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Full text of "Report / Leeds Naturalists' Club & Scientific Association"

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1875-6. 



THE LEEDS NATURALISTS' CLUB AND 
SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 



THE SIXTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 

AND 

PRESIDENT'S VALEDICTORY ADDRESS, &c. 



THE LEEDS 

AND 

SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATIOIT. 

1875—1876. 



THE SIXTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 

AND 
PRESIDENT'S VALEDICTORY ADDRESS ; 



WITH 
A BRIEF SKETCH 
OF THE SOCIETY'S HISTORY, 
ETC. 



-^— •♦•—«- 



TAYLOR BROS., 9. WADE STREET. 
1876. 




lU^in 




6\in(i\ 



ELECTED FEBRUARY 23-.0, 1876. 
oc~o 



^resibent: 

SAMUEL JEFFERSON, F.C.S. 



IBicc ^resibcnt©: 



James abbott. 
H. c. cheetham. 



FREDERICK COATES. 
JOHN GRASSHAM. 



ISite ^resibcnts 

WHO HAVE »tRveD THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT: 

THOMAS HICK, B.A., B.Sc. 
HENRY POCKLINGTON, F.R.M.S. 

(Secrctarg: 

WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, 
9, Sunny Bank Terrace, Leeds. 

Ijireaaurcr: 

WILLIAM E. CLARKE. 



Council: 



J. IRWIN COATES, F.R.A.S. 
F. GREENWOOD, M.R.C.S.E. 
WALTER HENRY HAY. 



JAMES MALT. 
WILLIAM NELSON. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR. 



PubUcatian Committee: 

The PRESIDENT. The SECRETARY. 

WILLIAM E. CLARKE. WILLIAM NELSON. 

HENRY POCKLINGTON, F.R.M..S. 



SKETCH OF THE HI;STORY 
OF THE SOCIETY 

from its Foundation in February, 1870, 



In issuing to the members of the Leeds Naturalists' Club and 
Scientific Association the first printed report it seems advisable to 
the Publication Committee to preface it by a b-rief outHne of the 
Society's previous history. ^ 

The present organization is really composed of two previously 
independent bodies, working separately from each other, one of 
them, the older and smaller of the two, Avithout any organization 
at all, the other for the first two years of its existence, with a 
loose scheme of operations and without any very definite aims 
beyond the instruction and entertainment of its members. These 
societies finally coalesced in the spring of 1872. 

The pubhcation of papers, &c., not having been contemplated, 
the communications presented to the societies, whether lectures or 
papers, have not as a rule been written for more than the instruction 
of the members assembled at the meetings. 

1870—1871. 

The Leeds Naturalists' Field Club originated in a paper 
read by Mr. James Brodie in February 1870 to a meeting of 
members of the Leeds Young Mens' Christian Association, in 
which he explained the working of a similar society existing in 
Dundee. It was then resolved to form the Society, and at a subse- 
quent meeting the officers were elected for the first year. Mr. J. 
Holroyd was chosen President, and Mr James Brodie Secretary, 
with a committee consisting of Messrs. W. Coates, Thos. G. Denny, 
A. W. Dodgshun, Thomas Graham, George W. Newton, John 
Reynolds, B. Rhodes, Thomas Rhodes, and William Hind Smith. 
The Rules, which were few and simple, were printed on the card 
of membership, together with the names of the Committee. The 
terms of membership were i/- and 2/6 per annum. 

The first public appearance of the newly-formed Club was at a 
Lecture, by its President, delivered in the Hall of the Young Men's 
Christian Association on the 12th April 1870, when he took for his 
title "Peeps at Nature." The chair was occupied by the then Mayor 
of Leeds, ( Mr. Aid. Wm. Glover Joy ) and the audience was very 
numerous. 



4 HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 

Originally excursions and classes were the only means con- 
templated for carrying out the objects of the newly formed organ- 
ization. Consequently during the summer of 1870, there were nine 
excursions, mostly to places of interest within a few miles of Leeds, 
including Adel, Newlay, Bramhope, Ilkley, and Barwick-in-Elmet, 
the members receiving at Newlay and Bramhope the hospitality of 
Mr. Wm. Hind Smith and Mr. W. B. Hindle. One of the nine 
excursions, on the 3rd August, was a whole day trip to Bolton 
Abbey and Woods. The average attendance at the first season's 
excursions was 14. 

During the winter of 1870 — 71 a botanical class was conducted 
in connection with the Club, while its original programme was 
extended by the holding of a, series of ten fortnightly evening 
meetings on Mondays. A variety of interesting local and general 
matter was brought forward on these occasions, and the following 
papers were read : — "A November day at Boston Spa" by Mr. John 
W. Taylor; "Geology as a study" by Mr. Leonard Acomb; "Wasps" 
by Mr. Wm. Denison Roebuck; "Animalculre" by Mr. James 
Abbott; "On Trees and their uses" by Mr. James Brodie; and 
"Protozoa" by Mr. Thos. Hick, B.A. 

The First Annual Meeting was held on the 9th of March 1871. 
The Secretary gave an oral report on the state of the Society's 
affairs, stating that it then numbered about 50 members. The 
balance sheet showed that the Revenue for the year was _£;} .5.6 
and the balance carried forward ;£i .1.6. 

Mr. James Holroyd and Mr. James Brodie were re-elected to the 
respective offices of President and Secretarj', Mr. John W. Taylor 
was appointed Curator, Messrs. Thomas Rhodes and G. W. Newton 
were elected Vice-Presidents, while Messrs. Wm. Coates, Thos. G. 
Denny, A. W. Dodgshun, B. Rhodes, and Wm. Hind Smith were 
re-elected to serve on the Committee, the places of the retiring 
members being supplied by the election of Messrs. James Abbott, 
John Dixon, Wm. Denison Roebuck, and John Thrippleton. 

1871—1872. 

During the second year of the Society's existence the evening 
meetings on the first and third Tuesdays of each month were kept 
up with varying success, 21 such meetings being held throughout 
the year. A considerable amount of local specimens and information 
was brought forward, and at two of the meetings papers were read : 
on "The Darwinian Theory" by Mr. Wm. Hy. Taylor, and on 
"Mosses" by Mr. James Abbott. 

Seven excursions were made during the summer of 187 1, the 
places visited including Knaresbro', Meanwood Valley, Roundhay 



HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. • 5 

Limehills, Malham, Horsforth Wood, Adel, and Garforth. The 
excursions, as contrasted with those of the preceding season, were 
not so well attended. 

A very successful Exhibition of objects of natural history was 
organized in the middle of November 187 1. It lasted for four 
days, and was held in the large Lecture Hall of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. On the first evening, addresses were 
delivered by the President and other gentlemen. 

At the commencement of the year Mr. W. H. Broadhead of 
Chapel-Allerton offered a prize of 20/- for the best collection of 
land and fresh-water shells formed during the summer of 1 871 
within ten miles of the Leeds Town Hall. The prize was deservedly 
gained by a very excellent collection submitted to the judges 
(Messrs. John Dixon and John W. Taylor) by Mr. Henry Shaw. 

The accommodation at the Young Men's Christian Association 
proving unsatisfactory, a much more convenient room was secured 
at the Leeds Mechanics' Institute, the first meeting in the new 
room being held on the 6th February 1872. 

The second Annual meeting was held at the Mechanics' Institute 
on the 2 1 St March 1872. The Secretary again gave an oral 
account of the condition of the Society's affairs, the number of 
members being given as 32. 

The Financial Statement showed that with a revenue of;^2 .0.9 
the balance at the close of the year was 8/9. Mr. Thomas Hick, 
B.A., B.Sc, was chosen President, Messrs. James Abbott and 
Wilham Todd Vice-Presidents, and Messrs. James Brodie and 
Wm. Denison Roebuck joint-Secretaries, while Messrs. T. G. 
Denny, A. W. Dodgshun, Henry Douglas, J. Hezraalhalch, G. W. 
Newton, George Rodwell, S. Scholefield, and John W. Taylor 
were elected to serve on the Council. At this meeting a sub-com- 
mittee was requested to take into consideration the condition of 
the Society and to report on the desirability of its being re-organized 
upon a broader and more comprehensive basis. 

1872—1873. 

For some years a private Scientific Association, consisting of 
five members, viz: — Messrs. James Abbott, James Wm. Davis, 
Thomas Hick, F. Arnold Lees and William Todd, but having no 
rules or formal organization, save that Mr. Abbott acted as 
chairman and Mr. Hick as convener, had been in the habit of 
meeting weekly at the residence of one or other of its members, 
for the purpose of reading papers and discussing matters of scientific 
interest. This society gradually merged itself, about this date, by 
a process of natural absorption into the Leeds Naturalists' Field 



O HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 

Club, of which most of its members were already active constituents. 

At the commencement of the year 1872-3, in conformity with 
the recommendations of the committee appointed at the Annual 
Meeting the Leeds Naturalists' Field Club was re-organized upon 
a broader basis, it was resolved that the meetings should be held 
weekly on Tuesday evenings, that they should be alternately 
devoted to the reading of papers and to the exhibition of specimens 
and conversation, and to mark the enlarged scope of the Society's 
operations the name was altered to "The Leeds Naturalists' 
Field Club and Scientific Association." At the same time 
the subscription was fixed at 4/- per annum. From this time the 
programme was communicated to the members in the form of 
syllabuses of the meetings and papers, issued at the beginning of 
every three months. The programme of operations thus inaugur- 
ated has since formed the basis of the Society's proceedings to the 
present time. 

The opening meeting was held on the i6th April, 1872, when 
the President delivered his inaugural address. Forty-eight meetings 
were held during the year with an average attendance of 16 at each. 
At 23 of these meetings papers were read while the remainder were 
conversational meetings. Only five excursions were held during 
the season of 1872, and this branch of the Society's work was, as 
compared with the two preceding seasons, to be regarded as a 
comparative failure, although the excursions actually made were 
productive of great interest to the members who took part in them. 

On the loth August a very pleasant afternoon was spent at the 
gardens at Rosehurst, Headingley, by the invitation of Mr. 
Washington Teasdale. 

On the 3rd August Mr. John Holmes, of Methley, guided a 
party to the interesting groups of prehistoric remains on Rombalds 
Moor, having at the preceding evening meeting given a lecture 
upon the subject. 

The following is a list of the papers read during the year : — 

1872. 
Apl. 30 Thomas Hick, B.A., B. Sc, on 'Hydrozoa. ' 
May 14 James Abbott, on 'Animal and Vegetable Tissues. ' 

,, 28 Willian> Todd, on 'Early Sedimentary Rocks.' 
June II Samuel Jefferson, F.C.S., on 'Matter and Force.' 

,, 25 John W. Taylor, on 'Mollusca. ' 
July 9 William Henry Taylor, on 'Entomology. ' 

,, 23 Rev. \V. T. Adey, on 'The Geology of South Bedfordshire.' 

,, 30 John Holmes, on 'Prehistoric Remains on Rombalds' Moor.' 
Aug. 6 James Abbott, on 'The Structure and Classification of Grasses.' 

,, 20 Thomas Hick, B.A., B. Sc. , on 'Botanical Classification.' 
.Sep. 3 Henry C. Cheetham, on 'Mountain Limestone.' 

,, 17 Wm. Denison Roebuck, on ' Hymenoptera. ' 
Oct. 8 Arthur William Dodgshun, on ' British Ferns. ' 



HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 7 

OcJ^il Edward Thompson, on 'The Atmosphere in its Relation to Moisture.' 

29 Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc, on 'The Lobster. 
Nov 12 T. T- Armistead, on 'Water Farmmg.' ^. . , 

26 \V Nelson, on 'The Lymnseidse of the Birmmgham District. 
Dec 10 W. Denison Roebuck, on 'Habitations of Hymenopterouslnseects ^ 
Ian.' 14 Rev. J. Hanson, on ' The Development, or Transformation of Insects. 

28 fames Abbott, on 'The Anatomy of the Slug.' 
Feb. II George Ward, F.C.S., on 'The Element Carbon. 

2? Edwin Birchall, on 'The Origin and Distribution of the Insects of the 

" British Isles.' ( A full abstract of this paper was subsequently 

printed in Science Gossip and in Newman's Entomologist). 

Amongst the very numerous and important subjects brought 
before the Society at the conversational meetings the following 
facts of local interest are worthy of notice. 

Mr. John Grassham exhibited a specimen of the ' Large Tortoise- 
Shell' butterfly, {Vanessa polychloros) which he had taken in the 
Meanwood Valley on the 27th July, the species not having before 
been known to occur in the district. 

The same member subsequently showed an example of the 
'Camberwell Beauty' butterfly ( Vanessa antiopa) which was taken 
by Mr. Thomas P. Mallorie at Bramley Grange, on Whinmoor, 
near Leeds, on the 8th of September. Several other specimens 
were about the same time taken in and around Leeds, and recorded 
in various entomological journals, while throughout the country 
generally many hundreds of this usually very rare British butterfly 
were taken during the autumn of 1872. 

At the meeting held on the i8th June Mr. James Abbott brought 
under the notice of the Society specimens of one of the freshwater 
polyzoa — Alcyonella stagnorum (or A. fungosa ) taken from a pond 
in the neighbourhood of Leeds. So far as known, this zoophyte 
had not been met with near Leeds since 1835, when it was found 
in ponds at Little Woodhouse and Haigh Park, as mentioned in a 
descriptive paper by the late Mr. Thomas Pridgin Teale, F.R.S., 
published in the ist volume of the Transactions of the Leeds 
Philosophical and Literar>' Society. 

The 3rd Annual meeting was held on the 25th March 1873. The 
Report congratulated the Society upon the sound and healthy 
state in which its affairs at that time stood, the year having been a 
very successful one. Quarterly lists of the members having to be 
•kept, in consequence of the quarterly payment of subscriptions, it 
will be convenient to mention the number of members as standing 
in the Roll Books at the close of each quarter. The year began 
with 32 ; on the First of July it rose to 51 ; on the First of Oct. to 
59; on the First of Jan. to 63; at which figure it also stood at the 
date of the Annual meeting. 



O HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Financial Statement showed a Revenue of^ii . 5 . 6, and 
a balance in hand at the close of the year of ^i . 13 . 3. Mr. T. 
Hick, B.A., B.Sc, was re-elected President, Messrs. James Abbott 
and William Todd Vice-presidents, and Messrs. William Denison 
Roebuck and James Brodie Secretaries. Messrs. T. G. Denny, 
A. W. Dodgshun, and John W. Taylor were re-elected on the 
Council, having for new colleagues Messrs. H. C . Cheetham, W. 
E. Clarke, John Grassham, Rev. J. Hanson, and S. Jefferson, F.C.S. 

1873—1874. 

During the year 43 meetings were held, with an average 
attendance at each of 19. At 21 meetings the following papers 
were read : — 

1873-4- 
Apl. 8 Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc, The President's Inaugural Address. 

,, 22 Edwin Birchall, on 'Some South American Mantidse & Phasmidae.' 
May 6 William Todd, on 'Silurian Rocks and Fossils.' 

,, 20 S.Jefferson, F. C.S., on 'Evaporation and Condensation physically 
considered.' 
July 8 Edward Thompson, on 'The Astronomical Telescope.' 

,, 22 Washington Teasdale, on 'Town Gardening.' 
Aug. 5 L. C. Miall, on 'The Permian rocks of the neighbourhood of Leeds. ' 

,, 19 T. Hick, B. A., B.Sc, on 'The Structure and Development of Ferns.' 
Sep. 16 James Abbott, or. 'The Structure and Development of Hepaticse. ' 
Oct. 14 S. Jefferson, F.C.S., on 'Air, physically considered.' 
Nov 1 1 Frederick Greenwood, M. R. C. S. E. , on ' Snakes. ' 

,, 25 J. W. Davis, F.G.S., on 'The Fossil Fishes of the Coal Measures.' 
Dec. 9 Frederick Haigh, on ' The Study of Microscopical Science. ' 
Jan. 13 Washington Teasdale, on 'Microscopes and Accessory Apparatus :^ 
preparation, mounting, and photographic delineation of objects. ' 

,, 27 Henry Pocklington, on 'Sugar, physiologically, optically, and chem- 
ically considered.' 
Feb. 10 Rev. J. Collins Odgers, B. A., on 'The larger Parasitic Plants.' 

,, 24 John Garbutt, F.R.A.S., on 'The Sun.' 
Mar. 10 William Cash, F.G.S., on 'The Flora of the Coal Measures.' 

,, 24 T. Plick, B.A., B.Sc, on 'The Structure & development of a Moss." 

The Excursions were six in number and in point of attendance 
were no improvement upon those of the previous year, although 
some of them were productive of much benefit to the society. 

By invitation a visit was paid to Mr. John Holmes' museum of 
antiquities at Holmville, Methley. Two excursions, one to Colling- 
ham in April 1873 and the other to Kippax and Castleford in 
March 1874 were under the leadership of Mr. L. C. Miall. The 
other localities visited we're Clapham and Ingleborough, Rombalds 
moor, and Knaresbro. 

A very successful microscopical soiree was held in the middle of 
December 1873, at which there was a very strong display of micro- 
scopes and a crowded attendance of visitors. 



HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 9 

About the same time a microscope was purchased by subscription 
among the members for use at the meetings. 

Amongst the mass of material exhibited at the various conversa- 
tional meetings may be mentioned the capture of a living example 
of the Dormouse by the Rev. J. Hanson in the Meanwood Valley 
in the summer of 1873, the species not having been previously 
known for the district. 

A prize of ;,^5, offered through the Leeds Philosophical and 
Literary Society for the encouragement of practical work in natural 
history, was awarded to Mr. Edward E. Prince, a member of this 
Society, for a series of specimens and drawings illustrative of the 
structure and mode of life of the common newt. 

The 4th Annual meeting was held on the 31st March 1874. The 
Annual report showed that the Society had steadily progressed 
during the year. The membership, which began at 63, stood as 
follows at the end of each Quarter: — July ist, 1873, 7^; Oct. ist, 
84; Jan. ist, 1874, 87; and at the date of the Annual meeting 
100 members. The Financial Statement showed an Income of 
;^2o .3.6, and a deficit at the close of the year of about ^2. 
Mr. Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc, was for the third time re-elected 
President, and Messrs. James Brodie and Wm. Denison Roebuck 
Secretaries, while the retiring Vice-Presidents were replaced by 
Messrs. Samuel Jefferson, F.C.S., and Edward Thompson. Messrs. 
James Abbott, W. E. Clarke, John Grassham, and William Todd, 
were re-elected to serve on the council, the retiring members being 
replaced by Messrs. Frederick Haigh, Louis C. Miall, Rev. J. C. 
Odgers, B.A., and Henry Pocklington. 

1874—5. 

At the commencement of the year a course of four lectures upon 
the Geology of the West Riding was delivered by Mr. L. C. Miall, 
illustrated by a series of seven field excursions, Mr. Miall acting as 
leader. By permission of the Council of the Philosophical Society 
the lectures were delivered in their Lecture Theatre, a charge being 
made to the pubUc for admission. The localities visited were: — 
Ingleborough ; Skipton and Draughton; Harrogate ; Shipley aud 
Baildon; Esholt and Rawden ; Farnley ( descent of coal-pit by per- 
mission of Mr. W. J. Armitage) ; and Garforth, Fairburn and 
Knottingley. A printed syllabus of the course was issued and the 
attendance at both lectures and excursions was very good. 

During the year 43 evening meetings were held, the average 
attendance being 20 at each. At 23 meetings papers were read, the 
following being a list : — 

1874-5- 
Apl. 21 L. C. Miall, on 'The Geology of Ingleborough.' 



lO HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 

1874-5- 
May 5 L. C. Miall, on 'The Yoredale Rocks and Millstone Grit of the West 
Riding. ' 

,, 12 L. C. Miall, on 'The Yorkshire Coalfield, with special reference to 
the Lower Coal Measures.' 

,, 19 L. C. Miall, on 'The Permian Rocks of the West Riding ; and on 
recent geological changes. ' 
June 2 Thos. Hick, B.A., B.Sc, The President's Inaugural Address. 

,, 9 Edward Thompson, on 'Microscopical Measurement.' 
July 14 C. J. Clarke, on 'The Classification of Fishes.' 
Aug. II H. Pocklington, on 'Coloring Matters of Leaves and Flowers.' 

,, 25 James Abbott, on 'The Structure of Stems and Roots.' 
Sep. 8 W. H. Taylor, on ' The Structure of certain Noctuse. ' 

,, 29 S. Jefferson, F.C.S., on 'Gems and Precious .Stones.' 
Oct. 13 S. Jefferson, F. C.S., on 'Volcanic Phenomena.' 

„ 27 John Garbutt, F.R.A.S., on 'Solar Physics.' 
Nov. 10 Thos, Hick, B.A., B.Sc, on 'The Vertebrate Skull as seen in Birds.' 

,, 24 James Abbott, on 'The Anatomy of Aberrant Stems.' 
Dec. 15 Edwd. E. Prince, on 'The Hedgehog.' 

Jan. 12 Hy. Pocklington, F.R. M.S., on 'The Physical Constitution of the 
Sun' (Extempore). 

,, 26 Thomas Tate, on 'The Organization of Daphnia pulex.' (Printed in 

extenso in the 'Naturalist,' April and May, 1876.) 

Feb. 9 W. Percy Sladen, F. G.S., on 'The Classification of the Echinoidea.' 

,, 23 Thos. Hick, B.A., B.Sc, on 'Marchantia polymorpha.' 
Mch. 9 J. Thrippleton, on 'Iron — from the quarry to the workshop.' 

On the 1 6th February 1875 a very successful Conversazione and 
Exhibition was held in the Picture Gallery of the Mechanics' Insti- 
tute, and was attended by a very large number of friends. 

In addition to the course of Geological excursions already 
noticed, a very successful one was made in July 1874, into Upper 
Wharfdale, Grassington being the starting-point of the ramble. 

A Microscopical Section was formed in 1874 in connection with 
the Society. It numbered 22 members and held eight fortnightly 
meetings on Wednesday evenings. It was however found that the 
Society was not strong enough to carry on fortnightly meetings of a 
Section concurrently with the weekly meetings of the whole Society, 
and the Section was consequently discontinued. Mr. J. Abbott was 
president and Mr. Frederick Haigh secretary of the Microscopical 
Section during the time of its existence. Much good work was 
done in connection with it, and at three of its meetings the following 
papers were read: — 

1874. 
Feb. 18 James Abbott, The President's Address. 
Apl. 29 H. Pocklington, F.R. M.S., on 'The Microscope as a Detective 

Agent. ' 
May 27 James Abbott, on ' Microscopical Manipulation. ' 

During the year, amongst other valuable communications, Mr. 
F. G. S. Rawson, of Thorpe, near Halifax, communicated a large 



HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. II 

amount of information on the Birds of the parish of Halifax, amount- 
ing in the aggregate to an ahnost complete avi-faunaof that district. 
Mr. James Wm. Davis, F.L.S., F.G.S., of Greetland, near HaHfax, 
also presented a carefully compiled classified list of the Birds of the 
parish of Halifax. A large amount of information on the birds of 
the West Riding generally was also amassed during the year through 
the kindness of various observers. 

The Library of the Society received valuable additions during the 
year from the liberality of Mr. Faii-fax Wooler, of Farnley, who gave 
^5 at the previous annual meeting for the purchase of books. 

The Fifth Annual Meeting was held on Tuesday the 30th of 
March 1875. i'""^ Annual Report and Financial Statement of 
the Council were duly adopted. The membership for the year 
commenced at 100 at the date of the previous Annual meeting; on 
the ist July 1874 it was 105; on the ist October, in; on the ist of 
January 1875 it fell to 108; at which figure it remained at the date 
ofthe Annual meeting. The Financial Statement showed a revenue 
;^28 .5.8, and at the close of the year a balance of ^5 . 15 . i in 
the hands of the Treasurer. 

Mr. Hy. Pocklington, F.R.M.S., was elected President, Messrs. 
James Abbott, Edwin Birchall, F.L.S., Samuel Jefferson, F.C.S., 
and William Todd Vice-presidents, Mr. W. Denison Roebuck 
Secretary, with a Council consisting of Messrs. William E. Clarke, 
John Grassham, Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc, Louis C. Miall, F.G.S., 
Rev. John C. Odgers, B.A., Thomas Tate, Washington Teasdale, 
and Edward Thompson. 

By a resolution of the Council, passed some time previously, the 
meeting-night for the ensuing year ( 1875-6) was changed from 
Tuesday to Wednesday. 

The subsequent proceedings ofthe Society will be found detailed 
4n the Annual Report and in the Valedictory Address of the Pres- 
ident for the year 1875-6. 






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13 



THE 

SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE COUNCIL: 

PRESENTED TO THE ANNUAL MEETING, HELD 
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 23rd, 1876. 

The Council, in presenting their 6th annual report of the state 
of the Society's affairs, regret to have to state that as compared with 
the previous year there has been a retrogression, instead of as before, 
a decided advance in the prosperity of the Society- The retro- 
gression is however but small, and may most probably be accounted 
for by the fact that the energies of most of the leading members of 
the Society were during the past year devoted to the promotion of 
the success of the Scientific Department of the Yorkshire Exliibition 
of Arts and Manufactures. Your Council trust that their successors 
may not only have the benefit of the services of these members 
during the ensuing year, but that their term of office may be the 
most successful one that the Society has ever yet enjoyed. 

MEMBERS. 

In the last Annual Report the number of members was given 
as 97, only those being counted who were not at that time in arrear 
with the Treasurer. By subsequent payments of arrears this num- 
ber was raised to 105, which may be considered as the starting- 
point for the present year. 

As explained in previous reports, the nature of the payment of 
subscriptions renders it necessary to keep quarterly lists of members. 
The following are the figures for each quarter as at present standing 
in the Roll-Books: — 



1875 March 31. 


105 members. 


June 30. 

Sept. 30. 

Dec. 31. 

1876 Feb. 23. 


107 
103 
101 
lOO ,, 



All members who pay an annual subscription are included in these 
figures. 

The nominal roll as at present standing includes 4 Honorary 
members, 94 Original members, i New Ordinary member, and i 
Non-resident member, in addition to which Subsciptions are yet due 



14 SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

from 7 Original members. This makes totals of loo paid-up members 
and 7 in arrear, and a grand total of 107 members. 

During the year the Society has lost by death one Honorary 
member, being the Second only who has died since the establish- 
ment of the Society. From various reasons a number of members 
have ceased their connection with the Society during the year, 
including a member of the Council. 

MEETINGS. 

During the year of eleven months t,^ meetings have been held, 
with an average attendance of 16; as against last year's average of 
20. The loM'ness of the present year's average is due however to 
counter-attractions during the whole of the summer, the average 
for the last quarter being 23. 

At 18 of the meetings papers were read, the average attendance 
being 19)4- The remaining 15 meetings were mainly devoted to 
the exhibition of specimens, the average attendance thereat being 
12. 

A list of the papers read is appended to this report. 

EXCURSIONS. 

Two excursions have been made by the Society during the year: 
the first was on the 24th of April, to Shipley Glen and Rombald's 
Moor, when there was a fair attendance. 

The second was a full day excursion, on Bank Hohday Monday 
the 2nd of August, in conjunction with the Goole Scientific Society 
and the Hull Scientific Association and Field Naturalists' Club. 
Owing to the good attendance and the efficient arrangements this 
excursion, which took place at Riccall Common in the East Riding, 
was very successful. 

THE WEST RIDING CONSOLIDATED 
NATURALISTS' SOCIETY. 

During the past few months it has been decided that the Society 
shall ally itself with the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' 
Society. 

This is a voluntary association of the Naturalists' Societies of the 
Riding for the purpose of holding in combination throughout the 
summer months a series of excursions, each terminated by a stated 
meeting. 

Each affiliated Society preserves its independence and complete 
control of its own internal affairs, the only liability being the pay- 
ment of a contribution of one penny per member per annum. 

The union at present includes about fifteen Societies. 



SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT. 15 

The card of excursions for the coming summer will shortly be 
issued. There will be 6 excursions during the season, the opening 
one being at Garforth on Easter Monday, followed by a meeting in 
Leeds, to be held in the Picture Gallery of the Mechanics' Institute, 
kindly granted for the purpose. 

LIBRARY. 

The Society's Library has during the year been enriched by the 
renewed liberality of Mr. Fairfax Wooler. Copies of Bell's British 
Quadrupeds, Selby's British Forest Trees, and the ist volume of 
Newton's (fourth) edition of Yartell's British Birds, also Sheet 2 1 8 
of the six-inch Geological Survey of the district have been purchased 
thereby. 

The thanks of the Society have been duly conveyed to Mr. Wooler 
for his generosity and the Council congratulate the members on the 
acquisition of such valuable works for reference at the meetings. 

THE LAWS. 
At a special general meeting held on the 24th November last the 
whole of the then existing Laws ot the Society were repealed, and 
a new Code was substituted for them. A few changes were made at 
the time of the adoption of the new Code, which your Council be- 
lieve will be to the advantage of the Society. 

THE FINANCES. 
The Financial Statement, appended to this report, shows a Balance 
in favor of the Society of ^^^4. 12. o, all claims against the Society 
having been met. Your Council are of opinion that this state of 
affairs is the more satisfactory from the fact that the balance of 
^5. 15. I, with which the previous year closed included ^5. 3. o, 
of subscriptions for the present year paid in advance, while on the 
other hand there is not a single penny of the coming year's income 
included in the balance now announced. 

ALTERATION OF MEETING-NIGHT. 
The Council beg to remind the members that the meeting-night 
has been changed to Tuesday, as the experience of the past year has 
shown that Wednesday is very inconvenient to many of the mem- 
bers. The Council trust that the members by their attendance 
will show the wisdom of this step, and the unadvisability of any 
further change. 



i6 



Hht "guls £i&irxx-aliete' (Hiwh anb 
.Scitntifif ^00xrriaiix»n. 

1875—6. 
LIST OF PAPEllS 

READ DURING THE SESSION 



1875.6. 
Apl. 21 Thos. Hick, H.A., B.Sc, Retiring President's Address. 
May 5 A. L. H. Dawson, M.A., on 'The Theories of Instinct." 

,, 26 James Abbott, on 'Life History of Chara.' 

June 2 Rev. J. C. Odgers, B.A., on ' Swiss Mountains, Lakes, and Glaciers.' 

,, 16 Hy. Pocklington, F.R.M.S,, on 'Some passages in the Biography of 
a Plant.' 

July 14 Hy. Pocklinglon, F.R.M.S., on 'The Scienlitic Instruments in llic 
Yorkshire Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures.' 

„ 28 John Holmes, on 'The Characteristic Features of the Prehistoric 
Objects in the Yorkshire Exhibition.' 

Aug. II E. Birchall, F.L.S., on 'The Geographical Distribution of European 
Butterflies. ' 

„ 25 S. Jeffer.son, F.C.S., on 'The Aquaria in the \'orkshire Exhibition." 

Sep. 8 B. Holgate, on 'l"he Combustion of Bituminous Coal. ' 

,, 29 W. Todd, on 'Applied Science, as shown in the Manufactures Depart- 
ment of the Yorkshire Exhibition. ' 

Nov. 3 J. VV. ^Yestmorcland, A.R.S.M., on 'The Manufacture of Steel.' 

,, 17 John T. Beer, F.R.S.Lit., on 'Tidal advances upon the Coast of Kent, 
with indications of a former coast-line : & of ancient submergence. ' 

Dec. I Thomas Fairley, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., 'On some of the Elements con- 
sidered as compounds. ' 

,, 15 F. Greenwood, M.R.C.S.E., on 'The Structure of. \niphioxiis lance(j- 
latus. ' 

Jan. 5 Washington Teasdale, on 'Woodbury"s Scioptiton as an Educational 
Instrument." 

,, 19 Thos. Tate, on 'Man and the Ice /Vge in ,\iredale.' 

F"eb. 3 James Monckman, on 'Electricity. ' 

,, 23 H. Pocklington, F.R.M.S., President's \ale,dictury .Vdilress. 



17 



VALEDICTORY ADDRESS 

DELIVERED BY THE RETIRING PRESIDENT, 

H. POCKLINGTON, F.R.M.S., 

AT THE SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING, 
FEBRUARY 23rd, 1876. 



Gentlemen, 

The history of this association for the past year may be written 
from two stand points. From the first we shall glance at the deve- 
lopment of the association in its internal and social relations. From 
the other we shall review its scientific work, contenting ourselves 
with seeking to discover how far it has fulfilled its duty as laid down 
in its constitution, and how far it has progressed in developing that 
duty. 

The social life of the association during the past year has been 
marked by two or three prominent features. Of the first — its change 
of presidency — it is not for me to speak, otherwise than in thanking 
the officers and members of the society for the ready help and 
undeviating courtesy and kindness they have extended to me in all 
the circumstances of the year, and for the loyalty with which they 
have supported the office I have borne. A more important feature 
of the year, that cannot fail to have its influence for good or evil, is 
the prominent part the Society has taken, either collectively or by 
its chief officers and council in various movements in the tow n and 
the more extended public notice thence accorded to it. Mention 
is made in our annual report of the more important of these move- 
ments, that of the Yorkshire Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures. 

The connection of the association with the ^exhibition was of a 
two-fold character. Corporately its connection was limited to the 
share it took in one of the most successful "special days," that of the 
Scientific evening. But the indirect connection of the association 
was much more extensive than this, for as most of you are aware 
nearly all its more active members including nearly all its officers 
and council were on the committee of the exhibition and took part 
in the duties thereof 

This had a considerable influence on our summer and autumn 
sessions and no doubt to it may be attributed the somewhat low 
average attendance at our meetings this year. This point may 
perhaps be dwelt upon here for a moment, as there is no doubt that 
a small attendance of members at our weekly meetings is much to 
be deplored and that nothing can be more fatal to the progress, 
even to the existence of the society than the absence of its members 



lo PRESIDENTS VALEDICTORY ADDRESS. 

from the meetings. 

The average of the year was i6 members at each meeting, in- 
cluding lectures and conversational meetings, or about 1 3 per cent 
of the members on the books, as against an average attendance of 
20 the previous year and an average attendance of 18 in the third 
year of the society's existence, when the first love of its constituents 
had not abated, shown by its high average of ^:i per cent with a total 
of 53 members on the books. There is probably no falling off from 
last year, because its average of 20 is largely made up by an extra- 
ordinary attendance of non-members at the special course of lectures 
given by our well known and able member of council, Mr. Louis C. 
Miall; but there is a sad and deplorable falling off from the percent- 
age attendance and it is to be feared from the earnestness which 
characterised the early life of the society. It remains for you its 
members loyally to support its new president and council in reviving 
the energy and the usefulness of its career, lest its very life be taken 
from it. In this connection it may be well to notice that a better 
state of things as regards attendance has begun to dawn, for as I 
see by some statistics our Secretary has been good enough to give 
me that the attendance at our meetings during the first cjuarter of 
the now expiring year was 18. During the second quarter the 
number fell to 14 J4 and again fell to 121^ but during the last two 
months of Jan. and Feb. it has risen to 233^. This increase of 
attendance has however been confined to our lecture nights, and the 
working nights, those that best test the real life of the society are 
still the source of true grief to those who have the best interests of 
the society at heart. 

I pass to consider the third chief feature in our year's social life 
— its legislation. Those of us who were present during the admirable 
address of our late president, delivered at the commencement of 
this year will remember that this association has grown up out of 
small societies some of Avhich were private or semi-private gatherings 
of two or three like-minded persons. It resulted from this that the 
association commenced its history with no definite rules or consti- 
tution save a few bye laws scattered in its minute books. This 
state of things is unobjectionable in small societies consisting of 
half-a-dozen members but is always more or less embarrassing and 
even very seriously injurious when the society or association be- 
comes numerous and assumes more or less the character of a public 
body. Your council therefore seeing that the association has at- 
tained considerable size and that the absence of an accessible code 
of laws was productive of grave inconvenience, decided upon ap- 
pointing a committee to enquire into the whole of the then existing 
laws with instructions to report as to the advisability of codifying 
them or drafting a new code. The committee reported that it would 



president's valedictory address. 19 

be desirable to frame a new code and advised the appointment of a 
committee for the purpose of drafting one. The council at once 
acted upon their advice, and after some months' deliberation a code 
was submitted to council, amended and accepted, and finally passed 
at a special general meeting of the association. It forms therefore 
the existing constitution of the society. It is too soon to pass a 
verdict upon the working of the code and we who framed it shall 
not be in our rightful position if we become its critics, but it may 
be permitted to us to ask the loyal support and friendly help of you 
all in giving it a fair trial. 

So far there is only one cloud over the recollection of our legislative 
endeavours; this you will all share and regret with us that one of our 
most respected and hard working colleagues felt it to be his duty 
to disapprove of our action and retire from our council. You will 
I am sure join with us in the hope and trust that the results of the 
working of the rules will prove far other than he fears and that his 
misapprehensions on this point being removed he will consent to 
return and by your cordial votes will be returned to the post he is so 
well fitted to occupy. 

During the year the association has had to deplore the loss by 
death of one of its honorary members, Mr. Alderman Marsden. 
With this exception and one other, every person who has been 
connected with the society, during its six years' history is still alive. 

By change of residence the association has lost the valued aid of 
an able member of council and contributor to its meetings, the 
Rev. J. C. Odgers. You will join with me in wishing him every 
success in his new field of labour and in the hope that this association 
may have the pleasure and profit of contributions from his stores 
of knowledge. 

The scientific history of our association must be viewed from the 
stand-point of its constitution, which defines the objects of the 
association as follows : — In the first place the minute investigation 
of the natural history in all its branches of the immediate neighbour- 
hood of Leeds, and the more general investigation of the whole of 
the West Riding; the collection of information whether at present 
on record or as yet unwritten, the completion of the work by 
original research and eventually the preparation of a comprehensive 
account of the natural history of the district. Secondly, the 
endeavour of the society is to cultivate a taste for scientific know- 
ledge amongst the inhabitants of Leeds, to combine and strengthen 
individual effort and afford facilities for the reading and discussion 
of papers on scientific subjects. 

As regards the first the association has this year had little to say 
that is worth the sayiug. Individual members of the association 
have done good work and our fortnightly conversational meetings 



20 president's valedictory address. 

have seen the production of numberless specimens illustrative of 
our local fauna and flora, but collectively the association has taken 
no steps towards the realisation of its great object. This is a point 
which will doubtless receive the immediate attention of the incoming 
council. 

Amongst the contributions of individual members to our meetings 
I may refer to Mr. James Abbott's discovery of Fofe/iti7/a JVorvegica 
as a denizen and numerous contributions by our friends Nelson and 
Taylor in the department of concholog)'. Two of the society's 
corresponding members, Messrs. Davis and Rawson have continued 
their valuable observations on the birds of the district and on the 
varying features of the Natural Histor}' of the year, and our archives 
are enriched by their MS. contributions, ofwhichatno distant date 
it is hoped good use may be made. In the second department of its 
work the association has been more successful and the only point 
we have seriously to deplore is the smallness of the attendance at 
our meetings. The papers read during the year have manifested 
considerable ability and several of them have dealt with matters of 
local importance. Among these I will mention papers on the Ex- 
hibits in the Exhibition, including a very interesting one on the 
Archaeological department by Mr. John Holmes, on the combustion 
of Bituminous Coal and the Manufacture of Steel. Papers of less lo- 
cal interest but containing original work which would not otherwise 
have seen the light, locally at all events, have been delivered by our 
Borough Analyst, Mr. Fairley, in which he introduced to our notice 
his new oxide of uranium and laid before us the results of many 
original and important researches he has made in the higher depart- 
ments of Chemistr}', and by Mr. Abbott, on the Life Histor\- of Chara 
where we had the results of the same earnest and industrious obser- 
vations that gave us last year the first confirmation of Dr. Farlow's 
interesting discovery of the non-sexual reproduction of Ferns. Mr. 
A. L. Halkett Dawson read a singularly able paper on Theories 
of Instinct, containing many original ideas and the results of careful 
observation. In thus particularising such papers as appear to be 
distinguished by containing much original matter or by being of local 
interest and therefore specially suitable to this association, I must 
not be understood as passing over the other papers of the year be- 
cause wholly unworthy of notice. The facts in most cases are quite 
otherwise, as many of you can testify, but the limits of a valedictory 
address are stringent. Of the conversational meetings of the year 
we have not a veiy satisfactory tale to tell. The attendance at them 
has been small, and on several occasions the exhibits have not been 
either numerous or interesting. There are many exceptions to this 
and on more than one occasion these meetings have been character- 
ised by the exhibition of novelties, and the production of the results 



president's valedictory address. 21 

of considerable original work or patient industry. The exhibits in 
conchological science have been numerous and interesting, including 
the exhibit of Clausilia Rolphii from a new British locality in Devon, 
LimncBa glutinosa from Kent, and a very large number of specimens 
of great interest to experts. In Botanical Science we have had 
demonstration of the conjugation oi Saprolegnia and of other points 
in vegetable physiology. In animal histology we have had good 
demonstrations more than once, and in general Physics we have had 
demonstration of the nature and properties of toughened glass and 
the application ot various departments of science to practical pur- 
poses. The publicity given to our meetings in the local press has, it 
is hoped, called public attention to scientific doings and thus in 
some humble way we shall have helped to cultivate a taste for 
scientific knowledge in Leeds. 

Our excursions during the year have not been numerous, nor 
with one exception have they been well attended, The exception 
is the Riccall excursion, an experiment quite novel to us but worthy 
of repetition. » On Bank holiday Monday, Aug. 2nd, 1875, in con- 
nection with Hull and Goole our members went to Selby, and 
having met others of the party walked to Riccall Common, where in 
the middle of the day Dr. Parsons read a very interesting and elabor- 
ate paper on the Common and its natural and archaeological features. 

After investigating the district the members reassembled at 5 
o' clock at the Parish Church of Riccall, when the Rev. J. R. Farrow 
gave an interesting address upon it and the old manor house, now 
the Vicarage. After tea the party returned to Leeds, Goole, and 
Hull. Great attention was paid to the plants and shells of the dis- 
trict. Lists and reports, drawn up by certain of the members, 
may be found in our minute-book. Reports also appeared in the 
'Yorkshire Post' and 'Selby Times' shortly after, embodying the 
whole of the information given by Dr. Parsons and the Rev. J. R. 
Farrow, B.A. Among the more interesting things noticed during 
the excursion were the occurrence of the whole four British Lemnae 
or Duckweeds in the pond near the church. In ditches in the 
vicinity, occasionally filled with brackish water, owing to the Ouse 
being a tidal river beyond this point, were found numerous examples 
of young Flounders. 

But when all is said, what have we done, compared with what^ 
we ought to have done? This, gentlemen, is what you and I should 
ask ourselves to-night, and if the answer be that least consonant 
with our vanity let us remember that the new year is before us with 
its opportunities as well as its responsibilities. 



'^ht "gttbs Naturalist©' Cltib anb 
^rictttifif ^ssoriatiott. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

FEBRUARY 2$, 1 87 6. 



Explanation of Signs prefixed to Names. 

* Honorary Members, paying not less than los. 6d. per annum. 

t Non-Resident Members, paying 2s. 6d. per annum. 

X Original Members, elected before the ist December, 1875, and paying 
4s. per annum. 

All names unmarked are those of New Ordinary Members, paying 5s. 
per annum. 

<>»o~> ' 



Abbott, James, 14J, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. April, 1870 

Allison, R. R., Hawthorne place, New Wortley. June 30, 1874 
Atkinson, John Thomas, F.R.M.S., President of the Selby 

Naturalists' Society, The Quay, Selby. Oct. 14, 1873 

Atkinson, R. M., 6, Hunslet Lane, Leeds. May 13, 1873 

Bedford, James, Sycatnore Lodge, Woodhouse. June 30, 1874 
^e&iord.,]&mQ?,Yj., Sycamore Lodge, Woodhouse. June 11, 1872 
Beer, John T., F.R.S.Lit., F.S.A.Scot, President of the Leeds 

University Extension Union, Threaplaiid House, Fttlneck, 

near Leeds. Sept. 2, 1873 

Benn, Thos., St. James' Place, Sunny Bank, Leeds. Dec. 2, 187 1 
Berry, Thomas, j/, Horrocks Teirace, South Acconnnodation 

Road, Hunslet, near Leeds. March 10, 1874 

Beswick, T. Stodart, 42, Leigh ton Lane, Leeds. Dec. 2, 1873 
Birchall, Edwin, F.L.S., Presidetit of the York and District 

Field Naturalists' Society, 77, Derby Square, Douglas, 

Isle of Man. Dec. 2, 187 1 

Brodie, James, 21, Leopold Street, New Leeds. Feb. 1870 

Brunton, George, 2, Portland Crescent, Leeds. Jan. 20, 1874 
Calvert, John T., Vice-President of the Keighley Naturalists' 

Society, 64, Loiv Street, Keighley. Sep. 15, 1875 

Cheetham, Hy. Q., §4, Caledonian Road, L^eds. Ap. 30, 1872 
Clarke, William, 20, De Grey Road, Leeds. June 30, 1874 

Clarke, Wm. E., 20, De Grey Road, Leeds. April 2, 1872 

demons, George H., Headingley, Leeds. Ap. 23, 1872 



LIST OF MEMBERS, FEB. 1 876. 23 

X Coates, Frederick, Croft Terrace, Farnley, Leeds. Jan. 27, 1874 

X Coates, J. Irwin, F.R.A.S., Southend, Headingley. Feb. 23, 1875 

X Dawson, Alexander Leith Halkett, M.A., Editor of the Leeds 

Daily News. Aug. 12, 1873 

X Dawson, Thomas, President of the Leeds Mechanics' Lnstttiition, 

Caledonian Road, Leeds. June 18, 1872 

X Dayson, J. O., Secretary, Mechanics' Lnstitutioti. June 18, 1872 

X Dean, Wm., 6, Bowlittg Green Place, Marshall Street, ILolbeck, 

Leeds. Feb. 2, 1875 

X Denison, Wm., 7, Lnd list rial Place, Beckett St. Oct. 13, 1874 

X Dixon, John, The General Lnfirmary, Leeds. Oct. 11, 1870 

X Dixon, John Wm., 13, Vernon Road, Leeds. June 18, 1872 

X Dobson, George, g4, St. James' Street, Leeds. Aug. 17, 1873 

X Drake, Jas., 2, Willow Grove, Kirkstall Road. Apl. 21, 1875 

X Yi\xi\.ovi, hi^h\xx^€i\s.'&\&y, '/4, Springfield Place. Apl. 1870 

X Duncan, Robert, 5, Grosvenor Place, Leeds. May 7, 1872 

X Ellison, Jas. Edward, 10, De Grey Road, Leeds. Jan. 20, 1874 

X Emery, John Stephenson, 22, Victoria Terrace, St. John's LLill, 

Leeds. Apl. 21, 1875 

X Emsley, F., 75, West Street, Leeds. Jan. 20, 1874 

X Fairley, Thos., F.R.S.E., F.C.S., Public Analyst to the Borough 

of Leeds, 8, Newton Gi'ove, New Leeds. Feb. 23, 1875 

X Feamside, Edwin, ly, Blenhei7n Place, Leeds. Apl. 28, 1874 

X Fletcher, Thos., St. Paul's Schools, Savile St. Apl. 21, 1875 

X Garbutt, John, F.R.A.S., 38, Burley Street. July 8, 1873 

X Gascoigne, Joseph, Town Councillor, Hope Terrace, Lewsbury 

Road, Leeds. Mch. 25, 1873 

X Gilston, Peter, Woodhouse LLill, LLunslet. June 11, 1872 

X Goodall, Chas., Francis Street, New Leeds. Dec. 15, 1874 

X Grassham, John, 11, Meanwood Street, Leeds. May 7, 1872 

X Grassham, Thos., 40, Chad Street, Newtown. Apl. 22' 1873 

X Greenwood, Frederick, M.R.C.S.E., Resident Curator, Leeds 

School of Medicine. Apl. 8, 1873 

X Haigh, Fred., 4, Grosvenor Place, Leeds. Apl. 30' 1872 

X YL^v[v?rNox\h,GtoxgQ, 137, Burley Road, Leeds. Nov. 17, 1874 

X Hardisty, Edmund, 53, Kensington Terrace, Hyde Park, ' 

^^^^■f- Feb. 2, 1875 

X Hay, Walter H., i , Ehnwood Place, Camp Road. Apl. 23, 1872 
X Helm, S., F.R.M.S., 3, Louis St., New Leeds. June 9, 1874 
X Hewetson, Henry, g. West Park Terrace, Palsgrave, Scar- ' 

borough. Dec. 2, 1871 

X Hick, 'S>2xaw€i., Blenhei?n Square, Leeds. Aug. 13, 1872 

X Hick, Thos., B.A., B.Sc. (Lond.), Oatlands Villa, Leeds Road, 
Harrogate. Dec. 2, 1871 

X Hmdle, J. E., Horsforth, near Leeds. Apl, 1870 

X Holgate, Benjn., 3, Atkinson Street, Hunslet. Apl. 8, 1873 



24 LIST OF MEMBERS, FEE. 1876. 

X Holmes, John, Ilobnville, Methhy, nr. Leeds. Feb. 23, 1875 
X Jefferson, R. P., 14Y, Meadow Lane, Leeds. Aug. 12, 1873 

X Jefferson, S., F.C.S., 17, Virginia Road, Leeds. Apl. 2, 1872 
X Joy, A. Lomas, Weetwood Mount, near Leeds. Apl. 8, 1873 
X Kirkby, VVm., J7, LTunslet Road, Leeds. June 10, 1873 

X Knowles, Miles, pj, Tennyson Place, Bradford. Apl. 21, 1875 
X Lobley, Wm., iSyBrunsivick Street, Leeds. April, 187 1 

-< Loe, James Scarborough, M.R.C.S., L.S.A., Woodhoiise Lane, 
Leeds. June 18, 1872 

•. I.Upton, Henry, The Ebns, CJiapel-AUerton. Dec. 2, 1873 

X Malt, J., ly. Paradise Place, Jack Lane, LLtinslet. June 2, 1874 
X Miall, Louis C, F.G.S., Curator of the iMuseum of the Leeds 
Philosophical and Literary Society ; President oftlie Leeds 
Geological Asscciaticn ; Lecturer on Biology at the York- 
shire College of Science; 4, Marlborough Terrace, Belle 
Vue Road, Leeds. Apl. 8, 1873 

X Milestone, Robert, ^g c^ 61, East Street, Leeds. Nov. 24, 1874 
X Morant, Alfred Wm., Assoc. Inst. C.E., F.S.A., F.G.S., Leeds 
Borough Engineer, 23, Virginia Road. Aug. 17, 1873 
X Nelson, William, Associate-Editor of the Quarterly Journal of 
Conchology, Freehold Street, Leeds. Sep. 23, 1873 

X Newton, George William, Office of The Yoikshire Post, Albion 
Street, Leeds. Apl., 1870 

X Nicholls, Y).,i8, Woodbitie Place, Little Woodltouse. July 2, 1872 
X Nicholls, Joseph Lister, 18, Woodbine Place, Little Wood- 
house, Leeds. Oct. i, 1872 
X Nield, W. J., Honorary Secretary to the Leeds Mechanics' 
Lnstitiition. Aug. 20, 1872 
t Parsons, Henry Franklin, M.D. Lond., Honora?y Secretary of 
the Goole Scientific Society, Goole. Feb. 2, 1876 
t Patch ett, l%a:ic,¥.C'Si., Birstal, near Leeds. Feb. 2, 1876 
Pearce, John, ij. Commercial Street, Leeds. Dec. 15, 1875 
X Pearson, A. A., 44 &^46, Queen's Place, Camp Rd. July 22, 1873 
* Pickles, James, Woodhouse LLill, Hunslet, and ij, IVarehouse 
//ill, Call Lane, Leeds. Dec. 2, 187 1 
X Pocklington, C, Green Lane, Baildon, nr. Shipley Sep. 29, 1873 
X Pocklington, H., F.R.M.S., Cedar Grove, Armley. Sep. 2, 1874 
X Prince, E. E., 2, Willow Grove Road, Leeds. July 15, 1873 
X Prince, G. A., 2, Willow Grove Road, Leeds. Apl. 28, 1874 
X Rees, Thomas, //y. Briggs, Son 6^ Co's Collieries, Whitwood, 
via Normaiiion. June 2, 1874 
X Richardson, W. W., Weetwood, nr. Leeds. Feb. 17, 1874 
X Robertshaw, Samuel, Earn ley Bvn IVorks. Apl. 14, 1874 
X Roebuck, Wm. T>tm?,ow,g, Sunny Bank Tejrace. Apl. 19, 1870 
X Sands, W. H., Cunliffe House, Esholt, nr. Leeds. Feb. 10, 1874 



1 



h\^r OF MEMBERS, FEB. 18/6. 25 

Scholefield, Samuel, i6, Belgrave Street, Leeds. Apl. 21, 1875 
Smethurst, C, 25, Chatham St., West Street. Feb. 25, 1873 
Tate T., Ritshton Villa, Tliornhury nr. Bradford. Apl. 28, 1874 
Taylor, John, Rockingham Street, Leeds. June 18, 1872 

Taylor, John W., Editor of The Quarterly Journal of Coiichology, 

Leopold Square, New Leeds. Apl. 19, 1870 

Taylor, Wm. Hy., Burlington St., Sunny Bank. Apl. 30, 1872 
Teale, Thomas Pridgin, M.A., M.B. Cantab., F.R.C.S., 38, 

Cook ridge Street, Leeds. Feb. 22, 1875 

Teasdale, Washington, Rosehurst, Grosvenor Road, Headingley, 

near Leeds. Apl., 1870 

Thompson, Edward, 72, Lofthouse Place, Leeds May 7, 1872 
Thrippleton, J., j/, Albert Terrace, Burley Fields. Apl,, 1870 
Todd, William, 2, Blundell Place, Leeds. Dec. 2, 1871 

Vevers, Wm., Brandon Villas, Chapeltoivn Rd. Apl. 28, 1874 
Walker, Hy., Ashwood Villas, Headingley. Oct. 27, 1875 

Walker, John, Wilhm> Grove ILouse, Leeds. Oct. 7, 1873 

Walker, J. Holmes, 16, Kirkgate, Bradford, Sep. 9, 1873 

Walley, Samuel, 8,Eldon Terrace, Leeds. June 18, 1872 

Ward, George, F.C.S., i, Buckingham Ten-ace, ILeadingley, 

I^eeds. May 14, 1872 

Watson, William, 2g. Brunswick Terrace, Leeds. June 10, 1873 
Wood, William, jj, Clapham Road, ILeadingley. Dec. 10, 1872 
Wood, William Atkinson, 8r, Church st. Hutislet. Dec. 15, 1875 
Wooler, Fairfax, Mineral Cottage, Farnley, Leeds. Mch. 3, 1874 
Yewdall, Edwin, President of the Leeds Chemists' Association, 

§8, IVade Lane, Leeds. April 8, 1873 

?—•♦•"< 



26 



aEIu ^ttbs ^aturaltsts' (Elub anb 
^Scientific ^seociation. 



LIBRARY REGULATIONS. 

It has not been thouglit desirable to frame any bye-laws 
respecting the management of the Library, but the Council desire 
it to be most distinctly understood by the memV)ers, that all 
the Rooks belonging to the Society are expected to be in the 
Meeting-Room, during the whole of each meeting-night, and 
that, subject to this understanding, members are at liberty to 
borrow books between the meetings, on having them entered 
by the Librarian. 

Mr. W. H. Hay is the Librarian for 1876-7. 



27 



CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 
IN THE LIBRARY. 

The names of donors are indicated by initials within square 
brRckcts r I. 

Key to the initials:— Mr. James Abbott, [ J. A. ]; Mr. W. H. 
Broadhead, [ W. H. B. ].; Professor A. H. Green, M.A., F.G.S., 
[ A. H. G. ] ; Mr. Henr^ Hewetson, [ H. H. ] ; Mr. L. C. Miall, 
F.G.S., [ L. C. M. ] ; Rev. J. CoUins Odgers, B. A., [ J. C. O. ] ; 
Mr. Wm. Denison Roebuck, [W. D. R.]; Mr. Samuel Scholefield, 
[S. S.] ; Mr. WilHam Todd, [ W. T.] ; and Mr. Fairfax Wooler, 
[F. W.]. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Bell's British Quadrupeds. — 2nd edition, 1874. [F. W.] 

Newton's (4th) edition of Yarrell's British Birds. — vol. i. [F. W.] 

Newman's Reprint of Montagu's Dictionary of British Birds. [F. W.] 

The Field Calendar of Ornithology ( Blank forms for recording 

observations). — Two copies, 1872. [Publishers of Field.] 

Jeffreys' British Land and Freshwater Shells. — 1862. [F. W.] 

Reeve's British Land and Freshwater Shells.— 1863. [W. T.] 

Dixon and Watson's British Land and Freshwater Shells. [W. H. B.] 

Quarterly Journal of Conchology, edited by John W. Taylor and 

VVm. Nelson of Leeds. — The first eight numbers of vol. i- — 

Feb. 1874 et seq. [purchased.] 

The Lymnseidas of the Birmingham district, by William Nelson. — 

The MS. of a paper read before the Society. [The author.] 

Stainton's Manual of British Butterflies and Moths. — The two 

volumes bound in one. — 1858-9. [W. T.] 

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Norfolk, byChas. G. Barrett (Sup- 
plement to the Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich 
Naturalists' Society for 1873-4. [W. D. R.] 

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Perthshire, by Dr. F. Buchanan 
White.— 1871, [W. D. R.] 

Newman's Entomologist, vol. v. for 1870-1 and vol. vi for 1872-3. 

[purchased.] 
At page 349 of vol. vi will be found an abstract of the paper on 
'The Origin and Distribution of the Insects of the British Isles,' 
read by Mr. Edwin Birchall before this society on Feb. 25, 1873. 



28 CATALOGUE OF LIBRARY. 

Staveley's British Spiders. ^ — 16 colored plates, 1866. [F. W.] 

Nicholson's Manual of Zoology. — 1873. [F. W.] 

Zoologist, vol. vi foriSyi, containing pages 2413 to 2876, and 

vol. vii for 1872, pages 2877 to 3340. [purchased.] 

LISTS OF BRITISH ANIMALS 
AND PLANTS. 

Label Catalogueof British Vertebrated Animals (names taken from 
Bell's Quadrupeds and Reptiles, and Yarrell's Birds and 
Fishes). — Van Voorst, 1845. [purchased.] 

Dr Sharp's Catalogue of British Coleoptera (Beetles). — July, 1871. 

[purchased. ] 

Doubleday's Synonymic List of British Lepidoptera. [purchased.] 

Entomological Society's Catalogue of British Hymenoptera Acule- 
ata (Bees, Wasps, Ants, &c.);by F. Smith. '71. [purchased.] 

Entomological Society's Catalogue of British Hymenoptera (Chry- 
sididse, Ichneumonidce, Braconidte and Evaniidje); by Rev. 
T. A. Marshall. — 1872. [purchased.] 

Entomological Society's Catalogue of British Neuroptera ; by R. 
McLachlan, the Ephemeridfe by Rev. A. E. Eaton. — 1870. 

[purchased. ] 
Rev. F. O. Morris's Catalogue of British Insects in all the Orders. 

[purchased.] 

The London Catalogue of British Plants, 6th edition, [purchased.] 

M. C. Cooke's Index Fungorum Britannicorum (a complete list of 
British Fungi). — No date.. [purchased.] 

BOTANY. 

MS. Catalogue of 400 plants occurring in the Meanwood Valley, 

by James Abbott. — 1873. [The author.] 

Miall and Carrington's Flora of the West Riding (exclusive of the 

Ainsty).— 1862. [L. C. M.] 

Flora Cravoniensis ; or a Flora of the vicinity of Settle in Craven, 

by the late John Windsor, F.R.C.S., F.L.S., of Manchester. 

— 1873, printed for private circulation. [Mrs. Windsor.] 
Botanical Locality Record Club. — Report of the Recorder, Fredk. 

A mold Lees, F. L. S. , for 1 8 7 3. [The recorder. ] 

The same for 1874. [The recorder.] 



CATALOGUE OF LIBRARY. 29 

Selbv's History of British Forest Trees, indigenous and introduced. 

-1842. [F.W.] 

Babington's Manual of British Botany. — 7th edition, 1874. [F. W.] 
Balfour's Manual of Botany.— 3rd edition by Dr. J. Williams, 

1855- [J-A-] 

Catalogue of Herbaceous and Alpine Plants in the Hull Botanic 

gardens, by James C. Niven, curator. — 1866. [H. H.] 

GEOLOGY. 

Geological Survey Six-inch Map of Yorkshire. — Sheet 201, inclu- 
ding Bingley, Baildon, Wilsden and Shipley. — June, 187 1. 

[F. W.] 

The same. — Sheet 203, including Buslingthorpe, Headingley, Adel, 
Meanwood, ChapeltowTi, Shadwell, Scarcroft, Seacroft and 
Roundhay.— Dec. 1873. [F. W.] 

The same. — Sheet 216, including Bradford, Manningham, Thorn- 
ton, Queenshead, Shelf, Clayton, Wibsey and Low moor. 
—May, 1875. [F. W.] 

The same. — Sheet 218, including Leeds, Holbeck, Hunslet, Cold- 
cotes, Osmondthorpe, Thorpe Stapleton, Halton, Temple- 
newsam and Woodlesford. — May 1875. [F. W.] 

Leeds Naturalists' Field Club and Scientific Association. — Syllabus 
of Mr. Miall's course of four lectures and seven excursions, 
illustrative of the Geology of the West Riding, April and 
May, 1874. Two copies. 

[printed for the Society.] 

West Riding Geological and Polytechnic Society. — Proceedings for 
187 1-2. — New Series, part i., with large photograph of rocks 
at Draughton near Skipton. [The Society.] 

Geological Magazine for September 1873. [purchased.] 

Contains, at page 421, a note of a paper on 'The Permian rocks of 
the neighbourhood of Leeds,' read by Mr. L. C. Miall to this .So- 
ciety on the 5th August 1873. 

Lyell's Students' Elements of Geology. — 1874. [F. W.] 

Introductory Lecture on Geology, delivered Sep. 16, 1872, at the 
Nottingham Mechanics' Institute, by Edwd. Wilson, F.G.S. 
— ^Two copies. [The author.] 

Includes a sketch of the geology of Nottingham. 

Examination Questions (Science and Art Department) in Geology, 
1868 to 1873, with answers; by E. Wilson. [The author.] 



3° CATALOGUE OF LIBRARY. 

Geological Pamphlets, vol. i. [A. H. G.l 

Contains the following Memoirs : 

1. 'The Glacial Phenomena of the Eden Valley and the 
Western part of the Yorkshire-Dale district,' by J. G. Good- 
child.— (From the Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. Feb. 1875, 
pp. 55 to 99 and Map.) 

2. 'On Beds of supposed Rothliegende Age, near Knares- 
borough, &c.,' by J. Clifton Ward. — (From Quart. Joum. 
Geol. Soc, Aug. 1869, pp. 291 to 296.) 

3. 'On the Remains of a Fossil Forest in the Coal-mea- 
sures at Wadsley, near Sheffield,' by H. C. Sorby. — (From 
Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, Aug. 1875, pp. 458 to 460.) 

4. Geological Society of London. — President's Address, 
Feb. 19, 1875, by John Evans, V.P.R.S. (Includes speeches 
on presentation of the proceeds of the AVoUaston donation- 
fund to Mr. L. C. Miall, of Leeds.) 

5. 'Notes on the comparative Microscopic Rock-structure 
of some ancient and modern volcanic rocks,' by J. Clifton 
Ward. — (From Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Aug. 1875, PP- 3^^ 
to 422, and 2 plates.) 

6. 'Granitic and associated metamorphic Rocks of the 
Lake-district,' by J. Clifton Ward.— (From Quart. Joum. 
Geol. Soc, Nov. 1875, pp. 568 to 602; and Feb. 1876, pp. 
I to 34; with 4 plates.) 

7. 'The Glaciation of the Southern part of the Lake-dis- 
trict and the Glacial Origin of the Lake-basins of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland,' by J. Clifton Ward. — (From Quart. 
Joum. Geol. Soc, May 1875, pp. 152 to 166, wath plate.) 

8. 'Remarks upon Mr. Mallet's Theory of Volcanic 
Energy,' by Rev. O. Fisher. — (From Quart. Joum. Geol. 
Soc, Aug. 1875, pp. 469 to 478.) 

9. 'On Drift,' by J. G. Goodchild.— (From Geol. Mag. 
Decade ii, Vol. i, No. xi, Nov. 1874.) 

10. 'Modem Vulcanicity,' by J. CUfton Ward. — (From 
Geol. Mag. Dec ii. Vol. ii, No. i, Jan. 1875.) 

11. 'On the Occurrence of Lead, Zinc, and Iron Ores in 
some rocks of Carboniferous Age in the North-west of Eng- 
land,' by C. E. de Rancc— (From Geol. Mag. Vol. x, No. 2, 
Feb. 1873.) 

12. 'On the Surface-Geolog}' of the neighbourhood of 
Cross Fell, in Cumberland,' by C. E. de Ranee.— (From 
Geol. Mag. Vol. x, No. 8, August, 1873.) 



CATALOGUE OF LIBRARY. 3 1 

Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey 
of the Territories, No. i; consisting of a 'Report on the 
Stratigraphy andPliocene Vertebrate Pateontology of North- 
em Colorado,' by Prof. Edwd. W. Cope. — Jan. 21, 1874. 

[A. H. G.] 



PROCEEDINGS of SOCIETIES. 

West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Society. — Members' Book 

for 1865; report; and hst of members. [S. S.] 

Barnsley Naturalists' Society. — Rules; list of members, &c. — 1873. 

[The Society.] 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society. — Members' Books, for 1873, for 

1874, and for 1875. — contain Hsts of members and Books ; 

syllabus; and annual Report. [The Society.] 

Wakefield Naturalists' Society. — First and second annual reports, 

for 1871 and 1872, (including rules and list of members.) 

[The Society.] 
Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society. — Proceed- 
ings, No. I, for 1869, and No. 2 for 1870. [The Society.] 
Bury Natural History Society. — First Report from Jan. 1868 to 
Dec. 187 1, &c., including Lists of the Plants, Insects, Birds, 
and Animals of the district. [J. C. O.] 

Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club. — Proceedings for 1872-3. 

[The Society.] 
The Fauna and Flora of the County of Cork. — 1843. 

[Richard Caulfield, LL.D., F.S.A., of Cork.] 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society. — Transactions for 1870- 
1871- [W. D. R.] 

Contains inter alia, lists of the mammalia and reptiles of Norfolk. 



MAGAZINES. 

Science Gossip. ^ — Vol. iv, 1868, and Vol. v, 1869. [W. D. R.] 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Recorder.— Vol. i, (all published).— Wake- / 

field, July 1872 to August 1873. [purchased.] > 

The Naturalist, edited by C. P. Hobkirk and G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. 

of Huddersfield. The numbers of vol. i, commencing 

August 1875. [purchased.] 



CATALGGUK ()!• 1, [BRAKY. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



("aiDcntei-'s The Microscope and its Revelations. — Fifth edition, 

— 1875- [F.W.] 

Huddcrsfield: its history and natural history, by Chas. P. Hobkirk. 

1859. [W. D. R.] 

Contains Catalogues of the Fauna and Flora of the neighbourhood. 

l)t-( liptive Account of the Antiquities in the grounds and in the 

Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, by the late 

Rev. Charles Wellbeloved.— 5th edition, 1869. [W. D. R.] 

(jurhley's Railway and Station map of Yorkshire. — Natural scale 
t- 174,200th.- No date, but gives population from the cen- 
.sus of 1 86 1. — In four parts, each mounted, folded and 
!)oiind separately. [W. H. B.] 

The SOCIETY'S MSS. BOOKS. 

Minute-Books; Roll-Books; and a series of Scrap- Books, con- 
taining ( opics of all circulars and newspaper-reports issued by or 
relating to the Society, correspondence, abstracts of some of the 
more important papers read, reports on the fauna and flora of 
various districts visited by the Society, and numerous interesting 
and valuable < ommunit ations. 




Advertise ment. 



No. 8. 



FEBRUARY, 1876 



Vol. I. 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL 



CONCHOLOGY. 



p. 
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS: 

List of Shells from Heidelberg.— J. E. Daniel. 
Descriptions of some new species of Land and Freshwater .Shells, 
and remarks on other species found in Japan. — 
E. A. Smith, F.Z.S. 
Note on the Genus Bourciera. — Thos. Bland. 
Note on Helix pulchella. — ^Henry Hemphill. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES : 

Helix Goodwinii, Smith. 
Clausilia bilabrata. Smith. 
Clausilia Kobensis, Smith. 
Melania Niponica, Smith. 
Limnaea Goodwinii, Smith. 

LONDON: 

HARDWICKE & BOGUE, 192, PICCADILLY, W. 
Leeds: T. BARMBY, Bookseller, Briggate. 
Bristol: W. K. MANN, Granby House, Clifton. 



118 
128 
J 28 



119 
120 
I 22 
123 

125 



Annual Subscription, payable in advance, 2s 2d., Post Free. 

All Communications for the Journal , Books for Review, and Advertisements, 
to be sent to J. W Taylor, 9, Wade Street, Leeds, to whom also Post-Office 
Orders should be made payable. 




1875-6. 



THE LEEDS NATURALISTS' CLUB AND 
SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION 



THE SIXTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 

AND 

PRESIDENT'S VALEDICTORY ADDRESS, &c. 



1876^7. 

THE LEEDS NATURALISTS' CLUB AND 
SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 



THE SEVENTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 

AND 

PRESIDENT'S VALEDICTORY ADDRESS, &c. 



Paged in continuation of the 6th Annual Reiwrt. 



THE LEEDS 

AND 

SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 



-> — <p-» ^ <— 



1876—1877. 



THE SEVENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



AND 



PRESIDENT'S VALEDICTORt ADDRESS, 

ETC. 



TAYLOR BROS., ST ANN STREET. 
1877. 



ifu^i 




ELECTED FEBRUARY 27th, 1877. 




IJrcoilicnt : 

JAMES ABBOTT. 

Vice ^rceiiicnts : 

JOilx\' GRASSHAM. | WILLIAM NEL.SON. 

¥. GREENWOOD, M.R.C.S.E. | WILLIAxM HENRY TAYLOIC 

WHO HAVE SERVED THE OFFICE OF PrESICENI : 

HENRY POCKIJNGTON, F.R.M.S. 
SAMUEL JEFFERSON, F.C.S. 

^fCUtatB : 

WM, DENISON ROEBUCK, 

9, Sunny Bank, Leeds. 

'tiireasuvfr : 

WILLIAM E. CLARKE. 

CoUttcil: 
GEORGE BRUNTON. | JAMES MALT. 

WALTER HENRY HAY. [ ARTHUR A. PEARSON. 

BENJAMIN HOLGATE. \ CHARLES SMETHURST. 



^ibnivian: OTurator 

WALTER HENRY HAY, °\ ™; ^°^'\ 'v rr'Tov 

I, Elmvvood Place, Camp Rcl., Leeds. „ i i , o, ^ \- i n ) r ^ 
' 11' Freehold Street, \ork Road, Leeds. 

fjJixbUcation Comiivittti : 

The PRESIDENT. The SECRETARY. 

F. GREENWOOD, M.R.C.S.E. WILLIAM NELSON. 

H. POCKLINGTON, F.R.^LS. 

llcpresiutatibcs 

TO THE Council of the Yorkshire Naturalsts' Union: 

JOHN GRASSHA^L WALTER H. HAY. WILLIAM NELSON. 
Wm. DENISON ROEBUCK, Sec. Y.N.U. 



Tbo Leeds Naturalists' ©iub and Scientific ^^ssociatiatt. 

A • FIELD DAY xiT ALDBOROUGH AND 
BOBOUGHBRIDGE. 



By W. Denison Roebuck. 



Encouraged by tlie success whicli attended the August Bank Holiday 
Excursion to Riccall Common, in 1875, in concert with the Societies 
at Goole and Hull, the council of the Leeds Naturalists' Club and 
.Scientific Association determined to repeat the experiment. In 
conjunction with the Richmond and North Riding Naturalists' Field 
Club, the Huddersfield Naturalists' Society, and the York and 
District Field Naturalists' Society, and supported by numerous 
members of other Naturalist Societies in the West Riding, an 
excursion took place on Monday, the 7th of August, 1876. 

The excursionists numbered over a hundred in all, and included a 
number of the principal members of the Natural History Societies of 
the West Riding, from Goole, Barnsley, Halifax, Bradford, Wakefield, 
&c. The district embraced by the excursion included the Roman 
station of Isurium, the woods at Cojagrove, the watery dykes and 
willowy " carrs " of Stay el ey, the " Devil's arrows " at Roecliffe, and 
all the country around these places, and between them and Borough- 
bridge; the whole district being within the drainage-basin of the 
river Ure (here not far from its junction with the Swale), and lying 
entirely to the south of the river, and within the boundary of the 
West Riding. In connection with the natural history, it may be 
well to record that the York members having to wait two hours in 
the morning at Knaresborough, some of the observations were made 
in the Nidd Valley. 

The forenoon was mainly devoted to the investigation of the 
natural history of the district round Copgrove and Staveley, but on 
account of the unfavourable weather, and the great distance which 
some of the jxarty had to travel, rendering the time at disposal very 
limited in its duration, not much was done that is worth the record- 
ing ; and the chief interest which attaches to the lists given at the 



34 ROROUGHBRIDGE EXCURSION, AUG. 7, 1 876. 

end of this paper arises from the fact that the district is comparatively 
virgin ground. 

The members who visited Staveley were very courteously received 
by the Rev. Percival Hartley, Eector of Staveley, who showed them 
over the church, and other objects of interest in the vicinity. 

The first assemblage was at 1-30 p.m., at the church of Borough- 
bridge, when the vicar, the Eev. R. D. Owen, M.A., sliowed the 
remarkable ancient Norman stone carvings, relics of the old church, 
preserved in the vestry of the newer edifice. 

At 2-30 p.m. the members again assembled at the " Devil's 
Arrows" — three immense gritstone monoliths, 18, 22|, and 21 feet 
in height, standing in a line at distances of 129 and 361 feet from 
each other. The most southerly one had been excavated for the- 
occasion, to show the depth to which it was imbedded in the soil, four 
feet. Geologically speaking, these stones have been quarried in 
Plompton grit, the uppermost member hereabouts of the millstone 
grit series. Prof. Phillips says*: — "At Plompton great and lofty 
cliffs of solid rock appear, such as may have yielded the Devil's 
Arrows, those massive monoliths of the British settlement which 
preceded ancient Isurium." Plompton is eight miles from Roecliffe, 
but the same grit is seen in place at Lingerfield, about six miles off, 
the nearest point at which the stone can have been obtained. 

An address upon the " Arrows " was delivered by the Rev. W. C. 
Lukis, M.A., F.S.A., rector of Wath, near Ripon — so well known in 
connection with the investigation of similar prehistoric remains in 
Brittany. He did not support the hypothesis given in various guide 
books as to their being Roman in their origin, remarking that it is not 
at all flattering to that highly civilized people, of whose architectural 
skill we have evidence in Isurium close by, to suppose that they 
would condescend to imitate the rude barbaric art and customs of a 
dark age. He pointed out that writers on prehistoric monuments 
have been too aj^t to look upon ruins as perfect and typical examples, 
and to forget the enormous amount of destruction to which all such 
remains are subjected. Leland spoke of four of these pillars as 
existing in his day, one of which was afterwards destroyed to build a 
bridge over a stream in the vicinity, while the northern stone shows 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxi, 235. 



BOROUGHBRIDGE EXCURSION, AUG. 7, 1 876. 35 

at six feet above the ground wedge-holes, thus giving foundation for 
the surmise that at one time its destruction had been contemplated. 
Mr. Lukis then stated that in his opinion they were probably the 
remains of a line of pillars similar to lines which exist at Shap, in 
Westmoreland, in Devon and Cornwall, and also in South Brittany 
and other countries. Where destruction has not been carried to so 
great an extent as here, the plan can be discovered without much 
difficulty. In these cases it is found that rude blocks of stone, of no 
uniform size, have been set on end and formed into one line, or into 
two or more nearly parallel lines, stretching away for several hundred 
feet. These li^es are generally oriented, but occasionally they run 
from north to south. In support of this supposition, set forth for 
the first time, Mr. Lukis pointed out that the position of the northern 
stone seemed to confirm the idea. It is much wider than the others, 
and its long axis is at right angles to the direction of the line. This 
exactly tallies with the systems of lines in South Brittany. There 
the stones increase in size as they extend from what may be supposed 
to have been the commencement of the lines to the other extremity, 
at which is found a terminating circle ; and there the enormous head- 
stones of the lines have their long axes placed as in the case of the 
" Devil's Arrows." He therefore thought that the lines were 
constructed upon the same system as in the other countries men- 
tioned, so that if a satisfactory explanation of the destination and 
purpose of any one of these systems was obtained, it would probably 
serve for all. That explanation, however, has yet to be ascertained, 
so that even if we had before us a group in a condition of unquestion- 
able perfection, we should still be seekers for its signification. 

With regard to the antiquity of the monoliths, Mr. Lukis said that 
nothing more can be said than that they were pre-Roman — very 
indefinite as that statement is. It should not be forgotten that the 
stones stand on ground in close proximity to an ancient British town, 
which afterwards became the great Roman city of Isurium, retaining 
its old name in a classic form. There may have been, and probably 
were, other megalithic monuments in this vicinity at that time, which 
during the long occupation of the Roman forces were converted into 
building materials. It is not often that great stones like these stand 
alone, without a number of other circumjacent monuments, telling of 
a long and peaceful occupation of the soil, and when they do exist we 



36 BOROUGHBRIDGE EXCURSION, AUG. 7, 1 876. 

seem to be justified in conjecturing that the ground has been gradually 
cleared by a succession of invading peoples whose customs and 
manners greatly differed from those of the race who preceded them, 
followed by those whose religious beliefs promjjted them to eradicate 
heathen superstition by demolishing the monuments which seemed to 
them to favor and encourage it. 

The party then proceeded to Aldboi'ough — the " British Pompeii " 
— the Iseure of the Brigantes, the Isurium of the Eomans. Where 
the church now stands was a Roman city — not a mere camp, and the 
traces still to be seen, together with the numerous remains dug up 
from time to time, and preserved on the spot for the inspection of 
visitors, combine to render Aldborough the most interesting Roman 
station in the kingdom. In the centre of Aldborough stands a lofty 
antique cross, formed of eight fluted columns, united by a foliated 
capita], dating from the thirteenth or fourteenth century, which 
formerly stood in the market-place at Boroughbridge, and is supposed 
to commemorate the battle in 1322, when De Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, was killed while defending the bridge over the Ure at 
Boroughbridge, by a spear thrust through a crevice in the planking. 

At Aldborough, the church was first visited, the party being 
received there by the vicar, the Rev. R. W. Marriott, M.A., who 
pointed out the various objects in and about the church with a 
courtesy which was fully appreciated by his visitors. He first pointed 
out a carved figure of Mercury, built into the outside of the vestry 
wall, and which, supposed to be about 1-500 years old, certainly dates 
from the time of the Roman settlement in the district. The carving., 
although it has not withstood the ravages of time, is still in a 
tolerable state of preservation. Inside the church were shown two 
ancient communion plates, which are supposed to have been made in 
the eighth or ninth century ; an ancient carving in oak of Daniel in the 
lion's den, and a brazen effigy (bearing the name of Wills d'Aldeburgh) 
of a knight in plate armour, found in one of the pews in 1827. 
Built into the wall of the church is a brass effigy, dated 1390, to one 
of the Lords of Aldborough, and near it lies a family memorial stone 
of the year 1475 — -these two dates corresponding with the original 
erection and earliest restoration of the church. The parish register 
dates as far back as the reign of Henry viii. (1538), and amongst 



EOROUGHBRIDGE EXCURSION, AUG. 7, 1876. 37 

other curious entries, contains one strongly abusive of Oliver Crom- 
well. Another object of interest was a sort of gravestone in the church- 
yard, on which was cut in relief the half-length figure of a female, 
the hands being clasped upon the breast in an attitude of devotion. 
Of this relic there are no records, but general conjecture tends to the 
belief that it is of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

After partaking of refreshment, kindly provided by the vicar of 
Aldborough, a visit was paid to the grounds of Aldborough Manor, 
and to the " Museum Isurianum ;" permission to visit which had very 
kindly been given by Andrew S. Lawson, Esq., the Lord of the 
Manor, and by his request the Eev. J. E. Lunu, B.D., vicar of 
Marton-cum-Grafton, author of various papers on the churches of the 
district, acted as cicerone during this part of the excursion. 
In addition to ancient Samian ware, spoons, dice, and coins, from the 
time of Nero to Maximus, the museum contains splendid specimens 
of tesselated and mosaic pavements, which formed the flooring of 
some of the apartments in one of the Roman mansions. Two pave- 
ments in good and almost perfect condition were also to be seen in 
the garden of the Aldborough Arms. 

In the grounds of the Manor were seen portions of the boundary 
walls of the Eoman city, and the quarries which furnished the 
building stone for the Eomans. 

Before leaving the Manor, the members were grouped together 
with the " Tower " and the " Museum Isurianum " in the background, 
for the purpose of being photographed. This was very well done by 
Mr. Joseph Bottomley, of 72, Market-street, Bradford ; his success 
being the greater as the group contained between 90 and 100 faces. 

Tea was served at the '• Crown " and " Malt Shovel " Hotels, 
Boroughbridge, preparatory to the return journey. 

In addition to the clergymen and others mentiond, the excursionists 
were during the day much indebted to the Eev. F. S. Sykes, vicar of 
Dunsforth, to Mr. J. W. Green, of Boroughbridge, and to Mr. T. 
S. Turner, of York. It would be invidious to single out names from 
among the members of the different Societies present, but it may 
be mentioned that the following societies were represented by their 
presidents : — Richmond (Mr. J. M. Bradley, J.P.) ; Leeds (Mr. 
Samuel Jefferson, F.C.S.) ; Huddersfield (Mr. George T. Porritt, 



38 BOROUGHBRIDGE EXCURSION, AUG. 7, 1 876. > 

F.L.S.) ; Wakefield (Mr. Joseph Wainwriglit, F.L.S,, president also 
of the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Society) ; Barnsley 
(Mr. Thomas Lister) ; and by other of their most active members. 

In giving the following lists it must be remembered that almost 
their only interest lies in the fact of the locality being almost virgin 
ground, very little information on the subject of the fauna and flora 
of the district being on record. In such cases it is necessary that 
even common species should be enumerated, in giving a list for the 
first time. The ■weather, although in good condition as far as regards 
the physical comforts of the excursionists, was yet against any success 
in the collection of insects, &c., and the necessarily limited amount of 
time, combined with the large extent of country and the numerous 
objects of archseological interest, rendered it very improbable that any 
very large amount of natural history work could be accomplished. 

Observations on the ornithology of the district were made by 
Messrs. T. Lister and Wm. .Talbot, of Wakefield, and other members, 
Mr. Lister reporting that of summer migrants, the swallow, martin, 
and swift were all most abundant, especially over the Ure at Borough- 
bridge, and the Nidd at Knaresborough, while the sand or bank 
martin, the willow warbler, redstart, and spotted flycatcher were 
observed. Of resident birds were noticed the yellow-hammer, 
common wren (the only birds that sang), thrush, blackbird, green- 
finch, pied wagtail, rook, chaffinch, blue tit, great tit, spotted fly- 
catcher, coot, partridge, long-tailed tit, ring-dove, kingfisher, golden- 
crested wren, sparrow, robin, jackdaw, wild duck, skylark, and water 
hen or moor hen — the totals being eight summer migrants and 23 
resident birds. 

Messrs. William Nelson and John W. Taylor, of Leeds, who were 
the leaders of the conchological party, report that owing to the extent 
of ground covered by the excursion, the necessarily limited time did 
not allow of much close searching. The following species were seen 
during the day by various members of the party : — In ponds at 
Staveley, specimens oiBithynia tentaculata, Planorbis albus, P. contortus, 
Physa fontinalis, Limncea peregra, L. palustris, and Amylus lacustris were 
obtained. From various other places in the vicinity examples of 
Arion atei; Limax agrestis, Succinea putris, Vitrina pellucida, Zonites 
cellar'ms, Z. alUarius, Z. nitldulus, Z. purus, Z. crystalUnus, Helix 



BOROUGHBRIDGE EXCURSION, AUG. 7, 1 876. 39 

aspersa, H. nemo?-aUs, H. hortemis, H. Cantiana, H. rufescen?,, H. hlspida, 
H. caperata, U. rofundata, H. pulchella, Vertigo pygmcea, Glausilia 
rugosa, Cochlicopa Iridens, 0. lubrica, Achatina acicula, and Planorhis 
nitidus. 

In entomology the specimens were collected by the Rev. G. P. 
Harris, of Richmond, Messrs. G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., and S. D. 
Bairstow, of Huddersfield, Messrs. W. Prest and W. Simmons of 
York, and others, but owing partly to the want of time and partly to 
the unfavourable weather, very little was done. One species, how- 
ever, turned up which was new to the county of Yorkshire. This was 
Supithcecia subciliata, which was first taken by Mr, Charles Smethurst, 
of Leeds, who captured two specimens in Copgrove woods ; other two 
were taken by Mr. Jackson, and one by Mr. William Prest of York. 
Mr. Prest stated that among the species observed were Pier is napi 
(unusually large specimens), Liparis aurijlua, Abraxas grossulariata, 
Epione apiciaria, Acidalia bisetata, Coremia xmidentaria, Camptogramma 
bilineata, Cidaria fulvata, Eubolia mensuraria, Goneptera Ubatrix (larva), 
Tryphcena pronuba, Scapula lutealis, Crambus tristellus, C. ctdmellus, 
Dictyopteryx Forsksleana, Argyrotoza Conwayana, Phoxopteryx Mitter- 
bacheriana, and Pterophorus fuseodactylus. Mr. Grassham, of Leeds, 
took a batch of larvae of the buif-tip moth {Pygcera bucephala). 
None of these insects can be considered rare, aiTd the list is a very 
poor one. 

Plants were collected by Mr. James Abbott of Leeds, Mr. Webster 
of York, and others. Their lists included Ranunculus hederaceus, 
NympTKBa alba, and Nuphar lutea in pond at Staveley ; Stellaria 
nemorum, Cerastium aqiiaticum, Hypericum perfoliattim, H. montanum, 
Hippuris vulgaris, Myriophyllum spicaium, Lythrum Salicaria, Bryonia 
dioica, Pimpinella Saxifraga, Sium angustifolimn, Silauspratensis, Myrrhis 
odorata, Lonicera Xylosteian, Valeriana dioica, Hieracium vulgatum, 
Eupalorium Cannabinum, Solidago Virgaurea, Senecio Erucifolius, AntJiemis 
arvensis, A. cotula, Gampanula latifolia, Veronica Anagallis, ScropJmlaria 
nodosa. Verbena officinalis {Scnyen), Pc/iium vulgare, Hottonia palustris, 
Lysimachia vulgaris, Samolus Valerandi, Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus, 
Rumex Hydrolapathum, Salix Smitliiana ? Lemna minor, Scirpus 
lacustris, Carex pendula, Glyceria aquatica, varieties of Lastraa filix-mas 
and Equisetum maximum. The Leeds Society was also much indebted 
to Mr. J. W. W. Brook, secretary of the Bradford Naturalists' 



40 BOROUGHBR.IDGE EXCURSION, AUG. 7, 1 876. 

Society, for information on the flora of tlie district at another season 
of the year. 

With regard to the geology of the district, Mr. Thomas Tate, of 
Bradford, states that the district explored is bounded on the west by 
a well-marked ridge of magnesian limestone, ranging from Knottingley, 
through Knaresbro', to Eipon, rising to an average height of between 
200 to 300 feet above the sea. Passing through Knaresbro' station, 
the party obtained a lovely peep along the banks of the Nidd below 
the castle ruins ; the junction of the carboniferous grit with the over- 
lying magnesian limestone being well in view. 

Copgrove and Staveley are built upon the magnesian beds, but the 
latter are completely hidden by the boulder clay save in two sections 
exposed in the railway cutting. 

Eastward of Staveley the limestone dips under, and is succeeded 
by the lowermost member of the triassic series — the Bunter sand- 
stone. Sections of this were seen in two quarries within the grounds 
of Aldborough Manor, near the museum ; one of which had supplied 
the Romans with the building materials for Isurium. Another 
section has been exposed in lowering the road near the junction of 
the York and Tadcaster turnpikes, but here, as elsewhere, it is non- 
fossiliferous. Witk these exceptions, the entire area is covered by a 
thick deposit of boulder clay crowded with faintly ice-scratched 
pebbles from a distance ; the granites and syenites of the lake district, 
and the carboniferous limestone of the Pennine range being the most 
abundant. 



Reprinted from " TJic Naturalist," Oct. and Nov., 1876. 



41 



%ht ||c£ti0 J;atttcalist0' Club anb ^nentifif ^ssofiatifln. 
THE 

SEVENTH ANNUAL EEPORT 

OF THE council: 

PRESENTED TO THE ANNUAL MEETING, HELD 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 27th, 1877. 



The Council in presenting the 7th Annual Report of the state 
of the Society's affairs, have pleasure in congratulating the members 
on the fact that in nearly every respect the year just closed has 
been the most successful one the Society has enjoyed siiice the 
date of its formation. There have not been such fluctuations in 
the interest of and attendance at the meetings, as have been men- 
tioned in previous reports, but on the contrary, the proceedings 
have been marked throughout by steady and evenly-maintained 
improvement. 

As suggested in the last Report, the influerice upon this Society 
of the Yorkshire Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures — though 
prejudicial to the actual attendance of the year in which the E-\hi- 
bition was held — has been, upon the whole, of a beneficial nature, 
and the year just closed has shown by the improvement reported 
that the opinion of the former Council was justified. 

MEMBERS. 

The year commenced with a list of 105 members, the same num- 
ber with which the previous year had commenced. 

At the beginning of the year the Council took into consideration 
the advisability of largely increasing the membership; they felt that 
a considerable number of persons in Leeds, being interested in the 
objects of the Society, only needed that its claims should be placed 
before them in order to induce them at once to support it by en- 
rolling their names. The result has been what was anticipated by 
the Council, and as the consequence of their action, aided by that 
of individual members, sixty names have been added to the roll by 



s 


n3 


99 


83 


I 


35 


o 


20 



42 SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT, 

election. 

On the other hand, the Society has lost 2 members by death, one 
of them, Mr. G. W. Newton, being one of the founders and in the 
Society's early years a member of the Council; and the other, Mr. 
Wm. Reynolds, a new member, dying within three months of his 
election. The names of 13 other members have been removed 
from the rolls by resignation and other causes. 

The total membership of the Society now stands at 152, inclu- 
ding 4 members whose subscriptions are in arrear. 

The census of the Society for the beginning and end of the year 
stands as follows:— 

1.876 1877 

o I Life Member. 

Honorary Members. 
Original Members. 
New Ordinary Members. 
Non-resident Members. 

105 152 Totals. 

During the year Mr. Fairfax Wooler, an original member, was 
elected a Life Member, in recognition of his gifts towards the 
Library. 

MEETINGS. 

During the year 36 evening meetings have been held, with an 
averac'e attendance of 20, as against 16 in the Yorkshire Exhibition 
year and 20 in the previous year. 

Twenty meetings have been devoted to the exhibition of speci- 
mens and conversation, with an average attendance of 18. 

At 16 of the meetings papers were read, and the average attend- 
ance was 22^. 

One of the papers read, that on "The reasoning powers of Cater- 
pillars," by Mr. S. Everard Woods, has since been published m 
e.xtensoin the "Naturalist" for February 1877. 

The state of the attendance at the Lecture meetings still deserves 
the consideration of the members, and the Council are of opmioa 
that the average attendance at such meetings is far too low. 

A list of the papers read during the year is appended to this 
report. 

EXCURSIONS. 
The Excursions during the year, with one exception, were 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 43 

those arranged for by the West Riding ConsoHdated Naturahsts' 
Society; and the Leeds Society was represented at every one of the 
seven which constituted the series. 

In addition to this series, a very successful one was held on 
Bank Holiday Monday, the 7th of August, in conjunction with So- 
cieties at Richmond, York, and Huddersfield, the locality being the 
neighbourhood of Aldborough and Boroughbridge. 

A full report of this Excursion was published in the "Naturalist" 
for October and November, 1876. A reprint will be issued to the 
members with the present report. 

WEST RIDING CONSOLIDATED NATURALISTS' SOCIETY. * 

During the year the Society has maintained its connection 
with the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Society, and has 
been represented at all the meetings. 

Important changes have been made in the constitution of the 
West Riding Society with a view of placing on permanent record 
the observations made at the meetings and by the members. A 
council of delegates has been appointed for the 
management of affairs, and in future it is intended to divide the 
meetings into Sections, upon the plan of the British Association. 
It is also intended to publish reports and papers bearing upon the 
Natural History of the count}''. It is however evident that to carry 
out the plans as projected the present income is entirely inadequate. 
It is therefore intended to supplement the present income of id. per 
member, by inviting members to subscribe additional sums, in order 
that the work of the W. R. C. N. S. may not be crippled by finan- 
cial inability to carry out the investigation of the natural history of 
this county. 

The assistance of the members of this Society in this direction 
is not only desirable but urgently needed. 

LOCAL COLLECTIONS. 

On the 23rd of May Mr. Wm. Nelson read a paper "On the de- 
sirability of our forming local collections," in which he advocated 
that the Society should take steps for the acquisition of specimens 
of the animals and plants of the county of York. Subsequently 
Mr. Nelson's suggestions were adopted by the Council, and at their 

* Subsequently to lie reading of this Report, the name of the West Riding 
Coisolidated Naturalists' Society has been changed to that of "Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union." 



44 SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

request he kindly undertook the office of Curator. A number oi 
specimens have been presented by various members, and it is to be 
hoped that during the next season special attention will be paid by 
the members to this department of the Society's work. 

LIBRARY. 
The Librarian reports that a few Books of value and interest, as 
well as a number of Reports, received from other Societies in ex- 
change for our own, have been presented to the Library during the 
year; and that the members have made good use of the books 
available for circulation. 

A list of additions to the Library is appended to this Report. 

FINANCES. 
The financial Statement, as prepared by the Treasurer, which is 
appended to this Report, shows a balance in favor of the Society 
of .2^4 7S. lod. 



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^he '^ezbs Naturalists' CTlub ani) 
^cuntifit JVssociaticn. 

187G— 7. 
LIST OF PAPERS 

READ DURING THE SESSION. 



1876-7. 

Ap. 4 Samuel Jefferson, F.C.S., President's Inaugural Address : on " The 
Domain of Science." 

,. 25 Edward Thompson, on "A year's Science." 
May 9 James Irwin Coates, F.R.A.S., on "The Roman Wall." 

,, 23 William Nelson, on "The Desirability of our forming Local 
Collections." 
Jnne 13 Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc, on " Protococcus pluvialis." 
July iS Henry Pocklington, F.R.M.S., on "Color." 
Aug. 15 Samuel Jefferson, F.C.S., on "Rotifers." 

Sep. 12 Thomas Fairley, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., on "The New Theory in 
Chemistry." 

,, 26 Benjamin Holgate, on "Limestone Formations." 

Oct. 10 Thomas Hick, B.A., B..'^c., on "Mushrooms." 

,, 24 Edvvd. Atkinson, F. L.S., F.Z.S., on "The Fauna and Flora of 

Lebanon and I ower Syria, considered in connection with their 

climatal conditions." 

Nov. 14 S. Everard Woods, on "The reasoning powers of Caterpillers." 

Dec. 12 W. Percy bladen, F.L.S., F.G.S., " Concerning Echini." 

,, 19 John Garbutt, F. R.A.S., on " The Moon's Motion and its relation 
to the Tides." 

Jan. 30 John Holmes Walker, on "The Tv/o Electrical Theories." 

Feb. 13 Frank Curzon, on "The Scientific Bases of Physiognomy." 



47 
VALEDICTORY ADDRESS 

DELIVERED BY THE RETIRING PRESIDENT, 

SAMUEL JEFFERSON, F.C.S., 

AT THE SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING. 
FEBRUARY 27th, 1S77. 

Gentlemen, 

In retiring from the honorable post in connection with this 
Society, to which a year ago you were good enough to elect me, 
it now falls to my lot to occupy your attention for a short time 
upon various topics in connection v.-ith our pursuits. 

And first permit me to congratulate you upon the Report which 
has just been read. That report is one to which I am sure we 
must all have listened with unmi.xejl satisfaction. Whether we 
view it from the mere stand-point of numbers, the very large 
increase recorded being one index of cur progress ; or if we lock 
not merely at the increment of enrolled members, but notice the 
regular and steady attendance at the meetings ; or if again we 
view the year's work with reference to the character of the papers 
read, we find ample ground for congratulation. You will all join 
with me in recognizing that the success of the past year is due in 
a very great measure to the unwearied energy of our Honorary 
Secretary. Before occupying the post which I now resign into 
the hands of our new president, I was strongly impressed with 
the extent to which we are indebted to Mr. Roebuck for his 
indefatigable prosecution of his duties. Closer acquaintance 
during the past year has greatly strengthened my recognition of 
the fact, and I feel that when it thus falls to my lot to speak of 
our favorable condition, I should be wanting in duty if I omitted 
to-express our gratitude to our Honorary Secretary. 

In reviewing our work for the past year the mind naturally first 
turns to the papers which have been read. Some of these, 
especially the one read by Mr. Coates on the "Roman Wall" and 
that by Mr. Sladen on the Echinodermata, were illustrated by veiy 
fine sets of diagrams ; these were greatly appreciated by the mem- 
bers who were present. It was very evident that these gentlemen 
were thoroughly in love with their respective subjects and so easily 
contrived by their enthusiasm to awaken a deep interest in their 
listeners. A previous president, Mr. Hick, favored the Association 
with two very valuable papers, upon the " Protococcus pluvialis" 



48 s. Jefferson's valedictory address. 

and upon " Mil -brooms." The one upon edible fungi was illus- 
trated by numerous examples of the various species which the 
lecturer brought from the rural district in which he now fortunately 
finds himself surrounded by so many objects of interest to the 
lovers of nature. His clear account of the lower form of vegeta- 
tion, which he gave us in his earlier paper, will not readily be 
f >rgotten by those of us who heard it. A paper on "Color." by 
Mr. Pocklington, the gentleman vho immediately prectdtd me 
in the office I now quit, was one which evidenced his thorough 
acquaintance with his topic ard proved of great interest. Another 
paper vhich gave evidence of much original work was read by our 
Borough Analyst, Mr. Fairley. It contained some facts which 
have been embodied in a long and able article in the Journal of 
the Chemical Society, and which I have heard recognized in pub- 
lic by a very eminent writer and lecturer, as the mo.st important 
addition to Thermochemistry which has a])peared for many years. 

On the 23rd of May, a paper (which we hope will bear imi)ortant 
fruits in the future) was read by Mr. William Nei^on. the subjeft 
being the desirability of our forming local collections. As an 
outcome of that we have already what we hope will be the nucleus 
of a goodly gathering of strictly local examples. One pai)er on 
"Prehistoric Man" unfortunately has not yet been read, but we 
trust the gentleman who undertook to honor the Society by the 
results of his study of this subject will be able during this session 
to give it. 

Those who were present when Mr. S. Everard 'Woods read his 
paper upon the " Reasoning Pc.wers of Caterpillars" will remember 
how satisfactorily the subject was treated and will be glad to notice 
that it is published in the '■'Naturalist" for Febiuary. 1877. 

Other veiy valu.able paper-; have been read, but one can scarcely 
be expected to enumerate all. 

The alternate nights r)r exhibition of specimens and conversation 
have also been a marked improvement. Certain members have 
taken upon themselves, th.it on definite ni;ihts they would bring 
objects unon which the meeting might fall back in the event 
of the ord'nary source falling short. 'J"he result has been that 
members hive always found the table well supplied with objects of 
interest and one may safely say these conversational meetings have 
been of unflaggin^^ interest. 

Our conchological friends have shown splendid series of shells. 
I do not refer to the excellencv or brilliancy of the nacreous lustre, 
nor to the size or forms of shells, buc to the goodness of the 
examples as illustrating the various genera and species. (Jne most 
interesting example was brought before us by Mr. W. E. Claike, 



S. JEFFERSO^ S VALEDICTORY ADDRESS. 49 

the Cxpnva Euiopaa from the F'erne Islands. This is the only 
specimen of the cowry genus found in England, though the species 
are abundant in the tropics. 

Ihose Mho were present when Mr. F. Greenwood exhibited 
the series of beautiful dissections of the common black slug 
{Aiioit atcr) will not readily foiget how magnificently all the 
details of the muscular, nervcus and vascular tissues were brought 
out. Coui)led with full and clear explanations kindly given by the 
exhibitor, these objects were not only full of beauty but most 
instructive. 

In entomologv, Mr. Grassham and others have contributed 
very many specimens. Quite a windfall befell this section in the 
flight of locusts to which cur attention has been drawn during the 
last year. 

The ornithologists have also contributed their share. Mr. 
W. H. Hay e.xcited great satisfaction by the series of the eggs of 
twenty-sev^n species of birds, all of which had been collected by 
himself within a radius of about a dozen miles from this town. 

Among other interesting local gatheiings was one by Mr. E. E. 
Prince, who brought three members of that species of the newt 
family known as Lopldnus palmaUts. This diffeis from the com- 
mon newt in the fact that its hind feet are webbed or palmated. 
It is believed that this is the first recognition of its occurrence in 
this locality. 

We must not forget the very lively dormouse which Mr. Grass- 
hnm captured in the Meanwood valley, and which was exh.bited 
last May. Members will not fuiget that a former exhibition of 
the same creature from the same neighborhood was made a year 
or two ago by the Rev. J. Hanson. 

In botany Mr. F. Arnold l.ees has contributed again and again 
objects of interest. Among others the Cypripediiim Calccoliis, the 
extremely rare "lad\'s slipper" orchid from Durham. Also ficm 
Upper Teesdale Cjitopteri- a/pir/a, the Al])ine bladder fern, ^hich 
Mr. Backhouse, junr, first showed to be a native of Britain in 
1873. From the N.W. of Thorparch he also exhibited Antheinis 
iindoria and Aiyssniii incanvm, neither of which had before been 
discovered in Yoik-hire. Mr. Scholefield has also fiom time to 
time brought interesting plants, as other members have likewise 
done. 

In geology and mineralogy various members have from time to 
time supplied the tnbles with examples. Mr. G. A. Kennedy 
bi ought a fine example of the fossil tooth of Rliizodus Hiberti^ a 
ganoid fish from the upper coal measures. 



50 s. Jefferson's valedictory address. 

Mr. Thomas Rees, of Whitwood, exliibited specimens of stone 
coal from Norman ton wliich were very thickly intercalated with 
shells. 

Mr. Botharaley has also from time to time brought samples of 
minerals which have proved of interest. 

But in addition to our papers and exhibitions let us not pass 
over our excursions. These have been all held in connection 
with the W. R. C. N. S. They will be found particularized in our 
report, but one cannot refrain from pointing out how important a 
part this is of our work, and it is very desirable that we should 
impress upon ourselves the necessity of attending these whenever 
practicable. 

It is believed that in the future there is for this Yorkshire 
Union of Naturalists a bright pros])ect of continued and in- 
creased success. Let us, as a society, assist those who are en- 
deavoring to make the united efforts of the various clubs even 
more successful than heretofore. 

On July 29th the members were invited to join the Bradford 
Scientific Association in an excursion to Victoria Cave. The 
speaker can assure those who failed to avail themselves of the 
invitation that they missed a most profitable day's work. I trust 
that Mr. Tate, who so efficiently conducted that excursion, may be 
persuaded to lead one this coming year and that our members 
will then muster in strong force. 

Turning f"om our own practical work to that which has awakened 
interest in the general scientific world, we have had the return of 
the Arctic Expedition, the Challenger, and Commander Cameron. 

The first left our shores on May 29th, 1875, and consisted of the 
Alert, the Discovery and the Valorous. The two first under 
Nares and Stephenson wintered very far North, and the sledge 
travelling under Captain Markham proved extremely arduous 
work. Let us not forget that the last named officer, who planted 
the English flag at the highest latitude ever yet reached, is a 
Yurkshireman. 

The (Challenger has gathered rich fruits in her long and 
laborious voyage. The deepest soundings of any which have been 
obtained since reliable methods have been adopted, have been 
found on the western edge of the Pacific. The Challenger found 
between the Carolina and I adrones a depth of 27,450 feet, nearly 
equal to that obtained by the Tuscarora previously off the Japan 
Coast, which was 27,930 feet. From this great depth the beau- 
tiful silicious shells of the Radiolaria were brought up by the 



S. JEFFERSON S VALEDICTORY ADDRESS. ^t 

sounding tube. In the early part of her voyage she supplemented 
the information on the Globigerina ooze which had been yielded 
by the soundings for the Atlantic cable. It was determined that 
although at a depth of 12,000 feet these shells are abundant and 
in beautiful preservation, yet when a depth of 15,000 feet is at- 
tained no shells are found at all. 

During 1873 she crossed and recrossed the Atlantic four times, 
making in this ocean alone over 130 soundings, and so accumu- 
lating a vast array of facts as to the nature of the sea bottom, the 
temperature at various depths, the density and constitution of the 
waters, and adding largely to our knowledge of the varied forms of 
lite tenanting the ocean. Continuing her voyage past the Cape 
she examined the south part of the Indian Ocean, touching at 
Australia and New Zealand, she then made her way to Japan, 
thence to the Sandwich Islands, south to the Society Islands, 
and thence to Valparaiso. Now returning home she reached 
England during May, 1876, just at the commencement of our 
sessional year. It would be out of place for me to touch more 
fully on this important subject, for I take it we all have access to 
full accounts of this expedition. 

I cannot but thank the memliers of the society for the kind 
support at all times given to the President's chair, and in looking 
back must recognize that the harmonious working of the past 
year is due, to no slight extent, 'o the spirit which has animated 
us, one and all, to do our best for' the society and to further its 
objects. 

I am sensible I have often been away, but let me assure you 
that it has been from professional work which has pressed upon 
me with no slight weight ; and I really fear that in future that 
cause will debar me from sharing in your work so fully as I should 
wish. 

We all look forward to the coming year, when we remember 
the thorough love of science which animates our future President. 
To this society it is useless to dwell upon the varied branches 
in which Mr. Abbott is so proficient, and to Avliose study he is 
devoted. 

Wishing him as pleasant a year as that which has fallen to my 
lot, and with best wishes for the continued success of our society, 
I now, again thanking you, yield the post to our new President. 



'cThc 'gn'bs llrtturaltsts' Club aub 
^cuutific Association. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 

27th FEBRUARY, 1S77. 



Explanation of Signs prefixed to N^ames. 
■* Honorary Members, paying not less than los. 6d. per annum. 
-f Non-Residext Members, paying 2s. 6d. per annum. 
X Original Members, elected before the ist December, 1S75, and paying 

4s. per annum. 
All names unmarked are those of New Ordinary Members, paying 5s. 
per annum. 

0^o«-* 

X Abbott, James, y.jjfj, W(wdhouse Lane, Leeds. April, 1870 

Agate, Rev. Dendy, B.A., Stourtoii Grange LLiitislet. Aug. 22,1876 

X Allison, R. R., LLawtlwrne place, A''c70 Wortley. June 30, 1874 

I Armistead, Joseph John, Cliapel-Allerton, Leeds. May 9, 1876 

Armistead, William, /^//^/f^', near Leeds. ... Aug. i, 1876 

t Atkinson, Edward, M.R.C.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., ILon. Curator in 

Zoology to the Leeds PhilosopJiical and Literary Society, 

El don ILouse, Woodhonse Lane, Leeds. April 25, 1876 

T Atkinson, John Thomas, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., President oj the 

Sdhy Naturalists' Society, the Quay, Scldy. 

Oct. 14, 1873. Sep. 12, 1876 

X Atkinson, R. M., 6, LIunslet Road, Leeds. ... May 13, 1373 

Bailey, Benjamin, j6, Dciusbury Road, Leeds. April 25, 1876 

t Bainbridge. Fredk., i, George Villas, Harrogate. Aug. 22, 1876 

t Bairstow, S. D., JVoodland Mount, LLuddersfield. Oct. 17, 1876 

* Barran, J., M.P., Chapel-Allerton Lfall, nr. Leeds. Oct. 10, 1876 

* Bedford, James, Sycamore Lodge, Woodhouse. June 30, 1874 
X Bedford, James E., ^irii'///^/-t'Z<^£4'''', Woodhouse. June it, 1872 
X Beer, John T., F.R.S.Lit., F.S.A.Scot., President of the Leeds 

University Extension Union, Tlireapland LLouse, Fulneck, 
near Leeds. ... ... ... ... Sept. 2, 1873 

X Benn, Thos., St. James' Place, Sunny Bank, Leeds. Dec. 2, 187 1 

X Berry, Thomas, j/ LLorrocks Terrace, South Accoinmodation 

Road, Hunslet, tiear Leed%. ... ... March 10, 1874 

X Beswick, T. Stodart, 42, Leigh ton Lane, Leeds. Dec. 2, 1873 



LIST OF MEMBERS, FEB. 1877. 53 

t Birchall, Edwin, F.L.S., Woodside, Douglas, Isle of Afan. 

Dec. 2, 1871. Oct. 3, 1876 

Bothamley, C. H .,27, Cohden Place, ClaypitLn., Leeds. May 9,1876 

Broadhead, W. H., Whitelock Street, Leeds. June 27, 1876 

X Brodie, James, Elland Road, Leeds. ... ... Feb. 1870 

t Brook, George, ten. Secretary Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; 
Secreta?y of the Iluddersfield Scientific Club, Ferndrook, 

Edgerton, Hudiersficld. Nov. 7, 1876 

X Brunton, George, 2, Portland Crescent, Leeds. Jan. 20, 1874 

X Calvert, John T., Vice-President of the Keighley Naturalists' 

Society, 64, Low Sired, Keighley. ... Sep. 15, 1875 

Carter, Godfrey, 26, Park Squaj-e, Leeds. ... May 2, 1876 

t Cheesman, William Norwood, Secretary to the Seldy Nat m-ali sis' 
Society, The Crescent, Selby. ... ... Dec. 12, 1876 

X Cheetham, Hy. C, G.N.R. Co., Leeds. ... April 30, 1872 

Cheetham, W., Woodbottom Cottage, Horsforth. Dec. 19, 1876 
* Clarke, William, 20, De Grey Road, Leeds. ... June 30, 1874 

X Clarke, W.E., J, East View, Hyde Park Road, Leeds. Ap.2, 1872 
X Coates, Frederick, Croft terrace, Farnley, Leeds. Jan. 27, 1874 
X Coates, J. Irwin, F.R.A.S., Southend, Headingley. Feb. 23, 1875 
Crowther, Henry, Assistant Curator in the Museum of the Leeds 
Philosophical and Literary Society ; Assistant Secretary of 
the West Riding Geological and Polytechnic Society ; Secre- 
tary of the Leeds Conchological Club ; Secretary of the 
Conchological Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Vnionj 
42, North Street, Leeds. ... ... ... May 9, 1876 

Cull, G. R.,5p, Hunslet Lane, Leeds. ... Jan. 30, 1877 

Curzon, Frank, Agent dr' Lecturer, Yorkshire Union of Mechanic^ 

Institutes, ij, Carnaby St., Fenton St., Leeds. April 11, 1876 

t Dawson, George, 14, Howard Street, Carlisle. July 18, 1876 

X Dawson, Thomas, President of the leeds Mecha7tic^ Institution, 

10 J, Caledonian Road, Leeds. ... June 18, 1872 

X Dayson, J. O., Secretary, Mechanics' Institution. June 18, 1872 

X Dean J William., i. Bowling Green Place, Marshall Street, 

Holbeck, Leeds... ... ... ... Feb. 2, 1875 

X 'Den\son,Wm., y. Industrial Place, Peckett Street. Oct. 13, 1874 

Denny, Thos. Geo., Oxford Street, Leeds. Apl. 1870. July 4, 1876 

X Dixon, John, The General Infirmaty, Leeds. Oct. 11, 1870 

X Dixon, John Wm., 5 Cavendish Road, Leeds. June 18, 1872 

X Dobson, George, g4, St. James' Street, Leeds. Aug. 17, 18-3 

Dolby, Ernest, 4, Fallowfield Terrace, Leeds. Apl. 11, 1876 

t Douglas, J. A., Secirtary to the Bradford Scientific Association, 

2 J, Bentley Street, Bradford. ... ... July 4, 1876 

X Ellison, Jas. Edward, 10, De Grey Road, Leeds. Jan. 20, 1874 



54 LIST OF MEMBERS, FEB. 1 87 7. 

X Emery, J.S.,22, Victoria Terrace, St. John's Hi!/. Apl. 21, 1875 
X Emsley, Frederick, 75, West Street, Leeds. ... Jan. 20, 1874 
X Fairley, Thos. , F. R. S. E. , F. C. S. , Public Analyst to the Borough 
of Leeds, 8, A^ewton Grove. N'ew Leeds. Feb. 23, 1875 
X Fletcher, Thos., St. Paul's Schools, Saville Street. Apl. 21, 1875 
* Ford, John Rawlinson, Adel Grange, nr. Leeds. June 27, 1876 
■ Fox, Jas., C.E., LLorsforth; ^^ 22a Albion St., Leeds. Oct. 10, 1876 
X Garbutt, ].,ija, Victoria place, Camp Road, Leeds. July 8,1873 
X Gascoigne, Joseph, Toivn Councillor, Mope Terrace, Deu<sbury 

Road, Leeds. ... March 25, 1873 

Giles, George Charles, 78, York Road, Leeds. Nov. 21, 1876 
X Gilston, Peter, Woodhouse Hill, LIunslet. ... June 11, 1872 
X Q,<:,oA2X\.,Q\\'5.x\^?,, Francis Street, New Leeds.... Dec. 15, 1874 
X Grassham, John, 11, Meanwood Street, Leeds. May 7, 1872 
X Grassham, Thos., 40, Chad Street, Newtown. Apl. 22, 1873 
X Greenwood, Frederick, M.R.C.S.E., Resident Curator, Leeds 

School of Medicine Apl. 8, 1873 

Gregson, Robert, 4, Spencer Terrace, New Leeds. June 27, 1876 
X Haigh, Frederick, 4, Grosvenor Place, Leeds. Apl. 30, 1872 
X Hainsworth, George, ijy, Burley Road, Leeds. Nov. 17, 1874 
X Hardisty, E., 5J, Kensington Terrace, LLyde Park, Feb. 2, 1875 
Harpham, Thomas, 10, Strattan Street, Leeds. Apl. 25, 1876 
X Hay, W. H., /, Elnmwod Place, Camp Road. Apl. 23, 1872 
t Hebden, Joseph, j^r/^^d- 6'/r^<?/, Wakefield. Apl. 11, 1876 

X Helm, S.,'F.R.M.S.., 3, Louis St., Neiv Leeds. June 9, 1874 
t Hewetson, Henry, g. West Park Terrace, Palsgrave, Scar- 
borough. ... ... Dec. 2, 1871. June 27, 1876 

Hewetson, H. Bendelack, Hanover Square, L.ceds. June 13, 1876 
X Hick, Thomas, B. A., B.Sc. (Lond.), Oatlands' Villa, Leeds 

Road, Harrogate Dec. 2 , 1 8 7 1 

X Hmdle, ].K, Horsforth, near Leeds. ... .. April 1870 

t Hobkirk, Chas. P., President of tJie Huddersfield Scientific Club, 
President of the LLuddersficld Literary and Scientific Society ; 
West Riding Union Bank, LLuddersficld. ... Jan. 23, 1877 

X Holgate, Benjn., 3, Atkinson Street, Hunslet. Apl. 8, 1873 

X 'iio\mt?,,]o\\n, Hobnville, Methley, near Leeds. Feb. 23, 1875 
Howgate, William, 14^, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. Apl. 11, 1876 
* Huggon,Wm., F.C.S.,50, Springfield Place, Leeds. May23, 1876 
X '^eii&x?,on,'K. v., 147, Afeado7u Lane, Leeds. Aug. 12, 1873 

X Jefferson, S., F.C.S., 17, Virginia Road, Leeds. April 2, 1872 
Kennedy, George A., Lo7C' Nook, Ambleside. April 11, 1876 
X Kirkby, William, 57, Hunslet Road, Leeds. ... June 10, 1873 

X 'KxioyAQiy^lWt^, 93, Tennyson Place, Bradford. Apl. 21, 1875 



LIST OF MEMBERS, FEB. 1877. 55 

Lees, Frederick Arnold, F.L.S., Recorder to the Botanical 
Locality JRecord Club, Queen Street, Market-Raseti, 
Lincohishire. ... ... ... ... Sep. 26, 1876 

X Lobley, William, 18, Brunswick Street, Leeds. ... April, 187 1 

X Loe, JamesS., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., WoodhouseLane. June 18,1872 

X Lupton, Henry, The Elms, Chapel Allerton. Dec. 2, 1873 

X Malt, James, 2, Hainsivorth's Buildings, Clyde Street, New 

IVortley, Leeds. ... ... ... June 2, 1874 

t Mann, Arthur W., Scarcroft, Thorner, near Leeds. July 23, 1876 

X Miall, Louis C, F.G.S., Curator of the Museum of the Leeds 

Philosophical and Literary Society ; Professor of Biology 

at the Yorkshire College, Belle Vue Rd., Leeds. Apl.8, 1873 

X Milestone, Robert, 5p 6^ (5/, East St., Leeds. Nov. 24, 1874 

t Monckman, J., 'Q.'ic., jy, Manor Row, Bradford. Dec. 19, 1876 

Moore, Edwd. Albert, Zio?t Board School, New Worthy, Lee Is. 

Jan. 30, 1877 
X Morant, Alfred Wm., Assoc. Inst. C. E., F.S. A., F.G.S., Leeds 
Borough Engineer, jj, Virginia Road. Aug. 17,1873 
t Murdoch, James R., LLorsforth, and 23, Park Row, Leeds. 

Dec. 19, 1876 

Naylor, Thomas, nr. Suspension Bridge, LLunslet, Oct. 31, 1876 

X Nelson, William, President of the Leeds Conchological Club ; 

President, of the Conchological Section of the Yorkshire 

Naturalists' Union ; Associate-Editor of the Quarterly 

y^ournal of Conchology ; EreeholdSt., Leeds. ^QY*- ^3, 1873 
Nevitt, John George, Chapel Allerton, Leeds. Apl. 11, 1876 
X Nicholls, D., rt?. Woodbine Place, Little JVoodhouse. ]u\y 2, iSj 2 
X Nicholls, Joseph Lister, iS; Woodbine Place, Little Wood- 
house, Leeds. ... ... ... ... Oct. i, 1872 

X Nield, W. J. , LLon. Sec. Leeds Mechanics' Lnstitution. Aug. 20,1872 

t Parsons, Henry Franklin, M.D., (Lond.), Llonorary Secretary 

of the Goole Scientific Society ; Secretary of the Botanical 

Section Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; Goole. Feb. 2, 1876 

t Patchett, Isaac, F.C.S., Birstal, near Leeds. Feb. 2, 1876 

Pearce, John, ij. Commercial Street, Leeds. Dec. 15, 1875 

X Pearson, A. A., 44^' 46, Queen's Place, Camp Rd. July 22, 1873 

Peat, Samuels., p/, WoodhouseLane, Leeds. May 9, 1876 

Pick, Richard, Bond Street, Leeds. ... Sep. 36, 1876 

* Pickles, James, JFoodhouse Lfill, LLunslet, and ij, JVarehouse 

LLill, Call Lane, Leeds. ... ... Dec. 2, 187 1 

X Pocklington, C., Green Lane, Baildon,nr Shipley. Sep. 2, 1874 

X Pocklington, H., F.R.M.S., Cedar Grove, Armley. Sep. 29, 1873 

Pollard, H., Philosophical Hall, ParkRow, Leeds. July 11, 1876 

* Price, Wm. Nicholson^ 7, East Parade, Leeds. June 13, 1876 



56 LIST OF MEMBERS, FEB. 1 87 7. 

X Prince, E. E., 2, Wilhw Grove I^oad, Leeds. July 15, 1873 
X Prince, G. A., 2, Willow Grove Road, Leeds. April 28, 1874 
X Rees, Thomas, Hy. Briggs, Son &' Co.'s Collieries, Whitwood, 

via Normantoti. ... ... ... June 2, 1874 

* Reynolds, Richard, F.C.S., Honorary Secretary of the Yorkshire 

College, and of the Leeds Philosophical and Lita-ary 

Society ; Cliff Lodge, Hyde Park, Leeds. May 16, 1S76 

X Richardson, Walter V/., Wecttciood, nr. Leeds. Feb. 17, 1874 

Rider, Charles, 27, Edwin Road, Hyde Park Rd. May 30, 1876 

X Roebuck, Wm. Denison, Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists^ 

Union, g, Sunny Bank Terrace, Leeds.. April 19, 1870 
t Rowley, Walter, C.E., F.G.S., South Milford ; and 74, 

Albion Street, Leeds. 'May 2, 1876 

X Sands, VV. H., Cunliffe House, Esholt, nr. Leeds. Feb. 10, 1874 
Saynor, Benjamin, 4, LCelham Street, Accommodation Road, 

Leeds Nov. 7, 1876 

* Scattergood, Thomas, 41, Park Square, Lced^. April 25, 1876 
X Scholefield, Samuel, Z(5, Belgrave Street, Leeds. April 21, 1875 
X Smethurst, Charles, 23, Chatham Street, JVest St.Feh. 25, 1873 
X Smith, Samuel, Cotton, near Leeds ; and Leeds Public 

Libraries. Sep. 2 6, 1 8 7 6 

Somers, Francis, 2, Fountaine Terrace, Lovell St. May 30, 1876 

* Spence, C. S., lo, Cromer Terrace, Af-mley. Jan. 30, 1877 
t T:nie,i:.,Rushton Villa, Thornbury,nr. Bradford. Ap. 28, 1874 
X Taylor, John, Rockingham Street, Leeds. ... June 18, 1872 
X Taylor, John W, Editor of The Quarterly Journal of Conchology, 

Leopold Square, Neiv Leeds.... ... April 19, 1870 

X Taylor, Wm. Hy., Burlington St., Sunny Bank. Apl. 30, 1872 

* Teale, Thomas Pridgin, M.A., M.B. (Cantab.), F.R.C.S., Afem- 

ber of the General Medical Council ; 38, Cookridge Street, 

Leeds Feb. 22, 1875 

X Teasdale, Washington, Rosehurst, Headingley. April, 1870 
i:Ktm.Y:e9>t,Y., Springfield Mills, Morley. ... Dec. 19, 1876 
X Thompson, Edward, 72, Lofthouse Place, Leeds. May 7, 1872 
X Thrippleton, J., 2, Evaline Terrace, Burley Fields. April, 1870 
X Todd, William, 2, Blundell Place, Leeds. ... Dec. 2,1871 
Turner, W. B., 22, Northfield Square, Lovell Road. July 4, 1876 
X Vevers, Wm., Brandon Villas, Chapeltown Rd. April 28, 1874 
X Walker, Henry, Aslnvood Villas, Headingley. Oct. 27, 1875 
X Walker, John, Willow Grove House, Leeds. ... Oct. 7, 1873 
X Walker, J. Holmes, Chapeltoivn, Pudsey ; and 16, Kirkgate, 

Bradford. Sep. 9, 1873 

X Ward, Geo.,F.C.S., i,BuckinghamTer.,Hcadingley.^i'x^\/^,\Z-]2 
X Watson, William, Crossbeck, Llkley. ... June 10, 1873 



LIST OF MEMBERS, FEB. 1877. 57 

Westmoreland, Jas. Wm.,A.R.S.M., Bowling Iron Works, Brad- 
ford ; and Belle Isle Road, Hunslet, Leeds. May 9, 1876 
Wood, William, 53-, Clapham Road, Headingley. Dec. 10, 1872 
Wood, William Atkinson, 81, Church st., Hunslet Dec. 15, 1875 
Woods, S. Everard, 164, Dewsbury Road, Leeds. Oct. 10, 1876 
Yewdall, Edwin, 58, Wade Lane, Leeds. ... April 8, 1873 

LIFE MEMBER. 

Wooler, Fairfax, 45, Cemetery Road, Beeston Hill. March 3, 1874 



All members included in this list will be eligible for any office 
in the Society at the next Annual Meeting, to be held on the last 
Tuesday in February, 1878, unless disqualified in the meantime 
by withdrawal, resignation, or other cause. 



58 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRAEY 
DURING 187G— 7. 



The names of donors are indicated by initials within square brackets. [ ]. 

Key to the initials :— Mr. James Abbott [J. A.] ; Mr. W, H. Broadhead 
[W. H. R]; Professor A. H. Green, M.A., F.(;.S. [A. H. G.]; Mr. John 
Grassham [J.G.]; Mr. Henry Hewetson [H. H.] ; Mr. William Kirkby 
[W.K.]; i\]r. F. Arnold Lees, F.L.S. [F.A.L.] ; Professor L. C. Miall, 
r.G.S. [L. C. M.] ; Mr. Wm. Nelson [W.N.]; Rev. J. Collins Od?ers 
B,A. [J. C. O.] ; Mr. Henry Pocklington, F.R.M.S. [H. P.] ; Mr. George 
T. Porritt, F.I>.S. [G. T. P.] ; Mr. Wm. Denison Roebuck [W.D.R.]; 
Mr. Samuel Scholefield [S. S.] ; Mr. William Todd [W. T.] ; and Mr. 
Fairfax Wooler [F. VV.] 

ZOOLOGY. 

British Conchology, byj. Gwvn Jeffreys, LL.D., F.R.S. — Vols. 2, 
3, 4 and s. ' [J. G., F. A. L. & \V. N.] 

Synopsis of the Genus Elachista, by H. T. Stainton, 1858. [H.H.] 

The Organization of Daphnia pulex ; by Thomas Tate — a paper 
read before the Club, Jan. 26, 1875. [The author.] 

Journal of the Linnean Society — Zoology, vol.xii, 1874-6. [G.T.P.] 

Yarrell's British Fishes.-3rd edition, 1859, by Sir John Richardson, 
2 vols. [purchased.] 

Stephens' Manual of British Beetles, 1839. [purchased.] 

Wood's Common British Beetles. [W. D. R.] 

Smith's Catalogue of British Bees in the British Museum Collec- 
tion, — 2nd edition, 1876. [purchased.] 
This 'Catalogue' is really a Monograph, with full descriptions of all the 
British species of Bees. 

Newman's British Butterflies and British Moths. — In i volume. 

[purchased.] 

Reasoning Powers of Caterpillars. — a P?per read by S. Everard 
Woods before the Club, Nov. 14, 1876. [The author.] 

Locusts in Yorkshire, with special reference to the Visitation of 
J 876. — A paper read by W. Denison Roebuck to the Hud- 
dersfield Scientific Club.-i 87 7, 15 pp. [The author.] 



ADDITIONS TO LIBRARY, 1876 7. 59 

BOTANY. 

The English Flora : by Sir J. E. Smith. — 2nd edition, 1823, 

4 volumes. [w. K.] 

Hooker's Student's Flora of the British Islands — 1870. [W. D. R.l 
Botanical Names for English Readers, by R. H. Alcock — 1876, 

Svo., pp. 236. [J. G., F. A. L. & W. N.] 

Todmorden Botanical Society — Catalogue of Library, Rules, 

Lists of Officers and Members, 1875. [The Society.] 

Bentham's Illustrated Hand-book of the British Flora. — 1865, 

2 vols. [purchased.] 

GEOLOGY. 

Phillips' Rivers Mountains and Sea-Coast of Yorkshire. — 1853. 

[purchased.] 

Geological Survey — One-inch Map. — Sheet 93 S.W.^including the 

country to the North-East of Leeds. [purchased.] 

West Riding Geological and Polytechnic Society. — Proceedings, 

new series, parts ii, & iii, 1875 & 1876, with large photographs. 

[The Society.] 

Manchester Geological Society. — Session 1876-7. — Vol. xiv. 

part iv. [The Society.] 

PROCEEDINGS of SOCIETIES. 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society — Member's Book for 1876, in- 
cluding 26th Annual Report for 1875 : Book of Rules. 
The same with Report for 1876. [The Society.] 

Halifax Literary and Philosophical Society. — Annual Report, \.' 
1875—6. . [The Society.] 

Huddersfield Literary and Scientific Society— 19th Report, 1876. V 

' ~^'" [The Society.] 

Priestley Club, Leeds.— List of Papers— First and Second Sessions, 
1875-8 and 1876—7. . [The Club.] 

Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society — 55th, 56th and 57th ; 
Annual Reports for 1874-5, 1875-6 & 1876-7. [The Society.] /\ 

Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society.^22nd and 23rd 
Annual Reports, 1874—5 and 1875—6. [The Society.] 



6o ADDITIONS TO LIBRARY, 1876 — 7. 

Chester Society of Natural Science. — 5th and 6th Annual Reports, 
1875—6 and 1876—7. [The Society.] 

Glasgow Natural History Society. — Proceedings, vol. ii, part ii, 
187 1 — 5. [The Society.] 

Glasgow Society of Field Naturalists. — Transactions, part iv. 
1875 — 6. [The Society.] 

Lewes and East Sussex Natural History Society — 12th and 13th 
Annual Reports, 1875 — 6, and 1876 — 7. [The Society.] 

Metropohtan Scientific Association — Rules, 1874. [H.P.] 

Watford Natural Histoiy Society — List of members, laws, cata- 
logue of library, &c., June 1876. [The Society.] 

Reports of the Field-meetings of the Watford Natural History 
Society; by John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., &c.. Secretary 
(reprinted from the Transactions of the Society, vol. i, 1875). 

[The Author.] 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Brief paper on the Use and Educational value of the 

Field Naturahsts' Microscope ; by Washington Teasdale. 

[The author.] 

On the Observation of Periodical Natural Phenomena ; by John 
Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S , Secretary of the Watford Natural 
History Society. (From the Society's Transactions, Nov. 
1875.) [The author.] 

Roman Pavements at Aldborough — Two large colored plates of 
— (presented by Andrew S. Lawson, as a reminiscence of the 
Club's visit to his grounds, Aug. 7th, 1876.) 

Photograph of the members present at the Boroughbridge Excur- 
sion, Aug. 7th, 1876. ... ... ... [purchased.] 

Photograph of Aldborough Chuich — taken during the excursion, 
Aug 7th, 1876. ... ... ... ... [purchased.] 

The Devil's Arrows. — A paper by the Rev, W. C. Lukis, M.A., 
F.S.A. — From the proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 
1877. P"he author.] 

This Paper was rend to this Club during the Excursion to Borough- 
bridge, Aug. 6, 1876. 

Such Stuff as Dreams are made on : a Lecture by J. Spottiswoode 
Cameron, of Huddersfield.— 1877. [G. T. P.] 




w 



n 




THE LEEDS NATURALISTS' CLUB AND 
SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 



THE SEVENTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 

AND 

PRESIDENT'S VALEDICTORY ADDRESS, &c. 

Paged in continuation of the 0th Amiual Report. 



1877-8. 



THE LEEDS NATURALISTS' CLUB AND 
SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 



THE EIGHTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



ETC. 



Paged in continuation of the 7th Annual Report. 



THE LEEDS 






SCZEITTIFIC ASSOCIATIOIT. 



1877—1878. 



THE EIGHTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



ETC. 



TAYLOR BROS., ST. ANN STREET. 
1878. 




C^uiuil, 



ELECTED FEBRUARY 26th, 1878. 



|3vcsiiicnt : 

FREDERICK GREENWOOD, M.R.C.S.E. 



BENJAMIN IIOLGATE, F.G-S. 
IlY. POCKLINGTON, F.R.M.S. 



i3irc ^Jiceiitcuts: 

Wm. NELSON. 
CHARLES S. SrENCE. 



WHO HAVE SERVED THE CFFICE CF PRES'.CENT i 

SAMUEL JEFFERSON, F.C.S. 
JAMES ABBOTT. 

'Sreitsiucr : 

WILLIAM E- CLARKE, 
5, East View, Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 

^ciTctartj : 

WILLIAM DENISON ROEBUCK, 
Sunny Bank, Leeds. 

^ibvatiau : 

WALTER HENRY IIAV, 
I, Elmwood Place, Camp Road, Leeds. 

(JTomuil : 

C. H. BOTHAMLEY. 1 WM. IIOWGATE. 

ERNEST DOLBY. BENJAMIN SAYNOR. 

JOHN GRASSHAM. CHAS. SMETHURST. 



JJttbUfatiou (JTommittec: 

The PRESIDENT. The SECRETARY. 

JOHN GRASSHAM. WILLIAM HOWGATE. 

H. POCKLINGTON, F.R.M.S. 

^^epvesentatiljcs 

ON THE Council of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Unun : 

WILLIAM E, CLARKE. | JOHN GRASSHAM. 

CHARLES SMETHURST. 



■ 63 
lEht "^uls Naturalists' €U)b nnb ^ri^ntift ^ssosuixon. 

THE 

EIGHTH ANNUAL EEPOET 

OF THE COUNCIL : 

PRESENTED TO THE ANNUAL MEETING, HELD 
ON TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26th, 1878. 



In presenting their 8th Annual Report the Council have to state 
that during the year progress has been made, as evidenced by the 
increase in the number of members and in the attendance at the 
meetings, the state of the Library and of the Local Collections, 
Large numbers of interesting specimens have been exhibited in 
various branches of Natural History; but on the other hand the 
Council desire to point out that although the Society ia a Scientific 
Association as well as a Naturalists' Club, very little has been seen 
or heard of the physical and other sciences, concerning which, 
nevertheless, some of the members are highly qualified to treat. 

Another source of dissatisfaction is the difiiculty which is now 
experienced in obtaining papers to be read on the lecture evenings. 

1 his induces the Council to point out how desirable it is that 
in the future the Society should be strengthened by the occasional 
attendance at and participation in the work of the meetings by the 
older and more experienced members, who have for the most part 
been conspicuous by their abstention from the Society's work 
during the past year. The younger race of members, into whose 
hands the whole work of the Society will inevitably fall, lack the 
experience which they Mill acquire with time, and still more do 
they feel the want of the inestimable benefits which would accrue 
to them from personal intercourse with the older and more experi- 
enced members. 

Within the last few months a spontaneous effort among the 
members for the improvement of the Society's work, has resulted 
in the formation or proposed formation of various Sections, and 
the CoUi.i-ii iiv^pe that the extension of the system will be produc- 
tive of good results and tend to the more detailed investigation of 
the various branches of Science, 



64 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



The Council however venture to express their opinion that 
no Section should be formed unless there are a certain number of 
well-qualified members who are determined to make it a success, 
and upon whom the younger and less experienced members may 
rely for information and advice. 

MEMBERS. 

The foUowir.g statement shows the state of the membership 
at the beginning and close of the year, and also the gains and 
losses during that period: — 



Class of Members. 


Numher of 

Members 

Fb. 27,1877 


Elected 

during the 

Year. 


Resigned or 

died during 

the year. 


Number of 

Members 

Fb. 26, 1878 


Honorary Life 



I 
13 
83 
35 
20 

152 


2 




18 
3 





4 
3 
I 


2 

I 

13 

79 

50 
22 


Life 






New Ordinary 




Total? 


23 


8 


167 





One member, Mr. Samuel Scholefield, long an earnest and 
hard-working supporter of the Society, has been removed by 
death, on which occasion resolutions of sympathy were forwarded 
to his family. 

From various reasons 7 members have resigned their connec- 
tion with the Society. 

Acting by virtue of powers conferred upon them by an 
amendment of the Rules, providing for the recognition of high 
scientific attainments or of services rendered to the Society by the 
election of Honorary Life Members to the extent of not more 
than 40, or not more than three in any one year, the Council have 
elected two members of this class as a recognition of services 
rendered to the Society. 

The Rev. A. W. Dodgshun, who is now with the London 
Missionary Society's special mission to I.,ake Tanganyika, was one 
of the founders of this Society in 1870, and for some years 
subsequently participated actively in its work and management. 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 65 

The Rev. W. C. Lukis, M.A., F.S.A., Rector of Wath, near 
Ripon, an antiquary of distinguished attainments, took a leading 
part in the excursion to Boroughbridge in August, 1876, on which 
occasion he read a paper on the "Devil's Arrows," which has since 
been printed by the Society of Antiquaries of London. 

MEETINGS. 

During the year 38 meetings have been held, the average 
attendance being 22^^ as against 20 in the preceding year. 

Papers were read at 1 5 meetings, and the average attendance 
was 2 5)4 as against 22^^ in the previous year. 

The remaining 23 meetings were devoted to the exhibition of 
specimens and conversation, with an average attendance of 20}^ 
as contrasted with 18 in the preceding year. 

A list of the papers read is appended to this report. 
CONVERSAZIONE. 

On the 5th September a very successful Conversazione was 
held, when a large number of objects were showi^, and at which 
about 60 members and over 200 friends introduced by members 
spent a pleasant and enjoyable evening. 

Besides this, assistance has been given to the Conversazione 
of the Mechanics' Institute, to which the members of this Society 
were admitted free. 

EXCURSIONS. 

The excursions during the year have been those arranged by 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, at all seven of which this Society 
was represented. 

In addition, one was made to Boston Spa on the 28th July, 
Mr. John Emmet of that place acting as leader. 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

The connection with the Union has been kept up to the 
mutual advantage of the Societies and their members. 

The past year has been the most successful the Union has 
yet known, and amply bears out the sanguine expectations of those 
who took a leading part in its re-organization. It now possesses 
a Inr^? tliTjh as yet inadequate list of subscribers, and in a short 
time they may expect to see the first issue of the Transactions 
which are to be published, 



66 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

There is every expectation that the coming year will be even 
more prosperous than the last. 

The president for 1878— Mr. Henry Clifton Sorby, F.R.S., of 
Sheffield— is a man of world-wide eminence, and whose connection 
with the Union cannot fail to be of benefit to it. 

The Annual Meeting at the close of the season of 1878 has 
been fixed to be held in Leeds, when it is to be hoped the Leeds 
members will do all in their power to render it successful. 

It having been suggested by Mr. Kell of Barnsley that during 
the same week a combined exhibition, on a large scale, of natural 
history specimens and scientific apparatus should be held in Leeds 
under the auspices of the Union, the attention of the members is 
directed to this point. 

The subject will be considered at the first meeting of the 
Union (at Wentbridge, in April) and the Council would point out 
that the decision of that meeting will in a great measure turn upon 
the attitude assumed by the Leeds members, upon whom would 
necessarily devolve the main portion of the work. 

THE LIBRARY. 
During the year the Library has received four vols, and 38 
pamphlets by gift, some of which will v/ell repay a careful perusal. 

The additions to the Library by purchase during the year 
number 35 books. 

As indicating the nature of the books purchased, YarrcU's 
" Fishes," Jeffreys' " Conchology," Newman's " Moths," and Bell's 
" Reptiles " may be mentioned. 

Special attention has been paid to the purchase of books, the 
Librarian having taken advantage of certain favorable opportunities 
to secure valuable books at small cost. 

The amount of money spent in books may account for the 
fact of the very small balance which the Treasurer reports he has 
in hand. The number of books circulated among the members 
has been over one hundred and ten, being a large increase over 
the previous year. 

The Librarian would wish to point out to the members the 
desirability of the books being returned at every meeting night, as 
frequently they are wanted to name specimens. If not asked for 
by other members, the book may be renewed. 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 67 

THE LOCAL COLLECTIONS. 

The local collection has not progressed so much during the 
past year as we could have wished. This may be partly accounted 
for by the fact that for some time we v/ere without case room, but 
this has now been kindly supplied to us by the Committee of the 
Mechanics' Institute, so that we now hope to make better progress 
during the coming year. 

During the present year we have added to the collection : — 
I species of plant, 2 species of Hymenoptera, 8 species of Cole- 
optera, 12 species of Lepidoptera, 26 species of MoUusks, i Bird's 
Nest, 3 species of Bird's Eggs, i species of Orthoptfera and a num- 
ber of Boulders from the Glacial Drift near Barnsley. 

Mr. Grassham has kindly presented to the Society a number of 
cells for the purpose of mounting small shells. 

FINANCES. 

The Treasurer, in presenting his report to the Society, begs to 
call its attention to three important facts: ist, The reduction of 
what may be termed the "V.'orking Expenses" of the Society during 
the past year; 2nd, The large and valuable additions to the 
Librar)', consisting as they do of 23 vols., purchased at a cost of 
^y iSs. yd., as against the expenditure of 18/6 for similar purposes 
during the year before ; 3rd, That there is owing to the Society 
the sum of ^2 iis. 6d. 

On taking the above into consideration, he must heartily 
congratulate the Society on the progress made during the year just 
closed. 

The purchase of Books he would most particularly recommend 
as calculated to further our end and aims; and it is also calculated, 
if continued, to prove a great attraction to individuals who are not 
yet members of our Society. 

It is with great pleasure that, after such unprecedented 
expenditure on our Library, he is able to declare a small balance 
in favour of the Society. 



68 



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EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 69 

1877—8. 
LIST OF PA P E R S 

READ DURING THE SESSION. 



1877-8. 

April 10 S. Jefferson, F.C.S., on "Cyclones." 

May 8 H. Pocklington, F.R.M.S., on "Flame," Part I. 

,, 29 T. Hick, B.A., B.Sc, on "Evolution and the Vegetable Kingdom." 

June 12 F. Greenwood, M.R.C.S.E., on "The Comparative Anatomy of the 

Nose." 
July 10 Edward E. Prince, "Notes on the Geology and Antiquities of 

Dorsetshire. " 

„ 24 H. Pocklington, F.R.M.S., on "Flame," Part II. 

Aug. 14 Charles Rider, on "The Classification of the Protozoa," 

,, 28 James Abbott, President's Address. 

Sept 25 T. Fairley, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., on "Ozone." 

Oct. 16 John Garbutt, on "Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes." 

,,30 C, S. Spence, on "The Potato." 

N0V.27 H. Pocklington, F.R.M.S-, on "How to examine a plant micro- 
scopically," Part I. 

Dec. II John Thrippleton, on "Russia, or some account of my visit to St. 
Petersburgh and Moscow. " 

Jan. 22 W. Barwell Turner, on "Matters used in the permanent preparation 
and examination of microscopic subjects." 

Feb. 12 H. Pocklington, F.R.M.S., on "How to examine a plant micro- 
scopically," Part II. 



yo EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 






1877—8. 



NEW MEMBERS, ELECTED 1877-8. 
18 New Ordinary Members : Miss Emily Holmes, Langley Kitch- 

ing, James Archer, John Benson, Henry Eaycock, W. H. 

Kirtlan, J. W. Fawcett, Henry Marsh, Charles Cohen, J. W. 

Gaunt, Farsley; Mathew Walker, Pudsey; Matthew A. Brigg, 

John Muir, Joseph Dobson, Wm. Clark, Alfred Denny, W. G. 

Smith, George Tyers. 
3 Nonresident Members: John Emmet, Boston Spa; Hugh 

Gill, Boston Spa 3 A. Beckett Taylor, Mapplewell, near 

Barnsley. 

^ RESIGNATIONS. 

Original Members : W. H. Sands, Thomas Berry, Henry Walker. 
New Ordinary Members : George A. Kennedy, George Charles 

Giles, F. Arnold Lees, F.L.S. 
Non-resident Member : Thomas Tate. 

DEATH. 

Samuel Scholefield (Original Member). 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

(Sntntifff Jlssrrdatiou. 



71 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

26TH FEBRUARY, 1878. 



2 HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS : 

Elected on account of high scientific attainments, or on account of services 
rendered to the Society. Number limited to 40, not more than three of 
whom can be elected in any one year. 

Dodgshun, Rev. Arthur William, 0/ f/ie London Missionary Society s 
Mission to Lake Tanganyika: c. of Borestcad and 
Riley, Zanzibar, East Africa. March 20, 1877 

Lukis, Rev. W. C, M.A., F.S.A., The Rectory, IVatk, nr. Ripon. 

March 20, 1877 

I LIFE MEMBER : 

In respect of a donation of ;^5. 

Wooler, Fairfax, 43, Cemetery-road, Beeston Hill. March 3, 1874 

13 HONORARY MEMBERS, 

Paying not less than los. 6d. per annum. 

Armistead, Joseph John, Netherleigh, Rowidhay. IMay o 18-6 
Atkinson, Edward, M.R.C.G., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Hon. Curator 'in 
Zoology to the Leeds Philosophical 6- Literary Society, 
Eldon House, IVoodhouse-lane, Leeds. April 25, 1876 
Barran J., M.P., Chapel-Allerton LLall, nr. Leeds. Oct. 10,' 1876 
Bedford James, Sycamore Lodge, Wocdhcuse. ... June 30' 1874 
Clarke, AVilliam, 20, De Grey-road, Leeds. ... June 30,' 1874 

Ford, John Rawlinson, Adel Grange, nr. Leeds. June 27' 1876 
Huggon, Wm., F.C.S., 50, Springfield-jblace, Leeds. May 23' 1876 
Pickles, James, Woodhouse-hill, Hiinslet, and ij. Warehouse-hill 

Call-lane, Leeds. Dec. 2, 1871 
Price, Wm. Nicholson, Mount Pleasant, Leeds. June 13, 1876 
Reynolds, Richard, F.C.S., ^^w. Secretary of the Yorkshire College, 
and of the Leeds Philosophical ^^ Literary Society]- 
Cliff Lodge, Hyde Park, Leeds. May 16, 1876 
Scattergood, Thomas, 41, Park-square, Leeds. April 25, 1876 
Spence, C. S., 10, Cromer-ierrace, Armley. ... Jan. 30,' 1877 



72 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

Teale, Thomas Pridgin, M.A., M.B., (Cantab.), F.R.C.S., Member 

of the General Medical Council ; j8, Cookridge- 

street, Leeds. Feb. 22, 1875 

79 ORIGINAL MEMBERS, 

Elected before the ist December, 1875, and paying 4s. per annum. 

Abbott, James, 14^, Woodliouse-lane, Leeds April, 1870 

Allison, R. R., HawtJwrne-place, New Woi-tley. June 30, 1874 

Atkinson, R. M., <5, LLunslet-road, Leeds May 13, 1873 

Bedford, James E., Sycamore Lodge., Woodhouse. June 11, 1872 
Beer, John T., F.R.S.Lit., F.S.A.Scot., Threapland LLotise, Fulneck, 

near Leeds Sept. 2, 1873 

Benn, Thos., St. James'' -square, Sunny Bank, Leeds. Dec. 2, 187 1 
Beswick, T. Stodart, 42, Lcig/iton-lane, Leeds. ... Dec. 2, 1873 

Brodie, James, Elland-road, Leeds Feb., 1870 

Brunton, George, 2, Portland-crescent, Leeds. ... Jan. 20, 1874 

Calvert, John T., 64, Lotc-street, Keighley Sep. 15, 1875 

Cheetham, Hy. C, G.N.R. Co., Nottingham. ... April 30, 1872 
Clarke, W. £.,5, East View, Hyde Park-road, Leeds. Ap. 2, 1872 
Coates, Frederick, Croft-terrace, Fainley, Leeds. Jan. 27, 1874 
Coates, J. Irwin, F.R.A.S., Southend, Headingley. Feb. 23, 1875 
Dawson, Thomas, President of the Leeds Mechanics' Lnstitution, 

lOj, Caledonian-road, Leeds. June 18, 1872 

Dayson, J. O., Secretary, Mechanic^ Lnstitution. June 18, 1872 
Dean, William, i, Bowling Green-place, Marshall-street, LLolbeck, 

Leeds. Feb. 2, 1875 
Denison, Wm., J, Lndustrial-place, Beckett-street. Oct. 13, 1874 
Dixon, John, Tlie General Lnfirmary, Leeds. ... Oct. 11, 1870 
Dixon, John Wm., 5, Cavendish-road, Leeds. ... June 18, 1872 
Dobson, George, g4, St. James'-street, Leeds. ... Aug. 17, 1873 
Ellison, Jas. Edward, 10, De Grey-road, Leeds. Jan. 20, 1874 

Emery, J. S., 22, Victoria-terrace, St. John's LLill. Apl. 21, 1875 

Emsley, Frederick, 75, West-street, Leeds Jan. 20, 1874 

Fairley, Thos,, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., Public Analyst to the Borough of 

Leeds; 8, Neii.>ton-grove, New Leeds. Feb. 23, 1875 
Fletcher, Thos., St. Paur<; Schools, Saville-street. Apl. 21, 1875 
Garbutt, J., i^c, Victoria-place, Camp-road, Leeds. July 8, 1873 
Gascoignc, Joseph, To^c<n Councillor, Llope-terrace, De'wshury-road, 

Leeds. March 25, 1873 

Gilston, Peter, Woodhouse LJill, ILunslet. June 11, 1872 

Good^\\, C\i:\.x\e.?., Francis-street, A^eiu Leeds. ... Dec. 15, 1874 
Grassham, John, //, Meanwood-street, Leeds. ... May 7, 1872 



EICJilTH ANKUAL REPORT. 73 

Giassham, Thos., 40, Chad- street, IVewtown, Leeds. Apl. 22, 1873 
Greenwood, Frederick, M.R.C.S.E., Resident Curator, Leeds School 

of Medicine. Apl. 8, 1873 
Haigh, Frederick, 4, Grosvenor-place, Leeds. ... Apl. 30, 1872 
Hainsworth, George, ij/, Biirley-road, Leeds. ... Nov. 17, 1874 
Hardisty, E., j'j, Kensington-terrace, LLyde Park. ... Feb. 2, 1875 
Hay, W. H., r, Elniwood-place, Camp-road, L.eeds. Apl. 23, 1872 
Helm, S., F.R.M.S., j, Louis-st., New Leeds. ... June 9, 1874 
Hick, Thomas, B.A., B.Sc, (Lond.). Oatlands Villa, Leeds-road, 

ILarrogate. Dec. 2, 1871 

Hindle, J. E., Horsforili, near Leeds April, 1870 

Holgate, Benjn., F.G.S., j", Atkinson-street, Hunslet. Apl. 8, 1873 
Holmes, John, Hohnstcd, Roundhay, Leeds. ... Feb. 23, 1876 
Jefferson, R. P., 14^, Afeadoiv-lane, Leeds. ... Aug. 12, 1873 
Jefferson, S., F.C.S., ly, Virginia-road, Leeds. ... April 2, 1872 
Kirkby, William, jZ, Hiinslet-road, Leeds. ... June 10, 1873 
Lobley, William, ii^, Bruimoick-street, Leeds. ... April, 187 1 
Loe, James S., AI.R.C.S., L.S.A., Woodhouse-lane. June 18, 1872 
Lupton, Henr)^, The Elms, Chapel Allerton. ... Dec. 2, 1873 
]\Ialt, James, 2, LLainsuwrttis Buildings, Clyde-st., Neni Worthy, 

Leeds. June 2, 1874 
Miall, Louis C., F.G.S., Curator of Museum, Leeds Fhilosophical 
&= Literary Society ; Professor of Biology at the York- 
shire College, 1^3, Belle Vuc-road, Leeds. Apl. 8, 1873 
Milestone, Robert, ^p &= 61, Past-street, Leeds. Nov. 24, 1874 
Morant, Alfred Wm., M.Inst.C.E., F.S.A., F.G.S., Leeds Borough 
Engineer, JJ, Virginia-road, Leeds. Aug. 17, 1873 
Nelson, William, Associate Editor of the Quarterly Journal of 
Conchology ; President of the Leeds Conchological 
Club; President of the Conchological Section of tlie 
Yorkshire Nat. Union ; Freehold-street, Leeds. 

Sept. 23, 1873 
Nicholls, D., 18, Woodbine-place, Little WoodJwuse. July 2, 1872 
Nicholls, Joseph Lister, 18, Woodbine-place, Little Woodhouse, 

Leeds. Oct. i, 1872 
Nield, W. J., ^(W. Sec. Leeds Mechanics' Lnstitution. Aug. 20, 1872 
Pearson, A. A., 44 e^ 46, Qucen^s-place, Camp-rd. July 22, 1873 
Pocklington, C, Green-lane, Baildoji, nr. Shipley. Sep. 2, 1874 
Pocklington, H., F.R.M.S., Ccdar-givve, Armley. Sep. 29, 1873 
Prince, E. E., 2, Wilhmi Grove-road, Leeds. ... July 15, 1873 
Prince, G. A., 2, WilUnv Grove-road, Leeds. ... April 28, 1874 
Richardson, Walter W., Weetwood, nr. Leeds. ... Feb. 17, 187 
Roebuck, W^m. Denison, Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalist 
Union, Sunny Bank, Leeds. ... April 19, i87<^ 



74 EIGHTH ANNUAL RERORT. 

Smethurst, Charles, 2j-, Chathavi-street, Wesi-st. Feb. 25, 1873 

Taylor, John, Rockin^^ham-streei, Leeds June 18, 1872 

Taylor, John W., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Concholo^y, 
Leopold Square, Neio Leeds. ... April 19, 1870 
Taylor, Wm. Hy., Burliu^lon-st., Sutmy Bank. Apl. 30, 1872 

"Teasdale, Washington, Rcschurst, Headingley. ... April, 1870 
Thompson, Edward, ^2, Lofthouse-place, Leeds. ... May 7, 1872 
Thrippleton, J., 2, Evaline-terrace, Burley Fields. ... April, 1870 

Todd,, William, 2, Blundell-place, Leeds. Dec. 2, 1871 

Nq\-&:%\\\\\., Brandon Villas, Chapeltown-rd. ... April 28, 1874 
Walker, John, Willoio Grove House, Leeds. ... Oct. 7, 1873 
Walker, J. Holmes, C.E., Chapeltown, Pndsey. Sep. 9, 1873 

Ward, Geo., F.C.S., i, Buckinghani-ter., Headingley. May i^i, 1872 

Watson, William, Crcssbeck, Llkley Juneio, 1873 

Wood, William, 55, Claphani-!cad, Headingley. Dec. 10, 1872 
Wood, William Atkinson, 81, Church-st., Hunslct. Dec. 15, 1875 
Y^\v6.2\\,Y.d^\<\n,s8, Wade-lane, Leeds April 8, 1873 

22 NON-RESIDENT MEMBERS, 

Paying 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Atkinson, John Thos., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., Pres. Selby Naturalist^ 
Society, the Quay, Selby. Oct. 14, 1873. Sep. 12, 1876 
Lj\inbridge, Fredk., i, George Villas, Harrogate. Aug. 22, 1876 
Bairstow, S. D., Woodland mount, Huddersfield. Oct. 17, 118 7 6 
Birchall, Edwin, F.L.S., Woodside, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

Dec. 2, 1871. Oct. 3, 1S76 
Brook, Geo., ter., Secretary Yorkshire Naturalists' Union; Secre- 
tary of the Hud.lersfield Scientific Club, Fernbrook, 

Edgerton, Huddersfield. Nov. 7, 1876 

Cheesman, William Norwood, The Crescent, Selby. Dec. 12, 1876 

Dawson, George, English-street, Carlisle. July 18, 1876 

Douglas, J. A., F.M.S., 23, Bentley-strcet, Bradford. July 4, 1876 
Emraett, John, Boston Spa, near Tadcaster. ... June 12, 1877 

Gill, Hugh, Boston Spa, ?tear Tadcaster. June 26, 1S77 

Hebden, Joseph, Bridge-street, Wakefield. Apl. 11, 1876 

Hewetson, Henry, g, West Fark-tenace, Falsgrave, Scarborough. 

Dec. 2, 1871. June 27, 1876 
Hobkirk, Chas. P., Pres. LIuddersfield Literary & Scientific Society ; 
West Riding Union Bank, Huddersfield. Jan. 23, 1877 
Knowles, Miles, pj, Tennyson-place, Bradford ... Apl. 21, 1875 
Mann, Arthur W., Scarcroft, Thorner, near Leeds. July 23, 1876 
Monckman, J., B.Sc, j/, Manor row, Bradford. Dec. 19, 1876 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 75 

Murdoch, James R., Horsfoith Dec. 19, 1876 

Parsons, Henry Franklin, M.D., (Lond.). F.G.S., Hon. Secretaiy 
Goole Scientific Society ; Sec. of the Botanical Section 
Yorkshire JVatu7-alists' Union; Goole. Feb. 2, 1876 

Patcliett, Isaac, F.C.S., Birstal, near Leeds Feb. 2, 1876 

Rees, Thomas, Hy. Briggs, Son &= Go's Collieries, WJiitwood, vict 

Normanion. June 2, 1874 
Rov.'ley, Walter, C.E., F.G.S., South Milfo7-d, and y4, Albion-street, 

Leeds. May 2, 1876 

Taylor, Arthur Peckett, Spaiii-lam, Mappletvell , near Barnsley. 

July ID, 1877 

SO NEW ORDINARY MEMBERS, 

Paving 5s. per annum. 

Agate, Rev. DendVjB.A., Siourton Grange, Hunslet. Aug. 22, 1876 

Archer, James, jo, Bedford-place, Leeds April 17, 1877 

Armistead, \yiiliam, I'ndsey, near Leeds Aug. i, 1876 

Bailey, Benjamin, y6, Dewsbury-road, Leeds. ... April 25, 1876 
Benson, John, 46, Spring Closest., Bar.'., Z:eds. April 17, 1877 
Bothamley, C. H., The Yorkshire College, Leeds. ... May 9, 1876 
Brigg, Mather/ A., Headingley ; 6^ Carlton Cross Mills, Leeds. 

Sept. II, 1877 
Broadhead, W. H., Whiieloik-street, Leeds. ... June 27, 1876 

Carter, Godfrey, 26, Fark-square, Leeds May 2, 1876 

Clieetham, W., Woodbottcni Callage, Llorsforth. ... Dec. 19, 1876 

Clark, VViUiam, 11, Jackson' s-place, Leeds Oct. 16, 1877 

Cohen, Charles, 132, Lurkgaie, Leeds Aug. 7, 1877 

Crowther, Henry, 20, Sunny Bank-street, Leeds. ... May 9, 1876 

Cull, G. R., 5p, Hunslet-lane, Leeds Jan. 30, 1877 

Curzon, Frank, Agent 6^ Lecturer, Yorkshire Union of Afechanics' 
Lust., 13, Carnaby-st.,Fenton-st., Leeds. Ap. 11,1876 
Dennj', Alfred, Midland-road, Hyde L\irk, Leeds. Oct. 16, 1877 
Denny, Thomas Geo., Victoria-7-oad, Hyde Park, Leeds. 

April, 1870. July 4, 1876 
Dobson, Joseph, M.R.C.S., 27, Burley Laion, Leeds. Oct. 2, 1877 
Dolby, EiT.est, 4, Falloivfield-teri-acc, Leeds. ... Apl. 11, 1876 
Fawcett, John W., 18, Crawford-street, Leeds. ... June 12, 1877 
Fox, Jas., C.E., Llorsforth, &= 22a, Albioti-st., Leeds. Oct. 10, 1876 

Gaunt, J. W., Farsley, near Leeds Aug. 7, 1877 

Gregson, Robert, 4, Spencer-terrace, New Leeds. ... June 27, 1876 
Harpham, Ihomas, 10, Strattan-stred, Leeds. ... Apl. 25, 1876 
Hewetson, H. Bendelack, Hanover-square, Leeds. June 13, 1876 



76 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

Holmes, M/'ss Emily, "/^Oastlcr-tcr., NortJi-st., Leeds. Apl. 10, 
Howgate, William, 7^p, Wooelhouse-lane, Leeds. ... Apl. 11, 

Kirtlan, W. H., 27, Blaekiiian-lane, Leeds May 29, 

Kitching, Langley, 50, Caledonian-road, Leeds. ... April 10, 
Laycock, H„ ip, ]VeUclose-place, Carlton Llill, Leeds. Apl. 17, 
Marsh, Henry, Cressy LLouse, ]Voodsley-road, Leeds. July 24, 
Moore, E. A., Zion Board School, New Woitley, Leeds. Jan. 30, 
Muir, John, 10, MarlhorottgJi-ierrace, Leeds. ... Sep. 25, 
Naylor, Thomas, nr. Suspension Bridge, LLunslet. Oct. 31, 
Nevitt, John George, Cliapel AUcrton, Leeds. ... Apl. 11, 

Pearce, John, /j, Connnercial-street, Leeds Dec. 15, 

Peat, Samuel S., p/, Woodhoitse-lane, Leeds May 9, 

Pick, Richard, Bond-street, Leeds Sep. 26, 

Pollard, H., Philosopliical LLall, Fark-rcic, L.eeds. July 11, 
Rider, C., 48, Kings-rd., Edivin-id., Llyde Fark-rd. Rlay 30, 
Saynor, Benj., 4, Kellam-st., Acconnnodatio)i-rd., Leeds. Nov. 7, 
Smith Samuel, Colton, nr. Leeds, and Leeds Public Libraries. 

Sep. 26, 

Smith, W. G., y8, Belle Vue-road, Leeds Oct. 16, 

Somers, Francis, 2, Founiaine-terrace, Lovell-st. . . . May 30, 

Tempest, F., Springfield A/ills, Morley Dec. 19, 

Turner, W. B., 22, Northfield-square, Lovell-road. ... July 4, 

Tyers, George, 68, Belle Vue-road, Leeds Oct. 16, 

Walker, Mathew, Swinnow Villa, Fudsey Aug. 7, 

Westmoreland, Jas. Wm., A.R.S.M., 104, LLig/i-strect, Rhyh 

Aloninoutlishire. May 9, 
Woods, S. Everard, 164, Dewsbury-road, Leeds. ... Oct. 10, 



S77 
876 
877 
S77 
877 
877 
877 
877 
876 
876 

875 
876 
876 
876 
876 
876 

876 
876 
876 
876 
876 
877 
877 

876 
876 



All members included in this list will be eligible for any office 
in the Society at the next annual meeting, to be held on the last 
Tuesday in February, 1878, unless disqualified in the meantime 
by withdrawal, resignation, or other cause. 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 77 

ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 
DURING 1877—8. 



(BY PURCHASE.) 

Yarrell's Fishes, Richardson's 3rd edition, 1859, 2 vols. 

Jeffreys' British Conchology, 3 vols, (iii., iv. and v.) 1865-7-9. 

Smith's British Bees, 2nd Edition, 1876. 

Ent. Soc. Catalogue of British Hemiptera: Douglas & Scott, 1876. 

Stephens' Manual of British Beetles, 1839. 

Newman's British Butterflies and- Moths, in i vol. 

Bentham's British Flora, 2 vols., 1865. 

Phillips' Rivers, Mountains and Sea-Coast of Yorkshire, 1853. 

Leeds Phil, and Lit. Soc — Guide to Mineralogical Collection, 1872. 

Leeds Phil, and Lit. Soc. — Guide to British Birds Collection, 1874. 

Wharton's List of British Birds, the genera arranged according to 

Sundevall's method: 1877. 
Bell's British Reptiles, 1839. 

Low's Domesticated Animals of British Isles, no date. 
Baker & Nowell's Supplement (1854) to Baines' Flora of Yorkshire. 
Hobkirk and Boswell's London Catalogue of British Mosses, 1877. 
"The Naturalist". (12 numbers), 1877-8. " 
" Quarterly Journal of Conchology" (4 numbers), 1877-8. 



(BY DONATION.) 

Wakefield Naturalists' Society, 6th Report (1876). 
Reasoning Powers of Caterpillars: S. Everard Woods, 1877. 
AVest Riding Geological and Polytechnic Society — Proceedings, 

new series, part iii., 1876, and photograph. 
Such stuff as Dreams are made on: J. S. Cameron, 1877. [G.T.P.] 
Locusts in Yorkshire : W. Denison Roebuck, 1877. __ 

Leeds Pliil. and Lit. Society — Guide to Fossil Collection. 
Leeds Mechanics' Institute Report (1876). 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, 12th Report (1876-7). 
Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club Report (1877). 
Brighton and Sussex Nat. Hist. Society's 23rd Report, 1875-6. 
Leeds Priestley Club; List of Papers (2nd Session), 1876-7. — " 



Goethe on Metamorphosis of Plants. 

Owen on Power of God in Animal Creation, 1863 

Rambles about Ingleton in 1865 : J. Carr. 



J.R.M, 
J.R.M. 
J.R.M. 



78 EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

Chester Society of Natural Science, 6th Report (1876-7). 

Edinburgh Geological See. Transactions, vol. iii., part i. (1877). 

Lukis on "The Devil's Arrows" (1877). 

Lewes and East Sussex Nat. History Societ)', 13th Report (1S77). 

Rowley on Deep Mining, &c. (1877). 

Wood's Common British Beetles. 

Leeds Phil, and Lit. Society, 57th Report, May, 1877. 

Glasgow Field Naturalis^ts' Transactions, part v, 1876-7. 

Manchester Geological Society's Report, Oct., 1877. 

Postal Microscopical Socie:y's Report, July, 1877 (2 copies). 

Quekctt Microscopical Club, 12th Report, July, 1877. [H.P.] 

Mineralogical Magazine, vol. i., 1876-7. 

Botanical Locality Record Club, Report for 1876. 

Quekett Micro. Club — Journal, Nov., 1877, vol. iv.,No. 35. [H.P.J 

Huddersfield Lit. and Scientific Society — 20th Report, Oct., 1877. 

Archbishop of York on '" The Worth of Life," 1877. 

Notes by a Field Naturalist in the Western Tropics: Rev. H. H. 
Higgins, M.A., 1877, 8vo., 205 pp. [Liverpool Nat. F. Club.] 

Edinburgh Botanical Society's Transactions, vol. xiii., part i. 

West Riding Geological and Polytechnic Society's Proceedings, 
1877, part iv. and photograph. 

Parsons on "Alluvial Strata of Ouse Valley," 1877. 

Bedfordshire N. H. Transactions, parts i. and ii. (1877-8). 

Dorsetshire Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, Pro- 
ceedings, part i. (1877). 

Cumberland Association Transactions, part ii. (1875-6). 

Edinburgh Botanical Garden Report for 1876. 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society: Report, Dec, 1877. 










15 JlJN2e 




1877-8. 



THE LEEDS NATUEALISTS' CLUB AND 
SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 



THE EIGHTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



ETC. 



Paged in coutinuatioii of the 7th Annual Keport.