are hardly ever grown ; the crops are, 

wheat for the rabbi and joxoar for the kharif^ with a certain amount 

„. ,^. .. of rice, where the localitv is favorable for its 

Rice cuttiTatioa. i^* -• n« • i.^-" j* i. • j. • a 

cultivation. Uice m this district is not sown 

in nurseries and then trans})lanted. The seed is trampled into the wet 

ground, and the plants are left to grow where they first spring up. 

22. I have before mentioned that but a narrow strip of the Indus 
Old bank of the Indus to alluvial tract is attached to the trans-Indus 
the west, locally know as tahsils. In old days, however, the Indus ap- 
the Kur, pears to have run far to the west of its present 

course. Traces of a high bank are found at intervals from Paharpur in 
the north down to Babbi and Kathgarh, on the border of the Dera 
Ghazi Kben district. This bank, locally termed the Kdry runs at a dis- 
tance of about five or six miles from the edge of the Indus Kachi. In all 
those portions of the Daman where the hill-torrent irrigation is abund- 
ant, all trace of this bank has long since been obliterated by constant 
deposits of fresh silt, though its former existence can still be traced in 
„ . J «. J , J the nomenclature of the countrv ; the lands be- 

low the bank being called bindy and the upper 
lands Banni. Where, however, the hill torrents are of small volume, as 
they are in the daggar tract between the Liini and the Vahoa, the old 
batik still stands clearly marked, rising to a height of seven or eight 
feet or more above the level of the low-l^'ing Sind lauds. In such 
places the hill-torrents, though spread out in the usual way over the cul- 
tivated lands, where they issue from the hills, generally cut themselves 
tolerably deep channels further east, down to the level of the Siml lands. 
The Banni lands, immediately above the old bank, are generally dry and 
barren, getting none but daggar irrigation. Below the bank the flood 
Waters spread out, and wherever there are clearly marked Shid lands, as 
distinguished from the high-lying or ^anwMands, the former are rich 
and well irrigated, while the latter are little better than a desert. Th^ 



12 

portions of the dfrtrict, where this Sind-Banni formation is still to he 
seen, are in the Rng-Paharpnr tract, lying between the Khasor range 
and the Takwara irrigated countrjr, south of the Liini from Ada Khiara' 
to Ch^ni, where the Vahoa irrigation commences, and again sonth of 
the Vahoa to the end of the district. In the centre of the Daman, 

Disappearance of the JTtir opposite the town of Dera Ismail Khan, the 
near Dera Ismail Khan. united L6ni-Takwsra irrigation has made a 

de^r sweep of the old bank for a distance of some 25 miles, and the 
Daman here slopes continuously from the hills to the Indus, where il 
ends suddenly in a sharp dro}>, the banks of accumulated silt rising well 
above the Indus evea during the highest floods. Where, however, the 
Si7id lands have not been silted up, their level is but little above 

Sind lands of the Miran- that of Ihe Indus. In the Kahiri ildqua near 
Kahiri iiaqua. Miran, the Sind tract still terminates in a 

narrow strip of alluvial land irrigated bv the Indus, from which there is 
a gradual rise to the higher lands, which, though below the K^ bank, 
are purely Daman in character. 

23. North of the Takwara, the Sind tract lies W^ond the action of 
5fnrf tract, north of the the greater hill torrents. The onty drainage 
Takw^a, formed into the that it receives, is from the L&rgi stream and 
Bug.Paharpur circle. the adjoining portions of the Khasor range, 

which is expended in irrigating a narrow strip of land lying below the 
high bank. Except this strip, the level of which has been raised by 
deposits of silt, the rest of the Siyid lands, north of the Takwara, are low- 
lying, and more or less capable of irrigation from the Indus, and differ 
entireh' in character from the Damiin country. Tliis tract, which has 
been formed into the Rug-Paharpur circle, stretches for about 20 miles 
from the Khasor range to Hoseyn Singhar. In width, it is seven miles 
across. On the norm it runs for about 10 miles along the foot of 
tlie Khasor range, and on the west it is bounded by the Panniala Thai, 
a sandy tract which ends abruptly in a bank of some twenty feet in 
height, lliis bank marks clearly the line formerly reached by the 
Indus. The centre of the Rug-Paharpur circle is occupied by a depres- 
The Pnran, or old bed of sion known as the Purdn, or old bed of the 
the Indus. Indus, which leaves the Indus below Belot, and 

terminates in the Band Rakh. Below the Band Rakh the through 
drainage has been interrupted by the rise in the country, occasioned by 
the silt deposits brought down by the Takw6ra. The Puran waters 
therefore, oeing unable to get away to the south, fall back into the Indus 
to the south-east, flooding in their way a good deal of low-lying country. 
These flood waters impoverish the soil, and the lands affected by Uiem 
are for the most part unculturable, and covered with a thick jungle, 
mostly Karita and Jand, 

A good deal of the Puran water is unable to escape at all, and re- 
mains stagnating in pools, which gradually dry up during the cold 
weather. Excepting the southern portion, the Rug-Paharpur tract is 
Cultivation in the Bug- generally very rich. There is a good deal of 
Paharpnr tract. Inunda- sailaba cultivation along the Puran, and the 
tiou canals and wells. country OB either side is watered by small 



IS 

innndaiion canals, twelve or thirteen miles long, mnnin^ parallel to the 
PuraiK Wells are numerous along the line of these canals, and also 
in the strip of coantry lying immediately under the Khasor range, and 
along the old high bank. A good deal of the land of the circle gets 
both flood, canal, and well irrigation. The Rag-Paharpur circle is on 
the whole very fruitful, though it has suffered of late years from failure 
of irrigation, as owing to a change in the course of the Indus, the 
Pur&n and tiie inundation canals, by which it is watered, have been left 
nearly dry. This falling off, however, is not likely to he permanent. 
With its numerous villages and scattered wells, surrounded by clumps of 
trees, and with its broad stretches of rich cultivation, the Rug-Paharpur 
tract is, taking it altogether, the most picturesque part of the district. 
The principal place in it, is the small town of Paharpur, containing over 
T f PahAroor 3,000 inhabitants. It was formerly the head- 

quarters of a Thannah, but this has now been 
removed to Panniala. It is the centre of the local trade of this part of 
the district, and has lately been formed into a Municipality. The income 
from octroi is above Rs. 1,500 a year. 

The fiug-Paharpur circle is skirted by the Indus, and the whole 
vm^es along the of its eastern villages get irrigated to a great 
Indos, extent by direct inundation from that river. 

24, North of the Paharpur circle, the Indus runs close under the 
Country along the Khasor range. Formerly there was a rich 
Khasor range. Kachi adjoining the hills, but this has been 

almost entirely washed away. The cultivated lands now lie in bets and 
river islands. Here and there, where they have been protected by some 
jutting spur of hill, small portions of the old Kachi may still be found, 
covered with wells and date groves, and picturesquely scattered over 
with large banyan and peepai trees. Except to the north, these date 
groves fonn an almost continuous fringe to the Khasor range, and 
the narrow and stony road winds through them along the base 
of the hills. Occasionally the road has to be carried a little way 
up the hill to avoid places where the Indus has encroached more than 
usual on the bank. The people here live for the most part in villages 
scattered along the stony slopes, in which the hills terminate. At the 
Kafi k t rui Belot nortnern end of the range, and again to the 

south near Belot, are the two old Hindu forts 
of Kafirkot. Belot, too, is famous as the shrine of a holv Saiad, who 
used to sail about the Indus in a stone boat. His descendant, known as 
the Makhdiim of Belot, has inherited the sanctity along with the stone 
boat of his aacestor, and enjoys ajagir in these parts worth Rs. 2,000 a year. 

25. All the northern portion of the Khasor range is occupied by 
Population of the Khasor the semi-Path&n tribes of the Khasores, Malli- 

range. khels and Umrkhels. The south-western por- 

tion is mainly held by Biluch Pathans. 

26. The Khasor range, known as the Rattah Koh or red moun- 
Description of the Khasor tains, varies from 2,000 to about 3,500 feet in 

range. height. It runs along the Indus for some 25 



14 

miles from Isakhel to Chura near Belot, and then turns to the vreatf 
terminating at Pannisla, 16 miles from the Inlus. It is composed 
mostly of oarboniferoos limestone, and is generally stony and destitute 
of vegetation and water. Here and there springs are to be found, and 
there presence is gianerally marked by a clump of palms. The largest 
of these is the Garoba spring, near Kirri Khasor. Its waters ran for a 
mile or two along a nari(ow ravine, fringed with ditte palms. These 
springs are generally situated too low to allow of their being utilised for 
irrigation. Water for cattle is also procured from some large kacha 
tanks, at the very top of the range above Kirri Khasor. The Badriwal 
tank, which is the largest of these, has an area of about two acres. The 
Character of the cuUiva- Khasor hills are scattered over with numerous 
^ion. patches of cultivation. A level piece, which 

gets the rain water from the higher lands, is selected and embanked. 
Sometimes these embanked fields form terraces one above the other. 
The size of the cultivated patches varies from one or two roods to twenty 
acres. The cultivation depends on the local rain-fall, and is uncertain. 
Sometimes nearly the whole of these hill lands remain waste. In other 
years nearly the whole will be cultivated, and in years of abundant rain- 
fall, very fair crops are produced. Wheat and 6q;Va are the favorite crops 
in the hills. The wells at the foot of the range grow a good deal of tobacco. 

27. Parallel to the Khasor range, to the north-west, runs another 
The Niiah Koh, or blue range of hills, known as the Nildh Kohj or blue 
mottiitains. mountains. The Nilah Koh separates this dis- 

trict from Bannu, and terminates in the peak of Shekh-Budfn, 4,516 feet 
The sanatarinm of Shekh- high. Shekh-Budf n is nmch higher than the 
Badin. rest of the range, and is almost an isolated hill. 

It is the sanatarinm of the Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu districts. The 
hill is mainly composed of lime-stone, which here and there shows itself 
in slieer precipices of considerable height. As u rule, the lime-stone is 
overlaid with loose stones and detritus. The lower portion of the hill 
consists of sand stone, clay and conglomerate. Vegetation is scantv. 
There are stunted trees of wild olive, and a sort of acacia (PAuZa). Jtn 
places, too, there is a good deal of dwarf palm {Mizrai) and bog myrtle 
{Sanattha). There is plenty of good grass, but this grows onl v in tufts 
between the stones, and even during the rains, the general color of the 
hill is stony. The appearance of the station itself, which occupies the 
very top of the hill, is hideous. A number of stcne-built, and for the most 
part, unfinished-looking houses, are situated on bare knolls over-looking 
a central depression, often likened by visitors to an extinct crater, 
though the hill is by no means volcanic in character. In this depression 
are situated a number o( pakka tanks, to which the station trns^ for its 
water supply. When these fail, which they do on an average every 
third year, all water required has to be brought up on donkeys from 
springs at the foot of the hill, near Panniala. The station consists of 
some 15 houses occupied by English residents, and of a small native 
bazaar. The climate is generally fairly cool, except for about a month 
towards the end of June. Even then it is pleasant, compared with that 
of the plains at the same season. 



15 

ThR NiUb Koh range, as I have said, is much below Shekh-Budin 
Character of the Nilah in altitude. It is devoid of cultivation, aud 
Koh. mnch broken up by ravines and precipices. 

28. Between the Nilah Koh and the Khasor ranges, lies the 
The Largi valley and Li rgi valley, a stretch of level sandy country, 

PannUla Thai. varying from 5 miles to 1 mile in width, and 

debouching at one end on the open country round Isakhel, and at the 
other on the Panniala Thai, an open sandy plain, which gives place to- 
wards the south to the Dera Ismail Khan Daman. This Thai or sandy 
tract extends from the Rag*Paharpur depression on the east, sweeps 
round Shekh-Budin, and continues along the southern slope of the 
Bhittanni range, so as to include the northern portions of the Tank and 
Kulachi tahsfls. It is bounded on the south by the pat country, irriga- 
ted from the Soheli arid the Takw&ra. The character of the soil in the 
Panniala Thai and in the L&rgi valley, is similar to that of the Marwat 
Character of the soil aad valley. In places the cultivation is pare 
cultivation. bararUj and spreads out over open fields and 

rolling sand hills. In other places the fields are more or less embanked, 
so (is to intercept the drainage from the neighbouring bills. Sometimes 
a Uuh is thrown across barani lands to prevent the water running off. 
Lands so lathed soon lose their character. The slight deposits of silt 
that are gradually formad, change the soil from a light sand to a clay, 
resembling that of the Daman, Eventually, su^h lands can only be cul- 
tivated after being thoroughly irrigated, aud cease to be capable of 
purely barofU cultivation^ 

29. The drainage from the southern half of the Largi valley runs 
Drainage of the L^i down towards Panni&la, The drainage from 

Tallej.The Lwargi orwater the northern half flows towards the Kiiram. 
•^®^- The water-shed, called Lw^rgi, is in the centre 

of the valley. A good deal of the valley north of the water-shed belongs 
to the Bannu district. The lands here are poor, and the crops very un- 
certain. To the south of the water-shed the lands improve, and the 
"valley, which here widens out, is scattered over with numerous hamlets 

Want of drinking water, occupied by settlers from the Marwat Ilaqua. 

ibe great want is water ; the people havmg 
to send long distances to springs in the Khasor range, or else to Panniala. 
The drainage of the southern half of the Largi valley is carried off by 
the Largi * stream, which runs through its centre. Above Panniala the 

Irrigtttion from the flood waters of the L&rgi and its feeders are in- 
I^gl* tercepted by numerous small embankments of 

sand and brushwood, and employed in irrigating the adjoining lands. 
Through the greater portion of its course, the Largi is dry^ except im- 

Rprings near Panniala. mediately after heavy rain. Near Panniala, 
Xareaes. water oozes up from the^bed of the stream, and 

the supply is supplemented by springs at the foot of the neighbouring 

• This Btreem is not locally known as the L4rgi till it gets to Panniala. AboTe 
Panniala, the main branch is called the Morinwa. The corresponding stream, which 
drains the northern half of the valley towards Ktiram, is known as the Panniala. 



18 

hills. In some places these sprins^s are natural ; in others water is 
obtained by tunnelling into the rock. These artificial springs are called 
karezes. Owing to this {permanent water supply, Panniala is surrounded 
by large date groves, and by many highly cultivated little nooks, in 
M'hich tobacco and vegetables grow luxuriantly. South of Panniala the 

irTigation south of Pan- ^irgi again dries up, breaking out only in oc- 
ni&la. casional floods. These flood waters irrigate the 

The Talgi tract. jVityt lands to the south, towards Yaric. The 

drainage from the Khasor range, east of Panni&la, falls into a channel 
also known as the Lar^i, which waters the western portion of the Rug- 
Paharpur tract ; but the two streams, though bearing the same name, 
have separate sources. 

30. Panniala is a small town of some 2,500 inhabitants. It 

Town of PanniAla. ^^^ * Thannah and a school. It is occupied 

by a tribe of Biluch Pathins, who possess th« 

M*rwat settlements. superior proprietary right over much of the 

country to the north and south-west, which is 
occupied by Marwats. The settlements of these latter stretch right 
round the base of the hills into the T&nk tahsil, and most of the cultiva- 
tion round Bahidari, Oaloti and Sher Ali, is in their hands. The lands 
of the Kulachi tahsil, lying in this sandy tract, belong to the Gandaptir 
tribe. They are all waste, and serve as a grazing ground for Pawindahs. 

Large uncaltivated tracts There IS a similar waste tract between Panniala 
used as grasing grounds, and Pahirpur. The probability is, however, 
that a large portion of these waste lands will sooner or later be brought 
under cultivation. 

31. The lands of the Panniala Thai are bare of trees. The nn- 
M.f,,— 1 *-»««*.«^., cultivated portions are covered with a thin 

ifatural yegetauon. .. i. i>» • . v: j i.i_ 

coating of Chtmber grass, here and there giving 

place to white sand hills, and sprinkled over with bushes of Madar and 
Pliog^ and other jungle shrubs. The soil is light, and the crops are very 
Quality of the soil and thin and poor compared with those of the Daman, 
principal crops. The principal crops are wheat and gram on 

the sand hills and unembanked lands, and bajra in the lathed fields. 
The former are grown most abundantly in the Largi yalley, and the 
latter in the Talm tract towards Yaric. 

32. The principal town of the trans-Indus tahsfls is Dera Ismail 
Town of Dera Ismail Khan, which, as I have before mentioned, is 

Khan. situated close to the Indus. It contains 20,000 

inhabitants, and is a place of considerable importance. 

It is the main depdt of the Pawindah trade from Khoras&n, and of 
The old town ^^ grain trade from the Daman and Marwat. 

The old town of Dera Ismail Khan was situated 
some two miles to the east of the present town ; it stood in a large 
wood of date trees^ and probably resembled the present city of Dera 

^. Ghazi Khan. It was washed away by the river 

we new town. .^ ^ggg ^ p ,^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 



17 

oat on the bare paty a mile or two from the river. Two broad streets 
were driven through it; crossing in the centre at right angles. These 
form the main bazaars, and are wider than the ordinary streets of native 
towns. A good deal of land was included in the town limits from the 
first. These were afterwards extended. The present town, therefore, is 
3^ miles in circumference, and is full of gardens and trees. It is sur- 
roanded by a mud wall, beyond which is a circular road and avenue. 
The town is built almost entirely of unburned bricks, though the main 
bazaars are faced with pakka bricks, and are also paved. The town is 
altogether new and contains no buildings of interest. It is one of tho 
most aristocratical, however, in the Punjab, being full of native noble- 
men, mostly Multani Pathans. It now boasts four resident Nawabs, 
besides a host of Darbaries. 

33. The country immediately round Dera Ismail Khan is well 
Cultivation round the cultivated by means of wells, especially towards 
town. the south. The lands to the east and north-east 

were till lately quite bare, but are now covered with a continuous series 
of wellS) sunk during the last eight years. The well irrigation is sup- 
plemented with Lunl water, under the influence of which the appear- 
ance of Uie country is rapidly changing. Latterly, the people have com- 
menced to grow a good deal of sugar cane, but this has hitherto been 
Port AkAlgwrh. Euro- eaten raw, and not manufactured into sugar, 
pean barracks. To the north-west of the town are the Fort of 

Ak41garh and the European barracks. One or two companies of tho 
British regiment at Miiltan are always stationed here. 

The cantonments lie between the town and the river. Two regiments 
The Cantonments and of Infantry and one of Cavalry belonging to tha 
(Svil Station. Punjab Frontier force, are quartered in them. 

There used to be also a battery of Artillery, but this has now been re- 
moved. Hiese regimenis supply detachments for the defence of the 
Frontier outposts. The civil lines adjoin the cantonments. Both are 
in considerable danger of being washed away by the Indus, which has 
only been kept oflf, of late years, by very expensive protective works. Tha 
population of cantonments amounted to 5,331 by the last census. 

34. Dera Ismail Khan is rather a trading emporium than a 
Trade of Dera Ismail manufacturing town. In the cold weather it 
Khan. is thronged with Pawindahs, and is at all times a 

bustling place. All the year round, ihe road to Peyzii is thronged with 
troops of Marwatees, who bring in their wheat and grain on oxen and 
asses for sale in the Dera market. This Marwat grain is of superior 
quality, and much of it is exported by boat down the Indus. 

The town of Dera is provided with a city board of Magistrates, and 
Mnnicipal arrangements, a Municipal committee. The municipal income 
Octroi. from octroi, which is gradually increasing, am- 

ounted last year to more than Rs. 34,000. This is raised by the taxation 
of articles of local consumption. The value of the Pawindah transit 
trade and of the grain trade down the InduS; which escape taxation^ is 



18 

very considerable. The proximity of the Indus offers great facilities for 
the boat trade with Dera Ghazi Khan and Sakkar^ as cargoes can be 
shipped within a mile of the town. 

35. A nambcr of roads radiate from Dera Ismail Khan in all 

Roads leading from Dera directions. The principal are the roads to Banna 

Ismail Khan. and Dera Ghazi Khan. There are other roads 

to Kuldchi, Draban, Tank and Paharpur. Most of these are very bad, 

and almost impassable for wheeled trafBc. None of them are metalled. 

, The Bannd road is the best. It boasts two 

e nu ro . bridges over the Saggii and Hans nallahs, by 

which it is crossed. Major Macaulay, the Deputy Commissioner, has 

lately made efforts to bring the TAnk road into good order, but the Pota 

ad nallah, the only important stream by which it 

^ ° '^ ' is crossed, is still unbridged. It was taken in 

hand by the Public Works Department some years ago, and bricks were 

collected, but owing to want of funds, the work was not proceeded with. 

Kuiachi and DrAban Very little can be said for the Kulachi and 

roads. - Draban roads, except that a traveller going 

along these in rainy weather is likely to be drowned. Hie worst road 

^ «,-^ ,ri. ^ of all is that to Dera Ghazi Khan, which is 

Dera Ghdsi Khan road. i . lv. * r • 

crossed in one part by series of yawning ravines, 
while another portion is under water for miles, whenever the floods are out. 
This road is the main line of communication between two important mili- 
tary stations, and its impracticable state has long been felt to be a scan- 
dal. It was seriously taken in band a few years ago. A new line of 
road was aligned some miles to the west of the old road. A huge em- 
bankment was thrown up for some 30 miles, but no bridges were made, 
and as the embankment interfered with the drainage of the country, it 
was soon breached in all directions. It is now a ruin, and people prefer 
to go by the old Miran road, bad as it is. I may mention that a regiment 
marching up from Dera Gh4zi Khan, in March 1878, was detained at 
Miran for a week by the state of the road, and only escaped eventually 
by leaving the road and making a wide detour to the west. At the 
time when this occurred, the Luni itself was not in flood. Had the Luni 
been out, the regiment could not have got through at all, e;ccept by 
dint of swimming. 

36. Not only is Dera Ismail Khan the point where all the main 

. , . ^^^ traffic lines of the trans-Indus tahslls converge, 

'^ ^® but it is the chief point for the passage of me 

Indus. Formerly there was only a ferry, but in 1873, a bridge of boats 

steam ferry during the was started, wnich has since been kept up dur- 

hot weather. ing the cold weather, while a steamer plies 

at the ferry during the hot weather. This bridge of boats is a great 

convenience to the Pawindah merchants, and graziers, who cross the 

river every autumn, and back ao^ain in the spring, with their numberless 

camels and other cattle. To take these across in boats, is a work of 

groat labour. It is very difficult to get the dachies (she-camels) and 

foals into the boats, and much time is wasted in the business. With a 



19 

bridge, too, laden camels can be crossed without breaking bulk. To 
make the bridge, however, thoroughly efficient, more boats and material 
are required. In connection wim this bridge. Major Macaulay has 
established a mail cart line to Jhang, from which another line is carried 
to the railway station of Chichawatni, so that, with continuous travell- 
ing, the railway can now be reached, during the cold weather, in less than 
twenty-four hours. This is a great contrast to the old state of things, 
when travellers to and from Dera Ismail Khan, had to borrow horses 
from their friends, and ride round by Dera Ghazi Khan to Multan. 

The income from the bridge of boats last year (1877-78) was 
_, . * ^u KS' 12,219, and from the steam ferry Rs. 

The income horn them. 4328,05 about Rs. 17,000 in all. The ex- 

penditure has hitherto been considerably in excess of the income. The 
Amount realixed from smaller ferries, connecting the two banks of the 
the minor ferries. Fonner Indus, are now leased in a lump for about 
income from ferriea. Rg, 3^500. Previous to the establishment of 

the boat bridge in 1873, the whole of the ferries of the district, includ- 
ing the Dera ferry, leased for about Rs. 7,000 or 8,000. Above Shinki 
Ferries between this and ^"^1 below Dera Fatteh Khan, the ferries are 
adjoining districts. Other under the management of the district ofRcers of 
principal ferries. Banud and Dera Ghdzi Khan respectively. 

The latter had charge of the important Mor Jhangi ferry opposite Leian. 
Ot the other ferries, the principal are those at £>era Fatteh Ehan and 
K&njan. 

37. Dera Ismail Khan is connected by telegraph with Dera 
Telegraphic and postal Ghazi Khan and Bannu. As regard postal 

lines. lines, the mails for Lahore and Multan are 

carried by mail cart to Chich&watni, and there are imperial lines to 
Bannu and Dera Gh&zi Khan. The towns of Tank, Kulachi, Leiah and 
the other larger places in the district, are connected with Dera Ismail 
Khan by district lines, which are, however, under the management of 
the postal department. 

38. The town of T&nk is forty miles from Dera Ismail Khan. 

The town of TAnk. ^.^ ^» ^^?«®. *^ ^® '^^"»? ^,^^, S^^ P\®°*y of irriga- 

tion. It IS surrounded by gardens and large 

date groves, and is the head-quarters of the tahsll. The town itself 

consists for the most part of a long straggling street of mud houses. 

There are the remains here of a large mud fort constructed by Sarwar 

Khan. The population of Tank is a little over 3,000. It is a munici- 

ality, with an income of about Bs. 2,500 from octroi. Sir Henry 

urand was killed here in 1870, while trying to pass through one of the 

gateways of the town on an elephant. 

39. The town of Kul&chi lies twenty-seven miles to the west of 

The town of KulAchi. H^""* ^^^f ^^ f,'^*^' . }^}^ ^!«? ^^,? head-quarters 

of a tansil. It consisted origmaiiy 01 a conge- 
ries of separate Kirries or villages, belonging to different sections of the 
Guudapur tribe. Some of these still form outlying subui'bs, but most 



D 



20 

of tLem have teen included within a mud wall, and make np the present 
town. Kulachi is sixteen miles from the hill^. It is situated on the 
left bank of the Ldni. It is not watered by any perennial stream, and 
though a few wells have lately been sunk round it, yet the water of these 
is bitter, and the cultivation round them scanty and poor-lookiuff. The 
people get their drinking water from shallow pits sunk in the bed of the 
Luni. The neighbourhood of the town is painfully bare, and devoid of 
trees. The population of Kulachi is nearly 8,000, or over 9,000, if some 
outlying hamlets are included. The income from octroi amounts to lb. 
7,000. The affairs of the town are managed by a Municipal Committee. 

40. Chandw4n, Dr&ban, and Yahoa are all small towns lying 
oth r front'e t close to the border. They are the head quar- 
ters of different Fath&n tribes, and are not 

otherwise remarkable. The wenery along the roads connecting T&nk, 
Kul&chi and Draban with Dera Ismail Khan^ is very bare and unpre- 
possessing. 

Dera Fatteh Khan, on the Dera Ghazi Khan road, used ta be a 

■r^ w ** v iru small town and a place of some local import- 

Dera Fatteh Khan. rrn_ • • i^ i_ i. i_ j 

ance. The original town Da& been washed away 
by the Indus, and the present place is nothing more than a good sized 
village. 

North of Dera Ismail Khan are the small towns of Panni&la and 
Paharpur, which I have already had occasion to mention. 

41. The frontier military road from Dera Ghazi Khan runs 
^ ^. .,.. , through Vahoa, Chandwan and Dr&ban. A 

Frontier military road. . p -n i\j j. v ^ ' \.^ Ji.u 

road from Draban runs to Kulachi and thence 
to Tank, but the frontier road itself keeps close to the hills, and passes 
by Zirkanni and Ltinf to Manji in the Gumal valley. From Manji it 
passes through Gumal and Jatta to the posts of Girni and Kot Khirgi 
in the hills, and thence round to Tank. From Tank the frontier 
road runs by Nnsran and Mulazai, and crosses into the Bannu 
district by the Bain Pass. No portion of this road is bridged, and it is 
all more or less impassible in rainy weather. 

The principal of the frontier posts are defended by detachments of 
_ . . the Punjab Frontier Force. The usual strength 

^ ' of a detachment is some 40 sabres and 20 

bayonets, under a Jemadar. The posts thus held are Dr&ban, Manji, 
Girni, and a post at the mouth of the Tank zam, Kot Khirji has a 
strong garrison of Bhittani levies. Zirkanni, Liini, Kot Nasran, 
Mulazai, and to the south of Draban, Chandw4n, Gdrwali, and Yahoa, 
are all held by small bodies of local levies.* . 

Our outposts were only extended to Kot Khirgi and Girni in 1870, 

Extension of frontier when the Tank zam post was also established. 

outposts to Kot Khirgi. Before this, the principal posts on the Tank 

border were Tank, Dabbra, Jatta and Mangi. Of these Mangi only is 

now held by regular troops. 

• Since the late Waziri raid on TAnk (January 1879), Kot Khirgi is held by regular troops. 



21 

42. There is no regular Bvstera of village roads in the Damin. 

Village roads in the When tne floods are out, the line of road follows 
Bam^Q. the latliSj or embankments running round the 

irrigated fields. When the crops have been cut and the fields are dry, 
the people take short cuts through them. There is sometimes a clearly 
marked track, but more often the traveller caii select his own path, from 
among a variety of rival tracks. The so-called village roads are in 
consequence perpetually changing, and seldom occupy tne same position 
for two successive years. There is a general right of way everywhere, 

Means of carriage. SO long as crops are not damaged. As there 
Absence of carts. are no carts or wheeled conveyances of any 

sort, and the only means of carriage is by camels, oxen and asses, this 
state of things causes no practical inconvenience. It is difficult enough 
to keep the main roads in tolerable repair, and- the maintenance of village 
roads, along with the existing system of irrigation, would be quite out of 
the question. 

A few carts have of late years been introduced into the town of 

Except at Dera Ismail Dera Ismail Khan, which ply between the 
Khan. town and the Gh&t. Occasionally carts are 

employed on the Bannu and T6nk roads, and the mail cart road to 
Chichi watni. The whole number of carts is at present only about 
twenty. They belong to contractors, and the use of carts by zemindars 
has not yet commenced either in the cis-Indus or in the trans-Indus 
tahsils. 

THE CIS-INDUS TAHSILS. 

43. The country included in the cis-Indus tahsfls of Bhakkar and 
TbeciB-Indns tahsfls din- Leiah, naturally divides into two portions : the 
ded into Thai and Kachi. Thai forming part of the high-lying sandy plain 
of the Sind Saugar Do&b, and the Kachi, or low alluvial lands on the 
Indus. The level of the Thai is much above that of the Kachi, and the 
transition from one to the other, except in the south of the Leiah tahsil, 
is very abrupt. The line of demarcation consists of a bank, forty feet 
high, to the north by Kalur Kot, but which falls away to the south. 
Below Kot Sult&n the height of this bank is not more tnan two or three 
feet, and it ceases to be the clear land-mark, which it is higher up. * 
All the northern part of the Thai is high above the reach of inundation, 
even in the highest floods, but below Leiah, the Indus sometimes over- 
flows the Thai lands immediately adjoining the Kachi. 

* There is no Kachi proper at Kalar Kot. The river flows immediately under the 
Thai bank, at a much lower level than that of the Nasheb geneially. Hence the great 
height of the bank. The following fignres show the mean height of the Thai bank 
above the Nasheb, at some of the principal places on the line of demarcation : — 

Maibal 22 feet. 

x/arya iixnan... ... ... .*• ••• ... .*. .*• ... ... *t\i ^i 

Bhakkar 15 ,, 

Behal 17 „ 

Karor 16 



1^ ansDera ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... .■• •*. 4 

Leiah 4 „ 






22 

44. To the norili the Indus has lately been cutting right into tho 
Extent of the Kachi Thai bank. The cultivated alluvial lands in 

proper. this part lie mostly in bets and islands in the 

river. Below Kalur Kot^ a strip of alluvial land intervenes between the 
Thai and the river, the average width of which, from Darya Khan down 
to the Muzafiargarh district, is about six or seven miles. It is this tract 
to which the name Kachi more properly applies — ^though, like the word 
Nasheb, the term Kachi * is now used for all the low-lying lands on the 
Indus. 

The cultivation all through the Kachi depends on the inundations 
Natural irrigation of the of the Indus. It is only the outer villages of 
Kachi tracts. the tract that are exposed to erosion and dimvion, 

but the whole is more or less intersected by streams of the Indus. The 
principal of these is the Puzal, known in the lower portions of its course 
Dy the names of Bodo and Lala. 

The Puzal often separates into two or three branches, some of which 
run back into the Indus, while some fall into other nallahs, or rejoin lower 
down. In the hot weather these streams form a net work all over the 
Kachi, but in the cold weather most of them dry up. Till quite recently, 
^he Puzal even was readily fordable during the cold weather, but it has 
deepened of late, and the fords on it are few and far between. A bridge 
of boats has in consequence been thrown across it on the road between 
Dera and Jbang. In other parts it is crossed by means of small boats 
(Dundas). 

45. To insure the irrigation of the higher portion of the Nasheb, it 
. Assisted by dams and is customary to throw dams across the channels, 
water-cuts. by which it is intersected. This is done not 
only in the case of the smaller nallahs, but also of the Lala and PuzaL 
A large embankment was constructed a few years ago at Marbanwali 
by the Tahsild&r, Shiva Ram, and the Lala is also dammed lower down 
near Leiah. The great object is to pass on the water from these em- 
bankments by side channels, instead of breaking the bund, and allowing 
the work to be entirely carried away. With careful management these 
embankments are kept up for years. A few small canals too have at 
different times been excavated for the irrigation of the higher lands. 
As a rule, however, the people trust to unassisted floods and percolation. 
It is only the higher lands Uiat require artificial means for their irriga- 
tion. In years of high flood there is no necessity for dams, as the 

D&ms unnecessary in years Nasheb gets flooded up to Uie Thai bank. At 
of high flood. such times the people are often tempted to cut 

the embankments, and thus get rid of a portion of the water. After two 
or three years of high flood, they invariably get careless and stop making 
the dams. Then come two or three years of deficient flood, when the 

* Kachi means arm-pit, and is applied to low tracts lying under a high bank. It 
does not necessarily imply that the land is liable to fluvial action, and must be distin- 
guished from kachia, to which, when applied to a tract of land, such a meaning is always 
attached. In the Paharpur circle, the tract known as the Each! is above the reach ol 
inundationi while the sailaba lands below are known by a different name. 



28 

lands remain dry, after which dams are reconstructed and the old water- 
cuts cleared out. To allow of the construction and repair of these dams, 
it is often necessary to close the heads of the channels from which the 
Pnzal is fed, where they take off from the main stream of the Indus. 
Owing, however, to the deepening of the Puzal, this work" is gradually 
becoming more and more diiBcnlt. Another advantage of closing the 
heads of the Pnzal is, that the river often commences to rise before the 
harvest has been cut, and unless the Puzal is closed, the orope on low- 
lying lands are liable to be destroyed by floods. 

46. The bed of the Indus itself is wide and straggling, and all 
Natural features of the through the cold weather there are broad 
Kachi tract. Trees, jungle stretches of barren sand along its course. The 
growth, villages, &c. Puzal, however, and nK)st of the smaller nallahs 

intersecting the Kachi, have well defined beds of moderate size, and for 
the greater part of the year they flow up to their banks. Wells, jhalars, 
and occasional villages are scattered along the sides of these streams, 
and the cultivated fields come down to the water's edge. 

The Kachi is, on the whole, a pleasant country ; about half its area 
is cultivated, the remainder being overgrown with tall moonj grass, and 
near the river with low tamarisk (/at) jungle. The river islands are 
often overgrown with a dense grass jungle, which is a favorite cover 
for wild pig. The grass is caUed kauj and must be distinguished from 
the kana or moonj grass, which, at a distance, it somewhat resembles. For 
two or three miles from the Thai bank, the country is thickly studded with 
wells, each well generally forming a little hamlet of its own, with its 
farm sheds and out-houses. l£e larger villages are found mostly 
on the Thai bank, overlooking the Kachi. Here they are beyimd ih& 
reach of floods. The neople, who live down in the Kachi, are too lazy 
to move their crops, when cut, to the Thai ; they stack them on the higher 
bits of ground near their wells and villages, in consequence of which 
they sufier heavy loss in years of high flood. The portion of £be Kachi 
towards the Indus is generally destitute of wells, the cultivation being 
all sailaba. Here and there, however, as at Mochiw&la, where the weu 
country extends further than usual from the Thai bank, the Indus has 
cut into it, and wells are found standing on the veiy edge of the main 
stream. AH through the inner portion of the Kacbi, were are almost 
invariably pleasant clumps of trees round the villages ajid wells. 
iSA^««Aam«^ and &er9 predominate, with an occasional siris or peepaL 
This part of the country is fairly wooded. The out-lying tract towards 
the Indus has few or no trees, though here and there, especially to the 
south of the Leiah tahsfl, there are stretches of Bliani jungle. The 
Bhani is a sort of poplar ( populua euphratica) ; in the color of the bark 
and general appearance, it somewhat resembles the birch. Here and 
there, as in the Khokr&nw^la rakh, where it has been carefully preserved, 
it grows into trees of moderate size ; but as a rule, it does not exceed 
fifteen or twenty feet in height. There are some groves of date palms 
in the Kachi, generally near the Thai bank. The largest are at Daryu 
Khan, Kotla Jam, Bhakkar and Mahomed Rfijan. 



24 

47. The cuUivation in the Kachi is in open fields. There are very 
Character of the caltiva- few hedges. There is but little kharif cultiva- 
tion. Principal crops. tion ; tobacco and cotton are grown round wells, 
and in most years there is a certain amount of bajra, jowar and til ; but 
the main crops are wheat, gram and peas ; the first, especially, is grown 
very extensively, and occupies in most years two*thirds or more of the 
cultivated area. In years of high flood there is no kharif, and when 
the flood waters remain standing for a long time, they are injurious even 
to the rabi. What the people Hko is one good flood in July, just high 
enough to cover all but the higher lands, on which they grow their 
tobacco and cotton. These get sufficiently irrigated by the water that 
percolates through the soil from below. The flood waters should stand 
three or four days, and then go down. This enables the cultivators to 
80W bajra and tU, and to get their lands thoroughly ploughed, ready for 
the rabi sowings. 

The crops in the Kachi never fail altogether ; though, without a cer- 
Comparative certainty of tain amount of winter rain, the yield is very 
the yield. Droughts very short. In years of deficient flood, the unirriga- 
{>artial in their effects. ^^j portions remain waste. I have never known 

more than a fifth of the entire area remain uncultivated on this accoiint. 
The part that suffers most readily from deficient floods is the inner por- 
tion of the Nasheb, from above Leiah to the MuzafFargarh border. On 
the other hand, this is the part thatsufiers least in years of excessive flood. 

The Kachi, where uncultivated and not overgrown with jungle, is 

always grassy. A coarse grass, called efrod, 
Grasses. predominates, but there is a good deal of tallah 

grass also, especially along the banks of nallahs. Horses will not eat 
drab, but they eat the tallah, which is a sort of ddb grass, readily. In 
tiie cultivated lands, especially such us have been long under the 
plough, thistles and camel-thorn (jowasa) grow in extraordinary 
profusion, and occasion much trouble to the reapers. Among the 

commoner weeds are maina and singi, sorts 
^®®^' of trefoil, which are useful as fodder, for cattle. 

The people of the Kachi are very negligent in the matter of weeding 
their crops. 

48. During the last few years, an embankment has been construc- 
MuzafEargarh embank- ted by the canal department to keep ofl^ the 

ment. Indus inundations from the MuzafiTargarh dis- 

trict. It commences in this district a few miles above Kot Sult&n, and 
runs along i^e Thai bank till close to the Muzafiargarh border, where it 
includes a small portion of the southern Leiah Kachi. The eflects of 
this embankment have not yet been ascertained, but I should think that 
it is more likely to do harm than good to the villages of this district 
afiected by it. 

49. To proceed from the Kachi to the Thai. The soil of the Thai 
The Thai. Its natural is light and sandy. The rain-fall is absorbed 

features. almost at once, though here and there it lies for 

a day or two in depressions and hollows. The greater part of the Thai 



I 



25 

eonsiflis of lonp^ waves of loose sand with intervening hollows. These 
hillocks generally run parallel to one another ; the prevailing direction 
is from north-east to sonth-west. In some of the eastern parts of the 
Thai the sand hills are very high. In others the ground is perfectly 
level for miles. The level depressions between the sand hills, known as 
laks, and to a less extent the sand hills themselves, are over-grown with 
A thin coating of chimbar grass. In the greater part of the Thai, the 
J T J. chief jangle growth consists of lana^ but there 

ttng e grow . ^^^ large tracts over-grown with jal or pilu 

bushes. Th^ pilu tracts lie mostly between Darya Khan and Dubhwala, 
and again from Dhingana along the outer edge of the Leiah Thai. The 

Zd A PiiM ^^^ *°^ P^^ never grow together. The in- 

** ° ' termediate tract between them is generally 

occupied by phoffy an arid-looking bush without leaves ; but the lana 

always disappears before the pilu begins. Jkand trees are common all 

Jkand trees. Jdanji or through the Thai, but mostly round wells and 
jkand loppioga. towns, where they are carefully preserved for 

their loppings, oalled lanjiy which afford valuable fodder for sheep and 

goats. AH through the cold weather, when the grass supply is shortest^ 
leBejhand trees are gradually lopped of their small branches, till 
nothing is left of them but bare poles. The lanji is made to last, if 

Eossible, for three months — from December to February. A few trees 
ept for shade are left intact, and here and there the respect paid to some 
departed saintpreserves the trees round his grave from tnis ruthless 
pollarding. With these exceptions, tiiejhand groves in the early spring 
present a moat doleful appearance. 

A few &^ and /arcu trees are generally planted round wells,' with 
Trees in the Thai. *^ occasional sheesham or peepal — ^but the 

latter will not grow without well water, and 
even ^e faros will not grow spontaneously. 

The other plants common to the Thai are the bdbbil, a very thorny 
Other plants common in sort of acacia, that grows on the sides of the 
the Thai. sand hills ; the karita, which needs no descrip- 

tion ; the KtVf a plant something like a broom ; and, commonest of all, the 
Buiy which oeing utterly useless for grazing or any other purpose, is 
especially abundant. As regards grasses, the common grass is chviibarf 
a straggling plant that for the greater part of the year is kept eaten 
down, and almost disappears under the sand. At certain seasons, how- 
ever, after heavy rain, it springs up in a wonderful way. Other common 
sorts of grass are the sain and pkit-sain, which are nmch appreciated by 
buffaloes and homed cattle. Tney are both coarse grasses, that grow 
up in a spiky sort of way. 

50. The Thai, as a grazing country, is inferior to the Jhang and 
Character of the Thai Shahpur bar. It is best to the north-east towards 
graring. Mi&nwali and Shahpur, where the rain-fall is 

more abundant and the pasturage richer. The grazing towards the 
Kachi is not generally so good, though its position makes it valuable. 
The .grazing about Cbanbara and Naw&nkot is not so good as that more 



26 

to the north. The poorest lands in a grazing capacity' are those behind 
Kot Sultan near the Muzaflfargarh district. 

51. As might be expected from the fall in the banks, the depth of 
D th of wells to water the wells all along the Thai diminishes from 
^^ ° Kallur to Kot Sultan. The wells at Kallur are 

50 feet deep. At Kot Sultan they are only 15 feet. In the Nasheb, 
during the cold weather, the deptn to water is generally from 10 to 15 
feet. On the other hand wells, as a general rule, get deeper the further 
they are removed from the Nasheb' bank.* The consequence is, that 
wells in the north-eastern Thai are so deep that they are used only 
for watering cattle. Here and there, a small plot of well cultivation 
is to be found, but these are very rare, and the country is almost 
entirely pastoral. In the western and southern portions of 
the Thai, w^here the wells are not so deep, there is a good deal 
of well cultivation. In sinking a well in the Thai, besides looking to 

the depth to water, the zemindar has to look 

Th"^!" lS"';«tne.i° ^d to tij« pa^n™ of ^^ ground. He tries to get a 
Bymmetry. level plot of some forty or fifty acres. It he is 

unable to get a level plot of sufficient size, much 
trouble is entailed in smoothing down sand hills and levelling the 
ground, before he can increase me area to the requisite extent. Per- 
haps he leaves the sand hills alone, and goes in for cultivating what 
level land there may be, without regard to its position ; but these 
awkwardly shaped plots lead to great waste in the distribution of the 
water, and interfere with the symmetry, which is the beauty of the Thai 
well cultivation. Wherever the amount of land attached to a well allows 
of it, it is cut up into segments, corresponding with the shares on which 
the cultivation is held. These are separated from one another by the 
main water channels and foot paths, which radiate from the well with 
mathematical precision. The commonest division is into six segments, 
each comprising a sixth of the well lands. All the water courses are 
perfectly straight, and are carefully plastered, to prevent the water being 
absorbed by the light soil, and so going to waste. The land is divided 
into small rectangular beds, some 30x17 feet in size. Four of these 
beds make a nauka, and each nauka is watered by a separate channel. 
Manure allowances to Owing to the lightness of the soil much manure 
Ehcpherds. ig required. The cattle belonging to the well 

are always herded at night on a portion of the well land. It is also 
a common custom to pay graziers to reside at a well for the sake of the 
manure. The well owner commonly allows a shepherd about 1 seer 
of grain at the rabi and a ^ seer at the kharif, and half a nauka 
of turnips for every 20 sheep. He also gives him langi (Jand 
loppings). Thai lands, unless well manured, quickly degenerate, and get 
overgrown with a weed called bhiikal, which looks like a wild onion. In 
fact, the necessity for manure is so great, that even camel dung is made 
use of in default of better, in spite of the bitter salts that it contains. 

♦ In the Jandanwali ilaqua, the depth is nearly 60 £eet, In Ganharwala and 
Mahin, from 60 feet to 70 feet. 



27 

52. In certain parts of the Thai, broad level strips are found free 
Location of wells. Dag- from sand hills and running without a break for 

gars. New wells. long distanct^s, north and south. These are full 

of wells, the cultivated lands of which often adjoin, though the sides are 
left open to allow of free grazing for the cattle. These collection of wells 
are called daggars. The wells are not necessarily all in a line, but this is 
the general tendency, and attempts to make wells out of the line lead to 
fierce quarrels ; for the Thai well-owners are very particular about their 
grazing, which the location of out-lying wells is apt to interfere with. 

53. The portion of tlie Thai lying to the east and forming the central 
Thai divided into the tract of the Sind-Saugar Doab is known as the 

Great Thai, Daggar, and Grreat Thai, to distinguish it from the tract ad- 
Jandi Thai. joining the Kachi, the northern portion of which, 

lying in the Bhakkar tahsil, has been included in the Daggar circle, 
while the southern portion forms the Jandi Thai of the Leiah tahsil. 

The Daggar circle is so called from the large number of daggars^ 

or groups of wells that it contains. The word 
The Daggar circle. ^^^^^ j^ prefixed to the name of nearly all the 

manzahs in this circle. These (io^^ar^ occupy a belt of country running 
north and south through the whole length of the tahsil, and thickly 
studded with a continuous series of wells. They are separated from the 
Kachi by a strip of four or five miles of intervening sand hills. Nearly 
all the well cultivation of the Bhakkar Thai is to be found in this tract, 
the Great Thai being generally bare of cultivating wells. 

To the south of the Bhakkar tahsil the character of the Thai lands 

TK^ r^^Ai cpu«i adioininorthe Kachi be^rlns to chanfre : the soil is 

The Janoi Thai. ^ ^ ** j xi. j*' i i i xi. 

nrmer and the ground more level, and there is 

here a broad tract immediately adjoining the Kachi, well fitted for well 
cultivation. This tract is eight or ten miles across. In places it is thick- 
ly covered with ^and trees, which are found in great profusion round 
nearly all the wells, giving the country in some places quite a wooded 
appearance. Hence the name of the jandi Thai, by which it is known. 
As a rule the ja?idi Thai is scattered over with numerous wells ; fallen 
in and abandoned wells are also very numerous, and nearly the whole of 
it is more or less capable of well cultivation. Boyond the jandi Thai, 

Tu^ «.*«* Ti,«i «« ♦!,« the great Thai of the Leiah tahsil has much 
The great Thai of the » ,, ii- .. ii_ ji j. 

Leiah tahsil. more well cultivation than the corresponding 

tract in Bhakkar. These wells are mostly found 
in level strips, or paftis, which run for long distances north and south, 
and are separated from one another by broad intervening belts of un- 
cultivated waste. In the southern portion of the Leiah Thai, the patti 
arrangement is not so common, and wells are more often found scattered 
singly over the country. 

54. The population of the Great Thai of the Bhakkar tahsil is nearly 
The Great Thai of the a^' Pastoral. In the great Thai of Leiah, it is half 

Bhakkar tahsil. Distribii- pastoral, half agricultural. In the Daggar cir- 
tion of the Thai population cle and in the jandi Thai the agricultural ele- 
-pastoral and a-ricultaral. ^^^^ g^^^^^ly predominates. The nature of its 



28 

employment has aflTected the distribution of the population. Where the 
people live by well oultivation, they reside at their welb and are found 
scattered about in small hamlets of six or eight houses. All through the 
Daggar tract there is hardly a single village, and nothing worthy of the 
name of a town. In the pastoral tracts, on the contrary, the population 
is collected in large villages and hamlets, and there are several small 
towns, such as Mankera, Haidarabad, Jand^wdla &c. The Great Thai 
of the Leiah tahsil occupies an intermediate position. There are one or 
two small towns like Nawankot and Chanbara, and some good sized vil- 
lages, but the agricultural population live mostly in small well hamlets, 
as in the Daggar circle. 

55. Most of the wells in the north-eastern Thai are kaeha ; but 

. _, „ . ., _,, the wood of which these are constructed is daily 

weiiB in tne norta* ... it? h i_ • 

•aBtern Thai. g^ttmg scarcer, and pakka wells are now bemg 

sunk in all directions. To sink a pakka well is 

considered by the cattle-owuer? of these parts to be a sort of distinction. 

They are very jealous ofone another, and at the same time well-to^lo. 

If a man, therefore, sinks a pakka well, one of his neighbours is almost 

sure to sink another within a few yards of it, to show that he is as good 

as his fellow. In this way most of the larger pastoral hamlets have 

now one or more pakka wells. 

56. The main crop grown on Thai wells is wheat. Turnips are 

grown for the well oxen, and there is generally 
Crops grown on weUs. some bajra, jowar and cotton for the kharif. 

Cotton here is sown fresh every year, instead of 
being allowed to stand for two or three successive years as in the Damin. 
The climate is too hot for tobacco, except on wells close to the edge of 
the Kachi. In the south-eastern part of the Leiah Thai, where the water 
is inclined to be brackish, the people often leave their wells altogether 
during the hottest months, and move down to the Chenab. In truth, the 
Thai climate during June and July, with its scorching heat and 
sand-storms, is almost intolerable. 

57. There is very little bar&ni cultivation in the Thai. After a con- 
rv««- rv« >^^«« i««^. venient rain-fall, the people often sow a little 

aasun round their wells, and in the nortn-easteru 
Thai there are detached plots of barani cultivation in the laks^ or depres- 
sions between the sand-hills, where the water collects. The crops, princi- 
pally grown, are moth and ffram. This detached bar&ni cultivation is 
almost confined to the pastoral villages of the north-eastern Thai. 

The Thai people also grow water-melons, called TeetakSy or 

Water-melons or l^etaks. Bindyxituu, among the sand hills round their 

towns and hamlets. These in years of abun- 
dant rain yield a fair crop. They are eaten green, and the seeds also 
are carefully preserved as food for cattle during the winter. Water 
melons are grown very little in the southern Thai. They are cultivated 
most extensively in the pastoral villages to the north-east. In some of 
the villages in this direction, such as Jandanwila and Dulehwala, ihej 



29 

form a very important item in the resources of the population. Cattle eat 
them first raw ; later on they eat the dried rinds, ana finally the seed. A 
flock of 25 sheep or goats are allowed 30 seers of seed a day. In abun- 
dant years the seed lasts till February. Melon seed is also sometimes 
ground into flour and made into cakes, which are eaten by the people. 

58« The principal places in the Bhakkar and Leiah tabsils are all 
Location of towns cis- located on the edge of the Thai bank overlook- 
InduA. Mul oart line to ing the Kacbi. The mail cart road from Dera 
Jbang. to Chichawatni, which I have already mentionecjl 

runs through Bhakkar and thence, vid Mankera and Haidarabad, to 
Cbah Bareri, where it enters the Jhang district. The further portion 
of this road has all been metalled for a distance of thirty miles. The re- 
mainder is grassed. The whole will probably be metalled in a few years. 
It is a capital driving road, and the mail cart, when driven at full speed, 
can do the distance between the different stages at the rate of 14 miles 
an hour. The ordinary rate of travelling, including stoppages, is about 
10 miles an hour. 

59. Bhakkar itself is the head-quarters of the subdivision and 

« T>u 1-u tahsil, having been promoted to this rank in 

Town of Bhakkar. jgg^ r^j^^ ^j^^^j ^^^^^^ ^^j^ ^^ j^^^^ ^^ 

Darya Khan. The town of Bhakkar is pleasantly situated. On the 
Thai side the country is a sandy waste, but below the town there is a 
rich extent of well cultivation, protected by an embankment from the in- 
undations of the Indus, and growing two or three crops in the year. 
The neighbouring Kachi is full of large date groves ana fruit gardens. 
There is a famous mango tree, the fruit of which used to be sent to 
Cabul in the old days of Afghan rule. It used to be assessed at 
Rs. 160, but was lately released in favor of a faqir in whose garden it 
stands. The Pawah wellsffrow tobacco and vegetables in profusion ; 
also a little sugar-cane. The orange groves here are very productive. 
There is a lar^e garden close to Bhakkar belctogin^ to Government. 
It was planted by Nawab Mahomed Khan, during his rule at Mankera. 
It is full of fine sheesham trees^ 

The town of Bhakkar contains a population of 4,800, mostly Hindd 
traders and artisans, employed in supplying the wants of the local agri- 
cultural population. Bhakkar is a municipality with an income from 
octroi of about Bs. 3,000. 

60. Besides the Jhang road, the main road from Muzaffargarh to 
Boadmnning along the MitowAU passes through Bhakkar. This road 

Thai bank from Mosaffar- runs along the edge of the Thai bank ; it 
garii tp Miinw^i. frequently forms into two branches, of which 

one, the Kachi road, runs below the Thai bank, while the other, or Thai 

road, runs a mile or half a mile within the Thai. 
Towns on this road. The principal places in the aub-division are all 

along this road. 

61. Thirty miles south of Bhakkar is Karor : a small municipality 
^^y of 2.766 inhabitants. A Munsiff and Thanadar 

are located here. Close to the town is the tomb 



30 

of Mfikhdiim Ldl Isan Koreshi, a celebrated shrine, which is the scene of 
an annual fair that takes place in August, and for which the people of 
the neighbouring .villages assemble in thousands. The income from 
octroi is about Rs. 1,400. 

62. A few miles south of Karor is the similar tomb of Pir 
Shrine of P£r Mahomed Mahomed Bajan, which is more sacred than the 

Rajan. one at Karor, though far less irequented. Ad- 

joining it are extensive date groves, which give a picturesque appear- 
ance to the place. 

63. Eighteen miles south of Karor is the town of Leiah, once the 
. . , capital of the division, but now reduced to the 

head-quarters of a taheiL It is an old town, 
built mostly of burnt brick. It has a population of about 5,700 souls. 
It is a municipality, with an income from (petrol of about Rs. 4,500. 
Leiah is pleasantly situated. Unlike ihe neighbourhood of Bhakkar, the 
Thai here is level, and has a firm, instead of a loose, sanily soil. While 
the rich wells near Bhakkar are all in the Kachi, the rich wells of Leiah 
are nearly all in the Thai. The town is about half a mile from the edge 
of the Kachi, and the intervening space used to be occupied by the 
civil station. The Sessions house, used as a dak bungalow, and a 
house occupied by the salt patrol, are all that are now left of the old 
station. Down in the Kachi are some charming gardens fxill of mango, 
orange and other fruit trees, formerly attached to the residences of the 
civil officers. The finest is the garden that once belonged to the old 
Commissioner, Colonel Ross. His house has been pulled down for .the 
sake of th^ bricks, and the Colonel himself is buried close by in the little 
European cemetery. The wells in the Kachi, near Leiah, are not rich 
like tnose of Bhakkar, though protected by a similar embankment 
erected for the protection of the civil station. The people have devoted 
their energies to the Thai wells nearer the town. This protective embank- 
ment is pierced by two small sluices. These let the Indus flood waters 
into the Hazara canal, which, commencing here, runs along the bank of 
the Thai to PaharpiJir. This channel is now never cleared out, and resem- 
bles an ordinary nallah. 

64. Fourteen miles south of Leiah is Kot Sultan, which has only 
. 1,400 inhabitants, and can hardly rank as more 

° ^ *°* than a large village. It used to be a munici- 

pality, but is one no longer. 

To the north of Bhakkar, the large village of Darya Khan, once the 
Darya Khan and Ealltir site of a tahsil, and Kalldr Kot, a trading place 
Kot. of some importance, situated on the bank of the 

Indus, which here touches the Thai, are the only places of any note. 

The towns and villages that I have mentioned are all on the Thai 

Absence of towns in the bank, over- looking the Kachi. Though the 

Kachi. Kachi itself is full of large villages, there is no 

place in it that can pretend to rank as a town^ or which deserves special 

notice. 



31 

I have already mentioned the principal places in the Thai. The town 
Towns in the Thai of Mankera is the only one of these that requires 
Mankera. any further notice. Mankera was the head- 

quarters of the Soddozai Nawahs for more than 20 years, till the annex- 
ation of the cis-Indus tahsfls by Ranjit Singh. Undor the Sikhs it con- 
tinued to be the head-quarters of a tahsil^ which was abolished soon 
after annexation. It boasts the ruins of a large fort constructed by 
Nawab Mahomed Khan, whose tomb is still to be seen in it. This tomb, 
which was originally roofed in with sheesham wood, has been allowed 
by his great-grandson, the present Nawab, to fall into a state of utter 
disrepair. The population of Mankera is about 1,200. It had a muni- 
cipal organization, but the octroi income being only about Rs. 500, this 
has lately been abolished. 

65. The mail cart road to Jhang I have already mentioned, 
(para. 36 ). Leiah and Bhakkar, also, are now connected by a branch 

Mail cart line to Leiah. niail cart line, which follows the road along the 
State of road. Thai bank. The portion of this road between 

these two towns is in fair condition, and though heavy and sandy in places 
in the parts beyond, it is traversable by carts for the whole distance 
from Mi&nwali to Muzaifargarh. Cari^ can also be taken along the 
road from Dera to Shahpur, but with difficulty, and additional oxen are 
generally required for the stages between Ahdi Surgil and Hetii. 
The other Thai roads are mere tracks. In the Kachi there are gene- 
rally narrow roads from village to village, but these two often degene- 
rate into mere tracks. All existing roads have been shown in the Settle- 
ment field maps, but no new Settlement roads have been made, nor have 
the existing roads been arbitrarily widened, when running between cul- 
tivated fields. 

Beads in the Thai fit for carts can only be constructed at consider- 
Village roads. CiB-Indus able cost, owing to the constant sand ridges by 
Tbal. which they are crossed. 

In the Kachi the roads are all hard and grassy, and with a little 
g^jj. widening and levelling could easily be made 

available for wheeled traffic during the cold 
weather. Even in the cold weather, however, the constant nallahs 
would be an impediment to traffic ; while during the hot weather, all roads 
in the Kachi are generally under water. 

66. There is a Customs' line running the whole length of the 
Th C to ' r Bhakkar and Loiah tahsils, with stations along 

the edge of the Thai bank. Patrols or Assist- 
ant Patrols are stationed at Kalur Kot, Bhakkar and Leiah. The in- 
tention of the line is to prevent the black salt from the Kohat mines, 
which is used in the trans-Indus tahsfls, from crossing the river. A 
few years ago, a Customs' hedge was put up along the Thai road run- 
ning from Mi^nwdli to Koreshi in the Muzaffiirgarh district. The object 
was to tax sugar passing to the west of the hedge. Previously sugar 
had passed from one side of the Indus to the other without let or 



82 

hindrance. Hie tax on sngar exported has now been abandoned^ and the 
hedge is no longer kept up. 

67. Votnestic animals.-^Tiie cattle of the district are of small 
Domestic apimals. Kine, s'z®? and the better oxen are all imported from 

bofEaloes, sheep and goats, Bajanpur and Bind. Cows are kept by the 
and camels. aemindars all over the district. The Kachi 

zemindars also keep large herds of buffaloes. Camels are extensively bred 
both in the Thai and the Daman^ and sheep and goats in the Thai and 
along the skirts of the Suliman range. The Kachi is unsuited both 
to sheep and camels. I shall have occasion to return to the subject 
of cattle in a subsequent chapter on profits from cattle. 

There are a good many horses in the district. As a rule they are 

too small for cavalry remounts^ but plenty of 
"**"®'* small sized animals fit for police work can 

be procured. 

Donkeys are largely kept, principally by bannyas, and by the 

E?^P^^ ^^ ^^ Marwat villages in the north* 
^^ ®^"* The latter employ them in carrying water. 

The number of donkeys in the district is about 11,000, of which three- 
fifths belong to the cis-Indus tahsils. Near towns donkeys are some- 
times kept by agriculturists for fetching manure. As a rule they are 
employed in conveying merchandise, carrying bricks &c.| and in other 
occupations unconnected with tillage. 
Hales. Very few mules are bred in the district. 

68. Wild animals, — As regards wild animals, the black buck is un- 
1 1 « X * known. A few ravine deer are to be found in 

thrchasSS*^'' *^e wilder parts of the Thai and the DamAn, and 

pig and hog-deer are to be found in the Kachi. 
At the time of Mr. Elphinstone's visit in 1809, the Kachi swarmed with 

fame, and as late as 1850, tigers were to be found within a few miles of 
)era Ismail Khan. Owing to the increase of cultivation, game is now 
rapidly disappearing. The tigor is extinct ; hog deer are very scarce ; 
and even pig are only to be found in certain rakhs and in outlying 
river hets. Forty years ago, the frontier road from Zirkanni to Luuf 
was unsafe, owing to the wild boars. Now, not a pig is to be found in 
those parts, the last few remaining having retired into the reed jungles 
in the hills beyond the Shekh Haidar Pass. The wild ass {ghor^khar)iiBB 
also disappeared from the district during the present century. It used 
to frequent the desolate plains between the Gajistan and Kaura nallahs. 
Markhor and Urial are found on Shekh-Budin, and in the low hills along 
the western border. Urial are also found in the Khasor range. Hares 
were numerous in the Kachi, but were drowned out during the high 
flood of 1874. Hardly one is now left. They cannot live in the Thai, 
owing to the facility with which they are tracked ; and there are very 
few in the Dam^. Occasional wolves are found all over the district. In 
the Thai they are often very destructive. Foxes and jackals are found 
here as everywhere \ also a few hyoenas. Two or three leopards haunt 



33 

Shekh-Badin, where they live principally on donkeys and other cattle 
belonging to Pawindah families that reside there. Tlioy are rarely 
caught or killed. Otters are common enough on the banks of the Indus* 
They are often c«aught and kept by the Kehals, a wandering tribe, 
who make use of them in hunting fish. The civet cat is also occasionally 
met with in the district. In the Daman a sort of field mouse (driti) is 
often very destructive to the crops, and multiplies exceedingly till 
drowned out by floods, or exterminated by adjutant cranes. 

69. Among birds, the great Bustard frequents the more lonely 

stretches of Thai and Pat. It is very rarely 
*™® *^ *• met with, except in the hot weather, and only 

one has been killed to my knowledge during the last ton years. The 
small Bustard {obara) is common alf through the cold weather, and 
affords good sport for hawking : coolan {grus cinerea)^ duck, sand 
grouse, and quail are plentiful in their season. Wild geese are plentiful 
in the northern K<ichi, but seldom visit the southern portion of the 
district. Grey partridges are found everywhere, and the Kachi used 
to yield very good black-partridge shooting, though this has fallen off 
of late years. Cliakor and Sisi are found in the hills. Snipe are very- 
scarce, owing to the want of suitable ground for them. Among birds of. 
g. , . piey, one or two sorts of eagle are occasionally 

seen at Shekh-Budin, and the Lammer-Gleir 
is a constant resident, and has inci^ased in numbers of late years. 

70. Fishes, — The fisheries in this district are confined to the 

_. , J ^ ,. . Indus and its branches, though a few small 

Fishes and fishcnes. « , . . i ' i f u i 

fish may sometimes be caught by anglers in 

the streams that issue from the hill passes. Unlike the custom in Dera 
Ghazi Khan, no revenue is raised in this district from fisheries, and no 
rights of any sort are exercised over them by Government. Fishing 
is free to every one. The fish caught may be divided into two classes : 
Pish of the carp tribe, with equal lobed tails, and mud-fish. Among the 
former are the rahd or damra ; the iha'da ( diirri ) and less common 
the moriy which is exceedingly like the rolid. The thaila is disting- 
uished by his bluish colour and his enormous head and mouth. These 
fish all grow to a large size, and are good eating, especially the rah^. 
Among the mud fish, the malli and hhaiti are scaleless or nearly scale- 
less. Their tails end in a single lobe which unites with the anal fin. 
The saul is also a nasty -looking fi<h, with a head like a snake. The 
9infjdra is distinguished by the loner spines attached to his pectoral and 
dorsal fins. He is scaleless, and has long barbels. He has a head 
like a pike, and is good eating.* 



* The followinfr are the Tiatin names of these fishes, as given me by Mr. O'Brien, 
Settlement Officer of Masaffargarh : — 

Siluridoe. 
Sinphara ... Macrones Aor. 
Malli ... Wallago Attu. 



Cyprinidoe. 
Bahd ... Labeo Kobita. 
Thaila ... Caila Buchanan!. 
Mori ... Cirrhiaa Mrigala. 

Ojfhicrpfuili doe . 
Saul ... Ophiceplialus Strlatus. 



Notopterid^e, 
Bhatti ... liotopterus Chitala. 



34 

Lonpf-nosed crocodiles ( sansars ) are common enough in the 
Incfus. They are of small size, and I know of no authenticated instance 
of a crocodile attacking a man. The river porpoise^ or Bularij and river 
turtles are also found in the Indus. 

71. Repiiled and Insects. — The climate of the district is too dry 

KeDtiles and Insecte ^^^ snakes, nor, except in the Kachi, is there 

much cover for them. Cobras and karaits are 
found in small numbers, and there are plenty of harmless snakes in 
places. Scorpions and tarantulas are very abundant. White ants are 
not as destructive here as in Dera Ghazi Khan, but the large black ants 
are exceedingly active and annoying. 

72. Forests. — There are no forests in the district. The nearest 

Av.«^«-. ^ #«»*of« approach to forests is in the bhdni woods of the 

Absence oC forests. t/ i_. r m \ rm. • i 

Kacni ( para. 46. ) There are pme woods on 

the crest of the Takht Sulim&n and in the Waziri hills, but these are not 

in the district. 

73. Metals and mineral products. — Iron is produced in the Waziri 
« .«i*v-^.,««^# «,-»♦-!- hills, but no metals are found in the district 

General absence of metals -j. ia m i»i» -i i i-.ii i 

and mineral prodacts. itselt. 1 races of lignite and a very little alum 

are to be found in the Shekh-Budfn range. 

Manufacture of St^i. Sajji is manufactured to a small extent from 
the Kkarlana that grows in parts of the Daman and Thai. Hitherto the 
manufacture has been free : but orders have lately been issued that per- 
sons engaging in it must take out a Rs. 2 license. Sajji is sometimes 
manufactured for sale, but chiefly by dhobies for their private use. It 
is difficult to estimate the amount manufactured. The enquiries I have 
made would put it at between 3,000 and 4,000 maunds. The selling 
price is about 20 or 25 seers for the rupee. A sort of Multani matti is 

># u -.• -.-*^-- found in the hills west of Vahoa. This, as 

usual, IS used for washing, and also eaten by 
women for its medicinal effects. 

74. Quarries. — No quarries of any sort are worked in this dis- 

. B. , . trict. The hills all supply abundance of lime- 

Absence of quarnes. Right ^ -»^ - J. u •! 1. T 

of Government to stone Stone, fit for ordinary building purposes. In 
and boalders specially re- accordance with the Financial Commissioner's 
•erved. B^^^j^ Circular No. f , dated 14th February 

1876, a clause has been entered in the wajib-ul-arz of villages, includ- 
ing hill tracts and stony ravines, reserving to Government the right to 
take stone and boulders without payment. There is hardly a trace of 

TT <n ka kar ' kankar in the district, and the usual material 

the dlstnct*"^ ^ ^ employed in metalling roads is broken brick. 

fioads made of broken The limestone of the Khasor range has on one 
brick. Qj. two occasions been experimentally used, but 

it is difficult to break up ; and roads made of it, though lasting, take 
long to consolidate, and are very expensive. The lime manufactured 

rt f the f^^^ ^^® limestone of this district varies in 
lime°f?om tUumestone of quality. I sent specimens to Mr. Garbett, 
this district. Superintending Engineer Canal Department, 



S5 



who bad them tested. Some of the varieties yielded lime of good bind- 
ing quality; others of similar appearance were quite worthless. It is 
not easy to distinguish the good description from the bad, and the lime 
manufactured is often very inferior. 



CCIMATB AND RAINFALL. 



75. With the exception of Dara Ghazi Khan and the district of 
The average rain-fall of ^^^ Mult&n Division, the rain-fall of this dis- 

the district. trict is less than that of any other part of the 

Its distribution. Punjab. The following figures show the aver- 

age rain-fall at the Saddar station of Dora Ismail Khan, for the 15 years 

from 1862 to 1877* :— 



October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

Total 



• •• 



•16 
•01 
•32 
•58 
•99 
•90 
•76 
•33 
•66 
1^45 



Cold weather rains 
afFectin;; the rabi 
>■ harvest 
Add for September 



3-72 
•91 

4-63 



Hot weather rains 
afFectins the kharif 



1^57 I harvest 



• • • 



4-9^ 



•91 J Add for March & April..- 1-66 



..• 8-64 



6-58 



November is essentially a rainless month, and rain in October is 

also exceptional. The cold weather rains cotnmsnce about Christmas. 

They are generally light, but continue somBtimas for three or four days 

Winter rains ^^ * time. Two or three such drizzles, from 

Spring rains. Djcember to March, are sufficient to secure the 

wheat harvest. About the end of Ma'-ch, 
these drizzling rains give place to thunderstorms often accompanied with 
hail. The April rains are useful in the Daman, as they enable the people 
to irrigate their bands preparatory to sowing cotton and melons and 
early bajra trndjawar. Towards the end of the month they are injurious 
to the wheat, which is then being harvested. The May rains, if at all abun- 
dant, as they sometimes are, are still more injurious, as the people have 
no idea of putting their corn under cover, and it lies out exposed on the 
threshing floors till it has been trodden out and sifted. Gratn suffers 
especially from rain, and soon begins to sprout. In 1877 the gram 
crop, which was very abundant, became almost unsaleable owing to re- 
peated showers. One or two occasional showers during M ly or June 
may be counted on with tolerable certainty, but the weathar during thes» 

* The detailed statement of rain*£all at the Saddar, carried to a somewhat later 
date, is giyea in Appendix No. 2CI^ 



36 

Hot weather rains. They in<>»^^9 '9 generally fine. Tlie regular Iiot 
are often deficient. weather rains commence generally about the 

6th or 7tb of July, and the principal fall is during 
the remainder of July and up to the 20t.h of August. There is no con- 
tinuous rainy season, as there is down-country. It may sometimes rain 
nearly every day, off and on, for a week, but this is exceptional. An 
examination of the rain-fall returns shows that even in years of excep- 
tionally heavy rain-fall, there are never more than ten days in any one 
year, from 1st July to 31st August, an which the rain-fall has been suffi- 
cient to affect the rain ofuacre. The returns show three vears in fifteen, 
during which the total rain-fall for these two months was less than an 
inch. Even the rainy months are, on the whole, bright and sunny. A 
fair amount of rain generally falls in September. A certain amount in 
the end of Aagust and beginning of September is almost indispensable 
to secure a good bajra crop. Tliese late rains are also useful in filling 
up the bands for wheat cultivation. 

76. The climate of the district is hot during the summer, and cold 

ni-^«*^ r.* *!,« ^,«*^«* a^d bracinflf during the winter. Occa&ionally 

Climate of tne district. ii-i^i o*^ o i i » *•! 

Its heat in summer. a "Ot wmd blows lor a lew days donng April 

and the beginning of May, and pankahs are 

generally swinging at the end of the former month. The early part of May, 

however, is often pleasant enough. From the 20th of May to the end of 

June, there are generally numerous dust-storms, and the weather i» 

fiery hot. During the beginning of July, before the rains set in, and for 

intervals afterwards, during breaks in the rains^ it is often, in addition to 

being hot, oppressive and stifling. With the end of September, however, 

the nights begin to get cool, and pankalis are hardly required after the 

TTff^^i. «i! +1^ «^i^ ;« beginninor of October. During the winter the 
Effect or toe cold m .«^, , » , , . » «. i ... i 

winter on trees. nights and early inornmgs are often bitterly 

cold. The frosts are too sharp to allow of 
young mango trees growing out in the open. They can only be reared 
by carefully covering them over with matting. Even grown mango tree* 
are often half killed. In the same way, in exceptionally cold seasons^ 
guch as generally come round every third or fourth year, Siria and 
Kikar sapplings are killed down to the ground, and small ponds get 
frozen over, though the ice always melts before noon. 

The district i9 on the whole fairly healthy, though there is often a 

Health of the district. 8°^^ ^^\^^ ^^"^^^ "? *^^« autumn, and at other 

seasons after exceptionally heavy rain. Some- 
times this fever takes a very malignant type. In 1872 the population 
of many of the Daman villages was decimated by it. The people sufier 
a good deal from guinea-worm in those parts of the Daman where they 
trust to tanks for their drinking water. Cases of stone in the bladder 
are very Irequent. Cholera is almost unknown. Small pox used te 
commit great ravages, but the introduction of vaccination is gradually 
diminishing its evil effects. There are good dispensaries at all the tahsil 
towns, which are much appreciated by the people. 



37 
P ART M. 

HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL. 

EARLY HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF THE DISTRICT. 

77. Nothing is known of the early history of the district. In an 
Want of information aa earlier chapter I have snown that the Daman, 

to the early history of the if left to a state of nature, would be a desert. 
distrist. The state of the Thai without wells would be 

even worse, and the probability is that in early historic times nearly the 
whole district was a barren waste. 

78. Alexander the Great, according to Arrian, sailed down the 
IF ..^u'^^^* Ai*^-«^-».. Jhelum to its junction with the Indus. His 

Expedition of Aidzanaer. ^ ^ n ii-i ii* -ii 

^ land forces marched m two bodies on either 

side of the river. Craterus, who was on the right bank, must have skirted 

the Sind Sau«yor Thai. Alexander seems to have thought nothing of 

making a fifty miles march across the Bar, through a country 

devoid of water, to get at some towns on the Ravi, and had there beea 

any inhabited towns of importance on the Thai side, these would certainly 

have been the subject of a plundering expedition. The absence of all 

notice of any such expedition affords a presumption that the Thai was 

then a poorer country than it is now. 

79. The general absence of ruins and monuments of antiquarian 
Absence of antiquarian interest, would also tend to prove that the dis* 

remains. trict can never have been the site of a rich and 

populous Government. 

In the Kachi tract, of course, such remains could hardly survive 

Kaohi ungnited for their the action of river floods, and at one time the 
preserTation. Kachi tract must have been much wider than 

it is now. The remains of the Kur, or old high bank, running from 
Paharpnr to the west of Dera Ismail Khan (vide para. 22), mark the old 
limits of the Kachi to the west. The Thai bank marks the limits of the 
river to the east, and the width of country that has probably been occu* 
pied at one time or another by the Indus^ since the time of Alexander's 

Thai country is well invasion, is not less than twenty miles. The 
suited. Thai, however, is admirably suited for the pre- 

servation of antiquarian remains, had any such ever existed. The rain- 
fall is small, and it is entirely beyond the reach of inundation. As a 

Mahomedan tombs in the fact the ihal is devoid of any such remains, 
Thai. "vyith the exception of a few tombs, the principal 

of which, those at Karor and Mahomed Rajan, date from the 15th or 
16th centuries only. They are built of brick, and ornamented with 

Old remains in the enamelled colored tiles, after the Mult&n fashion. 
Damdn. The Daman is less suited for preserviag anti- 

quities, except those portions which are not reached by the hill torrents, 
although, had it ever been inhabited by a civilized people, traces of their 
occupation must have been found in the tract beyond the old bank or 
Kur, It is, however, as devoid of antiquities as the Thai. A few small 
buildings in the shape of tombs, called Hundeerasy are found on the 



3S 

Kur, a few miles west of Miran. The workmanship resembles that of 
the tombs at Karor and Mahomed Rajan. Nothing is known aboat 
ihem. There are several of them, and they were probably erected by one 
of the Moghal Emperors, on his march through the country ; but it 
ia difficult to understand what purpose they can lutve served. 

80. All along the skirt of the hills are to be found large artificial 
Mooncli along the fron- mounds of earth, containing a good deal of 

tier. broken pottery, and but little else. Ther are 

apparently the sites of military posts, established along the border to 
check the incursions of the hill tribes. They are most frequent near 
T4nk, but extend all round the border to Draban and Ghandwan. They 
are distributed in much the same proportion as our existing frontier outr- 
posts, and probably date from a time prior to the Mahomedan invasion. 

81. The only ruins of much antiquity and interest to be found in 

BuinB of Kafir Kot. ^® district, are the two forts of Kafir Kot, 

situated on small hills attached to the lower 
spurs of the Khasor range, and overlooking the Indus. The main fea- 
tures of these forts are an outer defensive wall, consistinor of roua:h 
blocks of stone, some of great size, and various groups of buildings, in- 
side resembling small Hindu temples, and more or less carved. These 
latter are built of a curiously honey-combed drab-colored stone, not to 
be found to my knowledge in the adjacent hills. I saw a sort of stone 
rery like it near Nimmalin the Mianwali tahsfl, and which appeared to 
be a kind of solidified kankar, having the consistency of a rock. The 
area of these forts is considerable, and they could have held a good 
sized garrison. Traces are still to be seen of* their arrangements for 
raising water from the Elachi below. No legends are attached to them, 
beyond that they are supposed to have been occupied by Uie last of the 
Hindu Rajas, Til and Bil. These forts certainly point to the existence, 
in times before the Mahomedan invasion, of a Hindu Baj in this comer 
of the district, possessed of considerable resources and architectural skill. 
All traces of rulers and ruled are now lost, and I shall therefore f rooeed 
to describe how the district must have been gradually settled by its pre- 
sent inhabitants. In doing this, I shall confine myself, as far as possible, 
to ethnographical details, leaving all matters connected with the history 
of individuals to form the subject of a separate chapter. 

COLONISATION OF THE DISTRICT BY ITS PRESENT 

INHABITANTS. 

82. The district has been settled by a double immigration from 
District colonixed from ^^PP^^ite directions. An immigration of Jata 

two^directions : Jata and and Biluches up the valley of the Indus from 
Bilaches from the Boath, the south, and of Pawindah Patlians from the 
and PathAM from the north- north-west. Before the fifteenth century tfie 
^®* ' lower portion of the district was probably 

occupied by a few scattered tribes of Jats, depending on their cattle for 
subsistence. The valley of the Indus was a dense jungle, swarming with 
pig and hog-deer, and frequented by numerous tigers ; while the Thai 
and Dam&n must have been almost unoccupied. 



>- 



39 

83. All the traditions of the people go to show that an immigra-.^ 

Jat immigration in the tion of mixed tribes of Jats (Siyars, Chinahs,/gi ? 
16th century. Khokars, &c.) set in about beginning of the 

15th century, from the Moltan and Bahawalpur direction. They gradu- 
ally passed up the valley of the Indus to the Mi&nwali tahsil, occupying 
the intervening country. Most of their villages would have been located 
on the edge of the Thai, and a portion ot the immigrants probably 
crossed the river and settled along its right bank. After these came the 

Bilnch immigration. Bfluches. They also came from the south, but 

. . in large bands under recognized leaders. In 

cis-indus^tHictr Formed the cis-Indus tract they appear to have taken 
a military rather than a military rather than proprietary possession of 
a cultivating class. the country. Thev were the ruling caste, and 

served under their chiefs in the perpetual little wars that were then 
going on in every direction. It is probable that the Jat immigration 
continued for some time after the Biluches first came into the country. 

Division of the country However it may have been, all the Kachi, 
into Hadt, immediately adjoining the Thai bank, seems to 

have been parcelled off to Jat families. Each grant was accompanied 
with a long strip of Thai to the back. These estates are the origin of the 
present mauzahs. They are almost all held by Jats. Here and there, 
shares are held by Biluches, but these have mostly been acquired in later 
times by purchase. In the same way the .unoccupied lands towards the 
river were divided off into blocks, and formed into separate estates, and 
sometimes, where the hods first formed, had too much waste land. New 
hods were formed in later times by separating off outlying portions of 
the old estates. This division into hada extended right up to Elallur Kot, 
In course of time, as the Biluches settled down in the country, individuals 
acquired plots of land for wells, but generally in subordination to the had 

Distribution of the proprietors or lords of manors. Here and there 
Bfluch population. a small clan settled down together like the 

Gurm&nies of Bet Dabli, or the Sarganies of Sargani, but this was the 
exception. Biluches are still tolerably numerous all through the southern 
part of the Kachi, up to Darya Khan, but though they were originally the 
ruling race, still, as regards proprietary rights in the land, they hold a 
position inferior to that of the Jats and Saiads, by whom the superior 
proprietorship of hods is generally held. North of Darya Khan there are 
very few Biluches. In the Thai the population is nearly entirely Jat. The 
Mamdanies of Khansar, and the Magassies, a tribe which came in very 
early, and settled in the eastern Thai about Dhingana and Haiderabad, 
are almost the only considerable bodies of Biluches to be found in the 
Thai.* 



* In the southern portion of the Bbakkar pakka circle the Biluches are to the Jats 
as two to three ; in the Daggar circle they are as one to five ; in the Thai Kalan circle 
as one to twenty-two. In the Bet circle they are as one to thirteen. 

In the Leiah tahsil Biluches in the /m ft Aa circle are as one to five to the Jats. 
There are very few in the Thai Kalan circle, or in the Thai villages behind Kot Sultan, 
In the Kot Sultan Kachi, on the other hand, they are nearly as numerous as the Jats, 
and in this part of the country their position more resembles what it is in the ad« 
joining tians- Indus tract. 



40 

All throngh the Kachi the mass of the villages are named after 
Mixed character of the Jat families, who form the bulk of the pro- 
Jat population. prietors. These are generally the descen- 

dants of the original founders, and have stuck together. In the 
Thai there are a large number of villages, held in the same way 
by men of particular families ; but in most, the population is very 
mixed, nearly every well being held by a man of a different caste. The 
only Jat tribes in the Thai deserving of special mention are the Chinahs 
and Bhidwals. The Chinah couutr})^ extends right across from Chinah, 
Behal and Notak, on the edge of the Kachi, to Mankera, Haid^rabad 
and Khairwala, on the further side of the Thai. The Bhidwals possess 
a somewhat smaller tract round Karluwala and Mahni. They have 
always been a good fighting tribe. 

84. In the Janddnwala group of villages which occupies the north- 
Biluch Pathana in the ©rn part of the Bhakkar Thai, the dominant 

JandAnwala ilaqua. tribe is one of Biluch Pathans, who appear to 

have moved south from Mi&nwali. These belong to the same tribe as 
holds Panniala. 

85. As regards the right bank of the Indus, the alluvial lands 
Jat and Biluch coloniza- immediately bordering on the Indus, euch as 

tion of the traus-Indus the Kahiri ilaqua and the Rug-Paharpur tract, 
*''*^*' seem^to have been settled by Jats much in the 

same way as the cis-Indus Kachi. I do not think that at first the Jat 
settlements can have extended much inland. Here the Biluch immi- 
Position of the Biluch gration took a different shape. When the 'Hot 
immigrants. family established themselves at Babbar, tliey 

were accompanied by Laskanies, Kulachies, Korais and other Biluch 
tribes, who. came in considerable numbers, and must have occupied a 
nearly empty country, in which they settled as cultivating proprietors, 
rather than as a military caste who ruled the country, but left the actual 
occupation of the land to the Jats. North of Dera Ismail Khan the 
Biluches are comparatively few, but in all the country south of it, along 
the Dera Ismail Khan road, they constitute the dominant class of the 
population. The Kulachi clan settled in the tract from Miran to Naievela/ 
north of them came the • Pitafies. On the south again the Laskanies 
had the country for fifteen milea south of Miran, and below them there 
were probably other tribes of less mark. 

86. About the beginning of the present century, a great impulse 

Settlement of the Dera 'Z^, ^^^^^ ^, ^^^ 5*'??^ immigration by Nawab 
Fatteh Khan ilaqua with Maliomed Khan, ISoddozai. Me was a strong 
Biluches by Nawab Ma- ruler, and took much interest in the extension 
homed Khan. of cultivation. Without much regard, there- 

fore, to the claims of the old Iiad proprietors, he allotted waste lands to 
any one who would found a village. -Saughar was then ruled by 
Hasad Khan, who was a great tyrant. Numbers of Biluches in con- 
sequence moved up to the territories of the Nawab, and were located by hira 
in the waste lands near Dera Fatteh Khan. It was at this time that the 
MitkanieS; Dasties, and Lalwanies settled in the district. The Kasrauics 



I 



41 

mlao oatne down from the hills, and occupied the Daulatwala-Jhangra 
tract, lying between the Ushtarana and the Rhetran country. The 
Kasranies obtained a nearly uninhabited country, in which even now 
very few Jats are to be found, but the Nutkanies and other tribes are 
mixed up with considerable numbers of Jats who formed the original 
opnlatioQ of the country where they settled. At the same time that 
e settled the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua, Mahomed Khan located large 
Location of new Tillagea numbers of new villages in the waste tracts to 
along the Pathan border the west of the Dera Gb^zi Khan road. Having 
^r^t* brought the Pathan tribes of the border into 

a sort of subjection and annexed a considerable portion of their lands, 
he gave these out in blocks for the formation of new mauzahs on pay- 
ment of tKizarana. He also settled the back lands of the old Kulachi, 
Pitafi and other hads^ and most of the villages of the Sheru ilaqua 
date from this period. About the same time Sarwar Khan of T&nk 
located large numbers of Jats in the south-eastern portion of the present 
Tank tahsif. The Jat immigration into Tank had commenced earlier. 
Jat immigration into Some of the oldest of the Jat villages had been 
Tink. founded 50 vcars before, in the time of Sarwar's 

father, Katal Khan, but it was now that the great body of Jat villages was 
founded, to which the country owes its name of Jatatar. The Jats had 
by this time occupied all the northern Daman up to Yarie, and they have 
not since made any further extension in that direction ; but between 
these and the Jatatar villages of Tank, intervened the Gundapur villages 
on the Takwara, and the immigration into Tank was not owing to gradual 
extension, but to the artificial stimulus given by Katal Khan and Sarwar 
Khan. 

87. While the Biluches and Jats were coming in from the 

-* . .. « D *!, - south, the Pathans were coming in from the 
Immigration ox Patoans. fli r 4- 

From very early times the Pawindah tribes were in the habit of 
The Lodies trading between Hindostan and Khorasan by 

the Gdmal Pass. Most of these had their 
homes in the hill country east of Ghazni. Manv of them then, as now, 
were graziers rather than traders. In the beginning of the cold 
weather they moved .down to the pastures of the Daman , returning to 
their mountain homes with the spring. Sometimes a feud would arise, 
and a tribe, unable to return to its own country, would settle permanently 
in the plains. The Lodi clans are believed to have settled in the district 
in the time of S&ahbiidin Ghori, in the beginning of the 13th century. 
The tribes of the Sdries and Pabbies, of the Pran^ies and Dresskhels, 
belonged to this branch of the Afghan nation. They occupied T4nk, 
Takwiira, and the northern part of the Dera Ismail Khan tahsfl. 

88. The Biluches of Panniala are believed to be allied to these 
Tribes allied to the Lodies, and the Khasors and other tribes, that 

Lodies. occupy the hills north of Belot, probably came 

The Bilachea of Panmala. j ^ ^j^^ them, though their genealogy is uncertain. 



42 

Jkt 'Xotia Lodian there was a small fort lield by ilie Lodies^ a few 

The tribes of the Khasor of whose descendants still survive there, and 

»*nge. Paharpur and Ounial (the one near Dera) were 

w^fi^^* T ^i ♦^n^- *lso Lodi towns. The Pathans of the Khasor 

AXtmct Jboai tribes. . . , * , « • • . * 

rancre are now to some extent intermixed with 

Jats;ihe Biluches of Fanni&Ia still talk Pashtu and form a tolerably 

numerous tribe of pure Pathans. . A few Dresskhels are still found in 

the Kundi country ; but the Prangies, the Suries, and the Pabbies have 

almost disappeared, and hardly an individual of these tribes can now 

be found. They were expelled, exterminated, or absorbed. It is not 

unlikely that great numbera of the Lodies moved into Hindostan during the 

ascendancy of the Lodi dynasty ( A.D. 1450 to 1526 ) or during the 

reign of the Sher Shah Suri ( A.D. 1540 — 1555), and that their tribes thus 

weakened were unable to withstand the Lohanies, who swept down on 

them at the close •of the latter period. It was in the time of the great 

TKo T^i,i*«; 4«^«-«^« Akbar, that fhe Lohanies themselves, a branch 

The liOham invasion. i«n. Tf/»-ii_- i «ar 

Principal tribes of the jLo- of the Lodi family, having been expened from 
hanies : the Marwnts, their homes in tho GFhazm mountains by the 
Tn'd !rato«^ ^^^^^^^^' Suliman Khels, coipmenoed to settle in Tank. 

The leading clans ot the Lohanies were the 
Marwats, the Daulatkhel, the Miankhel, and £he Jators. They quarrelled 
with the Prangies and the Sdries, and under their Mallik, Khan 
Zem6n, defeated and dispersed them, so Chat these tribes are heard of no 
Their settlement in the more. The Lohani clans are said to have 
country. afterwards quarrelled 4imong themselves about 

the lands taken from the Lodies, but eventually they all settled down 
in the countries which they now occupy : the Marwats in the Marwat 
iahsil of the Bannu district .; the Daulatkhel and Jators in Tank ; and 
the Miankhels at Praban and Musahzai in the Kulachi tahsil. The 
Daulatkhel include a number of smaller tribes, the leading among which 
is the Kattikhel, to which the chiefs of Tank belong. The Daulatkhel 
are now but few in number, and the Jators^ire fewer still. 

The Kundies are anoCher tribe that settled in Tank, either with the 
Tribes of *he Gdmal Daulatkhel or soon after. They now occupy 
valley. fhe large villages of Pai, Amakhel, and Drikxiy 

and some others in the northern part of £he Tank tahsil. Later on the 
Ghorazais and Mianies settled in tne Gdmal valley, and during the last 
,^ gj. fifty years the Bhittaimies, who occupy the hills 

annies. along the T&nk border, have spread into the 

plains, and now form a large portion of the Path&n population of the 
-. ^^ tahsil. The Marwats, too, during the last 

® *^ * thirty or forty years, have commenced migrat- 

ing in large numl>ers into this district. The Midazai villages, recently 
transferred from Bannu, have belonged to the Marwats from the first ; 
but they have also occupied, during tne present century, large portions of 
the Biluch and Kundi fiads. They hold Sher Ali, and two or three other 
villages in the north-east of Tank. They have six or eight flourishing 
villages in the Largi valley, and the villages of Bahadari, Galoti and 
Chiinda to the 0ou& of Shekh-Budin^ so that the skirts of the Kd&h Eoh 



43 

and Bbiitanni ranges for nearly forty miles, from Rahm&nikhel to Drikkj, 
are in their hands.* Many of these Marwats own lands also across the 
hills m the Marwat tahsfl, and move backwards and forwards between 
this district and Bannu, having no fixed place of residence. 

89. About the beginning of the- 17th century ,. the Gundapurs- were 
^ Q , calleain by the Daulatkhels to assist them in 

"^ ^ * theirqaaarrelswith the Marwats. They eventually 

settled down at Rori, and gradually obtained possession of the large 
tract which they now hold, compri^ng the whole of the Kiilacbi tabid 
north of the Swan nallah, which separates them, from the Drabaa 

Miankhels. In a similar way the Bdbara set- 
® *"*' tied down at Chandwan, and gained possession 

of all the lands bora the border of the Musahzai Miaiikhels down to the 
Shirran nallah. 

Below the Babars come the XJshtaranas^ These have never regu- 

The Ushtaranas. '*'*^^ settled in the plains. Unlike the Gunda- 

purs,. Miankhels and Babars, wbose border ter- 
minates at the foot ef the hills, the Ushtaranas own a considerable tract 
of the hill country-adjoining their Damin landsv They nearly all live in 
villages just inside tbe passes leading from the Daman, but a certain 
number are gradually settling down in the plains. The Ushtaranaa 
acquired their plain lands,, till thea for the most part unoccupied, about 
the middle of tne last century.. 

The only tribe occupying a distinct Aod, which it rematns^ for me 

«._ TTu * « tr 1. to mention are the Khetrans of Vahoa. These 

The KhetraiQS oi vaboa. o-nii.' •• i.i. • .i 

are of Fathan origin, but owing to long resi- 
dence among the Biluches, they rather resemble the latter in their dress 
and manners. The main clan lives in the hills opposite Dera Gh&zi 
Khan, but their original settlement was at Vahoa, where a considerable 
portion of the clan still resides. The Khetrane bold tiie country be- 
tween the Dera Ghazi Khan district and the settlements of the northern 
Kasranies in the Daulatwala and Jbangra hods. The Khetrans them- 
selves mostly live in Vahoa and Litra, but Jalluwali, Kohr, Kotani^ 
Kasraniwala, are all villages mainly ownod by Khetrans. A certain 
number of Sberanies live in the Miankhel and Babar towns along their 
border, but there are no Sherani villages or settlements. 

The number of Waziries resident in the district is exceedingly few, 

. ; though they are very anxious to establish them- 

e aaries* selves in certain waste tracts in the Gundapur 

country, and arrangements have also been made for locating a certaia 

number in the T^nk tabsil. 

90. The whole Kulachi tahsfl, except the small portion adjoining 
PoBition of the PsthAn ^^^ Indus and the Kasrani country, Ts thus cut 

popalation in the Kalachi up into large blocks, lying one below the other, 
tebsi^* owned by single tribes of Pkthdos. Mixed with 



* There are now between 8,000 and 3,500 Marwati i&r tbii district, beflidei lom* 
1,800 in lialasai, making aboat 5,000 in all. 



44 

these Pathans, however, are large numbers of Jats, and miscellaneons 
Bilaches, who are on the same footing as the Jats. In the Miankhel 
and Babar country, the Pathan tribesmen live in the towns of 
Chaiidwan, Draban and Musahzai. The outlying villages are occupied 
only by Jat and Biluch ryots. The 'Ushtar&na villages are nearly all 
occupied by ryots, the tribesmen living inside ihe hills. With the 
Gundapurs, the Pathan population is more diffused ; they hold in force 
the towns of Kulachi, Takwara, Rori, Maddi, and Luni, but most of 
the small villages in the south-east part of the had are occupied by 
Jats. 

91. The general result of this double system of colonization has 

General resalts of this been, that the country adjoinincr the hills from 

double colonisation. Dig- Vahoa to the northern Kafir Kot is held by 

cll^r ""^ ^^ ^^"^""^ Ftiihin tribes. It is only in the border lands 

of the Tank tahsil, and in the upper portion of 
Path&ns. the Dera Ismail Khan tahstl, that there is an 

exclusively Pathan population. In the Pathan hods of the Kulachi 
tahsfl, the Pathans themselves are hardly more than a fourth of the whole 
population, the remaining three-fourths consisting of a mixed popula* 
tion, like that of the rest of the district. Through the bulk of the dis- 
trict there is a mixed population of Jats, Biluches and Kamins. The 
^^ , Biluch element is strongest in the southern 

portion of the trans-Indus tract, where it forms 
a third of the whole population, out-numbering considerably the Jats. 
Jt gets weaker to the north and east, and in tne northern part of the 
Bhakkar tahsfl it disappears. In the greater part of the distriot, the 
Jats and Biluches, as regards their manners and personal appearance, 
are hardly to be distinguished. The Kasranies, however, and some of 
the tribes round Dera Fatteh Khan, still retain the distinguishing pecu- 
larities of their race, and resemble the Biluches of the Saugar tahsfl. 
The Pathans all through the district are congregated in clans ; while 
the Biluches, with the exception of the Kasr6nies who are settled toge- 
there in considerable numbers, and a few tribes of minor importance, are 
much broken up, and have altogether lost their old tribal organization. 

The Jats are still more broken up than the Biluches, and it is 
j^^ necessary to mention that these Jats have no 

community of race among themselves. In this 
district. Sails, Awins, and a host of petty tribes of miscellaneous origin, 
are all grouped together under the common name of Jats, and the variety 
of tribal appellations among them is nearly as great as that of surnames 
among ourselves. Few of these Jat tribes are to be found here in any 
considerable numbers. 

I must now take up the history of the district from the time 
when its colonization by its present inhabitants commenced, reverting 
afterwards to the subject of its existing population, with regard to the 
numbers and constitution of which, some further remarks will be 
necessary. 



45 

HISTORY OP THE DISTRICT FROM THE INVASION OF 
THE EMPEROR TIMOUR TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

92. In the previous chapter I have endeavoured to sketch the 
But little notice of the gradual colonisation of the district by its present 

district in early histories. inhabitants. In the present chapter I shall men- 
tion what is known of the history of the district down to the present 
time. Though in the course of the wars between the kings of India 
and Khoras&n, conquerincr armies must constantly have passed through 
it, yet scarcely a notice of the district itself can be found in the annals 
of those times. 

When the Emperor Timour invaded India in 1398 A.D., a portion 

-,. . . of his right wing probably marched tnrough 

Timour B memoirs. p^^^ j^^^jj ^^^^^^ j^^^ j ^^ g^j ^^ mention 

of any place in the district in Timour's memoirs. 

The Emperor Babar, in the course of his 2nd invasion of India in 
BAbar*s expedition A.D. A.D. 1505, marched into this district from 
1606. Bannii by what must have been the Peyzd 

Pass. He pillaged the villages of Desht (Daman), and robbed some 
Afghan merchants of the white cloth, drugs, sugar, &c. they were carrv- 
ing, and also of some Tipchak horses. He then marched to the banks 
of the Gdmal, and alludes to the caravan route through the Gumal 
Pass. Having crossed the Gdmal, he marched along the skirt of the 
mountains down to the neighbourhood of Sakhi Sarwar in the Dera Ghazi 
Khan district, when he turned back by Jal Chotali to Ghazni. Babar's 
account of the country through which he marched is exceedingly 
meagre. There was nothing to attract his imagination. He mentions 
that the army found plenty of green corn ; but the only booty they got 
was sheep in the Dam&n, and buffaloes in Sind. The rough sketch is 
still true in its outlines, and the Pawindah Kafilas returning laden with 
cotton goods and sugar, the buffaloes on the banks of the Indus, and 
the flocks of dumbos^ or fat-tailed sheep, grazing along the skirts of the 
hills, are striking features to the present day. .The absence of all 
mention of them by Babar would tend to prove that the Biluch chiefs, 
who, according to tradition, had before this founded the towns of Dera 
Ismail Khan and Dera Gh&zi Khan, were at this time men of little 
note or authority. 

93. Under Akbar, Dera Ismail Khan was included in the Stlbah 
^ , of Multan. Little or no revenue can have been 

drawn from it. The boundaries of the Multan 
Bdbah, as given in the Ayin Akbarij are not very clear ; there is no list 
of pargannahs and no mention of any places in this district. 

94. There is a local tradition that Hum&yun, the son of Akbar, 
Local tradition regard- was assisted in his flight by the family of 

ing Hamiyun. Ismail Khan, Hot. This seems improbable, as 

Humaynn, on leaving Bajputana and Sind, did not march by Dera 
Ismail Khan, but passed up through Kachi-Khelat and the Bolan^ vid 
fihowan and Fattehpur-Gandava. 



46 

95. The district continaed to form part of the Moghal empire titt 
Invasion of Nadir Shah, the invasion of Nadir Shah in A.D. 1738. 

A.D. 1738. Nadir Shah is said to have entered the district 

through the Feyzii Pass. He attacked and nearly annihilated the Jator 
tribe near Tank ; other tribes were made to furnish contingents for 
service in Hindost;m, and the country generally was plundered. la 
1739 A.D., the country west of the Indus was surrendered by the Em^ 
peror to Nadir Shah, and passed after his death to Ahmed Shah, Abdalli. 

Ah d Shah Abd 11* ^^® armies of Ahmed Shah marched repeatedly 

^^ , a u through the district, the cis-Indus portion of 

■which was, with the rest of the runjab, incorporated in A.D. 1756, in the 
Durani kingdom. During the greater portion of the reign of Ahmed 
Shah, no regular Governors were appointed by the Kabul Government. 
The country was divided between the Hot and Jaskani chiefs, and a 
number of nearly independent border tribes. Occasionally, one of the 
King's Sirdars marched through the country with an army, collecting, 
in an irregular way, and often by force, the revenue that might have 
been assessed on the different ilaquas ; but little or no attention was 
paid to the internal administration of the country till quite the close of 
the reign of Ahmed Shah. Two or three years before his death, Ahmed 
Shah ueposod Ndsrat Khan, the last of the Hot rulers of Dera, and 

Displacement of the old after this the province of Dera Ismail Khan 
ruling families of the tract, was governed by Kamrudin Khan and other 
Governors, appointed direct from Kabul. Some ten years later the 
descendants of Mahmud Khan, Gujar, who had succeeded the Mirranie^ 
in the government of Dera Ghszi Kiian, w^re similarly displaced, and 
in A.D. 1786, the old Jaskani family of Leiah was driven out by Abdul 
Nabbi, Serai, to whom their territories had been granted by the king ia 
jagir. Towards the end of the century, the whole of the present 
district on both sides of the river was consolidated into a single Govern- 
ment, under Nawab Mahomed Khan, Sa(ldozai. Before, however, pro- 
ceeding further, it will bo necessary to enter into detail as to the history 
of the country under the old Biluch families. 

96. Reference to the settlement of the first Biluch Chiefs along 
Settlement of the early the Indus are found in Ferishta, and in a 

^'"^ra'^llSS'airKhanT^ Pe"5an manuscript translated by Lieutenant 
Dera Gh6ei Khan. Maclagan. Ihe account given by the latter is, 

that in 874 Hijri ( A.D. 1469,) Sultan Hoseyn, son of Kutubudin, 
obtained the government of Multan. He held the forts of Shor and 
Chuneewat ( in Jhang district ), and of Kot Karor ( Karor Lai Isan ) 
and Din Kot ( near Kalabagh ). Soon after Malik Sohr&b, a Dodai 
Biluch, along with his son, Ismail Khan, and Fatteh Khan and othera 
of his tribe arrived from Kech Mekran, and entered the service of Sultan 
Hoseyn. As the hill robbers were then becoming very troublesome 
in the province of Multan, Sultan Hoseyn rejoiced in the opportune 
arrival of Malik Sohrab, and assigned to him the country from the fort of 
Karor to Dinkot. " On this becoming known, many Biluches came 
'^ from Kech Mekran to the service of the Sultan. The lands cultivated 
'' and waste along the banks of the Indus were assigned to the Biluches, 



47 

•* amd the royal revenue began to increase. The old inhabitants of Der« 
" GhAzi Khan and Multan relate that after Sohrab's arrival, Haji Khan, 
** with his son, Gh&zi Khan, and many of their kindred and tribe, came 
^ from Kech Mekran to enter the service of the Sultan. When the 
** tracts along the Indus were in the hands af Malik Sohrab and H iji 
" Khan, Malik Sohrab founded a Dera named after Ismail Khan, and 
^^ Haji Khan another, with the name of Ghdzi Khan." This account is 
confirmed, thongh in less detail, bj' the historian Ferishta. 

97, We next hear of these chiefs in A.D. 1540.* In that year 
8ubmiB8ion of the Dera- ^^^ Einperor^Sher Shah visited Khoshab and 
jat chiefs to Sher bhah, Bheraiu the Shahpur district, and made arrange- 
^•^- ^^*^- nients for briuginff into submission the south- 

western portions of the Punjab. Among other chiefs, who then appeared 
and tendered their submission, were Ismail Khan, Ghazi Khan, and 
Fatteh Khan, Dodai Biluches. These were probably descendents ot the 
men mentioned in the former reference, it being the custom m these 
families to have a common name, by which the ruling chief for the time 
being was always known. Thus the Hot chiefs of Dera Ismail were 
always called Ismail Khans, while the Mirranies of Dera Ghazi were 
called Ghazi Khans and Haji Khans. The Biluches are spoken of in 
the accounts of that time as a barbarous and daring tribe, that had loner 
been settled in great numbers in the lower Punjab. Mr. Fryer, in his 
Settlement Report of the Dera Ghazi Khan district, mentions that the 
first Ghazi Khan is proved by the date on his tomb to have died in 
A.D. 1494. This would agree with the date in the manuscript that 
I have quoted, and would fix the latter half of the fifteenth century as 
the period when the main Biluch immigration took place. It would 
also allow sufficient time for the Biluch headmen to have become recoo*- 
nised chiefs of the country by the time of Sher Shah's visit to Khoshab 
in A.D, 1540, The history of these Biluch settlements is involved 
in a good deal of doubt and confusion, caused in a great measure by 
the common custom«of the local historians of assigning the foundintr 
of the principal towns and villages to the chiefs of the early settlers, or 
their sons, from whom they are supposed to be named. The main facts 
established appear to be, that the early settlers w ere grouped under two 
leading families, the Ismail Khans and Ghazi Khans. Both of these 
Maia facte to be gather- were probably of one stock, tnl?., Dodai Bilu- 
ed from the early histories, ches ; but this name Dodai disappears altoge- 
ther, and in local history Ghazi Khan's tribe are known as Mirrani 
Biluches and Ismail Khan's as Hot Biluches. The Governor of Multan 
seems to have assigned to these two families the lands along the Indus 
including both banks, from its junction with the Chenab upwards. 
They first established themselves on the right bank, but by deo-rees 
threw out parties who took possession of the eastern bank, as well. ^The 
Kulachi chiefs of Dera Fatteh Khan held an inferior position to the 
Hots and the Mirranies, and though perhaps at first independent, were 
brought into subjection by the Hot chiefs at some period before the 

^ flrskine's Histoiy of India, yolome IL, page 424. 



48 

eommencemenl of the 18th century. The head-quarters of the Hot 
The Hot chiefs of Dera Biluches were first fixed at BAbar, a village on 
Ismail Khan. The extent the Indus twenty miles south of Dera Ismail 
of their territory. Khan. They afterwards founded Dera Ismail 

Khan. The ruling chief of this family always took the title of Ismail 
Khan. At the height of their power, they held the Makkalwad from 
the boundary of Sanghar to the Khasor hills. They do not appear to have 
exercised any authority over the PathAn tribes of the western Daman, 
lie Hots also ruled over Darya Khan and the northern portion of the 
Bhakkar tahsil, where a grain measure, known as ihe Hotwala topa^ is 
still used instead of the Ibhakkar tova^ which is the common measure 
in the country formerly ruled by tne Jaskanies. Very little is known 
about these itot chiefs. They ruled continuously at Dera Ismail Khan 
The last Hot deposed in from their first settlement till about A.D. 1770, 
A.D. 1770. when the last of them, Ndsrat Khan, was 

deposed by the king Ahmed Shah, and taken as a prisoner to Kabul. 
During the period of their ascendancy, the Hots were engaged in constant 
petty wars with the Gandapurs and other Pathin tribes of the border, 
llur Mahomed, Kalhora, is also said to have had a war with the Hots 
shortly before Nadir Shah's invasion (^A.D. 1738), in the course of 
which he marched into their country as far as B&bar. Now and again 
the armies of Nadir Shah and the Ddrani kings swept through the 
Deraj&t, but they interfered but little with the internal government of 
the country. After the deposition of Ntlsrat Khan, Dera Ismail Khan 
was ruled for 20 years by Governors appointed direct from Kabul. 
In A. D. 1791, Ndsrat Khan was released from imprisonment, and given 
After history of the ^ sannad conferring on him afcesh the Govem- 
lamiij. ment of Dera Ismail Khan. He was in posses- 

sion, however, for but a short time. In 1794 A.D. the government of 
the province was transferred to Mahomed Khan, Saddozai ; Ndsrat Khan 
had in consequence to quit Dera. He took care, however, to carry off 
with him a rich merchant, from whom he afterwards exacted a heavy 
ransom. This was his last public act. The Hots Aow disappear from 
history. Ndsrat Khan returned, it is true, and settled near Belot ; but 
he possessed no property, and a small pension, granted to the family 
by tne Saddozai Nawabs, was stopped on the death of Nawab Sher 
Mahomed in 1855. The family is now represented by a young lad of 
about 15, who had no means of support beyond the charity of some 
distant relations, but to whom a birat allowance of Rs. 240 a year has 
now been granted by the Government. 

98. The lands of the Leiah tahsil, fronting the boundary of the 

E resent Dera Ghazi Khan district, appear to 
ave been included in that section of the Indus 
valley that had been assigned to the Mirranies. These are said to have 
founded Kot Udo, Kot Snltdn, Leiah and Naushera. Beyond Naushera 
the country probably at first belonged by the terms of the original 
assignment to the Hots. The towns that I have mentioned are said to 
have been founded about 1550 A.D., by the^ four sons of one of the 
Ghazi Khans. The eldest of these, Kamal Khan, the founder of Leiab, 



49 

)8 said io have held a sort of supremacy over his brothers. As far as 
I can ascertain, however, the Mirranies never held Leiah as an inde- 
pendent Government. The Ghazi Khans held the Leiah province - as 
part of the Ghizi territory, much as the Hots of Dera held Darya 
Khan, neither of them having their head-quarters in the cis-Indns tahsils. 
It was under these circumstances that the Jaskanies rose to power. 
Th • f th T V • Meer Chakar was a leading man among the 
e as ames. Q^rliest of the Biluch settlers of the Leiah pro- 
vince. One of his descendants, Datid Khan, established himself as a 
robber chief in the jungles between Karor and Leiah, with head-quar- 
ters at Wara Gish-Kauri. He collected a large number of followers, 
and at the head of 500 horse, he defied both the Mirranies of Dera 
Ghdzi Khan and the Hots of Dera, on whose borders he was established. 
This was durinor the reiorn of Akbar, in the latter half of the 16th 
century. Eventually the Emperor Akbar sent a force against him, and 
he was killed, and his band broken up. The tribe seem, however, to 
have again gathered together, and in the beginning of the 17th century 
Biluch Khan, their chief, received a grant from the Emperor of the 
country from Mahmiid Kot in Muzafiargarh to Khola in Midnwali. 
The Jaskanies do not appear, however, to have succeeded in getting 
possession of the portion of the tract granted, lying to the north of 
Darya Khan. This was hold by the Hots of Dera till the end of tho 
18th century. Probably the Jaskanies got nothing more than what thoy 
already possessed in fact, though perhaps in nominal subordination 
to the Hots and Mirranies. Henceforth they were independent, and. 
the Mirranies lost their hold on the Leiah province altogether. The 
Mirranies are said to have been finally ousted from Leiah about 
A.D. 1620. 

99. The leading Biluch tribes of the Bhakkar and Leiah tahsfis 
The leading Jaskani all claim descent from Biluch Khan. They 
clans. are the Jaskanies, Mandranies, Mamdanies, 

Kandanies, Sarganies and Malianies. Biluch Khan was succeeded 
by Jasak Khan, Bhakkar Khan, Langar Khan, and other chiefs of his 
family, whose deeds are much exaggerated by local tradition. 

At the beginning of the 17th century the Jaskanies ruled over Bhak- 
Extent of the Jaskani kar and Loiah, and across the Thai to the 
territory. Chenab side. They seem to have been more 

or less at war with the Sials of Ooch, and also came occasionally into 
contact with the Sikhs, who were then becoming a powur in tho Punjab. 
Biluch Khan, the blind, one of the most famous of those Jaskanies, is 
said to have been killed in A.D. 1746 in a fight with Jhanda Sing and 
They come into contact Ganda Sing, the Sikh leaders. I expect that 
with the Sikhs. the real date of this event was somewhat later, 

and that this is probably the saini Jhanda Sing as took Multan in A.D. 
1772. In Cunningham's History of the Sikhs, it is mentioned that from 
1772 A.D. to tho retaking of Multan by the Kabul king, the Bunghee 
Sikhs were predominant in all the southern Punjab, and that " they 
*' seem to have possessed Mankora as woll as Multan, and to have levied 
"exactions from Kal.ibagh downwards." Local tradition is against 



50 

Mankera bavincr been occnpied by the Sikhs before its final capture 
by Ranj{t Singh, and any expedition made by them in this direction 
can have been little more than a transitory raid.* 

100. Fatteh Khan succeeded his father, Bilnch Khan, the blind. 

Fatteb Khan, Jaskani, Towards the end of his rule, Nusrat Khan, Hot, 
A.l). 1746—1770. of Dera Ismail Khan, crossed over to Bhakkar, 

and defeated Fatteh Khan's son, Ndsrat, whom he took prisoner with 
him to Dera. Hasan Khan, Laskrani*, who was Wazir to Fatteh Khan, 
was ordered on this to attack Dera : but he made excuses ; and an 
attempt of Nusrat Jaskani's mother to obtain his release, led to her 
attempted violation by Ntisrat Khan, Hot. Nusrat, Jaskani, was after 
this released, but both he and his father, Fatteh Khan, poisoned them- 
selves through shame at the disgrace. The whole uffair was a great 
scandal, and as Niisrat Khan, Hot, bore a bad character as a tyrant and 
winebibber, the king, Ahmed Shah, who was desirous of tightening 
his hold over these semi-independent provinces, took advantage of the 
excuse to deprive him of his Government, and to remove him as a 
prisoner to Kabul. Meanwhile Hasan Khan, Laskrani, ruled the cis- 
Wazir HasaQ Khan, Lask- Indus country in the name of Haiat Khan, the 
rani, A.D. 1770-1779. grandson of the former chief, Fatteh Khan. 

Being desirous, however, to keep the Government in his own hands, he 
continued to keep Uaiat Khan under close surveillance in the fort of 
Mankera, even after the latter had attained his majority. Haiat Khan 
eventually managed to escape, and getting together a party, he defeated 

Haiit Khan, Jaskani, Hasan Khan, and fook him prisoner. Hasan 
A.D. 1779—1787. Khan was soon afterwards murdered by some 

of Haiat Khan's attendants, who were opposed to him. The Government 
of the Jaskanies, however, was now fast breaking up. The Sarganies, 
who were then a strong tribe, and had been mudi pampered by Haiat 
Khan, took offence at an expedition fitted out by Haiat Khan against 
one Gul Mahomed of Ooch, a holy individual, who had been trying to 
establish his independence in the Chenab countrj''. They accordingly 
attacked him treacherously, and murdered him in his fort of Mankera. 
This was in A.D. 1787. After this the Sarganies, under their chief, 
Mahomed Khan, Jaskani, Grola Khan, held out for some time against 
A.D. 1787—1789. Mabomed Khan, the brother and successor of 

the deceased Haiat. They were eventually defeated by the Jaskani 

Earty under the leadership of Diwan Ladda Ram, and their chief, Gola, 
aving been killed in this action, the Sarganies came to terms with 
Mahomed Khan, and were bought off with the Mdnda-Shergarh 
country, which was granted to them in jagir. 



* The history of these times is wrapped in mnch obscurity, and the accounts 
being brwed only on tradition are often contradictory. One account makes out that 
ftiluch Khan's branch of the Jaskani family, haying been ousted from Bhakkar, called 
in the Sikhs. A Sikh force accordingly entered the country vid Ralur Kot, and re- 
placed Biluch Khan as ruler. This account declares that Biluch Khan died a natural 
death, and not in battle ^nth the Sikhs at all. There are two palm trees at Bhakkar, 
named Jhanda Sing and Ganda Sing, and it is probable that these Chiefs may have 
passed through with their forces in the course of some raid. 



51 

101. We must now return to the affairs of Dera Ghazi Ehan^ 
Contemporary hUtory whose chiefs had always exercised a good deal 
of the Dem Gh^i Khan of inflaence, if not of authority, over the Leiah 
district. portion of the Jaskani dominions. The notices 

of the Dera Gh4zi history are mostly fragmentary and conflicting. 
Aa far as I can make out, all through the rei^ of Ahmed Shah, Abdalli, 
(A.D. 1747-^1773,) the old Mirrini family was being gradually 
crushed out in the conflict between the Durani king and the Ealhoras of 
Sindh, and during the whole of this time Mahomed Khan Gdjar, Wazir 
under the last of the Ghazi Khans, was playing a double game for his 
own hand, sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other. When 
the country west of the Indus was ceded to Nadir Shah in A.D. 1739, 
he confirmed Wazir Mahmdd Khan as Governor, and Mahmiid Khan 
seems also to have been continued by Ahmed Shah, when he passed 
through Dera Ghazi Khan in A.D. 1748^ All this time, however, 
the Kalhora rulers of Sindh claimed the sovereignty of the country, 
and though Sindh itself was nominally a portion of the territory ceded 
to Kabul by the Emperor of Delhi, still the hold of the Kabul king, 
even over Dera Ghazi Khan, was weak and intermittent, and no revenue 
cauld be obtained from Sindh without hard fighting. The Kalhora 
princes at this time were Ndr Mahomed, generally called Ndr Mahomed, 
Serai, and after his death, his son Gholam Shah. This is the Ndr 
Mahomed who fought with the Hots of Dera Ismail Khan, and is said, 
Connection of Kalhora ^7 Captain Mackenzie, to have governed Leiah 
princes with the Jaskanies and the Sindh-Saugor Doab to the Chenab. 
of Leiah. Captain Mackenzie writes that he pushed back 

the Jaskanies, and look possession as far as Darya Khan, but this does 
not agree with what I believe to be the correct account. The Jaskanies 
continued to hold Leiah till 1787 A.D., while Darya Khan was never 
held by them at all. It is quite possible, however, that the Jaskani 
chiefs may, for a time prior to the invasion of Nadir Shah, have admit- 
ted the* supremacy of the Kalhoras, who were then practically indepen- 
dent princes of a large and wealthy province, and might well have 
extended their authority over the smaller chiefs to the north. At Dera 
Ghazi Khan, the last chiefs of the Mirrani line, and Mahmdd Khan 
Gujar, who though titularly their Wazir, appears really to have been 
more powerful than his nominal masters, also held their Government 
in subordination to the Kalhoras, and though the rule of the latter, after 
Ahmed Shah's accession, was rather intermittent, still they do not 
appear to have given up their claim to Dera Gh&zi Khan, till they were 
„ . . , . . . themselves driven out of Sindh. In 1758 A.D., 

Der^"^Ghl^i Khln.%ar- the king sent a force under KauraMal,by 
ther histiry of Dera GhAzi which the Sindh party was defeated in a fight 
Khao. near the town of Dera Ghazi. The Mirranies 

at this time were split up into rival factions, which took opposite sides, 
and many of them after the event emigrated to the neighbourhood of 
Leiah, where they are still found in considerable numbers. This Kaura 
Mai was afterwards Governor of Multan, and exercised, I believe, a sort 
of authority under the king, both over the Mirraniea of Dera Ghizi 



52 

end over the Jaskanies of Leiali. In A.D. 1709, Gholam Shah Kal- 

hora again attacked Dera Gbazi, and finally drove out the Mirranies. 

He put in Mahmud Khan Gujar, as Governor, and Mahimid was suc- 

•»# u ij T7 1. /-, • ceoded by his nephew Barkhurdar, who was 

Mahmiid Khan G ajar. i .11 i • *^a t^ irr^n u xu • 

killed in A.D. 17/9, when the province was 

Jut under Governors appointed direct from Kabul. Neither Mahmdd 
[han, Gujar, nor Barkhurdar exercised any authority over Leiah and 
the cia-Indus country. Thev were purely Governors of Dera Ghszi 
Kalhoras or Serais Khan. Gholam Shah took Dera Ghazi in 
ousted from Sindh. A.D. 1769 ; but in A.D. 1772, the Kalhoras 

were themselves driven out of Sindh by the Talpiirs. This threw them 
entirely into the hands of the Kabul kincr, and they retired with their 
following to the Dera Ghszi Khan district, whore they were granted 
considerable laorjrs. Hc^nceforth thev are known as Serais, instead of 
by their old name of Kalhonis. The Serais, finding themselves stranded 
at Dera Ghazi Khan, with a large armed following, now commenced 
to look about for some territory, in which to found a new principality. 
The Jaskani country, torn by internal faction, and attached by old 
tradition to the province of Dera Ghazi Khan, was close at hand, and in 
every way suited for the purpose. Armed therefore with a sannad from 
Tiniur Shah, Abdul Nabbi Serai, brother of Gholam Shah, entered into 
t J 1 VT I.U. 1 ^ league with the turbulent Sarganies, and mar- 
dro'l°e'tL^JfBtni"''o„t'oI ched against Leiah. Mahomed Khan, Jaskani, 
Leiah. Extinction of the was defeated and fled to the Tiwana country, 
JaBkanies as a ruling fam- ^n J thence to Bahawalpur. The Nawdb of 

* ^' Bahawalpur would probably have assisted him 

to recover his country, but Mahomed Khan, with the pride of a Bilucb, 
insultinorly refused to eive the Nawab a valuable work on hawking, 
for which he had asked, and ended his days as a dependent on Hasad 
Khan, the Nutkani chief of Saugar. The present representatives of 
this family are mentioned in my notes on leading families ( para. 639). 
Thus ended the line of the Jaskani chiefs, after a rule of more than 
200 years. 

102. Abdul Nabbi Ser^i held the Leiah government only for 
Abdul Nabbi, SerAi. (A.D. three years. Complaints were made to the king 
1789—1792.) of his tyrannical rule, while an appointment 

He is ousted by Nawdb ^^^? wanted for Mahomed Khan Saddozai. 
Mahomed Khan, Saddozai, This man was cousin to Muzaffar Khan, Nawab 
A.U. 1792. of Multan, for whom he had for some time acted 

as Governor of Multan, to the satisfaction of the king. A sannad^ there- 
fore, was soon drawn out, appointing Mahomed Khan, Nawab and Gov- 
ernor of the Sind-Saugor Doab from Kalliir Kot to Mahmud Kot, and 
from the Indus to the Chenab. Mahomed Khan had still to take posses- 
sion, which was not to be done without fighting. He was met by 
Abdul Nabbi near Leiah, and in the battle that ensued, the Serais had at 
first the advantage, and the Nawab's people fled. Nawab Mahomed 
Khan himself was ready to fly, saying " what can a king do without au 
army ?" but was stopped by his Jemadar, who said, " Better die than 
fly." Eventually, he rallied a part of his forces, and meanwhile some 



53 

-Lal)ftnas crept np through a hhang field and attacked the Serais from be- 
hind, and killed Mahomed Arif, the son of Abdul Nabbi, who had been 
the soul of the fight, and the Serais, beincr disheartened, gave in. The 
Serais were allowed a day to remove their property, and departed by- 
boat to their own country to the south.* 

103. In the troubled times, before the arrival of Nawab Mahomed 
Disturbed state ol the Khan, the leading men all over the country 

cis-lnduB tahsile. were setting up as independent chiefs. 

These were gradually brought into subjection by the Nawab, a 
Expedition against the work which in some cases was not accomplished 
TiwAnas. without considerable difficulty. The Nawab 

also reduced the people of Van Buchran ( in Midnwali ) .and afterwards 
attacked the Tiwanas under Malik Khan Mahomed, and defeated them, 
and looted Niirpur. The Nawab did not, however, retain possession of 
the Tiwana country. Tliis was the origin of* the feud between the 
Multani Pathans and the Tiwanas. The celebrated Malik Fatteh- 
* Tiwana, who took so leading a part in the history of Dera Ismail Khan 
during the years immediately preceding annexation, was grandson of 
this Malik Khan Mahomed. 

The Naw6b also sent Diwan M6nak Rai across the Indus against 
The Khasors reduced to the Khasors, who had killed a holy Saiad of 
Bubjection. Belot. The Khasors were eventually defeated, 

and the Nawab took their country and built a fort there. 

104. Meanwhile Timour Shah had died in A.D. 1793. He was 
Kawib Mahomed Khan succeeded by Zemin Shah, whose title was, 

seizes prince Humayun, hptwever, disputed by prince Humayun. In 
A.D. 1794. A.D. 1794, Humayun made his second attempt 

to recover the kingdom from Shah Zemdn, but was defeated, and fled to 
Saugar, where Massu Khan, Niitkani. chief of Saugar, assisted him, 
and managed to smuggle him across the Dera Fatteh Khan ferry. He 
got to Leiah, and stopped at a well, where curiosity was excited by his 
paying an ashraji apiece for a few sticks of sugar-cane that he had 
taken. The news came to the ears of Nawab Mahomed Khan, who hap- 
pened to be at Leiah at the time. The Nawab suspected that it must be 
the prince Humayun, for whose capture strict orders, with promises of 
untold rewards, had been issued by Zemdn Shah. He accordingly 
collected some horsemen and pursued after Humayun, whom he caught 
up at a well in the Thai, some fifteen miles from Leiah. Humayun had 
some 20 or 30 horsemen with him, who in desperation made a good 
fight. The young prince, the son of Humayun, was killed, and 

♦ I have gone more into detail with re;?ard to the contemporary history of the 
Dera Gh^zi Kban district than would othcrwiBe have been necessary, because Captain 
Mackenzie, in his Settlement Report of the Leiah and Bhakkar tahslls, gives his 
opinion that Gholam Shah actually ruled in the Leiah country at a period antecedent 
to the ascendancy of the Jaskauies, and questions the correctness of the Dera Gh4zi 
Khan histories on which my own account is based. All the intelligent natives, however, 
that I have questioned, deny that the Serais twice ruled the country — once before and 
once after tl^ Jaskaui dynasty, as suggested by Captain Mackenzie. 



54 

Humaynn was taken prisoner and brought into Leiah. Tlie Nawal) at 
once reported the capture of Humayun to the king Zeman Shah^ who 
sent orders that Huinayun's eyes should beput out, and his companions 
He ifl rewarded with the disenibowelled. He also conferred on the 
goTernment of the trane- r«awab the name of Sarbiland Khan, and the 
Indus province of Dera government of Dera Ismail Khan, in addition 
Ismail Khan. ^ ^jj^j. ^^j^jj j^^ already held. The orders 

of the king were carried out at Leiah. Among Huinayun^s attendants, 
>vho suffered, was a brother of Fatteh Khan, Barakzai. Humayun him* 
self passed the rest of his life in confinement. 

105. The province of Dera, of which Mahomed Khan now became 
State of the province. Governor, extended from the Khasor range to 

Position of the PathAn the Saugar country, ruled over by the Ndtkani 
cl«^8. chief. The whole of the Makkalw&d submitted 

at once to the new Nawab. Not so the tracts occupied by the Pathan 
claus. These tribes were bound to furnish the king with a body of 
horse, or a money commutation in lieu of service. The king also levied 
the Jaziaj or tax on Hindus, through the whole Daman. Beyond the 
payment of this revenue, the Pathan tribes were quite independent of the 

Attempts to bring them king and his local Governor. An attempt was 
into subjection. made by Mahomed Khan to reduce the Mian- 

khels, and he took many of their villages and forced their Khan to fly ; 
but tlie fugitive Khan went to his enemies the Gundapurs, and in spite 
of their internal jealousies, the tribes joined together under the lead of 
the great Sarwar Khan, and compelled the Nawab to abandon his design. 
As, however, the Ddrani monarcliy commenced to break up, the power 
of Mahomed Khan gradually increased. At last, in A.D- 1813, he sent 

Eventually the Ganda- » large force, under Diwan Manak Rai, against 
pars and the B'lUthern the Gundapdrs, and overthrew them at Maddi, 
tribes are reduced. ^^d burnea the town of Kulachi. A fine was 

put on the Gundapurs, and as they failed to pay it, they were deprived 
of all their eastern villages. Diwan Manak Rai afterwards proceeded to 
rectify the boundaries of the Miankhels in a similar way, and before the 
death of Mahomed Khan, his. rule was to some extent established over 
all the Dam&n tract except Tank. His attempts against Tank were 

. . J,., baffled by Sarwar Khan, who used to flood the 
ar^uMuccosB^l"" surrounding country on his approach. Nawab 

Mahomed Khan had his head-quarters at Man- 

Beath of Naw£b Maho- kera and Bhakkar, and governed Dera by de- 
wed Khan, A.D. 1815. p^^y^ j^ ^ jj ^g^g ^^ j.^ J g^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hafiz Ahmed Khan. 

106. Mahomed Khan was undoubtedly a man of great character, 
Succeeded by Kaw&b and during his life time the Sikhs abstained 

Hafiz Ahmed Khan, A.D. from attacking the Lciah territories. Immedi- 
1816— 1S26. ately on his death a demand for tribute was 

His relations with the made on his successor, Hafiz Ahmed Khan. On 
Sikhs. his refusal, his forts of Khangarh and Mahmud 

Kot were occupied by the Sikhs, and great atrocities were perpetrated oa 



55 

tire Mahomedan population of the neighbonrKood, till Hifiz Ahmed 
Khan procured the withdrawal of the Sikh garrisons by the payment of a 
large sum of money, and thus recovered his forts, with part also of the 
plunder extorted. After this the Sikh Government continued to press the 
Ifawab with all kinds of extortionate demands. Among other things 
Ranjit Singh was especially fond of seizing any valuable horses* that he 
might hear of^ and made .the Nawab yield up some of his special favorites. 

The Sikhs take Haltan In A.D. 1818, Multan, in spite of the gallant 
A.D. 1818. resistance offered by Nawab Muzaffar Khan, 

had been taken by the Sikhs. Nawab Hafiz Ahmed Khan bad not 
dared to assist his brother Nawdb and kinsman in the struggle, but his 
own turn was soon to come. In the autumn of 1821, Banjit Singh, dis- 

The Sikhs attack Hafiz engaged from more serious matters, determined 
Ahmed Khan, A.D. 1821. to reduce him. He accordingly marched 
with an army through Shahpur to a point on the Indus opposite Dera- 
Ismail Khan. He sent a force of 8,000 men across the river, and 
on this the town was surrendered by the Governor, Diwdn Manak 
Rai. Bhakkar, Leiah, Khangarh, and Maujghar were all sue- 

Siese of Mankenu cessivelv reduced without resistance. Mankera, 

fortified by a mud wall, and having a citadel of 
brick, but protected more by its position in the midst of ^a desert, was 
now the only stronghold remaining. A division was advanced for the 
investment of this place on 18th November. Sardar Khan, Badozai, a 
bold impetuous man, recommended the Nawab to march out at once 
and attack the Sikhs. '^ To fight in the plain," said he, ^^ is the busi* 
ness of a lion, to hide in a hole that of a fox." The Nawab, however, was 
not to be persuaded, and preferred to stand a seige. The Sikhs now 
set beldars to dig kacha wells for the use of the troops, and in the 
meantime; water had to- be brought on camels and bullocks from Mauj- 
ghar. The wells were ready by 25th November, and Banjit Singh then 
moved to Mankera with his main force, and on the 26th November the 
investment was completed. The bombardment of the place continued 
for ten days after this, but not without loss to the besiegers. At last one 
of the minarets of the fort mosque, having been broken Hby the Sikh fire, 
the Nawab, looking on this as an unlucky omen, and thinking that 

enough had been done for honors, proposed 
surreB er. terms, and agreed to surrender the fort on con- 

dition of his being allowed to march out with his arms and property, 
and to retain the town and province of Dcra, with a suitable jagir. 

The Sikhs annex the ^"J^* ^^°S^ granted the terms, and the place 
Leiah province. The Nawdb was surrendered accordingly. The Nawab was 
retiring to Dera Ismail treated with great civility, and was sent with 
^^*°' an escort to Dera. Ranjit Singh now annexed 

the cis-Indus tahsfls, and the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua, which con- 
tained the strong fort of Girang. He also, at this same time, enforced 
engagements for tribute on the chiefs of Tank and Saugar. The forts 
of both Girang and Mankera were put in charge of Governors, who 
held directly under the Sikh Government, and were never entrusted to 
the local Kardars. 



56 

107. Ranj it Singh "now put Rattan Chand in oharn^e of the land 
Government of the Leiah revenue of the annexed territories of Bhakkaf 

province under the Sikhs. and Ldiafa, and Rajkanr of the customs. These 
were suspended after two years, on account of their bad inanatrement 
and oppression.^ Narayan Das, GurwAra, whose family still resides at 
Mankera, was then appointed in their stead. In his time the Bbidwals 
refused to pay tirnij and at first defeated the Sikh forces sent against 
them, but were eventually defeated and he&vily fined. The rule of 
Narayan Das was exceedingly oppressive, and on the people complain- 
ing to Ranjit Sing, General Ventura was appointed to examine Narayan 
Das^ accounts. Narayan Das took poison, and his son Tej Bhan was 
squeezed, and made to pay up all defalcations with a fine. He was thjn 
appointed in room of his father ; but being unable to pay the full as- 
sessment, was removed after a year. Nawab Abdul Samand, Badozai^ 
Jagirdar of Dera Deen Pannah, was then appointed Governor (A.D. 
1B28.) He had a boundary dispute with Hasad Khan of Saugar, 
regarding some lands in the bed of the Indus. The Naw&b's forces 
met those of Hasad Khan at Bet Balu, but in spite of the gallantry of 
their leader, Nasar Khan, Popalzai, of Docharkha, and of the Bhidwal 
horsemen, the rest of the Nawib's troops ran away, and Hasad Khan 
remained in possession of the disputed territory. Khoshal Singh, 
Khalsiah, was now deputed by Ranjit Singh to the assistance of Abdiil 
Samand Khan. He came with his troops to Mankera, and promised 
to drive Hasad Khan out of Saugar, and to give his territory to Abdul 
Samand Khan for Rs. 25,000. Having been paid the money, he crossed 
over to Saugar, and got Hasad Khan to pay him Rs. 25,000 more to 
leave him alone. Having thus made Rs. 50,000 he returned to Lahorey 
and left Abdul Samand Khan and Hasad Khan to fight it out. All this 
fighting and bribery prevented Abdul Samand Khan from paying up 
his revenue (ijara) ; so he was sold up, and his Dera Deen Pannah 
jagir was confiscated. In A.D. 1831, Rajkaur was appointed Ijara^ 
dar, and after him Khdlsa Khazan Singh. Eventually in A.D. 1837, 
It is made over to ^^^ whole of the cis-Indus country, as far as 
8Awan Mul. Mianwali, was made over to Diwan Miilraj, the 

, . ^. Sikh Governor of Multan, in whose name it 

Government of Sawan . i j u i.* tt- 

Mul. and his son Mulraj, was Successively governed by his son Karm 

till tbe 2nd Punjab war, Narayan, and his grandson Wazir Chand, 
A.D. 1848. Sawan Mul was a wise and able Governor, far- 

famed for the excellence of his revenue administration and for his 
. general encouragement of agriculture. His name is still a household 
word in the cis-lndus tahsils. He died in A.D. 1845, and was succeeded 
by his sou Miilraj. Shortly after this, the second Sikh war broke out, 
and was followed by the annexation of the whole country by the 
English Government. 

108. It must not be imagined that under the Sikhs the whole 

cis-Indus territory formed one compact Gov- 
Tndi^«Vhtiir '"^ ^^"^ ""'" ernment. A great portion of it was held ia 

jagir. Jijach jagiruar possessed judicial and 
executive authority within the limits of his jagir, and was quite ind^ 



S7 

E indent of tibe Eirdir, to whom the £A«e&a portion of the distriot 
appened to be leased. These jagird&rs were almost invariably non- 
residents, and pat in agents, known as Hakims, to manage their estates. 
These Hdkims were more or less in the habit of raiding on one another, 
and lifting catUe, and the country, till the time of Sawan Mai, was 

Sierally in a disturbed state. These jagirs were mostly in the Thai, 
iderabid, Kfinpur, DiUiwala, N&rpur were all held by different Sikh 
Sird&rs. The 8indlianwala family held the Panchkota tract, so named 
from the five principal places which it incladed (Harnauli, Jandanwala, 
Pipl4n, Eal&r and Darya Khan). The Panchkota jaglr was resumed 
about A.D. 1844, and made over on yara to Sawan Mai, and none of 
(he large jagirs were continued afler annexation. The whole of the 
eis-Indns jagirs granted by the Sikh Government, with the exception 
of one or two small villages, have now been resumed* 

History of tbe tnm«. ^ 109. Having carried the history of the 
Indus uhaHs from the fall cis-{jidus tahdlls down to annexation, it is ne* 
«>f Nankera. cessary to revert to Nawdb H4fiz Ahmed Khan. 

Hafis Ahmed Khan, having lost the whole of his cis-Indus terri- 

» * i» av. ^^y^ along with his capital Mankera, now took 

iiuS'torrito^ "^ up. his head-quarters at Dera Ismail Khan. 

The Sikhs having taken the Girang (Dera 
Fatteh Khan) 3aqna, his dominions extended some thirty-five miles 
t>nlv to the south. To the north he had no definite boundary, as in 
add.ition to the country south of the Khasor range, he exercised a sort 

of precarious rule over the provinces of Marwat 
mndM^r andlsakhel. Isakhel he had taken in A.D. 

1818, and about the same time he had com* 
inenoed to interfere in the affairs of Marwat« The Marwatees were 
then divided into two hostile factions. One of these called in the assis- 
tance of ihe Naw&b, who despatched a force to their assistance under 
Diwan M&nak Rai. The Diwan defeated the hostile Marwat faction 
in a fight at Lagharwah, and then declared the whole country 
tribntarv to his master. After this, a body of the Nawab's troops 
marche<i into the Marwat valley each spring, and extorted what 
produce they could by wav of revenue. On one occasion the Diwan 
tried to extend his demands to the Bannu valley, but the country was 
one of walled villages, and he had to retire unsuccessful. In 1823, 
however, Ranjit Singh himself visited Isakhel and Marwat with an 
army, and from this time, till the annexation of Dera by the Sikhs in 
1836, ihese tracts were alternately harried by the troops of the Nawab 
and of the Maharaja, the latter paying but little regard to the supposed 
with T^k. rights of the former. About 1823 A.D., the 

War Ank. Nawib sent a strong force under his Wazir, 

8horin Khan, against Sarwar Khan of T&nk. The Tank troops were 
4,000 in number, but mostly consisted of Waziri mercenaries, who fled at 
the beginning of the action, leaving the ^ns exposed, which were 
captured, iilabdad Khan, the son of tiie Tank Nawab, distinguished 
himself much by his gallantry on this occasion, but was wounded and 
bad. to fly. Bharin Khan did not follow up his success. He was said 



58 

to have received a lac of rnpecs from Sarwar Khan, as a bribe i<f 
conchide peace. He accordingly retarned, and Sarwar Khan remained 
independent as before. 

110. It was in the beginning of A.D. 1822, that Nawiib Hafiz 

Old town of Dera carried Ahmed retired to Dera. In the two following 

away by the Indus. Death years, the old town of Dera was completely 

1826^*^'' Ahmed, A.D. cashed away by the Indus, and in 1825 A.D., 

Hafiz Ahmed died, and was sncceeded by his 
Naw&b 8her Mahomed son Sher Mahomed Khan, the grandson of 
^^*"- Nawab Mahomed Khan. The Sikhs took ad- 

vantage of the occasion to exact from Sher Mahomed Khan a nazarcbia 
of a lac of rupees. Sher Mahomed Khan was then about 32 years of 
age. He was a man of no administrative ability, and fonder of shows 
and sport than of work. The rule of Sher Mahomed Khan lasted from 
1825 to 1836. . The state of the country was during this period most 
unsatisfactory. The Nawab was perpetually engaged in war with 
Sarwar Khan of Tank, and with the Pawindah and border clans. His 
revenues were eaten up by a swarm of rapacious and lawless soldiery, 
and he had further to meet the extortionate demands of the Sikhs. The 
cultivating and trading classes were in consequence ground down to 
the ground with ever-increasing exactions. The rates of mahsul and 
tikk under the Nawab were not heavier than those which have remained 
in force up to the present time ; but after the loss of the cis-Indus Pro- 
vinces, the revenue was insufficient to meet the pay of the Nawdb's 
troops, and orders were perpetually being issued to the Hakims, the 
local officers in charge of the revenue collections, to raise extra sums to 
make good the deficit. The Hakims had to distribute this extra demand 
over the different villages in his charge, and in this way the zemindar 
class was squeezed to the utmost. 

111. The way in which the Sikh Government collected its tribute 
Mr. Ma88on»8 account of ^^om the trans-Indus Nawabs, is described in 
the way in which the Sikhs the following extract from Mr. Masson*s ao- 
realised their tribute. ^ount of his visit to Dera in 1827 :— 

" I was yet in this town (of Dera Ismail Khan) when Maha Sing, 
" one of Hari Sing's officers, arrived with sixty horsemen, demanding 
" the sum of sixty thousand rupees, and bearing a summons upon the 
'^ Nawab to attend the Maharaja at Lahore. These men crossed the 
" river, and suddenly one morning entered the citadal before the Nawab 
" had risen. They talked very loudly, asking what sort of a darbir 
" was that of Dera, there being no one to receive them. The claim 
^* could not be evaded or resisted, and Maha Singh and his party were 
" stationed in the town and provided sumptuously at the Nawab's charge, 
^' until he should be able to pay the amount called for. Simultaneously 
'^ anotlier party of equal strength, was despatched on an analogous 
" mission to Sarwar Khan, the Nawsb of Tank." Mr. Masson esti- 
mated that the contributions levied by the Sikhs amounted to half the 
revenue realised by the Nawab. The amount of this revenue, from all 
sources, he put at three lacs, but this seems somewhat excessive. 



59 

112. One of the principal sources from which the Nawab recruited 

his revenue, consisted of the customs levied 

-Tsso!*"''^ "^"^ ^^^^ f^'^^" ^^? Pawindah traders. His demands unoa 

the Miankhels were gradually increased, till la 
1829 A.D. they amounted to Rs. 11,000. In the spring of that year, 
about the time when the Pawindah Karwans were starting for Khorasan, 
the Nawab as usual sent Painda Khan, Khajikzai, with a small force to 
collect the tribute. The Miankhels offered to pay Rs. 9,000, and when 
they were told by Painda Khan that he had no power to grant a re- 
mission, and that they should go into Dera and petition the Nawab, they 
went off and refused to pay anything. The Nawab on this marched 
into the Miankhel country and looted the town of Draban. The Mian- 
khel chief, Umer Khan, fled into the hills, and there he made a league 
with the N&sars, Doutanies, and other Pawindahs to resist the Nawab 
by force. At the beginning of the next cold weather, therefore, the 
Pawindahs assembled in gn?at numbers, and the Nawab, too, collected 
his forces and the Bilnches and other tribes, and marched against them, 
and came to Kot Atal. A trading community, like the Pawindahs, 
however, could not afford to go to war, unless reduced to extremity, 
and the parties came to terms. The Pawindahs agreed to pay Hs. 15,00(> 
to the Nawab, and to give the son of Umer Khan as a hostage in the 
meanwhile. The Nawab on this consulted his leading Sirdars. Painda 
Khan advised that the Pawindahs should be made to pay up the amount 
partly at once, and partly in instalments at the different places at which 
the force would halt on its return to D.3ra ; but Sirdar Khan, Badozai, 
said : " Who are these camel drivers that they should refuse to pay ? 
" Let the army return to Dera, and let them pay the tribute there." 
And his counsel pleased the Nawab. So the army returned. When 
the Pawindahs, however, saw that they were many, and the Nawab's 
men few, they hardened their hearts, and refused to pay. And when 
the day came on which the money was due, they tola the Nawab that 
the Pawindahs refused to pay. So the Nawdb gathered his army to- 
gether again, and marched back towards Kot Atal, and the Pawindahs 
collected at Garah Mohabbat, and looted . the Nawab's town of Budli, 
and when the Nawdb came to the Gumal nullah, near Kot Atal, Painda 
Khan said : ^^ Let us cross over and encamp in the plain beyond, lest 
the Pawindahs creep up the nullah and attack us secretly at night," 
but Sirdar Khan, Badozai, said" : "Not so, let us stay here. Who are^ 
these dogs of Pawindahs that they should attack us?" So the Nawab 
encamped by the nullah, and in the night the Pawindahs came secretly, 
and Sirdar Khan, Badozai, was sitting in his tent, with lights burning, 
but Painda Khan had put out his lamps, and set his men in order^ and 
when the Pawindahs fired, a bullet hit Sirdar Khan in the stomach and 
killed him, and many of Sirdar Khan's men were slain ; but Painda 
Khan's men beat, back the Pawindahs from the camp, and in the 
morning the Nawdb's army attacked the Pawindahs and drove them 
off, and pursued them with great slaughter for three miles, and the next 
day the army marched again and looted the kirries of the Pawindahs. 
After this, Umer Khan,- the chief of the Miankhels, sent a message to. 



60 



MiS!'"''^^"^'^*"' to QandiUmer Khan, and Umer Khan laid 



the Nawab asking for peace, and the Nawab sent Sirdsrs Painda Khan 

and Ashiq Mahomed Khan, with some troope, 
to Gandi Umer Khan, and Umer Khan laid 
an ambush for them, out Firinda Khan knew 
of it ; and when Umer Khan came to the Chauk to see him, he seized 
Umer Khan, and bound him, and placing him on a camel, returned 
towards Dera, and sent news to the Naw&b, who gave orders to slay 
Umer Khan and his brother. So they slew them near Dakhna, on th9 
road to Dera. Such is the accomit of the Pbwindab war, at least one 
of the confficting versions of it, as toH by the Nawab's ride. The 

Miankhels told M. Yigne in 1836, that though 
M. Tigne*fl accomt^ &ej had lost 250 men, yet the Nawab hadf 

lost 400 men and two or three cannon, and 
had been obliged to retreat, and that the duties paid by the Pawindahs 
bad in consequence been reduced from nine to six annas a maund for 
their cloth goodsy and from eight to six rupees for every sale camel. 

Iia. Id183GA.Di, Nao ^ihal Singh, the Sikh prince^ led an 
AnnezfttioQ of Tank and exp^di^bn into Jwimi and returned vid Tank 
I>era bmaU Khaa bf the and Dera, Sarwar Khan having died shortly 
Sikhs, A.D. 183(>. before. Nao Nihal Sing largely enhanced the 

Tank tribute.^ Allabdad Khan, the son and successor of Sarwar Khan^ 
was unfile to meet his demands, and fled to the hills ; ou which the 
province was annexed, and put under a Sikh Kardar. The administratiou 
of Tank under the Sikhs nas been described in another chapter (vide 
para. 227^ Nao Nihal Sing next proceeded, in accordanx)e with the 
wish of the Nawab of Ddra, to take over his remaining territories. It 
is easy to imagine that the Nawab, a man fond of his ease, found hia 
position intolerable. Saddled with a considerable body of troops, whom 
ne could neither discharge nor pay, and harassed by the Sikh revenue 
T^ A T Y.1^. »*-, collectoiiy he preferred to retire into private 

poi^^dKi^ "" "^ life- He was •ocordingly pensioned off with 

a liberal jagir, and the Qovemment was en-- 
trusted by Nao Nihal Sing to the Nawib^s old Diwan, Lakhi Mai, who^ 
was appointed Kardar. The Nawab*s troops,, consisting for the most 
part of Multani Pathans, were now discharged, and great numbers of 
them left the country, and went off to Sindh and Bahawalpur. LakhL 

Succeeded Ij7 bis aon Di- ^*' ^®^^ ^ P^ ^^ Kardar till his death in 
wAo Daniat Rai, A.D. is4S. A.D» 1843,. when he was succeeded by his soa 

Diwan Daulat Bai. The straggle that went oa 

K^? Wnaf^*^* ^**^ ^"^""S tl» following years, between Diwaa 
'' Saulat Bai 8up(>ort^ by the Sirdars of the 

Multini Pathans, and Malik Fatteh Khan Tiwana, is described at length, 
in Sir H^Edwardes' ^^Year on the Frontier." Each chief was si^poiied 
by one of the rival factions in the Sikh darbar, and waa alternately 
deposed and reappointed as hia patrona succeeded to or lost power* 
About 1&15 A.D^ Malik Fatteh Khan was in possession of the GhDvern* 
ment of Dera. Diwan Daolat Bai had been ousted, and the Multani 
Sirdirs were inclined to come te terms. It was at this time that Malik 
Fatteh Khan made his treaoherous attack on the Sirdirs, and 



Psinda Khan and Asbiq Mahomed Khan, and seized others of their 
foUowinji^, indnding Sahibdad Khan of Tank, and imprisoned them in 
the fort of Akalgarh near Dera. The Malik also made an attack on the 
residence of Nawab Sher Mahomed Khan, but on the latter paying a 
ransom of Bs. 12,000, he was allowed to retire to Bhakkan 

114. Meanwhile the Diwan, who had been reappointed, waa 
«• v^ .. i> 1^ ^ marching against him, and was joined by the 

o^l^w of thfSuiir Nawib and ly ihe whole MowiDg of the mur- 

dered chiefs. The Malik at first marched 
across the Indns to attack the Diwan, whose force was posted at Bbak* 
kar, bnt either owing to the faintheartedness of his troops, or to some 
warning from Diwan Sawan Mai, on whose dominions he was tres* 
passing, the Malik retired without doing anything. The Diwan's forces 
on this crossed the Indus, some 20 miles below Dera, and were met by 
the forces of the Malik near the village of Babar. The Malik's troops 
consisted chiefly of a body of Biluches under Sikandar Khan, Kupchani, 
of Kotla Jam, and a inixed multitude of Biluoh and Jat zemindars. In 
the battle that ensuech, they fled almost at once. Hassan Khan, the 
Khasor chief, and others of their leading men, were sUtin, and the Malik 
bad to beat a hasty retreat to Dera. After massacring the prisoners, 
whom he had lefl in the fort, he fled the district, and has no further 
part in its history. He was killed during the 2nd Sikh war, in a vain 
attempt to defend the Bannu fort against the revolted Sikh soldiery* 

115. Diwan DauIatRai held butfor a short time the goTemment b> 
Eemoval of the DiwAn which he was now restored. In 1847, Sir H. 

from the goYenunent, on Edwardes, then Assistant to the Besident at 
^e reoommenAaion oi Sir Lahore, was deputed to visit these parts. He 
fl. Edwardea, A, D. 1847. ^j^^^d that the Diwan's rule was most oppres- 
sive, and at his instance the Diwan was depoeed, and Qeneral Van 
Gortlandt was appointed Kardar in his steaa. In the cold weather of 
1848, Edwardes again passed Uirough the district, making a rough 
^ „ , . ^ ^ Settlement of Tank and the border tracts. In 

1848.'* ^"! -^P"! 1848, he heard of the news ef the out- 

break at Multan and the murder of Vans 
Agnew. He was then at Dera Fatteh Khan. He immediately crossed 
the river to Leiah, but retreated on the advance of a force sent by Diw&n 
Moolr&j. The next month passed in movements and countermovements 
in the neighbourhood of Leiah. Meanwhile Edwardes bad collected a 
mixed force made up mainly of Multani Pathans, and of men of the 
Oandapur, Ushtarana and other border tribes. On 21st May, he heard 
of the occupation of Dera Gh^i Khan by a force that he had sent down 
the right bank of the Indus under Van Cortlandt. He then proceeded 
to move towards Multan. On his march he fought the battles of Kaneri 
and Sadduzam, in which his rough levies behaved with great gallantry*. 
These same forces took part in the seige ofMultan, under (General Whish. 
On the taking of Multan, 22nd January 1849, the greater number were 
discharged, and returned to their homes. Two thousand^ however, of 
Edwardes' levies were retailed in Qovemment employ, and the leading 



62 

Btrdirs all received handsome pensions from our Government. Oa 

29th March 1849, the Punjab was annexed, and 
ja^T"*l849. *^® territories forming the present district, 

which were for the most part already under the 
control of British officers, became formally a portion of the British 
Empire. In the organisation of the province that immediately followed, 
the districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Leiah were formed, and placed 
respectively under the charge of Major Taylor and Captain Hollings, 
as Deputy Commissioners. In both districts British authority was 
peaceaoly established, and while Captain HoUings proceeded to effect a 
revenue Settlement of Bhakkar and Leiah, Mr. Simson, as Assistant 
Commissioner, took up the Settlement of the trans-Indus pargannabs. 
The subsequent history of the district is uneventful. 

116. During the mutiny a wing of the 17th Madras Cavalry, 
„ ^ . , _. . , under Captain Hockin, was sent to Leiah. It 

ing ihtmatK'"*"°* '" remained firm, and when the Kharral insurrec- 
tion broke out in September, Captain Hockin 
marched against the rebels, leavincr only 40 suspected men under the 
command of Ressaldar Ala Verdi Khan, at Leiah. When the 30 men 
of the 9th Irregular Cavalry mutinied at Mi&nwali, this detachment, 
accompanied by Mr. Thompson, Assistant Commissioner at Leiah, was 
despatched to cut them off. They caught up the mutineers in the Thai, 
and after a desperate fight, the rebels were entirely destroyed. With the 
exception of this incident, the Leiah district remained perfectly quiet 
during the mutiny. The station of Dera Ismail Khan, at the breaking 
out of the mutiny, was garrisoned by some regiments of the Punjab 
Frontier force, and a body of military police. The 39th Native In- 
fantry, who were under suspicion, were afterwards marched from Jheluin 
to Dera Ismail Khan, ana their presence was a source of danger, till 
600 or 700 Multdni horse had been raised as a check on them. The 
39th were quietlv disarmed on 14th July, without the presence of other 
troops, but not oefore information had been received of a conspiracy 
among them to mutiny and seize the fort of Akalgarh. The frontier 
tribes during this time were not more tronblesome than usual, and the 
native levies that were raised, were despatched in large numbers, both 
to Peshawur and to Hindustan. The district therefore, far from being 
a weakness, was an actual strength to our administration, and the active 
loyalty displayed by the fighting classes, both during the Multan and 
the mutiny campaigns, and the liberality with which it was rewarded, 
has done much to attach them to our rule. In 1858 there was a con- 
spiracy in the 10th Punjab Infantry then stationed at Dera, one of 
the objects of which was to seize the military stores kept at the fort of 
Ak&lgarh. It was detected, and a few of the conspirators were trans- 
ported or dismissed. It was arranged at the same time to locate at the 
port the small British garrison which has since been retained there. 

117. In concluding this chapter, t may mention briefly the officers 
who have at diSerent periods served in this district as Commissioners, 
Deputy Ccmmissioners and Assistant Commissioners, in charge of oat-* 
stations. 



«3 

Colonel Boss was ihe first Commissioner of the Leiah Division, and 

. held the appointment from 1850 till his death 

List of CommliBioners. j^ September 1857. Major Pollock, Deputy 

Commissioner of Dera Gbazi Khan, then officiated for a few months, 
and was followed by Major Brown, who remained till 1860. In 1860 
Maior James officiated for three months. Colonel R. Taylor served 
as Commissioner from 1860 to 1862 ; Colonel Beecher, from 1862 to 
1864 ; Colonel Pollock, from 1864 to 1866 ; Colonel Graham, from 
1866 to 1871 ; and Colonel Munro has held the post sinoe 1871 up to 
the present year, 1879. 

Deputy Oommiasioners of US. As regards Deputy Commissioners^ 

the old Dera Ismail Khaa I shall first ^ive those of the old Bannu-Dera 
diitrict. Ismail Khan district. These were :— 



Major Taylor 



••• •• 

••• •• 

•• • •• 



••• 
••• 

• •• 
••• 

• •• 



1850—1852 



1852—1855 
1855—1856 
1856—1860 
1860—1861 



Major Nicholson 
Captain Bosk 
Captain Coxe 
Captain Munro 

These Deputy Commissioners had their head-quarfcers at Bannn, 
ABsiBtant Commissioners a^d the Dera and Kulachi tahsfis were tinder 
in charge of Dera Ismail the charge of Assistant Commissioners, tho 
Khaa out-stotion. principal among whom wore the following :— 

Mr. Simson... ••• ... ••• «1850 — 1852 

Lieutenant Busk ••• ••• ••• 1853 — 1856 

Lieutenant Minchin ••• * .«• ••• 1856 — 1858 

Lieutenant Smyly ••• ••• ••• 1858 — 1859 

Lieutenant Ferris ••• ••• ••• 1858 — 1861 

Sometimes, too, Assistants Would be posted to Dera at the saine time, aa 
the work was heavy. 

Deputy Commissioners of The old Leiah district was held by tbo 

Leiah district. following Deputy Commissioners :— 

Captain Hollings • 1849 — 1852 

Mr. Simson... •• 1852 — 1856 

Captain McNeile 1856 

Captain Bacon •• 1856 — 1857 

Captain Fendall 1857 — 1859 

Captain Parsons 1859 — 1860 

Lieutenant iSmyly 1860 

Deputy Commissioneps of , 119- On 1st January .1861, the old 
the new Dera Ismail Khaa district of Leiah was broken up. Since then 
^^"®'- the Deputy Commissioners of Dera Ismail 

Khan have oeen : — 

Captain Smyly 1861 — 2 months officiatinff. 

Captain Mackenzie 1861 — 1862 

Captain Ferris 1862—2 months officiating* 



64 



^ )r Nichols 
Captain Oramaney 
Major Graham 
Captain Minohin 
Lieutenant Grey 
Major Monro 
Major Macaolay 
Mr. Beckett 
Captain Roberts 



•»k 



••» 



••» 



••• 



••» 



••« 



••• 



••% 



••• 



»■• 



••• 



••• 



«•• 



••• 



••» 



••» 



••• 



•»« 



••• 



■•• 



••• 



••• 



••» 



••• 



••• 



•■• 



■•• 



1862— Died on Slst Anrast 

1862— Officiated tiU Deor. 

1862—1866 

1866 — 3 months offidatinir. 

1866—1868 

1868—1871 

1871—1879 

1874— 3 months officiating. 

1875 — 8 months officiating. 



The Assistant Commissioners, who sinoe 1861 have held charge 

-TheBhikk««ilMlid.ioa. ""^ ^"^ Bhakkar suWi vision, have been very 

numerous, especially of late years. The only 
one I need mention is Mr. Moore, who held the appointment almost 
uinterruptedly from 1865 till his death in 1875. 



PRESENT POPULATION OF THE DISTRICT. 

120. A census of the population of the district was taken in 1855 
Fonaer oenns of the And again in 1868, and a Settlement census 

*^^*?S5'i. ^4^' ^^^' ^^^' ^^ ^^^ *» ^^ ool<l weather of 1876-77. 
and 18T6.77. rpj^^ population of the diflTerent tahsils by each 

census will be found in Appendix No. Y. 

121. At the time of the census of 1855, Vahoa was not included 

in this district, while some other villages then 
belonging to it have since been transferred. 
These changes, however, nearly balance one an* 
other. At the 1855 census, Pawindahs were 
shown separately, when living in separate 
Jdrries of their own ; while those who hap- 
pened to be in towns or villages at the time, 
were included in ttie general population. At the 

census of 1868, owing to an oversight, no attempt at all was made to 
distinguish Pawindahs from the resident population ; nor was any 
separate enumeration made of the leading Pathin and Biluch tribes of 
the district The present Settlement census was not taken on any one 
date ; but was carried outmidually during die course of several months. 

3rd— Kxclturion of modi ^« village popuUtion was numbered house by 
of the floating popaiation house, absentees being included in the account, 
from the Settlement cenrai. ^he floating population of boatmen, wander- 
ing tribes, beggars, Ac, has to a great extent escaped enumeration. In 
the same way the population of the Dera cantonments and of the 
military posts, was not included in the census taken. Under these 
circumstances it is difficult to effect any dose comparison of the results 

Nambers of the popala- of ^^8® different oensuses. The total popula- 
tion bj theie diflttent oon* tion by the census of 1855, deducting recorded 

Pawindahs, was 327,851. The poptiiation for 



Oavses that interfere 
with a BatiBfactory oom- 
pariiOQ of regolta :— 

let—Transfers of Til- 
li^^ee. 

2nd — Inclnrion of Pawin- 
dahs in the general popa* 
lation. 



65 

1868 was 391,874. Of these 12,640* may be deducted onacoonntof 
Pawindahs, leaving 379,234 as the district population. The Setilomeni 
census, widi the necessary addition for cantonments, gives 367,199 aa 
the total population. This is less by 3 per cent, than that given by 
the figures for 1868. The difference is probably made up of the float- 
Reasons fop suppoBing ing population, which I have already alluded 
that population has in- to. The population now is probably slightly 
creased slnoe 1S6S. larger than in 1868. In spite of the transfer 

of the Tibbi villages, I find that the number of Biluches apd •Hindus 
has increased sinoe 1868 : Hindus from 50,018 to 51,880, or by 3 per 
cent. ; Biluches from 34,703 to 36,952, or by 6 percent. These are the 
only large classes of the population which can be compared. In the 
1868 census, the resident Path&ns are mixed up with Pawindahs, and 
the Jats with the miscellaneous Mahomedans, so no comparison in their 
case is possible, but it is probable that these also have increased to the 
I ' ce 18M extent of 4 or 5 per cent. Taking the popula* 

tion for 1855 at 327,851, and the population 
for 1868 (excluding Pawindahs) at 379,234, there is an mcrease in 
the 13 years of 51,383, or a little more than 15 per cent., and the in- 
crease from 1855 to the present time should be a little more. The 
figures for 1855 are not very reliable. The population for the Tank 
and Bhakkar tahsils seems to have been understated, while on the other 
hand, a good many Pawindahs, who ought to have been omitted, were 
included in the town population. On the whole, I believe that the town 

population has increased by quite 15 per cent. 

ed^the'k!<^^*''* " ^^°^® annexation. The increase ought to have 

been very rapid, owing to the great extent of 
waste land available for cultivation ; and in the cis-Indus tahsils, there 
undoubtedly has been a considerable increase. There has also been a 
large increase in Tank and the Largi valley, owing to the immigration 
of Bhittannies and Marwats. In the Daman generally, the increase 
has been less, the population having been kept down by the heavy 
mortality that takes place in fever years, which every now and then 
occur, and which sweep off large numbers of children. There have 
been two such fever years during the last decade, viz.^ 1872 and 1878. 

122. The resident population of the district by the Settlement 
Classification of the po- census is 361,868. Of these 310,942, or 85 

eilatioQ. Mahomedans & per cent, are Mahomedans, and 50,926, or 14 
indttfl- per cent., are Hindus. 

Detail of Hahomedans. The Mahomedans are classified as follows:— 

Path&ns 35,451 or 11 per cent. 

Biluches • ••• 36,952 or 12 per cent, 

t Jats, including Sials, Awans, 1 142,768 or 46 per cent, of the 
and other miscellaneous tribes. / whole population. 

* This is the difference between the number of Path&ns by the Settlement oensnt 
mnd the number by the census ot 186S. I have put down the excess to Pawindahs. 

f All these are known in the distriot as Jats. The term Loh is also applied to 
ihem, to distingoish them from the Kamins aud low caste tribes. 



66 



Saiads. 7,825 or 2 per cent. 

Koreshis ... ... ... 2,067 or 1 per cent. 

Shekhs .. ... ... 3,148 or I per cent 

Kamins and low caste MahoiuedanB 82,731 or 27 per cent 



Total 



310,942 



Detail of Pathin taibes. 



123. The principal Path&n tribes, arranged 
according to numbers, are the following : — 



Gundapurs 7,796 
Marwais 3,307 
Kundies... 2,797 
Bhittannies 2,628 
Biluches... 2,188 



Tribes of the Khasor 

range ... 1,867 

Ehetrans ... 1,382 

Ushtaranas ... 1,364 

Babars ... 999 I 

Total Pathan tribes 



Miankhels... 850 
Sheranies «.• 835 
Mianies ••• 819 
Other tribes 8,619 



35,451 



Detail of Bilach tribes. 



Kasranies 

Kulachies 

Lisharies 

Pitafis 

Eorais 

Miranies 

Jaskanies 



124. The numbers of the Biluch tribes 
will be found in Appendix VI. I give here 
a few of the most important : — 



2,512 
2,748 
1,974 
1,620 
1,234 
1,041 
521 



«. • 



All these, except the Kasranies, are a good deal scattered about. 

125. The number of Saiads in the district is considerable. As 
g .^^ usual, they have selected the pleasantest parts 

of the district for their residence. They 
abound in the fat villages of the Rug-Paharpur tract. They own all 
the rich villages forming the northern portion of the Bhakkar Kachi, 
known after them as the Saiadat Miani. They are tolerably numerous 
all through the Bhakkar Kachi, generally holding an influential position. 
This is shown by the large proportion of Saiad Zaildars, viz., three out 
of fourteen. The proportion of Saiads in the Leiah Kachi is much 
the same as in Bhakkar, but there are fewer well-to-do men among 
them, and their general position is weaker. In the Thai and in the 
Dam&n, where life is comparativelv hard, the proportion of Saiads is 
generally small. The lands held by Saiads were generally acquired 
by grants from old Biluch rulers, and to a less extent by gifts from 
individual zemindars. Biluches used to have an inordinate respect for 
Saiads, which was seldom shared by Path^ns. Saiads own very few 
villages in the Path4n tracts. The family of the Nawabs of Dera never 
did much for Saiads, and the only Pathan family that I know of which 
has ever distinguished itself in this way, is that of the Naw&bs of Tank, 



67 

Sarwar Khan gave large mafi grants to the Kanigdram Saiads^ which 
thej still enjoy ; and Na\\ab iShah Niwaz Khan has always treated 
iSaiads with great liberality^ and taken every opportunity to get them 
associated in the leases of villages in his ilaqua. Saiads are still much 
reverenced both by Jats and Biluches, but the respect nosv-a-days is 
limited to outward forms, and no longer takes the shape of substantial 
gifts of land. 

126. Koreshirf and Sbekhs are scattered in small numbers all 

through the district. Shekhs are most nume- 
Eoreshis and Bhekhs. rous in Tank, where there is a regular tribe of 

them, known as Minchankhels. These are located 
in the north of the Gdmal valley, and at the mouth of the Chini Pass. 
They also occupy a little valley running up from the Girni post, lu 
most respects they resemble closely the Pathans, among whom they live* 
They are a peaceful set, and their semi-religious character protects 
them from Waziri depredations. 

127. The Jats, trans-Indus, are so broken up that it has not 
, „, . ... been thought worth while to classify them. 

^Jats. Their principal rpj^^ numbers of the principal tribes cis-Indus 

are as follows : — 

Aw^s ... 3,261 Aulakhs ... 1,651 

Chinahfr ... 2,687 



Si41s ..• 2,227 

Samtiahs .,. 1,746 



Khokhars ... 1,423. 
Siyars ... 1,218' 

Bhidwals ... 1,121 

128. At the Settlement census, Hindus were not classified. Thd' 
Hindus. numbers of the principal divisions by the census 

of 1868, are as follows: — 

Brahmine^ ••• »- ••• 3,093 

Khatries ... ... ..^ 2^48 

Aroras ... ..- ... ••• 42,087 

129. In Appendix VII I have given a statement showing the 
Proportion of houses and number of the population, male and female, the 

adult men to total popula- number of houses, the proportion of males 
^^^^' above 15 years of age, and the nature of their 

employment. These figures have been prepared from the returns- of 
the Settlement census, and the information to be gathered from them 
is, as a whole, very reliable. The total number of males above 15 (i. ^., 
of grown men) is 118,159, or, as nearly as possible, one in three of the 
total population. The number of houses is one to four-and-a-half of 
ihe population. In enumerating houses, two or three adjoining huts, 
forming part of the same establishment, have been treated as a single 
house. A glance at the statement will show that the proportion both 
of grown men and of houses to the total population is nearly the same- 
in all five tahsfls. Out of a total of 118,159 adult males, 51,352, or 44 

per cent., are cultivators. Deducting for the non- 
iSilSpuUttoS^ *^^"^' ' agricultural population of the larger towns, and 
* excluding the pastoral portion of the Bhakkar 



68 

* 

Thal^ the prcportion of the male adult population engaged in cnltiratian 
is a little less than | of the whole. In Dera and Bhakbar it is a good 
t ; in T&nk about ^Vv ; in Leiah ^ ; in Kulachi •^. Persons 
making up another 12 per cent, of ttie population are connected 
with the land as proprietors or tenants, without themselves cultivating. 

The agriculturalists in this way number alto- 
^Ap^lturalirtspraotittng ^^^y^^^ 65,873. Of these about 7,000, or about 

one in nine, oombine some other trade with 
agriculture : most of these are shopkeepers, artizans, or shepherds. Of 
the agricultural classes a large number are both proprietors and tenants. 
These have been generally classified as proprietors, though when a 
man's proprietory nolding is small, and he lives mainly by the land 
which he holds as tenant, he has been shown as a tenant. In doubt- 
ful cases he has always been given the higher status. In the case of a 
joint family, the junior members, though not possessing any actual rights 
of their own, have, in preparing this statement, been given the same 
status as the head of the family. 

^ . ... 130. The following statement shows the 

ta^f *^ numbers of the different classes possessing per- 

manent rights in land : — 

Non* 
1st.— Poisesmng penna. CMu CuUU Total. 

neot righto in the laad. vating. vating. 

^^IJ^ZI^" • 1 3'251 ... 868 ... 4.109 

Occupancy tenants ... 8,676 ... 924t ... 4,600 

Total ... 36,422 18314 50,286 

The remaining agricultural population is graded as follows : — 

Tenants at will ... 6,918 
Snd.^Tenants* f^h&iwUs ... 8,538 The Bhftiwal brings his 

0¥m oxen. 
Nimw&ls ... 9S8\ The Nim w&ls and Pin- 

( wklB work with oxen 



at-will and la- Assoc!- 
borers. ated 



culti- 1 

vators. Ptow&ls ... 87 C supplied by the occu* 

(^ ) pier of the land. 

Farm servants (belies) 4,181 

Total ... 15,687 

Nearly half the tenants-at-will belong to the Kulachi tahsil. The 
bulk of the Bh&iwals and all the Nimwals are found trans-Indus. 
BelieSf or farm laborers, getting fixed wages in cash or kind, are 
numerous in tiie Leiah tahsiL Hardly any are to be found in the Dam4n, 
where laborers are nearly always paid by being given a share of the 
crop. 



69 



131. It will be Been that of the total nnmber of caltirators more 
Proportion of the culti- than two-thirds have proprietary or occupancy 



Yftting classes possessing 
permanent rights. 

Proportion of agricnU 
taralists in the rnral popa* 
lation« 



rights in the land. The agricultaralists make 
np altogether some 70 per cent, of the mrid 
popolation. Of the remaining population, about 
25 per cent, consist of herdsmen, handicrafts- 
men, Kamins, &c., and about 5 per cent, of 
shopkeepers. 

Of a total of 62,606 persons, either not employed in agriculture. 
Detail of non-agricultu- or combining agriculture with some trade, the 
ralists. numbers of the more important classes, includ- 

ing the town population, are as follows : — 

Merchants ••• 

Shopkeepers 

Carpenters . 

Blacksmiths 

Cobblers 

Potters 

Barbers 

Dvers 

T^eavers 

Cotton cleaners 

Goldsmiths 

Shepherds and herdsmen ... 

Camel men ••• ••• 

Domestic servants, clerks, and employes.. 
Day laborers ( non-agricultural ) 
Unclassified 



)• • 



••• 



••• 



••• 



•■• 



••• 



••• 



• •• 



• •• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



• •• 



■ •• 



•• • 



• •• 



••• 



»h« 



••• 



••■ 



••• 



••• 



••• 



• • 



• • 



•• 



• • 



•• 



•• 



• • 



•• 



•• 



• • 



•• 



•• 



• • 



•• 



•• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



1,366 

9,192 

1,667 

700 

2,549 

1,174 

1,241 

1,421 

5,631 

769 

694 

12,247 

2,429 

3,920 

10,257 

7,349 



Total 



• •• 



62,606 



LANGUAGES OF THE DISTRICT. 

132. The common language of the district is a dialect of Punjabf, 
A dialect of Punjabi, niuch the same as that spoken in Muzaffargarh 
known as Hindkii common- and Multan, and locally known as Hindki. 
Ij spoken. This is spoken through the whole of the Jat- 

Biluch tract, and is more or less known through the Pathan tracts, 
except in the remoter parts of the Tank tahsil. The Hindki spoken 
in the Thai differs somewhat in idiom from that spoken in the Indus 
tract and in the Makkalwad, but not to a material extent. Of the 
Language spoken by the Pathan tribes, the Khetrans and the tribes of 
Pathin tribes. the Khasor range know Hindki but no PashttI* 

The Ghmdapurs, Miankhels and Babars, and such of the Ushtaranaa 
as live in the plains, know Pashtu better than they do Hindki, and 
talk it habitually in their homes ; but they also understand Hindki^ 
and most of them can talk it fluently. The Jats also in these tracts, 
and in T&nk, talk both languages with equal facility. Tlie Marwats, 



1 



70 

Bhittannies and KiindieS; with the Mianies and Ghorazais of the Gumal 
valley, only talk Pashtd, though the lambardars in most cases know 
a little Uindki. The Biluches of Fanniala also talk little but Pasbtii, 
though owing to their longer intercourse with the neighbouring Jats, 
a large proportion of them know Hindki as well. The Gandapurs, 
MarwatSy Miaukhels, Babars and the tribes of Pawindah origin, generally 
speak the same pure Kandahari Pashtti as the Pawindahs. This difiers 
Character of the Pashtti from the Peshawur Pashtii in the fact that the 
gpokeu. letters eh and others are given their natural 

soft pronunciation as in Persian ; whereas in the harsher dialect of 
Peshawur, their sound is entirely changed. The dialects spoken by the 
Bhittannies, the Biluches and the Pathan tribes of the Giimal valley, 
are rougher and less correct than the Pawindah Pashtii, to which, how- 
ever, they assimilate. The pronunciation of the Waziries is execrable, 
and is hardly intelligible to other Pathans without a little practice. 

133. There is no doubt that under English rule, Hindustani i» 
Tendency of Paahta to rapidly superseding Pashtd, and this language 
die out. is doomed to die out in these parts as assuredly 

as the Celtic of £he Scotch and Welsh Highlands. Like English 
and Celtic, the two languages exist side by side without showing any 
tendency to amalgamate, though there are naturally a large number oi 
local terms, such as band^ Moyajora, &c. common to both. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE. 

134. Religions, — The numbers of the population, classified accord- 
PopuUtion ciaesified ac ing to religions by the census of 1868, is aa 

cording to religion. follows : — 

Christians ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 233 

Mahomedans ••• ••• ••• ••• 338,387 

Hindus ••• ... ... ... ••• 48,756 

Sikhs ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 1,587 

Miscellaneous ••• ••• ••• ... 5,901 

Total ... 394,864* 

The Christians and Sikhs are almost confined to the cantonments 

and civil station of Dera Ismail Khan. The 
Bunnies and SheiahB. Mah'omodans, who form the great bulk of the 

population, are mostly Sunnies. All the Pathan clans are very strict 
Sunnies, and very particular in the matter of prayers, fasts, &c. They 
have a great hatred of Sheiahs and Kafzies, and in old days a man 
hardly dared to admit to being a Sheiah in the Gundapur country and 
similar tracts. The influence of Sunni governors, too, led to the very 
ireneral profession of the Sunni faith by the bulk of the mixed Jak 
population, though the cis-Indus Biluches as a rule have adhered to the 

* 394 864 Ib the number of the popalation show^n iii the original retarna. After 
allowing for transfers of villages, ice., the correct nambera of this census^ as shown la 
Appendix V, arc 391,874. 



71 

Sheiah faith. Trans-Indus nearly all Mahomedans are professedly 
Sannies, whether Pathdns, Jat or Biluches. The Kasranies of Daulat- 
wola, and Jhangra, the Kolachies^ the Nutkanies, &c. are all Sannies, 
and tolerably strict ones. There are, however, a considerable number of 
bigoted Sheiahs in the town of Dera Ismail Khan itself, and in the 
Paharpnr ilaqua. These, in old days, were not allowed to make tazzias 
or go in procession during the Moharrum. Now, under the impartial 
protection of our Government, they are able to make open profession 
of their faith, and sometimes try to flaunt their tazzias in front of the 
Sunni mosques, which has more than once nearly led to affrays. The 
Moharrum processions in the town of Dera have now in consequence 
to be regulated by the Police to prevent disturbances. An orthodox 
Pathan ouuni looks on tazzias with the greatest repugnance. In the 
cis-Indus tahsil the Sunnies constitute four-fifths of the population. 
They are very lax in their faith, and the line of distinction between 
them and the Rafziesy as the Sheiahs of these parts are called, is very 
loosely drawn. Professed Sunnies make and follow tazzias in company 
with Sheiahd. Many of the Sheiahs, on the other hand, are of the TafzUi 
description, Le.j they profess to reverence Hazrat Ali to an extreme 
extent, but do not speak evil of his predecessors in the Caliphate.* The 
greater number of the Kachi people, though professing one or the other 
of the two faiths, care nothing for the distinctions between Sunni and 
Sheiah, and though a large proportion of them are regular in repeating 
the daily prayers, nearly all of them openly break the fasts, and very 
few maKe any pretence of keeping long fasts like the Ramzdn. Saiads 
have a hereditary tendency to become Sheiahs, though most of them 
in this district profess te be Sunnies, for fear of alienating their Sunni 
disciples ( MoHds ). The Belot Makhdum and Mehr Shah of Shahpur, 
among otners, though nominally Sunnies, are supposed to be really 
Sheiahs at heart. Most of the Sunni Saiads, except in the Pathan tracts, 
are in the habit of constructing tazzias. They say their forefathers 
did it 

135. The Wahabi religion was started some years ago at Panniila, 
Wahibies. where a few members of this sect are still to 

be found, but they are gradually dying out. 
The Wahabi religion is unsuited to the Mahomedans of this district, 
who have the greatest belief in saints and shrines, and in the efficacy 
of pilgrimages to groves and high places. There is hardly an old 
mound in the country on which the flag of some faqir is not flying. 
All classes of the people put great trust in spells (dams) and charms, 
and if any confidence may be placed in common report, the age of 
miracles has by no means yet gone by. 

136. The Hindus of this district are less particular in the matter 
21^, of caste prejudices and observances than down 

country Hindus. Most of them will drink 
water that has been carried in mussucks ( skins for carrying water ) 

• This abnse of the three friends of the Prophet, common among the more bigoted 
J^eiaha, ia locally ezpresaed by the word bakna. 



72 

or ont of lotas detached from a working well. Thej habitaally ride 
on donkeys, and do a moltitade of other things^ which an orthodox 
Hindu woald shrink from. All idolatrous observances are kept verjr 
much in the background. Except a few small images (thakars) kept 
in their Mandars^ they have no idols at all. Nor is it the habit for them 
to take about their gods in procession. No one^ in fact, ever sees any* 
thing of their worship. They burn their dead, and throw the ashes into 
the Indus. They always keep a few of the bones and take them, when 
a convenient opportunity occurs, to the Ganges; often, instead of taking 
these bones themselves, they send them by the hand of a friend, who 
may be goin^ on his own account. There are a good many Dliarmaalasj 
Mandara and Dwdrds at Dera Ismail Khan, and in the cis-Indus 
tahsfls. There are not many in the rest of the trans-Indus tract. 
The SQndus here profess to reverence certain families of Goseyns and 
Shahs, but these always complain that their disciples in the present 
day are very slack in furnishing contributions for the support of religious 
establishments. The Hindus are mostly divided into Sims and Sewaks. 
These Sikhs are not Sikha in the strict Punjab sense, but they reverence 
the Grranth and are followers of Sikh Gurds, who take the title of Sbah^ 
such as Bhagfirat Shah, Sant Shah, &c. The Sewaks reverence Goseyns, 
and form the bulk of the Hindus. 

137. Mahomedans and Hindus make up the great mass of the 
Low caste tribes. Eotanaa population. There are besides certain low caste 

and Ch6ra8. 4xibes that have no religion to speak of, and 

eat things generally considered unclean. Sweepers are divided into 
two classes, — Kotanas^ who observe the rules of the Mahomedan religion, 
as to food, &c. and rank as Mahomedans ; and the ordinary Ckdras who 
eat anything. The Lobanas are a sort of sweeper caste, more approach- 
Lobonas. ^"? ^ ^'^ Sikhs. The Kehals are a wandering 

tribe, who keep to the river banks, and live on 

^^^•^*' fish, lizards, and anything they can oatoh. 

The Odhsj another wandering tribe, who are professional beldarsj and 

take up jobs of road-making, canal digging, 
&c. are also devoid of prejudices as regard 
their food. In the Pathan border tracts, low caste men of the sweeper 
class are very rare, except in the towns. 

138. A new religion was started in this district a few years ago, 

but seems to be making but little progress. 
KalUnes. j^ members call themselves Kaltaries. Their 

P(r and his immediate disciples paint their faces in beautiful spotted 
patterns, and wander about with fans in their hands. They have an 
objection to speaking, remaining perfectly mute when interrogated. 
They are ready, however, to accept alms. These Kaltaries are few in 
number, and harmless. They were originally Mahomedan cultivators, 
and were converted to their present faith in consequence of a miracle 
performed by the founder of the sect. 

139. Dressofths people.-The common dress of the agricultural popu- 
Dreas of the common lation of the district consists of a shirt (chola)^ 

agricttitorai population. a loin-clotb {manjla)j a sheet thrown over tbo 



73 

shoulders (chadar), and a tnrban or pagri ( patka ) : all these are made 
of the common cotton cloth of the country. The cholay chadar and 
poffri are generally white. The manjla is generally blue. A common 
name for it is Nila Dedlia. The Thai people often substitute a checked 
lungi for the ordinary blue manjla. The people here twist their 
pagries in a wisp loosely round the head, in a very slatternly way, just 
as a down-country man does, when he rushes in to complain of an 

Dress of the better assault, and wishes to look dilapidated. The 
classes. well-to-do people in towns and the Moonahee 

class wear loose trowsers (shUioar) instead of the manjla. Of the 

Dress of the Path4n and Pathans, the Marwats dress much like Jats, 
Biiuches. wearing the manjla. Tlicir dress is generally 

dark, which is good for concealing the dirt. The Path&n tribes of 
Pawindah origin wear an andrakha, which differs > in make from the 
ordinary chola. They also wear loose baggy trowsers, down to the 
ankles. This is the dress of the Ushtarnnas, B4bars, Miankhels, Gun- 
dapurs, Biiuches and Sheranies. The Waziries and Bhittannies gener- 
ally wear a tunic reaching down to the knees, leaving the legs bare, 
with a bit of rope round the waist as a girdle. They also wear sandals 
(chapplies) instead of shoes. The dress of the Biiuches is, as a rule, 
like that of the ordinary Jats, though some of those in the Kulachi 
tahsil wear trowsera like the Pathans. Well-to-do Pathans wear a 
peaked cap (kula) with a Peshawar liinqi round it as a turban, and a 
similar Mngi round the shoulders, itindus, under Mahomedan rule, 

wore not allowed to wear turbans. They were 

Dress of Hindus. restricted to a skull cap, and this is still the 

common head-dress among them. Those that wear the manjla tie it 
difierently from the Mahomedans. 

In the cold weather, the common people often wrap themselves 
Additional articles worn np in a thin woojlen blanket {dhiisa), . tend the 
in the winter. Pathdus wear posteens (sheep-skin coats) and 

ckogas (dressing gowns.) 

140. The usual dress of the women consists of a shift (choli)y a 

^ . , petticoat (gagra), and a bochni or sheet thrown 

Dress of the women. ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^ rpj^^ p^^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

better classes in the towns, wear loose wrinkled trowsers {Suthan)^ reach- 
ing to the ankles. In the Thai, the women commonly wear the manjla 
instead of the gagra, and the manjla is more or less worn all over the 
district, except by the Pathdns. 

141. The men of tbe district, Hindus and Mahomedans, wear 
Method of wearing the their hair long, down to the shoulders. They 

hair, and other habits. do not go in for long ringlets like the Biiuches 

of Dera Ghazi Khan, but affect the style common in Italian pictures. 
They grease their hair freely with oil made from asstin {taramira). 
They think this cooling and strengthening to the brain. It is certainly 
destructive to the appearance of the hereditary silk coat^) in which the 
more aristocratic among them occasionally appear on gala days. They 
rub their teeth with snuff and oil mixed, to strengthen the teeth and 



74 

gams. They nearly always wear charms fastened on to their tarbani 
as well as roaud their necks. It is common also for them to carry 
round the neck a tooth-pick {dandili) of brass or silver. 

Hindus here all grow beards. They are often hardly to be dis- 
tinguished in appearance from Mahomedans. The Mahomedans, how- 
ever, clip the moustache, while the Hindu lets it grow free. The 
Magassies, a Biluch tribe in the Thai, think it wrong to clip either the 
beard or the moustache. They are a sort of Sheiahs, but have peculiar 
customs. Among other things they commonly halal animab in the 
name of their mian instead of in that of God. 

142. Food of the people. — The main food of the people consists of 
Food of the Kachi wheaten bread. In the Kachi this is almost 

people. the only grain eaten, b<yra being nearly as 

dear as wheat and but little grown, while the supply of barley is small. 
The Kachi people generally eat twice a day. About 8 in the morning 
they have wheat chupatties, buttered with ghee, and lassi (butter-milk) 
and in the evening, about sunset, chupatties with milk. The Kachi 
people sometimes eat bajra in khichrij mixed with ddl or rice. They 
do not eat much ddl. In the season they eat great quantities of boiled 
turnips, the poorer people almost living on them while they last. In 
w J • *u rrv 1 *^® Thai, though wheat is the principal food 

Food in the Thai. ^^.^j^^ ^^j ^^^ p^^^j^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ 

barley and bajra. Thai well laborers, who are paid in kind, get a third 
of their wages in wheat, a third in barley, and a third in bajrd. The 
people of the pastoral Thai live a great deal on milk. They have to 
buy all their grain. They eat great quantities of pUii berries, and of 
melons (teetaks) in their respective seasons. The Daman zemindars 

eat bajrd during the autumn and winter, and 
In 6 am n. during the rest of the year wheat. * Bajrd is 

more satisfying than wheat, but is said to be heating in the hot weather. 
They say too that bajrd must be ground fresh day by day, as the flour 
will not bear keeping. The harvests in the Daman are very variable. 
The wheat harvest maybe large, and the bajrd harvest nil or vice versa. 
In such cases the people eat the grain they have by them. Joioar is 
only eaten when people are driven to extremity. It is unwholesomoi 
and much disliked. Towns-folk rarely eat any but wheaten bread. 

The common people eat meat only on festival days, or when an 

animal is at the point of death, and is killed in 

°*®*** anticipation. Big zemindars living near towns 

often eat meat daily. They make over a certain number of sheep to a 

butcher, who supplies them with an equal amount of meat, on account, 

as wanted. 

143. DwelUng hmses. — The people of the district, both towns-folk 
Character of the dwel- *"^ villagers, generally live in mud huts with 

ling houses. The principal flat roofs. Each hut consists of a single room, 
descriptionB in use. which is occupied by the whole family. The 

principal furniture consists of a large bed-stead, on which they all sleep, 



75 

m the cold weather undor a common qailt. The cow is sometimes pnt 
up in a earner of this room, but more often there is a separate shed out- 
side for the cattle. If a family increases and requirbs more room, one 
or two similar huts are added to the original building. Huts with mud 
walls and flat mud roo& are called kothds, A hut with mud or grass sides, 
and covered over with a moveable roof of moonj grass or matting, is called 
a sahL This is common in the Kachi. In the river betSj and those parts 
of the Kachi which are more particularly exposed to floods, the people 
often live in what is called a garira^ which consists merely of a big piece 
of grass matting put up in the form of an arch, with the two ends tcMichr 
ing the ground. In the pastoral hamlets in the Thai, the people com- 
monly live in rude huts made of wattled grass and kip^ and the dwellings 
of the Marwat squatters in the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil are somewhat 
_, , . , similar. As a rule there is no attempt to conceal 

The sedasion of women, t^^ women. The door of the dwelling house 

opens on to an open space, or into a court-yard half enclosed by a low 
mud wall, where the women spin and grind corn. They are also employed 
in fetciiing water, picking cotton, and in other out-door occupations, 
Saiads and Koreshis habitually seclude their women, and so, though 
to a less extent, do Pathans of well-to-do clans, such as the Bibars and 
Miankhels. Women of the higher classes in towns, whose families are ia 
easy circumstances, Are also kept in seclusion. 

144. Spirits, drugsj tobacco, ^c* — Very few Mahomedans indulge 
Ufle of BpiritB. ^^ suirits, the consumptioa of which is almost 

connned to the Hindus of the larger towns. 
Tobacco smoking is almost universal among all classes of the people, 
Tobacco smoking and except MooUahs and a few others, who object on 
snuff. religious grounds. This objection does not ex- 

tend to snuff, which is indulged in even by the MooUahs. The best snuff 
comes from Chandwan and Peshawur. The common people compound 
their own snuff, mixing the tobacco with lime and other ingredients. 

145. The use of intoxicating dru^s is common both among 

TT.^^#?«+^^i/»«f{rir, ^i.n^o Hiudus aud MaEomedans. A good deal of 
Use 01 intoxicating drags. . . -i . i i i^^ < i • 

opmm IS consumed, though very little is grown 
in the district itself. The consumption of bhang and cliarras is also 
considerable. The arrangements now in force for leasing the drug con- 
tract tend to duninish the consumption, by lessening the facilities for the 
purchase of drugs. In old days, every one who chose could grow his 
own bfiang and drink it duty free, and I am told the excessive use of 
drugs is much less common now than it was before annexation. In 
those days, large numbers of faqirs used to congregate at. the different 
shrines, and most of them were habitually more or less intoxicated. 
This class still adhere to the habit, but their numbers have greatly 
decreased. Saiads and PivB are often much addicted to bliang, which has 
the effect of throwing them into a state of religious rapture, well suited 
to the sacred character which they bear. 



* The detailed revenue from spirits and drugs for the last 15 yearsi will be found 
in Appendix XXI. 



76 

146. Character of the people. — The inhabitants of the district are, 
The people of the cIb- on the whole, a quiet inoffensive folk. Those 

Indus tahsilB. of the cis-Indus tahsils especially, are pleasant- 

mannered and easy to manage. The mixed popalation of the Makkal- 
w&d is also well behaved and amenable to authority, though the system 
of irrigation and latltbandi cultivation in force ha?, I think, somewhat 
the effect of souring the temper, and giving the inhabitants a discon- 
tented manner, from which tne people, cis-Indus, except when complain- 
ing of their indebtedness, are generally free. In the Kachi or Thai the 

The character of the zemindars trust to rain and Indus floods, and 
trana-Indus Jats. anything untoward that happens is put down as 

the will of God ; but the arrangements for distributing the torrent irri- 
gation of the Dam&n are to a gi-eat extent under the control of man, 
and as what is good for one village may be bad for another, there is 
always a dispute going on as to what at any moment should be done. 
Every one, therefore, is bound to have a grievance, and to profess to be 
dissatisfied, even if not so really. It is probably the disagreeable man- 
ner thus occasioned which led Captain Coxe to brand the Sheru zemin- 
dars as a ^' contuviadous and ill-conditioned people.^^ This discontent 
is to a ^reat extent superficial ; and in spite of all their grumblings 
they seldom make any difficulty about doing what they are told, though 
this may be directly against their individual interests. The Jat Biluch 

Unwariike character of population of the district is on the whole peace- 
the general population. ful and unwarlike. Among the Biluches there 
are certain tribes and families which take military service, but the num- 
ber of these is diminishing. Of the Pathdns, the Multani Path&ns are 

mv « i.1.^ 1 *• well known. They form an influential portion 

The Pathdn population. ^ . , i x« "^ t\ j i ^ 

of the population of Dera, and are always eager 

to take military service. Of the border tribes, the Gandapurs anci Ushta- 

r&nas are a fine manly set of men, who have always been loyal to our 

Government, and most of the other tribes are more or less accustomed 

to the use of arms, and capable of being employed in border defence. 

147. The crime of the district presents no marked features. There 
^^ is a good deal of cattle stealing in the Kachi, 

and a fair amount of ordinary thefl; and house- 
breaking everywhere. Dacoity is almost unknown, and cases of high- 
way robbery and violence are unfrequent, and, except when the hill 
tribes are at open war with our Government, rarely occur even on the 
border. A few murders occur now and again, mostly in connection with 
women. Ordinary assaults are of course common enough, but affrays, 
in which large numbers take part on each side, are very rare, and are 
seldom accompanied with any real fighting. Lying and false swearing 
are customary here as elsewhere, and a good deal of forgery goes on in 
parts, more especially about Leiah. 

148. As regards education, the district is backward. The Mahome- 
« dans are especially illiterate. The Hindus 

readily take advantage of any schools that may 
be opened, and are making progress. There is a good mission school at 
Dera, and a district school has also been recently established there. 



77 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

149. The weights in nse in this district are the niaun, seevj pdti 
Local weights. ^''^^ chitdky which bear the same proportion to 

one another as in the Punjab generally. In 
the cis-Indus tahsfls the seer, which is the standard measure, is the 

ordinary English seer of 80 rupees, though in 
ciB^In'd^™*''^ ^^^ ""^^ places an old seer of 90 rupees is still current. 

In the Dera and Tank tahsils, and in the southern 

portion of the Kulachi tahsil, the seer is equal to 100 rupees, and in 

« - , ... Kulachi itself to 126 rupees. Dera weights, 

Trans-Indns weights. ,y n i. u • ® i 

The Lahori seer. therefore, are a quarter as neavjr agam, and 

Kulachi weights half as heavy again as ordin- 
ary'Gk)yemment weights. The seer of rupees 100, current in Dera, is 
called the Lahori seer, and the measures oased on it go by the same 
name. Kulachi weights are but little used, and will probably soon dis- 
appear altogether. The Government seer is hardl}' used at all trans-» 
Indns. In talking of seers and mauns it is always the Lahori weight 
that is meant, and people, ignorant of the custom, are sometimes misled 
by this. A servant tells his master that flour is selling at 12 seers, 
when the weight by Government measure would be 15 seers. The 
weights used are seldom very exact, and the seer varies to the extent 
of two or three rupees more or less. As a rule the Lahoti seer is rather 
over than under rupees 100. Lahori weights are turned into Government 
weights by adding a fourth. 

8c»le of dry measnres. ^50. The common scale of dry measures 

in the district is the following :-^ 

4 pan = 1 propee. 
4 propees = 1 topa, 
4 topa »== 1 pai. 
4 pai s= 1 chauth. 
4 chatUh «a 1 path. 

The propeej topa and pai vary greatly in size in different parts of 

8i«e of standard measure ^^^ district, and the path of course varies with 

fluctuates in different them. The propee may ba considered ' as cor- 

P^' r^'^'^''*'®^ ^''^® responding to the English quart, the topa to 
to English measure. .i ^ n »,, • i. *u i/» ^ l Li ^."^rr , 

the gallon, thej^at to half a bushel, the cliauih 
to 2 bushels, the path to 4 quarters. The Hotwala topa, which is cur- 
rent in most of the Dera and the northern part of the Bhakkar tahsil, ia 
equal to 1^ gallons. The Bhakkar topa is about a quarter less, and ia 
equal to f f of a gallon. The weight of the topa of course varies with 
the grain measured, but the different topas are popularly considered to 
weigh as follows in Government seers :— 



}y 


W 




» 


27 „ 


99 


» 


= 


?> 


23 „ 


}) 


>J 





;i 


32 „ 


)9 


» 


=s 


9> 


96 „ 


99 


» 


=3 


*> 


50 „ 


>> 


>> 





;> 


53 „ 


91 


^ >> 




i> 


38 „ 



78 

Principal measures in Bhakkar topa=Si seers — P«M=about 20 md§ 

Me. Hotwala „ =4| 

Kappal „ =3| 

Girang „ =5 

Chand wan,, ==15 

Mainkhel yy =7f 

Ushtarana,, =8f 

Leiah ,, =6 

There are many other varieties of the tapa. The exact value of tke 
measures in use in each mauzah is noted at the commencement of the 
Settlement record. 

151. In some villages the people use what they call kacha pais 
Kaeha or half measures. ^^^ kacha tapas. The kacha topa consists of 

2 instead of 4 propeeSy and the kacha pai of 
2 instead of 4 topas. In fact the kacha measure is half the usual measure. 
In the same way, the people often use ka^h4i seers, especially with 

-r » __ regard to cotton. A man says that cotton is 

Eacha seers. ::. , n l^ fxru 

selhng at so many seers for the rupee. Wnen 

questioned, he explains that he means kaclui or half seers. The practice 

is very deceiving. 



T4nk dry measures. 



152. The Tdnk and Kulachi measures 
are exceptional. In these parts the path is 
not used. 



Tank measures are as follows : — 

4 topa = 1 pai 

2 pai = 1 niona 

2 mona => 1 anda 

2 anda = 1 chaiti 

The mona is as much grain as two men, when measuring grain, 
can carry oflF in a cloth between them. The chaiti is an ox-load, one 
sack on each side. An anda is half a chaiti, or a single sack. The 
Tank topa is equal to 7 seers, and the cJiatti to 225 seers. It requires a 
good ox to carry as much as this. 



Kulachi dry measures. 



The Kulachi measures are as follows :— * 

4 topa = 1 pai. 
20 pai = 1 chatti. 

The pai is the common measure in Kulachi. It is equal to about 
8 seers. The chatti is equal to about 4 marms. 



/ 



79 

153. The chalti is a common measure all over the district. la 
* The ehatti or ox-load. ^-^^ I^©ra tahsll it is generally put at 12 paif 

which, with the Hotwala measure^ would make 
it equal to 5 fnauns. 

154. The bora is another measure eaual to 16 pai or 4 chauth. 

It would thus, witn the Hotwala standard, be 
The Bora, or sack. equal to 6| mauns. A bora is roughly a camel 

load. The word bora itself means a sack, but has come to be used in 
this case purely as a measure. 

In converting local measures into English, I have taken the stand- 
Methods of measuring a^d English quart filled up level with the brim, 
grain which afEect the The local measures vary with the way in which 
»™^^*^^- they are used. With the hath-rakh topa as 

much grain is taken as can be retained with the assistance of one hand. 
In the charra topa the use of the hand is not allowed. 

I think that it would be very desirable if an uniform topaj corre- 
sponding exactly with the English gallon, could be introduced into the 
whole district, and the patwaries m^e to adhere to it in furnishing their 
returns of produce. 

155. As regards land measures in the cis-Indus tahsils, the old 
Land measares formerly ^*°^ measures were the karrOMy marla, kanalf 

in use, cis-Indus. '^^^ bigha, but the standard on which all these 

are based varied considerably in different parts. 

As a mle, measurements were effected by pacing the land. Thougn the 

old method of measurement is now to a great extent forgotten, yet there 

Rw^ nf *h. n^^ AL.JL. ^ro generally one or two old men in each vil- 

oize 01 tnc old 9igna» i ^ v •' i»ii • . i '.i. •. x 

lage, who are still acquainted with it. In 
Bhakkar I ascertained experimentally that the old karram or double 
pace was equal to 70 inches, and 2 biglias would thus be equal to about 
1^ of an English acre. In Leiah the old biglia was sometimes very 
nearly equal to an English acre, but there were smaller bigfias equal to 
Introduction by Mr. Sim. i ^^d i of an English acre respectively. The 
son of the English standard, term {^/iiimoo was nardly known previous to 

annexation. Mr. Simson very wisely effected 
his measurements in marlasy kandU and ghumaos, corresponaing with 
English measures. The ghumao is exactlv an acre ; the marla is an 
English pole or perch ; the kanal is equal to half a rood. All these 
measures are now well known by the natives. The marla is equal to 
nine square karramsy three each way : a karram being a double pace 
of 66 inches. There are 960 karrams to the mile. 

Trans-Indus, no land measures had ever been in common use pre- 

.. « i! J 1 J vious to annexation. The nearest approach to a 

Absence of fixed land , , 1.1 • j l 1 1 i.* i.i. 

measures, trans-Indus. land measure was obtained by calculating the 

amount of seed required. For these calculations, 

wheat was the grain alw.ws used, and the usual measure was the ehatti. 

-,. . ,^. J 1 J The c/iaiii would of course vary as the sr&in was 

The rAa^ ft or seed stand- xi.- 1 xi.' ti "L 1 i ui 

1^, sown thick or thin. It may be taken roughly, 

however^ as equal to 5 acres. No measurements 



80 

worthy of the name were eiFected at the Saramary Settlements trans- 
Indas. In judicial cases the measures used hi^ve been the same as those 
introduced by Mr. Simson into Leiah. At the present Settlement Mr. 
Scale of land measures Simson's scale has been made use of for the 
used in Settlement. whole district. It is as follows : — 

1 katTa7iv=66 inches square. 
9 square karram8=^l marla =1 perch. 
20 marlaa «=! kanal :=^ rood. 

8 kanals «=! ffhumao==^l acre. 

This scale has the ^reat advantage that it enables vernacular area 
returns to b^ translated into English with a minimum of trouble. 

156. Coinage. — Previous to annexation, the currency of the district 

consisted mainly of Mehrabi rupees, which were 
^™*8f«- coined by the local Governors. Nanak Shai 

rupees were also common. These have now been driven out by the 
Government rupee. In intrinsic value they are equal to 14 annas of 
the present currency, but are worth more as curiosities. The Pawindah 
merchants bring down with them large quantities of foreign coins. The 
commonest is the Nandrdmi or Kabul rupee, which sells at 13 annas 

3 pie. Bokhara gold tULaa are also extensively 
Value of gold. g^ij j^^^^ rpj^^j^ present price is Rs. 7-5-0 

Gt)ld coins generally are selling at about Rs. 46 the ounce avoirdupois. 
The English sovereign sells for Bs. 12. A variety of Russian and 
other foreign gold coins are to be met with. These foreign coins 
all go to the money changers, though a few may be bought by private 
individuals for ornaments. 



/ 



SI 
PART IIK 

TENURES AND TRIBES. 



TENURES AND RIGHTS IN THE LAND. 

157. The bulk of the land revenue under the Sikh Government 
. J t w^s taken in kind, under the system known as 

Slkht* ^ *«^* or ^*«^'**- ^^ ^'^ V**em is still to a 

great extent in force in the trans-Indus tahsils> 
it will be necessary to describe it at length. 

When the grain to be divided has been threshed and cleaned, a 

• Division of the crop into 8™^" P?'**^^^ ^^ ^et aside in a separate heap 
taiiah, khirman, mahsul. Under the name of tallah, or common heap. The 
mnd rehkam ceases paid remainder is known as the khirman. The 
from t eee. khirman is divided into the mahaul or Govern- 

ment share, and the rehkam or cultivator's share. In river villages the 
mahmlvA generally from a fourth to a sixth of the khirman. In hill 
torrent villages the share is often as high as two-fifths. In the Kala** 
pani tracts of the Tink tahsil it is as much as a half. From the tallah are 
met all items paid by the Government and cultivator jointly. These con** 
sist for the most part of the dues taken by the karawa or watchman, 
the dumbir or weighman, the ponah or chafF'-sifter, &c., and are gener- 
ally known as the greater kamiana. The ordinary kamiana, such as 
the dues paid to the carpenter^ smith and other village servants^ are 
sometimes paid from the taltah or common heap, but more generally 
from the rehkam. The lambardari cess, the local rates cess^ and other 
sitoai items, are also as a rule paid from the rehkam. 

158. Besides the mahmly the Government used to take Tikh^ 
Bxtra revenae items. *"^ * variety of smaller cf ases, all of which in 

the trans-Indus tahsils have been continued 
down to the present day. 

Tikk is a cash cess assessed on every path of grain. It is calculated 
^^ on the khirmauy and varies generally from 

Re. 1 to Rs. 3. A path is generally equal to 
about 20 mauns of grain, and when the price is 20 seers to the rupee, 
Rs. 3 Tikk is equal in value to -^ or about ^ of the value of the whole 
khirman. When the mahsul rate is high, the people are generally excused 
from Tikk and other extra cesses. The rates current in the Sheru ilaqua, i 
mahsul and Rs. 3 Tikk^ are about the average rates for the Dam&n, and 
are together equal to about a fourth of the gross produce. The inci- 
dence of Tikk increases as prices fall^ and is heaviest on cheap grains, 
such as bajra and jow&r. 

The other extra cesses included with the maheul are of less import- 
ance, though a few of them may be mentioned : — 



82 

Kraia is a cess taken in commutation of the Government claim to 
^ . have the mahsul share of the crop conveyed to 

the head-quarters of the tahsil or ilaqua. 

Mukadami, Xakumatj Kalarij Fazlana^ Nazar Bakra and other 
Q^, .. cesses have been imposed from time to time in 

different villages on various pretexts, in order to 
swell the Gbvernment receipts. 

159. The weighman, when separating off the tallahy tries to hit off 
' Bzcesfl graiQ left over the amount of grain required to meet expenses 

from tailah, paid by the Government and the cultivator 

jointly. Any excess is divided generally on the same shares as the 
khirman, to which it practically reverts. 

160. Except in the Pathan tracts, the standard measure, on which 
JPafai accounts based on the division of the crop is based, is the path. 

the number of paths of The weighman measures out from the khirman 
^*"** so many pais mahsxil and so many pais rehJcamj 

and, when the path is complete, he measures out so many topas or pais 
on account of the different cesses and expenses met from the tallah. 
Most of these are calculated at the rate of so much per pathy but many 
are lump sum items, while others are calculated at so much a cultivator, 
or BO much a plough. 

161. The question, as to whether a cess is to be paid from the 
Methods of charging rehkam or tallahy is of considerable importance. 

«eMee. A cess payable from the tallah falls on Uie 

Government and the cultivators jointly in proportion to their shares of 
the khirman. A cess payable from the rehkam falls on the cultivator 
only. A common way of lightening the revenue demand on a hatai" 
paying village, is to transfer certain cesses from one category to the 
other. 

Cesses paid from the tallah are calculated not on the gross produce 
(khirman and tallah) but on the khirman only. 

Gesees paid from the rehkam are sometimes calculated on the 
khirman and sometimes only on the rehkam. 

For instance, in a village, where the maJisul is a fourth share, out of 
64 pat in every path the mahsul share is 16 pai and the rehkam share 
is 48 pai. The tallah will probably be eight pai more, making 72 altoge- 
ther. The cesses paid from the rehkam perhaps amount to 8 pai, re- 
ducing the cultivator's receipts to 40 pai, while the Government takes the 
whole of the mahsul share (16 pai) without any deduction. If, however, 
the rehkam cesses are transferred to the tallah account, the share set 
aside as tallah must be increased from 8 pai to 1 6 pai. The Govern- 
ment will still take 16 pai, while the cultivators will retain the whole of 
of the rehkam or 48 pai. But by increasing the tallah the whole pro- 
duce under division is raised from 72 pai to 80 pai. The Government 
in the first case got ri ^nd the cultivators ff ; the GoYernment in ii» 
second case gets |f and the cultivator |$. 



83 

162. Payments, sach as the rent-share taken from sub-tenant9| 
Rents taken from sub- which are based on the amount of the rehkam^ 

tenants. and not on that of the whole khirman, are not 

calculated in pat-joa^A fashion. They are generally a specific share of 
the rehkam itself^ viz., a fifth or a tenth as the case may be ; and a^ain 
it is necessary to ascertain whether it is to be a share of the net rehkam 
or of' the gross rehkam. For instance, if, as in the case already given, 
the rehkam cesses amount to 8 pai out of 48, a proprietor getting 1 
rehkam as rent, may get one-sixth of 48 pai = 8 pai^ or one*sixth of 40 
pai «= 6f pat. In the first case, the cultivator would be left only 32 pat ; 
in the second he would be left 33^ pai. All these questions as to the 
way in which different items are calculated are of great importance in 
ascertaining the rent which a cultivator pays. 

163. The batai system in force in the PathAn tracts differs only 
System of batai in the from that which I have described, in that 100 

Pathin tra<it8. pai or some other standard is substituted for tho 

pathy a measure which is not current in those parts. The division into 
tallah, khirmany mahml and rehkam, are well known through the whole 
district 

164. In the cis-Indus tahsils, it was not the custom for the Sikh 
Sikh methods of revenue Government to take payments in kind, except 

coUection, cis-lndus. with regard to indigo. The practice was to 

have the whole produce weighed. After which the Government mahsul 
share was made over to the cultivators at a valuation based on the price 
current of the three preceding months, and. which was generally some- 
what in excess of the actual value. Trans-Indus the revenue was collec- 
ted sometimes on this system, but more generally the (Government took 
the actual grain and sold it through its own officers. 

Valuable crops, such as tobacco and sugarcane, were generally asses- 

JSdhti crops. ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^° ^^^ ^^^^ cmtivated, under 

the system known as zabti. Sometimes mahstd 

•^**'**» was taken on the kanhit system, i. e., by ap*- 

praisement. 

In the Thai, wells were generally assessed with a cash lump sum 
Assessment of Thai weUs jama. New wells were assessed lightly, espe- 
under the Sikhs. cially by Sawan Mai, whose rates for them 

were Ba. 12 per annum. Old wells, however, were assessed at much 
higher rates, rising to Bs. BO and Rs. 40. Where the revenue of Thai 
wells was taken in kind, the share was generally a sixth or a seventh. 

Having given this preliminary sketch of the revenue system under 
To nrooeed to tenures former Governments, by which tenures in the 

district have been largely affected, I will pro- 
ceed to describe these tenures themselves. 

165. In this district the superior and inferior proprietary right in 
DiTjsion of proprietary the land are known as the ata malkiyat and 

right into superior and in- adna malkivat, and the proprietors respectively 



84 

The main feaiare in the land tenures of the district 19 the division 

Superior proprietary es. of the country into superior proprietary Jod* 

tates or hadt. or estates. £n% origin of these m the portions 

of the Bbakkar and Ijeiah tabsils, adjoining the 
tftffi""^ *^^ «^^°^^» Indus, has been alluded to by me in my remarks 

on the colonization of that tract ( vide para. 
S3). In this part of the district the connection of the had proprietors 
or ala malihs with their estates is generally very close. They nearly 
invariably hold the lambardari, and have the control over the shamilai 
waste. As a rule the boundaries of these hods coincide with the ezistins^ 
tnauzahs, each manzah consisting of a cnngle had. Sometimes, though 
rarely, where the Iiads are so small, two or more hada may be induced 
in a single mauzah, and still more rarely the lands of a had extend over 
more than one mauzah. The general tenure ot these kads is zemindari. 
They belong on shares to the members of one or more families, under 
whom the cultivated lands are held by a mixed body of cultivators—— 
individual ala maliks, individual adna maliks and tenants. These all 
pay tnalikana at an uniform rate, which is divided amon^ the body of 
ala maliks ori their shares. Sometimes, when the ala mcdiks^ owning au 
estate, quarrel, partition is effected, in which case each takes the tnalikana 
and manages the waste lands of his own paUi. This tenure extends over 
the whole of the cis-Indus Kaehi, and over a large portion of the Thai. 
In the greater portion of the Bhakkar Thai there is no ala tnalhiyat^ and 
in the ThdX villages near Eot Sultan, the tenure has been gradually 
modified^ till now it differs but little from ordinary hhya^hara. Both 
these tracts will require separate mention. 

16& In thQ Jat Biluch portion of the trans-Indus tahsils, the 
Second,— in the Jat Bilach original division into hads must have been very 
tract trans-lndus; similar to that cis-Indus. In the Dera and 

Kulachi villages bordering on the Indus, a large proportion of the 
mauzahs consist of single had estates, as in Bhakkar and^ Leiah. In the 
Dam&n however^ where the hods were often very large and the had * 
proprietors weak, and generally non-resident, hamlets and villages have 
been founded and lands cultivated without reference to had l)ounda* 
ries, which have been entirely disregarded in the sub-division of the 
countiy into the present mauzahs. In the Daman, a had is a tract of 
land owned by a certain set of cda Tnaliksy while a mauzah generally con- 
sists of a village site and the lands cultivated from it, whi<Si are grouped 
together without reference to the hads^ to whidi iiiev belong. Origin-^ 
ally the division into hods must to a great extent have resembled the 
erdinarv division into mauzahs, and many of the old hads^ still possess 
deserted villa^ sites known by the same name as the had in which 
they stand. But this is not now the case. To understand the state of 
things, it is necessary to imagine a country divided intonMuzahs, belong* 
ing to different sets of proprietors^ residing in their own villages, and 
then to suppose that these villages were destroyed, and the whole country 
reparcellea out into anew set of mauzahs, the old proprietors being entitled 
to nothing but a taluqdari fee for such lands as were included in their 
former limits, the boundarios of the old mauzahs being stiU recogniaBod 



85 

for this purpose. This is what has occurred in this trans-Indus tract* 
The boundaries of the existing mauzahs are based on the cultivating 

Sossession of the cuina malikSf and have no connection with the old 
ivision into hods ; a single mauzah may contain parts of half a dozen 
different hada^ or vice versa* For instance, the present mauzah Morah| 
contains lands belonging to three different hods ; while the lands 
of the old had Morah lie partly in mauzah Morah and partly in two 
adjoining villages. The land occupied by individual adna maliks in any 
village are generally scattered freely through all the component hade* 

167. The origin of the hods owned by the great Pathan tribes is 

fPi.:^ «« ^\.^ ♦••^4. 1,^1^ different from that of the Jat Biluch hods. A 
Tnira,— 'in tae tract nela ... ,, i i i «• • 

l>y the PathAn border tribee. tribe generally conquered a tract of couiitry, 

destroying any proprietary rights that previ- 
ously existed. The lands thus acquired would in part be divided among 
the clansmen for purposes of cultivation, while the outlying portions 
would be held in common, and farmed out to tenants. The payments 
made by these would be divided on tribal shares, and these payments 
were not mere rent, but included the share of the produce ordinarily 
taken under native rule by the Government ; the tribe as a body being 
both Government and proprietor. The tribal tenures are very variea 
and complex, and will have to be separately noticed. 

I must now explain more fully the relative position of these had 
proprietors and the cultivating classes under this double tenure^ and in 
doing so, I shall start with the cis-Indus tahsils. 



TENURES IN THE CIS-INDUS TAHSILS. 

168. In describing this double proprietary tenure, as it exists in 
^ ^ . -. , . , the cis-Indus tahsils, 1 cannot do better than 

co«n?**o!? to e ^^todTs qnote from the accounts of it |riven by Captaia 
tennrefl. Mackenzie. Captain Mackenzie writes : — 

*^ When the Koraishees and Ghazi Khan's four sons first came into 

Q-«i««^«* r.9 ♦!.- *-«♦ " the country, I have mentioned that they 

betuement of the tracts ,. , , . y^ ,, • n . u j ^ 

and aUotment of hadi. brought with them a miscellaneous body of 

" emigrants, through whom, doubtless, they ex- 

" pected to be able to make their enterprise profitable. There were Syuds, 

** Biloches, Juts, and other adventurers in their train. Land was prac- 

'^ tically unlimited in extent : a virgin soil open to appropriation by the 

" new comers at will ; to them accordingly it was apportioned by the Cap- 

'' tains of the bands, in large lots, within whose limits it was in the power, 

*^ as it was also the interest, of each grantee to do what he oould in the 

'' way of agricultural improvement. This class have always retained 

*' their lordship of the manors. They have always maintained a tangible 

*' superiority, and have, therefore, been recognized by us as owners of 

[^ landed rights superior to all odier superior proprietors. 



86 

^' In other parts of the country also, we have fonnd classes of men 
Causes which led to the " ^^^> although we have been unable fully to 
preservation of the rights *' recogniase their claims to superiority, must at 
of the superior proprietors, u sQ^e time or other have corresponded to this 
*^ class of superior proprietors. In those places they had narder times to 
** contend with than here, with a denser population, rooted, like us all, to 
*' their homes ; the necessity of forbearance was not in their cases forced 
'' upon their oppressive rulers. So long as that point, beyond which aban- 
" donment would commence, was not overshot, few Governments had ex* 
'' isted which did not exact everything which the actual cultivator could 
'' produce and yet live, or if in the darkest times the people were obliged 
*^ to flee their homes, they always returned when a ray of light made it 
'^ appear possible to do so. Throughout those ages the original owners, 
" superior proprietors of the soil, were unable to reserve for themselves any 
^' seignorage or token of fiefship from the subordinate classes on the pro- 
" perty, or they were obliged to associate those classes on equal terms 
'^ with themselves for purposes of common defence. But here a more 
'^ lenient course was imposed on the ruling powers : to have treated these 
'^ superior proprietors with any thing but great forbearance *and liberal* 
" ity, would at once have stopped the improvement aimed at, of the almost 
** boundless untitled prairie, or mayhap thrown them back to their 
*^ pristine solitude. And hence to the comparative recency of civilization, 
" and to the continued scantiness of population, does this cla/ss (so I con- 
<< oeive) owe the maintenance of its superior position here." 

*^ The other classes owe what is peculiar in their position to the 

sutue of the other pro- " ^^^ causes. The superior proprietors could 

prietaiy classes. ^^ only attract new settlers by liberal terms. 

'' They therefore parted with the herit-able and 
^' transferable rights in the land in their several beats, in small plots, to 
Inferior proprietary right " n®^ cultivators, upon the payment by them of 
acquired by payment of '' an entrance fee, under the name otjooree, and 
j'^^' " an annual payment of malikana. These condi- 

** tions fulfilled, the superiors reserved nothing but some slight reversionary 
'^ interest in the land thus conveyed. The right of pasturage and the 
'^ appropriation of such produce in the waste, as might be necessary to these 
'^ new occupants in their position on the estate, was also conceded. Sub- 
'^ ject therefore to the burden of malikana only, this class can dispose of 
^^ their holdings in any manner they please, and are therefore proprietors, 
'^ although of an inferior kind. 

'^ A third class also exists. When the new settler was too poor, or 
Occupancy rights acquired " when it was otherwise unsuitable for him to 
by clearing waste. '^ pay ^Q jooree fee, a superior proprietor would 

BikitMn, it frequently mark off a plot for him to cultivate, 

'^ merely stipulating that he should have ahereditary, but not a transferable, 
'^ right in the land upon bringing it into cultivation, and paying annual 
'^ mcUikaruz. This class is denominated Bdtirhar. They are chiefly to be 
'^ found in the low alluvial lands, where it is not worth while, owing to its 
*' light and inferior quality, or to its instability, to buy the land by pay- 
^' ment otjooree^ and so become an inferior proprietor.*' 



87 

Captain Mackenzie in this classification lays great weight on the 
stress laid by Captein payment of jhurij as being the distinguishing 
Mackentie on payment of point between the adna malik and the mere 
i*"'"*' butimar tenant. The distinction, howeyer, even 

in the cis-Indns Kachi, is not so clearly marked as it would appear to be 
at first sight, and trans*Indus, where uie custom otjhuri hardly exiBts, 
it can seldom be taken as a criterion in deciding questions of status. 
Before discussing this question further, it will be better to give a short 
account of the proceedings of the earlier Sumipary Settlements, and to 
show how the classification, described by Captain Mackenzie, was gra- 
dually brought about* 

169. As I have mentioned, the Government revenue, previous to 
Ori^n of the state of tennres annexation, was generally taken in kind, the 

described by Captain Macken- superior proprietors, then known as zemin- 
^^' dars, gQiting pai path, and sometimes an un- 

Classification of tenures at certain amount of grain under the name of 
the first Summary Settlement, jj^^ r^^^ g^.^^ Summary Settlement was 

Nature of this Settlement. effected by Captain HoUings in 1850. Cap- 
tain Hollings made the Settlement with the superior proprietors. Lit^e 
enquiry was made into subordinate rights, or as to the way in which the 
revenue was to be paid. The revenue under Captain Hollings' Settle- 
ment was sometimes collected from the ctdtivators in cash ; sometimes 
by the Pathin system ; and sometimes the superior proprietors took batai 
based on the old Government ma/istU, Under the Pathin system the 

T»,- o.*x.*«r-f^«i whole crop of the village is collected together, 

Tne JrMMn ^stem. . . v i ?!_ i i A* % • • 

the gram is measured, the calculation being in 

paths ; the incidence of the revenue for pa th is then made out, and each A/^/i^ 
cultivator has to pay up his quota in proportion to the amount of his ' "* 
individual grain-heap. This system throws more power into the hands 
of the lambardars than would at first sight be supposed. The system is 
simple enough, provided there is always a good narvest, but when the 
harvest is short, the whole of it would often be insufBcent to cover the 
Government demand. This is generally the case with the kharif instal- 
ments. The lambardar therefore has to decide what is a reasonable 
amount to take. He either advances the balance himself, or borrows 
from a banya^ and postpones the actual collection from the cultivators 
till the next harvest. In consequence of this, there is always a sort of 
running account between the lambardar and the cultivators, the latter 
being very much in the hands of the former. 

170. At the Summary Settlement of 1854, Mr. Simson classified 
w- a4.^-««»-M..-{«««f;«« the classes connected with the land as zemin" 

Mr. oimson s ciassmcation , *?« ^ . . mii n 

into zemindars, chakdars, darSj chakoan and tenants. Ine two former re- 

and tenants. Their posl- present the present ala maliks and <zdna maliks, 
^^^' names which were first introduced at Captain 

Mackenzie's Settlement. As a rule, those persons were recorded adna 
mcdiks who had paid jhuri. These were given a cash assessment plus 
Bs. 1-12 per cent malikana, A cash settlement with a higher rate of 
tnalikanaj varying from 20 to 35 per cent, inclusive of cesses, was 



88 

^nerally assessed on oocnpancy tenants, but in many vlUageSi the old 
Pathin and batai systems were continaed. No iotot-paying cnltivators 
were ev^r recorded as adna maliks^ though sometimes cultivators paying 
at adna rates, viz.y cash revenue plus Bs. 1-12 malikana^ were recorded 
as occupancy tenants. 

171. The record of rights prepared at the Summary Settlement of 
Some slight changes 1862 agreed generally with Mr. Bimson's, but 
made at Settlement of 1S62. a good number of Mr. Simson's occupancy 
tenants were promoted to the grade of adna nudik. In some villages 
the method of collecting the revenue was changed^ bcUai or the Pathin 
system being substituted for cash assessments. 

Character of the Sum- 172. It will be well to describe here the 

mary Settlement records. nature of the records prepared at the Summary 

Settlements. 

Captain HoUing^s records were very brief. No details of area 

c t * H m • rds. ^®^® given, but a statement was prepared 

ap am o ng s reco showing the names of the khewatdarsj and the 

jama to be paid by each. There were also a few general remarks as to 
the baud arrangements in force. 

173. Mr. Simson^s records consisted of a Khaerah of all cultivated 
. , . fields, a Muntakhib or abstract of holdings, and 

a khewat showing the distribution of the jama. 
No administration papers were prepared, and there were no field maps, 
so that the khaarahe, wough giving dimensions and areas of fields, were 
of little use for future reference. The records were rough in form, but 
very good in quality, and formed a reliable basis for the more detailed 
lecords prepared by Captain Mackenzie. 

* 

174. Captain Mackenzie's Settlement, though nominally a Summary 
Captain MackenEie's w. Settlement, was, as he himself writes, on as 

eords of rights. Otherwise £p^ ^ 0Si3iB practically as a Regular Settlement, 
complete, but no field There were, nowever, no field maps ; and neitiher 
■"•P"* at Mr. Simson's nor at Captain Mackenzie's 

Settlements, was any measurement made of the waste, or even of long 
abandoned lands. Owing to this cause, a large area, in which inferior 
proprietary rights had at various times been acquired by payment of 
jhuriy &c., was not separately shown. Rights in such lands, which in- 
clude large numbers of abandoned wells, have now for'the first time 
been recorded. Most of the old fallow was also omitted at Captain 
Mackenzie's Settlement. With these exceptions, Captain Mackenzie's 
records, which included carefully compiled administration papers, were 
very complete in form, and subsequent experience has shown them to 
have been very correct in their facts. 

175. At both Mr. Simson's and Captain Mackenzie's Settlements 
Theory that payment of ^}^^ theory was, that those only who had paid 

jhuri was necessary to jhuri were entitled to the status of adna mcdik. 
•tatiu of adna maiik. j^ t^^ g^me way it was laid down by Captain 



89 

HuckenziA, that persons breaking up waste, for iiie future, would become 
adna maliks of the lands cleared bj them, provided the ala malika agreed 
to takejhuri, otherwise they would be occupancy tenants only. Prac- 
tically heaps of cultivators were recorded adna maliks^ who had never 
paid jhuri ; and in the same way, the provisions in the administration 
Custom not uiuTersia, papers for the payment o{ jhuri for new lands, 
even cis-lndus. were in many villages disregarded ; no jhuri 

was paid, and the holders were nevertheless recorded adna maliks in the 
annual papers. In some villages it was acknowledged from the first, 
and recorded in the Summary Settlement papers, that there was no 
custom of jhuriy and that adna nialkiyat was required simply by clear- 
ing the waste. 

176. At the present Settlement, cultivators already recorded as 

o ^x, i. adna maliks either in the Summary Settlement 
Sammary Settlement • xi. j. m i. i i • 

arrangements have now or m the patwari s papers, have almost in van- 
been adhered to, except in ably been continued as such, and their right to 
a few special cases. \^q status has seldom been disputed. In soma 

of the hatai and pathin paying villages, where the cultivators had been 
recorded occupancy tenants, vehement claims were put forward by 
them to the higher status of adna malik. As a rule it was considerejl 
that their claim was not sufficiently strong to warrant a change in the 
arrangements made at the Summary Settlement. In some of the siyar 
" The siyar villages of the villages however of the Leiah tahsil, the state 
Leiahtahsil. of things Was exceptional. The butimars iii 

these had in some cases received a cash assessment on the same footing 
as ordinary adna maliks at Mr. Simson's Settlement (i. e., cash revenue 
and cesses plus Rs. 1-12-0 per cent, malikana). In two or three villages, 
they had been up to the present Settlement on the same footing, so far 
as their own holdings were concerned, as the ala maliks, except that 
they had paid pai-path malikana in addition to revenue and cesses. la 
one case the lease had been held by the lambardar, who took batai at 
uniform rates both from ala maliks and butimars. In others the 1am- 
bardai: had collected from both on the pathin system. These butimars 
had in many cases sunk wells and founded separate hamlets of their 
own. They were a strong body, and many of them were, like the ala 
maliks, of the siyar caste. Several of them had been recorded chakdars 
by Mr. Simson, and had contested the arrangements of Captain 
Mackenzie's Settlement, by which they were degraded to the rank of 
occupancy tenants, very soon after that Settlement had been completed. 
The question at issue between them and the ala maliks had never been 
finally disposed of. I have changed the status of the mass of the culti- 
vators in these villages from occupancy tenant to adna malik. They 
have been given a cash assessment, and the pairpath malikana has been 
commuted to a percentage of Rs. 12-8-0 on the revenue. This commu- 
tation is very liberal. It is based on the assumption that the Govern- 
ment revenue is equal to an eighth of the gross produce, instead of to 
a fourth, the share generally taken as the basis elsewhere. There were, 
however, arguments against changing the status at all^ and I fixed a 
high rate of malikana as a sort of compromise. 



90 

177. As regards the payment of the Government revenne in the 
ResponBibilitv of supe- cis-Indus tahsils, the ala maliks and adna 

rior and inferior proprie- maliks are jointly responsible in proportion to 

ton for the reyenue j^e revenue assessed on the lands neld by them 

demand, cis-InduB, .^ ^^^^ malkit/at. Hitherto the adna malxk$ 

?roat8 from new cnlti- have shared in the profits from new cnltivationy 

▼•^o"** but these profits, since the introduction of the 
fluctuating system, will go, except in the case of the Thai revenue and 

of the abiana on wells in the Kachi, to the Government and not to the 
proprietors. 

178. As regards the cultivation of waste lands, the rules laid down 
„,.,,. at Captain Mackenzie's Settlement were, that 

Rules for breaking np .• S ».» i i r j.- i • i^i. i. u* 

waste and payment of /AMr* the afa wwiZii had a preferential right to culti- 

nnder the expiring Bettle- vate the waste lands on the estate, but that ho 

^^^^ could not refuse to allow an adna malik to 

cultivate waste land, in the capacity, as to it, of tenant, and provided . 

that there was no prior claim on account of contiguity to the ala malik! s 

own occupancies. Any person, adtia malik or outsider, from whom the 

da malika accepted yAurt, became forthwith adna moLik of the plot for 

which si;ch jAiiW had been paid, but the taking oijhuri was left optional 

with the ala malika. Ala maliks themselves breaking up waste became 

Tir«-f- u.^u-« -^ v f adna maliks of such lands without payment of 
waste broken up by ala .| • j. ii. i • o l\. ii. i. 

fnaliki is held by them in- jhurt to the exclusion of the Other sharers in 

dependently of their supe- the ala malkiyaty and on partitioning the ala 
rior proprieury shares. malkiyat, such ala maliks retained their adna 

malkiyaiy in the same way as any Mahaz adna. I mean to say that at 
a partition of the ala malkiyatj no sharer could claim a re-distribution 
of the adna malkiyat held by the parties in accordance with the superior 
proprietary shares, when such adna malkiyat had been in the first in- 
stance separately acquired by biUimari. For instance, the cda malkiyat 
of an estate of 600 acres is held undivided on equal shares by four 
brothers, of whom the eldest, Gauman, is lambardar. These men have 
divided their ancestral inferior proprietary holding of 60 acres, each 
getting^ 15 acres ; Gauman, being well-to-do, has broken up 35 acres 
more, increasing his holding to 50 acres. The other brothers have 
broken up only 15 acres each, and have holdings of only 30 acres. At 
a partition, the younger brothers will have no claim to equalisation of 
the adna maUciyatj because, as regards their additional lands, each 
brother holds to the rest the position of an ordinary adna malik. 

179. As regards other rights in the waste, exclusive grazing 

Profits from produce of ^«^** ^^''^ °^* allowed under the Summary 

wastelands. Settlement, waste lands being open for free 

^ . a, . grazing to the cattle of the whole district. The 

Langi, Moonj grass, &c g^perfor proprietors, however, had a right to 

all profits from waste lands such as langi {jcmd leaves), grass, momj 
grass, Ac, but subject to the right of the adna maliks and cultivators 

generally to take such grass, wood, Ac, as they might require for their 
own private use. 



Since Captain Mackenzie's SetUement, the value of waste lands has 
Power exercised by lam- risen greatly, while their area has decreased, 
liardan in allotting waste owing to extension of cultivation. Under the 
lands for caitiyation, &c. ^ij arrangements the lambardars have repre- 
oented the superior proprietary body in allotting waste lands for 
cultivation, which is the most valuable part of the ala malkit/at. Not 
only would a lambardar cultivate all the oest lands himself, of which 
as ala malik he became adna malik without paying jhurij but he took 
large sums of jhuri from adnas and others, crediting nothing or very 
littfe to the common fund of the ala maliks. He poorer sharers, feeling 
Leads to the poorer themselves aggrieved, were perpetually putting 
Bbarera demanding parti- in claims for partition* Now in villages of 
^^°* this sort, partitions confuse the accounts greatly. 

An adfia maliky instead of paying malikana on his holding in a lump, 
has to pay it separately for the lands included in each of the pa^ft^, 
into which the village has been divided. A village, besides, is better 
Objections to minnte managed, when held by a singl« lambardar, 
partitions of the ala mal* than when there are a number of cda maliks j 
^*^^*^ dach in possession of his own strip, and anxious 

to wring out the highest terms he can before giving out waste for culti- 
vation. My great endeavour, therefore, has been to frame rules by which 
the rights of the poor^ sharers will be protected, and the necessity for 
partition avoided. Partition of the ala malkiyai has always been 
treated here as a measure of an administrative character, to which 
sanction is by no means accorded as a matter of course/ as in the case 
of ordinary proprietary holdings. 

180. The following rules have now been laid down with the 
Rnles now laid down for general consent of the whole bod3' of superior 

£« w^f ""* '^ '^' '*^"**' proprietors. 

Ist. The ala malJdyat is not ordinarily to be partitioned, though 
ist Partitions not ordi- guch partition may be allowed for sufficient rea- 

Sf^^ ^rv:dia pif" BO""- In caae of partition, the rights of the 
tion. adna mcUtks through the common lands ot the 

whole village will be continued as before. For instance, an adna malik 
will continue to graze his cattle and to break up waste in all the paUies 
into which a mauzah may be divided. 

2nd. The ala maliks will have a prior right to cultivate waste, and 
2nd. Prior right of ala after them the adnas ; failing these the ala maliki 
maiiki to euitivate, may give lands to outsiders to cultivate. 

drd. Though the ala maliks have paid no jhuri hitherto, they will 
Srd. Ala maiiki to pay pay it in future for any lands that they may 
jhuri for the future. clear. There will, however, be this dinerence 

between them and the adna maliks, that it is optional with the ala maliks 
to take jhuri from an adna malik, in which case he remains an occu- 
pancy tenant only. The individual ala malik, on the other hand, will be 
entitled, if he chooses, to pay jhufi at a fair rate, and to thus become 
an adfia malik. In such a case the other ala maliks will not be able to 
ref oae to take the jhuri. 



92 

4th. The lambardar will not be allowed as before to take jhm on 

4th. Amount of i;tuH to ^s own aikhority. The question as to the 

be settled by the propria- taking o( jhurt, ov as to its amount, will for the 

tors, not by the lambardar future be determined by the ala maliks as a 

*^^^®' body, and the decision come to recorded by the 

patwari. 

5th. The lambardar will be entrusted with the power of allotting 

6th. Powers of the lam- common waste for cultivation. Any persons 

bardar to allot waste lot feeling aggrieved at the way in which he exer- 

cultivation. ^jg^g ^^^ power, must put in a complaint at 

once, otherwise persons clearing jungle, with the lambardar^s permission, 
acquire occupancy rights, and will pay rent at the customary village rate 
to the superior proprietary body. 

■ 

181. To acquire the consent of the whole proprietary body before 

Necessary to give the lam. lands can be broken up, would check cultiva- 

bardar a certain amoant tion and cause much trouble and dispute. Be- 

of power in allotting ^[^^g ^jig^ j^ ^jj^ v\YeY villages, the arrange- 

^*® ®' ments for cultivating newly formed lands, have 

often to be made in a hurry, and there is no time to consult the whole, 
of the proprietors. This power, therefore, has been continued to the lam- 
bardar. If he abuses it, he ought, on a continuance of the offence, to be 
deprived of his office. 

There is no reason, however, why the jhiri should not publicly be 
fixed, so that the lambardar may be given as little room as possible for 
cheating his co-sharers. 

• 182. The right to profits from the produce of common waste lands, 
Snrplus produce of waste o^^r than grazing, has been continued to the 
lands, such as nioonj, &c, be- Superior proprietors, subject to the right of the^ 
longs to the ala nmliks, ^^^ maliks and cultivators to take first what 
they want for their own requirements. These jungle products are daily 
becoming more valuable, and during the last year or two, there have 
Disputes as to mooni ^^^ constant disputes as to the moonj grass. 
£n*^B. The adna maliks declare that the lambardars 

and ala maliks sell it at the beginning of the season, and do not leave 
enough for village requirements. The aUis^ on the other hand, charge the 
adna maliks with cutting more than they themselves require, with intent 
to sell or give away to friends. The cases that have turned up have been 
settled in two ways. The ala maliks have been given the option of 
taking a third of whatever mjoonj grass there may be, leaving the rest to 
the cultivating body generally, or of leaving the whole to the adna 
maliks till 1st January, after which the ala maliks are at liberty to sell 
the remainder. In neither case are the adna maliks at liberty to sell 
any moonj grass that they may have cut, or to dispose of it to outsiders, 
though of course it is difficult for the ala maliks to prove cases of the 
sort against them. The increasing value of moonj grass will, I hope, 
lead to its being more extensively cultivated on the lands of individual 
proprietors ; when each man has a plot or two on his own land, these dis^ 
putes will gradually cease. Owing to the want of preservation <^ jungly 



93 

growth on the common lands, and the promiscuous grazing of cattle, 
the Kachi is getting rapidly denuded, and more exposed to injury from 
floods. Strips of moonj grass along the sides of the fields, cheek the flow 
of the flood waters, and lead to a deposit of silt. Lands so protected are 
not impoverished to the same extent as when the country is open, and 
the jungle growth eaten down. 

183. All classes of cultivators are entitled to firewood from the 
Right to cut firewood, common lands. Non-cultivators, such as traders 

Fee taken from non-culti- and artizans, will in future pay 8 annas a year 
▼ators. for the privilege of taking grass and wood and 

moonj from the common lands. Payments under this head will go to 
meet the grazing jama assessed on such lands, and will not be a per- 
quisite of the ala maliks. 

184. Another point which has long been in dispute between the 
RightB of inferior pro- superior and inferior proprietors, and which was 

prietorB to recover lands not provided for at the Summary Settlement, is 
lost by diiuvion. the right of the inferior proprietors to recover 

lands lost by diluvion. According to local custom, the boundaries of 
siiperior proprietary hods are not affected by river action. Any lands 
thrown up within the boundary belong to the original liad proprietors. 
As regards the adna malikiyat there has been no established custom. In 

Absence of a defined cus^ the absence of field maps, it was difficult, if not 
*o™- impossible, for adna maliks to prove their claim 

to the particular plots formerly held by them. In some places, however, 
such as mauzah Dera Fatteh Khan and the opposite portion of the Leiah 
tahsil, there had been cases in which well owners and others had recovered 
plots occupying the site of lands lost by diluvion, by order of Court. 
jPractically it has always been more or less the custom for an adna 
malik, whose lands had been lost by diluvion, to get an allotment out of 
the shamilat waste, without reference to the actual position of his old 
lands. As waste lands are now getting very valuable, the question was 
one on which a definite decision was necessary. Nothing on the sub- 
ject is to be found in the administration papers of the Summary Settle- 
ments. To treat all new alluvion as the absolute property of the ala 
maliks would in a few years lead to a revolution in the constitution of 

Objections to re-allotting ^^^ river villages. At the same time to lay down 
to adna maliJ^t lands on a rule, that adna maliks are entitled to recover 
the exact site of those the actual lands formerly held by them, would 
originally lost. ' j^^ ^ j^^^j^ trouble and litigation. In the 

Kachi the holdings of adna maliks seldom form compact blocks. Small 
fields, belonging to a multitude of proprietors, are mixed up together. 
The changes effected by the Indus are sometimes very violent. A 
strip of country, half a mile wide, is swept away. Lands are not perhaps 
thrown up on the same site for five or ten years, and then perhaps 
not contiguous to the main bank, but in an outlying island. To relay 
the boundaries of the old holdings in accordance with the original field 
map in the newly accreted tracts, would be a work of the greatest diffi- 
culty, and mistakes would continually be occurring. When the lands 



94 

• 

first became fit to cultivate, many of the old adna mcUih would be 
absent Their holdings would be taken up by others, against whom 
civil actions for possession would afterwards be brought. Here, again, 
a sort of compromise has been effected. It has been arranged that the 
right of adna tnaliks to particular plots will cease, when such lands are 

ThejwiUbe entitled to ^^^^ ^Y diiuvion. Such lands, when reformed, 
allotments of equal extent will become shamilat of the village, and subject 
out of new alluvion. ^ the same conditions as aliamilat lands gene- 

rally. Adna malikSf however, who have suffered by diiuvion, will iiave 
a preferential claim to allotments from the shamilat to the extent of the 
lands that tixey may have lost, without reference to the exact position of 

Ala malik* to accept their old holdings. A fixed rate of ^Atirt has been 
Jh^ri for Buch tllotmentB laid down for such lands, on payment of which 
at a fixed rate. ^jj^ eoHidna malik will become entitled to his 

old status in his new holding, and it will not be optional with the ala 
maliks to refuse to accept such jhuri when offered. This arrangement 
has been generally accepted without demur. The rate of compulsory 
jhuri has been fixed for most villages at Re. 1 an acre. If an ex-adna 
malik comes forward, when a tract of common land becomes fit for 
eultivation, he will be entitled to an allotment ; but if he delays to 
apply till the lands have been allotted out to others, he will have no 
claim against either the holders or the lambardar, and must wait till 
some fresh lands are formed in some other part of the mauzah. The 
allotment of such waste lands will, as now, remain very much in the 
hands of the lambardar and of the ala maliksy but the clause will hang 
ever them in terrorem^ and be an inducement to the lambardar to re-allot 
such newly formed lands in accordance with the old constitution of their 
villages. The gradual disappearance of the adna malik class will, at 
any rate for a time, be prevented, while the provision for the payment 

Right oiadnamaliktKn^ of additional /Awn gives the ala maliks as much 
occupancy tenants to re- as, in my opinion, they can justly claim. These 

y avion. occupancy tenants to recover portions of plots 

Rights of occupancy ten- lost by diiuvion, where fresh lands are thrown 

ants in other cases. ^p adjoining the remaining portions of the 

original plots. The rights of occupancy tenants cease altogether when 

the whole of a plot held by them is washed away. 

185. I have described at length the past and future arrangements 
nn. ^ -«i«- 4.u^^^\. for the raanaffement of waste lands, which apply 

These rules, tbougn • • n ^ rr i.- mi ^ ai. * * •' 

generally introduced, have pnncipally to Kachl Villages, as these are 

not been universally laid points on which disputes are perpetually occurr- 

down for aU villages. ^^^ j^ ,„^gt ^ understood that one set of cut 

and dried rules has not been laid down for all the villages of the tract; and 
where the alas and adnas have jointly agreed to modify them, they have 
been at full liberty to do so. Similarly, where a contrary practice has 
been proved, no change has been made in it without general 
consent. 

In some villages, for instance, not subject to diiuvion, the acceptance 
of jhuri offered by adna maliks for newly cleared lands is compulsorjr 



d5 

night of aina maliU^at on the aia malih. In others, the righto of 

not forfeited by ' failiire to adna maliki will be terminated by dilnvion as 

cttltmte. completely as those of occupancy tenants. I 

may mention here one other point connected with the rights of (zdna 
maliks. 

186. It has been decided, after fall inquiry, that by the custom of 
the country, an adna malik does not lose his rights by disuse or failure to 
cultivate, and that he is entitled to recover possession of abandoned lands 
after any length of time except where adverse possession can be proved 
against him. The adna nudkiyat of such lands lapses to the ala malik 
only when the original proprietor disappears, leaving no heirs. The ala 
makk cannot claim possession merely because the limd has been 8 or 10 
years waste. 

187. As regards claims of members of the superior propnetary body 
Modified form of partition for partition, the rules which have now been 

saitable for Kachi villages, framed will, to a great extent, preclude the 
lambardars from wronging their weaker brethren. Still in some cases 
it may be found desirable to prevent disputes regarding the~ allotment 
of the waste for cultivation oy effecting a partial partition. In such 
cases, the existing waste can be divided among the superior proprietary 
sharers without touching the cultivated lands, and it can be provided that 
the malikana due on the partitioned lands, when these are brought under 
cultivation, will be paid into the common fund. In this way the right 
to the malikana will continue to be held undivided as before, but each 
da malik will be able to make his own arrangements for takingyAurt, Ac, 
for the lands that may have fallen to his portion. A partition of this 
sort, though it effectually protects the . interests of the snarers claiming 
partition, is not generally what they care for. The great idea of every 
ala malik is to get a pcUti of his own, with adna maliks over whom he 
can rule, and a share of the lambardari. In old days a division of the 
ala malkiyat almost always meant a division of the lambardari ; but the 
two things by no means go together, and I have alwavs tried to make 
the people understand that it is bad for the interests both of the Govern- 
ment and of the people for every petty pattidar to be put in as a lam* 
bardar in his own right. 

188. To sum up the system of proprietary right in the cis-Indus /^ 
Main featares of the Kachi, the country is divided into hods gene* 

eommon tenure in the els- rally co-terminous with mauzahs ; each had is 
Indns Kachi sammed up. owned by a small body of superior proprietors, 
usually of one family, who hold undivided on shares and less frequent- 
ly divided on patties. Under these superior proprietors is a mixed 

. n ^ 

».«., in proportion to their holdings. Inmost of the villages there 
is a certain amount of shamilat waste, which is the property of (da 
malikBf subject to certain rights enjoyed by Uie other classes of the oom- 
manity. The main features of this tenure are almost universal^ though 



96 

differences In classification are occasioned by local circumstances. In 
some villages, mostly along the river, and in all the villages in the small 
tract transferred from Sanghar to the Leiah tahsil, there are no adna 
maliks — the btUunars are all classified as occupancy tenants, and the 
superior proprietary class become full proprietors holding the whole estate 
and paying the revenue on shares. The existsnce of a single adna malik 
in such a village changes the tenure of the adna malkiyat from zemindari 
to bht/achara. In other cases the inclusion of two separate hods in one 
mauzah changes the ala malkiyat tanuro from zemindari to bhyacharaf 
though each had is individually held on the ordinary zemindari 
tenure. 

189. This system of tenure extends through the Kachi tract and 
Modified form of this that part of the Thai attached to villages which 
tenure in the southern por- are half Thai and half Nasheb. In the Thai" 
tion of the Leiah Kachi. Jf^asheb and Thai villages of the southern por- 
tion of the Leiah tahsil, the ordinary tenure has been considerably modi- 
fied. The villages here, as elsewhere, consisted originally of hods held 
undivided by families of superior proprietors. The wells first sunk by the 
common ancestor are generally still neld on shares. As individuals of 
these families sunk wells afterward on their own account, they ceased to 
pay tnalikana into the common fund, and practically became full propri- 
etors of their holdings. Owing to sales, outsiders got possession of such 
wells. Other wells wore sunk by non-proprietors, the constructors of 
which became adna maliks paying malikana in the ordinary way to the 
original superior proprietary body. Many of the small villages near 
Kot Sultan are entirely divided into well estates, there being no un- 
attached shamilat waste. The tenure both ala and adna has in such 
villages degenerated into bhyachara, though there are still clearly marked 
traces of the old superior proprietary family. Where there happens 
to be any shamilat waste, it is held by this family on its old shares. The 
state of things resulting from this is, that there is a superior proprietary 
body owning certain original wells and some plots of shamilat waste on 
shares, and taking mjalikana on the same shares from adna maliks of 
other wells ; there are besides a number of men holding their wells in 
full proprietary right »and sometimes having adnas of their own holding 
Tendency in these vil- under them. In such villages there is a ten- 
lages for the adna maliks dency for the adna maliks to become full pro- 
to become fuU proprietors, prietors. There are instances where men who 
acknowledge themselves to be adna maliks, and who were so recorded 
ac the Summary Settlements, have never paid malikana. In some vil- 
lages, in this same neighbourhood, lying entirely in the Thai, this state 
of things has been still further develoi>ed. The village is still known 
perhaps by the name of the old proprietary family, but this class has 
entirely lost its position, and the waste lands are now the property of the 
whole body of well owners on khewat shares. Wherever there are ala 
maliks in the Thai the custom otjhuri exists, but under a different name. 
Tappa lagmai for wells ^^ is here Called tappa lugwaiy in allusion to the 
equivalent to the jhuri ala malik' s marking out the spot where the new 
taken iii the Kachi, ^^y jg ^^ jj^ constructed. It generally consists 



97 

of Bs. 5 or Bs. 10 cash and a turban {pag or dastar ), bat in some vil- 
lages the ala maliks are beginning to take more than this, and as much 
as Rs. 70 is now paid for a good site. The bulk of the Leiah Thai con- 

D*BD t as to the udc- ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ huge mauzahs, Nawankot^ Chau- 
rior Mj^priet^ right i*n the hara, Shergarh and Khyrawala. The whole of 
Leiah Thai. the two former and a great part of the two 

Nawankot and Khyra- i^^^^ ^^ included in the great Sumrah estate, 

^ *• which stretches from the Jhang district to the 

Indus. The proprietors of this estate are a small family of Sumrah 
Jats. Their rights in the oatljing villages of the fuid have always 
been very weak, and have been mucn disputed by the adna maliks. In 
Nawankot and Khyrawala they Were decided by judicial order to be 
entitled to malikana at the usual rate of Be. 1-12-0 per cent., and to a 
fixed rate of tappa for new wells sunk within their liad. The adna 
maliks of these villages have always sunk new wells without asking 
permission of the alaSj and the payment of malikana and tappa has been 
very irregular. It is only now at the present Settlement that the 
Sumras have been admitted to a small share of the lambardari. In 
Chaubara and Shergarh their rights are somewhat stronger, and new 
wells are only sunk with their permission. 

190. In the villages of Haidarabad, and some few others in the 
Rights in the adjoining Bhakkar Thai, the right of the lambardars to 
Tillages of the Bhakkar the ala malkiyat was recognized at the Sum- 
**^«*^' mary Settlements. They get therefore the 

malikana and tappa lagwai. Their title to the ala mxxlkiyat was very 
weak, and in Mankera and other villages there are lambardars with 
just as good a claim to the status, but whose rights were not admitted* 
Tappa lagwai originally In the Thai generally, tappa lagwai was origin- 
rather a lambardari than a ally rather an ofHcial liaq taken by the 1am- 
proprieurj haq, bardar, than a proprietary due. It is often 

still paid to lambardars, even where there is no ala malkii/at. The 
headmen of Nawankot and Khyrawala, when fighting with the Sumras, 
always claimed, and probably with truth, to have taken the tappa higwai^ 
but they declared that this was a proof of proprietary right, which it 
was not. 

In my general remarks on the physical features of the country. 

Division of the Jandi I mentioned that the Leiah Thai might be divi- 

Thal into well estates. ded into the Jandi Thai, a tolerably level tract, 

WeUs, DaU and Tap%. f^n oi jand trees, adjoining the Kachi and the 

Great Thai, which consists for the most part of rolling sand hills and 

occupies the centre of the Doab. The Jandi Thai is nearly all divided 

into well estates, the boundaries of which adjoin. Most of these belong 

to abandoned wells or dais. In many, no well is known to have ever 

existed. These latter are called tapsy or plots on which a well might bo 

sunk, and for which at some previous time tappa lagwai has been paid. 

. The langi or moonj grass procluced on their estates is the property of 

the owner ot the well or daZ or tap, as the case may be. In the Great 

Thai the wells are generally scattered about among the sand hills. 



98 

Only those lands are supposed to belong to a well, which are or hare 
been cultivated. The primeval waste is all shamildt. In the Jandi 
Thai, a well estate is often as large as 120 or 150 acres, of which 80 
acres is cultivated and the rest waste. In the Great Thai, owing to the 
exclusion of all waste, the area of well estates is much less ; &e well 
owner, however, has a lien on the langi from iiiejand trees growing in 
the immediate vicinity of his well lands. 

There is no tract corresponding to the Jandi Thai in the Bhakkar 

No similar tract in Bhak- tahsil. The country immediately adjoining the 

kar tabsil. Eachi is all sand-hills, and the well estates, like 

those of the Great Thai in Leiah, include only the actual cultivated 

and fallow area belonging to each well. 

191. In the daggar villages, as distinguished from the pastoral 
. Daggar villages in Bhak- villages of the Bhakkar Thai, the tenure is 
^^' generally very simple. In most of the villages 

there is no superior proprietary body. A village consists of a group of 
wells with the surrounding waste. The majorit^*^ of the wells in each vil- 
lage are owned by men of a single caste, from whom the village is named^ 
such as Ddggar Waghwara, or Daggar Lilin. The remaining wells 
are owned by Hindus and men of miscellaneous tribes. All well owners 
«re on an equal footing, and the waste is held on khewat shares. An 

Right of QoTernment to idea has been current for a long time past, thai 
allow new wells to be sank the waste lands in the Thai were the property 
in the Thai. of Government, which could give permission 

to new settlers to construct wells in a village vrithout consulting the 
old proprietors. Such a right has undoubtedly been exercised more or 
Ipss on main lines of road, where wells have been sunk for the conveni- 
ence of travellers, and in the Great Thai, where proprietary rights in 
the waste were weak or non-existent. I found, however, on enquiry, 
that no such right had been generally exercised even in Sikh times in 
these daggar villages, and decided that it could not now be claimed by 
our Government. As I have said, there is generally a leading tribe in 
' each village, and these people are very particular about the boundaries 

Superior proprietors of of their hads, and object greatly to the intrusion 
Ai^^ar villages. of outsiders. In those da^ggar villages, in 

"which there is an ala malkif/at, the state of things is similar to what it 
is in those villages where there is none. These villages have generallv 
been formed out of the outlying laiids of old Thai Nasheb hads. North 
of Bhakkar these hods used to stretch a long way back into the Thai. 
In villages like Haji floseyn and Mai Roshan, where only one or two wells 
have been sunk in the outlying Thai lands, die whole had still forms a 
single mauzah held directly by the ala maliks. The boundaries of these 
villages run as far back to the east as those of the daggar villages, 
which have been formed out of the adjoining hads to the south. The 
outlying wells in these southern hade being numerous and generally 
grouped into well defined ddggars, were formed by the Sikhs into 
separate mauzahs. In some the old ala maliks retained both the lam** 
bardari with right of management and tlie rnalikana. In others they 



99 

lest the lambardari and manarremeni, but retained the right to maHkana^ 
while in a third class they have lost their rights altogether. 

192. In the pastoral portion of the Bhakkar Thai, which^ for 
assessment pnrposes, has been formed into the Thai kalari, or Great Thai 
circle, village boundaries have now for the first time been clearly laid 

Bights in the Qreat Thai down. In the villages so formed the tenure 
Bhakkar. differs somewhat from that of the Daggar circle, 

each proprietor owns his well lands or barani plots in severalty as in 
the Daggar circle ; but there are many cattle owners, who though 
owning no cultivated lands, have an equal right to the waste with the 
owners of the cultivated lands. The revenue of the grazing lands is 
paid by a rate on cattle, and its proprietorship cannot therefore be re- 
Waste lands owned joint- corded as held on khewai shares. These shami" 
\j by well owners and Idt grazing lands are the common property of 
grasiers. j^q residents, but on no recognised shares. 

Hitherto there has been free grazing through the Thai, and any cattle 
owner might move at will from one village to another. Though free 
grazing has now been abolished, nothing has been done to bar a grazier 
from moving to a new village and permanently settling down there. 
In such a case he would by the existing custom acquire the same rights 
as the old residents. It is probable that eventually some sort of 
exclusive right in these waste lands will spring up, but at present I 
hardly see on what basis it is to be established. Up to the present 
Settlement, the waste in these pastoral villages has been looked on as 
the property of Government, srhject to the right of the zemindars to 
graze their cattle in it ; this right has been shared by the Pawindahs 
and others. Government has now separated off a portion of the Thai as 
rakh, and given over the remainder in proprietorship to the village 
communities. The rights of the members of these communities, as 
between themselves, are at present in a vague state, and I have thought 
it better to leave them so, rather than invent a tenure for them, which 
perhaps might not eventually be found to answer. 

193. There are two other descriptions of property in the Thai, 
rights in which I have not attempted to fix : rights in melon lands, and 
rights in jand trees. 

The melon lands are generally found in the neighbourhood of the 
_,. , ^ , , , , hamlets and villages, but sometimes extend for 
Bights in melon lands. ^jj^^ j^^ ^j^^ surrounding waste. These 

melons are sown in favorable years on the sides of sand hills, and most 
of the Thai residents have their own particular sand hills, which they 
have been in the habit of cultivating. Except when the crop is on the 
ground, there is no trace of cultivation. Nothing is visible but a waste 
of white sand. There are no stones or other landmarks, and to map 
these lands would be a work of great labor and of but little use. To 
show these melon lands, the Thai survey would have had to be done 
on at least a sixteen-inch, instead of a four-inch scale, and owing to 
the want of field boundaries, it would have been very difficult to locate 
the fields after the survey had been completed. 



100 

The rights of holders, not only of melon lands, bnt also of harani 
-D' X.4. ' L ' ^ I lands which crow gram and moth, have hitherto 

RightB m baram plots , « » ", ... 'rm-Lij 

hitherto very weak. Kuch ^^^^ ot a vague description. Ihe holders 
rights not allowed to mter- have possessed an occupancy rather than a 
of wdls^ ^^^ construction proprietary right, and such cultivation was not 

allowed to interfere with the sinking of new 
wells. A man applied to the Assistant Commissioner in charge at 
Bhakkat to sink a well in a suitable spot, part of which was held in 
harani cultivation by some one else. If permission was granted, as it 
often was, the harani cultivator lost his rights without getting any com- 
pensation. In the same way harani cultivation has always been carried 
on more or less in the old Qovemment rakhs, though the cultivators 
have never been admitted to have even an occupancy right. Such lands 
can be brought under cultivation with little or no laDor, and the position 
of the holders has been correspondingly weak. The harani lands have 

„ J u , i now been carefully measured, and the posses- 

Now made absolute. i , "^ j j j • i.- j. -a 

sors nave been accorded a distinct proprietary 

right* As regards the melon lands, the following provisions have 

Rules laid down for generally been made with general consent in 

melon lands. the administration papers. The zemindars are 

to continue to cultivate melons as before on their old lands, a person 

failing to cultivate melon lands for three successive years, loses his 

claim to them. As melon cultivation interferes with cattle grazing,* it 

is not to be extended to new lands without general consent. Ordinarily 

no revenue will be charged on melon cultivation. Should there be a 

difficulty, however, in meeting the revenue on grazing lands, one anna 

an acre will be charged on the actual melon cultivation for the year^ 

and will go towards paying the jama on the grazing lands. 

194. T!hejand trees immediately round the pastoral hamlets are 
. apportioned out to individuals, much in the 

ig sm^aw rees. same way as the melon lands. Generally the 

allotment is permanent in its character, but sometimes the trees round 
a hamlet are re-distributed every year. In the same way well owners 
preserve the trees for a certain distance round their wells for their own 
use, though the>e grow on shamildt and not on private lands. A 
general clause with regard to such trees has been entered in the admin- 
istration paper, but no attempt has been made to attest rights in indi- 
vidual trees. 

195. I have mentioned before that the sinking of new wells leads 
Rules for sinking new to much dispute in the Thai, as the new wells 

wells. must interfere more or less with the grazing 

of the old wells. Although, too, there is next to no surface drainage 
in the Thai, yet still there is a little here and there, and a new well 
sometimes interferes with this, and prevents it reaching the lands of the 
old recipient. No hard and fast rule can be laid down for cases of this 
sort. Each case has to be decided on the grounds of expediency. Mr, 
Moore, who was for long in charge of the sub-division, laid down a very 
good rule that no one was to sink a well without first asking permission 



101 

from himself, and permission was never given witbont dao regard to the 
objections put forward by the neighbouring well owners. 

196. I have now described the main features of the cis-Indns 
tenures, but before leaving this tract, it is necessary to explain how the 
present rate of superior proprietary malikana came to be fixed. 

In a letter dated 29th March 1854, Mr. Simson states that previous 

Rate of superior proprie- ^ ^^^ i^^^ ^^ Nawab Mahomed Khan, which 
tory malikana cis-lndus. commenced about A.D. 1792, the superior pro- 
Mr. Bimson's account of prietors are said to have collected chauth-^ath, 

islwabB^^^^^^^'^ ^ *^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^ sixteenth of the gross produce, 

which the Nawab reduced to the lower rate of 
pai-path, or a sixty-fourth. Mr. Simson does not speak with certainty 
on tlie subject, and such an alteration appears to me most improbable. 
The statement was probably made by the superior proprietors with a 
view to exaggerating the importance of their old position in the country. 
Improbability of such a Nawab Mahomed Khan acquired the govern- 
reduction. ment of the country on both sides of the Indus 

about the same time. On the trans-Indus side there is no appearance 
of any tendency on his part to cut down the rates of malikana^ which 
are often very high. In many cases, too, besides this malikanay the 
superior proprietors trans-Indus get an additional h(zq called mukadamu 
In many of the villages in the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua, the rate of 
Lower rate of malikana fnalikana is tV or tV> equivalent to the sol-aator* 
for kacha than for pakka ravin of the Dera Ghazi Khan district. This 
lands^in some trans-Indus ^j^h r^te, however, is only taken for the Damia 
^ ^^* or pakka lands. The rate for the kacha lands 

of the same villages is only pai-path. When Damdn lands paying the 
higher rate of malikana are washed away by the Indus, and new alluvial 
lands accreted on the same spot, the malikana taken for the latter is the 
kacha rate otpai-pathy and not the high Daman rate. This would show 
that the reason for the light rate of malikana on sailaba lands is, that 
tenants could not be got to pay as high a rent for these as for Daman 
lands. In the Kachi, where land was abundant, and the labor of clear- 
Probable causes of low ing the thick jungle considerable, the superior 
rate of malikana. proprietors would in old days have been quite 

satisfied with getting pairpath^ and the rate once stereotyped would 
have been continued By force of custom even when these lands, had sub- 
sequently become more valuable. Under these circumstances it seems 
to me very improbable that Nawab Mahomed Khan should have treated 
the superior proprietors on the two sides of the river in such very differ- 
ent ways, cutting down the malikana on one side to a fourth of its 
original amount, while he continued the still higher rates enjoyed by 
proprietors on the other side without diminution. Such action on his 
part seems the more improbable as he never scrupled to confiscate 
proprietary rights in the waste portions of the trans-Indus hods in a 
way that shows that he was not inclined to treat the land-owners of 
those parts with any special consideratiou. Whatever, however, may 



102 

Low rate of commuta- ba^e been the original amount of ihi» malikana 
tion allowed by Mr. nnder Biluch rule, the general rate at anneza- 
Simson. ^j^n ^j^g found to be one pav-path^ equal to A 

of the gross produce. At Captain Holling's Settlement of the cis-Indus 
tahsfls, the inferior proprietors, though getting a cash Settlement, 
continued to pay this pai-path in kind as before. At Mr. Simson's 
Settlement, the pai-path was commuted to the very inadequate percen- 
tage of 1'75 per cent, on the Government revenue. This was owing in 
the first instance to a mistake in calculation. The rate of 1*75 per cent, 
is really the proportion borne by the old pai-path to the gross produce 
and not to the Government mahsul. Taking the latter at a fourth, the 
pai-path would have been a sixteenth, equal to 6*25 per oent., and this 
is the rate at which it might fairly have been commuted. 

197. In 1861 Captain Mackenzie took up the subject of an in- 
Captain Mackenzie's crease in the rate of the superior proprietor's 
■ammary of the proposals malikana. Mr. Simson haa reported that the 
to increase its amount. ^ate of malikana was equivalent to 1-75 on the 

Government revenue. He had applied for permission to raise it to 6 
per cent., or 10 per cent, where the inferior proprietors might refuse to 
share in the joint responsibilitj^ of the village. Sanction was accorded, 
but it had no effect, as the inferior proprietors had agreed everywhere 
to share in the joint responsibility. Mr. Simson, in his Settlement 
report for the Kot Uddoo tahsd, again expressed his opinion that the 
.rate of malikana should be raised, as he considered it impossible in 

Practice to enforce the joint responsibility of the inferior proprietors, 
his, however, was not followed by any action. In 1859 Captain 
Fendall, officiating Deputy Commissioner, again proposed to enhance 
the rate of malikana. Major Brown, the Commissioner, approved and 
directed that it should be raised to 6 per cent. It fell to Captain 
His objections to allowing Mackenzie to give effect to these orders, but he 
an increase. demurred on iEe following grounds : — 

1st. — That Mr. Simson had been wrong in supposing that the risk 
and responsibility of the Settlement would fall on the superior 
proprietors only. In reality, the Leiah Settlement had broken 
down, because the superior proprietors had ruthlessly collected 
from the inferior proprietors the jamas originally assessed 
upon their holdings, and had appropriated to themselves the 
profits of new cultivation, whicn should have been distributed 
among the kheioatdars generally. The advia maliks in conse- 
quence abandoned their lands, and owing to this, Rs. 13,706 
had to be remitted shortly after Mr. Simson's Settlement, on 
account of abandoned cultivation. Meanwhile the superior 
proprietors had grown fat on the embezzled profitp. 

2nd. — That the right to take pai-path^ of which the existing cash 
malikana was a commutation, had, previous to British rule, often 
fallen into desuetude when the superior proprietors were weak, 
and, ill other cases, had been monopolised by the more power- 



103 

ful among ibem, corresponding to our lambardars, and to 
whom we now allowed 5 per cent, in addition to this malikana. 

Zrd^ — ^Tfaat the superior proprietors were so numerous, that an 
increase of the rate from Be. 1-12-0 to Bs. 6 per cent, would, on 
an average, give only Bs. 5 per annum to each. 

4^A. — That it was unnecessary to correct the error in calculating 
the cash equivalent of the pai-pathy as the difference was 
* made up by adding the 5 per cent, lambardari. 

Captain Mackenzie proposed therefore to retain the malihana at 

Substitution of inams to 1*75 per cent., but to restore their old inams to 

leading men. such of the superior proprietors as had influence 

in the land* 

Captain Mackenzie accordingly recommended revenue free grants 
Amount of inamt then of land to a few influential men in the Bhakkar 
granted. and Leiah tahsils. Eventually, sanction was 

obtained to grants to ten men, aggregating Bs. 340 in all. 

198. From my experience of the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil, I 
Grounds for reconsider- Bnould be inclined to doubt the fact of the mat- 
ing the decision arrired at path having been treated as a lambardari haqy 
by captain Mackenzie. ^q^j systematically appropriated by the head- 

men of a family to the eicclusion of the rest, though with petty items 
of this sort, there is always great room, especially where the sharers are 
* numerous and non-resident, for its misappropriation by the men through 
whom it is collected. I consider therefore tnat the superior proprietors 
of the cis-Indus tahsils certainly suflered a hardship when their pai* 
path was converted into a Be. 1-12-0 instead of a Bs. 6-4-0 per cent. 
tnalikana. When Captain Mackenzie, however, took up the question, 
the country was in a depressed state ; he was making large reductions 
in the revenue demand, and had reason to be dissatisfied with the con- 
duct of the superior proprietors to whom he attributed the breaking 
down of the Leiah Settlement. 

At the time of present Settlement circumstances had changed, a 
considerable increase of revenue was being taken, and the rate of mali" 
iana might have been raised to Bs. 6 per cent., without necessitating 
any corresponding reduction in the revenue to be assessed. 

# 

At- the same time there were strong objections to such a course ; the 

strongest of all being that put forward by 
coSSr*''''^ ^ * Captain Mackenzie, that in most cases the in- 

creased maiikana would be frittered away 
among so many sharers, that it would practically have no effect in rais- 
ing their position. 

A second objection was, that the present rate of maiikana had been 
in force for more than 20 years. Daring this interval the superior 
proprietary right had been sold and mortgaged to a considerable extent, 
and to alter the rate now would, in many cases, be a perfectly gratuitous 
^oceeding in favor of persons having no special claim to consideration. 



104 

Uader these circamstanoes, it was considered beat io adhere to the 

. , decision arrived at by Captain Mackenzie, and 

dedSSn 'idhereK''"'''' ' ^ ^^^^^ *^« ™^« ofmalikana at Be. 1-12-0 as 

before. At the same time it was decided to 
carry oat, on a more liberal scale, Captain Mackenzie's proposals for the 
^rant of inams to the leading men of the old zemindari class. In 
accordance with recommendations made, the Government sanctioned 
the grant of inamsj in the tahsils of Bhakkar and Leiah, to the extent 
Grant of additional <>f R^. 4-4-0 per cent, on the revenuoi which, 
inams at Rs. 4-4-0 per cent with the Re. 1-12-0 per cent, malikana now 
on the revenue. enjoyed, made 6 per cent in all. At ttie sug- 

gestion of the Settlement Commissioner, it was arranged that Re. 1 per 
cent, oat of this Rs. 4-4-0 was to be dedacted as a Zaildari inam, leavmg 

1, 7 M • Rs* 3-4-0 percent, on account of ordinary tnam*. 
ifum?.^^ ^ Lists of inamdar* were accordingly submitted 

for sanction. In the Bhakkar tahsil, 61 persons 

VUue of in^m» granted, have been .given tna,n« aggregating Rs. 3,720. 

In the Leian tahsil, 49 persons have been given 
inamsj aggregating Rs. 3,670. The subject of these inams will be treated 
more at length in a subsequent chapter. • 



TENURES IN THE TRANS-INDUS TAHSILS. 

199. From the account that I have given, it will be seen that in 

Character of the work ,^l^"°^"i"S proprietary rights in the cis-Indus 
connected with the deter- tansiis, tlie arrangements made at tne last 
mination of tenures in the Summary Settlement have been closely adhered 
cis-Indus tahsils. ^^ rj^^ status of buiimars in a few exceptional 

villages may have been altered, and some changes have been made in 
the general rights of superior and inferior proprietors as laid down by 
Captain Mackenzie. These changes, however, amount to little more 
than a natural development of the old tenure,' and were necessitated by 
the extension of cultivation, and the consequent increase in the value of 
the village waste, rights in which had to be more clearly defined, in order 
to protect the interests of the different classes of the agricultural popu- 
lation. 

200. In the trans-Indus tahsfls, the work to be done was of a very 

different character. The Summary Settlements 
.v^rr^i^er^^cha^r! of Bhakkar and Leiah entirely revolutionised 
Old native revenue system the old revenue System of the country. Almost 
continued up to present everywhere the old batai arrangements gave 
Settlement. place to a cash settlement made khatauniwar 

with the butimars and inferior proprietors, under the nominal responsi- 
bility of the had proprietors. Trans-Indus the case was widely different. 
Previous to annexation, the Sikh K&rdars generally took the revenue in 
kind, much of the district was held in jagir, and the jagirdars collected 

M 8* 's Settlement ^" ^^® ®*™® ^^^^ "^^ 1850, Mr. Simson was 
r. imson s directed to effect a Summary Settlement of the 

Dera Kulachi tahsils, of which he was in charge as Assistant Commis* 



105 

fibner. The iennres were complicated, and Mr. Simson had not ihe 
leisure to make the fnll enquiry into proprietary rights^ that he after-* 
wards made in Bhakkar and Leiah. 

201. The Settlement was in most cases made with the resident 
Made with leasees and headmen of each village as representatives of 

not with the proprietary the community, but practically, the mass of the 
**^®'' proprietors seldom obtained any share in the 

lease, and the headmen continued to collect at the old rates of batai in 
force under the Sikhs ; they alone being responsible for the profit and 
Character of the Settle- loss of the lease. The Settlement was, in fact, 
ment records. one made with the lambardars, or, failing them, 

with mere farmers. The lease was called the mtLshaha, and the lessee 
the mushaksadar. The only records prepared were the Darklvwast^ 
the patta and the kabuliyoij which referred merely to the revenue, and a 
toajib-ulrurz of three or four pages, giving the names and sometimes the 
shares of the leading superior proprietors and lambardars, with a few 
particulars as to rates of malisul and malikana. There were no measure* 
ments and no attempt at any sort of kfiasrah or khataunu As a guide in de- 
ciding questions of proprietary right, beyond the fact of their sometimes 
E'ving a clue to the rate of malikana, or general information of a simi- 
r sort, these records were quite worthless. The details of shares in 
the superior proprietary right, even when given, were often incorrect, 
owing to the omission of the names of the smaller sharers, and similar 
mistiuLes were made in detailing the shares in the mushaksa, when the 
lessees were numerous. 

202. In these records the superior proprietary right was generally 
Classification of the recorded as the vAraeat zemindaru Some- 
classes donnected with the times, however, lessees were recorded as hold- 
^*°^ ^ ing this wirasat zemindariy who had no share 
in the superior proprietorship. There was in the record for each village 
a stereotyped clause to the effect that hereditary cultivators were not to 
be ousted so long as they paid the Government dues, and cultivated their 
lands, but there is no special mention of the lathband and buHmar class, 
who have now been generally made inferior proprietors. A second 

Captain Coze*s Settlement Summary Settlement was made by Captaia 
similar to Mr. simson's. Coxe in 1857. In many cases he changed the 
lessees, but in other respects his record was generally only a copy of 
Mr. Simson's. No change was made in the revenue system. The 
arrangements made by Captain Coxe have continued in force up to the 
Has remained in force up present Settlement. The result is that the old 
to the present Settlement, gikh revenue system, with its multitude of mis- 
cellaneous cesses, has been handed down untouched to the present-day ; 
the only difference is, that in most villages the collections have been 
made by farmers and jagirdars, and not direcUy through Government 
Three main classes •— officials. We have, therefore, in the trans-Indus 

utwMnshaksadars, tahsils, three classes connected with the land : 

2nd.-^Buniaddars, Ist, the mushaksadars ; 2nd, the buniaddarSy or 

^^'"^^biMd^^* ^^ ^*' superior proprietors of had^ ; 3rd, the butimars 

and lathlninds. The great point for decision at 



106 

Their claimB to the Settle- this Settlement, has been the status to be award- 
"*®^^ ed to each of these classes. With which of 

them shonld the Settlement be made? the class settled with getting as a 
matter of coarse the mahnd and the other Government dues which 
accompany it 

203. I have already described, in para. 157, the general system of 
System of batai and batai in force in the trans-Indas tahsils. I have 
subject of proprietary hads also described the division of the country into 
already explained. superior proprietary hads. 

In the river villages, the tenure is exactly similar to the original 
Tenures in the river ▼11- tenure of the adjoining villages of the cis-Indus 
lages simUar to those cis- tahsils ; except that hads and mauzah bounda- 
^^^^' ries less frequently coincide. There are in 

them (Ua maliks who iake pai-path, and the same butimar class, whose 
rights have been acquired by clearing waste, generally without payment 

In the Damftn instead of butimarsy we have latJtbands. The butimari 

Znthhands in the Damte f?^ j^hbandi tenures are in their main features 
correspond with bntiman identical. in botn, occupancy ngiits are 
in the Eachi. acquired by bringing waste lands under cultiva- 

Comparison of these two tion. The butimars acquire these rights by 
*®^'"*'* clearing jungle, the huhbands by embanking 

fields. Though lathbands never pay^Aun, yet,as a rule, their position is 
stronger than that of ordinary butimars. The reason of this is, that a 
lathed field is a more permanent possession than a bit of land in the 
Kachi, which the river may any day wash away. For the same reason, 
though it is a common and well recognized practice for lathbandsio sell 
their fields, no clearly established practice to this effect is to be found 
among the butimars of the river villages ; not so much because off any 
custom restricting the rights of the butimar in this respect, as because it 
is cheaper for a man, wisning to cultivate, to clear land for himself, rather 
than to buy land already cleared ; and as there is no custom for sub- 
letting, owing to the high rates of Government mahsul^ which absorb 
nearly the whole rent, no one but an actual cultivator would care to 
buy. As a rule, lathbands both sell and sublet their holdings freely. 

Custom of moyajara. The rent taken by them is called moyajora. 
System of lathbandt culti- In the Daman, bands are generally of large size, 
^^^°' and when much water comes, a large area has 

to be rapidly ploughed and sovm. The work of keeping in repair the 
laths is also heavy. The custom, therefore, has always been for the 
lathband to associate with himself as many cultivators as he can get to 

JJalara* or associations join. These men bring their own oxen {joras\ 
of ploughs. and are called Bhaiwals. The lathband him- 

self contributes one or two ploughs, according to his means, and the 

Position of the headman whole company of associated ploughs is called 
of the halara towards his a halara. In parts of the Daman, more espe- 
associates or BhaiwaU. cially in the Kulachi country, the number of 
ploughs in a halara is sometimes as many as ten or twelve. In tho 



107 

tracts towards the Indas^ the number is seldom more than five or six. The 
associated cultivators, including the latliband himself, and the men that 
he puts in, aretheyora%(7aZ^. The ^orawa/s divide the produce equally 
on their ploughs, but the lathband, in addition to the share, to which he 
is entitled for his own ploughs, gets an additional share on account of 
the oxen, supposed to be deceased, by means of which the field was 
ori^nally lathed. This is known accordingly as moyajoraj or the (share 
of the) dead pair. The term moyajora now means anything paid from 
the rdikam as rent, and sometimes more than one moyajora is taken. 
Where land is let to a sub-tenant the moyajora share is a fixed portion 
of the rehkam ; but where the lathband himself joins in the cultivation, 
he generally takes only a single extra share, which varies with the 
dumber otjorawals that may have been associated in the cultivation. If 
there are three, he gets a fourth of the produce ; if there are seven, he 
gets an eighth. Sul^tenants, holding at will, often take moyajora^ as mana- 

Sers, from their associated bhaiwals* It is only the man who constructs 
le first laths on a bit of waste land, who gets occupancy rights. No 
such rights are afterwards acquired by repair of laths, even coupled with 
lonff occupation, and though the work of repairing is often nearly as heavy 
as tnat of the original construction. This rule, however, is not universal ; 
and in some villages, mostly near Naiwela, there are men holding 
nnder the original lathbands, who have in this way acquired occupancy 
rights, which have been confirmed to them at the present Settlement. 
Laborers in the Dam&n, when employed in cultivation, are almost 
always paid by getting a share of the crop, though sometimes they may 

Other aasociatecf cultira- ^ g^ven something fixed in cash or grain in 
tors. addition. A man supplying labor, but making 

NimmaU and Pau-walt, ^g^ ^f borrowed oxen, is a nimwal or half share 

man ; the owner of the oxen takes the other half share. Similarly a 
pau-ioal is a man who gets a quarter share only. 

204. These general remarks as to lathbandi and the custom of cul- 

Diriflion of the Damda tivatiou by Iialaras, apply more or less to the 

for the purpoae of deacrib- whole of the Damdn portion of the trans-Indus 

*^l.*^TMakkarwiid. ^^^^' ^^ describing more particularly the 

2! The TAnk tahall! relations between lathbands and had proprietors, 

3. The Pathdn hads. I shall divide this tract into three portions, which 

will be separately taken up : — 

I. The Jot Biluch tracts — ^including nearly the whole of the Dera 
Ismail Khan tahsil and the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua, which, 
for shortness, I shall call by the old name of Makkalwad. 

II. The Tank tahsil. 

JIL The lands held by Pathdn tribes in the Dera Ismail and 
Kulaclu taJmU. 



108 

I. — ^TEKimBS IN THE MAKKALWAP. 

205. I have mentioned already that the outlying portions of the 
The great superior ^eat Jat and Biluch tuuhj which Btretcb from 

proprietary hatU and their the Indos to the border of the Kulachi tahsil, 
diviaion into mauzahe. ^^^e granted ont by Nawab Mahomed Khan 

and his snccessors to new settlers, who founded large nambers of 
mauzahs, which are now held by their descendants independent of 
the old had proprietors, and subject only to the payment of malikanam 
Bimilar villacres were founded in the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua, and 
also in the Kas tract taken from the Qandapurs. Half the villages in 
tiie Daman are thus occupied by communities of lathbandsy. who hold the 
lambardari and the management of the waste, to the exclusion of the 
{da maliksj with the exception of such individuals among the latter as are 
themselves laihbands in the village. The remaining ala nudiks have no 
claim to anything but their share of the mcUikana. 

206. Many villages arose in the following way : Two or three 
Settlement of outlying «^ maliks settled in an outrlving part of their 

Tillages^ Tenures that were had. They associated with themselves a numr* 
thus originated. j^^j. ^f non-proprietors, and cultivated with these 

on shares^ based on the number of pairs of oxen (joras ) supplied for 
the construction of the dams, from which their lands were irrigated « 
The headmen would be taken {h>m among the ala maKf^ families^ but 
in other rftapAfita tly^gA and the new comers would be both on the sam e 
footing^ as regards rights of latlJbandij in the lands which they had 
occupied. From cultivating in common^ they gradually took to parti-^ 
^ \ tioning the village lands,^and t^esg. cultivating tenures are found in all 
stages of development, — zemindariy imperfect pctttidariy and perfect paiti^ 
dari. In old partitions, regard was oiten paid to differences in the 
quality of the land^ which no longer exist,, and the holdings in conse- 
quence do not now correspond to the original shares. Such villages 
are practically bht/achara. It is in the Sheru Us^ft ^&^ these cultivate 
ing tenures exist in the greatest perfection. The villages here are 
generally small, and sometimes are owned by the descendants of a single 
founder. Most of them have been settled during the present century^ 
In many of them the lease was taken up, at the Summary Settlement, 
by the cultivating body, on their shares or patties. In most of these 
villages, however, along with the lands hela by the sharers, there are 
plots {kanah\ held by outsiders, who have obtained them by gift or 
purchase. When such villages have been partitioned, present possession 
seldom agrees with the original shares, and in distributing the new 
assessments, they have had to be treated as bhi/acharay the jama bein^ 
h^hed alike on the lands of the sharers and of the matiks maqbuza^ or 
holders of kanah plots. These latter never pay anything a& rent to the 
original inferior proprietary body, and, quoad their own holdings, are 
on an equal footing with them, though having no rights in the BhamUdi^ 
or common pro{>erty of the village^ 



109 

207. It IS only in the snpply of labor for the irrigation dams, that 

S' ran ements still ^® ^^^ pattidari constitution of many of their 

baJI^Tn^tiie^oiTcuitivat- villages is now apparent. The sharers are 

ing shares. System of forced called jorawalsy and are grouped along with 

^ f to^ ^tin'^Jon ^r^*^ *®^^ tenants into patties. Each patti is headed 
o e ga on 8. ^^ sLpattidavy whose appointment rests entirely 

with the community, and is never interfered with by the QovernmenL 
The work on the dams is called bigavy and the vattidara arrange for the 
equal distribution of tfie biaar due from the village among the different 
pattiesj and inside the patties among the constituent joraxcals. A joru'- 
tval failing to supply his quota of Mgar for the dams,' is fined eight 
annas a day for every pair of oxen due. Under the old village system. 
Under the old sTstem ^ sharer, who absconded, lost his occupancy 
rights of lathbandiweii rights. As land was then of little value, culti- 
forfeited by failure to sap- vators would often leave one village for another, 
ply labor. while new men would come in. Extensive 

changes of this sort would often necessitate a re-division of village 
lands, and before British rule, the partitions effected were merely for 
convenience of cultivation. They were not of a permanent character, 
and from time to time, the separate holdings would be thrown together, 
and re-divided on a fresh set of shares. Some villages were thus re- 
divided over and over again. The shares of biffar will, for the future, be 
regulated to a great extent by the revenue paid by each yoraira2, and 
eLjoratocd failing to supply labour, will be treated much as a kkewatdaVf 
who fails to pay his revenue. The mere fact of temporary abandon- 
ment, will no longer, of course, terminate the rights of a lathbandy which 
under British rule have now grown into actual proprietorship. 

208. In the river villages of the Makkalwad, the uncultivated 
Rights in the shamiidt waste is the property of the superior proprietors, 

waste in the river Tillages subject to certain rights enjoyed by the adna 
and in the Damin. ^ maliky or butimar cIbsb. In the DamAn villages 

there is generally no village waste, the whole village area being owned 
by individual proprietors. Where there is any common waste, the 
property in it generally belongs to the whole boay of adna maliks on 
khewat shares, and not to the ata maliks. 

209. Though, however, the ala maliks in the Damin hold a weaker 

High rates af malikana. Position in some ways than in the river villages, 

or m the cis-Indus tahsils, still they have 
enjoyed much higher rates of malikana. 

The usual rate of malikana in the northern Makkalwad, is two pav* 
path, equal to -^ of the gross produce. Towards the souUi, the rate is 
three pai-path or more. When the rate is above ihree pairpaithy the form 
of realising it generally changes. The jmrpaih is always calculated 
on the gross prepuce, but when the rate rises to four pai-path or -^ 
it is usually ciEdculated on the rehkam* 

210. In the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua, a common maUkana for 
_, ^ - , ^ , . . latJtbands to pay is a seventeenth of the rehkam. 

2)^ Fii^h Kh^ita^ This is caUed solrsatdramn, and is the usual rent 

rate for (utimar^ in the SangbartahsQ ^sometimeft 



110 

the share - taken is as mnch as a tenth or a twelfth of the rehkam. The 

maximum ever taken is a tenth. The almost universal rate of maWcana 

„ ^ . ^, . .,, in the Indus villac^es of this tract, is one jxxir 

^ path. In para. 196, I have explamed that m 
villages, the lands of which are situated haJf in the Kachi and half in 
the Daman, there is generally a different rate for each, and that the 
higher Daman rate ceases to be taken when lands have been dianged 
by river action from pakka to kacha* 

211. The malikana paid in the Makkalwad, is generally called 
l^ames applied to maU' khtUH. In the soath, where sol-satdraiwin or 

kana. some other share of the rehkam is taken, it is 

Zhtttti lich. caUed lich, a word which means a share. In 

the cis-Indus tahsfls, the name of khutti is never applied to the maUkana* 

It always implies something taken from tenants. 

M«^SLS!""°* in addition to the wio/iifeana paid by the inferior 

Jroprietors, and is the equivalent to the trans- 
ndus moyajora. 

212. In addition to the ordinary maWcaruij another due, known aa 

mukadamif is commonlv taken in the Mukkal- 
of^i^^**^"'- *""*"' W tmct, esi^cially in the ijorfon M^^ 

of the Miran ilaqua. The ongm of this rmikar 
dami is uncertain. It seems to have been a sort of lambardari haq^ but 
against this view is the fact that it is often included among the items 
composing the Government revenue. The usual rate for mukadami is 
two pai-path for the rabi, and 1^ pai for the kharif. As a rule the rabi 
mukadami is a Government due, and included in the Mushakmj while 
the kharif mukadami is taken by the zemindars. Sometimes the latter 
take the mukadami for both harvests. The mukadami is sometimes held 
on the same shares as the malikana. It is more often taken by certain 
leading individuals or families among the superior proprietary body. 
This is the case in most of the big hadsj like those of Panchkota and 
Draba.n Kalan. The same families generally take the mukadami 
through the whole hadj however large. In other villages, the mukadami 
is taken by the lambardar's family, and is disconnected altogether from 
the superior proprietary right. 

213. Whatever may be its origin, or the manner in which it is 

»# t. ^ ^ «j - 11.^-... enjo3'ed, this mukadami now differs in no way 

are now similar in charac- from ordmary moUkanay and is subject to the 
ter, and have been consoii- same rules of inheritance. It can be bought 
dated into a single item. ^^ g^i j 1;^^ ^y ^q^^^ ^^ ^( propertv. Where 

both the malikana and mukadami are held on the same snares, they 
have now been consolidated into a single haq^ under the name of maU^ 
kana. 

214. In commuting malikana from kind to cash in the MakkaluMd, 

l7>at-pa^A has generally been treated asequiva- 

*«S2fto;*'k^dto°c«r'*" lent to R8. 6-4-0 per cent, on therevenue. This 

IS based on the supposition that the Govemmeni 



Ill 

revenne is oqnal to a fonrth of the ^oss prodace. It is really mnch 
less than a foarth, and the percentage therefore should be greater. The 
superior proprietors, however, were quite satisfied to take Rs. &-4-0, and 
an}'^ higher rate would have pressed very heavily on villages, where the 
joint malikana and muhadami amount, as they often do, to three pairpath 
or more. At the rate accepted, 2 pairpath has been converted into 
Bs. 12-8-0 cash malikana ; 3 pairpath to Hs. 18-12-0, and so on. 

In the southern portion of the tract, where the malikana is a share 
OommnUtian of mali* o^ the rehkamy tlie commutation allowed is 
hsna in the soiiihem por- based on the exact proportion borne by the 
tion of the tract. present kind malikana to the Government 

mahsul. Where the Government mahsul is -^ of the gross produce, 
and the malikana share is -^^ the rate of the cash malikana nas now 
been put at 25 per cent. The mukadami has been commuted on the 
same principles as the malikana. Where mukadami has hitherto been 
taken for one harvest only, the value has been calculated and distribu- 
ted over both harvests at an uniform rate. Where mukadami has 
hitherto formed a part of the Government demand, it has now been 
released along vrith the mahsul to the persons with whom the Settlement 
has been made. 

In some parts, where the nominal rate of malikana has been very 
OommutRtion of mali- heavy, but th^ actual payment of it has been 
jbiMintheMarwatTillageB disputed and the realisations uncertain, the 
of the Panniila tract. amount of commutation has been arbitrarily 

fixed at rates much below those that would be obtained under the system 
ordinarily followed. In the Marwat villages of the Panniala circle, 
the rate of mcdikana has been fixed at from Rs. 25 to Bs. 10 per cent. 
In some of these villages, the Bilnch ala maliks claimed to take ^ of the 

S'oss produce, or nearly as much as the mahsul share. The lease of 
ese Marwat villages had been held by the Biluch headmen, who had 
left a margin for extracting a high rate of malikana by lowering the 
mahnd share as fixed at the Summary Settlement. 

215. Besides malikana and mukadami^ another cess of the same 

charact^ is sometimes taken under the name 
Saqjora, otjora. This has also been commuted to cash. 

216. The size of some of the superior proprietory fuxds in the 
Notes on the more import- Makkalwad is very large. Their proprietors 

ant of the hods in this are generally a very mixed set consisting of 
^^^' ^ ^ Biluches, Jats and Hindtis. The following list 

contains the more important, with details of area, and the amount of 
malikana and mukadami^ as now commuted : — 



112 



Kaxb of Had. 



Ftncbkota and 
ZiucULai 



2 



8 



6 



i 






Amount of Mali- 
kana akd mukadami 

AND JOBA. 



46,373 



a 



I 



O 



1,459 



Draban Ealan..^ 



10,690 



306 



689 



176 



32 



S 

o 
H 



2,048 



514 



B B M A B K a 



This had inclades 24 whole and 4 
part villages. It extends over the 
greater part of the 8hem ilaqaa. 
The Sind lands have been divided 
between the ZindAni and Panchkota 

Eroprietors. The Kas lands, taken 
rom the Gnndapnrs and sold to the 
Panchkota and Zindanl proprietors 
for Bs. 12,000, are held hi ihamildt. 
The Kas lands are not held on the 
same shares as the original Pandikota 
and Zind&ni lands, as all the old pro- 
prietors did not join in pajing up the 
Rs. 12,000. The name Panchkota is 
taken ttom the five original villages 
of which the had is composed, viz., 
Arab, Bnk, Kotla Habib, Tikan and 
Map&l. The residents of these, by a 
private arrangement, each takes the 
malikana of their own villages, and 
•{ divides that of the out-villages on 
their shares. The Panchkota pro- 
prietors are Chajras, Issan, and 
other Jats. The ZindAni proprietors 
are jwrtlj Jats, partly ZindAm 
Bilucnes. The number of proprietors 
in the joint Panchkota ZmdAni had 
is over iive hundred. The rate of 
malikana is about Bs. 12 or Bs. 13 
per cent, on the revenue. The kharif 
mnhadami (about Bs. 2 per centO is 
generally held on the same shares as 
the malikana. The rabi mvkadami 
(Bs. 9-6-0) is taken in eleven villages 
by a small family of Issar Jats. In 
the rest it is included in the items 
taken by Government along with the 
mahsftl, and now made over to the 
inferior proprietors. There are some 
lands in this had the ala malkiyat 
of which is separately held by tnaliii 
makbuza. 

This had includes seven whole 
and five part mansahs. The proprie- 
tors are a mixed set, Jats and 
Biluches, 372 in number, Pitafi 
Biluches predominate, and were the 
I original founders of the had. The 
^ lands of mauzah Draban Kalan are 
held bhyachara^ the aUu being gener- 
ally themselves adnas. Probably the 
tenure here was exactly the same 
originally as in villages held bhya^ 
ehara by cultivating proprietors. 



113 



j:^ 



Same or had. 



i«alk^ 



t>rmb«ti Kalan 10,690 



2 



e2 

8 






3 4 5 6 

AMOUNT OF MALI- 

KAHA AND MtTKADAJIt 

AND JORA. 







DrAban Khntd, 



KoU 



Landtt 



Korai 



BacDi 



••« 



Koi iBAkhan... 



BadVottL ... 



4,820 



e,02Q 



16.673 



14,436 



37,205 



4,486 



9,285 



306 



148 



261 



i 

•-a 



o 
H 



REMABKSk 



176 



24 



42 



83(X 121 



157 



902 



90 



72 



25 



202 



20 



72 



32 



31 



514 



< 



203 



303 



951 



182 



404 



40 



144 



The otttiying lands ar^ divided into 
Inrge blocks called Bannae, held by 
groups of ala malikSf and, under them, 
by the adna malikt of the Tillages 
in which they are sitnated. The rate 
of malikana is Rs. 12-8* The kharif 
mukadami is take^} by 4 leading 
families, Pitafies and Issars. The 
Issars take the rabi mnksdami of 
inost of these villages ; also the hag 
jora, Manxah Draban Ealan is now 
nninhabited. 

This had incltldes 6 whole and 7 
part mauzahs. It was originally 
acquired by Pitafies and Gishkauri 
fiilaches and lesars jointly. The 
fianni lands wore acquired by paying 
{ natarana to the Nawdb. The ala 
malkiyat of mauzah Draban Khnrd, 
which is in the Sind tract, is held 
bhyaehara. The other Tillages^ 
which are in the Banni tract, are held 
^HlUmal. 

? This had lies in the Lnni Oud Jouh 
) circle. It includes parts of four 
jmaazahs. It belongea originally to 
( Laskdnies. 

This had consists of villages along 
the Luni. It includes 8 whole and 
7 part villages. The lands of this 
had are mostly divided into Bannas, 
{ the ala malkiyat of which is held by 

E roups of families* The lands near 
unda itself are held in ordinary 
bhyaehara, the proprietors being alk 
^adnaa of their holdings. 

This had belongs to a number of 
Korai Biluches to whom the greater 
'\ part of the adna malkiyat also be« 
(longs. It consists of four mauzahs. 

This had consists of four villages. 
The proprietors arc a very miscella- 
neous set, mostly Jats, who acquired 
^ their rights by paying nazarana to 
the Nawib. The whole had having 
I been included in the Gundapur Kaa 
L tract. 

This had contains 1 whole and 2 
part villages. In its circumstances 
resembles had Budh. 
( This had contains 1 whole and 2 
<part villages. In its circumstancea 
( it resei^bles had Budh. 



J 



•Ipa 
(it 



114 

Some of the hods in the Miran ilaqna are very large, bnt consist 
generally of single mauzahs. ^ 

217. I have mentioned that there are in the trans-Indns tahsfls 

Claims of the di:fferent three classes, the MvshaksodarBj the had pro- 

clasBCB connected" with the pristors, and the butimars or lathbandsj with 

sStie^ntT^*^^ ^^' *^^ ^^^™ ^^ Settlement might have been made. 

Now the Mushaksadara in the Makkalwad have 

Nushaksadars have no always been looked on as mere farmers, and 
propiietaiy title. though some of them have held their leases for 

20 years or more, they have never claimed on this ground to have any 
permanent interest or proprietary right in the land. They had there- 
fore no claim to the Settlement. In the same way, where jagirdars 
have hitherto taken in kind, the Government decided that the practice 
was not to be continued, and that the proprietors of jagir villages were 
all, at their option, to be given a cash Settlement. The Settlement there- 
fore had to be made either with the butimars and IcUhbandSj or with the 

Bntimars Kud lathhands ^^^ddars or Aad proprietors. As a rule the 
have generally been record- lormer nave generaiiv been considered to nave 
ed as adna niaiilu and the best claim, and have accordingly been 
given a cash Settlement. recorded as inferior proprietors (maliks adna)^ 
the buniaddars being recorded as superior proprietors (maliks ala)^ and 
their malikana being commuted to a cash percentage on the revenue. 
Laihbands and butimars have been given the status of adna maliks, only 
when the Settlement has been made with them. Where the Settlement 

Some recorded as occa- has been made with the had proprietors, they 
pancy tenants. have been recorded as occupancy tenants. 

Nearly all lathbands, however, whether adna maliks or occupancy 

_. , . . ,,, , tenants, possess the rifi:ht of selling their hold- 

«S'Sdmo^SJr*"*" i°g«. and a clause to this eflFect has been 

entered in the administration papers. All 

Their position in the through the Sheni ilaqua and the great Damdn 

Bheru ilaqua. f^^^^ ^^ ^j^j^j^ ^j^^ lathbands hold the lambar- 

dari and the management of the waste, the buniaddars being mere 

taluqdarSy the right of the former to be put in as adnas was undoubted. 

^ .^. . » In the river villas^es, the state of things, more 

Position ot well owners. ui j ii, i ^ ii. • t j x 1,^1 t^ 

resembled that m the cis-Indus tahsils. in 

In the Rag-Paharpnr the Hug-Paharpur circle and generally to the 
and to the north. j^^^^ ^f ^q t^^n ^f D^ra, the position of the 

well owners was rather stronger than in Bhakkar and Leiah, as they 
had been emancipated from the payment of malikana. The ala maliks 
in these parts generally hold their villages undivided on shares, taking 
the usual pairpath from the holders of all sailaba lands. Well lands 
are exempt from vairpath, and well owners are in this way a sort of 
maliks maqbuza, holding the lands attached to their wells in full pro- 
prietorship (ala khud adna). In the southern portion of the trans-Indus 

tract, well owners pay maZt^ona to the oZa mciZtiby 

of the te^acr ^'*''''' "^ ^^ Bhakkar and Leiah. In some of the 

Jai villages to the norths the payment of 



115. 

M»U>ana not Aynjt malikana, even for sailaba lands, has not hitber" 
^J2^' -vL'Tr^LSLto to been fullv established, though it will be 
lands. f^^^ for the future, and no malikana is taken 

in the Kachi tract belonging to the villages of the Khasor range above 
Belot Generally speaking, the position of the ala maliks in the villa^ea 
along the Indus is stronger to the south, and gets gradually weaker 
to the north, till at length, in the adjoining tahsfls of Mianwali and 
Isakhel, the superior proprietarv class disappears altogether. The claim 

Well owners have all of well owners, even when mey pay malikana, 
been giren a cash Settle- to a cash Settlement has no where been contes- 
ment, also most bntimars. t^^. Where therefore thev pay malikana^ the^ 
have been recorded as adna maliks ; otherwise, as full proprietors of their 
holdings. The position of mere hutimars was weaker. But although in 
most of these river villages the buniaddara have been theoretically en- 
titled to the management of the waste, yet, practically, the right has only 
been exercised by the lambardars and mushaksadare. The poorer sharers, 
and, in jagir villages, the buniaddars, generally, have been almost on the 
same footing except in the matter of malikana^ as the ordinary hudmars ; 
and although the position of the butimara has been weak, yet that of 
the buniaddara has not been so strong as clearly to entitle them to be 
put in over the biUimara as full proprietors. The rate of malikana too 
is generally only pairpcUh, On the whole, it was thought better, as a 

Aj- -*-. A ^* .-^i^j.. ,-.. general rule, to give the butimara the status 
Adiustment or ngntsin ^a , i-i t xi.« • it_ 

the Kahirl ilaqua. Bttti- of adna malika. In this way, in the river 

man recorded as oocapaacy villages north of the Kahiri ilaqua, and in the 
tenants. Daman villages north of Miran, the lathbands 

and buHmara have nearly all been recognised as adna malika. In the 
Kahiri ilaqua, the position of the buniaddara was stronger than further 
to the north. The villages are small, and generally consist each of a 
single superior proprietary had, Malikana nad been taken even for 
wefis. This tract had been held in jagir till 1855, by the Nawab of 
Dera, when it was resumed, and the Settlement was then made with 
the superior proprietors on their shares. Well owners alone were given 
a cash Settlement with cash malikana. The butimar cultivators of 
aailaba lands were made to pay to the superior proprietors the same batai, 
which they had before jpsiid to the Nawab. The butimara in many of 
the adjoining villages of makkar and Leiah, had been recorded as occu- 
pancy tenants and not as adna malika^ and the circumstances of both 
tracts were very similar. It was decided that the butimara in this tract 
were not entitled to the adfia malkiyat. Well owners have, of course, 
been recorded as adna malika ; ordinary butimara have been recorded 
as occupancy tenants, and will pay in kind as before. The Settlement 
in all the villages of the Kahiri ilaqua has been made, as at the Sum- 
mary Settlement, with the buniaddara on their shares for aaHaba lands, 
and with the adna malika for well lands. 

218. In the villages of the Miran aid Dera Fatteh Khan ilaquas, 

Bishto in the Miran and ^^ lathbanda and butimara have sometimes been 

Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqoas. recorded as tenants, sometimes as adna malika. 

VUlagea treated indlTid- The question of status in each village waa 

"•^*^' decided separately, the decision being generally 



■ 

guided by the amount of malikana paid^ and the present position held 
by the superior .proprietors. Where the rate of malikana paid to the 
buniaddars was heavy, and the headmen of these had hitherto held the 
lease, they were recorded as full proprietors, and the lathbands and 
butimara as tenants, except when the buniaddars themselves agreed to 
give the latter the higher status of adna malik. The superior proprie- 
torship in these two uaquas is, as a rule, held in large hods, as elsewhere. 
Sometimes^ however, as in mauzahs Katbgarh and Hamal, the superior 
proprietary right is almost as minutely divided as the kuhbandi. ¥he 
rates of malikana are generally high, especially in those villages where 
the position of the buniaddars is strongest. A common rate of malikana^ 
especially in those .villages where the superior proprietary right is 
much subdivided, is i^ or iV of the rehkam. In such villages the lath-- 
bands were not considered entitled to the advw^ malkiyaty and will con- 
tinue to pay batai as occupancy tenants at the old rates. In other 
villages the buniaddars are weak, and the lathbands and hitimctrs have 
been made adna maliks^ the malikana being commuted as usual. Ii» 
T\«i««u- -^w. *• ^ some cases it was difficult to decide which 

Dimcaltj sometimes .. iiii. ji T1.1. ji«»» 

attending aecision of status should be awarded. In the adjoimng 

status, status awarded in villages of the Dera Oihkzi Ehan district, the 
^j^""!?!? r^l'°'' A^, -^f latlibands have all be6n recorded as occupancy 

i/era unazri Jvoan aistnct. , . t >i -rr i m « • 1 a 1 

tenants. In the Yahoa ilaqua, which formerly 

belonged to Dera Oh&zi Khan, they have been similarly treated : from 
these to the northern tract, such as the Sheru ilaqua^ where the lathn 
bands are undoubtedly entitled to proprietary rights, there is a gradual 
gradatian, and it was hard to know sometimes where to draw the line. 
As villages, the circumstances of which were greatly varied, were mixed up 
together, it would have pressed hardly in some cases to treat all villages 
in an ilaqua in the same way, though this would have simplified matters.. 
There would have been no strong objection to awarding the status of 
adna maliks to the whole of the butimars and laikbands of the Kahiri 
and Miran ilaqnas. On the whole, however, the balance of reasons 
in many villages was in favor of the ala maliks. In a few villages of 
. the Miran ilaqua, there are two grades of 

the ffi^niul?^"* proprietors above the lathbands. The lathband 

occupancy tenants pay khutti (t^ to ^) to a 
class of proprietors corresponding to the full proprietors of the villages 
on the Dera Gh&zi Khan border. Above these there is a class of 
superior proprietors who get a tuzq called mukadhmi, but whic^ is really 
similar to the malikana generally taken by superior proprietors else^ 
where. 

21^. In a former chapter I alluded to the colonisation of the waste 

rx^\ • 4* «xi. TV., lands in the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua by 

Ck>lom8atioa of the Dera ^r zi nir i_ j -m. j. xi_ ^^ i. 

Tatteh Khan ilaqua by Nawab Mahomod Khan, at the commencement 

Kaw&b Mahomed Khan, of the present century. The Makkalwad tracts 

Oonfiioatioii of waste lands. fj.Q^ tj^^ southern boundary of the present 

Dera Ismail Khan tahsfl, down to the Sanghar ilaqua of the present 
Dera Gh&zi Khan district^ was then mostly waste. The whole was 
divided off into superior proprietary had^ but Mahomed Khan paid bqfc 



117 

little regard to the rights of the had proprietors. He declared the waste 
lands to be Government property, and settled them for the most part 
with refugee Bilnches from Sanghar. It was Nawab Mahomed Khan'a 
usual practice to dispose of the proprietary rights in confiscated landd 
on payment of a nazarana. Perhaps the new Biluch settlers wore too 

foor to be able to afford to pay nazaratuij while the welUto-do men of 
)era Ismail Khan did not care to invest money in wild and distant 
tracts, exposed to Kasrani raids. "Whatever the reason, the proprietary 
g . r • ta right in these parts was retained by the Naw&b^ 

righta thus acquired, have *^d has been Handed down to our Government, 
been handed down to our The Government lessees in the confiscated trac^ 
Government. hvLY^ always taken khtati^ generally a sixteenth 

er seventeenth of the rehkam, in addition to the malhsidf and the two 
were always leased together for a lump jama at the Summary Settle- 
ment. The Government rights seldom extend over whole villages. 

The cross division of the country into hods and 
tai7 tenses in thew K mauzahs has been carried to an extreme extent 

m this southern Makkalwad. Moat of the 
mauzahs are an aggregate of bits of hcuis, in each of which there is a 
different rate of malikana. In some of these, the Nawabs, a^d some- 
times the Sikh Governors, surrendered a portion of the malikana of the 
confiscated lands to the old proprietors, who thus got a half or a fourtI\ 
share with the Government. In other cases, the feeling in favor of the 
ousted proprietors was so strong, that the new settlers have always paid 
them some small cess, from 2 to 5 topaa^ in addition to the full malikanoi 
taken by the mmhakeadars. Wherever malikana o.r any additional cess 
is taken by individual proprietors, it has now been commuted to a cash 
percentage, and recorded in accordance with existing facts. The 

Government share has been surrendered alonfif 

by^" G^vlf^ar '^^** ^'^^^ ^^^ '^^^^ ^ ^^ lathbands, who hava 

been recorded as inferior proprietors, and with 

whom the Settlement has been made. The Governmeilt rights have in' 

all cases been recorded, and the surrender has been made conditionally 

on the payment of the revenue assessed. Mr. Lyall thought that the 

lathbands might be made to redeem this Government proprietary right, 

or to pay a small malikana^, till such redemption, in addition to the 

revenue; but the people are poor, and as the income from this fnalikana 

has been taken into consideration in assessing, the Lieutenant Governor. 

considered that they might be excused from any extra payments on thia 

account.* 

220. Hie manner in which proprietary rights in the Makkalwad 

Great variety in the tave been determined, has now been explained, 

details of the Makkalwad and the general features of the tenure have been 

*^^'®*- decribed. Practically, the varieties of tenure 

in the different villages are endless. Rights of mukadamij malikana^ 



* The sarrender of this malikana was sanctioned by Secretary to QoTeminent 
I^iDjab, No. 969 of 18th May 1876, to Secretary to Financial Commissioner. 



118 

and adna mdlkiyat overlap one another in the most cnrious waj8« 
Each of these rights can be held zemindan\ or pattidari or bhyacharay 
while parts of a village are held on one tenure and parts on another. 
The malkif/at ala is of two sorts, in one case the ala malika are dakhil' 

Bight ol dakhUhari. ^^''^ *-^- *^f 7 pa?*«® the waste lands and hold 

the lambardari ; m the other, thej are mere 
taluqdarSy getting nothing bat a fixed rate of malikana. 

In the same way the <idna nudika are sometimes fall proprietor3> 
except as regards the payment of malikana ; holding the lambardari 
and managing the waste to the exclnsion of the ala mcSiks. Elsewhere 
ihey merely enjoy an inferior proprietary right in their actual holdings, 
occnpying the position of privileged tenants. The question of the 
dakhilkari is a very important one, and has had to be carefully settled 

w««««aifof^^ -^ ar>^^,-i ^^ ®*<5^ viUagc, A rocord was prepared called 
NeceBSitatea a special .1 ^ » r • » • t. ai_ fi * • ■ 1 . 

enqaiiy for each Tillage. the surat deh, m which the oupenntendent 

gave an account of the previous history of the 
Sarat deh records. village, and described the nature of the existing 

proprietary and tenant rights of all sorts. On this, orders were passed^ 
determining the status to oe awarded to each class* 

221. As regards rights in lands lost by diluvian, the rules 
, . ,,_ . generally laid down trans-Indus, are the same 

tomS'Sine «^°indr. «« ^r the Bhakkar and Leiah tahsfls. The 

rights of ala mahks and full proprietors remain 
unaffected. As a rule adna maliks will not recover their specific lands, 
but will be entitled to allotments from the waste. 

222. The rules regarding the cultivation of waste lands, where 
^ , . , , , the ala maliks hold the management, are much 

vMtelliSL ""^ *« s^°^« ^ i° ^^ cis-Indus tahsils. There ia 

seldom much shamildt waste in the villages 
held in full management by bodies of adna maliks. These are nearly 
all in the Daman. 



TSmiBES IN THE TAITE TAH8IL. 

223. The Tank tahsfl occupies the north-western comer of the 
Position of the Tink Daman. The Marwat villages of the Mulazai 
tah^n. ilaquahave lately been added to it, and the 

tahsil now includes the whole of the country lying in the corner 
between the Bhittanni range on the north, and the Suliman range to the 
west. The greater portion of the tahsil forms a semi-circular plain, 
stretching round the town of Tank, and open to the south and east ; 
but there is a smaller plain known as the Oumal valley to the south-west, 
which is half shut off from the rest of T&nk by two low out-stretching 
spurs of the Suliman range, known as the Ratti Kamr and Dabbra hills. 
The Gtimal valley is intersected bv the Luni stream, and the northern 
part of the Tank valley by the Soneli and the Takwara, which unite on 
the borders of the tahsil. 



119 

224. In describing ihe tennres of the Tank tahsil, it will be neceen 
OompriBes the tract for- sary to give some acconnt of the history of the 

merlj ruled by the Nawabs tract, with which the whole question of tenure 
of Tink. jg very closely bound up. Some accoimt also 

must be given of the system of irrigation in force* 

The Tank tahsil comprises the territory formerly ruled by a family 
of Eattikhel Pathans, and has, till quite lately, been under the manage- 
ment of Nawftb Shah Niwaz Khan, head of this family, who, though 
holding a position entirely subordinate to the district officer, and by no 
means that of a semi-independent chief, still, as the local head of the 
revenue, judicial and police administration, retained to some extent the 
feudal authority formerly exercised by his family. The position of T4nk 
has therefore been peculiar. 

225. In a former chapter, I described the occupation of Tank by 
Early history of the the Lohani tribes, in the 16th century, and the 

tahsU. destruction or expulsion of the former inhabi- 

tants. Of these tribes the Daulatkhels and Jators settled in Tank^ 
while the Marwats and Miankhels went elsewhere. Among the Daulat- 
khels the leading section was the Kattikhel, which is said to have sup- 
plied a Chief to the tribe. Considering, however, the democratic con- 
stitution of these Pawindah tribes, it is improbable that these Chiefs 
exercised much power except over their immediate following. Khan 
Zem&n, who Uvea I believe, about the time of Akbar, appears to have been 
a man of note^ and to have been employed in the management of Tank 

-* ... ^. and also of Marwat and other adjoining: coun- 

KatdlKhan. , . t^., , ^ , . ,. •' ^ 

tries. Khan Zeman s immediate successors, 
Ohazi Khan and Salem Khan,* were men of no influence and authority. 
Salem Khan was followed by his son Katal Khan, an active enterpris- 
ing man, who took part in the Durani expeditions into Hindustan, and 
acquired a good deal of power in his tribe by means of the wealth that 
he brought back with him. Under him the Daulatkhel reduced to 
subjection the Jators,t and other small tribes in their neighbourhood, and 
several of the largest of the Jat villages in the T&nk circle, such as Raiwal 
and Shahbaz, were founded in the time of Katal Elhan. The Daulatkhel 
under Katal Khan were still a numerous and powerful tribe. Kat41 Khan 
was murdered probably about A.D. 1782 or A.D. 1783, though the present 
Kawab's account would make the date somewhat earlier — 1775 or 1776 
A.D. A number of conflicting stories are told as to the cause of his 
murder. The account given by Mr. Elphinstone is probably the correct 

* Khan Zemdo Khaa ruled in the time of Akbar, and Barwar Khan sncceeded his 
father in A.D. 1776 or later. There is therefore a gap of at least I4 centuries to be divided 
between Gh4si Khan, Balem Khan and Kat&l Khfin. Probably some names have been 
omitted from the pedigree table, or it may be that Khan Zem&n hab been wrongly stated 
to hare headed the original immigration. The first hypothesis seems the more probable, 
as ELhan Zemin Khan was a marked man, and the traditions of the Gandapnrs and other 
tribes agree in placing him at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries. 

t The Jators appear to have been very roughly treated by N&dir Shah, when ha 
marched down by the Peyzu Pass in 173St They had probably not recovered from thia 
when attached by KaUU Khan. 



120 

one. The main featured of the Btoiy are as follows : — Katil Khan took 
advantage of the wars against the neighbouring tribes, to collect toge-* 
iher aboat three hundrcKl Biluch and Sindee mercenaries, and to baild 
himself a fort, after which he tried to establish his yoke on the Daulat^ 
khel. This aroused the jealousy of the tribe, who were stirred up hj 
some of the leading Maliks, prooably members of Katil's own family, to 
rise against Katal and besiege him in his new fort. After a siege of ihree 
days, the water in the fort was exhausted, and the garrison had to 
evacuate it. Kat&l Khan fled on horseback, but was pursued and killed. 
SarwarKhan ^^® eldest son, Barwar Khan, then sixteen 

years old, fled to the Court of Timour Shah. 
The king despatched a force to reinstate him. Meanwhile quarrels had 
broken out in the tril^e. One of the hostile factious allied itself with 
Sarwar Khan, who was thus reinstated, and obtained a position consider*^ 
aUy stronger than that held by Katal Khan. This he strengthened by 
gradually killing off all the leading men of the Daulatkhel ; till he r^ 
duced tlie tribe to its present feeble state. The old town of Tank was 
gradually abandoned during the time of Katal E^n and Sarwar Khan, 
and the inhabitants transferred to the present site. The site of the old 
town, now quite deserted, is in the lands of Satti Mian, three or four 
miles to the north of the new town. Sarwar Khan having reduced the 
Daulatkhel to subjection, built a large fort in Tank, and established 
himself as an absolute ruler over all the surrounding country. The 
colonisation of the southeastern portion of the tahsil with Jats, which 
had commenced under Eatal Khan, now went on rapidly, and nume- 
rous villages were founded. The Kalapani supply from the Tank zam 
being insafiicient for the requirements of the people, Sarwar Khan dug 
the War4n canal, by which a portion of the Ldni or Gumal waters were 
brought into the plain south-east of Tank. The whole Gdmal valley was 
in subjection to Sarwar Khan, and he built a large fort at Babbra, 
whore the Gdmal valley joins the Tank plain, to facilitate the collection 
pf tolls from the Pawindah caravans passing along that route. He took 
great interest in agriculture and irrigation, so that cultivation extended 
greatly under his rule. Sir H. Edwardes, in his '* Year on the Punjab 
Frontier, ^' talks of a gigantic dam thrown by Sarwar Khan across the 
Luni at the head of the Gdmal Pass. This is a mistake. The dams ai 
the head of the Ldni are all of a temporary character of loose stones 
and brushwood, and insignificant in size as compared with the great 
dams of earth dirown across the stream lower down. During the later 
part of his reign, Sarwar Khan conquered the Kundies, who held the 
country north of the Soheli, and located garrisons there. In this waj^ 
he gradually got possession of the whole of the present Tank tahsfl 
except Mulazai. He was always engaged more or less in border war« 
fare with the Gundapurs and the Nawab of Dera. He was allied by 
marriage with the Waziries, but in order to keep that turbulent tril>e 
more effectually in check, he built a fort at Jandola, in the Bhittanni 
country, some ten miles up the Tank zam beyond Kotkhirzi. He was 
often assisted in his wars by Waziri levies, and his son, when driveu 
out of Tank, found a refuge with this tribe. 



121 

226. Kital Khan does not appear to have paid anj tribute to 
Tribttte paid by K&M the Durani princes. He was probablj made 
Khnn and Sarwar Khan. to supply a contingent for service in Hindus'^ 
tan in lieu of tribute. As Sarwar Khan was only enabled to establish 
his authority with the king's assistance, ho was made to pay a cash 
tribute of from Rs. 8,000 to Bs. 12,000; During the earlier years of the 
present oentury, this tribute was paid tolerably regularly, as the Kabul 
kings used to take advantage of their expeditions against Sind, to col* 
lect the revenues due from the Governments along the Indus. In 1809 
A.D., the Durani monarchy was broken up, and for some years Sarwar 
Khau remained practically iad^>endent. A short time before the taking 
of Mankera by the Sikhs ( 1821 A.D. ), Sarwar Khan made his 
submission to Kanjit Sing, and agreed to pay tribute. This tribute at 
first amounted to Rs. 12,000 or Rs. 15,000, but before Sarwar Khan^ 
Death of Sarwar Khan, death, it was gradually enhanced to Rs. 40,000,* 
and flight of Aladad Khan. Sarwar Khan died in A.D. 1836. At that 
time Nao Nihal Sing was engaged in an expedition to Bannn^ 
and took advantage of the opportunity for settling the affairs of Tink 
also. He accordingly raised the tribute of Tank to a lac. Aladad 
Khan, who had succeeded his fiither Sarwar Khan, being unable to 
meet the Sikh demands, fled to the Waziri hills, whence he made per* 
petual raids on the Tank villages for some years till his death. 

227* After the annexation of Tank, Nao Nihal Singh placed it 

•rx«v ,«^— ♦!,« G-vi,- under Badri Nath as Kardar. The constant 
laniL under the 01KI18. iii r>Aiijii j«i 

attacks ot Aladaa, however, made it an un* 

profitable acquisition, and after a year or two the Sikh Government 

assigned the whole province in jagir to three leading Multani Path&ns 

of Dera Ismail Khan, commonly known thenceforth as the Tdnk Khans. 

These were Painda Khan Khajikzai, Ashiq Mahomed Khan Alizai^ 

father of the present Nawdb Gholam Hasan Khan, and HaiatuUa Khan 

Sadozai. To these was allotted niuc'^tentbs of the Tank revenues^ 

the remainder being divided in smaller grants to Sahibdad Khan Katti* 

khel, and Khodadad Khan Kattikhel, the younger sons of Sarwar Khan^ 

to Shah Niwaz Khan the son of the refugee Aladad Khan, who is now 

Nawab of Tank, and to Mian Khan Kundi, and some others of the leading 

men of the ilaqua. The revenue of Tank was then valued at a lac. 

228. Under Sarwar Khan the revenues of Tank at the height of its 
Revenne of Tink under Prosperity varied from a lac and a half to a lao 
f^rwar Khan and under and a quarter ; but this was inclusive of tho 
tho Maiuni Khana. Pawindah tolls. After Sarwar Khan's death, 

tho circumstances of the country declined greatly, owing to the insecure 
state of the border, and tho constant internal warfare that was going on. 
In spite of this, the Multani Khans are said to have made about a lao 
and a half a year out of Tank ; but their administration was oppressive, 
and they appear to have squeezed out of the country all that they could 
get. The Tank jagirdars had, out of their allowances, to keep up a cer- 
tain number of horsemen and camel guns, and to pay for the repairs and 

• Mr. MasBOn, who visited Tdnk in A.D. 1827, puts the value of the Sikh tribute at 
Bi, 60,000, but Uu0 ii, I beliere, in oxcefia oi the real amotmt, 



122 

gamgon of the fort at Tink. They held the province with one or two 
BDort intervals till A.D. 1847, but meanwhile their position waa any- 
thing bnt secnre. 

Aladad Khan was by no means conciliated by the miserable pen- 
Aladad Khan's raids on sions to his son and relatives. After tiring 
'^^^- nnsnccessfnlly to get assistance from Dost 

Mahomed Khan, the Amir of Kabul, he made a desperate attempt at the 
head of a large undisciplined force of Wiziries and Bhittannies to get 
possession of the fort of Tank. How that attempt was frustrated by the 

gallant Killadar Khoda Bakhsh Khan Khattak, is related at lengtn by 
ir H. Edwardes. Aladad Khan after firing the town had to retire 
to the hills. This is only one of the many raids carried out by Aladad 
Khan ; all the border viUages were burnt and harried, and some of them 
have even now hardly recovered from the effects of this predatory wan 

The political state of Tank during the rule of the Multani Chiefs is 
Straggle between Diwan closely bound up with the history of the onarrel 
Baulat Bai and Malik between Fatten Khan Tiwana and Diwan 
Fatteh Khan Tiwana. ^ Daulat Rai. When Fatteh Khan was put in 
as Governor of Dera, it was arranged that Aladad should be restored 
to the Government of Tank on an allowance of Bs. 20,000 a year, but 
he died on the road as he was marching down to take possession. The 
Multani Chiefs, when ordered to give up their jagir, refused, and sided 
'with the Diwan Daulat Rai. Two of them, Painda Khan and Ashiq 
Mahomed Khan, were soon afterwards killed at Dera Ismail Khan, 
in the treacherous attack made on their party bv Malik Fatteh 
Khan. Sahibdad Khan .Kattikhel, the youngest ana favorite son of 
Barwar Khan, had also sided with Dowlat Rai. He was confined in 
the fort of Akalgarh, where he was murdered along with the other 
prisoners after the defeat of Fatteh Khan at Babar. On the return of 
Daulat Rai, the rule of the Multani Chiefs over Tank was again 
thoroughly re-established ; the revenues of the province were redistribu* 
ted between Haiatulla Khan and the heirs of the murdered Chiefs ; and 
the allowances of the partisans of Malik Fatteh Khan were at once con- 
fiscatcd. Shah Niwaz Khan, the son of Aladad Khan, in this way, 
lost his pension of Rs. 3,000. He left the country, and hung on as 
a depenaont on the fallen Malik, till restored a year or two later by Sir 
Herbert Edwardes. Mian Khan Kundi, one of the chief men ot Tank 
under Sarwar Khan, had also taken the losing side ; he was killed at Dera 
in the murderous attack on Ashiq Muhammad Kiian. The Multani Chiefs 
now retaliated on his family, the principal members of which had to fly 
the country, while the allowances enjoyed by them were confiscated. 

229. In 1847 A.D., the Sikh Darbar, among other retrench- 

Eesumption of iagir of ^"^^^'^J resumed the Tank jagir enjoyed by the 

Multani Khans. Multani Chiefs, and on Sir Herbert Edwardes' 

fill h N* Kh recommendation, the management of the ilaqua 

tore<L ^^^ *° ^^^ ^^^ entrusted to Nawdb Shah Niwaz Khan, 

the fugitive grandson of the great Sarwar. 

Lease of ilaqua to Shah When making over the province, Sir H. 

Mwaz iLhan. Edwardes fixed the revenue at Ss. 1,00,000, of 



123 

which Shah Niwaz Khan was to retain Rs. 25,000 for expenses of colleo-* 
tion and administration, leaving Rs. 75,000 to Government. Shah Niwas 
Khan was given a lease on these terms for 5 years. On the abolition soon 
after of the Frontier enstoms, the revenne taken from Shah Niwaz Khan 
was redaced from Rs. 75,000 to Rs. 65,000. In 1852, Major Nichol- 
son proposed to give Shah Niwaz Khan an additional five years* leaso 
on toe same terms. He had, however, overlooked the fact that the 

Major Nicholson's Settle. ^^"^^^ ^^^- 65,000 in arrears with his 
inent. revenue, xhe correspondence on the subject 

of these arrears led to Major Nicholson's recon- 
sidering the matter, and eventually a Summary Settlement for 3 years 
was made,- village by village, the leases being as a rule given to 
the leading zemindars of each village. Shah Niwaz Khan himself re- 
tained only the lease of Tank Khas, and of two or three other adjoining 
villages. The average jama of the tahsil under Major Nicholson's 
Settlement was Rs. 63,030 including Rs. 6,517 for Mam tahsil collections. 
This was a large decrease on the former assessment of Rs. 1,00,000. This 
Settlement was reported in 1854. In the same year the Government 
recognised Shah Niwaz Khan as Chief of Tank, and granted him a third 
of the Tank revenues, from which he was to meet the cost of the Civil 
Administration. This, owing to the large reduction in the revenue, was 

Oaptain Goxe's Settle- rather less than the Rs. 25,000 allowed by Sir 
Btent. H. Edwardes. Captain Coxein 1857 effected a 

second Summary Settlement of the T&nk tahsil. Shah Niwaz Khan, who 
had in the same year been given the title of Nawab, was continued in 
the enjoyment of a third of the increased revenues, which by the revised 
assessments were raised to nearly Rs. 70^000. At this 2nd settlement 
the villages were farmed as before to the leading zemindars. A great 
number of leases however changed hands, owing to the old lessees 
haying broken down. 

Very few records of Major Nicholson's Settlement can be found, 
Becords of the Sammary and I am doubtful whether in the case of most 
Settlement. villages, any separate records can have been 

prepared. Those that exist all relate to a few villages, where there was 
a difficulty in getting any one to engage. The papers in such oases, 
consist of one or two miscellaneous petitions and reports, a darkhwast and 
tkpatta. Captain Coxe's records are similar to those for the Makkalwad 
tract described in paragraph 201, the system of Settlement in both tracts 
having been exactly the same* 

230. Rights in land were left very vague, and except in the 
State of proprietary rights. Kuudi villages to the north, and those of the 

Gdmal valley, the malkiyat of the whole tahsil 
was recorded by Captain Coxe as airhari, or belonging to Government. 
In the Gdmal and Kundi tracts the original proprietary rights of the 
people had never been extinguished, but in the rest of the ilaqua there 
IS no doubt that the position of Sarwar Khan was as much that of a 

Eroprietor as of a ruler. On annexation, the rights formerly enjoyed by 
arwar Khan lapsed to the British Government, and when Shah Niwaz 
Khan was pat i& to manage the ilaqua, the position held by him was 



124 

tuised noi on ancestral rigbi, but ob the pleasara of the British OoYBm-* 
ment. Captain Coxe^ therefore, would appear to have been right in 
recording the viUages of the central portion of the tahfifl as drharu 
Claim of the Nftw&b to At the present Settlement Nawab Shah Niwaa. 
proprietorship of the 9ir' Khan was verv eager in urging his daims tor 
*ari Tillages. \^ recognised as proprietor^ and to reooYor the 

leases of the sirkcai villages. Major Nicholson^ however, in a brief 
veport accompanying the Summary Settlement Assessments of 1854^ had 
stated that the Settlement had been made with ihedomiiiayit class in each 
vUloffe, and he recommended that the lessees should be recognized as 
proprietors. Although Gk>verninent at the time sanctioned Mi^or 
JKichoIson's arrangements, still there is no reason to suppose that the 
lessee class in Tank had ever considered theinselves as more than ordinarj 
fanners, or had in any way understood the natnre of the new stated 
DiBmissed by the Goveni- conferred on them. ^Notwithstanding this, on 
ment oi India. the question being referred in 1874,* the Gov- 

ernment of India considered that the orders passed on Major Nioholson'8 
report involved a surrender of all Government proprietary rights in the 
tahsil in favor of the persons with whom the Settlement had dien been 
made, and that these rights could not now be made over to the Nawab* 
The Government of India at the same time laid down certain general 
principles that were to goide the determination of rights in the tahsiL 

231. Major Nicholson had in most cases made the Settlement* 
!>-• ..i«-i«,-^ A^^r. >« with the headmen of the different villages, 

Prmciples iaid down by j » . -xt. i^ • i I J 

GovemmeDt of India on and also m many cases with outsiders, but 
which rights were to be never, except in the Kundi and Gdmal country, 
recorded. ^{j^jj ^jj^ cultivating class as a body. The 

Government ruled therefore, — 

Ist. That when these lessees or their descendants were still in 
possession of the lease, the new Settlement was to be made with them; 

27id. That when the leases had changed hands, the new Settlement 
was to be made with the persons considered best entitled to it, u e. 
either existing lessees, or the dominant class in the village ; 

3rd. That the payments made by the cultivators and holdera 
should be fixed, a preference being given to cash payments and that they 
ahoold be given full control over meir holdings ; 

4ih. That in fixing cash payments a fair margin of profit should be 
left to the lessees, over and above the amount of the Government revenue. 

The main principles laid down were, that the NawAb should get no 
rights of which he was not idready in possession, and that existing re- 
lations shoold as far as possible be maintained. 

Instructions were issued by Mr. Ouseley, then Officiating Financial 

Instructions issned by . Commissionerf as to the way in which these 

ibe Financial Commis- orders wore to be carried out. Mr. Ouseley^ 

^<^^' pointed out that the lessee class did not appear 

* Secretary Gov^nment of India, to Secretaiy Oovemmeat Panjab, No. 284 of 
S9th January 1874. 

t Vide Financial Commis8ioner*B Ko. 1924 ol 26tb March 1874» to Bettlme&t C(Mi« 
laissioner. 



125 

under the Goyemment orders to be necessarily invested with the fall 
proprietary rights in their villages. These orders left room for the for- 
mation of the caltivatiag bodies into a class of inferior proprietors pay- 
ing cash revenue, with an additional percentage as malikaiia to tfae^ 
lessees, who would thus become superior proprietors, . 

232. No difficulty was experienced in carrying out these orders. 
Orders how carried out. ''^Wch have resulted in the establishment 

through the greater part of the tahsil of a double 
tenure, similar to that common in the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil and in the 
ds-Indus KachL The lessee families have become superior proprietors 
of their Jiodsy and full proprietors of the shamilat waste, while tne cultt- 
vators have in most cases been put in as inferior proprietors paying a 
cash revenue plus Rs. 15-10-0 per cent. maHkana, In the remainder of 
the tahsil the holders of the land are full proprietors of their holdings. 
The tenure is bhyae/iard^ and the proprietors for the most part themselves 
cultivate. In the Kundi villages, a heavy taluqdari haq is taken by the 
family of Mian Khan Kandi, whose death in the attack on the Multani 
Khans has been already alluded to. 

The tenures of the tahsil, however, as established at the present Set- 
PoUer daecriptioa of tlement, require some fuller description. For 
tenures required. assessment purposes the tahsil has been divided 

Division iato circles. into four circles. The Kundi circle includes 

the country north of the Takwara and is occupied mainly by Kundi' 
Pathsns. The Bhittanni circle consists of a tract lying near the mouth 
of the T&nk zajn^ which has always been held kham tahstl, and which 
is occupied solely by Bhittannies. The Gumal circle includes the^ 
Qdmal valley and two or three of the adjoining nrkari villages* The 
remainder, or central portion of the tahsil, forms the Jatatar circle. 

233. In the Bhittanni circle, the population is entirely, and in the 
Po ulation Kundi and GWmal circles mainly Path&n. The 

^ ' population of the Jatatar circle is very mixed. 

About a sixth are Path&ns, belonging to a variety of tribes, who reside for 
the most part in the villages bordering on the I^athan country to the 
north-west. The remaining population of the circle is made np of Jats^ 
Biluches, low caste Mahomedans and Hindus. 



The numbers of the different classes for 


ihe 


whole tahsfl are aa 


follows : — 








Pathans 




■ •• 


11,134 


BilucheA 




». . 


1,418 


t/ a wS ..• ... ... 




• •• 


5,876 


Saiads and Koreshes 




• *• 


518 


Shekhs ... ... 




• •• 


1,116 


Miscellaneous Mahomedans 


• •« 


4,962 


Total Mahomedans... 


••« 


... 


25,024 


Hindus 


. *• 


• .• 


1,890 


Total population 


• ■• 


26,914 



126 

The tribes inclnded in the old Dauletkhel clan are the Daulalkheh, 
Kattikhels, " Tarukhels, Yakabkhels and Barakhela. These number 
altogether about one thousand soula. There are not above a hundred 
Jators. 



®«ittm in t^i latatar Cirde aidr S^ixhxi f Ulagcs pijeraUy* 

234. In the Jatatar circle and the sirkari portions of the Qdmal 
Teniures in the Hrkari and the Kundi circles a double tenure has 

tract. generally been established, the lessees being 

put in as ala maliks and me lathbands as adna mcdiks. In some of the 
l^ath&n villages, however, such as Jator, which is held by the old Jator 
tribe, and Kot Pathan, which is held mainly by Daulatkhels, the ex-lessees 
have been given malikana only, the general management of the village 
being left to the inferior proprietary body. In a few villages^ where the 
tenure of the lessees is of recent date, they have been ousted altogether, 
the cultivating lathbands being recorded as full proprietors. 

235. The position of the lessee families is closely connected with 

■D^-u,-^« ^# *v,^ i^«— ^^^ revenue administration of Sarwar Khan. 
FoBition or tne lessee ^ ttl 1.1^.1. • 1 • j mi 

iamilies. oarwar Khan took the revenue in kmd. The 

Government share probably averaged half the 

arfa^nT^ente?'''* ^"^^^""^ P*^®^ produce, but the rates varied. On tandM 

cultivation he generally took f, the seed being 
paid from the common heap or tallahy before the separation of the 
fnahsuL On vichobi cultivation the share was |^ or sometimes ^, the 
cultivator supplying seed. The Maliks, or village headmen, were ^ne- 
rally allowed a tenth of the rehkam as a sort of lambardari for the vichobi 
cultivation, and a hundredth share for the tandobi. Of the tenth, Sarwar 
Khan generally took back a third as nazaranaj so that what the Maliks 
usually got for the vichobi lands, was equal to ^ of the gross produce. 
These headmen were often changed, Sarwar Khan's object btsing to 
get always the fittest man ; but the office remained as a rule in the same 
fiimily, generally that of the founder of the village. It must be remem*- 
bered that half the Jatatar villages were settled during Sarwar Khan's 
administration, and it was by means of grants of this sort that he attrao- 

n^««.,«^^ ««^^. fi,-. ted the men by whom these villages were estab- 
Oontmnea under tae •■. 1 j mi . •' . j» n i- ° • j • 

Ualtani Khans. lished. This system of collection remained m 

force with some alterations under the Multani 

ra^emenii!''^^^"^^** "' ^^*°® *^^ during the present Nawab's five 
^ * years' lease. Major Nicholson, at the Settlement 

1853-54, altered the 5atot rates. He included the tenth taken by the 
Maliks in the mahsuly and fixed the latter at a half share of the gross 
produce. The Kamiana and maJha were to be paid from the Udlah 
while the lessee had to pay out of the mahsul the (Government cesses and 
the expenses of the watchmen employed in guarding the crop. The 
rates tnerefore are not as heavy as they look, when compared with those 
current in other parts of the district, and nowhere is the cultivator so 
free from miscellaneous cesses as in Tank. The bcOai rates fixed by 
Major Nicholson have remained in force up to the present Settlement* 



127 

!rhej are almosi; nniTersal in their application through the whole of the 
Jatatar tract. The rate, however, in one or two Pathan villages ia 
Bomewhat lighter. Major Nicholson, in making this Settlement, generally 
gave the lease to the Maliks of the different villages, who had pr^ 
vioosly enjoyed the tenth. This is the class from whom the bulk of the 
Buperior proprietors are superior proprietors have now been taken. In 
most^ from the old Malik most cases the old lessees or their representa- 
families. tives have held since Major Nicholson's time ; in 

others, afler having been temporarilv ousted, they have been now res- 
tored. The cases in which men, who are altogether outsiders and un- 
connected with the old Malik families, have been made (da malihj are 
comparatively few. 

236. Major Nicholson, as a rule, farmed each village to a single 
Numbers and position of lessee. These leases, however, have for me 

the saperior proprietors. last 24 years been subjected to the ordinary 
rules of inheritance, and in some cases members of the lessee's family 
have been privately associated with him from the first. Very few vil- 
lages, therefore, are now held by single proprietors. Notwithstanding 
this, the number of superior proprietors in all the double tenure villages 
of the sirkari tract is only 96, or on an average less than two per 
mauzah. The average area to each superior proprietor is about 1,000 

T ^ ^-*-*— 1,^1^ u^ acres, but the properties of some of the lead- 
Laree estates held by . ,' n m- '^ i j ii. t • 

some of them. ^^S lessee families are very large, and these big 

estates make up more than half of the tract. 
K^n^^^"** ^^ ^"^ Thus the family of Azim Khan Kundi of Gul 

Imam hold about 20,000 acres. Their pro- 
prietary rights extend over the southern portion of the Kuudi 
circle, and wey have of late years acquired shares in a large number of 
the Jatatar villages. This family was hardly known before the time of 
the Multani Khans, when Gul Lnam, father of Azim Khan, founded the 
village of his name. Gul Im&m was an able man, and got shares 
at Major Nicholson's Settlement in two or three very profitable villages. 
He and his son Azim Khan were for long great favorites with the 
Naw&b, who took care that their villages got well irrigated. They 
afterwards got shares in other villages, the lessees of which were in diffi- 
culties with their revenue, generally in consideration of pacing up out- 
standing arrears. Previous to the present Settlement, the Nawab allowed 
no buying or selling of land in tne sirkari tract, of which he consi- 
dered himself the rightful proprietor. Land, therefore, could olily be 
acquired indirectly. Since the issue of the Government orders confer- 
ring proprietary rights on the lessee class, a great deal of land has been 
transferred by sale and mortgage, and Azim Khan, being well-to-do, has 
bought up shares in a large number of villages. He is now quite the 
leading lambardar of the tahsil. 

237. After the family of Azim Khan of Gul Im&m, come those of 
Other families, Sheran, the Mal&nis of Turan and the Shories of 

Hai&n4,&c. Sbahbaz, each of which hold some 7,000 or 

8,000 acres. The Mal&nas came into the country in the time of K&tal 
Khan. Wadhar Malana was one of Sarwar Khau's right hand men* 



128 

Ife settled all the villages along the Sidki canal, and used io get the 

tenth as Malik. Most of these villages are still held by Sheran Mal&na 

and his brothers, who are the sons of Wadha. Sheran is a man of 
considerable character and influence. 

The Shories came in later. They hold the big village of Shahbaz, 
and one or two smaller ones. Chandan, the head of the family, who 
has lately died, was a very well known man in Tank. 

Close behind the Malana and Shori headmen, come Ghazi Khan 
Tarukhel of Shah Aiam, and Saddat Khan of Barakhel. The Manjikhels 
of Kan, and the Dais of Banwal also stood in the front rank of the old 
lessee families. They are now much impoverished, and their lands have 
to a great extent been sold or mortgaged* 

Besides these families, there are many more who hold one or more 

Extent of the Nawab^s good sized villages. The Nawdb himself has 

own estate. been recorded full proprietor of seven villages^ 

of which he previously held the lease, and which have now been granted 

to him in jagir. The area of these is about 14,000 acres. 

It will be seen therefore, that as regards the superior proprietary 
right, the sirkari tract is essentially a country of large properties. As 
the sharers are few and the malikana heavy, the superior proprietary 
right here is far more valuable than in the district generally. I have 
now to show how far the position of this class has been affected ^y the 
now Settlement. 

238. Most of the lands of the sirkari tract have hitherto been 

n^^4.'^i.• « I *ii. J held by lathbands paying half the produce aS 
GaltiTating lathhandt* ,..'^ji *i:'?i.iiii 

batatj and navmg a neritablo but not a trans-^ 

ferable riorht in their holdino^s. If one of these men had more land 
than he could cultivate, the surplus was always resumed by the lessee^ 
and given to some one else. If he left the village, his rights ceased al- 
together. Besides, therefore, the original cultivators, there are in nearly 
all the villafjes a larore number of men who have been located on waste 
and deserted lands during the last twenty years by the village lessees. 
These men have paid the same rate of batai as the old cultivators ; but 
it was considered that they had not the same claim to be given a iub^ 

„ . . , I.- I 7 *i settlement as the latter. A line, therefore, was 

Pnnciplee on which lath- , . ■m/r • xr* v i » o .i^i x a « 

haniU have been classed as dra>vn at Major Nicholson s Settlement. All 

adM. vtalikt and occupancy cultivators, who had acquired their lands beforo 

tenants. Major Nicholson's Settlement, or before the 

present superior proprietors obtained possession, have been put in as 

adna ntaliks. All penons put in since Major Nicholson's Settlement by 

the present superior proprietors, have been recorded as occupancy 

tenants. There was often a doubt as to the category in which a man 

Bhould be placed. To dispose of such cases, the tenants of each village 

were brought up before me, when I passed orders as to the statuA to be 

awarded. 

The adna maliks will pay the cash revenue due on their holdings 
plus a malikana of Bs. 15-10-0 per ccnt.^ occupancy tenants will continuo 



129 

to pay batai at the same fates as before, the adna fnalhtyat of their 
holdings being recorded as held by the superior proprietors on their 
bhares. 

239. Caltivatots who pay moyajora in addition to the mahsul, are 
Oultivatore paving nMFya- almost always mere tenants-at-will. They 

fvra are generally tenatitfi- sometimes hold directly from the superior 
at-will. - proprietors, and frequently from men of the 

lathband class, now made adna maliks^ or from occupancy tenants. 
There are also lar^e numbers of tenants-at-WiU cultivating lands belong- 
ing to the ala maliks, who do not pay moi/ajoraj or anything more than 
the ordinary lathband rates. In those villages where no superior pro- 
prietary right has been recognised, every cultivator has been recorded 
foil proprietor of his holding, without reference to the length of his 
possession. In most of the sirkari villages there is no culturable waste. 
The whole area is divided into bands, and held by ala maliks j adna maliks j 
and tenants. The superior proprietary right is almost always zemindari ; 
the inferior proprietary right is invariably hhyachara. The cultivated 
lands are, for the most part, cut up into holdings of about 30 or 40 acreS| 
held by individual lahtbands. 

240. I have now described tho manner in which proprietary 

T-^^«^« — .-««««.^^f- rights in the sirkari tract have been recorded, 
Imgation arrangementa. -^ j/»'i.i ui ii 

out no account of its tenures would be complete 

Irrigation of the Kundi without some explanation of the irrigation sys- 
*^^®' tem. A small portion of this tract lies north of 

the Takwara, and gets irrigated like the Kundi tract, which I have still 
to describe, by the Soheli and some other torrents. The lands in the 
Koch of the Takwara, which get flood irrigation, are exceedingly rich. 
They are watered in the ordinary way by dams thrown across the stream, 
and are included for assessment purposes in the Kundi circle. The remain- 
Irrigation of Jatatar and der of the tract is irrigated with Kalapani from 
Bhittanni circles, and of the the Tank and Gumal zams, and in describing 
Giimal valley. ^j^^ gystem in force, I must mention also the 

irrigation arrangements for the villages of the Bhittanni circle and 
Giioial valley, which are watered by these same streams. 

241. The Tank zam debouches from a narrow gorge, seven or 
The TAnk tarn eight miles to the north-west of the town of 

Tank. The gravel and silt brought down by 
floods spread out inaraised fan round the mouth of the Pass, and owing 
to the high level of the bed of the stream, its waters can readily be diver- 
ted in any direction.^ The flood waters break away to the north into 
the Takw&ra, and to a less extent to the south into the Kaur channel, 
but the Kalapani supplv is carefully guided into the canals by which 
the central portion of toe tahsil is irrigated. The cold weather supply 
seldom falls below 8 jandras, or 80 cubic feet per second, and after rain 
increases indefinitely. In June and July, the supply sometimes falls to 
four or five jandraa. 



130 

242. All the local calcalations are made in jandrcu. A iandraf 
_ ^ in the first instance, is the amount of water 

»Iu«s";r:rdoAL«' re^xWed U> work a water-mill, This of oonnw 

IS a very va^ae measure. It is generally con- 
fiidered to be as much water as can irrigate a ekatti of land in a 12 
hoars' flow. A chcUti of land is as mach as can be sown with an ox-load 
of wheat, cliatti meaning ox-load in the local dialect. This also is » 
yagne measure, as the seed may be sown thick or thin. I estimate a 
chatti of land as equal to 5 acres, and the Aow of a jandra to ten cubic feet 
per second. Ajandra will water more than 5 acres in 12 hours, if the 
land is level, and near the head of the zam^ but there is of course 
much waste in sending the water down to the lower villages. 

243. The Ealapani of the Tank zam is caught at the mouth of the 
Canals fed from the Pass and turned into the Sidki, Ohoha and Lora 

Tiuk zam. cauals. The Choha and Lora are intersected 

below TAnk by the Waran canal, which is supplied from the Gumal 
zam, and from these the whole of the Jatatar villages can be irrigated. 

244. In old days Sarwar Khan allotted water to each village at 
Old irrigation arrange- his pleasure. Sometimes, too, be would make 

ments. the people of a number of villages cidtivate 

together, la}dng on the water tandobi fashion on to large blocks of land, 
as is now done in Draban and Chandw&n. 

Since Major Nicholson's Settlement, when the different villages 
System in force by which were for the first time separately assessed, the 
water is allotted in propor- general principle laid down has been that each 
tion to the revenue. village should get water in proportion to its 

jama. The officer distributing the water arranges the channel, from 
which each village is to be supplied, and this varies according as the 
supply from the Tank zam or the Waran is the more abundant. The 
southern Jatatar villages are usually watered from the War4n. If the 
Waran is dry, these villages have to be supplied from the Tank zamy 
while if, on Uie other hand, the supply in the Warto is abundant, it ia 
laid on to the remoter Jatatar villages to the east, as far as Azammi and 
Kali, the whole of the Tank zam water being given to the upper vil- 
lages. 

At the beginning of each season, therefore, the amount of water 

xM 4.x. A * •n^*.^.^^* available is estimated in jandras. and a calcula- 

Method of allotment. .. , i iv •'i i* ? ^« n lo- 

tion made as to the number of cnattiea of cqjiti- 

vation that can be allowed for each hundred rupees of revenue. If five 
chatties per Rs. 100 are allowed, then a village with Rs. 500 revenue 
would get 25 chatties, or water enough to irrigate about 125 acres. 
If the supply is short, instead of five chatties per^. 100, only two or 
three will he allowed. When the supply is abundant, each village takes 
what it wants. Sometimes the zam water is all thrown into one canal ; 
sometimes into all three at once. The villages on each canal are 
irrigated in turn, according to a roster. When one village has received 
its snare, the water is turned on to the next, though, when the supply- 
is abundant; several villages may be watered at once* The villages do 



131 

not get the water according to time, bat till the pioba, or water officer, 
considers that the allotted amount of land has been irrigated. This is 
done by means of a rough estimate of the area irrigated. There is no 
tand cultivation in the Jatatar circle : the lands are all lathedj but the 
hands are much smaller than in the rodkoi watered tracts. 

Inside the villages the water has hitherto been distributed by the 
lessees, who had a nearly equal interest in all the lauds included within 
their respective boundaries. Now that a Khatauniwar Settlement has 
been made with the cultivators, each will be ei«titled to water in propor- 
tion to the revenue assessed on his land, and will have to supply labor 
for canal clearance in a similar proportion. 

245. The Bhittanni kham tahsfl lands, now formed into the 
. V T>i.. Bhittanni circle, have never been brought on 

tehSitt'! ^ ^^'^ ros*®r. They are allowed for the rabi' 

harvest to take the whole water of the Tank 
zam for 25 days, from 6th December to 30th December, and they again 
get it from 1st February to 12th February, and from 19th Marcn to 31st 
March, for periods of 12 days. In most years the Jatatar villages have 
obtained as much water as uiey require before 6th December^ in which 
case the Bhittannies get the water turned on to their lands before the 
appointed dace. In the same way, the dates for the later waterings are 
seldom adherect to. These dates have now been fixed definitely for the 
first time, though as fat as possible in accordance with the ascertained 
practice hitheito in force. After rain too, when the canals are flushed 
with flood water, the Bhittannies can take as much as they want, so 
that, as a rule, their lands are exceedingly well irrigated. For the kharif 
harvest, they get no fixed share of water, and trust entirely to freshes. 

246. The head of the Gdmal or Liini is not so favorably situated 

for irrigation as that of the Tank zam» The 
COM :^thT«pSy!°* °' bed of the Ltim is much below the level of the 

surrounding lands, and it is only b}^ means of 
deep cuttings that the Kalapani supply can be taken off. On the other 
hand, the supply is much more abundant, the minimum being from 
about 12 to Ibjandrcu. Hitherto the Odmal Kalapani supply has been 
divided in the following manner : — 

From 1st Kartik to 15th Maggar^ the Jatatar villages are entitled 
l>ivlHion of water between ^ ^^ whole supply, which is sent down to 
Tillages in the Qumal ciicle them partly through the Waran, and partly 
and the Waran canal. through the Kaiir, a broad natural channel 

below the Waran, and which commands only the more southern villages 
of the Jatatar circle. After 15th Maggar^ 1 share out of 4^ is allowed 
for the War&n, the remaining 3^ being given to the villages of the 
Gumal circle. Ei^ch of these has its separate wand^ or branch canal, 
jind the cultivation in them is altogether iatidobi, 

Tomdobi cultivation requires more frequent waterings than the 

vichobi cultivation of the Jatatar circle, but the 

Gd^lton. ^^ sowings can go on much later, and this is why 

the Jatatar villages are always given the first 

tarn in preference to the tandobi watered tracts. 



132 

247. Hitherto tbere lias been bat little irrigation daring the hot 

Increase of supply of ^'®**^®'^ ^^^^ ^^® Ghimal zam^ and what there 
water taken from the is? has been devoted to rice cnltivation in the 
Chimal tarn effected by Gumal valley. The Warin, at this time of the 
dee^ning head of Khan ^^^ j^aa generally been allowed to run dry. 

^y deepening, however, the mouth of the Khan 
iffand, the channel by winch the villages of the Giimal valley north of 
the Luni and those of the Waran canal are supplied, the former state 
of things has this year been entirely changed, and enough water has 
been taken off throagb the Khan wand to supply, not only the local 
req^uirements of the T&nk villages, but also to irrigate more or less the 
whole country down to Dera. With thi& increased supply, ihe necessity 
for adhering to the old shares in the water will, to a great extent, l>e 
done away with. The Tank villages will continue to have the prior 
claim to irrigation, but when their requirements have been supplied, the 
surplus water will always be available for the irrigation of the Kulachi 
and Dera Ismail Khan villages.. 

248. After heavy rain, the flood waters that escape south from 

The Kadr naUalk ^® Tank zam, and the drainage of the hills 

above Dabbra, break thi*ough the War&n, and 
fall into the Kaiir, a natural channel that once formed the bed of the 
lAni, and which passes through the gap connecting the Gdmal valley 
with the Tank plain. The Kadr falls into the Gdmal nallah, some ten 
or twelve miles below the Batti Kammar hills. A little Kalapani oozes 
from its bed in places, and Kalapani can be thrown into it from the 
Waran and the Khan wand. When the dam at the head of the Warda 
breaks, the whole Khan wand supply passes down the Kaiir, from 
which there is a good deal of flood irrigation (rodkai} at times. The 
Kaiir is dammed in- the same way as other hill torrents, and these dams 
are made use of, when Kalapani has to be sent down to the villages^ 
south of it, which thus get both- rodkoi and Kalapani irrigation. In 
allotting Kalapani 'ta the Jatatar villages, an allowance is always made 

Previous rodkoi culti- ^^^ existing rodkoi cultivation. For instance, if » 
Tation aUowed for whezk village is entitled to water for 100 acres, and 50 
allotting Kalapani. acres are already cultivated by means of flood 

irrigation, Kalapani will be supplied only for the remaining 50 acres. 
&u<m a village, however, is entitled when the second waterings coma 
on, to get the whole 100 acres irrigated with Kalapani. 

Having described the tenures of the sirkari tract and the irrigation 
system of the country generally, I shall now proceed to a more special 
description of the tenures of the Bhittanni, Gdmal and Kundi tracts. 

249. The Bhittanni circle has been colonised during the last fifty 

mv ^v.-4,i, • • 1 or sixty years, almost exclusively by Bhittannies. 
The Bhittanm circle. v i* "^ • i.u r xi. i i»- rru 

who form six-sevenths of the population* The 

revenue has always been collected in kind. As In the Jatatar villages, 

liere also the Naw&b claimed a proprietary right in the l»nd^ which 



E 



133 

was disallowed under the Gkvernment orders. There is no superior 
proprietary dass here corresponding to the Jatatar lessees, and every 
andholder has been pat in as full proprietor of his fields. More than 

98 per cent, of the lands of the circle are owned by Bhittannies, bat 

before describing the tenures in force, a short description of the Bhit- 

tanni tribe will be useful. 

250. The Bhittannies occupy a tract of hill country some forty 
•n J . * *v «v.. miles long by 12 to 16 wide, stretching along 

tn^'^S^S. ^ ^''^ ^^^^®'* '""^"^ *^^ MtiTWBLt tahsll to the 

Giimal valley. Along the northern part of 
ihis line, the Bhittannies own little or no land in the plains ; to the south 
ihey hold a strip of verv fertile country, extending from the Takwdra 
along the skirts of the hills as far as Dabbra. They have a few scattered 
hamlets in the Nasran country north of the Takwara, and they are also 
to be found in considerable numbers in the north-eastern part of the 
Giimal valley. To the west the hill country of the Bhittannies is 
hemmed in by that of the Waziries. The two tribes are generally more 
or less at feud, though the Bhittannies, till quite recently, never scrupled 
to assist Waziri robbers in their incursions into British territory. 

251. The most marked point in the Bhittanni country is the great 

Description of the hill ^l^*^''^*^ ^^^^ which is 6,378 feet high, 
country of the Bhittannies. Beyond the Ghabbar to the west is the land of 
The Qhabhftr. the Waziries. Below the crest of the hill to 

Caltiyated belts. *^® ®*®^' ^^®® * ^^^^ h'vel belt, about a mile across, 

for the most part cultivated, but covered in 
place with stretches of a sort of moonj grass. The northern portion of 
this belt is called Ghabbar, and the southern Saraghar ; the former name 
being never applied by Bhittannies themselves to the whole hill. There 
is a similar valley on a much lower level, nearer our border, known as 
the Band Wraspiin. These cultivated tracts are separated off from one 
another and from the plains by parallel ranges of barren hills, running 
nearly north and soutn, and intersected at right angles here and there 
by hill torrents. The shingly beds of these torrents are the only means 
01 access from the plains to the upper valleys. Hie country opposite 
the Ghabbar hill rises up in terraces^ the crests of the lower ranges 
being hardly higher than the level belt immediately above them. 
Towards the south the valleys narrow, the ground is mere or less broken, 
and even where open, is generally unculturable, and though some rich 
eultivation is to be found in places in kachea^ or strips of irrigated land 
that fringe the torrent beds, yet, as a whole, the country in tl^ direction 
is bleak, stony and desolate* 

The Khaisara valley, which forms the road leading from the Shuza 

EhaiBara vaUiy. *^"®?* ^ Saraghar, is pretty. It boasts some 

theesbam and mulberry trees, with a few vine» 

and pomegranates ; a purling stream runs through it^ which, waters the 

adjoining lands, and works one or two small water mills. There are 

aimilar bits elsewhere^ but these are the exception. The kach lands grow 

^1^ rice and Indian com, as well as wheat and 

Jiwar. The tands of the Saraghar and Band 




134 

vaUejs are high-lyin^, and have no ranntn^a; streamB. They get the 
drainacre, after rain, from^ the adjoining hills, which is canght in small 
embanked fields. The ranges of hills east of the Saraghar-GHiabbar 
valley are almost devoid of vegetation. They are composed of a stouy 
conglomerate, which, when dissolved by rain, turns into shingle. The 
OhfU)bar hill itself is better. Its composition is more earthy, and it is 
covered in places with bush, mostly d warf o ak, wild olive, and a sort of K/* _ 
hill ber tree, locally known as gurgara, ^ There are no firs or pines* ^ lUL^-- ' 

252. The Bhittannies live in small villages, generally hidden 

mi— J 1- 1 f» away in hollows. Their houses are mud and' 

Their houBes and Tillages. , \ «v"wtto. *""' **vi*o^o «*u luuv^ c»itvA 

brushwood novels of the poorest description. 

Sometimes they live in caves hollowed out of the rock. One of their 

principal places is Jandola, on the road leading up the Tank zam to the 

Jandola. Waziri country. Sarwar Khan had a fbrt here, 

the remains of which, lying close to a large 
graveyard, are still visible, but even here there is nothing in the shape 
of a town beyond two or three scattered hamlets of the usual mean 
description ; nor is there any great extent of cultivation. 

253; The Bhittanni tribe is divided into three sections : Dhanna^ Tcdtdy 

and Wraspdn. The Dhannas have the best of 
SectionB of JJe tribe. ^^ hjn lands ; they own the Ghabbar and most 
Their location m the hills. r ai. iri. • i j i. • • j xl i xi^ 

oi the Khaisara lands, having acquired the lattur 

by purchase from the Wraspuns. The TcUtas hold Saraghar^ 
Jandola and Eot Khirgi. The Wraspdns have Band Wraspdn. In 

In the plains. Divisions the plains the lands of the Bhittanni circle 
mtofMllaks, were originally divided into numerous small 

divisions, known as nallahs. Each nallahj as a rule, form a single plot, 
and is owned in perfect or imperfect bhyojchara by a number of families 

Fonnation of mausahs. generally closely connected by birth. Up to 

the present Settlement, each nallah was shown 
in the kJiam tabsil accounts as a separate mauzah. As however, many 
of them are exceedingly small, and most of them have no separate viL- 
lage site, it was found more convenient at the present Settlem^it to 
group them into three large mauzahs, based on the great tribal divisions 
of the clan. This was readily effected, as the lands of the naUahs be- 
longing to the different sections almost invariably lie together. The 

Tenure on which the new mauzahs were named after these sections, 
plain lands are held. Tatta, Dhauna and Wraspdn. The nallahs in- 

cluded in each mauzah possess clearly marked boundaries of their own. 
The waste land in each nallah is the property of the nallah proprie- 
tors. There are no lands held in shamUdi hy all the nallaJis of a mauzah. 
Before land became valuable, the proprietors of the different nallahs used 
readily to admit men of their own sub-sections to a share in the nallah 
lands, and in this way, men, who had before lived exclusively in the liiils, 
were continually settling down in the plains. This state of things has 
now come to an end, and the present holders are not likely to associate, 
even near relations, for the future, without a ^* quid pro qtio.** There 
has never been, therefore, fmy actual division of the country on shares: 
The present proprietors hold purely on a squatting tenure. The laads^f 



135 

•the Wraspons lie to tibe nottiiy those of the Tattas to the south, and of 
4^ Dhannas in the middle. The Dhannas own much less land than 
the other two sections, and fewer of them are resident in the plains. 
Besides manzah Tatta, men of this Tatta section own much of the land 
of the Jatatar vilhiges bordering on the Bhittanni circle to the east 
and sonth, from Jator to Dabbra. The Bhittannies of the Gdmal val- 
ley too are mostly Tattas, who are the strongest section in British territory. 
Besides their Tank lands, the Dhannas also own some lands granted 
to them a few years ago in the Marwat tahsil, bnt these are of no 

freat value. The plain Bhittannies live in scattered kirries or villages, 
ho larger nallahi have separate kirries and lambardars of their own. 
More generally the people of seyeral nallahs live together in one kirru 
tinder a common lambardar. 

254. The lands of the Bhittanni circle are rich and get well irri- 
Character of the cultiva- gated from the T4nk zam. They are inter- 

iion. sected by numerous canals, often bordered by 

Imgation. sheesham trees. The slope of the country is 

es in e wa jr. sharp, and cultivation is carried on in small 

bands, which in places rise one above the other in terraces. Hitherto 
the Bhittannies nave been allotted water without much regard to shares. 
Theoretically, however, they profess to divide the water they receive on 
equal shares between the three sections. Sometimes the whole supply 
is taken by one section in turn. Sometimes they all get served simuU 
taneously, according as the supply is more or less abundant. The sec- 
tions ( or mauzahs ) subdivide their water between their constituent 
naUcJis on a rough estimate of the number of ploughs that will cultivate 
during the season, and inside the nallahs the turns are arranged by the 
lambardars. The whole arrangement is very rough. Their rights in 
the water supply from the Tank zam have been mentioned in para. 
245. 

• The Bhittanni lands are almost exclusively held by cultiva- 

Lands held by cultiva- ting proprietors. Tenants and hirea laborers 

ting proprietors. are almost unknown. The size of an ordinary 

holding is from 15 to 20 acres, holdings being much smaller here than in 

Jatatar. 

255. The Bhittanni tribe probably numbers altogeilier some 
The numbere of Bhittanni 8000 or 9000 souls. The number of their 

population, hill and plain.* fighting men, as estimated by themselves, is as 

follows : — 

Hill men. Plain men. Total. 

Dhannas , 1,300 ... 100 ... 1,400 

Tattas 900 ... 700 ... 1,600 

Wraspiins 300 ... 600 ... 900 

Total 2,500 -1,400 3,900 

This is probably a good fourth in excess of their real numbers. 
!Fke number of Bhittannies resident in the Tank tahsil, at the time of 
ike Settlement QensuS; was 2^628 souk. 



136 

256. The portion of the Bhittanni oonntry incladed in the Bhit^ 
Circle held kham tahsll. tanni circle has hitherto been held kham 

Ooverament realizations, tahsil. The Government share has been a third 
of the produce, the ordinary Government cesses being met from the 
remaining two-thirds. The Government share of the grain is weighed, 
priced, and returned to the caltivator, from whom its value is realised in 
cash. The system is, in fact, the same as that the Gundapur kham 
tahsil. The average Government realisations have hitherto been aa 
follows : — 

Bs. 

For the term of Major Nicholson's Settlement A. D. 1854-57 ... 6,517. 

For 5 years following Captain Coxe's do., do., 1854-62 ••• 7,027. 
For 5 years preceding the present do., do., ... 7,667. 

257. The circle has at this Settlement been assessed at Bs. 72,000. 
^ ^ i. « Of this, it was proposed to remit a fourth to the 

cl^ MBewment of p^prfeiore, in wnsideration of their nndertak- 
One fourth remission for ing Pass responsibility. The proposal was 
Pass responsibility. sanctioned, but the Deputy Commissioner, Major 

Macaulay, afterwards wishod the fourth to be given, not to the 
proprietors of this tract, but to the representatives of all the Bhittanni 
sections, including the hill Bhittannies, who own no lands in British 
territory. The question therefore was resubmitted, and no orders have 
Continuation of kham yet been received. The Bhittannies of this circle 
talisll by wish of the peo- were given the option of a cash assessment or of 
P^®' . continuing to pay in kind. They elected for the 

latter alternative. The old kham tahsil will therefore be continued. 
As, however, cesses have increased much in amount since the batai rates 
were first fixed by Major Nicholson, it has been arranged that they will 
be paid for the future out of the tallah and not from the rehkam. A 
few of the Bhittanni Maliks, in accordance with an order of Major 
Nicholson^s, instead of 5 per cent, get 10 per cent, lambardari. Of ^is 
10 per cent., half is included in the usual cesses, and half is deducted from 
the Government mafisuL There are some other old customs by which 
the owners of horses get a kanal or two of green com revenue free, and 
by which small plots of vegetables, intended for private consumption up 
to a certain acreage, are also released from assessment. These kham 
tahsll arrangements are all carefully detailed in the wajith-ul^urz. If 
the Government decides that the one-fourth inam share is to be released 
to the actual proprietors of the land, then the batai paid by these will be 
reduced from a third to a fourth. 






%mvxts hi i^ni dSnmal f alUe. 

258. Tenures in the Gumal valley are based on a state of things 
Tenures in the Qtmal antecedent to the rule of Sarwar Khan. l£e 
▼alley. Naw&b and his family own hereditary lands 

here, but the Nawdb has never put forward any claim to the proprietor- 
ship of* tlie whole tract. The ancestors ol most of the present owners 



137 

wn belieTed to have settled in these parts hhwi 150 years ago, aad to 
ha¥6 acquired their lands gradually by purchase from the earlier inha- 
bitants of the valley. 

259. The lands south of the Lunf are now held by the Qhorazais^ 
Locat' n f 1 ti n * PathAn tribe allied to the Kakars, who occupy 

popu a o . ^j^^ villages of Bagza and Manji. The north 

The ahorasias and western part of ihe valley is held by the 

^*^*°*^®** Miinies, a Pawindah tribe, who have now settled 

BhckhB and Bhittanies, ^^^'^ permanently. The centraj and eastern 

portions are occupied by a mixed population, 
Town of Gtimal. among whom Shekhs and Bhittannies predomi- 

nate. Gdmal itself is a small town wilh a thaTlaah occupying a central 
position, but most of the people north of the Ldni live in small walled 
hamlets, scattered thickly over the country. These hamlets have to be 
walled for fear of Waziri robbers, to whose depredations the tract was 
till lately much exposed. 

The mauzahs, into which the Gumal valley is divided, are each 
Correspondence between entitled to a specific share of the Kalapani 
•hares in KftUpAni and pro* from the Gumal zam. The revenue inside 
prietaiy rights. ^^^^ ^jy^^^ I^^g hitherto been paid in accord- 

ance with shares in the water, which were supposed to correspond with 
the amount of land heki by the different proprietors. The people have 
now distributed their new jamas on the land, and the water is to be 
divided for the future in proportion to the revenue. 

260. The lands of the Odmal valley are nearly all divided intq 
Lands mostly held by small holdings held by cultivating proprietors. 

cnUivating proprietors. There is no double tenure. Occupancy tenants 

are almost unknown, though about a fifth of the cultivated area is held 
by tenants-at-will. An ordinary holding varies from 15 to 20 acres. 
In theory the tenure is simple, but the holdings of the different proprie- 
tors are raized up very inconveniently in long narrow strips and scattered 
plots. 

Tenants-at-will are generally engaged for a single harvest. The 
Bent rates. customary rent for the wheat harvest is f or |, 

where the proprietor supplies the seed ; or a 
half share, where this is furnished by tne cultivator. 

The system of rice cultivation is peculiar. It is carried on by pro- 
Bioe cnltivation prietors and non-proprietors on equal terms on 

any convenient lands, without regard to their 
proprietorship. A certain share of the crop is taken by tiie village pro- 
prietary body as mafisulj or sometimes a sum of Rs. 3 or Bs. 4 per cul- 
tivator. This goes towards meeting the kharif revenue instalments, for 
the whole village, any profit or loss being divided by the proprietors on 
khetoat shares. The actual owner of the lands cultivated gets nothing ; 
but as rioe cultivation strengthens the soil for wheat,, no one would ever 
object. For the rabi each person makes his own arrangements for 
cultivating his own lands, takes the whole orop; and pays the revenue ; 



138 

^hile the kharif cnltivaiion is carried on in oommon, the proprietoi9 
individually paying only that portion of the revenue asBesaed on them, 
which is not covered by the profits of the rice cultivation. 

261. Such are the Gdmal valley tenures. Those of the outlying 
Oatlying yillages of the sirkari villages included for assessment pur- 
circle, poses in the Gdmal circle, are to some extent 
similar, but in these there is a double proprietary body. In these vil- 
lages also, the cultivation is mostly tcuid, as in the Gdmad valley^ and the 
population is mainly Path&n. 

It remains only to describe the tenures of the Kundi country. 



262. The original Kundi country consists of the tract Ijdng along 
Extent of the Eandi ^^^ Soheli stream from the Gundapur country 

coantry. Partly oocapied to Mulazai, and between the sirkari villages 
by Marwats. ^j^j (j^q Bhittanni range. The Kundies, how- 

ever, are not a colonising race ; they like to collect together in their old 
villages, and all their eastern lands have been graduauy occupied during 
the last fifky years by Marwat immigrants, who now hold four or five 
separate villages in proprietary possession. The southern portion of the 
Kundi tract is irrigateci from the Soheli partly by means of the escape 
water from Mulazai, but mainly from dams on the main bed of the Soheli. 
The lands north of the Soheli consist of sandy downs, extending to 
the foot of the hills. The cultivation here is partly barani and partly 
dependent on a few small torrents. 

263. The Kundies are a Pawindah tribe, who settled in the tahsfl 
The Kundi tribe. about the same time as the Daulatkhel. Their 

original villages are Pai and Amakhel. Drikki 

Its nnmberg. ^^^ founded afterwards by a leading Kundi, 

named Drug or Drikki. The Kundies now number, including women and 

children, rather less than three thousand, and two-thirds of these are 

collected together in the above-named villages. 

264. Katal Khan, the Kattikhel Chief, does not appear to have 
History of the Enndi takeu revenue from the Kundies, though the 

tribe. latter assisted him with men in time of war. 

When Sarwar Khan, after his father's death, fled to Kabul, he was at- 
tended by Drik Khan and one or two other leading Kundies. On his 
return, he encouraged Drik Khan to found a small fort against the 
Gundapurs. This was the origin of the present town of Drildki. Drik 
Khan was allowed to take a share of the produce known as the fifteenth 
from the cultivators of the outlying lands round Drikki. Drikki was 
probably settled about 1785 A.D. After this Sarwar Khan tried to 
get the Kundies to pay him tribute, but unsuccessfully. 

About 1808 A.D. he made an expedition against them, but the 

Attempts made against Kundies, joined by the Marwats of Mulazai, 

them by Sarwar Khan. defeated mm in a fight at the Aliwal Kad neap 



139 

Kalaaiuii. Sarwar Khan lost his baggage and had to retreat. He 
retarned, however, in a few months wim a stronger force, and having 
bought off the Marwats, proceeded to ravage the Knndi country. The 
Kundies fled for the most part to the Marwats and Gundapurs ; but 
after two years of partisan war, they were reconciled to Sarwar Khan 
through we Kamguram Saiads, and allowed to return to their homes. 
They agreed to pay to Sarwar Khan a fifth of their produce, but even 
after this, the revenue was collected fitfully and with difficulty. Mean- 
while Drik Khan was dead. His sons and brothers, however, known as 
the Drikkikhel, retained the fort at Drikki^ and succeeded to the enjoy-* 
ment of the fifteenth. 

They were a lawless set They robbed and plundered travellers pass- 
Massacre of the Drikki- ^°« ttirough their country, and in great measure 
khei. set the authority of Sarwar Khan at defiance- 

Mian Khan Sird^ri Ehel. Eventually, Sarwar Khan established a fort of 
his own near Drikki, and put it in charge of Mian Khan, another 
Kundi, who had been employed by him in small appointments, and had 
gradually risen in the favor of his master. In course of time Mian Khan, 
under the direction of Sarwar Khan, lured the leading Drikkikhel on 
some pretence inside his fort, where they were murdered. The 
survivors fled to Zaffar Kot, long known from them as Kundi Kot. 
Mian Khan now obtained possession of the fifteenth^ hitherto enjoyed by 
the Drikkikhel, for the country round Drikki, but feeling his position 
weak, he succeeded after two years in persuading the remaining Drikki- 
khel to return, on condition of getting naif tiie f^teenthy Mian Khan him- 
self retaining the other half. The quarrel was thus made up, and the 
fifteenth of this part of the Kundi country is still divided on these shares 
between the Drikkikhel and the family of Mian Khan. The slaughter 
of the Drikkikhel is put as having occurred about A.D. 1824. A 
few years later, the irregularity witti which the people of Pai and 
Amakhel paid their revenue, led to a renewed expedition against the 
Kundies of Uiose villages, which was conducted by Mian Khan 
Kundi and Aladad Khan, son of Sarwar Khan. Advantage was 
Final subjugation of the taken of the absence^ of the main body of 
tribe. Kundies on a raid against the Jatatarkhel Mar- 

wats to attack their country. Pai was burned, and many Kundies who 
came to terms were treacherously murdered. After this the Kundies 
never again rebelled. Sarwar Khan took advantage of their final sub- 
General imposition of the mission to raise the revenue share from a fifth 
panehdaham cess. to a fourth, and to impose on them the payment 

of the additional fifteenth as in Drikki. Ttis was first assigned to Ala- 
dad Khan and Mian Khan half and half, but Mian Khan's share was 
raised the same year to three quarters. Sarwar Khan's acmnads ara 
dated Sambat 1887, equivalent to A.D. 1830. The Sirdarikhel, as the 
family of Mian Khan is called, still get this three-fourths of the fifteenth. 
In Drikki and some adjoining villages^ they share it with the Drikki- 
khel, but in the western villages generally, where it was of later origin, 
they take the whole. The hag is commonly known as the panchdaham^ 



140 

265. Mian Khan was now Governor of the wbole Kimdi cotmtrr* 
Tillages settled by Mian He resettled the old villages of Abizar and I^a* 

^^^n* jori, and located the new villages of Bher Ali^ 

Khaibar, Andri and Umr Khan, along the Gandapur border, in the 
Outlying Drikki lands. These latter were colonised mainly by Marwats« 

Mian Khan remained the leading man of the Kundi county from 
Sabeeqaent history. 1830 A.D. to 1845 A.D., when be was killed 

at Dera in the attack on Ashiq Mahomed 
Khan. After this, his brothers and sons had to fly the country. They 
returned on the restoration of Shah Niwaz Khan, the present Nawftb^ 
by Sir H. Edwardes, when they again received the panchdaham ihrongh 
Panehdaham eoatinaed the Naw&b, who was the lessee of the whole 
hy Majot Nicholson. tahsll. In 1854 their title to a } share of the 

panchdaham was authoritatively recognised by Major Nicholson, in 
spite of the remonstrances of the pfeople of Pai. The Nawab's claim'to 
ine remaining fourth share was rejected. « In the revised batai arrange- 
ments made in 1853-54, the panchdaham was lumped in with the moA- 
euly of which it wad considered to be an eighth. Since then the Sirdari- 
khel and Drikkikhel have received an eighth of the ma/isul on account of 
Commntation of panch- 1^* At the present settlement the panchdaham 
dtihatn at present Settle- has been commuted to a cash cess of 25 per 
*'®^*' cent, on the Gt)vernment revenue. Theoretic- 

ally the share should have been equal to a seventh of the revenue, or 
Bs. 14 per cent, only, but it was considered that as the present revenue 
demand was not equal to the mahsul share, a more liberal rate of commuta- 
tion should be allowed. The allowance amounts altogether to Rs. 2,580 
and has been met by a corresponding reduction from the Gbvemment 
revenue that would otherwise have been assessed. The panchdaham 
is now a sort of taluqdari fiaq, subject to the ordinary rules of inheritance, 
and which can be sold and mortgaged. In fact, much of it had beea 
transferred in this way previous to the present Settlement. In its origin, 
however, it resembles closely the tenth allowed to the Jatatar maUkS| 
both being a share of the rihkam allowed to headmen for service, and in 
both cases a portion of the full allowance being taken back by Sarwar 
Khan as a sort of natarana. 

266. Like the Nawab, the Sirdarikhel have always considered 
Claims of the Sirdari- themselves entitled to certain other rights en- 

khel. joyed by the family previous to 1845. Hey 

assert that the Chiefdom of the Kundi clan haa always rested with their 
family, and that in granting the panchdaham^ Sarwar Khan only res- 
tored to Mian Khan what hi& fathers had enjoyed before him. This 
statement is stoutly denied by the men of the tribe, and the inquiriea 
made by me from Chiefs of other tribes, lead me to think that till the 
time of Mian Khan the family never did occupy any authoritative posi- 
' tion over the rest of the tribe. They were ordinary well-to-do clans* 
men, and Mian Khan rose to influence through the favor of Sarwar 
Khan alone. The Sirdarikhel, therefoi*e, appear to have no better claim 
to the hereditary Chiefship of the Kundies than the descendants of Drik 
Khan, who now sham with them the panchdaham in part of the ila^UA. 



141 

The claims put forward at this Settlement by the Sirdarikhel were to ii 
cash allowance of Rs. 2,430 allowed to Mian Khan by the Sikh Govem' 
ment oat of the Tink revenaes, in return for which he had to kefep np 
a certain number of sowars, to certain dues taken in the Marwat Til- 
lages founded by Mian Khan, and to full proprietorship with cultivating 
rights of certain lands in mauzah Drikki, occupied by the Sirdarikhel pre« 
vious to their flight They also hoped to get the leases of the Marwat 
Tillages above-mentioned. The Sirdarikhel had never been given the 
leases of these Tillages, except that of Sher Ali, at either of the Summary 
Settlements, and the lease of Sher Ali had been held for three years 
only, and then thrown up, the spirit of the GoTcrnment orders entirely 
barred their now being put in as proprietors. The claim, too, to cash 
allowances could not now be entertained. These allowances were in lieu 
of serrice, and are less in amount than the aggregate pay which some 
members of the family in Qt)Temment employ have since been getting. 
Their claims to the lands in Drikki were of course inadmissable after 
80 years adverse possession, the more so as even the original title of 
the Sirdarikhel to them was now disputed. I calculated, however, the 
Talue of tlie proprietary profits from tnese lands and from the cesses in the 
Marwat villages as put by Sher Ali Khan, the present head of the family. 

Freeh inams granted to The amount was Rs. 650 per annum, and Go- 
tbem. vemment sanctioned a cash inam to this extent 

on equal shares to the representatives of the three main branches of the 
Sirdarikhel family.* The men selected are Alam Khan, Sher Ali Khan, 

Liberal treatment of and Abu Samand Khan. This family, there- 
tamfly by Government. fore, has been Tery liberally treated. They 

have been continued in permanent enioyment of the panchdahamj a 
haq to which they had no original right, and which was enjoyed by 
Mian Khan only during the period from the slaughter of the Drikki- 
khel, about 1824 till 1845. Tliey have also been compensated for tihe 
other proprietary rights claimed by them. As regards the leases of the 
Marwat villages, their gricTance is purely sentimental. They never en- 
joyed the mahml in the time of Sarwar £[han, and can have no claim 
to it now. I am sorry to say that •the liberal treatment that they have 
received does not appear to have satisfied the Sirdarikhel, and it is not 
unlikely that they may again attempt to bring forward their so-called 
grievances. They have, however, already received more than justice, and 
4iny renewed claims, based on the previous position of the family, may bo 
Bafely disregarded as matters i^ready disposed of. 

267. I have already explained that the panchdahamj as now com- 
-^ , ^ . muted, is a taltiq4ori Aoo taken through the whole 

Proprietary tenures. ^^ ^^ ^^.^.^^j g-^^^ country. I lave now to 

describe the tenures on which the actual proprietorship of the land is held. 

Daring the Nawab's 5 years* lease, he collected in kind from the 

Anangementa nnder tbe Kundies as elsewhere. Major Nicholson, as a 

8ammary Settlement. rule, gave the Settlement to the Cultivating com- 

munitiesj who paid the revenue by a rate per chatd of grain, an arrange- 

* Bteretaty to aomnment Punjab, No, 1617 of 88th Aagust 1877, 



142 

jtfientBimilar to the pathin system in foroe in the Leiah Kachi, (vidipnra^ 
169). Very soon, however, the proprietors voluntarily gave up the leases 
to men of the lambardar class, who nave since held them, taking in kind. 
These men have not now been recognized as entitled to any proprietary 
rights, though some of them have been given inams. The ancestral vil- 
lages of the Kundi tribe are Pai and Amakhel. The lands of these vil- 
lages were divided into two portions, known as Nikanni and Pradu. 
The Nikannies land lay generally to the north, and the Pradu to the 
south of the Soheli. The rfikanni lands were held by the tribe as a body 
on the vesh system. The Pradu lands were those in which permanent 
proprietary rights had been acquired by individuals by purchase or 
otherwise. 

The original custom of vesh among the Eundies gave one share (or 
Vesh custom daddi ) in the tribal lands to every male, old or 

young, widows and women of all sorts being 
excluded. The lands were periodically redistributed on this principle^ 
and each man kept what he got, till the next vesh. When Sarwar Khan 
commenced to take a kalanffj or poll-tax, from the Eundies, the cuatom was 
changed, and only grown men, who paid this poll-tax, received shares at 
vesh. llie last vesh in Pai took place in the time of the Multani Ehans. 
The Amakhel lands were veshed about 1852. In Drikki and the 
outljdng villages of the tract, no custom of vesh ever existed. These 
latter villages were founded, when the old tribal system was breaking up 
after the wars with Sarwar^ and the proprietary right in them has been 
based from the first on cultivating occupancy, the tenure being the same 
as the lathJbandi tenure in the Daman generally. 

The Eundies were much scattered about during the wars with 

CuBtom of w»h diflcon- Sarwar, and many of them, who afterwards set- 

tinued. tied in the Jatatar villages and elsewhere, were 

absent at the last vesh of the Pai and Amakhel 
lands. These men at the present Settlement put in a claim for a new 
vesh. The claim, however, was disallowed. The custom of vesh is one 
which it is inadvisable to continue, and it was more in accordance with 
justice to give permanent rights in their holdings to the men, who 
nave held these lands for the last 25 or 30 years, rather than to bring 
in a new set of men, who had been long out of possession. It must be 
remembered, too, that the men out of possession have generally ac^ 
quired rights in other parts of the tahsfl, equal to what they would have 
obtained oy a vesh had they stopped at home, and these they would have 
in no case agreed to throw into the common stock to be redivided. 
The Nikanni lands have now all been recorded as held in absolute pro^ 
prietorship by their present possessors. 

L> ^^4 268. The tenures in the Eundi tract, as now established, aieuttdi-, 
rxJv^ A^m" i,xA"u A mxrhhyachara. The lathbands have almost 

^ U^ \P / Tennree now eeUbhshed. i^^^^fybeen made proprietors of their hoi*- 

/w^ ings, subject to the payment of Uie panchdaham. The waste knda aiti 
^ generally held ou khewat shares. 



148 

The cultivation in the Knndi tract is nearly all in the hands of cnl« 
CaltiTfttioiihowdiBtribat- tivating proprietors. Tenants are few in nam-* 
ed. ber, bat there are Agood many associated cnU 

tivators of the Bhaiwal and Minwcd class. The mahsul share has gener* 
ally been a third inclusive of the panchdaham and cesses^ the rent 
taken from tenants averages two-fifths of the gross produce. 



269. Before leaving the Tank tahsil, it is necessary to meniioB 
Beoent changes In the some important changes that have been made 

administration of Tink. . in the aaministrative arrangements of the tract. 

The Supreme Government sanctioned in May 1854, a proposal of 
Position of the Naw4b ^® Chief Commissioner's that Sh&h Niw&z 

since annexation. Khan should receive one-third of the actual 

His management of the collections of the Tank ilaqua, inclusive of oiie*- 

^^^^^ eight as inam zemindari ; and that " he should 

be recognized as Chief of T&nk^ and have the management of the district 

.contingent on good service. 

The privileges granted were to be hereditary, on the same conditions 
of service, the Government reserving the right to select the most com- 
petent of his sons. The necessary establishments were estimated to cost 
its. 16,200, a balance of about Rs. 5,000 remaining at Shah Niwaz 
Khan's disposal. By the subsequent increase of the Tank revenues, the 
value of this one-third eventually rose to about Rs. 23,000 per annum. 
This state of things remained in force up to the present Settlement. 
The Nawab was eaH>Jicio Tahsildar and Thanadar, and held special 
powers as an Honorary Magistrate for the disposal of civil and criminal 
cases ; while the appointment and payment of the subordinate establish- 
ments was entirely in his hand««. From 1854 the state of the ilaqua 
grew gradually worse : the police was ill-paid and inefficient ; the border 
relations with the Waziries were ill-managed ; in spite of a large in- 
crease in the strength and number of the militarv outposts, raids were 
gradually becoming more frequent ; while life and property were gener- 
ally insecure. It had long been felt that a change in the organisation 
of the Tank administration was necessary, when in 1874 and 1875 the 
question was taken up by the Lieutenant Governor, Sir H. Davies^ and 
' eventually the following arrangement was arrived at : — 

270. Instead of one third of the T&nk revenues previously enjoyed 
New system now Intro- by him, the Nawib has now been granted in 

dnced. full jagir the villages of which he is himself 

Allowance to the Nawib. proprietor, and which have been assessed at 
Bs. 7,574. He has also been allowed an additional Rs. 25,006 out of 
the T&nk revenues, his income being thus raised to Rs. 32,574. He has, 
at the same time, been relieved of the costs of the police and revenue 
establishments, though allowed to nominate to vacancies in the latter. 
His judicial powers, criminal and civil, have been increased to those of 
an Assistant Commissioner with full powers. 



144 

A regular bihsfl establishment has now been appointed, and the 
Hcvenue and police es- pos* of Tahsfldar Is held by a cousin of the 
tablishmentB pttt on a pro- Nawib's. Beffolar police have been ihtrodnoed, 
per lootiBg. „d thannahs have been located at T4nk, GKinial 

und Mnlaiai. The water distribution has been brouji^ht under the more 
im/nediate control of the Deputy Crommissioner, whose position generally 
has been strengthened, and who is now able to deal directly with the hill 
The frontier tribes and tribes bordering on the tahsil. The conse- 
Paaa reaponsibili^. quence is that life and property are now fairly 

secure, thefts and robberies are rare, the Bhittaunies have undertaken 
Pass responsibility, and the Waziries themsdves are daily becoming 
more amenable to civilizing influences.* 

271. The revenue of Tink has now been assessed at Bs. 67,662 ; 

Besalts of the new Settle- in addition to this the income from the Bhit- 
mentontherefenaeof the tanni country, which has still been retained 
^•^^' khdm tahsil, will probably average Re. 6,000, 

making Bs. 73,662 in all. A third of this, the share formerlv enjoyed 
by the il'awab, would have been Bs. 24,554, instead of which be will now 

)t Bs. 32,617, and that free from all expenditure on eetablishments. 

is treatment, therefore, has been exceedingly liberal. 



& 



III. — TXKtmSS nff THE TRACTS HELD BT PATHAN TRIBES IN THE 
DERA ISMAIL KHAN AND KULAOHI TAH8IL8. 

272. The Pathan tribe occupying the north-west comer of the 
Introdactorr district have b^n mentioned in my account of 

the Tank tahsil. I have now to mention the 
remaining tribes which occupy nearly the whole of the Kulachi tahsil 
and the north of the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil. I shall take up these 
tribes in the following order : Gundapurs, Zirkannies, Mi&nkhels, Babars, 
Ushtaranas, Kasrdnies, Khetrans, Bilucbes, tribes of the Khasor range, 
Marwats. The Kasranies, though not Path&ns, have been included in 
the list for the sake of convenience, their country forming the only break 
in the continuous series of Pathan hods. 



273.. The country of the Oundapurs, which has an area of 462 
Extent of the Gundapur Hquare miles, — the northern portion of the Kula- 
country ; character of the cfai tahsil. It reaches from the Bannu district 
cnltiv*tioii. on the north to the Miinkhd and Zarkanni 

country on the south. On the west it adjoins the Suliman range, but 
the Gundapur boundary reaches only to the foot of the hills, and the 
tribe has no rights in the country beyond. The tract is intersected by 
the Ldni, Takwara and G^mal streams, all of which take their origin in 
Tank. Cultivation is almost all roMai and 'daggar^ except a little 

* This was writteh before the Waciri raid in Januafj 1S79, and the Bhittannie0, 
having, by their misconduct, forfeited their claim to the one-fonrth inam, the rerenna 
Irom the tahsil will probably be Bs, 2,000 in excess of the estimate given in para. 271. 



145 

KaUpini oaliivatioQ on a stream that isBnes from the Drik marsh neac 
Bori, and at Zaffar Kot, where the waste Kal&pani from the Giimal 
zam is intercepted at the exit of the Ldni from the Batti Kammar hills* 

274. Originally the Gundapurs were a poor Pawindah tribe, main- 
Origin of the tribe. ^7 dependent on their flocks, like the present 

Their settlement in the Nasars. They lived in the hills east of Kandd- 
^*™^- har, but were driven out by the Kakars. For 

some time they led a wandering life, till eventually, aoont the beginning of 
the 17th century, they were persuaded to settle at Rori by Khan Zemin, 
Chief of the Daulatkhel, who wanted their assistance against the Marwats. . 
They soon afterwards established themselves at Ldnf, and gradually, by 
ousting the Dreeskhels and the other old inhabitants, they got possessioa 
of their present country, from Takwara to the Miankhel border. They 
were engacred in constant feuds with their neighbours, more especially 
with the Miankhels. The Gundapurs and Miankhels, however, would 
often join together to oppose Sarwar Khan of Tank, or the Hot ruler of 
Dera Ismail Khan, and sometimes to resist the Wazir sent by the king 
of Kabul to collect his outstanding revenues. Altogether the history 
Mr. Elphin8tone*8 dea- of these feuds is very confused and of but little 
cription of them. interest. The following description of the 

Gundapurs was given by Mr. Elphinstone in A.D. 1808 : — 

^' The Gundapurs have a hereditary Khan and hereditary Maliks, 
" but their power is very slight, and the tribe leads a lawless life, plun- 
" dering strangers, stealing from the flocks of the wandering tribes, 
^^ which come into their neighbourhood, and continually quarrelling 
'^ among themselves. Their weapons on these occasions are sticks of 
** wild olive, so that murders are rare ; but when one happens, it entails 
^^ a deadly feud on the family, as is usual among the Afghans. Their 
^' public affairs are conducted by an assembly of all the heads of families 
*^ m the tribe ; those, who cannot attend, sending some of their family to 
'^ represent them. 

" When they have a war with Sarwar, all disputes are laid aside, a 
'^ Chelwashtee is named, who sends a drummer round each village to 
'^ proclaim the time and place where the tribe is to assemble in armS| 
'^ and any man that fails to attend is fined. 

" The Gundapurs are great merchants ; fifty or sixty go every 
'' year to Khorasan, and four times as many to India ; but this cir- 
'^ cnmstance has little effect in civilising them, and they have a degree 
'^ of rudeness and brutality in their manners that I never saw in any 
" other tribe." 

275. The Gundapurs profess to be all descended from one or two 
History of the tribe pre- original ancestors, but there is no doubt, as in 

riouB to their sabjection by most similar cases, that other tribes and families 
tlie Kftwib of Dera. j^j^y^ been associated with them from time to 

time, who all claim now to be of the original stock. They are divided 
into six main divisions or nallahs. Most of those nallahs have a single 
generic name, covering all the men of that nallah ; but there are also 



146 

]t>int nallahsy in which two altogether distinct sections are combined, each 
naving a generic name of its own. The hereditary Chiefship rested at first 
with uie Brahimzai nallah, bnt the Brahimzais having been very nmch 
weakened by losses in a fight against the Bdbars, the Chiefship was trans- 
ferred ^ome 200 years ago to the Hamranzais, who have retained it ever 
since. Azad Khan was the first Hamranzai Khan. It was in his time 
that the Gundapurs seized Takwara from the Dreeskhels. Knlachi was 
soon afterwards settled by fugitive Biluches from Dera Fatteh Khan, 
from whom it obtained its name. These eventually returned to their 
own country, and Kulachi became the head town of the Gundapurs.* 
About the middle of the eighteenth century the Gundapurs were at the 
height of their prosperity, and founded the towns of Maddi, Eot At&l, 
8heni, and others to the south and east. About 1780 A.D., Sarwar 
Khan commenced his raids against the Gundapurs, and kept the border 
in a perpetual ferment. Still, though the Gundapurs were hardly a match 
for Sarwar Khan, they managed on the whole, with the occasional assist- 
ance of the Mi&nkhels, to hold their own. In 1813 A.D., however, 
their plundering proclivities brought on them a more powerful enemy, 
and Mahomed Knan Sadozai, Nawab of Mankera and of Dera, sent a 
force against them under Diwan Manak Rai and other leaders. By 
these the Gundapurs were defeated near Maddi. Maddi itself was 
burnt, and the Gundapurs succeeded in obtaining peace only by agree- 
ing to pay tribute and by the surrender of their border countxy to the 
east, containing Haindan, Potah, Tarik and other villages. This tract 
was lost to the Uundapurs for ever, and now forms part of Sie Dera Ismail 
Khan tahsil. I have already described how it was cut up into blocks, 
and sold to a fresh set of proprietors by the Nawab. Very few Gunda- 
purs were resident in this tract. Wherever they were in cultivating 
possession of the confiscated lands, they have retained proprietary rights 
to the present day, as ala maliksj where they themselves paid up the 
nazarana demanaed, and elsewhere as adnaa. 

276. The loss of their out-lying lands was the first blow to the 
Subsequent history and independence of the Gundapurs, and in the 
Summary Settlements. course of a few years they were reduced to the 

position of ordinary zemindars paying an ever increasing revenue to 
the Government of Dera Ismail Khan. Zafiar Khan was Chief of the 
tribe, when the country became tributary to Naw&b Mahomed Elhan 
in A.D. 1813. The revenue taken by the Naw&b was at first Rs. 
10,000, which had increased by A.D. 1830 to Rs. 20,000, This 
was collected through Zafiar Khan by means of direct taxes, which 
were paid by the tribesmen on their shares. Zafiar Khan died in 1836, 
and after his death his brother, Ali Khan, and his son, Guldad Khan, 
who were at constant feud, alternately or jointly managed the country. 



* Tbis account seems to be more probable than another, according to which 
Kulachi was an old Biluch town, from which the proprietors ( Kulachi Biluches ) were 
expelled by the Gundapurs, when they first conquered the country. The Kulachiea 
held the south of the Makkolwad, and the Pitafies intetvened between them and the 
town of Eulachi« 



v-* 



147 

In 1836 the Gandtpnr territory alon^ with the other dominions of the 
Naw&b of Dera was annexed bv the Sikhs, who soon ran up the revenue 
to Rs. 60,000. The maximum reached was Rs. 64,000, but this could 
not be kept up. When Sir H. Edwardes passed through the district 
in 1847, the revenue was Rs. 61,000. He fixed the revenue at RS?. 
38,000, in addition to an allowance of Rs. 15,000 to be paid to the 
Chiefs, making Rs. 53,000 in all. This could not be realised, and Mr. 
Simson found the revenue in 1852 to be Rs. 45,578 only, of which R^. 
32,753 was taken by Government, and Rs. 12,825 by the Chiefs. Mr. 
Simson reduced the revenue from Rs. 45,578 to Rs. 37,336, and the 
inam to Rs. 10,506. This assessment was slightly increased by Lieute- 
nant Busk in 1856, but owing to the complicated tenures of the Gunda- 
purs, it was found difficult on the termination of Lieutenant Busk's 
three years* Settlement, in 1859, to make a fresh Settlement, and the 
countr}' has since then been held kham tahsfl. The Government share 
was fixed at i^ of the gross produce, and the average realisations up to 
1874 amounted to a little more than Rs. 65,000^ of which a fourth 
share went to the Chiefs. 

277. I have mentioned that the Gundapur tribe is divided into 
Tribal diTisions ; early six sections, called nalld/is. Originallv tbe whole 

veih syBtem. of the lands of the tribe were held by the six 

nallaha jointly, subject to a periodical partition or veeh. This partition 
did not afiect the whole tract, but for the most part such portions of it 
as were held by the tribesmen in direct cultivation. Eventually tbe 
custom died out ; some say after A.D. 1813, when the tribe generally 
refused to make good their losses to the proprietors of the lands confis- 
cated by the Nawab. This may or may not be true, but the last vesi 
evidently dates from a period antecedent to those annexations, and the 
several sections have for a long time past had full proprietary rights 
over the lands then allotted to Siem. 

278. The original settlement of the Gundapurs was at Rori, 
Eori lands held on where the cultivation depends on the Kalapani 

kashas or water shares, irrigation from the Drik marsh. Proprietary 
Their cultivation. rights in this water and the adjoining lands 

were fixed on tribal shares or kashas (water cuts) and have ever since 
been held undivided. Tko shares now number 352, and are nearly all 
held by the principal Khans, to whom the rights of the tribesmen 
generally have been gradually transferred by sale. These water pro- 

{>rietors own most of the lands of mauzah Rori, and possess the right to 
ay on their water from time to time on to adjoining lands not included 
in their property. Cultivation is shifted about from year to year to allow 
of fallows. Hitherto all persons wishing to cultivate have been allowed 
to do so on condition of paying the ordinary rent, malisnl and malikana. 
When a piece of land has been selected, the cultivators are counted, and 
each is allotted a strip of land and gets a corresponding share of water. 
The mahsul is of course taken by Government under the kham tahsil 
arrangements. The malikana for the whole of the Kal&p&ni cultivation 
is divided by the proprietors on their shares. This arrangement ha» not 



148 

been conducive to the prosperity of Ron, which has of late years greatly 
deteriorated, and I am trying to introduce a system by which the 
different proprietors would divide the water on their shares, and be each 
responsible for their own cultivators, in accordance with the system in 
force at Chandwan and Draban. 

Leaving the Rori Kalap&ni lands, the rest of the Qundapnr country, 

BemainingorJarflnilftnds ^'^^^^ ^^*^ ^^^Y, torrent or daggar irrigation, 
held on daddu, was originally held by the tribe on 36,000 

Meaning of the term shares or daddies. The word daddi has often 
^^^' been supposed to have some mystic meaning, 

but is really the exact equivalent for the English word share. Each 
nallah was allotted 6,000 shares out of the whole 36,000, and these 
were divided among the sub-sections. As however the Gundapurs were 
bad arithmeticians, and carefully avoided compound fractions^ they 
indulged in a vicious practice of arbitrarily altering the number of 
daddies owned by a section, so as to make it agree better with the shares 
on which the property of the section was actually held. For instance, 
a section might own 2,000 daddies held on equal shares by 7 sub-sections. 
As 2,000 will not divide by seven, they would in such a case alter the 
number of daddies to seven hundred, so as to give each sub-section one 
hundred. The original daddies are called pukka daddies, and a pukka 
daddi always gives the holder ^^^^^ share in the tribal lands which are 
held undivided on 36,000 daddies. All o^iher daddies are ka^ha daddies^ 
and their value varies with each particular case. Where lands have 
been sub-divided down -to small plots, the shares on which tliese are 
held are still called daddies, and when a man claims so many daddies^ 
the point to ascertain is, what share he actually claims and iu what 
lands, and this is often a complicated problem. 

279. The Gundapurs in old days raised all taxation levied from 

Division of the harafii the tribe by a rate on daddies. Being hard 
lands into Nikanni and pressed for money during the wars with the 
^*^^^* Miankhels, they were unable to raise the sums 

required in the ordinary way. They accordingly set apart the lands 
south of the Gdmal nallah, and agreed that those tribesmen, who failed 
to pay np their quotas, should lose their rights in this tract, such rights 
being transferred to the persons by whom the deficit should be made 
good. The money was still paid up by the nullahs and main sections 
on their original shares, but the arrangement led to a very general 
transfer of daddies inside the sections, and these southern or Pradd 
lands are now held, as regards the sub-sections, on quite a different set 
of shares to the northern or Nikanni lands. Great numbers of men still 
hold shares in both Pradii and Nikanni, and there is a close connection 
between the two, but the amount of a man's right in the one is no index 
to what he holds in the other. Kulachi is the head-quarters of the 
Pradii, and Takwdra of the Nikanni tract. 

Both the Pradii and Nikanni lands have been subjected to partition, 

System of imperfect par- the latter to a much greater extent than the 
tition applied ^ them. foiTner. There are now no Nikanni lands 

owned in shamildi on 36,000 daddies by the whole tribe ; but in Pradd 



149 - 

large villages are still held in this way. In partitioning the common 
lands, each nallah got numerous blocks in various scattered positions. 
Many of these blocks have again from time to time been sub^lividedy 
and in some cases, more especially in the neighbourhood of the towns 
where the Gundapurs themselves reside, such as Takwira, Maddi and 
Kulacbi, this* sub-division has gone down to families and individuals. 
An individual Gundapur, therefore, generally holds a few plots along 
with the other members of his family in full proprietorship. In soma 
other and larger plots, he and his family hold jointly with some kindred 
families. He has a share in the common lands of his nallah, and a still 
smaller share in the tummani lands held on 36,000 daddies. When it 
is remembered that numbers of men own shares both in Nikanni and 
Pradu, and besides the daddies held by them in their own nallah, own 
others acquired by purchase and inheritance in other nallahs, and that 
in each case the lands, in which they acquire these complicated rights, 
are scattered over a tract of country four hundred square miles in 
extent, it may well be believed that it is almost impossible even for an 
intelligent Gundapar to grasp thoroughly the nature and extent of his 
proprietary rights. 

280. Previous to this Settlement, claims for land among the 
Complicated character of Gundapurs had to a great extent to be disposed 

the tenure. of in the dark. A share was awarded, but 

without specification' of the property to which the order referred. I 
have known cases of officers refusing to accept this state of things ; a 
man suing for daddies would be told to go and get a map of the lands 
in which he claimed to share. The unfortunate, after many protests, 
would go off and get a list of those plots in which he was most directly 
interested, but to furnish a full list was quite beyond his means. Other 
officers endeavoured to rednce a daddi to a measure of land like an 
acre : this was still more impossible.* 

281. The complicated state of the tenure has affected the actual 
Position of the cultivat- occupation and cultivation of the land. Most 

ing Gundapurs. of the Gundapurs cultivate, but for the most 

part as tenants, having at best a small proprietary share in the lands 
they occupy. A man hardly eveiv holds a plot, which he can call 
actually his own, and as regards the lands they hold in cultivation, the 
Gundapur tribesmen are in no better position than their Jat tenants. 

282. The cultivation in the Gundapur country is carried on in 
Customof fiwTi'flormort- ^««^ ^s in the Daman generally, and there is 

gage of right of manage- the same feeling here, as elsewhere, against 
ment of cultivation. ousting laMands. The position of the hth- 

band class, however, has been affected by one or two special causes. 
The difficulty of managing their widely scattered lands has led the 
Gundapurs to let out their lands often in large blocks, to middlemen, 
who hold an intermediate position between the proprietory and the 

♦ The general character of the Gundapur tenures was thoroughly grasped by 
Lieutenant Grey, Officiating Deputy Commissioner, who wrote a very good memo, oa 
the subject. 



150 

cultivators. It was generally the cnstom for one of these middlemen to 
advance a sum of money, known as niawa^ to the proprietors on taking 
over the management. This prevented his being' wantonly evicted, as it 
was necessary first to pay off the niawaj which became a sort of mort- 
gage on the land. The niawadarj as this species of middleman is 
locally called, used oflen to advance additional sums from*time to time, 
either to the proprietary body or to individual proprietors, whom he 
wished to propitiate. This all went to swell the niawa account, and such 
payments were generally made at times when the niatvadar was in 
fear of being ousted ; the proprietary body being almost always willing 
to make over the land to any one who would pay off the existing 
niawadar, and advance something extra for the privilege of getting the 
land. Sometimes the niawadar arranged to obtain a lease for a term of 
years, but generally no fixed period was laid down ; and, except when 
some influential man was interested, the lands held in niawa were 
practically put up to the highest bidder. When the niawa tenure 
originated, the Gundapurs were a semi-independent tribe, and appro- 

f>riated the whole of the rent paid by the cultivators. On letting out 
and in niawa^ the proprietors settled the share of the produce^ equiva- 
lent to the present mahsul, which was to be paid to them, anything 
extra that could be made out of the management of the land was the 
right of the niawadar. The niawadar obtained all the rights within 
his boundaries held in respect to sliamildt lands by the lambardars of 
ordinary villages. He could allot waste lands for cultivation, and, 
in a time of no law, lathbands, already in possession, were altogether 
under his control, and where he was a strong man, he could of course 
oust them with impunity. Cultivators, however, in those days were 
scarce, and land cheap ; and no intelligent niawadar could have wished 
to interfere with tenants, as long as they cultivated their lands efficiently. 
He generally contented himself with making the old cultivators 
pay him some share out of the rUikajiij and tnis has always been 
Moyajora murtahin and known as the moyajora mnrtahin or niawadar* 8 
mflyajora lathband, rent, to distinguish it from the moyajora lathbandy 

which is taken by the latJiband from his sub-tenants and bhaiwals. 

In the same way the niawadar would fix a certain amount of 
moyaj(yra, when making over waste lands to latlJbands for cultivation. 
Sometimes, too, he would take a more direct part in the arrangements for 
new cultivation, collecting cultivators and making them advances. He 
would thus himself become constructive latJiband, and take a lump moya" 
jora, including both the moyajora murtahin, and the moyajora lathbandy 
from the actual cultivators. The niawadar might be manager for the 
whole clan, for a branch, a section, or a single family. He would often 
hold a number of adjacent plots acquired from different sets of proprietors 
under separate agreements. In this way he would sometimes get hold 
of large tracts, and perhaps found a village of his own. The advance 
of money fts niawa, is not a necessary concomitant to the status, many 
niawadars having obtained lands without any preliminary advance, and 
though the word niawa is never now applied except to mortgages, yet 
the original moaning of the word is grasp, actual possession of the land. 



151 

Most of the smaller villages of the Gnndapnr conntiy have been estab- 
lished by niawadars, some of whom have held for generations, and the 
result of their influence has generally been to depress the latfiiand class^ 
who in many cases have sunk to the position of mere tenants-at-will. 

283. In^ld days the custom undoubtedly was, that as soon as the 

Niafoadan originally niawa mortgage was paid off", the niawadar was 

simple mortgagees, and ousted altogether, although he would perhaps 

liable as such to be ousted, fce allowed to retain his khid-kasht lands on 
Their status as now deter- . ., n. , i- x 

mined. same terms as any other cultivator, i. e. subject 

to the payment of such moyajora as the pro- 
prietors or a new niawadar might agree to take. The position of the 
niawadars has, since the introauction of British rule, been greatly com- 
plicated by this fact, of their holding in many cases lands brought under 
cultivation by themselves, and from which it seems a hardship to 
oust them. Their claims to occupancy rights have in consequence been 
the subject of virulent litigation, ever since Sir H. Edwardes took up 
the subject first in 1848. It was finally ruled by the Chief Court, in. 
a case decided in 1871, that a niawadar ^ even after redemption, could 
retain rights of lathbandi acquired by him during his incumbency, 
such rights extending not only to lands actually lathed by himself, 
but also to lands that he had brought under lath through cultivators 
holding to him the position of tenants-at-will. This order, which 
is, I think, the best that could have been passed, has been acted on in 
attestation. Where a niawadar has received cultivated lands, long 
possession alone can give him no occupancy right, but, where the 

E resumption is in favor of his having received waste lands, which 
e has himself brought, under cultivation, he has been recorded 
latKband as well as niawadar. In such cases, on redemption of the 
niawa mortgage, the proprieters are entitled te get from him the moyajora 
murtahiyiy commonly paid lo niawadars by lathhand tenants. Except 
when a lathhand has clearly been holding as a tenant-at-w\ll under the 
proprietors or under a niawadar , the fact of lathbandi has been considered 
to entitle him to occupancy rights, and he has been recorded as an 
occupancy tenant. In the Mukkalwad these lathhands have all been 
made adna maliksy but their position here is weaker, and they have 
always been more or less liable to arbitrary enhancement of rent from 
which the Mukkalwad lathbands have been free. 

284. I now come to the question of rent, and the hatai arrange- 
Baiai arrangements in ments of the tract generally. When the Gun- 
Bikh times. dapurs Conquered the country, the tribe took a 

lump share of the produce of the land, equivalent to the present maJisul 
and malikana combined. It was in order to satisfy the heavy demands 
of the Sikh Eardars that the Chief AH Khan, about 1840 A.D., first 
imposed a direct tax of one-eighth on the produce of the land. The 
division of the produce become then as follows : — 

Government miJisul ... ... ••• ^ 

Proprietors „ ... ... ••• f 

jtct/ifCajTi «•• ••# •»• ••• ••• g* 



152 

The rihkam was shared by the niawadars and cultivators^ who 
had to pay out of it the plough and turban tax. 

285. Sir H. Edwardes, in revising the revenue demand of the 
Sir H. Edwardes' Settle- Gundapur country, fixed the share of the culti- 

^^T^t. vators at f, and fanned the rcyinaining f to 

various lessees, who had to pay out of their collections the Government 
revenue of Rs. 38,000, the inam of Rs. 15,000 to the Chiefs, and 
Rs. 15,000 cash malikana to the proprietors. To protect the cultivators, it 
was directed that the niawadars were to get no moyajora murtahin for the 
future, but that the proprietors were to pay them 12 per cent, cash in- 
terest in their mortgages, and that all tiiaioa mortgages not redeemed 
within three years, were to become absolute. These arrangements 
broke down at once. The lessees fell into arrears with the proprietors* 
malikana, which was converted by Major Taylor in 1849 into a tenth of 
the gross produce. The proprietors never paid any interest to the 
niawadars, who continued to take the moyajora murtahin in accordance 
with their established custom, while the clause regarding redemption 
within thi*ee years was ignored. 

286. Mr. Simson in 1852 made another effort to relieve the culti- 
« o- 1 o XXI X vators from the moyajora murtahin. Instead 

01 it ne ailowea tne niawadars V& out oi tne 
Government -^xs fnahsid, and half the tenth allowed to the proprietors* 
The shares then became :— 

Government mahsul taken by lessees *^ VW 

Proprietors ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• = -^i^ 

X^iawadars ••• ••• ••• ••• •••=== -g^ 

Cultivators f ... ••• ... ••• •.. »= if 

Mr. Simson leased the different villages -to the niawadars, except in 
the case of Kulachi and Takw6ra. Kulachi was leased to the proprie- 
tors as a body, and Takw&ra to the Chief Ali Khan. The arrangements 
made by Lieutenant Busk in 1856 were very similar. Lieutenant Busk 
however, provided that a niawadar refusing to engage for the revenue 
Lieutenant Bask's Set- was to lose -^ out of the ^V allotted to him. 
tlement. This ^ would go to swell the mahsul, while the 

remaining -^ would, on redemption, go to the proprietors. Lieutenant 
Busk, too, recommended that the vam attempt to stop the taking of 
moyajora murtahin should be given up. 

287. Three years afterwards, when kham tahsil was introduced. 
Introduction of kham Lieutenant Busk's proposal for reducing the 

tahsil. niawadars share was acted on, and the division 

of the produce has since been as follows : — 

- - , , J /Government } 

-^^'^^"^ ^t Chief's inam i 

-nr I'l 1 f Proprietors i 

Mahhana "^XNiLadar \ 



153 

Though it was arranged that ike niaf^adars were to ^et half of the 
Share hitherto taken \xj proprietary tenth, yet even from the first this 
the niawadan, clause was Seldom acted on. To secure them-* 

selves from the redemption , most of the niawadars volantarily gave np 
the whole tenth to the proprietors, contenting themselves with the 
moyajora murtahin. Sometimes they arranged to divide both malikand 
and moyajora murtahin with the proprietors on equal shares. When 
land was held by a lathband niawadar with occupancy* rights, who had 
surrendered the whole maZi^na to the proprietors, the question arose 
as to what the latter were entitled to after redemption. The proprietors 
claimed the moyajora murtahin : the ex-niawadar pleaded the Summary 
Settlement arrangements, by which the proprietors were entitled, afler 
redemption, to nothing more than their full one-tenth. Where a niawadar 
has been taking two distinct haq«, moyajora niuriahin and moyajora 
laihbandiy the proprietors are, on redemption, certainly entitled to the 
moyajora murtahifu . Where, however, the niawadar has been taking a 
lump moyajora on account of both these haqsj then, I think, that the pro- 
prietors on redemption must sue for enhancement of rent, which will 
be awarded in the ordinary way. The proprietor will not, as a rule, 
gain much by such suits, as the greater part of the rent is absorbed 
Enhancement of rent on already by the maA^u^ and the i^ malikana, so 
redemption of niawa mort- that the margin left for moyajora is seldom 
g*g®' . more than 15 per cent, of the full rent paid by 

tenants-at-will, which is the limit laid down by the Tenancy Act for the 
protection of occupancy tenants of the 3rd or lowest grade. For in- 
stance, the tenants-at-will holding under a niawadar with occupancy 
rights, are paying : — 

MaJumland malikana 40 per cent. 

Government cesses 6 ditto. 

i Moyajora 6 ditto. 



Total rent ... 52 per cent 



The 6 per cent, taken as moyajora by the eayniawadarj is equal to 12 
per cent only on the whole rental, and ordinarily, therefore, he would 
DO protected from enhancement. To get anything more out of him, 
the proprietors, or the new niawadar^ would have to prove that similar 
tenants in adjoining villages ordinarily paid a higher rate of rent, and 
this it would not, in most cases, be easy to establish. 

288. These suits against the old niawadars are gfenerally brought 
Malicions attempts to forward out of spite. A rich Khan has a grudge 
oast Hinmadart. against a niawadar, who is already paying the 

-vi^hole tenth malikana to the proprietors, and has advanced in addition 
more on the land than it is worth. The Khan, without the least ex- 
pectation of making any legitimate profit, pays off all the outstanding 
niawaf and gives something extra to the proprietors to have the land 



154 

made over to him, and afterwards thinks himself very fcatlly treated 
when ho finds that tlie Courts protect his adversary from being ousted 
Position of the leading altogether. There is a great tendency for tho 
^^^^^' proprietary rights in the Oundapur tract to 

slip gradually into the hands of the leading Khans. Tliese are Guldad 
Khan and Kalu Khan, who share the one-fourth inam zemindari, and 
Naurang Khan. . These Chiefs between them own about 5,000 daddies 
in tho Nikanni tract, and about 8,000 in the Pr&dd tract, and hold niawa 
mortgages aggregating Rs. 90,000. 

The different rights in the Gundapur tract are mortgaged alto- 
. Mortgages. gether to tho following extent : — 

Rs. 

Proprietary right in daddies^ L e. the V& nudikana ... 61,520 

Superior proprietary right in the Rori water lands ... 7,021 

Right of management of cultivation mortgaged to 

niawadars ... ••« ■•• ••• «•• - ••. 1,73,932 

Mortgago of rights of occupancy tenants 12,557 

Total Rupees ... 2,55,030 

The only heavy item, that of niawa mortgages, is no real sign of 
indebtedness. The advances obtained in this way are much in excess of 
the real value of the rights hypothecated, and the proprietors continue 
to receive a good substantial rent. 

289. The population of the Gundapur tract by the last census 
Population. DiBtribution 1877 is 23,507. The figures for the censuses 

of cultivation. of 1855 and 1868 were repectively 30,242 and 

25,911. These, however, must include Pawindahs. Of the existing 
population, 6,858 are Gundapurs. There are very few Biluches, most 
of the remaining population being made up in equal proportions of Jats 
and low caste Mahomedans. The Gundapurs are nearly all massed in 
the towns of Kulachi, Takwdra, Maddi and Luni, which alone contain 
nearly 6,000 of them. Two-thirds of tho Gundapur proprietors cultivate 
with their own hands, and Gundapurs, whether proprietors or merely 
tenants, make up nearly half of the cultivating population of the tract.. 
Of a total of 3,057 cultivators, 789 are proprietors, 400 occupancy 
tonanis, 1,084 tenants-at-will, and 765 hhaiwaU and mmwals, with 19 
Iteiios. Only 2,252 acres are held by proprietors in cultivating posses- 
sion (khud kasht). Those consist mainly of plots in Takwara and 
Kulachi. Most of tho cultivating proprietors hold shamildt or other 
lands as tenants. Of the whole cultivated area nearly two-thirds is held 
by tenants with rights of occupancy. 

290. Tlio fact that tho whole of this tract has been held kham taheil 
J^haffi iahail arrange- sinco 1859, makes the statistics as to produce 

mcnis. moio than usually reliable. The Government 

collections are supoiintcndod by a few Moharrirs under tho control of 
tho Tah:3Lldur. Tho grain is wcii'hod and divided, and the Uovorxuuoub 



155 

sharo is thon reixirned to tho Sardamna or head tenant, who pays tha 
valao at the prices fixed by the Tahsildar for oach harvest to the Qovern- 
mont in cash. Generally speakin^f all the associated caltivators 
( bhaiwdls ) share this contract with the head tenant, thongh the tahsil 
officials deal only with him. In a few cases, where the tenant seems 
very impocunions or untrustworthy, the tahsil officials take security from 
him, or deposit the ^rain on his behalf with some village banker and 
grain merchant, llie average Government realisations from 1859 to 
Gross produce of tract 1874 averaged Rs. 65,232. The gross produce 
and jama assessed. based on those returns would be lis. 2,41,602, 

exclusive of the share taken by the reaper. My estimate of the real 
yield was Rs. 3,09,438 or slightly higher, and the produce jama amount- 
ed to Rs. 45,692. The jama first reported was Rs. 30,195, reduced in 
assessing to Rs. 39,123, but it was proposed to bring the tract under the 
Daman fluctuating system, under which only one-fourth of this assess- 
ment, would be fixed.* It was arranged with the sanction of the local 
Government that the Settlement should be first offered to the proprietors 
and failing them to the niawadara. 

291. On announcement of jamas the proprietors of the Takwara 

Seitlement of the Tak- ( Nikanni ) and Rori lands engaged for the 
wAra and Rori tracts. revenue on the terms proposed. ^ The Takwfira 

proprietors in the case of the larger shamildt blocks appointed managers 
who were to collect the rents andarrange for the jjayment of the Qovern- 

Difficnlties regarding the men t demand. The Pradu proprietors, how- 
PrMtk tract. ever, declared that the division of their lands 

was so intricate, and their hold over them so small, that it would be im- 
possible for them to engage for the revenue in accordance with nroprie- 

Proposals of the proprie. tary possession. They had agreed therefore 
tors. among themselves to take up the [Settlement on 

their shamiMt shares (36,000 daddies). In this way ^ mahml, and what- 
ever malikana might be taken by the proprietors, through the whole of 
the Pradii tract, would be brought into a common account, the Govern- 
ment revenue would be paid out of the realisations, and the profit or 
loss divided on equal shares between the six main sections or nallaks. 
These atrain would divide on their internal shares or daddies. This 
arrangement would not have interfered with the actual cultivation of 
the land. The rights of niawadars and of proprietors to the manage- 
ment of the cultivation and to all that portion of the produce not takea 
at present by the proprietors or by the Government would have remain- 
ed as before. The result, therefore, would have been to create a new 
superior proprietary right over the heads of the old proprietors, and the 
scheme would not have served to remove in any way the intricacies of 
the Gundapur tenure, which, as regards the inferior proprietary right, 
would have been continued intact. The tribe was very hot on this 
scheme, which I recommended with some hesitation for sanction. 

Not approved of by the Mr. LyaU, the Settlement Commissioner, how- 
Settlement Commissioner. ever, was not disposed to support the proposal. 
The Pridu proprietors persisted in refusing to engage kJuUauniwar. The 
niawadars refused to engage unless given fixity of tenure, i.e., secured 



156 

from being deprived of the lease on redemption of the niawa moHgago^ 
Proposed to continne the Under these circnmstances the only remaining 
BjBtem ot kham t&hBil. plan seemed to be to continue the existing 

kham tahsil arrangements. I recommended, however, that some altera- 
tion should be made in the existing batai system. I proposed that the 
Government malisul share (i%) shoald be made to inclade the cost of 
collection and the Government cesses, which are now taken in addition. 
This would reduce the share taken from VW to -^ of the gross produce. 
Tn the case of the poor trans-Ldnf tract, which gets little but daggar 
irrigation, I proposed that the mahsul share should be further reduced 
from 1^ to ^, making the demand ^7 of the gross produce. These final 
proposals were submitted in a letter No. 55 of 17th May 1878, but 
Final orders not yet no orders have yet been received. Pending 
leoeived. their receipt the old batai arrangements have 

been continued for all, but the Rori and Takwara (Nikanni) tracts. These 
have been assessed with Rs. 4,802, ^ fixed assessment and differential 
crop rates. This represents a full assessment of Rs. 19,208. The jama 
of the Prddii lands, tne Settlement of which is still under discussion, ia 
Bs. 19,915, making the total jama of the tract Rs. 39,123.* Rs. 
19,915, the assessment of the Pradii lands, is shown in detail in the 
Settlement records, having been distributed in the ordinary way over the 
different holdings. It will be easy, therefore, to introduce at any time 
a cash Settlement in place of the existing kham tahsil, the work 01 tafrik 
having been already completed. 



©fee ^arkaimi Ciwk. 

292. This is a small circle, containing only two villages, Zarkanni 

Position and area of the and Madha. It is situated in a corner between 

Zarkanni had, the country of the Gundapurs and that of the 

Miankhels, and adjoins the Suliman hills to the west. It has an area 

of 33 square miles. The proprietors are a small tribe of Zarkanni 

- , . . Shekhs, who settled here some 500 years ago. 

^ ^^^ * The present population of the circle is 527, of 

whom half are Zarkannies. The whole of the Zirkanni lands were 

^ originally held in common, but about 40 years 

ago they were divided between the two villages, 
Zirkanni getting f and Maaha i. The cultivation is mostly tandobiy carried 
on with the Kal&pani from the ohekh Haidar Pass. The Zirkanni proprie- 
tors get two-thirds, and the Madha proprietors one-third of the water. 

* Rs. 39,123 is the jama shown in the Settlement records, obtained by qnadrupling 
the one-fourth fixed assessment of Rs. 9,762 and adding Rs. 74 full assessment for a few 
exceptional plots in Maddl and Kulaohi. It agrees with the jama of the circle as given 
in Appendix XXII. As, however, cash assessments have not been introduced 
into the Pr^i!i tract including the plots mentioned and this jama of Rs. 39,123 therefore 
is to some extent nominal I have not thought it worth while to alter the jama originally 
proposed for the circle in the assessment report which ^as Rs. 39,195 and which is 
shown in para. 680. In preparing the figures given in para. 581, and in all those Ap- 
pendices except XXII giving detail of jama, the assessment of the Gunddpur circle hai^ 
been taken at Bs. 39,195 instead of the more correct figure of Be. 39,123. The difference 
is trifling. 



157 

Instead of dividing ihe snpply, they take the whole water alternately : 
Zirkanni for 10 days, and Madha for 5 days at a time. The tand culti- 
vation is carried on in the usual way, so as to allow of long fallows. 
Each village is held by the proprietors as a single undivided estate, both 
land and water being owned on the same shares. The proprietary 
shares are called tals ; these are grouped together for purposes of culti- 
vation into patties, or dhars. The dhars in each village contain an equal 
number of tals, but these latter are rearranged every year, and a pro- 
prietor sometimes gets his tals in one dhar and sometimes in another. 
Each dJiar gets a strip of land to cultivate in proportion to the nuni- 

DMBion of the produce. ^'^ ^^ proprietary tah in it. Proprietors 

and non-propnetors cultivate together mside 
these dfiars. The produce is divided in this wise : — 

Proprietor V share 38 shares. 



99 



oeeci ... ... ..« «.. ... jlo 

v/xeu ... ... ... ... ••• o •« 

Cultivators ... 24 

Kamiana ••• ••• ••• ... 4 



9} 

m 

Total 90 „ 

293. The proprietor's share is divided on the number of tals in the 
dhar. The cultivator's share and the share allowed for oxen, are divided 
on the number of ploughs engaged in cultivating the lands of the dJiar. 
A proprietor supplying oxen but not cultivating gets a share of the y^ 
allowed for the oxen. If he cultivates as well, he will also get a share 

Irriffation arrangements. ^^ ^^^ ** allowed for the cultivator. In dividing 
^ * the water each dAar gets 12 hours flow of the 

whole stream. As Zirkanni has 16 dhars^ 8 days flow is suflicient to 
water the whole. The remaining two days flow is partly taken up in 
changing the water from Zirkanni to Madha, and any spare water that 
may be over is given flrst to any dhxir that may have lost its turn in 
consequence of the water supply failing, or breaking away owing to 
floods, or if no dhar is so entitled, it is divided rateably among all the 
dharsj each of which gets in this way one or two hours extra flow. 

294. In addition to the tand cultivation, the surplus water is em- 
VwA<>W cultivation. ployed in vichobi cultivation like that of the 

Jatatar villages in T&nk. Such vichobi lands 
get one watering before sowing, and another when the crop is green^ 
and sometimes additional waterings as a matter of favor. 

The vichobi lands are partly held by kuhband tenants with occupancy 
rights, and partly by individual proprietors, who as regards these 
lands are tenants-at-will under the proprietary body. The general rent 
for the vichobi lands is a fourth of the gross produce. 

295. The Zirkanni villages were formerly included in taluqua 

ABsessment of the cirole. DrAban. Sir H.Edwardes assessed the circle 

at Rs. 352, Mr. Simson at Bs. 354, Captain 
Coxe at Bs. 480^ which with a reduction of Bs. 11 has remained in force 



15ff 

op to the present Settlement The lands of the circle are poorer than 
ilioso of Drdban and Chandwdn, and are inclined to throw up kallar. 
This is partly the fault of tho Shekh Haidar zam which is imprej^naied 
with salt. Afkcr making duo allowance for this in the produce estimates, 
the valne of the gross produce for the estimated average 'cultivated area 
of tho circle is Rs. 15,626, giving a produce jama of Rs. 2,709. The 
rovenno that has be<)n assessed is Rs. 1,100. This is undoubtedly very 
light, being equal to a fourteenth of the gross produce, but the proprie- 
tors as a rule are poor, and a good deal of land has been alienated by 
Bale and mortgage even under the former nominal assessment. Tho 
now assessment gives an increase of 135 per cent, which has been con- 
siderod sufRcicnt. Tho revenue will be paid as before by the proprietors 
on their tola or shares. 



296. The country of the Miankhels has an area of 256 square 

miles. It lies between the Gunddpur and tho 

Area and position of the Bdbar country. The Miankhels are one of the 

Miankhel country. tribes of Lohini Pawindahs, who settled in the 

Their flrrt settlement in Damdn in the sixteenth century. Along with the 

the Dam&n. Daulatkhels, the Miankhels first settled in Tank, 

but soon moved down south to their present quar- 
ters, which they took possession.of after conquering the Sarwanies and 
other original inhabitants. They were assisted in this by the'Bakhtiyar 
tribe, to whom they gave a share in the lands acquired. The Bakhtiyars 
are now completely incorporated with the Miankhels, and form one of weir 
main sections. The Miankhels never completely gave up their Pawindah 
life, and, while a portion of the tribe is settled at Dr&ban and Musazai. 
the greater number of them still trade as before between India ana 
Khorasan. The Miankhels are the richest of all the Pawindahs, and 
deal in the more costly descriptions of merchandise. The trading and 
Ifind-holding Miankhels do not form altogether distinct classes. Now and 
then a leading zeminddr takes an excursion to Kabul or Bokhara. In 
the same way many of the trading Miankhels have proprietary rights 
in the Daman, where their lands are looked after during their absence 

/It. ^ « *!. * .V hy relations. The Miankhels are a peaceable 

Character of the tnbe. j .i_ *i. ji i- n. •fu jj 

tribe, they are good looking, often with ruddy 

complexions. They dross better and live better than most of the Paw- 

indan and Dam&n tribes, and are altogether more civilised. They 

seldom take military service. 

297. The plain Miankhels are divided into the Miankhels of Draban 
Divided into the men of and those of Musazai. The bulk of the tribe 
Draban and of Musazai. lives at Dr&ban, and owns rather more than 
three-fourths of the whole Miankhel country. The Masazais liv:o in the 
town of that name and own the south-west portion of the tract. There 
are also some common lands of trifling extent held jointly by the Mian- 
khels both of Draban and Musazai. 



159 

298. The Miankiiels were for long semi-independent. They wpf«i 
Position of the tribe an- engaged in constant hostilities with the Gundil- 

dcr native rnle. purs on the north and the Babars on the south. 

They probably paid dnes of sorts to the Kabul kings, bat their nataro 
-and amount is nnoertain. Kawab Mahomed Khan treated them much 
as he did the Onndapnrs. He seized a considerable portion of their 
bonier lands to the east and made them pay a tribute at first of Rs. 
11,000, but which was afterwards raised to Rs. 18,000. The collection 
of this tribute wa^ always a matter of difBoulty. During the hot 
weather the Miankhels were much at the Naw&b's mercy, but when the 
Pawindahs came down in the cold weather, the Miankhels, leagued with 
the Nasars, would defy the Naw&b for the time. The main events 
in this struggle are mentioned in my account of the history of the 
district. On the whole the Naw&b seems to have succeeded in extort-, 
ing his revenue sooner or later. 

When Nao Nihal Sing annexed the Nawab^s dominions in 1836 

TT«*in» fiio wiriia A.D., hc chaugcd the demand from a fixed 

unaer tne oikns. j i_ j " * n. i*x\^ j i. -j 

sum m cash, to a seventh of the produce, besides 

customs' dues, taxes on shops and trades, and other cesses. The collections 

were leased to Diwans Lakhi Mai and Doulat Rai of Dera, but for 

a year and a half before 1848 the Sikh Government collected the Mian- 

khel revenue directly. Sir H. Edwardes estimated the revenue derived 

by the Sikhs at Rs. 17,500, of which rather more than Rs. 10,000 was 

from land. 

299. Under the Sikhs the batai arrangements were as follows : 
Arrangements made at The Government took one-seventh ; of the re- 

annexation. maining six-sevenths the proprietors took two^ 

sevenths ; all cesses were paid from the balance, and me remainder lefk 
to the cultivator. This was for vichobi lands. On tandobi lands tiio 
proprietors took four-sevenths and supplied the seed. Considering the 
oign rent taken by the proprietors. Sir H. Edwardes raised the Govern** 
Summaiy SetUements of ment mahsul from a seventh to a fifth, and this 
the tract, has been the amount ever since. Sir H# 

Edwardes fixed the revenue at Rs. 15,456. The Settlement was for three 
years. In Draban the water proprietors engaged for tho lease ; in the 
other villages of tho tract the leases were taken up by one or two lead- 
ing men as Muahaksadars^ Tho Settlement was perhaps a little heavy, 
for when the taluqua was reassessed by Mr. Simson in 1852, the leases 
having expired, most of the villages were found to bo held in k/uim 
tahsil. Including one or two villages not assessed till 1854 A.D., 
Mr. Simson's assessment was Rs. 14,185, which Captain Coxe reduced 
in 1857 A.D. to Rs. 13,489. The jama in 1875, was Rs. 13,469. 

300. Both Mr. Simson and Captain Coxe based the Government 
Share uf produce taken demand on a fifth share of the gross producOi 

by tho lessees. and this was the share taken by the Mushaksa-^ 

Jars. There was, however, a proviso that in case of loss half the pro- 
prietor^s sharo was to go to the lessees, who would thus get throo*tenths 
with which to meet tho Govoroment demand. Jn eonseqaonco of this) 



160 

tiie achial rates of mcLhsul have varied from a fiflh to three-ten ths^. and 
owin^ to the difficulty of checking the fratot accounts the lessees have 
often succeeded in getting three-tenths, even when a fifth would have 
covered the Government demand. Owing to this arrangement there 
has, as a rule, been no diflicalty in reah'sing the revenue. The Mushaksa^ 

darn put in by Captain Coxe were taken gen- 
BumZytmeme'^u w^ «™»y from among the proprietors but ^i a 
maae. f*^^ cases the leases were given to the resident 

Jot maliks. In mauzan Dr&ban itself the 
Settlement was made with the water proprietors on their shares. In all 
the other villages the Settlement was made with Mtishaksadars. The 
four Musazai villages, then included in a single mauzah, were leased in 
a lump to the Chief. 

301. The Miankhels like the Daulatkhels had in old days a 
The positdon of the Chief hereditary Khan ; but he possessed but little 

of the Miankhel tribe, power. Umr Khan, who was their Chief at 

the time of Mr. Elphinstone's embassy, tried to imitate Sarwar Khan 
of Tank, but unsuccessfully. He removed, therefore, from Draban to 
Gandi Umr Khan, an outlying town, which he founded, and where 
his son, Azim Khan, still lives. Umr Khan was an active and intelligent 
man : though unable to establish his absolute sway over the Miankhels, 
he still possessed considerable power, and it was through him that the 
Miankhel revenue was collected. Mr. Masson, who visited Gandi 
Umr Khan in 1827, mentions that Umr Khan kept up a force of 180 
soldiers. He possessed extensive proprietary rights both in Draban and 
Musazai. He also received a fouVth of the produce of Musazai and a 
tenth of the produce of the vichobi lands of Draban, in right of his 
position as Khan of the tribe. After the fight with the Pawindahs in 
1830, Naw&b Sher Mahomed of Dera sent a force against Umr Khan, 
who was taken and executed by the Nawab's orders. Azim Khan, the 
son of Umr Khan, has never been a man of any political influence. 
Diwan Doulat Rai, taking advantage of his weakness, confiscated one 
half of his possessions, public and private. His fourth share in Musazai 
was given to one Bazah Mahomed, known as the Zakori Faqir, by 
whose family it is still held. Sir H. Edwardes, however, restored a 
Considerable portion of the confiscated property, but commuted the 
tenth of the produce of the vichobi lands to a pension of Rs. 1,000, 
which Azim Khan still enjoys out of the revenue of Gandi Umr Khan. 

302. I have mentioned that the Miankhel country is divided into 
Division of the country two portions, held respectively by the men of 

into mansahs. Draban and Musazai. Each of these is divided 

into a number of distinct mauzahs. The Miankhels cultivate but little 
themselves, the business of agriculture being left principally to their 
Jat tenants. With a few exceptions they live only in the towns of 
Draban and Musazai. Azim Khan, the Chief, lives at Gkmdi Umr Khan, 
and here and there a Miankhel headman may be found in some others 
of die outlying villages. These latter are, as a rule^ occupied entirely by 



161 

Jat and Btlnch ryots. The present population of the tract by the 
^ , . ».u . s. Settlement census is 7,946, It is diiBcult to 
Populauon of the tract, ^.^j^p^^e this with Uie results of the censuses of 

1854 and of 186d* The figures for 1868 are useless, as they include 
Pawindahs. The returns for 1854 show a population of 11,782, from 
which 3,013 has to be deducted for Pawindahs, and about 1,000 for the 
Zarkanni villages, leaving 7,769 against the present population of 7,946. 
tliere Would appear, therefore, to have been little or no increase of the * 
present population ; 842 only are Miankhels : of these 545 live in Draban^ * 
and 193 in Musazai. There are besides a number of Pathans of other 
tribes, and among them 367 Shiranies. There are altogether 1,807- 
Pathins, making nearly a fourth of the whole population. 

The figures for the remaining tribes are : — 

Biluches ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 738 

tiaiis ••• ••• ••• ••• kb* ••• iS>ooo • 

Saiads, Shekhs and Koreshies ••• .r. 334 

Miscellaneous Mahomedans 1,664 

Hindus ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 745 

The Shpkhs mostly occupy the small village of Shah Alam, near 
Musazai. Tlie Shiranies are much employed as servants by the Mian* 
khels, they fetch wood and draw water. In old days the Shiranies, 
RelationB of the Mian- who occupy the adjoining hills, were a great 
khels with the Shiranies. thorn in Ihe side of the Miankhels. Even 
the streets of Draban were not safe from their attacks, and all the bor- 
der villages paid a fourteenth of their crops as bluck-mail to these 
pests of the frontier. The Shiranies have now quieted down, though 
the peace of Draban is still occasionally broken by an occasional robbery 
or midiiight murder. The Shiranies have always been encouraged in 
behaviour of this sort by the want of spirit evinced by the Drdban 
Miankhels in resisting attack. 

303. The Dr&ban Miankhels get the whole Ealapani from the 

Irriuation of the tract Draban zam. The Musazai Miankhels get two- 
fifths of the Ealapani of the Chandwan zam^ 
the remaining three-fifths going to the Babers of Chandwan. The 
Miankhels also get a good deal of torrent irrigation from the Gudh, 
Lora, Eaura and other jiallahs, which carr}*^ off the flood waters from 
the Draban and Chandwan Passes. A small tract to the north-east geta 
irrigated from the Luni. 

304. The lands of the Draban Miankhels are divided into nalin 
Tenures of the Drdban ^^d mankat. The nalin land are irrigated with 

Miankhels. Nalin or water the Ealapani from the Drdban zamj and are 
^*°^®' owned on the same shares as the water. The 

nalin lands have been divided among the main sections or bulies of the 
tribe; Each section gets its «1iare of water, which it lays on to its own 
lands. The whole water is held on 77 shares or ndllalis, hence the name 



162 

nalin. The nnmber of nallaJis held bj the difFerent sections variefl 
greatly, and there are no clearly marked shares ; one section may own 
lOi^ nalldhs and another 19|. The nalin lands are nearly all in manzah 
Draban. 

305. The mankat lands are all rodkoi and baraniy and are held on 

,^ , ^ . . , , 80 shares or mauns. hence the name mankai. 
Mankat or haranx lands. ^j^^^ .^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ontl^ying porUon of the 

Draban country. They are owned by the same sections as the nalin 
lands, but beyond this, the shares in the two do not in any way corres- 
pond. 

The mankat lands have been divided among the sections in large 
blocks scattered all over the outlying mauzahs, each section owning 
several such blocks. There has been but little subdivision inside the 
sections. 

306. • Besides the nalin and mankat lands, but of comparatively 
w d^h lAAdfl small extent, are the Wandah and Ghorawcd 

lands. The Wandah lands consist of plots often 
of large size, held by one or more individuals of the tribe, and which 
have been obtained by grant or otherwise. These plots are held quite 
independently of tribal shares. 

307. The Ghorawcd lands were originally intended for the support 
n\^^^^7 1««^- of horsemen, entertained by the tribe for pur- 

poses of defence and war. liignts m them 
have now become assimilated te ordinary property, and they are held 
free from any military service. 

308. The Musazai lands are held on a similar tenure to those of 
Mvtazai tenures. the Draban Miankhels. The chief difference is, 
Nikanni or water lands, that the Kalapani lands are still held in shamir 
Dharrawal OT darani lands, i^ ^y the water proprietors. The lands to be 
cultivated by each section are settled every year by lot. The Musazai 
sections are called hdies. The share of each buli is well defined. The 
family of the Zakori Faqir, already mentioned, has a fourth share in the 
water lands, and the remaining three-fourths is divided on equal shares 
between the four Musazai bulies. The outlying or vichobi lands are 
held by the main sections on the same shares, except that one-tenth of 
the produce is first taken by the Khan of Musazai under the name of 
ITaq Mu^ehm. The lands held on vichobi shares are called nikanni or 
ancestral. The Kalapani lands are known as dltarrawalj from the 
Dharras or shares on which they are held. As in Dr&ban, though both 
the nikanni and dharrawal lands are owned by the same main sections, 
the shares in the two do not in any way correspond. As a rule, all 
through the Pathan Jiads of the Kulachi tahsil, shares in the Kalapani 
and the lands attached to it have been transferred by sale to a much 
greater extent than rights in vichobi lands, and much of the Kalapani 
property is now held by Hindus and other outsiders. 



163 

309. The Ealapam cultivation in the Miankhel country is carried 
Arrangementa for Kala- <>" by cultivators engaged for each season, and 

pani cultivation in the who consequently acquire no occupancy rights. 
Miankhel country. Contrary to the custom in Rori and Zarkanni, 

each proprietor among the Miankhels arranges for the cultivation of 
his own share of the water^landsj and puts in his own cultivators. 

310. The vickobi lands are held by lathbandsj who by the custom 

Bights of lathbands. ^^ ^^« ,f ^^^^ P^f «««^ ""f^^ ^J occupancy, and 

. can sell and mortgage their noldmgs. There 

were many grounds for giving these men the status otadna malikSf as 

had been done in the Dera tahsfl. The rate of malikanay however, in' 

the Dera Dam&n is, as a rule, only tV of the gross produce, while the 

Miankhel lathbands pay a malikana that amounts nearly to a full rent, 

varying from a fifth to a tenth. It was considered better, therefore, 

to record them as tenants, as had been done at the Summary Selttle- 

ments. 

811. Another point for disposal was the status of the lessees. 
. Although the grant of the village leases to these 

leesees. ^" ™®^ ^*^ °^^ originally been based on any pro- " 

prietary right, yet in many cases they were 
the representatives of the founders of the villages that they held, and 
had been in continuous possession since the first Summary Settlement 
made by Sir H. Edwardes. The case of these men was a very strong 
one, and they appeared entitled tot a sort of inferior proprietorship, 
consisting of a prescriptive right to take the Government mahauly and 
engage for the Government revenue. Such men have now been 
recorded inferior proprietors. They will take batai from the hxthbaivi 
class as before, but on the recommendation of Mr. Lyall, the old 
arrangement, by which the lessee in case of loss took half the malikana^ - 
has been modified. The mahaul has now been raised from a fifth or 
-, ^ . . A to Aj the proprietors will take the remain- 

ihf^t^r^^^'''''^ ing A.* a»d ^^i» »« lo"g«r be liable to any 

deductions on account of losses. The Govern- 
ment cesses will be paid as hitherto out of the common heap (taUah). 
The nmnber of villages of the Draban Miankhels in which the Settle- 
_,„, , ^ ^ ,^ ment has been made with the ex-lessee sub- 

lel^?^ proprietors is eight in all. In three of these 

the ex*lessees are Jats, in five they are Mian- 
khels. Among the latter, Azim Khan, son of Umr Khan, the Chief, has 
fm. r^v. < «^ M obtained the (wina maZAtycrf of the large village 

villages, of which he has hitherto held the lease. 
In all the other villages of the Draban Miankhels, the Settlement has 
been made with the proprietors. Two of the Musazai villages have ' 
been settled in a similar wav with the Chief Mir Alam Khan. 

* The ^ hitherto enjoyed by the proprietors has been subject to certaiti 
deductions in favor of the cultiyators known as ehautopa. The -J^ at which their share 
is now fixed, will be subject to the same deductions. 



164 

' 312. Mir Alam Khan ba.^ hitherto held ibe lease of the whole 
* «. , Musazai country, but the proprietors of Mnsazai 

the position held bj Mir Alam Khan was 
purely that of a lessee, the Settlement has now been made with the 
proprietors, except in the case of the two minor villa/sres that I have 
mentioned, in which, as the original founder, Mir Alam might be 
eonsidered to have special claims. 

As regards the Musehri lands held by Mir Alam Khan, these were 
. held by him clearly in right of being Chief. 

to?h^"lfflie of"cWe* Mir Alam has for some time been endeavour- 

ing to reduce them to the condition of ordinary 
property, and with this view had effected a partial partition of them^ 
Irith his cousin Isaf, as far back as A.D. 1859. Mr. Lyall considered 
that Jn spite of these arrangements, which had received at the time the 
sanction of the Deputy Commissioner, Musehri lands should be recorded 
as attached to the office of Chief, and as such liable to be resumed in 
case of mis-befaaviour on the part of Mir Alam, and transferred to any 
other member of the family, whom Government should think fit to 
appoint as Chief in his place. This has been done. The ofRce of Chief 
among the Musazais is not strictly hereditary. When Sir H. Edwardes 
passed through in 1847, Hassan Khan was Chief, and on his death 
Mir Alam Khan, as the ablest man of the family, succeeded in prefer- 
ence to his cousins, the sons of Hassan Khan, who were then minora. 
On a vacancy, therefore, occurring, the sons of Hassan Khan will have 
as good a claim to succeed as those of the present Chief, and the fittest 
man of the family should be appointed. 

Mir Alam Khan is on the worst of terms with the body of Musazai 
Relations between Mir proprietors, and their endless quarrels have 
ATam Khan and the rendered the Settlement of Musazai with its 
Musaeai proprietors. complicated tenures, an exceedingly difficult 

business. The Musazais themselves are few in number and for the 
most part in depressed circumstances, and except Mir Alam Khan, 
whose own revenue amounts to Rs. 1,065, out of a total jama of Rs. 
4,300, few of the other Musazais own any property to speak of. The 
Zakori Faqir, however, and a leading family of Shekhs, are rich and 
own a great deal of property in the Musazai tract. These*head the 
opposition, and the poorer Musazais, including some of Mir Alam Khan's 
immediate relations, follow their lead. Mir Alam Khan is an able nian, 
with considerable border influence, and is of much assistance to the 
Deputy Commissioner in managing the Shiranies. 

313. In assessing the Miankhel country, I estimated the value of 
Assessment of the Mian- the gross produce at Bs. 1,20,750. The produce 
khel country. jama at ^ of the gross prodace amounted to Bs. 

18,576. The jama by rates was Rs. 18,006, and the jama that has been 
assessed is Rs. 17,240. This gives an increase of 28 per cent, on the 
present jama of Rs. 13,459. Of the jama assessed, Rs. 13,790 haa been 
put on the Draban Miaukbels, and Rs. 4,450 on the Mnsaaais. 



165 

r proposed at first to brmor Gandi Umr* Khan and the eastern 
villages of the Draban Aad under the Daman fluctuatincr system. This 
was in accordance with a wish expressed by the Chief Azim Khan, 
to whom much of the tract belongs. Azim Khan afterwards changed 
bis mind, and asked for a fixed assessment, as did the proprietors of the 
other villages concerned. As only a small portion of the tract gets Ldni 
irrigation, there was no very strong reason for adhering to the first 
arrangement, and these villages, like the rest of the Miankhel country, 
have been given a fixed assessment. 

314, When out-lying villages have been settled with the Miankhel 
Arrangements for col- proprietors, it has been necessary for the latter 
lecting the revenue. to appoint managers to look after tne blocks 

owned by the different sections. These men will hold the position of 
Kulichi jamawdU or rent-collectors. The proprietors will pay the 
revenue due from them on account of these out-lying villages in a lump 
alona with the revenue of Driban kluiB to the lambardars of Draban. 
TheM will pay over the amount due for the different sections to the 
lambardars of the ouUying villages. Some such arrangement was 
necessary, as it would be almost impossible for the latter to collect sepa- 
rately each item due from the numerous members of the proprietary 
body. 



315. The country occupied by the Babars forms a compact block, 

Azea and Dosition ^^^ *^ ^'^^ ^^ ^^^ Stfoare miles. On the 

north it is bounded by the lands of the Mian- 
khels. In physical features it is similar to ibe Miankhel circle. The 

Irrigation, Physical fea- rodkoi cultivation depends on the waters of 
tare and crops. jhe Gajistin and Waleyri streams. The latter 

carries off the southern drainage from the Chandw&n zam. The 
Babars also get thi'ee-fifths of the Kalapani from the Chandwan zam. 
The supply of water from the hill torrents is generally inferior to that 
of the Miankhel circle, and the irrigation is more precarious. Wheat, 
jawar and hajra are thd main staples. Bice is not grown. There are 
some valuable fruit and vegetable gardens round the town of Chandwan. 
As a rule the value of the rabi harvest is double that of the kharif. 
The Babars are a small tribe allied to the Shiranies. A branch of the 
B4bar8 live in the hill country beyond the Suliinan range, but these 

The hiU and plain Bdbars. have little or no connection wi& the plain 
NumbersoftheplainBAbars. Bihars. The plain Babars number about a 
thousand souls^ nearly all of whom reside in the central town of 
Chandwan. A^ with the Miankhels, the out-lying villages are occupied 
byJatand Biluch ryots. The Babars are a civilised tribe. Most of 
them can read and write. A few of them join in the Pawiudah trade 

Their Pawindah trade. ??.^^ ,f 'j'^'S^'i!!' some 7 or 8 accompany the 

Miankhel Kanlas to Bokhara, and about an 



166 

^nal number go Trith the Nasars to Eandahin The valae of their 
Bokhara trade is estimated at 1^ lacs, and of the Kandahdr trade ataboat 
Rs. 7,000 or Rs. 8,000. Great quantities of shoes are made at Ohandwan 
for export to Afghanistan. The Babars are said to have settled in these 

HiBtoiT of the tribe. ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^® beginning of the 17th century, 

Ndr Mahomed B&bar was in high Government 
employ with the title of Aminoolmulk under Ahmed Shah Abdalli, and it 
was in his time that the boundaries of the Babars with the neighbouring 
tribes were first definitely fixed. I shall mention the disputes of the 
Bd.bars with the Ushteranas in my account of the latter tribe. Their 
boundary to the north with the Miankhels of Musazai has always been a 
source of trouble. The history of this quarrel is detailed at length by 
Sir H. Edwardes, and all I need add is, that the summary award then 

Eassed by Sir H. Edwardes by no means disposed of the case, which 
as only been brought to a termination during the course of this Settle- 
ment. In pre*annexation days the Musazais and the Babars were 
always fighting. The Babars generally had the best of it during the 
hot weather, wnen they would turn all the Ealapani from the Chandwan 
zam on to their own lands ; but when the Miankhel Pawindahs returned 
in the cold weather, the tables were turned, and the Babars would with 
difiiculty hold their own. The division of the water still gives rise to 
occasional disputes, but these are brought into Court, and, though there 
is still much ill-feeling between the tribes, there is very rarely any 
breach of the peace. 

316. The Babars are very democratic, and exceedingly jealous 
Democratic character of of any member of the tribe trying to exercise 

the tribe. authority over them. There are one or two 

lambardars to each section, but these as a rule have little influence. 
There has never been any .recognised Chief, nor is there at present any 
man of leading position in tne tribe. The old Akhoondzada, Gul 
Mahomed, held during his life a very prominent position, but he has lately 
died, and no one of his family is at present fitted to take his place. 

317. The population of the Babar circle by the census of 1854 
Population of the B4bar amounted to 7,135. Deducting 1,139 Pawin- 

^"^try- dabs, 5,996 remains as the number of the resi- 

dent population. The census of 1868 gives 7,290 including Pawindahs. 
The Settlementcensusof 1877 gives the numbers ofthe resident population 
at 6,399, an increase of 6 per cent, on the census of 1854. Of this popu- 
lation about a fourth are Path&ns, mostly Babars, with a good number of 
Bhiranies and Ushteranas. The detail of population is as follows : — 

Pathans ••• ••• •»• 1,612 

Biluches ••• ••• ••• 1,000 

tiatiS ••• ••• •«• 2#,Ut)«9 

Saiads, &c., ••• ••• ' ••• 128 

Miscellaneous Mahomedans ••« ••• 1,074 

Hindus ..^ ••• - ••• 546 • 

Total .•• 6,399 



167 

816. In most part of the Daman proprietary rigl)ts in tbd 
Righto in land and water Kalapani are attacned to the ownership of 
separately held. certain binds — both land and water being owned 

on the same shares and transferred together. This is the custom in 
Draban and Zarkanni and to a certain extent in Musazai. In all these, 
though the barani lands may be held on a different set of shares, yet 
the water lands aro held on the same shares as the Kalap&ni, the two 
forming a single property. Among the Babars, however, proprietary 
rights in land and water are entirely separate. The water is held 
independently of the land, and on quite a aifierent set of shares, and a 
man may be an extensive water proprietor without owing an acre. 

319. The Babar tribe is divided into two main divisions — Mahsands 
MaindiFisionsofthetaihe. and Ghorakhels. The Mahsands are divided 
Share in the water. into four sections, and the Ghorakhels into eight 

sections, which, in accordance with the water division, are spoken of as 
bulies and nimakkas or half bultes. The Mahsands and Ghorakhels each 
get a half share in the Chandw&n Kalapani* This the Mahsands divide 
equally between their four bulies and the Ghorakhels between their eight 
nimakkas. For irrigation purposes the Ghorakhel nimakkas are grouped 
together by twos, so as to form bulies of the same size as those of the 
Mahsands. This association is not permanent, and now and again the 
nimakkas change partners. Eight equal bulies are thus formed, each of 
^which takes its water in a separate stream. Inside the bulies and 
nimakkas, the account is kept in rupees, annas and tats, but the value of 
these shares varies in each buU as tne water is divided on a larger or 
smaller number of rupees. 

820. The lands of the tribe are lield by the same bulies and 
Proprietary righto in the nimakkas as the water, but not on the same 
land. symmetrical shares. Rights in the land are 

based on an old khula vesh (division by heads). The whole Babar 
tH>untry is now held on Rs. 1,271 shares or khulas. The number of 
hilas held by the different bulies and nimakkas varies considerably, and 
in no way corresponds with the shares that they hold in the waten 
The land proprietors are grouped into gundies consisting of two or three 
families, generally closely related. In each buli and nimakka there 
are several gundies. The number of khulas in a gundi varies greatly. The 
Babar lands have all been partitioned. Each buli now holds its lands 
separately, scattered about in large lots all over the country. Some of 
these lots have been subdivided among the sub-sections or gundies, others 
are held in common. As a rule the same proprietary shares run 
through all the lots owned by a gundi ; but occasionally the uniformity 
has been broken by exchanges made by the proprietors with a view to 
^consolidating their property. 

321. Bights in water have been transferred to a much greater 

extent than rights in land. Much of the water 
t^'K**R]gK^e«i: "nowownedby Hindua and others, ao that 
•d by the water proprietors, the water and land mterests are to some extent 

antagonistic. The water proprietors, thougl^ 



168 

fawning no lands therrselveB, have the right of laying on their Kalnpani 
to any of the Babar lands, so long as these are not actually cultivated at 
the time. The water proprietors of one buli may in this way cultivate 
the lands of another buli^ and their rights are in no way restricted by 
the partition of the country between the land proprietors. The whole 
of the Babar lands to the Dera border are subject to Uiis servitude. 
The proprietors of the lands selected for Kalapani cultivation have no 
power to object, nor do they get any share of the produce by way of 
rent. So long as the land remains under Kalapani cultivation, the 
rights of the land proprietors remain in abeyance. Each water buli 
selects what lands it pleases for cultivation each year. This cultivation, 
which is all of the tatid description, is carried on for the most part with- 
in the boundaries of mauzahs Chandwan and £ot Musa, but is sometimes 
taken as far as Jandi. Much of this tract is bare daggavj which is 
seldom or never cultivated vichobi fashion ; but the Kalapani cultivation 
is also carried on in lathed lands. The necessity for fallows comiiels 
the water proprietors to shift about the cultivation to fresh lands, so 
that the same plot is seldom occupied oftener than once in three or four 
years. The cultivation carried on by the water proprietors themselves 
is all of the tand description, even though the land taken up may happen 
to be IcUhedy but they often dispose of their surplus water to the owners 
of bands for vkliobi cultivation, on condition of getting a share of the 
cror. This share is generally a third. The system of irrigation in 
sucn cases is similar to that in the Jatatar circle of the Tank tahsil, 
the bands being filled up with water two or three times during the course 
of the season. Kalapani is sometimes applied in the same way to the 
growing crops in bands, which may have been irrigated in the first 
instanq^e witn torrent water. In this case, too, the Kalapani proprietors 
take a third share of the crop. 

322. The Babars like the Miankhels or Gundapurs seldem culti- 
Pontion of lathbands and vate with their own hands. They exercise, 
tenants. however, a much closer control over their ten- 

ants than the Miankhels or Gundapurs. The cultivators for the Kala- 
pani lands are engaged for each season. After deducting the mahsul 
and cesses, the proprietor takes three-fourths, and the cultivator one- 
fourth of the balance. The proprietor supplies seed, the cultivator oxen. 
For vichobi lands the proprietor and cultivator supply the seed on equal 
shares, and divide the rifikam half and half. Owing to the constant 
interference of the proprietors, the lathbands of the Babar country have 
never acquired rights of occupancy in their holdings. The proprietors 
oust them at will on the slightest provocation. For the future the Tenant 
Act will perhaps give an ousted lathband a claim to compensation for 
improvement**, but no such right has hitherto been enjoyed by this class. 
The B&bar lathbands, in accordance with the existing custom, have all 
been recorded as tenants-at-will, even in cases where they could prove 
long continuous possession. The only occupancy tenants are one or 
two men of a class known as Mazdurikhors, whom I will now 
describor 



169 

323. AUhongli the Bibar proprietors exercise a good deal of 
Mazdurikhort, Origin of direct control over their tenants, still the fact 
the tenare. that they all reside in the central town of 

Chandw&n has led them to make over the management of the outlying 
villages from time to time to some leading man of the tribe, who, ia 
consideration of his services, is allowed a share of the rent, generally a 
fourth. This individual, known as the mazdurikhor, (or eater of service 
allowance,) is supposed to superintend the construction of the dams, by 
which the village is irrigated, and to look after its interests generally. 
Unlike the niawadars of the Gnndapur country, he has not, as a rule, any 
direct control over the cultivators, the proprietors reserving to them- 
selves ihd riorht of oustinor or locatinor tenants on their different holdinofs. 
In the pre-annexation days mazdarikhors were often put in to gaard a 
village on an exposed frontier, the mazduri being an allowance for 
military service. Mazduri leases were invariaolj' in writing and for 
Mazdarikhora have gen- a term of years, on the expiry of which the 
efally loat their rights. ri orhts of the mazdurikhors ceased altoofether. 

In spite of this, in a great number of cases, they have attempted, by con- 
cealing their title deeds, to establish a claim to a permanent status. 
These cases, some of which were decide J in the early years of British rulQ 
have all, with one or two special exceptions, gone ao^ainst them, and the 
bulk of the mazdurikhors have already bjon ousted by the tribe. Ia 
Bemaining masdurikhorg. two or three cases, whore by tribal custom the 

mazdurikhors coald have been ousted, they* 
have now been recorded as possessing a riglit of occupancy in accorcf- 
ance with administrative orders passed at the commencement of 
British rule, which it seemed unadvisable, after the lapse of more than 20 
years, to set aside. Where a mazdurikhor has been considered entitled 
to permanent rights, he has been recorded as co-proprietor to the ex- 
tent of his mazduri share. By a judicial order of the Settlement Com- 
missioner's, in a case between the lambardars of Kot Jagga and the Babar 
tribe, it was decided that when a mazdurikhor is shown as co-proprietor, 
either party may claim partition. Till such partitian, they will be 
jointly responsible for the revenue on their shares. 

The lands south of the Gajistan along the Ushtarana border, except 
Lands on the Ushtarana » portion of mauzah Mat, are held on a different 
border peculiarly circum- tenure from the rest of the Babar lands. These 
Btanced. vfovQ never partitioned among the Babar buliesy 

and owing to their dangerous situation, no inalikana was ever taken by 
the tribe from the mazdurikhors, by whom they wore held. The lattei; 
have now been in full ]rossession since a period antecedent to British 
rale, during Which they have paid nothing to the tribe. They were 
in consequence considered entitled to the status of full proprietors^ and 
have been so entered in the Settlement records. 

The result of these arrangements is, that in the southern portion of 
Eesults of the arrange manzahs Kot Jagga, Gurah Mamrez and Jilai 
mcntB made. Budha Shah, the mazdurikhors are full pro- 

prietors. In the northern part of the two first they are oo-proprietors. 



170 

In Garah Nahr the mazdnrlkborSy who are of the Ushtarana tribe^ have 
been put in as occupancy tenants. These Ushtaranas have themselves 
saperintended the coltivation in this village^ and their position was 
altogether exceptional. 

824. The whole B&bar country is held in jagir by the Naw&b of 

Babar circle held in jagir Bera, to whom it was fi^ranted by the Sikhs on 

by the Naw&b of Dera. the annexation of the Dera Ismail Khan pro* 

vince in 1836. 

The Nawab took his revenue in kind till the present Settlement. 
Items oompofiiDg the re- The mahaid share was a fifth on Kalapani pro- 
venue, duce, and from a sixth to a tenth on vichobi pro- 
duce. The Nawab also took iikk at the rate of Be. 1-6-0 per path of 
96 mauna and Bs. 1,300 nazarana. The nazarana was paid partly by 
the proprietors, and the remainder was raised by a cess on shops and 
trades. The right to take the latter has now been transferred along 
with the mdhsul to the Babar proprietors^ who will for the future pay the 
Naw^b a fixed cash assessment. 

325. The average revenue of all sorts realised by the Nawab for 
The Naw4b's average real- the ten years from 1862 to 1871, amounted to 

iflations. Bs. 15,983, for the 4^ years from kharif 1871 

to kharif 1875 inclusive, the average realisations were Bs. 15,280, but 
these figures include the watchman's cess, which for the latter period 
averaged Bs. 569. The actual revenue realised by the Nawab may be 
put at about Bs. 15,000. Calculated on the basis of the Nawib's mah- 
mdy the whole produce of the Babar country would on an average be 
worth Bs. 82,211. These figures appear to me too low ; looking to the 
area and resources of the tract, I have estimated the value of the average 
Bstimate of gross pro- gross produce at Bs. 1,09,608, of this Bs. 28,000, 
dace. or about a fourth, is on account of Kalapani cul- 

tivation, and the remaining three-ifourths shows the rodkoi and barani 
produce. Fart of the rodkoi cultivation, which is assisted with Kalapani 
irrigation, is tolerably certain, but in the rest of the tract, both the area 
under cultivation and the yield are liable to extreme fluctuations. 

Taking light rates, to allow for the uncertainty of the yield on 

«_ n . v*«:«^ rodkoi and barani lands, the produce jama for 
Produce ,«ma obtamed. ^^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^ ^g ^^^ ^^^ f.^ more than the 

NawaVs average realisations, but the mahsul rates are on the whole 
much lighter here than elsewhere, while, owing to the large size of the 
pathy the income from tikk is very small. 

326. The actual assessment of this circle is a good deal below the 
Present and former assess- produce jama, though there is still a large 

ments compared. increase ou the former assessment. 

In 1848 A.D. Sir H. Edwardes estimated the Naw&b of Dora's 
income from the Chandwan jagir at Bs. 10,000. In 1855, on the death 
of Nawab Sher Mahomed Khan, the Chandwan ilaqua was assessed by 
Lieutenant Busk at Bs. 8^500. It was continued in jagir at this 



171 

valuation to the preseat Nawab. I have shown that the Nawdb^a averaga 
realioations daring the last fonrteen or fifteen years have been about 
Rs. 15,000. The jagir has now been assessed at Bs. 12^045, which 
with cesses is equal to a little more than a seventh of the gross produce. 
This assessment is light, but not too light considering the scanty num- 
bers of the population and the precarious nature of the greater part of 
the oultivation. Besides this, a set of landlords, living at Chandw&n, 
and owning small shares in numerous blocks of lands scattered over so 
large a tract of country, cannot exercise the same supervision or 
realise the same profits as where land is in possession of resident pro- 
prietorsy who cultivate their own holdings. Light as the assessment 
18, the Babars have ever since the announcement of jamas 
been negotiating with the Nawab for a continuance of his baiai. Thiy 
have been standing out, however, for some reductions in the old ratas, 
to which the Naw&b will not agree, and in consequence the two have not 
yet come to terms. 

327. Inams to some of the best men of the Babar tribe, to the 

Inams to men of the extent of Bs. 600, have been proposed at this 

^^* Settlement, but sanction has not yet been 

received. These proposals include an inam of Bs. 200 to the son of the 

old Akhundzada. 



328. The Ushtaranas are a Pathan triba allied to the Gundapurs. 

General account of the Till about a cantury ago they ware all pastoral. 
Ushtarana tribe. Owing however to a quarrel with the Musakhels, 

their annual migrations were interfered with, and they were reduced to 
betake themselves to tillage for subsistence. The Ushtaranas, unlike 
the Miankhels and Babars, own a large tract of hill country adjoining 
their lands in the plains. Here many of them still live as shepherds. 
Most of the Ushtaranas live in villages beyond the border just inside 
the Khui Wuch and Khui Pewar Passes. From these they cultivate 
the lands immediately under the hills. I estimate the total numbers 
of the tribe at about 5,000 souls, and these, where every man of 

Their nnmbera. Charao- suitable age carries arms, can furnish perhaps 
ter of the tribe. a thousand fiorhting men ; about a fourth 

of the tribe live in the plains. Their head-quarters are at Kirri, 
Shamozai and Mangal, where they form the bulk of the population, 
but a few Ushtaranas are to be found in most of the plain villages 
of the Ushtarana country, as well as in Dr&ban, Ohandw&n, Vahoa and 
other border towns. The proportion of Ushtaranas that cultivate with 
their own hands is much larger than that of Miankhels or B&bars. 
They are a five manly race, and a good many serve in our army and 
polioe. They are a well behaved tribe, and have never given any trouble 
to the British Government. A considerable body of Ushtaranas served 
with credit ander Sir H. Edwardes through the Multan campaign. A 



172 

/ew of the Ushtaranas trade to Khorassn, They join the Miankhel a'ncl 

Nasar caravans. The number of traders is be- 

Their trade. tween thirty and forty, and the value of their 

trade either way is estimated at about a lac or a lac and a quarter of 

rupees, 

329. The Ushtaranas used to have a bitter feud with the Kasr&nies, 

Feud with the Kas- who occupy the country immediately to their 

rtnics. south. Their constant fights are described 

by Sir H. Edwardes in his ** Year on the Frontier." The quarrel has now 

practically died out. The two tribes have lonor been at peace, and their 

boundaries, which were the source of so much bitter feeling in 1847, 

have now been surveyed and settled without any dispute. The great 

ti« ;i -^i, 41, -D AX enemies of the Ushtaranas are at present the 
Feud "^^ath the Bozddrs. t» i* t. i- • xi. r-n i. i_« j ci t_ 

Bozdars, who live in the hills behmd Sanghar. 

The Bozddrs are great thieves, and their plundering propensities find 
vent in raids on the Ushtaranas, which are answered by counter raids 
against the Bozdars, In the course of these quarrels, there is often a 
good deal of blood letting. The Ushtaranas are good swordsmen and 
marksmen, and though less numerous, would be quite a match for the 
Bozdars, if the whole tribe cbuld act together ; but many of them now 
live in British territory, and the constant aim of our officers is to prevent 
them as our subjects from taking part in the fights that go on beyond 
the border. The Hill Ushtaranas have therefore to meet the Bozdara 
alone, and are, in consequence, to some extent at a disadvantage. The 
Character of the Ushta- hiU country of the Ushtaranas consists of bare 
rana country. stoney hills and arid valleys lying to the east 

of the main Suliman range. The crest of the range is neld by the 
Musakhels and Zmarries, and the Ushtaranas are thus restricted to the 
Their plain lands outer hills. Their plain country is a oompaot 

blocfe of about thirteen miles by ten. It 

resembles in character the southern portion of the Babar country. The hill 

streams, though furnishi ig a little spring water for drinking purposes 

inside the Passes, dry up before reaching the plains, and thei*e is in 

consequence no Kalapani cultivation. The lands immediately under the 

hills are in places thickly scattered over with ber and tJuiggal trees, 

but the country in general is quite bare of vegetation, and forms one of 

the most desolate portions of the Daman. The hill torrents by which 

. it is irrigated are of small size, and the flow 

"^* ^^*^' from them is fitful and uncertain, and, with the- 

exception of the Rammak, they are all in ordinary seasons exhausted 

before leaving the Ushtaraua country. The cultivation is all poor 

harani and rodkai. Wheat and cotton are but little grown. The princi-^* 

^ pal crop is bajra. The people get their drinking^ 

water from hacha tanks, or from shallow pits 

aank in the bed of the Rammak nallah. The principal villages are 

j,^^j^ Kirri Shamuzai, where there is a bungalow^' 

and Qdrwali, where there is a small fort and< 
tpilitia posi> and a well of very undrinkable water* 



173 

330. The Ushtaranas originally divided their lands in largd blocks 

between their two main sections, the Ahmedzais 
Son of the land. and the Gaggalzais. These again snb-divided, 

and owing to subsequent transfers the old pat" 

tidan form of tenure has disappeared. The main features of the original 

partition, however, can still be traced ; for though the holdings of the 

sections are now to some extent mixed up, the bulk of the land is still 

, f held by the sections to which it was originally allotted. The tenure is 

' now pureM^aciflca, each proprietor owning his own fields in severalty, ^-<^«^ 



lese, owing to the original manner of partition, are scattered all ' '^' 
over the circle. ' //'* v. 



In the eastern villages the cultivation is entirely in the hands of 

tenants. Two-thirds of the cultivated lands'of 
^IVeatment of tenants. ^^^ ^j^^le is held in this way. The proprietors 

themselves cultivate the remaining third. Hired 
laborers are almost unknown. The Ushtaranas are very hard on their 
tenants, whom they are constantly changing. In addition to taking a 
high rent, they are fond of coshering and always billet themselves 
on their tenants at harvest time. Though the greater part of the culti- 
vated area has been lathed by these tenants, still none of them possess 
occupancy rights. They all hold at will. ITie average rent-rate is -^ of 
the gross produce. Of this iV& consists of the Government mahstU and 
cesses, the remainder going to the proprietors. 

831. The present population of the circle by the Settlement census 
•D 1 A- **t,«*-««* of 1877, is 2,350. I can obtain no returns 
PopnUixon of the tract. ^^^ ^^ Census of 1854. The returns for 1868 

give the population at 2,297. * This includes Pawindahs. There has 
probably been an increase since 1868 of from six to eight per cent. 

The following figures show the numbers of the diSerent tribes :-^ 



r ' »■ 



Fathans (nearly all Ushtaranas) 






976 


Biluches 






552 


cP ats ••• ••• ••• ••• 






392 


oneKns..* ••« .•• ••• 






21 


Misoellaneoas Mahomedans ... 






356 


Hindus ... ... 






53 



Total 2,350 

Nutkanies and Chattries predominate among the Biluches, who, as 
we get south, are beginning to outr-number the Jats. The proportion of 
Hindus is nnusoally small, and is to some extent a test of the poverty of 
the country. 

332. The Ushtaranas commenced to take possession of their plain 

Tri-*^^v.*jv**«:v« Tu • lands about a hundred and twenty years affo. in 

History of the tnbe. Their ji .• /»ai joi-i-Ti/r -r^r /. . » ' * 

BetUement in the DamAn. *"® "'"® ^^ Ahmed Shah. Mr. Elphmstone says 

that they conauered them from the Biluches of 
Daman, but though these may have had some sort of claim to the country 
as included within the original boundaries of their hods, still it seems 



174 

improbable tbat they actaally occupied it. The present Bilach inhabi- 
tants were brought in by a subsequent immigration, and when the 
TJshtaranas first came, the tract must have been almost entirely waste. 

The Ushtaranas at first held only the lands south of the Bammak 

nallah. The northern portion of iJheir present 
mi'St'C 1 BaSSS:' ^ ^""^ subsequently acquired after a war with 

the Babars, to whom it originally belonged. 
The village of Manual, which was founded by a B&bar, marks the limit 
of the old Babar had to the south. In the course of the war with the 
B&bars, the Ushtaranas marched to the Chandwdn zam, and turned off 
the Babar water. They entrenched themselves there behind breast- 
works of loose stones {sanaara), and when the Babars sallied but against 
tiiem, they were mown down by the fire of the Ushtarana marksmen. 
The Babars, who were nearly all on horseback, fled, and were pursued 
to Chandwan with a loss of 300 men, or, according to the Babar account, 
of 70 men. After this the Babars gave up to the Ushtaranas the 
country south of the Shirran nallahj which still forms the boundary 
between the two tribes. The Shirran and Gajistan issue from the same 
Pass. The Babars get the Gajistan, and the Ushtaranas the Shirran 
water. Neither tribe is allowed to interfere with the natural flow of the 
torrent at the mouth of the Pass. The lands won from the Babars were 
not included in the first division of the Ushtarana country. They were 
the subject of a separate and subsequent partition. 

333. The Ushtaranas were first independent, but about A.D. 1813, 

N&wab Mahomed Khan sent Diwan Manak 
^UBhtaranas under native Eai with a force against them. The Ushtaranas 

are defeated, and made to pay a tenth of their 
produce as tribute to the Nawab. The Diwan moreover plundered them 
thoroughly. Before this time there were many rich merchants among 
the Ushtaranas, but they were now reduced to utter poverty, from which 
they have never since entirely recovered. The Diw&n is said to have 
gained a lac and a half of loot. " May Diw&n M4nak Rai catch you " 
is still a common form of curse in these parts. The N&wab of Dera, and 
after them the Sikhs, professed to take a tenth of the Ushtarana produce, 
but the Ushtaranas were generally somewhat rebellious, and the Sikh 
K&rdar at Dera Fatteh Khan used, in consequence, to take what he could 
by violence and surprise, driving off their cattle &c. Sir H. Edwardes 
put the Sikh revenue at Rs. 3,000 on the outside, but the Sikhs had in 
addition a custom station at Gdrwall, which brought in twelve thousand 
rupees a year. The Ushtaranas submitted at once to Sir H. Edwardes, 

who fixed their revenue as before at a tenth of 
♦ ^""^f^I w fi.^/®* ®^ the produce, and this has been the share since 

tern of kham tansll. * i ^ i_ ii_ ' t> "x* i. i^ i i. 

taken by the British Government ; cesses nave 
been taken in addition. Unlike the arrangements in force in the Gunda- 
pur and Bhittanni kham tahsfl tracts, the Government here has actually 
taken the grain, selling it through its own officials. The average 

realisations for the last 22 years amount to &. 
rwaSas.^^^^"^"^* 2,182 ; of this about | are on account of the 

rabi and | on account of the kharif harrest* 



175 

There has on the whole been a decrease rather than an increase on the 
earlj years of English rule. Of late years, especially, cultivation has 
fallen off, owing to disputes as to certain dams on the Bammak naUah. 
A cash Settlement has now been substituted for kham tahsil. 

834. The average collections of Bs. 2,182 represent -^ of the gross 

produce, which at ^is rate would be Rs. 21.820. 

Gross produce estimate* The Government has, however, without doubt 

been cheated to some extent in the kham tahsQ. 
The estimate made at this Settlement of the average produce of the circle 
was Bs. 27,156, and taking the Government share as before at a 
tenth, the revenue assessed should have been Bs. 2,715. The Ushta- 
ranas, however, are now getting a cash assessment for the first time ; 
the yield of the tract is liable to violent fluctuations, and it has been 
thought desirable to leave a large margin for possible losses. The 

Bevenae assessed. revenue now assessed therefore is only Bs. 

1,940. Out of this the Government has been 

Fropoeedinams toChiefa ^sked to sanction inams of Bs. 500 each to the 
Chiefs Bamzan Khan and Fatteh Khan. This is a considerable increase 
on the allowances in cash and grain, which they have hitherto received, 
and the aggregate value of which is about Bs. 350. 

835. The Ushtarana country previous to the Settlement was shown 
8nb-diTiBlon of the Ush- i^ the jama bandi as a single mauzah, Gilrwali. 

tarana coantry into man- It has now been divided into twenty-one 
'^^ mauzahs, each consisting of a village site and 

the lands cultivated from it. Each proprietor owns lands in several 
different villages. A single pedigree table with an abstract khewat has, 
however, been prepared for the whole had^ from which the total holdings 
and revenue responsibility of each Ushtarana can be readily ascertained. 



336* The main portion of the Kasrani tribe resides in the Sanghar 
Main portion of Kasrtoi tahsil of the Dera Ghizi Khan district. Tibbi 
tribe settled in Sanghar. and several other villages occupied by 
Transfer of Tibbi. KasrAnies in the Dera Fatteh Khan ilaqua, 

were transferred to the Dera Ghazi Khan district in 1867, in order 
that the Tibbi chief, Kaura Khan, who had misbehaved in the matter of 
carrying off a Deputy Commissioner into the hills, might be brought 
under me direct control of the Kasrdni Tumandar. 

337. The Kasranies occupy all the hill country adjoining the 
Hill conntry of the ELas- British frontier from the north of Sanghar to 
rinies. the Ushtarana country. The Khetrans of Vahoa 

The Kasrinles of the o^« ^^^y little land in the adjoining hills and 
Deim Ismail Khan district the passes leading into the Khetran country are 
©ocnpy the DaolatwaU and all held by Kasranies. The portion of the tribe 
Jhangra hadi. . ^^^ located in the Dera Ismail Khan district 

occupies the country south of the Ushtarana country forming tbo^ 
Daalatwala and Jhangra hods. 



176 

The principal place in the tract is Daulatwala, a village of abont 

Town of Daulatwala ^^^ inhabitants, With the remains of a small 

fort, inere used to be a small militia post 
here, but this is now located nearer the hills. Thouorh the central place 
in the Kasrani country Daulatwala itself is not a Kasranl town. No- 
thing is known of its origin. About 80 years ago a family of Kulachi 
Biluches fled from Dera Fatteh Khan and settled here, where they 
became the leading people. They afterwards got a grant of the tract in 
jagir from the Nawab of Dera. Latterly Hot Khan was the head of the 

JUaliJ^na taken by Hot family. He it was who commenced to colonise 
Khaa Kolaohi from the the outlying lands with Kasranies. The latter 
KasrAnies. established hamlets of their own, and soon be- 

came too strong for Hot Khan, whose control over them was nil. Hot 
Khan took pai-path malikana from these Kasrani sq.uatters, but in fear 
pf losing it altogether his family afterwards in A.D. 1855 agreed to 
ahare it with Karimdad, the KasrAni chief, who was thus won over to 
their side. This has been continued to the Kulachies and to Karimdad 
: Population of the tract at the present Settlement as a taluqdari haq» 
and tenures, No malikatia is taken in Daulatwala itself, tha 

Eopulation of which is mixed, consisting of Jats and Makkalwad.- 
iluches, &c., but no Kasranies. The Kasranies are found only in the 
outlying hamlets, of which thoy form th(3 entire population. Those have 
tiow been formed into separate raauzahs. In the Jhangra had the 
Kasranies hold on a purely squatting tenure. They are scattered 
about in a multitude of petty hamlets. The family of Hot Khan has 
never exercised any rights over the Jhangra portion of the Kasrani 
Number of KnarAnies in tract. The total number of Kasranies settled in 
this district. the Daulatwala and Jhangra hads is about 

• BeFenue-arrangements. 2,500. The revenue of Daulatwala has hitherto 
been taken in kin 1, the Government share being generally a fourth. In 
Jhangra the lease has been held by the Kasrani lambardars. Both Iwds 
have now been settled with the proprietors khataunixoar. The Kasrani 
country resembles in its aspect that of the Ushtarana circle, and is if any 
thinor still more arid. It is irrigated from the Kaura 7iallah. Excludinor the 

J . ,. non-Kasrani village of Daulatwala, the jama 

• * now assessed on the rest of the tract is Rs, 
Jama of tract, g^^jQ This is nearly the same as the Ushta- 
Character of the triho. ^ana jama, though the tract is not half the size 

of the Ushtarana country, being only some sixty square miles. The 
Kasranies, however, have always been an insubordinate and mischievous' 
tribe, and have no claim to the very light assessment enjoyed by the 
Ushtaranas. At the first Summary Settlement they made away with a 
Hindu surveyor, who had been sent to estimate their cultivated area, and. 
when the brother of their chief Yusuf Khan was imprisoned, they proceed- 
ed to plunder in revenge the town of Dera Fatteh Khan.* This led to ati 
expedition against them, when Major Nioholson burned l^eir town of Batel. 

* The KaprAnies, who were 600 in number, surprised Dera Fatteh Khan by a night 

.march and partially plundered it. They-were pursued by a party of Punjab cavalry 

mustering 45 sabres and by a police officer with son^e 20 followers, and eventually tw>fe. 

up a strong position behind an embankment, Then the cavalry charged them, but were 

repelled with the loss of several men. 



177 

!Phe condact of the fibbi Easr&nies in 1867, to which I have already 
alladed, shows that they still retain their old character. It is fair, how^ 
ever, to mention that during the present Settlement the Danlatwala and 
Jhangra Kasranies have ^ven no trouble whatever, and the jama asses- 
sed on them, thoagh relatively heavier than that pat Oil the tjshtaranas^ 
in still nndonbtedly light 

d3d. ^arimdad, the son of the old rebel Yosuf £han, is now 
tnams to leading Eas* the headman of the Danlatwala Kasranies^ 
tioiM, He is employed in the frontier militia, and has 

been recommended for an inam of Bs. 50. The headmen of the 
Jhangra Kasrinies have been recommended for inams aggregating 
Rs. 150- -« — ^— 

339. l?he Khetrins are by origin a Pathan tribe> but resemble the 
fiilaches* in manners and appearance, l^hey are said to have settled 
in these parts about 300 years ago, but they gave shelter to some crimi-- 

HistoTf of the tribe. ^^^^ ^^ return for which the Emperor Akbat 

sent a force against them. Many of the 
Khetrans were slain, and the tribe was in a great measure broken np^ 
The maiority migrated to the hill country west of Dera Ghazi Khan^ 
where they still occupy the B&rkh&n and other valleys. The Yahoa 
KhetrilnB are the descendants of those who remained in the Damin* 

Their posseasionB in this They occupy the country round Vahoa from 
^*^^®*' Danlatwala to the Dera Ghazi Khan border* 

They own very little land inside the hills, and the adjoining passes 
are held by the Kasrdnies with whom the Khetrans have been long at 
feud, though the two tribes are restrained by fear of the British 
Government from open war. 

340. The Vahoa Khetrans number 1,361 souls. They are most 
Their nambers. Irriga- numerous in Vahoa and Litra, but there are 

tion and tenures. also many Khetrans in Kotani and Jalluwali* 

They get the Kalap&ni supply from the Vahoa zam^ and torrent irriga-* 
tion from the Vahoa, Kaura, Litra and one or two smaller streams* 
Their lands are generally divided into large blocks held by numerous 
sharers, each proprietor holding shares in many such blocks scattered 
about in different villages. In Litra, however, the lands are subdivided, 
and the holding of each proprietor is generally distinct. In Litra the 
Khetrans form the bulk of the cultivating population. In the other 
villages they form a proprietary class, the actual cultivation being mostly 
in the hands of tenants of other tribes. 

341. The Vohoa Kalapani is divided into four streams called 

Riffhts in the Kalapani *^^^" Two-thirds of the Water goes to Vahoa, 

^^' and one-third to mauzah Kohr. The Vahoa 
water is divided equally between kelis Bangala and Makrihad ; the Kohr 
water is divided between kelia Kohr and Kotdni. The proprietors of 
each keh divide the lands to be cultivated year by year on their shares. 
Large blocks of land are attached to each keh, and hold on the same 
shares as the water, ^bnt the proprietors of a keh do not necessarily 

* Among other points of resemblance the names of the Khetran sections all end in 
the Gommon Biloch teiminalion of am, vit., Ikwam, ItUm, &c, 



178 

cnltivate their own lands. The keh Kot&ni proprietors generally cnltivate 
in Vahoa, and the Bengdla proprietors habitnallj cultivate the lands of 
Makrihad. The Vahoa Khetrans are of but little political importance. 

Kaura Khan the KhetrAn Kaura Khan is the present Chief. He gets an 
Chief. allowance of Rs. 600* a year from Government, 

Inama to headmen. ^^jj^h it has been proposed to raise to Es. 700. 

Inams aggregating Rs. 150 have been recommended for other leading 
men of t£e tribe. 



342. The Bldches are a Pathan ti-ibe allied to the Lodies, and are 
Account of the Bliiches supposed to have been among the earliest settlers 

and their proprietary in the Dam&n. Their head quarters are at 
'*8^*®- Panniala, where nearly the whole tribe resides, 

and there is a considerable settlement of them at Saiddwali. The lower 
portion of the Largi valley, and all the southern and western portions of 
ihe Fannr&la circle belong to the Bldches, whose had extends as far as the 
Gundapdr border. The lands of Panniala itself and of Saidiiwali are 
held in severalty by individuals, mostly men of the tribe, who themselves 
cultivate. These also own the date groves round Panniala and the 
Ealapani from the Largi stream. The more remote lands in the Largi 
valley are occupied by Marwat squatters, whose villages have now been 
formed into separate mauzahs, and who have been recognised as inferior 

Sroprietors. They will in future pay 25 per cent, malikana to the 
lldch proprietors in addition to revenue. The outlying portions of the 
had to the west and south are similarly held as separate mauzahs by 
Marwats and Jats, who pay the Bldch proprietors ten per cent. malikan<u 
These outlying villages are either held unatvided on shares by the whole 
tribe or else by one or other of the two main sections of the tribe, knawn 
respectively as the Dallats and the Mallats. 

343. The had consists of 10 villages with an area of 1,20,973 
Area and other particu- acres or 189 square miles. The total malikana 

Urs. on the outlying villages aggregates Rs. 862. 

No malikana is levied in Panniala itself, the jama of which makes up 
I of that of the whole Iwd. The Bldches are altogether 1,750 in num- 
ber, and form about a third of the ^hole population of the tract. 

• 344. The tribes of the Khasor Range are the Khasors, the Umer- 

O ' in f these tribes khels and Mallikhols. Their origin is uncer- 

"^^ ° ' tain ; thoy probably came in with the Lodi tribes, 

but are not considered to be pure Pathans. Among these, the Khasor 

Th Khasors ^'^^^^ takes the lead. This tribe has for the last 

20 years been at feud with the Bldches of 

* Sultan Mahomed, father of Eaura Khan, URed to get Ks. 1,200. On bis death 
Government India, Financial Department, Notincation No. 3361 of 7th September 1871, 
sanctioned a birat allowaace of Bs. 600 to Kaura Khan, i. er., half the former allowance. 



179 

Panniala and with the Marwats for the proprietorship of the Lar^ valley. 
While the Bliiches and Khasors were fighting in the Courts, the Marwats 
took cnltivating possession, and now hold nearly the whole valley in 
adna malkiyat. The village of Rahinanikhol, in the centre of the valley, 
is occnpied by a section of the Khjisors opposed to the main body of 
the tribe. The Khasors have been awarded the right to malikana in 
this village and also in 8hcra, which is occupied mainly by Marwats. 
Latterly the Kbasors have commenced cultivating in the Largi valley, 
but the Imlk of their cultivated lands are in the Kachi, or inside the hills. 
The Khasors number 895 souls. The area of their Iiad is 27,199 acres. 
Rights in the hill lands are based on cultivating possession. The Kachi 
lands are owned on tribal shares, which have been recognised in a 
former partition case. The proprietors of the different patties at present 
take no malikana from the cultivating butirnars ; but are entitled, when 
they choose, to exercise the right to the control over waste lands and 
new alluvion* 

345. The Umerkhels and Mallikhels are weaker tribes, who live 
The Umerkhels and to the north of the Khasors. They own a 
Kallikhels. portion of the Kachi and the adjoining section 

of the hills. They have a little land in this Largi valley, but of little 
value. The Umerkhels number 485 souls. The Mallikhels number 
430 souls. They hold their lands on a tenure similar to that of the 
Khasors. 



346. The total number of Marwats residing in the Dera Ismail 
Numbers of the Marwats. Khan district is about 5,000; of these some 
Their tenures. 2,000 live in the Pannidla circle, 1,000 in the 

Kandi circle, and the remainder in Mulazai. The Panni&la and Kundi 
Marwats generally hold their lands in adna malkiyaty subject to the pay- 
ment of malikana to the Bliiches and Kundies. Their rights have been 
acquired by taking cultivating possession. There is no trace of tribal 
shares, or of the vesh system common in Marwat. The tenure is pure 
hhyadiara. At the same time, in partitioning blocks of land for culti- 
yation, they have often followed the Marwat practice of dividing them 
into long strips sometimes as much as half a mile long and not above 
a few yards broad. ^ 

INDEPENDENT TRIBES BEYOND THE BORDER. 

347. In a general account of the district, a brief notice of the 
. Independent tribes along independent tribes along our border will not be 
the border. out of place. The Bhittannies, who can hardly 
be considered an independent tribe, have been already described. The 
Mabsnd Waziries occupy the higher ranges behind the Bhittanni country 
down to the Gdmal Pass. The Shiranies ooctipy the hills behind 
Draban and Ohandwan; including the Takht Sulimin. Below these ti^o 



180 

low bills are held by the Ushtaranas and the hig'ber ranges behind bjr 
ihe Musakbels. South of the Ushtaranas to the borders of the Derm 
Ghazi Khan district, the hills are held by Kasrani Biluches. 

348. The Mahsud Wa^iries are a powerful tribe, who occapy the 
The MahsAd Waziriea. higher hills drained by the Tank zam. They 

are shut oflF from British territory by the country 
Situation of tbelr country, ^f the hiU Bhittannies, and it is only at the 

extreme end of the Gumal valley by the TJrman Pass that their country 
abuts directly on our border. The main road into their country is 
through the Tank Pass by Jandola. The Waziri country is bounded on 
the south by the Gdmal stream, beyond which is a no man's land sepa- 

Eelations with the tiibe. rating them from the Shiranies. During the 

rule of the Multani Khans in Tank, the Waziries 

Previoua to annexation. ^^jje^ Aladad Khan, son of the great Sarwar, 
raided incessantly on the border villages of that ilaqua, and went so far 

After annexation. *® ^ plunder and burn the town of Tank itself* 

Nawib Shah Niwiz Khan When Shah Niwaz Khan was appointed io the 
of T4nk. Hie management Government, these raids ceased. He was him- 
of the Waziriee. ^^f ^^ ^^ ^f ^ ^^^^iri mother, and had married 

a "Waziri wife. He was in consequence on good terms with the Waziries, 
and up to the time when he lost the Mushaksa of Tank, the Waziries seem 
to have kept very quiet, and given no trouble to the British authorities^ 
though they were in the habit of plundering Pawind^h caravans inside 
the passes. In those days the Waziri border was very weakly guarded ; 
the posts of the Punjab frontier force extended up to Dabra on one side, 
and a detachment of police held Amakhel. Between these posts there 
were no troops at all. After Major Nicholson's Settlement of Tank in 
1853-54, our officers commenced to take a more active part in the 

Misconduct of the Wazir- management of the Tank border, but our reIa-> 
ies* tions with the Waziries now ceased to be so 

satisfactory, and gradually grew worse and worse. In spite of th^ 
strengthening of our outposts, raids attended with robbery and murder 
were of constant occurrence, and on one or two occasions small detach-t 
ments of police were cut ofF and destroyed. At last in March 1861, 
during the absence of Nawab Shah Nawaz Khan at a Darb&r at Sialkot, 
4,000 Waziries marched boldly down into the plain, with the intention 
of sacking the town of T^nk. They were met bv some 150 men of the 
5th Punjab Cavalry, employed in garrisoning the outposts and a few 
levies. The Waziries were routed, and some 300 of them were killed. 
This offence filled up the measure of their iniquities, and a month later 

lEanignraxn expedition, General Chamberlain marched into their hills 
A. D. 1861. up the Tank zam Pass with a force of some 

5,000 men. After forcing their way into the heart of the Waziri eoun-i 
try to l^aniguram and Makin, and burning the latter place, the troopa. 
being straitened for supplies, returned to Bannu. There was some hard 
fighting in the course of the expedition ; but the Waziries, though 

pirtnrUnce. continued, janq^whed, refuBed to the end to inbmit. After 

this, in spite of various partial attempts at a 
Settlement, petty raids were c;imed m i^lo»g the Wder much in the old 



181 

way. Some of the Waziri sections were admitted to peace, and allowed 
to trade within onr border, while others were blockaded, and any 
offences committed were always of course put down to the latter. In 
1869 and 1870, the posts of Gimi and Kot Khirgi were established 
inside the Passes, the better to intercept stolen cattle on its way into the 
hills. All this time our relations with the Waziries had been carried 
Change of system on the on through the Nawdb of Tdnk. The continued 
T4nk border. Pacification unsatisfactory state of the border led in 1873 to 
of the tribe, j^jj alteration in the arrangements for the 

management of the tahsil. The police were brought under the imme- 
diate control of the Deputy Commissioner, who now commenced to deal 
directly with the Waziries. Hitherto the Bhittannies, though nominally 
our subjects, had never attempted to check Waziri raids. On the contrary, 
hardly a raid occurred without information and general assistance being 
afforded to the robbers by men of the Bhittanni tribe. The Bhittannies, 
however, were now, in the course of a year or two, induced to undertake 
the responsibility of guarding the passes, and since then it has been 
exceedingly difRcult for the Waziries to carry away cattle into the hills. 
Direct intercourse with British officers has gradually led to the pacifica- 
tion of the tribe ; the Waziries see that the Government is inclined to be 
fHendly, while on the other hand they now find it more profitable to 
trade iinan to rob. In spite of one or two blockades enforced with a 
view to establishing the principle of joint tribal responsibility, raids and 
offences of all sorts have during the last two or three years become ex- 
oeedingly rare. On the whole our relations with the Mahsuds are 
now as friendly as with any of the other Pathan tribes on our border, 
and it would take very little, if the Government wished it, to open up 
their country to English explorers. Attempts ai% now being made to 
put a stop to the old Waziri practice of plundering the Pawindah cara- 
vans passing through the Qwaleyri (or Gumal) Pass, but it is unlikely 
that Uiis route will ever be safe till some satisfactory arrangement is 
come to with the Kabul Qovemment on the other side of the Passes, 

849. The Mahsuds have no Chiefs or recognised headmen. They 

Chiw^cter of tbe Waziries. f^e exceedingly democratic in their ways. If 

ten men are wanted to do a bit of busmess, a 
hundred will come. They like to assert their equality. The Mahstida 
used to trade only to Tank, but their trading parties (bahir'a) are now 
a common sight m the baaars of Dera. They bring down iron, fir-poles 
for roofing, smaller poles for the sides of charpoys, and matting made 
of the dwarf palm. They take in exchange grain, the production of 
which in their own country is insufficient, and cloth and other manufao^ 
tured goods. The oultivation of potatoes has lately been introduced 
among the Mahstlds by Major Macaulay, and is likely to prove very 
lucrative when ouce fairly established. 

350. The Pawindahs enter this district by the Qwaleyri Pass that 

xmoccnpied tract between debouches at Gumal, and by the less frequented 

the Waziri and Shir^ni zam Pass that debouches on Zirkanni. The 

^^^^^' country between these routes is a no man's 

land. The Waziries, and also the Mianies and Ghorazais from our own 



182 

Country^ grazo daring the summer on the hills west of the Salirain 
range. Daring the cold weather the N&sars with their flocks oecnpy 
the skirts of the hills along oar border, and a few of their encampments 
may be foand in the valleys to the east of the main range. There are, 
however, no settled occapants of this tract. 

351. The Shiranies have no settlement north of the Zirkanni 
The Shiranies. stream. This stream rises to the west of the 
Description ol their coan- main Saliman range and passes throngh the 

^^' zam pass, a mere deft a few feet in width and 

hemmed in by precipices of enormoos height that almost close overhead. 
Eight or ten miles east of the zam Pass the Shiranies caltivate a httle 
land in the Kaoh of the Zirkanni stream, but they have no villages on 
it. The centre of the Shirani coantry is the Taknt Saliman moantain. 
The main range is here penetrated by the Gat Pass north of the Takht, 
and by the Shangan and Dahna Passes below it. The Shiranies have 
villages in these Passes, and a few on the farther side of the range. Their 
main settlements are in the low valleys east of the Takht. The coantry 
between the Takht and oar border consists of low stony ranges of trifling 
elevation and with arid plateaas intervening, and these are intersecjm 
by the gorges of the hill torrents that anite in the Draban and Ohand- 
wan zama. These low hills and plateaas extend for a distance of 15 
miles from oar border ; after which the main mass of the Takht rises 
up in a sheer and rapid ascent. I may mention here that the whole of 
the hill coantry lying east of the Sulimdn range is intersected by long 
narrow valleys, running parallel to the border, and draining into one 
or other of the streams by which the border line is intersected. By 
following these valleys, or tokhs as they are oalled, a traveller can easily 
pass from the Giimal wlloy in the north down to the Kasrani oonntry 
in the south, or, if he plbases, he oan get out at the gaps, where the inter- 
secting streams cross the tokh. 

352. There is very little cultivation in the Shir&ni country, except 
in the kaohea of the hill torrents, and these are of small extent. The 
lower Shirani country is more barren even than that of the Bhiltannies, 
and is quite bare of trees. The crest and upper valleys of the Takht. 
however, are thickly wooded with pine trees. Some of these are said 
to be of great size, but their position under present circumstances 
renders them useless. The Shiranies bring down the smaller trees, such 
as they can carry down on their shoulders, for sale in British ^territory, 
where they are in great request for rafters. Most of the Shirani villages 
are of miserable appearance. Their principal towns are Drazan and 
Parwara. Drazan is a comparatively respectable looking plaoe. The 
houses are built of sun dried bricks, and there are numerous small 
towers. 

353. The main divisions of the Shiranies are into the Sainkhel, 
Their tribal divisions. Ubakhel and Chubarkhel. The Khidarzais are 

Character of the tribe. a section of the Ubakhel, notorious for their 

lawless character. The Ubakhel live nearest to our territory. They 
hold Drazan on the Draban zam and Parwara on the Cbandwin zam^ 



183 

and a number oF intervening Villages. TBie chief men among them ard 
Azim Khan Landai and Fatteh Khan of Drazan. Azim Khan has 
been treated to some extent by British officers as Chief of the Shirinies, 
but has little authority even over his own people. The Shiranies are 
in fact nearly as democratic as the Waziries, and care nothing for Chiefs. 
The Sainkhel occupy the upper villages on the Draban zam towards the 
Gat Pass and beyond it. The Khidarzais are located by the Shangan 
Pass and on the slopes of liie Takht. The Chiiharkhel are on the 

Bbirdnies proyions to Dahna Pass. Previous to our annexation of 
annexation. the Punjab, the ShirAnies were the pest of the 

border from Kot Tagga to Zirkanni. Outlying villages were plundered, 
and bad frequently to be abandoned on account of their raids, unless 
the proprietors agreed to pay black mail. They once during Sikh times 
sacked the town of Draban, and the plain men were afraid to cultivate 
the lands under the hills through fear of their attacks. They continued 
their misbehaviour during the first years of British rule, and skirmishes 
were continually occurring between them and the men of our frontier 
posts. At last, on Maior Nicholson's recommendation, the Government 
consented to an expedition against them. In the beginning of 1853 

Bxpedition against them Brigadier Hodgson attacked them with a force 
in 1863. • of 2,500 men, consisting of regiments of the 

Punjab Frontier Force and of military police. The troops entered the 
hills by the Shekh Haidar Pass, while the Shiranies expected them at 
the Drdbaii Pass, and moving rapidly down the tokhs^ or lateral valleys 
that I have described, they turned the line of the Shir&ni defeuce, and 
got into the heart of the country. Little opposition was encountered, 
and after destroying Drilzan (Kotki,) and the more accessible villages, 
the force returned to Draban without the loss of a single man. Our 
troops were assisted in the work of destruction by a small body of 
B&bars and other frontier levies. 

Since this expedition the Shiranies have occasioned comparatively 
Their snbeeqaent beba- little trouble. Some of the bad characters 
▼ionr. among them, leagued with an occasional out- 

law from British territory, may now and then commit an isolated 
murder or robbery, but the body of the tribe does its best to put a stop 
to outrages of this sort. The Shiranies are a very poor tribe. A great 
many of them are employed in British territory as servants by the 
well-to-do Babars and Miankhels. They look after the cattle, cut grass, 
and do any miscellaneous work. A few of them are cultivators. 

354. The Marhels are a small insignificant tribe possessing a few 
The Marhels scattered kirries in the low hills between thd 

Shirani villages and our border. They are 
said to number some 200 or 300 men. They are employed in trading 
between the Kakar country and the Daman. They are like the 
Pawindahs in their habits, and move away to Afghanistan at the begin- 
ning of the hot weather. The Ushtaranas, and Kasranies have been 
already^mentioned. Behind their hills lies the country of the Zmarries, 
Mosakhels and Ldni Pathans^ and behind the Ltini Pathans again are 



184 

|}ie Eakars, bat with thdse tribes we have hitbeiio had little of no 
(loiitical intercoarsei and any mention of them herd wdnld bei out of 
plaoofc 

THE PAWINDAHS. 

355. llie name Pawindah in the Derajat is applied to all those 

thdroriein migratory Fathin tribes who conle dowd to 

^ British territory at the beginniilg of the cold 

Weather, retnmiilg as summer approaches to the high lands of Afghan^ 

istan. 

I^rom time immemorial^ the PaWindahs have traded between tndia 
fttid Slhorasin. lliey britlg dd\^n long strings of camels laden with the 

foods of Bokhara and tCandahar^ and carry back in exchange the pro^ 
acts of Hindostan and the manufdctares of Wiliyat. Many of the 
poorer Pawindahs, instead of trading, engage in the local carrying trade 
of the Derajat| while othei*s subsist on the profits which they derive from 
their flocks and herds* 

Their diviaion into kirri, ^ 356. The Pawiudahs may be TOllghljr 

kaJUaAudcharrapAwind&hB, divided into three classes :-=^ 

lat* Those who bring their families and establish themselves in 
fixed camping grounds known as tdrrie$ ( camp villages ^ 
a portion perhaps going off to trade* 
ind. Those who come down with caravans ( IcaJUaa ) but witlf 
out their families, and who have no fixed camping grounds* 
Zrd. Those who have no belongings tind come down as laborers. 
These latter are known by the name of charra folk. They 
wander abouty sometimes in gangs, sometimes by twos and 
threes, through the towns and villages of the Derajat. They 
are ready for rough work of any sort ; such as stone bfeab^ 
ing, road making, clearing jungle {hutimari)^ and any sort of 
job where energy and strength are more necessary tnan pro^ 
fessional skill. They are industrious and economical, saving 
all that they earn to take back with them to Afghanistan, 
and subsisting while here mainly on what they gain by beg** 
ging in the evenings after the day^s work is oyqt. 
357. The mass of the Pawiudahs enter the district by the Gdmal 
Passes by which th^ en- Pass. Most of the trading Pawiudahs take 
ter the district. this route ; bat a certain number, mostly sheep- 

owners, prefer the branch road that goes by the zam Pass and debouches 
at Zirkanni. The total number of Pawindahs entering the district, 
Their numbers and cos- according to an enumeration made at the mouths 
toms. of the passes during the cold weather of 1877-78, 

amounted to 76,403. Of these the detail is as follows :— 

Men ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 35,439 

Women ••• •••. ••• ••• ••• Vm\./io 

{Boys 25,422 
Girls ••• •#• ••• ••• ••• 6,414 

Total 76,403 



Children 



185 

The ntimbef of men pven is probably faifly domct. The figures 
for women and children are not so reh'able. Another enumeration for 
the present year ^ives the- number of fighting men belonging to kirries 
( t. e.f those who brinor their families ) at 14,133. Allowing an average 
of two women and childi'en to each man, the total number of kirri folk 
should be 42,399. The number of the kafila and charra folk is given at 
15,300 fighting men, which would raise the total number to 57,699, of 
whom 29,433 are fighting men. The numbers of the kirA folk remain 
tolerably constant, but the number otcharrda is liable to great fluctuations t 
seasons of scarcity driving down large numbers of men who in ordinary 
years remain at their homes. The people of each Pawindah kirri have 
a fixed camping ground of their own, which they seek as soon as they 
arrive in the plains, and where they pitch their tents for the season. 
The same camping grotind is resorted to year after year, and though a 
kirri may for s pecial reasons move to a new location, yet such changes 
are rare. The women, children and arms are left in the Mrri. Two* 
thirds of the men also generally remain behind, while the remaining third 

£^ off with the laden camels and merchandise to Hiadostan. Although 
e Pawindahs appreciate the railway, and such as wish to be early in the 
market^ use it largely, the bulk of them still adhere to their old practice^ 
and take their camels to Delhi, Cawnpore, Benares and even to ifatna. 

358. There are no very reliable statistics as io the extent of the 
Amount and character of Pawindah trade. The following figures are 
tlie Pawindah trade. the best estimate that I have been able to obtain 

of the principal articles of import and export : — 

Imporis-^^ Ks. 

FruitS) dried and fresh *•» 7,00,000 

Madder •»• ••» .»* ••» ••» 6,00,000 

Raw silk ... ... ••• 5,00,000 

Wool .•. ... ... .•• •*• 1,60,000 

Charras (an intoxicating drug extracted from 

hemp) ••• ... .•• •»• ••• 1,00,000 

Horses « 65,000 

Hing (Asafoetida) 50,000 

Tobacco •• 30,000 

Total import ... Rs. 21,95,000 
EseporiB — 

Indigo ... ... ... ... .•• 6,00,000 

Manufactured cotton goods (English) ... 5,00,000 

Ditto ditto (country) ... 6,00,000 

Tea ... ••• ... ... ... 1,00,000 

Shoes and leather 40,000 

Salt ... ••• ... ... ••• 20,000 

Sugar ... ... ... 20,000 

Metal goods ... ... ... ... 20,000 

Crockery and earthenware 7,000 

Total exports Rs. 19,07,000 



186 

359. The centres of the Pawindah trade in Khorassn are Bokhara, 
Centres of the Pawindah Kabul, Kandahar, and Ghazni. Ilie following 

trade in KhorasAn. are the principal articles of merchandise brought 

from each : — 

Bokhara, — Silk, charras, gold and silver thread ^ kalabatiin ) and 
furs. 

Kabul. — Pistachio nuts, and fresh fruit of sorts, such as apples, 
grapes, &c. 

Kandahar. — ^Almondsj^pistachio nuts, raisins, dried fruits, and wool 
from the Kakur country. 

Ghazni. — Madder, wool, ghee, tobacco, and asafoetida. 

360. I must now give a brief account of .the leading Pawindah 
The leading Pawindah tribes. These are the Nasars, Sulimankhels, 

tribes. Kharoties, Miankhels and, Dautauies. Tribes 

of less importance are the Niazies, Mallakhels, Mithis, Kundies, 
Tarakkies, Tokhis and Audars. 

361. The Nasars are the least settled of all these tribes. They 
-» y.^^ have no countrv of their own. They winter in 

the Derajat ana summer in the Ghilzai country. 
They pay Rs. 3,000 (nandrdmi) to the Turin Ghilzais for the right of 
grazing in their country. The NAsars live principally by their herds 
and flocks. They own about 33,000 camels and some 1,30,000 sheep 
and goats, their wealth consisting mainly in their herds and flocks. 
Their kirriea are scattered along the skirts of the hills from the 
Zarwanni Pass in the Gdmal valley to Kot Ta^ga below Chandwan. 
They probably number, with their wom^n and children, 20,000. They 
are divided into a number of important sections, but the more popular 
division of the Nasars is into camel folk^ ox and ass folky and a/ieep 
folk. Of the camel folk or Ushwaisy the poor ones come down first. 
They engage principally as carriers, taking goods to and frotfi Bannu. 
They bring salt from the Kohat mines, Muhani matti from the hills, and 
gram from Marwat. They are al^o much employed in cutting and 
selling fuel. The well-to-do men come later, and generallv bring mer- 
chandise, grapes, almonds and madder. The kirries of the camel-folk 
are usually situated away from the hills, at Saggu Iriniman, Panni&Ia, 
Potah, and in the Ksdiiri ilaqua. * The ox-and-ass-folk {GhwayewdU 
and Kharwdls) own only oxen and donkeys. They are generally 
engaged in doing jobs, carrying earth, bricks, &o. in the towns. They 
have no kirries of their own. They arrive at the end of September, 
and return about the beginning of April. The sheep folk {Gosh/andwdls) 
arrive" during October, and return about the end of April. They occupy 
the country along the foot of the hills. Som^ of ^fiiem encamp at 
Panniala, but these generally take their flocks for part of the season 
into the Bhakkar Thai. The Nasars are for the most part short, sturdy 
men. On the whole they are a well behaved tribe, though a little 
inclined to be overbearing in their treatment of the villagers in whose 
neighbourhood they encamp. Their cattle not unfrequently trespass on 



i'87 

to the cultivated fields^ and attempts on the part of the proprietors to 
seize and impound them are sometimes opposed by force. They are^ a 
rough and ready lot, who would probably, but for the advent of British 
rule, have treated the Miankhels and other tribes, who have beeii 
enervated by long residence in the plains, much as the forefathers of 
these latter treated the Siiries and the Pabbies, driving them out anct 
appropriating their lands. 

362. The Kharoties are a tribe occupying the hills near the 
The Kharoties. sources of the Gdmal and the district of Arg- 

hdn to the west of the Sulimankhel country. 
They generally arrive in the plains towards the end of November and 
depart in May. They have 16 kirries. These are located near Tank, 
Mulazai and Paharpur. They are a poor tribe, and have been nearly 
ruined by a long and unequal contest with the Sulim&nkhels. This 
feud, though allowed to rest during their stay in Hindostan, breaks out 
afresh as soon as they re-enter the hills ; though attempts have latterly 
been made by the Deputy Commissioner with some success to bring 
the two tribes to terms. Most of the Kharoties engage as laborers and 
carriers like the Nasars. A large propoi*tion of them are charra folk. 
Some are merchants, and trade in dried fruits and madder. The 
Kharoties own four or five thousand camels, which they bring down 
with them to the plains. They leave their flocks in their own country. 

363. The Sulimankhels are the most numerous and powerful of 

The SaliminkhelB *^' ^^ Pawindahs, the name covering not only 

the Sulimankhels proper, but a number of allied 
clans all belonging to the great Ghilzai tribe. The Sulimankhels occupy 
a great extent of country stretching from Pishin and Khelat*i-Ghilzai 
nearly as far as Jalalabad, though those of them who come down into 
British territory reside for the most part in the htUs lying east of 
Ghazni. The number of these probably averages about 12,000. Most 
oiihQva Kve charra folkj and they own altogether only about 4,000 
oameli;. They bring but little merchandise with them, but great num- 
bers of them go down country, especially to Calcutta, where they act as 
go-betweens or dcUlalsj buying goods from the merchants there and 
selling them to other Pawindahs. They bring back their profits for the 
most part in cash. Those who stop in the district work as laborers. 
They generally come and go about the same time as the Kharoties, but a 
few days before or after, on account of the foud that I have mentioned. 
The Sulimankhels are fine strong men. They have the character of being 
rather a set of rascals, though on the. whole they behave themselves very 
fairly while in British territory. They have nine kirries located at 
Amakhel, Mulazai and in the neighbourhood of Tank and Kulachi, but 
the population attached to them is not a third of the whole number of 
Sulimankhels who enter the district One of these kirries hsLS now 
disappeared^ the men belonging to it having been nearly all killed in a 
fight oetween them and our troops during the suppression of the late 
disturbances in Tank (January 1879). 



188 

864. The Miankhels are the richest of the Pawindahs. Most of 
mu TLT* 1.U Y the valuable trade with Bokhara ia in their 

hands. Their kitnes are situated near JJrsbaa 
and Musahzai, at Kat Malana and Shalu, and in the Miran ilaqua. 
They have 14 kirries in all, and number about 4,500 men. Hiey own 
from 4,000 to 5,000 camels. They are cloeelj related to the plain Mian- 
khels as I have mentioned in ray remarks on that tribe. During the 
summer their kirries are stationed in the hills near Pani^h and Kara- 
bagh. They generally arrive here in November, and leave in May. 

365. The Dautanies inhabit the Wanah valley and the country 
»pv^ Ti-««.-«;^- between the Waziri hills and the Gdmal. Their 

iands are comparatively fertile, growing noe 
and cereals. They are on good terms with the Waziries. They are a 
small tribe numbering only some 700 fighting men. They are weU-to-< 
do, and carry on a profitable trade with Bokhara. They bring down 
poateensy chahnas^ and charran. They have three Jdrries in* our territory, 
near Katmalana and in the Kahiri ilaqua. About a third of them are 
haJUa folk and have no kirries. They own about 3,500 oamels. They 
leave their flocks behind in the hills. They come and go along with tm 
Miankhels, though forming separate caravans. 

366. The Niaaies number only some 400 men. They have three 
The NUoies. kirries at Maudra and in the Kahiri ilaqua. 

They trade to Kandahar, bringing down dried 
fruits and madder. They have some 3,000 camels, but no flocks. 

367. The Mianies are allied to the plain Mianies of the Giimal 
The MiAnies. valley, near whom they reside daring the winter. 

They number some 400 men. They have 4 
kirries and own about 800 camels and some 8,000 sheep and goats. 

368. The Mithies are another small tribe. They have three kirries 

The Mithies. ^^ *^® Paharpiir ilaqua. They number some 

300 mfiiiy and own about 1,250 camels. 
869. The Malakhels, Kundies, Zumranies and Quraiinies are 
Other trihea. small tribes, not requiring separate mention, 

whose kirries are scattered about the PaharpiHr 
ilaqua. They number some 600 men in all, and own some 350 cameb« 
The Malakhels also own some 3,500 sheeps. 

370. The Tarakkies, Tokhis, Audars and Daulat2iais ai^ all Ghil- 
Tribes of kajila Pawin- zai clans, occupying tracts near Ghazni and 

^^^ Khelat«i-Ghilaai. ^ose of them who visit this 

district are kafila folk and leave their families behind. Between them 
they number some 6,000 fighting men, and own about 11,000 camels. 

371. The difierent Pawindah Iribes are sometimes supposed to 
Order iQ which they visit come down to the plains in regular order, 

thepiaina. ^ Nasars, Sulim&nkhels, Kharoties and Mian- 

khels, — and at one time this may have been the case. There is now, 
however, no fixed rule. This year (1878-79) for instance, the Mi4n-» 
khelii came first and the Nasars last. 

statement ^^o^'^*^^® 372. The acoompanying statement shows 

trib^B, and^the cattilo^^d *^® numbers of the diffbrent tribes and the oattle 
hj them* owned by each in tabular form ;•— 



■spniv,-) rnox 

'uajpiii(3 pus 
moM iuipni^u] 



llllip 5 lllllll 

"sSIII^ i Siiiiii 






:|:i,, J, 






: ^ Sg 



|4|S||g s I* . 



iizliil i 



3aon»B JO -OH 



"nifiiri 



UTTTTf" 






III 



190 

373. Under native mie heavy customs dues, snoh as are still taken 

Taxation of the Pawln- in Kabul, were levied on the Pawindah trade at 

dahfl under native rule. the months of the Passes. These dues formed 

a considerable portion of the revenue of the Nawlibs of Tank and Dera, 

and were taken into consideration by Sir Herbert Edwardes when 

Since annexation. fj? f I"/ ^o ^^^"'^i'''' "'^''** '?*' ^^f ^'^^'^''^ ^" 

1847-48. Soon after annexation, these customs 

were abolished, and the dues taken from Pawindahs were restricted to a 

lump sum of a little over 8,000 rupees, which was distributed over the 

various kirries, and a trinni tax of 6 annas per camel, which was levied 

on camels crossing the Indus ferries, to cover the cis-Indus grazing. 

Fixed assessment on The lump assessment put on the Jdrries remained 
kirrics, unchanged from year to year, the demand 

when highest being Rs. 8,296, afterwards reduced to Bs. 8,133, at which 
it stood till 1871. This assessment should have beeil periodically redistri- 
buted, regard being had to changes in the circumstances of the different 
kirriesj which must necessarily have taken place in the course of years. 
This, however, was not done. The . first distribution was blindly 
adhered to, and each IdfTi made to pay the quota first assessed on it. 
Some Hrries had broken up and disappeared, but their headmen were 
still dunned year after year. Other kirriesy once rich, were greatly 
impoverished. On the other hand, new Idrries had sprung up, which 
paid nothing. The consequence of this was, that from 1861 irrecovera- 
ble arrears began to accrue. The amount of these in 1^68 was over 
Bs. 1,000, and gradually rose to more than Bs. 2,000. During this 
period the Pawindah arrangements were very much in the hands of 

New system of enumera- Nawib Faujdar Khan. In 1872 a new system 
lion at the Passes intro- was inaugurated by the Deputy Gommissionery 
duced in 1872. Captain Macaulay. * Instead of the old fixed 

assessment on the different kirries, it was arranged to have an enume- 
ration of the Pawindah cattle at the mouths of the Passes. The rate of 
assessment was fixed at 8 annas per camel and Bs. 2-8-0 per 100 head 
of sheep and goats. The camel tax was levied on all camels young and 
old. The sheK^mels are big with young when they come down, and 
drop their foals in the Damiln. These go back with the kafilaa in the 
spring, and when they return to the plains the following year, and 
become for the first time liable to trinniy tney are nearly a year old. 
Practically, therefore, young camels escape taxation for the first year. 
At the same time that these new rates were introduced, the additional 
trmni charged on camels grazing cis-Indus was abolished. The tax on 

Tax on Pawindah camels camels crossing into the cis-Indus tahslls was 
crossing the Indus. under the old system farmed year by year to 

contractors. The amount for which it leased had risen from Bs. 1,310 
in 1849 to over Bs. 13,000 in 1862 and 1864. After 1864 it began to 
decrease rapidly, and for the last few years it averaged only about 
Bs. 6,000. In 1871 the collections were made kham tahsil, and amounted 
only io Bs. 6,514. The average* for the 23 years from 1849 to 1871 

Total taxation under the was Bs. 6,937. The average realisations from 
old system. the fixed kirri assessments for the same period 

was ftbout Ks. 7,700, making nearly Ea. 15,000 in alL 



191 



Income froih the 



new 



374. The following staiement shows the 
income under the now system : — 



l^KAB, 



1872-73 
1873-74 
1874-76 
1876-76 
1876-77 
1877-78 

Ayerage 



Camels at 8 

ANNAS. 



Num- 
ber. 



44,441 
53,600 
58,878 
66,131 
72,126 
77,113 



Amount. 



Rs. 
22,220 
26,800 
26,689 
83,065 
36,062 
38,656 



61,131130,566 



8 


8 
8 













Sheep k Goats 
AT Rs. 2-8-0 

PEB CENT. 



Nam- 
ber. 



62,521 
117,808 

96,403 
128,067 
171,531 
150,902 



Amonnt. 



Rs. a. 

1,427 13 

2,945 

2,242 

2,961 1 

4,895 

3,773 



121,205 



2,990 







P 
2 


11 

4 
11 

2 



Total. 



Rs. 
28,648 
29,745 
29,131 
36.027 
40,457 
42,329 



33,556 



5 

4 
1 

11 
12 



2 

Ol 
11 

4 
11 

2 



RKMABK& 



The realisations are 
in excess of the amonnt 
dne bj the rates, as 
doable rates are charg« 
ed on Pawindahs en- 
deavottring to eyade the 
tax. 



Charges. 



The following deductions have to be made 
from the gross income: — 

Rs. A. P. 
Pay of Moharrirs and other establishment employed 

in collection (average for 5 years) 519 

Lambardars^ fees at 5 per cent, (average for 5 years) 1,834 

Mafies to headmen 352 8 

Cost of Pa windah police 4,880 



Total expenses 



Rs. 7,585 8 



Hafies to headmen. 



The net average realisations are, therefore, Rs. 25,970-8-0, being 
Net income. about Rs. 11,000 or 73 per cent, in excess of what 

they were under the old system. This increase 
has been progressive, and during the last year or two has risen to nearly 
Rs. 20,000. 

375. The mafies to headmen consist of a remission of the tax on 

705 camels, which is equal to Rs. 352-8-0. 
Nearly the whole is enjoyed by Nasars, Mian- 

khels and Kharoties, to the exclusion of the other tribes. 

376. The entertainment of a special body of Pawindab police 

The Pawindah police. was sanctioned in 18^3. They are mainly 

employed in keeping order at the Pass^^ where 
the enumeration takes place. 

377. Under the old kipi assessment system a portion of the 
System of crediting the realisations was credited to the MuzafFergarh 

realisations. and Bannu districts, as the Pawindahs to som^ 

4dxtent grazed there as well as in the Dera Ismail Khan district. This 
antiquated arrangement is still retained. For the last 5 years Rs. 1,476 
a year has been credited to Muzafiargarh and Rs. 741 to Bannn. 
Formerly, too, the Nawab of Tank receiv^ a third of that part of the 
demand which was realised from kirries settled in T&nk, vt?., a third 
of Rs. 843| or Rs. 281. Under the new arrangements, for the first 8 



192 

years be received on an averaore Rs. 991. This was stopped, however, 
in 1875, when he was granted his new jagir allowances in supersession 
of his former share of we Tank revenue. 

378. The question of Pawindah grazing in the cis-Indus Thai is 
Rights of Pawindahs to fully discussed in the account of the Thai pfraz-* 
Thai grazing. ing assessments (paras. 537 and 542). When 

the new Pawindah frtnnt arrangements were made in 1873, there was a 
doubt whether the abolition of the additional rate of 6 annas on camels 
crossing the Indus might not lead to an excessive influx of Pawindah 
camels into the Thai. I then pointed out that, judging from the amount 
of the trinni lease, the number of Pawindah camels crossing into the 
Thai during the years 1860 to 1864 must have been between 30,000 
and 40,000 ; that of late years the numbers had fallen off, and that the 
deterrent effect of the ferry tolls on the Indus was likely to prevent any 
increase above the numbers for 1860 — 64, which did not appear to have 
caused inconvenience. Practically the change of system has not had 
any ill effects. By the new arrangements Pawindah camels graze fee 
in the cis-Indus Thai of this district as before, but they will be taxed in 
the Bannu district. Pawindah sheep and goats will not for the future 
get free grazing cis-Indus. Trans-Indus both sheep and camels will 
graze free of charge, as before, in waste lands included in village boun^ 
daries (see para. 537.) The new arrangements have not lightened the 
grazing tax on Pawindah camels crossing the Indus. Though the 6 
annas rate is abolished, they pay more than they used to at the Passes. 
The feriy tolls on the Indus are 6 anna» for laden and 3 annas for 
unladen camels, including young ones^ at the boat-bridge, and 4 annaa 
and 2 annas at boat-ferries. 



RIPARIAN BOUNDARIES AND RIVERAIN LAW. 

379. The system on which boundaries in the river tracts of this 
Question of river boon- and the adjoining districts should be laid down, 

daries. lias been the subject of a good deal of corres- 

pondence, first, as relates to boundaries between villages, and, secondly, 
as relates to boundaries between adjoining tahsfls and district. The 
Extent of the riverfront- Dera Ismail Khan district borders on the Indus 
»ge of the district. for a distance of 130 miles; for 85 miles it 

includes both banks of the river, but for 20 miles to the novl^ it is 
fronted on one side by the Mi&nw&li tahsil, and for 25 miles to the south 
by the Sanghar tahsil. 

380. The two opposite systems op which river boundaries are 
Two opposite systems generally decided are, the deep atream rule, and 

that may be adopted. flie tearpar or fixed boundary rule. Under 

The HsBfA honndary role, the first, the main stream is the boundary be- 
and the deep ttrttam rule. tween estates and jurisdictions, all new accretion 
being gain, and all diluvian being loss to the side on which it occurs. 
Under the second, the vagaries of the river are disregarded ; the whole 
river bed is plotted out, and lands belonging to an estate belong to it 
alwayS; in whatever position ihey may be thrown up. 






§ 



193 

381. The cbrrespondenoQ on the sabject originated in the 
Preliminary enquiry into complaints of the Sanghar zemindars as to the 
the subject. inconvenience occasioned by the transfer nnder 

the deep stream mle of a large number of villages and parts of villages 
to the Leiah tahsfl. Reports were called for by the Settlement Com- 
missioner from the Settlement Officers of the Bannd, Dera Ismail Khan, 
and Dera Ghazi Khan districts, from which it appeared that in deciding 
boundary cases between villages, the warpar system was undoubtedly 
the one supported by local usage. * 

In the Dera Ismail Khan district there had been a great number 
Existence of a local cua- of disputes between villages in the river bed; 
torn in accordance with the most of which had, in accordance with the local 
warpar rale as between custom, been decided on the warpar system, 
villages established. ^j^^^^ jg^^g, however, Munshi Ghopal Das, Extra 

Assistant Commissioner, introduced the deep stream rule, an arrangement 
which was approved of by the Commissioner, Colonel Becher. A few 
cases were accordingly decided in accordance with this principle, which 
was adopted by the Courts, though the warpar rule was the principle 
of decision to which all parties always appealed as the idea of right in 
their minds, and existence of the warpar custom, in spite of these adverse 
decisions, was clearly proved by the existing state of proprietary right ; 
there being numeroH^ cases in which zemindars had followed lands 
transferred by river action from one bank to the other, and in which 
they now owned the lands on both banks. In this district the warpar 
custom was commonly adhered to, not only in cases of avulsion, where 
the old lands could still be identified, but also in cases of gradual forma- 
tion of new lands, years after the old lands had been lost by diluvian. 
The deep stream rule is suitable enough to most European rivers, but, 
when applied to a stream with so broad a bed as the Indus, and the 
course of which is liable to such great and constant alterations, it can 
only work with great harshness. In the case of the smaller villages, it 
frequently occurs that the whole lands of a village disappear for a time, 
and under such circumstances, by the deep stream rule, the rights of the 
proprietors would be lost altogether ; as the lands, when again formed, 
would be the property of the villages to which they might happen to 
accrete. On smaller rivers, a village on one high bank disputes the 
whole bed with a village on the other ; but on the Indus, there are ordi- 
narily many villages in the breadth of the river, and most villages have 
at one time or another been high »ud dry with no river frontage at all. 
The idea of a fixed boundary with the next village dates from that time, 
so that the proprietors of these river villages have all got a clear and 
definite idea of the shape of their estate and of the whereabouts of its 
old boundary in the river bed ; and consider such boundary the sole 
measure of right. 



♦ From para 86 of Mr. Brandreth's Settlement Report of the Jhelum difctrict, I 
find that the warpar custom is also in force between that district and 8hahpdr. llir, 
Braadreth advocated the mapping of the whole ri?er bed, which haa been done here. 



194 

382. The MoarpiT custom lunrii^ b^en clearly proved to exist, 
Ooverninent oiden on the Financial UommiBsioner* requested thesanc- 
ihe snl^ect. tion of the Gtoveniment to its adoption as the 

mle for Indns viUajjee. His Honor the Lieutenant QoYemor, howeTer, 
considered that any Government aotioH in' the matter was unnecessary. 
The custom was said to have been proved ; custom was the law by which 
all disputes relative to the lands in question must be decided ; and for 
liie Local Gh>venimont to give sanction to the observance of what was 
already the existinff law, and which must be followed by the CoortSi 
would have been altogether superfluous, f 

883. In accordance with the ascertaiued custom, the whole rivel* 
Survey »nd allotment to bed has in the course of this Settlement been 
Tillages of the whole river mapped out and divided into village estates.' 
^*^« In addition to the Settlement Survey, the whole 

tract from bank to bank was surveyed bv the Revenue Survey Depart- 
ment during the seasons of 1873-74 and 1874-75. Here are therefore 
accurate maps, in accordance with which the boundaries now fixed can 
hereafter be relaid. 

384. In accordance with the wishes of Captain Barron, Deputy 
Benoh.maik8 erected by Superintendent of Revenue Survey, masonry 
Tcqaest of the Revenue pillars, made on the plan of the irrigation 
8orve7 Department. Department bendi-marks, were erected, at inter- 

%'als of about a mile, along both banks of the Indus. To be beyond the 
reach of floods, thesa landmarks were put upon one side along the edge 
of the Thai and on the other in the Daman, some little distance in from 
the main bank of the Indus. It was considered that these would be 
found useful in afterwards relaying boundaries. I have no doubt that 
they will be found useful should it afterwards be necessary to have these 
boundaries relaid with great accuracy by the Revenue Survey Depart- 
ment. They will hardly be used, however, by the patwaries, who will 
generally relay boundaries from neighbouring wells or other permanent 
landmarks, from which measurements can be more easily made than 
from the remote survey pillars. 

385. As regards the boundary between adjoining jurisdictions, the 

custom in these districts had been conflicting. 

CuBtoms as to bonndaiy As a rule, between adjoining tahsils of this dis- 

between adjoining junsdio- ^ j ^ villages included in a tahsfl at the Sum- 

tions. To some extent con- "•v*^ ^"«k^" *""*»*«^ *" «• •^*»" »• ""^^ kj^^mxk 

Sieting. marv Settlement remained attached to it in spite 

of cnange of {yMition. This rule had not, how** 
ever, been acted on strictly. In the case of the boundary between the 

Mianwali boundary. villages of the Khasor range and the Mianwali 

tahsu, the warpar rule had obtained between 
the districts, except in the case of the small village of Sirdariwala, which 
had disappeared on one side and been absorbed on the other. In the 

* No. 961 of Srd October 1S72, from SecreUiy to Financial Ckmunifinoner, to 
Secretary to Government Panjab. 

t No. 1696 of 23rd December 1872, from Secretary to Government Punjab^ to 
Financial Cummisfiioner. 



1^5 

CRse of tlie boandary between Sanghar and Leiafa aba, the ^"^^^IV^ ^^ 
Baiurhar boinidMT ^** vtkoxQ or lose acted on till 1869. Toe borni- 

^^ ^^' dary of the district in this direction, as snryeyed 

in 1856y bj no means followed the ooorse of the main stream, some con* 
siderable tracts on the left bank being attached to the Sanghar tahsO^ 
while in one or two cases, lands across Uie river were attached to the Leiah 
tahsil. The -Sanghar lands on the left bank were gradually increased 
by new allavion, till they formed a continnoas tract of some ten railea 
in length, comprising the better part of seven or eight villages. In 
1869, at the instance of Major oandeman, Deputy Commissioner of 
Dera Ghazi Khan, this tract was transferred to the Leiah tahsil. The 
Sanghar zemindars protested a ffood deal against the arrangementp 
though without mucn ground, as 3ie zemindars most affected had pre- 
riously owned villages included in the Leiah tahsil, and their properties 
were not, therefore, oeing divided between the two tahsils for the first 
time. !nie fact of a larger portion being now included in Leiah made 
no practical difierence in their circninstances. This was the existing 
Views of the Settlement state of things, when the Settlement of this 
Commiseioner. district commenced. Mr. Lyall took up the 

question of district boundaries, along with the kindred subject of village 
rights in the river bed, and expressed a modified opinion in favor of fi 
fixed boundary. He writes, '^ With regard to this question, vaj c^nioi^ 
^ is, that wherever the vxxrpar custom prevails and boundaries om be 
^^ defined, the deep stream should in future not be taken absolutely as 
'^ the boundary between districts and rargannahs. From time to time^ 
'^with reference to alterations in the position of the main stream 
'^ of a presumably lasting character, whole mauzahs should be transferred 
'^ from one district or pargannah to another. But mauzahs should never 
'' be split up. Complaints are rife in Dera Gh&zi Khan, Mnzaffargarh^ 
'^ and part of Dera Ismail Khan, of the inconvenience suffered by land- 
'^ holders having to attend the courts of two districts or two tahsils^. 
''owing to the deep stream jurisdiction boundary role. Moreover, the 
'' frequent transfer of villages from one district to another, and more 
''particularly the splitting up of villages, make the maintenanoe of 
" comparative statistics and of registration of lands very diifioult.^ 

386. The question of boundaries between jurisdictions was after- 

SabjecisobmHteddroagh wards, by the direction of the Panjab Gk)vern- 

Ditirir"^"^^ "^ »«»*> separately submitted through Col. Munro; 

Hi0Tiewt. the OommissiMier of the Division, whose pro* 

posids were thns stated by the Financial Commissioner* : — 

" The Coifimissioner of the Division follows the modified proposal 
^ of the Settlement Ofiioer Dera Gh&zi Khan, that all alluvial lands be* 
^ longing to manzahs, of which the village site or the greater part are 
" situated on one side of the river, shall be considered to belong to the 
^ tahsfl on that side. 

" The Commissioner also recommends that the actual boundary shall 
" be fixed annually by the Tahsildars in concert. The maps and boundary 

* No. 643 of 4th Jane 1874, from Secretfuy to Ifliuuifiuil Coamiwioaer, i<^ 
Secretary lo Qovernment^ PaujaU 



196 

^ marks will be taken as guides^ where the rirer has left them standing, 
^^ and where the marks have been washed away, the ground will be 
^^resnrvejed and the boundary renewed. 

387. This arrangement was sanctioned by the Punjab Govern- 

H« proposals are accep- "^f^^^^f^ ^"^ ^¥ boundary which, in accordance 
ted by the Punjab Govern- With these pnnoiples, had been already laid 
ment. Boundaries laid down between the Sanghar and Leiah tahsils 
troo^^Z^^rt*^ V Mr. Fryer and mysolf. By this boundaiy, 

the tract transferred m 1869, and consisting of 
8 whole villages and 1 part village, continued to form a portion of the 
Leiah tahsil. A multitude of small mauzahs lying between these and the 
Sanghar main bank were left as before in the Sanghar tahsil. No 
No subsequent transfers villages have sinco been transferred, as such 
of villages. transfers in the middle of a Settlement would 

have caused great confusion. In the case of the boundary with Mian- 
w&li, each district has retained the villages found attached to it when 
Settlement operations commenced. Nothing had to be done here be- 
yond determining the boundaries of these villages on the warpar sysfcem. 
Officers by whom the This work was done partly by myself and part- 
common boundaries were ly by Mr. Thorbum. By anariangement with 
determined. jyjj.^ Fryer, the Settlement Officer of Dera 

Ghazi Khan, the boundaries of the adjoining villages of the Sanghar 
and Leiah tahsils were settled by me. Copies of the maps showing the 
boundary line, as eventually laid down on the revenue survey sheets^ 
have been filed in both this and the Dera Ghazi Khan district offices, so 
that any future boundary disputes will be easily adjusted. I am 
inclined to think that it will be found advisable to retain permanently 
the boundaries between this and the adjoining districts, as laid down at 
this Settlement. In addition to the confusion that is caused by trans- 
Objections to transfer- ferring the records of a village from one dis- 
ring villages owing to the trict to another, and the objections that there 

^trof :?:^rvmagr?a r *<> ^^^t^^§ ?P Patwanes' circles, it must 
force in different tahsils be remembered that the revenue system in force 
and districts. in the river villages of these three districts 

varies considerably. In Dera Ghazi Khan lands culturable at Settle- 
ment are revenue free for term of Settlement. In Bannu and Dera 
Ismail Khan such lands are assessed, while the revenue on fallow lands 
is remitted. Again in the Dera tahsil there is one uniform rate for 
cnltivated lands, and no rate on grazing lands. In Mianwali there are 
three sets of rates for cultivated lands, and a rate on grazing lands. 
If their Settlement arrangements are adhered to, Sanghar and Mianwali 
villages will not fit into the statements showing changes of demand in 
the villages of this district. They will have, therefore, to be separately 
reported, unless the MuzafFargarb plan is followed of setting aside the 
old Settlement, and resettling the village in accordance with the system 
in force in the tahsil, to which it may have been transferred. The 
village is in this way assimilated to its new neighbours, but the Sanghar 

^ Secretary to GoTernment's No. 640 of 9th April 1S75, to Secretary to Financial 
Commissioner. 



197 

zemindars iBink \t very hard that the transfer of a village bj avnlsion 
to the MazafFargarh side should lead to an enhancement of rates and to 
the assessment of their nauabad lands. Villages ought not therefore to 
be transferred from one district to another^ except when the alteration 
in position is likely to be of a lasting character, as otherwise the 
objections more than balance the advantages. I may state that the case 
suggested by me is not imaginary. Last year some Sanghar zemindars, 
with whom I am acquainted, explained to me fully the system of 
assimilisation that their villages had undergone, when transferred by 
avulsion to Muzaffargarh. 



IRRIGATION FROM HILL STREAMS. 

388. The principal hill stream in this district is the Lun{. The Luni 
The L6nl. issues from the Gumal Pass, breaks through a 

Its present course. gap in the low Ratti Kammar range, and after 

passing through the Gundapur, Sheru and Naievela ilaquas, eventually 
falls into the Indus about 15 miles below Dera Ismail Khan. The 
Fonner changes in its course of the Luul appears to have been twice 
course. altered. It first ran through the open valley 

between the Dabbra and Ratti Kammar ranges, where the Kaur nallah 
now passes. It is afterwards believed to have run through a gap in the 
Ratti Kammar range, which commences at the shrine of Mian Nur, and 
debouches on Rori. This course is now entirely closed. The htsad of 
the gap is occupied by a wide marsh known as Mian Nur ke Drik, over- 
grown with a sort of reed called kundra. There is a small perennial 
supply from this marsh, which flows on to the Rori lands. Flood 
waters after rain are carried off by a channel still known as the Gdmal^ 
the name by which the Liini itself is known above the Ratti Kammar 
The Kalapani sud It range. But to return to the present Liiini. Most 

of the Kalapani supply, where it issues from the 
hills, is carried into the T&nk ilaqua, and by deepening the head of the 
Kalapani channel. Major Macaulay has latterly succeeded in conveying 
a good deal of the flood water into canals running north of the Ratti 
Kammar range, which irrigate the country down to the Gumal ncUlah, 
and by means of which a large supply of water can be thrown into the 
Gumal nallah itself. The Kalapani that escapes from the T&nk tahsil 
is caught at Kot Zaffar Baladasti below the Ratti range, but the dam 
Dams across its bed be< here is merely of brushwood, and cannot stand 
low the Ratti Kammar. aorainst the flood water. The first dam right 

across the stream is the Khulah Guldad Khan, some 10 or II miles from 
the Ratti Kammar Pass. This irrigates the country north of Kulachi, 
and water can be thrown from it into the Gumal nallah at a point near 
The Paiwal dam ^^^ Atal. A short distance below the Khulah 

is the great Paiwal dam. The Liinf here \b 
half a mile broad, and the dam is 30 or 40 feet high in places. The 
Paiwal throws the Ldni water to the east by a side channel known as 
the Boda Shakh, which in turn is crossed by the Gatta, Gidarwal, and 
other dams. After irrigating a large number of villages, the surplus 



198 

water from ttiese dmnfl falls ii.to ihe Aboshabid bad and oUier rayioes^ 
which carry it into the Indus. When the dams on the Boda Sbakb ai9 
cnt, the Iidn{, after circling round the town of Kulachi, falls back 
into its natural channel below the Paiwal dam. The Paiwal ia never 
cut if possible, as its enormoos size entails an immense deal of labor in 
its reconstmction« It is freqnenUvy howerer, carried away by hi^ 

Irriiration below the floods, and seldom stands for two sncoeasiTe 
^A^waL years. Below the Paiwal aro the Maddi and 

oiher dams, which also cross the main channel. Where the Liini enters 
the Dera tah^fl, the natural channel is a^jain blocked by the sirkari dam^ 
a work next in importance to the Paiwal, and which is rarely cut, 
though occasionally carried away by floods. The sirkari dam tm'ns 
the Lunf into a side channel which irrigates the rich country of Shem 
and which eventually leads back into .the natural bed of the Ldni near 
Bora. Below Bora the Ldnf is ioined by the Oudb naUah, and ihe 
united stream then flows on to the Indus. The channels below the 
sirkari bund down to the Indus are all crossed by numerous smaller 
dams. The dams on the lower part of the Ldni command the country 
to the south towards Paroa for some 10 or 12 miles. The LiSni irri^i^ 
tion in this direction is supplemented by that of ihe streams from the 
Chandwan and Draban zams. The sources of the Ldni lie far away in 
the hills towards Ghazni. The melting of the snows in these distani 

Flood! of th LAnL ranges invariiu)ly causes the Ldni to come dowo 

in flood during the end of Mardi or the begin- 
ning of April. The Ldni is also more or less in flood during July and 
August The highest floods generally occur about the end of Jn^f. 
These are the principal seasons for irrigation, though occasional floods 
occur at other times of the year, consequent on ram in the hills, and 
often continue running with considerable violence for a week or moro^ 

389. I have already mentioned that the Gdmal, whidi issues from 
., Q^ . the same Batti Kammar range, but some miles 

to the north of the Ldni, gets Ldni water from 
the north through the Kaur nallahy and from the south from the dama 
above Eulachi. The Gdmal is very difierent in character from the 
Lunt. In many parts it is not more than 30 yards in width, and it 
generally runs between clearly marked banks in a channel of verr 
regular appearance, that looks as if it had been artificially excavated* 
Brides getting Luni water, the Gdmal carries off all the soathem 
drainage from the Tank zatn. Most of the flood wat^r from this zdm 
flows away to the north, and forms eventually a large natural stream 
im. fT t A A arM^M called the Takwllra. Next to the Ldni, tho 

The TakwAra and Soheli. mi' "xu i.- -iirxu i.-ii 

Takwara is the most important of the hill 

torrents. It is joined in the Tank ilaqua by one or two smaller streams 

issuing from the Shuza Pass. The flood waters are only used in the 

Tank tahsil to water the Kaches or low lands along its banks, but on 

reaching the Kulachi tahsil, these flood waters are caught by a sncoes* 

sion of dams and spread over the fertile lands of Takwara and Hath&la. 

At the edge of the Tank talisil, the Takwara is joined by the Soheli stre^^ 

the waters of which have before this been carried by means oi numerous 



19B 

diUim wer the greater part of the Kandi country. The united Takwara 
»nd Soheli Boon separate into two branches. One rans by Budb, and 
unites with the main stream of the Gdmal near Rahman. This 
is known as the Saggd branch, owing to its crossing the Bannd 
road jiear the village of that name. Another branch, known as the 
Hans natkJij runs north by Yaric. This latter bas of late years been 
badly supplied with water, the natural flow being to tlie south. Between 
these two branches a broad tract of nearly desert country intervenes. 
The Takwira in old days flowed through tne centre of this tract, and 
Major Macaulay bas managed this year (A. D. 1878), by taking advan- 
tage in plaoes of the old bed, to bring a tnird stream of water from the 
Takwira right through the centre of this bare daggar tract. This 
branch cuts tlra Bannd road at Jand-ke-choki. 

The Takw&ra comes down in flood at the same seasons as the Ldn{, 
but the flow lasts for a much shorter time. The Soheli comes down 
with great violence, but as its sources are on this side of the Ghabbar 
hill, the floods pass ofi^ in a few hours. 

390. South of the Ldni there are several hill streams, but for 

fifcrMms th f th LdnL ^^'^ ^^osi part of minor importance. The water 

^^ ^ ^ from the Passes is generally thrown out in a 

fan, and as a rule the southern flood waters from one Pass join the 

northern flood waters from the next Pass lower down, and so form a 

Joint stream, which is known by a name of its own. 

391. The Sw6n, which carries off the northern flood waters from 
The Swan. ^® Shekh Haidar or Zarkanni Pass, waters the 

south-western Gundapur country. Below it 
TheToah. ^^ Toah, fed from the Shekh Haidar and 

Draban Passes, waters the northern Miankhel 

country, and joins the Ldni near Saggd. The Gadh, a much larger 

The Osdh. Stream, is supplied from the Draban and Chand- 

wan Passes. It passes through the centre of 
the Miinkhel country down to the small town of Gandi Umer Ehan; 
Here it breaks up into a number of channels. Some of these join the 
Luni between Saggu and the Garah Ashiq dam above Naievela, while 
others pursue an independent course to the south-east, towards Paroa 
and Makkar. 

392. The water from the Chandwan zam is the joint property of fhe^ 

Ti.- rn,.«^«x« .— Miankhels of Miis&sai and of the Babars. 

Tne Unanawsn tarn. ^p, . , •xi.tt'i*'* i»j a 

Their shares m the Kalapani are fixed. As 
regards the flood water, the rule has been that neither party may do 
anything to check or encourage the flow of the water at the mouu of 
the Pass above the point where the stream naturally divides. The 
Miankhels take all that goes to the north, the Babars all that goes to tho: 
south. The Babars have long complained that, owing to a change in 
the flow of the stream, this rule now works very hardly as regards uiem. 
Lieutenant Grey, when offioiating as Deputy Commissioner, wished to 
have it set aside, though for special reasons this was not done at the 
time. I certainly think that the rule is one, which, though saving 



200 

trouble to officers, should not be blindly adhered to. The water of this, 
as of the other Passes, should be distributed as far as possible with a 
regard to the general good of the people, who depend on it for their 
irrigation. 

393. The northern water from the Chandwan zam flows partly to 

Streama iBsuing from it. ^ "^^"^ *^^ P^'^^^J' ^ ^^ 5?^^^ ^^ Musizai. 

The former flows mto the Gudh stream ; the 

latter irrigates the Musazai lands. 

The Babar supply falls into the Waleyri channel, which* flows 
The WaleyrL south of Chandwan. The Waleyri is generally 

exhausted in the Babar country ; a little surplus 
water, however, sometimes reaches the southern branches of the Gudh. 

394. To the south of the Babar country comes the Gajistan Pass. 

The QajiBtau and Shirran. The custom as regards the distribution of the 

water from mis Pass is the same as m the case 
of the Chandw&n zamj i. e. each tribe gets the water which naturally 
takes a particular channel. Most of the water from this Pass flows 
down the Gajistan ncdlahy which irrigates the southern Babar country. 
The Ushteranas get the water from the Shir ran, a smaller branch, 
which forms the boundary betiiveen the Ushteranas and the Babars. 
The Shirran is generally exhausted before reaching the Dera Ismail 
Khan tahsil. &e Gajistan has a longer course, and joins the southern 
branches of the Gudh near Paroa. 

395. The Ushterana country is irrigated by two or three small 
Streams in the Ushterana torrents. The Bammak only de^rves mention* 

country. The Rammak. The Ushteranas are always disputing about the 
proper site for the dams at the head of this stream, and in consequence 
of their quarrels, the water is not utilised by them to the extent that it 
might be. Most of the Bammak water runs down to the Miran ilaqna. 
A third share is allotted to the Government Grass rakh, and a third 
each to the villages of Bammak and Miran respectively. 

396. The flood waters from the Yahoa and Kaura Passes naturally 
_. - join close to their sources in a single stream. 

The Kaura, however, is for the most part turned 
ofl^ to the nordi, and irrigates the Kasrani country of Daulatwala and 
Jhangra. It eventually reaches the villages of Chuui and Trimman on 
the Dera Ghazi Khan road. None of the streams between the Chand- 
wan and Yahoa zams have any perennial flow. 

397. The Yahoa is one of the most important of the hill streams 
Th Vahoa. ^^ ^^^^ district. The Kalapani water from the 

Yahoa zam is applied to the lands lying to the 
south of the maim stream round Yahoa. The lands on this bank, west 
of the Kur or old Indus bank, are too high to be irrigated from the dams 
constructed along the upper portion of the main stream. The water 
from these benefits only «falluw&li and the villages on the north bank. 
East of the Kiir the Yahoa naturally turns south, and irrigates a very 
fertile tract reaching down to the Dera Ghazi Khan district, and extend* 



201 

ing from the Indus to the Kdr bank, a portion of the Yahoa water reaches 
the Indus above Dera Fatteh Khan. The villages north of this latter 
channel generally get little or no irrigation from the Yahoa, although 
with proper management the Yahoa waters might easily be carried over 
the whole tract as far as Trimman. The floods of the Yahoa pass off 
in a day or two, and allow of dams being repaired in the intervals 
between them. 

Below Yahoa are the small streams of the Mithwdn and the Litra, 

Streams below the Vahoa. ^5? ^^^^?{ '7^^''^ *^^®^ '^^'^ *" ^^^ ^^'^ ^Ihizi 

Kuan district. 

398. Having now reached the border of the district to the south. 
Streams issaing from the I may devote 4 few words to the torrents that 

northera hills. flow from the Khasor and Shekhbudin ranges 

to the north. 

The principal of these streams is the Morin Wah, more commonly 
»ri,« vr^^^ w-i, «• T «^«; kuowu as the Largi. The waters of this stream 

The Jlonn Wah or Largi. i 'l m ^ ' l aju l i? 

and its affluents are intercepted by a number of 

small dams during their coarse through the Largi valley, while those 

that escape, after watering on the way the southern lands of 

Panniala, flow down to Talgi Yario and Talgi Rodikhel. Another 

The other Largi. torrent, known also by the name of Largi, 

carries off the flood waters from the Khasor 
range east of Panniala. It irrigates the north-western portion of the 
Kachi lands of mauzah Paharpur, while one of its branches, leading 
more to the east, irrigates some of the wells of Bagwani and Kathgarh. 
These latter as a rule get no share of the Largi water till the require- 
ments of the Paharpur zemindars have bean first satisfied, or till the re- 

Drainage from Shekh- straining dams accidentally break. The drainage 
budln. from Shekhbudln passes off through a number 

of petty torrents that irrigate the villages from Panni&la to the Tank 
border. The northern drainage comes out by the Peyzu Pass, and, di- 
viding into two branches, goes partly to Daulatpur and partly to the 
village of Audri in the T&nk tahsil. The Chunda people would like to 
intercept this water, but are not allowed to do so. They have their 
own little stream called the Tirkhoba. Other small streams water the 

The drainage from the villages of Bahadri and Galoti. The drainage 
Bhittanni range. from the Bhittauni hills is split up into a mul- 

titude of insignificant streams, draining towards the Sohali. As a rule 
the proprietors of the upper lands have the first right to stop the water. 
In the case of the Kargucha stream, the proprietors of the first village 
on it (Wauda Zallu) are not allowed to dam the water, which is the 
right of the people of Pai, lower down. The Wan la Zallu people are 
only entitled to the waters of some smaller a tjacent streams. 

399. I have already described in an earlier chapter the manner 
Management of the irri' i" which the dams on these hill torrents are 

gation arrangements on the constructed and the system of irrigation from 
larger streams. them. The labor required for the construction 

of these dams is all supplied by the villages benefited. As changes are 



203 

tsonstantlj occarring in the state of ilid torrent beds, lEuid die main 
•channels themselves are liable to shift their position, it is impossible to 
lay down cut and dried rales as to the exact position of the dams and 
the amount of labor to be supplied by each village. A very wide dis- 
t;ietion has always been left in sndi matters to the district officer. 

In the same way it is impossible, except in the case of the Kalapani 
flow, to fix the share of water to which each village is entitled. The nood 
\caters come down with a rush. Large tracts are dependent for their 
<;ultivation on each of the larger torrents. The district officer has to see 
that the waters of these are expended in the most profitable way, and 
that as far as possible each village is providea for. The general 
principle has been that the up-villages get the water till their require- 
ments are satisfied, and after them the villages below them, in turn, 
according to the sarcba paina rule. Often, however, it happens that to 
work this rule strictly would entail much waste of water. The people 
of an upper village wish to keep their dam standing, and while using 
a little of the water for irrigation, let the remainder run to waste in side 
ravines. In such cases their dam has to be authoritatively cut, that the 
lower villages may not suffer. On the Ltlni the Gundapur country gets 
first irrigated, l^low it comes the Sheini ilaqua, and below this again 
the Naievela ilaqua. The people of all these are constantly disputing 
al)out the water. When the supply is moderate, the Oundapurs wish to 
keep it as long as possible, while the Sheru and Naievela people are 
shouting that the Gundaptlrs have already had their fair share, and 
that their dams should be cut. The question as to the exact moment 
at which the Gundapur dams should be cut, is often very difficult to 
decide. Is the Ldni likely to remain in flood, and for how long ? The 
Deputy Commissioner has to pass orders according to the best of his 
judgment. Perhaps, just as the water has been given to the Sherd 
])eople, a big flood comes and carries away every dam down to the 
Indus, so that it does them no good. It is this uncertainty which has 
led to the introduction of the Daman fluctuating system of assessment. 
Besides this, the tracts entitled to irrigation are not restricted to those 
that have been cultivated hitherto. The waters of the Ldni and Tak- 
wara, when in full flood, are sufficient to irrigate the whole of the 
Daman lands, to which they can be applied, from end to end. Every 
now and then, therefore, a new branch is taken out from one of the old 
ncUlahs to irrigate a tract before waste. The owners of such waste 
lands may at Settlement have supplied little or no labor for ihe dams, 
but as soon as they get the benefit of them, they are at once assessed 
with a fair proportion. Under the fluctuating assessment system they 
will now be assessed also with a- fair revenue. A Record has been 

repared describing the irrigation system for each of the hill streams. 

n the case of the larger torrents, however, these are hardly so much 
records of rights, as statements of the existing practice, which has 
already more or less altered during the course of their preparation. 

400. In the case of the smaller torrents, their waters are, as a rule. 
System followed on the exhausted in watering the two or three villages 

•uaUer itreama. sssxest the bead of Uie stream. To divert aajr 



! 



203 

poriiote of the wa/be/t to otter villa^ea would be a olear iaierfereince with 
established rights. In the case of these, the system approximates more 
to that in force for Kalapani irrigation. Shares are to some extent fixed, 
and the interference of the District Officer is limited to settling dispates 
occasioned by alterations in the circumstances of the stream, such aa a 
change of coarse or level. Sonltetimes, too, a majority of those interested 
wish for some alteration in the system in force, which is opposed br 
ak conservative minority. Where such a change is for the general good, 
and does not injuriously affect the dissentients, the District Officer would 
be entitled to sanction it, though contrary to the recorded prHctice. In 
all cases an appeal would lie from the administrative order of the 
District Officer to the Commissioner and Financial Commissioner, but 
in most cases the rights involved are hardly of a description that Can be 
adjudicated on by the Civil Courts. 

401. As regards the management of the necessary irrigation works. 
Construction of dams, the larger dams, such as the Paiwal and the 

Sygtem of bigar. nrkari bandj are constructed under the imme- 

diate supervision of Government officials. In cases of dispute as to the 
proper site for a dam, the point is settled by a summary order of the 
Deputy Commissioner. The Deputy Commissioner arranges from time 
ib time the amount of labor, calculated in yokes of open, ov joraSy to be 
snppUed by each village, and the dam^ on which it is to be employed. 
The system on which the internal distribution of this labor is effected 
has been explained in para 207. As a rule, the amount of labor sup- 
plied by the different villages is in proportion to the number of yokes 
they can actually furnish. There is, however, no fixed rule, and the 
amount of revenue paid, or the area capable of irrigation, are points that 
are often taken into account in making the distribution. AH persons 
holding land in the tracts irrigated by these torrents are bound to fur- 
nish the quota of labor assessed on them ; the supply of bigar^ as it is 
called, being a part of the tenure. Unlike the custom in the Dera 
Ghazi Khan district, the Government pays nothing towards the cost of 
keeping up these irrigation works. The labor required is all supplied 
by the zemindars, who have to fe^ their ox^n at their own expense for 
the time that they are engaged. There is a small establishment of 

Daroghas and Moharrirs employed under the 
SapeiTising establishment, jy^^^^^ Commissioner in supervising the water 

' distribution. The pay of these is met partly from fines, and partly by a 
rate assessed on the villages affected in proportion to their jama. The 
Tahsildars are also employed to a great extent on the same work, which 
forms one of the most important of their duties. Official supervision is 
mainly exercised over the Tank Kalapani distribution, and over the 
Ltinf and Tak^ara irrigation, and to a less extent over the Yahoa 
irrigation. The management of the smaller streams is, except in case 
of dispute, left very much to ttie zemindars. 

402. The necessity for some improvement in the method of dis- 
Froposed irrigation works tributing the waters of the larger streams has 

on the Luui. long been felt. The present irrigation system 



304 

is wasteful in the extreme. An immense deal of labor is anniuilljr e%^ 
pended in constractinjr kacha dams, most of which have to be cat in 
order to allow the flood waters to pass down to the lower villages. 
There is no means for reflating the supplj, and a sadden flood of 
water may carry away with a rash all the dams on a stream, leaving 
the villages dependent on them waste for the season. The constrnction 
of masonry dams with sluices at the head of the Luni has been proposed 
bj District Officers over and over again, from the early years of British 
rule. Of late years the question has again been taken up, and after 
some preliminary surveys, a detailed scheme was lately drawn out by 
the Canal Department, and its adoption is now under the consideration 

* let »cheme ^^ ^® Government. This scheme consists of 

' ' two portions. It is first proposed to construct 

a weir at the mouth of the Gumal Pass and above the Ratti Kammar 
range, where the Ldni issues from the hills. This weir would be sup- 
plied with a regulator, by means of which the required amount of water 
might be drawn off and thrown into the Khan Wand, the main channel 
from which the Kaur and Waran are supplied. This would ensure an 
abundant supply of water to the Tank tahsil and to all the country 
irrigated from the Gumal and the TakwAra, both of which could be 
supplied through the Khan Wand. The cost of this scheme was esti- 
mated at less than three laks of rupees. 

403. The 2nd scheme proposes in addition to the above works to 

2nd scheme. ^*"™ ^P ^^® ^" ^^""g® through the Batti 

Kammar range, and, by cutting a channel from 
the Khan Wand to the Mian Nur marsh, to turn the whole of this into 
a reservoir. The area of this reservoir is estimated at over 2,000 acres. 
It would be furnished with an escape into the Luni to the west of the 
idatti Kammar range, and the water from it would supply a system of 
canals, commencing at Rori. Owing to the fitful character of the Ldni 
floods, the flow in these canals would not be permanent. Still the fact 
that surplus water sufficient for a few days could be stored up in the 
reservoir during a rush, would make the supply more certain than it 
would be under the first scheme. Th^ cost of this 2nd scheme, which 
includes the 1st scheme, is estimated by Mr. Garbett at 7 lakhs of rnpees 
plus extra charges. It seems doubtfid whether the 2nd scheme would 
not be too expensive to answer, and there is a fear too that the excessive 
amount of silt brought down by the Ldni would in spite of all precau- 
tions lead very soon to a silting up of the reservoir. The advantages 
of the first scheme, however, are very apparent, and though, as the Tank 
tahsil already gets canal irrigation from the Giimal zam, no increase 
of revenue could be taken in it under the terms of the present Settle- 
ment, still a large increase of revenue might be anticipated in the 
Gundapur country and the portions of the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil, 

A i.- • ^4.^A ;««^ ^ which have been brou^fht under the Daman flao- 

Anticipated income. x.. . t" i^p-i-ju 

tuatmg system. In a report furnisned by me 

at the beginning of this year,* I estimated the probable increase of 

- ■ ■ ■ ^ _ . _ ^^ M ■ — ^^.^^^M^M^W^— ^^^ 

* No. 260, dated 28th March lS7^, to Deputy Commijsioner. 



205 

revenne from the 1st scheme at Bs. 80,000^ though owing to the paucity 
of labor, it would probably take a few years before the reremie could 
be developed to this extent. The increase would be larger were it not 
that a large portion of the area affected is held in perpetuity jagir. 
The Punjab Government directed in 1876* that no more villages in this 
Villages in the tract ef- tract were to be granted in jagir, but villages 
fected not to be granted in with an area of nearly 70,000 acres were sub- 
3*S"^« sequently granted as an exceptional measure to 

Kawab Ghulam Hassan Khan Alizai. The grant is for life, and the 
Punjab Government expressly refused to allow them to be included in 
the Nawab's perpetuity jagir. The assets from the villages of this life 
jagir are included in my estimated increase of Rs. 80,000. 

404. The only stone available for the construction of these irriga- 

. Materials available for *»<>» works in the immediate vicinity of the 
construction of irrigation proposed site consists of the boulders brought 
^^^^^' down by the Liini, and these are only found 

within a short distance of the (jldmal Pass. The banks of the Batti 
Karamar gorge and the entrance of the Gumal Pass are composed of 
earthy material and beds of shingle, and contain no boulders of a size 
sufficient to be of any use. 

♦ Para. 6. of letter No. 500 of 17th March 1876, from Secretary GoYemment Punjab, 
to Secretary Financial Commissioner. 



206 
PART IV. 

ASSESSMENTS. 



PRICES ACCEPTED FOR CALCULATING THE VAWIB 

OP PRODUCE. 

405. The pri^ carrents obtained from the tahsfls, and whicb 
TT\ce9 axxiordtng to the <^^ supposed to show the wholesale prices for 

tahftii price carrents too graiin sold in tahsil towns for the last 30 years^ 
^^ are very much in excess of the prices obtained %t 

£he village threshing floors. These tahsfl prices for the period immedi- 
ately preceding this Settlement, were much too high to accept in pre- 
paring the gross produce estimates. The prices shown in the patw4ris^ 

annual papers were a more reliable guide. Each 

wfcSw«X"u^ ^*^ Pft^irf had been ia the habit of filW in for 

his own villages the prices for which grain sold 
at the threshing floor ;*and on comparing the rates for different patwarfs' 
circles^ I found that there was a good deal of uniformity, not only in thd 
average prices for a term of years, but also in the fluctuations from year 
to year. I found too that the prices given in the patwarfs* papers agreed 
very fairly with the prices taken in calculating the value of* the' Govern- 
ment mahsfU in the Kulachi kham tahsU, In the Gundapur country 

in— ♦-i.-n .. •**- the Government share of the produce is mea- 

JLMm tansu prices. j ix» j • u j mL '^ • • j.i. 

sured ott and weighed, rhe grain is then re- 
turned to the cultivator, and the value realised from him at prices fixed 
by the Deputy Commissioner for each harvest. The average realisations 
have been about Rs. 60,000 a year, and much care, therefore, has to be 
taken in ascertaining the actual harvest prices before fixing the Govern- 
ment price current. Moreover as the Chiefs get a fourth of the collections, 
it is their interest to see that prices are fairly assessed, and on the whole, 
these prices show as nearly as possible the actual selling price of grain 
at harvest tim^. They may be a little favorable to men who can afford 
to take their time in disposing of their grain, but little or no profit can 
be derived by the poorer cultivators, who have to make over the grain 
at once to a Hindu, in order to pay the revenue due from them. 

406. The Bhittanni kham tahsU prices have hitherto been fixed 

by the Nawab of Tank who, under the old 
pri<]^d'*'*^''' arrano:ements, was himself entitled to .a third of 

the collections. The rates are a good deal higher 
for the more important grains than in the Kulachi kham tahsil. The 
prices taken for wheat and bdjra are higher by -J- and for jowdr by f • 
The T&nk price-current is not so reliable as tne Kulachi price-current. 
There is no doubt, too, that the Bhittannis have made up for the higher 
prices assessed, by surreptitiously making off* with a larger share of the 
•produce than the Gundapurs, who have been under stricter supervision 
in these matters. 



207 

CompantiTe (Utemeiit ot 407. Th« average prices per rapee of the 

lirice-cunBDt*. principal grains obtained in theae different ways 

are as follows : — 



i 


d 8 1 • la I a 1 s«^ 2? 1 * 


<^ T 




(J a 




1 


«i - 


4 3 




it " 






(J 3 




•I 


•a S 








ej - 




C 3 




1 




•4 3 




K " 




1 


d - ^ 3 - -" 3" 




»i " 8 a " 3 


-4 S 




ad - 






d - 




1 


>) a 




* 




iz 




d - 




- 1 


Oj s 








j^ 




d a 


(L » 


1 


^siaiaisi a \ a 


J - 










8 






^ 






S 






1 






1 






3. 






iS 






3| 






11 






. 1^ 





208 

408. Thirty seers would have been a fair rate to take for wheat, 
Beasons for taking alow bat prices for the two or three years immedi* 

price-current in assessment, ately preceding the submission of my assessment 

proposals were so exceedingly low that I did not feel myself justified in 

fixing a higher price than Be. 1-2-0 per maun. In 1875 wheat was 

^jjg^^. selling in the villages at from 1 maun to l^- 

nianns foi* the rupee, and the prices of other 
grains were proportionately low. For the same reasons the prices ac- 
cepted for g''am, barley, hajra and jowar are considerably lower than 
the average prices by the patwaris' returns. The prices of all these 
grains had at the time of assessment fallen to a still greater extent than 
that of wheat, and bajra and jowar were almost unsaleable. 

The rate taken for sarson agrees with the average Knlachi hJiam 
Sarson. tahsil rate and also with the patwarl's rate. 

As regards cotton, the price taken by me was the average for the 
^ . . last three or four years. The average price 

obtained from the patwaris' papers is unduly 
high, as it includes the high prices for the years of . the American war, 
when the demand for cotton was unprecedental. 

409. During the last year, owing to the famine in the south of India 
Subsequent rise in prices and the consequent large exportation of grain 

of food grains owing to the down the Indus, prices have risen enormously, 
Famine in southern India. j^^j ^jj^ p^^^g g^^^j \^j ^^ ^^^y perhaps appear to 

be unwarrantably low. In a country, however, like this, where the 
produce is much in excess of the local demand, there is always a fear of a 
sudden fall in prices. It is quite possible that a few years may a£:ain 
see them as low as they were in 1875 ; that is at least 25 per cent, lower 
than those that have been taken in assessing. 

-. . ■ . , 410. The prices taken for the district 

Pnces accepted. ,, ^ ^ n 

generally are as follows : — 

Rs. A. P. 

Wheat per maun ... •••12 

Cotton do. ••• ... 3 

Makkai do. ... •••I 6 

Tobacco do. ... ... 2 8 

Oram do. 10 

Barley do 14 

Bajra do. ••• ••• 1 

Jowar do. •.• ... 14 

Sarson do. ••• •••2 

Asstin do. ••• •..I 6 

Mting do. ••• ... 2 

Moth do. 1 

Peas (mattar) do. ••• ... 14 

Til do 3 

Bice in husk do. ••• •.. 2 

Vegetables per acre ... Rs. 30 to Rs. 20 

Sugar-cane do. Rs. 120 



209 

tn tbd Bhidckar and Leiah tahsils the price for jowdr has been 
tUles for h^rajawar and ^^^ like that of bdjra at Be. 1, and in Kalachi 
9ar$on not aniform for fUl and T4nk the prioe of bajra has been lowered 
the tahsiU. ^ to 14 ^^^3 and of sarson to Re. 1-12-0. With 

these exceptions) one set of prices has been adhered to for the whole 
district. 

In Appendix XX I have given the prices of the principal food- 
Prices taken in assesaing grains for the town of Dera from 1842 to 1879* 
and tbreBhing-floor prices These town prices are half as high again as the 
compared. prices ordinarily realised at the village threshing- 

4oors. The threshing-floor prices for the last twenty years, calculated 
on this basisy compare as follows with the prices taken in assessment :— ^ 

Amount in seers selling far the rupees 







By Dera town 






prices. 






M. S. C. 


Wheat 




... 22 


Barley 




.•. 30 13 


Gram 




... 25 1 


Bajra 




... 26 1 


Jow&r 




... 27 8 



.•• 



... 



... 





Sy ptieet 


By thrething- 


taitninaueum 


fioor prices. 


meiu. 


M. S. 0. 


M, S. 0. 


33 


... 35 9 


16 6. 


... 1 5 11 


37 9 


...10 


39 1 


... 1 


1 12 


... 1 $ 11 



It will be seen that the threshing-floor prices for this period ard 
very slightly higher than those taken in assessing. 



NATURAL DIVISIONS AND ARRANGEMENT OF ASSESS- 
MENT CIRCLES. 

411. The Dera Ismail Khan district divides naturally into six 

Natural divisions of the tracts, each of which is distinguished by marked 
district. 
Six tracts. 

. The Damin. 



peculiarities in the quality of the soil and the 
character of the cultivation. These are : — 

Ist, The Damdn. — The soil is a hard clay* 
Caltivation is carried on in embanked fields. 

2nd. The Pannidla tract, — This includes the Largi valley and the 

Panniftla Thai. The soil is light and sandy. 
Cultivation is mainly barani dependent on rain. 

3rd. Tlie hill lands of the Khasor, Nilah 
Koh and Bhittanni ranges. The cultivation 
here is all baranu 

4kth. The Rug^Paharpur trac^ — This assimilates in places to the 

Tk. ii«» p.i...^«.4^.^» Indus alluvial tract, but is mainly dependent 
Tne ttag-ranarpur tract, i. . . .. n • j x* S j 

for irrigation on wells, mundation canals^ and 

the drainage from the Khasor range. 



The PannUOa tract. 



The hill lands. 



210 

bth. The Kaehi.— Thin includes the whole tS t)ie Mnriti lands 
Th*iK*i/.hi flooded by the Indns. The ooltivation is all 

XIAO jxa^iii« If* 1 •! » 

chant and sauaJba. 

6th. The Thai. — This is a sandy plain, getting no natural irriga- 
The Thai. ^on. The soil is light and sandy, cultivation is 

mainly dependent on wells, but there is a little 
barani cultivation in parts. 

412. The soil of each of these tracts is, as a rule, very uniform in 
ClaesificAtion of lands for character, and the further classification of cul- 
Mfiessment purposee. tivated land is based in the manner of cultiva- 

ting and the means of irrigation. 

In the Dam£n. The Daman lands have been divided into — 

* Kalapani lands watered by perennial streams. 

Sodkoi lands — watered by hill torrents. 

Daggar lands — getting daggar irrigation, f.^., irrigation from the 
collected rain-fall of waste lands in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. In my assessment reports these daggar lands were 
shown under name of haraniy but in this general account it 
will be better to call them by a more specific name^ to dis- 
tinguish them from pure barani or rain lands. 

Chahi lands — Irrigated from wells. These are all in the immediate 
vicinity of the Indus. 

In the Panniila tract. ,. . 5^. ^f°^« ^^ ^^ Pauuiila tract have been 

divided into — 

V 

Karez lands. — These are watered by springs obtained by tunnelling 
into hill sides. 

Kalapani lands. — As in the Daman. 

Barani lands. — Much' of the barani in the part gets a certain 
amount of rodkoi and daggar irrigation, but most of it is en- 
tirely dependent on rain. 

T **,- v«n ♦«^f- The hill lands are all of one description. 

In the niU tracts. ., . , ijrii.j- *^i»' 

viz.j oaraniy supplemented by the drainage from 

the neighbouring hills. 

The Rug-Paharpur lands have been classified as cJiahiy saHaba- 

In the Bag-Paharpur chahi^ sailaba and barani. The sailaba-chAhi 

tract, corresponds to the chalii-nahri of the Dera 

Ghazi Khan district. 

The Indus Kachi lands are divided into sailaba^ or flood irrigated, 
T *u* ir-«i.; ^^^ ^^'^ lands. In the latter, well irrieation is 

supplemented by floods. 

In the Thai. '^^ ^^*^ lands are divided into well and 

• ' beiranu 



211 

413. It has been impossible in framing assessment circles to ad- 
Boundaries of aflBessment h^r® to these natural divisions, as many village* 
circles do not correspond contain lands lying in two or three of the tracts 
with these divisions. that I have enumerated. A third of the villages 

in Bhakkar and Leiah lie partly in the Thai, partly in the Kacni. 
Similarly the trans-Indus villages along the Indus lie partly in the 
Daman, partly in the Kachi. The villages along the Khasor range 
have Kachi lands^ hill lands, and sandy mnds (known as dam) in m^ 
Largi valley. 

Assessment circles form- With this explanation I will proceed to 

ed. mention the assessment circles that have been 

formed. 

In the Dera Ismail Khan 414. The Dera Ismail Khan taJiM. — ^The 

tahsil. circles formed are ten in number : — 

The Khasor circle, includes the villages along the E^hasor range 
down to Belot. 

The Pannidla circle, includes most of the Panniala Thai and the 
Ijargi valley also some hill lands. 

The Rug^Paharpur circle, consists of an alluvial tract irrigated 
from the Indus, but not exposed to its direct action. It also indudea 
some hill lands and part of the Panniala Thai. 

The Kacha circle, includes all the river side villages of the Dera 
Ismail Khan tahsil, except those already included in the Khasor circle 
down to the Kahiri circle. 

The Kahiri circle, borders on the Indus, but the Daman hare 
gradually sinks down to the river, instead of ending abruptly as in 
tne Kacha circle. The cultivated lands are mostly sailaba, but biuch of 
the circle is above the reach of floods. 

The remaining five circles consist of the Dam&n lands of the tahsd. 
They are named for the most part after the streams by which they Are 
mainly irrigated : — 

The Chimal Takwdra circle, is irrigated from the Gdmal and T^Jsr 
wira and to some extent from the Ldui. 

!Z^ Lrini Awal circle, includes the upper villages on the Lunf. 

ITie Liini Dot/am circle, includes the lower villages on the Liini. 

The Ldni Gudh Tauh circle, is irrigated by the three streams from 
which it gets its name. 

The Miran circle, is a dagqar tract, irrigated in parts by the 
Bammak and Gajistan streams. 

415. The Tank tahsd. — This tahsil lies almost entirely in the 
- la 4heTAtik tahsd Daman tract, but the north-eastern corner is 

similar in character to the Panni&la Thai. It is 
divided into four circles : — 



212 

The Kundi circle^ includes the harani and rodkoi tract north of the 
Takwara^ and irrigated by the Taki?v&ra and Soheli. 

The Jatatar circle^ indades the central portion of the tahsfl, which 
ffetfi Kalapani irrigation from the Tank and Gdmal zamSf but in which 
toe cultivation is carried on in bandsj vichobi fashion. 

The Bhittanni circlet consists of the Bhittanni hham tdhtil lands 
watered from the Tank zam. It resembles the Jatatar circle. 

The Gdmal circle, gets Kalapani irrigation from the Gdmal zam. 
The cultivation is mainlj tandobi, not vichobi. 

416. The Kulachi iahsO.— This tahsil lies almost entirely in the 
Tr, fi,^ ir 1 V * V n Damdn tract. To the south it borders on the 

In the Kulachi tahsd. j^^^^^ ^^^ ^ j.^^j^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^ j^^^ ^^. 

vial tract, is included within its boundaries. It has been divided into 
seven circles, which correspond with tribal or administrative subdivisions. 
They are as follows : — 



The Gmidapur circle. 
The Zarkanni circle. 



The Sdbar circle. 
The Uthtarana circle. 



J 



These circles comprise the lands held 



The Mtankhel circle. > by the tribes from which they are 



named. 



The Daulatwala circle, — ^This is a small oirclcy hitherto held in 
kham tahsfl. 

The Vahoa circle, — Includes all the southern portion of the tahstl 
the lands of which are mainly irrigated from the Vahoa naUah, 

In the TJshtarana and ]3anlatwala circles the lands are rodkoi and 
barani; in all the other circles there are also Kalapani lands, and in the 
Vahoa circle there are well and eailaba lands in addition to the other 
three descriptions. 

In the Bhakkar tahdl. ^ ^M' P^ Bhakhar «aA»fl.-In this tahstt 

nve circles have been formed: — 

The Pakka drcUj includes the villages on the Thai bank, which 
are half Thai, half Kachi, and the Kachi villages that lie inland away from 
the Indus. There is a great deal of well cultivation in the Kachi lands 
of this circle. 

The Kacha circle^ comprises the villages between the Pnzal and the 
Indus, which are almost all more or less exposed to alluvion and diluvian. 
It lies between the Pakka circle and the Indus. There are but few wells^ 
and the cultivation is almost all sailaba. 

The Bet circle, resembles the Kacha circle, hut the villages con- 
tained in it lie for the most part in islands in the river. It comprises 
also a part of the adjoining Thai. * 

The Daggar circle, comprises the western portion of the purely 
Thai villages, wherQ the popidation is supported mainly by well culti- 
ration. 



213 

The Thai Kalan eircley comprises the eastern portion of the Thai, 
where wells are deep and well cnltivation unprofitable, the people depending 
mainly on their flocks and herds. 

* .,. ♦ . ,. X «L/, 418. The Leiah tahM. — Three circles hare 

In the Leiah taiiBil. v /» j 

been formed: — 

The PaJcka circle, — The Kacha circle. — These correspond to the 
Pakka and Kacha circles of the Bhakkar tahsil, but the Thai area of the 
Pakka circle in Leiah is much more extensive than in Bhakkar, owing 
to the great distance to which some of the Thal-Nasheb villages stretch 
back. It also includes some purely Thai villages which have oeen added 
in order to round off boundaries. 

The Thai Kalan circle^ comprises the remainder of the Leiah Thai. 
In its character it occupies an intermediate position between the Daggar 
and Thai Kalan circles of the Bhakkar tahsil. 

I shall now explain the way in which the six descriptions of land, 
which I have described in para. 411, have been assessed. 



I.-ASSESSMENT OP THE DAMAN LANDS. • 

419. The assessment of the villages of the Daman tract is based 
AsBessment of DamAn on estimates of the average annual produce, 
lands. and in preparing these, but little assistance can 

be obtained from mere statistics of area. 

The soil of the Daman is very uniform in character, and though 

Dsmin soil uniform in some lands are better than others and will yield 

character. Its quality liable a good crop with fewer Waterings, still there are 

S ^^^^^JL ^^^1 »o clearly marked distinctions, which need to 
ox nooas. zormation oi ra- i . i • . .j .. • . « .., 

Tines, &c. be taken into consideration m preparmg Settle- 

ment statbtics. The quality of land, too, is 
very liable to change in all the torrent watered tracts. Bad lands are 
often suddenly enriched with a deep deposit of silt, and so become first 
class. Good lands, on the other hand, are sometimes injuriously affected by 
being swept over by flood waters, that have already deposited the silt 
they originally contained. These floods sometimes remove the upper 
coating of good soil, and expose a layer of bad soil underneath. A 
more cominon cause for the deterioration of good lands is the formation 
of ravines, which are very difficult to close, and, when once formed, 
increase rapidly in size, eating into the cultivated fields like a cancer. 
Extensive tracts of land, comprising sometimes hundreds of acres may 
be affected in both these ways. Deterioration is generally to be ascribed 
to the want of sufficient labour for the efficient maintenance of dams or 
laths. With a sufficiency of labour the worst ravines can be closed, 
and the most desolate tracts brought into a state of the highest cultiva- 
tion. Al^gether the improvement is in excess of the deterioration; and 
though here and there a village or group of villages may fall off^ yet 
the Damin, as a wholei is getting richer year by year. 



214 

420. The area of the Daman is very large, and the whole m cqI- 

Great flnctaatiooB ia the turable, ibe two things needed being water and 
cultivated area. labour. The water supply depends partly on 

rain and partly on the condition of the dams on the hill torrents. The 
cultivated area for the whole tract, therefore, varies greatly from year 
to year. The fluctuations in the case of single villages are still more 
marked. Even during the same season the state of adjoining villages 
may be utterly different. Take two villages — A and B. They have had 
the same rainfall, and are watered by the same torrent, but A may be a 
sheet of cultivation from end to end, while 6 is a desert. The irrigation 
dams of the first have held, while those of the second have given way 
with the first rush of water, leaving the cultivated lands high and dry. 
If these two villages were surveyed in the same year, the whole* area of 
A would be nhown as cultivated, that of B as waste or fallow ; but in 
spite of this, the lands of B might deserve a higher assessment than those 
of A. Another season might see their position reversed: B might then 
be a sheet of cultivation, while A was a desert. The sarcba paina rule 
also (see para. 14) leads to great inequalities in the state of adjoining 
villages, which are otherwise similarily circumstanced. In years of 
deficient rain-fall the flood waters are exhausted in waterin^the upper 
villages of a group, the lower villages remaining waste, xhe upper 
villages in such a year are often better off than it the supplv of water 
had been larger, in which case their laths might have suffered. In the 
villages forming the lower portion of the Luui I and Ldni II circles, a 
comparison of we produce returns for a series of years, shows this in a 
very marked way. Whenever the crops fail in the upper villages, they 
fail in the lower also ; but the crops in the lower villages oflen fail in 
other years, when the upper villages are flourishing, tne proportion of 
bad years being much greater in the one than in the other. Und^r 
ordinary circumstances two neighbouring villages similarly situated 
Would probably be in much the same condition in any given year, but 
still glaring differences, such as I have described, are to be come across every 
season. In assessing Daman villages, therefore, recent fallow ought to 
'be as heavily assessed as cultivated ; but every additional year that land 
has been lying fallow strengthens the presumption that it is unfavorably 
situated, and suffers from defective irrigation or some other cause, and 
land which has been long left uncultivated, must of course be more 
lightly assessed than cultivated and recent fallow. 

421. In assessing Daman villages, an estimate has first to bo 

-, . . ^, ^ formed of the probable future produce, in fram- 

Basis of the assessment. . i* i. 1 i» S i 

ing wfaicb, returns for past years, general 

resources, such as tiie number of ploughs, &c., and also the facilities 
enjoyed for extending cultivation, have to be considered. When the 
average value of the future produce has been as nearly as possible ascer- 
.tained, then it is necessary to determine the share to be taken as the 
Fluctuations in the yield Government revenue. This of course varies as 
affect share taken as the the fluctuations in the annual yield a^ greater 
basis of the demand. ^^ less. A village which is on an averaf^ 

waste for two years and gets a bumper hu^vest the third year, cannot 



215 

nfibrd to pay as large a share of its prodace as a Tillage which even in 
Iwd years gets a half or three-quarters crop. 

422. It will be readily understood that, in a country like this^ 
Oidinaiy produce etate- produce jamas, calculated on the cultivated area 

ment of little valae for for the year of Settlement measureraentS| are 
assessment purposes. valueless for purposes of assessment. In the 

ease of this district, measurements were carried out during an exception-* 
ally favorable year. There was a maximum of cultivation and a mini- 
mum of fallow and abandoned. By applying average produce rates to 
this cultivated area, the produce estimates obtained are enormous. Of 
course the yield might be reduced by lowering the produce rates, which 
could be done by allowing for a certain number of years in a cycle 
during which the land is presumed to remain waste. For instance, in 
the Gumal Takwira circle, the area shown under wheat at measurementa' 
is 10,106 acres, the produce of which at 10 mauns to the acre is 1,01,060 
mauns. I estimate the average area under wheat at 6,600 acres, the yield 
for which atthe same rate would be 66,000 mauns; under the cycle system 
this 66,000 mauns would be distributed over the 10,106 acres, and an 
average yield would be obtained of about 6 mauns instead of 10 mauns. 
In some of the poorer circles, such as the Ushtarana circle, the average 
yield calculated in this way might be reduced to two or three mauns, 
and in the case of the poorer crops, such as bajray to a few seers. By 
manipulating the yield in this way, produce jamas might have been 
obtained, which would have tallied fairly with the proposed assessments. 
I do not like the system, however, and have preferred to put aside 
altogether the produce estimate based on the crop areas giveii by Settle- 
ment measurements. * 

423. The Assessment Report for the Dera Ismail Khan tahsfl was 
Estimates of future pro- the first which I submitted affecting the Dam&n. 

duce and produce jamas, The Miran and Kahiri circles of this tahsil were 
how prepared. ^^ ^]^q ^j^^ nnder a different Superintendent, 

and were reported afterwards along with the Kulachi tahsil. A pro-* 
posal had been sanctioned for assessing the Damfin portion of the Dera 
Ismail Khan tahsil under a special system, by which ^ of the revenue 
only was to be fixed, and in lieu of the remaining |, crop rates were 
to be charged on the area under cultivation each year. In consequence 
of this, I paid more attention to the fluctuating crop rates than to the 
fixed portion of the assessment, and while setting aside the produce 
returns ( Statement D ) I did not clearly state what I believed the 
average produce of these circles to be. In calculating, however, the 
future income from crop rates, I furnished an estimate of the average 

* While rejectiag it for the Dam4n, I have followed the cjcle method in prepar- 
ing produce statements for the bardni lands of the Bhakkar Thai, and of the Panni&la 
and Khasor circles. In the case of rain lands, where the yield depends less on the area 
cnltiTated, which varies but little, than on the quality of tiie crops, which is generally 
much the saipe through the whole tract, the cycle system is certainlv the best to follow. 
I believe that Mr. Tborbum^s produce estimates for the Marwat tahsil were prepared 
in this way, allowance being made in calcnlating the average yield fof yean, in Whichi 
owing to want of rain, the land has remained waste. 



216 

annnal cnltivated area under the diflferent crops for each circle. By 
applying the rates of yield per acre given in the prodnoe statement to 
these areas, a revised estimate of the gross produce of these circles can be 
obtained which ou^ht to show the real averasre produce of the tract. 
In assessing the Tank and Knlachl tahsfls, where, as a rule, the whole 
revenne was fixed, I made out carefully for each circle a revised produce 
estimate, and explained fully in the assessment reports the grounds on 
which these figures were based. I showed the share of this produce 
which the Government ought to take, and thus obtained reliable pro^ 
duce jama for comparison with the jama which it was proposed to assess. 
In furnishing this final report, I have thought it desirable to preiiare 
similar estimates for the Dam&n circles of the Dera Ismail Khan tahsfl. 
They have been obtained by applying the produce rates to the estimated 
^future cultivated area under each crop for each circle, as given in the 
assessment report for the tahsfl. This estimate of the future ^cultivation 
is as good as any that I can now give. It is exclusive of lands which 
may have been ploughed and sown, but the crop on which has entirely 
failed, or furnished only a little fodder for cattle, and which do little to 
swell the actual yield of the tract. This must be remembered, other- 
wise the rates of yield would be excessive if applied to all lands that may 
have been ploughed and sown. The estimate of area and produoe thus 
obtained for the four circles of the Dera Ismail Khan.tahsil, that have 
been put under the Dam&n fluctuating system, is given along with the 
figures for the rest of the Daman tract in paras. 435 and 439. * 

424. In ascertaining the yield of the various crops, experiments 

Bates of yield per acre. were made iw to the actual yield on plots of 

small size, the produce of which had been cul 
op expenmen . ^^^ weighed on the spot. In determining the 

gross yield of entire mauzahs, or larger tracts including many mauzahs, 
recourse was had to the patwiris' returns, which were, in the case of 
jagfr villages, checked by the jagirdar's own accounts. In the Gunda- 
pur, Daulatwala and Ushtarana circles, the Government kham tahsfl 

Gro88 produce returns for Jf ^^^"« ^^^^ similarly made use of. As a rule, 
wlxole villages. these gross produce returns are n«)t accompanied 

by any statistics of the area under crop. Area 
statistics, however, were available for the year of measurements, and I 
also ascertained the area for the year after measurements by means of 
a girddwari. By distributing the gross produce according to jagir and 
kham tahsil returns for these years over the area under each crop in 
the different villages, an average rate of yield was obtained, which has 
been very useful in checking the conclusions that might be drawn from 
the results of particular experiments, and from a superficial inspection 

Low rates of yield ob- of the crops. The rates of yield given by these 
tained from gross produce gross produce returns for large areas are, as a 
'®^^"""- rule, extraordinarily low. The following figures 

give the acreage under cultivation, and the average yield obtained in 
ibis way for 36 specimen villages in the Dera Ismail Khan Daman^ foi: 
two successive years : — 



Statement showing yUld/or select^ vUlag 


eg. 








Coup. 


Area. 


Average 

yield per 

acre. 


Yalue p«r 
acre. 


Bftjra 

Jowai 

TTncleaned cottnit 

Til 

"Wheat 

Sar30n 

AaadQ 


38,166 

8,932 

8.351 

659 

21,518 
6,576 
2,101 


MdB. 

2 

1 
8 

2 
2 


S 

I 

3 
2 
1 


Ba. 

2 
2 
2 
i 
9 
4 
2 


1 
9 

! 

13 


P.' 

7 
6 

9 
2 

6 



Theee area etatiatics include lands -ploughed and sown, bat on which 
Exptonstion of the low the crop may have failed. The real yield per 
rates of ;rield for the poorer acre is, I believe, considerably more than these 
<"°P'- fignrea give. The returns, however, from which 

they have been derived are fairly reliable ; the patwAris' and ja^irdars* 
papers have been compared, and the jagirdars would have had no 
poasible reason for nuderstating the yield. In fact their advantage 
lay the other wny. I attribute the shortness of the yield mainly to 
losses in harvesting and threshing the grain. Under tbe batai system 
in force, the crop lies out on the uireshing-Hoors for weeks, sometimes 
almost for months, exposed to wind and rain, before partition is effected 
and the grain removed. In addition to this much of the produce is 
__ undoubtedly made away with previous to divi- 

sion. Wheat is a crop that suffers leas from 
tliis canse than others. It is reaped and stacked at once, and there ia 
„ . but little room for misappropriation. Cotton 

offers great facilities to dishone!>t cultivators, as 
the picking goes on for a long ume. Jowar and bajra ripen gradually. 
The ripe ears are picked first, and the harvesting goes on tor weeks. 
ths people and their cattle live in the fields, and ai-e eating the raw 
grain all the day long, and a good deal of the crop is got rid of in this 
way. Where irrigation, too, is uncertain, as in the Damin, bajra and 
joaar are very apt to suffer from di'ought, and are both liable to blight 
and to the at^cks of locusts and grneshoppors. Sometimes, too, when 
the cultivated area is unusually extensive, there is difficulty in gathering 
in the crop, owing to the deficiency of labor. All these causes affect 
llifl out-turn, and explain the low average yield for these two crops. 
Sarson and asinin are also uncertain crops, which are often cultivated 
carelessly. Though most valualile crops when properly grown in 
batids that have been thoroughly irrigated, the yield from them is often 
very small. I have pitched the nssuitu'd yield of all these crops, there- 
fore, a good deal below wheat, in order to allow for this uncertainty of 
out-turn. The results of the gross produce enquiries in the Knlacbi and 
Tank tahails were similar to those for the Dora Ismail Khan Daman, 



2i8 

425. The rates of yield taken by me in calonUting the revised 

Rates of yield accepted groaa produce estimates are intermediate be- 

lorraJfciiauddayjoriandB. tween the results of experiments on limited 

areas and the yield for whole villages obtained from the patwari's papers^ 

&c. in the way that I have described. 

The foUotving statement gives the aasnmed rates of yield for the 
rodkoi and daggar lands of the different circles : — 



The rodkoi and daggar lands are much mixed np together, and 
DifficaltjindiBtingoisliing often there is no essential difference between 
rodkoi and daggar lands. them. There is a great deal of land which 
sometimes gets rodkoi and sometimes only daggar irrigation. Only one 
set of prodace rates was prepared in the Dei-a tahsil for both 
rodkoi and daggar lands. In Kniachi and Tank the rataa assumed 
for rodkoi are higher than those for daggar lands. 

426. The Kalapani lands are to be fonnd in all the oiroles of the 

Ealapani laods. Bates Tsok tahsfl, and also in all the circles of the 

of yield accepted. Kulachi tahsll.except Ushtarana and Daulatwal«. 

The rates of yield per acre for the different crops have been fixed in the 

same way as those for rodkoi and daggar lands. They are as follows : — 





Cotton, 


Bic« 




Wheat. Sarson 


Bairn. 


Jowar. 


Burfey. 








1 








For all circles of) 
Tink tahsil and [ 
Gundapurcircle. ) 


4 




10 




'p 




1 


7 




? 




9 




Zarkanni 


3 








7 


20 


4 35 


& 


10 








... 


Miankhel, B&bar ) 
andVohoa. J 


4 




8 




10 




6 2C 

1 


7 


20 


7 


20 


9 





ai9 



area 

Ealapam cnltiTation how 
obtained. 

Amount of Ealapani re- 
venue in the difierent cir- 
cles. 



427. In preparing the estimates of the average area under 
Average area under Kalapani cultivation, calculations have been 

made as to the amount of land which the 
average Kalapani supply from the difierent 
zams (streams) is capable of irrigating. The 
circle in which the Kalapani irrigation is of 
most importance is Jatatar. The revenue of 
this circle is Rs. 87,000, nearly the whole of which is Kalapani. The 
Kalapani revenue of the remaining circles is roughly as follows :-^ 

Bs. 

500 

15,500 
5,400 
4,000 
800 
9,000 
6,000 
4,000 



Ktindi ••• 




Ghimal ••• 




Bhittanni 




Oundapur 




Zarkanni 




Miankhel 




B&bar 




Vahoa 





• •• 



• • t 



■ •• 



• •• 



• • • 



• • • 



t •• 



• • • 



• •• 



• • • 



• •• 



• •■ 



• •• 



428. The total Kalapani revenue is approximately As. 82,200. 

Estimate of cultivation Iji pa^a* 244 of my remarks on the Jatatar 
for the Jatatar circle how circle, I have explained the system by which 
obtained. water is allotted to each village of that circle in 

J proportion to its revenue. The average allowance for the wheat harvest 
or the four years from 1872 to 1876 was about 5 chatties per Rs. 100 
of jama. This would give 25 acres, of which 24 might be taken aa 
wheat and one acre as barley. I allowed also for 7 acres of saraon to 
every Rs. 100 of revenue. Sar^on is cultivated in bands^ which are 
irrigated with surplus Kalapani or with flood water, before the wheat 
sowings commence, and which are afterwards watered from time to 
time when the Kalapani can be spared from the wheat. This would 

five 32 acres of rabi cultivation. The kharif cultivation is less certain, 
ut generally its value is equal to about half that of the rabi harvest 
though the area is proportionally larger ; 23 acres accordingly was 
allowed for kharif cultivation, making 55 acres in all. Talung the 
acreage to every Rs. 100 of the old revenue at 55 acres, and the value 
of the produce according to the produce rates at Rs. 545, the gross pro- 
duce of the circle would be Rs. 1,86,711, of which the Government 
flhare at ^Ar would be Rs. 41,076. In preparing this estimate, statistics 
as to the actual cultivated area for the whole circle, and also for individual 
villages, were made use of as a check ; also the statistics as to the 
value of the mahsul collections for previous years obtained from the 
patwaris* annual papers. The result gives what I believe to be the 
Similar estimates framed value of the gross produce of the tract in an 
for the other circles. average year. The estimates for other circles 

were prepared in a similar way. Where the data for any circle were 



220 



unsatisfactory and insufficient, the results obtained were corrected bj 
comparison with those for other circles^ the statistics for which were 
more reliable. 

429. The revised produce estimates obtained in the manner I 
Produce eetimateB and have explained for rodfe^ Kalapani and d^^^ 
the average rate of yield lands, for all these Daman circles, and their 
given by them on the cul- incidence per acre on cultivated and fallow 

KafB*""^ ^*^^'''' ""* "^ ^V^ 10 years, are as foUows :- 



1 


T^hflil. 


Name, of Circle. 


Area. 


Produce 
estimate. 


Incidence 
per acre. 


Sz; 






















Bs. 


Bs. 


A. 


p. 


1 


J 


f Gdmal Takwira 


64,866 


2,18,674 


S 


6 





2 


LAni Awal 


40,655 


1,74,406 


4 


8 





8 


< lAni Dojam 


25,289 


84,222 


8 


6 





4 


• 


Liini Gudh-Toah 


50,892 


2,11,287 


4 


2 





5 


• 


1^ Miran 


80,849 


40,083 


1 


5 





6 




rKundi 


89,698 


1,47,290 


3 


11 





7 


'3 


Jatatar 


64,599 


1,86,711 


2 


14 





8 


1 


1 Gdmal 


29,502 


1,54,938 


5 


6 





9 


(^ Bhittanni 


8,929 


89,900 


4 


7 


Q 


10 




f Gundapur 


1,00,704 


8,09,438 


8 








11 


• 


Zarkanni 


8,844 


15,626 


1 


14 





12 


4 


Miankhel 


72,004 


1,20,750 


1 


11 





13 


^08 


-l Bkhax 


58,644 


1,09,608 


1 


14 





14 


Ushtarana 


47,452 


27,156 


« • • 


9 





15 


Daulatwala 


9,227 


10,585 


1 


2 





16 




^ Yahoa 

Total 


99,985 


2,16,817 


2 


3 







7,51,184 


20,67.891 


2 


11 






430» As regards rent rates^ rents'in the Dam&n are all paid in kind. 

« 1 1. TN ^ T'^e general system of baiai is described in 

how2ilc^*rtJdl para. 157. First of all the reaper gets a share, 

generally ^, of the gross produce. The greater 
kamiana {i.e., dues to such village servants as are employed in effecting 
the division of the crop between the Mushaksadar and the cultivator) 
are almost always paid from the tallah or common grain heap. The 
ordinary kamiana^ or dues to handicraftsmen employed in repairing 
agricultural implements, are generally paid from the rihkatny as are 
usually the Government cesses^ such as lambardari cess, local rates cess, 
&c. The account is all kept in topasy and as the arrangements for each 
village vary more or less, a separate statement was in each case pre- 
pared| showing the total number of topM on which the division is based. 



221 



and the amonnt of each item. These again were classified as coming 
under rent or expenses. In the rent I have included the mahsul, tikk, 
and other extra cesses included in the mahsuly and all payments on 
account of the Government cesses^ lambardari, local rates cess, &c. 
Also malikana and movajora. In preparing the rent statements I have 
only taken lands held by tenants paying moyajora. Where tenants 
pay no moyajora^ but only the usual mahsul cesses and malikana^ they 
are holding at favorable rates, which do not show the real rent paying 
capabilities of the land. To have included such tenants in the calcula- 
tion would have falsified the statements just as much as if I had inclu- 
ded adna mcUiks, the position of both these classes having hitherto been 
very similar. Both the greater and the ordinary Kamiana are excluded 
from rent, though included in the gross produce account, on which the 
rent is calculated. In cases where the proprietor provides a share of 
the seed, a corresponding reduction has been made from the rent, and 
all lump sum items have been allowed for, afler a careful calculation of 
iheir average incidence* 

Specimen ol a rent ^31. The account, taking a specimen 

acconnt. case, stands somewhat as follows : — 







Bent. 


Expenses. 


TotaL 




Beaper 


... 


14 topas 


14 topas 


Tallah ... | 


Greater Kamiana . 
Malba 




... 


6 „ 
8 „ 


} 14 » 




f 


Mahstil \ 




^ topas 


... 


64 ^ 


S 


g r 


Tikk 




10 „ 


... 


■N • '^ 


topas. 


Government cesses 




12 „ 


• . . 


• 


ihkam 
topas 


Malikana 
Lesser Kamiana 




8 „ 

• a . 


• 
• * • 

6 „ 


-192 „ 


^ 


Average Moyajora . 




15 „ • 


« • • 




M .^R L 


Balance to cultivator 


« . • 


141 „ 


,* 


w 


- 


Grand Totai. 


> . . 


109 


176 

* 


284 



The grand total includes the reaper's share and £he tallah expen- 
ses which are in excess of the paM (256 Urpas) on whiph the division is 
effected. The rent in this case is iff or about f of the gross produce. 

Great care was taken in preparing these rent rate statistics, and 
Ihey can be trusted as showing tne average rent for lands held by 
tenants paying moyajora. The rents obtained in this way are very 
nearly the rack-rent, though of course a certain proportion of the 
tenants hold at slightly favorable rates. In the Dam&n so much of the 
crop disappears before the net rikkamy on which the moyajora is calcu- 
lated, is arrived at, that differences in the rate of the latter do not as a 
role much affect the average rent. The rates for moyajora generally 



S22 



vary from aboat a fifth to a fifteenth of the rUihamj or from a tenth ta 
a thirtieth of the gross produce. 



Bent rates for the differ- 
ent circles. ent circles are as follows : — 



432. 'The average rent rates for the difier- 



• 

Name of Circle. 


Aver- 
age 
Bent 
share. 


Half 
assetB 
share. 


BXMABKS. 


OdmalTakwfira ... 

L6ni Awal 

Tidni Do jam 

TitSniGudh-Toah... 

Miran 

Knndi 

^atatar 

Gfimal 

BhittAnni .;. 

Gnndapur 

Zarkanni '•«. 

Miankhel 

B&bar 

TJshtarana 

Danlatwala 

Yahoa 


■Nn 

T50- 


TlyS 
"iVo 

TOO 

Too 
Too 
Too 

^^* 

Too 

^"* 

Too 

^** 

Too 
Too 


• 

Giimal Takw4ra and L^n( Doyam 
are certainly the poorest of these cir« 
clesy and contain many bad villages. 
The higher rates in Ltini Gudh- 

*• Toah as compared with Ldni Awal are 
owing to its having been longer set- 
tled. The lands are more sub-rented, 
and the rent is nearer the rack-rent 

^ than in Ltini Awal. 

C The rent rates in this circle vary a 

< good deal. There are many very poor 

(. villages. 

C The average for the Soheli viUagea 

r The figures for the Gtimal circle do 
not give the full rack-rent which is 
quite as high as in, the Jatatar circle. 

1 No moyajora is paid in the Bhittanni 
circle. The rent rate given shows only 

i^the Government mahsul and cesses. 

The figures for all these cirdes show 
>the full average rent, except in Daulat- 
wala and Yahoa, where the average ia 
rather less than a full rent. 

> 



433. These rent rates are a very good index to Uie general capa- 

, _ city of the dijSerent circles. In all the better 

r.S'to ttir'SSLto?" E«rtio°s of the tracts irrieated from the Ldnl, 

Boheliy and Takwdra, the rent rate on good 
rodkai lands varies from ^ to ^. The ususd rent for Ealapani lands 



223 

is about TT^. These figures are very high, when it is remembered that 
the Kamiana, reaper's share, &c., are paid out of the balance, llie cul- 
tivator's share, where the rent is y'^, is little more than f of the whole 
produce, out of which he has to support himself and his plough cattle, 
and ' supply seed as well. The full rent-rate for the poorest of the 
da^gar tracts is about a third of the gross produce. This is the rate for 
most of the villages in the Daulatwala and Ushtarana circles. Where 
moyajora is taken, the proprietor generally gets a share of the bhusa 
and hajra stalks as well as of the grain, but the custom on this point 
varies greatly. 

434. A half assets share based on these rent rates would vary 

_ _ - . , _ , from a half to a sixth. The share for the Dera 

J^L^^ **** Ismail Khan Daman would be generally a 

fifth. In making out the Dera Ismail Khan 

, Is too heavy where pro- and Tank produce jamas, I took the full half 

fluctuatioas! ^ ^ ^^* assets share, but the result was often much in 

excess of what could fairly be assessed. In 
reporting the Kulachi tahsfl, I made considerable reductions in the 
share taken as the basis of the Government demand, in order to allow 
for fluctuations in the annual yield. If a village yields regularly Rs. 
1,000 rent a year, then Rs. 500 would be a correct half assets jama to 
assess ; but if one year the produce is mZ, the next Rs. 650, Uie third 
Bs. 350, and the fourth Rs. 3,000, although the average produce is still 
Bs. 1,000, yet a jama of Rs. 500 would press much more heavily than 
in the case of the first village. On these grounds, when reporfcing the 
„, , . . . Kulachi assessments, I reduced the. Kalapani 

prSj^'' " ^a^« from a fourth to a fifth. The full rodkoi 

and daggar rate varies from i to ^. I reducM 
the share for rodkoi to r ^nd for daggar lands to ^, except for two or 
three of the smaller circles in wnich an exceptionally low share was 
taken. I consider that a similar reduction should have been allowed iii 
the shares for the Dera Ismail Khan and Tank tahsils. The shares 
taken in the assessment report were i for Gdmal Takw4ra, Lun{ Awal, 
and Liinf Gudh-Toah, and ^ for Ldn{ Doyam for rodkoi and harani 
lands. The.share for Giimal Takwara should in the first instance have 
been less than ^, as the rent rate is a good deal lower than that for the 
Liini Awal and Ltini Gudh-Toah circles. I have now taken \ for 
these latter circles and ^ as the share for Gdmal Takwara and Ltini 
Doyam. In the Kundi circle I have lowered the share from i to ^. 
In the Jatatar circle, for reasons given in the assessment report, the 
share taken is -f^ instead of the full -^. 

Prodaee jomafl and jamas 435. The produce jamas thus obtained 

asseesed compared. give the following comparison with the jamas 

assessed: — 



234 



Name of Circle. 



Gdmal Takwara . . . 
Liini Awal 
Ldni Dojam 
Ldni Gudh-Toah, 
Miran 
Kundi 

Jatatar 
Qimal 



Bbittanni 



Oundapur 



Zarkanni 

Miankhel 

Babar 

Ushtarana 

Daulatwala 

Yahoa 

Total 



4> 
g 



'd 8 





S ^ 



OD 



c2 



si's 

Ma 



2,18,674 
1,74,406 

84,222 
S,ll,237 

40,033 
1,47,290 

1,86,711 
1,54,938 



89,900 



3,09,438 






?8 
00 
1 

T 



1 1 

To 



I 



i 



J* 

100 



16,626 

1,20,750 

1,09,608 

27,156 

10,585 

2,16,817 



20,67,391 



Too 

+ 

Too 



TO 



I 
I 



27,334 
24,636 
10,528' 
30,177 
5,364 
21,041 

41,076 
25,823 



7,980 



45,692 



2,709 

18,576 

16,550| 

2,715 

1,058 

31,705 



3,08,417 



OB 



^ 



19,071 
16,288 

7,452 
21,855 

5,450 
18,083 

87,142 
15,350 



"Rrmarkm. 



7,200 



39,195 



1,100 

17,240 

12,045 

1,940 

1,050 

22,937 



2,43,398 



Of this jama } is 
fixed, tbeBc circles be- 
ing under the fluctua- 
ting system. 

Including grants to 
the Sirdarkhel, &c. 

I am inclined to think 
that the prod nee of this 
circle has Ijeen some- 
what over estimated, and 
that the pr^dace jama 
is in conseqnenoe rather 
too high. 

The jama is nominal. 
The circle will remain 
under kham tahsil. 

The greater portion of 
this circle has been re- 
tained kham tahRil. The 
remaining portion is un- 
der the Daman fiuctna* 
ting system. 



The produce jama for the whole tract is a little less than a seventh 
Proportion borne by share of the assumed average produce. The 
jama assessed to whole jama actually assessed is a good deal lower and 
produce. jg equal to i only of the assumed produce. 

This estimate includes the produce of a little sailaba and well land, 
but the proportion borne by these to the Daman lands proper, is very 

small. 

' ^ , 436. The rates taken in assessing the 



i 

f 

tit 


} 






^oooooooj :oo o ooo 


1 
1 




^:::::,M«'otoa« » ::*| 


ii:!::- = = = = = = ■ I ' 


i 

i 
1 


1 




<»-----" ii"- - »-- 


joooo=.=.o;: = = o ooo 


5 
1 




<----"--:■-- " o-« 


300000001,00 000 


1 

■a 


^,:,, 100000= ,| = 




1 


,4:o460o;iO. O ..O 




J, :,,...::._ - 0-. 




gOlooooo::00 000 




■3 










50 = 00000 ;;oo = = 




1 


^.:.. ;„„„„„„ = :: = 




J, ::::«. = = 0,0 :;. 


B 


;9 


2::;;, = = = - = = ::oj 




i : : i ■ : ■ i : ; i r-r ; : i, 

• ••■■•■ r :; r ..•■ : 
::•■•■;!;:■,.•■: 

• •■•• i E i E ::;,;■ : 

■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ i i ■: ; I : , \ ■ ■: 
!■■■ I ■ i \ ■■!;.:■ i 
1 J g 1 i • ■: • : ■ j i ■ 

IsiJilllllllllll 



S2$ 

437. The rates taken for the first fonr oircles, whiob are mider 
Bemarks on these ratea. *he fluotoating syBtem, were arbitrary rates, 

Kecessitj for aaaesBing taken as expreHsing the relatiye valne of the 
fallow laudfl. lands of these circles, and more nsefhl for the 

pnrpose of comparing one village with another than for the purpose of 
actoally assessing any particular village. In the case of the lidni Awai 
and Liini Doyam circles, the jamas actually assessed fall 10 or 12 per 
cent, bolow the rate jamas. In Kulachi and Tink, after estimating the 
gross produce of a circle and the share that it was advisable to take as 
revenue, rates were drawn out for distributing the jama assessed over 
the different descriptions of land and so calculated as to give a result 
as nearly as possible the same as the jama which I proposed to assess. 
In fact the usual process has been reversed. It is customary first to 
fix the proper rates to charge and then to ascertain the results on the 
area to be assessed, the rate assessment being retained, except where it 
has to be set aside for special causes. In the Daman, however, where 
land is abundant, and the yield depends less on the extent of land than 
on the facilities for irrigation and the labor available for cultivation, 
rates calculated in this way would be useless, if applied to the cultivated 
area which might be shown by Settlement measurements. For the 
same reason fallow and abandoned lands have been included in the area 
to which the rates have been applied. Under ordinary circumstances 
no rate shotild be imposed on fallow, for the gross assets of a circle are 
not swelled in any given year by fallow land, and the assessment ha^ 
to be paid from the produce of the cultivated area excluding fallow. 
In the torrent-watered portion of the Daman, however, fallow lands 
hold a very different position to what they do in eanal-irrigated or 
sailaba tracts. In the Dam&n the fallow and cultivated areas combined 
show the extent of land which can be cultivated in favorable years, 
though the ordinary extent of cultivation may be much less. When the 
proportion between cultivated and fallow fluctuates so greatly from 
year to year, it would be imppssible in assessing lands to exclude fallow 
from the calculation. 

438. In the Kalapani-watered tracts, and more especially wher^ 
DiBtribation of assess* ^he cultivation is tand, as distinguished from 

ment on Ealapani lands, vichobij the case is diflbrenty as the lands arp 
cnltirated and fallow. impoverished by cultivation, and fallows must 

in any case be allowed. TandM lands are generally cultivated only 
once in three years, or at most every alternate year. The proportion^ 
however, between cultivated and fallow varies greatly from year ti^ 
year, and even with these I have found it safer to distribute the assess^ 
ment over both cultivated and fallow, in prefer0nce to jumping ibp 
whole on the cultivated area for the year of measurements. 

439. To allow of a comparison wjth the rates assessed in othef 
Rate of incidence of districts, I have made out the following stater- 

jamas assessed on assomed ment, which shows the incidence of the tb,^ 
average cultivation. j^ma on the area which I have assumed to b^ 

each year under cultivation. The rates on rodkai and dagff^r lands havjs 



127 

BOt been separately worked oat, and in some oirolea EaUpani lands am ■' 
indaded with rodkoi laais, as much of tte fallow area oaaaot be satis- 
faotonly classified. I have giren explanatory notes against the figures 
£or the different circles :— > 



IttMM oreaat*. 



Odnul Takvfra 



lAil aadh-ToBh 



JaUtw 
OAmal 
BUttanni 

OnndapcT 

Zm-kannt 
Ifiankhel 
Bibar 



13.000 
7,800 
•W.fta],480 



8^80 
3)1,600 



ie,S4! 
13.000 
4,H3 

40.000 
2300 
18,160 
22,000 



1,016 
26,883 . 



«.711.9Ta 2,60.9e4 






1 

The ares of thaie foar clr< 
ee U nearl7 all tvdioi and 
Circle 3 include* 
... irea, and circle I 361 
acres of nel! and tailaba enl- 
tiration ; circles 1 and 4 bar* 
been asnesaed very near to 
tbe rate jama ; circles 2 and 
3 lome 10 or 12 per cent be- 
low tbe iat« iama. 



f A little Kalapani incladed, 
bat not euoagh to afEect Um- 
, at'etage. 

A little rodkoi iaclDdedglnil 
not enougb to afteot the 
average. 

In tfaese circles a certain 
amoaat of Kalapaa: is inela- 
ded with the rndlioi and 4ttg- 
gar cnltivatioD. 

K Parelj reihoi and iaggar, 

iHainlj rodiei 4nd daggar, 
bat 8ome Kalapaol and well 
cultiTBtioa. 



To Bommarise tbe rates. The best rodkoi tracts bare been assessnd 
at 14 annas or 15 annas per acre on arerags 
«.i sX^talLV."^ oaltivation. In poor daggar tracto the rate is 
as low as 4 ansas. The 3 annas rote in th» 
TTsbtarana circle is exoeptjonal. The rates on Katapani oaltiration in 
Tank vary from R©. 1-5-0 to Es. 2-3-0. The rates in the Kolaohi 
tahsU vary from Re. 1-8-0 to Bs. 3-0-0. The rent rate for Kolapam 



23a 



lands is heavier than for rodkai and daggar lands, and the greater cer- 
tainty attending cultivation allows of a larger share of the rent being 
taken as revenue. 

Incidence of jamas asses- 4*0- Th® following figures show the in- 

led on cultivated and fal- cidence of the jama assessed on the cultivated 
low area to 10 years. ^nd fallow up to 10 years area for the Daman 

circles : — 



• 




• 


Bate on cultiva- 


NufB 


OF ClBCLB. 


Jama. 


ted and fallow 








to 10 jeard. 








Bs. 


p. 


P. 


Odmal Takw&ra 


••• ••• ••• ••• 


19,071 




4 


9 


Luni Awal 


••• ><• ••• ••• 


16,288 




6 


3 


Ldni Do jam 


••• ••• •#• ••• 


7,452 




4 


8 


Ldnf Gudb-Toah 


..• *•• ••• ••• 


21,855 




6 


10 


Miran 


••■ ••• ••• ••• 


5,450 




2 


10 


Kdndi 


••• ••• ••• ••• 


18,083 




7 


5 


Jatatar 


••• ••• ••• ••• 


87,142 




9 


3 


Gdmal 


•>i «•• ••• •■• 


15,350 




8 


4 


Bhittanni 


••• ••• ••• ••• 


7,200 




12 


10 


Gundapur 


••• ••• » » » ••• 


39,195 


■ • • 


6 


2 


Zarkanni 


• •« » ^ t ••• ••• 


1,100 


• • • 


2 


2 


Miankhel 


••• ••• t*l •*• 


17,240 




3 


11 


Babar 


••• ••• ■•• ••• 


12,045 




S 3 


Ushtarana 


«•• ■•• ••• ••• 


1,94^ 




* • • 


8 


Daulatwala 


• •• ••• •>• *•• 


1,050 




1 


10 


Yahoa 

• 


••• ••> ••• ••• 

Total 


22,937 




8 


8 




2,43,398 


• • • 


5 


4 



441. To sum up, the total area of Daman tract is 17,79,724 acres. 
Summary of results of of this 4,86,070 acres was shown as under crop at 
assessment of the Damin. Settlement measurements. Adding the fallow 
area up to 10 years, — 2,61,073 acres, the total cultivated area is 7,47,143 
acres.* The estimated gross produce of this tract is more than 20 lakhs. 
The revenue assessed is Rs. 2,40,734* or rather less than an eighth ehare 
of the produce. The explanation of so low a share being taken is that 
the yield in this tract fluctuates greatly, and a large margin must there- 
fore be allowed to prevent assessments breaking down. The jama 
assessed falls at 5 annas 2 pie per acre on tho cultivated and fallow area, 

• The figures iu para. 441 give the areas of the circles above detailed, but exclusive 
of 34,796 acres on account of Kachi lands included in the Vahoa circle. Similarly 
Rs. 2,664, the sailaba assessment of these lands, h-is been excluded, which if added to 
the jama shown (Rs. 2,40,734) gives Rs. 2,43,398 or the jama given in para. 440. Some 
sailfiba lands are included in the Giimal Takwara, Ldnl Doyam and LAnf Gudh-Toah 
circles, but they are of small extent, and being nearly all waste, maybe disregarded. 
Similarly a little Damdn area, not shown here, is included in a few of the villages of the 
Kacha and Kaluri circles. 



229 

bat the rate of inoidenoe on the assamed average cultivation is much 
higher, being from Be. 1-8-^ to Bs. 2-(M) on KaUpani lands, and from 
4 annas to a rupee on rodkoi and daggar lands. 

442. The Kachi lands attached to Dam&n villages have been 
Rates on well and sailaba assessed at about the same rates and in 

lands included in the Da- the same way as the villages of the Kacha cir- 
mAn circle. ^^^ There are a good many wells in the 

portion of the Dam&n immediately round Dera Ismail Khan, and a few 
scattered wells here and there elsewhere. The rates sanctioned for 
these well lands were Be. 1 per acre on cultivated and 4 annas for 
fallow. The jama actually assessed is somewhat more, and falls at about 
Be. 1-8-0 an acre on the cultivated area. 

443. The tract with which the Dera Ismail Khan Dam&n can be 

Assessment compared with ^08^ readily compared is the pachad of the 
that of similar tracts in the Dera Ghazi Kh&n district, whicn in its general 
Dera Ghdzi Khan district. circumstances it closely resembles. The varia- 
tions in Mr. Fryer's assessment of the pacJiad villages are extreme, the . 
rate on cultivation varying from 5 pie to more than a rupee an acre. 
In the Sanghar tahsil^ which adjoins the Yahoa ilaqua, the average rate 
on 'pcLchad lands, cultivated and fallow, . is slightly less than 5 annas 
an acre. The rate for the corresponding portion of the Yahoa circle, 
excluding the Kalapani lands, is 3 annas. The Sanghar villages are, * 
I believe, better irrigated on the whole than those of the Yahoa circle, 
and the average rate is consequently heavier. As regards Kalapani 
lands, the Dera Ghazi Khan rate on cultivated and fallow is about 12 
annas an acre, or much the same as the average rate for this district* 



llttctnattttjji sptem d Assessment Ut iamtt frillsges. 

444. I have explained that though the produce of the Dam&n 

The great fluctuations in lands is large and the rent rates high, still the 

the yield of the Dam&n ne- fluctuations in the yield, except in the Kalapani 

cessitate a low fixed assess- watered tracts, are extreme. Where, therefore, 

the Government demand is fixed, it is necessary 
to take a very low share as the basis of the Government demand, in 
order to allow sufficient margin for bad seasons. The produce estimates 
have been carefully revised, and the price current taken in assessing is 
low ; but even including the Kalapani tracts, the jama assessed is equiva- 
lent only to i> share of the gross produce. At the same time the 

area of the Daman is very large, nearly the whole is culturable, and 
improvements in irrigation might lead to a great extension of cultivation, 
the revenne of which under a fixed assessment would be lost to Govern- 
ment The rate at which the fixed assessment falls on the cultivated 
and fallow area, varies in the Oera and Kulachi tahsils from 6 annas^ 
Advantages of a less rigid 10 pie to 10 pie an acre. It struck me, there- 
system, fore, when commencing this Settlement, that 
some less rigid system of assessment was required, to enable the Go- 
vernment to realise a fair revenue, and at the same time to protect the 



230 

asmindirs from over-assesmnent. The fluctaattons in Che vield of DaiAte 
Tillages were excessive^ bat still the lessees, hy pattin^if together the pro* 
dace for good and bad years, generally made a profit, and the cases ia 
which the entire crop of a whole village failed were comparatively rare. 
In changing the assessment from one of whole villages to one of indi- 
vidaal holdings, these evils would of coarse be magnified ; and even a 
light fixed assessment would often press hardly on individual k/ieioatdars. 
Proposed to assess a fourth After a good deal of correspondence it 
fixed reveaae and remain- was arranged that the best arrangement would 
dor by crop rates. fc^ ^ assess these tracts with a light fixed 

revenue eaual to about a fourth of the revenue that would ordinarily 
be assessed, and to take in addition a fluctuating revenue to be realised 
by differential crop rates on tho actual cultivated area for each harvest. 

445. It was desirable that a portion of the assessment shonld be 
Advantages of having fixed, as otherwise the zemindars might grow 

some portion of the demand careless about caltivating their lands ; whereas 
^'^ a light revenue, to be tEiken whether the land 

was cultivated or waste, would be a stimulus to cultivation, and would 
not press too heavily even in bad years. In the Dam&n, if the lands of 
a cultivator are dry, he moves off to some other village, where the irri- 
gated area is in excess of reqairements, and cultivates there for the 
season. He can in this way feed his family and arrange to pay the 
ihree or four rnpees fixed revenue put npon his land. At the same time, 
having a fourth of the revenue fixed, allows of a reduction of the croj^ 
rates. Sometimes, when the cultivated area is nnusoally large, difficulty 
is found in reaping and selling the poorer crops sach as bajra and JcwoTj 
and a full crop rate might press heavily. The substitution of a light fixed 
jama for one-fourth of this crop rate, relieves the cultivator from a 
considerable portion of what he would oiherwise have to pay in years of 
super-abundant harvest. 

446. It was at first proposed to apply this system to the whole 
Tracts into which this Dam&n with the exception of the Tank tahsOi 

system has been introdnc* and of the Kalapani lands, and some of the poorer 
^* doffffar tracts of the Kulachi tahsO. I came to 

the conclusion afterwards, that it would be better to restrict it to the 
tract irrigated by the Takwara and Ltlni. The lands on the Yahoa are 
far from head-quarters, and it would be difficult for the District officer 
to keep sufficient control over the measurements : and the same reason 
applied, though with less force, to tihe Miran circle. The only tracts, 
therefore, to which the system has been a[^lied, are the four tiuni ana 
Takwara irrigated circles of the Dera tahsil, and the northern portion of 
die Qundapur country. The southern portion of the Gundapur countryi 
to which it was also to have been extended, has been retained thorn 
tahsfl, in accordance with the wishes of the proprietors. 

447. I have already described how the Daman circles have been 
Crop nites proposed, with assessed; but^ where the fluctuating system 

atatement. has been introduced; only a fourth of thia 



381 

Msessment will be fixed. In lien of tfie remaining tliree-fonriliSy this 
crop rates shown in the following statement will oe charged on the 
cultivated area for each harvest : — 

Statement showing crop rat^BUBieeBed for eireles under fluctuating oasetimeniM 



Kamb of oibcli. 



Rabi Obops. 



^ 



Gtunal TakwAra 



I4iii Awal 



JjtMdJ)oj$m 



1 1st Class... 
i 2nd Class... 
(drd Class... 



{1st Class... 
2nd Class... 



B.A.P. 
0-14-0 
0-120 
0-10-0 

1- 0-0 

0-14-0 
0-10-0 




O 

S 



Ltol Qodh-Tch ... { JS'd^C:. 



Chmdapur 



( 1st Class. 

,.. < 2nd Class... 

(Srd Class... 



1- 0-0 
0-12-0 

1- 0-0 
0-14-0 
0^12-0 



As. 

10 
9 
8 

10 

10 
7 



10 
8 

12 

10 

8 







• 


'3 


< 


PQ 


As. 


As. 


8 


10 


7 


8 


6 


9 


8 


10 


8 


10 


6 


7 


8 


10 


6 


8 


10 


12 


8 


10 


6 


8 







i 



As. 

10 
9 
8 

10 

10 
8 



10 
10 

8 
8 

8 



O 






As. 

10 
9 
8 

10 

10 
7 



10 
8 

12 

10 

8 



Khabif obops. 



i 



As, 

8 
7 
6 

10 

8 
7 



10 
8 

10 
8 
6 



o 



As. 

8 
7 
6 

8 

8 
7 



8 
7 

10 
8 
6 



• 









O 




•M 




3_ 


J_ 


As. 


As. 


10 


10 


9 


9 


8 


8 


10 


10 


10 


10 


8 


' 



10 
10 

12 

10 

8 



A*, 

10 

9 

8 

10 

10 
7 



10 i 10 
8 S 



10 
9 
8 



12 

10 

8 



s% 



448. The crop rates first proposed were somewhat higher ; bnt it 
Bednction on the crop would nave been necessary to make large re- 
fates fint proposed. d notions from time to time in cases where the 
crops were very poor. In the daggar villages especially, there are often 
large tracts nnder&o/ra and sarsany me average yield of which is very small, 
and I had all along calculated on the necessity for remissions m such 
cases. The Settlement Commissioner, Mr. liyall, was, however, pf 
opinion that District oiBoers and Tahsildars would not as a rule be suffi- 
ciently liberal in granting remissions to the extent required, and that 
the people would accordingly suffer. I therefore reconsidered my first 
proposals, and eventually reduced the rates considerably, and with the 
assistance of Munshi Aulad Hoseyn, Superintendent of the Dera tahsil, 
I drew out a system which will, I believe, reduce the necessity for remi&- 
•ions to a minimum. 

449. The crops which are most liable to fail are baira, joufar^ 
Oronnds on which the sarsouj and assun. The average yield for the 

varying rates for the differ- whole area under these crops is far less in value 
^t crops were fixed. ^jj^jj ^jj^ average yield of wheat. The reason 

is, that wheat seed is expensive, and wheat, therefore, is only grown on 



282 

{^ood lands whioh have been well irrij^ated. The other grains cost 
ittle for seed, and thej are often grown on poor half-tilled lands, where 
a crop is hardly to be expected. I first thought of keeping op ike rate 
on wheat, while lowering that on the less certain crops. These latter, 
however, give a verv gc^ yield on carefully cultivated lands, and to 
lower the rates on tnem unduly, would be to offer a premium on their 
cultivation in preference to that of wheat. Eventually, therefore, I 
lowered the rates all round. The additional profit made on wheat will go 
to pay the revenue on poor bajra and jowar. The cost of cultivating these 
latter is so small that the zemind&rs will cultivate them so long as their 
value as fodder for cattle will cover the Government revenue, and the 
rate cf this is so light that it will hardly act as a deterrent. 

450. Low as these crop rates are, it has been arranged in certain 
Lower rates to be charged cases to have still lower rates on r^ and Udmi cul- 

in some cases. tivatiou. Ril cultivation is cultivation without 

laths on lands that have been swept over by floods, and thus to a certain 

„..^,.. ... „ extent irrigated. These lands dry up very 

jCMi coltiyation. . , , j •.! x i i • ii ' •' 

quickly, and without seasonable rain the crops 

are liable to fail entirely. Owing to this uncertainty, such lands are, 

as a rule, very carelessly cultivated, and the action of the water running 

over the land is apt to make it uneven and difficult to plough. Ril 

lands are generally scratched up here and there with a plough, and a 

few handfuls of sarson or bajra seed are thrown over them broa least. 

The crop may under favorable circumstances turn out well, but generally 

it only furnishes a little fodder for cattle. 

Where bands have been silted up and the latJis obliterated by heavy 
Where hands have been Aoods, the ground, if immediately sotvn before 
sited np lands to be charg- it gets dry, produces just as good crops as 
ed^atfuU and not at ril j^j,^^ i^nds. The cultivation, though in ap- 
pearance similar to rd, is quite different in 
quality, and such lands will be assessed at the ordinary rates, not at rA 
Bates on riL rates. The rates fixed for ril cultivation are 

\ the usual rates for cotton and wheat, and ^ 
rates for other crops. 

451. As a rule full rates will be taken for cultivation in bands ; 
Cnltivation in broken but when the hilis encircling bands have been 

*«»<*»• breached by floods, the cnltivation in them is 

often little better than rdj and in such cases the District officer will have 
power to reduce the rates to those for ril lands. 

452. Sometimes a poor crop springs up from self-sown seed. 
Lahfii crops to be assess- Such crops are known as Za/mt, and are, at the 

ed at quarter rates, except District officer's discretion, to be assessed at 
in special cases. quarter rates. Occasionally the lalmi crops 

are very good, and the zemindars sometimes to increase the amount, 
when they see the self-sown crop springing up, scatter about a little 
extra seed broadcast. With abundant rain it is difficult to distinguish 
such crops, when arrived at maturity, from crops grown on ploughed 
lands : such crops will be treated exceptionally and charged at full rates. 



453. Obtton generally lasts for three successive years. The thirJ 
Cotton. year's crop is generally very poor, and will be 
One-third rates for the assessed at a third of the usual rates, unless 

third year. Bome other crop, such as jowar or melons, has 

been cultivated along with it, when full rates will be charged. 

454. When two crops are cultivated together, the rate for the crop on 
When two crops are cul- which the highest rat^ is charged will cover both. 

tivated together, the rate Thus if cotton and jowar are cultivated together, 
for^the highest wUl cover the rate for cotton only will be charged. This 

rule does not apply to cases where a fringe of 
8ar8(m has been grown round the edge of a bajra field. In such a case, 
the whole field will be treated as if under bajra, and charged at the bajra 
rate, which is lower than that for sarson. 

455. When a crop has been sown, but owing to want of rain or 
• RemiMioni for hail and irrigation has failed to germinate, or when a 

floods. r crop has been entirely swept away by floods, no 

revenue will be charged. Remissions will be allowed when necessary 
Tor injury by hail, on the principles in force in the Punjab generally. , 

456. To ease ofi^ the work of the annual measurements, the fol- 
Rules to facilitete mea- lowing rules have been laid down, but can if 

mrements. necessary be afterwards modified, when further 

experience has been gained of the working of the system. 

1st. No reduction from the cultivated area of a field will be made 
Noiedttctioii to be made for the lands taken up by the encircling lath$j 
tot uncultivated lathi, and which are generally uncultivated. 

3nd. The whole area of a band will be treated as cultivated, except 
Nor in some cases for when the cultivated portion is an acre or more> 
vncultivated portions of a or, in the case of small bands, when a quarter 
^*^« of the whole band is uncultivated. Where the 

greater portion of a band is waste, rates will be charged on the actual 
eidtivation only. 

457. The rules, which I have detailed, together with the light 
" K is hoped that these rates assessed, will I hone enable the Deputy 

rules will allow of the sys- Commissioner to work the system tolerably 
tem being worked stiffly. stiffly. Measurements should be made early in 
the season, while the out-turn is still uncertain, and when rd and lalmi 
oisops can be readily distinguished. Bemissions should afterwards be 
allowed only where absolutely necessary. A good wheat crop is worthy 
when prices are high, Rs. 30 or Rs. 40 an acre. Government, however, 
will only take from a rupee to twelve annas. Under such circumstances 
constant remissions for poor crops will be no more necessary than in 
flie case of taUaba lands, where remissions are rarely allowed, even for 
total failure of a crop. Still it happ/ ns, not unfrequently in the Daman 

^ , . . _x . that the kharif sowings are very extensive, but 

. BemissionB must certain- .v . . v j • « i. u ir 

ly be aUowed in years when that the crop dries up when half grown, so as 

cultivation is eztensiTe and to yield very little grain, and to be hardly fit 

crops hare generaUy failed, ^y^^ fo^ fodder for cattle. To t-ake a full 

xavenne in snch years would be. impolitic ; the people would be ruined 



fiS4 



1 



mud cnltivation cbecked. Exceptional cases will always require ex- 
ceptional treatment, and the District oiBcer will always have to see that 
the system ih not too harshly worked. When the establishment and 
people become used to it, it will, I believe, work very smoothly, and be 
for the benefit of both Government and people. 

458. With the present irrigation arrangements, the crop rate jama 
Anticipated reralts from ought to average from three to four times the 
a revenue point of view, fixed assessment, but with improved irrigation, 
Eesulufor the first year. cultivation might be extended greatly and the 
revenue doubled. The returns for the two seasons that the system has 
been in force in the Dera tahsil are as follows : — 



Namb ow CntcLB. 


FuU 
assess- 
ment. 


i fixed 
assess- 
ment. 


FLTTOTUATIire BITBinTX 
BT OBOP BATK8. 


Total 
fixed and 


Efaarif 
(1877). 


Babi 
(1878). 


Total. 


fluctua- 
ting. 


Oiimal Takwiira ... 
Ldni Awal 
Xuni Doydm 
TifiniGudh-Toah... 


18,748 

16,288 

5,612 

21,820 


4,687 
4,072 
1,878 
5,455 


8,008 
162 
718 

1,487 


7,275 
9,174 
1,960 
1,528 


10,283 
9,886 
2,678 
3,015 


14,970 

18,408 

4,056 

8,470 


Total ... 

i ■ 


62,368 


15,592 


5.375 


19,937 


25,812 


40,904 



It will bo seen that the results for the year fall a third below the 
amount of what would have been the revenue demand, had the whole 
assessment been fixed. The last kharif harvest, however, was an utter 
failure and the rabi was below the average. 

Area of tracts under flue. 459. The following statement gives th6 

tunting assessment with area of the circles under nuctuating assessment^ 
detail of jama. yf\Q^ j^q estimated revenue fixed and fluctuating : 



KAHE 07 
ClBOLB. 



OtLViBX Tak- 

w6ra 
Liinf Awal ... 
"Ltmi Doydm 



JAni Gndh- 

Toah 
Gnndipur 

(part) 

Total ... 



•i 



a 

SI 






45,897 
34,397 
18,621 



40,188 

27,674 

1,66,277 



64.366 
40,655 
25,289 



60,892 
6,377 
1,87,679 



a 






2,00,650 
66,216 
68,836 



79,740 

47,416 

4,62.858 



T3« 



J 






16,514 

10,916 

3,951 



18,087 
82,961 
82,429 



Ahticipatbd Jaxa. 



Ftmed, 



On 

WeUs. 



68 
1,940 



Flactnating. 



2/)03 



4,687 
4,072 
1,878 



5,485 
4,802 
20,394 



14,661 Damto. 
260 8ailAba. 



14,821 

12,216 

4,134 

16,365 Dam&n. 
35 SaUaba. 



16,400 
14,406 
61,477 



Total. 



19,071 

16,288 

7,452 



21,856 
19,208 
83,874 



235 

The whole revenue of the well lands in these circles is fixed^ as is 
the entire revenue of all the other Dam&n circles, with the exception of 
the small amount assessed on lands in the Indus Kachi. 



Q^nxts vxditt ^m %^\ai. 

460. Hitherto the revenue of four of the Daman circles has been 

m. . . , J XX collected kham tahsil. In the Gundapur and 
Tracts formerly under kham t*, ... • . i i v /^ i j. i • j i 

tabsll, into which cahhjamaa Bhittanni circles the Government took -ft and ^ 

have been introduced, and respectively, the GoverDment share beinj^ mea* 
those in which the kham ^ ^ ^^^ j^ ^^1^^ realised from the cultivators 
tahsil system has been re- . • . ', t xi. tt i.j. • i xi f\ 

tained. i^ kmd. In the Ushtarana circle the Govern- 

ment share has been a tenth, the Government 
taking the actual grain. In the Daulatwala circle the Government has 
taken from ^ to ^, the value of the grain, as in the Gundapur circle, being 
realised in cash. The two latter circles have now got nxed cash assess- 
ments. In the Bhittanni circle and in part of the Gundapur circle, the 
old kham tahsil has been continued. The Bhittanni kham tahsfl system 
is described in my account of the tribe (para. 256). Final orders re- 
garding the Gundapur kham tahsil have not yet been received. The 
system now in force, and which will for the present be retained^ ia 
described in para. 287. 



n.-ASSESSMENT OP THE PANNIALA TRACT. 

461. The sandy tract, which I have described as occupying tho 
Separate rates not framed °<^^them portion of the trans-Indus tabsils, lies 

for portion of this tract to mainly in the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil, the 
north, included in the portion lying in the Kulachi tahsil is all waste, 
Kulachi and Wnk tahslls. ^^^ separate rates were not framed for the 
small portion included in one or two of the northern villages of the Kundi 
circle, though the quality of the soil was taken into account in assessing 
the villages concerned. 

462. The present remarks therefore appiv only to the Dera Ismail 
Character of the cultiya- Khan portion, whicn has been formed into the 

*Jon- Panniala circle. The general character of the 

soil of the circle is sandy, but the cultivation is sometimes carried on 
on unenclosed sand hills, called dabbaksy and sometimes in bands. In the 
greater part of the tract the cultivation is half baranif pure and simple^ 
and half of the lathband description. It was considered unnecessary to 
frame minute assessment rates, as these would have been of little prac» 

oi— «fl^*,-^« ^# i-«^- *ic^l "se. Lands have been classed as kare;s^ 
i/iassincation ol lands. ^r i • j i. mi_ • t...r' 

Kalapam and oaram. Ibere is very uttle 

lull cultivation which has been Imnped in with barani. 

463. The area under cultivation in this circle is apt to vary a good 
^ Fluctuations in the cul- deal, but unlike that of the Daro&n lands, the 

•irated area. cultivation here depends mainly on Uie local 



336 

• 

rain-fall. • The country ib very similar in character to the MarwRt-4ahsfl, 
from which it is seuaratod by the Shekhbudin range, and in making out 
the produce rates the same course has been foUovfed as by Mr. Thorburn 
in Marwat, viz., the rates have been fixed low so as to allow for bad 
years in which there is a partial or total failure of the crop. 

The karez and Kalapani lands are rich but of small extent. The 

j:ar« and Kalapaiii lands, ^a^^^^ lands in particular are for tho most part 

Barani lands. Kates of do-faslij and grow tobacco and vegetables. Tbe 

yield per acre. balk of the cultivation of the circle is bararvL 

The yield assumed for the principal crops ou barani lauds is as follows :— f 

Wheat ... ••• ••• ••• 4 mauns. 

\^iain ••• ••• ••• ••• 4 •■ 

x^aii a ••• •■• ••• ••• o •■ 

464i Tbe average rent rate of the circle is ^^, but this is too high 
Kent rate, and share ^ f^'*'^ ^ reliable basis for the assessment of 
taken as basis of Govern- barani lands. In those barani villages, where 
inent demand. tenants are most numerous, the rent rate is 

about one-fourth, and the Government half assets share would be an 
eighth. This is I think a fair share to take. For karez and Kalapani 
lands the full half assets share of i has been taken. The produce state- 
ment gives an yield of Rs. 67,503 to an acreage of 16,798 acres. The 
half assets share at the above rates is Rs. 8,820. 

Bates assessed. . *f^' ^® following rates were taken 

m. assessmg :— 

Bs. a. p. 

Cultivated ...■f^T^''"f ^ ? 2 X ^aT"' 

I Kalapani lands 18 ditto. 

Barani lands, cultivated and fallow 6 ditto 

i The barani area shown as fallow was small a9 compared with culti- 
vated, and both have been assessed at the same rate. 

466. These rates give a jama of Rs. 8,049, or rather less than th^ 

. Jama actually assessed U^^^^ J^n^a- The jama actually assessed is 
compared with jama by Rs. 7,312. Adding to this Rs. 2,200 on ae- 
rates and former assess- count of the Panniala date groves, the revenuQ 
'"®"*' is raised to Rs. 9,512, against the former jama 

of Rs, 6,850. This is an increase of nearly 40 per cent. Mr. Simson's 
assessment was only Rs. 4,755, so tbat the revenue of the tract has just 
doubled since annexation. There has however been a lai'ge increase of 
cultivation since the Summary Settlement, especially in the Marwat 
Waudahs to the north, and the assessment is by no means heavy, whild 
there is still considerable room for extension of cultivation. 

Though an uniform rate has been put on barani lands, yet the in^ 

Distribution of the cidence of the jama actually assessed on the 

demand, different villages varies greatly. The larger 

villages were afterwards divided into chaks^ each of which was assessed^ 



83T 

wrtbr a lamp sam, and the internal division on fields inside these chakli 
was, where necessary, carried out by means of assessors. The incidence 
of the jama, as eventually distributed, variesfrom 12 annas to 3 annas or 
4k annas an acre. 



ni—ASSESSMENT OP HILL LANDS- 

467. These hill lands consist of the Khasor range and parts of 

T -«^- «^«*«j«^^ i^ *!,«- the Nilah Koh and Bhittanni ranges. No settle- 
Lands contained in this , , , i /» .i^ -vtm \ tt- % 

tract ment survey has been made of the JNilah Koh 

hills except of the Shekhbudin portion. The 
The Nilah Koh hills. ^j^^j^ ^^^^ ^ Government rakh, a map of 

which has been prepared on the basis of the late revenue survey. It is 
uncultivated with the exception of one or two insignificant plots, whlbh 
have not been assessed. 

468. The Bhittanni range has been hitherto included in the Bannu 

»pv^ iiu^**-««- ^^ ^ district. The southern portion, alonsf with the 

The Bmttamu range. «-. , . -n i. i_ j. /» j . 

Mulazai villages, has now been transferred to 

this district. It contains very little cultivation. A little land on the 

skirts of the Kundi villages has been included for assessment purposes 

with the haraiii lands of iiie Kundi circle. The rest of the tract has 

been assessed with Mulazai. 

469. The hill lands of the Khasor range are included in the 
The Khasor range. Lies Khasor, Paharpur, andPanniala circles. Thi 

in three circles. hill cultivation of the Panni&la and Paharpur 

Area under cultivation. circles is of small extent, and was assessed at 
barani rates. The area in the Khasor circle is : — 

Cultivated 968 acres. 



Fallow 221 



Total ... 1,189 



99 



}} 



The produce statement gave the average value of the produce per 
Value of produce and acre of these hill lands at Rs. 4 an acre, which 
proposed assesament. on 968 acres would give Bfl. 3,872. These 

Iknds are mostly cultivated by proprietors, wno own small patches in 
severalty. In gocd seasons the crops are fair, but the cultivation is 
dependent on the rainfall and verv uncertain, and in some years nearly^ 
the whole area remains fallow. Cultivation too, owing to the situation; 
of the plots and the absence of water, is generally very arduous. 
Where lands are rented the share taken as rent is a half. This higk 
rate is to some extent a sign that the population is excessive in proper^ 
tion to the culturable area, but it no doubt shows also that there is m 
margin for the payment of revenue. All things considered, the ciroum- 
stances of the tract clearly necessitated a light assessment. In calcu- 
lating the produce jama, therefore, I took the very low share of ^ as. 
tile basis of the Government demand. This gave Hs. 258, or very nearly 



338 

4 annas an acre. These lands however had never been assessed bj 
our own or previous Gk>vernment8, and the people were very anxious 
that the exeinption should be continued. I proposed to charge at most 
the nominal revenue of 1 anna an acre. Mr. Lyall, the Settlement Com- 
missioner, considered that at least 2 annas an acre should be charged^ 

Exempted from atoess- a'ld saw no reason for continuing the exemp- 
ment by order of Qot^ern* tion. His Honor the Lieutenant Gbvernor, 
™®°*' however, was of opinion that the small amount 

of revenue to be realised would hardly compensate for the unpopularity 
of the measure, and he sanctioned the exemption of these hill lands from 
assessment. This exemption affects the lands of the Khasors, the 
Umrkhels and the Mallikhels. I thought it probable that in spite of 
the exemption, the proprietors might distribute part of the assessment of 
their wells and date groves on these hill lands, but this they objected to 

XsseBBment of hUl lands do. In mauzah Belot, which is a jagir village, 
of manzah Belot. and where the hill cultivators have hitherto 

f)aid batai, I put 4 annas an acre on the hill lands, and this I find is 
ooked on by them as a light assessment as compared with the old grain 
payments. The new assessments, however, were introduced in a very 
favorable year, when nearly the whole of these hill lands were cultiva- 
ABsessment of hill lands ^d. In the Panniala and Pahfllrpur circles the 
inthe PanniAlaandPahar- area of hill cultivation is small, and was for 
pnr circles. assessment purposes included with harani. The 

following statement shows the extent of the cultivated hill lands in these 
circles and the jama put on them in the Bach : — 

Area. Jama assessed 
in the B&ch. 

Paharpur 339 116 

Panniala ••• ••• 39 10 

The rate of incidence is 5 annas 4 pie an acre. 



lY—ASSESSMENT OF THE RUQ-PAHARPUR TRACT- 

470. The Rug'-Paharpur tract occupies an intermediate position 
Character of the cnltiva- between the Kachi and the Dam&n. The 
tion in this tract. ^ greater portion of it gets irrigated from the 

Indus, but the portion reached by natural inundations is comparatively 
small, and the greater part gets irrigated indirectly through canals or 
by the Puran. The upper lands again, close under the Khasor 
range and along the Panniala Thai, get irrigated by the drainage from 
the hills. These lands are latfiedy and cultivation^ as in the Daman, is 
carried on in hands. Mixed up with these harani lands are numeroas 
wells, which get no Indus irrigation, the irrigation from the 
wells being supplemented in most years by the hill drainage. Below 
these again comes the Indus irrigated tract, where the cultivation is 
partly well; partly saihba. 



239 

471. The produce statement gives an yield of Bs. 1,59,059 to 
l^ddace and share taken 15,690 acres. The shares taken for preparing 
in asseBsing. the produce jama are : — 

^QlUZOCL ••• «•• ••« ««« aa, a** 4> 

Chahi sailaba.w* ••• ••• ••• ••• ,». ^ 

\yiUMZ ••• ••• •»• •«• ••« «aa * 

Bates assessed. Thig gives a produce jama of Rs. 21,882. 

The rates taken for the assessment of this tract are higher than for 
the Kachi generally. The villages have been graded into three classes* 
The rates are as follows : — 

Bs. A. P. Rs. A. P. 
Chahi 1 4 to 1 

Chahi sailabaj t. «., supplemented by Indus 
tail4xb or canal irrigation 1 8 Otol 2 

Sailaha 1 2 to 1 

JBarani (L e.j getting the hill drainage 

after rain) 12 

Fallow ••• ••• ••• ••• •••0 4 



••• 



472. Subseqaentlj' to the snbmission of the Dera Assessment 

Bedootion of assessment ^P^f*' *® ^"^5 Suffered severely from failure 

first proposed on account of irrigation. The set of the Indus was to the 

of falling off in the circum- east bank, and little or no water entered the 

stances of the tract. p^,.^^ ^^^ ^j^^ inundation canals by which this 

tract is irrigated. I had in consequence to reduce my assessments, and 
the jamas i£at have been assessed are much below the rates. The rates 
Introduction of flnctaat. gave ft jama of Rs. 17,987. The revenue 
ing assessments into parts assessed is Rs. 16,410. A considerable portion 
of ^he circle. ^f ^jg circle has been brought under the sailaba 

fluctuating system. The original intention was to have the whole revenue 
fixed. Mr. Lyall had suggested that some of the eastern villages 
towards the Indus might be included in the Kacha circle, and brought 
under the fluctuating system. When I came to announce the jamas I 
found that the people generally wished for the fluctuating system, which 
has eventually been extended in whole or in part to a good many vil- 
lages. Where this has been done the well lands have been formed into 
separate chaks with fixed assessments, and it is only sailaha lands that 
have been brougtit under the fluctuating S3'stem. The fluctuating tract 
includes most of the lands along the Puran, and those between the 
Phalla canal and the Indus. 

473. This circle was assessed by Mr. Simson in 1850 at 14,991. 
Former and new assess- Captain Coxe in 1857 reduced the jama to 

Sttent compared. Rs. 12|553« The average demand for the last 






240 

few years has been Bs. 12,904, which is raised by the recent aasessment 
to Ks. 17,097 including Rs. 687 on dates, an increase of 32 per cent. 
This, however^ is on the supposition that there is no falling off in the 
fluctuating revenue. Of the whole assessment Rs. 13,007 is fixed 
and Rs. 4,090 is fluctuating, but owing to the failure of irrigatioUi 
which I have already alluded to, the fluctuating jama for 1877-78 was 
only Rs. 2,839 and for 1878-79 only Rs. 993, the revenue for this last 
year, therefore, is only seven per cent, in excess of the old assessment. 
During the current season again, (hot weather of 1878,) the floods have 
been abundant, and the cultivated area for the next rabi should be 
large. 



V.-ASBESSMENT OP THE KACHL 

474. The Kachi tract consists of the alluvial lands on both banks 

EacM tract induded in of the Indus, and includes portions of the Dera 

foar tahslls. Ismail Khan, Eulachi, Bhakkar and Leiah 

tahsils. Its area is as follows : — 



Abba ov lands in thb E^ac^i tbact. 



Name of Tahsfl. 


Cultivated 

and 

fallow. 


Culturable. 


Uncultura- 
ble. 


Total are*. 


jL/era ... ••• »•• 

Eulachi 

Bhakkar 

Iieifth 


27,457 

8,840 

108,272 

95,946 


63,708 

15,775 

128,989 

139,426 


76,184 
15,681 
79,811 
68,763 


167,299 

84,796 

312,072 

289,135 


Totel 


235,015 


' 842,898 


225,889 


803,302 



475. In framing assessment rates for the E^chi, I have adhered to 

Classificsation of lands ^^ classification of lands made originally by 

into ehahi and sailaha. Mr. Simson, vu., chahi and sailaba. Captain 

Difficulties intending a Mackenzie was of opinion that no minuter class!- 

minuter classification. g^^^j^^ ^^^^ l^^ ^^ improvement, and I agree 

with him. In its general characteristics the soil all through the Kachi 
is uniform in character, though varying in quality. In some places 
there are deep deposits of rich loam, in otihers the loam is mixed with an 
excessive amount of sand^ or forms a thin coating overlying a bed of 



241 

pare sand underneath. These differences, however, fade one into an- 
other, and the same field is in some places rich and in others poor. The 
qnality of the soil, too, changes with the length of time* that the land 
has been under cultivation. A bed of loam newly deposited by the river 
may be first class, but after ten years of continuous cultivation it often 
gets poor and weedy. The presence of kallar, or natural salts, in the 
soil, also affects the quality. In somo parts of the Kachi, especially 
in the case of well irriorated lands, soil, which is naturally good, is quite 
spoilt by these reh exudations. For a minute classification of soil it would 
be necessary to take all these points into consideration, and strike an 
average for each field. Fields might then be graded in classes. This 
would be a work of much labor ; it would have to be left in the first 
instance to the patwdris, and owing to the difficulty that there would 
be in afterwards checking the classification made, it would throw more 
power into their hands than is at all desirable. The classification, even 
when made, would not be of a permanent character ; as in a country 
subject to annual inundation, the character of the soil is always more or 
Lands bat little classified less liable to change. The people themselves 
by the people. go in very little for classification of soils. They 

say that land is new mat (loam deposit) or kallari (impregnated with reh) 
or ret (sandy). They more generally speak of land as good^ middling^ 
And had^ and there is no ready means for deciding the category in which 
any particular field should be placed. In the Mianwali tahsil Mr. 
Thorourn has classified lands in accordance with the depth of the loam 
deposit; Lands, where the loam is of a certain depth, are shown as mat 
or first class. Such a classification would not answer in this district, as 
much of the mat land is old and worn out, and inferior in quality to 
lands of a poorer description, but more recently broken up. 

With the fluctuating system of assessment that has been introduced 
into the Kachi villages, simplicity of classification becomes a necessity, 
and any minuter division than into chahi and sailaba would occasion 
much trouble in the preparation of the annual Girdawari papers. 

476. The Kachi lands of the Bhakkar tahnil are rather better than 
Relative qnality of the those of the Leiah tahsil especially to the north, 

lands of this tract. where more silt is deposited than lower down. 

The falling off towards the south is not, however, progressive, and from 
Bhakkar to the Muzaffargarh border the quality of the soil is on the 
whole very uniform. In the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil, also, the villages 
to the north above Hoseyn Sanghar are the best. The strip of country 
below these nearly down to the town of Dera is for the most part very 
poor. Below Dera down to Dera Fatteh Khan, the Kachi lands of this 
and the Kulachi tahsil lie in scattered bets and islands, and as regards 
the quality of their soil they have no clearly marked characteristics. 

477. The extent of land annually under cultivation, and the 
Average produce and area average yield in all this Kachi tract, vary com- 

nnder caltivation fluctuate paratively little. The Indus mundation almost 
comparatiTely little. always extends over far the greater *part of its 



242 

area, and crops onoe sown seldom fail aUogether. As far as mj owh 
experience goes, the wheat harvest, even in bad years, is never leas than 
half the average, and the area nnder wheat is two-thirds of the whole 
cultivated area. In ordinary vears nearly the whole of the araUe land 
is cultivated, the proportion oi fallow for the whole tract being from & 
to 10 per cent, on the cultivated area. A year in which 20 per cent, of 
the area remains fallow is very exceptional. 

478. In a country like this experiments as to yield are much more 
Talne of expeiimentB as satisfactory than in the Daman. In the Daman, 
to ETeiage yield. to find out the average yield per acre is nearly 

as difficult as to ascertain the average size of a bit ef cnalk. The resulfai 
for one year entirely disagree with those for another, and even if the 
average yield can be ascertained, the average area under cultivatioa ia 
practically an unknown quantity. Even the expression cultivated area 
IS indefinite, as it covers lands which have been carefully embanked, 
irrigated, ploughed and sown, and also lands which are unembanked, 
and over whicn the cultivator has after rain casually scattered a few 
handfuls of bajra and sarwm seed in the hopes of a little fodder for hia 
eatUe. 

In the Kachi, with the exception of a very little nuUtar and eamuUa 
cultivation in newly-formed bets, lands are carefully ploughed two or 
three times, and there is very little of that loose cultivation which, while 
swelling the estimates of area, necessitates large reductions in tha 
estimates of average yield. 

The assessment of the Kachi lands is, therefore, based on estimatea 
of produce, obtained by applying the average rates of yield as ascertained 
by actual experiment to tne actual areas as shown by Settlement mea- 
surements. The rates of yield all through the tract are very uniform* 
Taking the principal crop — wheat, the rates of yield taken for well lands 
(chahi sailaba) vary from 10 mauns to 9 mauns ; those for sailaba landa 
vary from 7 mauns 20 seers to 7 mauns. 

479. In the Bhakkar and Lieah Kachi rents vary a good deal. 

BentB in the tract. ^® ^^^y ^^^ rents paid are where the tenant pays 

the revenue and in addition a cash percentage 
or a lump sum in cash to the proprietor. These are very common forma 
of rent. Another common form of rent is for the proprietor and tenant 
to share the crop, and each to pay a proportional share of the revenue. 
A good deal of land, however, is held by iotot-paying tenants, the proprie* 
tor getting a fixed share of the produce, and paying the whole revenue* 
It is on the rents paid by this class of tenant that the rent rates ara 
mainly based. In Dera and Kulachi nearly all the tenants pay a fixed 
share as batai. 

Bent rates accepted and 480. The rent rates accepted, the fuE ^ 

■hare taken as basis of Qo- uaseis share, and the share taken as the basis 
vemment demand. ^f ^^ produce jama aj^e as follows ;— 



248 






ttai 



Name of 
Tahsil. 



Dera Ismail 
Kban 



1 



Namb of 

ClBCLB. 



Bbnt batb. 



I 



Sailaba. 



Knlachi 



Bhakkar 



Iieiali 



■■■{ 



Khasor 

Eacha 

Kahili 



Yahoa 

Pakka 
Kacha 
Bet 

Pakka 
Kaclia 



y. 

Tiny 
Trny 

Too 
TITS 



\ ASSBTS 
8HABB. 






Sailaba. 



4 



— >r 
loo 

164 

let 
TTHF 



Shabi ACCBFu 
TBD AS BASIS OF 
PBODUCE JAMA 



« 

^ 



Sailaba. 



i 






— / — 

Tinr 



1 
■ny 



i 

1 

i 



A. 

I 



1 

I 



J 



48 1« The well lands nearly all lie in the Pakka circles of the 
Share taken for well lande Bhakkar and Leiah tahsils. The well lands of 
ia pitched low to allow for tibe Kacha circle of the Dera tahsil are mostly 
contingent ezpensea. situated in the Daman and . not in the Kachi. 

As a mle, the haJtai rates for well assisted by sailab and sailaba lands are 
mnch the same : a smaller share, however, has been taken as the basis of 
the demand for well lands, as the well proprietor is pnt to a certain 
amount of expense in keeping the well in repair, which must be allowed 
for in calculating his assets. 

Batea obtained by distri- 482. The fates obtained bv distributing 

SiCSSTinir/B^Ik! ihei^oduce jamas over the cnlti'yated area ol 
kar tahaii. the Bhakkar tahsil are as follows : — 



Bhakkar tahsU. 


Chahi. Sailaba. 




Rs. A. P. Rs. A. P. 


Pakka circle 


...ISO— 126 


Kacha circle 


...17 0... 10 


Bet circle 


... 1 13 6 ... 10 


Bfttst first propoaed. 


The rates proposed were : — 




Chahi, Sailaba. 


Pakka ••• 


...18 0... 10 


Kacha and Bet 


...14 ... 13 



These rates gave a very lar^ increase on the jama of the Summary 
Settlement ; the people too had been suffering from the effects of two or 
I9ifee successive years of very high floods, which had done much injury. 
When, tiief efore> ihose rates were discnssed with the Settlement Commit^ 



244 

sioner, preparatory to the introduction of the flnrtuating system, it was 

-, ^ ^ J determined, while retaininff the rates for ehahi 

Bates sanctioned. j^^^^ ^ ,^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ j^ ^^^^ ^^ 

11 annas respectively. It was anticipated that the loss on the imme* 
diate revenue would be made up by increased revenue on nanabad lands, 
which, under the fluctuating system, would be assessed as gradually 
brou£:ht under cultivation. 

Rates based on produce 483. The rates given by the produce jama 

jama for the Leiah tahsil. on the cultivated area for the Leiah tahsil were : 

Chahu Sailaba. 

Rs. A. P. Es. A- P. 

Pakka ... 1 1 8 15 6 

Kacha ... 1 1 10 12 10 

The rates thus obtained for sailaba lands are, I think, fair, but the 
rate for chahi lands, owing to a smaller area than usual being shewn 
under the more valuable crops, is comparatively too low. The rate for 
Bhakkar was Be. 1-8-0, and the rate for this tahsil should not have 
been less than Re. 1-4-0, looking to the general difference in quality 
and circumstances between the lands of the two tahsils. 

Bates proposed. 484. The rates proposed by me were :^ 

Rs. A. P. 
Chahi 12 

Sailaba {\^^\^ X J? X 

(Kacha 11 

These rates, except for well lands, were below what the produce 

Enhanced by the Settle- statistics warranted. The Settlement Commis" 

ment Commiasioner. sioner wrote : ''These Nasheb rates are mani- 

f' festly very light, a little lighter even than those sanctioned for Bhakkar. 

•" They are considerably lighter than any that we are likely to propose 



may perceptibly contract under fluctuating 
Under these circumstances the Settlement Commissioner recommended 
an increase of the cAaAi rate to Re. 1-4-0, and of the saUaia rates 
for the two circles to 13 annas and 12 annas respectively. I concurred 
Experience gained in an- i^ these proposals. Since submitting the Leiah 
nouncing jamas in the Assessment report, I had annoucea jamas in 
Bhakkar tahsil. ^j^^ Bhakkar tahsil, and had found that the very 

light rates proposed in especial for the Kacha and Bet circles were not 
approved of by the zemindars. During the years of high flood, these 
]E^acha lands were more flourishing than the Pakka lands, and the zemin- 
dars cared little for the differences in the rent rate and the great 
increase in the new demand, the grounds on which the light rates fof 
ithe Kacha circle were justified. They pointed to the crops, disregarding 
lOl other considerations. I had foundj Uierefore, that very light mtti 



245 

for the Kacha circle discontented the men of the Pakka villages, and 
caased a loss of revenue to Government ; while the Kacha people for 
their part thought themselves fortunate in getting assessed at even an 
anna oelow the Pakka rates. Instead of assessing the Kacha villages, 
therefore, with an uniform rate of 11 annas for saUaba lands, I had 
Increase of rates well seldom assessed below 12 annas and sometimes 
warranted. up to 13 annas. I should in any case, there- 

fore, have raised the Kacha rate for Leiah to 12 annas, and the increase 
of the cfuihi and Pakka sailaba rates to the extent proposed was fully 
justified by the produce estimates. The fear expressed, too, by the 
Settlement Commissioner as to a decrease in cultivation, seems not to 
have been altogether unwarranted. There has been certainly a large 
falling off during the last year or two, though owing I believe to 
exceptional causes. The main ground for not assessing up to the pro- 
duce jama was that even light rates gave a large increase on the former 
assessment, but if cultivation were to decrease to any great extent, the 
large increase anticipated would never be realised, and the necessity 
for assessing below full half assets rates would be obviated. 

485. The rates of yield for the sailaba lands of the trans-Indus 
Rates of yield and rents tahsfls are nearly the same as for Bhakkar and 

in the trans-Indus tahsUs. Leiah. The rent rates are somewhat higher, 
most of these villages being held by lessees and jagirdars whose mahiul 
alone is as high as the share taken from most of the iatot-paying occupancy 
tenants cis-Indus. Most of the trans-Indus Kachi resembles rather the 
Kacha than the Pakka circle of the trans-Indus tahsfls. The only wells 
are to be found on the high banks generally bevond reach of Indus 
inundations. The greater part of the tract is much cut up by ihe river, 
and the diificulty in removing produce had to be taken into considera- 
tion in assessing. On the whole the trans-Indus Kachi, though similar 
to, is somewhat poorer than the Kacha circles in Bhakkar and Leiah. 

486. The well lands in the trans-Indus Kachi are of small extent. 
Rates assessed on well and have been assessed at from Be. 1-8-0 to 

'•^d*' Re. 1 an acre. The sailaba lands have been 

assessed with a rate of 14 annas. I proposed to assess the Miran and 

On sailaba lands. Vahoa circles to the south with a 12 annas rate, 

but this was increased by the Settlement Com- 
xnissiner to 14 annas as in the rest of the tract. Though, as I have said, 
the Kachi lands of the trans-Indus tahsils are poorer than the Kacha 
lands of Bhakkar and Leiah, they have been assessed at considerably 
higher rates. This is justified partly by the higher rent rates in force 
trans-Indus, and partly by the fact that the cis-Indus villages have 
been assessed with a grazing rate on their waste lands ; from this the 
trans-Indus villages are free, and can therefore stand a higher assess- 
ment on cultivated lands. The differences between the lands of the 

ComparatWe statement ^ifferent circles into which the Kachi of the 
according to tahsils show- different tahsils ha^been divided are not sharply 
™^ Pff£^^^ P®' •^'^ ^^ marked. In the following statement, therefore^ 
ntes assessed. j ^^^^ given the figures for whole tahsils for 

purposes of comparison : — 



246 



Nakk of 

TABSIL, 



Cultivation ih ▲obis. 



Sallaba. 



Dera 
Kalachi 
Bbakkar 
Iieiah 

Total 



23,788 

3,330 

91,610 

66,626 



Chahi. 



Total. 



1,83,249 



606 

••• 

9,986 
23,026 

83,617 



Bs. 
23,289| 7 



AVSBAOB TALUS 

OF PBODUCE PBR 

ACRE. 



SaUaba. 



3,330 

1,01,696 

88,651 



7 
8 
7 



A. 
8 
7 

13 



♦2,16,766 



16 



ChaliL 



Bs. 
18 

*•• 
12 
10 



A. 



11 



P. 



BATB8 ABBKaOD. 



Sailaba. 



12 

6 ■•■ 



14 annas. 

14 annas. 
Has-tollas. 
lKa8.tol2as. 



ChaliL 



Be. 1/8 to !/• 



••• 



Be. 1/8 to 1/4 
Be. 1 4 



14as.tollaB 



Be. 1/8 tol>- 



*I hare taken these areas from the prodnoe statements. They do not quite agres 
with the faired areas. 

Sammary SeitlemeiLt xates 487. No reyenno rates were framed at 

trans-Indus. the Summary Settlement for the trana- Indus 

tahsils. 

The Snmmarj Settlement rates for the Nasheb portions of fhd 
Cis-lndtts. Bhakkar and Leiah tahsils were as follows: — 

Chahi. Sailaba. On Cultiya- Or Mai^ 

TION. GUZAJtZ. 

Bhakbtab. 

Hr. Simson's Sett. (1864.) ... I 

Gapt. Mackensie's Sett. (1862)... 

LmAH. 

Mr. 8imson*s Settlement (1864)... 

Capt. Mackenzie's Sett. (1862)... 

These rates are much higher than those which it is now proposed 
Beasons for reducing the to assess, bnt it mnst be remembered that Mr. 
Summary Settlement rates. Simson's Settlement of Leiah broke down al- 
most immediately, and that the incidence of Captain Mackenzie's Settle* 
ment was very soon reduced by bringing nnder cnltivation 
abandoned lands not shown in the area statistics, and also by breaking 
up a great deal of land previously waste, which also escaped assess- 

Aiiuyion-diiuTion system ^^^ ^r *«"» of Settlement In the river 
hitherto in force. villages, too, of Bhakkar and Leiah, the alluvion- 

Cis-lndus. diluvion measurements were always carried on 

in a way very favorable to the asemindars. Cultivation of Ismd cultnrabte 



Bs. 


A. P. Ks. 


A. 


P. 


B8.A. P. 


Is. A. P. 


2 
1 


1 
14 1 


8 
6 






1 12 8 
17 7 


1 6 11 




16 






13 6 


2 


1 


S 





1 IS 11 
16 4 


1 9 1 




ISO 






1 S 8 



247 

al Settlement was exempt from assessment, and in the absence of 
maps it was always difiicnlt to distinguish new allnvion from lands that 
bad been coltarable at the time of Settlement. The patwari generally 

f;aye evidence for the zemindars, who thns got the benefit of the doubt, 
t must be remembered that new alluvion was not assessed when thrown 
np, but only when actually cultivated. In a few years a new bet got 
eovered wiUi thick iungle, when it became impossible for an inspecting 
officer, not personally acquainted with the facts, to say whether uie land 
was new or old. 

Incidence of Summary Settle- *88. In 1874-75 the Summary Settle- 

ment jamas on area of present ment jama gave the following rates on the cul- 
Bettlemoit. tivated area by Settlement measurements: — 

On cultivated. 

Bhakkar 10 annas 2 pie. 

Leiah •• 8 annas 10 pie. 

Incidence of the new assess- ^B incidence of the new assessment is 

»Bnt. as follows : — 

Bhakkar 13 annas. 

Leiah 13 annas 8 pie. 

It will be seen that the present rates are nearly uniform for both 
tahsils. The increase in the Bhakkar tahsil is less than in Leiah. The 
reason of this is, that while the increase of cultivation has been uniform 
all through the Leiah Nasheb, there has been very little increase com- 
paratively in the Pakka circle of the Bhakkar tahsil. The rate of inci- 
dence of the old jama in the Pakka circle was 12 annas an acre ; in the 
Eacha and Bet circles the incidence was little more than 7 axmas an acre, 
er less than the average incidence in Leiah. These latter circles were 
in consequence assessed with rather light rates, and even these gave a 
heavy increase. 

489. The custom as to the treatment of nauabad lands in the 
Allnvion-dilavian ^stem trans-Indus tahsils has hitherto been quite 
hitheirto in force. different from the system in force in BhaKkar 

Trans-Indus. ^nd Leiah. All new cultivation, whether the 

land was or was not culturable at the Summary Settlement, has been 
assessed year by year, the profits from such cultivation being in no case 
left to the zemindars. This is the same system as has been in force in 
the Mianwali and Isakhel tahsils of the Bannu district. In the trans- 
Indus tahsils it has been worked in a very unintelligent war. Instead 
* of assessing new cultivation at fair sdUaba rates all through the tract^ 
the native official, by-whom the system was introduced, merely took the 
rate of incidence of the Summary Settlement jama on the supposed 
cultivated area of each village, and so got a village rate, which wa0 
applied indiscriminately to att nauabad lands inside the village boun- 
daries. In a village originally owning some good wells the rate of 
incidence would perhaps be Re. 1-10-0. In an adjoining village, 
where there were no well lands, the average rate might be 7 annas or 
8. annas. In villages like Kaluwala and Trimman, owning poor daggar 



•248 

lands above the Pakka bank, the average rate might be as low as 4 annaa.. 
These rates, when applied to new alluvion, were sometimes crnshingly 
heavy, sometimes absurdly light. The lands of a bet newly thrown np^ 
partly in one village, partly in another, might be assessed in one case 
at 10 annas, in the other at 20 annas an acre. This system which 
had been worked for some 12 or 14 years, led to great injustice in the 
annual assessments. Some villages wore ruined, while others got off 
much too lightly. When the alluvion-diluvian work was made over to the 
Settlement in 1874, the more glaring of these discrepancies were recti- 
fied, and rates to some extent equalised, but in other respects the existing 
arrangements were continued. 

490. Under this system of annual assessments, the revenue of the 

Tncreaae of the demand river villages of Dera and Kulachi increased 

under this Bystem subse- largely in the interval between Captain Coxe^a 

quently to Captain Coxe'a Settlement and the introduction of the new 

oettiementt « . irn ±1.1. • 11 • • 

assessments. These, though nommallv giving 
^n increase, really give a decrease, if jagir villages are excluded from 
the account. The old rates on aailaba lands were on the average about 
14 annas an acre, and were applied to cultivated and follow alike. The 
new rates average 13 annas 11 pie in Dera and 13 annas 4 pie in 
Eulachi, or nearly the same, but are applied only to the actual cultivated 
area, fallow being excluded. They are, therefore, considerably lighter 
than those hitherto in force. 



Ilupctnatntg sptem «f sssissmendt (or jl^ailaim to 

491. An uniform system of fluctuating assessments has now been 
m * *•« — «* -. *^- introduced into the whole of the sailaba tract 

Flaotaatmg system for • j • ai. t j xr i_« firu* j. 

taiUtha lands explained. comprised m tne Indus xLacni. Xnis system is 

very simple. The actual cultivated area is 
The annual measure- ascertained vear by year by means of a Gtrda^ 

wari effected by the patwaries during the cold 

weather. The cultivated area for each village is assessed at an uniform 

rate per acre fixed at settlement for each village. Nothing is charged 

rr 1* 4. - *^, 4^^ --.-«. on lands that may be out of cultivation for the 

Half rates for two years ^.y ii • i • / » 1 \ • i_ j 

on new cultivation. year- New cultivation ( nauabad ) is charged 

at half rates for the two first years, and 

Ahiana on wells, ^^^^ ^^at at the full village rate. In addition 

to this, wells are assessed with a fixed lump aum—abiana. This abiana 
is based on the difference between the proposed sailaba and chahi rates. 
Thus in the Pakka circle the difference between the sailaba rate of 14 
annas and the chahi rate of He. 1-8-0, is 10 annas. This 10 annas is the 
abiana rate per acre. The well lands of each village are assessed with 
an abiana jama more or less than that given by this circle rate with re- 
gard to individual circumstances. The abiana jama thus assessed is dis- 
Bules for remission of tributed by the people over all the wells and 
ahiana on wells. jhdlars of the village. The rules for masonry 

wells and tor jhalars and kacha wells are not quite the same. If a masonry 



m 

>^ell ^alk in owing to floods, or is carried away bj iiie Indus, the aiiana 

revenue assessed on it is remitted. If a portion of the area of a well is 

washed awaj^ a corresponding reduction is made in the abianaj unless 

there are other contiguous lands belonging to the well proprietor, to 

which the well irrigation can be extendea. Although una abiana is 

assessed in a lump on each well, yet for diluvian remissions it is sup« 

posed to be bached over the area of the well affected, and remissions 

would be allowed at the rate of its incidence per acre. Unlike tbe 

tailaba revenue, the nJmna has to be paid whether the well is working or 

not, and no reduction is made on the ground of the well lands being 

uncultivated. Well owners are expected to keep their wells in repair, 

and it is only when a well falls in, owing to floods, that the abiana is 

remitted. The mere fact of a well being in disrepair does not entitle the 

trroprietor to be exempted from payment of the abiana assessed on it. 

The profit from new masonry wells will m to the zemindars of each 

village, the Qt>vemment takmg nothing additional during term of Sei>« 

tlement. When cMana has been remitted on a well mlling in, if the 

well is re-established, the old abijana will be charged, unless a special 

order for exemption under a protective lease is obtained. The system 

«„. . . . ,*, . . on wnich jAa2ar6 have been assessed with abiana. 
nates zorjAaMrf. • ly xi_i.i» n r»i 

18 the same as that for masonry wells. Jhalars 
however, are less permanent in their nature than wells, and are not so 
steadily worked. It has been arranged, therefore, that the abiana now 
imposed on jhalars will be remitted, whenever ihe jhalar is entirely 
thrown out of use, (t. «., when the wood work is removed or when the 
channel on which it is situated dries up ), and that in return new 
jhalarB be assessed when made. Such assessments would be made at the 
village rate of o&tana for jhalarSy or, where there were no jhalarB in the 
village at Settlement, then at the rate in force in neighbouring villages, 
or at rates similar to those in force in other parts of me tract. In some 
of the villages, where jhalars are most numerous, the abiana now 
assessed on them is nearly as high as that on wells. In assessing new 

{*halar8 the area to be irrigated would be looked to, and the full rate paid 
\y adjoining ^'Aa2ar« would not be charged unless the drcumstanoes of 
the new jhalars were up to the average. For the first two years new 
jhalars will pay only half the full abiana assessed on them. When a man, 
as sometimes happens, transfers the wood work or Persian wheel from 
his well to the bank of a nallah, and uses it there for a time as a jhalar^ 
thereby throwing his well temporarily out of use, tiie jhalar will not be 
assessed. It wiU be held to be covered by the abiana on the well. In 
ihis district ^'Aa2ar« are common in Leiah and in .the southern portion of 
the Bhakkar Kachi. There are very few elsewhere. No kcicha wells 
Kacha weUs were employed in irrigation at Settlement mea- 

surements. Such wells, if sunk hereafler, will 
be treated similarly io jhalars. 

492. To prevent any misapprehension as to the system introduced, 

Specimen case ezplana- I will give a specimen case. A village possesses 

tory of new qrstem. 1,000 acres of cultivation, of which 600 acres is 

saUabay and 400 acres is chdhi^ irrigated by 20 wells and jludars. The 



25d 

whole cultivated area will be assessed at 14 annas an acre, giving 
Bs. 875 on 1,000 acres. The wells and jhalars will in addition to 
assessed with aJbiana at 8 annas an acre, making Rs. 200. The whole 
revenue therefore is Rs 1,075. Next year the area under crop is only 
800 acres. In this case the sailaba jama will be only Rs. 700, but the 
abiana will remain at Rs. 200 as before, although the well irrigated area 
may have fallen to 200 acres ; unless a remission is necessitated for 
wells lost by diluvian or (or jhalars thrown out of work. The scnlaba 
jama varies with the extent of cultivation. The abiana is a fixed sum, 
and ordinarily will remain the same from year to year. In some vil- 

* lages, however, of the Dera tahsil, the fluctuating system has only been 
introduced for the sailaba lands. Well lands and barani lands have been 
formed into separate chaks, the whole assessment of which Is fixed. 
In such villages there is no separate abiana assessment, and tibe well lands 
will be excluded from the annual measurements. 

493. In Bhakkar and Leiah all lands not assessed as cultivated, 
ABsesBment of graamg except waste sand and river bed, have been 

• lands. assessed with a grazing jama at the rate €|f 

Cis-lnduB. ^ 3.8-0 for 100 acres. .This rate is put on all 

fallow lands, and also on culturable waste. It is also charged on lands 
which, though not actually culturable, are covered with a certain 
amount of grass and jungle growth, capable of affording pasturage for 
cattle. The substitution of this grazing jama for the old trintd or cattle 
.assessment, will be the subject of a subsequent chapter. The grazing 
lands of Dera and Kulachi are unassessed. 

Average village rates on ^9*- The average Village rates assessed 

iaiiaha cultivation for the on sailaba cultivation for the different tahsils 
different tahaUs. ^^e as follows : 



••• ... ••• ••• 



• • • . •• 



13 


annae 


11 


pi«. 


12 


a 


4 


f> 


13 


n 






12 


>» 


4 


n 



Dera 

Kulachi ..« 
Bhakkar ... 
Leiah 

495. In the Bhakkar tahsfl the fixed well abiana is Bs. 7,023, 

Rate of abiana on wells, which falls at Rs. 8-14-0 Oil 790 wells and 

incidence of abiana per jhalars. In Leiah the well abiafia amounts to 

acre of weU cultivation. jjg 9 573^ ^^^ falls at the rate of Rs. 6-13-0, oa 

1,416 wells and jhalars. The incidence of the abiana jama on the chahi 
area is : 

Bhakkar 11 annas 4 pie. 

jLidaxi ••• ••• ••• ■•• ••• o ,, v.« 

Most of the wells are in the Pakka circles of these two tahsils, where 
ihe sailaba rates are higher than the tahsil rates. On an average the 
sailaba rate on well lands is 14 annas in Bhakkar and 13 annas in 
Leiah. Adding the abiana rate, the rate per acre on ckcJii coltiyatioii 



251 

Rs. A. P. , 
Bhakkar ... ... ... ... •••194 

j-i6iau ••• «•« ••• ••,• ••• X ij V 

The rates acoepied were Be. 1-8-0 and Be. l-4rO^ so that the actual 
assessments are very close to tiie rate jamas. 

Rates oompared with 496. To compare these figures with those 

those for other traots. for adjoining tracts. 

Hianwaii tahsil. In Mianwali the sailaba lands have been 

i8t. Sailaba rates. graded and assessed as follows : — 

' Rs. A. P. 

Mat ••« .., ... ... ,,. ... 1 10 

JLi^raKKar ••• ••• ••• •., .•• x. Ja u 

Ivailan ••• ••• ••• .••• •«. •.• o 

The average rate will, I believe, be somewhat between the rate for 
Drakkar and that for Maiy and very much higher than the rate taken for 
the adjoining portion of the Bhakkar tabail, which is 12 annas only. la 
IfiinwAli^ however, as in the Dera tabsil, the Summary Settlement rates 
have been steadily applied year by year to all new cultivation, and an 
enormous increase of revenue has been obtained in this way prior to the 
revision of the assessment. The new rates entail some decrease in the 
revenue, whereas the light rates in Bhakkar give a large increane. Be- 
sides this the Mianwili lands are better on the whole than those of the 
Bhakkar tahsfl, the soil being more constantly renewed by deposits of 
fresh Mai, There is, however, no doubt that the assessment of the 
Mianwili is a third as heavy again as that of the Bhakkar Kachi. In 
Mianwali, grazing rates have been charged on the culturable waste at 

2nd Grazinff rates '^* 1"^^ P®^ 1^^ acres. This is lower than the 

Bhakkar rate of Bs. 3-8*0, but does not make 
much practical difference in the average incidence of the whole assess- 
ment. 

497. In Muzaffargarh a fluctuating system has been introdnced 

Mazaflargarh district. 1^*0 ^^ Bet circle, very similar to the arran^e-< 
Sailaba rates and well ments for the Kachi portion of this district. 
'**®"' The Muzaffargarh Bet circle resembles in char- 

acter the southern portion of the Leiah Kachi, which it adjoins. The 
sailaba rate assessed is 13 annas. The ahiana rat<3 is Bs. 8 for wells^ 
iand Bs. 6 for wells a,ndjhalar8 taken together. Looking to the quality 
of the lands, I should say that the sailaba lands have hacn assessed mora 
heavily, while the wells have been assessed rather more lightly, than in 

Oncinff ratsa Bhakkar and Leiah. The grazing rate too iB 

^^ Bs. 4-8-0 instead of Bs. 8-8-0 per 100 acres. 

The assessment, if up to rates, will be on the whole heavier than that on 

the adjoining parts of Leiah, though giving no increase to speak of on 

the former revenue. 



252 

498. In the Dera Gbazi Khan district no rerenne has been 
Dera QhAsi Khan diBtriet. assessed on the grazing landS) and the* sMaba 

Stiiiaha rates. rafces therefore can be readily compared with 

those for Dera and Kniachi. The Sanghar rate is only 8 annas 9 pie. 
The rate for the Dera Gh&zi Khan tahstfl is 18 annas ft pio. The 
Sanghar lands are, I believe, jost as good as those of Knlacbi and Mirm, 
and the assessment on them is nndonbtedlj mnch lighter than what I have 

i)ut on the latter. The Dera Ghizi Khan rates are also oomparativelj 
ighter, if the increased valne of produce is considered,— -com being 
worth in Dera Gh&zi Khan its value at Dera Ismail Khan pins the cost 
of boat freight between the two places. 

499. To sum up the results of this comparison, the Kachi assess- 

Besalts of oomDariBon n^ents of this district are much lighter than those 

of Bannti, and much heavier than those of Dera 
Qhazi Khan, and very nearly equal in incidence to those of Muzaffiu'garlu 



RESULTS OF THE ASSESSMENT OP THE KACHI TRACT. 

Assessment of Kacbl '^' ^® following statement shows the 

lands in the different tah- total assessment of the Kachi lands for the 

■lis under the new Settle* whole district by the new Settlement : — 
meat. 

lit. Remarks. 

{Khasor Rs. 3,7 IS 
Kacha „ 14,064 
Kahiri ,, 2,872 

Kulachi .«• • 2,664 Yahoa circle. 

Bhakkar 89,646 Whole Nasheb. 

Leiah • 78,407 Ditto ditto. 

Total ... 1,91,371 

N. B.— The new assessment inelndes ahiana on wells, and the Jama obtained Iff 
applying the nllage rates now asseaeed to the cnltirated area bj Settlement measare- 
ments. 

501. The uniform system of fluctuating assessment for cultivated 
Modifications in the "inds in the Kaohi eventually introduced has 
waiiaha fluctuating flystem been gradually worked out, and the first pro- 
since its introduction. ^oss\% have been considerably modified in ac- 

cordance with the results of subsequent experience. In the Bhakkar 
Separate rate for imimi- tahsil, and in parts of the Dera tahsfl, it was 
Hd lands aboli&hed. first arranged to have a lighter rate for mxuor 

had lands. This double rate, however, created contusion. A Settlement 
field would be graduallY enlarged by incorporating in it acyoining waste. 
There would be no visible line of demarcation between the old and new 
lands, and in the case of part of the field being afterwards waste, there 
would be doubts as to what rate should be charged* The separate 



258 

natuAad rate was therefore abolished, and new cnliivation will pay the 

fall Settlement rate* It was originally arranged, too, for all except the 

TT i< X & J Leiah tahsil, which was the last to be assessed. 

Half rates on nanahad T^ . •«*«>", tt*m^« *«m «u«^«oi> m/ *n7 ••os^dq^tu, 

lands sabBtitated for total that nauooad lands were to be exempt for two 
exemption for first two years from assessment. A provision was made, 
y®*"" nowever, that in the case oi newly thrown np 

lands, or of silt deposits, which conld be cultivated at once withoat any 
considerable labonr in clearing, they wonid be liable to be assessed at fall 
or half rates as a special measure from the first. . Mr. Lyall was afterwards 
strongly impressed with the idea that nauabad lands should in all cases 
be assessed from the first, as this would ensure their being properly 
brou£rht to account. When reporting the Leiah assessments for sano- 
tion, ne suggested that in Bhakkar and the rest of the district also, it 
wocdd be well to put half rates on nauabad lands for the first two years. 
This has been done, and at the same time the special provision for assess- 
ing new silt deposits has been cancelled. I found from experience that it 
was impossible to say after the lands had been broken up whether or not 
much labour had or had not been expended in clearance, and too much 
power was thus thrown into the hanas of the patwaries. All new cultiT 
Tation, therefore, will for the future pay half rates only for the two first 
years. 

502. The first arrangements for jhaldrs were also changed for an. 

Alteration in mle. re- ™P'?J^ system that had been approved of for 
garding/AaMr#. the Muzaffarffarh distnct, where jhalarg are 

numerous, and where the subject of their assess- 
ment had received special attention from Mr. O'Brien. The system, as 
now laid down, is exceedingly simple, and will, I think, be worked with- 
out difficulty. Elaborate instructions have been issued for the prepara- 
tion of the annual papers by the Settlement Commissioner, and these 
have been embodiea in a set of rules drawn up for the guidance of th^ 
patwiries and the supervising tahsil establishments. 



VI.-A88E88MENT OF THE THAL- 

503. The Thai tract lies in the Bhakkar and Leiah tahsfls. Its total 

Area of the Thai. *'®* " 2,945,843 acres, rfe., Bhi^ar 1,681,107. 

and Leiah 1,264,736 acres. The cultivation is 

mostly well, with a little barani in the Bhakkar tahsil, for the most part 

to the north and east, where the wells are deep and the area under well 

V 1^ mrwrit cultivatlon exceedingly small. There are 2,659 

Number of Wells. ^^jjg j^ ^ i^, the Thai. Of these 635 are in 

the Bhakkar tahsil and 2,024 in the Leiah tahsil. 

Cultivation in the Thai is carefully carried on, and the average pro- 
Yield of tract duceas compared with the cultivated area is 

considerable. Li the Pakka and Daggar 
circles of the Bhakkar tahsil, and in the Pakka circle of the I^iah 
tahsfl, in fact in all the western portion of the tract towards the 
Nasheb, (be average yield per acre is between Bs» 12 and Rs. 13 per acre. 



284^ 

In the eastern porttoh, oonstitatiiis the great Thai, the raiea of yield 
vary from Bs. 11 to Ra. 12. Bat &oagh the prodace ia Urge, atill the 
oost of carrying on the well coltivation is very heavy. The depth of 
Depth of wells and great ^©U^ >» the Leiah Thai varies from 20 feet in • 
expense attending well cml- the western to 36 feet in the eastern Thai. In 
^^^^^^ the Bhakkar Thai the average depth of welb is 

38 feet in the Daggar and 51 feet in the Thai Kalan circle. These deep 
wells necessitate expensive cattle to work thera, till at last the expenses 
eat np the profits. As a mie no profit is to be obtained by letting out 
wells to tenants, and if a man cannot cultivate his own well^ he is genera 
ally glad to make it over to any one, who will pay the revenue and a 
nominal malikana. In the Dbggar circle^ out of 416 tenants, 281 pay 
only the actnal revenue doe on their wells. In the Thai Kalan oirclei 
out of 58 tenants, only 4 pay anything besides the Government revenue. 
In the Leiah Thai there are a considerable number of (oto^paying ten- 
ants, the rates of batai being a third and a fourth. Large allowaaoes 
however have to be made for green fodder eaten by the cattle and the 
expenses of keeping the well in repair, which fall on the proprietor. 
The share of Uie produce, therefore, taken as the basis of the assessment, 
has had to be pitched very low. In Leiah i^e share taken is from a 
fourteenth to a sixteenth ; in Bhakkar from a seventeenUi to a nine^ 
teentti. 

^ ^ 504. The asseesment rates for the two 

Assemient rates. ^^^^ f^ ^H j^^^ ^^ ^ ^^y^^^ ^ 



Name of drele* Bate on cultivated. Rate onfaUow, 

Bs. A. P. Rs. A. P. 



{Pakka ... ... 14 
Daggar 9 ?? J 



Leiah 



ThalEalaa 10 10 

f Pakka ... ... 12 

\Thal 10 



... 



... 



... 



... 



... 






2 








2 








2 
























505. The incidence of thejama assessed per well is aboat Bs. 20 
Incidence of ]ama per in the Daggar and Pakka circles of the Bhakkar 

well. tahsfl, and about Bs. 16 in the Leiah Thai. 

In iiie Thai Kalan circle in Bhakkar, where many of <the wells are. 
mainly used for watering cattle, the incidence is only Ks. 8 per well. 

506. The average yield per acre for barani lands in the Thai by 
JBarani cultivation. Bsti.. the produce Statement is about Bs. 4 an «;re. 

mate of produce and rates The extent of baram coltivamon, nowever, fluo-: 
xsisessed. tuates greatly from year to year, and the pro- 

duce statement shows only the average yield for years when the land 
Us cultivated. Mowmg for years when the land remains waste, the 
average yield per acre has been taken at Bs. 2 per acre. Barani lands 
are almost alvfays farmed by the proprietors or by tenants wying only 
revenue and perhaps a small cash malikana. There are, tlierefore, no 



355 



tftatistici on which to l>as8 a rent rate. An eighth which gives 4 annas 
an acre is the share that has been accepted as the basis of the Government 
demand, and this rate has been assessed on the barani lands of the Thai 
Kalan circle, amounting to 3,124 acres,. The barani lands in the Daggar 
circle are of small extent, only 467 acres, and inferior in quality to the 
Thai Kalan lands. They have been assessed at 2 annas 8 pie an acre. 

507. As in the Kachi of the ds-Indus tahsils, the rates now 
* Rated (well and harani^) assessed are lighter than those of the- Smnmary 
co^npaied with . Sommaty Settlements. The rates accepted by Mr. Simsox) 
Settlement rates. . fo^ cAoAt lands in the Leiah Thai were Be. 1 

toBe. 1-4^ per acre. The actual incidence of Mr. Simson's jama 
was Be. 1-0-3 on cultivation, and 14 annas 9 pie on malffuzari. Iq 
the Bhakkar tahsil Mr. Simson^s jama fell at Be. 1-0-7 on cultivated 
and 14 annas 4 pie on malgtusari. Captain Mackenzie took an nnifora 
rate of 14 annaa for both tahsils, but assessed rather above his rates.. 
Qe took 4 annas aa his bcurani rate. 

508. Since the Settlement of 1862 thera 
has been a considerable increase of cqltivation 
in the Thai. 

The details of area for the former Settlements and for the present 
Settlement arp as follows : — 



Increase in Thai cnltiva- 
tion since 1855. . 



••• ••• ••• •.. 



«•• 



•«. 



JShakkar, 
}Cr. SimaontB Settlement 
Captain Mackenzie's Settlement 
present Settlement 

Mr. Rim80D*s Settlement 
Captain Mackenzie's Settlement 
f^resent Settlement 

* Of tliis 6,644 acres is old 



«.. •■• ••. ••• 



CULTr7ATBD. 



Chahi. 



9«485 

9,140 

13,581 

86,288 
33,592 
40,906 

abandon 



Barani. 



1,204 

371 

2,97Q 



ed. 



Aban- 
doned. 



1;596 

1,886 
1,989 

4,389 

•9,159 

5,678 



Total. 



12,285 
11^7 
18^490. 

40,627 
43,749 
46,579 



SSS" 



I I ; 



KPsas 



• There has been an increase of about 40 per cent, in well ealtivatioa 
in Bhakkar and. of abont 13 per cenl. in Leiaii since Mr. Simson's Settle^ 
ment. The barani areas do not admit of comparison^ as the barani 
measurementa of the Summary SetttemBnts were imperfect. 



256 



509. the fbUowinff statement shows the former assessments oil 
Former and new Msess- xhal caltivation (well and barcLni)^ the jama by 
meats oompAred. revenoe rates, and that actoally assessed. 



■•• 



Mi. Simeon*! Settlement 
Captain lifackensie'B Settlement 
By reyenue rates of present Settlement 
Jama now assessed < 



Bhakkar. 



10,991 

9»18S 

11,290 

10,967 



Leiah. 



■«< 



87,637 
80,617 
80,900 
29,717 



TotaL 



■ fc^ ^ iW 



48,628 
89,666 
42,190 
40,674 



The assessment of Thai wells is certainly light, bat not lighter than 
the oharacter of the traot warrants. 

510. The waste lands of the Thai have been assessed with grazing 

Rates assessed on gracing rates, in lien of the old assessment on cattle, 
lands. 

In the Bhakkar Thai the Pakka villages have been assessed at 

,-* «u tv— B®' 1-8-0 per 100 acres. The incidence of die 

Ist. JsnauLar. •••ij a* i /w\ 

grazing jama is 14 annas 2 pie per 100 acres 

in the Daggar circle, and Be. 1-4-6 in the Thai Elalan circle. 

In the Leiah Thai lands adjoining the Nasheb in the northern 

^ , ... portion of the Pakka circle have been assessed 

- *^ ^"""^ at Be. 1-8-0 per 100 acres ; in the sonthem 

portion at Be. 1-4-0. Towards the east the rates decrease to Be. 1-4-0 

and Be* 1. The rate for the Thai circle is only 12 annas. 

The Leiah Thai gets less rain-fall and has a smaller grazing 

.^ ' ^ . capacity than the Bhakkar Thai, and me rate 

Above rates compared. J^^ •' . . xi i« 1.1 

'^ of the grazing jama is consequently ugbter 

iihan in Bhakkar. The Bhakkar grazing assessment, too, covers the 

melon cultivation, which has not been separately assessed. 

511. The Thai villages and the Thai portions of those vQlages 
Jamas on onltiration and §at lie partly in the Thai and partly in the 

on gracing lands assessed in Kachi, have all received fixed jamas, including 

a lamp, and distribution left the assessments on well, bararU and grazing 
to the people. ^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ j^ j^^^^ j^^p^ q^ 

grazing jama distinct, and have arranged to distrioute it year by year 
over then existing cattle. In some cases, however, they have thrown the 
whole or a portion on to the cultivated lands. The subject of these 
grazing jamas will be taken up in the following chapter. 



257 

ASSESSMENT OF GRAZING LANDS AND GOVERNMENT RAKHS- 

512. Hitherto the cis-Indas villages, ia addition to the land 
9Vmfti hitherto taken cis- revenne, have been assessed with trinnij based 

Indus bat no4 trans-Indas. on the nninber of cattle belonging to each vil- 
Castom of free-griaing. lage. No trinni has been taken in the trans- 
Indos tahsfls. Both cis-Indos and trans-Indus cattle have grazed freely 
all through the waste lands of the district without regard to village boun- 
daries. In the same way cattle belonging to Pawindahs and to residents 
of other districts hav^e been allowed to graze freely, without paying any- 
thing for the privilege. 

513. As regards the trans-Indus tahsfls, no change has been made 
Exemption from trinni ^" ^¥, P«*eviou8ly existing arrangements. No 

trans - Indus continued, special assessment has been put on the grazmg 
Orasing rights of the Paw- lands, and the right of free grazing has been 
indahs. Continued. A clause mentionincf this custom of 

free grazing has been generally inserted in the wajib-ul-arz of the 
Dam&n villages. With regard to the Nasars and other Pawindahs, whose 
flocks have from time immemorial grazed during the cold weather in 
the waste tracts along the skirts of the Suliman hills, a special clause 
has been entered in the papers of the border villages, within whose 
boundaries these lands are included. 

514. The system of trinni assessment in force cis-Indus is fully 
System of eriiMii assess- ^^^scribed in a memo by Captain Mackenzie, 

ment in force cis-Indus. dated 28th June 1861. A tax on cattle was 
Arrangements previous to taken by the Sikhs. Captain Hollings at an- 
^^^' nexation made the assessment summarily by an 

addition of 25 per cent, to the receipts under the previous administra- 
tion. This Settlement worked badly, and the necessity for a revision 
was felt from the first ; nothing, however, was done, and the old assess- 
ment remained in force till the Summary Settlement of 1862, when tho 
amount of the trinni revenue for the two tahsils stood as follows :-^ 

Rs. 
Bhakkar ... ... ... 27,294 

Leiah ... ... ... 19,032 

Total ... 46,326 

Captain Mackenzie took up the revision of the trinni assessment 

Revised by Captain along with that of the land revenue. He 

Kackensie. pointed out that the tax, as it existed in these 

tahsils, was a poll tax on catde, and not one on grazing lands. He fixed 

Bates assessed by him ^^^ following geueral rates for the different sorts 

of cattle :— 

Rs. A. P. 

He-camels ... ... ... 1 8 

She-camels ... ... ... 2 

Buffaloes ... ... ... 10 

Cows ... ... .,, ... 4 

Sheep and goats ... ,•• 6 



358 

515. In aotoally assessing he varied the rates as neoessary, and in 
Distribution of the assess- distributing the trinni revenue among them- 
ment inside villages. selves, the people were allowed to fix their owa 

rates for each sort of cattle. The rates on sheep were generally raised 
to an anna or more, the rates on other cattle being reduced. The 
revenue assessed, by Captain Mackenzie, as stated in his asaeasment 
report, was as follows : — 

Bs. 
Bhakkar ... ... ... 26,707 

Leiah ... ... ... 16,997 



Total ... 43,704 

Besides this, mafies were granted to the extent of Rs. 9,534, 

Amount of Captain and the lambardars of each village were givei^ 

Mackenzie's assessment. exemptions on their own cattle up to 10 per 

Mafies and exemptions in cent, of the assessment on the cows and buf- 

favor of lambardars. faloes of the village. These exemptions tQ 

lambardars aggregated Rs. 712. 

516. Qreat variations were made in the trinni janias. Some 

System nnder which the ^|"*^«« ^^ their jamas doubled and trebled, 
demand has been realized. others agam were reduced to one*naii or one- 
third. Much of this was owing to the transfer 
Periodical re-distribution. of individual graziers from one village to an-. 

other. A man whose cattle had originally been assessed with one 
village might since have moved to another ; and it was found oonvenient, 
when revising the Settlement, to transfer his liabilities to the village 
where he actually resided. It was intended that every year, or after 
every two or three years, there should be a re-enumeration of the cattle 
of each village followed by a new distribution of the revenue. This 
system, however, was never thoroughly worked. Where the trinni 
assessment was light, the people went on paying the revenue wiih which 
each cattle owner had been originally assessed. Where the pressure 
was heavy, the lambardar, assisted by the leading graziers of the village, 
took into consideration the circumstances of the different khewatdarB. 
A poor man, whose cattle had died, and from whom realisation was 
hopeless, would be let off ; a man who could afford to pay, yfv^ made U>, 
pay as before, even though his cattle might have decreased greatly. In 
the same way the revenue was roughly enhanced on men whose cattle 
had increased. A system like this gave the lambardars great oppor- 
tunities for fraud and embezzlement. By the Summary Settlement 
arrangements the lambardars were exempted from paying on their own 
cattle up to ten per pent, of the trinni on cows and buffaloes, but gen- 
erally they paid nothing at all, except when they had to make good the 
revenue due from defaultinor k/ietoatdara. 



259 

517. Th<we arran^ments worked fairly in the Nasheb and most 
Workiag of Captain of the Thai. Some villages, however, had been 
Mackensie's trinni Settle- assessed with a heavy camel trmm. Camel 
ment. It breaks down in owners of all classes of graziers are those who 
a few villagea. move abont most, and care least for having a 

fixed residence, and although by the old system the liability of a khe- 
watdar to pay trinni did not cease on his leaving a village, yet often 
the lambardar found it impossible to realise from these wandering 
defaulters. In some cases big camel dags had been broken up, owing to 
ttiurrain and impoverishment of the ddg-dars, and a good deal of the 
Revenue became in consequence irrecoverable. 

In 1873 Mr. Moore, the Extra Assistant Commissioner, proposed to 

Mr. Moore*i proposals remedy this state of things by forming the 

for a change of system. waste lands of each tahsil into four or five 

chakfi, to be leased to contractors, who would realise the trinni revenoe 

year by year on the existing cattle. After consulting with Mr. Moore, I 

eventually recommended that where the trinni revenue bore only a 

small proportion to the land revenue, it should be included in the latter, 

and distributed on the land, but that tfaechak system should be introduced 

ditto those parts of the Thai, where the amount of the land revenue was too 

iimall to allow of its being hampered with the additional burden. The 

Objections to the old objections to the old system, when applied to 

jystem. the villages of the great Thai, are, that the profits 

of cattle breeding are too fiuctuating to admit of the cattle owners 

paying a fixed revenue for a long term of years, and also that the system 

x>f having an annual baieh, though theoretically fair, leads to fraud on the 

{>art of the lambardars, and to factious complaints of exaction on the 

4>art of the ryots. 

518. At .this point the question of the trinni assessment became 
. Qaestioa of boundaries mixed up with that of the demarcation of boun- 
in the thai. Kighta of the daries in the Thai waste. Up to the present 
aemmdirs and the Govern- Settlement the Thai waste generally had been 

looked on to some extent as the property of the 
Free graeing. Government. At the same time, certain bodies 

of zemindars had exclusive rights to sink new wells in almost all JPAi*^ 
of the Thai, except such as were included in Government rakhs. There 
were no exclusive rights of grazing : residents and outsiders grazing 
ireely all through the Thai, regardless of the so-called village boundaries. 

519. The Thai boundaries of the villages lying partly in the Th41, 
Bevenae suryey demarcsa- partly in the Kachi, had been demarcated by th e 

tions of 1856-57 incomplete. Revenue Survey in 1856-57. The remaining 
villages were left undemarcated at the Summary Settlement of 1862. 
Only the cultivated lands were measured, but a general clause was ift- 
aertod in the wajib^l-arz that the unmeasured waste was the property of 
• Entries in the old ad- the khewatdars or, where there was an ata 
{ninistratioQ papers. malkiyatj of the ala nioLikSy subject to the rights 

of the community. In other villages^ such as Qanharwala, in whidi 



260 

ibere was no cnltivation at last Settlement and the rerenne demand was 
on accoant of trinni only, the wajib-ul-^rz papers merely laid down rules 
for the collection of the trinni revenae^ and there was no reference 
whatever to proprietary rights in land. 

520. Subsequent to Captain Mackenzie's Settlement about 1864, 
Partial demarcation in accordance with a general order issued by 

sabseqnent to Captain the Commissioner for the whole district, the 
MackenEie'8 Settlement. supposed boundaries of most of the Thai vil- 
lages, not previously demarcated were &x*yd by the patwaries, and rou^h 
thakbasts made. This was with a view to have the boundaries ready 
fixed in anticipation of a regular Settlement. In some cases this was 
done in the course of boundary disputes between adjoining villages. 
But these thakbast maps and the demarcation they purport to record, 
were never approved by any authority, nor did the maps bear any 
signatures, nor were any pakka trijunction pillars erected. When the 
present Settlement therefore commenced, no demarcation of an abiding 
character had been made except in the case of the Thal-Nasheb villages, 
some of which, however, stretch far back into the Thai. 

» 

521. Captain Mackenzie says, in para. 24 of his report, anent thd 
Captain Mackenzie's rights of Government to send non-residents t* 

tiewB on Thai demarca- graze in the Thai, that the question involves the 
'^^^ question of proprietary right, and cannot be 

answered till boundaries of lands required by or owned by residents 
are known. He says that their demarcation previous to survey in 1856 
had been prohibited, and although it was anticipated that this demarca<* 
tion would be made by the district officer, who would make allotments 
of moderate extent and mark off the rest for Government as grass pre* 
serves, nothing had up to this time been done. Captain Mackenzie had 
intended to report on the whole subject of rights, boundaries Ac. in the 
Thai, but was transferred suddenly to the Central Provinces, and left the 
work unfinished. 

T>,^po«38 for demarca. 522. Taking all the facts of the ca^ 

tion made by Mr. Lyall consideraiion, Mr. Lyall and I agreed to pro- 

and myself. Four olaoaes of pose the following arrangements for the deter* 

▼Ulages. mination of rights in the Thai : — 

1st. To respect absolutely the mauzatoar demarcations of the Thai* 
Ist. Thal-Nasheb villages. Nasheb villages made by the Bevenue Survey 

in 1856-57. 

3nd. In the case of those Thai mauzahs (not demarcated by Captaia 

Snd.Sn«UerTh»lTillitgei. Mackenzie), where the demarcation sabee- 

quently made did not give the village an exoes* 
sive amount of waste, or, in other words, where the mauzahs were small^ 
and there were many wells, then the whole of the waste to be allotted to 
the village, the same boundaries being adopted, or only slightly altered 
and simplified. 



261 

3rd. In the case of the large villages in the big Thal^ containing 
8rd. Big Thai vlllagea considerable groups of wells used for cultiva-* 
with well caltivatioa. tion, we proposed to cut these up as far as 

possible into separate dakhili inauzahs of about the same size as the 
smaller Thai villages already mentioned. In doing this the intervening 
blocks of waste would be formed into Government chaks. 

4th. There is another class of villages in the big Thai which 
4th. Pastoral villages differs from those alluded to above in so far 
without well caltivation. that there is next to no well cultivation^ and the 
revenue paid hitherto has been confined to trinni or a little fluctuating 
land revenue assessed on barani cultivation. In these we proposed to give 
to each well owner from 100 acres to 200 acres in full proprietorship, 
and to take up the rest as Government property, subject to the right of 
grazing enjoyed by the well owners, who would not, however, have the 
right to stop Government from giving it out to third parties for cultiva* 
tion. 

523. Colonel Mackenzie was sent a copy of our draft proposals. 
Reference to Colonel and expressed his opinion that there was no- 

Maokenzie. thing in them contrary to the spirit of his 

own Settlement. He considered the arrangements as being liberal to 
the Thai communities and well owners. 

524. These proposals for demarcation of boundaries were intended 

, to fit in with the proposals for the revision of 

tlo^mtended^to fi?*iI?to the trinni arrangements submitted at the close 
proposed trinni arrange- of 1873. The Government, however, hesitated 
ments. to pass orders on the latter, till the chak system 

in force in the Montgomery and Jhang districts had had a further trial. 

Meanwhile Colonel Davies was appointed to officiate as Settlement 

Colonel Davies' sugges- Commissioner during Mr. Lyall's absence on 

tion to introdace the Shah- leave, and suggested the introduction of the 

pur system. Same system into the Thai tracts of this district 

as was in force in the adjoining portion of Shahpur. 

The chak system which had been proposed for this district, differed 

Government chaks in essentially from that in force in Montgomery and 
Montgomery, Jhang and Jhang, and this again differed from the system 
Shahpur. in force in Shahpur. In Montgomery and Jhang 

the cultivated lands lie along the banks of the rivers, and the Government 
waste lands form great blocks in the centre, which have been divided 
into large chaks, not as a rule attached by position to any particular 
inanzah. The rakhs in Shahpur are numerous and scattered, but like 
the Montgomery chaks, they are the property of Government, which 
leases them to contractors, or farms them itself as it pleases. In both 
cases the cultivated and other lands belonging to the village communi- 
ties -are excluded from the rakh bounaaries, and persons not grazing 
in the rakhs or chaks are not liable to grazing dues beyond what reve- 
nue on grazing lands may have been included in the assessment of their 
villages. The trinni chaks that we proposed to form iu this district 



362 

uronM have tnctaded village lands and Golrefnindtit wAste indis^Itni- 
natelj. The whole of the Dera Ismail Khan Thai is more or less 
scattered over with wells, rendering it in conseqaence difficult to take 
up large contigaous blocks as G-overnment rakh. In Montgomery the 
interior of the bar is devoid of villages, a common grazing ground for 
the whole country. The villages at the edges might be allownd a cer- 
tain amount of land, but there remained great blocks in the centre, 
which necessarily became the property of Gbvernment. In the Sind- 
Sind-Saugor Doab diflfera Sanger Doab, on the contrary, there would be 
in its circomstaaces from no difficulty in dividing off the whole Thai 
the bar country. among the different villages and groups of wells 

situated within it, and the formation of Qovernment chaks becomes a 
more artificial process than in the central tracts of Montgomery and 
Jhang. In this respect the state of things in this district assiinilatei 
more to ihat which exists in Shahpur. / 

525. In the Shahpur district, the whole Thai was first divided 

among the different villages. The cattle of 

tin^^^ShKhvn^^ ^^^ ^^'^*K® ^^®^® *^®" enumerated, and allot- 
^ meuts of waste land were made at fixed rates 

in proportion to the head of cattle. The excess waste was taken up as 
Government rakh. The zemindars of the village from whose land^ 
such a rakh has been formed, may have a sentimental but no legal 
claim to the lease of the rakh. Each village gets the waste lands left to 
it in full property, and can exclude outsiders from grazing within its 

limits. In reply to Colonel Davies' enquiries, 
taitef "IJ.'^ttU t.tZ, I represented that there would be no difficulty 
though radically different in introducing the Shahpur system mto the ois- 
from Bystem in foroe. Indus tahslls, though it would of course effect 

a revolution in the jCfrazing arrangements of the country. Instead of 
free grazing, each cattle owner is restricted to his own village, and can- 
hot orraze elsewhere without the permission of the proprietors, of, in the 
case^of Government rakhs, on payment of an additional fee. 1 pointed 
Bffecte on proposals for out that the demarcation of boundaries on the 
demarcation embodied in Shahpur System would not clash Wltn 00* 

para* 532. original proposals except in the oase of the 

purely trinm paying villages of the 4th class. 

As regards the first two classes of villages, they would be allowed 
to engage for the whole of their waste lands at the rates fixed. In 
cutting up the villages of the third class, the grazing requirements of 
the new raauzahs would have to be looked to. In the case of villages 

Necessity for modifying of the 4th class, instead of allotting plots of 100 
the proposals for villages acres Or 200 acres only to each well, it wouW 
6f class IV. be necessary to divide them into separate 

mauzahs in the way proposed for the villages of class 3, the allot- 
ments being based on the amount of cattle belonging to the resident 

graziers. I also mentioned that the Kachi 

Shahpur system suited yjHaaes could readily be brought under the 
for the Kachi . Shahpur system, their waste lands being assessed 

at fixed rates, aiid the proprietors of each Tillage being given the 



263 

eptlon of b(iching the grazing revenne thus obtained on their lands or^ 

as before, on their cattle. The advantage of the Shahpar system is, thai 

the rights of the Government and of the people are clearly defined, and 

the State holds exclasive possession of tracts of waste land in excess of 

. , . M ^^. ox. X. village reqairements. Under such a system 
Advantaffe or toe Shah- ,, ® /? i» • i • i • i_ oi. j. 

pur system as checking the growth of prescriptive claims hereafter to 
growth of prescriptiYe encamber the rights of Government is pre-» 
olaima. vented, and in this point it certainly has the 

advantage over the ehak system first proposed. Another advantage of 
tnch a system is that complaints of over-assessment are altogether put 
a stop to. Lands are fairly assessed with regard to their grazing 
capacity : if a village has eno^gh cattle for its grazing, it can readily 
pay the revenue ; if the revenne presses heavily in proportion to the 
cattle, it.ls a proof that the grazing area is in excess of requirements, 
and the Government would at all times be ready to resume the surplus, 
making a corresponding reduction in the demand. 

526. It was very desirable that some arrangement should be come 
Shahpur sjatem sane- *<> with regard to the trinni system to be intro- 

tioned for the cis-Indas duced, and I expressed my readiness to accept 
t*^*^^®* the system, which I have described, as an alter- 

l^tive to the first proposals. Colonel Davies recommended it strongly, 
l^nd its adoption was eventually approved of by the Government. The 
Government also decided that excess lands might be taken up as rakh 
}n villages where there was a superior proprietary body, a portion of 
(he rakh receipts being awarded to the proprietors as malikana^ Ai 
regards this last provision, which was based on a suggestion of my own, 
Awaid of malikana from '^ ^^ ^" "^ case been found necessary to award 
rakh income to aaperior rmUikanay as the rakh taken up m thes^ 
proprietors not • lound superior proprietary villages are situated oa 
pecessary. their outer edges along disputed boundaries, 

and the claims put forward to them have not been sufficiently strong to 
deserve recognition. For instance, a string of rakhs has been formed 
in the disputed tract between the Sumrah had and the Jhang district, 
and other rakhs have been formed on the boundary between the Bhal(<- 
^Lar and Leiah tahsils« 

527. The orders of Government sanctioning the new trinni 
Oovemment orders for arrangements were issued on 24th July 1875. 

demarcation of boundaries Demarcation of boundaries had been previously 
how carried out. commenced in anticipation of sanction and was 

now completed in accordance with the orders received. This demarca- 
tion of boundaries has partaken of the nature of a partition. The 
Government and the zemindars have hitherto had concurrent rights 
in the Thai. The zemindars had a right to exclude outsiders from sink- 
ing wells ; the Government could put in outsiders to graze. The 
2&emindars have now been allowed grazing lands in accordance with 
their requirements, and the surplus waste has been formed into Gbverik- 
meqt raJLhs. 



264 

Rcale of allotment of 528. The soale on which these aUotmenli 

gracing lands. have been made is as follows : — 

Camel and horned cattle per head ••• 12^ acre8=»5 shares. 

Sheep and goats • ••• 2^ ,, »sl share. 

The actual allotments are somewhat in exoess/being 3^ acres per 
share in the Daggar circle, and 3 acres per share in the Thai Kalan circle* 
In the Leiah tahsil no special allotments were made. The original 
manzah boundaries here were much more clearly marked than in Bnak'* 
kar, and have been generally adhered to^ no new rakhs being formed 
except in disputed border tracts. 

529. The rates at which allotments have been made in the Bhak- 
n J • L «. V ^^^ Thai are liberal, but not extravagant, when 

^Compared with Shahpur ^^^ amount of the average rainfall and the 

quality of the grazing lands is considered. In 
the adjoining Thai of the Shahpur district, the rates fixed were 10 acres 

S)r head of neat cattle and 2 acres per head for sheep and goats. The 
hakkar Thai is, I believe, poorer on the whole in grazing capacity 
than the Shahpur Thai and more liberal allotments had to be made. 

530. Before demarcating boundaries therefore, the cattle of each 
Bnumeration of cattle village were first numbered and a calculation 

preliminary to allotment was made of the amount of grazing land to 
of waste. which each mauzah would, at the rates of allot- 

ment fixed, be entitled. The enumeration of cattle was mainly effected 
through the lambardars and zaildars. This enumeration put the Thai 
people in a great dilemma. They were told that allotments of waste 
would be made in proportion to cattle, and the desire of getting large 
allotments would incline them to overstate their cattle. On the other 
hand, they were not quite sure that this was not a device for ascertain- 
ing the real numbers of their cattle, and they suspected that the old 
system might perhaps be continued : the revised jamas being based on 
the new returns. Toi*n by conflicting feelings, most of them gave in, 
I believe, tolerably correct returns. The sharper of them, however, 
understated their camels, on which the old trinni was heavy, while the 
rate of allotment was low, and exaggerated the numbers of sheep and 
goats, for which the allowance of land was large, while the trinni rates 
were low. One or two villages entered large numbers of imaginary 
well oxen, in hope that these would get allotments ; well oxen not being 
charged with trinni, they felt themselves perfectly safe. When these 

%M *i.^j ^9 11 *--.^«* returns of cattle and of the areas to be allotted 

Metnoa ox allotment. , « i i /» n ti 

were ready, I marked oti on a copy of the 

topographical survey map of 1857, blocks according to scale of the 

extent required round each village or group of wells. In arranging 

these blocks regard was had to the old mauzah boundaries, though these 

were straightened and simplified where necessary. The surplus was 

formed into Government rakhs, but care was taken to make these as 

compact as possible, so as not to interfere with the ordinary grazing of 

the villages. When this paper demarcation had been completed, the 



265 

fNttwaries were iold io fix the boandariea on the grotinci. The tdpo» 

graphical survey showed the position of every well, the distances be* 

tween these were accepted, and the patwaries were told to fix the 

position of each pillar by measuring from the nearest well. When thid 

nad been done, the people of each village were called bp, and all claims 

and objections taken into consideration. In m my cases the boundarioq 

first proposed were changed aliogether, and some of the chaks had to 

be given up. Most of this work of revision of boundaries was done by 

Mr. Steed man, then attached as Assistant Settlement Officer to this 

district. When the people had been made thoroughly to understand 

what had been done, and all petitions had been disposed of, pakka 

trijunction pillars were erected. The Bhakkar portion of these That 

boundaries was surveyed in the cold weather of 1877-78 by the revenue 

survey department, though I have not yet received the sheets. This 

f\iA ^«ii-«* v^^^A^^i^m Settlement of boundaries did not much affect 
Old village bonndaries , .,, i» • • .i 

kuihered to in dagffar the western daggar villages adjommg the 
linages and ia the Lelah Pakka circle in Bhakkar, or any portion of the 

^^L^ y^^.^.o, f-v-^ «« Leiah tahsil. The boundaries in these parts 

New raUia taken np. i -j i i •.» ai *^ 11 

were laid down m accordance with the old 

thaMxut maps. The only change made in the western daggar villages 
^as to take up the excess waste area forming the eastern portion of 
some of these villages, which had more land than was required for their 
Own grazing. In the Leiah Thai new chaks were only formed on the 
borders of the tahsil in tracts to which the claim of the Leiah zemindars 
was disputed. All along the Jhang border there was a strip in which 
the cattle of both this and the Jhang district had till quite lately grazed 
in common. The Sials of Jhang claimed to have a portion of this 
itoade over to them. Their claim was disallowed, "but the Settlement 
Commissioner thought it desirable that as much of this land as possible 
should be taken up as rakh, which was done accordingly. Very little 
of the Thai is at this portion of the boundary included in the Jhang 
district, and it was felt that it would be a hardship on the Jhang men 
if their enemies in Leiah were given the power of excluding their cattle 
entirely from grazing as heretofore in the Leiah Thai. The formation 
of these rakhs provides them with a sufficient grazing ground, and it 
has been arranged to give one or two of the leading Jhang zemindars 
a share in Uie leases of these rakhs. This, however, is an administrative 
arrangement. The rakhs formed will be the full property of Govern- 
ment, which it can lease to whom it pleases. A few wells have been 
WellB in rakhs unavoidably included in the new Leiah rakhs. 

Such wells are to be found in some of the old 
Sikh rakhs. These have been assessed with revenue in the ordinary 
way. For grazing purposes they have been included in those mauzahs 
to which by position they naturally belong, or to which, before the for- 
mation of these rakhs, they were attached. The proprietors will be 
allowed to graze the cattle belonging to the well within a limited portion 
of the rakh area adjoining their wells all the year round. As regards 
the rest of the rakh, they will pay the usual grazing fees to the rakh 
lessees, if they graze their cattle beyond the limits of their reservationS| 



2C6 

and will be subject to tbe same rules with respect to open and close 
seasons as the public ^nerally. 

531. In the Bhakkar tahsil in the same way, barani plots have 
Barani lands in rakhs. Bometiuies fallen within rakh boundaries. The 

rights of the holders in these have been recorded, 
but rights of cuUivators of melon lands have not been recognized* 
A good deal of barani and melon cultivation has always gone on in the 
old Sikh rakhs, but has been discouraged as much as possible, as it spoils 
the grazing for which these rakhs are mainly intendea. 

In leasing these rakhs ( both old and new ) for the future, it has 
been arranged that the lessees will take ^ batai from the cultivators of 
barani plots. The bringing of fresh lands into cultivation inside rakh 
limits has been strictly prohibited. 

532. The villages of the great Thai in Bhakkar, forming classes 
Demarcation of bonnda- III and lY, were broken up in most cases as 

ries in the Wg Thai Bhakkar. proposed. The large village of Dulch wala was 
Formation of new man- kept intact owing to the difficulty of making 
"^ separate allotments to the different groups of 

wells, which would have formed the nucleus of the new mauzahs. The 
number of mauzahs in the Daggar and Thai Kalan circles has in this 
way been increased from 24 to 43. As a rule the well owners in the 
pastoral tracts were eager to have their wells formed into new mauzahs. 
They are generally well to do, and all of them want to become lambar- 
dars. The sub-division was not carried nearly as far as they would have 
wished, but it was undesirable to form a multitude of minute mauzahs 
with a system that would give to each an exclusive right of grazing in 
its own lands. No new mauzahs were formed in the Leiah Thai. 

533. Before describing the new rakhs that have now been formed, 
Old rakhs in the Thai. I must describe the old rakhs that have come down 

Their origin. from Sikh times. The origin of ih«>se rakhs, or 

grass preserves, is described by Captain Mackenzie. Some of them date 
as rakhs from the time of the Jaskdnies. When the country came 
under the Nawabs, a series of military posts was established all over the 
Thai. These were 23 in all in the two tahsils. The principal were the 
forts of Mankera and Hyderabad. The fort of Mankera covers 46 acres 
of ground and had a large garrison. Hyderabad, 15 miles to the east on 
the Jhang border, was also a considerable place. The other posts were of 
minor importance. For the subsistence of the garrisons it was necessary 
to take up large adjacent tracts and form them into preserves for the 
snpply of forage. It is also said that the Nawabs discouraged cultiva^ 
tion in that part of the country round Mankera, which they held in 
greatest strength, in order that the want of water might deter possible 
invaders. These rakhs, however, never form tracts surrounding a post ; 
they always lie to one side, and generally veiy close to the towns from 
which they take their names. On one side therefore the townspeople 
can graze freely ; on the other they are hemmed in by the rakh. At 
first I thought this must be an inconvenient arrangement for the jpeopla 



267 

wbo, when a new rakh is taken up, always complain that it lies at their 
very doors. It has, however, this advantage that the people know that 
on one side grazing is closed altogether, and consequently take their 
cattle in the opposite direction. In this way there is less fear of trespass 
than if the rakh lay a mile or two off, and the cattle were allowed to 

Saze in the intervening space. Some of these rakhs were very large, 
le Hyderabad rakh is 80,000 acres, the Mankera rakh 50,000 acres in 
Their retention by the ®^*^^*- These rakhs were retained by the 
British Government. British Government Th^y were, under the 

system of free grazing, a great convenience to 

WlJuie^lSlllJopir t£e people as tley were entirely closed for a 

month or two m the spring and agam during 
the rains, the seasons when the grass is growing. The grass is thus 
preserved, and these rakhs form reserves of great value when the com- 
mon pasturage is exhausted. Their abolition as rakhs would be quite 
other than a public benefit, for they would be over-run with cattle 
simultaneously with the rest of the country, and the grass in them would 
be wasted^ and not, as now, available in times of scarcity in other parts. 
The system on which these rakhs have been managed, and which will 
not only be continued^ but extended to the new rak^ is this : 

534. They are leased year by year to contractors. These contrao- 
Prineiples on which the tors are generally one or two of the leading 
old rakhs are leased. lambardars and chaudries of the neighbourhood. 

The same men are often continued as lessees for years, and alterations 
in the amounts for which the rakhs are leased are seldom made. The 
rakhs are never rack-rented, and the position of rakh lessee is much sought 
after^ as it brings both local influence and profit. Now and then, gener- 
ally, when a lessee has been misbehaving, a rakh is put up to auction. 
Bometimes, too, this is done in order to ascertain the full leasing value. 
The lessee is not allowed to cut timber or grass in the rakh without per- 
mission from the district officer. He must keep the rakh shut during 
the close season. He is not allowed to show favoritism, admitting indi- 
yiduab when the rakh is closed to the public. Fines are levied on all 
cattle found trespassing in the rakh during the close season. These go 
to the lessee, and in the case of the smaller rakhs often constitute a large 
portion of his income. The lessee is not allowed to keep the rakh closed 
when the grass is grown, merely to increase his income from fines. He 
is allowed to sell separately the loppings from jand trees growing in the 
rakh. There used to be a clause in the old leases forbidding him to admit 
the cattle of outsiders, such as Pawindahs, to graze jn the rakh, but this 

»«..:..» — ♦^^ i^s proviso is unreasonable, and has now been done 

uiMing rotes in loroe. » .,i mix • l j ^ • ^ 

away with. Th6 grazing rates and fines yaned 

in the different rakhs. The oommon rates were : — 

Bs. A. P. 

F«fi mH.^iw,« A^i.fK^^ 1 6 per head. 

£^^A! \ Camels 2 6 ditto. 

•IX montns ... ^gj^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 10 per 100. 



\ 



VioM. Tha rates for fines wore geseratly :-*> 

Bs. A. P. 

Eino ••• ••• 1 per head. 

Camels ... ••• ... •••0 16 ditto* 
Bheep and goats 8 per 100. 

These rates have generally been retained for the Leiah tahsfl. In 
n^tAs now SxeiL *^ Bhakkar tahsil the grazing rates fixed for 

rakhs m the Daggar arcle are-~ 

Rs. A. P. 

Eine 1 per head for 6 months^ 

Camels 2 ditto ditto. 

Flocks 10 per 100 ditto. 

In the Thai Ealan circle the new rates vary with the size and graz- 
ing capacity of the rakhs, and rises in the Jandanwala rakh, to 4 annas, 
on camels, 2 annas on kine, and Rs. 2 per cent on flocks. The fines ia 
this tahsil, as now fixedy are uniformly— 

Rs. A. P. 

Eine • ••• ••• 1 per head. ' 

Camels ,020 ditto. 

Flocks ••• 10 per 100^ 

The plough and well oxen of adjacent villages are allowed to graafr 
in rakhsy except during the close season, free of charge. 

535. The old Thai rakhs in Bhakkar are twelve in number, with an 

Namber and area of old ^'"®* ^^ 2,92,609 acres. Eleven new rakhs have 
nkhfl. been formed, and the rakh area has been in-' 

New lakhi fonned and creased to 4,83,011 acres. In Leiah there were* 
their area. ^jg^j. qIj ^^^hs, with an area of 1,14,098 acres. 

Five new rakhs have been taken up with an area of 1,03,705 acres, and 
some of the old ones slightly increased. The present rakh area is 2,17,703 
acres in all. The total rakh area for the Thai of both tahsils is 7,00,714 
acres. The whole Thai area is 29,45,843 acres, and the rakh area is 24 
per cent, of the whole. 

Formev income frotnrakhi Tho income fromj'akhs was formerly — 

and incidence per 100 acrea. 

Bhakkar 
I^iah 



.•• *•« •«• 
«•« ••• •«• 



Bs. 




Bs. 


A. P. 






4,940 
1,017 


or 
or 


1 



7 
15 


Oper 



100 
ditto. 


aOTM. 

* 



Total ..• 5,257 or 1 5 ditto. 

The new rakhs have been leased for this the first year ( 1878-79 ) 

in Bhakkar for Bs. 6,445 and in Leiah fof 

however were leased late in the season, and the 
realiaationa from them ought not for the future to be less than Bs. 2,000, 
making about Bs, 8,500, This would (all «t Ba. 1*4-0 per 100 aorea 
for botti tahiiUf 



269 

536. I bare explained the method on which grazing lands have. 
A— ^*^«.* ^9 -.—.;«« been allotted and boundaries demarcated. It 

AnasmneDt ox gracing • j. i -u iU v« i_ xi 

Undft allotted to Tillages. remains to describe the manner in which tha 

assessment of these grazing lands has been fixed. 
Rates charged in Shah- jhe rate taken by Colonel Davies in the adjoining 
'"'■ Shahpur Thai was Rs. 2 per 100 acres. The rate 

Ibr this district would have had in any case to be pitched somewhat 
i^wer^ as the grazing lands are on the whole inferior to those of the 
Bhahpnr Thai. In Shahpur, however, the grazing jama covers all des« 
oriptions of cattle including camels. The zemindars have full control 
over their lands, and Pawindahs and other outsiders must make their 
private arrangements with the proprietors, without whose consent they 
me preduded from grazing within village boundaries. 

In this district it has been arranged that the grazing jama will 

Grazing jamas will not cover only kine and sheep and goats. Camels 

coyer camels which will be are to be separately assessed. Cows and goats 

aefarately leased. ^jj J g^eep are generally the property ot well 

owners, and graze, as a rule, near where their owners live. Under the 

new arrangements, therefore, by which the jama has been transferred from 

the cattle to the grazing lands, these sorts of cattle will as a rule be 

pastured within the boundaries of their own villages, or of the 

Tillages immediately adjoining. To arrange this the zemindars will 

l^enerally agree among themselves to some sort of give and take 

Camels require a wide arrangement. With camels things are different. 

extent of country to graze It is generally a special business to keep 

*^*' them. They cannot find suitable pasturagd 

all the year round in the same place. In the hot weamer they 

graiee in the jdl country ; in the cold weather they graze in the 

tdnaf and have to be taken great distances according to the season. It 

would therefore be difficult for camel owners to make their own private 

arrangements with the zemindars of all the villages through whose bounda- 

Arrangements made in ries they have to pass. I proposed, therefore^ 

Z<eiah. in my assessment report for the Leiah tahsil te 

exclude them from the new trinni arrangements. I recommended that 

the oamel tnnni for the whole tahsil should be leased to contractors, and 

that camels should be allowed to graze freely as before throagfa the 

waste lands of the tahsil, without regard to village boundaries. These 

proposals were sanctioned by the Financial Commissioner. An arrangeh 

ment of this sort does not interfere with the ordinary grazing of neoit 

cattle and sheep and goats, as camels browse principally on Idna and other 

bushes which these latter do not touch. In Leiah the camel owners 

generally form a distinct class, and the proprietors showed no anxiety to 

Wish of the people in ^"^*8® f®' ^^ camel trinni In Ube Bhakkiff 

BbakkartohayecM^Uin* Thai, however, most of the lambardars own 

eluded in the granng reve- large numbers of camels, and they were yrery 

nro aseeiied on each tU- ^^^^ ^ i^^^^ ^^ ^^^^j ^,,^^ included In theif 

^^ grazing assessments. They nrged that if the 

Bbihpnr system was introduceaat all, it should be carried out in its 
entirety, and that they should be given power to exclude oamek as weii 



270 

as other cattle from their grazing lands. The chief objection to this was 
that it would interfere with the grazing of the Pawindaha, bat the queft- 
tion had been taken up in the previous correspondence, when it had been 
settled that the Pawindahs might be left to make their own arrange- 
ments. 

537. I suggested in my assessment report for the Bhakkar Thai 

gxu' ^1^ i. t. that the wishes of the Bhakkar zemindars in 

Obiections to Bach an ar« .,. .. • i_i t i- j .ii_ • . «i 

tangement m interfering this matter might be comphed with, but the 

with the rights of the Pa- Settlement Commissioner, Mr. Lyall, was against 
'™^**^"' the arrangement, and the Deputy Commissioner 

too was of opinion that nothing should be done that was likely to risk 
a falling off in the trinni collections levied on the Pawindahs at the 
mouths of the Passes, and which had lately amounted to Bs. 40,000, or 
more than the whole trinni assessment of the cis-Indas tahsils. Even- 
Final arrangements for tually it was arranged that the camel trinni 
assessing camel trinni, should be kept distinct and separately leased for 

the whole tahsil, as in Leiah ; that Pawindah camels as before should be 
charged with additional trinni onlv when grazing in the Gt>vernment 
rakhs, but that this exemption should not extend to uieir flocks, for which 
they would have to make their own arrangements with the village pro- 
prietors. It is estimated that the number of Pawindah sheep and goats 
grazing in the Thai averages 40,000 head. The revenue levied on these 
at the Passes at Rs.*2-8-0 per 100 is only Bs. 1,000, and the question 
of their grazing was not considered of sufficient importance to justify 
special arrangements, which would have necessitated a revision of the 
whole trinni assessments for both tahsUs. Pawindah camels, therefore, 
will graze free within village boundaries, but sheep and goats will have 
(o be paid for. 

538. Allowing for the exclusion of camels, the rate taken by me 
Bates assessed on gracing in assessing the Thai grazing lands was Be. 

lands in the Thai, 1-4-0 per 100 acres, as against the rate of 

Bs. 2 in Shahpur. The actual incidence of the grazing assessment, how- 
ever, has varied considerably. 

539. The best portions of the Bhakkar Thai adjoin Shahpur and 
Quality of the grasing Miauwali, where the grazing assessments are 

lands in the Thai. highest, and the grazing lands fall off in quality 

to the south west. The daggar tract is poorer in grazing capacity than 
the Thai Ealan, and the Leiah Thai is on the whole poorer than the 
Bhakkar Thai. The existence too of wells for cultivation depreciates the 
value of the surrounding grazin'g lands, while the well oxen nave always 
been considered entitled to free grazing, and a reduction in the grazing 
jama has been made on their account m assessing villages with much 
cultivation. Grazing rates, therefore, in the pastoral portions of the Thai 
are pitched a good deal higher than where tne people depend mainly on 
Bates unncinoori tillage. The rate put on the Thai lands of the 

ThaE-Nasheb villages is generally Be. 1-8-0 per 
100 acreS; but falb to Be. 1-4-0 in the southern half of the Leiah tahsit« 



271 

The rate is high in the Thal-Nasheb villages, not becanse the gras^ 
ing land is better, but beoaase its vicinity to the Kachi makes it more 
valnable. The average rate for the Daggar circle is 14 annas 2 pie per 
100 acres. In the Thai Kalan circle the rate is Be. 1-4-6 per 100 
acres. In the Leiah Thai the rate varies from Be. 1-8-0 to 12 annas, 
which latter is the rate for the Thai circle. The average rate for the 
Leiah Thai is Be. 1-1-0 ; for the Bhakkar Thai the rate is Be. 1-5-0. The 
rate for the whole cis-Indos Thai is Be. 1-3-0. 

540. The grazing rate assessed on the Eachi is Bs. 3-8-0 per 100 
Bate on grating lands acres. This is lower than the rate taken in 

in the Kaohi assessing the Muzaffargarh Eachi^ which is 

Bs. 4-8-0. 

541. The rates taken in assessing the adjoining portion of the 
Rateg compared with those MuzaflFargarh Thai agree doselj with those 

of adjoining distrists. Ma- assessed on the Leiah tahsfl. The rate for the 
aaflargarh and Mianwali Qhahi TAa/ circle of the SanawAn tahsfl is Be. 1. 
The rates assessed on the Leiah villages adjoining it are Be. 1-4-0 in the 
west towards the Kachi; Be. 1 in the centre; and 12 annas to the east; 
average Be. 1. The rate for the grazing lands of the Thai circle of Mian- 
wali is Be. 1-8-0 per 100 acres, which is the same as what I have put on 
the adjoining villages of the Jandan wala ilaqna. The grazing rates for the 
Kacha Pakka and Kacha Thai circles, which lie mostly in the Eachi, are 
Be. 1-3-0 and Be. 1-14-0 onlj*. The Mianwali rates, too, cover camels, 
which the Bhakkar rates do not. The grazing assessments in this dis- 
trict, therefore, for the Thai are very equal in their incidence as com- 
pared with those of the Muzaffargarh and Shahpur districts, but are half 
as high again as the Mianwali assessments. As regards the Eachi, the 
Mianwali rates are very ranch lower, while the Muzaffargarh rates are 
higher than those for this district. 

542. In Mianwali not only Pawindah flocks, but also Pawindah 
Arrangements in Mian- camels, will be excluded from grazing in village 

wall regarding Pawindah areas without the consent of the proprietors* 
^^^^®- On the other hand they will be allowed to 

graze at half rates in the Gk>vernment rakhs. In this district Pawindahs 
grazing in Government rakhs will be charged full rates. 

Amonnt of gracing jama 543. The total jama assessed on the graz- 

aMewed. ing lands (Thai and Nasheb) of the villages of 

the cis-Indus tahsils, is as follows : — 

Thai. Nasheb. TotaL 

Bs. Bs. Bs. 

Bhakkar ...- 14,092 4,554 18,646' 

Leiah ... 10,685 5,122 15,707 



Total ... 24,677 9,676 .34,353 



272 

544. tt has been arranged to lease the camel trinni for the whole 
Arrangements for leasing of each of these tahsils to contractors jear bj 

the cameUr* yini. year. These contractors will collect at iSxed 

rates for all camels grazing within the tahsil, whether belonging to resH 
dents or to outsiders from the trans-Indns tahsils and other districts* 
Pawindahs alone will be exempted, and snch men of the neighbouring 
districts as graze their camels only in the border rakhs. For instance 
Jhang men who graze their camels in the Nawankot and Khairewala 
rakhs only, will pay to the rakh contractors, but not to the general camel 
contractors. This is fair, as these people already pay trinni in their 
Rates to be charged on own district. If, however, they graze their 
«»meU. camels in village lands outside the rakhs, they 

will pay at the same rates as residents. The rates fixed are the same as 
are in force in the Multan district, rur.. Re. 1-8-0 for she-camels {ddchiet) 
and Re. 1 for he-camels. These rates will be charged on all animals 
a year old and upwards. Below a year they will be exempt Camels 
Estimated income by these grazing in the tahsil for less than six months 
rates from resident camels, will pay half rates only. The revenue obtained 
by these rates on the camels of these two tahsils, as ascertained bj 
recent enumeration, is : — 

Rs. 
Bhakkar ••• ••• ••• 6,168 

Leiah ••• ••• ••• 8,792 

8,960 

The contract has been leased for the first year (1878-79) for Rs. 
Amount realised by sale 5,000 in Bhakkar and Rs. 2,500 in Leiah. 
of contract for 1878-79. Allowing for the realisations from outsida 

<^mels, these figures ought to leave a good margin of profit. 

545. T?he Bhakkar lambardars were very keen to engage for the 
Bhakkar con tract leased to contract, and all the leading Thai lambardars, 

leading lambardars. Their to the number of twenty three, have been 
arrangements among them- associated in it. These men have divided the 
^**' Thai into chaks of one or more villages, and 

distributed the demand of Rs. 5,000 over the chaks. The head men of 
each chak will pay the share of the demand assessed on it, and collect 
trinni from the resident graziers. Though jointly responsible to Go* 
vernment as among themselves, the responsibility is divided ; each set 
of chakdars taking the profit and loss of their own chak. Thirteen 
chaks have been formed in all. The collections from Jhang, Shahpur, 
and Mianwali cattle will be rateably divided among the lessees of the 
chaks adjoining each of those districts. The head camel choudries of the 
town of Dera have engaged for the trans-Indus camels, and will pay 
Rs. 500 on their account for the present year.* This will be rateably 
divided ampng the chakdars, who will thus get the lease of the Bhakkar 
camels for Rs. 4,500 instead of Rs. 5,000. 



* I find that this arrangement with the Dera choadries has since iallea thioogh. 
The chakdirs therefoM will collect lor Dera camels direcl. 



J 



273 

546. In Leiab the lambardars were not so keen to engage, as they 

Leiali contract ^^° ^^^^ ^®^ camels themselves. Bventuallj 

the oontract was leased to four or five of the 
leading men for Rs. 2,500. 

547. The camel trinni contract shonld not, I think, be rack rented. 
General remarks on camel In Bhakkar, especially, the general arrange- 

irinni contracte. ment now introduced should be continued ; the 

interior arrangements as to the different chaks and chak lessees being 
modified from year to year as necessary ; but the principle of leaving 
the tax to the head men will, I hope, be adhered to, as long as the 
system works smoothly. It will be necessary for the tahsildar to assist 
these lessees in distributing the contract among themselves. This should 
be done each year, when the contract is given out. 

548. Before leaving the subject of the cis-Indus trinni, I must 
THnni majUs commnted revert to the subject of trinni majiedf and of 

to cash inams, exemptions in favor of lambardars. 

Captain Mackenzie put down the value of trinni mafies at Rs. 2,554« 
These were mostly for life in favor of certain privileged classes : — 

1. Shopkeepers. 

2. Biluches. 

3. Faqirs, Brahmins, &c. 

Owing to subsequent resumptions, the aggregate value of the 
remaining maftes had oeen reduced in 1877 to Rs. 1,375. These mafies 
had never received higher sanction than that of the Commissioner. I 
look upon trinni mafies as very objectionable, and they open the door 
to much fraud. Under the new arrangements especisJly it seemed de- 
sirable that they should be abolished. A report was made on tho 
subject, and under orders of the Local Government* the mafies to shop- 
keepers have now been resumed, while the mafies to the other classes 
have been converted into cash inams, to be resumed as the holders 
gradually die out. The amount of these mafies was thus reduced to 
AS. 1,168, and has been still further reduced by subsequent resumptions* 

549. Captain Mackenzie valued the exemptions to lambardars (mde 
Exemption to lambardars para. 515) at Bs. 712. The average amount 
discontinned. per lambardar was only Bs. 2 or Bs. 3. Still 

the privilege was much valued, as it was made an excuse by the 1am- 
baraars for exempting themselves from a much larger share than thai 
to which they were rightfully entitled. The lambardar class has now 
been very liberally treated in the matter of inamsy and these exemptions 
have been done away with. For the future the lambardars will pay 
trinni on their cattle like any one else, and get their Bs. 5 per cent. 
pachotra^ which is quite enough for them. 

* No. 2001 of 15th NoTcmber 1877, to Financial Commissioner, 



274 

550. Most of the rakhs of the district are in the Thai. In the 
Kakh8 in the Kachl. cis-Indns Kachi there only two small rakhs : 

those of Khokranwala and Dhandla. These are 
CiJvered with bash jungle, mostly bhdni. Their aggregate area is 2,046 
acres, and they have been leasea for fis. 95. 

551. As regards the trans-Indns tahsOs there are large waste 
llakhs trans-Indus. None tracts in the Fathan hads along the border, 

in the Pathan hads, but it has not been considered desirable to take 

up any of these as Government rakhs. In the whole of this tract there 
are only two rakhs, both in the Tank tahsil. The Dabbra rakhs, area 
127 acres, is retained for the use of the cavalry outposts. The Ranw&l 
rakh belongs to the Nawdb. In the Makkalwad tract there are exten- 

In the Makkalwad. ®^^® ^^^^ lands. The country along the west 

bank of the river, for a distance of three or four 
miles inland, is generally more or less covered with scrub jungle. Two 
or three rakhs in this tract have been kept as grass preserves since the 
time of the Nawab, and one or two more were formed at the commence- 

Old rakhs held by tfie ment of British rule. Of these the Band rakh, 
Military, &c area 5,649 acres, supplies grass for the cavalry 

regiment stationed at Dera Ismail Khan. The Mandra rakh, area 3,294 
acres, supplies grazing for the camels of the infantry regiments at Dera. 
The China rakh, area 546 acres, is held by the police. The Miran grass 
rakh, area 6,610 acres, is under the care of the Deputy Commissioner, 
and supplies grass for the Mail cart lines and other district purposes. 
There was another small rakh near Dera Fatteh Khan, but most of this 
has been granted away in allotments to retired native officers. Except- 
ing these rakhs the rest of this jungle tract was in a condition resem- 

Waste lands in the Miran hling the Thai waste. It was claimed in a sort 
and Dera Fatteh Khan of way by adjoining villages, but the rights of 
'^^^V^^* these were not clearly established, and much 

of the tract was primeval waste, clearly the property of Government. 
Towards Dera Fatteh Khan this jungle tract was all more or less lathed^ 
though cultivation was precarious and the bands were full of scrub jungle, 
and hardly to be distinguished in ordinary years from the uncultivated 
•p«v«« „«««,-.i-T, ;« ififtK waste. About 1865, at the time when the 

Taken up as rakn m looo. ., i •m . •n • i i* i 

Indus Flotilla was runnmg and fuel was m 

great demand, the whole of the riverside tract for about thirty miles, 
from Dera Fatteh Khan to Vahoa, was formed into a Government rakh 
by the Deputy Commissioner. All the southern portion of these jungle 
lands was more or less under lath and was occasionally cultivated, and 
as in some cases whole villages had been included within rakh boun- 
daries, it was of course impossible to stop cultivation altogether, though 
efforts were made to check it in lands which, though under lathj had 
been long lying wjiste. One or two maps were subsequently prepared 
with a view to a stricter demarcation of the rakh boundaries, and the 
cultivated lands inside the rakhs were roughly surveyed and mapped* 
Still most of the southern rakh lands were clearly the property of the 
village communities, and it was impossible to ignore the claims of these 



257 

Propoiftls for their par- latter. As a compromise, I recommended that 
tial release. Government should release these lands for 

cultivation, retaining, however, a lien on the jungle growth, and laying 
down rules for its conservation within certain limits. The zemindars 
agreed readiljtosuch an arrangement when it was suggested to them, and 
the permission to them to cultivate would have benefited the Government. 
This part of the Makkalwad gets no natural irrigation, and is particu-- 
larly dry and sterile. Left to itself and constantly ' grazed over, the 

I'nngle growth gets scantier and scantier. When lathed and irrigated, 
lowever, the trees, especially the faras {tamarisk)^ grow freely, and' 
young trees in the cultivated fields are protected from the attacks of 
cattle. The country west of Vahoa, which is all richly cultivated, is 
thickly scattered over with tamarisk trees, and under an arrangement 
such as I had proposed, the Government would always have been sure 
of a good supply of fuel, without injury to the zemindars. 

The proposal, however, was not approved of by Colonel Davies, 

Orders of Government and then Officiating Settlement Commissioner, who 

demarcation of bonndaries considered that the mere fact of fuel having 

them^^ ^° accordance with }^qq^ t^ken by the Government for the Indus 

Flotilla during the few years past, was not a 
sufficient ground for asserting seignorial rights to cut and preserve it 
for the future. I was directed to take up the subject de novo, and after 
alloting to each village the lands to which it appeared entitled, to take 
up all lands in excess of village requirements for Government. Nearly 
the whole of the jungle tract south of Trimman and a smaller portion 
to the north near Paroa, was in accordance with these orders surrendered 
to the zemindars. In the centre of the tract the jungle was thick and 
free from cultivation. After making allotments to the river side villages 
for grazing purposes, the rest of this central tract was taken up for 
Government. In the lands retained as rakh, the zemindars will possess 
no rights of any sort, either of grazing or of cutting fuel. 

Area reserved as rakh in 552. The area first taken up as rakh may 

this portion of the district, be roughly put at about 60,000 acres. 
The rakbs retained are as follows : — 

No. ofrakhs. Area, 

Dera Fettah Khan ilaqua ... 3 7,684 acres. 

Miran Kahiri ilaqua ... 3 20,829 „ 

• Total ... 6 28,513 acres. 



Of this about 6,610 acres is on account of the old Miran grass 
ralch. 

553. In the northern portion of the Makkalwad two new rakhs have 

New rakhs taken up at been taken up at this Settlement, viz., the Bibi- 

this Settlement. wala rakh and the Shahkot rakh, area 8,126 

acres. Both of these form part of large waste tracts, to which the 

surrounding villages had no sufficient title. They should, I think, ho 



276 

retained as fael rakhs for the supply of the town of Dera Ismail Khan. 

These rakhs should gene- I^ f^^t I should deprecate the grant of any of 
rally be kept for Qoyem- the larger rakhs in this district under present 
ment, and not ^yen away circumstances for purposes of cultivation. There 
in gran s or cu ya on. ^^^ ^ large number of old native o£Scers at Derai 
and a multitude of relations of the Nawabs and other native noblemen, 
who are always applying for grants of land. If these lands are even 
temporarily alienated, they wul practically be lost to Government for 
good, and it will be almost impossible to replace them should fuel 
afterwards be required for steamers or railways. The following rakhs, 

List of rakhs that should in addition to those held by the Military, should 
be preserved. certainly be kept in tact : — 

The Miran grass rakh ; 

The Miran fuel rakh ; 

The Makkar rakh ; 

The Trimman Ghamsan rakh ; 

The Bibiwala rakh. 

The Mangan and Shahkot rakhs, and the rakhs of the Miran and 

Bakhs leased to contrac- Dera Fatteh Khan ilaquas, except the grass 

tors. rakh, have been leased to contractors on the 

same principles as the cis-Indus rakhs. The amount of thelse leases for 

the current year is Bs. 310. 

Total rakh area for whole 554. The total rakh area for the district 

district. 



i 

■^ 



is as follows 


i^^"— 








Cis-Indus Thai ... 


•• • 


• *• 


7,00,71* 


acres. 


Do. Eachi... 


•• • 


• •• 


2,046 


ft 


Trans-Indus Dera ... 


••• 


• • • 


41,124 


M 


Do. Eulachi 


••• 


• •• 


•8,771 


» 


Do. Tdnk ... 


• •• 
Total 


• . • 


127 


» 




7,52,782 


>» 



Hill ranges excluded from village 
boundaries and shoum as rahh : — 

Acres. 
Nila Eoh and Shekhbudin 

hills, tahsil Dera . . . 44,280 

Bhittanni hills, tahsil T&nk ... 9,729 



54,009 



Grand Total ... 8,06,791 



w 



99 



9f 



* A portion of this area consists of rakh plots included within maosahs Kalttwala 
and Nntkanni. 



277 



ASSESSICBNT OF DaTB GrOVIBS. 

555. The largest date groves in the district are situated ronnd the 
Date gTOTM of tho towns ofTduk^Panniala, and Bhakkar. Scattered 

district. groves are to be found at intervals all along the 

older portion of the cis-lndas Kachi and also in the Ra^-Pah&rpur circle, 
and a fringe of date trees rans along nearly the whole length of the 
Khasor circle. 

556. Under native rule date groves in the cis-Indus tract were 
Revenue system under generally considered the property of the Go- 

natire rule. Cis-Indus. vernment, which took the whole produce. At 

coiSIS^rs ^^' ^^^ ^ annexation the date produce of the Bhakkar 

and Leiah tahsfls was leased to contractors 
year by year. The groves of each tahsil were leased in a lump. The 
contractors by custom allowed a small share^ generally a tenth, to the 
proprietors of the land on which the groves were situated. This system 

remained in force till 1862, when it was arranged 
to lease ihe produce of date trees for term of ^t- 
tlement to the land proprietors, and this system 
has remained in force up to the present Settle- 
ment. In the trans-Indus tahsds, the produce 
of date groves was included in the general lease or muahaksa of the 
villages. In some of the jagir villages, the jagirdar took the whole 
produce. More commonly the lessee took a third or a fourth only 
of the produce, and sometimes a fixed sum in eash was assessed on 
dates, which the owners of the trees distributed among themselves. In 
the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil, the date revenpe has now, as in Bhakkar 

Arrangements now made. *°^ ^l^^ ^^^ as^ssed on the land proprie- 

tors. In cases where trees are owned in- 
dependently of the land on which they stand, the Settlement has been 
made with the tree owners. 

Number of trees and 557. The number of date trees in the 

jama assessed. difierent tahsils and the jama assessed on them 

are as follows : — 



Ck>ntinued till 1862, when 
grores were made over to 
the land owners. 

System trans-Ii^us. 



Name of tsihsll. 


No. OF Tkbbs. 


Ponnor 

888688- 

ment. 


Nowa8- 
8«8Bed. 


Bate per 
female 




Male. 


Female. 


Young. 


tree. 


Dera 
T/ink 
Bhakkar 
Leiah 


22,806 
1,534 
8,182 
7,633 


4,565 
11,297 
12,921 


1,18,428 
2,017 
6,569 
8,717 


8,800 

■ • • 

550 
800 


4,188 
850 
682 
884 


0-1-0 
0-1-2 
0-1-0 
0-1-0 


Total ... 

• 


40,105 


95,659 


1,30,726 


4,650 


6,104 


0-1-0 



In Tank the groves are all situated in Tank kJuu^ which has lately 

Q . --, been granted in jagir to the Nawab of T4nk. 

^^^ ^ There was no special assessment on them previous 



278 

to this Settlement. They are nnarly all held in fall property by the 
Nawab of T6nk, who, except in the case of trees situated in the town of 
Tank, takes the whole produce. 

In the Kulachi tahsil there are a few small clumps at Chandwan, 

Date groYea in Kulachi Shah Alam and Vahoa, but these have not been 

^A^Bil. specially assessed, though something has been 

put on them in the baclu 

558. In Sikh times dates sold at from 4 annas to 12 annas a maun. 
P 'o f dates yield &c Present prices range from Re. 1 to Rs. 4, but 

vary greatly with the quality of the dates. A 
few trees in Panniala are famous, and their fruit sells at from 4 to 5 seers 
for the ruj>ee. The price of dates generally seems still to be gradually 
rising. The average produce per tree may be put at 10 seers, but the 
amount fluctuates enormously, and much depends, too, on the care taken 
in preserving the fruit. With the better sorts of dates, the clusters are 
carefully covered over with matting to preserve them from birds. On 
good soil trees are said to fruit after 5 years, on had soil not for ten 
years. Trees on good soil yield a full crop after 10 years, and go on 
bearing plentifully for 50 years or more. The fruit of young trees is 
apt to be small in size and to fall off before it is fully ripe. As a rule 
date groves yield abundantly every alternate year. The yield for the 
intermediate years is small. Trees are reared in three ways, Ist, from 

Manner of propagating. «®^ (chopah), 2nd, by transplantation (^^Ai) 

and 3rd, by grafting cuttings taken from the root 
of an eld tree (paiwand). The third system is resorted to principally 
for the propagation of the more valuable varieties. 

The leaves of date palms are used extensively for the manufacture 

UseB to which the date of matting. The date matting is not, however, 

tree is applied. equal in quality to that manufactured from the 

dwarf palm or Mizri, 

The trunks of date trees are used as beams, but more especially for 

GoTernment control over well troughs (nasdrs). In many places trees 

date groves. cannot be cut down without the permission of 

the District Officer or Tahsfldar, this being the last vestige of the old 

Government proprietary right. 

559. Water mills. — Small water-mills are found all along the 

Fiontier, wherever there is a perennial stream. 
Water mills found all rpj^^ greater number are found in the Gdmal 

along the Frontier. ^^^ j^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

are also a few at Draban, Musahzai, Chandwan and Vahoa. These 

mills are all employed in grinding flour. On 

b ^""Tyct'^^^I ^"^""^ *^ average they can grind 10 or 15 mauns a 
J an average ^^^^ They are worked by a horizontal wheel, 

which turns on the same axis as the mill stone. The Kalapani proprie- 
tors are always very jealous of the construction of new water-mills, wnicb 

to some extent lead to a waste of water, and 
Constmction of new mills. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ constructed without the sanction of 

the District Officer. These mills have not hitherto paid revenue; and it 



279 

'«f as considered unnecessary, considering their small numbers, to put any 

special assessment on them at the present Settlement. The zemindars, 

... ... however, have been allowed to bach a portion of 

Bevenne hacned on miliB. xi^ij i.v rni.xj.ii c 

the land revenue on them. The total number of 

mills and the jama bached on them is as follows : — 

No. of mills. Jama. 

Tahsil T&nk 28 Rs. 174 

Do. Kulachi 16 „ 195 

Total ... 44 .„ 369 

This gives Rs. 8 a mill. The average revenue per mill in the Hazara 

district is between Rs. 3 and Rs. 4. Owing to the 

work continuously the whole year round. They 
are most employed in the cold weather, when the Pawindahs come down. 
Instead of being paid in cash the mill-owner generally gets a share of the 
grain ground. When wheat is dear, this share is a twentieth : 
when wheat is cheap the share is a sixteenth or more. The mills are 
generally managed by hired servants, who get a share of the receipts. 



SUMMARY SETTLEMENTS AND RESULTS OF THE NEW 

ASSESSMENTS COMPARED. 



560. I have now described the manner in which the different 

tracts, into which this district may for assess- 
^Character o t is com- ^^1^,^^ purposes be divided, have been assessed ; 

also the arranfj^ements for the trinni revenue, 
and for the lease of the Government rakhs. It remains for me to give 
some account of the Summary Settlements of the different tahsils, and 
of the way in which they have worked as regards the collection of the 
revenue demand, and to compare their results with those of the new 
Settlement. I shall be unable to make any comparison as to the increase 
Absence of statistics of !» cultivation or in the area under irrigation 
area for the trans-Indus for the trans-Indus tahsils, as no measurements 
tahsils. worthy of the name were made either at Mr. 

Simson^s or at Captain Coxe's Settlement, and the areas given in 
Captain Coxe^s statements are based only on rough estimates, and are 
quite unreliable. The statistics for the Summary Settlements of the cis- 
Indns tahsils are tolerably complete, and will be made use of in compar- 
ing the present with former assessments. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN TAHSIL. 

561. Under native rule this tahsil was divided into ten taluquas, 
-.. , . . X * I each of which was managed by an officer called 

Division into taluquas. ,i » » . n ^ rii i v 

the hakuriy generally one of the leading zemm- 

dars of the taluqua, whose duty it was to superintend the collection of 



280 

the GoTernment revenne. These talnquas were named Eirri KbiBor. 
Panniala, Paharpar, Nihalpur (Yaric), Chahikan^ Sheru, Kach Taikan 
(Dera khas)^ Londa^ Babbar^ and Eadiiri.* 

562. At the Snmmanr SetUementa each of these taluqnas waa 
separately reported. The first Sammary Settlement was made by Mr. 

Sammaiy Scttiement ^'^f ^ 1° ,1850-51. Mr. Simson settled the 
effected taluqoawar. whole taosil except tamqnas Lnnda, Babbar 

and Miran-Eahiri; then held in jagir. The 
Bi^SiK")!^ ^^ ^* Settlement was for three years. From 1854 

to 1856, Lieatenant Busk, Assistant Commis- 
Lientenant Bask^s aaseaa- sioner, re-assessed a number of scattered yillaces, 
mento (1864-66). ^^ assessments of which were breakinj^ down, 

either owing to original over-assessment, or to loss of lands by dilavion, 
for the custom of annual alluvion- diluvion assessments was not intro- 
duced into this district till after 1857. Lieutenant Busk also assessed 
the Miran-Eahiri ilaqua, and a number of jagir villages in taluquas 
Babbar and Naievela, which had been resumed in 1855. 

In 1857, soon after Mr. Busk's Settlement, several of the resumed 

--.„ X -* J ^ villages lying to the east of the Indus, and a 

Bhiffi" *~"*^^ ^ few Ehalsa villages similarly situated, were 

transferred to the Bhakkar tahsil. The 2nd 
Summary Settlement under Captain Coxe took place in 1857. Captain 

, Coxe revised Lieutenant Busk's assessments, 

menu " • Be t e- ^jj^j.^ necessary, and resettled the remaining 

Ehalsa villages, which Lieutenant Busk had 
not taken up. Captain Coxe's Settlement was sanctioned for seven 
years. Neitner Mr. Simson nor Captain Coxe made any Settlement of 

Villagefl held in iacir villages held in jagir. The Nawab of Dera's 

jagir was assessed by Lieutenant Busk at the 
death of Nawab Sher Mahomed Ehan, previous to its partial resump- 
tion, and the large jagir of Bhai Bam Sing in the Sheru ilaqua, and 
other smaller jagirs, have from time to time b^n resumed and resettled 
on the death of the incumbents, but till such resumption these jagirs 

Difficulty of comparing ^fete not shown in the revenue returns for the 
jamas assessed at Summary tahsfl. Owing to transfers of villages to other 
Settlements. tahsll, to lapses of unassessed jagirs, and to the 

grant of new jagirs, and also to the ^neral incompleteness from a 
variety of causes of the lists of Ehalsa villages shown in the assessment 
returns of the Summary Settlements, it is very difficult to make any 
general comparison between the jamas assessed respectively by Mr. 
Simson and Captain Coxe. On the whole Captain Coxe slightly en- 
hanced Mr. Simson's assessments. There was an increase in talnquas 
Panniala, Nihalpur and Chahikan, and a decrease in Eirri Ehasor, 
Paharpur and Naievela. Captain Coxe also considerably reduoea 
Lieutenant Busk's assessment of the Ehalsa villages, of talnquas Luuda 



* The Kahiri taluqua included both the Miran and Elahiri circles. 



281 



and Babbsr. Instead of bein^ revised after seven years, Captain Coxe's 

w v f n«i f • Settlement has remained in force up to the 

Coxe's's^tflement. ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ present Regular Settlement, or for 

nearly 20 years. It has, on iihe whole, worked 
well. Changes, however, in the drcumstanoes of particular villages, must 
unavoidably occur in the course of veai*s in a tract like the Dam&n. 
Some villages improve while others deteriorate. Bemissions on account 
of over-assessment have had to be allowed from time to time to th^ 
extent of Ks. 2,774, but in spite of this the revenue demand has latterly 
pressed heavily on some villages, while the bulk of the tahsfl, owinc: to 
the rise of prices and increase of cultivation, has been very lightly 
assessed. The net increase in the revenue of river villages on account of 
alluvion-diluvion during the period of Captain Coxe's Settlement, was a 
little over Bs. 4,000. 

563. In describing the results of the new assessments it i» unne- 
Gronping of circles for cessary to take up each circle separately. The 

parposes of comparing for- three river circles and the four Daman circles 
mer and new assessments. ^^d^r the Daman fluctuating system are essen- 
tially similar in character, and can be best treated together. I shall com- 
mence with the Daman circles. I shall then take up in succession the 
Miran, Panniala and Paharpur circles, and conclude with the river circles* 

564. Damdn circles under jluctuating assessment, — It is difficult to 

say what the fluctuating revenue of these circles 

aJ^e ,^^.n^^ ^i» b«-. 1 shall therefore merely quadruple the 

^ fixed jama of the Dam&n lands, and add to this 
the assessments of the little well and sailaba land that is included in them. 

The results are as follows : — 





Average 
demand 
for last 
5 years of 
Summary 
Settle- 
ment. 


Demand bt new Settlement. 


T^ 


Kahs of Circle. 


On Daman, lands. 


On well 

and 
sailaba. 


Total. 


Percen- 
tage 
of in- 




\ Fixed. 


i Fluctu- 
ating. 


crease. 


Gdmal Takw&ra 
Ltlnf I 
Ldni II 
LtLnf Gudh-Toah 


16,514 

10,916 

3,951 

18,087 


4,687 
4,072 
1,378 
5,455 


14,061 

12,216 

4,134 

16,365 


323 

1,940 
35 


19,071 

16,288 

7,452 

21,855 


15* 

49 
89 
21 


Total 


49,468 


15,592 


46,776 


2,298 


64,666 


30 



The result is an increase of Rs. 15,198, or 30 per cent, on the for- 
mer assessment. The fixed assessment is lightest in the Liini I and 
Lunf II circles, where the increase is largest. In the Gumal-Takwara 
circle a great improvement has lately taken place owing to better 
arrangements for the distribution of the Liini water. The income in 
this circle from the fluctuating revenue is likely to be a good deal io 



282 



Miran circle. 



excess of the esUniate. The Luni Gadh-Toah circle 19 the one where 
the assessment is highest, but most of the villages here have always 
paid heavy batai to jagirdars and lessees^ and can stand a higher assess- 
ment than the rest of the tract. 

Miran circle* — This circle was assessed by Lientenant Bask and 

Captain Coxe in 1856 and 1857 at Rs. 4,064, 
which has np to the present been its nominal 
jama. It was regranted in jagir in 1862, and since then the Nawab of 
i)era has taken in kind in all the villages comprised in it, except Chirri 
Bhor. The circle has now been assessed at Rs. 5,450, which gives an 
increase of Rs. 1,386, or 34 per cent, on the old assessment. The whole 
revenue is fixed. 

Pannidla circle. — I have already mentioned the results of the as- 
Panniila circle. sessment of this circle (vide paras. 461-466). 

The jama has been raised from Rs. 6,850 to Rs. 
9,512, an increase of 39 per cent. Of this revenue Rs. 2,200 is on 
account of dates. 

Paharpur circle. — This circle has also been separatelv noticed (vide 
p , . , paras. 470-473). The revenue has been raised 

l-anarpar circle. ^^^^^ ^^ ^^,904 to Rs. 17,097. Of this Rs. 

4,090 is by fluctuating sailaba rates, and Rs. 13,007 is fixed. Of the 
fixed jama Rs. 687 is on account of dates. There is altogether an in- 
crease of Rs. 4,193 or 35 per cent. 

The river circles. — ^The river or Kachi tract of the Dera Ismail 'Khan 

The river circles. Alte- ^^^^ ^^ been divided into the Khasor, Kacha, 
rationg to which this tract and Kahiri circles. These contain some hill 
ie liable render comparison lands, which are mostly unassessed, and also a 
difficult. little Daman land. The Kachi area is all under 

the sailaba fluctuating system, and in a tract so subject to river action 
it is difficult to form any estimate of the future revenue. The figures 
showing the new assessments are obtained by applying the sailaba rates 
now assessed to the cultivated area by Settlement measurements, and 
Jamas formerly and now give the following comparison with the Sum- 
»MeM«^- mary Settlement jamas : — 



Name of Cirolb. 



•■<•■ 



Kbasor 

Kacha 

Eahiri 



» »t 



Total 



1st Sum- 
mary Settle- 
ment. 



5,303 

10,738 

3,834 



19,875 



2Qd Sum- 
mary Settle- 
ment. 



6,133 

10,329 

3,834 



20,296 



Average 

jama for last 

6 years of 

expired 
Settlement. 



Jama now 
assessed. 



6,641 

13,404 

3,834 



22,879 



5,048 

15,028 

3,667 



23,643 



Of the jama now assessed, Rs. 1,301 is on account of date rey-enue, 
mostly in the Khasor circle. 



283 

565. The increase in the revenae of the Kacha circle is nominal. 
Increase is nominal. There is in reality a decrease of about 15 per 

Bevenue of Khalsa villages cent, in the assessment of the Khalsa villages, 
having decreased. both of the Khasor and Kacha circles. The in- 

crease is all in jagir villages, for which the jagirdars have hitherto 
taken in kind. The sailaba rates in this tahsil are higher than those 
for similar lands cis-Indas ; but, trans-Indus, new cultivation has 
been assessed from year to year, and the rates, .which in Bhakkar 
give a large increase, would here give a very large decrease. As re- 

, . „ .. , gards the Kahiri circle, it was assessed at Bs. 

^Remarks on the Kahin 3 gg^ ^^ jggg^ r^^j^ asgeggment has never 

been revised, in spite of great changes owing to 
alluvion-diluvion, as the whole was held in jagir. Recently the loss by 
diluvion has been unusually heavy, and the realisations for the next 
few years are likely to be much less than the amount shown in the 
statement (Rs. 3,567). Under these circumstances any comparison of 
the former and present assessment of this river tract is for practical 
purposes valueless. 

566. After adding for villages left unassessed and deducting for 
Comparison of former villages transferred, Mr. Simson's and Cap- 

and present assessments tain Coxe's jamas for the whole tahsil give the 
for the whole tahsil. following comparison with the demand for the 

last 5 years of the old Settlement : — 

Rs. 

Mr. Simson's Settlement (1850-51) 93,334 

Captain Coxe's Settlement (1857) 95,358 

Average demand for the last 5 years of the old 

Setuements ••• ••• ... 96,165 

The land and date revenue has hitherto been lumped together ; both 
-are included in this sum of Rs. 96,165. 

The new assessment is as follows : — 

Rs. 
Land revenue ••• ••• ••• *•• ••• 1,16,180 

x^aces ••• ••• ■•• ••• ••• ••• 4, M 00 

Total ... 1,20,368 

DetaU of revenue now 567. The following is the detail of the 

assessed. land revenue now assessed : — 

Rs. 

{Revenue of lands under fixed assess- 
ment ... ... ... ... 32,840 
^ jama of Daman lands ... ... 15,768 

■™ . . . f I jama of Daman lands ... 47,304 
Fluctuating - \ By miata rates 24,456 

71,760 



Total fixed and fluctuating ... 1,20,368 



1 



284 

If the fiactnaiing revenne comes tip to the efltimate^ there will be 
ail increase of Bs. 24,203, or 25 per cent, on the former jama. 

Detail of Ehalsa and 568. The following figures give the detail 

jagir. of Khalsa and jagir : — 

Rs. 

jtvoaisa ••• ••• ••• ■•• •** *•• \)0,DfO 

tj a£[ir ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• *^^j * ^^ 

Total .,. 1,20,368 

•Rupees 413 will be temporarily remitted under protective leases, and 

the sum of Bs. 220 has to be deducted on ao- 
Tomporanly poetponed. ^^^^ ^f progressive jamas leaving an initial 

demand of Bs. 1,19,735. 



THE TANK TAHSIL. 

569. The Tank tahsil previous to annexation formed a separate 

„ . Government. Under Naw&b Sarwar Khan the 

Former assessments. . • i i i. • j r i j 

revenue is said to have varied from a lac and a 

half to a lac and a quarter, but this included a considerable income from 

customs. Sir H. Edwardes in 1847 leased the 

^fl^n^'Si?®"'^*^^'^ whole tahsil in a lump to the present Nawab 
ment, a.u. iw/. ^^^ ^^^^ j^^^ ^^^ ^ 1,00,000 1 for a term 

of 5 years. Of this the Nawab retained Bs. 25,000 to meet the expenses 
of the civil administration. At the end of the 5 years* term, the Nawab 
was Bs. 55:,000 in arrears, and was in consequence deprived of the lease. 

570. In 1853-54 M^or Nicholson effected the 1st Summary 
Major Nioboltion*s Settle- SetUement, village by village. The Settlement 

ment, A.D. 1853-54. was for 3 years. Major Nicholson's assessment 

amounted to Bs. 54,743 initial jama, to be raised the third year to Bs. 
57,943. The average revenue under this Settlement, adding the kkam 
tahsil collections for the Bhittanni country and for some odd villages, 
averaged Bs. 63,030. 

571. Captain Coxe made a 2nd Summary Settlement in 1857. 
Captain Coxe*s Settle- This Settlement was sanctioned for seven years. 

, meut, A.D. 1867. The jama by it amounted to Bs. 62,051. To 

this must be added Bs. 7,868, the average amount of the kham collec- 
tions from 1858 to 1862, which raises the total amount to Bs. 69,919, as 
compared with Major Nicholson's jama of Bs. 63,030 — ^an increase often 
per cent. 

572. The cash jama for the year 1874-75 amounted to Bs. 60,090, 
Working of Captain instead of Bs. 62,051. The decrease was 

Coxe's Bettlement. owing principally to reductions made in 1860 

in the jamas of two large villages — Pie and Gul Imam, in die Kundi 

♦ This is exclusive of the birat allowance of Rs. 1,000 to the Khasor chiefs. 
t On the abolition ol the T^k castoms this revenue was reduced by Bs. 10,000. 



285 

circle, on ihe ground of over-assessment. The decrease was'bardly war- 
ranted, and a temporary remission would I believe have been sufficient^ 
both villages having since the reduction up to the present Settlement 
been notoriously lightly assessed. Villages in the Kundi tract, where the 
cultivation depends on the successful construction of large dams, are 
apt to suflPer occasionally from failure of irrigation. When such a state 
of things continues for two or three years, considerable remissions of 
revenue will in most oases be advisable, but a permanent reduction is to 
be deprecated, as in the course of a few years the village is almost cer- 
tain to recover. 

Captain Coxo's Settlement remained in force up to the introduction 
Pressure of Settlement of the new assessments (knarif 1877) ; on the 
explained. whole it worked smoothly. For the last few 

years, however, there had been a good deal of trouble in realising the 
revenue of many of the Jatatar villages, and frequent remissions and 
suspensions had to be granted in consequence. The causes of this were 
two-fold. 

In the first place the lessees in Tank had especially suffered from the 

■n.i« * « « 11 • fall in prices of aorricultural produce that occur- 

Bflect of fril in pnces. ^^ ^^^H^ ^g^^ ^^"^g^g The tahsQ is a long way 

from any large market, and there is no water communication or other cheap 
means of transport, enabling the people to export their surplus produce 
at a moderate cost, consequently grain in Tank must be purchased at 
alow rate to enable the merchant to make a profit out of it. The cost of 
carriage from Tdnk to Dera is generally about Re. 1-8-0 per camel load 
of 6 maunds, whether the price ot grain is high or low, and when prices 
in the Dera market are very low, the camel-hire eats up any profit 
that might otherwise be obtained. During the period of high prices 
previous to 1870, the Tank lessees with their half &ato: made large profits, 
which they spent in generous living, and the attempt to continue living 
in the same style after prices had gone down, led to their falling into 
debtj and getting into difficulties with their revenue. In the second 
Uneqaal distribation of place, the revenue difficulties in the Tank tahsil 
the water supply. were in great measure owing to the unequal 

distribution of the water from the Tank and Gumal zams. The manage- 
ment of the water was then in the hands of the Nawdb, who took 
advantage of it to injure such of the leasees as he suspected of being 
hostile to his claim to proprietary rights in the Jatatar villages, by giving 
them less than their share of the water.* In addition to these causes, 
there is no doubt that in a few cases well-to-do lessees pretended to be in 
difficulties in the hopes of proving that their villages could not stand 
enhancement. 

This difficulty in recovering the revenue occurred only in the Jata- 
tar circle ; with one or two exceptions, no trouble was experienced in 
realising the revenue of the Gumal and Kundi villages. 

• This was especially the case in 1873--1874, when the water supply was 
nnnsnally scanty. The management of the water distribution is now under the direct 
control of the Deputy Commissioner, and the same state of things is not likely to again 
occur. 



288 

first, and the Doalatwala circle since Mr. Siinson's Settlement. 

Workinjf of Summary ^^ ^^® ^^^^ ^^ ^® Khalsa tract, Captain Coxe's 
Settlements. Settlement has remained in force up to the intro- 

duction of the new jamas. A few villages in 
the Girang taluqua broke down during the course of Captain Coxe*s 
Settlement, owing to changes effected by the floods of the Yahoa torrent, 
and were held for the last year or two in kham tahsil. The revenue of 
the Draban taluqua, with Uie exception of one or two villages, has been 
realised without difficulty. 

Results of the new asBess- 580. The results of the new assessments 

™®°^»* for the different circles, which have now been 

formed, is as follows : — 

GundapAr circle. . Gundapdr circU.— The figures for the 

circle are as follows : — 

Bs. 

Mr. Simson's Settlement, 1852 37,552 

Lieutenant Busk's Settlement, 1 856 38,780 

Average kham tahsil demand (1860 to 1874) ... 65,483 
Jama now assessed ... 39,195* 

The Government share taken under the kham tahsfl arrangements 
has been ^ of the gross produce ; hence the large decrease in reverting 
to a cash assessment. It was intended to bring the whole of this tract 
imder the Doman fluctuating system, one-fourth only of the jama being 
fixed. This system has been introduced into the Nikanni and Bori tracts, 
making up about half the circle. In the remainder the zemindars have 
preferred a continuation of the existing kham tahsil. The i fixed assess- 
ment of the Nikanni and Rori tracts is Bs. 4,680. The rest of the reve- 
nue of the circle will be fluctuating, and the total realisations will pro- 
bably be not less than Rs. 50,000 or Rs. 55,000. 

Zarkanni circle, Zarkanni circle. — The figures for this circle 

are as follows : — Rs. 

Mr. Simson's Settlement, 1852 ••• * 350 

Captain Coxe's do. 1857 480 

Average demand for last 5 years of old Settlement 480 

Jama hy new assessments 1,100 

There is an increase of Rs. 620, or 129 per cent. For farther par- 
ticulars see para. 295. 

,.. , ^ , . , Mianktiel circle. — The figures for this circle 

Mmakhd cirde. are as follows :- Bs. 

Mr. Simson's assessment, 1852 14,185 

Captain Coxe's do. 1857 13,764 

Average demand for last 5 years of old Settlement ... 13,453 

Jama by new assessments ... ... ... ... 17,240 

There is an increase of Rs. 3,787, or 28 per cent. For further par- 
ticulars see para. 313. 

* Bevised jama is Rs. 39,123. See note oq para. 291. 



$89 

Chnndtoan circle. — ^This cirole has always been held iujaj^r^ the 
(^ . . , ja^rdar has taken in kind. It was valued hf 

Chandwan cucla. Lieutenant Busk in 1856 at Rs. 8,500. The 

bew assessment is Bs. 12,045. For further particulars see para. 326. 

UsfdararuX circZtf.-*-This circle has always been Ijeld kham tahslL 
tJshtftran * 1 ^® average realisations for 22 years have been 

a cure e. -^^ 2,182. Latterly they have shown a tendency 

to fall off. The new assessment is Rs. 1,940. 

Daulatwala circle. — ^This circle has been held kham tahsil since MK 
Daalatwala ctrde^ Simson's settlement. The average realisaiona 

for 20 years have been Bs. 1,041. It has been 
assessed at Bs. 1,050. 

Vahoa circle. — ^This circle may be divided into the villages of the 
^, . . Vahoa taluqua transferred from DeraGhaziEIhan 

^^^ ' in 1867, and those of the Girang taluqua. 

Villages transferred from The first have been three times summarily 

Dera Qhizi Khan. settled ; the results and the new assessments ar« 

as'follows ;— ' 



• • • • • 

••• ••• •» ••• •• 



Bs. 

9,306 
7,961 
7,412 
7,418 
9,355 



1st Summaiy Settlement 1851 .^^ •». 
2nd Do. Do. 1854 

8rd Do. Do. 1859 

Bealteations for last 5 years 
Now assessed 

The last Summary Assessment of these villages was undoubtedly light 

Villages of the old and the jama has now been increased by 26 

Girang triuqua. per cent. For the Girang villages the figures 

are as follows : — 

Rs. 

Ist Sethmary Settlement, Mr. Simson's, 1851-52 9,900 

2nd Do. Do. Captain Coxe's, 1857 14,842 

Realisations for last 5 years 12,013 

Now assessed 13,582 

There hao been no real increase to speak of in these Girang villages, 
Bs. 1,250 being on account of the jagir village of Babbi. The prect- 
sure of the demand was latterly unequal, and the assessments of particu* 
lar villages have been raised and lowered a good deal. 

The average realisations for the whole Yahoa circle for the last 5 
Besnlts for the whole years have been Rs. 19,431. The jama now 
circle. assessed is Rs. 22,937, which gives an increase 

of Rs. 3,506 or 18 per cent. Of this Rs. 2,664 is fluctuating by rates 
on eailaba cultivation, and Rs. 410 of the remainder is temporarily post- 
poned, m., Rs. 400 progressive and Rs. 10 by eannad aJuan. 



581. From the account that I have given it will be Men that (he 
General results for the different circles of this tabsfl were never simid- 
tftbdll. tsneonsly assessed at the Summary Settlements, 

and owing to transfers of villages and to much of the tahsfl being nnder 
kham management, any general comparison of the present with former 
assessments is very difficult. The revenue by the first Summary Settle- 
ment for each circle amounts to Rs. 83,075. The revenoe in 1857 was 
Bs. 87,162. After 1857 the Gundapur country was brought nnder 
kham tahsil, and the average realisations for the 5 years previous to this 
SetUemeiit wete Bs. 1,09,096. 

The jama now assessed is Rs. 95,507, which would give a decrease of 
Ks. 13,589, or 12 per cent, on the former revenue, but much 4>f this de- 
crease is fictitious. In the cash paying villages of the tahsil, under fixed as- 
sessment, there has been an increase from Bs. 33,364 to Bs. 41,277, or 23 
per cent. The decrease is nearly all on account of the Gundapur circle. 
Now as Jcliam collections are to oe continued in the larger portion of the 
Gundapur country, while the remainder will be under the Dam&n fluctu- 
ating system, the realisations are likely to be much in excess of the janui 
assessed, and a sum of Bs. 10,000 may be added on this account to the 

t\^*^i\ ^ r.^^ -rp— «,*»«f estimate. This will raise the whole jama to 
Detail of new assessment, -rt i rve mn ^ l -i i^ ^^ "^ 

Bs. 1,05,507, detail as follows : 

Bs. 

Fixed assessment «. ... 53,648 

^ fixed assessment on Daman lands ••• .». 4,680 

Fluctuating | assessment on ditto ...• 14,040 

Fluctuating assessment on sailaba lands 2,664 

Kham tahsil collections ••• 30,475 



Totai ... 1,05,507 

Temporary remission* . Of this Bs. 410 will be temporarily re- 
and detail of khalsa and mitted on account of mniiad ahsans and pro- 
jftgir* gressive jamas. 

the following is the detail of khalsa and jagir revenue :— 

Bs. 

£halsa ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• oo,99d 

tiagiv ... ••• ••• ••• •** •*• Av,d02 



Total 1,05^07 



* The jagir statement ( para. 613 ) pats jagir rerenue for this tahsil at Rs. lSfi7(J, 
ne difference is in the jagir of Kaln Khan, part of the incoaie of whiok i# eselnded 
from jagir statement and shown under semindari inoaw. 



1 



291 



THK BHAKKA8 TAHBIL. 



582. The Bhakkar tabsfl till 1860 was known by the name of 

Present Bbakkar tahsil ^^U^ Khan, its former head-quarters staHon. 

comprises the greater por- At annexation the tract now comprised in it 

tion of the old Darya Khan was divided between the old Mankera and 

and Mankem tahslls. jj^^^^ g-j^^^ ^j^^jj^ j^ 1853-54 the 

Transfers to other dis- Mankera tahsil was abolished, the Khoshab 
*"<^**' talnqua being transferred to Shidipar ; the 

Chaubara, Nawankot and Mojghar taluquas to Leiah ; and the remain- 
der of the tahsil being incorporated in Darya Khan. The taluquas of 
Piplan and Harnanli, belonging to the old Darya Khan tahsil, were at 
the same time transferred to Mianwali, then known as the Kachi tahsil. 
Mr. Simson settled these latter taluquas with the rest of th^ Bhakkar 
tahsfl in 1854, and they were transferred while the Settlement was in 
progress. The Mitha Tiwana and Nurpur taluquas, which were after- 
wards transferred to Shahpur, belonged to the MianwaM and not to the 

Villages transferred to Bhakkar tahsil. A few villages of the Dera 
Bhakkar from Dera Ismail tahsil, lying on the left bank of the Indus, were 
^^*^- transferred to Bhakkar in 1857. These villages 

were 19 in number, and form a fringe along the Indus from Gishkauri to 
Bet Bogha. Several of them were then held in jagir, as some are still. It 
is difficult to say exactly what their revenue was, as some of these vil- 
lages were not assessed till some years later, but it may be put roughly 

Talnqnas contained in at about Rs. 1,500. The Bhakkar tahnl as 
present tahsil. finally arranged contained the following 

taluquas ;->-EaIur, Darya Khan, Nawabpur (Kaujan), Kotla, Bhakkar, 
China, Chung (Shekhani), Notak, Behal, Pir Ashab, Khanpur, Janda- 
wala, Dnlehwala, Mankera and Haidarabad. Owing to these changes 

^ ^ . M Q in tahsil boundaries, I have had to re-arrange 

Re-arrangement of Sum- ., , ii«i« m^ o 

mary Settlement statistics the area and revenue statistics of the bummary 

necessitated by these trana- Settlements in accordance with the existing 
'*"• state of things, excluding all the villages that 

have from to time been transferred to other districts, and adding those 
transferred from the Dera Ismail Khan tahsil. In speaking of Captain 
HoUings' or Mr. Simson's assessments of the Bhakkar tahsil, I shall give 
the jamas then assessed on all the villages comprised in the present 
Bhakkar tahsil, and the figures, therefore, will not tally witn those 
given in the Summary Settlement reports. 

563. Captain HoUings made the first Summary Settlement of the 
Captain Hollinga* Settle- tahsfl in 1850. It was very rough. No mea- 
ment, ^.D. 1S60. surements were made, and me assessments were 

based on the average receipts for the three previoiis years (1847-49)* 
Captain HolUngs furnished an amusing little report, consisting for the 
most part of prefatory remarks. Among other matters mentioned^ 
Captain HoUings explains, that the Government revenue had till then 
been collected in Mehrabi ri^ees, but that as this entailed a loss to Gov- 
arnment of Bs. 4 or 5 per cent, in the shape of exchange, be had rectified 
^tters by assessing in Company^s rupees. He had in this way raised 



292 

ihe revenne to a sum eqtiat to, if not more than, what it was before* 
This is similar to the method now frequently reconunended as a remedy 
for the loss bjr exchange between India and England. 

Captain Hollings assessed as follows :: — 

Rs. 

Land revenue ••• •»• ••• •«• ••• 70,609 

ATinni ••• ••• •«• ••« *•• ••« 25,336 



Total ... 95,94& 

•.. 
This settlement was for three jears. 

584. The 2nd Summary Settlement was made by Mr. SixBson in 

M, Bi s. Q^**i 4 1853-54. It was based on a careful measure- 

A.I>. 1853^-54. ment of tne cultivatea lands. Mr. birason 

divided the villages of the tahsil into three 
^ms clasBiflcation of vil- classes ; two of these consisted of Nasleb and 

' Thal'Nasheh villages, the third entirely oiThak 

villages. The quality of the Kachi lands seems to have changed a good 
deal since then, and most of the Nasheh villages, which Mr. Simsoi^ 
graded in his second ckiss^ are superior now to those that he placed in 
Ihe first class. 

Jama assessecl QiTesan Hr. Simson's assessment was as follows :— « 

Increase., 

Bs. 

Land revenue ••• •»• ••• ••« ••• 87,521 

Trinni ••« ««« »«« ••% %%% •%• 24,618 



Total ... 1,12,139 

This gives aa increase of 16 per cent on Captain Hollings* assess^* 
ment. Mr. Simson justified the increase on the ground that the pargan-^ 
nah was notoriously the most lightly assessed in the district, and that 
the rates were lower than those that had given a reduction in Leiah. 
Capt. Mackenrie*B opinian ^^' Simson*8 report of this Settlement was sub- 
of the working of Mr. mitted on 31st December 1854. The jamas 
Simson'B Settlemeat. assessed were not interfered with till Captain 

Mackenzie's Settlement, except in some of the river villages, where re* 
ductions had been necessitate owing to diluvion. The assessment was 
considered by Captain Mackenzie to have been a little too high. He 
writes, ^' the villages of this tahsil had not been so clamorous for relief 
** during the two or three preceding years as in Leiah, although internal 
^^ irregmarities with their attendant results obtained almost as much as 



293 

^' in that pargannah. The statistics warranted redaction. The malgu- 
" zari area had decreased 4^ per cent. There was a falling off in the 
*' Nasheb cultivation of 9 per cent." Captain Mackenzie accordingly 
Reductions allowed by reduced the land revenue 18 per cent. The 
Captain Mackenzie. jama assessed by Captain Mackenzie including 

trinni was as follows :— 

Bs. 
Land revenue ••• ••• ••• ••• * ••• 71,556 

Trinni 23,006 



Total ... 94,562 

The decrease on the whole revenue was Rs. 17,577, or 15 per cent. 
This decrease was not uniform. In many villages the former jama was 
Working of Captain enhanced. Captain Mackenzie's Settlement was 
Mackenzie's Settlement. reported in 1862, and was sanctioned for 10 
years. The changes in the land revenue, subsequent to Captain 
Mackenzie's Settlement, have been almost entirely on account of allu- 
vion and diluvion. That Settlement was followed by a great increase of 
cultivation, by which the incidence of the demand was much lightened^ 
and the revenue, except in parts of the ITial, has in consequence been 
collected all along without difficulty. The Thai trinniy owing to want of 
occasional revision, gave a good deal of trouble during the last years of 
the Settlement, and two or three large villages eventuculy broke down, as 
I have already described in the chapter on trimii assessments ( vide 
para. 517). 

585. Tlie accompanying statement shows the changes in the culti- 
Changes in cnltivated vated area of the tahsfl since Mr. Simson's Set- 
area since Mr. simson's tlement. At Captain Mackenzie's Settlement, 
Settlement, with stotement. ^^^jng to the exclusion 'of a good deal of fallow 
and abandoned land, the Nasheb-malffiizari area was understated. The 
cultivated and fallow area of the Nasheb and Thal-Nasheb villages by 
the Revenue Survey of 1856-57 is 55,926 acres against 47,950 acres 
given by the Settlement of 1862, or 17 per cent, in excess. The culti- 
vated area by Mr. Simson's measurements agrees pretty closely with the 
Bevenue Survey area. The excess over Captain Mackenzie's area must 
have been lying fallow, ready to be broken up^ and the rest that it thus 
obtained would have increased its productive capacity. It seems better^ 
therefore, in calculating the increase in cultivation, to effect a compari- 
son rather with Mr. Simson's than with Captain Mackenzie's areas : the 
former showing more nearly the land that was available for immediate 
cultivation. The result of such comparison is as follows : — 



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295 

Well ctxitiration in the Nasheb has increased from 7,505 to 9,880 
Increase in the Nasheb acres, or by 31 per cent. Total Nasheb cnltiva- 
ctiUivated area. Well tod tion, Well and saUaba^ has increased from 47,710 
total cultiyatioii. ^cres to 1,01,844 acres, or by 113 per cent. 

Increase in malguzari The Naskethtnalffuzari area — cultivated and 

area. fallow ( both old and recent) — has increased 

^'"***- from 56,073 acres to 1,13,890 acres, or by 103 

per cent. 

In the Thai, well cultivation has increased from 9,145 acre? to 

Increase in Thai cttitlva- 13,511 acres, or by 47 per cent. The figures 

tion, well and 6arawi. for barani cultivation in the Thai for Mr. 

Simson's Settlement are much below what the average cultivation must 

then have been ; the increase is in great part fictitious. 

Altogether the Arable lands (cultivated and fallow) of the tahsfl 

Results for the tahsiL ^^« increased from 66,983 acres ta 1,33,154 

acres, or by 100 per cent. 

586. I have given the increase in well cultivation since Mr. Simson's 
Increase in number of Settlement. The increase in wells tallies with 
wells. the increase in the cultivated chdhi area. The 

numbers of Working wells and jhalars in the Nasheb has increased 
since Captain Mackenzie's Settlement by 33 per cent., and of working 
weDs in the Thai by 27 per cent. 

Detail of existing wells ^0 following statement shows the number 

mnd Jhalan. of wells at Captain Mackenzie's and at the pre- 

sent Settlement : — 

NASRBfi^— * Settlement of Preaent SetiUment. 

1862. 

w n • r.A.% / Old 539 

Wells m use ... .•• o4d •'•INew 190 

729 

Jhalars *... ... ... 47 ••• ••• ••• t>l 

Abandolied wells 74 ••• . 52 



Total ... (>64 842 

Tbal— 

w 11 • viQT /Old 431 

VV ells in use ... ... 497 '"iNew 204 

635 

Abandoned wellis ... 148 «. 91 



Total ... 645 726 

587. Owing to the assessment of new alluvion, the average de* 
mand for the last 5 years of the old Settlement averaged Rs. 96,885. 
This is inclusive oitritmi. To this must be added Rs. 555 date revenue 
and Bs. 4,440 on acoonnl of rakh leai#s, making a total of Bs. 1,01^80. 



Tbe revenue on caltivated and grazing lands has now been assessed 
Bttmmary of financial re- at Rs. 1,19,249, and a good deal more land has 
suits for the Uh8(l. been taken up in rakhs, the income from which 

has been accordingly increased. The separate camel trinni must also 
be taken into account. The results of the new Settlement are as 
follows : — 

Rs. 

{F