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^^K^ 



(C> 



ANNUAL REP0!RT 



OF THE 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAB ENDDTG JUliraS 30, 1893; 



BBINO 



APPENDIX YY 



OF THE 



AWiUAL REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS POR 1893. 



C. B. COMSTOCK, Colonel,* Corps of Engineers, Bvt. Brig. Oen., U. S. A., 

Prendeni, 
CHARLES B. SUTER, Ldeat. Colonel, Corps of Engineers^ U. S. A., 
O. H, ERNST, li^or. Corps of Engineers, U. S. A.» 
Mb. henry L. whiting, Assistant, U, S. Coast" and Geodetic Survey, 
Mr. B. M. H*ARR0D, 
MK. ROBERT S. TAYLOR, 
Ms. HENRY FLAD, 

Commissioners. 



^WASHINGTON: 

QOYEBNMENT PRINTING OFFICB, 

1893. 



Ziy^ 1010.5 




/kM^ylCtA4 /jv>K>t i>^>vUK 



■ ( 



[extract prom the annual report of the chief of engineers 

to the secretary of war.] 

Office op the Chief op Engineers, 

United States Army, 
Washington^ D. C, September 19, 1893. 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 

The Mississippi River Commission, constituted by act of Congress of 
June 28, 1879, is in charge of the improvement of Mississippi Biv^r be- 
tween the mouth of Ohio Eiver and the head of the Passes and of sur- 
veys of the entire river. 

The commissioners during the past year were Col. C. B. Comstock, 
Corps of Engineers, president; Lieut. Col. Charles R. Suter, Corps of 
Engineers; Maj. O. H. Ernst, Corps of Engineers; Henry L. Whiting, 
assistant, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; B. M. Harrod, Robert S. 
Taylor, and Henry Flad. 

The report of the Commission upon the operations under its charge 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, is submitted as Appendix Y Y. 

JSstimatesfor the fisccU year ending June 30, 1895. — The following es- 
timates of fands required for carrying on the works under its charge for 
the year ending June 30, 1895, are submitted by the Commission: 

For improving Mississippi River from head of the Passes to the mouth of 
Ohio River, inclnding salaries, clerical, office, traveling, and miscella- 

neous expenses of the Mississippi River Commission $2, 6B5, 000 

For improving harhors at — 

New Madrid, Mo 75,000 

Memphis, Tenn 100,000 

Greenville, Miss 200,000 

Vicksburg, Miss. (Delta Point) 150,000 

Natchez, Miss., and Vidalia, La 400, 000 

New Orleans, La 300,000 

For improvement at head of Atchafalaya and month of Red River, Louisi- 
ana 350,000 

Total 4,240,000 

• •••••• 

III 



APPENDIX Y Y. 



akhruaz irbpobt of the mississippi bivbe commission foe the 

fiscal teae endino june so, 189s, 

Abmy Building, 
Kew York City^ June 28, 1893. 

SrR: The MissiRsippi Biver Gonimission has the honor to submit its 
anBual report for the fiscal year ending Jnne 30, 1893. 

The act approved July 13, 1892, appropriated the following sums to 
be expended under the Commission: 

ImpTOTement of— 

Memphis Harbor, Tenneesee $25,000 

Vieksbarg HarlMr, Mississippi 80,000 

GreenviUe Harbor, Mississippi 100, 000 

liatobez Harbor, Mississippi > gQ qqq 

Yidalia Harbor, Louisiaiia ) ' 

Atchafaliiya and Red rivers 80, 000 

Mississippi Biver 2,000,000 

The last-named sum was distributed as follows: 

Levees $1,500,000 

Channel works (construction) 333,000 

Channel works (dredging) ' 35, 000 

Plant 110,000 

Surveys, gauges, and ol^servations 22,000 

Details of allotments are shown in the financial statements. 

Transfers of allotments and of previous balances have been made as 
follows: 

The levee system having been redistricted balances of previous allot- 
ments for levees was transferred to the new titles. Prom Plum Point 
925,000 has 'been transferred to rebuilding the steamer Mississippij 
$15,000 to dredging experiments, and $2,000 to surveys, gauges, and 
observations. 

First and second districts: From the balance for Memphis Harbor 
has been transferred $7,431.78 to Hopefield Bend. From Ashbrook 
l^eck has been transferred $25,000 to plant for the third district. 
From the general service its remaining balance of $46,345.33 has been 
transferred to surveys, gauges, and observations under the secretary. 

The act approved March 3, 1893, appropriated the sum of $2,665,000, 
to be available July 1, 1893. 

From this distribution has been made as follows: 

Levees $1,500,000 

"Channel works (construction) 455, 000 

Dredging experiments 40, 000 

Plant .-- 292,000 

Surveys, gauzes, and observations 132,000 

Expeusesof Mississippi River Commission 40,000 

leaving unallotted $206,000, of which $150,000 is held awaiting the results of tha 
dredging experiments. 

8641^ 



3546 REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Since the last report of the Commission five meetings have been held, 
as follows: In New York on June 22, August 2, 1892, and June 26, 
1893; on the steamer Misswsippi November 5, 1892, and on the steamer 
Gen, Barnard on May 6, 1893. The two last-mentioned meetings have 
included inspections of the works. 

OFFICE AND SURVEYS, GAUGES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Triangulation, — At the date of the last annual report the trian ^lo- 
tion party on May 31, 1892, had reached Fairport, Iowa. Subsequently 
this work has been extended upstream a distance 116 miles, and to 
within 9 miles of Dubuque, Iowa, by August 26. This is, at present, 
the northern limit of the triangulation of the general survey which the 
Commission is directed to extend from the Head of the Passes to the 
headwaters of the Mississippi Eiver. This survey, complete in its 
triangulation, topography, and hydrography, is now finished from the 
head of the Des Moines Rapids to Donaldsonville, La., 79 miles above 
New Orleans. The leveling and triangulation is finished to the Head 
of the Passes. 

The survey down to Donaldsonville, done by the Commission in 1883, 
connected with a survey in 1879, extending up to Donaldsonville from 
the Head of the Passes, by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. It 
was considered advisable, in order to obtain the information which is 
best given by comparative surveys and to secure uniformity of method 
and detail, to extend the survey of the Commission from Donaldsonville 
down to the Head of the Passes. Accordingly a party entered the field 
at Donaldsonville on December 13, 1892, to make such triangulation a« 
might be found necessary, from lapse of time, in a region which had 
already been triangulated by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and to 
mark the stone lines which form part of our system. Descriptions of 
triangulation of located points were ftimished by the Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey, and enough of them were found to render secondary 
triangulation unnecessary. 

This party reached Kennerville, La., 62 miles below Donaldsonville 
and 17 miles above New Orleans, on January 12, 1893, and completed 
the triangulation to the Head of the Passes, an additional distance of 
94 miles by the river, on March 15. 

Precise leveling, — The foregoing party was suflBciently strengthened 
at Kennerville to add to its duties the extension of the line of precise 
levels which the Commission had already run from Duluth and Chicago, 
on the Great Lakes, across to and down the Mississippi River to New 
Orleans (with a branch line to tidal level of the Gulf of Mexico at 
Biloxi, Miss.) down to the Head of the Passes. 

The practicability of this extension, as it enters the low and marshy 
tracts bordering the river near the Gulf, has generally been considered 
doubtful on account of the instability of the soil. The experience of 
this party still leaves the work with an uncertain value, and it will be 
most important to rerun this line, after sufficient time has elapsed to 
give comparative results, in order to prove the permanence of the 
bench marks or ascertain the causes of their instability. 

Topography and hydrography, — On September 1, 1892, a party entered 
the field at Hannibal, Mo., to continue the upstream extension of the 
topography and hydrography of the Commission's survey. By the end 
of the working season, on November 10, a river distance of 69 miles was 
covered, and the work was suspended at a point near the head of the 
Des Moines Bapids, 10 miles above Keokuk, Iowa. 



I 



\ 

<s 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3547 

Mapsj publieatianSj etc, — ^The condition and progress of the publica- 
tion of the charts of this survey may be stated as follows: 

Tlie map of the alluvial region, reaching from the Gulf of Mexico up 
to Cax)e Girardeau, Mo. (scale 1 inch to 5 miles), is complete in 8 pub- 
lished sheets. 

The 1 inch to the mile map is complete from the Head of the Passes 
to Orafton, 111., 1,289 miles by river, in 41 sheets. 

The charts on a scale of 1:20000 are now complete from Donaldson- 
ville, La., to Grafton, HI., 1,116 miles by river, in 84 sheets. Four sheets 
have been issued since the last report. 

The charts on a scale of 1 ilOOOO are now complete from Donaldson- 
ville. La., to just above Quincy, III,, a distance by river of 1,235 miles. 
Seven have been completed since the last report. 

During the year 25 gauges have been maintained in good order by 
the Commission and daily observations read. The collection, tabala- 
tioB, and publication of these gauge records, together with others kept 
by Ms^ors Mackenzie and Allen and by Captains Willard and Taber, of 
the Corps of Engineers, and by the Weather Bureau, aggregating 32 
on the main river .'vnd 26 oh the tributaries, has been brought down to 
include the year 1892. An improvement in the construction of gauge 
bulletins, designed by Assistant Engineer Ockerson, adding materially 
to their strength and durability, is being made as last as reconstruc- 
tion is required. 

The publication of the gauging of the main river and of its tribu- 
taries, made under the direction of the Commission at different points 
and stages, has been continued to include the year 1892. 

An exhibit, consisting of various maps, observations, and methods 
of the Commission^ has been preparedaudplacedin the World's Colum- 
bian Exx)osition. 

An interesting study and report on eighteenth century maps of the 
Mississippi Eiver has been made by Captain Palfrey, secretary of the 
Commission. These show great topographical ability on the part of ^he 
authors, and indicate that the constant and rapid changes observed in 
the river are local, and of detail, and mainly caused by cut oil's, and 
that the great features of curvature are permanently characteristic. 

During the year the steamer Mississippi lost her upper works by fire, 
and the Pete Kirns was crushed in an ice gorge. The former is being 
rebuilt and the lafter replaced by purchase. 

Diligent efforts have been made this year by the secretary and the 
dJatriet officers to collect commercial statistics of the river, and much 
greater success has been obtained than in previous years. The analysis 
of the information received from the Mississippi Valley Transportation 
Company, by the secretary, shows in a clear light the importance of 
improved low-water navigation. The result of their labor will be found 
in their several reports and appendices. 

Further details of the transactions of the Commission and of its office 
will be found in the report of Captain Palfrey, secretary, and the sev- 
eral reports of assistant engineers and the appendices attached thereto, 

FIRST niSTKICT (CAIRO TO FOOT OF ISLAND 40, 220 MILES). 

ColnmbtiSy Ky.^ 21 miles helow Cairo. — ^This work is intended to pro- 
tect the front of the town against erosion. It covers 2,200 linear feet 
of bank and was completed in 1891. It has accomplished its purpose, 
and, at present, requires neither repairs nor extension. 

Hickman^ Ky.^ 36 miles below Cairo, — At this point the hills reach the 



3648 EEPOfit OP THE CHIEF O^ ENGlNEEftS, V. S. AKMY. 

river, and on and below them the city is located. For several years 
caving of the alluvial bottom lands, both above and below tlie bluffy 
had been going on rapidly, while the harder hill formation has success- 
rftilly resisted the attack of the current. At one time there was a railway 
terminus above the bluff, but this was abandoned before appropriations 
for the improvement were made. Therefore, from the small value of 
the land above the hill, from the great extent of work whicli would 
have been required to protect it, and because the bluff made a safe head 
ft» the work, a project was adopted for starting a revetment there, 
extending 1,000 feet downstream. This work was built in 1890 and 
has accomplished its purpose. It is possible that an extension both in 
width and length may be required as the floods have damaged the lower 
end and increased the depth along its outer edge. The repairs so far 
necessary at the lower end have been made and additional ballast 
placed on the shore m^ts. 

If etc Madrid, Mo.j 71 mxlen below Cairo. — The project fortius improve- 
ment consists of a revetment along the front of the town, from Dry 
Slough downstream, to protect it against erosion. The stone for the 
work has been delivered on the bank, and construction will commence 
as soon as the water has fallen sufficiently to make it practicable. 

Plum Point Reach, 147-186 miles below Cairo, — This reach has a 
length of about 40 miles. The several works designed for its improve- 
ment are detached and consist of continuous and interrupted revet- 
ments of spurs, dikes, and training walls. These are all intended to 
cooperate in confining and directing the channel throughout the limits 
of the reach. Reference is here made, in detail, to each of these works 
and its present condition, in geographical order, beginning at the 
upstream end. 

Daniels Point revetment. — This revetment was commenced in 1888, 
to maintain the conditions and direction in which the river entered the 
reach. At that time about one mile was built, with the intention of 
extending it upstream, in subsequent years, as far as might prove neces- 
sary. Slight repairs were required during the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1892, and others of a more extensive character have been necessary 
during the past year. The work is in a very exposed position and, 
owing to the short length of bank covered, is liable to serious attack on 
either flank. All repairs were repeated on March 1, 1893, and the work 
is now in good order. Preparations are made to extend it 1,()00 feet 
upstream during the early summer. 

Ashport Bend revetment. — At the date of the last report this revet- 
ment had been extended downstream to a point 6,750 feet below Ash- 
port. Its extension has been actively pushe<l during the working season 
of the past year, and by February, 1893, when work was suspended by 
high water, 8,504 additionalfeet of bank had been covered. This leaves 
only about 4,000 feet to complete this part of the project. Considerable 
difficulties were encountered on this work, in some parts owing to the 
unstable nature of the soil and in others from the great number of 
cypress stumps, both of which added much to the time and cost of 
grading. The mats below low water range in width from 200 to 240 
feet. 

Oold Dust dikes. — ^These dikes remain as they were described in the 
report of 1891. No further work is now contemplated, as the projected 
dikes in Elmot and Island 30 chutes will better accomplish the results 
that would be gained by their maintenance. 

Fletchers Bend revetment, — This work, commenced in 1884, had reached 
at the time of our last report a continuous development of 12^900 linear 



APPENDIX T Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI BIVEB COMMISSION. 3649 

feet. Below tbis was three detached pieces, aggregating abont 3,300 
feet, practically giving a length of 17,400 feet of protected bank. It is 
proposed to connect these detached pieces as soon as circumstances will 
permit, and an allotment is made for that purpose. The repairs required 
daring the past year have been unimportant. 

JBlmot and Island 30 chutes. — ^It has been necessary to postpone so 
far the construction o*^ the dikes across Elmot and Island 30 chutes. 
This work is now proposed as part of the operations of the coming 
season. These will be low- water dams, intended to turn the low- water 
flow from these by-ways, and divert it into the main channel, for the 
improveTnent of Fletchers and Elmot crossings. An allotment has 
been made for the purpose and the required amount of stone has been 
deUvered on a convenient part of the bank. The object of these dikes 
has been to a certain extent anticipated by sinking mats, heavily bal- 
lasted with stone, over the drift racks accumulated in the chutes. 

Flum Point revetment and dikes. — No work has been done or is at 
present intended here. 

Osceola revetment. — At the date of last report this work had a length 
of 5,500 feet, which is apparently sufficient for protecting the bar. 

Osceola and Bullerton dikes. — No work has been done or is at present 
intended here. 

Bullerion revetment — This is one of the earliest revetmentiS built by 
the Ck>mnussion. It had a width of only 100 feet. It has done good 
service, bat recent changes in the channel have subjected it to a strain 
which makes it necessary that it should be largely if not entirely rebuilt 
with greater width and strength. 

Levees. — The only levees at present in this engineer district are in 
the vicinity of Plum Point, in connection with the channel improvement. 

An allotment of $264,000, under the provisions of the act of July 13, 
1892, has been made for the levees of the lower St. Francis Basin, fipom 
Point Pleasant to Helena, with a frontage of 228 miles. Surveys and 
contracts will be made as soon as practicable after the overflow, to com- 
mence the construction of the levees of this district, beginning at Bear 
Bayou and extending upstream as far as the allotment will permit. 

Surveys^ gauges, and observations. — During the year the usual surveys 
were made in this district in connection with the works of channel 
improvement and with levees. Special surveys were made of a shoal 
crossing near New Madrid, and of the lower portions of the Wolf and 
Caloosabatchie rivers, in connection with Memphis Harbor. Also spe- 
cial examinations, by soundings, have been made of the revetments of 
this district, with the view of ascertaining the condition of such work, 
and the cause of such defects as might be detected. The results of 
this and similar examinations made in the other districts will be dis- 
cussed in another part of this report. All details of these examinations 
with an important discussion, as well as of all other transactions in this 
district will be found in the appended report of Capt. S. W. Koessler, 
in charge of the district, and in the reports of his assistant engineers. 
High or low water discharge measurements were made at Columbus, 
Ky.j ^ew Madrid, Mo.; Fulton, Tenn., and Helena, Ark. 

BBCOKD DISTBIOT (ISLAND 40 TO MOUTH OF WHITE BITEB, 180 MILES). 

Eopefield Bendy Ark.^ 225 miles below Cairo. — The revetment built' 
in this bend is intended to cooperate with the local work along the 
front of Memphis Harbor. It was commenced in 1882, and has, year; 
^7 year, except when revetment work was Interdicted by Cougress,^ 



3560 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

been carried to a completion in 1889. Such injuries have been caused 
hy floods and such repairs made as have been described in previous 
reports. After the flood of 1892 repairs aggregating 4,200 linear feet 
and the strengthening of about 1,300 feet were found necessary. This 
was done during the past low- water season, but other breaks, four in 
number and aggregating 1,600 feet in length, have occurred during the 
past flood. 

Memphis Harbor^ 230 miles below Cairo. — ^Without the holding of 
Hopefield Bend by the revetment just rex)orted on the harbor of Mem- 
phis by this time would have been largely obstructed by the extension 
of the sand bar below Old Hen Island. As it is this bar has 
encroached on the front so as to overlap the paved landing about 150 
yards. The other harbor works, consisting of 7,500 feet of revetment 
and 2,000 feet of spur protection, have accomplished their object and 
continue in good order. 

Nonconnah Rocks^ 286 miles below Cairo, — ^Contract has been made 
for the removal of this obstruction to the channel on the left of Presi- 
dents Island, to a depth of about 8 feet below low water, during the 
coming sea^son. 

JBelma Harbor^ 306 miles below Cairo. — This work remains in the 
condition described in the last report of the Commission. It consists of 
600 linear feet of revetment and five spurs, covering a frontage of 
about 3,000 feet, which includes the most important part of the harbor. 
The lower end of this work is still incomplete, but the objects sought 
seem fairly established and no further work is in contemplation at 
present. 

Levees. — In this district are included the lower part of the lower St. 
Francis Basin, to which allusion has been made in the report on the 
first engineer district, also the Upper Yazoo levee district^ 244 to 365 
miles below Cairo, and the levee districts in the White liiver Basin, 306 
to 385 miles below Cairo. The levees of the Upper Yazoo levee district, 
about 120 miles long, are in a higher state of efficiency than those of 
most other parts of the system. They have generally grades 3 or 4 feet 
above the highest recorded water, full crowns and sections, and ban- 
quettes where the height makes it advisable. No crevasse has occurred 
in this district for the last tvro years. The work of the past year has 
been an enlargement of section over 5 miles, and the construction of a 
new levee about 1 J miles long at a point threatened by caving. The 
proposed work for the coming year is a ftirther enlargement of about 10 
miles and the construction of a new levee about 3,500 feet long. 

The work done in the past year by the General Government was 
503,448 and by the local authorities 439,106 cubic yards. 

The White River Basiu, extending from Helena to the mouth of White 
River, about 78 miles of frontage, comprises a projected system of levees 
throughout its length. Work on these has been commenced on both the 
upper and lower ends, as giving the most immediately valuable results in 
protection from overflow. At the date of the last report the upper section 
extended about 21 miles below Helena and the lower section wa« about 
19 miles long, leaving a gap of about 24 miles. During the year this 
gap has been reduced about 4 miles, and a long section of existing 
levees has been raised and strengthened. These levees, as far as built, 
are generally of fair grade and section. It is proposed during the 
coming year to reduce the intervening gap as much as the allotment 
will permit. 

Surveys, gauges, and observations. — The surveys necessary for informa- 
tion concerning several works and the condition of the river in the dis- 



appendix: y y— beport op Mississippi biver commission. 3551 

trict have been made during the year, and also many borings to gain 
information coneeming the character ot the soil at depths to which the 
channel reaches and to whicli revetments must necessarily extend. 
S{>ecial surveys of revetments such as were described in the first district 
were everywhere made and will be discussed hereafter. 

Full accounts of the operations of this district will be found in the 
reports of Gapt. S. W. Koessler and of his assistant engineer^ and in 
their appendices. 

THIBD nXSTBICT (FROM WHITE RIVER TO WARRENTOZNT, MISS., 220 

MILES.) 

Zfoke Bolivar fronty 417 miles below Cairo. — ^This work, consisting of 
4,400 linear feet of revetment, intended to protect the Lake Bolivar 
levee and its site, was completed in 1889. It has accomplished its pur- 
pose. During the coming year it is proposed to make the necessary 
repairs, which are slight. 

Ashbroolc Neek revetment^ 446 miles below Cairo. — This important 
work had in view the prevention of a cut-off at the upper end of the 
narrow necks, formed by the remarkable series of reverse curves in the 
river just above Greenville, and known as " The Bends." It was 
apprehended that a cut-off at this point would, by shortening the local 
length, so increase the slope and velocity of the river that the rate of 
caving would be much augmented, other cut-offs would occur, the har- 
bor of GreenvUle be destroyed, many miles of levee lost, and a general 
disturbance induced of the conditions of this part of the river which 
are now tolerably stable and quite favorable for navigation. The work 
was designed to consist of a continuous revetment 8,000 feet long with a 
width of 300 feet below low water, or as near that as is practicable. Work 
was commenced in 1890, during which season 2,820 feet were laid. 
During the next year, besides the repairs which were necessary at the 
lower end of the previous season's work, an extension of 2,500 feet 
downstream and 1,500 upstream was made. During the past season 
the work was completed by a further upstream extension of 2,610 
linear feet. To assist in the same object a spur dike or levee was built 
down the axis of the point to obstruct the overflow across the neck. 
Although this part of the work was badly damaged by the floods it 
accomplished an important result by accumulating a large quantity of 
drift and sand. Ko further work is now contemplated at this point. 

Greenville Harbor ^ 478 miles below Cairo. — The object of this improve- 
ment is the protection jfrom caving of the bank on which the city of 
Greenville is built. The first project proposed only the construction 
of a series of spurs along the city front. This was accomplished in the 
years 1887, 1888, and 1889. They gave an immediate local result, but it 
was soon recognized that the caving in the bend above was so rapid 
that, to preserve the existing work and the city, it was necessary to 
extend a revetment upstream until a stable bank was reached. This 
was commenced in 1891, during which year 6,600 linear feet of mat 
work, similar to that at Asbbroo^ Feck, was laid. During the past 
season 4,450 feet have been added. It is proposed to continue the 
work as fast as circumstances will permit. 

LaJce Frovidentfe Eeach^ 512-572 miles below Cairo. — ^The reports of 
the last and previous years have given full details of the various works 
of channel improvement comprised in the system for the rectification of 
this reach. At the date of the last report the revetment of Louisiana 
Bend, commenced in 1889^ had a length of 11,024: feet, all in good 



3552 BBPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMY. 

order. During the past year 5,835 feet have been added, makings * 
total length of 3} miles. Notwithstanding the destruction of many of 
the earlier works built in this reach, and the failure of the continued 
operation of others by the extensive caving in bends opposite the eon- 
•traction works, which it was not in the power of the Oommissioii ix> 
prevent, partly from lack of funds and partly from legislative restric- 
tions, the beneficial results secuxed for navigation are not lost. It is 
not proposed to continue any work in this reach during the coming 
season for reasons that will be given hereafter. 

VioJc8burg Harbor and Delta Point, 599 unties below Cairo. — Since tlie 
cut-off of the i)oint opposite Vicksburg in 1876 a persistent and suc- 
cessful effort has been made to prevent the caving of Delta Point. An jr 
further recession of this point wonld not only add to the commercial 
disadvantages under which this city rests as the result of the cut-olX^ 
but would also very materially increase the cost and diflSculty of any 
plan^ that can be devised for the improvement of the harbor. The 
maintenance of this point has therefore been regarded as the key of the 
situation to which all other features were sulK>rdinate. Besides this 
work at Delta Point the dredging of a canal of navigable width and 
depth at the lowest stages, leading from the main channel of the river 
into the east end of the lake form^ by the cut-oft' and along the com- 
mercial front of the city, was undertaken in 1887. To protect it against 
silt-bearing currents in higher stages a dike is being constructed, with 
excavated material across the lake at the head of the canal, and has 
now reached a height of 25 to 35 feet above the zero of the Vicksburg 
gauge. 

The Delta Point revetment has been succe^ssful and is now in efficient 
order. Its permanence is, however, threatened by a very considerable 
increase of depth from scour along its outer edge. It is therefore pro- 
posed, during the coming working season, to increase the width and 
take all other necessary precautions for the preservation of this mat 
work. 

The results of dredging in the canal have not been encouraging, 
more particularly in the last two years, during which 559,721 cubic 
yards have been excavated and a refill of 298,000 yards, or over 53 per 
cent, has occurred. The total excavation since 1887 should have given 
a prism with a contents of 1,416,165 cubic yards, of which only about 
1,000,000 yards, or 70 per cent, can now be found. It w^ill be observed 
that the fill has occurred at an increasing rate as the excavation has 
been deepened. * 

The river and harbor bill of July 13, 1892, adopted the plan of Gapt. 
J. H. Willard, Corps of Engineers, for an improvement of Vicksburg 
Harbor, and made an appropriation for its execution. This project 
contemplates the diversion of the Yazoo Eiver from its present outfall 
into the east end of Centennial Lake and along the city front. When 
this plan is put in execution the dike under construction by the Com- 
mission, across the head of the canal to protect it against silt-bearing 
currents, will be an obstruction which it will be necessary to remove. 
But, in view of the past experience in dredging, it is evident that an 
exclusion of the sediment-charged flow isneccNsary to the success ot 
the canal. The Commission therefore recommends that no further work 
be done ux)on the dike across the head of the canal, and, also, in view 
of the importance of this dike to the successful completion and main- 
tenance of the canal, that further dredging be suspended. 

LeveeSj Lower Yazoo district. — ^This district is on the left bank^ with 
a river frontage of 215 miles and a development of levee line of about 



f 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPOBT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3553 

ISO mfles. With that of the Upper Yaaoo district it completes tbe 
protection of the Yazoo Basin. The levrees of the district have gener- 
ally comparatively fair grades, crowns, and slopes, with banquettes on 
the land side where the heights are great. They have successfully 
^thstood the great floods of 1892 aud 181)3 without a break. Daring 
the last fiscal year the Government work has consisted iu raising and 
strengthening about 20 miles of the line to standard grade and dimen- 
sions. Similar work will be prosecuted under the aDotment for the 
coming working season over about 30 miles. 

Upper Tenscbs district. — ^This district is on the right bank of the river, 
extending from the Arkansas Biver down to the Louisiana line. It has 
a length of about 85 miles. The head of the system rests on moderately 
high land on the bank of Amos Bayou, about 7 miles back from the 
Mississippi at Lucca Landing. This location gives fair protection to 
the Tensas Basin against flood coming exclusively down the Mississippi, 
bat when the Arkansas is in flood at the same time a large volume 
escapes around the head of those levees into the Tensas Basin. This 
overflow in 1892 amounted to 300,000 cubic feet per second. The Com- 
mission has now under advisement plans of extension to prevent this 
condition of affairs. The general condition of this line of levees is very 
far inferior to those heretofore described on the Yazoo Basin front. 
While the levees recently built both by the General Government and 
by the State authorities of Arkansas and Louisiana are of standard 
grade and section, yet many old-time levees are still remaining which 
were. topped during the last two floods and have very weak sections. 
The length of these deficient parts was estimated during the flood of 
1892 at about 40 miles. This has been materially reduced during the 
past year by the placing of 1,203,000 cubic yards of earth by the Gen- 
eral Government. Similar work will be prosecuted during the coming 
low- water season by the building of about 1,100,000 cubic yards. Even 
with these expenditures there will still remain in this district about 25 
miles of low-grade and weak levees, which are an annual source of dan- 
ger and expense. During these same periods about 250,000 cubic yards 
have been placed and undertaken by the State organizations. 

There have occurred in this district from the flood of 1893 four cre- 
vasses. 

Middle Temas district, — ^This levee district is on the right bank and 
is continuous with the Upper Tensas, from the Louisiana State line down 
to a i>oint opposite Warrenton, Miss., 10 miles below Vicksburg, It 
has a levee length of 87 miles. While the grades and sections of these 
are generally rather better than those of the Upper Tensas, yet many 
of them require very material improvements to make them safe*, and 
many more are threatened with caving in the very near future, and large 
expenditures will be required within the next two or three years, if not 
sooner, to preserve the continuity of the line. This caving is graphi- 
cally shown In the plate accompanying the report of Assistant Engi- 
neer Ockerson (Appendix 4 F, Report 1802) on the relative rate of cav- 
ing in different parts of the river. 

During the past year the General Government has built 460,000 aud 
the State organizations 258,000 cubic yards of levee in this district. 

During the present flood there has occurred one crevasse at Wylys. 
This is a most disastrous one, having an observed divscharge of 200,000 
cubic feet per second. This, with the crevasses iu the Upper Tensas 
district, all discharge into the Tensas Basin, and the overflow is collected 
and returned into Lower Red and reaches the Gull through the Missis- 
sippi and Atchafalr.ya rivers. In this emergency the General Govern- 

miGc93 ^223 



3554 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

ment has rendered efficient assistance in the supply of labor and rrvRte- 
rial and in inspection, patrolling, and other services which could be l>est 
rendered by the steamboats and barges under the-control of the district 
officer. 

Surveys J gauges^ and observations. — Full surveys have been made dur- 
ing the year of all the works of channel improvement in this district, 
also many levee surveys. Discharge observations have been taken at 
Arkansas City and Wilsons Point, on the Mississippi, and also ou 'tlie 
Arkansas and White rivers. 

As in the first and second districts, special examinations have stiso 
been made here into the condition of the revetments of the district. 
The results of these, with important discussions, are presented in tlie 
appendices containing the reports of Captain C. McD. Townsend a^ml 
his assistant engineers. In these appendices full details will be found. 
of all the transactions in this district. The results of the special 
examination of revetment work will receive consideration in auotlier 
part of this report. 

FOURTH DISTRICT (WARRENTON, MISS., TO HEAD OF PASSES, 484 

MILES). 

Ifatefiez^ Miss.^ and Vidalia, La.j ffarhors, 700 miles below Cairo. — 
This improvement will consist mainly of bank revetment, intended ta 
avert a cut-off through the point above the harbors in question, by 
which the Vidalia bank would be badly eroded, and a sand bar formed 
in front of Natcliez. As the appropriation was entirely insufficient to 
undertake a very large amount of revetment required, it was deter- 
mined by the Commission to confine the year's operation to the con- 
struction of a spur levee, to prevent the injurious and dangerous flow 
in high water across the point. Surveys for this have been completed 
and the work will be done as soon as the high water sufficiently sub- 
sides. 

Eectificafion of the Red and Atchafalaya rivers, 761 miles below Cairo. — 
The condition of affairs remains the same at this point as was described 
in the last report of the ("ommission. The project for improvement has 
also been set forth in full detail in previous reports. 

At the approacli of low water and during September, 1892, three 
dredges were employed inmaintaining the channel from the Mississippi, 
through lower Old liiver, into the lied and Atchafalaya. Notwith- 
standing every effort navigation was entirely suspended from October 
1 until early in November and was not freely reopened until the 19th 
of that month. 

During the year the Commissionhas contracted for the building of a 
dredge boat specially designed for work in upper Old River on the 
adopted project for meeting the requirements of several acts of Con- 
gress on the subject. This boat will be completed before the low-wat«r 
season, when dredging will be commenced in upper Old River. The 
bfilance of the appropriation on hand, after paying for this dredge, may 
not be more than sufficient for tem^wrary work in maintaining naviga- 
tion during the low-water season through lower Old River. As soon as 
sufficient funds are available for the completion of the dam it is pro- 
X>osed to take advantage of the expressed willingness of the steamboat 
men of the Red, Atchafalaya, and Ouachita rivers, mentioned in our 
last report, to relinquish the use of theold channel and suspend their trade 
for the timeduring which it will be necessarily obstructed by the raising 
of the dam to a sufficient height to divert a large part of the low> water 



/ 



APPENDIX Y Y ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3555 



I 



discliaTge to the north of Turnbulls Island, and thus cooperate with 
the dredging operations in opening that channel. 

New Orleans Barbor^ 963 miles below Cairo. — ^The project for the 
improvement of this harbor contemplates, almost exclnsively, the pro- 
tection against caving of the. banks of the river, by spurs and revet- 
ments. The condition of the river and its banks within the limits of 
^ this harbor is one of comparative stability, when compared with the 

^ extraordinary changes which occur above and below Vicksburg. But, 

; owing to the valuable improvements located immediately on the banks 

of the harbor and the enormous commerce to which they minister, any 
change which, in other localities, would be of slight importance, becomes 
here a most serious matter, involving the loss of wharves, warehouses, 
public streets, factories, and other valuable real estate, as well as 
restricting and impeding both interstate and foreign commerce. 

It may also be observed that the methods of improvement which 
have been applied to this harbor have proved generally effective, as far 
as the limit of appropriations have permitted their application.' There 
exists great need for the early extension of similar work of improve- 
ment down the Carrollton Bend to Audubon Park, from St. Ann to 
Esplanade street, for an increased number of spurs in tiie Third Munic- 
iphl district, and for work at the Algiers Point. In all these places, 
where valuable properties and interests are located, erosion, more or 
less rapid, but always destructive, is going on. In some cases the 
damage in one year of erosion has exceeded the cost of permanent 
improvement. 

During the past year work has been confined to the placing of con- 
tinuous bank revetment in the intervals between the completed dikes 
in the Carrollton Bend at Soutliport, at which point the short radiijis 
of curvature makes the attack of the current so direct and the slope 
of the bank so abrupt as to render this additional precaution advisable. 

A part of the appropriation of $80,000 (for two years) was necessa- 
rily expended in new barges and repairs to the plant. 

Levees, — ^The levee work in this engineer district has largely increased 
during the past year, and a redistribution of the levee districts within 
its limits has been found convenient. The titles of the several allot- 
ments have been accordingly changed. A detailed description of the 
season's operations will be found in the reports of Capt. J. Millis and 
of his assistant engineers. 

Several improvements have been made in the methods of construc- 
tion, which are described therein. 

The titles, lengths, and limits of the levee districts, as rearranged 
within the engineer district, are as follows : 

Lower Tensas, right bank, from Warrenton to Red Biver, 146 mUes 
of river, of which 130.5 are leveed. 

Atchafalaya, right bank, from Red River to the Lafourche, 121 miles, 
entirely leveed. 

Lafourche, right bank, from Lafourche to New Orleans, 78 miles, 
entirely leveed. 

Barataria, right bank, from Few Orleans to the Head of Passes, 80 
mfles, of which 70 is leveed. 

Pontchartrain, left bank, from Baton Rouge to Kew Orleans, 124 
miles, entirely leveed.. 

Lake Borgne, left bank, from New Orleans to Head of Passes, 90 
miles, of which 80 miles is leveed. 
« The work done during the past year, including contracts under way, 



3556 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMY. 

but not completed, by the General Government in rebuilding 
raising and enlarging to standard grade and section is as follows: 



District. 



Lower Tcnfia«. 
Atcharnlaya .. 

Lafoamho 

Barataria 

Pontchaftrain. 
Lake Itorgue . . 



Total. 



Mileaofl USLem 

levee improved 
length, this year. 



130.5 
121 

78 

70 
124 

80 



88.90 

6.72 

5.01 

12.28 

U.43 

8.72 



Ciibio 
yards. 



500, a&o 

677,290 

461,711 

782, 

415, 

361,346 



603.5 



67.96 



3,289,14l» 



It will be seen that within the past year's operations over 11 per cent 
of the levees of the district have been improved by the General Gov- 
ernments The work of the State organizations in the same limits 
during the year 1892 has comprised the raising and enlargement of 
101.5 miles, or about 17 per cent, of the several lines, all to standard 
grade and dimensions except 24 miles, which were temporarily improved. 

The flood of 1892 caused twenty-five breaks in this engineer district, 
all of which were below Red River, and all of which, except five, were 
promptly closed. Belmont and Sarpy were disastrous crevasses in the 
Pontchartrain levee district. Anchor, in the same district, did but little 
additional damage, while Story and Villere, in the Lake Borgne district, 
were quite local in their effects. 

From the flood of 1893, of equal magnitude to that of the previous 
year, there is but one crevasse remaining open, viz, at Rescue. This 
will probably prove disastrous in part of the Pontchartrain district. ' 

Much improvement and success were attained in 1892 in closing 
crevasses; but the art has not yet reached a point of sufficient certainty 
and economy to justify its application except where the conditions are 
very favorable. 

During the floods of 1892 and of this year the General Gk)vernmeilt 
has rendered much assistance by the supply and transportation of 
materials to threatened x>oints in the line as well as by the rapid and 
careful inspection of levees which the district officer was best able to 
make with the towboats and barges under his control. 

During the past year the levees of this engineer district have been 
substantially improved, from the efficient cooperation of the General 
and State authorities, but much remains to be done to bring them to a 
condition of safety for more than an average flood. 

Surveys, gauges, and observations. — During the year usual high and 
low- water discharge observations have been made at Garrollton, and 
Red River, on the Mississippi, and on the Red and Atchafalaya nvers. 
Surveys are being made at and below Belmont and Sarpy crevasses of 
1892, with a view of ascertaining, by duplicating these surveys after 
the present flood, the effect upon the bed of the main river caused by 
the loss of volume through these crevasses. The usual harbor and 
levee surveys have been made during the year, while special surveys, 
directed by the Commission, have been made between Warrenton and 
Grand Gulf, Rodney, and Coles Creek, and back of Lake Bruin and St. 
Joseph. 

Reference for fhrther information concerning the operations of this 
engineer district is made in the report of Capt. J. MilliSy and the reports 
of his assistant engineers. 



f 



M 

? APPENMX t Y — ^BEPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3557 

BBYETMBNTS AKB BBEDaiKO. 

BnriDg tbe past year special examinatioDS have been made of all the 
bauk revetments in each of the districts where they have been built to 
ascertain defects of construction or change of condition caused by them. 
These surveys have disclosed the fact of a general deepening from 
scour along the outer edges of the mats. In some cases the mat has 
adjusted itself to the new condition, as was intended, while in others 
the test of its flexibility has been too great and faults have occurred. 
In some places, also, there has been settlement in the middle of mats 
rather than along their edges, indicating that greater thickness or den- 
sity is required in very exposed situations. Defects have also been 
found between the low-water mats and those built on the graded bank. 
XJml^r the strain of the longKSontinued floods of recent years the injury 
Buffered by the revetment work has been sufficient to require a modifi- 
cation of some of the details of construction of bauk protection. 

The history of this work, under the Commission, is one of progressive 
increase in size and strength of structures employed as the necessity 
for such increase has been developed and as, by invention and the skill 
which eomes from experience, the building and handling of larger and 
stronger structures has become possible. The mattresses used in the 
lower Mississippi for five years past have been the heaviest and widest 
ever made for like purpose in the history of engineering. To build and 
sink them in the deepest and swiftest stream upon which such improve- 
ment has been attempted is an undertaking of extreme diflicnlty. It 
could not have been done successfuUy in the earlier stages of the 
improvement. 

These works have always accomplished the results intended in their 
construction. The holding of a caving bank has always contributed 
to the improvement in the channel. The one open question of the 
whole problem of low- water improvement upon the lines hitherto fol- 
lowed is the permanence of the works employed for bank protection. 
In this respect there is more to be desired than has been attained. 

Upon careful consideration of the subject the Commission believes it 
advisable to further modify the construction of mattresses used in revet- 
ment work with a view to securing more flexibility and greater density 
in certain parts that are particularly exposed, and a better connection 
between the mats above and below low water, at the same time retain- 
ing the stroigth and general methods of construction and handling. 
This will involve additional cost. But, believing it to be warranted by 
the importance of the work, the engineers in charge have been directed 
to adopt methods to secure these ends in the work of the coming sea- 
son. With these modifications of structure other and additional safe- 
guards wiU be introduced. 

In view of these facts and conclusions it has been recommended that, 
during the coming working season, new revetment work be confined to 
Plum Point Beach and Hopefield Bend. 

These considerations, and the recommendation to which they lead, 
may involve a delay in the present methods of channel improvement 
which the rapidly increasing demand for better low-water navigation 
can not stand. The Commission has therefore had under consideration 
for the past year the subject of temporarily dredging such bars as may, 
daring-each low- water season, limit the navigable depth between Cairo 
and I&d River. After very full study they have devised a plan and 
are building an experimental dredging plant on the lines which they 
think are most likely to accomplish this purpose. This will be large 



3558 EEPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, V. S. ARMT. 

enough to demonstrate satisfactorily the feasibility or otherwise of 
affording relief to commerce by this class of work. It is recogni5?;ecl 
that to be at all efficient this dredging must be done on a scale rarely^ 
if ever, previously attempted. The character of dredge to be used, tlie 
manner and possible speed of working, and above all the best method 
of disposing of the di'edged material, are points of great importance 
which must be settled before the great cost of the final plant required 
should be incurred. The experimental dredge now building is designed 
to throw light on these points as far as possible. It is expected thskit 
it will be completed in time to be uaed during the low water of the 
present season. The Commission has, therefore, also reserved from 
other allotments a sum sufficient to construct a dredge boat of 8u£9.- 
cient size and capacity to fully apply the results of these experiments 
on the practicability of the temporary improvement of navigation by 
such means. 

HIGH WATER OP 1893 AND LEVEES. 

The volume of discharge of the flood of 1893 was of very much more 
than average magnitude and it is possible in this respect, after the 
discharge measurements are prepared, that in some parts of the river 
it may rank among the very great floods. The volume contained 
between levees was greater than ever before. The following dates and 
stages at different localities on the main river and its tributaries 
show clearly the sources firom which the contributions were received: 

Feet. 

C in cinnati, May 2 50. 6 

Chattanooga, May 6 28.2 

Nashville, May 9 19.9 

St. Louis, May 3 31.5 

Cairo, May 9 49.3 

Little Rock, May 3 ^.2 

Alexandria, May 27 24 

The northern tributaries of the Ohio, the St. Francis, White, and 
Yazoo were also excessively high during the month of May. It will 
thus be seen that very large discharges combined from all flood-making 
sources, except the Tennessee and the Cumberland, which did not 
rise much above a half-flood stage. 

The high water resulting from these sources in 1893 was in many 
respects similar to that of the previous year. Both came exceedingly 
late in the season, and later in 1893 than in 1892. 

The resemblance between the floods is also noticeable in the fact that 
between Arkansas City and Vickaburg and below Red River grea-ter 
absolute heights were reached than were ever recorded before, and 
greater relative heights than were observed in either year above 
Arkansas City. 

The greater heights of these floods in the parts of the river above 
mentioned is to be mainly if not entirely attributed to the larger vol- 
ume of discharge held between the levees by their improved condition. 

Notwithstanding the substantial equality in the flood heights of the 
past and present high water the number of crevasses in 1893 have been 
less than ever before whenever any such stage prevailed, and several 
districts have entirely escaped overflow. The number of unclosed cre- 
vasses in 1892 was ten, with an aggregate open length of 10,982 feet, 
or about one in 550 miles. During the present flood there have been 
six unclosed crevasses. The aggregate length of these is not yet ascer- 



f 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3559 

tained, nor is the iDformation yet in the possession of the Commission 
to prepare a complete statement of the area of land overflowed, as com- 
pared ^with previous years, although the indications are that it will be 
less. It may be well, in connection with this review of the high water 
of 1893, to briefly describe the existing levee system, its conditions, 
resalts, and requirements. Below the junction ot the Mississippi and 
Ohio tlie hills crowd closely to the left bank and prevent any large 
escape of high water as far down as Memphis. Here no general system 
of levees exists or is required. On the right bank below Cairo lies the 
St, Francis Basin, extending from Cape Girardeau, Mo., to Helena, 
Ark. It is drained by the St. Francis River and Bayou St. John. 
This large region has never been protected from overflow, and only 
no'w are cooperative measures being taken by the General Government 
and the local organizations to inaugurate a system of levees. On the 
left bank, a short distance below Memphis, and on the right bank, at 
Helena, begin the existing levee systems. That on the left bank 
extends down near to Vicksburg and protects the Yazoo Basin. It is 
in good condition, generally having strong sections and grades from 
3 to 4 feet above high water. It withstood the floods of the years 1892 
and 1893 without a break, although the flood of 1882, when the water 
iwras from 2 to 3^ feet lower along the front of the basin, there were 149 
crevasses. The levee system on the right bank, from Helena down to 
White River, is intended to protect the White Eiver Basin, and is now 
in process of construction. When completed it will have provisionally 
efficient grades and sections. Below the Arkansas River, and still on 
the right bank, lies the Tensas Basin, extending to lied River, 330 
miles, partly in Arkansas and partly in Louisiana. A line of levees 
extends along the entire front of this basin. These levees are by no 
means in a condition equal to those on the left bank and crevasses 
have been of annual occurrence. Much work is still required to bring 
them to a state to safely resist floods equaling those of the past two 
years. 

Below Red River the levees extend on the right bank to about 70 
miles below New Orleans, while on the left bank, owing to the prox- 
imity of the hills, they only commence at Baton Rouge, from which 
point they also extend to about 70 miles below New Orleans. Although 
these levees on both banks have been recently much improved, yet no 
yeai* has passed without crevasses on one side or the other, and much 
work is still required to make them efficient. 

It has appeared to the Commission to be a wise policy in levee build- 
ing, owing to the extent of the work and the limited amount applicable 
to it in any one year, to promptly close all breaks as soon as practicable 
after their occurrence, in order to maintain the continuity of the line, 
and to build as long an extent of levee as possible, with a provisional 
grade and strength sufficient to resist the high waters that recur with 
substantial regularity, in order to give the earliest and widest protec- 
tion, even if this protection is not absolute. This course commands 
itself rather than to build levees at present to an estimated grade and 
strength which will be sufficient to confine the entire discharge of the 
greatest ftiture floods, and, in the meantime, to leave unimproved long 
stretches that will be breached by every ordinary high water. The 
levee authorities of all the riparian States concur in and act upon this 
line in their yearly work. It is believed that the wisdom of this policy 
has already proved itself by the increased cooperation which is coming 
from local sources, by the increase of acreage under cultivation and of 



3560 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF EKGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

the value of land, and also of population in many of the districts^ ariid 
by a greater feeling of confidence in those who live behind levees. 

The efiect of such improvement as has already been ma^de has l>eeii 
to confine between levees a much larger high water volume, amouTitin^Tt 
lu some localities, aa at Lake Providence, to an increase of 40 per cent. 
Accompanying this increase of vohime is, of course, an increaae of 
flood height. The extreme instance of this is again found at Lake 
Providence, where the flood rise of the river has increased, since the 
improvement of the levee^i}, 3«5 feet, or about 8 per cent. A statement 
of the same tenor applies to Baton Rouge, where the increase of flood. 
rise has been 2.45 teet, or 7 per cent, although during the floodn of 
1892 and 1893 the entire discharge at Red River Landing upwards of 
1,300,000 cubic feet per second has, owing to the improvement of the 
levees of the Atchafalaya District, been transmitted past Baton Roag-e. 
In all previous years when any such discharge passed Red River 
disastrous breaks above Baton Rouge materially reduced the volaine 
passing the latter point. 

Undoubtedly greater heights will occur when a still larger proxwrtion 
of high water discharge is controlled between levees and when abnor- 
mal floods, such as in 1862 or 1882, occur, but in the meantime the 
improvement of the levees undertaken and approaching com]»letion in 
some basins, and well advanced in all, brings in sight a condition of 
the levee system that will give substantial relief and protection in all 
excei)t years of unusual floods. The measure of pro'^perity thus • 
induced will help to supply the resources for the final completion and 
maintenance of the work. 

To any other system for the protection of these alluvial lands there 
are objections, both theoretical and practical, which can not be over- 
come. Those of a theoretical character are connected with the 
hydraulic law that a reduction of flood discharge in a silt-formed chan- . 
nel will reduce its capa(;ity below the point of outlet. This observation 
has been repeated in the many local comparative surveys of the river 
bed made by the Commission before and after crevasses, or before and 
after rebuilding the levee made necessary by a crevasse. The difficul- 
ties of a practical nature consist of the necessity of continuing any out- 
let to the Gulf without return to the river at any intermediate point. 
Such return would merely transfer the danger from one locality to 
another lower down. The condition thus imposed upon any outlet 
involves great cost and danger. Any outlet intended to relieve the 
parts of the river where flood heights are now must dangerous would, 
in any case, be very long. To have an appreciable efiect it would 
require an excavated channel of large width and depth. As it would 
traverse tracts of cultivated and valuable land the cost of expropria- 
tion of a right of way would be very great. The o^ost of the levees 
which would be required to control it and prevent the permanent con- 
tinuation of disaster and overflow while flowing through regions which 
will in a few years be placed under the sufficient protection of a levee 
system would be very much greater. 

When completed there would be two or more rivers, each presenting 
the same dangers and requiring the same treatment as the present 
single channel. The cost of efficient outlets would be greater than 
the cost of completion of the levee system. When constructed they 
would either silt up, as do many island chutes, or would enlarge and 
assume the tortuous type of an alluvial stream, with shifting bars and 
caving banks. Finally, conceived and executed in defiance of physical 



^ 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 8561 

law, they would fail as a safe, clieap, or efficient method of abating 
overflow. 

After a I'eview of the progreps thus far made in the improvement of 
a levee system and of the fiicts developed by the continued surveys, 
gaugings, and observations of the river, such as the entire absence of 
evidence of any rise of the bed of the river, the local tendency to shoal 
where volume is reduced, and the larger discharge now controlled 
between levees, with an increase of flood heights which does not aifect 
the practicability of a low system, the Commission expresses its con- 
tinued coiiiidence in- the reclamation from overflow of the alluvial lands 
of the Lower Mississippi Valley on the lines now proposed and in 
progress, as entirely practicable, at a cost which is amply jusdfled by 
the importance of tlie undertaking. 

LOW WATER OP 1892. 

During the summer and autumn of 1892 the gauge readings were by 
no means so low as those of the previous year, which, generally, have 
not been equaled since 1879. The condition of the navigation is shown 
in the following abstract of bar depth between Cairo and Bed Kiver, 
where 10 leet or less were found: 



Depth. 


l^umber of 
places. 


? 

ToUl.... 


2 
2 

3 
6 
5 
7 
8 
11 


38 



WNANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Appropriation for salaries and expenses Mississippi Kiver Commission: 

Balance on hand May 31, 1892 $13S.26 

Balance on hand May 31, 1893 138.26 

Appropriation tor survey of Mississippi River: 

Balance on hand May 31, 1892 7.08 

Balance on hand May 31, 1893 7.08 

Appropriation for improving Mississippi River: 

Balance on hand May 31. 1892 986,375.18 

Appropriated, act of July 13, 1892 2,470,000.00 

Total 3,456,375.18 

Expended, June 1, 1892, to May 31, 1893 2,053,471.92 

Balance on hand May 31, 1893 802,903.26 

Distributed as follows: 

Levees 194,193.70 

Channel works 81, .'S59. 60 

Harbors and bank protection 245, 1J)9. 19 

Red and Atchafalaya rivers 139,973.00 

Surveys, gauges, and observations 38, >:'S0. 67 

Plant, Mississippi River Commission, and miscellauoous 103, 097. 10 

Total 802,903.26 

Approximate outstanding liabilities and amounts covered by existing 
contracts 296,492.83 



3562 REPORT OF THE CHlEP OP ENGINEERS, IT. S. ARMY. 

Eslhnate of funds by the Mississippi River Commission for the fiscal year ending June SO, 

1S95. 

For improving Mississippi River from head of the passes to the mouth of 
the Ohio River, including salaries, clerical, office, traveling, and miscel- 

laneoas expenses ot the Mississippi River Commission $2, 665 000 

For improving harbors at : 

New Madrid, Mo, 75,000 

Memphis. Tenn 100,000" 

Greenville, Miss 200,000 

Vicksbnrg, Miss. (Delta Point) ». 150,000 

Natchez, Miss., and Vidalia^ La 400, 000 

New Orleans, La 300,000 

For improvement at head of Atchafalaya and mouth of Red River, Louis- 
iana 350,000 

C. B. COMSTOCK, 

Colonel of Engineers^ Bvt. Brig. Gen,,, JJ. S. A., 
President Mississippi River Commission, 

Chas. K Suter, 

Lieut Col. of Engineers, 
B. M. Harrod, 
E. S. Taylor, 
O. H. Ernst, 

Major of Engineers. 
Henry Flad, 0. E., 
Henry L. Whiting, 
U, S. Coast and Oeodetic Survey. 
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chi^f of Engineers^ U. 8. A. 

Concurring in the inadvisability of an attempt to create new outlets 
trom the Mississippi River which sliall be large streams at all stages 
of the river, we do not wish to be understood as condemning the use 
in the levees of long waste weirs to take off* the top of the flood if it 
shall be found that at certain places in the lower part of the river the 
further increase in flood flow which will come from raising the levees 
at points farther up the river can be controlled in whole or in part by 
such waste weirs more economically than by liiglier levees. 

C. B. OOMSTOOK, 

Colonel of Engineers^ Bvt Brig. Gen. U. 8. A. 
President Mississippi River Commission. 

O. H. Ernst, 

Major of Engineers. 
Henry Flad, C. E., 
Henry L. Wnnma, 
U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

The signatures of Henry Flad and Henry L. Whiting have been 
added at their request. 

0. B. 0. 



APPENMX Y Y REPORT OF MlSSISSiPl>I RlVER COMMISSION. 3563 

1-T»T OF APPENDIXES ACCOMPANYING THE ABOVE REPORT, 

Page. 
ApponcLix 1. Note on "change of plane" at Red River Lauding, by Cten, 

C.B.Comstock 3564 

2. Report of comiiiittee on dredges 3570 

S. Report of Captain Palfrey, serretary of the Commission 3573 

A. — Report of Assistant Engineer Stewart on secondary tri- 

angnlation from Port Lonisa to Galena River 3589 

B. — Report of Assistant Engineer Morrow on w^ork of topog- 
raphy 3600 

C. — Report of Assistant Engineer Morrow on triaugulation 

n'om Donaldsonville to Head of Passes 3603 

D, — ^Report of Assistant Engineer Paige on precise leveling 

from New Orleans to iiead of Passes 3620 

£. — ^Report of Assistant Engineer Ockerson on inspection of 

Ranges 3654 

F. — Highest and lowest gange readings, 1892 3661 

G. — Highest and lowest and mean highest and lowest stages 

1872-'92 3662 

H. — Mean number of days during which the Mississippi 
River was between certain indicated heights, 1872- 
1892 3663 

I. — Discharge measurements, 1892 3663 

K. — Study of some early maps of the Mississippi River 3703 

L— Commercial statistics, 1892 3708 

4. Report of Captain Roessler on operations in the first and 

second districts 3713 

A. — Report of Assistant Engineer Rees on improvement at 

HopefieldBend 3726 

B. — Report of Assistant Engineer Nolty on operations at 

Plum Point Reach 3731 

C. — Report of Assistant Engineer Sturtevant on repairs to 

idant 3743 

5. Report of Captain Townsend on operations in the third dis- 

trict 3752 

A. — Final report of Assistant Engineer Hider on work at 

Greenville, Ashbrook Neck, and Louisiana Bend 3769 

13. — Report of Assi^^tant Engineer Coppde on work at Vicks- 

burg 3784 

C. — Comparison of low water soundings, Lake Providence 

Reach 3786 

D. — Cost of United States levees in Missiusippi, Arkansas, 

and Louisiana 3806 

E. — Statement of repairs to plant 3807 

6. Report of Captain Millis on operations in the fourth district 3816 



UST OF PIATES ACCOMPANYING REPORTS. 

V SeeonrlaTy triangnlatiou, Port Louisa to Gordons Ferry, Iowa. 

4 River stage bulletin. 

V Location of gauges (16 sheets). 

VOonrae of the Mississippi from Balise to Fort Chartres (Ross, 1765). 

"^Vraft of the Mississippi from Balise to Fort Chartres (Pitman, 1770), 

VMap o£ the Mississippi from the Missouri to the mouth (Collot, 1826). 

V Comparative diagram of meander lineSi Mississippi River, 

VMap of Plum Point Reach. 

vVioinity of Memphis, Tenn. 

'^Xievee locations, second district. 

'O[mprovement at Ashbrook Neck« 

Ylmprovement at Greenville. 

^Chart of Lake Providence Reach. 

vlmprovement at Louisiana Bend. 

VRydrographs, Lake Providence Reach (2 sheets). 

^-/Regimen elements, Lake Providence Reach. 

V "Velocity observations at Louisiana Bend. 

Velocity observations at Shipland. 

"^ Chaort of Yicksburg Harbor. 



3564 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEES, tJ. S. AEMV. 

^ Sections of canal and basin, Yicksbnrg. 

VProlile of Mississippi levees. 

(/Profile of Arkansas and Lonisiana leyees. 

VTypical section of Middle Tensas levees. 

\/Katchez and Vidalia — survey of Cowpen Point. 

s/Red and Atchafalaya. Improvement at Tnmhnll Island. 

vNew Orleans Harbor, bank protection, Carrollton Bend. 

N^New Orleans Harbor, survey^ Sonthport to Exposition Whaff. 

vLevees, Lower Tensas and Bi^ Black districts. 

N^ Levees, Atchafalaya, Lafourche, and P<mtchartrain districts. 

^VLevees, Barataria and Lake Borgne districts. 

vl^vees, method of closing crevasses in. 

VLevees, typical sections, Fourth district. 

>l Map of Fourth district, showing crevasses and oTerflowed area. 



Appendix 1. 

NOTB BTCOL. C. B. COM8TOCK, CORPS OF KNGINKFRS, ON "cnA?rG18 OP PLANS " AT 

lUSD RIVKB LAMDI^*G. 

New York, May H, 1893. 
To the M}88i9»ippi Fiver Commission: ' 

1. In apa]»cr by Colonel Suter, printed in the Annual Report of the Mississippi River 
Commission for 1891, in speaking of the Mississippi at the mouth of Red Kiver, he 
states as follows, p. 3420: (1) " In December and January, 1884-'85, a very abrupt 
change of plane took place, as shown on both the gauge relation and the discharge 
curve, and this change was found to coincide with a considerable rise in Red River, 
the Mississippi being at quite a low stage. This change of plane or elevation of the 
«ero of discharge curve, amounted to .5.8 feet, and inspection of Plate vni [xil, will 
show that this elevation was substantially retained throughout the season and on it 
was superposed the changes of plane, amounting to 3.35 feet more which were trans- 
mitted down from Helena and Arkniisas City.'' 

And on p. 3422 he states : (2) " These tables 'show, in a general way, that in every year 
noted there is an abnormal elevation of the plane of flow at extreme stages, both at 
Carrollton and Red River. At the latter place this abnormal elevation has amounted 
to as much as 13 feet; at the former place to 5.4 feet. They also show that if the 
levee system had been perfect from Vicksburg to Carrollton, the actual mean maxi- 
mum gauge reading at lied River Landing would have been increased 0.43 feet, and 
at Carrollton 1.11 leet, while under the same conditions, but with Red River shut 
out, the actual mean maximum at Red River Landing would have been reduced 7.29 
feet and at Carrollton 2.09 feet. Consequently with the levees all up, the difference 
in mean maximum between the conditions with Red Riv^er opt*n and closed would 
amount to 7.72 feet at Red River Landing and 3.20 feet at Carrollton; the actual 
maximum differences being 13 feet for Red River Landing and 5.4 feet for Carrollton." 

The paper gives many other instances of what are called changes of plane, but it 
is difScnlt to follow or Verify the discussions by which they are derived, the discus- 
sions including a large use of graphic processes in fitting assumed discharge curves 
to observed discharge curves, or assumed right lines to curves of equivalent gange 
relation. Under such circumstauces the process can best be examined by taking an 
instance in which a large result is obtained. That quoted in tbe first statement above, 
namely, that in December and January, 1884-'85, an abrupt change of plane of 5.8 
feet took place at the mouth of Red River will be chosen. 

'^Change of plane" is defined as ''such as might have been expected, were the 
whole river bodily raised or depressed so as to change its plane of flow, the gauge 
remaining fixed in position." As such a bodily elevation or depression would not, 
necessarily, change the discharge, it would appear that '' change of plane " is really 
difference of gnuge readings for two equal dist-harges at different times at the same 
place, a phenomenon which was noticed by Dupult many years ago, and which arises 
mainly from changes in slope. 

The evidence on which this "change of plane" of 5.8 feet at Red River mouth in 
January, 1885, is based may be found on Plate v and Plate xi of the paper. 

2. The relation between the readings of two gauges on the Mississippi River at a 
distance from each other can be rea<lily studied by plotting their siuiultaneons read- 
ings as an abscissa and ordinate. The succession of points thus obtained will define 
an irregular curve, showing, graphically, the relation in question. If the gauges are 



APPENDIX Y y — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3565 



ry near each other, theoarve will be a very regalar one, nearly a right line inclined 
at 4^ degrees to the axis of abscisaas. For gauges widely separated the curve \yill 
lie very irregular. For instance, the curve obtained in tbis way for the gauges at 
Arkansas City and Red River Landing, which are 327 miles apart, is very irregular. 
The time reqnired for the crest of a flood wave that does not rise above the banks of 
the river to travel over this distance, is about 4^ days. Now, when the river is riHiug 
xspidly on aeoonnt of the time required for transmission to the lower gauge, there 
iii,^y be a considerable rise at Arkansas City, and a smaller rise at Red River Land- 
ing and this difference in rises will give a corresponding irregularity in tlie curve, 
. which shows the relation between the readings at the two gauges. Thus, between 

I December 14, and December 20, 1884, the rise at Arkansas City was 10 feet, while at 

Red River Landing it was but 1.5 feet, giving an irregularity in tbe curve of 8.6 feet. 
When the river begins to fall rapidly at Arkansas City, and is falling slowly at Red 
River Landing, a similar ii regularity in the curve will occur, but in the opposite 
direction. • 

NoWy if tbe assumption conld be correctly made that the same discharge tbat passed 
Arkansas City on a (pven date would pass a point just above the mouth of Red 
River 4^ days later, it might be expected tbat these equal discharges would give 
gftuge readings having a more regular relation to each other than simultaneous 
gMi«;6 readings would have; and, m that case, if in plotting the curve to express 
sT&phically the relation between tbe gaiuge readings at the two places, readings on 
ti»e lower gauge 4^ days later than those on the upper were used, tlio irregularity in 
the curve, due to the fact that the river rises earliest at the upper station, would, in 
part at least, be eliminated. A curve for 1884-^85 obtained in the last way is given 
on Plate v, accompanying Colonel Suter's paper. It is marked '* Arkansas City. 
Red River Landing actual gauge relation.'' This curve has great irregularities, ana 
that it mnst have great irregularities could have been foreseen. 

(a) The assumption that the same discharge woubl occur on a given date at Red 
River Landing as occurred 4^ days before at Arkansas City, and that the curve 
oneht to be regular, would not be true, even if all tributary inflow were excluded, 
onleBs the river were at a stand for this distance, since wave forms vary much in 
descending the river. 

(h) If the tributary inflow were excluded, and the discharges at the two places, 
at their respective dates, were the same, the gauge readings at the two places would 
not vary regularly, unless the slopes of the water surface were constant or varied 
regularly and slowly through long x>eriods. I<>om the general expression for river 
discharge, D=C!irrf n^, where D is the discharge, C approximately a constant, r the 
mean depth, tD the width, and a the slope, it is seen at once that, while D is constant, 
aad w constant for moderate variations in depth, a given percentage of increase in 
9 will produce an equal percentage of decrease in rf , or, for constant discharge, the 
mean iiepths will var^^ inversely as the cube roots of the slopes. Now, at Red River 
and Arkansas City it is known that the slopes sometimes vary rapidly by 10 per 
cent or more, and the corresponding variation in the gauge reading it mid stage 
(the discharge remaining the same) would be 4 per cent of 40 feet or 1.6 feet, 40 feet 
being about th^ mean depth at mid stage. This gives an irregularity in the curve 
of ''actual gauge relations,'' if it occurs at but one of the stations, of 1.6 feet. If it 
occurred at both, and in opposite directions; the amount of the irregularity would be 
sUU greater. 

(c) It is well known that the river bed rises on bad shoals during high water, and 
is cut ont during low water. This process affects the heighth of the gauge reading 
for a given discharge at low stages, and in some degree a^o at high stages. It may 
affect distant gauges quite difl'ereutly. 

(d) Thus far it has been assumed that there was no inflow between Arkansas City 
and Red River Landing. In fact tlie Red River, the Big Black, and the Yazoo are 
tributaries. Now as, at mid stages, at Red River Landing an increased discharge of 
27^000, cubic feet corresponds to 1 foot of gauge increase, it will be seen that the 
cnbutaries may introduce very large irregularities into the gauge readings at Red 
River Landing as compared with those at Arkansas City. At Helena, Little Rock 
and Vickaburg, between December 27 and December 31, 1884, the rainfall exceeded 
9 inches. 

3. The general causes acting to produce marked irregularities in the curve of 
"actual gauge relations" have now been examined. A glance at this curve for 
Arkansas City-Red River Landing, on Plate v of Colonel Suter's paper, will show 
what great irregularities they produce. The most marked one is that which occurred 
between December 23 and December 30, 1884, Arkansas City dates, the correspond- 
ing dates at Red River Landing being 4^ days later. It is contained in Plate V, 
between the readings 16 and 24 feet on the Red River gauge. It will now be con- 
•idered. 
1^ From December 23 to December 30, at Arkansas City, the gauge fell from 18.4 

feot to 16.5 feet^ or 1.9 feet^ its. lowest point being 15.3 feet on December 28, 1884. 



3566 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Between the corresponding dates at Red River Landing, namely, December 27^, 
1884, and Jannary 3^, 1885, the gauge reading there rose fVom 16.2 to 23.3, or by 7.X 
feet. Now, ae the oscillationH are abont the same at Arkansas City and Red River 
Landing, a regular curve of "actual gauge relations '' would have required a fall of 
1.9 feet at Red River corresponding to the fall at Arkansas City. Instead there was 
a rise of 7.1 feot, making the aggregate irregularly 9 feet in the relative gauge read- 
ings, corresponding to an irregularity of about 8 feet parallel to the Red Kiver Land- 
ing gauge, m the curve of "actual gauge relations.^' Is there anything surprising' 
in thisf Anything requiring the assumption of two parallel lines, (1) and (2) drawn 
5.8 feet apart on the curve of "actual gauge relations/' Plate T, giving a " change 
of plane ^ of 6.8 feet f 

If the gauge curves from Cairo down be examined, it will be seen that a depres- 
sion of about 3 feet, caused by a slight fall above Cairo, descending the river, inter- 
rupted the general winter rise already began. The crest of the low wave thus 
formed passed Arkansas City on December 23, at 18.4 feet on the gange, and the 
depression following reached 15.3 feet on December 28. In descending the river 
this depression gradually became less below Arkansas City, and when it reached Red 
River Landing caused no fall, but brought the river there for one day to a stand. 

The fact that at Arkansas City, between December 23 and December 27, the river 
could fall 2.6 feet in five days, without producing any fall at Red River 4^ days later, 
shows the inaccuracy of the opinion that the same flow that passes Arkansas City 
on a given date will pass Red River 4^ days later, and that, without tributary inflow, 
it will give a regular curve of actual gauge relations. 

From December 18 to December 30, at Red River Landing, the river had risen 
steadily, nnder the sole influence of the Mississippi above, since the Alexandria 
gauge read only 3.2 feet on December 28. But the Alexandria readings rose to 28.2 
on tue 31st, and this flood of about 80,000 cubic feet per second was added to the 
Mississippi, it being supposed that the Black supplied the Atchafalaya, since the 
Ouachita was high. This 80,000 cul>ic feet per second would cause the Mississippi 
to rise about 3 feet, and would reach Red River Landing December 31 to January 2. 
This rise began on December 29, and then was probably due to local rains. 

It is thus seen that of the irregularity of 8 feet parallel to the Red River Landing 
gauge, in the curve of " actual gauge relation," Arkansas City, Red River, on Plate 
V, between December 23 and 30, Arkansa-s City dates, 1.0 foot is accounted for by the 
fall at Arkansas City coming from above Cairo, and 3 feet by the rise of the Red 
River, leaving 4.0 feet, which is accounted for by the general rise coming from above 
in the seven days at Red River between December 27^-, 1884, and January 3J, 1885, 
a rise of but 0.6 feet per day, while from December 18 to December 27, before the 
Red River flood, the gauge readiug had been rising 0.9 per day. It is then seen that 
this great irregularity is fully accounted for without the assumption of unknown 
causes or changes of plane and since the actual changes in the gauge readings are 
accounted for, the same explanation covers the irregularities in the curve of "equiva- 
lent gauge relations" which is yet to be considered, since that curve is derived from 
actu^ g^iigo readings by eliminating differences in disohai'ge. It should also be 
noticed that of this great irregularity of 8.0 feet, only 3 feet are accounted for by 
tributary inflow; the rest is mainly due to the tapering out of a small wave of 
depression in descending the river. The effect of this "wave can be separated from 
that of the inflow at Red River in another way by considering it before the Red 
River flood affected the Mississippi. 

The Red River rise only began at Alexandria on the 28th, and on the 29th the stage 
was but 10 feet. This rise could not have affected the Mississippi seriously before 
the 31ttt December, and till that time the change in tributary iuflow may be neglected 
as small. Now, between the 27th and 3l8t December, 1884, the river rose 3 feet 
at Red River- Landing, while in the corresponding period, 4^ days earlier, at 
Arkansas City, it fell 2.4 feet. Under the assumption that the same flow passes 
Red River Lauding (tributary inflow being excluded) as has passed Arkansas City 
4^- days earlier, the fall of 2.4 feet should have been repeated at Red River. The 
river there actually rose 3 feet, giving an irregularity in the difierence of gauge 
readings of 2.4+3.0=5.4 feet, due mainly to the tapering out of the low wave already 
referred to. This irregularity of 5.4 feet simply measures the error in the assumption 
that gange readings at Red liiver Landing can, when there is no tributary iuflow, 
be accurately derived from those of another gauge 327 miles above at Arkansas City. 

4. In the preceding sections it has been seen that the attempt to derive (on the 
assumption that the water pa<«sing Arkansas City on a given date passes Red River 
Landing 4i days later) a regular curve which shall give, even with an approximation 
to accuracy, the relation between the gauge readings at the two places for dates 
differing by 4^^ days has entirely failed. And this failure is little less conspicuous 
when the effect of the Red River flood is eliminated, the failure being due to error in 
the assumption and not to irregularities in the observations or to any thing abnormal 
in the river. 



APPENDIX YY REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3567 

Another method of approaching the subject would be to make the assnmption that, 
if differences of flow at the two stations were eliminated by means of the discharge 
curves, then a regular carve representing the gauge relation ought to result. We 
have the discharge curves for Red River Landing and Arkansas City in 1884>'85. 
Taking the gauge readings on the two curves which correspond to a common arbi- 
irarily selected discharge, if these two gauge readings be plotted as abscissa and 
ordinate, respectively, one point of a curve showing the relation between those gange 
readinfis will be obtained. Deriving many such points in the same way, they give 
essentially the curve shown on Plate v of Colonel Suter's paper, and entitled "Arkan- 
sas City-Red River Landing, equivalent gauge relations/^ It will be noticed that this 
cnrve is very irregular. There is a great irregularity from December 27 to January 
4, 1885, Red River dates; after January 4 the irregularities are not great. 

In forming an estimate of the irregularities to be expected in such a curve of 
"equivalent gauge relations," two errora are to be considered, either of which will 
introduce irregularites. (a) Errors in the discharge observations at either Red River 
Landing or Arkansas City (which are arbitrarily selected) will give corresi)ond- 
ing errors in the gauge heights. Now, irregularities of 10 per cent frequently occur 
in observed dischargee. As the Red River Landing discharge at this time was about 
400,OCX) cubic feet per second, 10 per cent of it would be 40,000 cubic feet per second, 
corresponding to an irregularity in the gauge rending of 1.3 feet, which irregularity 
wonld enter tne curve of "equivalent gauge relations." An equal error in the oppo- 
site direction at Arkansas City would give an aggregate irregularity of about 2 feet 
in the curve of equivalent gauge relations, parallel to the Red River gauge, from this 
cause alone, (b) If the observed discharges arbitrarily selected to plot this curve 
were exact, in order that the curve might be regular it would be further necessary 
that ^e slope at these two stations at the times of the selected discharges should 
have regular values, since, as already seen, the gauge readings correspouding to a 

g'ven discharge vary approximately with the inverse cube root of the slope. Slopes 
eqnently vary by 10 per cent or more in a few days. Since the slope, as well as the 
mean depth, is effective in increaKJng discharge, if for a selected discharge the slope 
should be 10 per cent above its regular value the mean dei)th would be 4 per cent 
below its regular value. Since the mean depth at both places at tins time was about 
40 feet, the irregularity in gauge reading would be 1.6 feet. If this irregularity 
occurred in opposite directions at the two stations it would introduce an irregular- 
ity into the curve of equivalent gauge relations of about 2.7 feet. 
It is seen, then, in advance, that from the methods by which the curve of equivalent 

fange relations is derived large irregularities may occur iu it, either from errors in 
isehargeor from irregularities in slope. As instances in point, the fall from Natchez 
to Port ilickey, which gives approximately the slope at Red River, was on Decem- 
ber 26, 1884, 20.6 feet, while on January 1, 1885, it was 18.1 leet, or it was 12 per 
cent less at the later date. Between these dates the river rose from 16.1 to 20.3 at 
Red River Landing, and if the slope had followed its usual coarse it would have 
increased instead by about 3 per cent. The slope was then iiTcgular by 15 per cent. 
To carry the same discharge this slope irregularity of 15 per cent would require the 
mean depth to be increased by 5 per cent, or 2 feet. Hence, in this period, the Red 
River abscissas of the curve of " equivalent gauge relations " become greater by that 
amount in consequence of change of slope, and give a corresponding irregularity to 
the cnrve. 

Between December 23 and January 1 the decrease in slope from Natchez to Port 
Hickey was still greater, amounting to 20 per cent, although the Rod River gauge 
readings rose 6 feet, giving an irregularity in the slope of *M per cent, which would 
produce an irregularity of 8 per cent of the mean depth, or 3.2 feet in the Red River 
Landing gauge readings, plotted in the curve. 

Between December 2*2 ancT December 31, 1884, are found the discharges at Arkansas 
City osed in Col. Suier's paper, which are equal to those observed between Decem- 
ber 28, 1884, and January 1, 1885, at Red River Landing. Any irregularity in the 
slopes in Arkansas City between December 22 and December 31 would produce a 
corresponding irregularity iu the corresponding gauge readings. Between these 
dates the fallfrom White River to Greenville, which gives approximately the slope 
at Arkansas City, increased from 23.9 to 25.3 feet, or by 1.4 feet; allowing 0.2 foot as 
the increase of fall due to 1.6 rise in the river, there remains 1.2 feet, or 5 per cent, 
as an irregular increase. This would give an irregular decrease of 0.8 in the 
Arkansas City gauge reading to be combined with the irregular increase at Red River 
Landing of 2.0, giving a resulting irregularity in the curve of equivalent ^aa^e 
relations of about 3 feet. It is thus seen that from known causes irregularities m 
the curve of the equivalent gauge relations, Arkansas City-Red River Landing, on 
Plate V, of about 3 feet, may be expected. Further, if this irregular curve be exam- 
ined it will be seen that the whole of it can be represented by a single cmitinuons 
straight line, not deviating from any part of it by more than 2 feet. If for any reason 
it wejre desirable to nee a line simpler than a regular continuous curve, such a straight 



3568 KEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENQINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

line might, therefore, well be taken, although the actnal curve, with all its irref^n- 
larities, would be better. Instead of r«presentin$; it by one straight line the paper 
represents it by five parallel straight lines, which are discrepant with each other 
by 5.8 feet, and even by 6.2 feet. This 5.8 feet is called a ''change of plane," 
and it is suggested as a possible cause that the Red River water partly fills tlie 
channel like nmd or sand, and that the Mississippi water is forced to climb on 
top of it. It is evident that a single straight line, not deviating from the curve 
anywhere by amounts greater than could have been expected in advancci is a far 
better representation of all the observations than a series of parallel lines, some 
of them 6.2 feet apart, measured parallel to the Red River gauge. Had this curve ' 
of equivalent gauge relations been plotted from the actually observed disohargi^s, 
instead of from numerous arbitrarily assumed curves (Plate xi and Plate ix), it might 
have been represented throughout by a conic section deviating from the observa- 
tions by only about 1} feet. 

The inducement to the representation by many parallel lines seems to have been 
the fact that the upper and lower parts of the curve can be pretty weU represented 
by such lines, provided the middle part of the curve be rejected. No reason is 
assigned for such rejection, and no reason is given for assuming that the lines or 
the different parts o^ the curve should be parallel and disconnected. Neither tho 
rejection nor the assumption is justifiable. If G and G* represent the equivalent 
gauge readings at Arkansas City and Red River Landing, their ratio, to give' 
straight parallel lines for the curve of equivalent gauge relation, must be constant. 

The general formula for discharge, D = o w r* s i may be written r -^ 

= C* w* «*' 

or if width, w, be considered constant, and , ^ = o», r =ci D* s-i. Similarly, for 

C*w* 

the lower station, r = C" D*' «^ ""■, in which, if the gauges are so set as to read 
mean depths at medium stage, G being a gauge leading and G^ another with a time 

G r 0* 8* ■" ^ 
interval, — = — = since equal discharges are used. 

G r,i c",si» T^ 

It is seen from this that, since the slope has very wide variations in value at Red 
River, as compared with those at Arkansas City (varying from nearly to the max- 

G ' 

imum), ^. can not be constant as the river rises, and hence that the correct curve of 
G* 

equivalent gauge relations can not be one or several parallel straight lines. 

It should be noticed that the part of the curve before December 30 could be well 
represented by a nonparallcl line, which, prolonircd to the gauge reading of January 
6, would give at that time a *^ change of plane " of but 3.6 leet, instead of the 5.8 
feet derived in the paper. It must be concluded that the actual irregularities of the 
curve, when referred to a single right line, are no greater tiiau could have been antici- 
pated, and that the "change of plane" of 5.8 feet arises in the main irom the 
assumption that the curve ought to be two parallel straight lines 5.8 feet apart, 
which well represent separate parts of the curve, but do not represent, even approx- 
imately, the whole curve. 

5. This same " change of plane ^ of 5.8 feet is also derived from the Red River 
Landing discharge curve of 1884-85, given on Plate xi, Or rather, not from the curve 
itself but from certain assumed curves numbered from 1 to 10, Plate xi. The interval 
in the direction of gauge readings between No. 1 and No. 5 of these curves is again 
the " change of plane '°of 5.8 feet. But if the interval between No. 1 and No. 6 be 
taken it is 9.3 feet, and this is also a " change of plane.'' The reason why the dis- 
charge curves give a change of plane of 9.3 fcetwbile the curv^e of equivalent ^auge 
relations for the same place and time give only 6.2 for the change of plane is not 
stated. 

The method by which the ten curves are derived is as follows : A regular curve, 
which represents well the discharge observations of 1882 at Helena (and does not rep- 
resent those of 1884-'85}, is taken, and is called a '* standard normal curve." As 
previously stated, if observed discharge curves for two stations be taken, and for 
any chosen common discharge on the two curves the corresponding gauge readings 
be taken, these are called '^ equivalent gauge readings." Now, a so-called "normal 
curve" of discharge for gauge readings being known for an up]>er station, a "normal 
curve" for a lower station is obtained In this paper by plotting the discharge at the 
upper station to the corresponding equivalent gauge reading at the lower station. 
Tnis is called a transfer by a line of gauge relations. 

It is important to notice that if we start from a single continuous discharge curve 
at the upper station, such as the observations give, and plot its discharges to the 
equivalent gauge readings (derived from the actually observed discharge curve) at 
the lower station, since tiiis equivalent gauge reading is the actual gauge reading at 



APPENDIX T T — ^REPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVEB COMMISSION. 3669 

tb« lower station for the actnal choeen discharge, l^y such plotting we reprodaoe 
identicaUj the observed discharge oorye at the lower station. 

X^ow, in Plate xi, Red River discharges, 1884-'85, carvel, from which ''changes of 

pl&ne" are derived, differs very widely from the observed discharge curve, and the 

^aestion at once arises as to the method by which it has been obtained. The answer 

la -that the part of it lying below 19 feet on the gange has practically besoi derived 

from eurves 1 and 2, Arkansas City discharges, Plate nc, and from line 1, Arkansas 

City-Red River Landing eqaivalent gange relations, Plate v. The lines and carves 

referred to on Plates v and ix represent pretty closely, for gaage readings below 19 

leefc, the actnal observations, and hence in Plate xi this part of onrve 1 reprodaces 

pretty closely the observed discharge carve at Red River Landing below 19 feet on 

tbe gange. But the part of curve 1, Plate xi, above 19 feet is derived from carve 1, 

Arkansas City discharges, Plate ix, which does not represent actual dischargee above 

90 feet on the gauge, and frt)m the prolongation of line 1, Arkansas Cit^-Red River 

Leading equivalent gauge relations, above 19 feet up to 40 feet, for which distance it 

makes no approximation to representing actual equivalent gauge readings, but is an 

aasumption of what it is supposed they ought to have been, which has already been 

diseossed in section 4, and has been shown to be an unproven assumption. 

As previously stated, if the curves 1 to 10, Plate xi, Red River discharges, had been 
derived from the things actually observed, and not from assumptions, they would 
have reproduced the actual discharge curve. The fact that they are widely dis- 
crepant at high stages comes mainly from assuming that the curve of equivalent 
gauge relations, Arkansas City-Red River Landing, Plate v, ought in high stages 
to be a line which differs very widely from what was actually observed. The 
changes of plane that these discharge curves Nos. 1 to 10 show give no additional 
support to the theory of "change of plane.'' They result mainly from the assumed 
changes of plane for lines 1 to 5 of equivalent gauge relations, Plate v, Arkansas 
City-Red River Landing. 

It is stated in the paper that these changes of plane are cumulative In going down- 
stream. That necessarily results from the way in which the upper part of curve 1, 
Plate IX, Red River Landing discharges, 1884-'85, is derived. The upper part of this 
curve (above 27 feet) Is derived from the upper part of curve 1, ArKansas City dis- 
charge observations, 1884-'85, Plate ix, and nom the upper part of line 1, prolonged, 
of Arkansas City-Red River Landing, equ i valen t gau ge relations, Plate v. The upper 
part of the curve 1 at Arkansas City, Plate ix, already erroneously deviates from 
the observed discharge curve in such a way as to have too small gauge readings. 
The upper part of line 1 of equivalent gauge relations, Arkansas City-Red River 
Landing, Plate v, also erroneously deviates from the observations in such a way as 
to give equivalent gauge readings at Red River less than those observed, and the com- 
bination of the two deviations by which the upper part of curve 1, Red River Land- 
ing discharge curve, 1884-86, is obtained adds to tne deviations of curve 1 from the 
actnal discharge curve at Arkansas City those due to the process of transfer to Red 
River Landing. The increasing '' changes of plane " in descending the river arise in 
this way from the method used in determining them, and not from the river itself. 

6. The following is a summary of the preceding conclusions with reference to 
''change of plane '^between Arkansas City and Red River Landing: 

The change of plane of 5.8 feet at Red River Landing in 1884-85, deduced in Col. 
Sater's paper, is unproven. It results almost entirely from the assumption that the 
curve of equivalent gauge relations, Arkansas City-Red River Landing, 1884-'85, 
ought to be represented by five parallel straight lines, with an interval between two 
of them of 5.8 feet, (which is called ** change of plane ") rather than by the observed 
curve. No proof is given that these lines must be parallel, and the results can be 
largely changed by taking them inclined to each other. Hydraulic formulsB show 
tiiat the curve can not be of parallel straight lines. 

The whole curve can be represented, within the limits of errors to be foreseen, by a 
continuous conic section, so that there is no justification for assuming several straight 
lines to represent it, or for calling the intervals between them ** change of plane.'' 

The discharge curves add nothing to the evidence of change of plane given by the 
lines assumed to represent the equivalent gauge relations, since their changes of plane 
result from those previously assumed for the curves of equivalent gauge relations. 

The fact that the changes of plane as derived are cumulative in going down the 
river is not due to the river^ but to the assumptions under which they are obtained. 
The general reasoning which has been applied to a single case would also be appli- 
eable to the other ** changes of plane" given in the paper. 

The conclusion that there has been an abnormal elevation of the plane of flow at 
Red River Landing, " which has amounted to as much as 13 feet^" results from the 
erronoAus methods used in the appendix to the paper, and this abnormal elevation 
did not exist. 

• C. B. COMSTOCK, 

CoIomH of Engineers, Bvt Brig, Qen.y U. 8. A,, 
Freaideni MisHsti]^ Bivm- CommiaHon, 

SHa 93 ^224 



vJk 



3570 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENraiNEEBS| U. S. ARMY. 

Appendix 2. 

BXPORT or GOMMITTSK OK BBSIKSKfiL 

St. Louis, Mo., July 16, 1899. 

Sir: The committee designated at the NoTember meeting of the Commiaeion to 
investigate and report on the most snitable means of affording temporary relief to 
navigation at low- water stages of the river, beg leave to report that they have given 
the subject very careful consideration and have endeavored to avail themselves of 
all possible inJformation that would throw any light on the (question. 

In order to make clear the conclusions reached by the committee, a short discus- 
sion of the nature of the problem considered seems necessary. 

The bars which obstruct low- water navigation result from the ever-varying action 
of the water-flow upon the materials which compose the river^s bed and upon the 
immense contributions of similar materials derived from the banks of the main 
stream and from its various tributaries. This mat^ial may aU be considered as 
intermittently in motion, and its position with regard to the main thread of the 
stream determines the extent and direction of its motion. Thus, where the flow is 
concentrated the action is the strongest, a deep excavation results^ and the material 
thus removed is pushed on till diminished velocity of flow brings it a^ain to a state 
of rest. The depths of water thus fairly indicate the relative velocities, and those 
portions of the bed which receive for the longest period of time the action of the 
strongest current will, under ordinary circumstances, be the deepest. The well- 
known tendency of flowing water to take a sinuous course, even when the limitinc 
banks are straight, sets up an inequality of flow within any given section, to which 
the existence of the bars as we Know them is directly traceable. Immediately 
below the apex of each curvature the couceutration of flow is at its maximum, and 
the deepest water is found here against the concave face of the curve. As we follow 
along the curved channel we find, where the width is sufficient, that a divergence of 
flow soon begins. Part of tiie water still follows the curve, while part of it takes 
a short cut in the direction of the curve immediately below and opposite the one we 
are considering. The passage from one curve to another is thus effected in a broad 
and more or less shallow sheet, instead of in concentrated volume; and on a line 
normal to this modified flow the material of the bed is more or less undisturbed, and 
in fact is further reenforced, especially at hi^h stages, by the material scoured from 
the deeper section or swept through it. This action is repeated at each change of 
direction with more or less intensity^ according to the degree of the curvature and 
to the width of the bed. 

The general result is to build up a series of dam-like bars diagonally across the 
river bed, and the crests of these bars on the lower Mississippi attain frequently a 
len^h of many miles. Their elevation is quite irregular, often under favorable con- 
ditions, as in the 'cases of islands, attaining nearly to the level of the main banks. 
Where the width is limited, as on the river below Red River Landing, these bar 
crests are so deeply submerged as to be unnoticeable on the surface, though sound- 
ings still reveal their existence, but on all the other x>ortions of the river they are 
the controlling factor in navigation. Above and below them lie the deep j^ools, char- 
acterized by concentrated flow, narrow section, and small slope; while in crossing 
from pool to pool a sharp slope, wide section, and small depth are met with. Addi- 
tional complications are introduced by the immense variation in volume at different 
stages and by the varied direction of flow which frequently takes place under these 
conditions. As a rule, it may be stated that the closer the agreement in direction of 
the high and low water flow the better will be the low-water channel. At very 
many localities, however, there is much divergence, and at such places low- water 
navigation is almost invariably bad. As the river falls to the low- water stage chan- 
nels break through the bar crests at various points, and as the fall of the water 
exposes more and more of the surface of the bars these channels become better 
denned and deeper. Eventually they carry the whole discharge from one pool to 
another. When, as is often the case, these channels are numerous, l^e discharge is 
so scattered and its energy so dissipated as to be unable to maiutain anywhere a 
channel of adequate size and depth. Moreover, sand is still moving in considerable 
quantity, and, as it naturally follows the thread of greatest velocity, it tends in time 
to choke up the channel which carries the largest discharge. This in turn raises the 
head of wat<er in the pool above till another channel is broken through, and thus in 
the course of a season the main channel may shift its position several times and 
occupy in succession a uamber of openings through the bar of approximately equal 
size. It is impossible to predict in advance where the low-water channel will be, 
nor in the case just mentioned how long it will remain in any one position. 

In actual practice the case is much more complicated than has been sketched here, 
but we have only attempted to outline the principal phenomena as they occur £rom 
year tio year. 



API^NDIX Y Y — ^EEPOET OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3571 

It nmBt be sitfflciently obvionfl that fch« main difflenlty lies in securing a sufficiently 
eoAcentrated low-water disehar^ through the great sand deposits left by the high 
wat€)7. Where this eoncentration occurs naturally, or is brought about by proper 
regelating works, there is no trouble, but where this is not the case navigation is 
suro to jbe more or less imjpeded. 

The duty imposed on this committee Is to suggest some means by which these dif- 
ficulties may be more or less temporarily alleviated. Our answer must necessarily 
be that, whether for a temporary or a permanent improvement, concentration of 
low-water flow is the only possible expe^ent. On small streams the necessary con- 
eentration is often successfully secured by cutting oif or obstructing all but one 
channel; but this on a stream like the lower Mississippi would hardly be possible, 
owing to the time required to effect it, and also to the very great cost. The only 
other expedient is to enlarge one channel to such an extent that the main body of 
wrater will be drawn toward it, thus depleting and cutting off the discharge -through 
the anbaidiar^^ channels. To accomplish this purpose a variety of methods have been 
ft^Xg^^^^ which will now be briefly recapitulated. 

(I) Movable jetties or wimg' dams. — According to this plan it is proposed to anchor 
or sink converging lines of boats, with leeboards or of closed caiss^ms, on or near 
tide lines of the proposed channel, in order to gather in aud direct more wator through 
it. It is further expected that aifter the required deepening has been effected the 
plant may be moved successively to other localities. With regard to this scheme 
your committee would say that, while correct enough in theory, they believe it to be 
Impracticable in actual practice, except possibly in certain special cases. If the 
caissons, for instance, were once sunk in place, we think it would be impracticable 
to raise them again in a serviceable condition, and the cost of the plant to fill out 
the long lines of jetties needed must necessarily be very great. 

As regards the other alternative, of barges with leoboards, the great difficulty 
would Ue in keeping the boats in place without obstructing the channel with 
anchors, and also in keepiilg the leeboards close to the bottom, failing which they 
wonld certainly be inefficient. Moreover, we think, that as in the previous case, the 
amount of concentration needed would require so extensive a plant as to be prohibi- 
torr on the seore of cost, if for no other reason. 

{2) Scraping or §tirring the bottom, — This is a favorite scheme, and numberless 
devices have been brought forward to accomplish it. They all work on the same 
principle, viz, to stir up the bottom by some mechanical means, as water jets, har- 
rows, plows, etc., trusting and expecting that the sand thus thrown up from the 
bottom will be carried off by the current. Many of these devices have been faith- 
fully tried and after due tried abandoned. The reason is simple enough : It is a com- 
paratively easy matter to stir up the bottom to any extent, but the current, except 
under very favorable conditions, is entirely inadequate to carry off the sand thus 
loosened. This has been the invariable experience when, the stage of water has been 
low enough to make the work a matter of real necessity ; and the only success, or 
partial success, ever attained under these circumstances has been with machines 
that were calculated to bodily drag away the sand as well as to stir it up. Your 
eommittee consider that while in certain special cases some device of this kind might 
prove to a limited extent useful, yet for general and extensive service, such as is 
apparently now contemplated by the Commission, they can not possibly be recom- 
mended. 

(3) Dredging, — ^This is the last alternative, and as it is also the only one which in 
our opinion holds out the least chance of success, it has received very careful study. 
In prder to clear the ground for the discussion of details, it will be well to give here 
our ideas as to the scope the work should be given. Taking the fall of 1891 as the 
type of an exceedingly low stage, it was noted on the trip made by the Commission 
in November, that the great majority of the crossings which could fairly be called 
shoal gave a depth of about 8 feet. The very shoal crossings ran down to 5 feet. 
It is our opinion that no very appreciable benefit would have been conferred unless 
the depth on these shoaler crossings bad been brought up to 8 feet. 

If, as is more usually the case, the stage be not so low, a greater depth should be 
aimed at, the object in all cases being to bring the least depths op to the avercige as 
nearly as possible, and to maintain them there. The shoal bars to be oper<ated on 
extend from Cairo to the mouth of Red River, 765 miles. Last November there were 
thirty-one crossings having less than 8 feet depth, and as many of these crossings 
had shoal water for a length of over a mile, it will readily be seen that the contract 
to be undertaken is by no means a small one. Another point must also be considered. 
As the dredging proceeds, and especially after an increased flow has been set up, a 
great influx of sand must be expected. Just how much this will be, how long it will 
mBt, whether the current will carry it through, or whether it must be entirely or in 
part removed by dredglug, are questions which in the absence of actual experience 
it is imiKMsible to answer; but it may be asserted with full confidence that consider- 
ably more than the actual visible yardage will require removaL Another point, tho- 



BE 



3572 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

permanence of the dredged channel, also reqaires consideration. As already men- 
tioned in this report, the naturally formed channels are far from permanent, and it 
seems unreasonable to expect that artificially formed ones will ofter any very differ- 
ent feature in this respect. It seems to your committee that the only chance lies in 
cutting so deeply as to lower the upper pool materially, and by this means to draw 
the water away from the minor channels. This will, of course, increase the original 
work, and even tiien we deem that it will be the part of wisdom to be prepared for 
the necessity of repeating the work several times in the course of a season. We 
should have been very glad to base our estimates on definite figures as to the work 
to be accomplished, but this has been impossible. 

Immediately after receiving our instructions we arranged to have carefiil surveys 
made of several of the worst bars, but the sudden rise in the river prevented this, 
and no opportunity has since been presented. The committee, however, feel that 
it would be a difficult matter to overestimate this work, and they have approached 
the subject in that spirit. The time element must figure very largely in a question 
of this kind; the work to be worth doing at all must be done quickly. In our 
opinion not more than two weeks should be allowed for opening a channel as far 
south as may be necessary. Such an undertaking at once precludes the use of any 
of the common types of bucket or elevator dredges and throws us back on suction 
or pumping dredges as alone possessing the elements of speed and capacity required. 
Of these there are three types, varying with the method of disposing of the spoil. 
The self-loading dredges used on river-mouth and harbor bars, and of which the 
Bayley may be mentioned as a type, are out of the question here, as their draft 
when loaded would be too great. To use dump scows in work of this magnitude, 
while not impossible, would involve many delays and difficulties and would require 
a very considerable increase in the plant; as under these circumstances a towboat 
and a large fleet of dump scows would be absolutely necessary. The method of 
pumping the spoil through loug floating pipes to deep holes or points outside the 
limits of the channel seems to us, on the whole, the one best adapted to this special 
case. The pumping machinery should be mounted on a steamer of reasonably light 
draft and fair power, so as to insure speedy travel from place to place and ample 
capacity while at work to supply steam power to the pumps used in dredging. 
Both in first cost, in maintenance, and in running expenses a lar^e plant will cost 
much less than several small ones of the same aggregate "capacity. We should, 
therefore, prefer a vessel of as large size as can oe handled with certainty ana 
facility, placing on this vessel as large pumps as the draft of water and the extent 
of the possible steam supply will justify. 

Reasoning fi:om such imperfect data as we have, the actual yardage requiring 
removal may be placed at if om 500,000 to 1,000,000 cubic yards. These figures are 
liable to be increased to an uncertain extent by the causes already advert^ to, but 
taking them as the basis of estimate and two weeks as the longest allowance of time 
available, it wijil be seen that the removal of from 36,000 to 72,000 cubic ^ards per 
day win be necessary. This will probably require at least two and possibly three 
outfits. There is a ^ood deal of uncertainty regarding the proportion of sand to 
water which can be lifted by pumping, but 10 per cent seems to be about the lowest 
limit, while 20 and 30 per cent are not impossible. This question can only be settled 
by direct experiment. A pump discharge of 60,000 gallons per minute would, with 
the smaller percentage mentioned, give a capacity of about 1,500 cubic yards per 
hour. We further think that ten hours out of the twenty-four would be a fair aver- 
age of the working time, allowing for all incidental delays due to fog, bad weather, 
and repairs to machinery and the loss of time involved in moving £rom place to place. 
This would make the daily capacity from 15,000 to 45,000 cubic yards, according to 
the percentage assumed. The power required to run the pumps would be between 
300 and 400 I. H. P., and the total power provided for both boat and pumps should 
be about 600 I. H. P. The boat's engines should be proportioned to utilize the entire 
power while in transit from place \o place, and a coal supply sufficient for at least a 
weeVs work should be carried on board. The full loaded draft of the boat should 
not exceed 4 feet. 

The best method of working the dredge is a matter of great importance, but one 
upon which we hardly feel competent to make at present any definite recommenda- 
tion. If the dredge while at work is to be kept stationary by anchors or other appli- 
ances or moved slowlj^ by capstans along the line of dredging, the whole operation 
will be much simplified and will not vary materially from ordinary work of this 
nature. There are, however, objections to this methoc^ which may prove serious in 

Sractice. The intrusion into the main channel of a large boat, with the necessary 
nes and anchors, would render the passage of boats dangerous, both for themselves 
and for the dredging plant, and would probably necessitate the stoppage of work 
and removal of the dredge whenever a steamer desired to cross the bar. If a dredge 
could be used which was maneuvered while at work entirely by its own power, 
uncomplicated by lines^ anohorsy and similar appliancesi the diffioultieB aboye uluded 



L 



APP3ENDIX TY — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3573 

to ivonld be aToided, as fluch a boat conld more readily be dropped out of the way 
of passing yeJasels. In snob a design the use of drsigs on the suction pipes of a nature 
umilar to those of the dredges used in the New York Harbor would probably be 
neceesary, and without (question the work of raising the solid material would be 
slower and more nncertauL than by the other method, while breakages and other 
interraptions of work would be more frequent. The disposition of tiie spoil would 
also be more difficult. As internal receptacles are not possible, dump scows would 
probably be required. 

There is a possibility that floating pipes might be used, or long suspended pipes 
projecting over the boat's sides to beyond the limits of the dredged channel, but there 
wonid be many difficulties involved in either method. None of the points adverted 
to can be definitely settled until by direct e!speriment it shall have been determined 
just what work is likely to be required and what conditions in a design are the most 
desirable. Such experiments should be made on a fairly large scale, so as to bring the 
^wbole question to a definite test; yet at the same time we do not consider it either 
advisable or necessary that the Commission should incur large expenditures, which 
might prove entirely useless. We would, therefore, recommend that the Commission 
procure one or two pumps of approved pattern and of a capacity of say 20,000 to 
25,000 gallons per minute each. Let these pumps each be mounted in a temporary 
fashion on barges, old steamboat hulls, or any similar cheap structure, and let the 
work be done at low water in as systematic and thorough a manner as possible, so as 
to develop fully all the points upon which doubt now exists. With such information 
available, a design for permanent work can be prepared with some confidence as to 
its value and efficiency. If successful in operation these pumps and other machin- 
ery could probably be used in the permanent design, but in any case the amount 
involved would not be excessive, and would undoubtedly result in decided economy 
in the long run. Of course in the experiments here recommended a self-propelling 
machine is not contemplated, and atowboat, with possibly some dump scows, should 
be provided for each dredge. 

EespectftUly submitted. 

CHAS. R. SUTBRy 

JAeut. Col. of Engineer: 
Kknry Flad, 

dvU Engii 
Gen« C.3. CoMSTooir, 

Fre$idejU MiBBisHppi Biver CommitHoiL. 



Appendix 3. 

EXPORT OF CAFT. OABX. T. PAL7REY, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, SECRETARY MISSISSIPPI 

RIVER COMMISSION. 

St. Louis, Mo., June 15, 189S, 

General: I hare the honor to present the following report of operations under 
my charge as secretary Mississippi River Commission and assistant to construction 
committee from May 31, 1892, to May 31, 1893. 

These works are carried on under the following allotments from the appropriations 
approved September 19, 1890, and March 3, lS91, made by the Commission and 
approved by the honorable the Secretaiy of War: 

First. " Mississippi River Commission, '' applicable to salaries of three Commis- 
sioners, to expenses of offices of president and secretary, and to expenses of meet- 
ings and inspections of Commission. 

Second. *' Surveys, ganges, and observations," applicable to the general survey of 
the river, to collection ana office reduction of physical data, and to general examina- 
tions and computations not confined to any one district. 

Third. ''General service," applicable to supply of stone, maintenance of plant, 
and general aid to'works in the districts. 

The small balances from earlier appropriations which appear in the financial state- 
ment are set off by outstanding liabilities for telegrams, which can not under exist- 
ing orders be adjusted. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 

The Commission has held four sessions during the period reported : At New York 
City, June 22 and August 2-6 ; on board steamer Mississippi from St. Louis, Novem- 
ber 6- to New Orleans, November 19,* 1892 ; and on board steamer J. G. Barnard, 
loaned for the purpose by MaJ. A. Mackenzie, Corps of Engineers, from St.LouiS| 
ICay 6, toNew Orleans, May 11, 1893. 



S574 EEPOET OF THfi CHIEF OF fiKOmEEftS, tJ. S. ARMY. 

On January 16, abont 9:30 a. m., the upper works of the steamer Mississippi, laid 
up at Paducah, Ky., were destroyed by fire, probably caused by a spark escaped 
from the breeching of the " nigger" boiler, in which steam was kept up for setting 
lines as the water level changed. 

The fire was first seen on the under side of the boiler deck, and quickly burned 
through the floor of the forward cabin a little forward of the steam box of the main 
boilers. 

Th0 fixes of the *' nigger " boiler had just been drawn, and the steam pressure was 
only 20 pounds, insufficient for throwing water from the steamer's hose. 

A barge was laid up just outside the steamer Mississippif and the steamer EagU 
was at the time lying outside the barge,» taking on lumber from the shore, her deck 
crew crossing the decks of the Mississippi and the barge. The Eagle endeavored to 
assist, but her hose was small, and before it could be brought into play the flames 
had too great headway for it to be effective and for the position of the barge and 
the Eagle to bo safe. The ice in the river, from i to f inch thick, rendered the 
buckets of little or no use. The aLarm was sent to the fire department of Paducah, 
and was answered but the .first supply of hose was insufficient, and by the time a 
second arrived the only service to be rendered was the quenching of some burning 
coal in the hold. 

The progress of the fire was so rapid that little of the boat's property was saved. 
The two watchmen and the wife and child of one of them saved no clothing but 
what they had on. Some blocks in the forward hold and some blacksmith's tools 
which passed through the fire, a small quantity of bedding thrown on board the 
bflCrge, a tin box of plated forks and spoons, badly damaged by iire, and a small iron 
safe, with one castor broken by fall, are all that was recovered. 

Telegraphic report reached me at 2 p. m. I reached Paducah a little after mid- 
night, and saw the wreck next morning. 

The debris capable of holding fire had already been cleared away. The main deck 
was deeply charred all over and burned through in several places. The main boilers 
had still their cover of plaster and asbestos and showed no trace of injury. The 
main cylinders and the doctor, excent its heating box, also appeared uninjured; the 
paint was not burned entirely off. The cylinder beams, iron " I '' beams with cast- 
ings of plate, were true to the eye, and showed no injury except that one plate of 
the casing of one of them was slightly warped. The wheel was unii^ured. 

Every indication was that a light offshore wind, or the draft over the bank 
caused by the fire, carried tlie flames across the boat. On the shore side the smoke 
stack, though fallen, appeared unsoorched; that on the offside was collapsed. In 
the engine room two cans of oil standing near the cylinder beam on the snore side 
were not burned; on the offside one plate of the beam casing was slightly warped. 
The wheel was hardly charred at all ; the barge lying alongside was badly so. 

The moorings of wire cable probably saved the steel hull. The ice in the river 
was running rapidly ; had the null drifted beyond reach of hose from shore the coal 
stored therein would, in its burning, have warped the plates and bulkheads. It was 
promptly extinguished, and I can see np injury to the hull. 

The sum of $25,000 was allotted for rebuilding the steamer MisHssij^, She has 
been towed to Carondelet, hauled out, and redecked. Repairs of machineiy and 
rebuilding of upper works are in progress. 

SURVKTB, GAUGES, AND OBSERVATIOKB. 

Fieldwork under this allotment has been nearly continuous during the period 
reported. The triangulation party in the field, on board steamer Patrol on Ma,y 31, 
1892, closed their work about 9 miles below Dubuque, lowa^ on August 26; startea 
down the river onjthe same date, filled in, en route, some work prevented by high water, 
and reached Quincy, 111., August 30. August 31 was occupied in preparing quarter 
boat Illinois for occupancy and towing to Hannibal, Mo^ where topographical 
work began. This work was closed at head of Des Moines Kapids on November 10, 
the quarter boat was laid up in the canal, and Patrol reported at St. Louis on November 
14. On November 17 she left St. Louis, carrying instruments and outfit for surveys 
below Donaldsonville, and having on board Assistant Engineer Ockerson, under 
orders for inspection of gauges | this inspection was closed on December 16. On 
December 8 tne assistant engineers of the triangulation and stone-line party 
joined at Donaldsonville and carried work to New Orleans by January 13. On 
January 12 the assistant engineers, recorders, and rodmen of precise-level party 
joined at Kennerville, and all proceeded, January. 17, to Head of Passes for work 
thence to New Orleans. This work was closed at New Orleans on March' 15. En 
route, returning, the boat's crew replaced the bulletin at Arkansas City, destroyed 
by fire, by one of new type with iron frame. 

Htkrch 27 Assistant Engineer Paige rejoined at Cairo for connection of Belmont 



L 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^EEPOB^ OJ* MISSISSIPPI filVER COMMISSION. 3576 



ijtht 



'with previous benches. The Patrol reported at St. Louis April 4, and after 
igE't refitting, hoiler inspected^ and delay by storm, left for Keokuk on April 8. 
£n route bench marks of stone lines 81, 82, 83 situate near a railroad embankment soon 
to l^e enhu'ged, were relocated by Assistant Engineer French. The Patrol reached 
Keokuk on April 15 and was 'hauled out for repairs on April 18. The trip on the 
lo^v^er river had developed some weakness which, in prospect of another season there 
next ^winter, required attention. On May 2 Assistant Engineers Morrow and French 
left for work in the base line and closing line of last season's triangulation and for 
recoiuioissance for that o€ the coming season. Repairs of Patrol were completed on 
May 17, and she reported at Dubuque on May 20 with party and equipment for tri- 
angalatton. 

Seeondary Triangulation, and Stone-lines — On May 31, 1892, a party in the field since 
April 25, consisting of Assistant Engineer Charles W. Stewart, in charge, Assistant 
Eng^eers A. T. Mont)W and George H. French, Eecorders C: L. Ockerson. O. N. 
Axtell, and M. I. Powers, with boat's crew and working party of T. C. Hockridge, 
master and foreman, and 23 men, had carried this work to Fairport, Iowa, having 
then occupied 16 triangulation stations, marked 18 tri angulation points, and 12 stone 
lineSy completed work covering about 22 miles of river. 

Xhls party dosed its season's field work on August 26 at a point about 9 miles 
l»elow Dubuque, started down river the same night, completed en route some stone- 
line work near Muscatine, Iowa, left undone because* of high water. Assistant 
Engineer Stewart turned over boat and party at Quincy on August 30 to Assistant 
Engineer Morrow, in charge of topographical work, and reported at office for com- 
putations and report. 

Instructions for this work as to triangulation, printed in Annual Beport 1891, pp. 
3474-3476, as to stone lines, formerly placed by topographical party, in same report, 
pp. 3481-3485. 

The season's work extends f^ora Port Louisa, Iowa, to near Galena, 111., covering 
about 138 miles of river by 72 triangles, and closing on a Coast Survey triangle-side, 
Horseshoe-Sinsinnaway; 1 base line of about 1 mile was measured along railroad 
track near Rapids City, 111. ; 41 stone lines, Nob. 136-176, were marked by 118 bench 
marks of tile and pipe. 

The chain from Mew Boston base (9 miles below Port Louisa), measured in 1891, 
to Rapids Citv base is of 39 triangles, has a length by river of 68 miles and an 
axial length of 59 miles. The chain from Rapids City base to close is of 36 trian- 
gles, has a length by river of 79 miles and an axial length of 70 miles. The average 
error of closnre of tne72 triangles of this seq^on was l'^88; 34 are large, with aver- 
age error 2'^J22 and greatest error 5'^82; 37 are small, with average error 1''.62 and 
greatest error 5''.21 : 1 has no error. 

The base at Rapids City was measured twice, with discrepancy of two measure- 
ments, 1 : 594917. The two observations for azimuth by Assistant Engineer Stewart 
were too widely discrepant and were rejected. May 9 and 11, 1893, observations 
for aeimuth were made by Assistant Engineer Morrow, which were accepted. The 
revnlts are as follows : 

Computed length, 1,604.829 meters; measured length, 1,604.756 meters; discrepancy, 
1:21807. Computed azimuth, 69^03' 52" .2; observed azimuth, 69^03' 47''.5; discrep- 
ancy, 4".7. 

The season's work was not closed upon a base line, the ground being unfavorable, 
though the customary interval was fully covered. It was closed by Assistant Engi- 
neer Stewart on what he supposed to be the side, Sinsinnawa-Horseshoe Mound, in 
the tiiang[alation of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey across Wisconsin in 1881. 
The descriptions received from the U. S. Coast and Geoiietic Survey render it ques- 
tionable whether he occupied the station Horseshoe Mound, and the co5rdinates fur- 
nished did not show this line as a side of a completed triangle. 

On the reporting of the Patrol with f\ul party, May 20, 1893, Assistant Engineer 
Morrow proceeded to occupy Stewarts Station Horseshoe, and the U. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey stations Sinsinnawa and Gratiots Grove (which were recognized 
beyond question), and thus joined the Mississippi River Commission work wiui that 
of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey on the line Sinsinnawa-Gratiots Grove, a side 
of a completed triangle in both systems. 

The regular triangulation has been carried on, occupying 8 stations and closing 5 
triangles, with average error of closure, by field computation, of 1''.75. Favorable 
location of a base line has been selected ; it will be measured in June. 

Report of Assistant Engineer Stewart on the fieldwork under his char^, together 
with plat of triangulation and descriptions and geographical positions oi stations as 
ha as Rapids City, prepared in this office, is appended, narked A. 

Tocography and hydrography, — On September 1 a party, consisting of Assistant 
Enguteer A. T. Morrow, in charge, with Assistant Engineers W. G. Comber, George 
H.French, £. L. Harman, H. Dunaway, and E. J. Thomas, and Recorders C. L. 
Ockerson and O. ^. Axtell on topography. Recorders A. O. Wheeler and T. G. Ray 
on ordinaxy levels, T. C. Hockridge (also master of Patrol) and L. D. Cabanne on 



3576 EEPOET OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. AEMY. 

liydrograpliy, M. I. Powers and Tl. C. Winchell on compntation and platting, -with 
boat orew and working party of forty-nine men, assembled at Hannibal, Mo. 

The working season was from September 1 to November 10. The reach covered is 
from stone line 94, near the railroad bridge at Hannibal, Mo., to stone line 114, near 
head of Des Moines Rapids, 10 miles above Keokuk, Iowa, a distance of about 69 
miles by river. The belt surveyed in this section is broader than the average, and 
includes a large amount of shore line (sloughs and islands) per mile of river. tJp to 
and including No. Ill stone lines were placed by the topographical party. The 
season's work overlaps 9 miles by river upon the trS angulation of 1891, in connection 
with which the stone lines were placed. The weather wfCn favorable for fieldwork, 
and field plats were carried little beyond the instrumental lines necessary for check. 
Field plats were made on tracing linen for direct transfer to detail charts. (The orig- 
inal platting is slower; the time so lost is fully made up in the transfer, with gain 
of accuracy.) During work in the overflowed lowlands there .was considerable sick- 
ness in the party ; by temporary enlargement of the working force the work was 
carried on without material delay. 

The instructions for this work are given in Annual Report 1891, pp. 3481-3485. 

The tertiary triangulation occupi^ 143 stations and closed on 11 measured bases, 
1 side of secondary triangulation for distance and 10 for azimuth. 

Average error of closing, 1 in 9,652. 

Lines of ordinary levels on both banks, with crossings near each stone line, checked 
each otiier with a greatest discrepancy of 0.145 foot, average 0.101 foot. These lines 
were checked at 12 points upon lines of precise levels run in 1881, with discrepancies 
ranging from 0.00 to 0.17 foot. 

Twenty-four high- water marks of dates 1851 to 1892, whose history and accuracy 
appeared well established, were connected. 

soundings were taken on 402 sections, also in continuous line where channel was 
evident, and in several trial lines over shallows and divided channels, a total num- 
ber of ^,490 soundings located by 10,674 sextant angles. 

Report of Assistant Engineer Morrow is appended^ marked B. 

Triangulaiian, atone lines, andpredee UveUfrom DonaldeonvilU to Head of Paseee, — 
For the extension of the surveys under the Commission from DonaldsonviUe, La. 
(where they were closed in 1883), a party took the field at that point on December 8 
to make such triangulation as might prove necessary in a region already trian^- 
lated by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and to mark the stone lines. As its 
work neared New Orleans it was joined by a precise level party, and both began 
work at the Head of Passes and carried their work to a junction with the triangu- 
lation above and the line of precise le^ls run from Bilori in 1882. The work was 
thus broken to determine at once the feasibility of running precise levels on the soft 
lowlands, and to reach the levees before the rise of the river. Both works were 
closed at New Orleans on March 15, the precise levels connecting with the old line 
at three points. • 

Descriptions of triangulation stations and located points were furnished by the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. Enough of them were found to render secondary tri- 
angulation unnecessary. In long reaches the tertiary triangulation was checked 
by frequent base lines and by distance measured by chain or tape as a check, though 
not used in computation as bases. The monuments are located to within the possi- 
bility of delineation on scale 1 : 10000. Stone lines besides the left bank section of 
No. 188, near Donaldsonville, were marked by 198 tile and pipe bench marks. 

By exercising care in the placing of instrument and rods the precise levels have 
been kept well up to the average of this work. To test the accuracy of bench marks 
set in such soil advantage was taken of a delay by wind at Fort Jackson while en 
route from New Orleans to Head of Passes. On January 18 a bench mark was set In 
selected unfavorable ground, such that water was baled out of the pit before set- 
ting the tile, and carefully connected with a temponiry bench' on a tree. On Feb- 
ruary ^and 5, when the line reached Fort Jackson, it was again connected. The 
results m the three dates differ only in the tenths of millimeters, and the mean of all 
is the same as the first determination. 

This experimental bench mark gave a curious evidence of the elasticity of the soil 
of the Delta. The tile was well settled in place and its elevation taken before fill- 
ing the pit. After filling the elevation was again taken through the pipe, and it 
was found, to have settled 4.8 millimet<ers. After releveling, on February 3, the tile 
was uncovered and rose 3.8 millimeters. On refilling the pit the same settlement 
took place. 

The time interval (January 18 to February 3) given in this experiment was all that 
the conditions of the .work permitted. The resiuts appear to show that these beneli 
marks in soft springy ground are good if there is no disturbance of the ground near 
them, but may be anected by a turning up of the soil within a distance which would 
elsewhere be regarded as safe. The traditions of the former and present relations to 
the ground and water levels of a house near Cabitts Gap, would indicate that the 



APPENDIX YT — ^REPpBT OF MISSISSIPPI BIVEB COMMISSION. 3577 

soil of tlie Delta is raised by deposit of sediment and lowered bj consolidation. It 
i» possible that a future releveling of this line £rom the Metaine Ridge may deter- 
mine this point. 

Report of Assistant Engineer Morroir on the field work of this party, with descrip- 
tions and geographical p<isitions of stone-line benc^ marks, isapuouded, marked C: 
ikL^o report of Assistant Engineer Paige on precise level work, witn descriptions and 
eleTfttions of permanent bench marks, marked D. 
The present statns of the surveys is as follows: 

Triangnlation and stone lines completed from Head of Passes to a little above 
Dabuqucj Iowa; extension northward in progress. 

Precise levels completed from Head or Passes to St. Paul, with side lines New 
Orleans-Bilozi, Savannah-Chicago, and St. Paul-Duluth: no extension projected. 

'Popo^aphy and hydrography complete from Donaldsonville, La., to head of 
Des Moines Kapids; extension northward projected for summer and autumn of 1893; 
coDipletion from Donaldsonville to Head of Passes projected for winter of 1893-'94. 

Manuscript charts, etc. — Detail charts, scale 1:10000: On May 31, 1892, these charts 
were completed to include No. 121, extendidg to stone line, 74.3 miles above Cap an 
Oris, with three in progress extending to midway between stone lines 85 and 86. They 
are now completed, except final retouching, to include No. 130, extending to just below 
Quincy. 111., with six in progress^ nearly completed, extending to stone line 114, at 
liead ox Des Moines Rapids, covering the field work of 1892. 

In connection with these the sonnding chart, serving also as index chart, is com- 
pleted to same line. The office force for this work consists of the field topographers. 
All surveys and mapping have been under the direction of Assistant Engineer Ocker- 
Bon. 

Topographical maps, scale, 1 inch^l mile: On May 31, 1892, these maps were com- 
pleted to Water Works, St. Louis (195 miles above Cairo), with one sheet in progress 
extending to mouth of Missouri River (207 miles above Cairo). 

One has been redrawn, and two partly redrawn for better arrangement and execu- 
tion. They are now completed to just below Grafton, 111., 232 miles above Cairo 
(nine maps, numbered 101-109), witli one in progress, extending to 255 miles above 
Cairo. 
This work is in the hands of Mr. C. W. Clark. 

Published charts and maps. — ^The charts and maps published by the Commission are 
the following. Except official issues under resolution of the Commission they are, in 
accordance with law, sold at the prices annexed : 

Cents. 

Allnvial valley (scale, 1 inch : 5 miles) (completed) per sheet . . 10 

Alluvial valley (scale, 1 inch : 5 miles) per set (8 sheets) . . 40 

Mississippi River (scale, 1 : 20000) (in progress) per sheet. , 20 

Mississippi River below Cairo (scale, 1 inch : 1 mile) (completed) » do 6 

Mississippi River above Cairo (scale, 1 inch: 1 mile) (in preparation). 

On May 31, 1892, of the charts, scale 1 : 20000, sixty-six sheets, extending from Cairo 
to Donaldsonville (numbered southward from 3 to 69), were published, and fourteen 
sheets, extending from Cairo to the southern limit of Carondolet (numbered north- 
ward from 101 to 114). 

For the southward series, index charts (numbered 1 and 2) have been published, 
completing that series as far as surveys have been made. Of the northward series 
Nos. 115, 116, extending to mouth of Missouri River, have been published ; final proofs 
of Nos.ll?, 118y extending to just above Grafton, 111., have been received. 

On May 31, 1892, of the inch-mile series above Cairo, five maps were in hands of 
the printer. This printer failed utterly to produce satisfactory work. Eight maps, 
extending to mouth of Missouri River, are now in the hands of the printer. Satisfac- 
tory proofs have been received of five of them. The progress of publication has 
hitherto, for varions reasons, lagged far behind that of preparation for it. W^ith rea- 
sonable promptness on the part of the printer the field work of 1892 will all be pub- 
lished before the end of 1893. 

The gauges maintained by the Commission have been sometimes under charge of 
the secretary and sometimes under that of the district officei^s. Few of them are of 
permanent construction, and some, owing to caving banks, have not been permanent 
in location. To determine their present condition and to put their location on record 
as accurately as the nature of the river bank leaves possible, an inspection was made 
during low water by Assistant Engineer J. A. Ockerson. His report, with plats, is 
appended, marked £. 

The records for 1892 of gauges under the Commission, as well as of certain others 
under Majs. Maclfenzie and Miller and Capts. Willard and Taber, Corps of Engi- 
neers, under the Weather Bureau, and of the Cincinnati Water Works, have been 
received, tabulated, and printed in pamphlet form, together with descriptions of 
gauges and bench marks. (Issued March 23.) 



3578 BEPOBT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. AEMT. 

A table of high and low water^ in eztensftn of that pablished in Annnal Beport, 
1891, pp. 3555-^75, in appended, marked P. 

By direction of the preshient Mississippi Biver Commission the following tables 
have been prepared : 

1. Showing, for certain selected stations and for the years 1872-^92 (except as noted 
in tables), the highest, lowest, mean highest, and mean lowest stages. (Appended, 
marked G.) 

2. Showing, for certain selected stations, and for the years 1872-'92 (except as noted 
in tables), the mean number of days in which the stage above extreme low water was 
in successive intervals of 5 and 10 feet. (Appended, marked H). Since and includ- 
ing August, 1892, all gauges and records received weekly or monthly have been tab- 
ulated monthly and sent to Commissioners and district officers. , 

llie office hydrographs have been kept up to date. 

The discharge observations of 1892 have been recomputed and results tabulated 
and printed in pamphlet form. (Issued May 27.) Copy is appended, marked I. 

This work has been under charge of Assistant Engineer Kivas TuUy, assisted by 
Messrs. George H. Johnson and C. A. Bonfils. '*' 

JIIiBcellane&H8. — ^The exhibit of this office has been prepared and shipped to the 
Columbian Exposition. It consists of 1 atlas detail charts, mounted and bound; 1 
atlas inch-mile maps, mounted and bound; 1 atlas survey of caving banks, blue 
prints; 1 atlas annual hydrographs, containing hydrographs, 1873-'92; Iset of bor- 
ings, mounted in glass tubes; I set of topographical sign printing apparatus (fur- 
nished by Assistant Engineer Ockerson); 1 set of '^ Stages/' and 1 set ''Discharge 
Observations." 

A study has been made of early maps of .the Mississippi River below Cairo in 
comparison with those published by the Commission. The maps studied are those 
of Lieut. Ross, Thirty-fourth Regiment, from observations taken on a journey in the 
latter part of the year 1765 (London, 1776) ; of Capt. Phillip Pitman, from obser- 
vations extending probaby from 1765 to 1768 (London, 1770) ; and of Brig. Gen. Vic- 
tor Collot, from a journey September 16-October 26, 1796 (Paris, 1826). Report of 
method and results with tracings of the maps, and meander lines platted for com- 
parison, is appended, marked K. 

For the privilege of tracing Ross's map I am indebted to the librarian of the Mis- 
souri Historical Society; for that of Pitman^ to Col. George £. Leighton, of St. 
Louis. ColloVs is in my possession. 

GENERAL SERVICI. 

On May 31, 1892, the general service was engaged in the repair of bargee and in 
towing stone from Apple Creek Quarry to works in the first and second districts. 

On June 22 the^ commission, in session at New York, directed that the general ser- 
vice be abolished as soon as practicable after June 30, that its property be distributed 
to the works of the secretary and the first, second, and third districts, and that the 
officers in charge of those works make the distribution. 

These officers met at Memphis on July 16, and assigned to the secretary the furni- 
ture in his office and the steamer Mississippi with outfit; to the first and second dis* 
tricts. the steamer Minnetonka with outfit, the camel docks, and one^^half the barges 
and working tools : to the third district, the steamers EtheriAge and Vedette with 
outfit, and one-hali the barges and working tools. ' 

In view of the importance to the first district of the repair of barges and the stone 
supply, this work, with control of all property, was turned over to Capt. S. W. Roessler, 
in charge of that district, the formal transfer of property to be completed when the 
requirements of this work permitted. It was completed at the end of December. 

Stone supply. -^Th^ season of 1892 extended from P'ebruary 21^ when on notice that 
the barges in this district were free, the Minnetonka was sent out to collect them to 
July 20, when the work was turned over to Capt. Roessler. 

The expenditures and results are tabulat-cd below, the cost of towing, as in former 
reports, includes all running expenses of st^amers^ but not repairs others than those 
made en route^ nor interest on value of plant. 

Staiemehi of cost of towing stone to first districtf &y the general service, February fSl to 

July 20, 1892, 

Total running expenses of steamers $12,663.58 

Less applied to third district, returning empties • 5,740.24 

6 928 34 
6,408|437 yard miles^ at $0.00107 6^923134 



■ 

il^PENDtX: T t — ^REK)ET OP MiSSlSSlPH tllVfiR COMMISSION. 3579 

Cost of Btane on barges. • 

Centa. 

At qnairy per onbic yard , . 62. 50 

At Daniels Point do.... 87.34 

AtAsbport do.... 87.34 

AtKeyee Point do.... 87.34-f 

The general service was organized in 1882, having for its frmctions the pnrchase, 
ooB&traction, and repair of plant, ^ndi the purchase and delivery of general supplies 
and materials for the districts. Of later years the stone supply and repair of plant 
has been almost its only service. Its plant has been held in the districts whenever 
required for the works, and collected by it when not so required for repair and for 
stone toi^in^. It has had no permanent location and at no time the control, by pur* 
chase or lease, of any water front. Up to 1889 it was a separate charge ; since that 
year it bae been under the secretary. 

Its exi»extditQX«6, 1882-'92, are asfollows: 

Running expense of steamers, charter, etc $358^443.89 

Repairs and care of plant (labor and material) 315,121.52 

Plant and outiit 189,773.03 

Inspeetion administration and office 102,243.88 

Purcbase of stone 20,151.38 

Kaisine sunken bargee and property 3, 219. 33 

Medical attendapee 403.40 

Miscellaneous 289.90 

Total 989,646.33 

"Banning expense of steamers'' covers the delivering in the districts of 386,788 
cubic yards of stone, about 10,000 tons of coal, and about 4,000 tons of general sup- 
plieSy tbat of the floating plant built above Cairo on Mississippi and Ohio rivers, as 
wen as of its own plant, when required, and its collection after such service, with 
incidentally some moving of plant, and, in emergency, direct aid in construction in 
the districts. 

" Hepair and care of plant '' includes that of the general service, that of fifty-eight 
barges purchased from allotment for New Madrid, of thirty barges borrowed for the 
Mississippi River Commission in use from May, 1884, to March, 1885, and of some 
belonging to the districts. 

"Plant and outfit'' includes part payment for building and fitting out steamer 
M\99i99ippL purchase of steamers Minnetonkaj Etheridge, and Vedette with outfit, 
building thirty barges, three camel docks, and upper works to make a store boat of 
a sssond hand coal barge, also the necessary provision of small boats and working 
tools. 

The office expenses, as distinct from inspection and administration,*have been of 

late years an allotted five- twelfths of the expenses of the combined office; in the 

early years those of the separate office included the printing under the commission. 

"Purchase of stone" includes only that directly paid for by the general service; 

most of that actually purchased was paid for by the district officers. 

The expenditures have been distributed among the districts and the several titles 
of allotment^ as shown in the detailed statements of expended and current allotments. 

TONNAGE AND TRAFFIC. 

The through traffic of the lower Mississippi River comes fVom the upper Missis* 
sippi and Missouri rivers and northern and northwestern railroads (reshipped from 
St. Louis) and from ports on the Ohio River. 

From the northern rivers and railroads the most important shipment is of grain in 
bulk for export to European ports, much of which is sold in Europe before ship- 
ment. This traffic, entirely in the hands of the St. Louis and Mississippi Valley 
Transportation Company, aggregated as follows : 

Com bushels.. 5,763,187 

Wheat do.... 6,662,799 

Oats do.... 36,857 

Total tons.. 365,859 

The principal items of miscellaneous freight carried down by this line (total 
42,301 tons) are white lead, flour, grain in sacks (for domestic trade), and meat prod- 
ucts. 

The principal items of return firei^ht (total, 40,425 tons) are imported cement 
and rice and native lumber. Detailed statements of tbe '' Shipments of bulk 
grain,'' and of '* Shipments by N. O. boats and barges,*' taken from report of St. 
Louis Merchants' Exchange, and of return freights, furnished by tbe secretary of 
the company, are contained in commercial statistics appended; marked L, 



3580 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U* S. ARMY. 

The traffic from northern rivers and railroads to way ports (also reshipped at St. 
Lonis) is in the hands of the "Anchor Line." 

Detailed statement of it is contained in the " Shipments by Memphis, Yicksborg, 
and Natchez boats/' taken from report of St. Lonis Merchants Exchange in Appen- 
dix L. 

On the estimate of this company 1 per cent is deducted for traffic between St. 
Lonls and Cairo and 40 per cent added for return freights, giving a total of 106,813 
tons. 

All of the above traffic was seriously interfered with by the extreme range and the 
long duration of both the high and low waters. The former cut off the communica- 
tion with the grain elevators at St. Louis and with many way landings, affecting 
both heavy and light traffic. The low wat-er, while affecting both, telfi more seri- 
ously on the heavy traffic. This is shown by the records of two trips, the best and 
the worst of 1892. On March 5, 4 p. m., the steamer Hoxie left Cairo with six barges, 
loaded to 8 feet 8 inches, carrying 8,843 tons of freight. Reached New Orleans March 
12, 12 m. Left New Orleans March 13, 6 a. m., with six barges, carrying 790 tons of 
freight. Reached Cairo March 24, 2 a. m. Round trip time, and full steamer service, 
seventeen days sixteen hours. On November 5, 5 a. m., the steamer Clark left Cairo 
with six barges, loaded to 5 feet 1 inch, carrying 4,008 tons of freight. Had en route 
eight days twenty-one hoI^'s of service of an auxiliary steamer. Reached New 
Orleans November 19, 8 a. m. Left New Orleans November 20, 4 a. m., with six barges, 
carrying 1,850 tons of freight. Reached Cairo December 1, 9 a, m. Round trip time, 
twenty-tive days, eight hours; total steamer service, thirty-four days, five hours. , 

The secretary of the company writes : ''At low stage it is almost impossible to tow 
more than three barges at once between Cairo and points aa low down as Helena, 
the channels being so close as to forbid of tows of greater width ; hence we are com- 
pelled to use auxiliary or helping steamers for a part of the journey." 

The Hoxie f the Clarky and the auxiliary steamer are all of the first class, representing 
substantially the same expense and working power. The coal expenditure is slightly 
less in low -water towing; the breaking of lines and wear of plant much greater. In 
counting the expense as proportional to the hours of steamer service I consider the 
low- water towing to be treated with favor. The upstream freight is not of such 
quantity as to make draft important. In counting; the freight carried I consider the 
downstream freights alone to |five the ratio really in (question. On this analysis the 
cost per ton of towing on drau 5 feet 1 inch is 4.279 tmies that of towing on draft 8 
feet o inches. 

Taking the trip of the Clark as the worst of the season, and assuming a perfect 
combination of trips, the auxiliary steamer, working from Cairo to Helena, might 
give aid to three steamers of the regular line while the first was completing its round 
trip, thus securing from four steamers, including the auxiliary, the full work of 
three in the regular line. Compounding this ratio of steamers required, that of the 
downstream i^eights and that of the round trip times, the efficiency of steamers on 
draft 8 feet 8 inches is 4.217 times that on draft 5 feet 1 inch. 

The low water usually occurs at a time when St. Louis elevators are full of grain, 
and certainty and promptness of transportation is important. 

Tlie Cherokee Packet Company, plying from St. Louis to Memphis, carries down- 
stream freights of general merchandise, upstream freights of lumber, grain, and 
hay. Deducting deliveries above Cairo, tneir agent estimates the downstream 
freight at 21,600 tons; upstream, 12.500 tons; total, 34,100 tons. 

The principal shipments from the Ohio River are of coal irom Pittsburg and gen- 
eral merchandise from Cincinnati; the principal return freights axe of sugar, molas- 
ses, and cotton products. 

The secretary of the Pittsburg Coal Exchange has famished me a statement of 
shipments of coal delivered in successive reaches of the river, which he has compiled 
from statements of shippers, the records of the exchange not containing the informa- 
tion in this form. The total of these shipments is 1,850,00(^ tons. No freight is 
brought back; and many of the barges are sold with the coal. (Copy in Appendix 
L.) 

The superintendent of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce has furnished me with 
a statement of the traffic with the Lower Mississippi from that port, also made up 
from special inquiry, classified only as above and below Memphis. The downstream 
shipments are of general merchandise; the upstream are mainly sugar and molasses 
and cotton products. They aggregate, downstream, 28,071 tons, upstream, 27,811 
tons; total, 55,882 tons. (Copy m Appendix L.) 

The above comprises nearly all the through traffic on the Lower Mississippi ; there 
remain that of a few small steamers and some small way traffic of the through 
steamers, of which little or no formal record is kept, and of which no trustworthy 
estimate is accessible to me. From the information furnished I summarize as fol- 
lows: 

Downstream: From the northern rivers, 499,118 tons; from the Ohio, 1,878,071 
tons; total, 2,377,189 tons. 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI EIVEB COMMISSION. 3581 

« 

Upstream : To the north, 90,380 tons ; to the Ohio, 27,811 tons ; total, 118.191 tons. 
Aifgregate, 2,496,380 tons, of which about three-fourths are earned over tne whole 
distance Cairo to New Orleans. 

As the commeroiid sections most nearly corresponding to the engineer districts, I 
take the following: First, from Cairo to and including Memphis; second, from Mem- 
phis to and including White River; third, from White River to und including Vioka- 
bnrg; fourth, from vicksburg to and including New Orleans. 

The traffic by the Anchor Line of steamers is, on the estimate of the company, 
apportioned, one-fouxth to Memphis, one-half to Vicksburg, and one-fourth to 
Natchez. 

This gives the through-freight traffic of the districts as follows: 

First. Down, 2,377,189 tons: up, 118,191 tonsf total, 2,495,380 tons; of which 
2,143,480 tons were in transit, 351,900 delivered or shipped in the district. 

Second. Down, 2,063,571 tons ; up, 79,909 tons; total, 2,143,480 tons; of which 
2,C^,480 tons were in transit, 60,000 tons delivered in the district. 

Third. Down, 2,003,571 tons; up, 79,909 tons; total, 2,083,480 tons; of which 
1,882,325 tons were in transit, 201,157 tons delivered or shipped in the district. 

Fourth. Down, 1,821,292 tons; up, 61,031 tons; total, 1,882,323 tons; all delivered 
or shipped in the district. 

I have tabulated the abore so ae to show, for each district, the source or destina- 
tion of the above traffic, with the amounts in transit and those delivered down« 
stream or shipped upstream, and the local traffic from information received from 
the district officers. It is the first statement in Appendix L. 

Financial statements for May, detailed and consolidated statements up to May 31, 
Btatement of ihaps issued, list of civilian engineers, and approximate value of plant, 
are appended. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Carl F. Palfrey, 
Captain of Engineen. 

Gen. C. B. Comstock, 

President Mississippi Biver Commission* 



Secreiary's office— Financial statements for the month ending May SI, 189S* 



Mi88ls> 

sippi 

River 

Com. 

misBlon 

act Oct. 

2,1888. 



Balance imeinpended at end 
of laat liacal year 

Appropriated «nd aHotted 
during cairent fiscal year.. 

GuDed by tnmafer daring 
cuTmit fiscal year 

Lost by tranefer during cur- 
rent fiscal year 



$138.26 



Total available. 



Expended dnring current fis- 
cal year 

lUifunded dnring curroit fis- 
cal year 



Total disposed of. ... 
Balance unexpended 



Intreagnry 

On band. 

Orerdrawn. 



Balance ae above. 



Outstanding liabiUtlea 

AtQounte ooTered by existing 
eontraeta 



Total liabilities 
BaUnoe available . . . 



188.26 



138.26 



57.35 
80.91 



138.26 



138.26 



138.26 



Snrvey 
of Mis- 
sissippi 
River, 

act 

Aug.ll, 

1888. 



(7.08 



$44,206.71 



7.08 



7.08 



Improving Improvingllxnproving 

Misaiflsip- Mississip- Missisaip- 

pi River; pi River; pi River; 

surveys, Mississip- rebailding 

ganffes, pi River steamer 

and oDser- Commis- Missis 

vations. sion. sippL 



46,345.33 



90,552.04 



'60,860.70 



59,860.70 



30,60L34 



7.08 



7.08 



7.08 



7.08 



26, 077. 27 
4,614.07 



30.69L34 



5,000.00 



5,000.00 



25,69L84 



$35,560.97 



35,560.97 



25,610.36 



25, 610. 86 



$25,000.00 



25,000.00 



640.64 



Total. 



$79,018.02 



71.345.33 



151, 258. 35 



86,120.70 



649. 64 86, 120. 70 



9,950.61 



13, 905. 97 
'i,*645.*36 



9, 950. 61 



3, 000. 00 



3,000.00 



6,060.61 



24, 350. 36 I C5, 137. 65 



25, 000. 00 
"649.* 64 



,65,130.59 
4, 702. 06 
4, 695. 00 



24, 350. 36 



4, 500. 00 



4,500.00 



19,850.86 



65, 137. 65 



12, 645. 34 



12,646.34 



52,492.31 



"Works 

above 

Cairo, 

act July 

5,1884. 



$8,600.00 



8, 600. 00 



8,600.00 



8,600.00 



89.00 . 



39.00 



8,56L00 



*ai.56 flocpended by Treasuxy settlement "So, 7»977. 



3582 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U, S. ARBIY. 

Fir»t and Sieeond diatriotB—flnaneial statement for the month ending May SJ, 189$. 



BaUsoe nnezpended at end of last 

flacalyear 

Appropriated and allotted daring 

current fiscal year 

Gained by transfer dnring current 

fisMlyear 

Loat by transfer during current 

flacalyear 



Plum Point 
fieaoh. 



Total aTailable 



Expended duriBgonrrent flacalyear. 
Befimded daring current fiscal year. 



Total disposed of.... 
Balance unaxpended. 



In treasury. 
On hand — 
Overdrawn . 



Balance as above. . . 



Outstanding liablUties 

Amounts covered by existing con- 
tracts 



Total liabiUtiea. 
Baluice available 



$270, 183. 82 
60,000.00 



Plant, 
first and 

second 
districts. 



42,000.00 



288, 163. 82 



$7,976.02 
60,000.00 



67,976.02 



237,322.05 53,343.16 



237,322.05 



50,841.77 



62,500.00 
"ii."668.'23" 



53,343.16 



Hickman, 
Ky. 



$45,910.87 



45,910.97 



4,119.12 



4,113.12 



14,632.86 I 41.797.85 



20,000.00 
5,'867.*i4 



60,641.77 



5,000.60 
8,000.00 



13,000.00 



37,84L77 



14,632.86 



5,000.00 



5.<kK).00 



9,632.86 



81,843.17 
9,954.68 



41, 797. 85 



41.797.85 



Kew 

MadiAd, 

Mow 



$:S26.6I 



226. 61 



208.00 



Improving 
harbor at 
New Mad- 
rid. Ha 



$11, 0891 80 



$25,000.00 



25,000.00 



6,138.97 



208.00 i 6,138.97 



Preserva- 
tion of 
works. 



11,039.89 



8,288.18 



8,289.18 



18.61 18.861.03 7,750.71 



1&61 



18.61 



25,000.00 
"6," 138.97' 



18,861.03 



5,000.00 
2,750,71 



7,750.71 



3,000.00 



18.61 



3,000.00 



15,861.03 



7,750.71 



Balance unexpended at end of last fiscal 
year 

Appropriated and allotted during cur- 
rent fiscal year 

Gained by transfer during current fiscal 
year 

Lost by transfer during current fiscal 
year 



Surveys, 

gauges, and 

observa- 

tiona. 



$6,807.99 



2,000.00 



Dredging 
experi- 
ments. 



$35,000.00 
15,000.00 



Hopefleld 
Bend. 



$91,000.00 
7,481.78 



Improving 

harbor at 

Memphis, 

Tenn. 



$25,000.00 



Bemoral 

Nonconnah 

rook. 



$6,000.00 



Total available , 



8,807.99 



50.000.00 



98,43].7» 



25, 000. 00 



6,000.00 



Expended dnring current fiscal year . . . . 
Beianded during current fiscal year — 



7,470.17 



9,269.15 98,316.51 



Total disposed of 

Balance unexpended. 



7,470.17 



9, 269. 15 



1,837.82 



40,730.85 



In treasury 
On hand . . . 
Overdrawn. 



4,500.00 



45,000.00 



3, 162. 18 



4, 269. 15 



Balance as above 



1,337.82 



Outstanding liabilities 

Amounts oovered by existing contracts. 



1,000.00 



Total liabiUtiea 
Balance available . . . . 



40, 730. 85 



40,730.85 



1, 000. 00 



837.82 



40,730.85 



7.20 



98,316.51 



7.20 



115.27 



25,000.00 



5, 992. 80 



115.27 



24,000.00 
1,000.00 



2,000.00 
3,992.80 



115.27 



25,000.00 



5, 992. 80 



115.27 



115.27 



992.80 
5, 000. 00 



5,992.80 



25,000.00 



APPENDIX Y Y — BEPOBT OF HIS8ISSIPPI RITEB COMMISSION. 3583 



Hrvf and 



SMond dUtridt-^Fnumdal sUttemmU for the mtmih eiuUng May SI, 189S- 

Continued. 



BabsMe niMxpeiHied at tod of lust flecal 



▲pprnnrlated and aUottad during ouT' 

reninsonl yevr 

~ b J tnnafer dnr^g eorrent fi«c«l 



LMt Vy Wanafer during ouTraat ^soal 

J' 



Total srailable. 



Biu c ude d during earrent flaoid year . . . 
Beninded during current fiscal year 



Total diapoaed of 

Balance unexpended 



In treaomy 
On band ... 
Orerdrawnt. 



Balance aa abore. 



Outatanding liabilities.... 

Amounta covered by existing contracts 



Helena, 
Ark. 



$1,502.80 



Upper 

Yasoo levee 

district. 



$100,000.00 
4,548.65 



1,502.80 i 104,548.65 50,790.39 



ITpper 

White 

Biver levee 

district. 



$50,000,00 
790.39 



Lower 

White 

River levee 

district. 



$75,000.00 



75,000.00 



Total 



$348,628.10 
527,000.00 
29,770.82 
42.000.00 



898, 398. 92 



6.70 



6.70 



1, 496. 10 



500.00 
906.10 



97,463.80 



22,229.13 



97, 453. 80 



7,094.85 



10, 000. 00 
"'2,966.15' 



1,496.10 



Total Uabilitiea 



Briaaoeavailabla. 



7, 094. 85 



600.00 



500.00 



1, 496. 10 



6, 594. 85 



22,229.13 



28, 561. 26 



65,444.62] 604,611.76 



65,444.62 1 604,611.76 



9, 555. 38 : 253, 787. 16 



28,661.26 



7,500.00 I 237,843.17 

2,055.38 1 49,444.81 

I 83,.')00.82 



28,561.26; 9,655.38 1 253,787.16 



5,000.00 
10, 000. 00 



15, 000. 00 



18,661.26 



1,000.00 i 62.338.02 
..{ 28,000.06 



1,000.00 1 85,338.92 



8,655.38 168,44&24 



2%frd diBMot — I%nano\al statement for the month ending May 31, 1893, 





Lake 

Providence 

Beach. 


Violcsburg, 
Miss. 


Lake Bel- 
iver Front. 


Ashbrook 
Neck. 


Plant, third 
district. 


Surveys, 
gauges, 
and obser- 
vations. 


Balance unexpended at end 

of bifttr flArAl VfAT - - 


$27,474.29 
176,000.00 


$40,089.82 


$6,000.00 


$107,246.84 


$10,201.71 
50,000.00 
25,000.00 


$75.54 
10,000.00 


Appropriated and allotted 
ottring earrent fiscal year. 

Gained by transfer during 
cnrmnt nspal vear . ^- 








Lost by transfer during cur< 
mnt fiscal vecvr -- 








25,000.00 
















Total available 


208,474.28 


40,089.82 


6,000.00 


82,245.84 


85,201.71 


10,075.54 


Xxpended during current 
moaI veav . . u . ^ . . . . 


178,749.26 


84,050.20 


8,377.20 


81,281.26 


79,520.00 


9,777.12 


Itefnnded during current 
AsaaI vear 












( 


Total disposed of 


178,749.26 


34,050.20 


3,377.20 


81,231.26 j 79,520.00 


9, 777. 12 


Balance unexpended . . 


24,725.03 


6,099.62 


2, 622. 80 


1,014.58 1 5,681.71 


298.42 


In TroamiTT ..■.■>.>.. 


15, 000. 00 
9,725.03 


5,000.00 
1,089.62 




............f- 


1, 000. 00 


Ob band ....... ......•.• .... 


2,622.80 


1,014.58 


5,68L71 




Overdrawn ............. ... 


701.58 
















Balance as above 


24,725.03 


6,039.62 


2,622.80 


1,014.58 


6,681.71 j 298.42 


Outstanding liabilities 

Amounts covered by exist- 
ing oontracta ............. 


4,725.03 
10,000.00 






1,014.58 


5,68L71 


298.42 




















Total liabilitiea 


14,725.08 






1,014.58 


5, 681. 71 


298.42 










Bltenre aprallableir..n ...... 


10,006.00 


6,039.62 


2,022.80 

















3584 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



Third disiriot — Financial statement far the month ending May SI, 1893 — Continued. 



' 


Lower 

Yaaoo levee 

distriot. 


Upper Ten- 
sas levee 
district 


MiddleTen- 
sas levee 
district. 


Improving 

harbor at 

Yicknburg, 

Miss. 


Improving 

luurbor at 

Greenville, 

Miss. 


Totals. 


Balance unexpended at end 
nf }tkMt flAoai vear ..... t . - - 












$191,087.20 


Appropriated and allotted 
dunng onrreht fiscal year. 

Gained Dy transfer daring 
current fiscal year 

Ix>8t by transfer doling ear- 
rent fiscal vear 


^200,000.00 
4,09L01 


$310,000.00 
3,854.12 


$110,000.00 
2'/7.47 


$60,000.00 


$100,000.00 


1,036,000.00 
33,222.60 






25,000.00 
















Total available 


204,091.01 


313,854.12 


110,277.47 


80, 000. 00 


100, 000. 00 


1,235,309.80 
1,064.134.85 


Exi)ended daring current 
fiscal vear ................ 


179,172.03 


286,374.80 


92,936.28 


24, 187. 74 


94. 758. 46 


Befunded daring oorrent 








•••••••«« 












Total disposed of 


179, 172. 03 i 286, 874. 80 j 92, 936. 28 


24,187.74 


04,758.46 


1,064,134.35 


Balance unexpended. . 


24, 918. 98 1 27, 479. 32 1 17, 341. 1 9 


55,812.26 


6, 241. 54 


171,176.45 


Tn Tresflurv ................ 


24, 000. 00 
918.98 


43,000.00 
"is' 520.' 68* 


7, 000. 00 
10, 841. 19 


60,000.00 


5,000.00 
241.54 


160, 000. 00 


On hand 


31,585.45 


Overdrawn ................. 


4.187.74 


20, 410. 00 








1 1 


Balance as above 


24,918.98 


27,479.32 


17,34L19 


55, 812. 26 


5,241.54 


171,175.45 


Outstanding liabilities 

Amounts covered by exist- 
ing contracts - 


9, 918. 98 


7, 179. 32 
5,300.00 


7,341.19 


1,000.00 
36,512.26 




37,1&8.2S 




51,812.26 












Total liabilities 


9.918.98 


12,479.32 


7, 341. 19 


37,612.26 




88,97L49 










15,000.00 


15,000.00 


10,000.00 


18,300.00 


5,241.64 


82,203.96 







Fourth district — Financial statement for the month ending May SI, 189S, 





Lower 
Tensas 
levee dis- 
trict. 


Atchafa- 

lava levee 

dUtrict. 


La- 
fourche 
levee 
district. 


Baratariai^^°*t*'" 
levee 1 ^^^^ 

district. 1 ,,i^,;«^t. 

1 


Lake 
Borgne 

levee 
district. 


Bed and 
Atchaf. 
alaya riv- 
ers. 


Balance unexpended «t 
end of last fiscal vear. ... 














$88,687.06 


Appropriated and allotted 
during current fiscal 
year .................... 


$150,000.00 


$155,000.00 


$90,000.00 


$60,000.00 


$160,000.00 


$50,000.00 


Gained by transfer during 
current fisci^ vear 




Lost by transfer during 
mirmnt flscal vear .-.^ 


A.. 




























Total available 


150,000.00 


155,000.00 


90,000.00 


60,000.00 


150,000.00 


60,000.00 88,607.06 


Expended during current 
fiscal year 


133,324.57 


127.883.67 


75,106.64 


57. 566. 16 


132-171.13 


1 
49,704.81' 2R.7S4.ofi 


Befunded daring current 
fiscal year 


i 




—"1 — — — 
















Tots! disposed of . . . . 


133,324.57 


127,883.67 


75,106.64 


57,666,16, 132,171.43 


49,704.81 28,724.06 


Balance unexpended . 


16,675.43 


27, 116. 33 


14,898.36 


2,433.84 


17, 828. 57 


295. 19 


59,973.00 


Tn Treasurv. ....■..•.■■■■■ 


i5,ooaoo 

1,675.43 


25, 000. 00 
2,116.33 


15, 000. 00! 5. 000. 00 


20,000.00 


5, 000. 00 


58,000.00 


On hand.. ................. 




I —-— - — - 


1^073.00 


Overdrawn ................ 


106.64 


2,560.16 


2,171.43 


4, 704. 81 














16,675.43 


27, 116. 33 


14,893.34 


2,433.84 


17, 828. W 


2V5.19 


59,973.00 


OntatandittiF liabilities .... 
















Amounu covered by exist- 
ini? contracts. ........... 


15,319.99 




10,725.60 




12,99L49 




69,973.00 












Total liabilities 


15.319.90 




10. 725. 59 




12,991.49 




69,978.00 












Dalance available ......... 


1,355.44 


27,116.38 


4, 167. 77 


2,433.84 


4,837.08 


295.19 









APPENDIX Y T — ^REPOET OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COIiMISSION. 3585 
Fowrih dittriei^J^nandtU 9taiem&Mfor fke manik ending May SI, ^^95— Continned. 





purveys, 
gauges, and 
otmenra- 
tions. 


Improving 

Mississippi 

River. 


Improving 
harbor at 
New Or- 
leans, La. 


Improring 

Atchaf- 

alaya and 

Red Kivers^ 

Louisiana. 


Improving 
harbors at 

Kat«hea 
and Vida- 

Ua,Miss. 

snd La. 


TotaL 


• 

Baluioe unerpended at end 
of last fiscal year 

Appropriated and allotted 
durinKcarreBt flacal year. 

Gained Dy transfer dnring 
fiQiTttnt llacal vear 


1(00.43 
12,000.00 


189.823.48 
807,000.00 








$89,323.48 


$80,000.00 


$80,ooaoo 


180,000.00 


907,000.00 


Lett br transfer daring cur- 
Inf naeal Tear 














*** J '»"" ............. 














Total avaUaUe 


12,626l42 


750,823.48 


80,000.00 80,000.00 


80,000.00 


996,823.48 


Expended, during corrent 
fiiical Tea? ...... .......... 


0)073.38 


010,664.07 


80,000.00 




1,420.47 


091,975.14 


Sefunded during current 

fianal vMir -,,-,, --,,-t 


















Total disposed of 


0,073.38 


010,564.07 


80.000.00 




1,420.47 


091,975.14 






Balance unexpended. . 


0,553. 09 


145, 768. 81 




80. 000. 00 


78, 579. 53 


304, 348. 34 






InTreannry ..•.........■•>• 


0,000.00 
553.09 


148,000.00 
0,317.85 
9,548.04 


5,000.00 


80,000.00 


75,000.00 
8,579.53 


809, 000. 00 


On band ................. 


9, 897. 38 




6,000.00 




14, 549. 04 














0,553.09 


145, 768. 81 




80,000.00 


7P, 579. 53 


804,34&84 






. 




Ontstandins liabilities 














Amoonta oorered by exist* 
XntF f jmti Jti.tji . ............ 




99,010.07 




9, 527. OO 




108,637.07 












Total lialbiUties 




99, 010. 07 




9. 527. 00 
70,473.00 




108,5^7.07 












Rftlffim ftTftiliililA ...*■•«•■•> 


0,553.09 


46, 758. 74 




78,579.63 


195, 811. 27 









Df failed statement, March S, 1881, to May SI, 189S, {Expended allotments,) 



Pistzicti. 



Dm Moines Rapids to Illinois River, 
niinois River to Ohio River 



Total 



Survey, Si. Francis Front 

!(«▼ Madrid Reach 

Col ambus, Ky 

Gsages 

Observations and discharges 

Surveys, examinations, and inspections. 

Levees — Flam Point 

Survey, St. Francis Front 

Surrey, Helena Reach... 

Levees: 

Long Lake 

Yaaoo-Mississippi Delta 

Protection of levees 

Memphis Reach 

Memphis Harbor and Reach 

(isuges 

Observations and discharges 

Surveys, examinations, and inspections. 
Care of plant, first and second districts 

Surveys, first and second districts 

Levees: 

Yaroo Front 

White River Basin 

Upper Mississippi Levee District. . . 
Mempnia •^ 



Total, first and seoofnd districts. 



Survey, Ylcksburg Harbor . . . . 

Survey, nnleveed fronts 

Surrey, Choctaw Reach 

VNO 93 ^225 



Balances. 



$12, 063. 38 
9,369.15 



22. 332. 53 



Appropria- 
tions and 
allotments. 



$196,000.00 
470,000.00 



065,000.00 



10, 122. 61 

200,721.86 

41, 150. 02 

1,436.50 

8,000.00 

1, 791. 52 

155, 924. 03 

4, 000. 00 

8,000.00 

15, 000. 00 

100, 000. 00 

1, 595. 55 

147, 'AM. 47 

431, 792. 38 

987.50 

8, 000. 00 

1, 880. 11 

84, 998. 64 

9,475.84 

157, 406. 45 
270,561.44 
139, 348. 90 
372, 933. 75 



2,162,512.47 



Applied by 
general 
service. 



2,500.00 
1, 000. 00 
2,679.86 



$9, 640. 05 
2, 599. 08 



52, 690. 32 
138, 232. 94 



8, 567. 13 



Total. 



$207,663.38 
4f9,969.16 



687,632.63 



10, 122. 61 

210,361.91 

43, 750. 00 

1,436.50 

8,000.00 

1,79L62 

165,924.03 

4,000.00 

8,000.00 

15,000.00 

100, 000. 00 

1,595.56 

200, 080. 79 

670, 025. 32 

987.50 

8, OlK). 00 

1,880.11 

84, 998. 64 

9,475.84 

157,406.46 
270,561.44 
139,348.90 
881,500,88 



211,735.52 2,374,247.90 



2,500.00 
1,000.00 
8,679.88 



3586 REPOET OP THE CHIEF OP ENaiNEERS, U. 8. ABMY. 

Detailed statemetit, Mareh S, 1881, to May 31, 1893. (Expended ollotaitfiite.)'— Cont'd. 



Bistriota. 



Levees: 

Opoesum Fork 

ITasoo Front 

Yazoo FroDt— Ben Lomond 

Tasoo Front— Hughes Break 

Tensaa Front 

Proteotion of levees 

Protection of existing works 

Beuairs to floating plant 

Vioksbuxv Harbor— Delta Point 

Care of plant and surveys 

Lako Bolivar front 

Ganges 

Observations and discharires 

Surveys, examinations, and inspections. 

Greenville, Miss 

Levees: 

Lower Ifissi^ippl levee district ... 

Tensas Basin, Loaisiana 

Tensas Basin, Arkansas 

Floating dock 



Balances. 



$25,770.13 



Total; third district 



25. 717. 13 



Snrvey: 

Cubitt's Gap 

Unleveed fronts 

Observations at Carrollton 

Bonnet Carre Crevasse 

Natchez and Vidalia harl)ors 

Month of Red River 

Natchez, Miss, (survey) 

Gauges 

Observations and discharges 

Levees — Atohafalaya front 

Protection of levee— Tensas front 

Protection of levees 

Surveys, examinations, and inspections. 

New Orleans Harbor 

Levees: 

Tensas Basin 

Right bank below Red River 

Lett bank below Red River 



8, 252. 04 
90, 812. 40 



147, 670. 37 



Total, fourth district. . . 

Reduction of observations . . . . 

Total, secretary's office. 

Grand total 



246.734.83 



295, 137. 49 



Appropria- 
tions and 
allotments. 



$120, 
S64, 

U, 
6, 

566, 

216, 
25, 
30. 

107, 
24, 

116, 

1, 

8, 

10. 

348, 



000.00 
878.96 
886.22 
849.69 
723.00 
431.83 
000.00 
000.00 
579.88 
860.00 
829.85 
461. 10 
000.00 
149. 46 
499.02 



289,944.54 

160,072.27 

399, 591. 09 

20,000.00 



2,^28,436.76 



137.14 

1,000.00 

8,000.00 

15,000.00 



88, 405. 00 

1,500.00 

1,878.11 

9, 000. 00 

176, 800. 00 

23.000.00 

104,000.00 

4,000.00 

389, 183. 86 

1, 163, 477. 00 
191.892.00 
134,116.00 



2,256,389.11 



2,500.00 



2,500.00 



7,914,838.34 



Applied by 
general 
service. 



$8, 028. 19 



58,144.00 



66. 172. 19 



1,527.61 



1,527.61 



279.435.82 



Total. 



$120, 000. 00 

.364, 878. 85 

11. 386. 22 

6, 840. 00 

666,723.00 

216, 431. 83 

2S,000. 00 

80,000.00 

133, 350. 01 

34,860.00 

124, 358. 04 

1, 461. 10 

8,000.00 

10, 148. 46 

406,643.02 

289,044.64 

160,072.27 

399, 501. 09 

20,000.00 



2,920,379.06 



187.14 
1,000.00 
8,000.00 
15, 000. 00 
8,252.04 
129, 317. 40 
1,500.00 
1, 878. 11 
9,000.00 
176,800.00 
23,000.00 
104,000.00 
4,000.00 
538,381.66 

1,163,477.00 
19L892.00 
134,116.00 



2, 604, 661. 55 



2.600.00 



2,500.00 



8,489,41L15 



-i 



APPENDIX TT — ^BEPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3587 
DeiaUed 9taUme»i, Marek S, 1881, io May SI, 1893. (Current allotmenU.) 



Dtotrioti. 



Pzotectioii near Cairo 

Total above Cairo 

tlratandmconddUtriett. 

Tloin Point 12oaeh 

FfauBt^ ftrat and secood district 

Hickman, Ky 

Hew Madrid, Mo 

InraroTuiK ttarbor at Kew Madrid, 

riffaai valiijiu of works, flnt and 

socond distrieto 

Sorreya, gan^ea, and obaorrations. . . 

Drednne experiments 

flopaaeldBeDd 

ImpiroTin^ harbor, Memphis, Tenn . . 

BemoYal of Nonoonnah Rook 

Helena. Axk 

Upi>er fasoo loTse distriot 

Upper White RiTor levee district.. . 
Lower White River levee distriot . . . 

Total, fizst and second districts . 

Third dMrief . 

Lake Providence Beach 

TiekabnrK, Miss 

Lake Bolivar front 

Ashbrook Keck 

Plants third distriot 

Snrveya, gauges, and observations. . . 

Lower Tasoo le vee district 

Uppvr Toiaas levee district 

Middle Tenaas levee district 

ImproTing harbor, Vicksbnrg, Miss. 
Improving harbor, Greenville, Miss. 

Total, third district ; 

F&urih Oigtriet, 

Lower Tenaas levee distriot 

Atchafldaya levee district 

Lafonrefae levee district 

Bsrataria levee district 

Pontcbartrain levee district 

Lake Borene levee distriot 

Bed and Atcha&laya rivers 

Surveys, gaages, and observations . . . 
Improving harbor, Xew Orieans, La. 
Improving Atohafalaya and Red 

rivers, Lonisiana 

Improving harbor, Katchei and Vi< 

daUa.-. 

Total, foorth distriot 

Hissiaaippi River Commission 

Sorveya, ganceo, and observations. . . 
Rebuilding steamer Mississippi 

Total, aeoretaiy*s office 

Grand total 



Appropria- 
tions and 
allotments. 



$50,000.00 



Applied 

by general 

service. 



50,000.00 



8,314,821.18 $304,515.50 



100,507.35 

86,343.17 

1,000.00 

26,000.00 

90,«8a4S 
90,470.03 
60,000,00 
08,431.78 
26,000.00 
0,000.00 
66,100.83 
104,648.66 
50,790.30 
76,000.00 



4,184,206.80 



2,675, 



6, 

817, 
231, 

22, 
204, 
813, 
110, 

80. 
100, 



876.34 
068.70 
000.00 
000.00 
331.17 
138.00 
091.01 
854.12 
277.47 
000.00 
000.00 



4,727,537.71 



160,000.00 

155,000.00 
90.000.00 
60,000.00 

150, 000. 00 
60,000.00 

657,500.00 
25, 121. 80 
80,000.00 

80,000.00 

80,000.00 



1, 577, 021. 89 



75, 000. 00 

198, 345. 33 

25.000.00 



298,345.33 



10,787,718.73 



5,017.40 

3,288.83 



8,187.47 



10,393.17 



Total avaU- 
able. 



$50,000.00 



50,000.00 



3,679,336.68 

195, 524. 75 

89, 132. 00 

1,000.00 

26,000.00 

23, 867. 80 
20, 479. 03 
50, 000. 00 
98, 431. 78 
25, 000. 00 
6.000.00 
76, 500. 00 
104, 548. 65 
50,790.39 
75, 000. 00 



386,402.37 4,520,611.17 



255,046.96 
2,662.27 



49, 003. 87 
17, 095. 54 



323, 808. 64 



7I0,2U.01 



3,230, 

369, 

6. 

366, 

248, 

22, 
204, 
313, 
110, 

80, 
100, 



5, 051, 346. 35 



298, 345. 33 



028.30 
630.97 
000.00 
003. 87 
426. 71 
138.90 
091.01 
854.12 
277. 47 
000. OO 
000.00 



150,000.00 

155, 000. 00 
90,000.00 
60. 000. 00 

150,000.00 
50, 000. 00 

657, 500. 00 
25, 121. 80 
80,000.00 

80,000.00 

80, 000. 00 



1,577,62L89 



75, 000. 00 

198, 345. 33 

25, 000. 00 



11,497,924.74 



Expended. 



$41,400.00 



Totsl 
balances. 



$8,600.00 



41,400.00 



3,628,494.91 

180, 891. 89 

47, 334. 15 

981.39 

6, 186. 97 

16,117.18 

19,141.21 

9, 260. 15 

96,316.51 



7.20 
75, 003. 9D 
97,453.80 
22, 229. 13 
66,444.62 



8,600.00 



60,841.77 

14,632.86 

41,797.85 

18.61 

18,86L03 

7,750.71 
1, 337. 82 

40, 730. 85 
115.27 

25,000.00 
6, 992. 80 
1, 496. 10 
7, 094. 85 

28, 561. 26 
9, 555. 38 



4, 266, 824. 01 



8,206, 

363, 

3. 

364, 

242, 

21, 

179, 

286, 

92, 

24, 

94. 



198.27 
591.35 
377.20 
989.29 
745.00 
840.48 
172. 03 
374.80 
936.28 
187. 74 
758. 46 



4, 880, 170. 90 



133,324.57 

127, 883. 67 
75, 106. 64 
57, 566. 16 

132, 171. 43 
49, 704. 81 

597, 527. 00 
18. 5m. 80 
80, 000. 00 



1,420.47 



1, 273, 273. 55 



253. 787. 16 



24,725.03 

6, 039. 62 

2, 622. 80 

1,0J4.58 

5,681.71 

298.42 

24.918.98 

27, 479. 32 

17,341.19 

55,812.26 

5,24L54 

171,175.46 



16,675.43 
27,116.33 
14, 893. 36 

2, 433. 84 

17, 828. 57 

2<)5. 19 

59, 973. 00 

6, 553. 09 



80,000.00 
78,579.63 



*65, 049. 39 

tl67, 653. 99 

649.64 



233, 353. 02 



304, 348. 34 



9, 950. 61 
30, mi. 34 
24,350.36 



64, 992. 31 



10,695.02L48 802,903.26 



* Includes $4.03 disbursed by Treasury settlement No. 7130. 
f Includes $61.55 disbursed by Treasury settlement "So. 7977. 



3588 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS; U. S. ARMY. 

Contolidated statement, March S, 1881, to May SI, 189S. 

Act of— 

March 3, 1881 $1,000,000.00 

August 2, 1882 4,123,000.00 

January 19, 1884 1,000,000.00 

July 5, 1884, less $5,000 transferred to snag-boat service 2, 065, OOO. OO 

August 5, 1886, less $5,942.60 for expenses, office Chief of Engi- 
neers 1,994, 057.40 

August 11, 1888, less $4,859 for expenses, office Chief of Engineers. 2, 840, 141. OO 

September 19, 1890 3,200,000.00 

March 3, 1891..... 1,000, 000.00 

July 13, 1892 2,470,000.00 

Total specific appropriations 19,692, 198. 40 

Balances from former appropriations applied to works 
below Cairo under act of August 2, 1882, less $123.42 
reverted to treasury $272, 504, 96 

Same for works above Cairo, under act of July 5, 1884. 22, 637. 53 

Total balances 295,137.49 

Total available '. 19,987,335.89 

Expended — • 

Plum Point Reach 3, 628, 4»4. 91 

Memphis Harbor and Reach 1,150,535.77 

Lake Providence 3,206,198.27 

Red and Atohafalaya 726,744.40 

Levees 6,090,947.64 

Other works 4,381,511,64 

Total 19,184,432.63 

Balance May 31, 1893 802,903.26 



Statement of charts issnedy June 1, 189S, to May SI, 1S9S, 



Description. 



Allnvial Valley 

Sca!el:20 000 

Scale 1 inch : 1 mil e 

Proceeds of sale deposited with assistant treasurer of the United States at 
St. Louis 



Free. 



80 

435 

2,ld0 



Sold. 



806 

249 

1,121 



Total. 



386 

C83 

3,281 

$99.10 



List of civilian engineers employed on worJc of river and harbor improvements in charge of 
Capt, Carl F, Palfrey, Corps of Engineers, July 1, 1892, to May SI, 1893, 



Name and residence. 



J. A. Ockerson, St Louis, Mo 

Kiyas Tnlly , St. Louis, Mo 

C. \r. Clark, St. Louis, Mo 

Cbas. W. Stewart, Champa^u, HI 
James A. Paige, St. Louis, Mo .... 

A. T. Morrow, Mendota, 111 

Do 

George H. French, Milton, HI 

O. W. Connet, Houg|iton, Mich. . .. 



Time em 
ployed. 



2f. D. 

11 00 

11 00 

11 00 

2 9 

4 13 

2 ... 

9 ... 

2 ... 

.. 8 



Comx>en- 
satiou. 



Per Mo. 

$250. 00 

175.00 

175.00 

150.00 
175.00 
140.00 
175.00 
120.00 
120.00 



Where employed. 



St Louis, Mo.... 
....do. ....••••... 

• . . 'UO ■••••■■••«.. 

I In the ileld and 
I in office, St. 
j Louis, Mo 



"Work OB which 
employed. 



In charge surveys, 
S. G. O. 

In citarge compu- 
tation S.G.O. 

Plaiting maps, 
S.G.O. 

.Surveys and re- 
duction of field 
work. 



.- I 



APPENDIX Y T — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3589 

Approximate value of plant belonging to the United States, in charge of Capt, C^l F. 
Palfreif, Cwrye of Engineer; ueed in toorke under the Mississippi River Commission, 



Allotment. 



l&siarippi Biver CoramiasSon 

^rroys, gaages, and obBervatioxis 



dus of property. 



Steamboat Miaaisaippi (hull only) 

Sowboata 

Books, ftirnitore. etc 

Steamboat Patrol, with outfit 

Quarter boat, witn outfit 

Quarter boat (oondomned) 

KOw boats 

Surveying instruments 

Current meters 

Drawing instrumentii 

General tools 

Printing plant 

0£Qoefiuiiitnrd 



ISlo. 



1 
2 



1 

1 

1 

15 



Approxi- 
mate value 
May 31. 



$20,000 

40 

250 

U,000 

1,600 



200 
10,000 
1,100 
700 
500 
700 
750 



Appendix 3 A. 



WSPORT OP ASSISTANT ENGINEER CHARLES W. STEWART ON SECONDARY TRIANOTTLA- 
TION FROM PORT LOUISA, IOWA, TO NEAR MOUTH OF QALBNA RIVER, ILLINOIS 
(KINK JCHJBS BELOW DUBUQUE). 

St. liouis, Mo., September f, 189g, 

Captain : I have the honor to submit the following report on fieldwork of seo- 
ODdary triangulation from March 28, to August 30, 1892, between Port Louisa, Iowa, 
and near mouth of Galena River, Illinois, 9 miles helow Dubuque. 

K reconnaissanee was made between these limits from March 28 to April 25 by 
iDTBelf and Assistant George H. French, and the party took the field at New Boston, 
111., on April 26, the steamer Patrol furnishing quarters and transportation. 

The instmments furnished were T. and S., Nos. 1 and 2 ; Gambey, r(o. 2 ; Wurdeman, 
Nos. 95 and 154 ; a B. and B. transit and level, and Missouri Kiver Commission tape II, 
and Missouri Biver Commission tension apparatus. 

The program of observations and general method was the same as during the pre- 
ceding season. 

The arrangements of men and officers was as follows : In charge of party. Assistant 
Charles W. Stewart; observers, Charles W. Stewart, A. T. Morrow: stone lines, A. T. 
Horrow, O. N. Axtell: stations and clearing, George H. French, T. C. Hockridge; sec* 
ODdary recorders, C. L. Ockerson, M. I. Powers. A steamboat crew of 5, 1 rooman, 
gslley force of 4, and 13 axmen completed the party. 

The length and azimuth of a base line at Rapids City, Ill.j was determined and 
connected with, and the work was closed on the U. S. C. and G. S. line @ Horseshoe 
Moand, Illinois, @ Sinsinawa Mound, Wisconsin, on August 25. The Patrol and party 
started for Quincy, 111., on following day, arriving August 29, and was turned over 
to Assistant A. T. Morrow for topographical work, and the triangulation records for- 
irarded to tJiis office. 

A sommary af the work done is as follows: 

Secondary base-azimuth 1 

^ondary stations established 72 

Cupolas located 3 

Bmlt stations (average height, 25 feet) 46 

Ground stfftions 23 

Secondary stations occupied 76 

Secondary triangles closed 72 

Stone lines located (136-176) 41 

Stone line B. Ms located 120 

Tertiary stone-line triangles 133 

Tertiary stone-line bases measured 12 

The astronomical post and meridian mark at Bock Island Arsenal were connected 
^th. 

The average error of closure of secondary triangles is 01".88, indicating a high 
grade of work. « 

The total number of days in the field, April 26 to August 26, is 122. There were 17 
Sundays and about 35 stormy days on which little or no work could be done, leav"^ 



r 

3590 KEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, tT. 8. A&MY. ' 

« 

in? 70 working days in which the triaugnlation and etone lines were carried i 
miles (channel distance). 

The phaseless target designed by Assistant Eng^ineer J. A. Ockerson was used I 
all secondary stations. It is an important factor in tl^e good results obtained, a^ 
is the handiwork of Mr. Thomas Hebron, steam engineer of the Patrol. * 

Despite the many discouragements of general bad weather; fair progress has be< 
made. 

It is respectfully sii^gested that, if practicable, the services of the party % 
retained. % 



My thanks are dne the party generally for zeal, efficiency, and cheerfulness, aiii 

Socially to Assistant A. T. Morrow* 
espectfnlly submitted. 



Chas. W. Stewart, , 

U. 8, Assistant Engineer 
Capt. Carl F. Palfrkt, ' 

Corps of Engineers, U. 8. Am 




i 




Ens 93 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OP MLSSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3591 






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3592 KEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



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3596 REPORT OF THJfi CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

DESCRIPTIONS OP 8KCONDAKY TRIANGULATION STATIONS FROM PORT LOUISA^ IOWA, 

TO «ORDONS FERRY, IOWA, 1892. 



HardtimeB is marked by tile and pipe on lo^a side on bluffs west of Mnsoatine 
Slongh, and about 5 miles below Muscatine, Iowa. Station is 1\ miles below school- 
bouse on bluff side of wagon road ; 900 meters below creek, where two bouses and 
two large barns stand ; three-fourths mile below a lone pine standing on side ofblniF; 
30 meters east of a wire fence along top of hill. Trees blazed with triangles ; 8-incfa 
black oak==255^ 14.4 metets; 6-inoh red oak = 120° 2.9 meters; 5-inch red oak = 
22^ 15.7 meters. 

@ Fruitland : llle anjd pipe od Iowa side, 6 miles below Muscatine, Iowa ; 4 
meters north of fence which runs west from river at a point 1,100 meters above 
Beatty's house; 590 meters west of levee, and 140 meters (paced) west from fence 
corner at crest of ridge. Elevation of pipe, 609.11 ; tile, 605.11 feet above Memphis 
datum. 

t Muscatine is center of town on residence of Mrs. Cora Weed, Muscatine, Iowa. 
Carruthers : Tile and pipe on Illinois side on apex of hill three-fourths mile 
back of main road betweeu Muscatine and New Boston; one-fourth mile below Cop- 
per Creek; 7 miles from Muscatine by road ; on land of Mrs. Rachael Ann Carruthers. 

@ Campbell : Tile and pipe on Illinois side in road on apex of bluff, 3 miles east of 
east end of Muscatine Bridge, just opposite house of Robert Campbell, and one- 
fourth mile west of residence of Dan M. Foster. • 

@ Hair : Tile and pipe on highest point of hill on land of Judge Hair, 3 miles 
above Muscatine, Iowa ; one-fourth mile north of railroad, and about three-fourths 
mile above head of Island 334 ; 42 meters east of north and south fence running over 
hill opposite east end of race track at foot of bluff; 65 meters west of orchard on same 
hill, and one-half mile below schoolhouse. 

@ Hershey : Tile and pipe on Illinois side on top of bluff opposite head of Island 
331, one-fourth mile east of ravine^ and about 20 meters from wagon road running 
up bluff from the ravine. 

@ Wyoming: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on second hill north of railroad; about 
1 mile below Fairport, Iowa; 300 meters below railroad bridge 73,f miles above Wyo- 
ming hill I near head of ravine, on land of Hincky heirs. 

@ Martin: Tile and pipe on Illinois side, at crest of bluff opposite foot of Anda- 
lusia Island; 9 meters north of an east and west fence, and 150 meters south of road 
at foot of bluff. Trees blazed with triangles; 10-inch black oak, 289^ 5.6 meters; 
23-inch white oak, 95^ 3.1 meters ; 14-inch white oak, 166^ 14.0 meters. 

(^ Fairport: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on crest of hill, three -fourths mile above 
railroad station, Fairport ; about 600 meters above upper limits of Fairport, 400 meters 
from river, 150 meters from railroad track, opposite a point midway between the 
second ana third railroad bridges above Fairport, and on land of George Bmith. 
Trees blazed with trianffles; 10-inch white oak, 225^ 18 meters; 10-inch white oak, 
30^ 8.5 meters: 5-inch white oak^ 150^ 10.5 meters. Bearings magnetic. 

@Hays: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on high knoll in grass field, lOO meters 
f^om river^ and 300 meters north of large stock barn of Col. Hays; at edge of brush 
at crest of hill, 43 meters north of fence, and opposite middle or tK>w head in Anda- 
lusia Slough. 

® Lowry : Tile and pipe on Iowa side in yard of Wm. E. Lowry, 1 meter north 
'ana 1 meter east of northwest comer of orchard fence^ and 25 meters east of east side 
of Lowry's house, which is a little above railroad bridge 57. 

@ Dean's Point : Tile and pipe on Hlinois side on wooded bluff point. Just back of 
abandoned clearing at foot of oluff (only clearing in vicinity), and 12 meters back 
ofliighest point of bluff. Station is opposite a point 1 mile above Montpelier, Iowa 
trees blazed with triangles : 5-inch poplar, 150^ 5 meters ; 9-inch black oak, 315^ 8.5 
meters; 5-inch black oak, 8^ 4.5 meters. 

@ Perry : Tile and pipe on Iowa side, about one-half mile north from river bank, 
on level surface at toi> of hill about 300 meters north of railroad; 150 meters east of 
section-line fence which crosses railroad at third telegraph pole east of bridge 40; 
about 80 meters northeast of dump of evergreens at old graveyard, and on land of 
Mrs. Morehead. 

©Andalusia: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on land of Mrs. Paul Shaw, about one- 
half mile below limits of Andalusia, 111., on side of bluff about 150 meters south of 
main road and 50 meters east of fence. 

©Buffalo: Tile and pipe on Iowa side about 1 mile back from Buffalo, Iowa, at 
the Jog in north and south lane. Elevation of pipe, 719.54; tile, 715.54 above Mom- 
phis datum. 

@ Bean: Tile and pipe on Hlinois side on land of Mr. Haas, 50 feet south of sonth 
line of J. L. Bean's property; is on prominent hill about 2 miles east of Andalusia, 
HI; hill is bare of timber, and a large poplar bears about E.8.E. 810 feet. 



APPENDIX Y T — ^BEPORT OP MISSISSIPPI EIVER COMMISSION. 3597 

@ Anderson : Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of bluff, one-fonrth of a ,mile 
directly back from Faimew scboolhouse, at roadside 3 meters south of fence on 
north side of road, 100 meters west of fence comer on north side of road, and 300 
maters east of large red barn which stands on north side of roud opposite a dwell- 
ing house. 

@ Kane: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on land of Robert Kane, on crest of bluff 
3i milee below Milan, IJl., near an east and west fence, and 15 meters east of an old 
hedge row running, north and south. 

@Beatty: Tile and pipe in southwestern Rock island, on land owned by the 
Davenport heirs and leased to one Beatty; is 302 meters west of Ninth street, 188 
meters north of fence at race track, and about midway between slough and top of 
elope in grass field. Station is on line with @ school and a prominent square- topped 
tower in Rock Island. 

@ Dayenport : Tile and pipe on top of bluff in West Dayenport on property of 
Dr. Bickfora, 10 meters west of old bam, 100 meters north of street, 300 meters 
below where main line of Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad enters bluffs. 

@ School : Is marked on floor in cupola of high school building in Dayenport, 
Iowa. It is &3^ 50^ 1.305 meters from center of tower. 

@ Rock Island: Tile and pipe on wooded knoll between Twenty-ninth and Thir- 
iie&i streets in Rock Island, ill., on land of C. F. Lynde; opposite and about 40 
meters south of Huberts brewery. 

^ Rock Island Astronomical Poet: Stone post 24 inches long by 18 inches in width 
projecting 15 inches aboye ground, on lower end of Arsenal Island, 300 meters aboye 
the arsenal building near end of bridge, 150 meters aboye fence at guardhouse, and 
20 meters from riyer. Geodetic point is marked by cross in top of stone. Elevation, 
574.15 (precise levels). 

@ Arsenal Tower is point on top of arsenal side of tower on arsenal building 1865A 
at £oot of Rock Island; in center of coping 4.04 meters from extreme southeast end 
of coping and 6.43 meters from northwest end of coping. 

@ McClellan : Tile and pipe on Iowa side on site of old Camp McClellan, 400 meters 
from the river, on land of William Grummoll, just above city limits of Davenport. 

@ Moline: Tile and pipe on wooded hill in Moline, ill., diagonally opposite the 
Fourth street school ; almost in line with the prolongation of Fifth avenue. 

@ Gilberttown : Tile and pipe on Iowa side 1 meter west of fence on west side of 
road which runs north from road at foot of bluff about one-quarter mile above the 
Gilberttown stone schoolhouse. Station is on second hill, 25 meters north of fence 
comer, and about 80 meters north of dwelling house. 

@ Race Track : Tile and pipe in small grove at top of prominent bluff back of race- 
track, 1 mile above Moline, 111. ; on first ni 11 above cemetery. 

@ Crow : Tile and pipe on Iowa side, on top of bluff in middle of grass field, almost 
in line with road running from river to foot of bluff opposite middle of Campbell's 
Island. 

@ Watertown : Tile and pipe on DHnois side, 150 meters back from schoolhouse 
at Watertown, 111. ; on top of bluff, 40 meters above a cultivated field and 20 meters 
back from crest of bluff; to fence comer 355^ 43 meters; to small, lone crab- 
apple tree 165^ 15 meters. 

@ Hampton : Tile and pipe on Illinois side, on top of bluff, 100 meters north of 
road running east past tne Methodist church in the lower part of Hampton, 111. ; 
15 meters east of fence inclosing garden at house. 

@ Valley City : Tile and pipe on Iowa side, on top of bluff, 210^ 150 meters from 
Pleasant Valley brick schoolhouse. In grass field on land of 8. S. Blackman, 11 
meters north of fence and 10 meters west of line fence. Station is on line with 
Hampton business houses and head of Island 402. 

@ Fulton: Tile and pipe on Iowa side, on top of bluff opposite foot of Fulton's 
Island, and 300 meters above old mill at river bank. At roadside, 1 meter northwest 
offence on river side of road, 180 meters above jog in road at dwelling house, and 20 
meters above fence comer at lower end of grove on opposite side of road. 

@) Crab Island: Tile and pipe on Illinois side, on land of G. W. Bowles; on top 
of hill in grass and scattering timber, 60 meters due west from fence comer, on top 
of hill, and 100 meters back of Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. 

@ Sycamore : Tile and pij^e on Iowa side on fiat high ground half way up hill, 
200 meters north of river ; in cultivated field near edge of timber, 8 meters east of 
west edge of field, and 10 meters south from north edge of field one-half mile above 
schoolhouse, and 2 miles below Le Claire, Iowa. 

@ Lower Base: Tile and pipe at west end of Rapids City base line; on north side 

of Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad track, at foot of dump li miles below 

E 
Rapids City, and 153 meters below bridge ^ Elevation, pipe, 587. 31; tile, 583. 29 

feet above Memphis datum. 

@ Upper Base : Tile and pipe at east end of Rapids City base line ; on south side 
of nolrpad track at top of cut, opposite brick dwelling house of Mr. Shafer ; oppo- 



3598 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

site third telegraph pole below wagon road and sixth pole below depot. EIoYatioii 
of pipe, 600. 89 } tile, 596. 87 feet above Memphis datum. 

@ Le Claire : Tile and pipe on Iowa side on flat ground at top of hill in open field, 
directly back of old mill on river bank, 1 mile below Le Claire, Iowa; §0 meters 
back from crest of hill; 80 meters west of rail fence^ and 40 meters south of fence aife 
road side. ' • ' 

@ Rapids City: Tile and pipe on Illinois side at highest point of bare hill, one- 
half mile above Rapids City, 111; directly back from an old abandoned frame 
house, and 300 metera below a prominent bare bluff point. 

@ Le Boone : Tile and pipe on Iowa side in open spot in oak grove on second 
ridge, 100 meters north of road running back from river one block above ferry land- 
ing in upper part of Le Claire, Iowa. Trees blazed with triangles : 16-inch white 
oak, 180^ 7.5 meters; 12-iuch white oak, 25° 12.5 meters; 12-inoh red oak, 330° 10 
meters. 

@ Port Byron : Tile and pipe on Illinois side on top of hill in upper part of Port 
Byron, 111., about 200 meters back of second street and 13 meters north of 
road running back from river one block above steamboat warehouse. 

@ Hopson : Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of bluff point, 200 meters below a 
tow head near right bank of river, and two miles above Le Claire, Iowa; 15 
meters north of feuee at north edge of grove and 25 meters west of fence comer. 

@ Woodward: Tile and pipe on Illinois side, on sandy knoll, one-half mUe back 
from crest of bluff, and 2| miles above Port Byron, III. ; 90 meters west of 
lane leading south from county road to residence of Mr. Woodward; 200 meters 
northwest of house, and in center of small inclosed lot west of lane. 

©Princeton: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of hill in cultivated field one- 
half mile back from river, and 65 uieters south of wagon road which runs west from 
lower end of Princeton, Iowa, at the brick warehouse on river bank; 26 meters 
west of fence and 150 meters southeast of cemetery. Station is due south fiipm 
east end of bam on north side of the road. 

@ Cordova : Tile and pipe on land of Jim Armstrong, and back of his house, on hill 
400 meters back of Johnson's limekilns. Elevation of pipe, 704.85; tile, 700.83 feet 
above Memphis datum. 

. (^ Wapsie: Tile and pipe on Iowa side *in Wapsie bottoms, 3 miles northwest of 
Princeton, Iowa; one-fourth mile east of Clinton wagon road and one-fourth mile 
west of another wagon road; 2 meters ea^t of fence at Jog; one-fourth mile north 
of lane and 100 meters south of section corner at hedge. 

@ Evergreen: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on south side of wagon road running 
east from river, opposite mouth of Wapsipinicon ; about 1 mile east from river, 1 
meters north of fence on south side of road, and 20 meters east of Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railroad. 

@ Rocks : Tile aud bench-mark pipe on Illinois side on highest g^rassy knoll on land 
of John Williamson, 5 miles east of Cordova, 111, From l^ges of rock outcropping 
in the neighborhood, it is oalleil the ^* Rocks.'' 

@ Marais D'Osier : Bench-mark tile and pipe on Illinois side on very high grassy 
knoll, S miles below Albany, whore the Marais D'Osier comes close to /oot of bluffs; 
on land of Mr. Grady, of Clinton, Iowa, near residence of Mr. Hugh Farrell; on pro- 
longation of wagon road running south along foot of bluffs below Marais D'Osier 
Bridge. 

(^ Camanche: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of hill in grass field one-fourth 
mile north of road running west from Camanche, Iowa, in prolongation of Chicago 
street; on Benning estate, 100 meters west of one fence, 30 meters south of another, 
and abont one-half mile northwest of Chicago and Northwestern Railroad main line. 

@ Albany : Bench-mark tile and pipe on land of M. Freak, on apex of knoU back 
of and near his house and in his garden at Albany, 111. 

@ Clinton : Center of iiuial of cupola on school house on Eleventh avenue, between 
Sixth and Seventh streete, Clinton, Iowa. 

@ Ferris: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on sand ridge 8 miles east of river, one- 
hatf mile north of road runuing east from Clinton bridges, 2 miles south ox road 
running east out of Fulton, and one-half mile east of north and south road which 
leaves Fulton road just cast of bridge over creek 2 miles east of Fulton. Station is 
in open spot in small oak timber and near south end of sand ridge. 

@ Lyons : Tile and pipe on bluff point one-half mile above upper sawmills in 
Lyons, Iowa; in line of fence about 15 meters back from crest of bluff, and 200 
meters north of a dwelling house. 

@Jack Green: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on property of Jack Green; on 
mound on top of bluff, 10 miles northeast of Fulton, 111., 3 miles north of where Ful- 
ton wagon roiid enters bluffs and three-fourths of a mile above school house in dis- 
trict No. 1. Two small pines stand near top of mound 5 meters west and north of 
the station. The foot of bluff where the station stands is at edge of wagon road. 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3599 

Below, the blirifs are farther fh>m the road. Trees blazed with triangles : 12-liieh 
I black oak, 325^ 5 meters : 8-mch black oak, 248^ 5 meters. 

@ £J]£ River : Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of blnff about 1 mile north of 
moath of Elk River and back of railroad bridge 512^ 200 meters back from timber 
at crest of bluff, 80 meters south of head of small ravine, and 70 meters southeast of 
fence comer at farm house. 

@ Dyson: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on crest of higl} wooded bluff, in front of 
timber, on property of Mr. D^son, about 100 meters back of bluff road, 400 meters 
above a long row of elms along road across bottom 400 meters below a stone dwelling 
hoose on blnff side of road, and about 5 miles below the point where the Chicago, Bur- 
linffton and Northern Railroad enters bluffs. 

@ Sabnla: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of bluff in clover field, 40 meters 
back from crest of bluff, 40 meters south of fence at south side of orchard which is 
jiist south of residence of R. A. Schroeder; about 1 mile below Sabula, Iowa, on 
property of Lou Eskelson. 

@ Bristol: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on top of ridge east of blaff road, 200 
met-ers below crossing under Chicago, Burlington and Northern, where it enters 
bluffs ; on land of Widow Bristol, 5 meters east of fence. 

@ Savanna: Tile and pipe on Illinois side about 1^ miles north of Savanna, 111. ; 
1 meter south of fence on south side of road, and 15 meters cast of fence comer at 
junction of roads. 

@Lainsville: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of mound at top of bluffs in pafi- 

tare on property of William F. Marr; 70 meters west of fence between pasture and 

small cultivate<l field which Ites between two ravines whic]i join opposite the station 

K 
at railroad bridge, ^5 three-fourths mile above Laiusville railroad station. 

@ Miller: Tile and pipe on Illinois side on brow of bluff, 4 miles above Savanna, 
111., 50 meters east of wagon road and 200 meters east of railroad ; on property of Mr. 
Fisher, whose residence is one-half mile north. Trees blazed with triangles : 14- 
inch black oak, 235° 6 meters; 18-inch black oak, 145^ 11 meters. 

@ Apple River : Tile and pipe on Illinois side on highest point of sand ridge, three- 
foarths mile above mouth of Apple River; in oak timber 50 meters firom river bank, 
600 meters below head of island 267, and 100 meters below dyke. 

@ Green Island : Tile and pipe on Iowa side on side of bluff at top of rock ledge, 
3 meters back from crest of bluff; 270 meters north of wire fence at top of bluff; 100 
meters northwest of small shed east of railroad track. Station is nearly 2 miles north 
of Green Island, Iowa, and opposite about the twentieth telegraph pole above the 
Maquoketa Bridge. 

@ Hanover : Tile and pipe at Chicago, Burlington and Northern Railroad station, 
Hanover, 111. ; 2 meters east of fence at west side of right of way, and about 50 meters 
north of depot. 

@ Harrington: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on wooded point opposite foot of Island 
24^ on land of Joe Harrington. 

@ Blanding : Tile and pipe on Illinois side on top of bluff one-half mile below rail- 
road station Slanding, and one-fourth mile above road crossing railroad; 30 meters 
from top of rock ledge and 8 meters from edge of woods. 

@ Rogers: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on high ridge one-fourth mile east of the 
bluffs and one-fourth mile west of the river, 8 meters west from east crest of ridge: 
in open pasture, 200 meters southwest of the brick dwelling house of Mr. Rogers, 1 
mile north of Bellevue, Iowa. Distance, 7 meters; azimuth, 10^ to a double black 
oak. Elevation of pipe, 817.96; tile, 813.96 feet above Memphis datum. 

3 Wise : Tile and pipe on Illinois side on top of bluff in open meadow one-fourth 
raiie back from river and 20 meters north of sink hole : on property of Mrs. Wise. 

@ Smith : Tile and pipe on Iowa side on top of bluff one-half mile back from 
river in long narrow open field between trees ; three-fourths mile above Smith's 
tiding. 

@ Horseshoe is near the Coast-Survey station of the same name. Geodetic point 
is center of hole drilled in top of exposed rock ledge. A pipe 1 foot long and 4 
inches diameter with the usual cap is centered over this mark and cemented to the 
rock. Station is 1 mile southeast of Galena, 111., at northwest end of Horseshoe 
Mound, on top of exposed led^e of natural rock 2^ meturs wide and 5 meters from 
sonth end of ledge. Station is about 100 meters south of road running east from 
Galena and is on property of Samuel Roberts. 

@ Gordon's Ferry: Tile and pipe on Iowa side on property of John Schenk, about 
3 miles north of Gordon's Ferry^ Iowa; on top of wooded point one- fourth mile 
back from river. 

@ Sinsinnawa: Steel bolt in natural rock on Wisconsin side on highest point on 
wooded hill of same name, in rear of church at St. Clara's Academy, Sinsinnawa, 
Wis., and 20 meters westerly from a large wood cross. This station is one of the 
Coa«t-Suxvey points. 



3600 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS, U. 8. ABMT. 

Appendix 3 B. 

RBPOBT OF MR. A. T. MORROW, ASSTSTANT ENGINEER, IK CHARGE OF TOPOGRAPH- 

' ICAL PARTY FOR SEASON OF 1892. 

St. Louis, Mo., Ifovember 1^3, 189S, 

Captain: I have the honox to Bnbmit the following report on the Operations of the 
topographical party which has been nnder my charge during the field season just 
clos^: 

On Aagust 29 the steamer Patrol was turned over to me at Quincy, 111., together 
with a small party then on board. At that point I took in tow the quarter boat 
Illinois and proceeded to Hannibal, Mo., where I spent the remaining days of August 
in rebovating the steamer and quarter boat. 

On September 1 the rest of my assistants and a number of men reported for duty, 
and at the same time I received an outfit of instruments and a supply of subsistence 
stores from St. Louis. 

On September 2 the field work was begun at the Hannibal Bridge (stone line 94) 
with a P&ity composed as follows: Assistant Engineer A. T. Morrow in charge; 
Messrs. W. G. Comber, George H. French, E. L. Harman. Horace Dunaway, E. J, 
Thomas, C. L. Ockerson, and O. N. Axtell, topography ; A. O. Wheeler and T. G. Ray, 
ordinary levels; T. C. Hockridge and L. D. jUabanue, hydrography: M. I. Powers and 
H. C. AVinchell, computations and platting. In addition to these there -were the offi- 
cers and crew of the steamer and a number of men, \{hich was increased until the 
party numbered altogether about 63 persons. 

The stage of water and the weather were favorable for the work and remained so 
for the entire season. 

The party suffered a good deal from malaria while working on the overflowed 
lands, out at such times a few extra men were kept employed and the work did not 
suffer any serious delay. 

On November 10 the work was completed to stone line 114, 10 miles above Keokuk, 
and was there discontinued. The quarter boat Illinois was laid up at Keokuk and 
the steamer Patrol brought back to St. Louis and turned over to Assistant Engineer 
J. A. Ockerson, there still remaining on board a small party which had been retained 
for work on the lower river. 

With a few exceptions, which will be noiiced, the fieldwork has been carried on 
in accordance with the printed instructions. 

From Hannibal to Keokuk the secondary stations are far apart, and in most 
instances at a distance from the river. It therefore became necessary to carry a 
complete system of tertiary triangulation over the whole work. A 50-meter steel 
tape had been provided for the measurement of tertiary bases and proved to be a 
great aid to the work, and tertiary bases were measured at intervals of about 5 
miles as far as Keokuk, where secondary lines were available. The azimuth and 
coordinates, however, were checked on secondary points at Quincy, La Grange, Can- 
ton, and Warsaw, and the azimuth was checked at secondary station Heather, about 
halfway between Hannibal and Quincy. An appended tabulation will show the 
discrepancies at these various point-s of connection. The entire number of tertiary 
triangles was 260. The longest tertiary line was 3,478 meters ; the average tertiary 
was 1,297 meters ; the shortest 485 meters. 

A line of ordinary levels was carried along each bank of the river to form a basis 
for topographical work. These two lines were cheeked on each other every 3 miles 
by ''river crossing" and as frequently as possible by connection with the precise 
bench marks previously established in this region. A table showing the results of 
these connections is appended hereto. Especial care was taken to connect with all 
local bench marks, water ^^auges, monuments of surveys, and all authentic high- 
water marks. 

Soundings were taken in the customary manner from a cutter and located by sextant 
angles, section lines being sounded about every 250 meters, followed by a channel line 
through the deepest water found on the sections. At the Des Moines Rapids, how- 
ever, that method did not seem practicable, as the water was too shallow and swift 
to admit of sounding from tlie cutter and a skiff would not carry the necessary 
observers to locate the soundings by sextant. A skiff was therefore used and 
observers placed on shore with transits and the course of the sounding skiff guided 
by two flagmen on opposite sides of the river. All the points occupied by the obser- 
vers were afterwards located by tertiary triangulation. 

Lines were thus sounded across the river at points about 200 meters apart, and 
above the canal three longitudinal lines were run in the cliannel to the extremity of 
the work. Total number of soundings for theseason, 25,490; total number of sextant I 
angles read, 10,674. i 

In the topographical work especial attention was given to instrumental checks, 
and all stadia lines were begun and ended either on points of tiiangulation or on 



APPENDIX Y T — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI BIVEB COMMISSION. 3601 

promts of other stadia lines, thus giving obeoks on azimuths, distances, and eleva- 
tlons. An attempt was made to improve the method of sketchine which has hereto- 
fore been in practice. For this purpose Assistant Engineer J. A. Ockerson sent to 
the field a semicircular transparent pivot protractor with scale to be used in plot- 
ting stadia stakes and important points of topography, prior to the operation of 
sketching. Mr. W. G. Comber experimented with t^is protractor and soon found 
that it conld not be used to advantage in the note books, as the protractor could not 
be kept in place on the ]oose leaves, and the size of the page w{w too limited to 
admit of the revolution of the protractor. A small sketchiug board and a sheet of 
compnting paper about four times the size of a page of the note book were then sub- 
stituted. 

These proved satisfactory and the plan was soon after adopted by several other 
topo^prapiiers, and in every case with satisfactory results. ^ The little time lost in» 
platting was more than made up by the increased facility with which the sketching 
could be done and by the readiness with which the topographer could lay out his 
work by the aid of an extended and accurate sketch. It does not seem practicable 
to transfer the sketches to the plats during the season of fieldwork, and a more 
comprehensive and accurate method seems desirable in order that the sketches may 
be laid over to be transferred in the office. 

I am of the opinion that this method or some modification of it would be an 
improvenkent over the method heretofore practiced. These detached sketches, when 
they are finished or when they have been transferred, can be folded and pasted into 
the note books, thus becoming as completely a part of the permanent record as if 
Ihey had been made on the pages of the note book. 

In aecordance with the suggestion of Assistant Engineer J. A* Ockerson, the party 
was supplied this season with field sheets of tracing linen instead of paper field 
sheets as heretofore. Plats made upon these can be transferred directly to the detail 
charts without the additional labor and the increased inaccuracies of transferring 
by tracings. To what extent these advantages will be offset by the difficulty of 
making and retaining the details of the plate on the smooth sunace of the linen, 
can not be determined until the work shall have made further progress. 

Owing to a large number of islands, several cities and towns and a large extent of 
bottom Land ^Um with sloughs, the amount of topographical work required for a 
mile of rirer has been unusnally lar^e, as will be seenby the following figures : Num- 
ber of miles of levees surveyed outside of limit of topography, 10; number of miles 
of lakes, sloughs, and rivers outside the ordinary limit of topography, 94; number 
of miles of bluff line, 78; number of square miles of topography, 197i. The entire 
distance covered by the work of the season is 60 miles by river, and the total num- 
ber of working days 59, making a little more than an average of 1 mile of river per 
working day. 

The field season has been so short that the party was not more than thoroughly 
organized when the work was discontinued, and as the part of the river surveyed has 
been a difficult one, it seems to me that the work of the party has not been unsatis- 
factory, arresolt which is due much more to the efficient services of my several assist- 
ants than to any efforts of my own. 

Very ^respectiiilly, your obedient servant, 

A. T. Morrow, 

AsHfitaHt Engineer, 

Capt. Cabl F. Palfret, 

Cerpe of Engineers, V, 8, A, 

Table eKowing dieerepanciee in azimuth between tertiary and secondary triangulaiion. 



Stations. 



HansilMl W^ Heather. 




Cm ton UDi%-. 
> CanUxn Unlr. to @ Warsaw . . 
I Warsaw to® Rapids 



Kapids to B/M. 4* 

HU^toSanduslcy 

Sandusky to @ Edwards . . . 

iBdwardato(DB.l[.'i« 




o # '/ 

2L0 12 64 

324 02 25 

242 30 40 

236 51 14 

137 45 42 

214 39 62 

84 53 48 

113 21 13 

21 81 19 

193 53 40 



Secondary 
asimuth. 



Of// 

210 11 47 

321 00 35 

242 30 46 

236 50 47 

137 45 30 

214 40 05 

S4 53 54 

113 "ao 42 

21 32 12 

193 53 24 



I 



Discrep- 


Number 
of trian- 


ancy. 


gles. 


/ // 




1 07 


26 


1- 50 


80 


06 


27 


27 


14 


12 


45 


13 


18 


U6 


5 


31 


6 


53 


4 


16 


6 


34 


175 



Closure 

per tri. 

angle. 

It 

2.57 
8. 66 
0.22 
1.92 
0.26 
1.00 
1.20 
5.16 
13.25 
8.20 



8.24 



BNa 93 ^220 



8602 BEPOET OP THE CHIEF OF E KGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 
TabU ihoufing diaorepa^eia heiweem eamputed and metuured J>a$e9 and atoondarg Ziaet. 





Nnmber 


Distmce. 


of trian-. 




glee. 


MiU9. 




• 4 


10 


6 


14 


2 


6 


4 


12 


4 


11 


8 


23 


6 


13 


5 


10 


4 


12 


4 


11 





16 


4 


20 


4 


9 


00 




« 



Computed 
base. 



Meters. 

942.37 

1,161.89 

603.95 

788.93 

•613.67 

852.17 

547.66 

509.64 

1,440.35 

1 031. 23 

1, 570. 09 

1,279.67 

1,26L49 



Meaaniod 


Discrep* 


base. 


anoy. 


MeUre. 


Meten. 


942.22 


.15 


1,161.43 


.46 


693.98 


.03 


788.71 


.22 


613.70 


.13 


852.27 


.10 


547.83 


.33 


599.42 


.22 


1,439.46 


.89 


1,031.30 


.07 


1,569.80 


.29 


1,279.52 


.15 


1,26L52 


.03 



1: 6,281 
1: 2,525 
1:23,138 
1: 8,585 
4,721 
8,623 
1,658 
2,724 
1,600 
1 : 14, 733 
1: 5,413 
1: 8,530 
1:42,050 



1: 
1: 
1: 
1: 
1: 



Ayerage doanra, 1 : 9,662 (regardlees of length of ran). 

IH$crepancy between precise and ordinary le^eU. 



Between F. B. Ms. 



Ko. 16 and 14 

Ko. 14 and 12 

No. 12 and 56 MoK. 
No. 56 McK. and 10. 

Ko. 10 and 8 

No.8and9 



Dia- 

tance. 


Error. 


UiUe. 
m 

1 
5 

1 


0.04 

0.03 

0.17 

0. 

0.11 

0.00 



Leveled by— 



F. G: Bay. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Between P. B. Ms. 



No. 8 and 5. 
No. 5 and 2. 
No. 2 and 3. 
No. 2 and 1. 
No. 1 and 1. 
No. 1 and 2. 



Dis- 
tance. 


Error. 


Miles. 




16 


0.17 


5 


0.15 


1 


0.00 


1 


0.00 


'A 


0.03 


5i 

1 


0.11 



Leveled by— 



F.G.Bay. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



DiBcrepanoie9 between right and left bauh levela. 



River crossing at— 



Stone line 95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

103 

104 



Dis. 


Discrep- ! 


tance. 


ancy. 


jrosr. 


1 


3 


0.145 


3 


0.100 


3 


0.09 


3 


0.05 


3 


0.07 


3 


0.15 


3 


0.13 


6 


0.23 


8 


0.10 



Biver crossing at — 



Stone lino 105 
106 
107 
109 

no 

111 
113 
114 



Dis- I Discrep- 
tance. i ancv. 



MUee, 




3 


0.16 


3 


0.00 


3 


0.01 


6 


0.10 


3 


0.14 


3 


0.18 


6 


0.02 


3 


0.13 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3603 
DewripUona and elevaUan$ of high-waier marks leveled to in season of 189S, 



Desoriptioxu 



On water gaage on Qninoy Sallroad bridge 

On northwest comer ^\ Jo TTarehoose, Ls Orange, Ko 

On northeaat corner of tlie "Blaokwood," La Grange, Mo 

On eontheaet comer of the "Blackwood," La Grange, Mo 

On northeast comer of Busehman's feed mill. Canton, Mo 

On northeast comer of Palmer's boarding-house, Alexandria, Mo 

Do 

On soatbeast comer of ^^^ Wareboase, Keokak,Iowa 

On water gange on lower lock of D. M. R. Canal 

Do 

Do 

On water gange on middle look of D. M. R. Canal (in canal) 

Do 

Do 

On water gange in sluice way at middle lock (in rapids) 

On water gange on upper lock of D. M. R. Canal 

Do 

Tellico Mills, Quincy^IU 

Do 

Do 

On tree opposite foot of Island Ko. 432 

Vicinity of Warsaw, lU 

On small onlTert 4,500 meters aboxe Keokuk bridge, on left bank 

On small cnlrert 4,060 meters aboye Keokuk bridge, on left bank, and 300 meters 
north of© rapids 



1888 



Year. 


Eleva- 
tions. 


1888 


485.23 


1893 


487.03 


1888 


488.61 


1851 


490.93 


1888 


491.80 


1888 


600.89 


1881 


500.80 


1892 


503. 67 


1851 


605.61 


1888 


504.29 


1881 


503.59 


1891 


505.64 


1888 


604.34 


1881 


503.64 


1888 


506.65 


1888 


516. 74 


1881 


515.06 


1851 


487.50 


1888 


484.58 


1881 


484.09 


1892 


482.24 


1888 


602.08 


1885 


506.96 



60&08 



Appendix 3 O. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT ENGINEBR A. T. MORROW ON TKRTIART TRIANGULATION AND 
STONE LINES FROM DONALDSON VILLE TO HEAD OF PASSES, AND PRECISE LEVELS 
FROM NEW ORLEANS TO HEAD OF PASSES, NOVEMBER, 1892, TO MARCH, 18d3. 

St. Louis, April 10, 189S. 

Captain: I have the honor to submit the following report on the work done by 
the party which operated under my charge on the lower river during the past 
winter. 

On November 17 the steamer Patrol left St. Louis under charge of Assistant Engi- 
neer J. A. Ockerson, who was engaged during the down-river trip in inspecting and 
repairing gauges and bulletins. On December 8, when the steamer had reached 
Donaldsonville, La., I joined the party and began work with a party composed as 
follows : A. T. Morrow in charge, with G. H. French, T. C. Hockridge, O. N. Aztell and 
A. O. Wheeler, assistants. There were also the crew of the steamer and 13 additional 
men. The work in view consisted of placing the bench marks on " stone lines " from 
Donaldsonville to the Head of the Passes and connecting them with the remaining 
marks of the old Coast Survey triangulation. This worK was continued clown the 
river till the city of New Orleans was reached on January 12. At that point the 
party was Joined by precise-level men J. A. Paige and E. J. Thomas, recorder W. S. 
Williams, and twe precise-level rodmen. 

Two additional men were employed, a barge to carry coal was borrowed from Capt. 
Millis» a supply of bench marks and stones were taken on board, and on January 17 
the steamer left New Orleans bound for the Head of the Passes^ where the work was 
to be taken up in order to complete the lower portions of the river before the season 
of high water. At Fort Jackson the steamer was delayed two days by storms, and 
reached South Pass on the morning of January 20. The work from the Head of the 
Passes to New Orleans consisted of placing and locating bench marks and running 
a line of precise levels between these two points, and was prosecuted with a party 
composed as -follows : A. T. Morrow, in charge : J. A. Paige and £. J. Thomas, precise 
level men, with recorders A. O. Wheeler and W. S. Williams; G. H. French, tertiary 
angles; T. C. Hoclcridge, bench marks, and O.N. Artell, computations. 

The work progressed without any serious delay until March 15, when the precise 
levels were clos^ on the precise bench marks at New Orleans and the work of plac- 
ing and locating bench marks carried to the lower limit of the work of the early part 
of the season. On March 16 I discharged the men hired at New Orleans, placed the 
steamer, with the regular crew and three extra men, under the charge of T. C. Hock- 
ridge as manter, with orders to proceed to St. Louis, and with the remainder of party, 
seventeen in number^ I returned to St. Louis. 



3604 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Dtiring the entire season the weather was, in the main, favorable^ and no trouble 
was experienced from high water, except during the last two weeks of the season. 

Tertiary triungulation, — At nearly all points enough of the Coast Snrvey triangola- 
tion stations remained to furnish good connections for the system of tertiary triangu- 
lation, which was carried along to locate the various bench marks of the survey. Of 
tlie 120 Coast Survey stations looked for 68 were found, and these were pretty fairly 
distributed, except on the stretch of river below Fort Jackson, where it became nec- 
essary to make a run of 18 miles between consecutive points of connection. 

On* this long stretch, however, the shores wore flat and on one side mostly open, so 
that I was enabled to '' chain'' about half the distance with a steel tape, and the rest 
of the distance was favorable for tri angulation, so that it is believed that the loca- 
tions of the intermediate points are entirely reliable. During the entire season a good 
deal of difBculty was experienced in procuring i^eliable azimuths at the several Coast 
Snrvey stations on account of trees, buildings, and levees, which cut off the lines of 
sight oetween the consecutive points. For this reason it became necessary often to 
carry azimuth for long distances, but generally the coordinates could be checked at 
points sufficiently close to insure good results. 

The atmospheric conditions were often unfavorable for observing angles, and it 
often became necessary to locate tertiary flags in unfavorable positions, such as on 
mud bars, tops, of logs, stumps, docks, or buildings, and for these reasons the tri- 
angles did not always close with as much accuracy as could have been desired, but as 
the country was flat it was practicable to measure frequent tertiary bases, and it was 
considered more economical and productive of better results to devote less time to 
the determination of angles and give more attention to the measurement of tertiary 
bases than is usual in work of this kind. 

The 50-meter steel tape, with which the party was provided, proved very service- 
able for this work and was brought into almost daily use during the whole progress 
of the work. Besides the regular tertiary bases so measured there were check dis- 
tances chained with a 20-meter chain, using ordinary chaining pins, but in the soft, 
wet ground of the region these determinations did not prove very satisfactory and in 
almost all instances were used for checks only. In a table which, is appended hereto, 
giving results of checks on tertiary triangulation, distances of this character are 
explained in a footnote as being used for checks only, as such determinations were 
used to detect mistakes in computations or other parts of the work, but did not ent<er 
the computations and thereby affect the general resulta of the work. As an illustra- 
tion of the inexactness of ordinary chaining I have appended a small table showing 
the results of measurements of the same lines by tape and by chain. These measure- 
ments by tape and by chain were made by different parties, but on the same day. 
The measurements by tape were made with much care, a spring balance was used to 
insure uniform tension, and the extremities of each tape length were marked by a tack 
driven in the top of a stake set for the purpose. The marking of the chain lengths 
was by ordinary chaining pins, and no more than ordinary care was taken in the 
work, as the determinations were intended only for check on the work of the tape. 
The gronnd on nearly all of these lines was soft, but did not differ materially in that 
respect from most of the ground on which the chain was used during the general 
progress of the work. It is, therefore, probable that many of the discrepancies shown 
between measurements by chain and by computed distances, which were based gen- 
erally on tape measurements, were due to inaccuracies of chaining rather than to 
defects in-the tertiary triangulation. 

As the ultimate object of the tertiary work was to determine the correct geo- 
graphical positions of the various bench marks, perhaps a better test of the accuracy 
of the work is shown by the appended table, giving the discrepancies between the 
tertiary and secondary coordinates in the several runs from one secondary station 
to another. 

Besides the permanent bench marks, anumber of conspicuous objects have been 
located, and nearly all the intermediate tertiary points have been marked by stakes 
and their positions described, so that many of them will be available for connection 
for one or two years. 

There were, all together, 502 tertiary triangles used during the season's work. 

Bench marJcs. — In view of the lack of permanence that has attended many of the 
bench marks of former years, I have endeavored to keep steadily and prominently in 
view the importance of selecting permanent positions for the marks which we have 
established. For this purpose they have as often as practicable been placed by the 
sides of roadways and land lines and as much as possible out of way of cultivation 
and probable improvements. Where they have been put on plantations or other 
private grounds they have in most cases been so placed with the knowledge and 
consent of the owners or occupants and with the understanding that they were 
placed there as permanent and valuable marks of public surveys. Thev have also 
been placed with a view to being used as points of location as well as of elevation, 
and with this object in view they have been located, as has been stated, by triangu- 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVEU COMMISSION. 3606 

lation, Skiid, besides, have been occupied and point iugs have been taken to various per- 
manent and conspicaoas objects in sight. Observations bo taken will not only fur- 
nish effective means of recovering the points hereafter, but will supply azimuth lines 
for Qse in future surveys. 

Full descriptions and sketches have been made, and it is believed that in most cases 
these points may be recovered many years hence, even if the surface marks shall 
have been removed. 

On the extreme lower river some difflcnlty was experienced in planting the bench 
marks, owing to the close proximity of the water to the surface of the ground, and 
it often became necessary to bail water continnonsly from the holes whue the work 
was being done. In these cases the tiles were well rammed down, and it is believed 
that they are as stable as any objects in those localities. Two bench marks placed in 
wet g^oand at Fort Jackson on the way down seemed not to have settled percepti- 
bly in the two weeks that elapsed before our return to that place. 

It is a question, however, m mv mind whether any object in the vicinity of the 
Passes remains permanently at the same elevation — a question that will perhaps 
not l>e definitely settled iintil precise levels shall have been carried down agam 
from above, after a lapse of years. 

A table is given below showing number and kind of bench marks established. 

J^recise levels, — Two precise-level bench marks were established at the head of the 
Passes and connection was made with the U. S. Engineers' bench mark and two 
gauges. From that place precise levels were carried on the right bank to Fort 
Jackson and thence on the left bank to New Orleans, where they were connected 
with the P. B. M's of 1883, back of the city, and carried to the Coast Survey astro- 
nomical post in Lafayette Square. Much less difficulty was experienced on the wet 
ground of the extreme lower river than was anticipated, a line having been cleared 
out through the timber, where the roots of trees served as turning points and the 
uniform atmospheric conditions seemed to largely compensate for the difficulty of 
leveling over tne soft ground. 

Assistant Engineer Paige, who was placed in general charge of precise levels, will 
make a report on the results and methods of that work. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. T. Morrow, 
AMUttant Engineer* 

Capi. Carl F. Palfrey, 

Corpe of Engineers, U, 8, Am 



% 



Tahle skow^g number and character of permanent leneh marJcs established hetween Don- 
aldsomnUe, La,^ and the Head of the Passes, during the progress of the survey of the 
winter of 1892 and 1893, 

Number. 

Ordinary benchmarks of tile and pipe 198 

Secondary triangulation stations used as ordinary bench marks 6 

Other marks used as ordinary benchmarks 4 

Total ordinary bench marks 208 

Precise bench marks of tile and pipe 32 

Copper bolt precise bench marks - 9 

Ordinary bench marks used as precise bench marks 28 

Otiier marks used as precise bench marks 7 

Total precise bench marks 76 

Total bench marks of all classes 256 



8606 REPORT OF THS CHIEF OF ENOINEERS, U. 8. ▲RMT. 

Table showing discrepancies in tertiary triangulaiion. 



Stations. 



tpto^ja 

l^AtO-^iA 

^ to St. James ch 

A25toA24 

^|«to^ 

A34toA36 

A 39 to ware ho. cupola 

A44toA*0 

ifAto A|fi r 

A4*to A*« 

*|*toA50 

AWtoA*8 

ASlto^p 

@ St. John to St. Johns ch 

A«2toA60 

*jatoA«7 

«fi»toA 74 

*»*toA73 

*»*toA 81 

*|*to A 78 

«}*to A 82 

*}«to«§ft 

A86 to«9* 

»fitoA §5 

«FtoA W 

A88to AM 

@ Odier to Dneeau S. H. CLy . . . 

A 102 to A 106 

A 104 to A 106 

117 to A^ 

City Park to A 110 

j* to@Ooni. cana) 

A Donovan No. 2 to Cabita Chy 
a«A to«|A 

«|* to A 127 

A181toA12» 

A 186to*lA 

A148to A 140 

A 162 to «!«...•. 

A 170 to A 173 

A 180 to A 100 

A 197 to® Union 

A 211 to A 212 

A 217 to A 219 

«|* to Jnnior Chy 

A231toA233 

«|*to A 247 

A236 to«|A 

A 250 to A 262 

A 256 to (§) Bayhi 

A 268 to ^|A 

A 264 to *p.. 

A268to A267 

^toaj* 

A 276 to H* 

A 271 to A 272 

A 276 to A 276 

A 278 to A 280 

H^toifA 

A 281 to A 282 

A288to*|fl 

»4«to A288 

292toA287 

Magn^iato'i' 

295to*p 

808 to •*•• 

Battle Gronndf'Befinery Chy' 

308 to Befinery Chy 

A307to«i* 

>i« to Colored Chnrch 



Distance 
chained or 
computed. 



MeUrs, 

*791. 55 

*882.80 

762.88 

952.84 

*857. 48 

1176. 76 

752. 21 

671.68 

*8S2.20 

671.68 

*870.74 

600.82 

•1128.33 

1692.80 

050.47 

•609.70 

*1108. 80 

*636.20 

*861. 70 

*875.84 

n024.40 

*784. 30 

*713.37 

*1005.30 

*895. 14 

1128.36 

648.10 

1212.64 

•620.89 

•822.40 

481.89 

682.27 

2009.64 

U73.43 

800.00 

1450. 00 

806.07 

956.84 

1056.66 

686.48 

721.28 

632.65 

029.61 

548.96 

834.84 

1256. 10 

712.93 

•629. 12 

1067.09 

630.70 

727.97 

789.73 

823.21 

•660.40 

919.70 

730.09 

868.73 

1057. 10 

747. 62 

739. 70 

•536.43 

833.99 

786.81 

1,083.09 

•1,040.21 

965.49 

1,621.63 

986.01 

1,214.73 

640,64 



Distance 

oompnt- 

ed. 



MeUrt, 

701.43 
883.80 
763.07 
9»3.07 
857.50 

1175. 76 
752. 16 
671.48 
852.06 
671.70 
870. 67 
630.87 

1128. 17 

1692.30 
950.38 
609.66 

1108.36 
636.63 
862.16 
876.24 

1024w63 
784.42 
713.86 

1006.40 
895.26 

1123.36 
648.20 

1212. 54 
620.61 
822.14 
481.19 
682.25 

2009.67 

1173.63 
800.05 

1:449.04 
806.82 
056.06 

1056.47 
686.32 
721.48 
632.67 
929.39 
649.07 
834.78 
•1254.62 
713. 19 
629.30 

1067.08 
630.66 
728.03 
789.66 
823.26 
660.85 
919. 50 
729.98 
868.81 

1057.24 

747.60 

739.91 

636.43 

833.95 

786.18 

1,083.00 

1,039.72 

985.44 

1,621.74 

986.00 

1,214.61 

640.60 



Discrep- 
ancies. 


No. of 
trian- 
gles. 


Meters. 




.12 


4 


.60 


7 


.19 


8 


.23 


4 


.02 


5 


.01 


6 


.05 


5 


.20 


2 


.15 


2 


.02 


2 


.07 


2 


.55 


8 


.16 


6 


.50 


7 


.09 


15 


.04 


4 


.66 


6 


.43 


7 


.46 


17 


.40 


17 


.13 


2 


.12 


2 


.89 


3 


.90 


4 


.12 


3 


.01 


3 


.10 


7 


.10 


4 


.28 


2 


.26 


6 


.20 


6 


.02 


4 


.03 


2 


.10 


10 


.05 


8 


.96 


2 


.16 


7 


.22 


2 


.18 


9 


.16 


11 


.20 


27 


.08 


2 


.22 


14 


.12 


4 


.06 


9 


L48 


4 


.26 


12 


.18 


4 


.01 


11 


.04 


6 


.06 


4 


.07 


8 


.03 


6 


.06 


6 


.20 


4 


.11 


10 


.08 


6 


.14 


6 


.03 


2 


.21 


18 


.00 


4 


.04 


6 


.18 


11 


.00 


2 


.49 


4 


.06 


4 


.11 


2 


.01 


6 


.12 


4 


.04 


S 



Proportion- 
ate diftcrep- 
anoies. 



in 
in 
in 
in 
in 



6.507 
1.766 
4,016 
4.144 
47,874 
in 117, 575 
in 15,045 
3,358 
5,681 
33,584 
12,439 
1^002 
7,052 
8,360 
10,561 
15,242 
1,981 
1,481 
1,806 
2,189 
7,881 
6,536 
1,830 
1,117 
7,459 
in 112, 336 
in 6,483 
12,126 
2,218 
8.163 
2,407 
29,113 
66.088 
11,735 
16,000 
1,510 
6,380 
4,345 
6,780 
4,280 
3,606 
7,908 
4,226 
4,574 
13, 914 
848 
3,128 
2,041 
in 106,709 
in 16,737 
12,188 
11,267 
16,465 
11.208 
4,598 
6,637 
10,860 
7,651 
24.920 
3,523 
00 

20.650 
4,868 

00 

2.123 
19,710 
14,742 
98,601 
10,126 
13,616 



in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 



in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 



in 
in 
in 
In 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
In 



* Used foe oheok oalj. 



APPENBEt Y Y — ^BEPOET OP MISSISSIPPI EIVER COMMISSION. 3607 
Table showing discrepancies between tape and chain measurements. 



Stadozu. 



'|»toA127... 
A 120 to A 131 

£^ laito^p... 

•H«toAl33... 
*i^ to A 139-.. 
Al30toA141 
A 141 to A 143 
A143to'ift... 
«Pto A245... 



Ifeaanred 
with tapo. 



MeUrg. 

800.06 
1,450.05 
1,640.11 

980.12 
1,062.07 
1,500.12 
1,370.12 
1,472.54 
1,100.00 



Measured 
with chain. 



MeUrt, 

790.84 
1,449.86 
1,640.21 
980.00 
1,061.50 
1,499.20 
1,869.30 
1,471.80 
1,099.55 



Diacrep- 


Charac- 
ter of 


' anoy. 


ground. 


jr«(#r». 




—.22 


Soft 


—.69 


.-..do... 


+.10 


Hard ... 


—.12 


Soft 


—.57 


. . . .do . . . 


—.92 


....do... 


—.82 


....do ... 


—.74 


... .do ... 


—.45 


....do ... 



Proportion- 
ate disorep- 
anciee. 



1 

1 
I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 
in 



8,637 
2,101 
16.402 
8,168 
1.863 
1,031 
1,671 
1.981 
2,444 



Discrepancies between tertiary and secondary eoSrdinates, Donaldsonville, La,, to Head of 

Passes. 



From station. 



Webre , 

>St. Janiee 

StKmma 

JolW 

WhiteHoeel"*.! 

St John 

Beeerve 

KiUna 

Boia Blano 

Company Canal 

Lee , 

Orlaana 

Magnolia 

tSeaxadale 

Conceasiona.... 

Do 

Berthaud 

I Jeanit 

Bayhi 

SLltoaalie 

Upper Baae..... 

ITnion 

White 

Quarantine ..... 

x« orth ........... 

H.P.Ijight 



To station. 



Donalson 

St. Michael's Church 

College 

Homestead 

Jolly 

Chanf 

Beeerve 

Bound'honse 

Beouar 

ATondale 

City Park 

St. Maurice 

Battleground 

OrMige Grove 

...do. 

Soarsdale 

Cedar 

I Jesuit 

Bayhi 

StBoaalie 

Woodland 

ITnion 

White 

Grand Prairie 

Buras Church 

Taylor 

North 



Number 
of tri- 
angles. 



6 

4 

7 

8 

5 

10 

7 

12 

12 

8 

7 

5 

5 

2 

18 

6 

11 

8 

8 

15 

22 

18 

18 

21 

2 

42 

3 



Distance. 



Maes. 
2.2 
1.8 
4.7 
4.2 
5.1 
2.4 
8.9 
5.6 
4.5 
2.1 
1.4 
2.5 
1.9 
1.6 
4.9 
2.8 
8.9 
1.4 
2.4 
4.8 
9.5 
5.6 
7.6 
&8 
0.7 
18.6 
4.2 



Disorep' 
ancy in 
latitude. 


Discrep- 
ancy iu 
longi- 
tncto. 


Meters. 


Meters, 


0.8 


0.2 


0.7 


0.6 


1.0 


0.0 


1.6 


0.6 


0.9 


1.8 


1.5 


0.8 


1.1 


' 0.4 


0.2 


0.6 


0.8 


0.1 


1.0 


0.1 


1.1 


0.8 


0.8 


0.2 


0.0 


0.2 


0.4 


0.5 


0.7 


1.6 


0.3 


LI 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.8 


0.1 


0.2 


0.4 


0.5 


8.9 


L8 


0.6 


0.1 


1.1 


1.6 


0.5 


0.5 


0.8 


0.1 


1.8 


1.4 


0.8 


0.5 



Propor- 
tional dis- 
crepancy. 



4.317 

8,133 

7,520 

4,188 

5,100 

2,560 

5,200 

14,860 

9,000 

8,860 

1,640 

11. 110 

15,200 

4,000 

4,860 

8,345 

8,910 

8,700 

19,200 

12,000 

3,700 

14,930 

6,320 

19,000 

1,400 

12,940 

12,200 



3G08 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



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3610 REPORT OP THE CmEP OP ENQmBEHS, V. B. ABMT. 



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APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3615 



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3616 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP EHGINEERS, V. 8. ARMT. 



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APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3617 




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APPENDIX Y y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3619 



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3620' REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Appendix 3 D. 

report of assistant engineer james a. paige on precise leveling between 

head of passes and donaldsonville, la. 

Office Mississippi River Commission, 

St. Louis, May 10, 189S. 

Sir: I have tbo honor to report as follows on the precise leveling operations 
between the Head of Passes and New Orleans. ^ 

Your instructions were to run a line of precise levels from the gan^i^e and other 
bench marks at the Head of Passes to New Orleans^ and there connect with certain 
bench marks established by the Commission when the line of precise levels was ran 
from Biloxi to CarroUton in 1862; the work to be done by two field-leveling parties 
equipped in the usual manner, and the necessary force to be quartered on the U. S. 
S. Patrol, Assistant Engineer A. T. Morrow in charge^ who at the same time would 
make a certain survey between Head of the Passes and New Orleans. 

I left St. Louis for New Orleans January 11, 1893, and reached the Patrol at Ken> 
nerville, La., January 12, in company with Assistant K. J. Thomas, Recorder W. S. 
Williams, and Rodmen Joseph Sheehan aud H. M. Conradt. The remainder of the 
men were assigned fi'om Mr. Morrow's force on the P<Ctrol, who had at this time 
about completed his work to New Orleans, working southward from Donaldson ville. 

After the necessary preparation the Patrol proceeded from New Orleans on Janu- 
ary 17 and arrived at Fort Jackson the same evening, where she was delayed by high 
winds till the morning of January 20. The Head of Passes was reached that day at 
noon and the regular neldwork began there the same evening. The work was com- 
pleted to New Orleans and ail connections made on March 15, 1893, and on the 16th, 
in company with Mr. Thomas, I returned to St. Louis. Subsequent to this time Mr. 
Thomas and myself have been engaged in making the office reduction of the sea- 
son's notes. While the Patrol was lying at Fort Jackson a certain bench mark of 
the vitrified clay and iron-pipe pattern was established there and connections made 
with it. This is referred to hereafter and is designated in the tabulated results as 
" Experimental BM." 

The leveling force consisted of two field parties organized the same as heretofore 
on this kind of work, and comprised for one party : James A. Paige, leveler ; A. O. 
Wheeler, recorder; two rodmen; two tent and umbrella men. For the other party: 
E. J. Thomas, leveler; W. S. Williams, recorder; two rodmen; two tent and um- 
brella men; making twelve men in all. 

The methods in the field operations were about the same as have been in use here- 
tofore on this class of work. All lines were duplicated in a direction contrary to 
that of the first line run. 

Each observer duplicated his own work. 

The telescope was made level as indicated by the level vial when the rod was read. 
The order of the back and fore sight was alternated at the successive instrument 
stations. 

Both foot plates and pins were used for rod supports. 

The route of the level line was from the gauge at the head of South Pass westward 
across the head of Southwest Pass to the west bank ; thence northward along the 
west bank of the river to Fort Jackson ; thence across the river to Fort St. Phillip on 
the east bank ; thence northward along the east bank of the river to New Orleans, 
where connections were made with U. S. P. B. Ms. 2 and 3 and B. M. City Stone, " Half- 
way House." 

These three bench marks were in the line of precise levels executed under the 
Commission between Biloxi and CarroUton in 1882. 

U. S. P. B. Ms. 2 and 3 were also connected with the iine of i>recise levels between 
Mobile and CarroUton, executed by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1886. 

For reference to these bench marks see report of the Mississippi River Commission 
for 1883, p. 129, also Appendix 9 U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey Report for 1887. 

From the Head of Passes to the Jump, a distance of 11^ miles by the levels, 
the surface of the ground leveled over was from 8 to 30 inches above mean tide. The 
bank here on the west side has a fringe of timber and heavy undergrowth and is 
composed of vegetable mold and a river deposit of very fine material which, of course, 
in this part of the Mississippi Valley contains little or no sand. It holds the moist- 
ure well and in general presents poor conditiorfs for precise leveling purposes. How- 
ever, about 80 per cent of the turning points on this stretch consisted of nails in 
trees and stumps and the results are satisfactory. From the Jump to New Orleans 
the levels follow the levee and wagon road all the way and it was good ground to 
work over. Other conditions incidental to the work were tolerably favorable. The 
principal trouble during the first part of the season was the prev.alence of fogs. The 
difficulty did not arise &om interruption of work exactly, but from the sudden 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3621 

appearance of hot winds. If the fog was light work wonld be in progress and a hot 
wind, appearing would instantly absorb the fog and change the temperature several 
degrees. This, of course, would change the refraction very suddenly. Great care 
haid to be taken that the sights at an intrument station were taken under similar 
conditions in this respect. 

The permanent bench marks established were of the pattern heretofore used by 
the Commission, vitrified clay slabs buried in the ground with a copper bolt leaded 
in the center, and over which is set an iron pipe 4 feet long and projecting from 6 to 
18 inches above the surface of the ground. They were set about 3 miles apart and 
varying from 20 to 200 meters from the river. This, in view of the fact that there is 
very little change in this region due to caving banks, and also that a dry and solid 
foundation for the bench marks, was only found near the river front. 

The stone-line bench marks which were also established during the progress of 
this survey, and of the same pattern as the precise level benchmarks, were set about 
once in every 3 miles of river distance. A P. B. M. was set approximately midway 
between consecutive stone lines. 

The bench marks of a permanent natnre will thus average about 1^ miles apart. 

The following is a summary of the bench marks established and connected with 
(not including the temporary bench marks set for the purpose of checking the work) : 

Precise bench marks established (vitrified clay and iron pipe) 32 

Other precise bench marks established (of miscellaneous nature) 5 

Other precise bench marks established (copper bolts in various structures) 9 

Precise bench marks connected with (of former precise levels) 8 

On Hnary level bench marks connected with (of former surveys) 6 

Stone-line bench marks connected with 28 

Water gauges connected with 3 

Tot^ 86 

There has been considerable discussion of the stability of bench marks established 
in surveys of this kind. The sinking of tlie structure is a defect, more or less, of all 
forms .of permanent bench marks except those established in the natural rock. 

The pattern now used by the CommisHion appears to be the best yet devised when 
all qnesiions are considered. It is within the possibilities that at some future time 
the Iine.from New Orleans to the Passes may be releveled, with a view of investigat- 
ing the question of the gradual subsidence or elevation of that part of the Missis- 
sippi Valley. We can assume if a settling of bench marks does occur that it will 
increase in amount going southward from New Orleans. This would be the supposi- 
tion, considering the nature of the deposit and the decreasing elevation above the 
river. A small movement of the bench marks would thus vitiate the comparison of 
resnlts with those of a line of precise levels run at some future period. In fact, it 
might lead to wrong conclusions altogether. Many of the precise bench marks 
established on this survey were set in soft mud even when the best locations were 
selected. They were always well rammed down and the earth well filled in before 
being observed to. 

On January 18 a bench mark was set at Fort Jackson, about JL8 inches beneath the 
snrface of the gronnd. It was well rammed down in the mud and water and then 
connected with a reliable bench mark on a tree near by. The earth was then filled 
in over it. On February 3 it was again observed to before the earth over it was 
disturbed. On February 5 the earth was taken off and the bench mark again con- 
nected with. The results indicate that between the first and second observations, 
during which time the earth was filled in and sixteen days elapsed, the bench mark 
sank about 4.8 millimeters ; and between the second and third observations, during 
which time the earth was removed and three days elapsed, that the bench mark rose 
about 3.8 millimeters. 

The resnlts of February 3 and 5 were hardly those expected. However, this is all 
right as far as it goes, but the experiment covered a period of only eighteen days. 

From the weight of the bench mark and its area it is generally supposed that 
about all of the movement takes place shortly after being set — say, the first thirty 
days. 

It would be interesting to compare the results now obtained with those of a simi- 
lar line of levels run over the same ground at some future time. 

Results, — ^The final reduction has been compared with the field computations, and 
a few unimportant errors found. 

In the tieldwork the coUimation of the wires and the inclination of the level vial 
were examined each day, and it was attempted to keep the adjustment errors close 
to zero. The inequality of telescope collars was determined twice during the season 
for each instrument. The aggregate of these errors constitute a correction to be 
applied to the excess in length of back or fore sights between consecutive bench 
marks. If the sum of these corrections for colliiuation, inclination; and pivot error 



3622 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

amounted to- one-teuth of a millimeter or more ou any stretch the correction was 
applied in the office reduction. In the entire line there were nine cases where these 
corrections changed the final elevation of a bench mark by 0. 1 of a millimeter or 
more. The greatest accumulated amount due to these corrections was at the end of 
the season and amounted to -f-0.7 millimeters; that is, if no corrections had been 
applied for adjustment errors the elevation of the last bench mark would have 
been seven-tenths of a millimeter less than the one now given. 

These results show that the methods in use on this work render the adjoatment 
errors of very little importance. The limit of discrepancy between two lines run 
between bench marks was 3™"* 'i/2K, K being the distance between bench marks in 
kilometers. 

From the gauge at the head of South Pass to the bench mark at Metairio Cemetery 
New Orleans was a distance of: Main line 164.270 kilos, equal 102.09 miles ; side 
lines 17.706 kilos, equal 11.00 miles; total 181.975 kilos, equal 113.09 miles. The 
probable error of the determination of the final bench mark was 8.9 millimeters. 
This gave a computed probable error per kilometer for the entire line of 0.^ milli- 
meters. 

An inspection of the results show a gradual divergence of the two lines. The total 
amount at New Orleans being 66.5 millimeters. This has no eflfect on the results, 
however, except to make the computed probable error somewhat too lar^e. 

When two lines were run between bench marks, if they agreed within the pre- 
scribed limits they were taken for the result for that stretch. 

. No extra lines were run for the purpose of reducing the probable error. There 
were two stretches run three times due to error in recording the notes, the back 
and fore sight being transposed. 

Two stretches were run four times due to error in the field computations. Neg- 
lecting these cases we have the following summary from the tabulated results : 



lilnes mn four timeB 
Liaea mn two tiraes 

Total 



Kg. of 
stretehea. 



7 
145 



162 



Kilo 
metera. 



6.708 
157.562 



164.270 



Percent 

of total 

Unea. 



4.06 
* a5.M 



100.00 



Discrepancie* exceeding 3«* V^S 

Biacrepancies wltbin 8"» i^ 

Diacrepaacies within 2«> V2K. . . 
Diaorepanoiea within !"■ V2K . . . , 

Total 



Ko.of 
stret<2he8. 



7 
26 
64 
65 



162 



KOo- 
metera. 



6.706 
90.484 
68.849 
60.229 



164.270 



Percent 

of total 

Una. 



4.08 
17.95 
85.82 
42.15 



100.00 



There were three river crossings made by the reciprocal method and the results are 
as reliable as those on other parts of the line; the first was at the head of South- 
west Pass between TBMs. 2 and 3. The second was across the Jump between TBMs. 
24 A and 24 B, and the third at Forts Jackson and St. Phillip across the river between 
TBMs. 62 and 63. 

The following are the instrumental constants: 



Level No. 2, teleaoope collar, eye end larger 

Do 

Adopted yalae, Jan. 19 to Feb. 10, 1893 

Adopted value, Feb. 11 to Mar. 15, 1893 

Level Ko. 5, teleacope collar, eye end larger 

I^Tel No. 6. teleacope collar, eye end unaller. . . 

^ Adopted value, Jan. 19 to Feb. 10, 1898 

Adopted Yftlne, Feb. 11 to Mar. 15, 1893 

Level vial, " Fanth," one diviaion 

Adopted valne for the aeaaon 

I^evel vial Kern No. 6, one diviaion, Jan. 19, 1888 
Adopted value for the aeaaon 



Date. 



Jan. 
Apr. 



19, 1898 
8, 1893 



Jan. 
Apr. 



19, 1893 
8,1893 



Jan. 19,1893 



Value in 
aecgnda. 



8.89 
0.00 



2.01 



8.63 

*2.'ii 



Correotiona 
in n)ille> 

metera per 
meter. 



.-0.0168 
0.0000 
—0.0017 
—0.008 
—0.0098 

•H- 914K 
—0.010 

+0.002 

0.0147 

0.0147 

0.0104 

0.0104 



APPENWX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3623 

t 

Lerel No. 2, Stadia interval: From January 19 to February 19, 1893, 4.286 milll- 
jneters intercepted on rod equal 1 meter; from February 20 to March 15, 1893, 4.224 
miUimeterB intercepted on rod equal 1 meter. 

LevelNo. 5, Stadia interval: For the entire season, 5.026 millimeters intercepted 
on rod equal 1 meter. 

Rod 10, corrections for A — 55.3 millimeters. 
Rod 13, corrections for A — 55.3 mi^imeters. 
Rod 18, corrections for A — 55.8 millimeters. 
Rod 19, corrections for A — 55.8 millimeters. 

No rod correction has been applied as the range in elevation of the bench marks is 
so small the correction can be neglected. The rods hffve been taken at standard 
lengths. 

In the tabulation of results the reductions have been made from the bench mark, 
City Stone '^ Halfway House'' at Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans, to the gauge at the 
head of South Pass. This bench mark is the starting point, and its elevation is 
that given in the report of the Mississippi River Commission ror 1883, p. 129; being 
7.9870 meters referred to the Cairo datum plane. 

Column 1 gives the consecutive bench marks in the order in whicl^ the various 
elevations were deduced. 

Column 2 gives the distance of any bench mark under consideration from the start* 
ing point. 

Column 3 gives the direction which the lines were run, N. being north and S. being 
south. 

Column 4 gives the difference in elevation between the bench marks named in 
column 1 ; also the mean difference. 

Column 5 gives the residuals found by subtracting each result from the mean 
result. 

Column 6 gives the probable error in the result for each stretch. 

Column 7 gives the probable error in the result for each permanent bench mark, 
when reierrred to the first bench mark or starting point. 

Column 8 gives the elevation of the second bench mark named in column 1. 

Column 9 gives the same data as column 8, but reduced to feet. 

Column 10 indicates the observer, P. being for Paige, T. for Thomas, and W. for 
Williapis. 

In computing the probable error per kilometer (giving 0.69™™) the theoretical 
assumption is that the various stretcnes are 1 kilometer in length each. The aver- 
age length of the stretches is 1,074 meters. 

In reference to the three bench marks in New Orleans which were in the line of 
precise levels of 1882 and which were connected with this Survey (1893). 

For B. M. City Stone " Halfway House" at Metairie Cemetery and U. S. P. B. M. 2 at 
St. .Johns Bayou, the two results for 1882 and 1893 differ by 0.7. millimeters, but from 
U. S. P. B. M. 2 to U. S. P. B. M. 3 at the Fair grounds the results differ by 8.2 millime- 
ters. This indicates that U. S. P. B. M. 3 has settled about 8 millimeters, if the other 
two bench marks have remained as they were in 1882. 

U. 8. p. B. M. 3 is in a brick column 4 feet square and about 9 feet high. It was 
erected about ^ years ago or 14 years previous to the time P. B. M. 3 was established. 
An inspection of the three bench marks would lead one to regard them all equall v 
reliable. Nothing could be learned as to the depth of foundation for this brick 
column. 

As before stated, the reductions start with the 1882 elevation of B. M. City Stone 
" Halfway House " at Metairie Cemetery, as this was thought preferable to an adjust- 
ment of ail the elevations of the three bench marks. 

Assistant Thomas's duties in the field were much interfered with by bad health. 
I consider him a careful and skilll'ul observer on this kind of work. 

Respectfully submitted. 

James A. Paigb, 
Auktant Enginut. 

Capt. Carl F. Paij'iuet, 

Cof*pt of Engineerif U* 8. A,, Secretoff. 



3624 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF EKGIXEKRS, U. S. ARMY. 



Sesulta of ^ccise leveling, New Orleans, La., fo South Pasi, La,, January IS, IS9S, to 

March 15, 1893, 

Bj Aaaiatant Engineers Jae. A. Paige and X. J. ThomiA. 

[In these rednctioni the ralae of 1 meter is 8. 2808803 feet.] 



Bench marks. 


Diatance. 


Dlree- 

tiOD. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


K 


B. 


• 

Blovstion aboTO 
Cairo datum. 


O 


Zero of Sonth Pass Gange .. 

8. 5 foot mark on gauge 

3. u foot mark on gaage to T. 

1» fUf « » w 


Km. 
0.000 
0.000 

0.144 

0.167 
0.100 
0.100 

0.190 




MeUri. 


Urn, 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mettrt. 
5.8292 
6.8960 


19.125 
23.625 




^% • • • • • 
O •• • « • 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 


+1.0668 










+0.1240 
+0. 1247 


+ 0.4 

— 0.3 

+ 0.2 

— 0.3 




m 


T. 












T. 




0.2 




7.0204 


23.083 






+0.1244 




T.B.M.ltoB.M.inLigb<r 


4-1.1232 
+1. 1227 


T. 












T. 








0.2 


0.3 


8.1438 


26.719 






+ 1.1234 


— 0.3 
+ 0.3 

+ 0.2 

— 0.1 

+ 0.4 

— 0.3 




T B. M. ItoP B.M ........ 


—0. 5078 
—0.5078 


P. 












P. 




0.2 


0.3 


6.6128 


21.968 




« 


—0.5076 




T B M ItoP B M. lA 


+0. 6072 
+0.6076 


P. 












P. 




0.1 


0.2 


7. 7178 


25.821 






+0.6974 




T. B. M. 1 to 4'foot mark on 
old muffe ..-._............ 


+0.0638 
+0.0645 


P. 












P. 




0.2 




7.0846 
6.8051 


S3. 244 
19.2a 

• 






+0.0642 




Zero of old iranipe .......... 


—1. 2192 

—0.1140 
—0.1123 




B. M. in Lighthoase to P. B. 
M 2 


0.185 
0.269 
LOlO 

2.242 
2.046 

2.061 


........ 

N 

3 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

8 

N 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

K 

S 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 


+ 0.8 
— 0.9 






P. 


• 










P. 




0.6 


0.7 


8.0306 


26.347 






—0. 1132 




T.B.M.1 toT.B.M.2 


+0.0945 


— 1 


P. 




+0.0042 ) X 0.9 




.*[^J][' w\ 




P. 






1 —■ — 


0.1 


»"•••" 


7.1148 


28.848 






+0.0944 


— 0.8 

+ 0.8 

— 1.1 

+ 1.1 

+1.2 
—0.3 
—0.8 
—0.2 

+0.1 
—0.1 




T.B.M.2toT.B.M.8 


+0. 1137 
+0.1440 


P. 












T. 






...... 










+0.1288 


















+0.2029 
+0.0516 


P. 












T. 










• 






+0. 1272 






0.5 




7.2428 


23.763 






+0.1280 




T.B.M 8toT B.M.4 


—0.4873 
—0.4895 


T. 












T. 




0.7 




6.7S44 


.22.100 






—0.4884 




T.B.M.4toT.B.M.5 


- 


[-0. 2033 
-0. 2048 
-0.2053 
k0.2047 


T. 












T. 












T. 












T. 






0.3 
0.1 


0.9 


6.9689 
6.7035 


22.831 
21.993 






+0.2045 




T.B.M.6toP.BM.8 


—0. 2655 
—0.2553 






-0.2554 





APPENDIX Y Y — ^EtePORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3625 

BtntUa of precise leveling, New Orleans, La,, to South Pass, La., January 13^ 1893, to 

March 15, 189S — Continued. 

[In these redactions the valae of 1 meter is 8. 2808003 feet] 



Bench marks. 


Bistukce. 


Dilu- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
eleration. 


V. 


r. 


B. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 


• 

1 

O 


T.B.M.6toP.B.M.8A.... 


Km. 
1 2.961 

8.737 

4.547 

4.777 

4.821 

5.606 

6.889 

6.861 

6.878 

6.878 

8.008 

8.800 

8.686 

10.267 


N 

S 

Mem. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

X 

8 

Mean. 

N..>.. 
8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

8 

N 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 


Metera, 

+0.0438 

+0.0435 


Mm. 

—0.2 

+0.1 

—0.0 
+0.9 

+1.8 
— L8 

+0.2 
—0.1 

—0.2 
+0.3 

-0.1 
+0.1 

—1.1 
+1.1 

—0.4 
+0.3 

—0.2 
+0.1 

—0.2 
+0.1 

+4.5 
—2.3 
—1.9 
-0.2 

-0.3 
+0.3 

-1.8 
+1.7 

+1.0 
-1.1 


Mm. 
0.1 


Mm. 


Met&rt. 


Feet. 
25.927 






+0.9436 


0.9 1 7.9025 




T.B.M[.5toT.B.H.6 


+0. 0787 
+0.0709 


P. 




♦ 




P 




0.6 




7.0367 


23.087 






r0.0778 




T.6.M.etoT.B.H.7 


4-0.2406 
+0.2442 


P. 










P, 




1.2 




7.2791 


23.882 

• 






+0.2424 




T B ll" TtoT B.ir.8..,T--- 


—0.0710 
—0.0707 


P. 












P. 




0.1 




7.2083 


23.650 






—0.0708 




T.B.lC.8toB.M.»|tA 


-4 0. 1870 
+0.1865 


P. 










p. 




0.2 


1.7 


7.3951 


24.262 






+ 0.1868 




TBulLSteT B.1C.0 


+0.4190 
+0.4188 


P 












P. 




0.1 




7.6272 


2.\024 






+0. 4189 




T.B.K.9toT.B.M.10 


—0.6048 
—0.6070 


p. 










P. 




0.7 




7.0213 


23.036 






—0.6059 




T.B.lC.10toT-.B ILll ... 


+0.1660 
+0.1643 


T. 












T. 




0.2 




7.1859 


23.576 






+0. 1646 




T B.1C.11 toP B.lff 4 


—0.4070 
—0.4073 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


L8 


6.7787 


22.240 




« 


—0.4072 




T.B.l(.lltoP.B.H.4A... 


+0.7950 
+0. 7947 


T 








T. 




0.1 


1.8 


7.9807 


26.184 






+0.7948 




T.B.lC.UtoT.B.M.12 


+0.0953 
+0. 1021 
+0. 1017 
+0.1000 


T 










T. 
T. 




















T 




1.0 




7.2857 


23.903 






+0.0998 




T 'R.V IliAT TLir ia 


+0.0853 
+0.0847 


T. 












T. 




0.2 




7. 3707 

• • • • • 


24.182 




. 


+0.0850 




T. BMlStoTBM 14 


—0.0448 
-0.U483 


T. 












T. 




1.2 




7.3241 


24.029 






-0.0466 




T. B. IC. 14 toT.B. M. 15... 


—0. 1619 
—0. 1598 


P. 












p. 




0.7 




7.1632 


28.602 






-0.1609 





3626 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



Eeaults of jMreciee leveling, New Orleans, La,, to South Pass, La,, January IS, 189S, io 

March J5, 1893— Continncd, 

[In these reductions the value of 1 meter is 8.2808693 feet.] 



Bench marks. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


R. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 


O 


T. B.M. 15toT. b'm. 16... 


Km. 
10. 815 

U.767 

U.778 

U.778 

12.656 

13.750 

14.847 

15.410 

16.131 

16.178 

16.178 

17.982 

18.616 

18.638 

18.788 


N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N...... 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 


Meter: 
-f 0. 1329 
-fO. 1336 


Mm. 

-fO.3 

-0.4 

—0.4 
-i-0.4 

-fO.l 
—0.1 

0.0 
0.0 

+0.7 
-0.8 

-0.1 
+0.1 

+1.1 
—1.0 

—0.8 
+0.3 

+0.8 
—0.8 

+0.4 
-0.4 

+0.2 
—0.3 

+1.8 
—1.7 

-6.2 
+0.2 

0.0 
0.0 


Mm, 


Mm. 


Meter*. 


Feet, 


P. 










P- 




0.2 




7.3964 


23.939 






4-0.1332 




T.B. M. 16toT. B. M. 17... 


^0.2G65 
-1-0. 2657 


P 










P. 




0.3 




7.5G25 


24.812 






+0. 2661 




T B M 17toP B M. 6.... 


-0.8135 
—0. 8133 


P. 












P. 




0.1 


2.5 


6.7491 


22.143 






—0.8134 




T.B.M. 17toP.B.M.6A... 

* 


-fO. 3953 
+0.3963 


P. 










P 




0.0 


2.5 


7.9578 


26.108 






+0. 3963 




T B. M. ITtoT. B. M. 18... 


+0. 1497 
+0. 1512 


P 












P, 




0.5 




7.7129 








+0. 1504 


25.305 


T. B. M. 18 to T. B. M. 19. . . 


—0. 3209 
—0. 3211 




P. 
P. 














0.1 




7.8919 


........ 

1 




—0.3210 


24.252 




T. B. M. 19 to T. B. M. SJO. .. 


-0.0742 
—0.0721 


P 












P. 




0.7 


• 


7.3188 


24.012 






—0.0731 




T.B. M. 20 to T.B. M. 21... 


-f 0.5198 
+0. 5192 


P 












P, 




0.2 




7.8383 


25.716 






-f 0.5195 




T. B. M. 21 to T. B. H. 22. . . 


—0.3394 
—0. 3378 


P 












P 




0.5 






24.606 






—0.3386 


7.4997 




T.B. M. 22 toP. B. M. 6 


-0. 9368 
—0.0360 


P, 






1 




P, 




0.8 


2.7 


6.5633 


21.533 






-^.9864 




T. B. M. 22 to P. B. M. 6A. . 


■f 0. 2702 
-f 0.2707 


P, 






i 




P, 




0.2 


2.7 


7.7701 


25.493 






+0. 2704 




T.B.M. 22 to T.B.M. 23... 


—0. 1707 
-0. 1672 


T 






............. 




T 




1.2 




7.8308 


24.051 






-0. 1689 




T.B. M. 23 to T.B.M. 24... 


-f 0. 4073 
-f 0.4077 


T. 






^^^^.t ^ 




T. 




0,1 


• 


7.7383 


25.388 






+0. 4075 




T.B.M.24toT.B.M.24A... 


—0.2290 
—0.2290 


T. 






:;:::::::::::: 




T. 




0.0 




7.5093 


24.637 






—0.2290 




T. B. M. 24 A to T. B. M. 24 B. 


—0.1857 
—0. 1829 


T. 














P. 




— LO 














—0.1843 

















I 



APPENDIX Y Y REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI^ RIVER COMMISSION. 3627 

Besults of pree%$e leteling, New Orleans, La., to South Pasn, La., January IS, X89S, to 

March IS, 189S---Contmned. 

(In these redactions tlie ralne of 1 meter is 8.2608083 feet.] 



Boncli marka. 


Diatanee. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


B. 


EleTfttion above 
Cairo datum. 


1 
s 

O 




Km. 


N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N..... 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 


I£eUr9. 
-0.1873 
-4».1854 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Meters. 


Feet. 


P. 




19.011 
1».104 
10.104 
20.247 

• 

2L238 
2L845 
21.345 
22.800 
24.012 
25.250 
25.841 

26.846 
26.860* 












T. 




+1.0 

+0,4 
—0.8 

—0.4 
+0.8 

—0.5 
+0.5 

—0.4 
+0.5 

+0.1 
0.0 

+0.4 
—0.3 

—0.1 
+0.1 

i-O.O 
—0.8 

+2.0 
-2.0 

+1.6 
— L6 

-0.4 
+5.6 
—1.7 
—3.6 

+0.2 
-4.3 

+0.2 
—0.1 














—0.1863 






0.7 




7.8240 


24.020 






—0.1853 




T B.M 24BtoT.B.M.25... 


+0.0356 
+0.0368 


T. 








.... 


.. • . a . d. 


T. 




0.2 




7.3C0O 


24.147 






+0.C360 




T.RM.25toB.M.<l' 


—0.3210 
—0. 8217 


T. 










T. 




0.2 


8.1 


7.0386 


23.098 






—0. 3214 




T.B.M.25toB.M.«iSA 


+0.8840 
+0.8830 


T. 










T. 




0.3 


3.1 


8.2435 


27.046 






+0.8835 




T. B. M. 2S to T. B.M. 26. . . . . 


+0.8002 
+0.3803 


T. 












T. 




0.3 




7.7408 


25.426 






+0.3808 




T.BM.26toT.B.M.27 


—0.6813 
-0.6812 


P. 












P. 




0.0 




7.0686 


23.191 






—0.6812 




T.B.M.27toP.B.M.7 


—0.3670 
—0.3663 


P. 












P. 




0.2 


8.1 


6.7020 


21.988 






—0.3666 




T.B.M.27toP.B.M7A .... 


+0.8362 
+0.8360 


P. 












P. 




0.1 


8.1 


7.0047 


25.034 






+0.8361 




T.B.H.27toT.B.M.28 


+0.3527 
+0.3544 


P. 












P. 




0.6 




7.4222 


24.851 




' 


+0.3536 




T.BM.28toT.B.M.29 


+0.3003 
+0.8048 


T. 












T. 




1.3 




7.7245 


25.343 






+0.8023 




T.B.M.20toT.B.M30 


-0. 1917 
—0.1886 


P. 




••*••• 








P, 




1.0 




7.5344 


21710 






-0.1901 




T.BM.80toT.B.M.30A... 


+0. 5620 
+0.5560 
+0.5633. 
-fO.5652 


T. 












T. 












T. 












T. 




1.2 




8.0960 


26.562 






+0. 5616 




T.B.M.80AtoT.BM.dl... 


—0.7032 
—0.7027 


T. 




0.5 




7.3930 


24.255 


T. 




—0.7030 




T.B.M.81toP.B.M.8 


—0.4360 
—0.4357 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


8.8 


6.0572 


22 826 






-4.4358 





3628 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



JiesulU qf precise leveHvg, Xeto Orleans, La., to South Pass, La,, January IS, 180S, to 

March 16, i5P5-— Continued. 

[In these reductiona the Talne of 1 meter is 3.2808608 feet.] 



Bciicb niajrka. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


E. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datam. 


• 

1 


T.B.M.31toP.B.M.8A 


Em, 
20.866 

27.803 

28.654 

29.652 

29.042 

29.942 

80.610 

81.435 

81.450 

81.450 

82.609 

83.727 

38.898 

83.898 
83.860 


< 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean^. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

• 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

IT 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 


MeUri. 
+0.7687 
+0.7696 


Mm. 

+0.3 

-0.8 

.. ..f • -- 

+0.4 
-0.4 

+1.0 
-1.1 

—1.4 
+L6 

+0.5 

—0.1 
0.0 

+0.8 
.^.8 

-0.9 
+0.8 

—0.1 
+0.1 

+0.4 

+0.5 
—0.5 

+0.5 
—0.5 

-0.8 
+0.9 


Mm, 


.mini. 


MeterM. 


FeU. 


T. 












T. 




0.2 


8.8 


8.1620 


26.778 






+0.7690 




T.B.M.31toT.B.M.82 


—0.0560 
—0.0552 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




7.3374 


24.073 






— O.O.'M 




T.B.M.82toT.B.M.83 


+0.7338 
+0.7359 


p. 












P. 




a7 




8.0722 


26.484 






+0.7348 




T.B.M.83toT.B.M.66 


—0.6186 
—0.6215 


P. 












P. 




LO 




7.4522 


24.450 






—0.6200 




T.B.M.66toB.M.<p 


.^.6665 
—0.6675 


P. 










P. 




0.8 


4.0 


6.7852 


22.261 






-0.6670 




T.B.M.56toB.M.Ji|AA 


+0.5313 
+0.5312 


P. 










P. 




0.0 


4.0 


• 

7.0834 


26.192 






+0.5312 




T.B.M.56ioT.B.M.67 


40.0342 
+0.0358 


P. 












P. 




0.5 




7.4872 


24.565 






+0.0850 




T. B. M. 57 toT. B. M. 58 


+0.5837 
+0.582O 


P. 












P. 




0.6 




8.0700 


26.477 






+0.5828 




T.B.M.58toP.B.M.0 


— L1320 
— L 1318 


P. 












p, 




0.1 


4.1 


6.9381 


22.768 






— L1319 




T.B.M.58toP.B.M.0A.... 


+0.0726 
-f 0. 0770 


P. 












P. 




0.3 


4.1 


8.1421 


26.713 






+0.0721 




T.B.M.58toT.B.M.50 


—0.9017 
—0.9007, 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




7.-1688 


23.520 






—0.9012 




T.B.M.60toT.B.M.eO 


+0.6350 
+0.6360 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




7.8043 


25.605 






+0.6355 




T.B. M. 60 to 7foot mark. 
Fort Jackson gauge 


+0.2000 
+0. 1983 


P, 












P. 




0.6 


4.1 


8.0035 
6.8700 


26.258 
19.258 






+0. 1992 




Zero of Fort Jackson eange . 
T. B.M.60 to B.M.{n hos* 

piua 


—2.1335 

-0.1680 
—0.1706 




— 1.« 
+1.3 






p. 












P. 




0.9 


4.2 


7.6350 


25.049 






—0.1698 





i 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI BIVEB COMMISSION. 3629 

Be9ulU of j^eci90 Iwehnff, New Orleans ^ La., to South Pass, La., January IS, 1893, to 

March 15, i^P5— Continued. 

[In these redactions the ralne of 1 meter la 3.2808683 feet.] 





Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


R. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 

• 


■ 

1 

O 


• 

T. B. M. 60 to B. M. in ord- 
nance aergeant's qnarters. 


Km. 
33.888 

33.760 

84.264 

34.325 

83.796 
83.705 
88.808 
34.638 

84.871 
84.026 
84.081 
34.802 
36.507 


N 

8... . 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

N 

8 

N 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8....* 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 


Meten, 

+0.0430 
+0.0433 


Mm. 

-0.2 
+0.1 

—0.1 
+0.2 

+0.7 
-0.6 

Jan . . . 
Jan... 
Feb... 
Feb... 
Feb... 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mfitert. 


Feet. 


P. 












p. 


• 


0.1 


4.1 


7.8475 


25. m 






+0.0432 




T.B.M.60toT.B. M. 10... 


—0.2057 
—0.2060 


P. 






. 






p. 




0.1 


4.1 


7.5385 


24.733 






—0.3658 




T.B.M.00toT. B.M.61.... 


—0.0943 
—0.0930 


p. 












p. 




0.4 

18. 
18. 

3. 

3. 

5. 


« 


7.7107 


25.298 






-4».0036 




T.B.M.61 to Experiinental 

B.M :. 


—1.0640 
—1.0642 
—1.0607 
—1.0683 
—1.0652 


p. 




1 




p. 




...... I 




P. 











p. 










p. 






6.6444 


21.799 






—1.0663 






1-0.1 
+0.2 

+0.7 
-0.7 

0.0 
0.0 








T.B.M.60toB.M.iia 


-^.8667 
—0.8670 


T. 












T. 




0.1 

****** 


4.1 


6.9375 


22.761 






>^.8668 




T.B.M.60toB.M.Ap 


+0.3383 
+0.3307 


T. 












T. 




0.6 


4.1 


§.1433 


26.717 






+0.8390 




T.B.M.60toT.B.M. 62.... 


4-0.4930 
+0,4930 


T. 


^ 










T. 


• 


0.0 




8.2973 


27.222 






+0.4930 




T.&M.62toT.B.M.63 


—0.0849 
—0.1065 


T. 














T. 




-0.7 














—0.0957 
-0.0727 
-0.1214 














p. 














p. 




+0.6 

—0.3 
+0.3 

-0.2 
+0.2 

+0.1 
-0.2 

—0.2 
+0.1 

+0.7 
—0.7 














-0.0970 






0.4 


"•■••• 


8.2000 


26.906 






—0.0964 




T.B.M.63toB.M.<p 


—1.0486 
—1.0492 


p. 












p. 




0.2 


4.1 


7.1520 


23.466 




- 


—1.0489 




aM.ii*toP.B.M.U 


+0.7200 
+0.7196 


p. 












p, 




0.1 


4.1 


7.8718 


26.826 






+0.7198 




P.B.M.UtoB.M.2i«A.... 


+0.4877 
+0.4880 


p. 


« 










p. 




0.1 


4.1 


8.8596 


27.427 


■*■ 1 




+0. 4878 




T.B.M.08toP.B.M.12 


+0.0392 
+0.0389 


p. 












p. 




0.1 


4.1 


8.2399 


27.034 






+0.0390 




T.B.M.e3toT.B.M.64.... 


— o.se.'ig 

—0.3644 


p. 






■**••" 






p. 




0.6 




7.8358 


25.708 






—0.3651 





3630 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENQINEEBS, U. 8. ABMY. 

ResulU of preeite leveling, New Orleane, La,^ io South Paee, La,, January IS, 1S9S, to 

March 16, i^d;f— Continued. 

[In these rednotiona the value of 1 meter ia 8.2S06tl08 feet.] 



Bench marka. 

* 


Diatanoe. 


Direo- 
tion. 


DUTer- 

enoeof 
elevation. 


r. 


r. 


K. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datom. 


• 

i 

o 


T.B.H 64toT.B.M.65 


Km. 
36.643 

86L666 

« 

96* 666 
87.464 
88.614 
8&11S 
89.181 
80.131 
89.930 

40.845 

40.928 
40.028 
4L804 
42. 444 


K 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean- 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

n!..:. 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

N 

8 

Moan. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

• 

N..... 
8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Moan. 


MeUra. 

-4.3637 
—0.3603 


Mm, 
+1.7 
-1.7 

0.0 
+0.1 

+0.4 
--0.4 

-0.8 
+0.2 

+1.1 
—1.2 

+1.5 
—1.5 

-0.4 
+0.3 

0.0 
—0.1 

+3.7 
—1.1 
—1.0 
-0.7 

+8.9 
—1.4 
—0.2 
-2.1 

0.0 
0.0 

0.0 
0.0 

+0.5 
-0.5 

—0.1 
+0.1 




Mm, 


Mm. 


Mttert. 


FeeL 


p. 












p. 




1.1 




7.4738 


24.521 






—0.3620 




T. B. H . 65 to P. B. 11. 13 


—0.1240 
—0.1241 


p. 












p. 




0.0 


4.8 


7.3408 


24.114 






—0.1240 




T. B. H. 65 to P. B. H. 13 A .- 


+1.0867 
+1.0650 


p. 












p. 




0.3 


4.8 


8.5601 


28.065 






+1.0663 




T. B. H. 65 to T. B. M. 66 


+0.0427 
+0.0422 


T. 












T, 




0.2 




7.5162 


24.660 






+0.0424 




T. B. M. 60 to T. B. M. 67 


+0. 4707 
+0.4730 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




7.9880 


28.208 






+0.4718 




T.B.M.67 toT.B.M.68 


+0.3067 
+0.8087 


T. 












T. 




1.0 




8.2952 


27.215 






+0.8072 




T.B.M.68toB.M.t}fi 


—1. 3438 
— 1.344» 


T. 










T. 




0.2 


4.5 


6.9510 


22.805 




« « 


—1.3442 




T.6.M.68 toB.M.'|AA.... 


—0.1438 
—0.1437 


T. 






N 




T. 




0.0 


4.5 


8.1554 


* 
26.757 






—0.1438 




T.B.U.68toT.B.M.69 


—0.4701 
—0.4853 
—0.4045 
—0.4657 


T. 












T 




1 






T, 












T. 




0.8 




7.8288 


25.685 






—0.4664 




T,B.M.00toT.B.M.70 


—0.2643 
—0.2500 
—0.2002 
—0.2583 


T. 


• 










W. 












W. 












W. 




0.9 




7.5684 


24.881 






—0.2604 




T.B.M.70toP.B.M.14 


—0.8133 
—0.8133 


w. 






1 




w 




0.0 


4.6 


6.7651 


22.163 






—0. 8183 




T.B.M.701or.B.M.14 A.. 


+0.3913 
+0.3913 


w, 




1 




TV. 




0.0 


4.6 


7.9907 


26.115 






+0. 3913 




T.B.M.70toT.B.H.71 


+0.0J15 
+0.0125 


W. 












W. 




0.3 




7.5804 


24.870 






+0. 0120 




T.B.lL71toT.B.M.72 


+0. 2063 
+0. 2061 


P, 












P. 




0.1 




7.7866 


25.547 






+0.2062 





• APPENDIX Y T — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI EIVEB COMMISSION. 3631 

BmuH of precise leveling , New Orleane, La,j to South Pass, La., January IS, 1895, to 

March 16, i55i$--Continued. 



[In theee redactiexw the value of 1 meter ia 3.2809603 feet.] 



Bench marks. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


B. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 


i 
1 


T. B M. 72 to P. B M. 15 . . 


Km. 
42.478 

44.110 

44.176 

44.176 

46.741 

46.752 

46.752 

■ 

47.898 
48.741 
4a 756 
48.756 
49.814 
51.094 
61.109 
61.109 


K 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

S 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 


Meten. 

+0.2440 
+0.2455 


Mm. 

—0.3 

+0.3 

—0.2 
40.2 

-0.1 
+0.2 

+0.4 
—0.4 

f 
—1.9 
+1.9 

J. 

+0.4 
—0.5 

-0.5 
+0.6 

+0.9 
—0.8 

+0.5 
—0.4 

—0.1 
+0.1 

—0.2 
+0.2 

+0.6 

-a 7 

+0.6 
—0.6 

+0.1 
—0.1 

0.0 
0.0 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Metert. 


Feet^ 


P. 












P. 




0.2 


4.6 


' 8.0318 


26.351 




. 


+0.2452 




T.aM.72toT.B.H.73 


-4). 3668 
-0.3672 


P, 










P, 




0.1 




7.4196 


24.843 






—0.3670 




T.B.M.73t«B.M.«r 


—0. 6097 
—0.5100 


P, 






■ 




P- 




0.1 


4.6 


6.9098 


22.670 






—0.5098 




T.B.H.73t«B.M.>|2A.... 


+0.6926 
+0. 6033 


p. 










p. 




0.8 


4.6 


8.1125 


26.616 






+0.6929 




T.B.M 73 toT.RM 74. . 


+0.4609 
+0.4661 


P. 












P. 




L8 




7.8876 


25.878 






+0.4680 




T. "R M. 74 tfr P. B TW.M..... 


—0.9542 
—0.9533 


P. 












P. 




0.8 


4.8 


6.9338 


22.749 






—0.9538 




T, R, M. 74 to P. B, M. Iff A . . 


+0.2531 
+0. 2520 


P. 












p. 




0.4 


4.8 


8.1402 


26.707 






+ 0.2526 




T.B.M.74 toT.B.M.75 


—0. 1597 
—0.1580 


P. 












P, 




0.6 




7.7288 


25.357 






—0.1588 




T. B. M. 75 to T. B. H. 77 


—0.0655 
—0.0646 


P. 












P. 




0.3 




7.6038 


25.144 






—0.0650 




T.B.lL77toB.M.«S« 


—0.9427 
—0.9429 


P. 










P, 




0.1 


4.9 


6.7210 


22.051 






—0.9428 




T.B.M.77 to B.M. «i« A .... 


+0. 2630 
+0. 2626 


P. 










P. 




0.1 


4.9 


7.9266 


26.006 






+ 0.2628 




T.B.M.77 to T. B. M. 77 A. .. 


—0.4680 
—0.4667 


P. 












p. 


«k 


0.4 




7.1064 


23.610 






-0.4674 




T. aid. 77 A toT.B.H.78.. 


+0.5823 
+0.5835 


P. 












P. 




0.4 




7.7793 


25.523 






+0.5829 




T.B.M.78toP.B.M.17 


— L 1355 
—1.1363 


W 












w. 




0.1 


4.9 


6.6439 


21.798 






—1. 1354 




,.T.B.M.78 toP.B.K.17 A -. 


+0.0720 
+0.0720 


w. 












w. 




0.0 


4.9 

• 


7.8513 


25.759 






+0.0720 





3632 EEPOBT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEB8, U. 8. ARMY. 



Results of jpreoise leveling, New OrJeans, La,, to SouikPase, La., Januarjf IS, 1S9S, to 

March 16, ISSS—^onimned, 

[In these reduotione tlie Talne of 1 meter la 3. 280B693 feet.] 



Bench marka. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Dlffei^ 

ence of 

elevation. 


V. 


r. 


B. 


EltirntloD above 
Cairo datum. 

• 


> 

u 

o 


T.B.M.78toT.B.M.79 


Km. 
52.065 

6S.948 

53.010 

63.010 

64.363 

'5&293 

66.853 

60.853 

60.955 

68.584 

68.660 

58.650 

60.000 

00.268 


K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

t 

N 

8 

M^to. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

m 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 


Mtters, 
+0.0456 
-i-0.0440 


Mm. 

—0.9 
+0.9 

+0.6 
—0.7 

-0.2 
+0.1 

—0.4 
+0.3 

+2.1 
—2.1 

+2.7 
—2.6 

—0.2 
+0.3 

+0.1 
—0.1 

0.0 
0.0 

—0.6 
+0.6 

+0.1 
-0.2 

—0.1 
0.0 

+1.8 
-4.7 
+4.8 
—2.0 

+0.2 
—0.2 


Mm. 


Mm. 


MeUrs. 


Feet. 


w. 












w. 




0.6 




7.8242 


25.e70 




* 


+0.0440 




T. B. M. 79 to T. B. M. 80 


-0.1826 
—0. 1813 


w. 












w. 




0.4 




7.6422 


25.073 






—0.1820 




T.B.M.80to5.M.a3* 


—0.8130 
—0.8133 


w. 






1 


w. 


# 


0.1 


4.9 


6.8200 


22.405 






—0. 8132 




T.B.M.80toB.M.>|'A.... 


+0.3972 
+0.3965 


w. 


•:::::: 


" 




w. 




0.2 


4.9 


8.0390 


26.875 






+0.3968 




T. B. M. 80 to T. B. M. 81 


+0.0743 
+ 0.0785 


w. 












w. 




1.4 




. 7.7186 


26.324 

• 






+0.0764 




T.B.M.81toT.B.M.82 


-4). 1675 
—0.1022 


vr. 








■ 




w. 




1.8 




7.5638 


24.783 

* 






—0.1648 




T.B.M.82toP.B.M.18 


—0. 8610 
—0.8615 


w. 












w. 




0.2 


6.4 


6.6826 


21.968 






—0.8612 




T.B.M.82toP.B.M.18 A.. 


+0. 3475 
+0. 3477 


w. 












w. 




0.1 


6.4 


7.9014 


26.923 






+0. 8476 




T.B.M.82toT.B.M.83 


+0.6575 
+0.5575 


w. 












w. 




0.0 




&1U3 


26.612 






+0.5575 




T.B. M.83 to T.B. M. 84 


+0.0060 
+O.0O48 


w. 










w. 




0.4 




8.1167 


26.630 






+0.0054 




T.B.M.84toB.M.%P 


—1. 1613 
—1. 1610 


w. 












w. 




0.1 


5.6 


6.0655 


22.820 






—1.1612 




T.B.M.84 to B.M. sfA A . . . . 


+0. 0503 
+0.0502 


w. 












w. 




0.0 


5.6 


8.1660 


26.705 






+0.0502 




T.B.M.84toT.B.M.85 


—0.2313 
—0.2248 
-0.2343 
—0.2275 


T. 












T. 












T. 












T. 




1.4 




7.8872 


26.877 






—0. 2295 




T.B.M.85to®Whlte 


-\ 0. 2433 
+0.2437 


T. 




0.1 


6.6 


8.1307 


26.670 


T. 




+0.2435 


• 



APPKKDIX Y Y — ^EEPORT OP MISSISSIPPI KIVER COMMISSION. 3633 



BetulU ^ pndte leveling, New Orleans, La,, to South Pass, La,,' January IS, 1893, to 

March IS, 7^5---Continaed. 

[In these xedncUona the value of 1 meter is 3.2808693 feet.] 



Besoh marla. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
deration. 


y. 


r. 


B. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 


i 

s 


T.B.M.86toT.B.H.80 


Km, 
6L488 


N 

S 

Mean. 

3r 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

If 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

If 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 


lf(Ster«. 

—0.0663 

-0.0562 


Mm, 
+0.1 
0.0 

0.0 
0.0 

6.0 
0.0 

-0.8 
+0.7 

+2.6 
-2.6 

—0.1 
0.0 

—0.2 
+0.1 

+1.3 
—1.4 

0.0 
0.0 

-0.9 
+0.9 

—1.7 
+1.7 

0.0 
+0.1 

0.0 
0.0 

-0.8 
+0.8 

—0.4 
+0.6 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Metert. 


Feet 


T. 




0.0 




7.8810 


25.692 


T. 




-O.0662 




T.B.M.86toP.B.M.]A 


-^.2090 
—0.2090 


T. 




•L524 
62L514 
63.917 
65.671 
65.629 
65.629 
65.891 
66.660 


0.0 


6.6 


7.6220 


25.007 


T. 




—0.2090 




T.B.M.86toP.B.M.10 A .. 


+1.0000 
+ 1.0000 


T. 




0.0 


5.6 


8.8310 


28.973 


T. 




+1.0000 




T. B. M. 86 to T. B. M 87 


+0. 1528 
+0. 1513 


P. 




0.5 




7.0830 


26.191 


P. 


■ 


+0. 1520 




T. B. M. 87 to T. R M. 88 


+0. 3498 
+0.3548 


P. 




1.7 




8.3353 


27. 347 


P. 




+0. 3523 




T.B.M.88toT.B.M.80 


—0.2433 
—0.2434. 


p. 




0.0 




8.0919 


26.548 


P. 




—0.2434 




T.B.M.89toP.B.M.20 


-1.0382 
—1.0385 


P. 




0.1 


6.9 


7.0535 


23.142 


P. 


\ 


—1.0384 




T.B.M.89toP.B.M.20 A .. 


+0.1633 
+0. 1660 


p. 




0.9 


6.0 


8.2565 


27.088 


P. 




+0.1646 




T.B.M.89toT.B.M.90 


—0.2130 
—0. 2180 


p. 




0.0 




7.8789 


25.850 


P. 




—0.2130 




T.Bw M. 90 to T. B. M. 91 


+0.2201 
+0. 2186 


p. 




0.6 




8.0984 


20.570 


P. 




+0. 2195 




T.B.M.91toT.B.M.92 


67.836 i N 

i 8 


+0. 4150 
+0.4116 


p. 




1.1 




8.6117 


27.921 


P. 






Jdeain. 


+0.4133 




T.B.M.92toB.M.«3« 


68.036 "N" 


—1.6830 
—1.6831 


P, 




68.036 
69.140 
7a 664 


8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

If 

8 

Mean. 

If 

8 

Mean. 


0.0 

* 


6.0 


6.8287 


22.404 


P. 




-1.6830 




T.B.M.92toaM.M^A.... 


—0.4780 
-0. 4780 


p. 


0.0 


6.0 


8.0337 


26.358 


P. 


» 


—0.4780 




T. B. M. 92 to T. B. M. 93 


—0.3902 
—0. 3918 


T. 




0.5 




8.1297 


26.643 


T. 




—0. 3910 




T.B.M.93tQT.B.M.94 


+0. 2622 
+0.2613 


T. 












T. 




* 

0.3 




8.3825 


27.502 




V 


+0. 2618 





BKa93 ^228 



3€34 REPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



Besults of precUe Uteling^ New Orleans, La., to South Pose, La,, January IS, 189S, to 

March 15, 75S5— Continued. 

[In these reduotiona the Talne of 1 meter ia 3.2808093 feet.] 



Bench marks. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 

1 


Differ 

ence of 

elevation. 


V. 


r. 


B. 


Elevation abore 
Cairo datank. 


• 

O 


T. B. M. 94 to F. B. M. 21 


Km, 
70.091 

70.691 

71. 199- 

71.670 

72.945 

78.070 

73. 070 

74.537 

75.871 

76.807 

• 75.897 

76.787 

77.989 

78.000 

78.069 


N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean^ 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N..... 
8 

Mean . 


Meten. 
—1. 3988 
— L8988 


Mm. 
0.0 
0.0 

0.0 
-0.1 

0.0 

+0.1 

+0.6 
—0.6 

—0.2 
+0.3 

+0.2 
—0.8 

-0.6 
+0.0 

—0.8 
+0.3 

—0.5 
+0.4 

+0.2 
—0.1 

-0.2 
+0.1 

—1.1 
+1.2 

—1.2 
+1.3 

—0.2 
+0.2 

+0.2 
0.1 

1 


Mm. 


MeUra. 
. 


Feet. 


P. 




1 

I 1 




V. 




0.0 


6.1 


6.9837 


22.913 






- 1.3988 




T. B. M. 94 to P. B. M. 21 A- . 


—0. 1930 
-4). 1029 


p. 






...... 




p. 




0.0 


6.1 


8.1895 


20.809 




» 


-0.1930 




r^.B.M.94to® Union 


—9.5414 
-0.5416 


p. 


, 






p. 




0.0 


6.1 


7.8411 


25.728 






—0.5414 




T. B. M. 94 to T. B. M. 05 


—0. 1153 
—0. 1141 


p. 












p. 




0.4 




8.2678 


27.126 






—0. 1147 




T.B.M.95toT.B.M.96 


—0.0986 
—0.0991 


p. 












p. 




0.2 




8.1630 


26.801 






—0.0988 




T.B.M.96toB.M.sil 


—1.2730 
—1.2725 


p. 











p. 




0.2 


6.1 










—1.2728 


6.8962 i 22.626 

t 

! 
...... ....*. ....... 




T.B.M,9CtoB.M.«iJ^A.... 


—0.0670 
—0.0682 


p. 






. 


p. 




0.4 


6.1 


) 






—0.0676 


8. 1014 


26.560 




T. B. M. 06 to T. B. M. 97 


+0. 0972 
+0.0966 




p. 












p. 




0.2 




8.2659 


27.119 






+0.0960 




T.B.M.97toT.B.M.100 


+0. 3839 
+0.3830 


p. 












p. 




0.8 




8.6193 


28.877 






+0.3834 




T, B. M. 100 to P. B. M. 22. . . . 


—1.1960 
—1. 1957 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


6.1 


7.4535 


24.454 






—1. 1958 




T. B. M. 100 to P. B. M. 22 A . 


+0. 014O 
+0.0137 


T. 












T, 




0.1 


6.1 


8.6631 


28.422 






+0.0138 




T.B.M. 100 to T.B.M. 101. .. 


—0.6387 
—0.6410 


T. 






. • . . • . 






T. 




0.8 




8.0095 


26.278 






—0.6398 




T. B. M. 101 to T. B. M. 102. . . 


—0. 3292 
-^.3317 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




7.6791* 


25.194 




T.B.M.102toB.M,J^ 


—0.3304 

—0.8153 
—0. 8157 


T. 




.a » 


f J 


T. 




0.1 


6.2 


1 






—0. 8135 


6.8636 


22.519 




T. B. M. 102 to B. M. Jigit A . . . 


+0.3030 
-r 0. 3933 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


6.2 


8.0723 26.484 






+0. 3932 





I 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MSSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3635 

S€9uU$ Qf prtcke UveUng, New OrleanSf La,, io South Pas$, La., January 13 ^ 189S, to 

March IS, i^d5-— Con tinned. 

[In these rednctfona the yalne of 1 meter is 3.2808693 fbet.] 



% 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


B. ■ 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 




T.B. M. 102 to T. B. K. 103. .. 


Km, 
79.512 

70.832 

• 

70.532 
80.014 
81.087 
81475 
82.878 
82.880 
82.880 
84.004 
85.780 
85.870 
85.870 
87.331 
88.131 


K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

1^ 

8 

Mean. 

N .... 
8 


•f 0.2878 
+0.2837 


Mm. 

—2.0 

+2.1 

+0.2 
—0.1 

0.0 
0.0 

+1.2 
—1.2 

—1.1 
+1.0 

+0.4 
—0.3 

+0.6 
—0.5 

+0.2 
—0.3 

0.0 
0.0 

+0.8 
—0.0 

+1.5 
—1.5 

-0.1 
+0.1 

—0.4 
+0.3 

+1.1 
—1.1 

—0.2 
+0.2 


Urn. 


Urn. 


U€Ur: 


Ttet, 


T. 












T. 




1.4 


•••••• 


7.0040 


26.132 




I 


+0.2858 




T.B.M. 108 to P.B.H.28. ... 


-4.9100 
—0.0187 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


6.4 


7.0401 


23.117 






—0.0188 




T.B.H. 103 to P.B.H.23 A . 


+0.2920 
+0.2020 


T. 












T. 




0.0 


6.4 


8.2569 


27.090 






+0.2920 




T. B. M. 103 to T. B. M. 104. . . 


+0.3348 
+0.3372 


T 












T. 




0.8 




8.3G09 


27.234 






+0.3300 




T.&H.10itoP.B.M.aA.... 


+ 1.1713 
+ 1.1692 


T. 












T. 




0.7 


6.4 


0. 4711 


31.073 






+1. 1702 




P.B.K.a4 to T.B. M. 105. .. . 


—1.0815 
—1.0808 


p 












p. 




0.2 




8.3000 


27.526 






—1.0811 




T. B. M. 105 to T. B. H. 100. . . 


—0. 7468 
—0.7457 


T 




1 






T. 




0.4 

...... 




7.6438 


25.078 






-0. 7462 




T.B.M.10etoB.M.«|* 


-0.5848 
—0.584.^ 


T. 










T. 




0.2 


6.5 


7.0502 


23.160 






-0.5846 




T.B.H.100toB.M.ipA... 


+0.6207 
+0.6207 


T 












T. 




0.0 


6.5 


&1»45 


27.115 






+0.6207 




T.B.M.106toT.B.M.107... 


—0. 1430 
—0. 1413 


T. 












T. 




0.6 




7.5010 


24.012 






—0.1422 




T.B.M.107toT.B.M.108:.. 


+0. 2587 
+0.2617 


T. 












T. 




1.0 




7.7618 


25.465 






+0.2802 




T.B.lClMtoP.B.lC.26.... 


—0.8233 
—0.8235 


p. 












p. 




0.1 


6.6 


6.9884 


22.764 






—0.8234 




T.B.M.lOetoP.B.M.25 A. . 


+0. :J838 
+0. 3845 


p. 












p. 




0.2 


6.6 


8.1460 


26.726 




» 


+0.3842 




T.B.H.108toT.B.M.10»... 


+0.4406 
+0.4428 


p. 










..../•.. 


P. 




0.7 




8.2035 


26.015 






+0.4417 




T.B.M.lOOtoT.B.H.110 .. 


-fO. 24.'>6 
+0.2460 


p. 












p. 




0.1 




8.4403 


27.721 






Mean. 


+0.2458 





•■CT" 



3636 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Ee$uli9 of precise leveling, New OrUanSy La,, to South Paee, Za., January IS, X893, to 

March 16, i^d5— Continaed. 

[In these redactions the Talao of 1 motor is 3.2808093 feet.] 



Benoh marks. ^ 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


B. 
Jfm. 


Elevation above 
Cairo , datum. 


• 

I 

O 


T B.M.110toT,B, \f. Ill -. 


Km. 
88.6-/9 

88.708 

88.708 

90.005 

91.231 

91.259 

91. 250 

93.277 

93.328 

93.32» 

94.250 

95.040 

95.823 

95.886 
95.886 


N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 ..... 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

■XT 

.« ..... 

8. ... 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Moan. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S.... 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 


Mft£r$. 
—0.3839 
—0.3827 


Mm, 

+0.6 

—0.6 

—0.2 

+0.2 

* " 

0.0 
0.0 

+2.0 
-1.9 

* 

+1.5 
—1.6 

' —0.2 
+0.2 

0.0 
0.0 

+0.8 
—0.9 

+0.2 
-0.1 

—0.5 


Mm. 


MctCTM, 


Feet. 


P, 












P, 




0.4 




8.0660 


26.463 






—0.3833 




T.B.M. 111 to B.M. *!»•..... 


—0. 7773 
—0.7777 


T. 










T. 




0.1 


6.6 


7.2885 


23.913 






0.7775 




T.B.U.11] toB.M.*2« A... 


+0. wvn 

+0.4323 


T. 


^ - - M 










T. 




0.0 


6.6 


1 




• 


+0. 4323 


8.4983 


27.882 




T B. M. Ill to T. B. M. 112 . . 


-o.oor^j 

—0.0027 


P. 












P, 




1.3 




8.0814 




20.448 




T. B. M. 112 to T. B. M. 113. . / 


—0. 0046 

+0. 8473 
+0.8504 


P. 










P. 




1.0 





8.9102 


29.233 






+0.8488 




T.B. M. 113 to P. B. M. 26.. . 


-1.51»83 
1. 5287 


T. 






' 




T. 




0.1 


6.8 


7.3817 


24.218 




T. B. M. 113 to P. B. M. 20 A. . 


—1.5285 
—0.3180 

0. :a80 


T. 












T. 




0.0 


6.8 


8.5922 


28.190 




T. B. M. 113 to T. B. M. 114. . . 


-0. 3180 

—0. 78.K) 
0. 7783 


T. 












T. 




0.6 




8. 1310 


26.677 




T.B.M.114toB.M.»|i .... 


—0. 7792 

—1.0870 
—1.0867 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


6.8 


7.0442 


23.111 




T. B. M. 114 to B. M. ^i^ A. . . 


—1.0868 

+0ri250 
+ 0.1240 


T 




+0.5 

+0.5 
—0.5 

+0.3 
—0.3 



-0.2 
—1.2 
+1.1 

******** 

+0.3 
—0.3 

—0.1 

+0.1 












T. 




0.3 


6.8 


8.2555 


27.085 




T. B. M. 114 to T. B. M. 115. . . 


+0. 1245 

—0. 0370 
-0. 0360 


T. 
T. 




0.8 




8.0M5 


26.557 






—0.0365 




T. B. M. 115 to T. B. M. 116. . . 


—0. 1403 
—0. 1397 


T. 













T. 




0.2 




7.9545 


26.098 






—0. 1400 




T. B. M. 116 to T. B. M. 119. . . 


+0. 152() 
+0. 1540 
+0. 1517 


T. 












T. 












T. 




0.3 




8.1073 


26.599 






+0. 1528 




T. B. M. 119 to P. B. M. 27. . . . 


—0. 8280 
—0. 8274 


P. 













P. 


• 


0.2 


6.9 


7.2796 


23.883 




T. B. M. 119 to P. B. M. 27 A. . 


- 0. 8277 

-\ 0. 'iHOi 
+ 0. 3802 


P. 






....... ......... 




P. 




0.1 


6.9 


8.4876 


27.847 






\ 0. 3803 

i , 





m 






I 



APPENDIX T Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI KIVER COMMISSION. 3637 

MesultM of jfrecise leveling, New Orleans, La., to South Pass, La,, January IS, 189$, to 

March 16, 189S — Continued. 

[In these redootiona tlie yaloe of 1 meter ia 3. 2808603 feat.] 





Dlatance, 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ. 

ence of 

elevation. 


V. 


r. 


U. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 




T. B. M. 119 to T. B. M. lao. . . 


Km. 
97.246 

. 08.800 

88.399 

98.399 

100.111 

100.168 

100.168 

100.859 

108.003 

103.073 

103.073 

103.651 

10A.501 

105.308 


N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Moan . 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

S 

Mean . 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

N 

8 

Mean. 


Meterg. 
—0.0916 
—0.0906 


Jam. 

+0.5 
-0.5 

—1.0 
+1.0 

—0.5 
+0.5 

—0.3 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Metera. 


Feet. 


P. 












P. 




0.3 




8.0162 


26.300 






—0.0911 




T. B. M. 120 to T. Bw M. 121 . . . 


+0. 2825 
+0. 2805 


P. 












P. 




0.7 




&'2977 


27.224 






+0. 2815 




T.&M.121 toB.M.«|A 


-0.6460 
—0.6470 


P. 










P. 




0.3 


6.9 


7.6512 


25.103 






-4). 6465 




T.&M.121toB.M.^ A... 


+0.5583 
+0. 5677 


P. 


+0.8 

—0.4 
+0.5 

0.0 
0.0 

0.0 
0.0 

—1.6 
+L7 

+2.2 
—2.3 

—0.3 










P. 




0.2 


6.9 


8.8557 


29.064 






+0.5580 




T. B. M. 121 to T. B. M. 122. . . 


—0. 7270 
—0.7279 


P. 












P. 




0.3 




7.5703 


24.837 






—0.7274 




T.B.M.122toP.B. M.28 


—1.0280 
—1. 02«0 


P. 












P. 




0.0 


6.9 


6.5423 


21.464 






1. 0280 




T«B.M.122toF.B.M.28 A . 


+0. 1797 
+0. 1797 


P. 












P. 




0.0 


6.9 


7.7500 

* 


25.427 




■ 


+ 0.1797 




T. B. M. 122 to T. B.^. 123 . . . 


+0. 1764 
+0. 1731 


P. 






K 






P. 




1.1 




7.7451 


25. 4U 






+0. 1748 




T.BM.128 to T.&M. 124. .. 


+0. 9976 
+1. 0021 


P. 












P. 




1.5 




8. 7449 


28.691 






+0.99Q8 




T.B.M.124toB.'K.*H 


— 1.304J 
—1. 3048 


P. 


+0.3 

+0.4 
0.3 

—0.9 
+0.8 

+ 1.4 
—1.6 
+0.1 

—1.5 
+ 2.5 
—1.8 
+0.9 


0.2 








P. 




7.2 


7.4404 


24.411 






—1.3045 




I.B.M.134toB.M.t|i A... 


-0. 0912 
—0.0905 


P. 










P. 




0.2 


7.2 


8.6541 


28.393 






0.0908 




T. B. M. 124 to T. B. M. 125 . . . 


—0. 4243 
—0.4260 


T. 












T. 




0.6 




8.3197 


27.296 






—0.4252 




T. B. M. 125 to T. B. M. 126. . . 


—0. .'>370 
—0. 5340 
—0.5357 


T. 












T. 












T. 




0.6 




7.7841 


25.539 






—0.5366 




T. B. H. 126 to T. B. M. 127. . . 


+0.3177 
+0.3137 
+0. 3180 
+0. 3153 


T. 












T. 








, 




T. 












T. 




0.7 




8.1003 


26.576 






+0.3162 





3638 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

J^€8ult8 of precise leveling, New Orleans, La,, to South Pate, La,, January IS, 189S, to 

Mar6h IS, i^^— Continued. 

[In these redactions the yalne of 1 meter is 3. 2808003 feeft.] 



Benoh marks. 


Dtttsnoe. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
eleration. 


V. 


r. 


B: 


Blevation aboTe 
Cairo datum. 


i 

I 

O 


T.B.M.127toP B M.20 


Km. 
105.352 

105.352 

106.466 

107.582 

107.706 

107.705 

108.363 

109.015 

110.085 

U0.085 

111.648 

118.518 
113.735 
114.733 
115.615 


N 

8 

Mean. 

IT 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean . 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

IT 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

IT 

8 

Mean. 


MeUrs. 
-1. 1323 
—1.1823 


Mm. 
0.0 
0.0 

0.0 
0.0 

+0.4 
-0.8 

-0.2 
+0.1 

0.0 
0.0 

+ 0.4 
—0.4 

+0.1 
—0.1 

+1.5 
—1.5 

+0.5 
—0.6 

0.5 

+0.5 

—1.7 
+L8 

-H).l 
*-— 0.1 

—1.8 
+1.9 

—0.6 
+0.4 

+1.5 
—1.5 


Mm. 


Mm. 


XeUn. 

* 


FeeL 


T. 










* 


T. 




0.0 


7.2 


6.9680 


22.861 






»1. 1823 




T. B. M. 127 to P. B. Iff. 29 A . 


-f 0.0743 
+0.0743 


T. 












T. 




0.0 


7.2 


&1746 


26.810 






-f 0.0743 




TKMl27toTB.M.128 . 


—0.4297 
—0.4290 


T, 


m 








• • • »• • A« 


T. 




0.2 




7.6710 


25.168 






-4). 4293 




T B M. 128 to T B M. 129 


-f 0. 1170 
-f 0. 1167 


T-. 












T. 




0.1 




7.7878 


2SI.551 






+0.1168 




T.B.M.129toB.M.'iA 


—0.8803 
— 0.88U3 


T. 










T. 




0.0 


7.2 


6.9075 


22.663 






—0.8803 




T.B.lf.l29toB.M.^ A... 


+0.3257 
+0. 3265 


T. 










T. 




0.3 


7.2 


8.1139 


26.681 






+0.3261 




T. B. M. 120 to T. B. M. 130 . . . 


+0.4017 
+0.4019 


T. 






■ 






T. 




0.1 




8.1896 


86.860 






+0.4018 




T.B.M.130to T.B.M.131... 


+0. 6217 
+0.6247 


T. 












T. 




LO 


« *••»« 


8.8128 


28.014 






+0.6232 




T.B.M.131toF.B.M.30 


—1.5897 
—1.5882 


P. 












P. 




0.8 


7.8 


7.2236 


28.700 






—1.6892 




T. B.M. 131 to P. B. If . 30 A . 


—0.3820 
—0.3830 


P. 












P. 




0.8 


7.8 


8.4808 


27.650 






—0.8625 


- 


T.B.M. 181 to T.B.M. 182. . . 


+0.0085 
+0.0950 


P. 












P. 




1.2 




8.9095 


29.231 






+0.0967 




T. B. M. 182 to ® Berthond 
sB-M.*!*--." 


+0.0590 
+0.0592 


P. 












P. 




0.1 




8.9686 


29.425 






+0.0591 




® Berthond to T. B. H. 133 . . 


+0.5510 
+0.5473 


P. 










P. 




1.2 




9.5178 


31.227 






+0.5492 




T.B.M. 133 to T. B.M. 134 . . . 


—0.0463 
—0.0472 


P. 












P. 




0.3 




9.4710 


3i.cr73 






—0.0468 




T. B. IC. 134 to T. B. M. 135 . . . 


—1.1237 
—1.1207 


T. 












T. 




1.0 




8.8488 


27.891 






—1.1222 





APPENDIX Y t — EEfrOBT OP MISSISSIPPI BIVER COMMISSION. 3639 

BnulU of precise levt^g, New Orleans, La., to South Pass, La., January IS, 1893, to 

March 16, i^d;S— Continned. 

[In fkese rednctiona the taIho of 1 meter is 3.2d08d93 feet] 



1 


Diftanoe. 


Direo. 
tkm. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


R. 


Kleyation above 
Cairo datum. 


i 

S 


T. B. If . 135 to p. B. IC. 81 . . . . 


Xtift, 
115. T70 

115.770 

118.054 

117.102 

117.102 

lia418 

120.439 

120.461 

120.461 

121.981 

122.125 


N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

H 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

X 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

S 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

fi 


Meten. 
-1.4337 
-1.4333 


Mm. 

+0.2 

—0.2 

0.0 
0.0 

-1.0 
+1.0 

+0.5 
-0.5 

+0,5 
—0.5 

—2.1 
+2.21 

:-o.2 

+0.2 

+0.3 
-0.3 

-0.3 
+0.3 

0.0 
0.0 

-0.5 
+0.4 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Meters. 


Fe^t. 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


7.6 


7.9153 


22.688 






-1.4335 




T. B. M. 138 to P. B. M. 81 A. . 


—0.2280 
-0.2280 


T. 












T 




0.0 


7.6 


8.1208 


26.643 






-^>.2280 




T. B. H. 185 to T. BL H. 186 . . . 


-0.0123 
-0.0443 


T. 












T 




• 
0.7 




8.3055 


27.249 






-0.0433 




T.B.af.l8«toT.B.M •!• ... 


-1. 1837 
—1.1827 


p. 










p. 




0.3 


7.6 


7.1223 


23.367 






-1.1832 




T.B.M.186toB.M.*|»A.... 


+0. 0223 
40.0233 


p. 










p. 




0.3 


7.6 


8.3283 


27.324 






+0.0228 




T. B. M. 180 to T. B. ir. 137 . . . 


+ 1.4561 
+1.4508 


p. 












p. 




1.4 




... 

9.7585 


32.016 






+1.4530 




T. B. M. 187 to T. B. H. 138. . . 


-0.5439 
-0.5443 


p 












p. 




0.1 




9.2144 


30.231 






—0.5441 




1. B. H. 138 to P. B. If . 83. . . . 


—0.7073 
-0.7067 


T, 












T. 




0.2 


7.7 


8.5074 


27.912 






-0.7070 




T. B. M. 138 to P. B. H. 82 A. . 


+0.5043 
+0.5037 


T. 












T. 




0.2 


77 


0.7184 


81.885 




1 


+0. 5040 




T. B.K. 188 to T.B.H. 138.. . 


—1.8190 
—1.3190 


T. 










T. 




0.0 




7.8954 


25.904 






—1.3190 




T.B.M.139toB.M.'}i 


—0. 2605 
—0. 2614 


p. 










P. 




I — 




0.3 


...... 

7.7 


7.6344 
8.8411 


25.047 
29.006 






! Mean. 
122.125 N 

128.298 ! N 

! s 


—0. 2610 




T.B.M.139toB.M.*iiA... 


+0.9457 


P. 


—0.9 
—0.9 

+0.9 
-0.8 

+0.2 
—0.3 








T.B. H. 139 to T.B M. 140 


+0.7078 
+0.7096 


p. 






! 




p. 




124.265 
124.447 


Mean. 

N 

3 

Mean. 

N 

8 


0.6 

...... 


...... 

...... 


8.6041 


28.229 






+0. 7087 




T.B.M.140toT.B.K.Ul. . 


+ 1.0569 
+1.0586 


p. 




! 




p. 




0.6 




9.6619 


31.699 




» 


+ 1.0578 




T.B.H.141toP.B.M.83 


—2, 1782 
—2. 1777 


T. 




"■•••• 


...... ...... 




T. 




0.2 




7.8 


7.4889 


24.654 






Mean 


—2. 1780 





3640 REPORT OF THE OHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

^ BesulU of preoiw leveling, New Orleans , La., to South Paee, La,, January IS, 1393, to 

March IS, ISQS—Continued. 

[In these redootions the Talue of 1 meter is 3.280M93 feet] 



Benoh marlcs. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ^ 

enoe of 

elevation. 


▼. 


r. 


R. 


• 

Xleratiou above 
Cairo datum. 


• 

1 


T B M 141toF.B.M.83A.. 


Km. 

124. 447 

125.503 

126.679 

t 

126.739 
126.739 
129.052 
129.039 
129.089 
130. 178 
131.046 
181. 174 
131. 174 
132.724 
134.527 
134.961 


N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

r::::: 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N..... 
S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N.... 
S 

Mean. 

N 

s 

Moan. 

N 

S 

Mean . 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 


Meters. 
—0.9713 
—0.9712 


Mm. 
+0.1 
0.0 

-4). 9 
+1.0 

+0.6 
-0.6 

0.0 
+0.1 

-0.1 
0.0 

+2,0 
—2.0 

+0.8 
—0.9 

+0.5 
—0.5 

+1.0 
—1.1 

—1.7 
+1.7 

—0.2 
+0.2 

—0.3 
+0.3 

+2.6 
—2.5 

+0.6 
—0.5 

+0.2 
—0.1 


Mm. 


Mm. 


M0Un. 


FteL 


T. 










* 
••*•«••« 


T 




0.0 


7.8 


8.6907 


28.618 






-0.9712 




T B If 141 to T. B. M.'l42 . . . 


+0.2025 
+0.2006 


P. 












P. 




a6 




9.8635 


83.861 






+0.2016 




T. K M. 142 to T. B. M. 143 . . . 


—0.4390 
-0.4379 


P. 












P. 




0.4 




9.4251 


30.923 






-0.4384 




T.B.M.14StoB.H.AH 


—1.1985 
-1.1986 


P. 










P. 




0.0 


7.8 


8.2266 


20.990 






—1.1985 




T.TJ.ir.l43U)B.M.«l«A... 


+0.0089 
+0.0068 


P. 










P. 




0.0 


7.8 


9.4339 


80.951 




■ 


+0.0088 




T. B. M. 143 to T. B. M. 144 . 


—1.3087 
—1.3047 


P. 












P. 




1.3 




8.1184 


20.635 






—1. 3067 




T. B. M. 144 to P. B. M. 34 


—0.8960 
—0.8943 


P. 










>••■•••• 


P. 




0.6 


7.9 


7.2232 


23.098 






^0.8952 




T. B. M^. 144 to P. B. M. 84 A . . 


+0.3080 
+0. 3070 


P. 












P. 




0.8 


7.9 


8.4259 


27.044 






+0. 3075 




T. B. M. 144 to T. B. M. 145. . . 


+0.5000 
+0.5021 


P. 












P. 




0.7 




8.6194 


28.279 






+0. 5010 




T. B. M. 145 to T. B. M. 146. . . 


—0. 5083 
—0. 5117 


P. 












P. 




1.1 




8.1094 


26.600 






-O.51O0 




T. B. M. 146 to B. M. H* 


—0.7643 
—0.7647 


T. 










T. 




0.1 


8.0 


7.8449 


24.098 






—0.7645 




T. JS. M. 146 to B.M. >}< A . . . 


+0.4393 
+0.4387 


T. 












T. 




0.2 


8.0 


8.5484 


28.040 






+0. 4390 




T. B. M. 146 to T. B. M. 147. . . 


—0. 1717 
—0.1667 


T. 












T. 




1.7 




7.9402 


26.051 






—0. 16ft2 




T.B.M.147toT.B.M.148... 


+1.0477 
+1.0487 


T. 












T. 




0.3 




8.0884 


29.490 




• 


+1. 0482 




T.B.M.148toRB.M.35.... 


—1. 75C0 
—1.7657 


T. 












T 




0.1 


8.2 


7.2326 


23.729 






.-1.7568 





APPENDIX Y Y ^RKPOBT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3641 



BevultM of precise leveling, New Orleans, La,, to South Pass, La,, January 13, 189S, to 

March 15, i^P5— Continued. 

[In these rednotiona fJbe valoe of 1 meter is 3. 2808603 feet.} 



Bench narka. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


R. 


Elevation above 
Cairo datum. 


• 

I 

1 


P. B. M. 85 to P. B. M. 36 A.. . 


Km, 
134.961 

135.767 

187.200 

137.394 

137.304 

138.210 

130.248 

130. 629 

139.529 

140.555 

141.658 

142.261 

142L300 

142.800 

143.226 


N .... 
8 

Mean. 

K 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

K 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

o ..... 

Mean. 

N 

Q ..... 

Mean . 

K 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 


JTetort. 
+1.2037 
+1.2027 


Mm. 

-0.5 

+0.6 

—1.0 
+1.0 

-0.1 
+1.0 

+0.4 
-0,4, 

—0.6 
+0.6 

—0.1 
0.0 

—1.3 
+ 1.4 

—0.1 
+0.2 

-0.2 
+0.1 

—0.7 
+0.7 

-fio 

— LO 

—0.3 
+0.3 

0.0 
0.0 

0.0 
0.0 

-0.2 
+ 0.2 


Mm. 


JHm. 


Meter: 


Feet. 


T. 




- 








T. 




0.8 


8.2 


8.4358 


27.677 






+1.2032 




T. B. M. 148 to T. B. M. 149. .. 


+0.1004 
+0.1074 


P, 












p. 




0.7 




9.0968 


29.845 






+0.1084 




T. B. M. 149 to T. B. M. 150 . . . 


-0.3678 
—0.3680 


P. 












P. 




0.1 




8.7289 


28.638 






^0.3679 




T.B.M.lSOtoB.M.^i', 


—1. 5625 
-1.5617 


P. 










P, 




0.8 


8.2 


J. 1608 


23. 513 






—1. 5621 




T.B.M.150toB.M.<iAA... 


^0. 3543 
^0.3555 


p. 




:;:::::::::::: 




P. 




0.4 


8.3 










—0. 3549 


8.3740 27.474 

1 




T. B. M. 150 to T. B. M. 151. . . 


+0.8119 
1-0.8118 


P. 








1 


P 




0.0 




! 
9.5407 31.302 






-f 0.8118 




T. B. M. 151 lo T. B. M. 152. . . 


— 0.44r)5 
-0.4482 


P. 








1 


P. 




0.9 




9.0939 


20. 830 






—0.4468 




T.B.M.152toP.B.M.36 


—1. 6.'i37 
—1.6540 




T. 








1 


T. 




0.1 


8.3 


1 






-1. 6538 


7.4401 


24. 410 




T. B. M. 152 to P. B. M. 30 A. . 


0. 4510 
—0.4513 






T, 








1 


T, 




0.1 


8.3 


1 
8.6427 28.356 

1 






—0. 4512 




T. B. M. 152 to T. B. M. 153. . . 


—0.5563 
-0.5677 


T. 








I 


T 




0.5 




1 
8.5369 28.008 

1 

: 






—0. 5570 




T. B. M. 153 to T. K M. 154. . . 


+0.0473 
+0. 0493 


T. 








. ! 


T. 




0.7 




8. 5852 28. 167 






+ 0.0483 




T. B. M. 154 to T. 6. M. 155 . . . 


+0. 6353 
+0.6347 


T. 










T. 




0.2 




1 

9. 2202 30. 2:>0 

1 






+0. 6350 




T.B.M.155toB.M.4t 


—1. 4600 
-1.4600 


T. 








T. 




0.0 


8.3 


7.7002 25.460 

1 






—1.4600 




T.B.M. 155 to B. M.«F A... 


-0. 2:.70 
—0. 2670 


T. 




j " 


T. 




0.0 


8.3 


' 






-0.2570 


8. 9632 


29.407 




T.B.M.155toT B.M.156... 


+0. 1597 
+0. 1593 


T. 








1 


T. 




0.1 












+0. 1595 


9.3797 


30.774 





3642 REPORT OP THE CHIEP OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

BesulU of precise leveling, New Orleans, La,, to South Pass, La,, January IS, 189S, to 

March 16, i^J-^-Contmued. 

[In these redactions the yalae of 1 meter is 8. 2808Q03 feet.] 



Bench marks. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ- 
ence of 
elevation. 


V. 


r. 


B. 


Eleration above 
Cairo datum. 




T. B. M. 156 to T. B, M. 167. . . 


Km, 
145.044 

146.180 

145.130 

145.800 

146.550 

147.416 
147.750 
148.100 
140.835 
160.457 
160.802 
160.012 
162.303 
163.248 


N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S."-- 

Mean. 

N. 

S 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 .... 

Mean. 

N 

S 

N 

S 

Mean. 


Meter9, 
-0. 0150 
-0.0107 


Mm. 

+2.2 
+2.1 

+0.1 
-0.2 

+0.2 
—0.1 

+1.5 
—1.6 

+1.2 
-1.8 
+1.9 
—1.1 

+0.5 
—0.6 

+0.4 
—0.3 

+0.7 
—0.6 

• 

+2.0 
-2.1 

+1.0 
—LI 

0.0 
0.0 

—0.3 
+0.3 

+0.6 
—0.7 

—2.9 

+1.8 

+0.9 

0.0 


Mm. 


MWi. 


M^Ur: 


FeeL 


T 












T 




1.4 




0.3660 


30.732 






~0. 0128 




T. B. M. 167 to P. B. IL 87. . . . 


—0.7823 
—0. 7820 


T 












T. 




0.1 


8.5 


8.5847 


28.165 






—0.7822 




T. B. IC. 157 to P. K 1£. 37 A. . 


+0.4170 
+0.4173 


T. 












T. 




0.1 


8.5 


0.7841 


32.100 






+0.4172 




T. B. M. 167 to T. B. M. 157 A. 


+0.2160 
+0. 2100 


T. 












T. 




1.0 




0.5844 


31.445 




* 


+0.2175 




T. B. IL 157 A. to T. B. M. 158 


—0.0950 
-0.0920 
—0.0957 
-0.0027 


T. 












T, 












T 












T. 




0.6 




0.4006 


3L137 






-0.0938 




T. B. M. 158 to T. B. M. 16d. 1 . . 


4 0.0403 
+0.051)3 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




0.5404 


31.301 






-+0. 0498 




T.B.K.150toB.l[.H« 


-1.1268 
-1.1261 


p. 










P. 




0.2 


8.6 


8.4140 


27.605 






-1. 1Z64 




T. B. If . 150 to T. B. M. 160 . . . 


—0. 4599 
—0.4586 


p. 












p. 




0.4 




0.0812 


20.704 






—0.4592 




T. B. M. 160 to T.B.H. 161 .. . 


+0.5696 
+0.5737 


p. 












P. 




1.4 




0.6528 


31.670 






+0. 5716 




T. B. H. 161 to T. B. M. 162. . . 


+J.5484 
+1.5605 


P. 












P. 




0.7 




11.2022 


3&768 






+1.5494 




T. B. IC 102 to T. B. M. 163. . . 


-0. 8793 
-0.8793 


P. 








• 




P. 




0.0 




.10.3220 


33.868 






-0.8793 




T.B.]C.163toP.B.M.38.... 


—0. 8032 
—0.8038 


P. 












P. 




0.2 


8.7 


0.5104 


8L832 






—0.8036 




T. B. M. 108 to T. B. M. 164 . . . 


—3.0972 
—3.0959 


P. 












P. 




0.4 




7.2263 


23.fl)9 






—3.0966 




T. B. M. 164 to T. B. M. 165. . . 


+0.2542 
+0.2495 
+0.2504 
+0. 2513 


P. 












P. 












P. 












P. 




0.7 




7,4776 


24.588 






+0.2513 





APPENDIX Y T — ^BEPORT OF MISSISSIPPI BIYEB OOKMISSION. 8643 



Be9uU9 of pr0(i»c leveling, New OrleanM, La., to South Poss, La,, January IS, XS93, io 

March 16, I^d5--Contuiaed. 

[In these redaotUms the Tslae of 1 meter is 3.2808693 feet.] 



Benchmark. 


Distance. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Differ. 

enceof 

elevation. 


▼. 


r. 


B. 


Eleyation above 
Cairo datum. 


o 


T.B.M.ie5toB.li.AiAA... 


Km. 
168.680 

15i.536 

156.208 

166.025 

156.760 

166i780. 

187.083 

157.808 

158.705 

160.163 

160.201 

162.186 

158.005 

160.416 

160.816 


K 

S 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

S 

IT 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

l^ean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Me«i. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Me«i. 

N 

8 

Mean. 

K 

8 

Mean. 

N 

8 

Mean. 


Msurt. 
+0.2234 


Mm. 

+0.7 

-0.7 

—0.1 
+0.1 

+1.0 
—1.0 

+L2 
— L2 

+0.2 
-0.1 

—0.8 
+0.8 

+0.2 
—0.1 

0.0 
0.0 

-1.8 
+1.4 

+0.7 
-0.7 

-0.1 
+0.2 

—0.8 
+0.7 

-0.6 
+0.5 

+0.5 
-0.5 

-0.8 
+0.7 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mtiert. 


FMt. 


p. 










p. 




0.5 


8.7 


7.7003 


25.264 






4-0.2227 




T.B.M.l«5toT.B.]C.l«... 


-4). 1006 
-4.1008 


p. 










p. 




0.1 




7.3760 


24.203 






—0.1007 




T B.M.lMtoP.BwM.80 .. 


+0.4083 
+0.4103 


T, 












T, 




0.7 


8.8 


7.7862 


25.546 






+0.4093 




T. B. If. IM to T. B. M. If7 . . 


—6.1237 
—0.1213 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




7.2544 


23.801 




- 


—0.1225 




T. R H. 167 to X. B. M. IQB . . . 


+0. 1190 
+0. 1103 


T. 












T. 




0.1 




7.3736 


24.102 






+0. 1102 




T. B. M. 16B to P. B. If. 40. . . . 


+ 1.2562 
+1.2556 


T. 












T. 




a2 


8.8 


8.6205 


28.812 






+1.2560 




T B. 11.16ft to T.B.1C. 160. . 


^0.6730 
—0.6727 


T. 












T. 




0.1 




6.7008 


21.984 






—0.6728 




T.B.lC.16fttoPiKM.4l 


—0.1727 
—0.1727 


T. 












T. 




0.0 


8.8 


6.5281 


21.418 






—0.1727 




T. B. IC. 160 to T. B. IC 171 . . . 


+0.9027 
-M).9000 


T. 












T. 




ao 


&8 


7.6022 


24 042 






+0. 0014 




T. B. M. 171 to T. B. IC. 172. . . 


—0.3317 
—0.3303 


T, 












T. 




0.6 




7.2712 


28.856 






—0.8310 




X. B. M. 172 to P. B. M. 42. . . . 


+0. 3553 
+0.3550 


p. 












P. 




0.1 


8.8 


7.6264 


25.021 






+0.3552 




T. B. Iff. 172 to P. B. M. 48 


+2.9362 
+2. 9347 


P. 












P. 




0.5 


8.8 


10.2066 


38.486 






+2.9354 




T. B. Iff. 108 to T. B. H. 170 . . . 


—0.0837 
—0.0847 


T. 












T. 




0.8 




6.6166 


21.708 




^ 


—0.0842 




T. B. IC 170 to T. B. M. 176 . . . 


+0. 3793 
+0. 3803 


T. 












T. 




0.3 




6.0064 


22.954 






+0.3798 




T.B.M.176toTT.&P.B.M. 
8«f 1882 


+0. 6702 
+0.6687 


P. 












P. 




0.6 


8.8 


7.6658 


25.150 






+0.6604 





8644 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ilRMT. 

BesulU of precise leveling, New Orleane, La,, to 8<mth Pose, La,, January IS, 189S, to 

March 16, i^^— OontiniiecL. 

[In these redactdons the valae of 1 meter ia 8.280Bfl03 feek] 



Bench marks. 


Dlstanoe. 


Direc- 
tion. 


DilTer- 

enceof 

elevation. 


▼. 


r. 


B. 


Elevaiion «boTtt 
Cairo datum. 


j 


T. B. M. 176 to U. S. P. B. M. 
2 of 1882 


Km. 
161.746 

164.270 


N 

S 

Mean. 

N 

S 

Mean. 


Mettrt. 
+2.1633 
+2. 1610 


Mm. 

—LI 

+L2 

-1.6 


Mm. 


Mm. 


MeUrt. 


Fut. 


P. 












P. 




0.8 


&0 


0.1586 


aO.048 






+2.1622 




IJ.S.P.B.M.2 of 1882 to B. 
M. City Stone "Halfway 
House^' 


—1.1706 
—1.1732 


P, 












P. 




LI 


8.0 


7.0870 


26.20i 






—1. 1716 





DBSCRIPnONS AND ELEVATIONS OF PRECISE BENCH MABKS BETWEEN THX HXAB OF 

THE PASSES AND NEW ORLEANS^ LA. 

KOTX.— Elevations ire given in meters and feet above Cairo datom plane. To rednoe to mean cnlf 
level at Biloxi, Miss., subtract 21.26 feet (preliminarv value) from the elevations here given. These 
bench marka were established in 1898. One meter=3.28U86Q8 feet. The term *T. B. M.*' denotes anreoise 
bench mark which is set with special care so as to be practically permanent. In most caaea a F. B. M. 
consists of a vitrified tile 18 inches by 18 inches by 4 inches, in the center of which Is set vertically 
with lead a |-inch copper bolt, the upper end bwii g about flash with the npper sarfaoe of the tile. 
Surrounding the bolt on the surfiftoe of tne tile is the inscription, ** Mississippi River Commisaion, U. 
B. P. B. M., 1802.*' Thia is buried in the ground from 18 to 40 inches beneath the surfkoe, the depth 
varying with the natnre of the material. On top of the tile a 4- inch wrongfat-iron gas pipe 4 feet long 
is set concentric with the copper bolt; the lower end of the pipe, which is expanded somewhat like a 
boiler tube, fitting in a circular groove molded in the tile. A cast-iron cap fits over the top of the 
pipe and is fasteiiea thereto with bronae bolts. The elevation of the top of the cup is also determined. 
The structure has thus two bench marks. P. K M. 16, for example, being the top of the copper bolt, 
and P. B. M. 16 A being the top of the cap on the pipe. Oiher P. B. Ms. consist of copper bolts or well- 
defined marka in brick and stone buildings and masonxy stmotures. 

The term " T. B. M." denotes a temporary bench mark whose elevation is as well determined as that 
of a P. B. M., but is not regc^ed permsneut. They consist of nails and spikes in roots of trees mt 
stakes driven in the ground. They were satablished to obtain comparisons of results aboat once in 
every kilometer. 

n. 8. EDgineers' ganee Is a Teitioal board gauge fastened to foundation post of boat- 
house on west side at nead of South Pass, La., and 140 meters northeastward firom 
Head of Passes Light-House. 

EleTation of zero, 5.8292 meters. 19.125 feet. 

Old gauge is the remains of a vertical board gauge, standing about 100 meters 
from edge of -water and 50 meters northwestward from the He^ of Passes Light- 
House and about 15 meters west of fence on west side of light-house yard. No facts 
could be obtained relative to when this gauge was estaolished and under whose 
direction it was maintained^ Judging from ito location and condition it has been 
abandoned many years. 

Elevation of zero, 6.8654 meters. 19.244 feet. 

Bench mark in Head of Passes Light-House is a + cut in top brick in the northeast 
comer of Head of Passes Light-House foundation. Is in tne north end of brick 
farthest east and about 1 meter above ground. 

Elevation. 8.1438 meters. 26.719 feet. 

P. B. M. 1 is the top of copper bolt leaded vertically in a vitrified clay slab in ground 
and surmounted by an iron pipe. It is 1 meter from each fence in the northwest 
comer of the yard surrounding the Head of Passes Light-house. Is 52 meters from 
the northwest corner of the light-house. 

Elevation, 6.5128 meters. 21.368 feet. 

P. B. M. 1 A is top of cap on top of pipe ov«r P. B. M. 1, described above. 

Elevation, 7.7178 meters. 25.K21 feet. 

P. B. M 2. is the center of a horizontal copper bolt leaded in the west wall of the 
brick oil house about 20 meters east of the Head of Passes Light-House. It is in the 
sixteenth course of bricks above the ground and is marked thus : U. S. P. B. M. 

© 
Elevation, 8.0306 meters. 26.347 feet. 

P. B. M. 3 is top of copper bolt in vitrified clay slab in ground on west bank^aboui 
100 meters back from river, about 2,300 meters above the Head of Passes Ligh^B( 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^BEPOET OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3645 

im S. 60° W. 84 meteis from A DonoYan No. 2. It is &fa meters from a 14-inch blazed 
willow tree. 

EloTatioxiy 6.7085 meten. 21.9d3 feet. 

P. B. M. 3 A is top of cap on top of pipe oyer P. B. M. 3, desoribed above. 

EleTatlon^ 7.9025 meters. 25.927 feet. 

T. B. M. 5 IS a smke in east root of a'U-inoh willow tree, ^(f meters from P. B. M. 3. 

Elevation, 6.9589 meters. 22.831 feet. 

B. M. ^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified clay slab in ground ; is on west bank, jnst 
opposite Pilot tower and 30 meters from xiver. Azimuths and distances from the B. 
M. are: To Pilots' tower, 243^^ 23' 11"--1,491.63 meters; to @ Cubitt's chimney, 297^ 
25' 04"— 2,931.28 meters ; to ©north, 179° 17' 11"— 2,989.63 meters : to Fog-bell tower, 
192O51'40". 

Elevation. meters. feet. 

B. M. ^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^}^, described above. 

Elevation, 7.3951 meters. 24.262 feet. 

T. B. M. 8 is nail in a fonr-pronged willow tree, 8 meters from B. M. ^|^. 

Elevation, 7.2083 meters. 23.650 feet. 

P. B. M. 4 is top of copper bolt in vitrified clay slab in ground on west bank about 
opposite middle of Cubit ts Crevasse and 60 meters back from river. There is a 12- 
inch willow 3^ meters northwest of the B. M. and another 12-inch willow 12 meters 
northwest which contains T. B. M. 11. 

Elevation, 6.7787 meters. 22.240 feet. 

P. B. M. 4 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 4, described above. 

Elevation, 7.9807 meters. 26.184 feet. 

T. B. M. 11 is nail in root of a 12-inoh willow tree 12 meters southeast of P. B. M. 4, 
described above. 

Elevation, 7.1859 meters. 23.576 feet. 

T. B. M. 14 is naU in east root of a 24-iach willow tree south 50° west : 30 meters from 
B.M.*j^ 

Elevation^ 7.3241 meters. 24.029 feet. 

T. B. M. 5 IS top of copper bolt in vitrified clay slab in ground on west bank. Is 
in F. L. StreckeiW orange grove and is 17 meters northward from Streckerts' house 
mad midway between two orange trees. Is about 4 miles below the jump. 

Elevation, 6.7491 meters. 22.143 feet. 

P. B. M. 5 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 5, described above. 

Elevation, 7.9578 meters. 26.108 feet. 

T. B. M. 17 is nail in 12 inch willow tree about 6 meters from P. B. M. 5. 

Elevation, 7.5625 meters. 24.812 feet. 

P. B. M. 6 18 top of copx>er bolt in vitrified clay slab in ground on west bank about 
2,500 meters below the jump. Is 18 meters from the river in an open field. Azimuth 
to tower at the jump, 130° 38' 21". 

Elevation, 6.5633 meters. 21.533 feet. 

P. B. M. 6 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 6, described above. 

Elevation, 7.7701 meters. 25,493 feet. 

T. B. M. 22 is nail in root of 18-inch willow tree, 47 meters from P. B. M. 6. 

Elevation, 7.4997 meters. 24,606 feet. 

T. B. M. 24 is a spike in east side of the middle one of three willows 24 inches in 
diameter and 17 meters south of the old United States custom-house at the Jump. 

Elevation, 7.7383 meters. 25,388 feet. 

B. M. s^l^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay fllab in ground on west bank, about 
100 meters above the Jump, 53 meters from the Tropical Fruit Company's store and 45 
meters from Levy's store. It is respectively 16 and 13 meters from two blazed wil- 
low trees. To B. M. *fi 221° 46' 56" ; 1,059.06 meters. To tower at Jump, 312° 12' 00". 

Elevation, 7.0886 meters. 23,093 feet. 

B. M. '}^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.2435 meters. 27,046 feet. 

P. B. M. 7 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on WQst bank about 
2,200 meters above the Jump and on land of Pierre Leon Bur^. It is 7 meters back 
of levee, 40 meters from river, and 17 meters towards river from Bur as' house. 

Elevation, 6.7020 meters. 21,988 feet. 

P. B. M. 7 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 7, described above. 

Elevation, 7.9047 meters. 25,934 feet. 

T. B. M. 28 is nail in east root of a 24-inch sycamore tree, 13 meters from river and 
about 28 meters east of a graveyard and 2^ miles above the Jump. 

Elevation, 7.4222 meters. 24,351 feet. 

P. B. M. 8 is top of eopper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on west bank on 
Br. Talbots land. li on southern slope of levee, and is 20 meters south of an 18-inch 
tree, blazed. Is 947 meters above house now occupied by Pierre A. Jauntures. It is 
about 5 miles above the Jump. 

Elevation, 6.9572 metexB. 22.826 feei. 



3646 KEPOBT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

P. B. M. 8 A is top of cap on top of pipe^ over P. B. H. 8, described above. 

Elevation, 8.1620 met«r8. 26.778 feet. 

T. B. M. 81 is spike in north root of ap 18-inch willoxv tree 7 meters from levee, 
marked with a triangular blaze, and 17 meters above P. B. M. 8. 

Elevation, 7.3980 meters. 24.255 feet. 

B. M. H^ is *op o^ copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in gronnd on west bank, 33 
meters back of levee, 13 meters below wire fence around orange grove. Is 10 meters 
firom an 8-inch tree and 5 meters ftom a 10-inoh hackberry tree, both blazed, and is 
about 2f miles below Fort Jackson. 

Elevation, 6.7852 meters. 22.261 feet. 

B. M. ^|<^ A is top of cap on top of pipe, over B. M ^^, described above. 

Elevation, 7.9834 meters. 26.192 feet. 

P. B. M. 9 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on 8. Shoenberger's 
land on west bank, about li miles below Fort Jackson. It is 6i^o meters from the 
upper boundary of Shoenbcrger's land and 6 meters back of levee. Is 2 meters from 
an orange tree, and is 54 meters from Shoenberger's house. 

Elevation, 6.9381 meters. 22.763 feet 

P. B. M. 9 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. M. 9, described above. 

Elevation, 8.1421 meters. 26.713 feet. 

T. B. M. 58 is nail in crotch of 12-inch sycamore about 5 meters in firont of levee, 
about 12 meters from P. B. M. 9. 

Elevation, 8.0700 meters. 26.477 feet. 

P. B. M. 10 is a vertical copper bolt in the granite block forming the bridge seat at 
the west abutment of the bridge crossing the moat at Fort Jackson. It is 3 inches 

U.S. 
from the lower flange of the iron stringer of the bridge, and is maiked thus : Q 

P.B.M 

Elevation, 7.5385 meters. 24.733 feet. 

Fort Jackson gauge is a vertical post gauge about 50 meters above the old hospital 
building at Fort Jackson. 

Elevation of zero, 5.8700 meters. 19.258 feet. 

B. M. ''A'' is upper surface of ship spike driven horizontally in brick chimney at 
upper or west end of building known as Ordnance Sergeant's dwelling. Is in west 
face of chimney, about 10 inches above the ground, and in second course below the 
weather boarding. A X is cut in brick Just under the spike. 

Elevation, 7.8475 meters. 25.747 feet. 

T. B. M. 61 is spike in south root of 12-inch willow on old levee between new levee 
and river and about 400 meters above Fort Jackson. 

Elevation, 7.7107 meters. 25.298 feet. 

Experimental B.M. is top of copper bolt in vitrified clay slab in ground about 400 
meters above Fort Jackson and 35 meters back of the levee. There is a 2-inch by 
3-inch scantling set over the B. M. and projects about 18 inches above the gronnd. 

Elevation, 6.6444 meters. 21.799 feet. 

B.'M. HP ^ top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank. U 
in the bend of levee surrounding Fort St. Philip military reservation and is about 
100 meters below the fort. Is 109 meters from the river. To monument southeast 
corner of reservation 321^ 06' 45''— 50.42 meters. To flag staff Fort St. Philip 69^ 
05' 10"--350.4 meters. 

Elevation, 7.1520 meters. 23.465 feet. 

P. B. M. 11 is on top of monument marking the southeast eomer of the United 
States reservation at Fort St. Phillip. The B. M. is the point in the obtuse angle at 
the intersection of the two grooves cut on the surface of the stone. The monument 
bears the inscription: 




Elevation, 7.8718 meters. 25.826 feet. 

P. B. M. 12 is a horizontal copper bolt in the granite facing of the portal onrightr 
hand side of powder magazine No. 5, at Fort St. Philip. Is 43 inches above the 
eoncrete paving at the entrance of magazine. 

Elevation, 8.2399 meters. 27.034 feet. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI EIVER COMMISSION. 3647 

P. B. M. 13 is top of copper bolt in yitrified-clay slab in j^onnd on ea«t bank. Is 
on end of old levee mnning back to swamp on land of Patrick Callahan 1 mile 
aboTe Fort St. Philip. It is 40 meters from Callahan's honse and 49 meters from an 
old stable on the river side of main levee. Is aboat 6 meters inside of main levee 
and 7U meters from the river. To ® Taylor 33° 06' 18". 1248.14 meters. 

Elevation, 7.3498 meters. 24.114 feet. 

P. B. M. 13 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 13, described above. 

Elevation, 8.5601 meters. 28.085 feet. 

T. B. M. G6 is nail in 18-inch willow tree on river side of levee in front of Patrick 
'^ Callahan*s house, and is about 10 meters from P. B. M. 13. 

Elevation, 7.4738 meters. 24.521 feet. 

B. M. ^$A is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in gronnd on east bank. Is 10 
meters back of levee, 25 meters i^m river, and 20 meters above Mrs. S. H. Butler's 
store and Neptune post-office. It is about 2f miles above Fort St. Philip. 

Elevation, 6.9510 meters. 22.805 feet. 

B. M. *p A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.1554 meters. 26.757 feet. 

T. B. M. 68 is nail in north side of 18-inch willow in center of levee, 38 meters west 
of Mrs. Butler's store, and within 20 meters of B. M. ^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.2952 meters. 27.215 feet. 

P. B. M. 14 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
land of Marie Antoinette Grandpr^ Smith. It is 70 feet southwest of Mrs. Smith's 
house, and 3 feet inside of road fence, and 12 feet from a line stake between Mrs. 
Smith's and Herman Beck's lands and about 3f miles above Fort St. Philip. 

Elevation, 6.7551 meters. 22.163 feet. 

P. B. M. 14 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 14, described above. 

Elevation, 7.9597 meters. 26.115 feet. 

T. B. M. 70 is nail in east root of 12-inch red elm on east side of levee on line 
between lands of Mrs. Smith and Mrs. Brophie, and within 80 meters of P. B. M. 14. 

Elevation, 7.5684 meters. 24.831 feet. 

P. B. M. 15 is top of vertical copper bolt in west end of second door sill from east 
end of the old United States customs and quarantine building, about 5 miles above 
Fort St. Phillip. 

Elevation, 8.0318 meters. 26.351 feet. 

B. Bi. H^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
land of August Barry about 1 mile above the old United States customs and quar> 
antine buildings. It is 15 meters southeast of Barry's honse and 10 meters back of 
levee, and 140 meters from the river. To Buras Church, 324^ 46' 35^', 1,368.7 meters ; 
to B. M. «|% 18° 02' 12", 897.9 meters. 

Elevation, 6.9098 meters. 22.670 feet. 

B. M. ^^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. *}', described above. 

Elevation, 8.1125 meters. 26.616 feet. 

T. B. M. 73 is nail in root of 20-inch willow tree in line of fence along road about 
1 mile above old United States customs and quarantine buildings, and about 60 
meters'below B. M. ^^, 

Elevation, 7.4196 meters. 24.343 feet. 

P. B. M. 16 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
land of Antoiue Jones, about 2f miles above the old United States customs and 
quarantine bulldin|». It is 43 meters from Jones's house, and 52 meters from school- 
house; is 5 meters back of levee, and 7 feet from a post marking the line between 
lands of Antoine Jones and Gilbert Buras. To @ Grand Prairie, 149^ 24' 56", 116.27 
meters. 

Elevation, 6.9338 meters. 22.749 feet. 

P. B. M. 16 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 16, described above. 

Elevation^ 8.1402 meters. 26.707 feet. 

B. M. ^{B IS top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
land of y. Looeco. Is 6 meters back of the levee and 18 meters from Loceco's house, 
and 430 meters below negro school and church, and about 750 meters below O. K. 
red store. 

Elevation. 6.7210 meters. 22.051 feet. 

B. M. H^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B, M. *p described above. 

Elevation, 7.9266 meters. 26.006 feet. 

P. B. M. 17 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank. Is 
in the southwest corner of Noel Buras' orange grove, 1 meter from each fence. Is 90 
meters west of a schoolhouse, and about 5^ miles above the old United States cus- 
toms and quarantine buildings. 

Elevation, 6.6439 meters. 21.798 feet. 

P. B. M. 17 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 17, described aboTCw 

Elevation, 7.8513 meters. 25.759 feet. 



3648 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

T. B. H. 78 is nail in root of 10-inch willow^ Just outside of levee^ aboat 100 meters 
below bend in levee, and about 13 meters from P. B. M. 17. 

Elevation, 7.7793 meters. 25.523 feet. 

B. M. H^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
land of Meyer Wise, 15 meters back of road, and about 50 metiers above fence comer, 
and about 195 meters above John Kelley's house and about 290 meters below Hicks 
Bayou. 

Elevation, 6.8290 meters. 22.405 feet. 

B. M. ^^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^^ described above. 

Elevation, 8.0390 meters. 26.375 feet. 

P. B. M. 18 is top of copper bolt in vitriAed-clay slab in ground on east bank, 4 
meters in front of J. Liugoni's house, about 80 meters back of levee and 20 meters 
from Karris' Canal. 

Elevation, 6.6926 meters. 21.958 feet. 

P. B. M. 18 A is top of oap.on top of pipe over P. B. M. 18, described above. 

Elevation, 7.9014 meters. 25.923 feet. 

B. M. ^f^ is top of copper bolt in vitriHed-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
land of Berkson Brothers. Is about 18 meters ba<;k of point where old and new 
levees unite. Is 17 meters below a house. Is 105 meters from the river, and 60 
meters northwest of a 3-foot liackberry, biased, which stands outside the levee. To 
church spire, 119° 03' 18'', 141.21 meters. 

Elevation, 6.9555 meters. 22.820 feet. 

B. M. H^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^}^ described above. 

Elevation, 8.16^ meters. 26.795 feet. 

T. B. M. 84 is nail in root of 24-inch hackberry tree, outside of levee, and 60 meters 
from B. M. H^. 

Elevation^ 8.1167 meters. 26.630 feet. 

White IS a U. S. Coast Survey station and is about 1,160 meters above Wesley 



church and 110 meters from the road on river side. It is an iron screw pile project- 
ing above ground, the top terminating in a cast-iron cap bearing the inscription 
'* U. S. CoSst Survey, 1870, G + P." The bench mark is the highest point of the 
letter C. 

Elevation. 8.1307 meters. 26.676 feet. 

P. B. M. 19 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on land 
of William Laudebaugh. Is 1 meter north of a 36-inch hackberry tree, blazed. Ik 
30 meters north of Laudebaugh's house and 66 meters from levee and about If miles 
above Wesley church. 

Elevation. 7.6220 meters. 25.007 feet. 

P. B. M. 19 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 19, described above. 

Elevation, 8.8310 meters. 28.973 feet. 

T. B. M. 86 is nail in north root of 30-incli hackberry tree on south side of road and is 
37 meters from P. B. M. 19. 

Elevation, 7.8310 meters. 25.692 feet. 

T. B. M. 88 is nail in root of 20-inch live oak 150 meters south of school house and 
1,800 meters below Nestor landing. 

Elevation, 8.3353 meters, 27.347 feet. 

P. B. M. 20 is top of copper bolt in vitrifled-clay slab in ground 15 meters back of 
levee and 4^ meters north of the northwest corner of S. M. Fnsich & Co.'s store, at 
Nestor Landing. It is 32 meters south of the center of Nestor Canal. 

Elevation, 7.0535 meters. 23.142 feet. 

P. B. M. 20 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 20, described above. 

Elevation, 8.2565 meters. 27.088 feet. 

T. B. M. 91 is nail in root of 36-inch live-oak tree 5 meters east of levee and about 
one-half mile above Nestor Canal. 

Elevation, 8 .0984 meters. 26.570 feet. 

B. M. H^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on land 
of Mrs. Cannon. It is 118 meters above her house, 1 meter below fence running back 
from road behind levee ; is 12 meters from the south comer of £. J. Cannon's hoqse 
and 55 meters back from levee. It is 4 feet north of a fig tree. To B. M. ^^ 48° 2r . 
816.59 meters. To Rigaud's chimney, 45^ 23' 35". 

Elevation. 6.8287 meters. 22.404 feet. 

B. M. ^P A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^^ A, described above. 

Elevation, 8.0337 meters. 26.358 feet. 

P. B. M. 21 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-olay slab in ground on east bank on 
Pierre Coss^'s land, 6 meters back from road fence and 1 foot south of the division 
fence between lands of Coss^ and Henry W. Fox, and about 1,000 meters below the 
white Episcopal Church. To @ Union, 147<^ 00' 19". 604.22 meters: to church roof 
apex, 150O 52' 42". 

Elevation, 6.9837 meters. 22.913 feet. 



APPENDED Y Y — ^REPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI EIVER COMMISSION. 3649 

P. B. M. 21 A ifl top of cap oo top of pipe over P. R M. 21, described above. 

Elevation, 8.1895 meters. 26.869 feet. 

^ Union is a U. S. Coast Survey station ; is in an old orange grove 68 meters 
baok from road and abont 600 meters below the white Episcopal church. Is an iron 
serew pile projecting abont 9 inches abov^ the gronnd, terminating in a cast-iron 
eap bearing the inscription U. S. Coast Survey 1870 G+P. The beneh mark is the 
-f- near center. 

Elevation, 7.8411 meters. 25.726 feet. 

T. B. M. 95 is nail in root of 30-inch willow on river side of levee, near foot of 
slope and about 90 meters from the white Episcopal church. 

Elevation. 8.2678 meters. 27. 126 feet. 

B. M« 'f^ is top of copper bolt in vitrifled-clay slab in ground on east bank, on line 
between lands of William Cannon and George Wilson. It is 23 meters back of the 
new levee and 119 meters from the river bank and 165 meters westward from George 
Wilson's house. To St. Patrick's church, 3!S39 09' 31'' : to gable of red house, 295<^ 
ay 20". 

Elevation, 6.8962 meters. 22.626 feet. 

B. M. ^^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.1014 meters. 26.580 feet. 

P. B. M. 22 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab m gronnd on «ast bank on Dr. 
Herbert's land, 1^ meters south of his north line, and on south side of ditch. Is 188 
meters from the K. O. & S. Railway and 20 meters east of the levee, and abont 1,300 
meters above the railway water tank at Bohemia. To tower, 112° 02' 45". 

Elevation, 7.4535 meters. 24.454 feet. ' 

P. B. M. 22 A is top of eap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 22, described abo^e. 

Elevation^ 8.6631 meters. 28.422 feet. 

B. M. '1^ IS top of copper bolt in vitrifled-clay slab in gpround on east baiJc on north 
side of plantation roaa running along north side of Martin Brothers' plantation. Is 
22 meters back of levee and ali^ut 2 miles below the Plaquemine Parish court-house. 

Elevation, 6.8636 meters. 22.519 feet. 

B. M. H^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.0728 meters. 26.484 feet. 
• P. B. M. 2R3 is tup of copper bolt in vitrifted-clay slab in gronnd on east bank in 
Theophile Hingle's front yard, 6 meters southeast of house, 25 meters below store- 
house, and 25 meters back of levee, and about 1 mile below Plaquemine Parish court- 
house. To Magnolia sugarhouse, 0^ 27' 41": to tower, 359° 14' 31"; to tank, 354° 
49' 45". 

Elevation, 7.0461 meters. 23.117 feet. 

P. B. M. 23 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 23, described above. 

Elevation, 8.2569 meters. 27.090 feet. 

T. B. M. 105 is nail in 20-inch sycamore on river side of levee about 50 meters from 
Bauer's store and 1,400 meters above the Plaquemine Parish court-house. 

Elevation^ 8.3900 meters. 27.526 feet. 

B. M. H* ^ top of copper bolt in vitrifted-clay slab in ground on east bank between 
lands of John Iiafitte and B. Savois, 13 meters baek m the levee, 1 meter north of 
row of large willows, and in fence comer. Is 375 meters above St. Thomas's (^urch. 

Elevation, 7.0592 meters. 23.160 feet. 

B. M. ^i' A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. H^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.2645 meters. 27.115 feet. 

P. B. M. 24 is top of vertical copper bolt in top of coping on lower side of steps lead- 
ing to main entrance of the Plaquemine Parish j^ourt-house, at Points k la Hache. 
The top of the bolt is 8 millimeters below the concrete coating. 

Elevation, 9.4711 meters. 31.073 feet. 

P. B. M. 25 is top of copper bolt in vitrifted-clay slab in ground on east bank on Mrs. 
Angnste Gtavolers land, abont 3 miles above Plaquemine Parish court-house. Is 3 
metiers from a 24-inch hackberry, and 163 feet northward from the north corner of 
Mrs. Gravolet*s house, and 111 meters from the N. O. and S. Railway. 

Elevation, 6.9384 meters. 22.764 feet. 

P. B. M. 25 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 25, described above. 

Elevation, 8.1460 meters. 26.726 feet. 

B. M. ^ is top of copper bolt in vitrifted-clay slab in gronnd between lands of Dr. 
Herbert and J. Dde. is at end of lane leading back from main road and abont 2 feet 
from fence comer on upper side of lane, and about 4t^ miles above Plaquemine Parish 
court-house. To Celeste chimney, 321^ 23' 37", 1,841.6 meters; to Junior chimney. 
49° 53' 42", 1,286.1 meters. 

Elevation, 7.2885 meters. 23.913 feet. 

B. M. H* A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. *}", described above. 

Elevation, 8. 4983 meters. 27.882 feet. 

P. B. M. 26 is top of copper bolt in vitrifted-clay »lab in gronnd on east bank. Is 
on Bellevne Plantation, and 24 meters back of levee and 1 meter east of ditch, and 

jsjq^a 93 ^220 



3650 BKPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

St 

193^ff met6TB from N. O. &, 8. Railway. To BelleTuo S. H. Cliimiiey, Uio 11' 13", 569,8 
meters. 

Elev^ation, 7.3817 meters. 24.218 feet. 

P. B. M. 26 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 26, described above. 
. Elevation, 8.5922 meters, 28. 190 feet.* 

T. B. M. 114 is a spike in west root of 36- inch live oak, on west edge of live-oak 
groTO. Is 5 meters back of pasture fenee and 15 meters back of levee, and 365 meters 
above the old sugarhpose at Harlem plantation. This bench mark was established 
by the levee engineers. 

Elevation, 8.1310 meters. 26.677 feet. 

B. M. ^F is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
Harlem plantation, on south side of ditch running along north side of live-oak 

grove: is 365 meters above the old Harlem sugarhouse and 141 meters from the N. 
K and 8. Railway. Two live-oak trees blazeid are respectively 19 and 22 meters 
from the bench mark. To Bellevne chimney, 299^ 85' 02'' ; 1,479.2 meters. 

Elevation, 7.0442 meters. 23.111 feet. 

B. M. ^f ^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. H. ^^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.2555 meters. 27.085 feet. 

P. B. M. 27 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in grronnd on east bank on 
land of E. H. MeCaleb, about If miles above Harlem sugarhouse. It is 75 meters 
back of levee; is 72 meters northward from Joshua Griffin's house and in comer of 
small field beside ditch. To Wilkinson's sugarhouse, 94"^ 09' 31". 

Elevation, 7.2796 meters. 23.883 feet. 

P. B. M. 27 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 27, described above. 

Elevation, 8.4876 meters. 27.847 feet. 

T. B. M. 120 is nail in root of 14- inch willow in front yiA^d and about 30 meters 
from Leopold's store and about 2f miles above Harlem sugarhouse. 

Elevation, 8.0162 meters. 26.300 feet. 

B. M. ^^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank Just 
below Poverty Point, 14 meters back of base of levee on C. W. Johnson's land; is 
304.5 meters in front of N. O. and 8. Ry.^ in fence comer on lower side of ditch ; is 99 
meters below a 14-inch live-oak tree in line of road fence. Tree is near two small 
houses. To Wilkinson's sugarhouse, 22^ 35' 48": to St. Joseph's Church, ^SMP 8' 
45" : to St. John's Qhurch. 273^ 6' 20". 

Elevation, 7.6512 meters. 25.103 feet. 

B. M. ^\^ A is top of cap on top of pipe orer B. M. *|^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.8557 meters. 29.054 feet. 

T. B. M. 122 is a boat spike in root of 36-inoh live oak, about 70 meters ftom main 
dwelling at Mon Secour's plantation. This B. M. was established by the levee engi- 
neers. 

Elevation, 7.5703 meters. 24.837 feet. 

P. B. M. 28 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
Mon Secour's plantation ; is 7 feet east of ditch along road and 53 meters from west 
comer of main dwelling and 67 meters from the nopthwest comer of a long dwell- 
ing near road leading back to sugarhouse. To union sugarhouse, 188^ 15' 35". 

Elevation, 6.5423 meters. 21.464 feet. 

P. B. M. 28 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M., described above. 

Elevation, 7.7500 meters. 25.427 feet. 

T. B. M. 124 is nail in root of 5-foot live oak in cane field, about 25 meters frx>m 
levee and 186 meters above St. Sophia post-ofiice. This B. M. was probably estab- 
lished by levee engineers. 

Elevation, 8.7449 meters. 28.6^ feet. 

B. M.^IP is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
Monticello plantation; is 15 meters from base of levee on lower side of plantation 
road at its intersection with main road, and is 144 meters above St. Sophia post- 
office. 

Elevation. 7.4404 meters. 24.411 feet. 

B. M. ^1^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.8541 meters. 28.393 feet. 

P. B. M. 29 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
Fairview plantation, in northwest comer of garden, in front of manager's house ; is 
20 meters from house and 57 meters back from levee. 

Elevation, 6.9680 meters. 22.861 feet. 

P. B. M. 29 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 29, described above. 

Elevation, 8.1746 meters. 26.819 feet. 

B. M. 'f^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
Belair j)lantation, in negro churchyard, 17 meters from the southwest corner of the 
church. 

Elevation, 6.9075 moters. 22.663 feet. 






APPE17DIX Y Y — ^BEPOBT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVEB COMMISSION. 3651 

B. M. H^ A is top of cap on top of pipo oyer B. M. H^, deaoribed aboye. 

Eleyation, 8.1139 meters. 26.621 feet. 

T. B. M. 131 is nail in root of 5<foot live oak between levee and road and about 600 
maliBn below the main buildings at Fanny plantation. 

Elevation, 8.8128 meters. 28.914 feet. 

P. B. M. SOiatop of copper bolt in vitrified-olay slab in ground on east bank on Fanny 
plantation, about 600 meters below the main buildings, in a graveyard; is 6 feet 
north of ditoh, S^ftet towards river from a larse live-oak tree, and 245 feet iVom the 
N. O. and S. Railway, and about lOOmeters back from the levee measured along ditch. 
To Belair sugarhouse, 330^ SO' 08'' : to Fanny sugarhonse, 161^ 16' 16". 

Elevation, 7.2236 meters. 23.700 feet. 

P. B. M. 30 A is top of eap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 80, described above. 

Elevation, 8.4303 meters. 27.669 feet. 

@ Berthond is a U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey^tation, and is B. M. ^^ ; is an iron- 
screw pile projecting about 1 foot abovft ground; is on the east bank on the old 
Woodland plantation, 10 meters in ftont of old levee. and 101 meters back from new 
levee; is 8 meters above ditch and 232 meters from the New Orleans and Savannah 
Kailway, on land of Charles Beggio. The cap on top the iron post bears the inscrip- 
tion " U. B. Coast and Geodetic Survey 1871, G+P." The bench mark is the -f in 
center of cap. To Jesuit Church, 80^ 03' 48" ; 894.0 meters. 

Elevation, 8.9686 meters. 29.425 feet. 

P. B. M. 31 is top of copper bolt in vitrified-olay slab in ground on east bank on 
Greenwood plantation : is in the northeast comer of a lot 110 meters above the. 
manager's dwelling and 77 meters east of the N. O. and S. Railway. 

Elevation, 6.9153 meters. 22.688 feet. 

P. B. H. 31 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 31, described above. 

Elevation. 8.1208 meters. 26.643 feet. 

T. B. M. 136 is nail in root of 5-foot live oak about 25 meters back of levee and about 
400 meters below the suearhouse on Promised Lsnd plantation. The bench mark 
is about 15 feet towards tne river from the tree. 

Elavation, 8.3055 meters. 27.249 feet. 

B. M. ^H is to^ of copper bolt in vitrified-day slab in ground on east bank on 
linwood plantation: is 12 meters east of the N. O. and S. Railway on lower side of 
ditch and 4 meters above road running back to woods and about 100 meters fKpm the 
main dwelling on the plantation. 

Elevation, 7.1223 meters. 23.367 feet. 

B. M. H^ A is top of cap on top of pij^e over B. M.H^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.3283 meters. 27.324 feet. 

T. B. M. 137 is nail in fork of 24-inch willow between levee and river, about 200 
meters above Gould's store. Bench mark is about 2 feet above ground. 

Elevation, 9.7585 meters. 32.016 feet. ^ 

P. B. M. & is top of copper bolt in vitrified-day slab in ground on east bank on 
Stdla plantation; is in southwest comer of William Homer's front yard and 37 
meters north of plantation store and about 50 meters from river. 

Elevation, 8.5074 meters. 27.912 feet. 

P. B. M. 3^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 82, described above. 

Elevation, 9.7184 meters. 31.885 feet. 

B. M. ^$^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
Searsdale plantation, on the upper edge of second ditch above Stella plantation and 
at intersiDction with ditch running parallel to river. It is 47 meters above planta- 
tion line and 153 meters from the N. O. and S. Ry. 

Elevation, 7.6344 meters. 25.044 feet. 

B. M. *|^ A is top of cap on top of ]Kpe over B. M. H^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.8411 meters. 29.006 feet. 

P. B. H. ^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
Mon Plaisir plantation, about 14 meters above the north line of Searsdale plantation ; 
is 184 meters back frrom the levee and 132 meters from the N. O. and S. Ky. and 145 
meters from a house back of the railway. It is on edge of ditch at junotion of two 
plantation roads. 

Elevation, 7.4839 meters. 24.554 feet. 

P. B. M. ^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 33 described above. 
• Elevation, 8.6907 meters. 28.513 feet. * 

P. B. M. ^^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east bank on 
St. Clair plantation 1 meter east of fence along road, 430 meters from N. O. and S. 
By., and about 890 meters above St. Clair sugarhouse chimney. To Orange Grove 
lightning rod, STli^ 23' 50*'; to St. Clair sugarhouse, 358<^ 34' 20"; to Belle Chasse 
sugarhouse, 42<^ 34' 32". 

Elevation, 8.2266 meters. 26.990 feet. 

B. M. ^^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. BiL ^^f described above. 

Elevsiion, 9.4389 meters. 30.951 feet. 



3662 REPOET OP THE CECIEF OP ENGIKEEBS, U. S. AlOCT. 

P. B. M. 34 ia top of oop]per bolt in vitrified-olay slab in ground on eist bank on 
Orange Grove plantation; is in the northwest comer of intersection of two plaDta- 
tion roads and between road and ditch^ and is 137 meters back from base of lereo 
measured along plantation road. To Orange Grove sagarhonse oI^>ola« 295^ IX' 
61" — 761.5 meters. 

Elevation, 7.2232 meters. 28.698 feet. , 

P. B. M. 34 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 34, described abov<». 

Elevation, 8.4269 meters. 27.644 feet. ^ 

B. M. H^ is top of oopper bolt in vitrified-olay slab in gronnd on east bank on 
Orange Grove plantation ; is in the northeast comer, where plantation road and" , 
ditdh intersects ; is 267 meters from N. O. and S. Railway and 132 meters baok of 
levee. To Orange Grove sngarhouse cnpola^ HOP 38' 22'' ~ 932.6 meters. . . 
' Elevation, 7.34i9 meters. 24.098 feet.. 

B. M. H^ A is top of cap on to^f of pipe over B. M. ^^^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.5484 meters. 28.046 feet. * 

P. B. M. & is top of copper, bolt in vitrified-clav slab in groand on east bank on 
Poydras Hall plantation; is 144 meters back of the N. O. and S. Railway, at a point 
90 meters above the three-throw switch at Poydras Hall Junction ; it is 8 meters 
west of the northwest comer of fence Surrounding the plantation quarters. 

Elevation, 7.2326 meters. 23.729 feet. 

P. B. M. 35 A is top of cap on top of pipe overlP. B. K. 35, described above. 

Elevation, 8.4358 meters. 27.677 feet. 

B. M. H^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in groand on east bank on the 
old Repose plantation; is in the southwest comer of a pasture 10 metiMrs back from 
theN. O. and S. Railway: is on upper side of ditch ranniog along lower side of plan- 
tation ; is 197 meters back of levee and j ust back of plantation qnartors. .Tile- works 
chimney, 165° 41' 34". 

Elevation, 7.1668 meters. 23.513 feet. 

B. M. H^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. HS described above. 

Elevation, 8.3740 meters. 27.474 feet. 

T. B. M. 151 is nail in root of 4-foot pecan tree, about 25 meters from negro chnroh 
and 400 meters above the mouth of Lake Borgne Canal. 

Elevation, 9.5407 motors. 31.302 feet. 

P. B. M. 36 is ton of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground &a east bank on 
the Stouey plantation 4 meters above ditch running back from levee and 1 meter from 
ditch rannmg parallel with railway ; is 243 meters back of N. O. and 8. Railway 
and about 290 meters below two small negro ohurches. To Stoney sngarhouse chim- 
ney, 1520 37' 50". 

Elevation, 7.4401 meters. 24.410 feet. 

P. B. M. 36 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B. M. 36, described above. 

Elevation, 8.6427 meters. 28.356 feet. 

T. B. M. 154 is nail in west root of 36-inoh live oak 125 meters above section hoiise, 
6 meters below railway and wagon road crossing, and 68 meters below Saxtonholm 
D^ot. 

Elevation, 8.5852 meters. 28.167 feet. ' 

B. M. ^'' is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ffroond on east bank on 
lower edge of first ditgh below upper line of the Dncross plantation. Is 10 meters 
back of N. O. andS. Railway, and about 100 meters above dwelling and about 31 
meters back of levee. 

Elevation, 7.7602 meters. 25.460 feet. 

B. M. >^^ A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. H^, described above. 

Elevation, 8.9632 meters. 29.407 feet. 

P. B. M. 37 is top of co])per bolt in vitrifidR-clay slab in ground on east. bank on 
land of Willis Fassy. It is 510 feet below D. Danterives's house, and 6 meters back 
of N. O. and S. Railway and on west side of small ditch. To @ battle ground 
149° 29' 07", 1,213.3 meters; to refinery chimney 91^ 51' 02". 

Elevation, 8.6847 meters. 28.165 feet. 

P. B. K. 37 A is top of cap on top of pipe over P. B% M. 37, described above. • 

Elevation, 9.7841 meters. 92.100 feet. 

B. M. ^^ is top of copper bolt in vitrified-clay slab in ground on east b«nk on' 
land of Mrs. Alberdine, and at rear end of lane. Is 290 meters back of levee. Is in 
fence corner 67.5 meters from the north>v«8t corner of bouse occupied by Louis Heier, 
2 miles below Jackson Barracks, New Orleans, to @ battle ground 245° 67' 09", 
1,742.4 meters. 

Elevation, 8.4140 meters. 27.605 feet. 

B. M. H' A is top of cap on top of pipe. over B. M. ^i^, described above. 

Elevation, meters. feet. 

T. B. H. 162, is nail in root of 15-inch tree at inner base of levee, and 6 metaca east 
of the east line of Jackson Barracks, New Orlsana. 

Elevation, 11.2022 meters. 36.753 feet. . 



APPENDIX T T— ftEPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVEB COMMISSIOTT. S653 

P. B. )t. 88 to top of a veitioal copper bolt in base of the second column on* eaat 
i^de of the sally port on inside of in closure at Jackson Barracks^ New Orleans. The 
letters U. S. P. B. M. are ent near the bolt. 

Elevation; 9.51d4 meters. 31.232 feet. 

T. B. M. 165 is nail in root of 15-ioch hackberry on south side of St. Clande street 
and 40 feet eastward from Hitersection of St. Claude and Elizardi streets, New 
Orleans. 

Elevation; 7.4776 meters. 24.533 feet. 

B. M. •+* A is top of cap on top of pipe over B. M. ^J*. Is on east side of For- 
stal street aboot 18 inches from east fence and is 346.2 meters northward from the 
N. O. and S. Bailway, New Orleans. To @ St. Maurice 825^ 58' 55'', 1,409.8 meters; 
to Ursolines Convent 47° 06' 06" 1,149.7 meters. 

Elevation, 7.7003 meters. 25.264 feet. 

T. B. M. 166 is nail in root of 15-ineh live oak 6 feet Arom north side of St. Claude 
street and about 50 meters west of Lesaeps street, New Orleans. 

Elevation, 741769 meters. 24.203 feet. 

"P. B. M« 39 is t<»> of vertical copper bolt in the granite doorstep at east entrance 
of the Academy or the Holy Angeis, at the northwest comer of Congress and Kam- 
part streets, New Orleans. The bench mark is at the Congress street entrance and is 

1 inch firom front of step and five inches from south jamb. 
Elevation, 7.7862 meters. 25.546 feet. 

P. B. M. 40 is center of horizontal copper bolt in the brick wall around the Church 
•f tile Annunciation, at the northeast corner of Mandeville and Marais streets, New 
Orleans. The bench mark is on Mandeville street and 3.2 meters north of the north 
line of Marais street. Is in the center of a buttress and Jn the sixteenth course of 
brieks above the pavement. 

Elevation, 8.6296 meters. 28.312 feet. 

T. B. M. 41 is top of a vertical copper bolt in brick pier under bonth post of the elec- 
larie light tower at the southwest corner of Anth(mia and Claiborne streets, New 
Orleans. It is 3 inches east of the southeast corner of the iron bed plate and about 

2 feet inside <^the curb line on the west side of Anthonia street and 2.7 meters south 
of the southwest comer of Anthonia and Claiborne streets. 

Elevation, 6.5281 nfeters. 21.418 feet. 

T. B. K. 170 is nail in east root of 15<inch oak tree on west side of St. Bernard street 
and 75 meters north of Aubrey street, New Orleans. 

Elevation, 6.6106 meters. 21.708 feet. 

T. B. M. 171 is nail in root of 12-inch elm tree on south- side of Claiborne street, 80 
meters west oif Esplanade street and 52 meters east of brick culvert in New Orf^eans. 

Eleviktion, 7.6022 meters. 24.942 feet. 
' T. B. M. 175 is a + out on the iron bed plate supporting the southern post of the 
eleetric'light tower at the comer of Lapeyrouse street and Gentilly road. New 
Orleans. 

Is marked thns : U -|- S, with chisel in the iron surface. 

Elevation, 6.9964 meters. 22.954 feet. 

P. B^M. 42 is a -f- cut on top of south end of granite step of the Crescent City Brew- 
ing Company's building at the southeast comer of Claiborne and Canal streets. New 
Oneans ; is marked thus : U. + S. 

Elevation, 7.6264 meters. 25.021 feet. 

P. B. M. 43 is top of a vertical copper bglt set in the marble monument establiHhed 
by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey for an astronomical station in Lafayette Park, 
New Orleans. The top of the bolt is flush with the top surface of the stone and is 



*7- 



marked thus: 







Elevation, 10.2066 meters. 33.486 feet. 

U. 8. P. B. M. 3, established by the Mississippi River Commission in 1882, is a hori- 
Eohtal mark on end of horizontal copper bolt in the east face of the middle brick 
gate-poet of the Gtontilly gate, on east side of the fair grounds at New Orleans. The 
bench mark is in the fifth course of bricks above the ground, and is marked thus : 
D.08, 

Elevation, 7.6658 meters. 25.150 feet. 

U. S. P. B. M«2, established by the Mississippi River Commission in 1882, is the cen- 
ter of end of horizontal cop'per bolt in the northwest face of the southern wing of 
the abutment at the northwest end of the drawbridge over Bayou St. John, on the 

U.S. 
Esplanade Boad, New Orleans. It is marked thus: 

P. B. M« 

£l«v«tilon, 9.1586 meters. 30.048 feet. 

B. If.— City stone^ " Halfwaj^r House'' is a 4- on top* surface of a j^anite marking- 
ttons aei in ground, on west side of canal, near entrance to Metaine Cemeteq^, New 



3654 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABVT. 

Orleans. > The top of the stone is 120 millimeters by 200 millimeters and is in line 
with the fence along the south side of the cemetery^ and is 4.7 meters ftom the 
southern end of the wall forming the cemeiery entrance, and is 41 motors firom the 
western end of the bridge crossing the canaL 
Elevation, 7.9870 meters. 26.204 feet. 



Appendix 3 E. • 

■ 

BKPOKT OF ASSISTANT ENGINEER J. A. OCKBRSON ON LOCATION ASO) CONDITION OF 
*' GAUGES. 

St. Louis, Mo., Dwemher g6, 189S. 

Sir: I have the honop to submit the following report on inspection of Mississippi 
River Commission gauges made in the months of November and December, 1892. 

The steamer Patrol, with the topographical party on board, reached St. Louis on 
November 15, and as the steamer was assigned to work On the lower river from Don- 
^dsonville down, the opportunity was most favorable for a thorough infection and 
repair of the gauges and bulletins on the way down to that point. 

The party &ft St. Louis on November 17, and en route reestablished all of the 
gauges and repaired or replaced all of the bulletin boards maintained by the Missis- 
sippi River Commission. ^ * ^ 

New bench marks were set at several stations where the old ones had been destroyed 
or where they were located too far away from the gauges for convenience. These 
benches were established by means of duplicate lines of levels from one or more reli- 
able benches in the vicinity. This often necessitated levelling over long distances, 
but will make friture inspections much easier. Many of the earlier benches were 
on trees, and most of them have been destroyed by decay caused by the blazin|[ of 
the tree for the bench, or the tree has fallen from the force^ of winds or caTing 
banks. 

Most of the gauges are essentially temporary, as caving banks, drift, etc., make 
permanent structures impracticable, and can only be kept up by the vigilance of 
the observers, supplemented by a thorough inspection at high and low water. Some 
of them are also temporary from another cause. The changes in the b^d and banks 
of the stream precipitate a heavy fill, thus necessitating a change of location. Mor- 
rissons and Mhoons are notable examples. In the latter case the gauge Is now 
nearly 2 miles downstream from its original site. The gauge zero has been kept the 
same, hence it is evident that the relations between tne present readings and the 
earlier ones can only be reached by taking Into consideration the slope, which ma^ 
amount to nearly a foot. In the discussion of gauge relations at different periods, it 
is important that this should be noted. 

Where a fill is likely to occur a new gauge should be established under a new 
name te avoid confusion iu the records, and the two gauges should be read for a 
period (preferably covering one high and one low water) long enough to establish 
the relations between the gauges. 

The gauges which have been set with the zero above low water have been a fhiit- 
ful source of error and annoyance. The records of the observers are full of mistakes 
when the zero is passed. The pilots also find it difficult te reconcile the bulletin 
readings, which at one point give 1 foot, and the next station 5 feet, when the actual 
stage is known te be the same. 

It is very doubtful whether the possible confusion in the records, arising from a 
change of all the gauges so that thp zeros would be at or below extreme low water, 
would outweigh the decided advantage of wiping out for all time to come the chief 
cause of error and confusion in the present records. 

It has already been noted that changes of location frt»m natural causes are some- 
times imperative. If an occasional change of this kind, which might easily bo over- 
looked, is hot seriously objectionable, then a general change of the whole system 
would be still less so, as it would be so radical as to be generally known. 

The first gauge buUetins erected were found to be too small, and the figures were 
too indistinct. The next size was somewhat larger, and later a still larger figure 
was brought into use. 

The frames for the last named were made so that the figure plates were set in 
grooves. This arrangement looked quite simple, but has proven very unsatisfftctory, 
owing to the difficulty of handling such large plates during even a moderate wind* 
Another objection is that the plates, being easily detachable, are often dropped and 
become battered, and then will not enter the grooves, ot they may be oamed away 
entirely. 



^ 




I 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSIOK. 3665 

To remedy these defects a new bnllethi frame wae designed, made entirelj of gas 
pipe. Three of these were pnt np. The appended drawing renders a detailed 
description nnneoeesary. New gauf^es were established at New Madrid and the Iron 
Mountain and Southern Railway Bridge across the St. Francis River. These are to 
take the places of the Morrissons and Wittsbnrg gangeS; respectively, as soon as the 
gauge relations have been established by a snfifolent period of readings. 

The gauge at Tasoo City was not inspected, as it was to be soon abandoned. 

DonaldMuville was reached on December 7, and assistants A. T. Morrow and George 
H. French Joined at that point. The Patrol and party was turned over to Mr. Moif- 
row, and Mter the inspection of the College Point gauge the other stations were 
reached by mail or local steamboat. 

The work of inspection was finished Y>n December 14, and my 4uties in the office 
resumed on the l&th. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. A. OCKERSON, 

United States Auietant Engineer^ 
€i»pt. Carl F. Fai^ioy, 

Carpe of Engineen^ V, 8, A,, 

Secretary Mieeistippi Biver CommUHon, 



Gauge at Grays Poini, Mo, Distance from Cairo, 45 miles. R. Latitude, 37^ IS'. 
Longitude, 89^ 27^ -f 1310». J. C. Gray, observer. Inspected November 18, 1892.— 
This gauge is in two sections and consists of straps of iron bolted firmly to the solid 
rock, and hence it may be considered permanent. 

The bench marks to which the gauge is referred could not be found. They are 
probably covered with the soil which nas been carried down from the higher eleva- 
tions, and the descriptions are too meager to locate them. They are doubtless still 
intact, and any section of the gauge is quite as good as a special bench mark. 

The bulletin was repaired and repainted. 

Gauge at Belmanty mo. Distance ttoia Cairo, 21.3 miles. R. Latitude, 36^ 46' -f- 
35". Longitude, 3do 07' + 440™. T. H. Parker, observer. November 20, 1892.— 
This gauge is located on the piling at the lower side of the elevator warehouse, as 
shown in accompanying sketcn. 

Both B. M. No. 2 and B. M. No. 3, given in stage pamphlet, have been destroyed 
and a duplicate line«of levels was run from B. M. j, which, from its position in an 
angle of the fence and its general appearance, is probably the same elevation as 
when set. 

All of the sections of the gauge are firmly spiked to the piling and practically 
unmovable. The sections from 5 to 46 feet were consistent with one another. With 
reference to B. M. i, they are, however, about 0.25 feet too low. The lower section 
(from 5 feet down) was found to be 0.03 feet too high from the same bench. 

The reference benches were gone, and consequently there was no way of verifying 
the old determinations. The gauge sections have every appearance of being in same 
position as when set, and it was assumed that there was some good reason for set- 
ting the upper sections as they were found, and reasons which might perhaps be 
given in some of the inspection reports on file in the office. So on the whole it was 
thought best to make the entire gauge consistent by changing the short section, and 
thia was consei^uently done. 

If the elevation of B. M. f is correct, then the zero of the entire gauge as it now 
stands is 0.25 feet too low. This value would have been verified by a river crossing 
from a P. B. M.in Columbus, had it not been that a high wind ]prevailed, making 
such work impracticable, and it was not deemed advisable to detain the Patrol. 

As the inspection reports on file in this office do not give anv clue to the differences 
found, it is important to check the value by river crossing ^rom P. B. M. 8, as sug- 
gested. 

The following bench marks were set from B. M. f : 

B. M. 1, 1892, is the top of a railroad spike driven horizontally into southeast side 
of cypress pile standing at northeast corner of elevator superintendent's house. It 

is marked with tacks B. M. ETevation, 330.46. 

B. M. 2, 1892, is highest point of railroad spike driven horizontally into south side 
of an oak pile standing 21.6 feet below elevator and 2.3 feet east of east line of ele- 

2 
vator. It is marked with tacks B. M. Elevation, 331.69. 

The bulletin is placed on top of the elevator warehouse. All of the plates and 
frame weie repainted. 



S656 9EP0BT OF THB CHIEF OF- ENGINEEB8, U. 6. ABMT. 

Qauae ui Mwrri$$on9f M0. Bistance from Cftiro, 69 miles B. Latitude, SiS^ 84^+700". 
Longitnde, 89° 29'-f 960». Miss Bettie Morrisson. obserrer. Kovember 21, 1892.— 
The gauge i» located opposite upper side of ytaa SHrrounding the MorriiBon resi- 
dence, li miles above the main street of New Madrid, Mo. The gaage is now in 
seven sections, and only the upper one (from 34 to 43 feet) is permanent. This sec- 
tion is nailed to a sycamore tree standing at sootheast comer of yard aronnd the 
Morrisson residence. 

The other sections are 2 by 6 inch scantling driven at intervals dovn tile sloping 
bank and read as follows : Section 2. 30 to 34.3 feet; section 3, 26 to 30 feet; section 
^ 20 to 27 feet; section 5, 13 to 20 feet: section 6, 10 to 16 feet; section 7, to 10 feet. 

All of these sections were set and driven as firmly as practicable. Section 4 was 
found to be 0.53 feet too low. All of the other sections were corrected within 0.1 
foot. These sections all are temporary and may readily be destroyed by drift or 
other causes. The bank has a goutle slope and does not cave* particularly since the 
bar has formed in the bend. This bar connects with the shore about a mile above 
the gauge, and from about the 10-foot stage c own the readings are taken in a pocket 
and hence do not bear the proper relations to the higher-stage readings, as the gangs 
registers the elevation of the water surface at or below the foot of the bar. The 
readings below the stage where the bar cuts off the water are therefore too small by 
about 0.2 feet. This would apply to the low-water reading of the past two or more 
years. 

This gauge will be discontinued when the relations between it and the new gauge 
at New Madrid have been determined. 

Gauge at Netv M<idrid, Mo, Distance from Cairo, 70.3 miles R. Latitude 36° 35\ 
Longitude 39"^ 31'. W. O. Smith, observer. November 22, 1892. — ^A gauge was estob- 
lish^ at the mouth of St. Johns Bayou^ on lo^rer side of satne, 860 meters above the 
main street of New Madrid, Mo. 

The banks in front of New Madrid are very high and are chiefly a light, sandy soil. 
They cave badly and a gauge could not be maintained below the mouth of St. Johns 
Bayou. The caving is not so extensive in this vicinity, and the sloping bank of the 
bayou made it practicable to put in a sloping; gauge from 9.4 to 23.8 feet. The bayou 
is used for running out logs at medium to high stages, and an upright gauge could 
not be maintained there on that %ccount. 

The local effect of the bayou may be felt in the stage readings. But as the gauge 
is only a few feet from the river it does not seem probable that the influence of the 
bayou can be very great. 

Below 9.4 feet a ^mporary gauge must be used. 

The sloping gauge consists of a 6 by 8 inch timber, placed near the ground and 
held in place by being driflbolted to 10 by 12 inch posts set 5 feet deep at intervals 
of 6 feet. The feet and tenths are marked b^ notches cut in the surface of this tim- 
ber, the figures at footmarks being put in with tacks. 

The sections above the 23-foot mark are firmly spiked to trees and are practically 
permanent. 

An iron bulletin was erected on the high bank just above the sawmill. 

A tile and pipe B. M. and a tree B. M. were established from B. M. -^ with a 
duplicate line of levels, and a line was also run from B. M. 4 at Morrissons. There is 
a discrepancy in the determinations of the values of these two benches of 0.24 feet. 

The elevation of the zero of the New Madrid gauge was made the subject of special 
investigation in May, 1890 (see note book 1872), and a line of duplicate levels were 
run from P. B. M. 22 and connecting on the way with B. M. SS n^y V> ^f ^' ^- ^> 
and ^. This line showed a discrepancy between V <^nd B. M. 4 of 0.27 feet, which 
differs only 0.03 feet from that found in this inspection. The other values were 
found to accord with previous determinations, so that the fact is well established 
that B. M. 4 is practically correct, while V- i^ too low 0.255 feet. 

The elevation of the zero of the jpauge and gauge beuch-marks at New Madrid are 
based on this conclusion and are as Allows : Zero ot gauge, 275.72, above Cairo datum. 

B. M. 1, 1892, is tile and pipe set in woods about 200 feet north of gauge. It is 
near wagon road and on Tine between an osage orange tree 6 inches in diameter 
and a thorn tree 12 inches in diameter. It is 6.5 feet from the osage orange tree 
and 26.5 feet southeast of the thorn tree. Both trees are blazed on side toward B. 
M. and the thorn ixee is marked B. M. 1, with tacks. Elevation above zero of gsuge 
pine 27.83 feet, tile 22.86 feet. 

B. M. 2, 1892, is nail in root of gum tree standing north of sloping gauge. It is 
the first tree south of sycamore on which section of gauge is nailed. 

Section 22.5 to 32 feet is flrmly spiked to river side of a 24-iuch sycamore tree 
standing 75 feet north of sloping gauge. 

Section 31.7 to 45 feet is spiked to southwest side of an 18-inch gum tree, standing 
30 feet northwest of above-described sycamore. It is 100 feet southeast of pipe B. M. 
and nearly on line between sycamore and pipe B. M. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVEE COMMISSION. 3657 

Oa»a§ at CoiUmwood Faint, Mo, Distance from Cairo. 123.0 miles. B. Latitude^ 
SePQff^ 1460". Longitude, S&^ 41' + 290"'. H. C. Garrett, observer. November 
2if 1892. — This gange is located direcljy in front of Dr. Tipton's house, at Cotton- 
wood Point, Mo. 

All of the sections^ except the high-water section (35 to 40 feet), are temporary. 
Hie high-water section is firmly spiked to the downstream side of a large cotton- 
wood tree standing in front of and near the school house. The other sections are 
Sosts and stakes of various kinds set at intervals down a gently sloping bank, 
everal of the upper sections were set near Dr. Garrett's house, about 3,000 feet 
above the present location, which coincides with original location >f gauge. The 
highest section (36 to 41 feet) at Dr. Garrett's was 0.12 foot too high and the sec- 
tions from 16 to 25 feet were about 0.1 foot too low. The sections at Dr. Tipton's 
were practically correct. 

As rebuilt opposite Dr. Tipton's, the sections are as follows: Section 1, to 3 feet; 
2, 3 to 6.5 feet; 3, 6 to 12feet ; 4, 12 to 14.2 feet; 5, 14 to 18.9 feet; 6, 18.9 to 23.5 feet; 
7, 23.5 to 31 feet; 8, 31 to 36 feet: 9, 35.3 to 40 feet. 

The old bulletin was out of order and was i;eplaced by an iron one. 

A duplicate line of levels was run from B. M., @ north base, near Dr. Garretf s house, 
to a pipe and tile B. M., which was set near the gauge at Dr. Tipton's' and described 
as follows: 

B. M. 1, 1892, is i>ipe and tile set just back of bulletin at northwest comer of yard 
surrounding Dr. Tipton's house. Elevation above zero of gauge, pipe, 36.81; tile, 
32.83. 

Omufeat Fulton, Tenn. Distancefrom Cairo, 175.4 miles L. Latitude, 65° 37' -f 175"" ; 
longitude, 89° 53'-^115"». W. W. Butler, observer. November 25, 1892.— This gauge 
is located on the left bank (downstream side) of a prominent guUy situated about 
4€0 feet above the landing at Fulton, Tenu. All of the sections should be classed as 
temporary, as they are composed of scantling and posts set at intervals down a 
sloping bank. 

All of the sections standing were found correct except 31.5 to 36 feet, which was 
0.23 foot too low, probably caused by settling of warehouse, as it was attached to one 
of the blocks supporting same. 

The ^auge was rebuilt from 13 to 36 feet* The sections from 0.0 to 34.5 feet are 
at original location of gauge. A high-water section 31.5 to 36 feet was spiked to one 
' of the posts supporting the lower side of the warehouse at landing. 

The bulletin was repaired and repainted. 

A duplicate line of levels was run from P. B. M. 42 in order to establish a tile and 
pix>e B. M. near the gauge to take the place of the old gauge B. Ms., which have 
been destroyed. 

B. M. 1, 1892, is a tile and pipe B. M. set back or inland from gange about 75 feet. 

It is Hear foot of bluff on right bank (upstream side) of gully, and about 400 feet 
above Fulton Landing. It is about 110 left back of (south) vertical face of bluff 
lying aloAff river, just above mouth of said gully. On this bluff stands a building 
marked '' U. S. En^neer Office." 

The B. M. is on line between a 24-inch giun tree, standing on the flat ground, and 
a 15-inoh beech tree standing at top of hill. 

B. M. is about 10 feet east of gum tree and about 45 feet west of beech tree. Bofh 
trees are blazed on side toward stone, and gum tree is marked with tacks B. M. 1. 
The elevation is : Pipe, 37,87 ; tile, 33.89 above zero of gauge. A tree marked B. M. A. 
reads 36.63 feet on gaage. A tree B. M. B. reads 33.10 on gauge. These tree B. Ms. 
were probably set by the construction party at Plum Point. 

Gauge at Mhoon Landing, Miss. Distance from Cairo, 277.3 miles L. Latitude, 
340 43^^ 1 J50 m. Longitude, 90^ 28' 4-80">. G. E. Thomas, observer. November 28, 
1892. — ^This gange is located on the left bank of the river 1,685 meters below B. M. 
^f about a mile and a half below the original location of gauge and just above the 
present Mhoon's Landing. 

All of the sections of &is gauge, except the upper one, are temporary posts set at 
intervals down a sloping bank:, llie gauge was rebailt from to 40 feet. All of the 

Sauge at this point) except the high-water section, which is nailed to a tree, was 
estroyed about August 15, 1892, by the bank settling down bodily, and the observer 
read on a temporary peg from that time to date of inspection. 

As rebuilt the seqtions read as follows: Section 1, to 6 feet; 2, 6 to 11 feet; 3, II 
to 16 feet; 4, 16 to 25 feet; 5, 25 to 31 feet; 6, 29 to 35 feet; 7, 35 to 40 feet. The 
latter is spiked firmly to a lar^e cottonwood tree. A ship spike is driven in upper 
side of same tree with upper side of head reading 35 feet on gauge, 

A duplioate line of levels was run from B. M. V to establish these sections of the 
gauge. 

The bank in the vicinity of the gauge is in bad condition and the gauge conse- 
quently in danger of being destroj^ed at any time. The bulletin is in good condi- 
tion, but la the grooved style, which is very difficult to manipulate. 



3668 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

It will be noticed that the present position of the gan^e is nearly 2 miles below 
its original position, and the zero is kept at the same elevation. It was moved down 
in consequence of a fill in the bend. 

The slope for the above distance at high water would be about 0.9 foot; hence the 

fauge relations between this gauge and those at Helena and Memphis have changed 
J this amount. That is, to compare with the gauge relations in its old position, 
the present readings should be about 0.7 foot greater than they new are. 

The difficulties of maintaining the gauge in its present position on account of 
caving banks^ its remoteness from reliable observers, the fact that it is no longer in 
its true relations with the gauges above and below, and that the zero is nearly 2 
feet above low water, suggests the desirability of moving it. 

An excellent place could be found for it, firee from most of these defects, on the 
right bank near foot of Bordeaux Island, about 5 miles below its present site. 

It could be set Just far enough above the mouth of the "Old River" to protect it 
from caving and the drift, 9.nd in this position would remain intact for a long time. 
It would be about 50 miles from the Memphis gauge. 

Gauge at Sunflower Landing, MUtt, Distance from Cario, 352.7 miles L. Latitude, 
340 lO' -F 655 «?. Longitude, 90<^ 48' -f 865'n. S. F. Bunch, observei:. November 29, 
1892. — ^This guage is situated on the left bank of Mississippi River at mouth of 
Huahpocana Creek and a few feet above Sunflower Landing. 

At this gauge the two upper sections, 28.5 to 39 feet and 37 (f) to 43 feet, may be 
considered permanent, as they are spiked to trees. The other sections are 2 by 6 
inch posts set at intervals down the bank and consequently temporary. 

The limits of the temporary sections are as follows : 1, to 7 feet; 2, 6 to 11 feet; 
3, 11 to 15 feet^ 4, 15 to 19 feet; 5, 17 to 21 feet; 6, 20.5 to 25 feet; 7, to 24.5 to 29 feet. 

The section m the water at the time of inspection read 5.68. while the levels from 
the upper high- water section made it 7.53. That is the readings were too small by 
1.85 feet. The next standing section above the one in the water read from 23 to 31^ 
and its readings were only 0.06 foot too small. 

The observer could not offer anjr explanation of the discrepancy, except that on 
one or more occasions he had set his gauge arbitrarily, in consequence of its haviug 
been disturbed by settling with the bank. The only alternative, therefore, seems to 
be to consider the error cumulative and correct the readings accordingly below the 
23-foot mark. 

All of the sections from to 28.5 were reset. 

Tlie bulletin was found to be in good condition, but is very difficult to manipulate. 

This gauge zero is 0.15 foot too low according to the determinations of the levee 
engineers, who claim to have found a discrepancy of that amount in elevation given 
for B. M. ^ as determined by running duplicate lines from a P. B. M. 

Gauge at Arkansas City^ Ark. Distance from Cairo, 438.3 miles R. Latitude, 33^ 
36' -f 180"». Longitude, 91^ 12' -|- OSO*". J. M. Whitehill, observer. November 30, 
1892. — This gange is located on the raftway incline a short distance below the 
elevator or freight house at Arkansas City. All of the old sections were found to be 
correct within 0.1 foot; all are attached to piling and consequently are quite stable. 
The high- water section, 39 to 51 feet, is attached to piling near water tank, standing 
about 125 meters above freight warehouse or elevator. 

Sections of the gauge read as follows : 1, to 8 feet ; 2, 5 to 14 feet ; 3, 13 to 20 feet ; 
4, 19.5 to 29 feet; 5, 27 to 42 feet; 6, 39 to 51 feet. 

The tirst four sections are attached to the pilins of the railway incline. The fifth 
section is on pile in front (river side) of water tank above elevator and near the sixth 
section. 

The bulletin was rebuilt at the upper comer at the warehouse. 

Coast survey P. B. M. F. was connected with and its elevation reads 42.43 feet 
above rero of gauge. 

The gauge zero was determined by levels in daplicate from B. M. A. (Ewens, 1886) 
and P. B. M. F. (Coast Survey). 

Gauge at Chreenville, Mies. Distance from Cairo, 478.3 miles, L. Latitude 33^ 24' -f* 
1,380™. Longitude, 91° 04'-|-90". W. M. Green, observer. December 2, 1892.— This 
gauge is on the doyrnstream row of piling supporting the garbage dump at foot 
of Main street, Greenville, Miss., and is quite stable. All of the sections except the 
upper one (41.5 to 45.5) were found to be correct within 0.1 of a foot. The fobt 
marks being worn, the old sections from 16 to 45 feet were replaced by new ones. 
The short section (41.5 to 45.5) was left standing attached to a pile near shore end 
of dump. 

The building on which P. B. M. 1, C. and G. S., was placed is now called " City Jail'' 
instead of <<Bank Building.^' B. M. A. 1892 was set at First National Bank building 
on first corner of Main street east of city jail and on south side of said street. It 
occupies the same position on iron door sill of bank building as P. B. M. 1 does on sill 
of city jail. It is 43.55 feet above zero of gaage and 0.24 feet above P. B. BL 1| Coast 
and Geodetic Sarvey. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVEE COMMISSION. 3659 

The bnlletin la nefti the gauge and is in good condition. 

This gauge is also watched at high water by the levee engineers, and hence the 
Teoord at this period may be accepted as reliable. 

Gun^e at St. JoMepk, La, Distance from Cairo, 648.3 miles, R. Latitude 31^ 53' -f 
1,492". Longitude 91° 14'+630". Robert Worrell, observer. December 4, 1892.— 
This gauge is situated about half a mile below the town of St. Joseph, La., and near 
the residence of Capt. Robert Worrell. The high- water section, 40 to 46 feet, iS/ 
spiked to the levee side of a large cottonwood tree standing a short distance above 
warehouse and on river side of "front levee.'' A large ship spike is driven in same 
tree at 41-foot mark. 

The other sections are 2 by 6 inches set at intervals down the bank and read as 
foUows: Section 1, Oto 4 feet; 2, 3.5 to 9 feet; 3, 8.5 to 13 feet; 4, 12 to 17 feet; 
5, 16 to 21 feet; 6, 21 to 27 feet; 7, 26 to 32 feet; 8, 31.5 to 38.9 feet; 9, 30 to 41 feet. 

These sections are located about 500 feet below Capt. Worrell's house. 

All of the sections of the old gauge, the bulletin, and also B. M. A., Ewens, were 
destroyed by a sudden caving of the bank, at which time a large area sank bodily 
into l^e river. The temporary gauge in the water was found by duplicate line of 
levels from B. M. No. 1, Hider (!^1), to bo 1.03 feet too high; that is, readings were 
too small by that amount. The observer could not account for the discrepancy, but 
thought most of the error came in after the caving noted above. The observer had 
pegged down the bank, as the water receded, from the 30-foot stage and part of the 
time the readings were taken during Mr. Worrell's absence by a young clerk, and 
the blame of the discrepancv seemed to rest on the latter. 

There is, however, no well-defined break in the results, and the discrepancy can 
only be adjusted by regarding it as cumulative. 

A new iron bulletin was erected a short distance above Mr. Worrell's house. 

Gauge at Bayou Sara, La, Distance from Cairo, 799.8 miles, L. Latitude 30^ 45' + 
l.eiS". Longitude 91° 23' -f810">. L. H. Chisholm, observer, December 6, 1892.— 
This gauge is directly in front of the residence of Mr. B. T. White, situated on 
Front street, about 500 meters below the mouth of Bayou Sara. It consists of sec- 
tions set at intervals down the sloping bank, with the exception of the upper sec- 
tions, which are nailed to the sheet piling protecting the levee in f^ont of Mr. 
White's house. 

The errors found in the sections were less than 0.1 feet. 

The gauge was rebuilt from 17.0 to 42.7 feet, and sections are arranged as follows: 
seetion 1. to 7 feet; ^ 7 to 12 feet; 3, 11.5 to 17 feet; 4, 17 to 23 feet; 5, 21 to 28 
feet; 6, 27 to 42 feet; 7, 38 to 42.7 feet. The two latter are nailed to the piling. 
l^e sections are nearly in line. 

Ihe levels were derived from B. M. A., Ewens (1889), which is in west front of Mr. 
White's house. 

The bulletin is about 200 meters below mouth of Bayou Sara. It is very difficult 
to manipulate. 

Gauge at PUupiemme, La, Distance from Cairo, 854.1 miles, R. Latitude 30^17'+ 
1,170«. Longitude 91oi3'-f- 1,365"'. . Frank Turner, observer. December 7, 1892.— 
This gauge is situated at steamboat landing near foot of Main street, at Plaquemine, 
La. It consists of 2 by 6 inch sections set at intervals down the bank, at such 
points in the vicinity as promise the greatest degree of permanence. The gauge can 
only be maintained by vigilance and care of the observer, as it is so exposed to 
steamboats, rafts, and drin; that the life of a section is generally very brief. 

The levels were derived from B. M. A., Ewens (1883), and the zero of the gauge 
was found to be 0.21 feet too low. 

A new low- water section (0 to 6 feet) and a new high-water section (28 to 35 feet) 
were placed. No sections were placed between them, owing to the impracticability 
of msMEing them even in a slight degree permanent. 

The point opposite would be an easier place to maintain this gauge. 

The Dulletin was demolished by a steamer during the high water in June, and the 
old bulletin was put up. 

llie large bulletin was put up at time of inspection aboui 140 meters below Main 
street, and on river side of levee. 

Gauge at College Point, La. Distance from Cairo, 904.5 miles, L. Latitude 29^ 59' 
-f- 830". Longitude, 89^ 49' + 500". Ernest Subra, observer. December 8, 1892.— 
This gauge is situated at College Point, almost directly in front of Jefferson College. 
It consists of 2 by 6 inch posts set at intervals down a sloping bank and a high- 
water section spiked to a tree a short distance below the other sections of the gauge. 
Another hi^h- water section (21.5 to 26.5) is nailed to the bulletin frame at ferry 
landing whioh is a short distance above the gauge. ^ 

All of the sections were found to be practically correct and read as follows: Sec- 
tion 1,0 to 9 feet; 2,6 to 17 feet; 3^15to22feet; 4»21to28feet. Levels were derived 
from the high- water sectioiu 



3660 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

The bulletin is the grooved form for the figure platee. It is in good conditioa, but 
very difficnlt to man! palate. 

l^Lie gauge is on the extreme end of College Point, and no difficulty in found in 
maintaining it. This suggests that on the staUle banks of the river below moutl& of 
Red River the sauges should all be on the points rather than in the bends. 

Gattge at Fori Jackson, La. Distauoe from Cairo, 1,039 miles, R. Latitude, 29^ 21 
-f lyOOO"*. Longitude, 89^27' -|- 830™- Peter E. B. Ostroin, observer. December 10. 
1892. — This gauge is situated directly in front of ordnance sergeant's (juartfsrs ftud 
about 50 meters above the irame hospital building standing on river side of levee. 
It consists of a single post set vertically at the water's edge and braced from the top 
to the bank. 

B. M. ''A'' is upper surface of a ship's spike driven horizontally into brick chimney 
at upper or west end of building known as ''ordnance sergeant's quarters." The 
spike is in middle of the west face of the chimney, about 10 inches above the ground 
and in second course below wealherboarding of house. A X is cut in brick just 
under the spike. Top of spike reads 6.&0 on gau^e. 

B. M. ''B" is the upper surface of a nail driven m the brick pier supporting sontb- 
west corner of hospital building. Nail is in west face of said pier 2 inchee firom the 
southwest corner and between third and fourth courses below top of pier. H. is cat 
in pier just under nail. Top of naU reads 5.80 on gauge. 

It should be noted here that the readings, are affect^ by the tide and hence it is 
difficult if not impracticable to give accurately height of water due stage of liYes 
proper. 

Gauge at Clarendoii, Ark,, on White River, W. N. Johnson, observer. December 13, 
1892. — This gauge is in one section, attached to lower or downstream side of upper 
pier cyliuder at east end of drawspan of Cotton Belt Railway Bridge crossing the 
White River at Clarendon. 

The extreme high water reached 2 feet above the fixed gauge, and is read on a 
temporary gauge set by the observer near by. 

Accumulation of drift at upper side of bridge sometimes affects the reading on 
gauge a few tenths of a foot. 

The gauge proper is tirmly attached to bridge, so that it is practically permanent. 

The bulletin was replaced by a better one irom one of the Mississippi River sta- 
tions, instructions being left with observer to put it up in a conspicuous place at end 
of a new building in process of construction. 

Gaugeat WitUiburg,Jrk.^onSt.Frano%8Jiiver, Miss Jimmte Smith, observer. Decem- 
ber 14, 1892. — This gauge is located in the bend of the St. Francia River, just above 
the sawmill at Wittsburg, Ark. 

From 3.8 feet to 43 feut the gauge is practically permanent, being firmly spiked to 
trees. Below the 3.8-foot mark temporary stakiss are set to suit the changes m stage. 

The gan^e reads 3.5 feet below zero, and as the zero stage is passed there is much 
confusion m the records as to whether the stage is plus or minus. There is also con- 
siderable doubt «s to the accuracy of the temporary gauge set at this point. 

At time of inspection a sudden rise had just covered the temporary sections and 
they could not be tested. The bulletin is practically useless, as there are rarely any 
steamboats except at high water and even then the boats ao not often come up as 
high as Wittsburg. The bulletin is small and of no value in any other situation. 

It is intended to abandon this gauge and substitute for it a new gauge at the Iron 
Mountain Railway crossing, about 14 Inilos farther up the river. The Wittsburg 
gauge will be abandoned as soon as the relation between the two gauges are deter- 
mined by a sufficient period of readings. 

Gauge at Iron Mountain Railway Bridge across 8t. Francis River. G. W. Brown, 
observer. December 14, 1892. — This gauge from 6 feet up to high water is firmly 
attached in a continuous section to the trusses between the two cylinder piers at east 
end of draw of railway bridge across the St. Francis Riveir, about 14 miles by river 
above Wittsburg, Ark. It is iust below the upper cylinder at east end of drawspan 
of bridge. This gau^e was placed December 14. The lower section will be placed 
when stage of water is low enough to permit. The bridge watchman, G. W. Brovm, 
was appointed gauge-keeper. The result can be forwarded by mail from this point 
daily if desired. 

The upper side of bottom truss reads 9 feet on gauge. The upper side of upper 
truss reads 46 feet on gauge. The base of rail reads 53 feet on gauge. Railroad 
levels give base of rail= 2!iS.5 feet above sea level, hence zero of gauge= 176.5 above 
sea level. 

No bench marks were set, as the oonorete plea were considered as pennanent as 
any marka that could be mad*. 



s 

i 



4 






afTAYS POiNTGAi 




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lm.li6«^t^J*/' fO 



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Eng93 



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JJmc. /if 2, 

SCAL£ 




4o\oB on <tm.u^^. 



Eng93 



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^1 • • 






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k 




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APPENDIX Y T — EEPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3661 

Appendix 3 F. 

JERghest and lowest gauge-readings, 1899. 



MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 



[Gmge 



are r e f e rred to Cairo datum plane, vhioh la 21.26 feet below the (proTialooal) mean Gulf 

level.] 



Zero 

elevation. 



WO. 
€24. 
460. 



460. 

m. 

287. 
295. 
260. 



70 
34 
88 
72 
87 
23 
30 
28 
14 
80 
62 



208.97 
18L48 
161.98 
147.08 

128.78 
116.44 
108.00 
89.68 
66.04 
62.74 
86.89 
23.86 
28.06 
20.08 
21.06 
10.14 
8L24 

M.91 



Station. 



Haattnga, Minn. 
WImma,Minn. 



NfirUi McGre^^r, Iowa , 

HannfVal, Mo 

Grafton, ilia • 

St.Loai8,Mo 

Cheater, Ilia 

Graya Point, Mo 

Belmont, Mo 

New Madrid, Mo (Morriaaons Landing) 

Cottonwood Point, Mo , 

Fulton, Tenn - 



Memphia. Tenn. 

Mhoon Landing, Mias — 

Helena, Ark 

Snnflower Landing, Miaa. 

Mouth White Blver, Ark 

Arkanaaa Cit^, Ark 

Greenville, Miaa 

Lake ProTidence, La 

Tlokabnrg, Miaa 

St.Joeeph,La 

lifatohes, Miaa 

Bed Biver Landing, La. . . 

BaydaSara,La^ 

Baton Boage.La 

Plaqneraine. La 

Donaldaonville, La 

College Point, La 



CarroUton, La — 
S*ort Jackson, La. 



Stagea. 



Higheat. 



Date. 



May 26.. 
May 20-7 
May 31 .. 
July 3... 
May 18.. 
May 10 . . 
May 21 - . 
Mas- 22.. 
Apr. 28 . . 
Apr. 29 . 
Apr. 30 . . 
..do 



Mny 2-8 . 
May 8-11 
MaV 11 - . 
May 11-13, 

June 1. 
June 1 . . . . 
...do 

-do 

June 2.... 
June 2-3.. 
June 3-4.. 
Jane 20... 
June 27... 
J\ine 28... 

...do 

June 13.. f 

...do.... 

...do.... 



June 10. 
June 13. 



Gange 
reading, 



13.1 
12.1 
15.8 
20.8 

215.85 
35.95 
8L20 
35.00 
43.14 

137.68 
36.45 
31.27 

34.60 
36.30 
45.73 
41.70 

40.27 

50.0 

44.28 

4L90 

48.45 

44.55 

48.10 

48.87 

42.25 

38. 45 

83.50 

30.15 

25.62 

17.35 
t6.85 



Lowest. 



Date. 



Nov. 28 
Nov. 24 
"Nov. 23 
Dec. 21. 



!)<«. 24. . 
Jan. 15.. 
Doc. 29-30 
Oct, 28-9 . 

. . .do 

Oct. 29-31 
Oct. 30, 
Nov. 1. 
Oct. 30-31. 
Nov. 1-2 . . 

Oct. 31 

Nov.l 



Got. 27.... 

Oct. 28 ... . 

Oct 27-28 . 

Oct 28-29 . 

Oct. 30.... 

Nov. 6-7.. 

Oct. 29-31. 

Oct. 31.... 

...do 

...do 

' Oct. 30 ... . 

Nov. 9-10 . 
•Oct. 27 dr. 
Nov. 20. 

Nov. 21... 

Nov. 20... 



Gange 
reading. 



—0.70 
LI 
L7 

— L4 



1.1 
—1.8 
L85 
2.68 
f3.4 
0.40 
4.72 

, LCO 
—2.2 
L18 
3.2 

6.50 

2.1 

2.80 

0.70 

—LOO 

—2.00 

5.00 

2.12 

—0.75 

2.50 

0.50 

2.80 

0.25 

0.16 
a60 



* Approximate. t No record June 3-11. 

TBLBUTABIES OP MISSISSIPPI BIVEB AND ATCHAFALAYA. 



9iL55 

190.80 



2417 
24.17 
90.17 



•444.26 



447.68 
410. 76 
392.85 
808.40 

290184 



ArhanuM River, 



Little Beck, Ark. 
Pine Bluff, Ark .. 



Atchafalaya River. 

Barhre Landing, La 

Simmaport, La 

Weat Melville, La 

Oumherland River. 

KaBhville, Teah 

lUinoit River, 

BeardatowB, 111 

Ohio River. 



Cincinnati, Ohio 

Ijoniavilie (apper), Ky 
LouiaviTle (lower), Ky . 
Padacah,lLy 

Osir^m 



May 21 ..i 
May 22... 



Jane 27-28 
June 24... 
June 25... 



Apr. 26. 



May 15, 16 



Apr. 25 . . . 
Apr. 23... 
Apr. 23... 
Apr. 20... 

Apr. 28... 



3L20 
35.60 



49.70 
46.64 
35.0 



38.80 



18.4 



48.80 
21.80 
47.40 
42.9 

48.29 



Jan. 17 — 
Oct. 17-18. 



Oct. 25. 



Oct. 26, 27. 
Nov.l .... 
Oct.29L^. 



Nov.5,6.. 
Nov. 8 .... 

Nov. 7 

Oct. 30- 
Nov. 2. 
Oot.28.... 



6.00 
7.85 



0.20 

'2.'80 



—0.20 



0.0 



8.50 
2.00 
2.70 
0.7 

3.85 



3662 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEERS, U. 8. ABMT. 



m 

JSighesi and lowest gauge readings, i^fif— -Continixed. 
TBIBUTABIES OF MISSISSIPPI BIYEB AJH} ATCHAFALAYA-ContiBned. 



Zeroelo- 
▼Btion. 



24.17 



6L&6 



244.78 

223.44 

W1.27 

64.46 



*651.90 



*887.81 



96.02 



.^ 



Station. 



Old River, 
Heed of TambitU Island, La. . . 
OuaehiUi River. 



Camden, Ark . 
Monroe, La. . . 



Red River. 



Fulton, Ark.... 
Garland, Ark .. 
Shreveport, La. 
Alexandria, La. 



St, Franeie River, ^ 

Wittsburg.Ark r... MayO... 

Tenneeeee River, 
Chattanooga, Tenn'. , j Jan. 17.. 



Stages. 



Highest. 



Bate. 



June 28... 



Jane 6 

June 27-29 



May 23, 24 
Mar 24, 25 
May 28 ... 
June 12, 13 



Florence, Ala 

Wabash River, 

Mount Cannel, HI , 

White Rtver, 



Jacksonport, Ark .*.., 

ClareQdon, Ark 

Taioo River, 



Tasoo City, Miss. 



Apr. 8 . . 



Apr. 18 



May 20... 
May 27-^ 



Apr. 29-30 



Gange 
reading. 



60.15 



37.10 
4L1 



84. 8& 
28.40 
85.70 
38.25 



88.4 

37.0 
24.00 

S1.5 



30.40 
32.66 



27.40 



Lowest. 



Date. 



Ooi. 12-14. 
Oct 19.... 



Odt.l4 

...do 

Oct. 13,15 
Oct. 20,23. 



Oange 
reading;:. 



Oct. 27-81 
Not. 10-14. 



Oct. 26- 
Nov. 1. 

Oct. 28- 
Nov.2. 



Oct. 13-22. 



Oct. 13-14. 
Oct. 10-20. 



Oct. 81.... 



8.60 
L7 



6.20 

166 

^100 

-0.« 



-4.6C 

tl 
0.80 

6.6 



0.80 
145 



—1.00 



* Approximate. 



Appendix 3 G. 

MISSISSIPPI BIVBR, FBOM CAIRO TO HEAD OF PA8SB8. 

Tablb I. — Showing for the years lS7fS-189S {except as noted) ^ highest and lowest and mean 

highest and mean lowest stages, 

[Oange seroe are referred to Cairo datnm plane which is 21.26 feet below the (provisional) mean Golf 

level.] 



Oange 
sero. 



Feet. 
200.84 
203.87 

161.98 
128.73 
80.62 
66.04 
36.89 
23.85 
20.06 
20.01 



Station. 



Cairo .... 
Memphis 



Helena 

t Mouth White River. 
L»ke Providence. . . . , 

1 y icksburg 

Katchoz i 

* Ked Aiver Landing. 

Baton Kou^e 

Carrollton 



Highest. 



Stage. 



Date. 



Feet. 

52.17 

35.60 

48.10 
50.40 
41.90 
49.06 
48.60 
48.87 
38.45 
17.85 



Feb. 27, 1883 

Mar. 23-4, Apr. 4, 
5,1890. 

Apr. 30, 1886 

Mar. 31, 1890 

June 2, 1892 

Apr. 24, 25, 1880... 

Apr. 23, 1890 

June 27. 1892 

June 28, 1892 

June 10, 1892 



Lowest. 



Date. 



Deo. 31, 1876. 
Dec. 25, 1872 



Jan. 5, 1888 

Oct. 14-15, 1879. 
Dec. 29, 1872.... 
'Sov. 24, 1887 . . . 
Dec. 14, 15, 1872 
Nov. 25, 1887 . . . 
Jan. 9, 1877 .... 
Dec 27, 1872.... 



Stage. 



Feet. 
0.10 
—0.95 

-0.18 
2.40 

—3.85 

—3.91 
0.00 
0.46 
0.90 

—LOO 



Means. 



High, 
est. 



F^et. 

44.84 

32.88 

43. S7 
46.67 
87.23 
43.70 
42.90 
48.84 
82.47 
13.72 



Low- 
est. 



Feet. 
4.04 
2.09 

4.36 
6.71 
2.78 
2.80 
4.54 
4.10 
2.89 
—0.04 



tHigh waters 1880-1892; low waters. 1879-1892. 

ILow waters 1878-1879 interpolated uom Lake Providenoe and Natohe^ 

n870-1898on]7. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3663 

Appendix 3 fl. 

MISSISSIPPI BITBR, PBOM CAIKO TO HEAD OF PASSES. 

Tabije n. — Sh4>unng far the years 187£-189S {except as noted) the mean number of days 
during Mfhich the stage in feet above extreme low water was embraced between the fig- 
ures at heads of columns. 

[Ghuige seroB are referred to Cairo Amtam plane, which ia 21.ft feet below the (proTiaional) mean Gulf 

level.] 





Bxircme 


Gaage 


low 


sero. 


water. 


J^VbI. 


Feet 


290.84 


*— 1.00 


203.07 


—0.95 


161.98 


—0.18 


128.73 


•0.0 


89.02 


—3.85 


66. Oi 


—8.91 


36.80 


0.0 


23.85 


•0.0 


aao6 


0.90 


20i91 


—1.60 



Station. 



Cairo..... 

Memphis 

Helena' 

Mouth White RiTer< 

Lake Providence 

.Yicksbnrg 

Natohes 

Bed Kiver Landing * « 

Baton Rouge 

Carrollton 




to 
4.9 



Daye, 
14.4 
37.4 
2L0 
5.2 
6.0 
12.3 
19.8 
32.2 
67.2 

13L5 



5 
to 
9.9 



Ditye. 
46.5 
67.0 
40.6 
82.4 
42.5 
25.5 
42.8 
41.1 
59.1 
78.8 



10 

to 

19.9 



Dayt. 

102.0 

121.6 
96.4 
83.5 
97.9 
82.4 
86.1 
81.9 
76.7 

155.0 



20 

to 

29.9 



Days. 
99.0 
84.8 
88.9 
84.4 
86.4 
71.6 
70.0 
65.2 

117.3 




30 

to 

39.0 



Days, 
60.9 
54.9 
65.8 
60.9 
94.2 
70.9 
84.1 
90.6 
45.0 




40 

to 

49.9 



Days. 
89.1 



52.0 
89.2 
38.2 
90.0 
63.6 
54.4 







50 

to 

54.9 



Days. 
2.7 



0.7 
0.0 
12.8 







1 I>ecember 24, 1871. • Except in 1879. 

• Except in 1872-*74 and 1878-'79. • December 15, 1872. 

Small breaks In reoorda interpolated firom stations above and below. 



•December 28, 1871. 
• Except 1874 and 1878. 



Appendix 3 L 

TABTTLATED BESTTLTS^ WITH FIELD AND OFFICE BEPOBTS, OP DISCHARGE 
MEASUBEMENTS ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES AND THE 
ATGHAFALAYA, AND OF CBEYASSE AND OVERFLOW MSASDBEMENT8, 1892. 

Contents* 



Name of station. 



Si Louis, Mo 

Cohunbu8,Ky 

Fulton, Tenn 

Helena, Ark 

Chicot City, Ark 

Arkanaaa City, Ark . . . 

Wilson Point, La 

Natchez, Miss 

Bed Biver Landing, La 

Simm8part,La 

CanroUton,La 

Little Book, Ark 

Monroe, La 

Alexandria, La 



Beports. 



Field. 



Page. 



3664 
3664 
3664 
3669 
3665 
3660,3672 



3673 
3673 
3674 



Office. 



Page. 
3675 
3675 
8676 
3676 
8677 
3677 
3678 
3670 
3670 
3680 
3680 
3681 
3681 
8681 



Tahulated results.. 



Discharge. 


Slope. 


P€Me. 
3682 


Page, 


3682 
3683 
8684 
3685 


3606 
3006 
8607 


8686 
3688 
3690 


8607 
8698 


8601 
3602 


3698 


3603 




3694 
3604 


3698 


8605 


8600 



Table of meter ratings on page 3700. 



APPENDIX. 



Page. 

CrevaiMee Third District 3701 

Bayou Bartholomew 3701 

CrPYwaea Fourth District ,,,, ,, 3703 



3664 EEPOBT or the chief of engineers, U. fl. AEMT. 

FIELD BEPORTS. 

UTRAGTS FROM REPORT OF MR. WILLIAM OEUGy CHIEF OF PARTT^ UPON OBSERVA- 
TION'S AT COLUMBUS AND HELENA. 

Amelia, Ark., August 9, 189t. 

I have the honor to make the following report on the high-water discharge observa- 
tions made at Columbus, Ky., ai^ Helena, Ark. : 

The observations were made with the steamer ff. L, Abbot, and the party of 9 men 
was subsisted on board.* The meter method was used. 

The instruments ia use were Price meter No. 3^, one register, one break-circuit 
sidereal chronometer No. 1344, made by T. S. & J. D. Negus, electric liatteries, tran- 
sitj^evel, sounding leads, lines, etc. 

The meter was suspended from a boom 10 feet long at the stem of the Abbot, the 
boom projecting over the starboard side from the roof and making a ri^ht angle with 
the axis of the boat. A steel sash cord three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter passed 
around a reel on roof and near stern of boat through a small pulley in the end of 
the boom, thence to the meter. There was another steel sash cord which ran from 
the meter through a pulley on the end of a 20-foot boom, which extends over the bow 
of the boat, to a reel on the roof on bow of boat. By paying out proper lengths of 
standing and guy lines the meter could be immersed to any desirea depth and held 
in place. 

The observations of Columbus, Ky., were made on the same section that wa« used 
in 1891. The sounding and velocity stations were located with a sextant. The meter 
was lowered to the six-tenths depth. 

The soundings on April 15 and 16 were made with a 60-pound lead attached to a 
steel piano wire, which passed around a reel on bow of the boat. The depth was 
obtaiu^d by counting the number of revolutions of the reel. 

The observations were made in the usual maimer. In deep water drifting sound- 
ings were made. 

« « • • • • ~ • 

The gauge readings correspond to mean time of observation. 

« - • • « • • ^« 

At ffelenay Ark. — ^The section was the same as that used in 1888-^89. The methods 
of taking the observations were the same as at Columbus, Ey. The soundings on * 
April 18 and May 3 were made with the 60-pound lead. 

• • • « * « ft^ 

By referring to the accompanying table it will be noticed that after June 1 the 
velocities at Helena, Ark., have decreased very perceptibly. This was noticed at 
the time, and the meter was examined to see if there was anything wxongj and it 
was found to be in iirst-class condition. * • • 

Capt. S. W. Boessler, 

Corps of Engineera, XJ. 3. A, 



XXTRACTS FROM REPORT OF MR. A. F. KILPATRICK, CHIEF OF PARTY, UPOV DIfiCflARGX 

OBSERVATIONS AT FULTON, TENN. 

Memphis, Tenn., Jume9,189i6, 

1 have the honor to submit the following report on the field work of high- water- 
discharge observations at Fulton, Tenn., in April and May, 1892. 

The party, consisting of assistant euj^ineer, recorder, leadsman, pilot, mechanical 
engineer, fireman, and two deck hands, was organized April 13. The steamer 
Itasca and one skiff were used during the observations. Instruments in nse con- 
sisted of two transits, one level, one stop watch^ one 16-pound lead with f inch 
woven cotton line, and one set of double floats. A piano wire with 41-pound weight 
was also used to check soundings, but from awkward arrangement of reel and 
want of practice in its manipulations proved unsatisfactory. 

The discharge section is located about 5,000 teet above Fulton, as indicated on 
the accompanying map*, which also shows position of gauges and surface v^oeity 
sections at Craighead Point and Falls Landing. 

From a point above the steamer was allowed to drift to range B C, at which 
instant the sounding was made and signal given to transitman at D (see sketch* 

*Not printed^ ' 



APPKNDIXTT — ^BEPOET OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3665 

herewith}, who noted the anj;^le and color of ai'ioial flag« which latter and depth was 
recorded hy assistaut on board. In No. 1 and all odd 80undin«^8 a red fla^ wan nsed; 
» white flag was used in all even nouudinga. This system of flag signaling is highly 
recommended for tbis class of work. 

Soundings were taken ubont 90 feet apart. The lead line nsed was rery elastic, 
and altbon^h tape corrections were ap]>lied eacb day as soon as Konndings were over 
apparent discrepancies are in great part due to it during the flrst week of observa- 
tions. 

In float observations the boat wonld occnpy a position on an auxiliary range line 
above discharge station, and tben be directed to the proper point on same by the 
transitmhn at D. The float was then dropped and closely followed by timekeeper in 
skiff, and when under good headwiiy a sif^al was given to transitman at B and D, 
who observed and noted the ''start " angles. At the expiration of one minute the 
signal was re]»eati*d and stop angles noted. Thus was determined the location, path, 
and time of each float. In the tabulated sheet herewith submitted the velocity 
normal to line B C at point of crossing or on prolon; ation of path of float is given. 
The old^ct in view was to nm the flouts at certain places and have the anchor or 
submerged portion to travel mid depth the stream at each place. 

The float consisted of a donble-coned, air-tight tin buoy, with flns, connected by 
a fine cord with a tin anchor, which consisted of two sheets of tin 20 by 14 inches, 
cro88e4l at right angles, making four lejvves or flanges 7 by 20 inches. The buoy was 
5i inches diameter; total length, 12 inches. The connecting cord varied in length to 
suit depth of stream at each point used. 

Of a nnmber of surface floats passing through 200 feet ranges at Craighead Point 
and Falls Landing the velocity of the swiltest is reported. 

Gauges were read daily and hour noted at Craighead Point, station "B," Falls 
Landing gauge, and at Fnlton, and finally reduced to reading at time of discharge 
observations. 

Levels carefully checked bet\veen gauges gave relative heights and data for calcu- 
lating sin. of slope inclination. 

• ' • • • • • • 

The plan of discharge section, tri angulation points, and paths of floats, etc., was 
plattect on a scale of f o^ovy aaper tracings* herewith, and distances scaled and applied 
in arriving at results. 

• •••«•'• 

The river width was constant, the banks on each side being vertical during obser- 
vations. 

• •••••• 

As the angle of slope inclination was exceed irgly small the sin. was obtained by 
dividing the fall by the distance between two gauges and given to seven decimal 
p1a«*es. 

There are submitted herewith tracings showing discharge section, triangulation 
stations, and paths of* floats each day, and cross-section sheets showing coi tour of 
bottom and velocity curves. The notes have bt^en copied into one field book in ink, 
and all the plats and calculations carefully checked* 

Capt. 8. W. R0K8HLER, 

Cinys of £ngitteer9, U, 8, A, 



BXTBACT8 FROM KKPORT OF MR. CHARLES H. BfTLLRR, CHTKF OP PARTY, UPON DIS- 

CBAKGE 0BSEKVAT10N8 AT ARKANSAS CITT, ARK. 

Greknvillk, Miss., t/uZy 19, 1899. 

The following is a report of the observation party stationed at Arkansas City 
Ark.: 

The party, numbering thirteen, arrived at the station April 18, on board the U. S. 
snag boat Florence, which boat was used for the observations. Some of the old tar- 
gets were found, and the range used lust year was reestablished, with the observing 
stations in practically the same places. 

Velocity observations. —Price current meter No. 39 was nsed from April 22 until May 
30, on which day old met^r No. 5 was used; from May 31 until the end of the work, 
July 1, Price meter No. 38 was used. 

The meter whs attached to a rod holding a 230-pound lead weight, and lowered to 
six tenths of the depth on a three-eighth-iuch wire cable. This apparatus about 

* Not prill te«1. 

ENG 93 230 



3666 REPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U, S. ARMY. 

midway of tbe boat, to be near the center of gravity. A gay line of No. 12 wire, lead- 
ing from the lead to the forward end of th^ ooat, helped to steady and hold in place 
the weight. Tills line, after some experimenting) was finally attached to the upper 
end of 3-foot rod on which the lead hangs and meter is placed, instead of attacnuig 
it directly to the lead, which, it is thought, will cause much canting of the lead. To 
still further prevent the canting of the weight, and also to steady it, a sheet-iron vanoj 
having both vertical and horizontal wings, was placed behind the weight. 

For a recorder a telegraph sounder was used and the ''ticks" counted. The usual 
time of occupying a station was five minutes, care being taken to begin and end on 
the discharge range, this being more carefully obtained by having a man In the pilot 
house assisting the pilot, one watching each range. This rn^ was observed uni- 
versally, except where some extra work was being done. 

Soundings, — Were taken with a 20-pound lead on a three-eighth-inch cotton line, 
located instrumenttdly by a transit at a point 2,000 feet above the range, reading 
the angle f^om the perpendicular. The flagman on the steamer being careful to 
always keep on the range by moving back and forth on the roof of the boat. 

Meter ratings^ — Ratings were taken as often as the time could be found. * * * 

Double float obeervatione, — Five of these observations were taken from time to timo 
with the results as shown in the table. 

The subsurface float was a tin cylinder about 15 inches high and 10 inches iu 
diameter; the surface float was of tin in the usual shape of a buoy, about 10 inches 
long and 8 inches thick, these attached with fish cord. 

Meter observations would be taken in the morning and the floats in theaftemooD, 
using the same section which was sounded between the time of the observationa. 
The subsurface floats put at six-tenths of the depth. Ranges set one 200 feet above 
and another 200 feet below the discharge range. The floats were dropped far enough 
above the upper range so as to acquire the velocity of the current and at a place so 
that they would strike near the respective stations. It was difficult to have them 
strike the proper place, and many were tried several times. Most times only one 
transit coiud be used. A skiff followed the float and signalled to the transit man 
when crossing the ranges ; the skiff man keeping the time. The observation of July 
'1 was taken with two transits and therefore may be more nearly accurate than the 
others. It shows a marked increase in the floats over the meter, almost 4 per cent. 

Drifting eoundings, — Two sets of drifting soundings with piano wire were taken as 
a check on the lead line soundings. June 14 giving seven-tenths per cent less and 
June 21 giving 2| per cent less than the lead line. 

Movement of boat. — ^l^^our observations were taken to determine the path of steamer 
during the time of occupying a station; observations taken every thirty seconds. 
When possible these were taken with two transits on the bank reading simiutaneonsly 
at a signal from the boat, angles to a fixed flag on the roof of the steamer. But 
when only one transit was used it read the angle to the flag to detennine the lateral 
motion, while the movement above or below the range was observed from the boat 
at the same time by having the railing graduated in feet both ways from the flag (or 
zero) and a man to move back and forth, constantly remaining on the range and 
recording his position at the proper moment. 

The observation of May 5 being incomplete no calculations were made for that day, 
but the corrections for the other days are: May 14, subtract 11,781 cubic feet; May 
30, subtract 2,410 cubic feet; June 3, subtract 880 cubic feet. 

It will be observed that the large amount on May 14 is due mainly to the fact that 
on two of the stations the observations ended at a considerable distance above the 
place of starting. This, because of a necessarily different distribution of the force, 
there being no one to assist the pilot; hence the results are much in excess of what 
they would be under the usual distribution of the force, and show that the move- 
ment of the boat introduces little or no error. 

Direction of current, — This ran be observed from the path of the floats shown on the 
tracing, and it will be seen that there is almost always some angle with the perpen- 
dicular to the range. It is believed, however, that any error from this source is very 
small and should not be considered. 

Panther Forest Crevasse, — Occurred May 13, 11 :30 p. ni., at a point about 3 miles 
below Gaines Landing, and 450 miles by channel distance from Cairo. (For results 
see crevasse table). 

Fulton Lake Crevasse, — Occurred June 2 about 1 mile below Arkansas City and 4^ 
milee by channel distance below Cairo. At first a series of small breaks a foot or so 
in depth running through the railroad. 

The observations from June 3 to 15, inclusive, were taken by Mr. Baily who had 
charge of the party during that time; those of the 21, 28, and 2B of June were also 
taken by Mr. Baily (with his party and outfit). 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION, 3667 

RSPOBT OF MR. B. C. TOIXINGER, CHIEF OF PARTY, tJPON OVERFLOW BETWEEN 

ARKANSAS CITY AND TRIPPE. 

Arkansas City, Ark., June 96, 1899, 

I bave the honor to submit the following report upon the discharge observations 
between Arkansas City and Trippe, May 28 to 31, 1892. 

The nature of the openinge. — The discharge was through two kinds of openings. The 
one was under pile bridges with the surface of the water about 3 inches above the 
top of the stringers, and the other was over the railroad embankment and traek. 

Methods employed, — The first series of discharge observations was taken with sur- 
face floats, the points of observation being generally from 25 feet to 50 feet below 
the railroad. 

it was feared that the indicated surface velocity below the bridges was too small 
ou account of the obstruction of the current at the surface, by the stringers, and too 
^reat below the embtuikment, on account of the tendencv of the surface water to 
How over the lower strata behind the embankment. In the second series weighted 
rotls from 5 to 10 leet long were therefore used for floats below the bridges, but on 
account of the bushes under the water [in other locality], tin surface floats were 
used, the same as in the first series of observations. 

On account of the rods not nearly reaching the bottom of the water, eight-tenths 
of the observed velocities was taken as the mean of the vertical, the same as for 
surface floats. (See tabulated results). 

In compAring the two sets of observations it will be observed that the velocities 
average about the same, but that in gauging the flow over the embankment a consid- 
erable portion was gauged in the first set of observations, that was omitted as unim- 
portant in the second set, otherwise the results would have been more nearly equal. 

Testing tiie relation of mean vertical velooiiiee to eurfaoe velodtiee. — Noting the differ- 
ence between the results of the discharge observations in 1890 and 1892, some obser- 
vations were made, June 14 to 16, with Price current meter No. 5 to ascertain to what 
extent the relation of the mean vertical velocity to the surface velocity, was modi- 
fied bv the above-mentioned conditions. 

In these observations the mean vertical velocities were generally obtained by dif- 
ferentiation, that is, by noting the velocities indicated by the meter while passing 
slowly from the surface to the bottom and return. 

The results of these test observations are appended, and show that in the observa- 
tions below the embankment, the mean vertical velocity was 56 instead of 80 per cent 
of the surface velocity, and below the bridges, 108 instead of 80 per cent. 

Substituting these ratios for 80 per cent in the computations would change the 
results as follows: 

Observations of May 28 and 29 : f ft of 188 = 132 (approximately) ; Vq* of 121 = 163 
(approximately); 295 (approximately) thousand cubic feet per second. 

Observations of May 30 and 31 : M of 121 = 85 (approxi ately ) ; W of 140 = 189 
(approximately) ; 274 (approximately) thousand cubic feet per second. 

When these test observations were made the surface of the water was very little 
above the bottom of the stringers, whereas at the time the discharge observations 
were made it was about 3 inches above the top of the stringers. 

Again, the observations of series 2 of the test observatious were not made as far 
from the embankment as in the regular discharge observations and hence the influ- 
ence of the disturbing element is magnified in the test. 

These considerations would indicate that in each case the discharge was some- 
what greater than the above substitution of ratios would show. 

Comparison of discharges in 1890 and 1892, — The maximum discharge in 1890 was 
only about 149,000 cubic feet per second, or about one-half as great as in 1892. 

In 1890 this overflow was piincipally from crevasses in the levees along the Mis- 
sissippi Kiver south of Amos Bayou. In 1892 there were no crevasses in these levees, 
hut several in the levees along the Arkansas River. Of these the Auburn Crevasse 
was 1^ miles long and the Sarassa 1 mile long. The river was 3.6 feet higher (at 
Little Rock) in 1892 than in 1890. 

These crevasses not only had a large sectional area, but were so located that parts 
of them were in line with the direction of the current immediately above, giving the 
discharge a high velocity, and being about 35 miles above the back water from the 
Mississippi River and 100 miles by river from the locality of our discharge observa- 
tions, while only 35 miles distant by the route through the erevasse, the resulting 
slope was much greater than that of the overflow of 1890. 

Ejfeet of the High stage of the Mississippi Biver, — The crevasse being about 60 miles 
from the mouth of the river and about 35 miles above the back water from the Mis- 
sissippi River I infer that the discharge would have been about as great had the 
Mississippi River been several feet lower than the stage reached by this flood. 
» « * • • • • 

Capt. C. McD. TowNSKNi>, 

Corps of Engineers, U,3.Am 



3668 REPORT OF the' chief of engineers, u. s. armt. 

REPORT OF MB. E. C. TOLLDTGER, ASSISTANT ENGIKKER, OPON DISCHARGE OF BAYOU 
BARTHOLOMEW, WITH LETTER OF HR. HOWARD DOBB, OBSERVER. 

Arkansas City, Ark., July $, 1892, 

I woti}d respeotfnlly state tbat the discharge ohservationB of Bayon Bartholoroe w 
were taken at Browns Bridge, Lincoln County, Ark. This location was more^avor- 
able than at any point below for cbtainini^ satisfactory results. The water in the 
bayon had fallen 4 feet when the observations were taken, and it is reasonable to 
presume that a greater surface Telocity would have been obtained at the max imam 
rise, but as the water had been over one X'Srt and against the Stringers of the remain- 
ing part, and as the bridge did not show any signs of being moved from its founda- 
tion it is my opinion that the maximum velocities were but little if any greater than 
at the time the observations were taken. 

The bayou is through a low flat country, and above the Lincoln County line. The 
bed of the bayou is occupied with a growth of large cypress trees giving it the 
appearance of a large cypress brake. 

'^Arkansas Citt, Are., Jwm 29, 1892. 

''In connection with report, herewith returned, of observations taken on dis- 
charge of Arkansas River flood into Bayou Bartholomew,^ I wish to state that owing 
to the fact that the water had fallen 4 feet from its maximum height before obser- 
vations were made, accuracy in obtaining correct soundings and measurements was 
difficult. Only three openings were found at that time empty ingin to Bayou Bar- 
tholomew—^. 6., Fletcher Brake, Deep Bayou, and Ambon Bayou. The actual width 
of these was taken by measurement, 4 feet added to soundings for depth, while the 
additional width allowed for added height could not be accurately ascertained, hot 
was estimated as nearly as possible, from marks left by the water. In all these 
streams the velocity was taken by surface floats, and after repeated trials was found 
to be 1 foot per second, and having one week before t-aken observations on Ambon 
JBayon and l* ish Deadening, when the flood was at its greatest height, and found the 
velocity to be the same as at this date, that figure was taken for the correct velocity. 
The remaining points of discharge, six openings into Fletcher Brake, Browns Bayou, 
The Wash, nortn of Deep Bayou, and Fish Deadening were dry, and no observations 
could be taken further than estimates from measurements of the d^th and width as 
shown by the marks left on the trees and banks, by the overflow ; and the velocity, 
all else being equal, was considered at the same rate with the streams taken, ana 
with Fish Deadening as formerly taken at the greatest height of flood. 

" In order to have proof of the correctness of observations made, I took soundings, 
etc., of Bayon Bartholomew at a bridge crossing just below the confluence of Deep 
Bayou, where it carried o£f the water from Deep Bayou, the Wash designated, Fisn 
Deadening, and Ambon Bayou, and return figures in my report. The velocity here 
was tested thoroughly and showed only 1 foot per second with surface floats. The 
sluggish current in this stream I attribute to several causes, being t<hat it is % long 
and extremely crooked stream, draining an even and almost level swamp, having 
virtually two channels^ or rather having the low-water channel in the center of a 
depression extending 50 yards on each side of the banks, before reaching the gwieral 
level of the swamp. The channel proper will average from 100 to 120 feet wide and 
3 feet deep, which carries all drainage, except in raiuy seasons. The depression 
referred to extends the whole length of the stream and is fllled with a thick growth 
of vines and timber, and retards the current to such an extent that there is little 
difference in its velocity at different stages, and for the velocity of the streams and 
inlets found emptying into it I am satisfied that no greater rate existed, from the 
fact that owing to excessive rains prevailing during the flood, the water in Bayon 
Bartholomew was at or near a level with the water in the swamps : and more cur- 
rent existed during the first rise and subsequent fall of the overflow than at the 
time when both were at their greatest height. This fact was illustrated in the case 
of Fletcher Brake. The brake or lake was a circular body of water lOO yards vride 
and 4 or 5 miles long, emptying into it its full width. This lake was fed by a 
bayou al>out 200 feet wide and six small washes leading from the overflow, and yet 
no current was perceptible at its mouth, where both currents met, and dead water 
was the consequence. This could not have been in case of protracted flood, but it 
having existed only four or five days, the water from all sources only served to fill 
the lake, and it could only find egress as the bayou fell.'' 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3669 

EXTRACTS FBOM BKPORT OF MB. T. C. J. BAIL'S', CHIEF OF PARTY, UPON DISCHARGE 

OB^BVATIOKS AT WILSON POINT AND CHICOT CITY. 

Grkknvillb, Miss., July 22, 1892. 

The following report on discharge observations taken by me during the high water 
of 1892 is respeictf ally submitted : 

On April II the survey steamer Meier, with quarterboat and a party of thirteen, 
left for observations in Lake Providence Reach. 

From the 16th of the month until June 20 continuous gaugings were taken, except 
on a few days when storms prevented. 

Party. — ^Tne party consisted of a chief, two assistanta, pilot, engineer, leadsman, 
and erew, in all thirteen souls. 

Seelion. — ^A discharge section was set up Just above Wilson Point Landing, it being 
the same that was used for high and low water observations taken hist year. The 
riYer here is 3,842 feet broad between banks, but during the entire series of gaug- 
ings the water was over the Louisiana bank against an old levee, which is 80 feet 
back. The velocity in this 80 feet was so uniform that no separate measurements 
for it were made, it being included in the last partial discharge. 

Profiles of shore and section of levee were run, stakes being driven every 10 feet 
out to the bank line, so that the water width at any date could be accurately deter- 
mined. From April 16 to April 29 this width increased from 3,925 to 3,946 feet : 
after the 29th, and until the end of the series, the water was against the nearly vertical 
side of the old levee and its width remained constant at 3,946 feet. The meter sta- 
tions were placed 300 feet apart. No. 1 being 42 feet from the Mississippi bank and 
No. 13 190 roet out f^um the Louisiana side. 

Halfway across the section a pivot 1,000 feet above and radial targets on the near- 
est bank were used; for the remaining half all the targets were on the opposite 
bank. This gave for the smallest intersection 27° 31', Two thousand feet above the 
raAge on the Mississippi side the Duncansby Chute pours an immense volume of water 
into the river at a high velocity, the axis of the chute forming an angle of 39 degrees 
with that of the river at the point of entrance. It is believed that this water, by 
eating out the bar which has formerly existed at the east end of the section, is one 
of the causes of the great variations which may be observed from day to day in the 
discharges. Stations 2, 3, and 4 were the ones affected, the current varying on them 
so greatly £rom minute to minute that it was extremely difficult to Judge when a 
true average velocity had been obtained. For this reason these stations were occu- 
pied from ten to twenty minutes, and, in fact, all the stations were occupied for an 
average time of eight minutes^ no fixed period being used, the counting be^nning 
and ending on range and continuing until, in the judgment of the chief, a fair mean 
velocity had been obtained. Krom June 6 until the end the current on Station 1 was 
rnnnisg upstream as detennined by double floats, and the entire partial discharge of 
this section thereafter was subtracted from the sum of theremain*ng partial discharges. 
The position of the seam beweeu the up and downstream currents was not at all 
constant, it shifting from a point 50 feet outside Station 1 to Station 2 within a min- 
ute. Those circumstances rendered it difiicult to obtain a true discharge during the 
highest stages of the river. 

Methada of procedure. — Until May 30 Price meter No. 38 was used at this station ; 
from that date until the end of the series No. 39 took its place, No. 38 being sent to 
Arkansas City. The meter was attached to a rod 18 inches above a 225-pound lead, 
and submerged to six- tenths the depth by a reel worked with a system of spur wheelH 
so arranged that one revolution of the crank would lower the meter 1 foot. A stout 
wire was attached at first to the weight, afterward to the swivel in the rod above 
the meter, and ran forward over a cleat in the bow of the steamboat to another reel. 

The proper length of this guy line to pay out in order that the weight should be 
under its reel was obtained by means ol a table prepared for the purpose. No vane 
was used on the weight, but my experience while in charge of the party at Arkansas 
City (where an 18-iuch iron one was used) has demonstrated the fact that the meter 
is much steadier in the water and the lowering wire much nearer vertical with the 
vane than without it. The revolutions of the meter wheel were counted on an ordi- 
nary telegraph sounder in a circuit with from three to four Leclanche cells. 

The chief of the party personally supervised the working of the steamer, all 
arrangements of the meter, and at times checked the countings of the assistant. He 
also gave the signal when to start and when to end counting, recording the revolu- 
tions per miuote and motion of boat with reference to the current, and judging 
when a mean velocity had been registered. The average time used in measuring 
velocity was three hours. 

After using the meter, soundings were taken at irregular intervals aoross the sec- 
tion using a 20-pouud lead on a three-eighths- inch cott<m line, each sounding being 
located by a transit angle from a point 1,700 i^det above the section. The chief 
remained on the steamer and checked every reading of the leadsman, taking care 



3670 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

that the soandings were oanght on a vertical line. After the soundiDgs were taken 
the lead line was tested, and in case of a line which changed much tests were made 
both before and after running over the sectitm, each set of corrections being applied 
for half way across. In order to test the accuracy of this method drifting sound- 
ings were taken. A 20-ponnd lead was attached to tine steel wire graduated every 
foot with solder and tagged every 5 and 10 feet ; this was paid off from a reel. The 
weight being lowered to within a few feet of the bottom, the steamer would drift 
down ; when near the section the flagman would raise his flag as a warning to the 
transit man and also give warning signal to the man manipulating the brake. At 
. the instant of crossing range flagman would call time and drop his flag, while the 
lead would be allowea to run down nntil it tonched the bottom when the depth was 
read. The results will be found in the table of discharges : 

June 10, mean depth — Foot, 

By ordinary method 61.9 

By drifting 60.5 

As this is the first trial of the method it is believed that errors were made in read- 
ing some of the depths, the graduation being very fine and difficult to read. 

[Note. — At Arkansas City I used a register devised by Mr. John S. Dodge, a mem- 
ber of the party. It consisted of a pointer revolving around a dial graduated for 
every foot and connected by a train of wheels with the &xle of the lowering wheel. 
It was arranged to read zero when the bottom of the lead tonched the surface of the 
water and graduated by paying out every 5 feet of wire off the reel, marking the 
dial opposite the arm and dividing the spaces between into five equal parts. The 
appliance worked very satisfactorily for checking the readings of the leaidaman, and 
would indicate correct depths to the nearest half foot.] 

June 17, mean depth — p«et. 

By ordinary method 60.0 

By drifting 59.6 

A very close agreement. 

All gauges were read to the nearest hundredth before and after each velocity 
observation. 

Float ohaervations. — In order to test the discharge measurements with the meter, 
four observations with double floats were taken. The meter was run in the moriiin<r, 
soundings taken, and floats in the afternoon, iisinjr the same water area for both. 
Ranges parallel to and 250 feet above and below the discharge section were set up 
and two transits used for locating the floats, one being on the levee in the discbarge 
range the other at /\ Ruple 1,770 feet above. The surface floats consisted of two tin 
cones, 7 inches in diameter at base and 6 inches high,- placed base to base. The sub- 
surface float consisted of a tin cylinder 12 inches high and 10 inches in diameter, 
having a strip of lead around the bottom and sixteen air chambers, half cylinders 4 
inches high, 1| inches diameter axound the top. The float was submerged to six- 
tenths depth, as determined by the soundings taken in the morning. 

The object being to so place the float that it would cross the discharge range on 
or near the meter stations, the steamer, towing a skift*, would move up to the section, 
flank, over until on the required station, then run upstream parallel to the current. 
When a sufficient distance above the upper range the skiff would cast loose, float 
placed in the water, and skiff remain near and opposite to it. When close to the 
npper range a flagman in the boat wonld raise his flag, which would be dropped 
in crossing the range, time noted, and the two transit angles read. 

This prosrramme would be repeated for the other two ranges, afber which the 
steamer, which had drifted down, would pick up the skiff and proceed to the next 
station. 

The results of these observations may be found in the tabnlated statement of dis- 
charge and will be seen to agree closely in every case with the meter work. 

Motion of steamer while on stations.* — There appears to have been some doubts as to 
the accuracy of the present method of meter observations, due to the lateral and 
normal motion of the boat. To discover what effect this motion would have, three 
sets of observations were made to determine the path of the boat, the method of 
procedure being as follows: Two transits were placed, at /^ Ruple, the other at /\ 
Harris, both above the section on opposite sides of the river transits being set in 
azimuth by sights on the opposite stations. A piece of white cloth was placed on 
the starboard steam pipe nearly above the meter and simultaneous azimuths read 

* Discussion of error due to lateral motion of boat and formula for correction given 
in report on reduction in secretary's office of Arkansas City discharge* of 18Si-'85. 
See Report Chief of Engineers, 1887, p. 2836. 



APPEKDIXYY — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3671 

every minute on this mark, the chief on the steamer counting and signaling at the 
proper times. At first these azimuths were taken ever3' thirty set^onds, but it was 
fpuud that nearly all the motion could be obtained by minute intervals. One set 
was taken in a li^ht wind and the other two in a strong one, from the most unfavora- 
ble quarters parallel to the section ; the azimuths were then plotted to a scale of 126 
feet to 1 inch, and the course of the boat traced. 

When 'the steamer is sliding along parallel to the section, that is, perpendicular to 
the current, the meter is measuring the resultant of its moticm and that of the cur- 
rent; in other words the hypotheuuse of a right triangle whose base is the side 
Telocity of the boat in feet per second, and whose perpendicular is the velocity of the 
current in feet per second. If the movement is upstream parallel to the current, the 
samef the current's and boat's motion is registered; if downstream, the difference. 

Let I denote the sum of all the components of the boat's motion on a station par- 
allel to the section. 

n = distance between the initial and final position, at the end of an observation 
on one station, measured normal to the section. 

t = time in seconds that the station is occupied. 

F= velocity registered by the meter. 

V = true velocity. 

e = correction to be applied to T in order to obtain «. 

P n 

Then: c := K^y ^-j^ ^^ second term being minus when the steamer ends above 

and plus when it ends below the initial point. 

Using the formula jg^iven above, corrections were made to the discharge obtained 
on these days, as indicated in the table. The observations showed that the first 
term, even on the windiest day, is very small, both quantitively and relatively to 
the Second term, and that, with proper care an error less than one-half per cent is in- 
troduced into the discharge. 

Meter raUnge.—Dxinxtg the time that meter No. 38 was in use at Wilson's Point, 
that is, from April 16 until May 30, four ratings were obtained, one in Old River, 
Louisiana, taken f^om the steamboat along a 1,600-foot base, meter submerged 15 
feet, and three at Wilsons Point, taken from a skifif along a 400- foot base, meter sub- 
merged 4 feet in 10 feet of water. 

• • • • • • • 

The rate of meter No. 38 while in use at Wilsons Point remained constant. Meter 
No. 39 was rated once at Wilsons Point and once near Greenville. The results 
were identical with those found at Arkansas City. 

• • • * « • « 

On July 5« meters Nos. 38 and 39 were rated in a borrow pit along the railroad 
at Svnnyside Landing, 'At'kansas. The water was but 6 foet deep and the pit nar- 
row. It was found that the rates of both had changed ou the same eide, but as 
observations of July 11 in the deep water of a chute opposite Greenville did not 
indicate this change it was decided that owing to the shallowness and narrowness 
of the pit at Sannyside the displaced water did not have free play. The results 
were therefore not used in the reductions. 

Bank discharge, — ^Was measured on the Mississippi side alone, that on the west side, 
as before stated, being included in the river discharge. The range was above the 
discharge section, and about half a mile back from the river, at the intersection of 
the main levee with the one running out to the Lower Skipwith's Landing. The 
meter was held Just beneath the surface, a reduction factor of nine-tenths being 
used to reduce surface to mean velocity. Owing to the heavy growth of timber and 
nndeibrusfi through which water was running it was impossible to measure all the 
water flowing over the banks, but it is believed that three-fourths of the total 
amount was obtained. 

Crevaese meaeuremente. — ^Brooks' Mills Crevasse, 505} R., occurred at 5:30 a. m. 
May 9. Three measurements for discharge were taken, one by Mr. George C. Thomas, 
one by Mr. Charles Miller, and one by myself. 

Leland Cravasse, 484f R., occurred May 25. It was measured by me three times. 

Crevasse below Columbia, Ark., 470 R., occurred June 22. It was measured by 
me once. The results of these measurements are found in the accompanying cre- 
vasse table. * 

Chicot City discharge section, — On June 27, Mr. Charles H. Miller, in charge of the 
Arkansas Citv party, set up a discharge range 2,300 feet below Chicot City Landing, 
and 6} miles by channel above the Arkansas City dischargee section. The river here 
is 3,962 feet broad between banks. Fourteen meter stations were located 300 feet 
apart, Station 14 being 90 feet from tjie Mississippi bank line, and Station 1, 70 feet 
from the Arkansas shore. The section was sbnllow and the velocity observed on 
ttationa extremely variable. On June 28 and 29 Mr. Miller measured discharge here 



3672 EEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U, S. ARlffT. 

"witb meter No. 38 ; on June 30, a. m. and p. m., and July 1, a. m., I meaeurod the dis- 
cLarge with meter No. 39. In the afternoon I ran double floats over the section. On 
July 2 botii parties proceeded to Chicot on the steamer Florence, where simultaneons 
observations were taken with both meters, No. 38 being on the starboard and No. 39 
on the port side. Results of these observations are in accomjianying table. 

The observations of July 1 were taken simultaneously with those at Arkansas 
City : meter observations at 7 o'clock, floats at 2 o'clock. It will be noticed that 
the difference in the discharge at the two points by the two methods is practically 
the same, it being for the meters 118,400 cubic feet more at Arkansas City than at 
'JJiicot, and for floats 120,900 more. 

Velocity obeenfafions beloto J,ake Providence, — On June 21 a velocity ranf^e was 
•taked off li miles below Lake Providence, on which June 22 and 23 velocity was 
measured, the meter being submerged 5 feet. 



REPORT OF MR. T. C. J. BAILT, CHIKF OF PARTY, ON DT8CHAROK OBSERVATIONS AT 

WILSON POINT, LOUISIANA. 

Greenville, Mi6s.» February IQ, 189S, 

The following report on low-water discharge observations at Wilson Point, Loais- 
iana,for the season of 1892 is respectfully submitted: 

The section had its old position but was divided into 100 instead of 300-foot sta- 
tions in order to determine, if possible, how close an approximation to a true veloc- 
ity curve the 300-foot stations give. 

The weight on the meter was 250 pounds, with a wronght-iron vane, which by 
presenting the sharp point of the weight to the cnrrrent would reduce the eddies 
around the meter. The steamer Meter was employed for the work, and the regular 
method for obtaining the velocity, with the following exceptions: 

(1) Current meter was submerged but 10 feet. » * * 

(2) Meter stations were occupied but two minutes, the rapid shifting of the cur- 
rent during hiirh water demonstrating the necessity of more meter stations and a 
shorter tim& on them. 

October 26 the 100-foot stations were each occupied for two minutes. Dividing 
the sections into partial areas of 100 feet leugth, and usiug all the velocity stations, 
gives for that day a discharge of *147,992 cubic feet per second, and a mean -velocity 
of 1.878 feet per second. 

Dividing the section into 300 feet partial areas, and using the velocities found only 
on the regular 300-foot stations, gives a discharge of 146,774 cubic feet per second, 
and a mean velocity of 1.862 feet per second, a difference of less than 1 percent. At 
the same time the aoconipauying platt shows the variableness of the current, which 
is even greater in high than in low water. October 29, but 300-foot stations were 
occupied on occonnt of a lack of time. 

Under instructions from you, a new method for obtaining discharge was tried 
November 22 First, the regular meter stations were occupied. Then, that same 
mor« iug, starting at station llf + 50, meter submerged 5 feet, the steamer flanked 
slowly across the river on the section, from the Louisiana to llie Mississippi side. 
Chief, 'with watch in hand, would call and record time as a meter station was 
crossed, assistant count>ng and recording revolutions of the meter wheel, cuntin- 
uonsiy, setting down total revolutions at each call of '' time/' 

This method was tried twice that morning, the steamer on both occasions flanking 
across from the west to the east bank. For computation the river was divided into 
100-foot sections (fiom meter station to meter station), except tlie 50-lbot one from 
111 -f 50 to llf . 

By this method the meter, passing through every filament of water flowing along 
a plane 5 feet below the surface, would integrate the velocities of these differential 
elements. The revolutions of the wheel between two stations divided by the time 
would give the true mean revolutions per second in that section. This rsdnced to 
velocity would be the resultant of the boat's and the current's velocity per second, 
or, considering the current as normal to the section, the hypothenuse of a risht- 
angled triangle, whose base is the side velocity of the boat in feet per seconn on 
passing through the 100-fuot section (considering this motion as uniform, meanwhile), 
and whose peqiendicular is the required mean velocity of the section, in a plane 5 
feet below the surface. * * * 

It may be sven that while the flanking method on this day gives a discharge 25 
per cent greater than the ordinary method, yet the results of the two flanking trials 
difi'er from each other by less than four-tt-nths per cent. It is believed that the boat 
by compressing the water against the wheel (it being but 5 feel below the surface, 



* For flnal result see tabulation. t Not printed. 



APPENDIX T T— EEPOET OF MISSISSIPPI EIVEE COMMIRMON. 3673 

and the boat drawing 2^), cansed the meter to register too high Telocities. At the 
same time, the close a^eemenc of the results obtained by the two trials wonld tend 
to show that the error is a constant one. * « •» 

The shifting of the current within the half hour elapsing between the two trials 
is also apparent, especially in section 7f-7i, where the trough in the second trial 
occupies uie place of the crest in the first. 

There was 300 feet of dead water at the west end of, and 180 feet at the east end 
of section. Price meter No. 38 was employed, being rated once at Ashton, hA,, firom 
a skiff pulled along a 200-foot base, in dead water. The meter was submerged 4 feet 
in i^m 7 to 12 feet of water. * • • 



RBPOBT OF MB, ▲. F. KILPATKICK, CHFRF OF PARTY, UPON DI8CHAR0B OBSRBVA- 

TI0K8 AT UTTLB BOCK, ARK. 

MBHPAIS, TeKK., JiM€ fjy tSBt, 

I have the honor to submit the folloi^lng, with the accompanying tabulated sheoti'* 
maps,* and notes, as a report on hi^h- water discharge observations of the Arkansas 
Kiver, taken at Little Ruck, Ark., m May, 1892. 

With Mr. M. Gardner as assistantj I left Memphis on May 19, arrived in Little 
Bock on May 2^ and located the stations and ranges. On account of rain no obser- 
vations were taken until May 23, when the river had declined 0.8 feet. 

Method. — A departure from the usual method of the field work, and consequently 
of the graphical computations, was necessary on account of having no steamboat. 
The current was so rapid that floats could not be handled nor reuable soundings 
made from a skiff. 

In January ot this year, when the water was low, elaborate soundings were made 
under direction of Capt. H. S. Taber, as shown on blue-print map* herewith. Four 
of the sections, as indicated on the map, were selected, reduced and platted on oross- 
seetion paper, and from them a section, whose dimensions were an average of the 
four, was platted. » » ♦ 

Velocity of cnrrent was obtained by noting time of floats in passing from range 
A C to B D, 3,200 feet below it. The path of each float was located by transitmen 
at A and B. The floats were dropred from the railr«>ad bridget and, as they crossed 
the line A C were observed by a transitnian at B and, at crossing of line B D, by 
trausitnian at A. Time was noted by assistant who dropped the floats in response to 
the signals given by assistants at the transits. The floats were subsurface ones, and 
conflist€»d of donble>coned, air-tight tin buoys, connected by fine cords with sub- 
merged sheets of tin crossed at right angles, so that the four leaves or flanges were 
7 by 20 inches. The length of cord varied to suit depth of sti*eam, the object being 
to have the submerged sheets travel mid-depth the stream at each place. 

Levels run on May 25 between the bridge and gangn B gave data for calculating 
slope of river at mean time of observations. An attempt was made to utilize the 
United States gauge at Baring Cross Bridge, which is about 5,000 feet above the 
bridge shown on map, but owing to its unfavorable position — on side of pier — ^it 
could not be read to within 0.5 feet with any degree of certainty. 

During tiie obsen^ations I had the cooperation of Capt. H. S. Taber, through his 
assistant engineer, Mr. Van Frank, and from him obtained data for approximating 
results in all cases where it was impossible, under tke oizeumstanoeai to maka meas- 
urements. * » » 

Capt. S. W. ROESaLBB, 

Carps of JEngineeri, V. 3, A, 



BXPOBT OF MB. A. F. KIU'ATBICK, CHIEF OF PABTT, tJPON DISCHABOB OBSBBTATIONB 

AT MOKROE, LA. 

Memphis, Tenn., June U, 189t. 

I have the honor to submit the following * * * as a report on the field work 
of high-water discharge observations at Monroe, La. [Ouachita River], in May and 
June, 1892. 

With Mr. Gardner as assistant, I arrived in Monroe on the 29th of May and 
selected location for discharge section and gauges, as indicated in the sketoh* here- 
with. 



*Kot printed. t About 1,600 feet abova A C, 



3674 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

The party y consisting of assistant engineer, recorder, leadsman, and skiffinan, was 
organized May 30, and established stations, erected Ranges, and made a complete set 
of soundings. A high 'wind prevented observations of noats. 

On the two days following, velocity observations were made, gauges read, etc., 
and on J une 1 levels run and checked between gauges. As the river bed in this 
vieinity is practically uniform, the stream slu^gisn, and the wat«r clear, the sound- 
ings of May 30 were used as a basis in calculating subsequent discharges. 

The /M>undings were made on line A C (see sketch),* from a skiff, with a one-half 
inch hemp line and 12-pound lead. Angles were recorded by transitman at B in 
response to signal from skiff at proper moment, and depths were noted by assistant 
in skiff. Soundings were taken about 25 feet apart. 

Mid- depth velocities, normal to section, were obtained by noting the time con- 
sumed by each float in passing from section A C to £ D (300 feet below it) and path 
located by transitman at Bt who observed angles as the floats crossed each line. 
• * * [Floats as described for Fulton, Tenn., see page 3665.] 

The length of connecting cord was varied to suit tne depth of stream at each 
place, the object beinff to run the floats at regular distances and have the submerged 
tin travel middepth tne stream at each place. 

On account of prevailing winds greatest surface velocity was obtained but once, 
and at the discharge section. « * • 

The sine of slope inclination is not given because the water was almost level and 
the wind too high to allow close reading of gauges at the time. * * • 

The transit notes taken were connected with map of the city of Monroe at point F 
on the sketch* submitted, which is reduced from part of original^map in use there. 

Gapt. S. W. RoBSSLER, 

Carps of MngiiieerSt U, 8. A^ 



REf OBT OF MB. GEOB6E C. TnOMAS, CHIEF OF PARTY, UPON DISCHARGE OBSERYA- 

TION8, RED RIVER, AT ALEXANDRIA, LA. 

Greenyille, Miss., June f8, 1892. 

The party arrived at Alexandria on the 22d of May, but owing to delay in arrival 
of outht no work was done until the 24th. 

The point selected for measuring this discharge was immediately in front of 
Alexandria, La., where the stream is roinparatively straight for a distance of otio- 
half mile above and below, and confined between the levee on the west side and tlic 
high bank on the east ; width at extreme high water, 820 feet ; maximum depth, r»0 
feet; bed of stream, soft clay. 

A base line 1,800 feet long was laid out along top of leYee parallel with the stream, 
from which four parallel ranges are located across stream, eact^ 200 feet apart and at 
right angles to base line. 

Slope gauges were established on the left bank 2,000 feet above and below the dis- 
charge range I these were connected with the g^uge and read immeiliately after 
each observation. 

Range No. 3, or " Discharge Range,'' was divided into ten sections, nine of 83 feet 
each and one of 87.4 feet. 

Range No. 1 (for starting floats) was divided into ten stations, each station being 
locatea opposite the center of its corresponding section on tiie discharge range. 

Floats were started from each station and accurately timed when crossing Range 
No. 2 to No. 3 and from No. 3 to No. 4. The float on the instant of crossing ea^ 
range being located by an angle from the zero of .base line, 800 feet below disdbarge 
range. 

Double floats of tin were used: upper float a double cone 6 inches in diameter; the 
top float was immersed to one-naif its height; lower float a 12-inch cylinder, 18 
inches long, with 4^ inch air-tight compartments ; float connected by small silk fish 
line; lower float run at six-tenths the depth. 

Three ranges were sounded on the 26tli, with a view of obtaining a mean section, 
but finding no material difference between the three, only the discharge range was 
sounded afterwards. 

Soundings taken with a 15-pound lead on one-quarter inch line, graduated to feet; 
lead thrown from bow of skifif ; angles read on leadsman ; soundings were first taken 
approximately every 20 feet, but finding the bed of the stream comparatively uni- 
form, the distance between was increased to 40 feet. 

Water commenced escaping through chute on east bank, above the range on the 

*Not printed. 



APPENDIX YY — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3675 

6th. Two moasnrements were made of tliis, one on the 9th and the other on the 14th. 
Velocity ohtained hy surface floats ; sonndiugs located by stadia. 

Considerable trouble was experienced on account of wind up to June 3, but for 
the remainder of the time the party was out all conditions were favorable. • • • 



MEMORANDA: 

TO ACCOMPANY TABULATED RBSUIiTS OF FINAL REDUCTION,* IN SECRETAHT'S OFFICE, 
OF DISCHARGE OBSERVATIONS ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES AND 

THiK atchafalaya; 1892. 

St. LouU, Mo, — Observations were made under the direction of the secretary, by 
party in charge of Mr. J. A. Ockerson, assistant engineer, and at about the time of 
highest water. • 

One discharge section was at the Merchants Bridge and the other section about ii 
miles below that, at the Pittsburg Dike. 

Tbe Merchants Bridge consists of 3 spans of about 500 feet each, and approaches. The 
Telocity was measured at the centers of tbe first and second spans, with Price cur* 
rent meter No. 10, when the meter was lost; the meter was held at six-tenths depth 
and for ten and eight minutes. Tbe velocity measured at second span was assumed 
for the third span. Tbe velocity of flow over the bank east of section was estimated 
by the observer. 

In reducing the registrations of meter to velocity in feet per second, the results 
of the latest rating, made April 11, 1890, were used; the equation is: y =3.9897 
y-h 0.2986, in which y= velocity and x = registrations. 

The soundinffs were taken from the bridge, with a three-sixteenths-inch wire rope 
and a 16-pouna lead. The distance apart of soundings was about 29 feet for the 
flrat span and 58 feet for other spans. 

The velocities at the Pittsburg Dike section were obtained with double floats, 
except at one station on the shallow side, where the Price meter No. 10 was used 
May 19. 

The floats were run at irregular distances apart across the river; the subsurface 
float was approximately at middepth. The highest velocity and deepest part of 
the river were near the left bank. The last station at which the velocity was 
measured, at the left bank side, was 300 feet from shore, and 275 feet from the near- 
est station on the river side of it; the velocity found 300 feet from shore was 16.2 
feet per second ; this velocity was applied over the area included between the shore 
and 437 feet out, on the statement of the observer that the inaximnm velocity was 
probably between the last station and shore. The city harbor boat, a large side- 
wheel tug, was used at this section. In consequence of the streu^^th of current, the 
steamer was headed up stream, dropped down across the section, feeling the bottom 
with the sounding line. The soundings were made May 23, except one, which was 
taken May 19: they were all corrected to agree with stage of May 21, the date of 
float observations. The soundings were taken with same lead and line used at the 
Merchants Bridge, and at irregpilar distances across the river; the first sounding at 
the deep side was about 200 feet from shore and at the shallow side about 250 feet. 

The observations were irregular, owin^^ to the difficulties of the situation. In cal- 
culations allowance was made for these irregularities, based on personal recollection 
<>f the observers, who were of the force of this office. 

The gauge readings are from the standard United States Engineer gauge at foot of 
Market street, whose zero is 400.23 feet above the Cairo datum plane. 

Columbys, Ky, — Ihe discharge section is at the same location as in 1891, and is about 
5?,000 feet below the section of 1881-'82. 

The section is shown on a tracing, scale 1 :20000, accompanying the field notes. The 
left bank end is about 200 feet above where the Mobile and Ohio Railroad would cut 
the shore ii the straight line east of switches was produced. The right bank end is 
about 550 feet below where the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad would 
cut the shore if the straight line before entering Belmont was produced. 

Azimuth of section, R, B. to L. B., 305^ 30'. 
B. B. from stone line B. M. f: azimuth 351^ ; distance, 5,020 feet. 
Ij. B. from A Fort Halleck ; azimuth 29<^ 10' ; distance, 4,850 feet. 
L. B. from P. B. M. 7 ; azimuth 27^ 30' ; distance, 2,050 feet. 

* The methods of reduction are the same as heretofore used in this office for similar 
ohservations and have been fully described in previous published reports. All the 
results tabulated are from reco'mputation in this office, except some given in the 
slope and crevasse tables, where it is specially noted in each case. Generally two- 
thirds or four-fifths of the velocity observed at the last velocity station was taken 
to find the discharge between that station and the shore; this was determined by the 
form of the transverse curve of velocity in each case, as heretofore ; exceptional casea 
ate noted in the Biemoranda. 



3676 BBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OP KNGINEEES, U. &. AEMY. 

Sonndings and yelocities were taken at irregular intervals across the rlrer, the 
Velocities being generally less than 200 feet apart. 

Cross sections were plotted to a scal<^ of 1 inch = 200 feet horizontal and 1 inch = 
20 feet Yerlieal, and on these %h» Telocity cnrre was plotted in registrations of the 
meter per second. 

Soundings were scaled from these, 100 feet apart, and velocities generally 200 feet 
apart^ for computing discharges. 

The end areas were computed precisely from the notes. The end velocity station 
on shallow side was generally a^ut 200 feet from shore, and on the deep side was 
from 26 feet to 164 feet from shore. 

The meter was not rated during the season, hence the rating of September 23, 1891, 
was used; the equa£ion is y = 3.7i^ x -)-- •^l^* 

The time during which meter was ran at each station varied from 70 to 2d4 seconds, 
but was generally about 160 seconds. 

Datum lihe was taken same as last season, at 40.65 feet on the standard M. R. C. 
gauge at Belmont, Mo.,* whose zero is 287.14 feet above the Cairo datum. Datum 
width taken at 3,121 feet. 

Slope gauges were 8,400 feet apart on the left bank, the lower one being about 
1,700 feet below the discharge section ; for results see slope table. 

^Iton, Ten», — Section line is about normal to the direction of the current, and 
about 5,000 fef)t above the landing at Fulton, Tenn. 

This discharge section is about 1,600 feet above that used in 187^'80 and 1884. 

Azimuth of section, R. B. to L. B., 330^. 

R. B. Shore line from B. M. Y> 1»150 feet; azimuth 260° 00'. 

L. B. Shore line from B. H. if, 950 feet; azimuth 225^ 10'. 

The above are derived from a location of the section on a H. R. C. map, scale 1 
inch = 1 mile, received from district officer, and transferred to chart, scale 1 : 20000. 
Divergence is very small, hence the point of intersection is not given. 

The float paths were plotted to a scale of 1 inch = 100 feet, and from this veloci- 
ties were derived. 

The soundings and velocities were plotted on cross-section paper to a horizontal 
scale of 1 inch = 100 feet, and vertical scales of 1 inch = 20 feet for soundings, and 
1 inch = 2 feet per second for velocities. 

The distances of end velocity stations varied from about 30 to 75 feet on the deep 
side, and from 70 to 200 feet on the shallow side of the river. The end soundings 
were generally taken less than 50 feet from shore. 

For computing area and discharge, soundings were scaled off from the plots every 
50 feet, and the velocities every 100 feet, except that where the curves were very 
regular the distance between velocities was increased. 

The observer attributes apparent discrepancies in results of first few days to the 
lead line (see field report), but considerable changes in velocity are also noticeable. 
The readings are given of standard M. R. C, gauge at Fulton, Tenn., whose zero is 
228.55 feet above the Cairo dstnm plane. 

Datum line is taken at 250.10 feet on the local gauge at section, which was the 
reading of April 30 and May 2^ 1892; the datum width is taken at 2,570 feet. The 
tabulated slope Is from reduction at district office. 

Helena, Ark, — The discharge section is shown on a map, scale 1 : 20000, accompany- 
ing the field notes, to have the left bank end on line with the Memphis and Heleua 
Railroad and the right bank eud about 300 feet below the elevator; the section is 
nearly in prolongation of the Memphis and Helena Railroad, as it enters Gleadale, 
Miss. 

Right bank shore line, from B. M. y, 800 feet; azimuth 245^. 

Left bank shore line, from V, 2,740 feet; azimuth 42°. 

Section line intersects stone line 22 at 1,2^$0 feet from B. M. y, divergence 25^ 20' 
downstream. 

Azimuth of section line from R. 6. to L. B., 288^ 05'. 

The soundings and velocities were at irregular distances apart; soundings were 
mainly about 50 feet apart, except near the shores where the distances were generally 
much less. Distances apart of velocities varied, being mainly about 200 feet in deep 
parts and about 300 feet in shallow parts, or where velocities changed but little. 

The cross sections were plotted to a scale of 1 inch= 300 feet horizontal, and 1 
inch =20 feet vertical, and velocities plotted in meter registrations per second. 



Note. — Geodetic positions are from scaling on the 1 : 20000 M. R. C. charts, and shore 
lines are as shown on same charts, unless otnerwise stated. 

*Thi8 gauge was connected with stone line B. M. } by duplicate line of levels of 
inspection party in November, 1892. If the elevation of B. M. } is correct, then the 

fauge is 0.25 feet too low. No correction has been a])plied to the reading tabulated 
ere. Connection vith P. B. M. 8 at Columbus^ by river crossing, will be made as 
early as practicable; meanwhile the elevation is doubtful. 



APPENDIX YY — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3677 

From these plots sonndiu j^s were scaled off every 150 feet and velocities every 300 
feety except where velocities changed rapidly between stations, in which case they 
were scaled every 150 feet and sonndin^ 75 feet. The end areas for &boat 500 feet 
from shore were oompnted precisely from the sounding notes. 

Velocities were generally observed within 300 feet of shore, bat the distance varied 
from about 170 to 370 feet. 

The same meter and rating was used as at Coluoibas, and length of time at sta- 
tions was also about the same. (See page 3676.) 

Datum line was taken at 45.73 feet on the standard United States Engineer gauge, 
whose zero is 161.98 feet above the Cairo datum plane. Datum width taken at 5,119 
feet, as observed May 11, 1892. 

Slope gauges were 12,570 feet apart on the right bank, the upper one being abotit 
2,500 feet above the discharge section. 

Chiwt CUi/f Ark. — For description of location of discharge section and distances 
between velocity stations, etc^ see field report on pace 3671. 

The soundings were located in the usual manner from a 3,000-foot base, the dis* 
taoce apart rarely exceeding 75 feet. Distances out of these were checked from the 
angles, also corrections to lead line were checked. The cross sections were plotted 
to a horizontal scale oil inch =200 feet and vertical 1 inch =20 feet, and sound- 
ings sealed from the plots every 75 feet between the velocity stations, and from 
these the partial areas were computed; the end areas were computed directly from 
the notes. 

From the location of Station I it did not give a good mean velocity for the end 
area, £»r this area, therefore, the velocity at JStation I was correctexl by adding one- 
sixth of the difference between Stations I and II. At all the other stations the 
observed velocity was applied directly to its corresponding partial area. 

The meter ratings used were as described for Arkiuisas City and given in table 
meter ratings. The results of low velocity ratings were used at Station XIY. 

The meter was run at each station generally for five minutes. 

Float observations were reduced in the usual manner. 

The datum line was taken at water surface level at the discharge section on June 
28, which is approximately 165.2 feet above the Cairo datum plane. The gauge 
rea4liugs tabulated are as observed by the discharge party on the Arkansas City 
gange, whose zero elevation is 116.44 feet above the Cairo datum plane. 

Datum width 4,054 feet. 

The discharge over bank was observed June 29, and assumed to be constant from 
June 28 to July 2. 

ArkamBM City, ArJs.—iSee also ^e]fi. report, p. 3665.) The discharge section is in 
same position as in 1891; a field sketch, dateil June 4, 1891, scale 1 inch =300 feet, 
shows the section intersecting the Arkansas shore 2,646 feet downstream from center 
of elevator buiidiug at Arkansas City. The magnetic bearing of section line is 
stated to be N. 41° 10' W. 

On the same sketch a B. M. (probably stone line B. M. ^/ is shown 1,300 feet from 
intersection of left bank and section line ; bearing £. (magnetic) and a P. B. M. (prob- 
ably P. B. M. 84) is shown distant from same intersection 1,080 feet, bearing £. 14^^ 
S. (magnetic). 

The discharge section of 1889 and 1890 intersects the Arkansas shore at same point 
and the Mississippi shore 100 feet above the present section. 

The soundings were generally well distributed across the river, distance apart 
seldom reaching 100 feet, and near the shores being less than 50 feet. 

The distances out of soundings and corrections to lead line in note books were 
checked. 

The partial areas were computed directly from the soundings up to May 19, and 
after that the soundings were scaled from the plotted cross sections at intervals of 
75 feet, and 50 feet near shore, and from these the areas were computed. 

The scale of cross section plots was horizontal 1 inch s= 200 feet to 1 inch sa 20 feet 
vertical. 

The velocity stations were 300 feet apart across the river (except Stations I and II, 
which were 240 feet apart) ; the end velocity stitionn were about 110 and 120 ^eet 
from shore. The observed velocities were applied to the corresponding partial areas 
in computing the discharge. The meter was generally run for five minutes at each 
station. 

No correction for motion of boat, noted in the field report, has been applied. On 
days when piano wire soundings were taken on same day as the ordinary line sound- 
ings, areas by both methods, computed separately, are given; also separate dis- 
charges. 

The old meter. No. 5, and two new ones, Nos. 38 and 39, were used in measuring 
velocities. These meters were rated several times during the season, and the resnlto 
of final reduction in this office are given in table on page 3700. The differ^it series 
were divided at about 3 feet per second velocity, and the upper and lower groups of 
each series reduced separately. 



3678 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

The results of tho higher grpnps were used for redacing the river velocities, and 
that of the lower group for over-bank flow. The reenlts of each group for the dif- 
ferent meters have been combined in the usual manner by weighting the constants 
inversely as the squares of the respective mean errors of the constants. The result- 
ing values are given in the table. Meter No. 39 was taken apart April 28, hence the 
rating of April 23 was not combined with later ratings, but used separately for dis- 
charges of April 22 to 27. The float observations were reduoed in the usual manner. 

The gauge readiugs tabulated are from the gauge at elevator and as reported by 
the observation party; the elevation of zero of this gauge is 116.44 feet above the 
Cairo datum plaae. 

Datum line is taken at 41.73 feet on the gauge and datum width at 3,416 feet^ both 
the same as in 1891. 

Over-bank discharge was measured April 25, May 3, 5, 11, 19, and 31, June 10 and 22, 
and July 1, and from these the bank discharges for intervening dates were interpo- 
lated. 

JFilson Point, La. — ^For position of velocity stations, methods of observation, etc., 
see field reports, pp. 3669 and 3672. 

The discharge section is shown on a sketch accompanying the field notes, scale 
1: 10000, with the right bank end about 250 feet above Wilson Point Lauding; the 
azimnth of section R. 6. to L. B., is 248^ 32', measured on same sketch. This section 
was used in both high and low- water discharges this year, and was also used in 1891. 

The distances out of soundings were checked from the angles, and also lead line 
corrections to soundings checked. The cross sections were plotted to a scale of 1 
inch = 200 feet horizontal and 1 inch =10 feet vertical, and for these plats the sound- 
ings were scaled off every 75 feet ; for the low water set soundings were scaled 
every 50 feet except near shore, since the velocity stations in the low -water observa- 
tions, were 100 feet apart. End soundings were taken directly from the notes. From 
these scaled soundings the partial areas were computed, and the velocities observed 
at the different stations applied to the corresponding partial areas, except s^t Station 
I, during high water, where the observed velocity was increased by adding one- 
fourth of the difference between that and the velocity observed at Station II, to com- 
pensate for the nearness of Station I to shore; see field report. 

The new Price meters Nos. 38 and 39 were used in measuring velocities, and also 
double floats. 

The results of ratings of the meters, given in table on page 3700, and as deacribed 
for Arkansas City, wore used in computing high- water discharges; for the low- water 
discharges meter No. 38, with rating of November 26, was used. 

Where meter and floats are used on the same 4ay the same set of soundings is used 
in obtaining both discharges ; hence the area quantities are not repeated in the table 

In the low- water discharges the meter was held at 10 feet below the surface, «zcapl 
near shore, and these observed velocities were reduced to correspond to six-tenths 
depth by the table given in Mississippi River Commission Report for 1984, p. 189, 
last line. 

Two discharges are given for October 26, one using all the stations 100 feet apart, 
and the other using only the regular stations, 300 feet apart, the same sonndings 
being used. 

The Lake Providence gauge readings tabulated are from the regular gauge reports. 
The zero of this gauge is 89.62 feet above the Cairo datum plane. The '' local gauge '^ 
readings are the elevations of the water surface at the discharge section above a 
horizontal plane at same elevation as that of the zero of the Lake Providence gaug^. 
The datum line is taken at 41.83 feoc on this local gauge as tabulated. 

The width at datnin line was taken as observed at 3,938 feet. 

In computing the low-water datum areas the same datum line and width were 
taken; and at 39.43 feet and 37.43 feet the widths were taken, as observed during 
high water, at 3,923 and 3,841 feet, respectively. Between these heights the slope of 
bank was assumed to be uniform, and also between the last height and the water 
surface. 

The overbank discharge given in the table was on the Mississippi side of the river, 
as described in field report. Tho dates it was observed are noted in the table; for the 
intervening dates it is interpolated in proportion to time. 

Crenasaemeaauremente, third dUtn<iU — (For field reports see pp. 3666 and 3671.) In 
this re-computation only obvious errors in the first computation were corrected, the 
judgment of the observer being accepted where it was evidently his intention to 
allow for rmall irregularities or insufficient observations. 

The results of meter ratings on p. 3700 were used in computing discharges, the low 
velocity groups being generally taken. 

Where the submergence of meter is not noted on the table it was assumed to be 
six-tenths of the depth. 

The widths o f the breaks tabulated are mainly copied from field reports. Sinoe the 
discharge range was not always in line between encLs of break its width would some- 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI EIVER COMMISSION 3679 

times be greater than that tabulated. The discharge of Brooks Mill crevasse was 
observed May 25 also, but liie results are not tabmated since the district officer 
regards them as Tvoorthless. 

Hie observer notes, June 1, for Leland crevasse that conditions were unfavorable, 
but thinka results as given can be relied on to within 10 per cent. 

Natckegf Mia9. — ^A rough -sketch, accompanying notes of 1891, shows section to be 
immediately in front of the town of Vidalia and normal to the direction of the 
river. Hie left-bank end is about 3,300 feet below wherfi Orleans street, Natchez, 
if produced, would intersect the shore line. 

k B. shore line Arom B. M. ^^ 1,900 feet; azimuth, 345° 20". 

R. B. shore line from AEast Base =< P. B. M. LXIII, 1,100 feet; azimuth, 20^ lO'. 

L. B. shore line from B. M. ^^, 850 feet ; azimuth, 81^. 

Section line nearly parallel with stone line 132; azimuth. 323^ 30^. 

It is stated in notebook that the discharge section is in same position as in 1891. 

The distances between stations varied from 98 to 200 feet, except that until May 
28 the distance from station 11 to station 12 was 224 feet, when station 12 was moved 
to make this 200 feet. 

The distance of end stations from shore was about 100 feet until May 30, when the 
"distance out^' of left-bank station was increased to 129 feet by the change above 
noted. 

Until May 20 tihe boat was not exactly at the established stations on account, the 
observer states, of new crew. The departure from stations however is exactly noted. 

Velocities were measured with the Price current meter No. 25. The time of an 
ol»servatiou varied from about one minute to three minutes, but was eeuerally less 
than one and one-half minutes. At stations 5 to 9. after the first few days, the 
meter was held at two-tenths depth and at other stations was held at from three- 
tenths to eight- tenths depth. 

Since the meter was held at two-tenths depth for the greatest number of stations, 
all the others were first reduced to this depth, and the whole result finally reduced 
to six-tenths depth, using the values for the different depths given in Mr. Price's 
tables. This method of observing obviously increases the work of reduction and 
also introduces an additional series of assumptions between the observations and 
the final result, besides those involved in the adopted method of computation. 

The notehook contains two sets of observations for rating the meter, July 2 and 
Jnly 12, 1892, respectively; but as the fimtset was marked "no good,'' only the sec- 
ond set wafi reduced and used in computing discharges. For results of reduction see 
table of meter ratings. 

Datum line was taken at 48.06 feet on the United States Engineer gauge, and datum 
width at 2,179 feet, both as observed June 25, 1892. Datum line was taken at this 
height because the river width at datum height of last year was not observed this 
season. 

Mr. O. Ed. Mott, assistant engineer, who was the observer during the season, states 
in a letter that up to May 19 the observations are not reliable on account of new 
crew. In the notebook the observations of June 23 and 24 are also questioned for the 
same reason. 

The formula correction to discharge was from about 2,100 to 3,700 cubic feet per 
second. 

Red River Landing^ La, — ^The discharge section is shown on sketch scale 1 inch = 1 
mile to be due east and west, latitude 30^ 57'-f- 2,340 feet, and is at Red River Landing. 

R. B. end is said to be nearly at same place as section of former years, but left-bank 
end is moved downstream to make section normal to direction of the current. 

R. B. shore line from B. M. ^f ^, 5.000 feet; azimuth, 351^. 

L. B. shore line from B. M. ^^, 4,100 feet ; azimuth, 22^ 30^. 

Section line (produced inshore) intersects stone line No. 150 at 4,700 feet from B. 
M.^<i divergence 45^ upstream. 

Range signals on left bank were used to locate stations. The stations were mainly 
200 feet apart, except near shore, where they were 100 and 120 feet apart. End sta- 
tions were 98 to 120 feet from right bank and 56 to 138 feet from left bank. 

Note. — In the fourth district, comprising Natchez, Red River Landing, Simmsport, 
and Carrollton, the sounding and velocity stations were coincident and were main- 
tained at the same places on the dis«?harge section throughout the season, with some 
exceptions at Natchez, which are specially noted. The means of velocities at adja- 
cent stations have been ajiplied over the included areas to find the partial discharges. 
The usual formula correction for error due to this method has been approximately 
applied, the maximum correction at the Mississippi stations being about one-fourth 
of 1 per cent of the total discharge and about one-half of 1 per cent at Simmsport. 
Generally this correction la unimportant. Its range is given in the memoranda for 
each station. 



3680 BEFOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENQINEEBS/U. 8. ABMT. 

Yelooities were meaanred with the meter at mid depth until Jime 14, after which 
they were taken at foiir-teutha depth. These have all been redn ed to six-teutha depth 
for oompatinff discharge. The meter was ran from two to three minutes a6 each 
station until May 11, and after that uniformly for two minntos at each station. • 

The notes contain tables of lead-line corrections up to May 13 for this station and 
Siinmsport, and corrected sounfliugs have been checked by these tables; but after 
that date Mr. Oliveira, the observer, states that ''The corrections for each day's 
soundings were made by stretching the lead line alongside the tape line and read- 
ing off on the tape the correct sonnilings corresponding to each recorded reading on 
tiie lead line. The readings on the tape line were entered as the corrected soand- 
ings." The corrections, as given in tiie tabl^, seldom exceeded 1 foot and were 
generally one or two tenths of a foot. 

Datum line was taken at 48.85 feet on the United States Engineer gauge and datum 
width at 4,046 feet, both as observed June 27, 1892. The fonnula correction for a 
total discharge was from about — 300 to + 700 cubic feet per seccmd. 

Mr. W. G. Price, assistant engineer, was observer until May 13, after that Mr. B. 
J. Oliveira. Slope gauges were read at the discharge section and at Rows Landing. 
The results are given in the accompanying slope tables. 

The location map accompanying the discharge notes shows a flow over the left 
bank following the foot of the binds from Clark es Lake, just below Fort Adams, 
and coming into the river again at Bows Lauding, making a nearly straight cut 
across of about 8 miles long, which opposite the discharge section was about 4 miles 
from the river. No measurement or estimate is given of this overflow in the notes of 
discharge work. 

Simmspori, La.* — ^Two different discharge sections were used at this place, the first 
one stated to have been established by Mr. G. Ed. Mott, assistant engineer, between 
sill clams Nos. 1 and 3. This section was used until May 7. The stations were 100 feet 
apart, except near shore they were 50 and 60 feet apart. The end stations were about 
30 and 70 feet out until April 7, and then about 70 feet from shore on both sides while 
this section was used. (See Red River Landing memorandum for notes on lead line.) 

The second discharge section at this place, established by Mr. W. G. Price May 13, 
1892, is shown on sketch to be located below the mouth of Bayou dea Glaise and 
just above the mouth of Alligator Bayou. The stations were 100 feet apart, except 
near shore they were 60 and lO feet apart. The end station at the right bank was 
about 60 feet Arom shore. The end station at the left bank was about 60 feet out from 
main shore. 

As the river rose this bank was overflowed and an angle in levee just above formed 
a pocket, so that this overilowed part was dead water. 

The datum line for first section used was taken at 42.33 feet on the gauge, and 
datum width at 1,056 feet, both as observed May 7. 

The datum line for the second section was taken at 46.64 feet on the gauge, and 
datum width at 1,222 feet. In computing datum areas the width at 44.40 feet on the 
gauge was taken at 1,057 feet. 

The Simmsport gauge readings are tabulated as reported by the discharge party. 
The zero is 24.17 feet above the Cairo datum plane. 

The change of gauge in twenty-four hours is from the regalar ^auge reports, bat 
since these reports were discontinued. May 15, and those of the discharge party are 
not continuous, this column is blank after May 13. 

Carrolltanf La,* — ^The section is reported by observer to be at the same place as in 
1891, who also states that the water width is greater than last year, owing to an old 
spur levee and batture being cut away in building a new levee. 

A sketch, scale approx. 1 :20000, shows the section to intersect the left-shore line 
about 600 feet above the foot of Carroll ton avenue, Carroll ton, La. 

The section is normal to the direction of river at that place, and is about 1^ miles 
above upper limit, at the river, of Audubon Park. 

The stations were at irregular distances across the river, varying from 50 to 200 
feet. The end station, at the deep side, 120 feet from shore, that at tn& shallow side 
was 250 feet ftt>m shore. 

Velocities were measured with Price meter No. 22. The meter was held at four- 
tenths depths at stations covering the deepest part of the river, and at others at 
five-tenths and six-tenths. They were all reduced to six-teiiths depth before com- 

?uting discharge. The meter was run for two minutes at each station, except that on 
une 30 about half the stations were observed for one minute, and one station for 
three miniLtes. 

The meter was rated June 8, and the results used in computing discharges. See 
table of meter ratings for values. 

The observer reports lead line correct. Datum line is taken at 17 feet on the 
United States Engineer gauge and datum width at 2,490 feet, as observed June 10, 
1892. 

*See note on page 36T9. 



APPENDIX Y T — ^REPUKT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3681 

The formula correction was about 200 to 800 cubic feet per second for a total dis- 
charge. 

Mr. Wiillam Garvin, assistant engineer, was the observer during the season. 

Arkannat River,* Utile Rocky Ark, — (See also field report on p. 3673.) The mean 
crose section, derived as described in field report, was plotted to a horizontal scale 
of 1 inch =100 feet; vertical, 1 inch =10 feet, and from these plots soundings were 
scaled every 100 or 150 feet for computing areas. 

The floats were run over a distance between ranges of 3,200 feet. The upper 
range was 1,600 feet below the railroad bridge over the Arkansas River. This briage 
is stated to be about 5,000 feet below the ^'Baring Cross" Bridge^ upon which the 
United States Engineer gauge is located. 

The end velocity stations were less than 150 feet>from shore and the mazimnm dis- 
tance between observed velocities on May 23 was about 300 feet and on May 24 about 
500 feet. Those observed velocities were plotted on tho cross sections to a vertical 
scale of 1 inch =2 feet per second, and from these plats velocities were scaled off 
mainly 200 feet apart, and the discharges computed m the usual manner. 

The Little Rock ^auge in the tabulation is the standard United States Engineer 
gauge, whose zero is 241.55 feet above the Cairo datum plane. 

Ouackiia River, Monroe, La. — (See field report on p. 3673. ) The discharge section is 
shown on a map, scale 1 inch =400 feet, accompanying the notes, to be normal to the 
direction of the river. The left- bank end is 2,320 feet below the south line of 
Calypso street, Monroe. The section is three-fourths of a mile below the Vicks- 
burg, Shreveport, and Pacific Railroad Bridge over the Ouachita River. 

Velocities were observed on May 31 and June 1. Soundings were taken only on 
May 30, and these soundings were corrected for change of stage and used forobtain- 
ing areas for May 31 and June 1. The observ;itions were careiully distributed across 
the river; the velocities were taken on May 30 about 50 and 100 feet from the shores, 
but on June 1 the velocity at 100 feet out was borrowe.d from the day before, as it 
was not observed June 1 at this point. 

The cross sections were plotted from soundings corrected, as above noted, to a scale 
of I inch = 100 feet horizontal and 1 inch = 10 feet vertical | velocities were plotted on 
these to a scale of 1 inch=^l foot per second. 

Soundin<rA were scaled from these plots every 25 feet, and velocities every 50 feet, 
and from these the areas and discharges were computed in the usual manner. 

The Monroe gauge, whose readings are tabulated, is that reported by the United 
States Weather Bureau. The preliminary value of its zero is 51.55 above the Cairo 
datum plane. 

Red River, Jlerandria, La. — (See field report on p. 3674.) The discharge section is 
described as being immediately in front of the town of Alexandria, and is shown by 
a skeich in the notebook to be e^cactly in prolongation of the southeast line of Lee 
street, and normal to the direction of the river. The soundings were at irregular 
ftistanoes across the river, located by transit angles from an 800-font bane; the dis- 
tance apart of the soundings varied, generally being from about 20 to 60 feet; in a 
f jw i-t^en being from 5 or 6 to over 100 feel apart. 

No lead-line corrections are given. The areas between soundings were computed 
precisely from the notes, and these were grouped into partial areas to correspond to 
each velocity station. 

The floats crossed the discharge section at irregular distances apart across the 
river. The observed velocity, derived from the float, was applied to the correspond* 
ing partial area. The end-velocity stations were generally less than 50 feet from 
shore, and soundings were frequently less than 10 feet from shore. The velocities 
observe<l at the end stations were applied from the shore to halfway out to the sec? 
ond velocity station. 

From the measured discharges over bank of June 10 and 14 this discharge fo^ 
included dates was interpolated, and also for June 15, assuming that the change 
wae proportional to the time and having regard to change of stage. 

The datum line was taken at 38.24 feet on the United States Engineers gauge 
whose zero is 64.46 feet above the Cairo datum, and datum width is tJ^en at 820 
feet, both as observed June 13, 1892. 

For results of slope observations see tables. 

* For measurement of flood escape of Arkansas River through levees below Pin^ 
31uff, see report of Mr. Tollinger, on p. 3667. 

¥SNa 93 ^231 



3682 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



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Disianoes between gtmge» 8 400 feet. 



COLUMBUS. KT. 

[Reftultfl of rediLOtion at oiftce of first and second distrida 
engineer.] 







Maximum Maximamj' 






surface 


surface ] 


• 


Belmont ^®**>city 


velocity ; Slope sint> 






at upper 


at lower i of 




flange. 


gauge, 


gauge, inclination. 






per 


per i 


» 




second. 


second, j 


1892. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feel, 


AnrfllS 


41.28 






^ is:::::::::...: ::: : 


41.20 
41.00 
42.96 
43.00 
43.10 
43.10 
42188 


. 


0001024 


16 






26 


9.488 ! 8.833 


no!^ 


27 


9.141 I 8.833 097e 


28 


9. 527 d Ofii (i(i7rt 


29 


9.874 
9.565 


9.103 1 0976 


ao 


9.103 1 1013 









FULTON, TENN. 
[Beanlts of reduction at office of first and second distriets engineer.] 



1892 
April 15 

16 

18 

19 

21 

22 

28 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

80 

May a 

8 



Fulton 
gauge. 



Feet. 
32.94 
33.10 
33.21 
33.25 
33.38 
33.35 
33.37 
33.50 
33.63 
33.81 
33.06 
34.03 
84.22 
34.21 
34.18 



Maximum 

surface 
velocity at 
Craighead, 
per second. 



Feet. 



7.69 
7.14 
8.00 
8.00 
7.09 
7.41 
7.14 
7.14 
7.14 
8.33 
8. CO 
7.41 
7.14 
7.41 



Maximum 

surface 
velocity at 
Falls Land 
ing, per 
aeoond. 



FeeL 

7.69 
8.00 
8.83 
&00 
8.00 
8.33 
8.70 
9.09 
8.00 
8.33 
8.00 
8.70 
8.00 
7.69 
7.69 



Slope sine of inclina- 
tion. 



Between 

Craighead 

and 

Section. 



,0D02441 
2393 
2374 
242S 
2403 
2346 
2855 
2441 
2441 
2470 
2489 
2393 
2403 
2122 
2384 



Between 

Section and 

Falls 

gauge. 



.000^74 
0434 
04iU 
0454 
04a 
0444 
0464 
0444 
0174 
0444 
0444 
0504 
0484 
0504 
0494 



NOTC—Gauge B is at discharge section, Craighead gauge is 10,500 feet above, and Falls gauge 9,000 
feet belowgauge B. The river is nearly straight from 1,000 feet below Craighead nuee to Falls gauges 
The slop* of river around Craighead point in vicinity of gauge was 1 foot on 600 ieet. Sine=abo4t 
0.00107. 



APPENDIX YY — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3697 

Slope obaervationBf Mississippi River, — Continued. 

HELENA. ARK. 

Distance between gauges 12,570 feet. [Keaults of reduction at office of first and second districts 

engineer.] 









Mazi. 


Mazi. 








Maxi. 


Maxi- 










mum sur-, 


mum sur- 








mum sur- 


mum sur- 










face ve- 


face ve- 


Slope 






face ve- 


face ve- 


Slope 






Helena 


Id^ity at 


locity at 


sine of 




Helena 


locity at 


locity at 


sine of 






gauge. 


upper 


lower 


inclina- 




gauge. 


upper 


lower 


inclina- 








gauge, 


gauge, 


tion. 






gauge, 


gauge, 


tion. 








per sec- 


per sec- 








per sec- 


per sec- 










ond. 


ond. 








ond. 


ond. 




1802. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 




1892. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 




April 


18 


42.60 








June 2 


44.70 


7.139 


8.448 


.000684 


19 


42.73 


6.714 


8.216 


.0000708 


3 


44.66 


7.060 


8.294 


0684 




20 


42.87 








4 


44.61 


7.060 


a 178 


0692 




21 


43.25 


7.368 


8.718 


0708 


6 


44.56 


6.984 


7.630 


0692 


May 


3 


44.50 


7.368 


8.987 


0637 


7 


44.60 


7.023 


7.677 


0700 




4 


44.64 


7.137 


8.486 


0660 


8 


44.62 


7.176 


8.409 


0700 




5 


44.77 


7.677 


9.103 


0676 


9 


44.72 


7.060 


8.756 


0708 




6 


44.88 


7.368 


9.218 


0637 


10 


44.77 


7.003 


8.062 


0708 




7 


44.98 


7.291 


9.218 


0644 


11 


44.86 


6.800 


8.486 


0708 







45.48 


7.764 


8.910 


0637 


13 


45.00 


6.834 


8.332 


0716 




10 


45.66 


7.484 


9.103 


0605 


14 


45.06 


7.947 


9.180 


0708 




u 


45.73 


7.085 


9.450 


0605 


15 


45.11 


7. 835 


8.332 


0708 




18 


45.09 


7.638 


9.064 


0621 


16 


45.12 


7.947 


8.525 


0708 




13 


45.51 


7.754 


9.257 


0605 


17 


45.06 


7.600 


8.139 


0716 




14 


45.26 


7. 501 


9.296 


0668 


18 


45.00 


7.409 


7.831 


0708 




16 


44.77 


7.638 


9.604 


0684 


20 


44.82 


7.638 


8.679 


0660 




17 


44.55 


7.600 


0.450 


« 0602 


21 


44.63 


7.137 


8.255 


0660 


Jane 


1 

• 


44.07 


7.291 


8.872 


0692 


22 


44.45 


6.946 


8.409 


0676 



ARKANSAS CITY. ARK. 
[From reduction at office of third district engineer.] 





Arkansas 

City 

gauge. 


Slope sine of incli- 
nation. 


« 


Arkansas 

City 

gauge. 


Slope sine of incli- 
nation. 




Above. 


Below. 


Above 


Below. 


1892. 
Apr. 23 


Feet. 
46.95 
46.90 
47.07 
47.25 
47.45 
47.61 
47.78 
47.96 
48.02 
48.10 
48.10 
48.25 
48.33 
48.55 
48.75 
48.80 
48.88 
48.05 
49.14 
49.14 
49.14 
40.10 
49.15 
49.27 
49.40 
40.40 
40.46 
49. 59 
49.64 
49.73 
49.82 
49b 82 




.0000645 
638 
635 
631 
629 
629 
. 627 
624 
620 
620 
620 
620 
615 
618 
620 
620 
624 
623 
624 
624 
624 
632 
634 
635 
688 
638 
638 
639 
644 
643 
642 
642 


1892. 
Hay 31 


Feet. 
49.82 
49.88 
49.73 
49.73 
40.60 


.0000600 
596 
501 
501 
604 
594 
587 
591 
594 
504 
593 
590 
580 
589 
589 
590 
587 
585 
585 
579 
679 
571 
571 
569 


0600642 


25 




June 1... 


642 


28 




3 


643 


27 


'.'0000562* 
666 
550 
552 
556 
567 
657 
553 
564 
563 
544 
549 
550 
562 
563 
573 
578 
685 
580 
579 
585 
585 
58 L 
577 
581 
582 
693 
603 


3 


643 


28 


4 


649 


29 


4 




30 


6 


49.47 
49.43 
49.39 
49.39 
49.42 
49.44 
49.45 
49.45 
49.45 
49.44 
49.37 
49.30 
49.20 
48.97 
48.97 
48.85 
48.85 
48.47 
48.28 
47.52 
47. 17 
46.65 
46.13 
46.13 
45.49 
45.49 


644 


Wftv 2 


7 


647 


^ 3.::::::::::: 


8 


645 


4 


9 


645 


4 


10 


646 


5 


11 


647 


6 


13 


647 


7 


14 


647 


9 


14 




10 


15 


646 


u 


16 


649 


12 


17 


646 


13 


18 


646 


14 


20 


647 


14 


20 

21 


647 


16 


646 


19 J.. 


21 




21 , 


23 


640 


23 


24 


647 


23 


27 




651 


24 


28 




651 


26 


29 




651 


27 


30 




652 


28 


80 




30 


Jnly 1 




638 


30 






638 











NoTB. — ^The slope obtained by taking for tbe " above," the gauge at Bolivar Landing and Arkansas 
City, and for the "below," the gaugeis at Arkansas City ana Greenville, and the distance as 216000 
ftet. And tbe slopes are given in decimals of a foot; beiiig the jCsll per foot. 

ENa 93 ^233 



3698 BEPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Slojje ohaervatioHB, Mississippi River — Continned. 
TVILSON POINT, LA. 



• 


[From reduction at office of third district engi 


Deer.] 






ft 


Gauge. 


Slope sine of incli- 
uatioQ. 




Gauge. 


Slope Bine of incli- 
nation. 




Above. 


Below. 


Above. 


Below. 


1892. 
Aor. 16 


Feet. 
*36.2 
37.2 
37.5 
37.8 
38.2 
38.6 
38.8 
39.5 
39.7 
39.9 
40.2 
40.4 
40.6 
40.8 
40.9 
41.0 
41.2 
41.3 
41.4 
41.6 
41.6 
41.4 
41.5 
41.6 
41.5 
41,4 




.0000570 
567 
546 
561 
544 
532 
546 
530 
549 
544 
533 
547 
547 
539 
565 
547 
551 
553 
549 
558 
542 
553 
553 
558 
553 
567 


May 19 


FeeL 
41.4 
41.4 
41.5 
41.6 
41.6 
41.6 
41.6 
41.7 
41.8 
41.8 
41.8 
41.0 
41.8 
41.7 
4L6 
41.6 
41.6 
41.6 
41.5 
41.5 
41.5 
41,5 
41.5 
41.5 
41.4 
41,3 


.000066S 
668 
663 
065 

mi 

O06 
066 

066 
673 
671 
671 
658 
656 
661 
658 
656 
654 
655 
056 
656 
651 
661 
646 
640 
636 
636 


.0000549 


18 




20 


549 


19 


•••-•--r-* 


21 


549 


20 


24 


546 


21 




25 


553 


22 




26 


554 


23 




27 


5.'i8 


25 




28 


55:^ 


26 




30 -. 


535 


27 




31 


540 


28 




June 1............ 


544 


29 


.0000679 
674 
666 
676 
664 
671 
674 
673 
676 
673 
666 
669 
668 
661 
663 


2 


549 


30 


3 


558 


Mav 2 


4 


563 


^ t: 


6 


540 


4 


7 


MO 


5 


8 


642 


6 


9 


551 


7 


10 


553 


9 


11 


S56 


10 


Ji;:::::::::: 


558 


11 


14 , 

16 


556 


12 


558 


14 


16 


553 


16 


17 


558 


18 


20 


D76 









* Lak^ Providence gauge. 
Note.— Upper slope gauge at Leota, Miss. Lower elope gauge at Lake Providence, Lft. 

K,m) BIVEB LANPING, LA. 



Apr. 5 

7 
21 

Uvy 4 

6 
11 
19 
83 



t84.2 
35.0 
40.9 
43.8 
44.1 
44.8 
45.4 
45.4 




.0000284 1 

249 
251 
2€9 
261 
254 
274 



















May 25 

27 

June 1 

8 

9 

14 

16 

20 



45.5 
45.6 
45.9 
46.2 
46.7 
47.5 
47.7 
48.2 





















.0000375 

278 
264 

261 
284 
287 
289 
887 



t Red Kiver Landing gauge. Distance between gauges 36, 716 feet« 
LITTLE HOCK, ABE. ( ABKANSAS RnTBB). 



[Slope taken between bridge and gauge B, 00 feet below range B. D. ; distance, 4,880 feet]; 



Kay 23 
24 



1802. 



Little Bock 

engineer 

gauge. 



Feet. 
80.2 
29.4 



Maximum 

middepth 

velocity at 

section. 



Feet. 
15.30 
12.92 



^Maximum 
surface 

velocity at 
seotioii. 



Feet. 
13.44 
13.22 



*Slope sine 

ci indinsr 

tion. 



,00010672 
,00Q22S36 



*Be8ults of reduction ^t office of second district engineer. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^KEPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3699 

Slope ^serw^Hont, Mi$9%snppi Biter — Continuedi 



ALSXA2n>SIA« LA.(BBD BITBB). 
[DiBtmoe between npper end lower ){aages, 4,000 feet.] 



Alexandiift 
gftage. 



1W2. 

May 27 

28 

30 

31 

June 1 

2 

3 

4 

6 



Slope nine of 

incUnmtion 

between 

npperand 

lower gaogea. 



Ftet 
29.6 
30.6 
83.2 
33.7 
34.5 
85. 
35.8 
36.1 
37.0 



.000450 
050 
450 
450 
400 
425 
450 
500 



1892. 

Jane 7 

8 

9 

10 

13 

14 

15 



AlexandrU 
gauge. 



Feet, 
87.5 
37.8 
87.8 
37.9 
38.1 
88.2 
38.2 
38.0 



Slf^w Bine of: 

inclination 

between 

upper and 

lower gauges. 



.000475 
500 
500 
450 
450 
700 
450 
450 



] 



3700 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



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5 ^ 



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sa 



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00 toN«tooomio 
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APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COliMISSION. 3701 

Overflow discharge between Arkaneae City and TrippCy Ark, 

[Telocities talcen with sorfaoe floats. Besnlts of redaction at office of Third District Engineer. For 

report, see p. 3667.] 



1892. 


I^atnre of opening. 

• 


Width. 


Mean 
depth. 


Area. 


Mean 
Telocity 

per 
second. 


Dis- 
oharge 

per 
second. 


Msy28and29 


Over track 

Through bridge .. 


Feet. 
9, 525 

7,017 


Feet. 


Sq.feet. 

95,425 

105,115 


Feet. 
1.97 
1.15 


Oa.feeL 
188,000 
121,000 












Total 


16,542 




200,540 


i.fii 


309,000 




Over track 

TliTough bridge . . 






May 3Q and 31 


5.655 
7,083 




60,644 
107.357 


1.99 
1.31 


121.000 






140,000 








Total 


12,738 




168,001 


1.55 


261,000 









DisoKarge ofinleU into Bayou Bartholomew from overflow. 

[Telocities taken with surface floats. Besnlts of redaction at office of Third District Engineer. For 

report, see p. 3668.] 



1892. 


Natnre of opening. 


Width. 


Mean 
depth. 


Area 


Mean 
vwlocity 

4>er 
second. 


Dis- 
charge 

per 
second. 


Ahwe Browne Bridge. 
Jane 11....................... 


DeepBayon 

Wash 


Feet. 
300 
100 
200 
200 


Feet. 

8.85 

6 

2.6 
10.9 


Sq.feet. 

2,655 
600 
620 

2,180 


Feet. 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8 


(ht.feet. 
2,124 
480 


11 


13 


....do ..k. •••••.••• 


416 


13 


Ambon Bayon — 


1,744 






Total 


800 


7.44+ 


6,955 


0.8 


4,764 




Fletcher Brake... 
. ...do 




Below Browne Bridge. 
Jnne 9...... .,,-.,, -r^ r-.^..-..^. 


858 
210 
250 


1.66 
10.32 
2 


694 

2,167 

500 


0.8 
0.8 
0.8 


475 
L733 


10 ^.. 


Browns Bayon. . . 


400 


' Total 


818 


3.08+ 


3,261 


0.8 


2,608 


• 






Qrair»d total 


1,618 


5.70— 


9,216 


0.8 


7,372 









I^charge of Bayou Bartholomew at Browne Bridge, 

[Velocities taken with surfaoe floats. Besolts of redaction at offioe of Third District Engineer. For 

report, see p. 3668.] 



1802. 


Nature of opening. 


Width. 


Mean 
depth. 


Area. 


Mean 
velocity 

per 
second. 


Dis- 
charge 

per 
second. 


Jane 10. ••....• 


Bayon Bartholo- 
mew. 


Feet. 
416 


Feet, 
10.5 


Sq.feet. 
8,104 


Feet. 
0.8 


Ou.fe€t. 
6,483 




« 



SUMMARY. 

Cubic feet 
per second. 

Bayou Bartholomew, at Browns Bridge 6,481 

Inlets into Bayou Bartholomew, below Browns Bridge 2,608 

Total discharge of Bayou Bartholomew 9, 001 

Total discharge of inlets from overflow 7,372 

Total discharge for natural drainage 1,719 



3702 REPOET OF THE CHIEF OF EKOINEERS, V. 8. ABMY. 



C^ev€iss€ meoiurements, 

[For notes on redaction, ftee p. 3678.] 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER, THIRD DISTRICT. 



Xame. 



FnltonLake 

Do : 

Do 

Panther Forest, . . . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Columbia 

Leland 

Do 

Do 

Brooks MiU 

Do 

Do 



Distance 

irom 

Cairo. 



439 
439 
439 
452 
452 
452 
452 
470 
484 
484 
484 
506 
506 
506 



Bank. 



Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 
Right. 



Width. 



Feet 

1, 666 

1,809 

1,022 

1,091 

1.410 

1,673 

2,085 

380 

812 

423 

423 

Attn 
OW) 

715 
715 



Discharge 
per second. 



CfubiefML 

•14,988 

15.960 

19,554 

74,214 

69,550 

80,884 

91.623 

tl8,483 

:9,800 

17,253 

$6,935 

:35,00C 

87,831 

80,003 



Date of 
break. 



1802. 
June 2 



May 13 



June 22 
May 25 



May 9 



Date of 

obsenra- 

tioD. 



1892. 
Jttne 8 
Jane ]8 
June 22 
May 17 
May 26 
June 2 
Jane 17 
Jane 35 
Jane 1 
Jane 16 
Jane 25 
May 13 
June 9 
Jane 24 



Method. 



Meter No. 5l 

Do. 

Do. 
Meter Na 39. 

Do. 
Meter No. 38. 

Do. 
Meter Ko. 39> 
Sarface floats. 

Do. 
Meter Ko. 39. 
SorCftoe floats. 
Meter Ko. ^. 

Do. 



*Integrfltion method. 
tMotur at six-tenths depth. 



1 Results of redaction at office of Third Distriot Bagineer. 
\ Meter 4 feet below snrfaoe. 



Crevasse meaaurements, 

[Results of reduction at office of Fourth District Engineer.] 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER, FOURTH DISTRICT. 



Kame. 



Ascension 

Hermitage 

KewHope 

Delogny 

Belmont 

'Tessier 

.Anchor 

:Sarpy 

Avondale 

"Villere,Ko. 1,... 
Vinere.Ko.2-... 

:Story, Ko. 1 

iStory, Ko. 2 

iMerritt 

JiBelleChasse.... 

Cedar Grove 

Belair 

Monseconr, Ko. 1 
Monsccour, Ko. 2 

Happy Point 

Monsecour, Ko. 3 

Harlem* 

Miller 

Oetaye 

Martin 



Distance 




below 


Bank. 


Cairo. 




Miles. 




882.5 


Right. 


886.5 


Left.. 


897 


Right. 


006.5 


Right. 
Left.. 


908 


909.75 


Left.. 


929.6 


Left.. 


937 


Left.. 


952 


Right. 
Left.. 


972 


971.9 


Left .. 


075 


Left.. 


974.75 


Left.. 


976.5 


, Left.. 


982.5 


Right. 


989.5 


Right. 


995 


Left.. 


■ 908.9 


I^ft.. 


999 


Left.. 


993 


Left.. 


999.1 


Left.. 


|1, 002. 


Left.. 


!l,003.2 


Left.. 


1,011.7 


Left.. 


1,012.0 


Left.. 


1,013.5 


Left.. 



Maximum 
width of 
crevasse. 



\ 



Feet. 

148 
63 

160 

126 
1,427 

204 

396 
1.380 

139 
15 

124 
23 

114 
96 

107 
26 
62 
24 
26 
51 
37 

441 

39 

35 

194 



Approxi- 
mate max- 
imum dis- 
charge per 
second. 



Oubiefeet. 

37,200 

9,500 

19,100 

16,400 

139, 846 

25,520 

21,000 

115,920 

16,120 

742 

1,816 

952 

16,560 

13,500 

14,186 

686 

8,700 

2,100 

2,280 

6,750 

2,785 

22,050 

5,985 
5.600 
3,492 



Date of 
occur- 
rence. 



1 



1892. 
June 6 
June 21 
June 1 
June 23 
June 12 
May 22 
May 6 
June 13 
June 13 
May 3 
June 11 
May 28 
June 11 
June 13 
June 3 
May 24 
May 24 
May 11 
May 29 
May 18 
Jane 7 
M^y 12 

to 
'June 10 



Date of 

dosara. 



1892. 
June 9 
Jane 23 
June 6 
June 28 



May 29 



June 19 
May 4 



May 30 



Jane 19 
Jane 15 
May 28 
May 28 
May 11 
June 4 
May 28 
June 18 
Mav 15 

July 1 
June 14 
May 14 

Jaly 2 



Oaoae of crevasee. 



Cr»v1B8h bole. 

Do. 

Do. 

I>o. 

Do. 
Unknown. 
Crayfish hole. 

i><K 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Old rice flume. 
Crayfish hole. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bice flame. 
Crayfish hole. 

SMuakrat. cray- 
fiah, and rice 
flame. 
Maakrat. 

Do. 
Caving bank. 



* In a distance of 6,000 feet there were 11 breaks at Harlem, and figures presented are aggregates. 

BAYOU LAFOURCHE. 



Hill 

Upper Ten 
Boudreaux 



145 

40 

225 



Mav 9 
July 2 
Apr. 25 




July 8 





ATCHAFALATA RIVER. 



PhUip White. 



6,000t 



June 16 



tAbottt. 



APPENDIX y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVEE COMMISSION. 3703 

Appendix 3 K, 

STUDT OF XAELT MAPS OT MISSISSIPPI RIVER. BY CAPT. CARL P. PALPRBT. 

CORPS OP X17G1NEERS. 

St. Louis> Mo.^ June 9, 1893. 

Gknibral: I hare tbe honor to ptesent the result of a stndy of some early maps of 
the Mississippi River, as compared with those of the Commission. 
The three maps herewith shown are : 

(1) ** Course of the River Mississippi, f^m the Balise to Fort Chartres* Taken 
on an expedition to the Illinois in the latter end of the year 1765. By Lieut. Koss^ 
of the Thirty-fourth Reji^ent. Improved from the surveys of the river made hy 
the French.'* 

(2) **A. draft of the Mississippi River fh>m the Balise up to Fort Chartres/' from a 
report to the secretary of state for the colonies, hy Oapt. Philip Pitman, pnhlished 
in London in 1710. 

(3) "Map of the course of the Mississippi fi'om the Missouri and the country of 
the illinois to the mouth of the river," irom the travels of Gen. Victor CoUot, puh- 
lished in Paris in 1826. 

Of Boss, directly, I have heen able to learn nothing. Fort Chartres was turned 
over by its French commandant to the English commission on November 11, 1765. 

For the privilege of tracing the map I am indebted to the Missouri Historical 
Society. 

Pitman, for the reading of whose report and the privilege of tracing the map I 
am indebted to Col. George £. Leighton, of St. Louis, describes hims3f as having 
been emploj^ed in "those countries'' for five years as an engineer. The only date 
mentioned in his report is 1768. 

Collot, a young officer of the etat-m%]or under Rochambeau in .America, briga- 
dier-generaf and governor of Gnadaloupe under the Republic, prisoner of war and 
left in PhUadelpnia by the English in tilie winter of 1795~'96, was detained in this 
country by a lawsuit, and was, at his own suggestion, commissioned by Citizen Adet 
to explore the fozmer French province of Louisiana. His book, in the hands of the 
printer at the time of his deatn, J)ut not published till long after, shows great intel- 
ligence, acute observation, and a scrupulous accuracy in stating what he saw him- 
self and what he reports nom hearsay. He left St. Louis on September 16, 1796, in 
an open boat (pirogue) with one white assistant and fonr Indians, and reached three 
leagues above New Orleans, when he waa arrested as a spy by Baron Carondelet, nn 
October 26. 

Of the three, Pitman has the largest scale and the fullest detail, and is most con- 
venient for comparison. Ross is very noteworthy for the accuracy of his topo- 
graphical eye and his rendering of characteristic outlines. Collot has the best 
general alignment. I regard them all as topographical reconnoissances, probably 
platted by compass bearings and estimated distances, and from the general goodness 
of their latitudes^ probably checked by altitudes of Polaris. The later^forms of 
astrolabe or the single reflecting sextant would h<ave made this practicable. It is 
almost needless to state that the longitudes are all bad. 

For comparison of the three, I have selected a series of clearly recognizable points 

iving a meander line of the general course of the river, platted them directly from 
^oUot's map, which is on smaJler. scale, and constructed the others by offsets from 
the stnlight line, Cairo-New Orleans. The results are shown on the accompany- 
ing plat. 

For the course of the river, I have collated the old maps with the ''Alluvial Val- 
ley," looking for details to the inch-mile series, and occasionally even to the contour 
lines of the detail charts. By the topography surveyed about 1880, I find, from 
Cairo to Donaldson ville, the nver bed of 1765 recognizable in the present bed, the 
cut-oft' lakes, the lines of bayous^ sloughs, and creeks, the belts of swamp, the depres- 
sions as shown by the contour lines, and the lines of levee following old banks 
because of their altitude. In making this comparison I have derived some little 
aid from the reconnoissance of 1821 by Young, Poussin, and Tuttle, and much more 
from the ''Navigator," edition of 1817, a pilot's guide describing the channels by 
reference to points and islands. 

As regards the shortening of the bed by cut-offs, it is noticeable that, from 1765 to 
1796, there is no change of this character. 'Since 1800 there has been no such period 
of thirty-one years. Four cut-offs, whose dates arc undetermined, occurred between 
1796 and 1817 — the Montezuma Bend, Grand Lake, Yazoo, and Homochitta. llie 
'' Navigator" mentions the old beds at Grand Lake and the Yazoo Bend as filled, and 
overgrown, but recognizable by the smaller willows therein. The others are not 
referred to. Humphreys and Abbot^ in their snimuary of tradition of early floods. 



t 



'■ 



i 



3704 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEB8, U. S. ARMY. 

signalize that of 1799. From the filling snd growth I eumuse that these cnt-ofTs 
are of date at least ae early. 

As regards the lengthening of the bed by erosion of concave banks and building 
ont of points in the bends, this more gradual and widely distributed change is 
noticeable, even on these small-scale maps, in most of the greater bends. There are 
points where bends have been ^ortened : most of these are in the neighborhood u( 
ont-offs, but there remain Plum Point, the "Devils Elbow/' Grand Gulf, and Port 
Hudson. The most interesting instance of the lengthening of a bend is at Cowpi'D 
Point. The bend around Yidai Island is apparentlv a very old bed. Concordia 
Lake, east of the island, suggests a cut-off at the neck of the old bend and a enbee- 
quent lengthening of the point. In 1765 the river bent around a broad, obtuse point 
having not half the lengtn of Cowpen ; now the river has moved three-quarters of 
the distance from the last-named channel towards Concordia Lake. 

The characteristic movement downstream of both points and islands, by erosion 
of the upstream bank and building out of the downstream one, while preserrin^ 
the same general outline, is observable in many of the larger points. The change 
of direction of the axis of the point, shown in a few instances by the caving-bauk 
survey of 1891- 92, 1 lind only in Coles Point and doubtfully in one or two others. 

As regards the breadth of the river, I do not think that any trustworthy eoncln- 
sions are to be drawn from these maps. Ross and Collot probably drew from one 
sight of the river only. Their delineations of width show characteristic propor- 
tions, but I do not look to them for measurements. Pitman undoubtedly knew the 
river much better than either of them. The great width of the river on his map is 
very noticeable. In studying his work, I find his bank line often agreeing well 
with the higher land, and a dotted line suggesting a submerged bar, agreeing fairly 
with the lowlands, while islands are shown which, with a relief at all like the 
present, would not be visible at a stage such as to fill his banks. I conclude that 
ne drew the lines of the most permanent and characteristic banks (perhaps, not 
unreasonably! despairing of determining any other) and drew the islands as he saw 
them. I do not think that his delineation corresponds to any actual or possible 
stage, nor that any measurement of width can be taken upon it. 

The following is a description of the river bed of 1765-*96 by modern topography 
and current names. The numbers of paragraphs correspond to the maps of the 
inch-mile series: ^ 

1. From Cairo, bending boldly eastward, probably as far as Lost Pond, then fol- 
lowing the line of the creek flowing southward from near Flat Pond, the lower part 
of Mayfield Creek and the back slough. The turn corresponding to Lucas Bend is 
not deeper than through the chnte of Island No. 2, and Pitman shows the space 
between that chute and the bluffs as a group of small islands. The point on which 
Belmont is situate and the bend against the bluffs near Columbus are as now. All 
show an island corresponding to No. 5, with the chute straighter and broader. 

2. Below Coluinbns the river is closer to the bluffs and near the line of Long 
Pond and the lower reaches of the Little Obion. French Point and Island No. 8 (t-o 
which Ross gives the name of " Wolf") are very recognizable in shape and position. 

3. Beli)w French Point the river divides around Island No. 9 in about equal 
channels. Donaldsons Point is shorter than now, ending about with the present 
cultivated land. All the maps show a long island against the opposite bank in the 
bend (No. lOf). Watsons Point nearly as now; little shorter, with ita extremity 
broken into islands. Ross notes St. John Ba^ou as ''Chepoussea or Sound River." 
Pitman shows mouths of two bayous in position of St. John and the Dry Bayou. 
Below New Madrid the curve to the westward is full, as through the old chute of 
Island No. 11. Darnells Point is part of a fully rounded curve which continues 
around the old chute of Island No. 12, which island appears in all. Huddles Point 
and Little Cypress Bend are much as now, except that the chute of Island Ko. 13 
is open. 

4. In the bend below, Pitman indicates the lower opening of the "old river" 
shown on our maps, and Ross sketches doubtfully its whole line. The point to 



i 




fioint has nearly the same outline below, but its upstream bank is straighter. 
slands 16 and 17 show as a single island as now. No. 18 is very reco^izable, its 
chute much wider. Islands 20 and 21 appear ae one island in Pitman, tiiough sepa- 
rate in Ross. The main channel leaves them on the right, curves around the pres- 
ent highest land, into the "old river" around Needhams Island. (The reconnois- 
sauce map of Young, Poussin, and Tuttle, gives the date of this cut-off, February, 
1821.) Pitman indicates a tributary in the position of the Obion River, but does 
not note the Forked Deer; Ross has a tributary in the bend above, apparently 
intended for the Obion. 
5. The higher land of Ruckers Point, Just back of a narrow belt of swamp, the 



APPENDIX Y Y ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 370& 

hind back of the towhead of Island 25, Daniels Point, and Keves Point, apx>6ar to> 
bo of the old bank, and a bend in the left bank like that around islands 26 and 27 is- 
vt'co^ized. The reach is full of islands called the ** Canadian/' having only a gen- 
eral resemblance to the present chain. 

6. Plum Point appears to extend out to Osceola B%r. Bending around it the river 
cuts more than now into its right bank, dividing equally around Island 33, and 
meeting the bluffs higher up than now. Island No. 34 shows broader at its lower 
end, coming into line with Morgans Point; the river divides about equally around 
No. 34, and strikes the second bluffs higher up than now, leaving small iulands in 
the bend. The next bend with Island 35 is as now except that the channels are 
nearly equal. 

7. Below Cedar Point the river bends well back to the cliffs (indicated on all the 
majw) around Island 36, then around a point apparently extending beyond Deahs 
Island and separated from No. 36 by a narrow chute (now the main river), around 
the chute of 37 (shown as a double island) and of 38 (now continuous with the right 
bank), across the lower end of Centennial Island and upper end of Brandywine 
Island, where depressions now show, and along the lines of Berkeley Bayou and 
Hear Creek, dividing equally around No. 40, receivin|; the Loosahatchie as an inde- 
pendent tributary, having a very broad reach with islands where is now the bend 
above Memphis, and meeting the Wolf River at its emergence from the bluffs. 

8. Below Memphis the characteristic shapes of Presidents Island and its com- 
i);%nion (46 and 45) are very recognizable, especially in Ross. From Presidents 
Island to Commerce, the maps show a difference which may be of stage. All have 
the right bank nearly as now, but following the chute of Cat Island; all show 
islands 47 and 48, Cat Island, and No. 53 (much larger than now) ; Pitraan marks 
the two ends of the Horseshoe Lake. On the left bank, Ross's line merely outs off 
the point which would be rounded in passing down out of Tennessee chute, while 
Pitman's would indicate overflow back to the bluffs and down to Horn Lake. Collot, 
with less detail, agrees more nearly with Pitman. 

9. Continuing against the high land above Commerce, the river passes around the 
Council Bend (cut-off in 1874), in which all the maps show an island cut off from 
Linwood Point, then around through the sloughs and Old River Lake, against the 
old line of levee. Ashley Point would appear to have extended to C larks tow-head, 
and to have a considerable island cut off from it. The river then passes around 
Walnut Bend, with an island in about the position of Whiskey Island, but not 
especially resembling it in shape, and around Hardins Point, cutting more into its 
left bank than now ; the maps snow islands not resembling the present ones. 

10. Harberts Point shows an island cut-off by a narrow chute near the present 
line of levee, add this bend cuts more deeply into its right bank than now. From 
the mouth of the St. Francis the river cut more into its left bank than now, nearly 
against the line of levee, leaving an island near the present No. 60, a point at Trot- ' 
ters Landing, and then probably through the Swampy Eagle Lake. (I place the 
river so far east just here, partly because of the lines of the maps, and partly because 
neither Ross nor Collot, who usually represents the bluffd, have any notes of those 
near Helena.) Then through Hubbard Lake, around through Moon Lake (in which 
Texas and Alcorn Islands are especially well drawn by Ross), crossing its present 
bod as far as Willow Lake, and around through Horseshoe Lake. (The Horseshoe 
cut-off is of 1848; the Montezuma Bend, date not known; Navigator, 1817, does not 
mention the lake.) 

11. From Horseshoe Lake, following the belt of swamp in the right bank of Old 
Town Bend, and against the high land behind Island 62, around the next three 
bends, showing Island 63 larger than now, the chute of 64 in a considerable width 
(Navigator, 1817, gives 64 in middle of river), and an island opposite 64 in about the 
position of Robsons tow-hend, Jacksons Point apparently extending to Island 65, 
and Island 66, or a narrower island, cut off through the depression across its middle. 

12. Following around Island 67, with its chute open, the river had to Concordia 
Bend a jstraighter course than now. Ross's lines are not very characteristic;, Pit> 
man's show, on the right bank, the line of high ground occupied by the levee to a 
little below Laconia; thence following the chute of Island No. 70 into Scrub Grass 
Bend, with a small island cut out, whose chute is indicated on the detail charts, by a 
belt of swamp, and on the left bank, very nearly the lines of levee, with a narrow 
island representing the lowlands of Hurricane Point; thence through Scrub Grass 
and Victoria bends, leaving Smiths Point broader than now, and the small island at 
its end smaller. (Pitman shows three breaks in the right bank, which agree in posi- 
tion with the double mouth of White River and One Mile Bayou, but does not 
give the name of White River, Ross gives the name of White River to what, I 
think, is the Deep Bayou. He draws the junction of the White and Arkansas, but 
much north of its true position. It appears to me that he must have drawn the 
rivers from description, not from observation, sknd mistaken the White, as above. 
Collot gives the two names, and the rivers, and their junction fairly welL) 



3706 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

13. Prom the mouth of the White River, throngh the ehnie of Island 73, aromid 
throngh Beulah Lake (cut-off in 1863), then in a full corye throngh a belt of swamp 
and the chute of Ozark Island (No. 75), meeting the Arkansas, coming from the 
north, one bend above its present mouth. Pitman notes, in the chute of 73, the 
opening of Knowltous Bayou, and draws it as forming a double mouth of the Arkan- 
sas. The bend around Caulks Point and Island 76, Cypress Bend, with the mouth 
of Cypress Creek and Island 77, and Choctaw Bend^ with the chute of 78 very wide 
and the point behind it cut into islands (called the Mulberry Islands), are very rec- 
ognizable in Pitman and in CoUot, but not well represented by Ross. 

14. From the point opposite Arkansas City to Rowdy Bend the course is much 
straighter than now. The river divides nearly equally around a long island repre- 
senting 80 and 81 ; Georgetown Bend is slight, Ashbrook Point broad and shorter 
than now. Rowdy Bend, Millers Bend, with Point Comfort and Island S3 cut by 
chutes running south, Point Chicot, with a broad chute, probably the main stream, 
cutting squarely across it, all show a channel shorter than the present. In Walkers 
Bend, the chute of Island 84 is evident, and the left bank line is that of the levee. 

15. The river then follows around Lake Lee (American cut-off in 1858), along the 
high land of the left bank as far as Williams Plantation; thence along the Tiigh- 
land back of Islands 86 and 87, which divide the river nearly equally (so in Naviga- 
tor, 1817) into Mathews Bend; thence, along the left bank, around a point and island 
no longer existing, and around Grand Lake (date of cut>off not known; Navigator, 
1817, describes the lake as grown up with willows) back into the present bed around 
Island No. 89; then around through the Old River Lake (Bunchs cut-off, 1830) and 
back into the present bed with a sharp bend in which Island No. 92 is very recogniz- 
able. 

16. Below Skip with the river cuts more into its left bank than now, dividin«c 
equally around Island 93 (so in Navigator, 1817) and through the next bend is in its 
present bed. Point Lookout and Island 95 are much changed in shape; the curved 
belt of swamp below Fitlers Point defines Pitmans left bank line. 

17. Around Tompkins Bend the old river kept close to the high land of the left 
bank, with a small island representing: the lowland. In the next bend, the main 
river was close to the high land of Willow Point, with an island much larger than 
No. 98 in the bight; thence around Eagle Lake (Terrapin neck cut-off, 1866), through 
Millikens Bend much as now, dividing around the higher part of Paw Paw Islaud 
(No. 103), with the main channel against the left bank, and then around the old 
bend receiving the Yazoo River at its bight. (Dat« of cut-off not determined; Nav- 
igator, 1817, states that the old bed can be readily recognized by the smaller wil- 
lows growing in it.) 

18. Tiionce around the Centennial Lake at Yicksburg (cut off in 1876), in which 
Pitman indicates Willow, Chickasaw, and Glass Bayous. From Vicksburg to New 
Town Bend the course was str.iisliter than now, wiibh each of the two points of the 
left bank represented by an island at Sargent's Point, holding close to the levee, 
around through Palmyra Lake (Davis cut-off, 1867) and back around Big Black 
Island No. 110. The shape of the bend, now Palmyra Lake, varies in the three 
maps, but Pitmans lines and islands are fairly comparable with what little topog- 
raphy of Davis Island is shown on our maps. 

19. From Island No. 110 the old bed cuts into the lower side of the light bank 
point, follows the line of bayou at upper end of Hard Times Bend, outs again into 
the lower side of Thrasher's Point, passes around Grand Gulf Island, which appears 
to be the extremity of a long point, meeting the Big Black River at the bluffs. 
From the cliffs at Grand Gulf to Rodney the river was stralghter and aearer the 
bluffs than now, meeting the Bayou Pierre as it rounds the bluff, but having as 
strong a bead at Rodney. 

20. From Rodney to Fairchilds Bend the old maps agree closely with the present ; 
Coles Island, No. 113, aiid the point behind it, Coles I'oint, showing in the old maps 
a northward curvature which has disappeared, and Fairchilds Island, No. 114, with 
its chute, are clearly recognizable. From the foot of Fairchilds Island .the river 
held close to the high land of Rifle Point, swept around a broad point of the left; 
bank, whose outline is traceable in the curving lines across the low lands of Rille 
Point and the neck of Cowpen Point, followed the higher land of Vidalia Point, 
now marked by the levee, and met the bluffs of the left bank at Fort Rosalie 
(Natchez). 

21. From Natchez the river curved more boldly westward than now, along White- 
hall Lake and the main land back of Natchez Island (115); in St. Catharines Bend, 
held close to the high land of the left bank, meeting St. Catharines Creek where it 
expands into a small lake, around by the KUis Cliffs, cutting across the lowlands of 
the present Fsperance Point (left by the above course a mile wider on its upstream 
sidn) around by the Mill Bayou, and down through Dead Mans Bend. The island 
whose chute is Mill Bayon, and the main laud of the opposite point, as deifined by 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI MVER COMMISSION. 3707 

the levee, are very reoognizable; the interreiUBg sandy point and Islanda are 
^atirely changed. 

22. Torning olose to the high land of Jaclcsone Point, the riyer followed a straight 
course nearly sonth, then around the Old River, in which Pitman and Collot note 
two tributaries which wonld correspond to the Homocfaitta and perhaps an outlet of 
tlie Buffalo (the Alluvial Valley map has the Homochitta cut-off as of 1776; I think 
tills is an error), then around ^Palmetto Point, and bending westward against the 
bigh land back of two lakes, and meeting the cliffs of the left bank at Fort Adams 
(Rocks of Davion). Roes shows the Buffalo River as now under the name of '' Inno- 
cents or Junica ;'' Pitman and Collot show a stream from the east \^ ard, as though the 
Biuall creek above Fort Adams. From Fort Adams to the Angola Plantation, then 
Around TumbuU Island (Shreves cut-off, made by U. 6. Engineer Department 1831), 
meeting the Red River and the Atchafalaya. This last, Koss and Collot show as 
about equal to the Red ; Pitman draws the mouth of the Red as of a great tributary, 
and marks the opening of the Atchafalaya only as he does those of small creeks. All 
the maps show the Lake of the Cross and the portage. 

23. Jhrom the foot of TumbuU Island around the Raecourci Bend of Old River 
(Raecourci cutoff made by State of Louisiana, 1848), through the Tunica Bend, 
showing Tunica Island as in mid stream, and the mouth of Tunica Bayou. 

From here to the English Turn all the maps agree closely with the present, except 
that at Port Hudson the river bends sharply at the cliffs, and that the ]>eculiarjy 
square turn to the left just below Donaldson ville is not shown. From English Turn 
to Head of Passes, Pitman and Collot agree closely with the present lines. 

Measuring upon the inch-mile maps the line above described, and comparing the 
results with the ** mid-bank distances." entered on those maps (taking no account of 
the Waterproof cut-off, which occurred since the surveys for these maps), I obtain 
the following results : 

Cairo to Memphis. — Old river, 249 miles ; present river, 230 miles : shortening, 19 
miles, or 0.076 of old river. In this reach the river is shortened by Needham's cut-off 
(10 milesX and Centennial cut-off (18 miles) and by its changes of line below New 
Madrid and around and below Plum Point. It is lengthened by erosion in Lucas 
Bend, the bends around the points above and opposite iiew Madrid, and just above 
Little Prairie Bend. 

Memphis to Arkansas City. — Old river, 272.5 miles; present river, 208.3; shortening. ^ 
64.2 miles, or 0.272 of old river. In this reach the river is shortened by Conunerce 
out-off (12.75 miles), Bordeaux Chute (5.75 miles), Montezuma and Delta Bend cut-off 
(10.% miles^, Horseshoe cnt-off (7.25 miles), the cut-off of Beulah Lake and of the 
bend behind Ozark Island (10.25 miles), and by its change of line around and below 
Hardins Point. It is lengthened by its change of line opposite Helena^ near 
Islands 66 and 67 and thence to Concordia Bend. 

Arkansas City to Vicksburg. — Old river, 208.5 miles; present river, 161 miles; short- 
ening, 47.5 miles, or 0.228 of old rivtr. In this reach the river is shortened by 
Ajnerican cut-off (8.75 miles). Grand Lake cut-off (10 miles), Bunchs cut-off (7.75 
miles), Terrapin Neck cut-off (13.75 miles), Yazoo cut-off (14 miles), and Centennial 
cut-off (6.25 miles). It is lengthened in all the bends from Arkansas City to Green- 
ville^ and near Willow Point. 

Vicksburg to Bayou Sara. — Old river, 261.75 miles; present river, 200.7 miles; short- 
ening, 61.06 miles, or 0.229 of old river. In this reach the river is shortened by Davis 
cut-oft* (17.50 miles). Grand Gulf Island cut-off (3.5 miles), Homochitta cut-off (16.25 
miles), and the two great artificial cut-offs, Shreves (16.25 miles), and Raecourci (17.5 
miles). It is lengtliened by its changes of line from Vicksburg to New Town Bend, 
from Grand Gulf to Rodney, and in the bends around Cowpen Point and Viadalia. 

For the whole distance, Cairo to Bayou Sara, we have: old river, 991.75 miles; 
present river, 800 miles; shortening, 191.75 miles, or 0.1933 of old river. The cut- 
offs aggregate 205.75 miles (172 natural, and 33.75 artificial), leaving 14 miles as the 
lengthening by erosion. 

These changes are of a century in which the conditions of the river were very 
fi^eatly changed by the settlement of the drainage basin of the Ohio (in its wild state, 
largely wooded, with close turf in open ground, and having a considerable percentage 
of steep slope); in a much less degree, by that of the upper Mississippi (naturally 
less wooded, and of less slope), and probably very little by that of the Missouri, 
still in great proportion a wild country. 

The magnitude of these changes led me to make similar measurements on the 
maps of the Caving Banks Survey of the Winter of 1891-'92, which show the changes 
of about 10 years. Here two instrumental surveys are collated by superposition. 
The latest '* mid-bank'' line, Cairo-Bayou Sara, is 800.53 miles, as against 800 ten 
years before; the line is shortened 12.85 miles by the Waterproof cut-off (1884), and 
and 5.3 miles by change of channel to the chutes of islands; it is lengthened 1.1 
miles by change of channel and 17.58 miles by the erosions, of which some few 
have tended towards shortening. 



3708 EEPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

The reach, Cairo to MemphiB, is shortened 0.25 of a mile; the change of channel 
to the clmte of Beef Island makes a shortening of 3.5 miles, leaying the lengthen- 
ingdae to erosion 3.25 miles. 

The reach, Memphis to Arkansas City, is lengthened 0.7 of a mile; the change of 
channel to Tennessee chute shortens hy 1 mile; that at Commerce Cat-off, follow- 
ing the right hank from Peters Landing, lengthens hy 0.5 of a mile; the lengthening 
hy erosion is 1«2 miles. 

The reach, Arkansas City to Yickshnrg, is lengthened 6.03 miles ; the change of 
channel to chute of Island 97 shortens by 0.8 of a mile; that to chute of Island 93 
lengthens by 0.6 of a mile ; the lengthening by erosion is 6.23 miles. 

The reach, Vicksburg to Bayou Sara, is uiortened 5.95 miles; the Waterproof Cut- 
off shortens by 12.85 miles ; leaving the lengthening by erosion 6.9 miles. 

These changes are of a short period during which the natural action of the river 
has been modified by artificial works of bank protection and of channel contraction 
and by a general restoration of the levees. It is noteworthy that the only cut-oif 
is of a very narrow point ^Coles Point), which had stood with little change for a 
century and a quarter; it is among the most readily recognized landmarks on each 
of the early maps. 

I present the8e results as a contribution to the history of the Mississippi River, 
with hope that future studies of other early maps, and future surveys of the bank 
lines may give such continuity to that history as to make it more available for en^- 
neering study. 

From the long period without cut-offs covered by the maps, studied the river bed, 
Cairo to Bayou Sara, must have had nearly its least length in 1765, and nearly its 
greatest in 1796. Maps of just before and after this period are likely to show inter- 
esting changes. I have the honor to be, 

Yeiy respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Carl F. Palfrey, 
Captain of Engineera, 
Secretary MieHuippi Biver Commieeum, 

Gen. C. B. Comstock, 

Preeident Miesiisippi Biver Cammiseion. 



Appendix 3 L. 

COMMKKCIAL STATISTICS, 1892. 

Statement hy districts of through and local freights during calendar year 189$. 





Through. 


Local. 






Down. 


Up 
In transit. 


). 


Total 
through. 


Total. 




In transit. 


Delivered. 


Shipped. 




First diatrict 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tom, 


Tmu, 


Tons. 


Tons. 
54.558 


Tons. 


St. Loais 


460,178 

1,592.000 

Il.a93 


38,940 

258.000 

16. 678 


68,516 


21,864 


589,498 

1, 850, 000 

55,882 


........ 




Pitteburg 

ninninnAti 


, 


11, 393 


16,418 












Total 


2, 063, 571 


313, 618 


79,909 


38,282 


495,880 


54,558 


2, 549, 938 




Second district 












47,266 




St. LoniB 


460. 178 

1, 532, 000 

11,393 




68, 516 




528,694 

1, 592, 000 

22,786 




Pittaburg 

CinoinnMi . . » r , 


60,000 








11, 393 


















Total 


2, 003, 571 


60,000 


79,909 




2, 143, 480 


47,266 


2, 190, 746 








Third district 










•75,000 




St. Louis 


425. 499 

1, 390. im 

6.793 


34, 679 

142. 000 

5,600 


49, 788 




18,728 


528. 694 

1,532.000 

22,780 




Pittj^bnrir 






Cinciuiiati 


11, 243 


150 












Total 


1, 821, 292 


182, 279 


61, 031 


18, 878 


2, 083, 480 


•75,000 


2, 158, 480 


Fourth district 








1 


(t) 




St. T/Ouis 




425. 499 

1, 390. JO 

5,793 




48,788 


475. 287 

1, 390. 000 

17. 036 




Pittsburir 










Ciacinuati 






11. 24.3 












**""**"" 




Total 




1.821,292 




61,031 


1,882,323 




1,882,32^ 











* Estimated, t None reported. 



1 



00- *vm](. 







■ 

I 



n' 



w 



T^^ 



1 



n 



i 




1? .* .' 



^ 






wum^mK 



4 



y 




1 



APPENDIX YY — BEPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3709 
Shtpment of bulk grain hy river to New Orleans during 1892. 



I>at«. 



Jan. 
Fob. 



Name of boat. 



Mar. 



Apr. 



4 

1 

1 

3 

8 



1? 

16 

18 

22 

25 

27 

I 

a 

7 
8 
9 
12 
12 
16 
16 
19 
19 
19 
23 
25 
28 
28 
28 
80 
1 

9 
11 
18 
18 
15 
15 
16 
18 
19 
22 
22 
27 
27 
4 
10 
10 
19 

June 2 
18 
23 

Jnlj 2 
11 
16 
23 
80 

A.g. A 

9 
10 
12 
12 
18 
18 
20 
20 



Bept. 8 
3 
10 
10 
14 
17 
22 
25 
80 
1 
5 
8 



May 



Oet 



Sidney Dillon and barges . 

My Choice and barges 

Sidney Dillon and barges . 
Jay Gould and barges^ — 

My Choice and barses 

Sidnev Dillon and barges . 

.....do 

Jay oould and bargee 

do 

do 

Sidner Dillon and barges. . 

Jay Gould and barges 

Sidner Dillon and barges. . 

Jay Gonld and barges 

Sidney DlUon and barges.. 
£. M. Norton and barges .. 

JaT Gonld and barges 

Sianejy Dillon and barges.. 

Jay Gonld and barges 

S. M. Norton and barges .. 

Gteo. Lysle and barges 

Sidney Dillon and barges. . 

Jay Gonld and barges 

Geo. Lysle and barges 

Jay Gk>uld and barges 

My Choice and barges 

Jay Gonld and barges 

Sianey Dillon and barges.. 
B. M. Norton and barges . . 
Sidney Dillon and barges. . 

Jay Gonld and barges 

L. Honok and barges 

Jay Gonld and barges 

H. Xourey and barges 

Sidney Dillon and oarges . . 

Jay Gronid and barges 

£. If. Korton and barges. . . 
Sidney Dillon and barges.. 
XL M. Norton and barges. .. 

Jay Gonld and barges 

My Choice and bams 

Sianey Dillon and Mrges.. 

Future Citr and barges . . . 

Sidney Dillon and barges.. 
Jno. Gitmore and barges . . . 

Henry Lonrey and burgee. 

Sidney DiUon and barges. . 

H. K. Hoxie and barges . . . 

S. H. H. dark and barges. . 

Future City and barges. . . . 

My Choice and barges 

Jno. Gilmore and bSrges. . . 

Henry Lonrey and bwrges. 

H. M. Hoxie and barges . . . 

S. H. H Clark and bargee. . 

Oakland and barges 

My Choice and Mirges 

Jno. Gilmore and bargee .. 

Sidn^ Dillon and baa^^. . 

H. lAurey and barges . . . . 

B. M. Norton and barges.. 

H. M. Hoxie and barges .. 

Sidney Dillon and barges. . 

8. H. H. Clark and barges 

My Choice and bargea . . . . 

Jay Gould and barges 

Sidney Dillon and barges . 

My Onoice and barges . . . . 

Jay Gould and barj 

Sidney DlUon and 



Com. 



Mtrges. ... 



My Choice and barges' 5 

Sianey DUlon and barges 

My Cnoice and barges 

......do :. 

Sidney Dillon and barges 

My Choice and barges 

Sidney Dillon and barges 

My Cnoice and baraes 

Sianey Dillon and barges . . . . . 

My Choice and barges 

Sianey DlUon and barges 



Bushels. 



14.000 



50, 000 
64,920 
50,000 
145,500 
47,735 
91,445 
43,000 



48, 017 

89, 765 

85,696 

100,500 

50,550 

89,854 

46,000 

105,640 

104.000 

93,300 



140,240 

145, 979 

55,406 

49,373 

05,000 

153,143 



97,020 
109, 033 

43,449 
1Q7,000 

74, 868 
152, 049 

95,760 
149,561 



Wheat. 



Buthelt. 

74,000 

65. i>t)0 

62. 500 

104. 200 

83.100 

130,800 

134,500 

82, 416 

124,660 

133, 2:i3 

144, 244 

100. 000 

146, 830 

145, 500 

77, 335 

63,250 

99,925 



47,390 
50,999 
80, 270 
87,321 
88,673 
46, 030 
39, 456 
45,347 
47,000 
86, 869 
96,418 



41,066 

51,000 

136, 733 



44,599 



101. 938 



77,522 



33,951 
50,783 
24,855 



21,116 



41,523 
37,931 



59,487 

?oao3 



46,003 

44,794 

80, 014 

30,000 

135, 391 

118,535 

68,966 

105,000 

102,550 

61,760 

60,000 

106,495 

35,000 

100,094 

33,365 

70,618 

53,466 

67,176 

66,439 

89,465 
60,535 
62,375 
44.831 
00,791 



65,390 
19,160 



Oats. 



Bushelt. 



36,857 



Bulk 
grain. 



Tons. 
2,220 
1,950 
1,876 
3,125 
2,195 
4,105 
4,035 
2,865 
3,740 
3,995 
4,265 
3,000 
4,285 

. 4, 365 
3,720 
8,715 
4,395 
4,365 
2,757 
4,090 
3,630 
2,619 
4,005 
3,895 
3,480 
4,175 
2,825 
3, 620 
4,180 
2,960 
4,145 
4^140 
4,100 
3,925 
5,425 
1,550 
4,440 
2,620 
4,285 
2,325 
2,715 
8,053 
2,235 
4,520 
2,840 
4,257 
2,680 
4,190 



590 



1,360 
5,510 
2,400 
900 
4,062 
3,555 
2,070 
3,150 
8,080 
8,025 
3,130 
3,195 
1,050 
8,000 
1,000 
2,120 
1,602 
2,016 

2,582 

1,180 
1,815 
1,870 
1,342 
1,825 



1,960 

575 

1,665 

m 



Other 
freight. 



Tons. 



060 



606 



870 



1,120 



1,148 



1,136 



1,050 
"925 



1,027 



1,000 
1,188 
1,270 



1,876 
1.415 
830 
1,010 
1,360 
1,960 
1,160 
1,425 
1.443 



1,135 



1,455 
"'590 
""438 



703 
685 



873 
'1*660 



1,U0 



Total. 



Tons. 
2,220 
1,950 
1,875 
3,125 
3, 165 
4,105 
4,035 
3,560 
3,740 
3,995 
4,265 
3,870 
4.285 
4,365 
4,840 
3,715 
4,395 
4,365 
8,905 
4,090 
3,630 
3,755 
4,005 
8.895 
3,480 
4,175 
2,825 
3,620 
4,180 
4,010 
4,145 
4,140 
6,025 
3,925 
5,425 
1.550 
4,440 
2.620 
4,285 
2.325 
2,716 
4,080 
2,235 
4,620 
3,840 
6,445 
3,950 
4,190 
1,876 
1.415 
1,420 
1,010 
2,720 
7,470 
3,560 
2,326 
6,506 
8,565 
8,205 
8,160 
3,080 
8,025 
8,130 
8,195 
2,605 
3,000 
i;690 
2.120 
2,040 
2,015 

3,375 

1,765 
1,815 
1,870 
2,216 
1,825 
1,660 
1.960 
1,686 
1,666 



3710 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



Shipment of hulk grain hg river to New Orleans during i^A^--CoiitmQed. 



Date. 



Ooi, 12 
15 
17 
25 
26 
31 

Nov. 3 
5 
8 
13 
10 
19 
84 
24 
88 
20 

Peo. 5 
10 
12 



Namo of boat. 



My Choloo and barges . . . 

do 

Sidnev Dillon and bai^gee 
Mt Choice and barffes . . . 
Sidney DlUon and bargee 
M V Cnoice and barges . . . 
Sianey Dillon and barges 
My Cnoice and bargee . . . 
Biaoey Dillon and barges 
My Cnoice and barges . . . 
Sidney Dillon and barges 
My Cnoice and barses . . . 
Sidney Dillon and barges 
My Cooice and ))arj^es . . . 
Sidney Dillon and barges 
My Cnoice and banres . . . 
Sidney Dillon and barges 
My Cooioe and barges . . . 
Sidney Dillon and barges 



Total . . . 
Via Belmont and Cairo: 

- January 

February 

March 

April 

Jnly 

Angnnt 

September 

December 



Grand total. 



Com. 



Buiheli. 



18,700 
30, 215 
16,800 
20,802 
16,083 



28,486 

35,206 



3,228.645 

886,430 

1,110,620 

422,000 



114, 502 



5.763,187 



Wheat. 



BtLtheU. 

35,166 
34,070 



33,918 



26,776 
14,500 



15, 112 
42,700 
43,650 
17,200 
43.200 
30,500 
42,615 
15,500 



18,876 



5,149,708 

609,221 
169. 022 
51,084 
04,000 
45.000 
81,000 
19.000 
414,764 



0.002.799 



Oats. 



ButheU. 



86,857 



30.857 



Bolk 



Tom. 

1.055 
1,020 



623 
1,800 

470 
1,385 

885 



425 
1,280 
1,310 

518 
1.300 

915 
1,280 

405 

800 
1,400 



246.979 

44,900 

30,170 

16,440 

1.420, 

1,350 

2,430 

520 

15.650 



Other 
fjreight. 



TetaL 



Ton§, 



1,270 
1.462 

"m 



870 



1,542 



1,300 
270 



42,301 



1,053 
1,02.1 
L,1T' 
l,9ii5 
1.S6U 
1.345 
1. 3it-> 
^.> 

- 425 
1,2*> 
1,310 
2,060 
1,300 
915 
1,2»> 
1.765 
1,070 
1,4<jO 

280,280 

44,900 

30.170 

1ft. 440 

1,420 

1.350 

2.430 

520 

15,650 



306,859 



42,301 



408.109 



Shipments by New Orleans boats and barges for three years. 



Articles. 



Apples banvls. 

Ale and beer I»aokagea. 

Bagging pieces. 

Barley sacks. 

Barley bnsbels. 

Barbed wire pounds . 

Batter do... 

Bran sacks. 

Cattle head. 

Com sacks. 

Com in bulk bushels. 

Com meal barrels. 

Cotton bales. 

Cotton-seed meal tons. 

Eggs packages. 

Floor barrels. 

Hay tons. 

Horses and moles head. 

Hogs do... 

Hominy and grits barrels. 

Pork do... 

Hams *. pounds. 

Meats do... 

Lard..... do... 

Malt sacks. 

Oats do... 

Oats in bulk bushels. 

Onions packagea. 

Potatoes do... 

Rye sacks. 

Bye in bulk bushels. 

Sheep head. 

TaUow pounds. 

Tobacco hogsheads. 

Tobaooo, manufactured pounds. 

Wheat sacks. 

Wheat in bulk bushels. 

Whisky barrels. 

Wbitelead pounds. 

Merchandise and sundries packages. 

Tots! tons. 



1892. 



164 

2,570 

10,220 

41 



20,260 

2.028 

84,074 

8 

58,930 

8, 228, 645 

77,622 



262. 9U 

409 

244 

5 

20,410 

3,497 

81,676 

1, 825, 714 

7,450.298 



95,649 

30,857 

80 

403 

120 



369,194 



15,794 

51 

6,149,708 

443 

1,124,415 

153,979 



315,005 



1891. 



144 

1,892 
22,973 

4 



253,804 

1,106 

40,507 

1 

90,964 

1, 482, 781 

80,905 



222,329 

764 

248 

23 

23.978 

5,890 

85.194 

1,143,318 

0,809,290 



257,728 



870 

246 

48 

46,000 



7,473 

207 

0,940,215 

403 

1,050,481 

87,877 



1880. 



348 

8.503 

88,276 

30 



1,831,163 

9,377 

70,746 

5 

152,903 

8.717,850 

133,697 

2,054 



2 

880,300 

956 

704 

24 

40,247 

6.279 

181,926 

1,789.865 

8,U6,580 

15,845 

403,173 

89,900 

153 

050 

1,030 



220 



30,757 

418 

1,409,440 

1,040 

1,184,295 

189,651 



331,850 



418,400 



APPENDIX Y Y— REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3711 
Shipments Jnf Memphis, Vtcksbtirg, and Natchez boats for three years. 



Article*. 



Apples 

A le and hew 

}i.«PKiug 

r.:»rley 

r.rtrh*y 

Harbfid wire 

r>iitter 

Bran ....... — 

Caltle 

Cum 

Corn, in bulk 

Corn raeal 

Cotton 

Cotton-aeed meal. 

Ki,'K8 

yiuur 

Hay 



...barrels, 
.packages. 
....pieces. 

, sacks. 

..bushels. 
...pounds. 

do... 

sacks. 

head. 

....sacks. 
..bushels. 
...barrels. 
bales. 



Horses and mules 

Hojcs 

Hominy and ^its. 

Pork 

Hams 

HesU 

Lard 

Malt 

OaU 



Oat«, in balk 

Ooions 

Potatoes 

Eve 



Rye, in bulk 

Shrep 

Tallow 

Tobacoo 

Tobacco, manufactured ... 

Wheat 

Wheat, in balk 

Whisky 

WhitAlead .' 

Herobudiae and sundries 



tons. 

..packages. 

barrels. 

tons. 

bead 

do... 

barrels. 

do... 

pounds. 

do... 

do... 

sacks. 

do... 

— bushels. 
..packages. 

do... 

sacks. 

....bushels. 

, head. 

....pounds. 
.hogHheads. 
....pounds. 

sacks. 

...bushels. 

barrels. 

....pounds. 
..packages. 



Total*. 



.tons. 



1802. 



1,174 

35,423 

13, 972 

59 



1, 090, J>58 

34, 2()8 

8,429 

52 

80.324 



117,909 
5 



60 

ei,205 

1, 715 

1,577 

42 

8,324 

6.301 

222, 152 

6, 566, 373 

985.443 



63,012 



8,170 

14,188 

260 



38 

247,500 

93tt 



2,319 
458,611 
747, 856 



77,065 



1801. 



1.112 

34,003 

56,233 

234 



2,034,106 

31,540 

26,393 

84 

144.563 



157,012 



56 

181,358 

2,675 

1,515 

82 

3,466 

6,738 

491. 2;)8 

11,089,187 

1, 284, 463 

50 

U6,009 



8,357 

12,359 

381 



160 



2 

242,185 

370 



3.023 
495, 717 
872,774 



112.420 



1800. 



2,026 

83, 127 

40,349 

577 



879.045 

94,761 

39,533 

77 

119,403 



201,964 



270 

178,970 

8,488 

1,834 

181 

4,778 

7,507 

791,112 

] 3, 066, 078 

1,338,620 

362 

123,234 



2.240 

13, 365 

1.378 



489,363 
173 



2.900 

536, 637 

1, 091, 050 



125,405 



Classified statement for three years of oommodities transported to St. Louis from the Lower 
Mississippi by the St, Louis and Mississippi Valley Transportation Company, 



Commodities. 



Anrrfls, mashtaerj, eto packages. 

Cement barrels . 

Chemicals, causlio, eto packages. 

Earthemand glassware do... 

Fertiliser do... 

Iron bars, rails, eto do... 

Iron, pigaudB(x«p tons. 

I)o packages. 

Lumber i^et. 

Oils and paints barrels. 

nice packages. 

Salt do... 

Shingles bundles. 

Steei; bars, blowns, etc tons. 

Tin plats boxes. 

Sunaries packages. 

Total tons. 



1800. 



2,116 
169,415 

2,057 
5,703 



14,706 

204 

12,255 

1,252.980 

210 

13,204 

6,672 

78,710 

1,121 



4,137 



47, 282 



1891. 



2,251 

182.084 

1,5«5 

10. 577 

7, 533 

2,105 



988.051 

52 

0,500 

6,989 

163,447 

6, 137 

576 

2,870 



52,'J91 



1892. 



1,603 
129,050 
3.273 
1,230 
2.408 



825,977 

508 

17,262 

11, 499 

166,601 

1,024 

02S 

2,621 



40,42S 



St. Louis, June 5, 1893* 



Henby p. Wyman, 

Seoretary, 



3712 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

8TAT£MENT OF TBS TITTSBURO COAL SXCHAN6B. 

■ 

Pittsburg, June 7, I8$S, 

8ir: The following liet ebows the coal shipments for the year 1892 to the varioaa 
points on the Mississipni River. These statistics were not available when year 
letter wius received, bat had to be collected from the different operators : 

Busbele. 

1. Points on the Mississippi down to and including Memphis 6, 450, 00r» 

2. Point.8 below Memphis down to and including White River 1, 500, 0».X) 

3. Points below White River down to and inclnding Vicksbnrjj 3, 550, 000 

4. Points below Yicksburg down to and inclnding New Orleans 34, 750, OOQ 



Total 46,250,000 

Number of steamers employed, 17; their total tonnage, 9,000. 
urn freight, en 
Very respectfc 



Return freight, empty cral't, if any. 

fully, 



The Pittsburg Coal Exchakos, 
J. Frank Tilley, Secretary. 
Capt. Carl F. Palfrey, 

Corps of Engineers. 



STATEMEirr SHOWING RECEIPTS AT CINCINNATI FROM POINTS ON MISSISSIPPI 

RIVER, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1892. 

From all points, Neic Orleans to Memphis. 

Cement barrels,. 800 

Scrap iron tons. . 95 

Lumber feet.. 427,000 

Merchandise tons.. 1,140 

Molasses barrels . . 18, 480 

C. 8. oil do.... 671 

Rice do 7, 734 

Sugar do 5,774, 

Sugar hogsheads . . 129 

Shingles bundles.. 28,368 

Cotton bales.. 6,911 

Moss bales.. 990 

Paper stock bales.. 924 

Aggregate tonnage ; 11,393 

« 

From all points J Memphis to Cairo. 

C. 8. meal bags.. 45,960 

Cotton bales.. 32,632 

Scrap iron tons.. 100 

Merchandise tons.. 401 

C. 8. oil barrels.. 1,006 

Soap stock do 2,088 

Spar do 6,351 

Lumber feet.. 1,787,000 

Aggregate tonnage 16,418 

Total tonnage 27,811 



STATEMENT SHOWING SHIPMENTS FROM CINCINNATI TO POINTS ON MISSISSIPPI 

RIVER, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1^2. 

To all points south of Memphis to New Orleans, 

Nails kegs.. 44,571 

Iron tons.. 1,126 

Merohandise tons.. 8,954 

Aggregskie toonsbge 11,398 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3713 

All point$ Bouih of Cairo to MempTiia. 

^aii« kep^s.. 111,828 

*^al* barrelfl.. 16,025 

Iron .... tons.. 1,547 

MerchaiidiBe do.... 6,864 

Aggregate tonnage 16,678 

Total tonnage 28,071 



Appendix 4. 

report op gapt. s. w. bokssler, corps of engtkeerg, xn»on operations dt 

the first and second districts. 

United States Engineer Office, 

MemphiSf Tertn., June 1, 1895. 

General: I hAve the honor to submit the following report of operations in the 
First and Second Districts lor the period May 81, 1892, to May 81, 1893: 

first district (CAIRO TO FOOT OF ISLAND 40, 220 MILES). 

ColumbuSy Ky. (tl miles below Cairo). — The work of improvement at this point 
consists of five spur dikes bailt in 1889-^90 to protect about 2,200 feet of bank 
in front of the t<own which was throatheiiing to cave. No injury to the spurs has 
beefi noted since their completion in October of 1890, and no further work is at pres- 
ent required. 

Hickman, Ky. (S6 miles below Cairo).— The acts of 1886 and 1888 contained 
specific appropriations for this locality amounting together to $88,750. The evil to 
be remedied was the caving of the bank in front of tne town. Owing to the exibt- 
ence of a projecting point of tough clay above the town, it was possible to do 
this with a small development of work. A continuous revetment about 1,000 feet 
long, extending downstream from the clay point, was placed in October, 1890, its 
downstream end resting on a second clay point opposite the middle of the town. After 
the flood of 1891, a slight undennining of the downstream end of the mat above 
water was noted, which was further enlarged by the flood of 1892. The iiyury was 
limited to the portion of the mat above low water, and was repaired in October and 
November, 1892, by extending the shore mattress downstream to cover the pocket 
which had been scoured out below the end mat. The balance of the mat above low 
water remained uninjured, but had become much weakened by decay of the brush 
of which the mattress was constructed. To strengthen it, a layer of riprap stone 
10 inches thick was placed along the whole revetment, extending from low water 
up to the level of the 7-foot stage. The ballast will be extended further np the 
bank, if necessary, the coming season. 

A survey of the whole harbor front at this point was made in October of 1892, and 
included sections 100 feet apart over the existing revetment. Very great depths 
were found. At the downstream end of the mattress the depth was 97 feet below 
low water at a point 200 ieet from the bank. One hundred feet further upstream 
the depth was 116 feet at a' point 225 feet from the bank, and the same depth was 
found in the section next above it, and at about the same distance from the shore. 
The existence of these greath depths so near the shore are a great menace to the per- 
manence of the revetment, but there is nothing to show that any portion of the 
river mat has yet been lost. No further work is recommended at this locality at 
tlie present time beyond placing such additional stone ballast on the shore mats as 
may be found necessary after the water recedes. 

New Madrid, Mo. {71 milee below Cairo). — To comply with the requirements of the 
act of September 19, 1890, as interpreted by the Secretary of War, the Commission 
allotted $1,000 from the appropriation contained in that act to be expended in mak- 
ing a snrvey. The survey was made in September and October, 1891. The evil 
which the inhabitants desire to have corrected is the caving of the bank in front of 
the town. Between 1880 and 1884, the bank caved away at an average rate of 118 
feet >Of^6ar, and between 1884 and 1891 at the rate of 57 feet a year. It was estimated 
that $f 0,000 would be required to protect the bank immediately in front of the town. 
The river and harbor act of July 18^ 1892, contained a speoiflo appropriation of 

BNG 93 ^233 



3714 BEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMY. 

$25,000 for the improvement of thlB locality. By reeolntion of the CommiflsioOy at 
approved by tiie Seoretary of War, this sum i0 to be expended in revetting the bank 
oppoeite the upstream portion of the town, beginning at the npper limit of the 
town at Dry Sloagh and extending downstream as far ae the fnnd^ will allow. The 
stone required has been stored on the bank during the present high water, and it is 
contemplated to build the revetment the first thing this season, beginning probably 
the latter part of June. 

Plain Point Beadh (147-186 miles htlow Cairo). — ^Under this title works of improve- 
ment have been executed at various points between Daniels Point and Craighead 
Point, a distance by river of about 20 miles. They are fully described in previous 
report. During the current fiscal year the improvement of the reach has been con- 
tinued by the construction of new revetment in Ashport Bend, and by repairs to the 
revetment at Daniels Point and Fletchers Bend. 

Jshport Bend, — The shape and position of the bank line in this bend exert a cx»n- 
trolling influence on the effectiveness of the works of improvement lower down in 
the reach, and its protection against caving formed a x>art of the original project for 
the improvement of this reach. Revetment was commenced in 18&, at the upper 
end of the bend, but was 8UBx>ended after 2,694 linear feet had been built, in order 
that the plant and funds designed for this point might become available for other 
works which had developed into greater urgency in the course of the same season. 
No steps were taken to resume the work till 1890. In that year an allotment was 
made to begin the revetment, and in the following year a second allotment of snffi- 
oient amount was made to complete the protection of the entire bend. Work was 
commenced late in the fall of 1891, and 3,250 linear feet of revetment was placed 
before the end of the season, beginning at the upper end of the bend. During the 
following high water as much as possible of the i^ip^ap stone required to complete the 
work was purchased and stored on the bank. The revetment work was resumed 
early in August of 1892, and actively prosecuted uiitil the close of the season in Feb- 
ruary, 1893. Two mattress ways had been provided, and with these it was hoped to 
complete the revetment of the entire bend before the end of the season, but the with- 
drawal of one of the ways for the repairs at Daniels Point in October mad« this 
impossible, (^ood progress was, however, made with the one plant, and 8,504 feet of 
revetment completed before the end of the season, lea>'ing about 4,000 feet of bank 
at the lower end of the bend yet to be protected. 

Grading. — ^The most difficult feature of the work was the preparation of the bank 
for paving above low water. For a distance of over 1,000 feet in the vicinity of Mud 
Point the composition of the bank was of a treacherous nature, causing the bank to 
CHve or slough off in large blocks, giving the bank Ifhe a very irrog^ilar shape of 
salients and reenterings. But little grading was possible here, and but little was 
done. There was, howevfir, along the greater portion of this bank a natural slope 
of about 1 on 2^ to 1 on 3 from the low- water line up to the level of the 15-foot con- 
tour, on which the shore protection could be placed without grading. Below 
this point the bank line was uniform in shape and direction and favorable for grad- 
ing. The grading was, however, slow and tedious on account of the large number 
of old cypress stumps encountered at all points of the graded slope, being the relic 
of an old cypress swamp, which the surface deposit of the present bank entirely 
oovers and conceals. At one point there were 74 stumps in the graded slope along 
300 feet length of bank, and this was by no means the most thickly wooded portion. 
Grading opposite two of the mats was done before the mats were sunk, but with 
very unsatisfactory results, as the bank sloughed badly at the water line. Resort to 
hand dressing, at considerable expense, was had to establish a suitable slope for the 
riprap paving. After this the grading was done after the river mats were sunk, 
and with much more satisfactory results, there being but little caving or sloughing 
after the pockets under the shore edge of the mats had been filled up by the mate- 
rial which was washed down from the bank by the hydraulic jet. The grading was 
done with large graders Nos. 2 and 4. One month was lost with griMer No. 4 on 
account of a bursted steam cylinder. The two large pumps were taken off and four 
pile-driver jet pumps were put on instead, and gave good satisfaction during the 
remainder of the season. To expedite this work, both graders were worked at night 
between September 28 and October 26, by the aid of a Wells lamp. In November 
grader No. 4 was transferred to Daniels Point. 

Biver mats. — Construction was conmienced with river mats of the width hereto- 
fore used, viz, 200 feet, as one of the mattress ways would not permit the construc- 
tion of a wider one. After 3,952 feet of mat had been built of this width, a new and 
larger mat- ways was procured, and the remainder of the mats were constructed 
with a width of 240 feet. 

Late in the season, while work was in progress, I received the resolutions of the 
Commission directing certain changes in the construction of the mats. The resolu- 
tions were: (1) ''That under- water mattresses shall be thickened by a layer 3 or 4 



APPENDIX y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3715 

inches tliick of fine brnah to make them less permeable ; and (2) that the district 
officers be authorised to experiment on constracting the enter 50 feet of mattress so 
as to be more flexible^ in order to follow the eaving of the bank." 

The first resolution doubles the amonnt of brush required in building a given 
length of mat) and as the brush supply was already inadequate for the ordinary form 
of construction, causing delay and loss, it was deemed impracticable to carry oat the 
resolutions to the ftill extent and at the same time build the amount of mat&ess that 
was necessary in order to close the gaps between the mats already placed. 

When the second mat party was withdrawn from this work for Daniels Point, 
there existed a long gap between the revetment placed by it and that of the first 
party, which had to he closed before the end of the season or have an unprotected 
interval which would be liable to cave back during the succeeding high water and 
destroy the free ends of the mattress. It being deemed unsafe to leave such an 
unprotected interval at this point, and it being impossible to close it if the resolution 
was fully carried out, it was complied with only to the extent of placing an extra 
layer of brush on the inshore edge of the mat for a width of 40 to 50 feet. Special 
care, however, was taken here and at other points, to weave the brash more closely 
than had been the custom heretofore, to connect the top and bottom grillage more 
securely, and to strengrthen the mat lengthwise and crosswise by a more liberal use 
of steel- wire strand. The mats are believed /to be better in every 'particular than 
any heretofore built of the same type of construction in the First and Second Dis- 
tricts. 

The following are the river mats built during the season: 

Mat No. 1.-1,090 feet long, 200 feet wide. 

Mat No. 2. — 1, 038 feet long, the upper 695 feet being 200 feet wide, the remainder 
240 feet wide. 

Mat No. 3.— Length 1,045 feet, width 200 feet. 

Mat No. 4.— Length 989 feet, width 240 feet. 

Mat No. 5.— Length 1,122 feet, width 200 feet. 

Mat No. a— Length 1,103 feet, width 240 feet. 

Mat No. 7. — Length 421 feet, width 240 feet. This mat covers the softest part of 
Mud Point, and has an extra layer of brush over the whole width of mat for a dis- 
tance of 300 feet. 

Mat No. 8a.— Length 830 feet, width 240 feet. 

Mat No. 86.— Length 866 feet, width 240 feet. 

The above is the order in. which the mats were built. Oeographioally they are dif- 
ferently located. The mat farthest downstream is No. 5, and the one next above it 
No. 85. The latter was built under difficulties, on account of cold weather and ice, 
and it was found necessary to sink it, on aocount of ice, before it had been given the 
length necessary to overlap the head of mat No. 7, thus leaving a short unprotected 
interval between them. 

Conntctina maU. — Of these 31 were made, in lengths of from 75 to 400 feet, and 
widths of 40 to 120 feet. They overlap the river mats about 25 feet, and extended up 
the bank to the level at which the water line stood at the time they were built. 
They were built of two thin layers of brush at right angles, with top and bottom 
grillage poles securely wired together. 

Pavtng, — ^The paving begins at the low- water Une and extends up the graded slope, 
terminating at a level of about the 18- foot stage. It consists of a thin layer of (quarry 
spalls, on which is placed a layer of riprap stone. At first the paving was given a 
uniform thickness of 10 inches, but was afterwards made with a thickness of 12 
inches for a distance of 5 feet, measured vertically up the slope, then gradually 
reduced to a thickness of 6 inches at the top of slope. 

Spur dike, — In order to break the force of the strong eddy which exists under Mud 
Point, three spur dikes have been commenced, each consisting of two rows of piles 
perpendicular to the bank. Owing to the rapidly rising river, they were not com- 
pleted before suspension of work by high water. 

Swrveye and barings. — Before any revetment was built, the bend was careftilly 
sounded along sections 100 feet apart, the soundings being referred to a permanently 
established base line on shore. Tlie soundings were repeated after the revetment 
was built, and a third set over a portion of the mattress was taken, after the water 
had risen. The latter indicate a decided scour of the river bed alons the outer ed^e 
of the mattress at the lower end of the work, and an undermining of a portion of it. 
Being taken at high water in a swift current, the last set of soundings are, however, 
not very reliable. A resurvey of the bend will be made at next low water, ana 
it is anticipated that it will throw some light on the manner in which the current 
at high water acts upon a revetted bank. Test borings to ascertain the oompositiou 
of the bank in the vicinity of Mud Point are in progress. 

For further details see report of Assistant Engineer Aug. J. Nolty« 



3716 • EEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENODteBBS, U. 8. ASMT. 

The cost of the work during the season, including all expenses inoidental thereto, 
except office expenses, is as follows: 

River mats per square.. $i,2ffi 

Connecting mats do.... 8.17 

Pocket mats do.... 6. 90 

Paving per square yard.. .91^ 

Grading do.... .038 

Cost per linear foot of protection 19.22 

Amount expehded on this work in 1891-'92 60,171.31 

Amount expended on this work in 1892-'93 '. 174,546.30 

Total. 234,717.61 

Daniels Paint. — As hefore reported, a continuous revetment, 5,300 feet long, was 

S laced in this vicinity in 1889 to protect the bank at lower end of Canadian 
leach, in which rapid caving had developed. The river mats were 200 feet wide, 
and were made continuous with the shore work, which also consisted of brush mats 
lightly ballasted with stone. After the flood of 1890 the upper end of the revet- 
ment was found to have been undermined by the caving of the unprotected bank 
above it, and some settling to have taken place in the shore mat at a point 300 feet 
below the head of the work. The settling had not been sufficient to rupture the 
brush work, and no repairs were made this season. During the flood of 1891 this 
settling had developed into a rupture of the mat, causing a deep pocket and leaving 
but a small length of revetment in place above it. An examination at low water 
failing to show that any of the ori^n^al uiat was in place, the break was repaired 
the same season by a mat 200 feet wide and 300 feet long, and shore work. It was 
intended, during the same season, to extend the revetment upstream 500 feet, but 
for reasons given in laRt annual report, this was not done. 

After the flood of 1892, five breaks appeared, which, including the mat lost by 
undermining at the "Pper end of the work, involved the loss of over one-half of the 
origiual revetment. TlieBe breaks were as follows, beginning with the one feurtheist 
upstream : 

Feet. 

Break No. 1, length 750 

Break No. 2, length 330 

Break Xo. 3, len'^^th 8i*0 

Break No. 4, length 560 

Break No. 5, length 530 

A careful survey at low water, with soundings along sections 100 feet apart, 
showed that considerable scour had taken place in the bed of the river along the 
outer or channel edge of tho mat. At the upper end of the revetment depths of 100 
feet below low water were found less than 200 feot from the shore, and the loss of 
mat in this vicinity was doubtless due to the scour which has here taken place 
since the mats were sunk. The scour was much leas at the lower end of the revet- 
ment and the causes of breaks 4 and 5 are not so evident. These breaks were made 
the subject of a special report, dated September 21, 1892, and to repair them the 
comniisHion provided the sum of $60,000 by transfer from the allotment for Gold 
Dust Dam, the construction of which was deferred until another season. 

The preliminary work of repairing the break was commenced October 8 and 
mat construction October 13. Breaks Nos. 1, 2 and 3, having practically developed 
into one continuous break, were treated as such and covered by continuous mat- 
tress 1,940 feet long and 240 feet wide. Connecting mats were constructed to cover 
the pockets between the shore edge of the river mats and the water line. Pocket 
No. 5 was repaired by mattress 613 feet long and 240 feet wide, with connecting 
mat and shore paving. Authority having been obtained to experiment in the con- 
struction of a fascine mat, it was proposed to cover pocket No. 4 with a mat of this 
construction. After a study of the subject, it was proposed to build it as follows: 

The fascines to be made 12 inches in diameter and in lengths of 50 and 100 feet, 
and tightly compressed and bound every 3 feet. These fascines were to be placed at 
right angles to the bank and were to form the woof of the mattress, pairs of longi- 
tudinal wire strand cables forming the warp. The top and bottom cables of each 
pair were clamped together every 3 feet liy long cable clamps. On top of the mat- 
tress so built a grillage of poles was placed and tied down to the fascines by galvan- 
ized wire. The construction of the mat was commenced February 2, 1893, and was 
very slow work, the best progress made on any one day being about one-half that of 
the ordinary woven mat. After 173 linear feet had been built, the river became 
filled with heavy ice, crowding the mooring barges and tl^e mats into aa oblique 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COAlMiSSlOi^. 3717 

poBition with respect to the bank. To prevent total loss, the unfinished mat was 
nnrriedly ballasted and sunk the same day. 

The experiment with this form of mat has therefore not been, on the whole, a sno- 
cess, bnt enough of it was built to demonstrate that it possessed two great advantages 
over the old form of mat, viz. : more flexibility and less permeability. The cost per 
linear foot of mat is of course some greater than that of the old mat, but the experi- 
ment was not carried far enough to enable me to ^ive even an approximate estimate 
of its cost if used on a large scale. Further experiments in the construction of this 
form of mat will be made at New Madrid during the coming working season. 

To aid in breaking up the eddy in the pockets formed by the breaks in the old mat, 
the spur dikes of piles were commenced as the water began to rise, but the river 
rose too rapidly to permit their completion before suspension of work by high water 
All work was discontinued March 1. The revetment will be extended up-stream 
about 1,000 feet during the coming season. 

The cost of repairs of the past season was as follows : 

River mat per sqnare.. $5.09 

Connecting mat do 7.8112: 

Grading: per cubic yard.. .063 

Paving do 1.995 

Total expended $54,016.52^ 

Fletchers Bend. — A few unimportant faults in the old work were restored during 
the season and 4,807 sqnare yards of work reballasted and 684 square yards of addi- 
tional paving laid^ at a total cost of $2,632.66. One of the projects for last season 
was the repair of a fault in the revetment of Section B, near its upstream end, buv 
owing to the necessity of using the plant at other points, this could not be done. A 
special allotment of $15,000 has been made for repairing this break, to be done the 
coming season. 

Gold Dust Dli;6.— The funds withdrawn from this work last season and applied in 
repairing Daniels Point revetment having been restored by a new allotment of 
$60,000 it is proposed to build the dam, or as much of it as possible, the coming sea- 
son. The stone required has been stored on the bank in the near vicinity of the dam . 

Bullerton Tow-Head, — ^The revetment along the channel face of BuUerton Tow- 
Head has been broken up in places during the past year. For some years after its 
construction it was not exposed to the action of the current, bein^r protected by an 
outlying sand bar. Thi^ bar was scoured away during the flood of 1892, leaving the 
channel face of the tow-head exposed to a strong current. Being one of the first 
experiments in mat building in which mats only 100 feet wide were used, which widths 
have since been found insufficient, it is probable that the entire revetment will 
require renewal in the near future, and, in anticipation that a part of it will have to be 
renewed the coming season, an allotiuent of $100,000 has been made for this purpose. 

Condition of the works in the reach, — The most serious injuries sustained by the 
works in the reach occurred, as above described, at Daniels Point, Bullerton Tow- 
Head, and Fletcher Bend. There has also been some further enlargement of the 
nnrevetted gaps in the interrupted revetment in Fletcher Bend, but not of suf- 
ficient extent to require immediate repairs. The undermining of the low^r end of 
the Plum Point revetment has also continued to a small extent. With these excep- 
tions the works in the reach are believed to be in substantially the condition 
reported in the last Annual Iteport. 

Besults at Plum Point Beach, — The river was at a low stage from September 1 to 
December 15, with a minimum of 3.9 feet on the Cairo gauge. The least depths 
recorded in the reach were 7i feet in Gold Dust and the same depth at Island 30 
crossings. All other crossings gave 10 feet or more. 

8URVRY8, OAUORS, AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Surveys.-^k low-water survey of Plum Point Reach was made in September and of 
Helena Harbor in October. A survey of Nonconnah Rock was made in September. 

During the construction period voiy careful soundings were made over the revet- 
ment works at Daniels Point, Ashport Bend, and Hopefield Bend, and the same sec- 
tions were lesonnded during April, 1893, when the river was at a much higher stage. 
The results obtained fh>m tnese surveys are noted in the description of improvement 
works at the above localities. 

A low-water survey was made of Harris Crossing, just below New Madrid, Mo. 
This is a shoal locality, and at the time of the survey, October, 1892, there was a 
least channel depth of 7 feet, with the New Madrid gauge reading 5.7 feet. 

In compliance with a resolution of Congress I had a survey made of the lower 
portion of Wolf and Loosa Hatchie rivers, Tennessee, using the regular survey 
party fox this purpose. 



3718 EEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, Vk S. ARMY. 

Levee eurveys, — Daring December, 18^, and January, V8&3', suryeys were made for 
a levee location along the upper portion of the St. Francis front. The ^ength of 
levee surveyed was 30 miles, in two sections. Hie upper section was 22^ miles lun^, 
from Point Pleasant, Mo. (80 R), to Gayoso, Mo. (105 R).. and the lower sections 7^ 
miles long^from Barfield, Ark. (142 R), to the upper end of the Plum Point system of 
levees at Bear Bayou (151 R). 

Discharge obeervationa. — A single low-water discharge was taken at Memphis, 
Tenn., October 25, 1892,. gange 1.9 feet. The discharge in cubic feet per second 
was 116,756. 

High-water discharges were taken in February and March, 1893, at Columbus, 
Ky., New Madrid, Mo., Fulton, Tenn., and Helena, Ark. The resalts have been 
reduced and forwarded to the secretary of the Commibsion. This flood was of only 
moderate proportions, the highest stage reached being below extreme high water— 
5.4 feet at Columbus and 6.3 feet at Helena. 

A second flood in May, 1893, was 2 feet below high water at Columbus, and has 
reached the high- water mark at Helena. Parties were sent to all the above discharge 
stations to gauge this flood, and at some points the observations are still in progress. 
As soon as completed the results will be reduced and forwarded to the secretary. 

Low water of 1899, — The river was at a low stage from September 1 to December 
15, reaching its lowest the last of October. The least gauge readings were : Cairo, 
3.9; Belmont, 2.7: Morrisons, 3.4; Cottonwood Pointy 0.4; Fulton, 4.7; Memphis, 1.6; 
Mhoons, — 2.2; Helena, 1.2; Sunflower, 3.2. 

These readings are some greater than for low water of 1891, being 1.5 greater at 
Cairo, 1.1 at Morrisons, 2.0 at Fulton, 0.6 at Memphis, and 0.9 at Helena. 

Only 26 shoal crossings of under 10 feet depth were reported by pilots, against 42 
reported in 1891. Of these 20 had less than 9 feet, 13 less than 8 feet, and 4 less 
than 7 feet, the shoalest at Harris being left. 

Table ofdepihe «( thoal^ater ero9»%ngs, 1S9B, Cairo to White Biver. 



Kamo of crossing. 



Wolf Island 

Beckbamb 

Hamh 

Point Pleasant 

Below Point Pleasant. . . 

Darnells 

Cherokee 

Stewarts 

Gold Dust 

Island No. 30 

Island No. 84 

Centennial 

Island No. 40 

Fort Pickering 

Armstrongs 

Beeves 

Scanlans 

Cat Island 

Norfolk 

Peters 

McCulloufrhs Tow-Homl 

Bardins Point 

Montezuma 

Friars Point 

Henrioo 

Scrub Grass 



Distance 




below 


Depth. 


Cairo. 




MiUt. 


Feet, 


26 


7 


77 


8 


19 


6 


80 


7 


81 


8 


82 


8 


88 


H 


80 





15T 

162 


JJ 


180 


84 


203 





212 


7 


232 


7 


241 





243 


^ 


248 


8 


253 


8 


254 
271 


n 


272 


9 


288 





312 


8 


318 





382 


7 


384 


74 



Date. 



Oct. 3 
Sept. 5 
Oct. 3 
Sept.2U 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 10 
SepL 10 
Oct. 18 
Oct. 18 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 10 
Oct. 3 
Oct. a 
Sept 6 
Oet. 20 
Oct. ao 
Sept. 6 
Oct. 17 
Nov. 1 
Sept. 17 
Oct. 17 
Nov. 14 
Nov. 17 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 17 



Loicer St, Francis levee district. — ^This district ioclades the area which is subject to 
oTerflow by water escaping over the right bank of the river between Point Pleasant, 
Mo., and the mouth of the St. Francis River. Ite length on a north and south line 
is about 125 miles and by river 218 miles. Its average width on an ptubt and west 
line is about 25 miles. The area liable to overflow is estimat-ed at 1,932,000 acres, of 
which only 217,000 acres, or 11 per cent of the total, is under cultivation. Local 
protection to about 41,000 acres of land in the vicinity of Osceola, Ark., is afforded 
by the levee, about 22 miles long, extending from Bear Bayou to Craighead Point, 
and which was built by the United States in 1886*'S7, in connection with other works 
for improving the channel of the river in Plum Point Reach. ^ 

Above and below this levee the water is practicaUy free to escape over the banks 
into the lowlands of the basin. The renuumta of the old State levee, long since aban- 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3719 

doned, TrUoh exist here aad there along the Tfhole length of the district, form no 
barrier to and retard hat little the general escape of water over the banks. 

The overflows of the past few years have been very destructive to the district, 
especially that of 1892, which, occurring very late in the season, made it impossible 
to make any crops whatever in many of the deeply-submerged localities. The pres- 
ent overflow promises to be quite as disastrous as that of 1892. 

Realizing tnat a succession of such overflows would not only prevent any further 
developnient of the territory, but would lead to the abandonment of much of it 
that is now oocupied, the inhabitants took prompt steps, after the flood of 1892, to 
organize themselves Into a distrfct for the purpose of building a levee. With great 
promptness both the Missouri and Arkansas sections of the overflowed area suc- 
ceeded in obtaining from their respective legislatures at their last sessions laws by 
whiob tbey could form into levee districts, and when so formed to Join together as 
one district^ under one administration, for the purpose of building and maintaining 
the levees of the district without regard to State lines. 

At present writing the levee boards and executive officers authorized by law 
have been organized, and st^s have been taken for levying a tax. The rate of 
taxation is subject to a vote of the inhabitants of the district, and will be submitted 
to a vote on the 10th instant. Considerable opposition has been developed, and 
there is a possibility that no tax whatever will be levied. Should, however, the 
tax reconunended by the levee board be adopted, the district expects to collect 
about $100,000 the first year. 

To aid the district in constructing their levees the Commission have allotted the 
sum of $264,000, under the provisions of the act of July 13, 1892, to be expended in 
the fiscal years of 1893-'94, 189i-'95, and 1895-'96. As bv far the greatest escape of 
water into the district takes place in the gap, 66 miles long, which exists between 
the high ground at Point Pleasant, Mo., and tne upper end of the Plum Point Reach 
levee at Bear Bayou, it was proposed to expend the first year's allotment of $88,000 
in beginning the levee at the upper end of the gap at Point Pleasant and extending 
it downstream as far as the funds would allow. The levee was advertised Decem- 
ber 30, 1892, and bids opened January 24, 1893. Before advertising, the district 
officer was assured that the right of way would be freely given or promptly obtained, 
but after advertising and befQre the opening of the bids, notice was received that 
some of the landholders had assumed a somewhat uncompromising attitude regard- 
ing right of way and drainage questions, and having no assurance that the then 
local county levee board could adjust the questions satisfactorily and promptly, 
I recommended, for this and other reasons, that all the bids be rejected, and that 
the money be applied at the lower end of this gap, by extending the Plum Point Levee 
from Bear Bavon upstream as far as the raudft would go. This project has been 
duly approved by the Commission and the Secretary of War. and all bids on the 
Point Pleasant location have been rejected and steps taken toward locating the 
levee above Bear Bayou. Owing to the overflow, which has prevented an examin- 
ation of the locality and selection of the proper location of the levee, the work has 
not yet been advertised. 

SBCOND DISTRICT. 

Sopefield Bend, ArJcansM {SS7-SS0 miles below Cairo), — The revetment in this bend is 
over 3 miles long, extending from Mound City to Hopetield Point. The upper 
mile was built in the working seasons of 1882, 1883, 1884, and 1885, and has been 
protected from serious injury up to the present time by a sand bar which formed in 
front of it shortly after its construction. The lower 2 miles of the revetment, 
which was buUt in 1884, 1887, and 1888» has been subjected to the action of a very 
strong current since its construction, and numerous breaks have occurred since 
1890, requiring extensive repairs to prevent the loss of the remaining portion of the 
work. The first break in this work occurred during the flood of 1890, and was 
repaired by a complete revetment, 762 feet long, built in the fall of 1890. Two more 
breaks occurred during the flood of 1891. one 2,750 feet long, at the head of the 1884 
work, and the other, 600 feet long, in tne 1887 work. Both were repaired in the 
season of 1891~'92. Five more breaks occurred during the flood of 18^, as follows, 
beginning with the one farthest upstream : 

Feet. 

Break No. 1, length 300 

Break No. 2, length 1,200 

Break No. 3, length 700 

Break No. 4, length 600 

Break No. 5, length 1,400 

To repair these breaks and to strengthen about 1,300 linear feet of mat not actually 
displaced, but which had become seriously weakened by decay of the brush in the 
vicmiiy of the low-water line, an allotment of $91,000 was made from the appropri- 



3720 BEPORT OP TAE chief op engineers, U. 8, ARMY. 

ation contained in th« act of Jaly 13, 1892. This sum, together with an nnex- 
pended balance and a small contribation from the allotment for repairs to existinfr 
works, sufficed to complete the repairs as contemplated. An examination of thetM: 
breaks at these and other points at low water suggested that the reYetmenits have 
been destroyed by one of the following causes : 

(1) Insnfi&cient width, which allow^ undermining by scour at the channel edg« 
of the subaqueous mats. 

(2) Want of flexibility in the subaqueous mats, which prevented them fkrom fol- 
lowing the scour without rupturing. 

(3) Want of compactness or too great permeability of the mats, by reason of 
which the material under the mat is scoured out, either by direct attack by tb^ 
current through them or by the return flow from the saturated strata on a receding 
river. 

To obviate these objections as far as practicable, the plan adopted for the la*t 
season's work was to make the mats as wide as the mat barges would allow (24u 
feet), to use smaller brush and weave it more closely than heretofore, to make the 
connecting mats much thicker and with greater lap over the river mats, and to pro- 
tect the bank above low water by a layer 10 inches thick of riprap atone. 

Work was begun August ^, 1892, and continued under favorable oonditions till 
its completion January 11, 1893. 

Break No. 1 {SOO feet long), — This failure occurred near the low-water line and 
carried away all the upper bank revetment. The subaqueous mat was found un- 
broken, with the inshore edge of the connecting mats, which was originally a few 
feet above low^water line, in about 15 feet of water. Repairs were made with 
heavy connecting mats from 115 to 180 feet wide, and a complete bank paving. 

Break No. 2 (l,B00feti long). — This was in the work of 1887. The current in front 
of it is exceedingly strong and close to the bauk. Upon examination at low water 
the river mat was found, in a number of places, at 50 to 100 feet out, but at other 
places it could not be found. The extent of caving was slight, and for nearly the 
ei^tire length the top portion of the revetted slope was standing. This break was 
repaired with a complete revetment 1.200 feet long. 

Break No. 3 (700 feet 2<m^).— This break was at the lower end of the 1887 work, and 
occurred just under a steamboat which hi^ for some time been anchored alon|( the 
bank. The break for a length of 300 feet and about 60 feet back occurred in twt^nty- 
four hours. Its subsequent enlargement was gradual. No river mat could be found 
in the middle of the break, and where founds near the ends, it was badly broken. 
The cave extended under the river mat of 1890, the head of which was found alon^ 
the bank. Repairs here consisted of a river mat 750 feet long, with connecting mats 
and paving. 

Break No, 4 {(500 feet Zottor). — This was in the 1888 work, and consisted of a series of 
small breaks alon^ the low- water line. In places the revetment was unbroken, and at 
no point was the inshore edge of the river mat over 30 feet from the low- water line. 
Along this break is a stratum of blue clay a few feet above the zero line, with strata 
of flue sand above and below. Numerous springs come out of the stratum of sand 
above the layer of clay, undermining the sand beneath and making large holes under 
the brush work, allowing the mat to settle down, and at times causing ruptures in 
the mat where the settling is considerable. The repairs were made by heavy con- 
necting mats of from 65 to 110 feet in width and paving. 

Break No. 6 {1,400 feet long). — ITie first cave occurred inside of a large wharf boat 
lying along the bank near the upper end; a pocket 300 feet long and 75 feet back 
went out in a day. Afterward another pocket caved near the lower end, and both 
were subsequently enlarged until they nearly connected. The stratification of the 
bank described under Break No. 4 occurs here. The repairs made were 1,470 feet of 
complete revetment. 

In addition to the above, 1,000 feet of the revetment above Bresk No. 4 and 300 
feet of revetment below it were strengthened in the vicinity of the low- water line 
by mats 50 to 95 feet wide and some additional ballast on the upper bank work. 
There were no actual breaks in the revetment, but the brush worK was decayed^ 
more or less broken and dinplaced, and but lightly ballasted. 

The work of the season included grading^ length of bank 3,650 feet, contents 71 ,000 
cubic yards: wide river mats, length 3,470, number of squares 8,253, length of bank 
covered 3,420 feet ; connecting mats, length 6,200 feet, number of squares 5^416; |>aritt^, 
length of bank covered 4,970 feet, number of squares 3,120. 

The average cost was — 

Qradin^ per cubic yard.. |0.W4 

Wide-river mats per square.. 3.653 

Connecting mats do 5.893 

Paving do 11.70 

Reballasting old work, 590 squares do 5.50 



Total cost of work 101,639.36 



APPENDIX T Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3721 

Brash and poles were obtained by contract at 95 cents per cord for the brash and 
$1.50 per cord for the poles. The deliveries were at times insufficient, causing delays 
ajid loss. ^ 

Stone was obtained by contract from Willifurd, Ark., over the Kansas City and 
Memphis Railroad, one- half on the top of the bank and one-half on barges. The 
deliveries were prompt. The price paid was $1.85 per gross ton on bank and $1.70 
on barges. The stone was limestone, gf variable quality. From carefnl determina- 
tions, made by measuring the displacement of several barges loaded and empty, the 
weight of the stone was found to be 2,496 pounds per cubic yard. 

For farther details, see accompanying report of William M. Rees, the assistant 
engineer in local charge of the work. 

As 8 preliminary step ^ward investigating the effect of the river current on a 
revetted bank, and ascertaining, if possible, the causes of failure in the revetments, 
the lower two- thirds of the revetment in this bend was sounded along sections 100 
feet apart during the low water of 1892. The soundinss were made with ^reat care. 
Two barges, each 1.30 feet long, were lashed end to end and moored at a right angle 
to the bank along the section to be souuded. The soundings were made 10 leet apart 
along the upstream side of the barges, the positions of the soundings being indicated 
by marks on the sides of the barges. The distance of each sounding from the shore 
end of the barges was carefully measured, as was also the horizontal distance from 
the shore end of the barges to a permanent base line on shore. Given these meas- 
urements and the stage of water at the time the soundings were made, it was pos- 
sible to construct very accurate profiles of the revetment, which can be used in 
connection with similar profiles to be made in the future for the purpose Of ascer- 
taining any changes that may take place in the shape or position of the mats at any 
point. 

Comparative soundings were made over a number of sections along the old 1888 
work in March, 1893, at a stage of river between 26 and 28 feet, and in a very swift 
current. Compared with the soundings taken last year at low water they appear 
to indicate that the mat has settled in places in the vicinity of the low- water line, and 
that the whole of the river mats at a few points have settled; but the later sound- 
ings are not snbmitted as conclusive as to the changes noted, since the current was 
too swift to permit soondings to be taken with any degree of accuracy. The extent 
of the settling can only be determined by an examination at next low water. There 
are known to be at present four new breaks in the stone work, but their extent can- 
not be ascertained until the water recedes. 

To repair these and to renew the old revetments where wide mats have not been 
placed since 1890 an allotment of $100,000 has been made from the appropriation 
contained in the sundry civil bill of March 3, 1893. The work will be done during 
the coming low-water season. 

To ascertain if the frequent failures of the revetment in this bond might not be 
due to a specially treacherous formation of the bank, 7 borings have been made 
1,000 feet apart along the lower 7,000 feet of the revetment. The average depth of 
6 borings was about 130 feet below the top of the bank, and 1 boring was carried to 
to a depth of 160 feet. Samples of the borings have been arranged and a full report 
will be prepared at an early date. 

Memphis Ilarhor {£30 miles below Cairo), — The outlying sand bar and the causes 
which have led to its formation, are fully described on page 3587 in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers tor 1891. During the low water of 1890 the sum of 
$4,802.33 was expended in maintaining a channel through the bar to the Memphis 
Elevator. The channel so dredged was filled by deposit the following high water 
to a higher level than before, and in 1891 an allotment of $15,000 was made and 
expended in again keeping open this channel. Though the traffic to the elevator 
was at no time suspended in 1891, the maintenance of a channel to the elevator 
proved of but little value, as all but one of the boats landing at the elevator had 
gone to the bank on account of the extreme low water of that season. 

The heavy deposit on the bar, which occurred during the flood of 1892, made it 
impracticable to attempt to reopen this channel again, and no work was done that 
season. No further dredging is recommended at the present time. The bar appears 
to have not yet reached its greatest development. In 1890 the tail of the bar had 
dropped down to a point 150 feet above the paved levee. During the flood of 1891 
it advanced downstream about 450 feet, overlapping the paved levee about 300 feet, 
and a further advance of 160 feet took place during the flood of 1892. 

The protection of the city front consists of 9,500 linedr feet of revetment, of which 
the upper 7,500 feet is continuous mattress and the lower 2,000 feet is of the spur- 
dike system. No injuries have been noted to the spurs or the continuous revetment 
above it, both of which remain in serviceable condition. 

Naneonnah Rook (£36 milee below Cairo). — This so-called rock is located opposite the 
mouth of Nonconnah Creek and 3 miles below the Memphis Bridge. The distance 
from the Tennessee shore is about 700 feet and from Presidents Island shore 2,000 



3722 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. B. ARMY. 

feet. For many years before 1890 the channel of the rirer oconpied the spa^ 
between the rock and Presidents Island, where the waterway was of sofficient ^w^idth 
for all craft to pass without coming dangerously near to the rock. Sinee 1890 the 
channel has moved to the narrow way between the rook and the Tennessee sbore. 
thns forcing all craft, especially heavy tows, to pass uncomfortably close to the rock 
at medium and low stages. The rock was surveyed at low water in October, 18S*1. 
and its contents found to be about 3,000 cubic yards above a plane 8 feet below low 
water. The top of the rock was 2.3 feet above low water. The material is a soil, 
ferruginous sandstone, easily pulverized under the hammer. To remove the rock to 
a depth of 8 icet an allotment of $6,000 was made August 4 from the approprlatioD" 
contained in the act of July 13, 1892. The work was advertised November 1, 1S92. 
and bids opened December 1, 1892, four bids being received, the lowest bein^f ^.(» 
per cubic yard and the highest $4.95 per cubic yard. The lowest bid was accepted 
and the contract made, tbc work to be completed before November 1, 1898. No work 
has yet been done. 

Helena Harbor {$06 miles below Cairo), — ^The work of improvement consietBof a 
continuous revetment 600 feet long and 5 spur dikes, protecting S.OOO feet of bank 
in front of the town. It was constructed in 1889-^90 under a specific appropriation 
of $75,000, contained in the act of August 11, 1888. The three lower dikes were not 
completed on account of lack of funds. No work has been done since. The cave or 
landslide which occurred after the flood of 1891 at the lower two dikes, which were 
not completed, and referred to in last Annual Report, has enlarged still farther, bnt 
no repairs could be economically made short of rebuilding the dikes complete or 
substituting continuous revetment. No further work is recommended at the present 
time. 

Levees, — The levees in the second district include the levees of the Upper Tazoo 
levee district on the left bank. Upper and Lower White River levee districts on 
the right bank, and a part of the Lower St. Francis levee district. The latter has 
been described in the report relating to the first district. Work has been done in 
all three of the first-mentioned districts under allotments of August 4, 1892, from the 
appropriation contained in the act of July 13, 1892. 

Upper Yazoo levee district {244 to 365 miles below Cairo), — ^From an estimate made 
in the summer of 1892 the total area included in this district is 2,169,524 acres, of 
which 356,227 acres are under cultivation. The assessed valuation of cleared and 
uncleared lands is $10,708,000, and of all property, including lands, personal and 
other property, $15,184,000. The real value of all property is estimated to be over 
$29,000,000, or about $246,000 per mile of levee in the diHtrict. The levee is, in roimrl 
numbers, 120 miles long, and, as compared with other levees on the river, is in a high 
state of efficiency, though not yet up to the standard of strength that will nlti- 
mattily be required. 

Up to the date of the last annual report about 28 per cent (33 miles) of the levee 
had been raised to the present standard grade of 4 feet above highest water, crown 
widths of 10 feet and minimum side slopes of 1 on 3, and with banquettes or bermes 
as buttresses to the bases of very high levees. The remainder of the levees which 
had not been brought up to this standard had trades of about 3 feet above high 
water, crown widths of 6 to 10 feet, and slopes of not less than 1 on 3. 

To aid the local district in still furtiier Htrengthening their levees the Commission 
alloted the sum of $•100,000 to be expended, $100,000 annually, in the four fiscal yean 
ending June 30, 1896. The portion of the levee which is subjected to the great-cat 
strain is that included between a point opposite Helena^ Ark., and the lower limit 
of the district at the Bolivar County line. The first years allotment has, therefore, 
been expended in this locality. Work has been done at three points, vis: In enlarg- 
ing existing levees in the vicinity of Burkes Landing (332 to 337 miles below Curo). 
and at a poiut about 1 mile below Sunflower Landing (354 miles below Cairo), and 
in constructing a new loop at Pushmataha (359 to 360 miles below Cairo), where the 
old levee was threatened by a caving bank. The levees were advertised and bids 
opened October 8, 1892. Work was promptly commenced the same month and the 
levees completed before March, 1893. 

The enlargement at Burkes was 4.3 miles (22,712 feet) long, contained 254,105 
cubic yards of earth work, and was let in three contracts, at prices varying from 
17i to 18| cents per cubic yard. 

The enlargement below Hushpuckanna was 4,235 feet long, contained 40,618 cubic 
yards, and was let at 20 cents per cubic yard. 

The new loop at Pushmataha was 7,205 feet long, contained 208,945 cubic yards, 
and was let in two contracts, at 18 and 16| cents per cubic yard, respectively. The 
total quantity of material placed under all the contracts was 503,668 cable yards, 
at a cost of $92,833, or an average price of 18.4 cents per cubic yard. 

As recommended in my project of October 31, 1892, and as approved by the Sec- 
retary of War, the second year's allotment is to be expended in the following man- 
ner: In enlarging 16,000 feet of the existing levee in mile sections 57, 58, and 59 



APPENDIX T Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI BIVER COMMISSION. 3723 

(304 to 307 miles below Cairo), 12,900 feet in sections 60-02 and 63 (309 to 312 miles 
below Cairo), 16^700 feet of levee in the vicinity of Malones Landing (356 to 358 
miles below Cairo), and 11,900 feet below Pushmataha Landing (360 to 365 miles 
below Cairo). Also in constructing a new loop 3,483 feet in length below Lake 
Cliarles (358 miles below Cairo), where the old levee is threatened by a caving bank. 
The levees were advertised December 30, 1892, and bids opened Jannary 24, 1893. 
Formal acceptance of bids was deferred till after sundry civil bill of March 3, 1893, 
containing the appropriation, had become a law. One of the successful bidding 
firms having failed to make their contract, the levee awarded them has been re- 
advertised informally and contracted for with the successful bidder of the second 
letting. These levees are to be completed January 1, 1894. 

The total amount of work contracted for under the appropriations for the fiscal 
year of 1893-'94 comprises the enlargement and construction of 11^ miles of levee, 
containing 577,000 cubic yards of earth, and costing $89,902.50. The following table 
shows the amount of work done by the local levee board and the United States in 

this district to date: 

Cnbio yards. 

Ag^egate yardage of levees to June 30, 1892 7,413,195 

Added by United States up to May 1, 1893 503,448 

Added by others up to May 1, 1893 439,106 

t 

Total to May 1, 1893 8,355,749 

Loet by caving or abandonment, June 30, 1892, to May 1, 1893 75, 000 

Aggregate remaining May 1, 1893 8,280,749 

Upper White Biverl€i>ee district f 306 to S40 miles helow Cairo). — ^This district comprises 
the upper half of the narrow belt of overflowed land, about 10 miles wide, which lies 
between the Mississippi and White rivers and below the foot of Crowleys Kidge. 
The lower third of the district is but sparsely settled on account of the frequent over- 
flows. The upper two-thirds, namely, that above Yellow Banks Bayou, constitutes 
the local district known as Cotton Belt Levee District No. 1. Its area comprises 
157,000 acres of land, of which 50,000 are under cultivation. The assessed valuation 
of all property, real and personal, is $1,058,000, and its real value, not including the 
town of Helena, is estimated at $1,898,000, or $86,000 for each mile of existing levee 
in the district. 

The existing levee begins at the foot of Crowleys Ridge above Helena, and 
extends downstream 22 miles to Yellow Banks Bayou. The grade varies from 1. 5 
to 3 feet above highest water, except along the lower two miles above Yellow Banks^ 
which is much below a safe grade. By the allotments of August 4, 1892, this district 
received $50,000 for the fiscsu year ending June 30, 1893, and $53,000 for each of the 
three years ending June 30, 1894, 1895, and 1896. 

Believing that the local levee board was abundantly able to enlarge and care for 
the short levee in the district, the first year's allotment has been expended in enlarg- 
ing^ the existing levee above Yellow Banks, which was much below grade, with the 
view of extending this levee southward Irom year to year, as appropriations become 
available, and to eventually close the White River front by forming a junction with 
the levees of the Lower White Kiver levee district, which would at the same time be 
extended northward with the same object in view. 

Bids were opened October 10, 1892, and 146,000 cubic yards of earthwork was 
awarded at 27 cents per cubic yard. After some delays, which were unavoidable, 
the contractors commenced work early in November. The work proved exceedingly 
difficult, and, hindered by boggy ground, heavy rains, and, finally, by the overflow, 
the contractors have succeeded in doing only about one-half of the work. The con- 
tract has been extended till August 1, 1893. The following table shows the amount 
of work done by the local levee board and the United States to date: 

Cnbio yards. 

Aggregate yardage of levees to June 30, 1892 1, 374, 191 

Added by United States up to May 1, 1893 59,727 

Added by othersupto May 1, 1893 94,000 

Total to May 1, 1893 1,527,918 

Lost by caving or abandonment, June 30, 1892, to May 1, 1893 

Aggregate remaiDing May 1, 1893 1,527,918 

The second year's allotment, as approved by the Commission and the Secretary of 
War, is to be expended in extending the levees southward as far as the funds will go, 
and the levee to be built has been contracted for, to be completed January 1^ 1894. 

Lower White Biver levee district {S40 to 386 miles helow Cairo). — This district com- 
prises the lower half of the nairow belt of overflowed land between the Mississippi 



3724 EEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. AKMY. 

and White riYers. Above the Desha Gonnty line the conntry is bat spanely settled, 
on account of the fteqnent oTerflows. Below the Desha County line the dlstri'^ 
includes an area of 26,608 acres, of which 14,238 are under cultivation. The as9«0^ 
valuation of all property, personal and real, is $193,500, and its real valnatlon is esti- 
mated to be about $668^000. 

Not including the private Circle levee, which is maintained by private eabsiTip- 
tion, this district contained at the date of last Annual Report 19 ndlea of lever. 
beginning at a point below Henrico, Ark., and extending eastward and northward 
to the middle of the bend of Island 68. The upper part of the line above the I>eehA- 
Phillips County line, which was new levee, Lad been raised to a grade of 4 feet 
above highest water, while below the county line the nrade was, on an avera<re, 
only li feet above high water. Under the allotments of August 4, 1892, this dListrict 
received the sum of $300,000, to be expended $75,000 each year for the fonr fisciil 
years ending June 30, 1896. The first year's allotment has been expended in part is 
raising and enlarging 30,630 feet, or about 5f miles, of the existing levee betwe<ro 
Laconia and the county line to a grade of 3 feet at Laoonia and 4 feet at the oountr 
line, and in extending the Carson Loop northward 11,800 feet by a new levee. The 
work was divided into five contracts and bids opened October 10 and October 24. 
1892. 

All the levees have been completed. The prices varied from 15 to 15| cents per 
eubie yard for the enlargement work, and from 16^ to 19f for the new levees. 

The total work of the season comprised 138,612 cubic yards of enlargement ami 
196,931 cubic yards of new levee, costing, including extras, $59,315.56. 

The second year's allotment will be expended in extending the Carson Loop north- 
ward as far as the funds will go, and the work to be done has been contracted for 
to be completed January 1, 1^. 

The following table shows the work which has been done by the local district and 

the United States in this district: 

Cubic Tard*. 

Aggreejate yardage of levees to June 30, 1892 85w5, Oi< 

Added by United States up to May 1, 1893 335,61" 

Added by others up to May 1, 1893 10, Oi*- 

Total to May 1, 1893 1,200,6&? 

Lost by caving or abandonment, June 30, 1892, to May 1, 1803 

Aggregate remaining May 1, 1893 1,200,63>5 

PLANT. 

JStsameri, — ^New stacks have been placed on steamer Titan and cylinder tinil»ci^ 
stiffened by athwartship braces. 

Steamer Graham was docked, hull repaired and calked, cabin repaired, and painted, 
furnace reconstructed, and a new wheel and cylinder timbers placed on her. 

Steamer Kima had cylinder timbers, hog-chain braces, transom, stem, and mdders 
renewed. This boat was sunk in an ice gorge at Belmont, Mo., on January 19, and 
proved a total loss, the boiler and part of machinery only being saved. 

The Itasca and Ahbot received minor repairs. The former has an iron hull, the 
bottom plates of which are very thin, and will require renewal in the near futnre. 

The two large hydraulic graders were docked and repaired; the compound lov- 
pressure pumps on one (No. 4) bein^ badly damaged, were removed and replaced bv 
four small pumps taken from the pile-drivers. 

The two machine boats were docked and hulls thoroughly repaired. 

Two quarter boats and three barges were also docked, repaired, and calked. 

Minor repairs were made to 7 pile-drivers, fonr quarter boats, 5 mat boats, 4 
mooring barges, 4 decked barges, and 4 flats. One district barge was cut down and 
converted into a flat, and the engine on sand-pump boat removed and sent to the 
fourth district for use there. 

Repairs were also made to skiffs, tools, appliances, etc. 

Eight model barges were loaned, by the courtesy of Maj. A. M. Miller, Corps of 
Engineers, and were used during the working season in towing stone from quarries. 

The steamer MinneUmka and 43 barges were received by transfer from the general 
service. Of these barges, 15 only are in serviceable condition for hauling loads. 
The balance are quite old, having been built from nine to ten years ago. 

Two mattress ways and two mooring barges were purchased of the Kansas City 
and Memphis Bridge Company. These were constructed from coal barges. 

The detailed cost of the foregoing repairs is shown in the report of Assistant C. 
W, Sturtevant. 

Fonr barges were lost by sinking and twelve have been condemned and dropped 
from the returns. 



APPEITDIX T Y — ^RfePORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3725 

Contracsts have been entered into for the construction of 29 decked barges 120 by 
30 lay 6 feet ; 2 mattress barges 160 by 32 by 5 feet, and one for experimental dredge. 
Work on these has already begun, and it is expected that they will all be completed 
in tiDGie for use at the opening of the ensuing working season. 

HIGH WATER OF 1893. 

The relative heights of the high water of 1893, as compOired with the highest 
known' water at the various points in the First and Second districts^ are shown in the 
following table: 



Station. 



Cairo 

Helmont - 

Kew MMlrid, Ho. . 
(•ottonwood Point 

Fill ton 

Memphis 

Kboons...... 

Helena 

Sunflower 




Highest known. 


Bate. 


Gange. 




FtH, 


Feb. 27. 1883 


62.17 


Feb. 23, 1884 


45.80 


F6b.24. 1884 


41.52 


Fob. 28, 1883 


37.85 


Mar. 1, 1882 


36.60 


Mar. 15,1800 


35.60 


Mar. 8, 1883 


40.20 


Apr.30.188C 


48.10 


Apr. 1,1890 


42.90 



Highest water, 1893. 


Date. 


Gange. 




Feet. 


Mar 8-12 


4(^.3 


May 10 


43.8 


May 11 


88.6 


Afay 13 


30.5 


May 15 


34.6 


May 17 


35.2 


May 25 


37.9 


May 25 


48.0 


May 27 


42.9 



Above 

or b^ow 

highest 

known, 

1893. 



—2.87 

—2.00 

—2.92 

—1.35 

—2.09 

—0.4 

—2.3 

-0.1 

—0.0 



Aa Aeen f^om the table the river has not reached an excessive height between Cairo 
and Memphis, bnt from Memphis down to the lower limit of the Second District at 
White Hiver it closely approximated the highest floods known, being fonr-tentbs 
of a foot below the highest recorded flood at Memphis, one-tenth below at Helena, 
and the same elevation as the 1890 flood at Bnnflower Landing. At a point near 
Westover, 13 miles below Helena, a voluntary gange observer reports a height of 3 
inches above the highest flood known. 

At yet there have been no crevasses in the First and Second districts, and as the 
river hae fallen about 3 feet at Helena, it is confidently expected there will be none. 
The levees in Arkansas, viz, those in the Upper and Lower White River Levee 
districts, have been held only by the exercise of the greatest vigilance and prompt 
and timely repairs of defects before they had assumed alarming proportions. To 
secure the necessary vigilance on the part of the people, Government aid was granted 
only in the event that the local authorities complied with two essential require- 
ments in levee protection. First, that the levee be thoroughly patrolled, to guard 
against injuries to levees by trespassers, to keep off stock, to prevent landing of 
boats, etc. ; and second, that the levee be divided into small lengths and each one 
put under the charge of a competent man, to inspect it, to discover and locate weak 
places, to make immediate repairs, if necesHury, or, if time permits, to report to the 
engineer in charge for repair by a regular repair force. 

Realizing the advantages and security which this method of cooperation afforded, 
the local authorities have carried out their part of the programme with energy, and 
with the aid extended by the Government, have been able to hold their levees 
against one of the most threatening floods ever experienced, and have averted 
crevasses which would certainly have occurred with any less degree of vigilance. 

In the Upper Yazoo District the levees are under the control of a very efiicient 
local levee board, and the only aid extended so far by the Government has been in 
the way of pnrchase of material, the local board providing the labor. 
Respectfully, submitted. 

S, W. ROKSSLRR, 

Captuin of JSngine$r$, 

Gen. C. B. Comstock, 

Frmdent Mwisn^pi Biver CkmmiaHon^ 



3726 BEPOBT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,- U. 8, AEMY. 



Appendix 4 A. 

report op assistairr engineer w. m. ree8 on improving mississippi rlvbr 17 

hopefikld bend, arkansas. 

United States Engineer Oftick, 

Memphis, Tmn., AprU £g, 1S9S. 

Captain : I have the honor to submit my report on improving MissiaBippi Siver at 
Hopefield Bend, ArkansM, during the season of 1892 and 1893. 

Description, — ^The lower portion of the revetment, 2 miles long, was hnilt during 
the seasons of 1884, 1887, and 1888. The first break in this work occurred durii:^ 
the high water in IJie spring of 1890, near its middle, and was repaired by a eooi- 
plete revetment 762 feet long, built in the fall of 1890. The flood of 1891 caused 
breaks above this repair work to the extent of 3,350 linear feet, which were repaired 
during the season of 189I-'92. The remainder of the original work was in a weak 
conditioD, especially near the low- water line, and some repairs were made to the 
weakest places during the same season. It was then thought that all of tbis work 
needed a general strengthening. The flood of 1892 proved this to bo necessary, for. 
upon its subsidence, breaks appeared at a number of places, an examination mad«- 
on July 22, 1892, showing five distinct breaks. These are described as follows: 

Break No, 1, — From station 18 to 21, 300 feet long. This was where the complete- 
revetment of 1891 ends on the old work of 1887. The failure occurred near the low- 
water line, and carried away «J1 the upper bank i-evetment. The lower work was 
found unbroken, with the inshore edge of the connecting mats, which was orig:ina11y 
a few feet above the low- water line, in about 15 feet ot water. Repairs were made 
with heavy connecting mats, from 115 to 180 feet wide, and a complete bank paving. 

Break No. £, — From station 28 to 40, 1,200 feet long. This was in the work of 
1887, and was a stretch of bank projecting riverward beyond the average bank line, 
the projection being caused by the caving below in 1890, and above in 1891; conse- 
queutly the high- water current along this location was exceedingly strong and near 
the bank. Upon examination the river mat was found in a number of places at 
from 50 to 100 feet out, but at other places it could not be found, so it is uncertain 
whether the failure was by undermining or by breaking near the low-water line. 
The extent of caving was slight, and for nearly the entire length the top portion of 
the revetted slope was standing. This break was repaired with a complete revet- 
ment 1,200 feet long. 

Break No, S, — From station 43 to 50, 700 feet long. This was at the lower end of 
the 1887 work, and immediately above the repair work of 1890. It was the first 
break of the flood of 1892, and occurred just nnder a steamboat which had for some 
time been anchored along the bank. The break, for a length of 300 feet, and abont 
60 feet back, occurred in twenty-four hours, and the subsequent enlargement wb« 
gradual. No river mat could be found in the middle of this break, and where found, 
near the ends, it was badly broken. This cave extended under the river mat of 
1890, the head of which was found along the bank. Bepairs here consisted of a river 
mat 750 feet long, connecting mats and paving. 

Break No. 4. — Between Stations 68 and 74. This was in the 1888 work, and was a 
series of small breaks along the Jow-wat>er line. In places the revetment whs 
unbroken, nnd at no point was the river mat over 30 feet out f^om the low- water line. 
Along this break is a stratum of blue clay a few feet above the zero line, with strat-as 
of fine sand above and below. Springs come out over the clay, undermining the 
sand beneath and making large holes under the brush work, letting it down uid st 
times causing breakage. The repairs here made were connecting mats of from 65 to 
110 feet width and paving. 

Break No. 6, — From Stations 77 to 91, 1,400 feet long. The first breaking occurrwi 
inside of a large wharf boat lying along the bank near the upper end. A pocket 
300 feet long by 75 feet back went out in a day ; afterward another pocket caved near 
the lower end, and both enlarged until they nearly connected. The stratification 
described under Break No. 4 occurs here. The repairs made were 1,470 feet of com- 
plete revetment. 

Between Stations 58 to 68 and 70 to 77 the revetment near the low-water line was 
in bad condition at numerous places, the brush work being decayed^ more or less 
broken and displaced, the ballasting light, and below the low water the slope was 
often as steep as 1 on 1^. This entire stretch was covered with connecting mats 
from 50 to 95 feet wide, and the upper slope reballasted. 

The construction of the original revetment was as follows : River mats of the 
usual woven type were 200 feet wide ; generally sunk with their inner edge along 
jBero contour, but in some places along the 1888 Vork. Ihe inner ed^a is abont at 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^BEPOET OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3727 

the 10-fooi contOTiT, making the width below the zero line abont 175 feet. Connect- 
ing mats were of similar build, and were made continons with the bank bmsh work : 
the latter had a doable layer of brush, and was ballasted with stone of sizes from 20 
to 200 pounds, the quantity used being less than 1 ton per square, as against over 3 
tons now used in paving, so that spaces amounted to fully 75 per cent. 

The weak points in this revetment, as observed, are : First, insufficient thickness 
of connecting mats. These cover a belt extending from 15 to 20 feet below low 
water to 5 to 10 feet above. The slope below low- water is frequently steep and the 
bank material mostly fine sand. Scour has frequently been observed under them, 
caused by the action of springs and wave wash of wind and passing boats. Second, 
insufCicient ballast oh bank work, exposing the underlying brush to air and moisture, 
and causing rapid decay.' After three years, much of the brush work is thoroughly 
rotten. Third, insufficient width of river mats. In places where these do not reach 
practically to deep water, the work may fail by undermining. Fourth, it is prob- 
able that SCOUT occurs through the mats at such places where the interstices are too 
lanro, and the underlying material easily washed. 

FUoM. — ^To make the repairs above described, the plan was: First, to make the 
river mats of sufficient width to practically reach deep water, being careful to leave 
no lars^ openiogs in the work. Second, to make connecting mats much thicker 
and with greater lap on river mats. Third, upon a graded bank, with slope not 
steeper than 1 on 3, to place 3 inches of crushed stone and 6 to 8 inches of small 
riprap, olosely packed. 

Ccnttruction, — ^Work began immediately after the arrival of the first tow of plant, 
August 26, 1^2, and was practically finished January 11, 1893. The season was 
favorable, and the river kept at a low stage, remaining below the 6-foot stage until 
December 15, when it began rising, reaching the 15-foot stage on December 24, and 
coutinuing above the 10-foot stage for about three weeks, when it began to fall, and 
reached the 1.8-foot sta^e on January 24. The first time lost by rain was on Octo- 
ber 31, and total time lost by rain nine days. Ice began rimning on January 13, 
and continued eleven days, and again ran for two days on February 9 aurl 10. 

Lobar, — ^The supply was at all times plentiful. Whites, subsisted by the Govern- 
ment, were employed in nearly all the responsible positions. Most of the common 
laborers were negroes, and subsisted themselves. They were good laborers, steady, 
and submissive, and preferable to the shifting white laborers formerly employed. 
The price paid was $1 per day and subsistence, or $1.25 per day to nou-subsiHting 
labor. The day worked was eight hours, and the price the same as paid in the 
vicinity for ten hours' wdrk. 'Die maximum force employed was 245 common 
laborers. 

MaieriaU, — Brush and poles were obtained by contract at 95 cents per. cord for 
the former and $1.60 per cord for the latter, and the source of supply was from 6 to 
25 miles above the work. The deliveries were at times insufficient, causing delay 
and loss. 

Stone was obtained by contract from Williford, Ark., and delivered — one-half on 
top of bank and one-half on barges. The deliveries were prompt. The price paid 
was $1.85 per gross ton on bank and $1.70 on bars:es. The stone was limestone of 
variable quality, some containing much fine silica and frequently flint nodules. 
The riprap was in pieces from 20 to 100 pounds in weight, and crushed stone of 
dimensions to go tl^ough a 2^ inch ring. Fifty-eight car loads, with weights 
determined, were loaded on four barges and carefully measured. The average 
weight per cubic yard thus obtained was 2,496 pounds. The measurements were 
checked by measuring the displacements of the barges, loaded and empty. This 
gave the weight of 1 cubic foot of river water 63.48 pounds, and 1 cubic yard, as 
measured, displaced 39.3 cubic feet of water. 

GrtuLing. — ^The bank was graded to a slope of 1 on 3, or flatter, and in the pockets 
this slope was not cfkrried to the top of a bank, a shoulder 6 to 8 feet high being left. 

Hydraulic grading began August 29, and the last grader finished work November 
26. lliree graders were used, being the same plant as employed last year, viz, 
grader No. 40, having a Gordon & Maxwell condensing duplex pump with 20-incli 
Bteam cylinders, 10-inch plungers, and 12-inch stroke, pile-drivers No. 20 and No. 
59, each having Worthington compound duplex pumps with 16^inch and 10-inch 
steam oylinders, O^-inch plungers and 10-inch stroke. Grader No. 40 threw two 
streams and the others one each. The hose was 3-inch diameter, 8-ply rubber, each 
line 150 feet long, with nozzles seven-eights inches diameter. When properly work- 
ing a water pressure of 160 pounds per square inch at the pumps was maintained on 
all the graders, with steam pressures of 80 to 85 pounds. 

Prior to grading the bank . was cleared of timbers, drift, and old mat work, and 
after grading with the pumps the grade was dressed by hand and stumps removed 
by blasting. This wort: cost nearly as much as the grading proper. 



3728 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARIIY. 

The cost in detail was as followB: 

Grader No. 40: 

Labor and subsistence ^ $1,178.28 

Coal 349.00 

Oils and engineers' snppl ies 43. €3 

Miscellaneous and ropa i rs 140. 9» 

Total 1,711.8& 

Time worked, 356 hours ; time lost, 64 hours. Work done, 1,672 linear feet (36,062 
cubic yards). Graded per hour, 101.3 cubic yards. Cost per cubic yard, $0.0475. 

Grader No. 59 : 

Labor and subsistence .• $1,034.11 

Coal 313. M) 

Oils and engineers' supplies 23.32 

Miscellaneous and repairs I .. 24.73 

Total •- 1,395.% 

Time worked, 493 hours; time lost, 19 hours. Work done, 1,976 linear feet (35,312 
cubic yards. Graded per hour, 71.6 cubic yards. Cost per cubic yard, $0.0395. 

Grader No. 20: 

Labor and subsistence : $373. 96 

Coal «0.Ciu 

Oils and engineers* supplies 2.o7 

Miscellaneous and repairs 33. 69 



Total 390.24 

Time worked, 124 hours; time lost, 12 hours. Work done, 414 linear feet (10,106 
cubic yards). Graded per hour, 81.5 cubic yards. Cost per cubic yard, $0.0386. 

The excessive cost of No. 40 was due to the bad condition of the pumps; had they 
been in proper order they would undoubtedly have done cheaper work than either 
of the others. • 

The total hydraulic grading was 4,062 linear feet (81,480 cubic yards), and cost 
$3,498.08. Cost per linear foot, $0.86; per cubic yard, $0.0429. One thousand five 
hundred and eighty-two cubic yards was traded by hand, and the cost of cleariDi: 
and hand grading was $3,022.20. The total work done preparatory to paving waa 
4,970 linear feet (83,062 cubic yards), at total cost of $6,520.28; cost per linear foot 
$1,312; per cubic yard, $0.0785. 

Subaqueoua mattreasea. — Mattress construction was begun on September 15 and 
continued without interruption until November 4, when the last mat waB sunk. 
No change was made in the method of construction. The brush used averaged some 
smaller than heretofore, and was woven as close as practicable, so as to leave no large 
openings. The mat was also better wired and cabled^ fully one- third more wire and 
strands being used per unit than last season. At every 16 feet along the bank and 
about midway up the slope, a cast-iron plate anchor (Nier's patent) waa sunk by 
jetting to a depth of about 6 feet, and the three eighth inch transverse strands of 
the mat were fastened to them. 

Four mattresses were sunk of the following dimensions: 



No. 1 : 

1, 000 by 240 feet. 
No. 2: 

440 by 240 feet. 

80 by 200 feet. 
No. 3: 

620 by 240 feet. 



No. 3 — Continued. 

36 by 220 feet. 

94 by 200 feet. 
No. 4: 

1140 by 240 feet 

60 by 190 feet. 



The variation in widths was caused by building around projecting points. Thej 
were all sunk under favorable conditions, and at stages between 2 and 5 feet above 
low water. 

Total linear feet of mats made 8,470 

Total linear feet of bank covered 3,420 

Total squares made 8,^3 

Total squares bank covered * ,. 8,13^ 



APPENDIX YY — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3729 



The cost in detail was : 

Xalior and Bnbsistence $7, 

4 .724.3 cords brush 4, 

K">(* cords poles 1, 

^^X) feet piling 

Tx 8.50 tons (proRs) stone 6, 

•■>3,102 pounds galvanized wire. 1, 
4-1, :^5 pounds galvanized wire 

strand 1, 

2,(H)9 ponnds iron 

1?,400 pounds spikes 

1, 170 cable clamps 

Cost per square built, $3,633; and 
quantities of materifbl nsod in tlie 

Brush cords , 

l*ole8 do 

Stone tons 



854. 92 I 7,369 feet lumber $115. 32 

488.09 Manilla rope 855.29 

281. 00 Miscellaneous materials 66. 85 

46. 94 Sinking 261 Nier anchors 124. 40 

515. 00 Superintendence 959. 35 

423.24 Care of plant 1,308.81 

Repairs to plaut 837. 75 

762,00 Towing 1,859.46 

45.05 Miscollanoous expense 211.48 

m. 40 

137.50 Total 29,989.81 

per square of bank covered, $3,687. The average 
construction of one square (100 square feet) was: 



.572 
.104 
.466 



Wire pounds.. 6.44 

Wire strand do 5.40 



Connecting mats, — Work on these was begun October 3, 1892, and the last piece 
Kuuk on January 11, 1893. Thirty-two pieces in all were built, on ways 200 feet long, 
an<l after being launched in the proper places were well cabled together and covered 
with a 4-inch layer of brush normal to the bank. In certain localities, where the 
Rl<ipe was steep, additional layers were put on. Longitudinal top grillage poles only 
wcro used, and the whole well cabled together. These mats were sunk at stages 
lietween 2 and 10 feet, with their inner edges from 5 to 12 feet above low water, 
depending upon the nature of the bank and the time of sinking. They lap the river 
mats f^om 20 to 60 feet, with an average of about 40 feet. In addition to those placed 
along older work to strengthen it, these varied in width from 40 to 180 feet, the 
average width of all connecting mats being 87 feet. 

Total linear feet made and sunk, 6,200; total squares made and sunk, 5,416. 

The cost in detail was : 



Labor and subsistence $7, 508. 01 

7,128.1 i5ords brush 6,771.69 

535.3 cords poles 802.95 

5.795 tons stone 9,874.29 

35,880 pounds wire 923.37 

4 , 857 pounds wire strand 227. 96 

(i50 pounds iron 12.43 

3,000 pounds spikes 80.70 

2,600 feet lumber 32.50 



Manila rope z $228. 77 

Miscellaneous material 4. 75 

Superintendence 948. 19 

Careof plant 1,308.81 

Repairs to plant 837.75 

Towing 2,143.21 

Miscellaneous expense 211. 48 

Total 31,916.86 



Wire pounds.. 6.60 

Wire strands do 90 



Cost per square, $5,893. 

The average quantities of material used in the construction of one square was: 

Brush cords.. 1.316 

Poles do.. .099 

Stone tons.. 1.07 

Paving. — This work began October 15, 1892, and was finished January 11, 1893. 
Progress was much retarded by the delay in connecting mat construction, and later 
in the season by bad weather. Paving began at or near the low-water Hue and 
extended to near the two-thirds stage, the upper edge being between the 20 and 24 foot 
contours, the height depending upon the nature of the bank material. Where this 
material was fine sand, as was usual near the lower slope, a layer of brush was placed 
under it, and, where no brush was used, from 3 to 4 inclnss of crushed stone, of 
dimensions to pass through a 2|inch ring, was placed as a foundation. Where the 
springs came out on the impervious blue clay stratum already described, the over- 
lying fine sand wa^ washed into a series of pockets. To remedy this, longitudinal 
trenches 2 to 3 feet deep were made, heeling on the blue clay, and filled with crushed 
stone. This appeared to prevent the sand movement, as the water came through 
clear. 

The stones used in paving was smaller and of more uniform size than used last 
season, the pieces varying between 15 and 40 pounds. Besides the cniflhed stone, 
3;)5 cubic yards of river gravel were used. This was obtained by hired labor, and 
although costing less, it is not as good as the crushed stone. The average thickness 
of the paving was 10 inches, of which 3 inches was crushed stone and 7 inches rip- 
rap. 

The linear feet of bank paved was 4,970; square feet of bank paved was 312,000 
(34,667 square yards). 

BNG 93 ^234 



3730 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



The cost i^ detail was : 

Labor and subsistenoe $7, 498. 59 

10,057 tons stone 20,130.59 

395 cubic yards gravel 295. 95 

Miscellaneous materials 8. 75 

Clearing and grading 6, 520. 28 



Superintendence $1, 257. 24 

Towing 56.', '.' 

Miscellaneons exx>enfle 211. :*•! 

Total 36,488.C 



..( 



Cost per square foot, $0,117; per square yard, $L05. 

Kepaving old work. — ^The low water exposed many bare places in tbe work 
1891, which had been constructed at a higUer stage. About 1,000 linear feet of tiii« 
was repaved, and 1,730 linear feet along the old revetment. Tlie total w^ork of tin* 
kind covered was 59,000 square feet to an average thickness of 6 inches. 

The cost was : 

Labor $611.^' 

1,425 tons stone 2,422.;*' 

Superintendence 1^\^*' 

Towing W.>" 



Total 

Cost per square foot, $0,055. 



3,244.0 



SUMMARY'. 



Work ilone. 



Total cost 




Sirer mattresses, 3,470 linear feet (8,253 sqaarea) $29, 989. 85 

Conneotuig mala, 6,200 linear feet (5,416 aquares) 31, 916. 86 

Paving, 312,000 aquaro fe<5t 36,488.65 

Bepairing old work, 59,000 square feet 3, 244. 00 



101,639.36 



Cost per ddU. 



$3,633 per squarr. 
^.893 per sqaare. 
$0,117 per sqoare v>! 
$0,065 per square :-ry 



SURVEYS AND EXAMINATIONS. 

Soundingi, — ^A line was run on top of bank, connecting with all stations of In-^i 
year's surveys not lost by caving. Soundings were taken on sections 100 feet ajc.r:. 
and perpendicular to bank line, and have been referred to low water and plotted ci 
^e map. The manner of taking soundings was as accurate as practicable; a i)<>- 
of barges 270 feet long were lashed end to end and placed along the section line, ii^ih 
soundings taken with a carefully graduated and cneckcd lead line at each 10 !''• i. 
and at stages between 3 and 5 feet, and when the current was very slack. Tl^- 
cost of maKing this survey was $410.82. 

Comparative soundings were made over a number of sections alon^ the old iv^' 
work in March, 1893, at a stage of river between "26 and 28 feet, and m a very svi: 
current. They show greater depths of from a few to 20 feet, the greatest iucrei"' 
being near the low- water line. That the work is broken in some localities is sh(i^\i: 
by caving along the bank. At other places it appears to be unbroken at the lo\( 
water line, but to have settled. At two places the failure appears to have occuriiti 
in the paving just above the connecting mats, and where the bank is of sand. Tlia: 
the river mats have settled is evident, but whether this is due to undermining an'l 
slipping riverward or to scour through the mats can only be determined by cari- 
fui examination at a lower stage of water. All the sections showing decided cbaui.''- 
are along subaqueous revetment of 1888. Nut enough sections were re-sounded over 
new river mats to make a comparison. * 

There are four breaks along the revetment at this writing, but their nature ar.d 
extent can not be determined with much accuracy until the water recedes. Tluv 
are all along the old (1888) revetment, and each l)reak appears to be about 300 fe< t 
long, but the present high water will, beyond doubt, increase their extent. 

Borings. — Tools and appliances for making test borings were made and vork 
started on January 2, but after a few days was discoulinued, to make other took 
and, on account of bad weather, not resumed until January 23. This work is still 
in progress, and will be reported upon when finished. Suilicient borings have bet n 
made to show that the bank formation is principally sand, varying in iineness ii: 
different holes, and always finer near the low- water line than at greater depth. 
where more coarse gravels and clays are found. 

The recent failures indicate that a decided change should be made in the muuuer 
of construction. While there is no definite proof to show that failure is dne to 
undermining firom the outside, many cases have been observed where the first brtaK 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMIMISSION. 3731 

iiig was at or near the low- water line, leaving both upper and lower portions of the 
revetment in place. The bank here, being steeper and more irregular in slope, the 
revetment fails either at weak points, where it may have been broken by bending 
over obstructions, or by scoor through it. I would, therefore, respectfully suggest : 

That the grade be reduced, say to 1 on 4, especially at the lower part of the slope: 
that the brush work be made much thicker for a distance of 150 to 200 feet out; that 
laoro brush work be used under the paving, where the material is fine and there is a 
tendency to uneven settling of the pavement or to scour through it; that the river 
mats be made wider, to prevent any possible undermining from the outside, and 
that crib dikes of sufficimit length and height be placed along such portions of the 
bank where the slope under the zero contour is steeper than 1 on 3. 

The above scheme would require a river mat 300 feet wide, another on top of this 
150 to 200 feet wide, a connecting mat about 75 feet wide and 1 foot thick, and, 
along st'Cep banks, a crib about 200 feet long by 12 feet high as a maximum for 
vAch 250 feet of bank. The two river mats could be more rapidly placed (I think 
as cheaply), aud they would certainly be bettor than to increase the tliickness of one 
river mat with additional layers of brush. 

The cost for a complete revetment of this description would be, per linear foot: 

Kiver mats, 5 squares, at $3.50 $17. 50 

Connecting mats, f squares, at $6 4. 50 

Paving, 75 square feet, at 10 cents 7. 50 

Cribs, 200 cubic feet, at 3 cents 6.00 

Total....... 35.00 

Accompanying this report is a map of the work and a tabulated statement of 
expenditures. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. M. Rees. 

Assistant Engineer^ 

Capt. S. W. ROESSLER, 

Corps of Engineers, U, S. A, 



I 



I 



APPENDIX 4 B. 

REPOKT OF ASSISTANT ENGINEER AUG. J. NOLTY ON OPERATIONS AT PLUM POINT 

REACH. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Ameliaj Ark., April gS, 189S. 

Captain : I have the honor to submit my report of operations at Plum Point Reach 
for the ten months beginning with June 1, 1892, and ending March 31, 1893: 

Tlie only work in progress at the beginning of the period was unloading stone at 
Ashport Bend and Elmot Chute as fast as received from the quarries. This work 
was continued until September, by which time there had been unloaded 34,528 cnbio 
yards of stone and 1,186 cubic yards of spalls. 

There were received during the same period 40,538 cubic yards, the excess of 
receipts over the quantity unloaded representing stone used on the works directly 
from barges. At such times, when no stone was on hand, the unloading party were 
employed in clearing a strip of bauk in Ashport Bend, along the site of contem- 
plated operations. • 

licveimentj Ashport Bend. — Three thousand two hundred and fifty feet of the upper 
part of this actively-caving bend had been revetted the previous season. The work 
of extending this revetment downstream was begun on the let of August, upon 
which date a small party was put in the field to cut brush and poles sufficient to 
begin construction of a floor mat for Pocket No. 1, formed just below the termina- 
tion of the previous year's work. The caving, which usually takes place at the foot 
of a revetment, had formed here a pocket 120 feet deep, measured from the general 
bauk line back and 400 feet long longitudinally, forming a crescent-shaped pocket. 
Four mattTcsses were constructed and sunk so as to entirely cover the bottom, and 
extending outstream far enough to be woll overlapped by the regular river mat to 
bo subsequently built. The part of the bank above water was revetted up to the 
mid-stage line. 

Most of the brush and poles used for this work were obtained by hired labor, as, 
owing to the still high stage of the river nnd consequent uncertainty as to when 
full operations would begin, it was not deemed advisable to order the brush con- 
tractors out. 



3732 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Pocket No. 2, sitnated 1,350 feet below No. 1, and whose dimensions are 135 feet 
deep and 420 feet long, was treated in the same manner as No. 1. Five floor mats 
were pnt in here. No further caving or sliding has taken place here, but in Pocket 
No. 2 the soft material is at one place beginning to i]ow over the shore mat. 

In the meantime a part of the force were engaged in doing the preliniinaiy work 
for River Mat No. 1, such as driving abutment and anchor piles, getting out line« 
and cables, putting in dead men for head lines, etc. 

Biver Mat No. J. — ^The plant for this mat was swung out on August 16 and the mar 
sunk ou September 2. It is 1,090 feet long by 200 feet wide, and beginning at Station 
No. 32, or 50 feet above the t-ermination of the previous season^s work, runs to Sta- 
tion 42.90. The reason that the point of beginning was placed 50 feet above the old 
work was that, on account of the formation of FocKet No. 1, the lower end had been 
somewhat damaged. No difficulties were encountered, either in construction or sink- 
ing. 

Eiver Mat No, f . — The outfit for this mat was swung into position on August 30 
and the mat sunk on September 15. This mat has a total length of 1,038 feet, and 
when 695 feet of its length had been constructed of the usual width, i. «., 200^ feet 
orders were received to henceforth make all mats, as far as practicable, am wide aa 
the mattress barges would permit. The outfit in use here permitted a width of 240 
feet; hence the width was increased 40 feet and completed at that. This matin 
therefore 200 feet wide for the first 695 feet of its length and 240 feet for the last 
343 feet. No difficulties were met with, either in construction or sinking. The 
starting point is Station 55.50 and termination is Station 65.88. 

Biver Mat No, S. — The party constrncting this mat swun^ into position on Sep- 
tember 6 and sank it on the 22d of the same month. Beginning at Station 76.36, 
it extends down to Station 86.80, making it<8 length 1045 feet. Its width is 200 feet, 
only one mattress plant having capacity for a greater width having been available. 
Construction and sinking were accomplished without difficulty. 

On this and subsequent river mats, except No. 7, No. 8a, and No. 86, the inner 25 or 
30 feet of its width received an additional layer of brush. This layer was laid 
normal to the long axis of the mat and tied down by the top grillage poles. The 
object of this change was to obtain additional thickness of mattress along the low- 
water zone, where, as has been repeatedly demonstrated, rupture of the mat first 
takes place. This change in construction required an additional expenditure of 
one cord of brush to every 10 feet of mat, but nothing else, as the poling gang had 
sufficient leisure to place the brush. 

Biver Mat No, 4.— This mat begins at Station No. 45.84 and extends downstream 
989 feet, or to Station 55.75. It covers the greater part of the sliding bank, though 
not the worst part, below Mud Point (Stations 44 to 55.) Its width is 240 feet. 
Begun on the 19th of September, it was sunk successfully on the 7th of the following 
mouth. No trouble was encountered in its construction, but the first abutment was 
lost by the sudden subsidence of a largo block of bank, necessitating the driving of 
a second one. More information in detail further on. Upon the completion of this 
mat the plant heretofore used by this party was transferred to Daniels Point. 

Biver Mat No, 6, — This mat was begun on the 26th of September and sunk on 
October 14. It covers the space between Station 104.48 and Station 115.70, being 
1,122 feet long and 200 feet wide. It was at first contemplated to mak^e this mat 
much longer than the previously-constructed ones, and with this object in view 
anchor piles were driven for more than 2,000 feet downstream, but, agreeably to your 
orders to exchange the 200- feet mat barge m use here for a longer one then available 
at Hopefield Bend, the mat was launched off after attaining the length given above. 
In the meantime it was decided that, as now there was only one mattress outfit 
available for Ashport Bend, and considerable mattress work remaining to be done 
above No. 5, the work should not be extended downstream until all mat work above 
had been completed. 

BivfT Mat No. 6.— This mat, which is 1,103 by 242 feet, extends from Station 65.48 
to Station 76.51, and covers the space between mats No. 2 and No. 3. It was begun 
on October 13 and was not sunk until the 12th of the following mouth. Bad weather 
and freouent scarcity of brush were the retarding causes. The mat was completed 
and sunic without any mishap. 

Biver Mat No. 7. — This mat covers the worst part of the Mud Point Bank, and 
extends from the foot of No. 1 to the head of No. 4. The construction wjis rather 
difficult, as the mat had to be built in a curved form in order to follow as closely as 
possible the shape of the bank. Its mean length is 421 feet and width 242 feet. The 
preliminary work was completed by the 14tli, but owing to scarcity of brush the 
plant was not swung into position Jbr weaving until the 18th. In order to obtain a 
close and thick mat for this part of the bank, an extra layer of brush was placed 
for the entire width on top of the woven layer, the usual grillage being placed on 
top of this extra layer. This double layer, though contemplated for the entire 
length, could not be carried further than for a little over 300 feet, as the brush supply 



APPENDIX Y Y—REPOBt OP MISSISSIPPI EIVEE COMMISSION. 3733 

was entirely inadequate; and to continue the donble layer to the end of this mat 
would have caused too long a delay in starting the next mat, for of course the 
mooriDg barges would not be available until No. 7 was sunk. The top layer in this 
case was laid longitudinally, or up and down stream, in order to bring it nearly at 
right angles to the bottom or woven layer. Another innovation was that the longi- 
tudinal strand cables were doubled and each one alternately passed under and over 
the mat for each shift or launch. Thus each pair of cables crossed themselves about 
every 25 feet, the pair forming long loops of a chain within which the brush lay. 
The additional layer over the whole width of mat increased its cost considerably, 
not only in material, but also in labor. To put the extra brush on the mat from the 
weaving barge would have retarded the progress of weaving ; therefore an extra 
barge of brush was placed on the outside of the mat and the brush distributed firom 
tlienee. This involved a long carriage of the material and frequent shifting of the 
run plank over which the men walked. Wiring together of the top and bottom 
grillage and the fastening of the longitudinal and transverse strand cables was also 
rendered more difficult by the increased thickness of the mat. This form of mat 
required for each square 6 t^ords of brush and 4 cubic yards of stone above that 
required for the ordinary construction. This mat was sunk without any difficulty. 
liivei' Mat No, 8a, — After river mat No. 7 had been sunk there remained a gap of 
about 1,800 feet in the subaqueous revetment, namely, from Station No. 86.60 to 104.48, 
the latter being at the head of river mat No^ 5. It was intended to make one con- 
tinuous mat to cover this space, but by the time 830 feet had been completed, the 
river, w^hich had been rising slowly for several days past, began rising more rapidly, 
brins^ing down considerable drift. In anticipation of the latter, a drift boom 600 
feet long had been placed about the mooring barges and this held or deflected most 
of the drift from the mat. Still, as reports from above indicated the coming of con- 
siderable more water, it was decided to sink what mattress wa^ then alioat, and this 
was successfully done. River mat No. ^a was begun on the 2d of December and sunk 
on the24th. Itis830 feet longby 240feot wide. Construction was somewhat retarded 
by the rapid rise and heavy run of drift. The drift boom was held by a 1-iuch steel 
cable, but the accumulation of drift become so great that at 4 a. m. of the 22d, this 
cable parted, letting the boom barges swing in against the mooringbarges. No dam- 
age was done, but it required the united eiforts of the Minnetonka and a force of men 
on two capstans to haul the boom back into position. 

Hivei' Mat No, Sb, — The plant for this mat was swung into position on January 2, 
by which time drift had about ceased running. Construction was carried on rapidly 
until the 13th, when floating ice was first noticed in the river. The run of ice 
increased rimidly during the day, and it was decided to sink this mat at once This 
was accomphshed without difficulty, although the river was bank-full of heavy ice, 
the drift boom, which had been put out where the mat was begun, sheering on the 
ice nicely. This mat, when sunk, lacked 100 feet of lapping over river mat- No. 5, 
and this small gap in the subaqueous revetment still remains, as there has been no 
opportunity since to close it. No damage, however, is apprehended from the small 
gap. ^No. 86 is 866 by 245 feet, and begins at Station 94.74, ending at Station 103.40. 

River Mat No, 9, — The only work done for this mat was the drivinjj of the abut- 
ment and the anchor piles tor 1,000 feet. This was done in the earlier part of the 
working season, and before one revetment plant was ordered to Daniels Point. This 
work will all be lost. Its cost was small. 

The total length of all river mats made here during the season is 8,504 linear feet, 
of which 3,952 feet is 200 feet wide, the balance being 240 feet or more. The total 
length of bank having subaqueous revetment, inclusive of the 1891 work (3,200 feet), 
is 11,704 feet, the excess in length of mattress made over bank covered being due to 
overlap. As noted under the different mats, very little difficulty was met with in 
construction, and none in sinking. Had there not been a partial failure in the brush 
supply, and serious iuterruptions from running ice, about 1,000 feet more of mattress 
niignt have been constructed with the available plant. It is believed that the mat- 
tresses just described are the very best ever constructed at Plum Point Keach, as 
particular pains were taken to compress the brush as it was being woven. The 
extra layer along the inner edge also improved the mats, as it gives them increased 
strength and thickness where most needed. 

A better plan to obtain this result would be to construct a supplemental mat of 50 
feet or more in width for the entire length of the main mat and sink this so as to lap 
over the latter 25 or 30 feet. This supplemental mat could be so laid that no con- 
necting mats would bo necessary, but the paving could start from the inshore edge 
of the small mat. In some cases, as for instance passing over a scallop in the bank, 
a small connecting mat would be necessary, but in most eases the supplemental mat 
could be built so that it« inner edge would be above water, and the paving con- 
nected directly with it, without the additionsd connecting mats. These mats could 
bo made quicker and cheaper and stronger than the ordinary connecting mats. 

Connecting mats. — Of these, which were constructed and sunk as fast as the river 



3734 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

mata were down and the bank graded, there were made 31, varying in length from 
TO to mteet^Ain width from 40 to 120 feet. The variations in width are doe to 
the diZrent stages of wat^rnreyailing during construction, &' «)« "ner «1|b of 
river mat in nearly all eases ftes along the zero hue, and the connecting mata over- 
Ian the former 25 feet or more with the inner edge resting upon the dry dope. 
H^nce atThigh stage, the connecting mats are necessarily wider than at a lower 
S ^e stindarl dimensions during the prevalence of a low stage of w»t« an- 
K'et {^length and from 40 to 50 feet*in wfdth. Owing to the '^on^'^Uh^iyot 
the re^lSr weaving barges, a large number of these mats were made from two lav 

■ '°5lies"X;g^ tw n? the'ouW end of the griUage poles, and as f«t « ^-^ -" 
extended an^ the hruali laid upon them the barges were pushed "otstream mtal the 
required width was obtained. The other ends of the poles rested on the d^y bank 
rSo layers of brush placed perpendicular to each other were used, the whole tie.l 
d^wn by the top and Lttom grillage. Where a weaving barge was availably those 
maTs were ma<fe similariy tS the regular river mats, except, of c^"^. t^at the 
weavine poles were normal t« the bank in8t«ad of p»raUel to it. One connectuig 
marbelnVta January at Mud Point, had to be abandoned before completaon, as 
Son M^he ke began^nnning, as the plant was lying in a very exposed position. 

'""l^'e^S -^"erX^e^*^ to-flnish the nrotoction of this P-t of the baak^ 
another mat was started on February 17. As t£e river was then already quite hijrh 
a9 TsfArhport gauge) and rising rapidly, it was decided to construct this oonnect- 
ing mat M a river mat. An abutment, mooring and mat barges, and steel eables 
wMe used precisely as in a large mat, and a drift boom placed acrow the head, 
before th; ^11 was^completed, th% river'had attained <»,« *»»« "^ f -^f^P?!^^^! ^' 
and the entire bank was submerged, with the river full of drift, jnie mat w« suc- 
cessfully sunk on the 24th of February. Its length is 237 feet, ^^d width m ie^x. 

Owing to the Ijirge amount of preliminary work such aa driving abutment dnv- 
inK anoEor piles, putting in dead men for head and shackle Imes, putting out driit 
b<S^eto., the cost of tfeis mat wiU be found to be high, but this was the oidy way 
it could have been constructed and sunk. Some idea of the velocity of the carre..t 
mav be obtained when it is mentioned that the Graham, going full J^a^'^J*? "n"'^'; 
to push unaided a barge loaded with 100 yards of stone up to the head of the ma. 

Ploor or pocket mato.-These mats, of which there were sunk hve ,n P*okHJ;o- 1 
and four in No. 2, were put down for the purpose of covering the bottom of th* 
pockets. They extended ontstream far enongli to be overlapped 25 feet by the 
regular river mat to be subsequently sunk. Tleir construction '[^ «'"|i«*« "« 
Wo river mats, but owing to the shape of the Po^l^^t* th«y had *«» be made^ 
small size and o^d shaped, so as to completely cover the bottom. 2^'t*°!rlf, 
employed was first to build one large mat, beginning at the upper !««»* of » f 
pocket and working downstream until there was just room enough to get the ma t- 
?r?i ba?ge out. Tf is was then turned around and a piece ^^^^^^JJ^^^l^'i^Z 
until a good lap over the first one was obt.-uned. SmaUer mate were tten htted in 
between the bank and the two first ones, the small ones extending ■^e\'»P *°f, 'J^;^ 
bank from whence the paving was started. The only grading done «*^eM places 
was to trim off the inequalities of the natural foot «>?«-'«' Jj'°^«^'idedap to 
about mid-stage. The riprap, or shore work , was carried up to that height only, la 
one case the bank was found to be composed of semifluid material, »ad hme a shore 
mat was built as a foundation for the stone. Since these pockets have been tluia 
treated, they have passed through one high water and have not suffered the alighwst 

^^ildrauHc ' grading.— This work was begun with hydraulic gradetNo. 4, on the 
11th ofAugust, followed by hydraulic grader No. 2 on the 16th. These mfchine, 
began on sections No. 2 and No. 3 respectively. The work proceeded favorably until 
th? 26th, when an old crack just back of the front flange of the high-pressure cylin- 
der began to leak steam badly. On examination, it was found that this cra.-k 
extended almost entirelv around the circumference, and that it would not bo sate to 
use this side of the machine any longer. The opposite engitie had iMsen OMabled 
the previous season, hence it was decided to place four of the condemned 1". i). 
pumps aboard. Two duplex Worthiiigton and two duplex Knowles pumpa were 
coupled up so as to discbarge iuto one main discharge pipe, each pump being so 
connected that it could be cut out without interfering with the operation ot the 
others. Repairs to No. 4 were not completed until the 27th of the following month. 
The two graders worked well throughout the balance of the season, nothing more 
occurring except some slight damages to the machinery, and the cracking of the oM 
Dean piiiup water cylinder. This, however, did not interrupt the work, m the 

pressure Wiis not reduced thereby. , , ' . *v- ™,«*„r 

It wiU be rememberert that during the previous season's work, one of the water 

cvlinders of the Dean pump developed a eraek. and that the manufacturers sent a 

new one, which had been strengthened by increasing the thiclmeM of the mefaU ana 



APPK2a)IX Y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3735 

l».y doing away with all sharp angles where the diaphragin joins the sides. At this 
juTioture all cracks here hitherto originated in the original cylinders of both the 
J^eau and Davidson puinps^ while the new ones are still perfect. Both sets of pnmps 
were originally designed for a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch, but this had 
been reduced to 175 pounds, which may be assumed as the safe limit. 

('Fading along sections No. 2 and No. 3 proceeded in advance of mattress construc- 
tion, and with fair results both as to economy and perfectness of slope, but as the 
lower end of the latter section was reached, the outcrop of the strata changed and 
iHTich. Band was encountered, and in consequence but a poor slope, requiring much 
hand dressing, was obtained. Finally, as grading proceeded downstream, the results 
were so unsatisfactory that it was decided to abandon grading in advance of the 
iiiatlress construction and grade only where the mats had been previously -sunk. 
This should be adopted as a rule, for it has been demonstrated here that no matter 
what the composition of the bank, a good slope can be obtained after the river mat 
18 sunk.. At section No. 1, where the composition of the bank is closely allif>d to that 
at Mnd Point;, jading was done after the river mat was down. At first the I'esults 
were discouraging, as the lower strata of sand caved and washed badly, but upon a 
continuance of tlie work it was found that as soon as the voids under the mat were 
lilU'd np by the washed-down material caving ceased and a good slope was obtained. 
The progress of grading, while slow when compared with that made at other 
localities on the Reach, was satisfactory when the physical features of the bank 
oi»ora ttid upon are considered. The main cause of the slow progress was the number 
of stnmps encountered on all the sections except No. 5. On section No. 8 the stumps 
on a piece of graded bank measuring 77 by 300 feet numbered 74, varying in diame- 
ttT from 5 to 13 inches, and this was by no means the most thickly wooded portion. 
These stumps penetrated as much as 15 feet below the surface, and in addition there 
were a large number of stumps uncovered that Were evidently the remains of a former 
cypress swamp. Section No. 5 was comparatively free of timber. 

In order to expedite this class of work, two Wells lights were put in nse,^ one 
for each grader, and by their aid and with double crews on each machine, night- 
work was done. This began on September 28, and continued until October 26, by 
which time grading had advanced sufficiently to warrant a discontinuance of night- 
wt>rk. The lights worked well, required little attention and gave ample light, with 
a consumption of 1^ gallons of oil ]por hour. On November 29, grader No. 4 was 
transferred to Daniels Point, where it continued until the close of the season. 

Paving, — In the early part of the season riprap was laid, as has been customary 
hitherto; that is, to a uniform thickness of 10 inches. This was subsequently 
c-lianged by your orders to 12 inches or more for about 5 feet above the zero line, 
thence tapering to 6 inches at the 15-foot contour, to which latter height only all 
X)aving was to oe carried. 

Some soft places along the foot of slope were first covered with bmsh foundation 
mats, and all depressions of any magnitude' were filled up with brush, this being always 
raised above the general level so as to allow for settlement and compression. Th^e 
are a few places, principally at sections No. 8a, No. Sb and No. 5, where, owing to the 
advent of high water, tne paving was not carried up quite to the 15-foot contour. 

Sptir dikes. — Of these there were three constructed, two in front of the Mud Point 
hank and one in pocket No. 2. The object of placing these spurs there was to break 
up the strong eddy existing there, which result has m a manner been accomplished, 
though the dikes are not yet completed. No. 2 requires extension outstream 50 feet 
and wattling for the entire length. No. 3 requires wattling and slight extension 
inshore, anuNo. 4 requires wattling. The dikes are constructed of two rows of 
piling 12 feet apart, strengthened at the outstream ends by an *^L," the piles being 
])laced 8 feet apart, and the whole structure well braced and turned. All piles used 
are cypress. Where the dikes have the low-water contour on their inshore exten- 
sions, shore mats 50 feet wide and running up to top of bank were laid. Through 
them tlve piles are driven. No. 1 has not been begun. 

Teat boringe — This work, begun on March 22, is now in progress along the Mud 
Point bank. A separate report of this work will be made upon its completion. 

REVETMENT AT DANIELS POINT. 

Hirer mat No, 1, — Repairs to this work, which had suffered serious damage during 
the previous fiood, were begun on October 8, by commencing the construction of 
a liver mat 240 feet wide, its inner edge lying along the low- water line. Consider- 
able preliminary work» such as clearing away drift and old revetment, driving 
abutment, driving anchor piles, getting out mooring cables, etc., had to be done. 
The plant for the mat was swung into position for weaving on the 13th. When 
about 700 feet of its length had been completed it was found that the mat was begin- 
ing to sag badly where it had been ballasted, this sagging being due to deposits of 
silt accumulating upon the mat. This sagging continuing to such a degree that it 
was feared the mat might be strained too much, it was sunk on the Slst, after a 



3736 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

length of 800 feet had been obtained. This mat was intended to cover the opfN^r 
1,000 feet of the damaged work. Its aiuking before that length had been obtaiueii 
Tvas merely a precautionary measure. 

River mat Xo. ^. — Immediately after sinking No. 1, this mat was begun high enou.izK 
above the foot of the former to make the usual 25-foot overlap. It had to be car%-e«l 
around a projecting point of the old work, M'hich compelled ns to move the inntr 
edge considerably beyond the low-water line, and afterwards to construct a wiil- 
connecting mat. This point lay 250 feet below the head of No. 2. Conistni«-- 
tion proceeded slowly, owing to shortage of the brush supply and bad weather. Th- 
mat was sunk on November 29. Its dimensions are, length 1,140 feet by 242 feet. 

liivermat No. 4, — This mat, which was to cover the farthest downstream fault, 
was begun December 19, the couKtrnction of river mat No. 8, which was to cover 
the break between the foot of No. 2 and head of No. 4 having been postponed i'tr 
reasons given farther on. Progress of construction was slow on account of scarcity 
of labor and of brush, mainly due to the last cause. Its length is 613 feet and widrL 
240 feet. It was sunk on January 6. 

JRicer mat No, S. — Immediately after the sinking of river mat No. 2, the construc- 
tion of fascines for this mat was begun. These were made of small brush, were froiL 
50 feet to 100 feet long and 12 inches diameter. They were tightly compressed and 
wired together every 3 feet. These fascines were to form the warp of the niut- 
tress, pairs of longitudinal strand cables spaced 8 feet apart forming the woof. 
Long cable clamps to clamp together the top and bottom cables were used every 3 
feet, the fascines being first compressed together; a top grillage of poles was then 
placed over the whole. 

The actual construction of the mat did not begin until January 12, upon whith 
day 20 feet of it was constructed on the mat barges, but as running ice was lookc^l 
for the plant was not swung into position until the 2d of February, as after the hit- 
ceased running it was not deemed safe to swing out until the Uelmont ice eoi'^* 
had broken. This t-ook place on the 28th, and as no ice from this gorge made ir> 
appearance it was assumed that it had either sunk or melted, and that therefore it 
would be safe toswing out and begin construction of this mat. On February ^t).. 
after 173 feet of the mat had been completed, ice suddenly made its appearance, 
and by evening the river was full of very heavy gorge ice. This was from the gorgt-s 
in the upper Mississippi, and proved to be the heaviest run of the season. The m:it 
was hurriedly ballasted and sunk under great ditticulties, as it was almost impossi- 
ble for the steamboats to get through the ice. In sinking, the pressure of the ite 
against the mooring barges became so great that some of the outstream-moorin^ 
cables parted, allowing the mat to swing in shore. Whether it was crowded upon 
the bank or '* buckled" up has not as yet been ascertained, owing to the high stu*:*^ 
of river. I believe that the latter is the case, and that the mat is practice liy 
dostroyed. No hopes were entertained of saving it when the run of ice began, tlu* 
one object in sinking it being to prevent its breaking away. It was 173 feet lou:; 
hy 245 feet wide. Its cost, as will be seen by a reference to the table giving cost 
of work, is very high, though a large number of fascines still on hand are inchidtHl 
in the cost of this mat. The fascines will probably be available the coming scjisoi. 
for connecting mats or shore work. The cost of loading these fascines on bargi-« 
was also charged to the mat. 

This style of mat has many desirable features, its flexibility and the possibility of 
utilizing brush too small for the standard cons tractions being not the least import- 
ant. On the other hand ite extreme cost and slow progress are serious objections. 
Rate of progress might be accelerated if the fascines were made directly at the brush 
camp and delivered to the construction parties ready for use. The cost, too, may 
partially be reduced after the men have had more experience with this style. 

Connecting mats. — There were constructed and sunk 7 connecting luata, varying in 
widtli from 44 to 100 feet, and all of a uniform length of 240 feet. All except No. 
7, or the last one constructed, are of the usual construction. No. 7 w^as built at a 
high stage of river, and consequently its width was increased. It was constructed 
of fascines and in a manner similar to river mat No. 3. The completion of this mat 
terminated the season's work at this place. 

Grading. — This work was begun on the 29th of November, upon which day 
hydraulic grader No. 4 was received from the Ash])ort work. Grading was begun at 
the head of river mat No. 1 and continued to its lower end. About one-half of the 
bank in front of river mat No. 4 was also graded, and 275 feet in front of river mat 
No. 2. Grading was suspended on January 8. 

Paving. — Fourteen hundred and twelve s([uare yards of this work vras done. 

Sjmr dikes. — Viye of these are to be coiistructotl hero, but only 2 have been 
under construction, the high water interfering with, and tinally, on March 1, com- 
pelling the stoppage of all work. These dikes, which will be constructed like those 
already built at Ashport Bend, are to project out from the deep scallops in the 
bank, and their duty will be to destroy the strong eddies prevailing along the bank. 

All work was suspended at this place on March 1st. iSiuce the suspension of the 



APPENDIX Y Y REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3737 

work the sharp salient located at the head of the 1889 work, and which caused 
destnictivo eddies below, has been cut away by the erosive action of the river, and 
the bank above the work is now in mtich better shape for upstream extension of the 
work than formerly. 

REPAIRS TO KXISTING WORKS. 

Ff etchers Bend, — One of the projects for the season's work was the repair of a 
fault at the head of section "B" (1888 work) in this bend, but owin<? to nonavail- 
ability of mattress plant this could not be done. The fault has since increased in 
extent until now about one-half of section *' 15" is involved. This fault ori«;iuated 
just below the salient formed by the juncture of the 1891 with the 1888 work. A 
few unimportant faults in the old work were restored, and 4,807 square yards of 
work roballasted, and 684 square yards of additional paving laid. 

Ashpori Bend. — Nineteen hundred and twenty-five square yards of the previous 
season's work received additional ballast. 

The present condition of the work on the reach may be brielly summed up as 
follows, viz: 
Bullerton Tow Head revetment will need extensive repairs shortly. 
Osceola Bar revetment; both old and new^ in good condition^ except some slight 
faults in the old work. 
Plum Point revetment damaged somewhat at lower end. 

Ftetohers Bend revetment, half of section "B" gone; foot of section "D" some- 
what damaged; balance of new work in i^ood con(Ution; old work is fair. 
Ashport Bend revetment in good condition. 
Daniels Point revetment repairs unfinished. 
No changes to be noted in the dike work. 

Before concluding, I beg leave to submit the following suggestions and remarks : 
The anchor piles which it has been customary to drive at 25 or 50 feet intervals 
along the inshore edge of the river matresses might be, without detriment to the 
work, omitted, and in lieu thereof piles 150 feet apart be driven for the nlat to rest 
against during construction, so as to hold them at the proper distance out. The 
anchor piles were driven for the purpose of fastening the mat to them by moans of 
strand cables yoked around the piles and fastened to the mat. We, however, found 
that frequently, in sinking, the cables cut into the soft wood of the piles and refuse 
to slip down as the mat sinks, thus holding it up. These have to be pushed down, 
or, if this is not possible, the strand has to be cut or the i)ile pulled out. Before 
sinking the mat, the piles are cut off close to the water surface, and if, before 
the connecting mats are constructed, the river should rise over their tops, much 
searching has to be done to locate the proper places on the mat for the holes to be 
cut, so that when these mats are sunk they will slip down over the piles. Should 
these holes, from any cause, not match with the piling, the mat will hang up. 

Should it be decided to construct supplemental mats in place of the standard con- 
necting mats, these piles would have to either be omitted or else pulled out after the 
main mat is sunk. Experience has shown that in sinking a matress always crowds 
inshore, and where the piles are driven as close as 50 feet the friction of the ed^e of 
the mat against the piling is sufficient to either hold the former up or break ott the 
piles. In my experience there is no authenticated case of a river mattress sliding 
down the slope, nor do I think that if such sliding should take place the present 
number of cables would be sufficient to prevent it. A change in the present style of 
work, where the revetment will be strengthened at the line where the graded slope 
and the under-water slope meet, is urged as imperatively necessary, for most of the 
damage starts here. 

The enforcement of the eight-hour law has had its effect both upon the cost and 
the progress of the work. The advocates of the eight-hour law say that a man will 
do as much work in eight as he formerly did in ten hours. If this is the case, the 
average public-works laborer will be found an exception, for he now looks as eagerly 
for the end of the eight as he formerly did for the end of the ten-hour day. A strict 
observance of the law is not always compatible with an energetic and economical 
prosecution of the work, and the penalties threatened will tend to make the assist- 
ant in charge overcautious as to the "extraordinary- emergency'' clause. It some- 
times happens that some work, the postponement of which neither involves loss 
of life, public property, or destruction of work, might be economically completed by 
working a short overtime, but this is imperatively prohibited. A concise interpre- 
tation of the law by competent authority would be of value. 

The question from whence to draw the brush supply is one that demands early con- 
sideration. All bars within a radius of 50 miles of the works have been x>retty well 
denuded. There are a few places where considerable brush still stands, luit it is 
practically inaccessible on account of the miry nature of the soil. At some places, 
by increasing the length of haul, a quantity might be obtained, but the bulk of the 
supply will have to be obtained from a long distance down the river. 



3738 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENaiNEERS, U. S. ARUtC 

With the nse of the "Wells" lig^hts the capacity of the present plant is donli] 
but as soon a« the iiir:rht'S begin to get cold it is hard to keep an outside night ci 
nor is the work satisfactory then. 

The gap between Sections "D" and "E," Fletchers Bend Revetment, should 
covered as soon as possible, as the caving is attacking the foot of Section "D." 

Ashport Revetment should be extended up about 1,000 feet to insure the safety 
the work. 

The false poiut or salient formerly existing at the head of the Daniels Point w< 
having caved off, and the bank line, which only last year was very concave, hav 
become almost a straight line, the contemplated extension upstream could now 
undertaken with advantage. 

Appended hereto is a summary of work done, together with a Ptatement of 
cost of the different works constructed the past season. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Aug. J. NoLTT, 

Assistant ^^e^^| 

Capt. S. W. ROESSLER, 

Corps of Engineers, U. S, A. 



Work done during the season 189S-9S, 
Ashport Bend : 

Stone unloaded on bank cubic yards. 

Stone loaded on bank do... 

River mat made squares . 

Connecting mat made do... 

Pockct mat made do . . . 

Gra<ling cubic yards. 

Paving square yards. 

Clearing acres. 

Dikes constructed linear feet. 

Anchor piles driven ' 

Abutments constructed 

Brnsh cut and loaded cords. 

Poles cut and loaded do... 




Repairs to existing works, 

Ashport Bend: 

Additional ballast square yards. . 1, 925 

Fletchers Bend : 

Additional ballast do 4,807 

Paving do 684 

Keys Point and Elmoi Bar : 

Stone unloaded on bank cubic yards.. 14,503 

Daniels Point: 

River mat sq^iares.. 

Connecting mat do 

Grading cubic yards.. 

Paving sqnarc yards.. 1,412 

Dikes constructed linear feet ... 225 

Clearing acres.. 3 

Anchor i)ile8 driven 48 

Abutments constructed 4 

In addition to the above classified work, a large amount of work that, on tbo 
statement of cost of work, appears as "miscellaneous work," was done. This con- 
sisted in hand-dressing the slope after hydraulic grading, grubbing, blasting 
stumps, removing snags and drift piles, putting in dead men, sinking aBchor8 for 
the transverse caldes, making model of channel works for the Columbian Kxposi- ^ 
tion, etc. Care of and repairs to plant, though appearing as separate items, can not^ 
be properly classilied. 

Material used per square of river mat : 

Brush cords. . 

Poles do 

Stone cubic yards.. 

Wire pounds.. 

Wire strand ..do 

Spikes do 

Cable clamps .-. ^ number. , 

Staples pounds., 

Piling number.. 



./ 




APPENDIX YT — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3739 

Pavmg, per square yard: 

Stone cubic yards.. .385 

Spalla do 113 

Paving, per linear foot : 

Stone do.... 1.709 

Spalls do 501 

Connecting mat^ per square : 

Brnah cords.. 1.117 

Poles do 136 

Stone cubic yards.. 2.228 

Wire -. pounds.. 6.716 

Wire strand do.... 2.024 

Spikes do 24 

Cable clamps number. . . 0078 

S tapl es p onnds . . . 0012 

Pocket or floor mats, per square : 

Bmsh. cords.. .83 

Poles.- do 145 

Stone cubic yards.. 1.55 

Wire pounds.. 7.44 

Wire strand : do 2. 00 

Spikes do 206 

Clamps number.. .Ofe 

Staples pounds.. .026 

Detailed coat of worksy Plum Point Beach, 1892-'9S. 

The following shows the cost of work in detail and also the cost per unit: 

Asbport Bend: 

River mats, 18,996 squares, at $4,276 per square $81, 228. 20 

Connecting mats, 4,242 squares, at $8.17 per square 34,656.07 

Pocket matfl, 1.199 squares, at $5^.90 per square 7, 079. 69 

Paving, 25,508 sq uare yards, at $0.9112 per square yard 24, 921 . 61 

Grading, 304,715 cubic yards, at $0,038 per cubic yard 11, 586. 87 

Clearing, 16.5 acres, at $42.56 per acre 753.04 

Spur dikes •. 1,230.48 

Repairs to and preservation of existing works 1, 906. 17 

Towing* ^.. $7,793.21 

Miscellaneous* 3,388.71 

Handlingstonet 12,797.47 

Care of quarters '. 720.89 

Care of pi an t 7, 543. 47 

Repairs to plant 2,919.81 

Total cost 174,546.80 

Length of revetment (1892-*93), 8,350 feet. Care of quarters, care of plant, repair 
to plant, cost per lin*al foot, exclusive of dikes, and repair to old work, $19;222. 
iriet<;her8 Bend : 

Repair to and preservation of existing work $2,632.66 

Daniels Point: 

River mat, 6,551 squares, at $5,090 per sq uare 83, 345. 46 

Connecting mat, 1,437 squares, at jf 7,8112 per square 11, 234. 86 

Grading, ^^,060 cubic yards, at $0.06295 per cubic yard 2, 081. 53 

Paving, 1,412 square yards, at $1,995 per square yard 2, 816. 81 

Clearing 468.98 

Spurdikest 1,037.25 

Towing* $3,681.04 

Miscellaneous* 1, 037. 94 

Care of quarters 236.08 

Repairs to plant 345.06 

Care of plant 2,450.49 

Total cost 54,016.52 

Length of revetment, 2,761 feet. Cost per linear foot, exclusive of dikes, $18,322. 
Revetment not complete. 



^k. 



•Incorporated in "cost of work." 

tCost per yard, $0.1692; includes unloading on bank and reloading on barges. 
This being added to quarry price and cost of towing, gave the cost per cubic yard 
($1.46), and is included in " coat of work." 

tKot completed. 



3740 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. fi. ARMY. 

MaioiaU expendedy Plum Point Jieavh, season 189S-9S. 

ASHPORT MEND. 



Kaniea of articles. 



Anchors, revetment iianil)or . 

Aeiil, muriatic pounds. 

Biinbing «. «ln . . . 

BeoK wax do. . . 

Bolts, conper do. - . 

Barn, capstan do . . . 

Bolts, wueel barrow dozen . 

Brush conis . 

• Burners, lantern dozen . 

Bolts nam her. 

Brack ct«. lamp do . . . 

Burners, lamp dozen . 

Bottoms, lantern nombor. 

Candles poun^ls. 

Coal buKliels . 

Crash ysnls. 

Clamps, c-able nnmber. 

Osstinps. stove pounds. 

CouT>11u/;s *. numWr. 

Clot^i, oiled rolls- 
Cloth, emery sheets. 

Chain pounds. 

Chimneys, lamp doju^u , 

( -hrtimo. green pounds. 

(ylara]»fl. hose iminbcr . 

Charcoal barrt'ls- 

Clay, Are do. . . 

Ca8ting>4, brass ptmnds . 

Castings, iron ., do. . . 

Cylinder, water \ nunil>er . 

Drop. Black pounds . 

Dryer, Japan (mllnns . 

Dope poun ! 



.poun !s, 



Ducking ysnls. 

Dy naiuito jmunds. 

JSzploders number. 

Olohes, lantern dozen. 

Gauges, glass number. 

(Jlasi* panes . 

Grati'S, stove number. 

Gauge cocks .? do. . . 

Guards, valve do. . . 

Hemp. Italian pounds. 

Handles, ax number. 

Handles, maul ". do. . . 

Hose feet.. 

Handles, file numlK>r . 

Hasps do. . . 

Hinges paira^ 

Iron pounds. 

Labor 



X^V© ca ses . 

Locks, pad number. 

Leather, sole pounds. 

Lead, white J do. . . 

Lead, sheet do... 

JTut-s, blank niunber. 

K^ails pounds. 

Lumber leet. 

Matches gross. 

Marl in pounds . 

Metal, ant ifriction do . . . 

Oil, signal gallons. 

Oil. cylinder do. . . 

Oil, headlight do... 

Oakum pounds. 

Oil, linseed eallons. 

Oil, black f..do... 

Oil, lard do... 

Pjp« lengths. 

Piiing number. 

PHing foet. 

Putty pounds. 

Paint, Benzole gallons . 

Poles conls. 

Packing, asbestos pounds. 

Packing, hemp do... 

Pmssian blue do . . . 

Packing, square do... 



Qiumtity. Cusc 



$j5 C 



15v 
1.* 



5- 
.( 

* 4 

75.1' 

.'.*: 

X'.' 
47. < 

4i' 



14." 
2 ■ ■'. « ' 

21.5". 

14 c: 

1.71 

VIM 
341 - 

.4* 

53.5?-L'»' 

31.7' 

G.41 

12.- 
7:1 1" 



21* Z 
21»* '-^ 

'H '.* 

► '*■ 

m. 75) 

7t".. * 

a. '4 

34.10 
KJ4 

25. *• 

267. W 

219. '!'» 

. I < 

l5. ^'< 

16 tf 
J* 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER CO>miSSION. 3741 

Materials expetided, Plum Point Re<icli, season 1S92- 9S— ^CouimneA, 

ASHPOBT BEITD- Continued. 



Names of articles. 



Plumbago pounds. 

PiiiHOD, rat box. 

Packing, flax pounds . 

IMpe. gas foet. 

I'uckiiip, sheet pounds. 

1 ajuT, toilet dozen . 

I'acking, cuclcs pounds. 

P o wd er, emery do.., 

Pipe, Htove Joints . 

i*a<king, Uaadurian pounds. 

Packing, ronnd do. . . 

Polish, stove do. . . 

P.^trking, cotton stem do . . . 

Packing, gum pare do. . . 

Piu-king, Selden's do... 

Plugs --. numlter. 



igs 

Paint, mineral pounds. 

Kope, inanilla do. - . 

liope^ braided cotton do. . . 

Pn jie, wire do... 

KiveiH, copper do... 

liope, grass coils. 

Rop*!, cotton -- pounds . 

Uo>sin do... 

E4)pe, tiller f eet . 

PniBsiate potash pounds . 

Sponges -... oances . 

S'»ap, laundry box. 

Soap, toilet bars. 

Staples pounds. 

Springs, poppet valve number. 

Straw bales. 

Stationery 



Spikes IK>unds. 

Steel do... 

Strand, wire do... 

Sheet, copper do... 

Sijlder do. .. 

Screws *. • dozen . 

ii rick, Are number . 

Subsistence 

Stone yards. 

'J'alJow pounds . 

Tiles, center number. 

Tin. sheet sheets , 

Tn«ks pounds. 

Twine halls, 

Turpentine gallons . 

Tumbuckles number. 

Valves, rubber do. . . 

Varnish gallons. 

Valves, globe number, 

AVaste . . pounds. 

Wicks, lamp dozen . 

W heels, barrow do. . . 

Wire, copper pounds. 

Wood cords. 

Wi re, galvanized pounds . 

Wire, insulated icet . 

Washers pounds . 

Zinc do... 

Unions number. 



Total cost. 



Quantity. 



8i 
1 

60 

28 

115i 

1 
117| 

94 

15 

111 

12* 

441 

25 

1 

227 

23,090 

15i 

1,836 

3 

2 

3i 

9i 
150 

2 

23 

mi 

236 

340 

8 

52 



90.28 

8 

67,788 

8 

5 

85i 
500 



37, 568. 67 

45 

15 

6 

8 

'i' 

29 
1 

11 

116 

40 

3 

14 
23 

203,501 

500 

21J 

10 

1 



Cost. 



$1.41 

.07 

16.80 

3.36 

37.14 

.46 

27.83 

.61 

28.45 

7.82 

26.64 

.50 

4.21 

22.19 

10.02 

.02 

2.27 

1,443.34 

8.63 

126.36 

.83 

1.20 

.76 

.27 

14.75 

.70 

8.73 

117.52 

10.45 

12.42 

6.85 

87.73 

27.44 

213.81 

63 

2,874.14 

.96 

1.09 

2.14 

14.70 

15,929.16 

54,850.26 

2.50 

5.85 

1.80 

1.44 

.35 

12.00 

2.00 

17.11 

L53 

8.14 

8.83 

4.00 

31.85 

.39 

71.89 

6, 630. 30 

15.00 

.88 

2.34 

.90 



174,640.30 



DANIELS POINT. 



P»eca wax poun ds . 

P'ars. capstan .' number. 

Brush cords . 

Bolts number. 

Brackets, lamp do. . . 

Bnniers, lamp dozen . 

P>ottoin8, lantern .-. number. 

Coal bushels . 

Crash yards. 



22 


$6.38 


5 


3.75 


8,826 


8, 916. 37 


190 


3.80 


6 


.54 


24 


1.88 


12 


3.43 


21,831 


2, 408. 50 


35 


2.87 



3742 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U, S. ARMY. 

Materials expeuded. Plum Point Peach, $ea$OH 189S- 9S—Continned* 

DANIELS POINT— Continued. 



Names of articles. 



Clarops, cable number . 

Clamps, cable, faaciiio do. . - 

Cloth, omerv sboets . 

Cbrome, yellow pounds 

Ca«tinfra, brass do. . . 

Castings, iron do. - . 

Dope do. - . 

Globes, lantern dozen. 

Glass panes. 

Grates, stove number . 

Handles, ax do. . . 

Handles, maul do. . . 

Hasps do. . . 

Iron pounds. 

Labor 



.cases. 



Lye. 

Leather, sole pounds. 

Lead, white do. . . 

Kails do. . . 

Lumber feet. 

Matclies ctobs . 

Oil, signal gallons . 

Oil, cylinder do. . . 

Oil, headlight do. . . 

Piling V number. 

Piling feet. 

Pu tty pounds . 

Poles cords. 

Packing, asbestos pounds. 

Prussian blue do. . . 

Packing, hemp do. . . 

Packing, squtirc do. . . 

Plumbago do... 

Pipe, gas feet. 

Packing, sheet I^ounds . 

Pipe, stove joints. 

Packing, round pounds. 

Packing, SeMcn's do . . . 

Plugs ■' number. 

Roite, manilla do. . , 

!Kop€^ wire pounds. 

Kope, cotton do. .. 

Shacklea ni«nil>er. 

Soap, laundry. box. 

Soap, toilet bars. 

Staples pounds. 

Straw bales . 

Stationery 



Spikes pounds . . 

Steel do 

Strand wire do 

Screws dozen . . 

Subsistence 

Stone varils. - 

Tin , s heets s I u e t .1 . . 



Quantltv. I Cost. 

_i 



Tacks pounds. 

Valves, glotte number. 

Waste ])ounds. 

"Wicks, lamp dozen. 

Wheels, barrow do... 

Wire, galvanized pounds. 

Wood cords . 



Total cost. 



647 

a, 065 

49 

1 

15 

180 

10 

:i 

84 

8 
6 
8 
5 
156 



5 

9 

25 

28 

654 

76 

57 

591 

66 

5,067 

1 

880 

2 

1 

H 



3 



18 
12 

8i 
8| 

1 
8,310 
1,013 

2 

142 

23 



402 

10 

94,976 

1 



8,377.82 

1* 

1 
44 

u, 

71,665 
27 



$3SM 

3^.4: 
l:.' 

lii' 

It- 

T 
l\ 

3. a 
.ft' 

4.3: 

19,04ri.<v 

6.31 

%y. 

Lp 

is! ^ 

8.L 

20 4( 

IB •< 

55 y 

t, 305. > 

-.4 

.:■» 
H- 

3 5. 

3.> 

l.~r 

i.r* 

>i 

«li:. 

«. .- 

45.*^ 

o . • 

... • 

14 :- 
12?* :>* 

1, 006 i»' 

5. 3U i' 
12,331 -r 



3.": 
10 ►.' 

1, 965 .- 

81.15 

54, 016 y: 



TOWIXG NEW MADRID RK.iCH. 



Bluing liottles . . 

Strawboard shcfts . . 

Ikjcs wax pounds. . 

Bolts '. number. . 

Burnors, lamp dozen . . 

Coal buHhols.. 

Cloth, emery sho«*ts. . 

Candles l>oui>(l» . . 

Chimneys, lamp dozen . . 

Chrome green pounda.. 



1 
3 

4 
16 

H 

6.005 
6 
6 
3 
4 



Mm 



4 1 



.40 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3743 

Materials expended, Plum Point Heach, season ISD^-'OS—Conlinucd, 
TOWING NEW MADRID KEACH— Continued. 



Nanie-s of articles. 



DropWack 

1 >rver, Jai>aQ 

< t lobt^s, lantern. . . 

c;ia<j« 

Iron 

Labor 

IMatchee 

Oil, Hignal 

Oil, headlight.. .. 

Oakum 

PackiDj;, aabeatos. 

S4>a]>, toilet 

Staivh 

Subsistence 

AVaRt* 

AVicks, lamp ., — 
Wood 



.ponnda.. 
.gallnoB.. 
.number.. 
. ..paues.. 
.pounds.. 



Quantity. 



11 
1 

17 
3 

48 



...eross.. 
gallons.. 

— do 

.pounds.. 
....do. ... 
— bars., 
.pounds.. 



.pounds.. 
..dozen.. 
...cords.. 



Total cost 



1 

15 
123 
luo 

3 

12 

5 



34 
4 
6 



Co.st. 



$1.21 

.64 

1.53 

.12 

.OC 

743.84 

.65 

4.50 

11.32 

6.74 

1.29 

.55 

.25 

121. 20 

2.62 

-.13 

7.60 



1,690.66 



FLETCHEKS BEND. 



Tjalwr 

Stone 

Subsistence 



cubic j'ards. 



Total cost 



1,201 



$668. 47 

1, 753. 46 

33.41 



2, 455. 34 



LEVEES, WHITE RIVER FRONT. 



JjOhOT..' 

Sii1>8iatence. 
Coal 



.busbela. 



Total cost 



1,601 



$294.29 

61.66 

150. 16 



506.11 



Appendix 4 C. 



report of assistant engineer c. w. 8turtbvant on repairs to plant. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Aweliaj Ark. , April 18y 1893, 

Captain: I have the honor to suhmit the following report upon repairs to plant 
at Amelia, Ark., from May 1, 1892, to April 1, 1893. 

SleanihoaUx — Steamer Titatif during the months of October and November, 1892, 
had two pairs of vertical posts set along the sides of both sets of cylinder timbers 
with the top of each pair framed to its opposite pair on the other side of the boat to 
prevent the side or weaving motion of the cylinder timbers. New stanchions have 
been placed nnder the cylinder timbers and diagonal braces so placed as to prevent 
the fore and aft movement of the timbers. New stacks 2 feet in dijinicter were put 
on the boat in pLace of the old ones, which were rusted out and were 3 feet in diam- 
eter. The decrease in the size of stacks improved the draft of the furnace. Other 
minor repairs have been made that are usually necessary to a towboat in com- 
mission. 

Steamer Graham was docked in June, 1892, and received a new set of starboard 
cylinder timbers, anew wheel, hull repaired and caulked, cabin repaired and painted, 
forward mud drum on boilers moved back, grate surface lengthened 12 inches, and 
cylinders counterbored. 
" Steamer Jxiriis was docked in July, 1892, and had the following parts renewed, as 
well as other minor repairs: New cylinder timbers complete, hog-chain braces, 
transom, stem, and rudders. 

Steamer Itasca has received only such minor repairs as have been necessary to 
keep this boat in working condition. 

Steamer Ahhot has had two knees built on bow for towing and such repairs as 
wore neccseary to keep the boat iu commission. 



3744 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Hydraulic graders. — ^Grader No. 2 was clocked in April and May, 1892. Machinery 
repaired and tested June 10, 1892, as follows: 

Boiler pressure pounds.. 160 

Vacuum inches.. 25 

Revolutions per minute.. 27 

Hydraulic pressure pounds.. ITB 

Nozzle pressure ^ do 140 

discharging through six l^-inch nozzles, each at the end of a 50-foot section of 
hose. A new smokestack was made for thlA grader and the hoilers covered with 
ashestos covering. 

Grader No. 4 was docked in May and June, 1892. and had new gunwales made oat 
of 6-inch yellow pine ; also had a new rake and rake timbers put in. Cabin repaired 
and painted. This grader had two independent Davidson compound pomps. One 
pump was so badly damaged it was not thought best to repair it. The other pump 
was overhauled and tested as follows: Boiler pressure, 100 pounds; hydranlic press- 
ure varied from 120 to 190 during the stroke; vacuum, 24 inches; revolutions, 30 per 
minute and discharging through three l^-inch nozzles, each at the end of a 50-n)ot 
section of hose. During the season's work at Ashport Bend the high-pressure cyl- 
inder cracked, and as the grader was needed at once, the pump was taken oflT and 
four small pile-driver pumps put in place, two being compound dnplex " Worthing- 
ton " and two high-pressure * * Knowles." They were all worked condensing, the con- 
densers uRed belonging to the Davidson pumps. 

Grader No. 40 had boiler covered and machinery and cabin paint-ed. 

Sand-pump hoat Ko. 12. — No repairs have been made to this boat. The ball engine 
and link belt have been sent to the Fourth district. 

Pile-drivers. — Nos. 59, 21, 20, 61, 57, 25, and 27 have had such minor repaid sa 
were necessary for one season's work. 

Machine boat. — Machine Boat No. 1 was docked in September, 1892, and had new 
gunwales, rakes, floor timbers, and a few new bottom planks put in. 

Machine boat No. 2 was docked in September, 1892, and had new gunwales, rakes, 
floor timbers, and a few new bottom planks put in. 

Quarter hoat. — Quarter boat No. 30 had rake and one seam above wat<er line on 
each side caulked so that the boat could be used during the season. 

Headquarter boat No. 29 has been {lainted and kitchen and pantry ceiled. 

Material store boat No. 26 was docke<l in October, 1892, and was patched and 
caulked for two seasons' use, as the hull was not worth rebuilding. 

Quarter bOfit No. 12 was docked in August to be caulked for one season's use. 

Quarter boat No. 10, used as a bake shop, was repaired and calked for one sea- 
son's work. 

Quarter boat No. 28 was repaired and calked for one season's use. 

Barges. — Four new district barges, Nos. 55, 66, 74, and 76, and mattress barges 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 had decks caulked and pitched. 

Gunwale barge No. 161, received from the general service, was docked and cat 
down to be used for a landing barge in unloading stone. 

Frame barge No. 223 was docked in March, 1893. It was caulked and had a new 
yellow pine head block put in. 

Frame barge No. 224 was docked in March, 1893, and caulked. 

Frame barge No. 227 wns placed on dock, March 31, 1893, to be caulked. 

The two second district (coal barge) mooring barges, two mooring barges, Nos. 180 
and 189, and old mattress barge No. 6 were repaired sufficiently for one season's 
work. 

Flats. — Four small flats were repaired for use of mattress parties in the field. 

Skifts, wheelbarrows, and tools of all kinds have been repaired. 

Warehouse A waa finished in May, 1892, with tin roof and track for hauling up 
machinery complete. 

Floating dock has received such minor repairs only as were necessary to keep it 
in working condition. 

Eight of the model barges borrowed from Major Miller have received necessary 
repairs and were painted before being returned. 

General repairs neceSvSsary to keep the fleet afloat and repairs to tools in shops 
have been made and charged under the head of general repairs. 

There is inclosed herewith a table Klu>wing amounts expended on each piece of 
plant from Mav 1, 1892, to April 1, 1893. 

This cost includes all material, labor, subsistence, and administration aa expended 
at this place. 

Reapectfully submitted. 

C. W. Sturtkvant. 

AsHsiant EngtnUTt 

Capt. 8. W. RoESwSLKR, 

Corps of Engineers, U, 8, A» 



APPENDIX YY — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3745 



Table of cost of repairs to plant at Amelia, ArJc,, from May 1, 1892, to April i, 189S, 



Steamers : 

Titan $1,443.49 

Graham 2,806.88 

Kirns 4,022.43 

Itasca 266.18 

Abbot 62.59 

Hydraalic grader No. — 

2 2,719.48 

4 4,121.27 

40 167.91 

Pile-drivers No. — 

20..... 198.66 

21 425.07 

25 : 1.26 

27 100.11 

57 140.57 

69 252.65 

61 36.39 

Machine boat No. — 

1 3,071.39 

2 3,645.17 

Quarter boat No. — 

30 109.28 

29 (headquarters) 310. 70 

26 (material store boat) . . . 418. 84 

12 326.04 

10(bake8hop) 282.83 

28 31.17 

6 3.49 

25 35.86 

11 16.70 

13 18.70 

27 14.01 



District barge No. — 

55 $101.05 

66 88.98 

74 82.57 

76 126.52 

94 43.96 

152 1.78 

Mattress barge No. — 

1 62.41 

2 48.52 

3 219.78 

4 258.22 

6 (old) 265.23 

Gunwale barge No. — 

161 (cut down) 988.62 

193 43.86 

180 (mooring) 283.18 

189 (mooring) 64.38 

Two (coal barge) mooring 

barges 375.43 

Frame barge No. — 

223 213.44 

224 180.10 

8 model barges (Maj. Miller; .. 211. &^ 

Skiffs and flats 245.39 

Floating dock 37.33 

Warehouse A 642.74 

General repairs 1,682.83 



Total cost 31,207.12 



Ahstraotof proposals for furnishing brush and poles for use at Hopefield Bendj Arkansas, 
received in resjwnse to advertisement dated August 22, 1892 ^ and opened September 1, 
1892, by Copt. S. W, Roessler, Corps of Engineers, 



No. 


Name and address of bidder. 


12,000 cords 
willow brush. 


2,000 cords 
willow poles. 


1 


Hanler & Frev. MemDhis. Tenn.* 


Fer cord. 
$0.95 


Fer cord 

$1.50 







* Accepted. 

Abstract of proposals for furnishing stone for use at Hopefield Bend, Arkansas, received 
in response to adrertisement dated August 22, 1892, and opened September 1, 1892, by 
Capt, S. W. Roessler, Corps of Engineers, 



No. 



1 
2 
3 



Name and address of bidder. 



Kdward Hely, West Plains, Mo.* 
Henry 6l Co.. Bimiingham, Ala. . 
J. W. Alley, Memphis, Tenn 



10,000 cnbio 
yards on bank 
at Hopefield. 



Per cubic yd. 

$1.85 

1.94 



10,000 cnblQ 
yards on 
barges at 

West Mem- 
phis. 



Per ctibicyd, 
$1.70 
1.97 
1.75 



ENa 93 ^235 



Accepted. 



3746 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



Abstract of proposals for levee work in Upper and Lower White Eiver levee distridt re- 
ceived in response to advertisement dated September 28, 189S, and opened October 10, 
189^, by Capt. S, W. Boessler, Corps of Engineers. 



No. 



1 
2 

3 

4 
6 

6 

7 

9 

» 



Name and address of bidder. 



J. H. Carir, Memphis, Tens 

Sneed Sc Blue, Memphis, Tenn — 
R. H. Beitb, Beiths Xandlnff, Ark. 
Scott Sc Russell, Memphis, Tenn . . 
C. F. DeGaris &, Co., Memphis, 

Tenn 

J. S. McTighe A, Co., Memphis, 

Tenn 

Sullivan^ Johnson &. McLaughlin, 

Memphis, Tenn 

•JefEHes & Dameron, Memphis, 

Tenn 

Hartnett A O'Brien, Memphis, 

Tenn 



Upper — 

Station 1040 

to 1120 



Lower. 



Per ou. yd. 



$a2758 
*.27 
.871 
.27 



Station 
to 1032. 



Per «i. yd. 
$0.20 



.21 

M»| 
.23 
.21i 



Station 1032 Station 903 
to 1107. to 780. 



Per eu. yd. 
*$0. 16^ 



.21 
.161 
.22 
.21 



."/A 



Per eu. yd. 



$0,171 

"*.*i5i" 

.l«l 

.24 

.181 



.171 



StadoDTSO 
to 677. 



P«rci(.yl 



10.171 
*.l^ 

.16} 

.24 

AH 



.17J 



. 



* Lowest bid— accepted. 

Abstract of proposals for levee work in Upper Yazoo levee district received in response to 
eulvertisement dated September g8, 189S, and opened October 8, 1892, by Capt. 8. W. 
Boessler, Corps of Engineers, * 



Ko. 



2 
8 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

» 

10 

11 
12 
18 



Name and address of bidder. 



Harvey & McGnire, Greenville, 

Miss 

Scott &. Bussell, Memphis, Tenn.. 
J. S. MoTighe & Co., Memphis, 

Tenn 

A. McDonald, Memphis, Tenn — 
Be Garis Sc Arnold, Memph is, Tenn 

P. F. Lamb, Memphis, Tenn 

J. "Et. Gary, Memphis, Tenn 

Harriett & O'Brien, Memphis, 

Tenn :. 

Snllivan, Johnson & McLauglUiu, 

Memphis, Tenn , 

JefMes Sc Bameron, Memphis, 

Tenn 

Hugh Morgan, Memphis, Tenn . . 
£. B. Mantell, Memphis, Tenn. . . 
T. S. Aderholdt, Friars Point, 

Miss 



Station 

4346 to 

station 

4417. 



Percu.yd. 

t0.19i 
.19^ 

.21 

M8g 
.161 



Station 

4417 to 

station 

4488. 



.22 



.27 
.181 



Percu.yd. 

.20^ 
.26 



M8i 
"*.*33' 



•27 
.23 



. 20 A 
.211 



.22 



Station 

4488 t.0 

Ward 

Lake 

Levee. 



Pereu.yd. 

$0.18^ 
.24 

.25 



.19} 



.27 



.30 

.21 
*.17i 



.28 



Station 

1159 to 

station 

1202. 



Pereu.yd. 
$0.22 



.30 



.27 
♦.20 



.40 
.27 



New Pushmsisha 
Loop. 



'J.^BT 



Lower 

half. 



Pereu,yd. 

*f0.18 
.21 

.29 



.24 



.20 

.22i 

.19 



.43 



Pereu.yd. 

10.19 
.21 

.S2 



.26i 

M6J 



.21 

.20 



* Lowest bid— accepted. 

Abstract of proposals for levee work in Lower White River levee district received in 
response to advertisement dated October 17, 189S, and opened October Sd, 189S, by 
Capt. S. W, Boessler, Corps of Engineers, 



No. 



1 
2 

3 
4 
6 
6 
7 



Name and address of bidder. 



Soott & Russell, Memphis, Tenn 

Hartnett & O'Brien, Memphis, Tenn 

Vanoe &. Franklin, Garvey, Ark 

John R. Greer, Memphis, Tenn 

Sullivan, Johnson & McLaughlin, Memphis, Tenn 

C. F. DeGaris & Co., Meraphin, Tenn 

Timothy Sullivan, Merapliis, Tenn 



From Station 677 south- 
ward to vicinity of 
Beasley's. 



To be fin- 
ished March 
1,1893, 



Per eti. yard. 



$0.20 



.lOi 
.211 



To be flu- 

lahed Jaa- 

uacyl,lBMk 



Percu. 



y«rd. 

$0.21 
M5 
.17 
.211 
.17i 
• ITj 
.17J 



♦Accepted. 



APPENDIX YY ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3747 



Ahstract of proposals for removal of Nonoonnah Bock , Mississippi Bivevy received in 
response to advertisement dated Novemher /, 1893y and opened December 1, 1892, by Capt, 
S, }V. Boessler, Corps of Engineers, 



No. 



1 

2 
8 

4 



Name and address of bidder. 



Johnson & Townsond, Somers Point, N. J. 

Ethan A. Bnrress, New Orleans, La 

H. S. Brown, Qnincy, 111 

J. H. Gary, Mvuipbid, Tenn.* 



Price 

percubic 

yard. 



$4.95 
2.90 
2.75 
2.65 



* Accepted. 

Ahstract of proposals for furnishing stone for use on Plum Point Beach, received in 
response to advertisement dated March 6, 1893, and opened March 16, 1893, by Capt* 
S. W. Boessler, Corps of Engineers, 



No. 



1 
2 

8 

4 



Names and address of bidder. 



J.W. Worthlngton &Co., Birmingham, Ala | 

Johnson Barrett, Frankfort, Ky 

Frederick Hartwig, Cincinnati, Ohio*... 
John J. Shipman, Shawneetown, HI \ 



Kind of stone. 



Limestone 
SandstoYie 
Limestone 
Sandstone 
Limestone 
Sandstone 
Limestone 
Sandstone 



10,000 

cubic yai'ds 

coarse 

riprap. 



Per eu. yd. 

$3.50 

3.50 



1.64 
1.59 
1.54 
1.85 
1.90 



10,000 

cable yards 

small 

riprap. 



5,000 

cubic yards 

spalls. 



Per cu. yd. 

$3.50 

3.50 



1.64 
L69 
1.64 
1.80 
1.85 



Per cu. yd. 
$3.50 
3.50 



1.40 
1.30 
1.20 
1.75 
L76 



* Accepted. 

Abstract of proposals for leve^ workj Upper and Lower White Biver levee districts, 
received in response to advertisement dated December 24, 189S, and opened January 19, 
1893, by Capt. S. W, Boessler, Corps of Engineers, 



No. 



1 
2 

8 

4 
9 

e 

7 
8 

e 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 



Name and address of bidder. 



MoLanghlin Bros., Memphis, Tenn ■ 

James M. Sullivan, Memphis, Tenn 

Thomas C. Ferguson, Glendale, Miss 

Arnold DeGaris &. Co., Memphis, Tenn 

J ef&les & Dameron, Mem pb is, Tenn 

Hugh Morgan, Memphis. Tenn 

Fruin-BamDrick Constuction Co., St. Louis, Mo 

J. B. Lewis, Luna, Ark 

William R. Harvey, Greenville, Miss 

T. J. Bogne, Beulah, Miss 

W. L. Killebrew, Greenville. Miss 

J. S.McTighe & Co., Meraphia, Tenn 

Patrick F. Lamb, Memphis. Tenn 

James H. Cary, Memphis, Tenn 



Upper White River 
levee district. 



From Sta- 
tion 1120 
to 1160. 



From Sta- 
tion 1160 
to 1200. 



Per eu. yd. I P/r cu. yd. 



$0,304 
.26^ 



.231 
.23 



$0.24 



:i.r 



*.21f 
.24 



. 24 AV 
.241 



.24VW, 
.23i 



.24,'A 



.28i I 
*.'22" 



28i 



22 



Lower White River 
levee district 



From Sta- 
tion 1110 
to 1205. 



Per eu. yd. 
$0.20^ 
.20 
.21^ 
.US 
.18} 
.17J 
.23 
M44 
.16 

.24tWt 
.16 A 
• ISA'fe 
.16| 

.17* 



From Sta- 
tion 1205 
to 1295. 



Per eu. yd. 
$0.26^ 
.20^ 



*.18| 
.22* 
.21i 
.30 

.m 

.20 



.21 A 
.21^ 
.21 
.20j^ 



♦Accepted (lowest bid). 

Abstract of proposals for constructing 30 decked barges, received in response to ad- 
vertisement dated January 18, 1893, and opened February 1, 1893, by Capt, S, W, 
Boessler, Corps of Engineers. 



So. 


Name and address of bidder. 


Price per 
bnrge for 
10 barges. 


Remarks. 


1 


Weiarel Bros.. & Co.. Elizabeth. Penn 


$3, 100 
3,170 
3,192 
2,800 
3,500 


Accepted for 10 barges. 
Accepted for 9 barges. 


2 
8 

4 
5 


David 8. Barmore. MadiHon. Ind 


£d. J. Howard, Jeffersonviilo. Ind 


' S. M. Flesher, L#vannn. Ohio 


Accepted for 10 barges. 


Thos. P.Morse, South St. Louis, Mo 







3748 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, XT. S. ARMY. 




Abstract of proposals for Uvee worJc, received in response to advertisement dated Decemher 
SO, 1803 J and opened January 24, 1803, by Capt. 6'. W, Roessler, Corps of Engineers. ■ 

[Price per oubio yard.] 



No. 



1 
2 
3 
4 

6 

e 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2« 
27 
28 
29 



81 
32 
83 
84 



Lower St. Francia levee 
diatrict 



Name and addreaa of bid 
der. 



Garbieh & O'Xeil, Mem* 
phis, Tcnn 

C. A. Winter, Green- 
ville, Mi»» 

Timothy Sullivan. Mem- 
pills, ^onn 

w. A. Shippey, Mem- 
phis, Tenn . . /. 

£award H.Mauttoll,Mem> 
phis, Tenn 



McLauKliUn Bros., Mem 
phis, Tenn 



fiaman,McFaddeu4: Cas- 
sidy, Baton Koncc. La 

A. J . Robinson, Mem- 
phis, Tenn 

John C. Hodge, Mom- 
phis, Tenn 

Hoj;an&- Robertson, 
Cairo, 111 

Conner Sc Lester, Benoit, 
Miss 

Epply d& Martin, Bolivar, 
Miss 

R. T. Martin, Bolivar, 
Miss 

Hunter & Frey, Mem- 
phis, Tenn 

Harvey & McGuire, 
Greenville, Miss 

Hartnetts O'Brien. Don- 
ovan & Daily, Mem- 



phis, Tenn 
:h« 



Thomas J. Bogne, Beu- 
lah, Miss 

Earnest Ilyucr, Green- 
ville, Miss 

T. S. AdfThold, Friars 
Point. Miss 

M. N. Hewey, Birming- 
ham. Ala 

Green ('lay Sc Son, Mex- 
ico. Mo 

T. C. Ferguson, Glen- 
dalc, Miss 

Arnold, De Garis &. Co., 
Memi)hiH, Tenn 

W. L. Withers & Co., 
Gladstone. Miss 

Hebron &. Hebron, Vicka 
burg, MiNS 

J. S. McTigho & Co., 
Memphis, Tenn 

Scott Sc Russell, Mem 
phis, Tenn 

Jeft'riea d:-Dameron, 
Memphl.M, Tenn 

Hayes «fe Hayes, Welch 
ton. La * 



30 A. B. Carter, Memphis, 
^ Tenn 



Sullivan & Johnson, 

Mei#i)hiB, Tenn 
Jno. Scott &, Son, St 

Lonis, Mo 
J. W. Eldridge, Hill 

house. Miss 

Meredith & Si>cer8,Mem 

nhis, Tenn 




* Accepted (lowest bid.) t Bidder failed to enter into contract. This piece of work was readvortiaed- 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3749 

Abstract of proposals for levee work received in response to advertisement dated December 

fSOf 1S9$, ete.— Continued. 





• 

Name and address of bid- 
der. 


Upper Yazoo le^ee district. 


Lower St. Francis leree 
district. 


No. 


Sections 60, 
62, and 63. 


Sta- 
tion 
1340 to 
1420. 


Sta- 
tion 
1420 to 
1493, 
and 
station 
1531 to 
1544. 


Sta- 
tion 
1630 to 
1749. 


Sta- 
tion 
1493 to 
1531. 


SU- 

tion 

"0" to 

158. 


Sta- 
tion 
158 to 
317. 


Sta- 
tion 
317 to 
422. 


Sta- 
tion 
422 to 
475. 


36 


Edwin R. Shelton, Mem- 
phis. Tenn , . . . . 


OenU. 


OenU. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 
13 

12} 
12,% 


Centi. 


Cents. 


36 


P. F. Lamb, Memphis, 
Tenn 




19} 


20^5, 


17 


30 
24 /A 


12i% 


13 


16} 


87 


Cbas. E. Sessions, Friars 
Point, Miss 


18 


38 


Hneh Morgan, Memphis, 
Tenn 






39 


M. McTigbe, Memphis, 
Tenn 










15 

12A 
16 








40 


J. £. O'Heam, Wilming- 
ton,K.C 


21} 
21 


21i 
21 


17» 

19 

— a — 


20A 
22| 


13A 


llA 
16 


21 


41 


James H. Cary.Memphis, 
Tenn 


20 


18 









KoTE.— Work in Lower St. Francis levee distsrict withdrawn. 



Abstract of proposals for levee work in Upper Yazoo levee district, received in response to 
advertisement dated February 8, 1893, and opened February 18, 189S, by Capt. S, W. 
Boessler, Corps of Engineers. 




1 

2 
8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



JeflMes &Daroeron, Memphis, Tenn...... 

Scott & Rnsaell, Memphis, Tenn 

Timothv SaUivan, Memphis, Tenn 

W . A . Shippey, Memphis, Tenn 

Robert Vance, Memphis, Tenn 

Thomas J. Bogus, Ben lab, Miss 

J. B. Lewis, Lana, Ark 

Harrey & McGuire, Greenville, Miss 

Jennings St, Co.« Memphis, Tenn 

P. F. Lamb, Memphis, Tenn 

T. C. Fergnson, Glendale, Miss 



From Sec- 
tion 59 
northward. 



Per eu. yd. 
fO.U 
.17 

.13 

M2/W» 
.13^ 
.16 
.14} 
.14^ 
.14 



*Accepted. 



Abstract of proposals for levee work in Upper Yazoo Levee District, received in response 
to public notice dated April 6, 1893, and opened April 12, 1895, by Capt, S. W, Boessler, 
Corps of Engineers- 



Kg. 



1 
2 

8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 



Kame and address of bidder. 



C. A. Winter, Greenville, Miss ^. 

Timothy Sullivan, Mempliis. Teun 

J. C. Hod|i;e, Memphis, Tenn 

W. A. Shippey, Memphis, Tenn 

AVilllam R. Harvey, (xrecn ville. Miss 

E. R. Shelton, Memphis, Tenn 

Robert Johnson, MerD][)hia, Tenn 

Robert Vance, Memx>his, Tenu 



From sta- 
tion 1493 to 
1531. 



Per eu. yd. 
$0.2Wifl, 

-2^ 
.25flft 
*.20 
.29 
.20} 
.28 



* Accepted. 

Note. — Bide for this work were opened January 24, 1893, but Conner & Lester, 
who were the lowest bidders, having failed to enter into contract, the work was re- 
advertised. 



3750 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

List of civilian engineera employed on works of improving Mississippi Riter^ First and 
Second districtSf in charge of CapL S, W, Jioessler, Corps of Engineers, from June 7, 
18918, to May 31, 189S. 



Name md resideace. 



M. M. Hoes, Memphis, Tenn . . 

C.W. Sturtevant, Appletoo 

City, Mo. 
Au^. J. liolty, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. 
Fred WigBtrand, Memphis, 

Tenu. 
A. F. Kilpatriok, Memphis, 

Tenn. 
William Gerig, Columbia, Mo. 

S. B. Moore, Memphis, Tenn . . 
C. II. Purvis, Helena, Ark — 

L. Engstfeld, Memphis, Tenn. 
C. W. Stewart, Champaign, 

111. 
M. Gardner, Memphis, Tenn. 

A. L. Babney, Clarksdalo, 

Miss. 
F. A. Fisher, Memphis, Tenn. 

Charles LeVassenr, Mem- 
phis, Tenn. 



Time em- 
ployed. 


Pay per 
month. 


M<mths. 
12 


$200 


12 


150 


12 


150 


5 SIS 


125 
150 
125 


12 


125 


HI 


125 
150 


^ III 


135 
175 
150 
125 


«38 


125 


\i 


125 


IS 


76 



"Where employed. 



Memphis 

Amelia, Ark 

....do 

I HiUhonse, Miss. 
Sessions, Miss . . . 

Amelia, Ark 

Hillhonse, Miss . . 
Heleni^ Ark 

Memphis 

> Memphis 

Allisons Landing, 

Ark. 
Beitbs, Ark 

Amelia, Ark. ... 

New Madrid. Mo. 



Work on which employed. 



Hopeflold Bend and miscella- 

neons work. 
Repairs to plant and sorv«yt. 

Construction, Plum Point 
Reach. 

Upper Yazoo Levee district 

Do. 

Surveys, gauges, and ohsfrra- 
tions. 

Upper Yazoo Levee dislrict 

Ui»j)cr White River Levee 
district. 
l>o. 

Plum Point Reach, and sur- 
veys. 

Upper White Rlveer Levee 
district. 

Lower White River Levee 
district 

Surveys, gangea, and observa- 
tions. 

Impi'oving harbor at Xew Mad- 
rid. Mo. 



Approximate value of plant belonging to tits United States and used npon the improvement 

of the Mississippi River, First and Second districts. 



Class of property. 



Steamer Minnetonka 

Strainer Tilan 

Steamer Itasca 

Steamer Graham 

Steamer Abbot 

Pile-drivers 

Snarter boats 
arges 

Sana pump 

Hydraulic graders . . 
Derrick boat 





Approxi- 


No. 


mate value 




May 31,1893. 


1 


122,000 


1 


19,000 


1 


5,000 


1 


7,000 


1 


2,500 


12 


10,000 


13 


14,000 


84 


90,000 


1 


2,200 


8 


22,500 


1 


1,300 



Class of property. 



Machine-shop boats 

Flq^ting dock 

Flat boata 

Skiffs 

Storehouse 

Tools, appliances, and outfit. 

Office furniture 

Surveying instrumenta 



Total. 



No. 



2 

1 

3 

30 

1 



Approxi- 
mate ralne 
May 31,1693. 



$8,000 

4,000 

450 

300 

2,000 

14,5^)0 

suo 

1,000 



$226,250 



FIRST AND SECOND DISTRICTS. 



DislursemenU made under appropiiation for improving Mississippi River, from Juns 1, 

1892, to May SI, 1893, 



Contracts made with— 



Hunter & Frcy , 

Edward Hely 

Hugh Morgan , 

DeGaris Sl Arnold 

Augustine McDouell do 

Patrick F. Lamb do 

Harvey & McGuire do 

J. S. ^tcTighe & Co do 

Hartnett & O'iJrien do 

James H. Cary i do 

C. F. DeGnris &Co , do 

Scott & Riusell ! do 



For what made. 



Brush and poles 

Stone 

Levee work 

do 



Disburse- 
ments 

under con- 
tract. 



$54. 427. 05 
38, 360. 38 
15, 969. 57 
14, 580, 70 
15, 327. 71 
24. 468. 88 
20, 216. 10 
17, G04. 87 
«, 9W. 29 
liO.291.99 
17, 530. 19 
14, 519. 14 



Total ' j 260,36L47 



Liabilities 

under 
contract. 



$700.00 



11,966.00 



12,666.00 



TotaL 



$55,127.65 
38, 360. 38 
15.909.57 
R 580. 70 
15,327.71 
34,468.88 
20. 216. 10 
29,660.87 
6.068.29 
20,291.99 
17, 336. 19 
14,519.14 



273,027.4' 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI BIVEE COMMISSION. 3751 



Dishursemetits made otherwiie than under contract 



For what expended* 



Material and snpplice 

Subijist-euce 

Servirea 

Tools, applianoea, and outfit 
MiacdJaueooa 



Total 



By pnblic 
notice and 
sealed pro- 
posals. 



$15,298.80 
24, 044. 70 



1,290.30 



In open 
nuui 



>nen 
cket. 



$60, 276. 38 
11, 533. 97 

215, 158, 30 

13. 845. 02 

0,604.44 



40,633.80 



319,419.01 



Liabilities. 



$18,158.27 

2,491.18 

5,000.00 

827.41 

1,362.06 



22.338.92 



Total. 



$97, 733. 45 
38, 069. 86 

220, 158. 30 
15,463.08 
10,966.50 



882, 391. p 



Disbursements under appropriation for improving harhor at New Madrid, Mo., from 

June 1, 189£f to May SI, 1893. 



For what expended. 



Material and sapplies 

Subsistence 

Services 

Tools, appliances, and outfit 
Misccdlaneons 



Total. 



In open 
market. 



$3,796.70 

77.63 

2,190.88 



66.41 



6,188.07 



First and Second Districts, 

Cnbio yards. 

Aggregate yardage of levees on Mississippi River, Jane 30, 1892 10, 354^ 614 

Added by United States up to May 1, 1893 898,790 

Added by others np to May 1, 1893 .• 543,106 

Total - 11,796,510 

Lost by caving or abandonment, June dO, 1892, to May 1, 1893 75, 000 

Aggregate yardage remaining May 1, 1893 11,721,510 

Appropriations for improving Mississippi Biver, first and second districts. 

May 31, 1892, balance available $213,131.11 

July 13, 1892, amount appropriated for improving harbor at 

New Madrid, Mo $25,000.00 

Jnly 13, 1892, amount appropriated for improving harbor at 

Memphis, Tenn 25,000.00 

August 5, 1892, amount allotted by the Mississippi River 

Commission 477,000.00 

December 30, 1892, amount received £rom proceeds of Gov- 
ernment property 27.40 

February 13, 1893, amount received firom proceeds of Gov- 
ernment property.... 135.00 

527, 162. 40 

Total 740,293.51 

December 30, 1892, deposited to credit of the Treasurer of 

the United States, bein^ proceeds of Government property . 27. 40 

February 13, 1893, deposited to credit of the Treasurer of 

the United States, being proceeds of Government property . 135. 00 

March 8, 1893, amounttransferred to allotment for rebuilding 

steamer Mississippi 25^000.00 

May 31, 1893, amount expended from June 1, 1892, to May 31, 

1893, exclusive of liabilities outstanding May 81, 1892 559, 127.03 

May 31, 1893, outst%nding liabilities 22,338.92 

May 31, 1893, amount covered by existing contracts 23, 000. 00 



629, 628. 35 



Balance available 110,665.16 



{Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 
1895 1,000,000.00 
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



3752 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 



Appendix 5. 



REPOnT OP CAPT. C. M'D. TOWNSKND, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, UPON OPERATIONS IK TBI 

third district. 

United States Engineer Office, 

MempkiSf Tenn,, June 1, 189S. 

General: I have the honor to anhmit thefollowiDg report of operations in the 
third district, improving the Mississippi River, for the year ending May 31, 1893: 

This district extends from the mouth of White River to Warrenton, Miss., a dis- 
tance of 220 miles. In its improvement work has heen nndertaken at Lake Bolivar 
Front, Ashhrook Neck, Greenville, Lake Providence Reach, Delta Point, and Vicks- 
hnrg Harhor, and levees have heen constrncted and enlarged in the Lower Yazoo, 
Upper Tensas, and Middle Tensas Levee districts. 

Lake Bolivar Front, — ^The object of this improvement has been to stop & caving of 
the bank, which was threatening the destruction of a large levee across the end of 
Lake Bolivar; 4,400 linear feet of mattress was constructed in 1888-^89, covering 4,250 
feet of bank. 

Additional description of this work will be found in the Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1889, p. 2704. The revetment consisted of a subaqueous mat 250 feet 
wide for a distance of 3,300 feet from the upper end, the lower 1,100 feet being cov- 
ered by a mat of a width of 180 feet, reported as being built on a rapidly rising river. 

The upper bank was graded to a slope of 1 on 3 and covered with a brnah 
revetment loaded with stone. The following amounts of material were used in its 
construction: 






MateriaL 



» * ■ 11. 

Bmsh cords. 

Poles do... 

Stone cubic yards. 

Wire .~. pounds. 

Cable do... 

Iron rods do... 



Total. 



9,839 

1,609 

10, 154 

129, 310 

25,025 

61,924 



Per 

sqaaz«of 

100 fMt. 



.41 
.07 



5.5 
2.4 
£.04 



Per 

numing 
foot. 



2.26 

.39 

2.39 

30.4 

6.88 

ia.2 



In November, 1889, this work was repaired at the landing by sinking a foot mat 
255 by 65 feet, and revetting a space 250 feet wide above. During the past season 
2,234 cubic yards of stone have been placed on the u])per bank revetment from a 
stage of about 5 feet above extreme low water to a two -thirds stage at point« 
where the brush showed a tendency to decay. 

Soundings were taken over this revetment in December, 1892, on ranges about 100 
feet apart, and have been compared with a set taken in June, 1889. These soand- 
ings show a general fill over the mats 250 feet wide, while the 180-foot mat has sunk 
from 5 to 15 feet at its outer ed^e. On a number of ranges the mat appears to 
have rotated about an axis situated approximately at the low-water surface, and 
has assumed a steeper slope, although on three of the sections this action is not 
manifest. To 2 4-38 the mat could be detected by the leadsman. Below this range 
it appears to have been destroyed a distance of about 400 feet. An examination of 
the sections of 1889 shows that while the outer edge of this mat was in water Arom 
50 to 60 feet deep, thalweg depths of from 90 to 100 feet obtained. In 1892, on 
ranges from 27 -|- 10 to -f- 75 the thalweg has moved in closer to the mat. 

This revetment has accomplished the purpose for which it has been constructed. 
The caving has ceased at the end of the lake. To prevent the tendency to under- 
mine observed along the mat 180 feet wide it is propased during the coming season 
to construct a mat over it of sufficient width to extend to the line of deepest water. 

AfthbrooJc Keck. — The object of the work at this locality has been to prevent the 
caving of the bank which was threatening to form a cut-off across the Neck, with its 
resultant disturbance of the regimen of the river. 

The project adopted for tliiw improvement in 1890 consisted of- a continuous revet- 
ment of the upper sidti of the Nock at its narrowest part for a distance of 8,000 feet, 
the mats to extend to the deepest water. During the season 1890-91, 2,820 linear feet 
of this revetment was constructed. Due to the nigh stage of the river at which the 
w^ork was done, the subaqueous mat was given a width of 300 feet, with the excep- 
tion of the lower 500 feet, which was constructed upon a rapidly rising river, and 
given a width of but 180 feet. The bank was graded to a slope of 1 to 3^ and covered 
with a brush and stone revetment to a two-thirds stage. 



APPENDIX YY — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3753 



The amount of material expended was as follows: 



Material. 



Brash cords . . 

Polee ". do 

Stone cubic yards . . 

Wire poiindB.. 

Cable do 



Total. 


Per 

square. 


7,901 

1,723 

12,185 

92,016 

58.984 


.708 
.136 


8.3 
6.79 



Per mn- 
ning foot. 

2.80 
.61 

4.32 
32.6 
20.0 



When work was resumed during the season 1891-'92, it was found that the mat 180 
feet wide had been seriously undennined. A mat 300 feet wide was sunk over it, 
and the revetment continued 2,500 feet below the work of 1890, and 1,500 feet above 
it, 4,460 linear feet of revetment being constructed. The widths of the subaqueous 
matA varied from 300 to 250 feet. The bank was graded to a slope of 1 on 4, a brnsh 
and stone revetment constructed to 5 feet above the water level at the time the work 
was done, and the remainder of the slope riprapped with a layer of stone 10 inches 
thick to a two-thirds stage. 

The following amounts of material were used: 



Material. 



Total- 



Brash — cords . . 

Poles do 

StOBO cabic yards.. 

Wire ponnds.. 

Cable do 



12, 361. 5 
2,156 

24,768 

97,580 
74, 087 



Per 
square. 

.661 
.132 
♦.688 
t2.80 



Per run- 
ning foot. 



5.1 



2.72 

.48 

o. 136 

19. 52 

14.8 



*Mat. t Upper bank. 

Work was resumed September 15, 1892 and 2.610 linear feet of revetment con- 
structed during the season, completing the project of 1890. 

The subaqueous mats were given a width of 250 feet ; the upper bank was graded 
to a slope of 1 on 4 and coA'ered with a riprap of 10 inches of stone to a two-thirds 
stage. The method of construction was similar to that employed in former years, 
which has been fully described in preceding annual reports. Detailed statements 
of the cost of the work, quantities of matei-ial used, and of labor applied, will be 
found in the appended reports of Mr. Arthur Hider, assistant engineer, in local 
charge, and of Mr. Charles Miller, superintendent of construction. 

The amonnts of material used were as follows: 



Material. 



Brnsh cords.. 

Poles do 

Btone cubic yards.. 

Wire , pounds.. 

Cable r..do 



Total. 



5,285 

1,071 
16,017.6 
50,900 
27, 030 



Per 
square. 


.62 
.14 


7.7 
4 



Per run- 
ning foot. 

2.025 
.41 

6.137 
22.05 
13.6 



The cost per linear foot was $29.07. Soundings were made over the mats in 
November, 1892. When compared with a set taken during the construction of the 
work in 1891, they showed no evidence of the settlement of the revetment observed 
at other localities. 

The levee constructed parallel to the axis of the Neck in 1891, to prevent the flow 
of water across it, was badly damaged by the flood of 1892. During the flood, how- 
ever, there accumulated a large mass of drift on the upper side of the Neck, which 
appears to have caused a checking uf the current and a deposition of considerable 
sand. The levee has not been repaired, but breaks in the drift pile have been closed 
with brush and fallen trees for the purpose of accelerating the dejiosit from the river. 

Greenville Harhor.— The object of the Improvement at Greenville has been to pre- 
vent the caving of the bank at this locality, which was rapidly destroying the city. 
In 1887, 1888, and 1889, the front of the town was protected by a system of spur 
dikes, which prevented further caving in their vicinity. Their construction nas 
been fully described in preceding reports, but caving has continued in the bend 
above, which in 1890, during the flood, flanked the upper dikes and threatened the 
destruction of the remainder. 

In 1891 it was determined to commence the revetment of the bend above the city ; 
6,600 feet of continuous revetment was constructed above the dykes of a character 
similar to that adopted at Ashbrook Neck, with the exception that the subaqueous 
mats were given a uniform width of 300 feet. 



3754 REPORT OP THE CfflEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



The amounts of material used were as follows ; 



Material. 



Bmsh » cords. 

Poles do . . . 

Stone cabic yards . 

"Wire pounds. 

Cable do... 



Total. 



17,331 
3,151 

40,271 

137. 978 
102, 018 



Per 
square. 



Pflrrua- 
ingfoot 



t3.64j 



3.U 

6.12 

20. B 
13. tf 



Mat. 



4 Upper bank. 



During the past season the revetment has been extended 4^450 linear feet up tbe 
bend. Additional report of operations will be found in the appended report of tlio 
superintendent of constrnction, Mr. Luther Y. Kerr. 

The amounts of material expended were as follows: 



Material. 



Bniflh cords. 

Poles do — 

Stone cubic yards . . 

"Wire pounds., 

Cable do — 




11,367 
2,008 

26,484 

93,352 
63,432 



Per 

square. 



Per run- 
ning foot 



1 



.71 

.13 

*,63 

r3.03 

5.36 

4.28 



2.55 
.35 

3.71 
14. »j 



'Mat. 



t Upper bank. 



The cost of the work was $27.08 per linear foot. 

Soundings were taken over the revetment on ranges 100 feet apart in April, 1893, 
and have been compared with similar sets taken in January, 1893, and during the 
working season of 1891. These soundings show a marked increase of depth along 
the outer edge of the mat — on some ranges, of over 40 feet. The mats appear to hare 
adapted themselves to this scour, on some ranges by settling at their outer edge; 
but on others there appears to be a settlement the entire width of the mat. 

Lake Providence Beach, — Thu<reach extends from Carolina Landing, Mississippi (517 
miles below Cairo), to Island 95, a distance of 35 miles. A brief description of the 
operations in this reach from 1882 will be found in my last annual report. The 
destruction of portions of the earlier works necessitated the construction of a new 
series beginning at Louisiana Bend, the head of the reach. This project was begun 
in 1889, during which season 6,024 feet of bank revetment was constructed at the 
head of the bend. During the season 1891-92 this revetment was extended a dist^uice 
of 5, 000 feet. 

During the present fiscal year the revetment has been further extended 5,835 linear 
feet. The revetment is of a character similar to that constructed at Ashbrook Neck 
and Greenville. The amounts of material expended were as follows: 



Material. 



Urush ^rds. 

Poles do.., 

Stone cubic yards . . 

"Wire pounds.. 

Cable , do — 



Total. 


Per 




square. 


15,339 


.88 


2,622 


.17 


37, 952 


C *.63 
\ 13.68 


117, 766 


5.61 


63,116 


8.63 



Per 

nmning 

foot. 



] 



2.G 
.41 

6.25 

20.14 
10.60 



♦On mat. 



1 0n bank. 



The cost of fhe work was $27.8(t per linear foot. 

A detailed description will be found in the accompanying report of the snperin- 
tendon t of construction, Mr. George C. Thomas. 

Soundings have been taken over this revetment similar to those taken at Green- 
ville and Ashbrook Neck, but comparison can not be satisfactorily made with thoi*e 
taken in 1891, as the earlier soundings were made before the mat was sunk and 
extensive caving was noted between the time of taking the soundings and sinkins: 
the mats; but at the mouth of Old River a tendency to scour at the outer edge of 
the mat is also noted. 

In compliance with a resolution of the Mississippi River Commission I append a 
report upon a comparison of the low- water soundings taken through Lake Provi- 
dence Reach since 1882. 

Viduhurg Harbor and Delta Point, — The works for the improvement of Vicksbmg 



! 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3755 

Harbor consist, first, of the revetment of Delta Point to prevent its further recession ; 
second, of the basin dredged in front of the citj, and a dredged canal connecting it 
with the river at Kleinston. 

Between the years 1878 and 1884, 10,700 feet of bank were revetted at Delta Point. 
From the records of the office I find that in 1882 and 1883 the width given to the 
sub aqueous mat was 144 feet; the bank was graded, to a slope of 1 on 2^, and 
covered with a brush revetment. 

The following amounts of material were used: 

Per 

running 
foot.- 




Brnsh cords.. .41 .6 

Poles 1.16 1.68 

Stone cable yards.. .41 .6 

Wire pounds.. 1,18 1,70 

No repairs have been made to the work for a number of years. A survey was made 
in November, 1892, and has been compared with soundings taken in 1884 and 1^8. 

At the upper end of the revetment the same scour is observed at the outer edge of 
the mat that was noted at Lake Bolivar, Greenville, and Louisiana Bend. Thalweg 
depths have increased over 50 feet on some sections, and the mat has assumed a much 
steeper slope. At the lower end of the work there has oeen a heavy deposit. The 
Tipper bank revetment, where not covered with sand, appears to have rotted out. 

Upon completion of the work at Ashbrook Neck, the force was transferred to 
Delta Point for the purpose of constructiug a mat to cover the portion of revetment 
w^here settlement had been observed. A mat 300 by 685 feet was built, but in sink- 
ing was torn from its fastenings and floated to the bar at the lower end of the point. 
It was then cut in two and towed to the incline of the Vicksbur^, Shreveport and 
Pacific Railway, where it was sunk, it being impossible to tow it further up the 
river with the towing plant available. 

It isjproposed to make the repairs to this work during the next fiscal year. 

The work of dredging the canal and basin in front of Vicksburg was begun In 
1887. In the project then adopted it was proposed to inclose the canal and basin by 
a dam constructed across Centennial Lake firom the city to DeSoto Island, and along 
the island parallel to the oaual, for the purpose of limiting the flow of water into the 
basin during floods and thus reducing the annual deposit of sediment. 

The dam has been constructed of material dredged from the canal and basin, «nd 
has an elevation of from 25 feet to 35 feet above the zero of the Vicksburg gauge. 

At the time of submitting the last annual report dredging was in progress under a 
contract with the Alabama Dredging and Jetty Company, which was completed July 
31, 1892. The following amounts of material have been dredged to that date, measured 
in scows : 

Cubic yards. 

1888 « 824,941 

1J«0 465,573 

1891 331,204 

1892 294,447 

Total 1,416,165 

The river and harbor act approved July 13, 1892, appropriates $80,000 for continn- 
ing the improvement of Vicksburg Harbor, and also contains the following proviso: 
"Improving mouth of the Yazoo River (Miss.) in accordance with the plan of Capt. 
J. H. Willard, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, dated February 4, 1892, contained in 
House Ex. Doc. No. 125, Fifty-second Congress, first session * * * $75,000." 
This plan contemplates closing the existing mouth of the Yazoo River and diverting 
the river through Centennial Lake by the city, and will necessitate the removal of 
the dam under construction. It was therefore recommended and approved that further 
work on this dam be suspended, and that the material dredged be deposited at 
such localities as would best conform to the project- for the diversion of the Yazoo 
River adopted by Congress. 

A contract was entered into with the Rittenhouse-Moore Dredging Company to 
drodge the canal and basin at 16 cents per cubic yard measured in scow, and dredg- 
ing was resumed January 30, 1893. On May 31, 1893, there had been excavated 244,642 
cubic yards, the cut being made to zero on the Vicksburg gauge. 

Careful surveys have been made of the canal, iu May, 1893, and characteristic sec- 
tions are submitted herewith. A large fill is noted since August, 1892, estimated at 
128,000 cubic yards measured in situ, or about 148,000 cubic yards measured in scows. 
During the preceding flood the deposit was estimated at 150,000 cubic yards. The 
total iill since dredgmg was be^un has been about 400,000 cubic yards, the greater 
part of which has token place in the canal. 



^ 



3756 REPORT OF THE CHIEP OF EKGINEERS, V. 8. ARMY. 



Of the material dredged this season in the canal, over one-half has been a deposit 
since last year's flood. The removal of such a deposit reqnires the maintenance of a 
dredge in the channel at the time it is needed for navigation. Until the inflow from 
the Mississippi is restricted either by the construction of a dam or the diversion of 
the Yazoo River, the results attained by dredging in Vicksbarg Harbor are not con 
sidered commensurate with the cost. 

Upon the completion of existing contract, it is recommended that fnrther dredgiog 
at this locality be deferred until the completion of the project for the diversion of 
the Yazoo River. 

Further details of the work will be found in the appended report of Assistant En- 
gineer H. St.L. Coppee, in local charge. 

Levees f Lower Yazoo district — ^This district is situated on the east bank of the river, 
and extends from the line between Bolivar and Coahoma counties (Mississippi) to 
Eagle Lake, a distance by river of 215 miles. The length of the levee line is abont 
190 miles. It is locally known aa the Lower Mississippi levee district. 

Tlie levee section of' 1882 had a crown of front 4 to 6 feet wide, slopes of from one 
on two and one-half to one on three, and a narrow berm on the river side. The 
standard section at present adopted by the local authorities has a width of crown of 
8 feet and slopes of at least 1 on 3 ; the width of berm has been increased to 90 feet, 
ancl the levees are generally backed by a banquette 8 feet from the crown of the 
levee, Arom 20 to 40 feet wide, with a slope of from 1 on 3 to 1 on 5. Below the 
mouth of AVhite River thev have been generally raised to an elevation 1 foot above 
the estimated height which the flood of 1890 would have attained if there had been 
no crevasses in the third district. I am indebted to Maj. William Starling, chief 
engineer of the Lower Mississippi levee district, for the following statement of the 
yardage in levees in 1882. of levees caved away or abandoned since that time, and of 
subsequent work by local authorities up to January 1, 1893 : 

Cubic yard*. 

Yardage in plac^ in 1882, after the flood and before repair or rebuilding. . 6, 278. 728 
Abandoned in 1882 .' 810,002 

Leaving available in 1882 5,968,726 

Work done by levee board July 1882-Jannary 1893 10,89U,68."» 

Total 16,861,411 

Abandoned since 1882 2,879,259 

Levee-board work in place January 1893 18,982,152 

U. S. Government work to June 30, 1892, less Ashbrook Neck 2, 505, 774 

U. S. Government work during fiscal year 1892-93 793, 365 

Total 17,371,291 

During the year 1892 the local authorities erected 1,500,429 cubic yards. The re- 
sult of to is work has been to increase the height of levees in general 5 feet above 
that which obtained in 1882, while the area of cross-section to the height of that 
year's flood has been frequently increased threefold. 

The allotment of $200,000 for this subdistrict during the fiscal year ending Jnne 
30, 1893, has been expended in enlarging the levee from Hughes to Eutaw (L 403 to 
433), Station 2,380 to Station 3,400 of the local levee line. The standard section of 
the Lower Mississippi levee board was adopted for this work, so as to bring tho 
levee line to standard height below the mouth of White River. 

Exterior slopes of 1 on 3 were in general adopted, but where the material of which 
the levee was composed was sandy and exposed to wave-wash the slope was increased 
to 1 on 4. An abstract of the various contracts is appended. 

Under the allotment of $150,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, contract^ 
have been awarded for enlarging the levee as follows : 



Stations. 



From— 




407 

808 

900 

1000 

1200 

1330 

Leota 



To- 



Estimated 
yardage 



290 

808 

900 

1000 

1200 

1264 

1423 

(L 510} 



Cubic yardi 

118,000 
6:),500 
74, 300 
70,000 

128, 000 
61,000 
43, 000 
65,000 



Price per 
cubic 
■yard. 



Cents. 
19 
18* 

171 

19 

18 



17 ame of contractor. 



Starling & Sfnith Co. 
W. L. Withers & Co. 
W. L. Withers A. Co. 
Timothy Sullivan. 
Starling & Smith Co. 
Arnold, DoGarin &, Co. 
W\ L. Withers &, Co. 
Morritt Williama. 



APPENDIX YY — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3757 

Theee Btatious are located between the Bolivar-Coahoma county line (L 365) and 
Rosedale (L 397). The standard height adopted for these levees is the same as that 
for Govemmeut levees In the Upper Tensas district, three feet above the highest 
known water. 

WMle the levee line through this snbdistrict is considered the strongest of any 
in the third district, it has the defect of being located at numerous localities close 
to caving banks. 

The standard height adopted by local authorities is also less than that to which 
the new levees on tne opposite bank of the rivei* are being constructed. 

A profile of the levee line giving the flood heights of 1882, 1890, and 1892 accompa- 
nies this report, based upon a survey of 1888 by the Lower Mississippi levee board, 
with enlargements since that date plotted to net grade. 

Lw^etf hjyper Tetuas di9trict, — This district is situated on the right bank of the 
river and extends from the Arkansas River to the Louisiana-Arkansas state line. It 
is divided into three local levee districts, viz : Tlie Red Fork levee district, which 
extends from the Desha-Lincoln county line on the Arkansas River to the mouth of 
Cypress Creek ; the Desha Levee district from the mouth of Cypress Creek to the 
Desha-Chicot county line, and the Chicot Levee district, which contains Chicot 
County. 

From the president of the Red Fork levee district I have the following statement 
of the condition of its levee line: Length of the line in 1882, 30 miles, containing 
about 1,500,000 cnbic yards. Since that time there has been destroyed by caving 
banks and crevasses about 500,000 cubic yards, of which 126,000 cubic yards have 
been replaced. January 1, 1893, the length of levee line intact was 18 miles. No 
work has been done in this subdistrict by the General Government. Its levees are 
separated from the levees along the Mississippi River by Cypress Creek, but it covers 
the head of the levee system, and a crevasse in its levees floods the Tensas Basin by 
flanking the front line. 

The levee line proper begins at Amos Bayou, about 17 miles north of Arkansas 
City, extends along Cypress Creek to Lucca Landing, on the Mississippi, and thence 
to the Louisiana state line, a distance of 84.8 miles. In 1882 there were numerous 
breaks. Such levees as remained after the flood had, in general, a width of crown of 
4 feet, and slopes of from 1 on 2 to 1 on 3. They were of defective construction, 
containing stumps, logs, and growing trees, and appear to have been constructed 
in accordance with the whims of the planters along whose fronts they were located. 
I am nnable to give an accurate statement of the yardage in the levees, as the 
local boards have kept no record of the work they have done, with the exception 
of the amounts they have expended. A large part of this expenditure has been for 
the high-water protection of the levees, and has added little to the yardage in the 
line. A careful survey of the levee line was, however, completed in 1888, by the 
General Government. Based on that survey, and assuming that the yardage erected 
by the local boards and the State of Louisiana between 1^2 and 1888 was equal to 
the amount in the levees which were abandoned between those dates^ I deduce the 
following approximate Statement of Yardage : 

Cable yards. 

In levees in 1882 1,788,304 

Built by the U. S. Government to June 30, 1892 3,098,606 

Railt by the Tensas Basin levee board 1891-^92 176,073 

Built by Desha levee board 1891-'92 27,941 

Built by Chicot levee board (estimated) 100,000 

5, 190, 924 
Leasleyee abandoned 1888-^92 642,000 

Total yardage in levees in 1892 * 4,548,924 

Leveee built by U. 8. Government during fiscal year ending June 30, 1893. 1, 202, 884 
LeTeee built by Tensas Levee Board, 1893 41,187 

Total 5,792,996 

Less levees abandoned in 1893 150,000 

Total yardage in levees 1893 5,642,995 

* Of this amount 428,555 cubic yards liave been erected by the Tensas Levee Board 
of LouiBiaua since 1S82. 



/- 



3758 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



The levees constrncted by the United States prior to 1890 had, generally, a width 
of crown of 6 feet, and slopes of 1 on 3. Since that date they have been given a width 
of crown of 8 feet, slopes of 1 on 3 ; through sloughs or bayous backed by a banqnette 
from 8 to 10 feet from the top of the levee, and of widths of from 20 to 40 feet; tho 
established grade is 3 feet above the highest known water. 

I submit with this report a topical section of a levee of 1882 enlarged to the sec- 
tions of 1888 and 1892. There is also shown on the same sketch the levee of 18S2 
topped during floods, a form of levee not infrequently found in fchis subdistrict. 

The allotment of $310,000 for the fiscal year 1892-'93 for the Upper Tensas difltrtct 
has been expended in closing the crevasses that occurred during the flood of 1892, 
and in enlarging the weak portions of the levee line at the following localities: 



Locality. 



Middle Place... 
Panther Forest 

Do 

Pastoria 

Lnna 

Upper Leland . . 
Lower Leland ■ ■ 
Lakeport 

Do 

Brooks Mill.... 



Total 



Character of work. 



Loop enlargement. 

Crevasse 

Enlargement 

& , 

New loop 

Enlargement 

Crevasse • 

do 

Enlargement 

Crevasse 



Distance 




from 


TudagB. 


Cairo. 




Jft^. 


1 
Oubieyordi. 


I1...430 


75,334.1 


R...45] 


172,435.1 


R...451 


mooii 


R...4e6 


2&1@6.3 


R...468 


837,229.2 


R...4e9 


B&.3gl2 


R...485 


10,K2.5 


R...486 


e,W1.5 


R...496 


85,493.7 


R...6oe 


61,895.7 



1,202,884 



Under the allotment of $300,000 for the fiscal year ending Jane 30, 1894, the fol- 
lowing contracts have heen awarded : 



Levee. 



Opossnm Fork to Lacca 

Belleview 

Upper Fastoria 

Dulaneys Loop 

Leland 

Yauclnse 

Lakeport: 

First section 

Second section 

Below Lakeport 

Adams Front 

Florence Front 

Keigers Front: 

First section 

Second section 

Third section 



Station. 



From— 



374 
95 
127 
624 
6U0 
832 

1,216 

1,292 

40 

105 

210 



To— 



414 
127 
164 
600 
790 
862 

1,292 

1,368 

105 

210 

306 



50 stations 
30 stations 
23 stations 



Distance 

from 

Cairo. 



MOet. 



R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 

R. 

R. 

R.. 

R.. 

R.. 

R.. 
R.. 
&.. 



..427 
..465 
..466 
..485 
..486 
..487 

..494 

..495 
..497 
..498 
..500 

..505 

. .505 
..505 



Estimated 
yardaj(e. 



Oubie yards. 
60,000 
53,000 
55,000 
79,000 
120, 000 
60,000 

56,000 

79,000 

140,000 

102, 000 

87,500 

67,000 
64,000 
79,000 



Price 

per cubic 

yard. 



Centt. 
21 

18.5 
20 

15.94 
18.94 
27 

12 

15 

17.98 

14.49 

14.49 

12 

13.88 
13.99 



Contractor. 



Starling & Smith Co. 
Arnold, Degaris & Co. 
The Whitehill Co. 
Ernest Hyner. 

Do. 
McLaughlin Brothers. 

J. S. Peak.. 
J. B. Lewis. 
Emeet Hvner. 
Eolpatrick & Storer. 
Do. 

J. S. Peak. 
Timothy SuUivKo. 
Do. 



In anticipation of a flood in 1893 about $100,000 was left available. With this fund 
it is expected that the crevasses that have occurred this season can be closed, and the 
enlargement of the levee line be made continuous from Opossum Fork to Brooks Mill, 
with the exception of tho railroad embankment at Arkansas City, a section of 
levee from the end of the enlargement of Panther Forest to Linwood. which it is 
expected will have to be abandoned within the next three years due to caving 
banks, and between Sunnyside aud Lakeport, where the desired right of way can not 
be obtained. At Lucca Landing (R 427) and Eunice (R 442), however, the levcse will 
only be enlarged to the 6ecti<m of 1888. The enlargement of the Fulton Lake Levee 
is under construction by the Tensas levee board of Louisiona. 

LeveeSf Middle Tensas District, — The Middle Tensas Levee District extends from tho 
Louisiana- Arkansas State line to Bedford, opposite Warrenton, and forms a portion 
of the Fifth Louisiana Levee District. The length of the line is 87.33 miles. Throu;;a 
the courtesy of Mr. H. B. JbUchardsoni chief State engineer of Louisianai I am enabled 



APPENDIX YY ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3759 



to submit thefolloTfing resume of the levees in the Middle Tensas District from Febru- 
ary 1, 1882, to February 20, 1893 : 



Condition of levee line February 1, 1882 
CreTasHe openings in 1882 



Seroained standing after flood of 1882 

X.ovee8 constractcd by Slate and local aathorities since flood ot 1882 

liaifted and enlarged by State and local aathorities 

Built by Unlt4xl States to June 30, 18»2 

Built by United States daring fiscal yeas ending June 30, 1893 



Total 

Levee line abandoned since 1882. 



Existing levee line. 



Miles. 



88.67 
9.81 



78.86 



157. 03 
69.70 



87.33 



Cable yards. 



8,631,400 
450,400 



8, 181, 000 
3,723,500 
2, 335, 053 
1,994,558 
460, 216 



11, 694, 327 
4,407,400 



7,286,927 



During the last fiscal year the Fifth Louisiana Levee District has erected 257,627 
cubic yards, which has been principally expended in enlarging the Louisiana Bend 
Levee (R. 522) and the levee in front of Lake Providence (R. 542). 

The allotment of $110,000 for this subdistrict has been expended in the construc- 
tion of a levee from Millikens Bend to Cabin Teele (R. 581 to R. 584), to replace a 
levee which is rapidly caving into the river. Under the allotment or $100,000 for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, the following contracts have been made for the 
construction of a levee at Villa Vista (R. 574) to replace a levee which it is expected 
will be breached by caving banks before the next flood. 



First section.. 
Second section 
Third section.. 



Estimated 
yardage. 



Pri 



Cubic yardi. 
125, 000 
123,000 
126, 000 



ce per 
cubic 
yard. 



Csnts. 
14.93 
18.45 
17 



Contractor. 



Manoah Y . Henry. 
John Scott Sc Son. 
W. L. Withers & Co. 



The levees recently constructed by the General Government have a width of 
crpwn of 8 feet, slopes of 1 on 3. Their grade is 3 feet above the flood of 1890. 
Their height is not as great as is desirable, and the higher levees should be 
backed by a banquette, but the levee line has been located too close to the river 
banks, and the funds allotted by the General Government are entirely inadequate 
to replace t^e levees which 1 anticipate will cave into the river in the next three 
years. 

The floods of 189Z and 1893,^kt the date of my last annual report the flood of 1892 
-was at its maximum. This flood attained a height in the third district only exceeded 
bv that of 1893. In the following table are given the maximum heights at the gauge 
stations of the third district during the floods of 1882, 1890, 1891, and 1892, together 
w^ith those at Helena and Cairo, and at Little Rock and Clarendon, Ark., while the 
crest of the flood was passing the mouth of White River: 



Station. 



"WTiiteEiver 

Arkansas City.. - 

Greenville 

Xak© Providence; 

Vicksburg 

Cairo • 

Helena 

Little Rock 

Clarendon 



1882. 


1890. 


1891. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


48.40 


60.4 


47.7 


47 


49.5 


48.2 


41.68 


43.45 


43.25 


38.32 


41 


41.1 


48.75 


49 


48.1 


51 87 


48.8 


46.2 


47.2 


47.7 


44.7 


26.7 


2;t.9 


17.7 




86.6 


29 





1892. 



Feet. 
49.3 
49.9 
44.45 
41.9 
48.4 
48.3 
45.7 
28.2 
32.6 



The effect of leveeing the Tensas Basin in raising the flood heights is clearly 
exhibited in this table, for while the flood of 1892 was 1.5 feet below that of 1882 at 
Melona^ it exceeds it at the mouth of White River by nine-tenths of a foot^ at 



3760 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF- ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



Arkansas City by 2.9 feet, at Greenville by 2.8 feet, and at Lake Providence by 3.6 
feet. 

The following are the maximum discharges of the river and the estimated flow past 
the latitude of Lake Providence for the corresponding years : 

[In rnbic feel per second.] 




Meaaared discharge 
Estimated flow 



1,057.000 
2. 000, 000 



1891. 



1892. 



1.288.000 1,346,000 

1.720.0001 1,400,000 



1,433,000 

1,769.009 



An increase in the maximum river discharge since 1882 of at least 376,000 cubic 
feet is noted, about 35 per cent. 

During the flood six crevasses occurred, which were confined to the Upper Tensaa 
Levee District. The levees of Mississippi and Lonisiana in the third district success- 
fiilly withstood the strain brought upon tliem. The following table gives the width, 
location, and maximum measured discharges of the various crevasses: 



Railroad embankment at Arkanaas City. 

Panther Forest 

Upper Lelaml 

Lower Lclaud 

Lakeport 

Brooks Mill 



Location. 


Bate. 


Width. 






1892. 


Feet, 


R.. 


..439 


Juno 2 . . 


2,279 


R.. 


..451 


May 1 3.. 


2,327 


R.. 


..470 


June 22. 


420 


R.. 


..484 


May 25.. 


435 


R.. 


..496 
..506 




200 
715 


R.. 

• 


May9... 



Maximum 

discku-gtr 

perseoond. 

OuWc/«rt 
14,&21 

94,5«7 
I8,3U0 
15, 7M 

83,400 



The crevasse at Lakeport occurred as the river was falling, and was not reported 
in time to obtain its discharge. 

While a disastrous flood would have been caused by the water that poured through 
these crevasses, a considerable portion of the Tensas Basin would have escaped over- 
flow if it had not been for a flood which swept across Amos Bayou around the head 
of the levee system from breaks in the lovees along the Arkansas River. 

Cypress Creek is the natural outlet of a number of bayous at the head of thf 
Tensas Basin. To allow a drainage to this area, the levee line leaves the Mississippi 
River at Cypress Creek and extends along that stream to the banks of Amos Bayon, 
which in 1882 wore above overflow. But due to the increase in floo<l heights that 
has been caused by the construction of the levees, and to breaks which have occurred 
in the levees on the Arkansas River, the floods of 1890, 1892, and 1893 have overflo\«'ed 
the Amos Ridge, flanking the levee line. The maximum discharge from this source 
has been measured since 1890 along the railroad from Arkansas City to Trippe, and 
is as follows : 

Cubic feet per second. 

1890 50,000 

1891 5.000 

1892 300,1X10 

1893 97,000 

The largo flow of 1892 was due to an abnormal flood in the Arkansas River. The 
measured discharge of 1893 has also arisen from the same source, but since the flood 
of the Arkansas has subsided a second rise in the back water has been observed, 
which can only be attributed to the Mississippi River. 

By extending the levee along Amos Bayou to the land above overflow on Bayou 
Bartholomew tliis year's flow from the Mississippi would be cut ofl*, but this line would 
aflbrd inadequate ])rotection to a flood in the Arkansas River like that of 1892. l1ie 
only protection from the Arkansas River is a strong line of levees from Pino Bluff 
to the mouth of Cypress Creek, and if the leveeing of the Saint Francis front raises 
the flood height :ie much as has been caused by the closing of the Tensas Basin, ft 
levee across Cypress Creek will also be required, in which case it will be necessary 
to drain that stream into some of the bayous south of the existing levee system. 

The flood of 1803 has already attained a greater height from tiie mouth of White 
River to Greenville than that of 1892; from Greenville to Lake Providence it varies 
from one-tenth below that of 1892 to two-tenths above; below Lake Providence this 
flood has been exceeded by that of 1892. 

Crevasses have occurred as follows: Adams' Front (R. 497), May 11; Keiger's Front 
(R. 505), May 14 ; Matthews Bend (R. 508), May 15; Wylys (R. 545), May 23; Station202 
on Cypress Creek levee, May 29. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVEE COMMISSION. 3761 



All of these breaks, with the exception of that at Wylys, have occurred in the 
Upper Tensas levee district. The Mississippi side of the river has to date escaped 
overflow. 

The inundation of the Tensas Basin will be as great as in the preceding year, the 
crevasse at Wylys being particularly destructive, a measured discharge May 26 of 
200,000 cubic ieet per second being observed. 

Strenuous efforts have been made to hold the levee line, by both local and Govern- 
ment authorities^ but no effort has been made to close the crevasses after they have 
occurred, nor hold the exposed ends of levees, except at Wylys, where two old 
levies, flanking the break, have been topped to checK the caving after it exceeds 
4,000 feet. 

The maximum river discharge obtained to date at Wilsons Point has been 1^ 490,000 
cubic feet per second, on May 24, the day after the crevasse at Wylys. 

Surveys and observations, — Surveys have been made of the revetments at Lake 
Bolivar, Ashbrook Neck, Greonviile, Louisiana Bend, and Delta Point. Hydro- 
graphic surveys of Lake Providence Reach and the bend above Greenville were made 
during low water; low- water discharge observations were taken at Wilsons Point, 
and the results forwarded to the secretary of the Commission. Parties are at present 
engaged in taking the high- water discharge at Wilsons Point and Arkansas City. 
At the request of the secretary of the Commission parties were sent to Little Rock 
and Clarendon to obtain the flood discliarges of the Arkansas and White rivers . Re- 
connaissances have also been made of Ashbrook Neck and Carters Point during the 
flo«d to determine the force and direction of the flow across them. 

The flow through the crevasses has also been measured. 

The following approximate maximum discharges have been obtained. 



Arkansas City — 

Wilsons Point 

LiUl«Rook 

Clarendon 

Crevasse, Station 202 on Cypress Creek . 

Crevasse (R. 497) 

Crevasse(K. 505) 

Crevasse (R. 508) 

Crevasse (R. 645) 



Date. 



1898. 
May 27 
May 24 
May 
May 10 
May 30 
May 19 
May 20 
...do.... 
May 26 



Stage. 



Feet. 

49.97 

40.45 

22.1 

83.85 



Discharge 
per second* 



Cubic feet. 

1,760,000 

1, 400, 000 

198,000 

180,000 

35,000 

85,000 

15,000 

59,000 

200,000 



Daring low water soundings were taken on the various crossings in the Third dis- 
trict by the tow boats employed on the works of construction. 
The following were the least depths obtained: 



Crossing. 



Prentiss 

Ozark Island.... 

3Con«6ray 

Canlks Point. ^. 

Content 

Catfish Point 

Choctaw 

Linwood 

Salona 

Warfield 

Yaacluse 

Refnge 

Harvrood , 

Longwood 

Leota 

Sterling 

CordeU. 

Wilsons Point... 

Homochitta 

Lake Providence 

AJaxBar 

r8huid96 

H»yee 

Ia]and97 

Davals 

Httiderson 



Distance 
Cairo. 



Miles. 
403.0 
407 
410 
413.8 
420 
423.2 
434 
464 
474 
484 
486.9 
491.1 
496 
501.8 
611.7 
515 
626 
531 
535.9 
542.8 
548 
552 
554 
560 
568 
573.5 



Least 
depth. 



Feet. 



9 

12 
IS 

'P 
'P 

9 

H 

15 
12 

P 

19 

6 

15 

12 



Date, 1893. 



Octl. 

Do. 
Nov. 7-11. 
Sept 20-29. 
Sept. 24. 
Not. 1, 2. 
Oct. 25. 
Sept 28. 
Oct 23. 

Oct 24, 25, and Nor. 8-31« 
Oct 24, 25. 
Oct 24-29. 

Oct 24-29, and Nov. 14, lA. 
Oct 14-19. 
Sept 24-Oct 14. 
Oct 24, 25. 
Oct 14. 

Oct24-Nov.88. 
Oct 13. 
Nov. 7-22. 
Oct 23. 
Nov. 8. 
Oct 29. 
Oct 16-3L 
Oct 29. 

Do. 



BNa 93 ^236 



3762 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Care of fleet and repaire to plant. — ^The floating plant and other property when 
not in use has been oollected and cared for about 1 mile below Greenville, Miss. 
There has been no loss of floating plant during the year. Extensive repairs have 
been made to the steamboats^ the halls of the Osceouij Vidalia, and Vedette having 
been rebuilt and new boilers placed in the Eth^ridge, The qnater boats have been 

Senerally overhauled ; extensive repairs were made to Grader No, 3, which was hazily 
amaged durine a storm. Five barses have been rebuilt, the machine and carpen- 
ter shops moved onto new hulls, and minor repairs made to the rest of the fleeL 

A statement in detail of the expenditures on each piece is appended and also a list 
of floating property. 

General remarks. — In the regulation of a river, two problems confront the engi- 
neer; first, the protection ot the adjoining country from its destructive action; 
second, the ntUiration of the force contained in its waters so as to obtain the best 
navigable channel at all seasons — ^two apparently antagonistic propositions, the one 
requiring a large area of waterway to carry off tne flood discharge at as low an ele- 
vation as possible, the other a restriction of the width of the river so as to obtain 
the greatest efl'ects on the low-water channel. On the Mississippi River the preven- 
tion of overflows has been attempted by the construction of levees alqng its banks. 
Prior to the war of rebellion a continuous levee system existed througn the Third 
district on both sides of the river, but of insufficient dimensions as shown by the 
crevasses report«ed in 1858 and 1859. During the war the levee line was neglected 
and the levees frequently cut by the contending armies. 

Feeble attempts were made to close the gaps after the cessation of hostilities, but 
the flood of 1882 again destroyed miles of levees, leaving the levee systom in a con- 
dition summed up m the reports of the various snbdistricts. 

The typical sketch submitted of a levee in 1882 in the Upper Tensas district con- 
contains the average area of its levees. The levees in the Middle Tensas and Lower 
Yazoo districts ha^ a greater average width of crown and a greater height. The 
average area of all the levees in the Third district in 1882 would exceed the sec- 
tion submitted by between one-third and one-half its area. 

The problem which confronted the Mississippi River Commission at its organiza- 
tion was to confine a river which had a maximum discharge of 2,000,000 cubic feet per 
second in the third district within a channel which in 1882 discharged but one-half 
that amount. , In the Lower Yazoo and Middle Tensas districts it has been efficiently 
assisted in its efforts bv local authorities, the work done by the General Government 
being subordinate to tliat of the local boards, but in the Upper Tensas district the 
work done by local authorities has been insignificant. From this it has resulted 
that while the levees in Mississippi are rapidly attaining the section of 1892, dnring 
last year's flood there were over 40 miles of levees in Arkansas that had received 
little enlargement since 1882 except topping, the material for which had been fre- 
quently obtained from the base of the levee itself. As the levees of Arkansas could 
not resist the flood of 1882, an increase of flood height of over 3 feet has simply 
ensured their destruction. While the exertions of the people of the Middle Tensas 
district have equaled those of the Lower Yazoo, their levee line is not as strong, 
due to the 69 miles of levoes which have been abandoned from caving banks. With 
the allotments made for the Upper Tensas district from the last appropriation for the 
Mississippi Kiver it is expected that the section of 1892 will be completed the entire 
length of its line, with the exception of the banquette, which, will also be erected 
where the levee crosses sloughs or bayous. 

Hie results that have been achieved to date may be summed up as follows: That 
there can now be carried through the third district 30 per cent more water than in 
1882 without flooding the country, and that for the same elevation 4ihere is an 
increased discharge, but from surveys of Lake Providence Reach and of the bend 
above Greenville it would appear that the increased area of cross section of channel 
has principally occurred above the level of low water. 

The plans of the Commission for improving the low- water channel contemplate, 
first, increasing the force that will act on the bed of the river by confining the flood 
discharge between levees ; second, in wide reaches to contract the Jo w- water currents 
to narrower limits by means of dikes; third, by revetting caving banks to give per- 
manency of direction to these forces. 

Dikes have been constructed in Lake Providence Reach, as explained in preceding 
annual reports. Their immediate effect was beneficial, a marked increase in tiie 
depths of the low- water channel opposite them having been observed, but these 
depths have been jpradnally diminishing as the channel moved further from their 
sphere of action with the cavin^of the opposite banks. 

But the changes which have taken place in the location of the low-water channel 
through this reach, which are shown in a map appended, offer conclusive evidence 
that little permanent improvement in the low-water navigation may be expected 
from the influence of levees, dikes, or from dredging, until permanency in direction 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT 6f MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION, 3763 

\b given to the forces acting by the revetment of the bends. An increased depth 
may be obtained for one season , but the contlnnal caving of a bend above may be 
expected to so change the direction of the river currents that they wUl be acting on 
bars or banks outside of the improved channel and filling the channel up with the 
material they have scoured out. 

The bank revetment which was constructed in 1883 and 1884 in Lake Providence 
Reach was destroyed. The cause is believed to be the narrow width given to the 
mats, as well as an insufficient thickness. No revetment constructed since that date 
in the third district has been lost, with the exception of exposed ends which have 
been flanked by caving above or below them. There has been noted^ however, a 
general deepening of the river at the outer edge of the mat, which has occasioned 
n greater or less settlement. With the narrow mats at Lake Bolivar and Delta 
Point, it is deemed prudent to extend the revetment to the thalweg of the river, to 
prevent the continuance of this undermining action. 

At Greenville I do not consider the situation at all critical. The mats were given 
as great a width as could be conveniently constructed on our mat barges, in antici- 
pation of this very action. The maximum existing depths at the date of conscruc- 
tion would have been covered by a 250-foot mat. 

During the flood of 1890 there had been an abnormal caving of the bank, in some 
places exceeding 900 feet, accompanied by an abnormal fill in the river channel, thai* 
weg depths of about 40 feet at low water bein^ found, while low- water depths in 
bends in the third district of 80 feet are not infrequent. When the forces in the 
river are prevented &om caving away the banks a condition exists similar to that 
in a bend where erosion is slow, and the river may be expected to try to assume a 
similar form of cross section, and thalweg depths exceeding 80 feet should result. 
The mats have in general adjusted themselves to their new beds in a satisfactorv 
manner, and the fact that on some sections a settlement is observed the entire width 
of the mat does not, in my Judgment, afford sufficient reason for the abandonment 
of the existing form of revetment. 

The fact that the revetment of Delta Point has stood for ten years, though oon« 
taining but one-half the material per square foot that has been put in the revetment 
of 1892, and with mats only one-half as wide, would indicate that in certain locali- 
ties the existing form of revetment is sufficiently strong to hold the bank. 

If the fine sand found in some portions of the Greenville lYont, or the mud found 
at Louisiana Bend passes through the revetment, such sections should receive local 
treatment. To construct a revetment sufficiently thick to prevent such action 
would at localities where the soil is firmer be an unnecessary expense. These sections 
are of a limited extent even on a given front, and can be covered by an additional mat 
should the settlement ever become so great as to necessitate such action. While a 
still greater deepening of the river is to be expected at Granville, it is not yet evident 
that the revetment can not again adjust itself to the required change. 

A financial statement accompanies this report. 
Very respectfully^ your obedient servant^ 

C. MCD. TOWNSEND, 

Captain of £ngineer$. 
Gen. C. B. Comstogk, 

Colonel of Engineers, U. 8, A., 

Freiident MisMiippi Bivor Commistion, 



Financial 9tatemeni» 

ULKE PROVIDKNCE REACH. 

Balance May 81, 1892 ^558.53 

Allotted during current fiscal year 176,000.00 

$210, 558. 52 

Expended to May 31, 1893 185,833.49 

Balance May 31, 1893 24,725.03 

In treasury 15,000.00 

Inhand 9,725.03 

heas amount covered by existing contracte and liabilitiea 24, 725. 08 



3764 REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS, U. 8. ABMY. 

Expenditures apportioned: 

Labor on constmotion $38,222.27 

Material for construction 88,594.14 

Subsistence 12,584.94 

Cost of plant, repairs, and outfit 18^265.87 

Care of public property 1, 84L 49 

Towage and steamer expenses 23,278.01 

Administration and office expenses * ^ 2,067.74 

Medicine and medical atteudauoe 907.38 

Miscellaneous 71.65 

Total 185^833.49 

Amount that can be profitably expended during fiscal year ending June 

30,1895 500,000.00 

Financial statement, 

YICKSBUBO, MISS., AND DELTA POINT, LA.. 

Balance May 31, 1892 $44^916.h 

Expenditures May 31, 1893 38,876,69 

Balance May 31, 1893 6,039,62 



In Treasury 5,000.00 

In hand 1,039.62 

Available balance May 31, 1893 6,039.62 

Expenditures apportioned : 
Yioksburg, Miss.: 

Cost of plant, outfit, andrepairs 2,161.99 

Subsistence 1,050.90 

Care of public property 824.17 

Administration ana office expenses, and inspection 1, 045. 77 

Dredging 24^705.44 

Mileage, traveling expenses, and m iscellaneo us 84.84 

Delta Point, La. : 

Laboron construction 2,274.68 

Material for construction 4, 395. 93 

Subsistance 421.36 

Cost of plant, repairs, and outfit 279.57 

Care of public property 231.33 

Towage and steamer expenses 1,268.71 

Administration and office expenses 72. 00 

Miscellaneous 60.00 

Total 38,876.69 

Financial statement, 

GBEENVILLE, MISS. 

Balance May 31, 1892 $49,711.27 

Expended to May 31, 1893 49,711.27 

Expenditures apportioned : 

Labor on construction 6,383.39 

Material for construction 32, 983. 90 

Subsistence 3,124.69 

Cost of plant, repairs, and outfit 3,042.87 

Care of property 349.00 

Towage and steamer expenses 1,400.39 

Administration and office expenses L 132.87 

Medicine and medical attendance 286.72 

Miscellaneous • 1,007.44 

Total 49,711.27 



APPENDIX Y y — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3765 

Financial 8tate7nent 

LAKE BOLIVAR FRONT. 

[Balance May 31,1892 $6,000.00 

Expended to May31, 1893 3,377.20 

Balance May 31, 1893 2,622.80 

.Inhand : $2,622.80 

Available balance May 31, 1893 2,622.80 

t Expenses apportioned : 

Labor on construction 822.09 

Material for constraction 876. 57 

Subsistence ; 307.48 

Cost ofplant^ repairs, and outfit 243.69 

Care of public property ^ 34. 50 

Towage and steamer expenses 787.92 

Administration and office expenses 9.60 

Miscellaneous , 195.35 

Total : 3,377.20 

Financial statement, 

▲8HBR00K NRCK. 



/ 



Balance May 31, 1892 $111,196.84 

Expended to May 31, 1893 $85,182.26 

Transferred to plant third district 25,000.00 

110,1^.26 

Balance May 31,1893 i 1,014.68 

In hand 1,014.58 

Less amount covered by liabilities •• 1,014.58 

Expenditures apportioned: 

Labor on construction 20,263.35 

Material for construction 34,595.06 

Subsistence 7,944.36 

Cost of plant, repairs, and outfit 10,161.49 

Care of public property 1,527.51 

Towage and steamer expenses 6,979.08 

Administration and office expenses 1,704.58 

Medicine and medical attendance 688.79 

Miscellaneous 1,318.04 

Total 85,182.26 



Financial itatemenU 

PLANT THIRD DISTRICT. 

Balance May 31, 1892 $15,464.80 

Allotted during current fiscal year 50, 000. 00 

March 18, by transfer from Ashbrook Neck... 25,000.00 

Total 90,464.80 

Expended to May 31, 1893 84,788.09 

- ' Balance May 31, 1893 5,681.71 

Inhand , 6,681.71 

liabilities 5,681.71 



3766 EEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEERS, U. 8. ABMT. 

Expenditures apportioned: 

Labor on repairs • $37,724,01 

Material for repaire 19,384.91 

Care of plant, labor 4:, 613. 77 

Sabsistence 14,894.72 

Cost of plant, outfit, and supplies ' 6,683.63 

Administration and office expenses 281.36 

Miscellaneous 1,200.69 

Total 84,783.09 

Amonnt that can be profitably expended during the fiscal year ending 

June 30, 1895 113,000.00 

Fhumdal itaUmeni, 

BURTBYS, GAUGES; AKD OBSKRYATTONS. 

Balance May 31, 1893 $525.38 

Allotted during current fiscal year 10^000.00 

10,525.38 

Expended to May 31, 1893 10,226.96 

Balance May 31, 1893 298.42 

In Treasury 1,000.00 

Due other allotments 701.58 

Balance 298.43 

Ii«8 liabilities 298.42 

Expenditures apportioned: 

Pay, gauge observers 120.00 

Surveys 6,372.55 

Steamer expenses 2,949.99 

Outfit, material, and stationery 433.00 

Miscellaneous 851.42 

Total 10,226.96 

Amount that can be profitably expended during fiscal year ending June 

90,1895 12,000.00 

* 

Finandal staUmeni, 

LOWER YAZOO LKYSS DISTRICT. 

Balance May 31, 1892 $3^089.^ 

June 7, 1892, by transfer from general service 4,000.0^ 

Allotted during fiscal year 200, 000. O** 

nfVT QOQ CQ 

Expended to May 81, 1893 182^170! 68 

Balance May 31, 1893 24,918.98 

In Treasury 24,000.00 

In hand 918.98 

24,918.98 

Less Uabilities 9,918.98 

Available balance May 31, 1893 15,000. 00 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3767 

Expenditures apportioned: 

I^evee conBtmction and repairs $167,537.59 

Engineering and office expenses 9,319.68 

High-water protection • 5,313.41 

Total 182,170.68 

Amount that can be profitably expended daring fiscal year ending Jane 

30, 1895 200,000.00 

Financial statement. 

UPPER TENSAS LEVEE DISTRICT. 

Balance May 31, 1892 $22,719.40 

Jnne 7, 1892, by transfer from general service 5,000.00 

Allotted daring current fiscal year 310,000.00 

Overpayment on vonchers 5.17 

337, 724. 57 

Expended to May 31, 1893 % 310,245.25 

Balance May 31, 1893 27,479.32 

In Treasury 43,000.00 

Due other allotments 15,520.68 

27, 479. 32 

Less amount covered by existing contracts and liabilities 12, 479. 32 

Available balance May 31, 1893 15,000.00 

Expenditures apportioned: 

Levee construction andrepairs 264,495.90 

Engineering and office expenses 11, 361 . 98 

High-water protection 34,387.37 

Total 310,245.25 

• I 

Amount that can be profitably expended daring fiscal year ending June 

80,1895 500,000.00 

Financial statement, 

MIDDLE TENSAS LEVEE DISTRICT. 

Balance May 81, 1892 $5,977.16 

Allotted during current fiscal year 110, 000. 00 

_^ 115, 977. 15 

Expended to May 31, 1893 98,635.96 

Balance May 31, 1893 17,341.19 

In Treasury 7,000.00 

In hand 10,341.19 

17, 341. 19 

Lees liabilities 7,341.19 

Available balance May 31, 1893 10,000.00 

Expenditures apportioned: 

Levee construction and repairs 85,757.11 

Engineering and office expenses 4,563.26 

High-water protection 8,315.59 

Total 98,635.96 

Amount that can be profitably expended during fiscal year ending June 

80,1895 250,000.00 



3768 EEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINE: 
Unanalal $tattnutit. 



tMPROVINO HARBOR AT VICK8BUB 



Act Jul; IS, 1893 (spwial appropristion) . . 
Expended to May 31, 1893 

Balance Hay 31, 1893 

InTreaanry 

Due other allotments 



ZieM amoont covered by enstisg contracts and liabiliti 

Av^able balance Hay 31, ISSS 

Expenditarea apportioned: 

Coat of plant repairs and outfit 

Care of pnblio property 

Administration and offloe expenses 

Dredging 

HUeage, traTeling expenses, and miseellaneaaB... 

Total 



Fiitandal tUtUnumi, 
nCPBOVINO HABBOK AT GBUtMTIIJ 

Act July 13, 1893 (special appropriation) .... 

Expended to Hay 31, 1893 



&iTceiwiiry 

In band t 

Available balance Hay 31, 1893 

Expendltares apportioned: 

Labor on construction 

Uaterial for construction 

Subsistence. 

Cost of plant, repairs, and ontGt 

Care of public property 

Towage and steanier expenses 

Administration aud office expenses 

Uedlcine and medical attendance ..,,, 

Hiscellaneons 

Total 

Amount tbat can be profitably expended during fiscal yi 
30, 18» 

Financial ttaltottnl. 

SBT DOCK, TBIKD DTBTBICTI 



Balance May 31, 1S93.. 
Expended to Hay 31, J 



I 



^ 










/Vo./ 




UVER GOMxMISSION 



D DISTRICT 



END, CobpsofEng*rs.,U.S.A 

CHARGE 



AP 

^^IMPROVEMENT 

" OF 

OOK NECK 



SCALE 






fJL A'^^^^r €/CfAf^ 




Eig«S 



r« 



i«H«i 



w^^m 



tm^^^^^^m 



1 



APPENDIX YY — ^EEPOBT OP MISSISSIPPI BIVEE COMMlSStON. 3769 



Appendix 5 A. 

:port or assistant bkoinrbr artiiur hideb on work at orbbnvilub, ash- 

BBOOK.NBCK^ AN1> LOUISIANA BBND. 

GrbbnvillB; Miss., March 10, 189S. 

Sir: I submit below final reports of Greenyille. Harbor, Ashbrook Neck, and Lon- 
lana Bend improvements^ prepared by the superintendents of the respective works. 
A3 these reports give a complete statement of the cost in detail, and a fulldesorip- 
>u of the work, they are forwarded as the final reports of these improvements. 
A comparison is given below of the labor cost per unit, the quantities oi material 
ed, and the average cost per linear foot of the revetment works at Ashbrook Neck^ 
reeuville Harbor, and Louisiana Bend last season. 

• 
Comparative statement, 

COST PER UNiT POB LABOB. ' ' 



Kind of work. 



at vroric, p«r square 

-adiDf( ana dres«in|: iMnk, per linear foot 
1^1 ng slope and revetment^ per aqnwe... 

me (pile-driTer) 

iB<^ (wheelbarrows) 

ladlBji^ stone, per onbic yard 



Ashbrook 


Greenville 


Lonislana 


Neck. 


Harbor. 


Bend. 


I1.8S6 


IL619 


11.452 


2.387 


1.845 


1.008 


L003 


1.855 


1.678 


1.423 


1.670 


1.344 


L208 


.760 


.788 


.841 


.637 


•874 



QUANTITY OF MATEHIAIi X7SSD. 



-nsh^ per square of mat cords.. 

>le», per nqiiareof mat do... 

one, per linear foot oabio yards.. 

ire, per linear foot pounds.. 

ire strand, per linear foot do.... 

>ike8, per linear foot do.... 

aples, per linear foot do.... 

>st, per linear foot 




.17 

6.26 

20.14 

10.00 

.84 

■ .05 

$27. 8» 



This gives the average cost of the three works per linear foot as $28. To this 
lould be added cost of repairing daring the season, interest, deterioration of plant, 
iperintendence, surveys, and other expenses, as per following estimate: 

apairsof plant for 12 months $50|000.00 

ftl 110 of plant Jnne 1, 1892 $169,391.00 

arty G. S. barges, at $1,000 40,000.00 

earner Vedette 6,000.00 

215, 891. 00 

Ten per cent of this total 21,539.10 

>r office expenses, surveys, etc 12,000.00 

Total 83,539.10 

he linear feet of work finished was : 

Ashbrook Neck 2,610 

Greenville Harbor 4,450 

Louisiana Bend 5,835 

Total 12,895 

$3,539 -r 12,895 = $6.48 to be added, making total cost, say, $34.50 per linear foot. 
Very respectfully, 

Arthur Hipsr, 
Miietant Engineer in Charge. 
Capt. C. McD. TowNSEND, 

Oorpe qf Sngineers, U, S, Am 



3770 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMY. 

RBPOBT OF MB. CHABLES H. MILLRR, SUPKRINTRNDKNT OF CONSTRUCTION; ASHEl 

WBCK. 

DRLTAy La., Jannary SO, IS 

Sib: The following gives in detail the cost and amoant of labor and material 
in the work at Ashbrook Neck. Work was commenced on September 15, 18KJ 
2,610 linear feet of work was completed by January 7, 1893, and party di£V>:; 
with exception of towboat crew and clerical force, the crew of the boat bein^' • 
to tow in ** plant'' and waiting for pay until the 11 th of January, the clerical i 
and assistant in chai^ being transferred to Delta Point work on January 14. 

The following facts are to be considered in comparing the work Just finisheil - 
that of the previous season at the same place: 

First. The excessive cost per foot of tne hand grading was due to an extrrt 
narily bad bank — one filleo with large cypress stumps. An ordinarily batl t 
would not cost over half as much. The excess was 75 cents per linear foot. 

Second, ^he number of B<}uare8 of bank slope paved this season for 2,610 i - 
feet of work was 75 squares m excess of the number laid last season for 4,460 i- 
this work. This was due to the fact that the work this season was all done at 
water, giving a very wide slope to be paved (104 feet), about the same anioTi: 
stone being used both seasons (3.2 cubic yards per square). We have 1.48 ;. 
excess per linear foot this season, giving^ at $2.07 per yard, $3.06 per foot. 

Third. Delay at the end of the season because of no stone. 

From November 15 to December 12, 1892 (on which latter date the stonr - 
about exhausted), we received an averse of one barge per day, counting Snr j 
and two rainy days. After December 12 there was needed to complete the wor'^ 
barges of stone, and if received at rate of one per day (throwing out the 16tL 
19th, rainy days) wo could have tLnished by December 24. Work was finished :. 
taen days later. 

Steamer Vedettt ' 

Superintendence, cobks, etc 

Board, 40 men 

Total 

Fourteen days, at $100 =$1,400 for 2,610 feet of work, gives an average exce- 
oost of 53 cents per foot. 

Fourth. The charges for towage were 'above the actual necessitieB of the ir 
These deductions would bring the oost of the work per foot to $25, a fi^re ^ : 
which, under ordinary circumstances, the work could be done. A tracing of > 
brook Neck map, showing entire work done each season, bar line for 1891 and h 
and position of breakwaters has been prepared, blue prints from which accoii]] . 
this report. 

very respectfully, 

Chas. H. Miixsr, 
SuperimtendeiU Conslnu^k^ 
Mr. Arthur Hider, 

U. S. A89i8taMt EnginMT. 



PPEKDIX Y Y REPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI EIVEE COMMISSION. 3771 



Statement of cost of work done, 1891^-93* 



Kind of work. 



Cost 

per 
unit. 



1.17 
1.503 



7.47« 
14.62 
56.909 

7.841 



t work (A, 688 sqaarm) $3. 90 

draulic grading (2,600 linear 

!^t) 

nd grading (2,600 linear feet) . 

Teum hire 

vetment (1,(M9 sqaaree) 

:>re connections (116 squares). 

taring (10.2 acres) 

vine slope 

Driver, 600 aqnares 

Hand, 2.810 squares 

wing 

ndriea, office and trareling ex- 

M^nsea 

i<*.half Talne of property par- 

'liaaed 

•tal oost of frork done, 2,610 
inear feet, at $29,076 per foot. . 

lilding breakfraturs 

)pairs to old frork 



Total arpended 

•no loaded <14,965. 7 onbio yards; 



Labor 

cost per 

nnit 



$1,356 

.842 
1.445 



2.346 
7.354 
64.00 
1.233 
1.423 
1.208 



.8414 



Material 

cost per 

unit. 



$2.68 

.325 
.058 



6.131 
7.265 



6.605 



Material 
expended. 



$17,620.62 

81l!45 
145.75 



6,586.87 
835.46 



$6,956.69 

1, 857. 17 

2,121.35 

848.00 

1,960.45 

640.10 

422.61 



29.25 

18,630.58 

2,586.19 



1,088.69 



47,284.76 



Time list 

expended 

(total). 



$2,110.06 
248.74 



547.66 
2,141.39 
3,884.96 



173.24 
449.78 



22,011.16 
6,581.76 



Subsist- 
ence 
expended 
(total). 



$26,687.17 
2,917.86 



643.43 
&94.62«t 
196.69 
128.18 



184.81 
649.61 
894.74 



62.24 
186.41 



6,788.83 
70.86 



Total cost 
of work. 



3,758.63 

8, 141. 94 

1,681.15 

650.79 



22,033.10 
7,866.89 

1.026.55 

1,723.10 

75, 885. 68 

224.48 
1,674.83 



77,784.89 
6.602.10 



Percentage of coet. 



[aterial. supplies, property, etc 

abflistenoe 

owing 

'ffice and txayeling expenses .. 

uperintendeaoe 

abor 

Total..... 




Amount. 



$45,282,98 

4,705.94 
7, 365. 89 
1,026.56 
2,338.87 
16,165.36 



76,886.68 



WORK DONB. 



;610 IineaT feet of mat built and bank slope paved, at $29,075 per linear 
foot, total cost of same $75,885.58 

Subdivided as follows: 

Cat work: 

6,688 sqiiaws mat built, at $3.99 .* 26,687.17 

34,371 hours' labor, at 20.24 cents $6,956.59 

34,371 hoois' subsistence, at 6.139 cents 2, 110. 06 

9,066.65 

4,164 cords brush 3,670.17 

911.3 cords poles 1,312.27 

4,636 oubi<^ yards stone 9,606.51 

26,750 pounds wire cable 1,306.27 

56,135 pounds wire 1,573.47 

5,200 pounds spikes 122.18 

325 pounds staples 30.65 

17, 620. 52 



NoTi.~The cost of labor and subsistence per hour was found by dividing net tima 
iat ($15,647.20)— towage and loading stone baring been deducted— and subsistence 
$4,714.53) by total boors of labor applied to work (76,798), giving $20.24 in labor and 
16.139 as sobstetsBM mrmngfb. 



3772 EEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIKEEBS, U. 8. ARMY. 

lC*t work— CoDtinned. 

Labor^ cost per sqaare $1,356 

Material, cofit per sqnare 2. 63 

Hoar'ii labor, per square 5.14 

Layingand ballasting revetment: 

1,069 squares revetment built and laid, at $7.476 $8,1^ 

9,686 hours' labor, at 20.24 cents $1,960.45 

9,686 hours' subsistence, at6.139cents 594.63 

2, 655. 07 

899tjords brush 800.11 

130 cords poles 187.20 

2,645 pounds wire 75.02 

350 pouuds spikes 8.02 

2,178 cubic yards stone, at $2.0737 4,516.42 

5,586.87 

Labor^ cost per square 2.316 

Material, cost per square 5.131 

Hour's labor per square 8.96 

Building and ballasting shore connections: 

115 squares, at $14.62 l,ei 

8,207 hours' labor, at 20.24 cents $649.10 

8,207 hoars' subsistence, at 6.139 cents 196.59 

845.69 

222 cords brush ; 197.68 

30 cords poles 43.20 

267 cubic yards stone, at $2.0737.... 553.68 

280 pounds cable (wire) 13.47 

250 pounds spikes 5.72 

1,120 paunds wire. No. 12 21.81 

835.46 

Labor^ cost per sqnare 7.^ 

Material, cost per square 7.266 

Hour's labor, per square 28 

Clearing bank : 

10.2 acres, at $54 s: 

2,088 hours, at 20.24 cents $422.61 

2,088 hours^ subsistence, at 6.139 cents 128. 18 

Paving slope: 

2,610 squares bank slope paved, at $7.841 22,C. 

2,196 hours' labor (driver) $547.56 

2,196 hours' subsistence (driver) 134.87 

10,580 hours' labor (hand) 2,141.39 

10,680 hours' subeisteiioe (hand) 649.61 

3, 473. 27 

860 bushels coal, at $0.0975 29.26 

8,936 cubic yards stone, at $2.0737 18,530.68 

18,55^.83 

Labor cost, 500 squares, each (driver) $1,423 

Labor cost, 2,310 squares, each (hand) 1.208 

Material, cost, 2,810 squares 6.605 

Hours' labor, per sqnare (driver) 4.392 

Hours' labor, per square (hand) 8.03 

Hydraulic grading : 

2, 500 Unear feet bank graded, at $1.117 ^'' 

Labor, as per time list $1,857.17 

Subsistence 248.74 

4,525 bushels coal 601.81 



PPENI>IX YT — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI BIVEB COMMISSION. 3773 

draulic jading — Continned. 

247.5 gallons oils, etc $161.16 

30 poundB waste 3. 00 

10 pounds graphite 2.00 

51 pounds cotton rope 6. 12 

25 yards duck :. 2.76 

225 feet wire and insulators * 12.21 

56 poundA packing 22.40 

811. 46 

Labor, cost per linear foot .842 

Material, cost per linear foot .825 

Graders employed 43 working days. 
Sin^le-orew graders employed 15 working days. 
Double-erew graders employed 28 working days. 
Average cost per day, single crew, 8 hoars, $44. 
Average cost per day, doable crew, 16 boors, $82. 76. 

ressing grade (by hand): 

2,^ linear feet of grade dressed, at $1.503 $3,758.63 

10,481 boars' labor, at 20.24 cents $2,121.35 

10,481 boars' sabsistence, at 6. 131 cents 643. 43 

212 days' team.hire, at $4 848; 00 

8, 612. 78 

175 detonation, caps 1.75 

600 poands dynamite 102.00 

100 poands powder - 10.00 

400 feet fuse 32.00 

145. 75 

Labor, cost per linear foot 1.445 

Material, i$ost per linear foot.... ^ .058 

Hour's labor, per linear foot 4.19 

rowing : 

Total expenses of steamers Oeceola and Vedette 7,365.89 

Steamer Osceola: 

Time list $1,543.49 

Subsistence 353.28 

9,427 bushels coal $1,395.34 

50 carbons 1.25 

1 cad matches .45 

2 pounds drop black .40 

4 globe Yalyes 1.00 

5 pounds plambago 1.00 

14 pounds asbestos 7.70 

10 poands candles 1.10 

1,408.24 

Total cost of OtfctfoZa 3,305.01 

Steamer Vedette: 

Time list 2,341.47 

Subsistence 541.46 

2, 882. 98 

11,472 bushels coal $1,069.78 

(Included in same item) .09 

159 gallons oils, etc 72.11 

3 dozen wicks 1.66 

10 pounds waste 1.00 

34 lamps and lantern globes 8. 45 

i41 yards crash 19.74 

41 pounds cotton rope 5.13 

1,177.95 

T9tal co%t of Vedette 4,060.88 



3774 BEPOET OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS) U. 8. ARMT. 

Steamer Osceola (doable crew) in Qommission 42 days, average (numioif 

steadily, heavy towing from Cairo) .. r 

Steamer Vedette (single) 69 days, average (harbor work) 

Steamer Vedette (doiii)le orew) 33 days, average (harbor and shore work). ;* 

Sundries expended and traveling expenses 1,*. 

One-half valne of property pnrchased 1,7. 

Total expended on main work .. 75. Tn 

Building breakwaters : 

851 hoars' labor, at 20.24 cents $172.24 

851 hoars' snbsistence, at 6.139 cents 52.24 



Repairs to old work : 

2,222 hours' labor, at 20.24 cents 449.73 

2,222 hoars' subsistence 136.41 

525 cnbic yards stone 1,888.69 






1.6-, 



Total amount expended • ••••••• 77,t)^^ 



REPORT OF MB. LUTHER T. KERR, SUPRRDniCKDEinr OF COKSTRtJCTIOK, GREENY: 

HARBOR. 

Greenville, Miss., Mardk f, IS' 

Sir: The following report of Greenville Harbor improvement, givine the air:> 
and description of work done, the quantity and cost of material, lahor. ei<\ 
respectfully submitted: 

Description. — The plan of the work, as proposed at the beginning of the sc*^ 
was to put in 4,500 linear feet of revetment immediately above last season's ^ 
the bank to be graded down to a slope of 1 on 4. 

A continuous line of willow mattresses made and sunk with shore connect^: 
brush revetment securely fastened to the inside edge of the mat and extending rT< 
slope to an elevation of 3 feet above the water on a falling river and 5 feet on a n> 
river. The shore n^at and graded bank to be covered from the water^s edge ro 
two-thirds stage, or about So feet on the Greenville gauge, with a atone paving- 
inches thick. The plan was slightly modified daring the progress of the work. 
will hereinafter appear. 

Work began October 4, 1892, and closed February 11, 1893, with 4,450 linear i- 
of work completed during the season. 

Hydraulio grading was begun October 5, 1892, and discontinued Deoembfr i 
with 4,450 linear feet graded. Grader No. 1 arrived from Louisiana Bend and h: 
work on October 6, using one 4-inch hose with a If-inch nozzle; pump pressnrf. . 
pounds ; st^am, 80 pounds. A double crew was employed, working sixteen h- 
per day, during the entire service of fifty-eight days (Sundays excepted), in w' 
time 3,240 linear feet were c^raded, an average of 55^ feet per day. Grader 'Sf 
arrived from Ashbrook Neck on November 6, and began work on the 7th, X3AiT\^''' 
4-inch hose with a If-inch nozzle; pump pressure, 140 pounds, and st&un, 80 por.' 
per square inch. A double crew was also employed on No. 3, working sixteen b*^ ' 
per day for twenty-nine days (Sundays excepted), grading 1,210 linear feet, an «f^ 
age of 42 feet per day. 

The bank before grading was about 39 feet high, composed of clean sand i' 
gumbo lying in strata varying in thickness and relative positions. This ('}"' 
considerable gullying and caving, especially when the gumbo was found at thet 
with a stratum of sand beneath. The consequence of this was that when ' 
grader had passed over the work it was left in -a very rough and unfinished coi' 
tion, badly cut up with gullies and by caving, which had to be dressed by mean' 
shovels and drag scrapers. The cost of grading by ^e hydraulio gn^ders was $1 
per linear foot ; the dressing, 65 cents per linear foot; total cost of finished ^it/' 
$2.20 per linear foot. 

Mathtiilding, — The construction of mats, on the same plan as followed ftt^> 
place daring the season 1891-92, was begun October 26 and completed Febnifln^ 
1893. Eight mats, nil 300 feet wide and varying in length from 166 to 1,120 1- 
were made and sunk. One pocket mat, 160 by 110 feet, was made and sank at : 
head of the old work, where a part of mat No. 1 (1891-'92) had been broken in ow 



APPENDIX Y T — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3775 

:> make a good connection. The dimensions of the mats and the order of bnilding 
re as follows: 

Linear A»et. 

fat No. 1 970 by 300 

fat No. 2 1,120 by 300 

Eat No. 3 310 by 30:) 

IatNo.4 640 by 300 

IatNo.5 340 by 300 

'ocketmat 160 by 110 

lat No.6..v^ 415 by 300 

latNo.7 343 by 300 

latNo.8 , 165 by 300 

Total 4^463 

Mat No. 1 was bezan about 3,300 feet above the head of the old work, and it was 
utended to cover this distance with three mats. Mats Nob. 1 and 2 were bnilt and 
;uuk between October 19 and December 3, 1892. Of this time seventeen working 
lays were lost to mat-bniiding for want of brush and poles. This expensive delay 
w^as caused partly by the inadequate towing facilities, out principally by the failure 
»f the contractor to furnish the material as rapidly as neecled. , 

Mat No. 3 which, to close the gap between new and old work would have been 
something over 1,200 feet long, was begun December 5, 1892, and by the 18th of that 
nonth hM been built 1,127 feet. The river was rising rapidly and it became appar- 
ent that further delay in order to complete the mat would be dangerous, and prepara- 
tions to sink it were begun at once, but delayed by the heavy rains until December 
21, when the sinking was attempted. About 300 feet was submersed, the head 
lowered to the bottom and released from tlie mooring barges, when tney, owing to 
sho rapid current (over 4 miles an hour), and the immense amount of neavy drift 
brougnt down by the sudden rise in the Arkansas River, which had accumulated 
ander and above the barges, parted the headlines one after the other and swung 
around, releasing the entire mass of drift. This drift, floating down, became 
Biitnngled with the inclined portion of the mat, which was at an angle of about 45 
dcgrrees, parting it 310 feet below the head. Eight hnndred and ten feet of mat was 
carried down the river and grounded on the bar just above Warfteld's Towhead, 
from whence it was subsequently towed to Louisiana Bend and snccesfully sunk just 
above the mouth of Old River. 

Mat No. 6 had to be sunk, on account of running ice, before it was completed the 
fnll length, leaving a small space between it and No. 1, which necessitated the build- 
ing of mat No. 8. 

The amount of brush used per square of mat built was 0.71 cords; of poles, 0.13 
cords; total brush and poles 0.84 cords. Stone used in ballasting and sinking, 0.63 
cubic yards. Total cost per square of completed mat was $3,876. 

Shore work. — ^A shore connection was begun according to instructions and carried 
along with the mattress construction. Seven hnndred and fifty linear feet of this 
work was built in front of mat No. 1, when, on the inspection of the Commission it 
was discontinued, and afterwards restricted to the water's edge. 

Brush used per square of this work, 0.63 cords ; poles, 0.11 ; total brush and poles, 
0.74 cords. 

The slope from low water to the 30-foot stage was covered with a stone paving 10 
inches thick, carefully and closely laid by hand. The greater part of the stone was 
deposited on the slope by wheelbarrows, wheeling it up only far enough each time 
to make the work rapid and economical, keeping the slope well paved to a safe dis- 
tance above the water. A steam pile-driver with traveler was used for a time to 
distribute stone on the upper slope. The oomparative cost of the driver and bar- 
rows, while the driver was in service, was, driver, $1.57 per square ; barrows, $0.57 
per square. At the time when the comparison was made the circumstances were 
more favorable for the barrows than at any other time during the season's work, 
and the cost was below the average for that work, which was $0.76 per square. 
With the driver considerable time was lost in damp or rainy weather for want of 
friction between the drum and hoisting falls. If pile-drivers are to be used for this 
purpose in the future I would respectfully suggest that they be provided with 
larger drums, constructed of wood, and both drums and falls protected from the 
weather. 

The stone used per square was 3.03 cubic yards ; total cost of labor and material, 
complete, $7.69 per square. 

gome damage was done the slope by the heavy rains during the latter part of the 
season, which was repaired by removing the stone from the washes, regrading the 
slope, and repaving with spawls to a depth of from 10 to 14 inches. The amount of 
brush, poles, and stone used per linear foot of completed work was — brush, 2.55 cords ; 
poles, 0,^ cords; stone, 5.74 cubic yards. Total cost per linear foot of completed 



3776 REPORT OF the' chief of engineers, U. 8. ARMY. 

work, $27.06, iiiclnding th« ooet of the lost mat. Dednctinff the cost of that par 
mat lost (810 feet), the cost per linear foot wonld be $25.19. 

Material, — Brush and poles were famished by contract on barges, deliTer^d 
contractor's camp and towed by the United States serrice, the average di< 
towinff being about 160 miles. Stone was obtained by contract, deUrered at 
rille, Miss., on barges, to the amount of 27,627 cubic yards; 18,092 cnbic yarn 
loaded on barges by rtontract from the surplus stone 'at Greenville; 1,959 culr- 
were reloaded from the surplus unloaded on the slope at the dose of last & 
work. This reloading was done at odd times to keep the force employed. A 
deal of -it had to be dug, out, having been covered by a deposit during jthe hei 
water. The expense of loading was 53 cents per cubic yard. 

8ounding$. — A series of soundings was made along the entire work on rar.j 
feet apart before and after grading the bank and after sinking the mat. So:, i 
were taken along the old work also, and compared with the sections of loat h 
The result of the observations are shown by the plotted comparatiTO section;: 

Repairs to old work. — Considerable repairs were made to the old work dur . 
season. Deep gullies had been cut in the slope during heavy rains by the ^ \ 
water flowing down the slope, undermining the riprap. To repair tbe.«t 
the stone was removed from the washes and stripped back from tne sides, tl 
sloped o£^ and the whole repaved with small stone to a depth of from 1<. 
inches. 

The cost of repairs made was $3,470.39. The larger part of this amotiTi* 
expended in September in putting the old work in good shape at that tin 
ower repairs had to be made to some extent later in the season. To sr<> 
trouble with the surface water on the new work, the principal natural dr&ii* 
opened out down the slope, and carefully paved to a depth of from 10 to 14 
with small stone. The items and percentages of cost of the work done thi^ ^' 
areas follows: « 



Mateiials and supplies 

Labor 

Towsi^e 

Subsistence 

SnperinteDdenoe 

Offloe snd traveling expenses 

Total 



Cost Ft: 



|71,88S.]7 

82,212.57 

9,815.19 

5,884.31 

SS3.44 



128,M6.6S 



Very respectfully^ 

Luther Y. Kerr 
BujperinieHdetU Conttrui- 
Kr. Arthur Htdbr, 

U. 8. Assistant Engineer* 

Statement of cost of work done, 

26,484eQbio yards stone |50.'l 

11.366.9 cords brush 9,4 

2,008.3 cords poles 2./ 

93,362 pounds wire 2. - 

66,432 ponnds wire strand 2... 

800 pounds staples and clevises 

Lnmber :.. !• 

47,704 bnshels coal 4,T 

5,600 pounds spikes 1 

Oils :*^ 



Labor payroll $40,147.23 

Subsistence 6,780.33 



?2.r 



46, '?-' 



Miscellaneous material > 

One-half value property purcba»ed 2,1' 

Drugs 1;, 

Traveling expenses 
Telephone rent . . . 
Miscellaneous 



1 



>PENDIX YY ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3777 

'ork was begun October 5, 1892, and closed February 11, 1893, making — 

iberof days * 129 

t, Sundays and other days 27 

Namber of working days 102 

\ m I I 

Iranlio Grader No, 1 worked days. . 57 

Iraulic Grader No. 3 worked do. . . 28 

Total 85 



Laborers employed. 



Month. 



bAT, 1892 . . 
miber, 1892 
imber.1892 
iary,1893.. 
Tijiry, 1893 

Total.... 



General 

work, 

number 

of men. 




18,907 



Hj-dranlio 

grading, 

nniuber of 



men. 



434 
913 
333 



1,080 



18,967 -r- 102 = 186 men per day on general work. 
1,680 -£- 85 = 20 men per day on nydraulic graders. 

An average of 206 men per day. 

Labor statement. 



Month. 



^mber. 1892 
.ber.1892... 
tin ber, 1892 
rtnber, 1892. 
iary,1893 .. 
mary, 1893 . 

Total .... 



General 
work. 



Houra. 
4,180 
19, 103 
46,315 
52, 709 
50,269 
11,405 



183, 981 



Hydraulic 
grading. 


Towing. 


Hourt. 


H<mr». 


5.310 




10,928 
3,953 


5,096 
5,3C8 
4,904 
2,592 






20,191 


17,960 



Total. 



Soun. 
4.180 
24,413 
63, 339 
62.a'U) 
55. 173 
13,997 



222.132 



DUtribuiion of time. 



Kind of work. 



trCBs work 

ing bank and reretment. 

raulic grading 

isini 



slope 



> of fleet: 

iiiig atone 

airing old work 



Total, 



Hours 
applied. 



111,352 
43,882 
28,520 
14.034 
18,706 
5,195 
7.443 



222. 132 



ay rolls as per abstracts sent in, not including subsistence, $38,206.48 -r- 222,132 = 
I cents per hour. Pay rolls $38,206.48 and snbsistenoe $6,780.83 = $44,986.81. 
,986.81 -T- 222,132 = 20.2 cents per hour. 

ENG ©3 ^237 



3778 R1?P0BT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Labor per unit atatememt. 



Mattress work 

Paving bank and revetment. 

Hydraulic icrading 

Dreflfling slope 

Loading stone 



Honrs 
applied. 



120,480 

48.451 

26,520 

14,034 

5.105 



Squarea 
built. 



16,057 
5,292 



Linear 

feet 
worked. 



4.450 
41,450 



Cubic 

j'artls 

loaded. 



1,K9 



Kind of material. 



Bniab oords.. 

Poles.. .• '«. ...do.... 

Stone (on 13.076 sqnarea sunk).... 

Stone (on 2,430 squares lost) 

Wire pounds. . 

Wire strand do 

Spikes do. . . . 

Clevises do.... 



Mattress work, 15,606 


squares 


built. 


Qaantlty. 


Per 
square. 


11,019.8 


$0.71 


3,947.7 


.13 


8,201.7 


.63 


358.0 


.23 


90.827 


5.86 


66,432 


4.28 


5,600 


.36 


200 


.013 


600 


.088 



Shore conneoUon, 551 
sqnarea built. 



Quantity. 



347.1 
60.6 



2,535 



Per 
square. 



$0.«3 
.11 



4.60 



Bank p^v 
aquare« 



Quantity. 



16, 034. t 



KOTB.— All time, as per time sheets, included in above statements of distribation and c «: 

Material per linear foot of completed work. 



Material. 



Brush cords.. 

Polos do 

Stone cubic yards.. 

Wire pounds.. 

Wire strand , do.... 

Spikes do 

Staples i do 



Total 

quantity. 



11,366.9 

2,o«vH.;- 
25,565 
93.362 
66.432 

5,600 
200 



Labor per linear foot completed work. 

For entire ivork, inclnding hydranlic grading, towing, etc., 222,132 -t-4,45(<- 
honrs. 

Note. — See ''Labor per unit statement" for classified work. 

Suhaistence atatement. 

Total cost of stores consumed ^" 

Total cost of serving ! 

Total cost of subsistence served > 

Nnmber of rations issued , 

Number of days' labor secured • 1 

Daily cost per ration, raw 

Daily cost per ration, served 

Daily cost per ration for each day's labor secured 

Note. — ^Two thousand nine hundred and twenty-five days' labor seoor^ 
party not subsisted is not included in the above statement. 



.PPENDIX T Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3779 

Tabulated unit statement of cost. 



Elndof work. 



ttre«»work $1,519 $2,355 

ing bank and revetment 1.855 5.837 

id iug aud dreaaing slope 1.845 .353 

kdiiiK stone .537 

f rolls, etc., ftom Memphia office 

igB, transportation, office expenses, etc 

3-lialf value of property « 



Unit coat. 



Labor 
and sub- 
aistence. 



Material. 



Total. 



$3,876 

7.692 

2.198 

.537 



Coat of completed work 

it of repairs to old work : 

Materials 

Labor and subaistence . . . 



Total ooet of repairs, 
tire cost of work done . . 



Entire coat 
work done. 



$62,386.93 
40, 706. 06 
9. 781. 10 
1,051.98 
3,658.47 
968.88 
2,104.87 



120,528.29 



1,966.48 
1, 503. 91 



3,470.39 



123^998.68 



SO linear feet work completed $120,528.29 

dact cost of lost mat -. 8,428.40 



112, 099. 89 
^OTE.— Cost of towing, $9,815.19, distributed in above statement. 



4, 450 = $27. 08 per linear foot. 
4,450= 25. 19 per linear foot. 



JAst of mateiiaU on hand at close of work, 

ire, 3,360 pounds, at $2.49 $83.67 

ire strand, 15,520 pounds, at $3.49 541. 65 

ikes, 12,000 pounds, at $2.29 274.80 

al, 3,000 pounds, at 9| cents 292.50 

Total 1,192.62 

:P0RT of MR. GBORQR C. THOMAS^ SUPERINTENDENT OF CONSTRUCTION, LOUll^IANA 

BEND. 

Greenville, Miss, February 16, 1893. 

Sir: The plan of the work as ori^nally proposed was for a continuous lineof sub- 
[ueons mats 900 feet wide, commencing at the foot of last season's work and extend- 
^ downstream a distanee of 7,500 feet, with a shore connection of brush revetment 
tending up the bank to an elevation of 3 feet above the water on a falling stream 
kd to 5 leet above when the river was rising; this revetment and the slope above to 
two-third stage, or to an elevation of 24 feet on the Lake Providence gauge, to be 
vered with a stone paving 10 inches thick; bank to be graded to a slope of 1 on 4. 
ns plan was strictly adhered to in the construction of Mats Kos. 1, 2, and 8, but 
ider instructions slightly modified as to the remainder of the work, brush revet- 
ent being restricted to the water line. 

Work began September 3, 1892. and closed down on account of high water January 
, 1893, with 5,835 linear feet or work completed during the season. 
Clearing, — ^The bank along the proposed work was covered by a heavy growth of 
mber; this was cleared back a distance of 200 feet from shore; work was done 
r contract and same completed September 20, 1892. A total of 38 acres was cleared, 
i a cost of $46.95 per acre. 

A second contract was let on November 17 for the slashing of timber below this 
aeon's work, to prevent its caving in and forming an obstniction to future work in 
ay of snags. This timber was slashed and cufc into 20-foot lengths for a distance 
' 3,400 feetjwidth of clearing, 200 feet; amount cleared, 15.6 acres, at $50 per acre. 

Gradi'ng, — ^Hydraulic grading commenced on September 3, 1892, and was completed 
1 December 15, 1892, total amount graded bein^ 7,000 feet. Grader No. 1 began 
ork on September 3 with double crew and two lines of hose, one 2^ inches and one 
inches; nozzles, 1 inch and If inch, respectively; pump pressure, 160 pounds; steam, 
) poimds. Grader was continuously employed sixteen hours per day until October 

when, owing to the danger attending its further progress by reason of snags, it 
as transferred to Greenville Harbor, having been in service twenty-seven days, 



3780 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. B. ABMT. 

oatting during that time 4,205 linear feet of slope, with an average of 156 k 
day. 

Grader No. 77, with a single crew ahd one line of ^H-inoh hose with l-incb : 
hegan work on September 17, and was in service until the completion of th*- ^ 
December 15. A second line of 2iinch hose with five-eighth-uch nozzle w. 
on November 20, and was continued for the remainder of the work. Grader 
was in service sixty-nine working days, one-fifth of which time was lost on U' 
of necessary repairs to machinery. It graded during the season 2,795 feet o* - 
with an average of iO feet per day of eight hours. Pressure used was stea . 
pounds; water, 150 pounds. 

The bank (with the exception of 600 feet at the head of the work, which vi- 
sand) was composed of '' gumbo," which cut rapidly and washed withoa: 
of gullying, and but for its constant sloughing, which was mainly dae to tbf > 
of water through the bank from a pond or basin behind the work, bat hm* 
work would have been required to complete the slope. A large ditch for thr 
age of this pond was opened on December 9, followed by a total disappear 
sipe water along the slope, and no further sloughiug occurred. I am oonvio« < 
had this ditch been opened at the beginning of the work the coat of slo}^ 
ing would have been materially lessen^, and for the future protection of ti:> 
I would respectfully recommend a permanent system of drainage to preiFe 
accumulation of water bohiud it, by digging ditches 4 feet wide on bott^iL. 
slope of 4 feet to 1, the average length of which would be 350 feet, depth 5 i^ 
wooden culvert of logs to be constructed in bed of ditch, with opening of I- 
feet, to prevent its being closed by deposit from overflow. 

Mat construction. — Mattress construction began September 13, 1892, and wa* 
pleted December 28, 1892; a total of six mate were built and sunk,varving ii: 
£h>m 830 feet to 1,187 feet; average lap, 20 feet; plan of construction the saiiv 
previous season. Everything was favorable for the rapid construction of thi- 
up to October 14, brush and poles being obtainedwithin 2 miles of the wort^. 
the su|>ply at all times equal to the demand, but for the remainder of the ^ 
material was obtained from Island No. 97, 40 miles below the work^ and forL 
sufficient towing facilities delays were numerous and costly. 

No trouble was experienced in siuking any of these mats, though, owio:: ' 
accumulation of drift against the mooring barges over Mat No. 6, it was •: 
advisable to put on an extra set of mooring lines and to strengthen the mat :< 
ting in a series of iive-oighth-inch wire cables, securely fastened to the m&t 
ana extending down the mat a distance of 100 feet, with a round turn over ea 
of poles forming the frame of the mat. This was doiH to prevent the t^aiir.:; 
of the mat in the event of the drift coming under the mooring barges. 

Below are given the numbers and dimensions of the mats construoted : 

Mat No. 1 , 1,0K 

Mat No. 2 l,Oi 

Mat No. 3 J«>n 

Mat No. 4 KV 

Mat No. 5 1,1**: 

Mat No. 6 biii- 



Total linear feet.. 5,892 

The amount of brush used per square was 0.73 of a cord; poles, 0.12: total 
and poles, 0.85 of a cord. Stone used per square in ballasting and sinking w.i' 
of a cubic yard. Cost complete, 5f3.739 per square. 

Brush revetment was constructed as per instructions over Mats Nos. 1, 2. and 
elevation of 5 feet above the stage of wat«r at which the mats wore built, 
revetment consisted of a double line of brush laid crosswise between a top a- 
tom fi-ame of poles securely wiied together every 8 feet. This plan was - . 
changed as per instructions for Mat No. 3, the double course extending onlv • 
water edge, with a single course for the remaining distance. 

For Mats Nos. 4. 5, and 6 the revetment extended only to the water line, as dirt 
A stone paving 10 inches thick was laid over the entire slope from low-wat^r 1 
an elevation of 24 feet (Lake Providence gauge). This paving was olosely h 
hand, strict attention being given to the filling in of all spaces to prevent J.< 
fVom wave wash. 

The stone was unloaded on slope by means of wheelbarrows and a steam pile >ir. 
with "traveler," the comparative cost of which was: \ 

Pile-driver f : ! 

Wheelbarrows 



PPENDIX Y Y — EEPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3781 

)nring the lieavy rains toward the close of the work coDsiderahle gwllyinff was 
I sod by the surface water aloug the slope at the head of the work, w*hich was 
irly all sand. These were thoroughly cleared of all loose material, regraded, and 
aved to a depth of 18 inches with small stone. 

L total of 7,0/9 squares of shore work was built during the seasou, including bank 
*ing and the construction and paving of brush revetment. Brush used per square 
revetment was 0.85 cords; poles, 0.17 cords; total brush and poles, 1.02 cords, 
ne used per square of paviug was 3.58 cubic yards. Total cost per square com- 
te, $9<.887. The amount of brush, stone, and poles per linear foot of completed 
rk was: Brush, 2.62 cords; poles, 0.45 cords; stone, 6.25 cubic yards. Tot^^ cost 
• linear foot of completed work was $27.86, 

faferial, — Brush and poles were delivered by contract, two-fifths of the amount fur- 
hed being obtained 2 miles above the work, the remainder 40 miles below. The 
ncipal amount of stone used was obtained by contract, shipped from North Ala- 
na by rail, and delivered on barges at Greenville, Miss. Nine thousand eight hnn- 
»d and forty-three cubic yards of stone were delivered on barges up White River, 
ved to the work, and unloaded on the bank during high water. The cost of re- 
ding this stone for use "was $0,384 per cubic yard. I would respectfully suggest 
it in future where stone is to be unloaded on the bank at a high stage of water 
bt it be deposited as nearly as possible in one body and as nearly the top of the 
ak as safety from caving will admit, so as to avoid the extra expense or a long 
eel and the constant shifting of runs. The percentage of the dili'erent items was 
follows : 



torial and snpplieA 

vra^e 

l)or 

i»8i.-^t<'nce 

«-«: aiid traveling expenses. 
;>erintendenoe 

TotAl 



Total coat. 



$106,708.79 

12,171.59 

35, 991. 49 

8, 107, 71 

619.^ 

2,530.00 



166,200,18 



-tm 



Per cent. 



64.22 
7.32 

21.64 

4.92 

.37 

1.55 



100.00 



RepairSj old work, — Repairs to the amount of $3,713.36 were done on the last sea- 
l's work, consisting principally of reballasting revetment at lower end of work' 
svHtem of brush dikes, extending from the top of the revetuient to the main bank 
w ordered constructed to prevent scouring behind the work, but owing to the con- 
Lued high stage of water only two of these dikes were built. An itemized state- 
'nt accompanies this report, giving the labor, subsistence, and material cost o5 each 
I8S of work in detail. 

[n conclusion, I beg leave to thank Messrs. W. M. Kellar, receiver of material, Mar- 
1 Christensen, foreman, and J.W.Webb, commissary, for their valuable assistance 
the management of the work. 
The amonnt and value of material expended was as follows : 

,952.3 cubic yards stone - $76,991.99 

,:m.9 cords brush 14,5«7.81 

122.5 cords poles ,. 3,933.75 

7,760 pounds galvanized wire : 3,558.23 

3 pounds wire strand (three-eighths inch) 24.43 

,416 poumls wire strand (tive-eighths inch) 2, 728. 86 

KX) pounds wire spikes 124. 81 

pounds staples 8. 97 

,294 feet lumber 276.25 

,009 bushels coal 5,240.64 

rnamite, powder, etc 276.25 

160 gallons oils 302.17 

$108, 054. 16 

ibor pay roll 45,536.00 

ibsistence. 9, 086. 96 

54, 622. 96 

iscellaneous material 345. 38 

•ansportation 103. 90 

earing bank 1,783.77 

[•"ffs 175.55 

ationery : 115. 65 

ae half value of property 1, 067. 76 

Total expended 166,269.13 



3782 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ASMT. 

Began work September 3, 1802; closed Janaary 14, 1^93. 

Number of days 

Lost Sundays and other days • 



Number of working days 

Hydraulic grader No. 1 worked day* 

Hydraulic grader No. 77 worked .' dv.. 

Labor empolyed. 



SepteinlM»r 

October 

November 
December. 
January . . 



Total 



Month. 



General 
work 
(men). 






8,S65 
7,012 
7.137 
7.352 
1,484 



26,510 



26, 540 -^ 105 s. 253 men per day. 
967 -i- 96 = 10 men per day. 

An average of 263 men per day. 
Labor Mtaiemeni, 



Month. 



Hoars of labor. 



Genera] 
■work. 



Hydraulic .r . 
grading. ^ 



September. 
October . . . 
November. 
Becerober . 
January... 



Total. 



33,962 

a4, «K)4 
70,617 
75.459 
20,549 



5.922 
2,622 
2,440 
1,196 



248,962 



12,190 



Total amount of pay rolls for labor, not including subsistence, $45,536.00 -«- 256,142 = 17.8 cet* 
hour. 

Distribution of time. 



Kind of work. 



fir*: 



Mattress 

Paving bank and revetment. 

Loading stone 

DressinK slope 

Hydraulic grading 

Care of fleet 



Total 



TotaL 



I K^" 



Material tteed per Mnit of mat, 
[17,676 squares of mat built.] 

Material. 

Brush oords.. 

Poles do 

Stone (ballasting) cubic yards . . 

Stone (sinking) do 

Wire, galvanized pounds. . 

"Wire slrand, five-eighths inch do. . . . 

Spikes, wire do. . . . 

Staples do 



2,603.5 


2.120.0 


4,S«5.8 


6,701.9 


99.229.0 


62,416.0 


4,900.0 


m.0 



'B^ENDlX Y Y — EEPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVEE COMMISSION. 3783 

Material used per unit of reveivient. 



Material. 



'* - cords. 

• do... 

^ - cubic yards. 

s , {^alvaniKed poands . 



Total. 


2,385.4 

497.5 

10,043.7 

18,273.0 



Per 
square. 



,17 
3.5? 
C.50 



Matei'ial need per unit of hank paved. 
[4,274 squares paved.] 



Material. 



© - cubic yards.. 




Per 
square. 



3.58 



k graded linear feet.. 7,125 

or required hours.. 12,800 =1.7 per lineaf foot. 

»« d reused lin ear f eet . . 5, 835 

or required. hours.. 27,680 =4. 75 per linear foot. 

ie load ed cubic yards . . 9, 843. 1 

ox: required Bours.. 18 604 =1.9 per cubic yard. 

Labor and materialf per lineurfoot, c&mpleted toork. 



Material, 

lah cords. 

es do... 

ne cubic yards. 

re, gal vani sed pounds . 

re, strand (fiye-eighths inch) 

kes, wire - 

.plea 



Labor. 

idingbank hours.. 

in frork do 



Total. 


Per linear 
foot. 


15,288.0 


2.62 


2,617.5 


.45 


36,447.4 


6.25 


117,602 


20.14 


62,410 


10.69 


4,900 


.84 


300 


.05 


12,180 


2.09 


243,962 


41.81 



SubtisUnee. 



tn\ amonat expended 
tal cost of serving . . . 



^, 086. 96 
2, 246. 15 



Total cost, served 11,382.11 



imber of rations issued 

itnbor of days* labor secured 

I i 1 y cost per ration , served cents . 

lily cost per ration, raw do. . 

aly cost lor each day's labor, secured do. . 



38,002 

82,018 

29.2 

23.4 

85.6 



List <^ materiaU on hand. 



, 884 poands wire strand (fiTe-eisbths inch), at ^.81 $571. 62 

, 017 pounds wire strand, at $3.40. 314. 70 

. 00.5 pounds galvanised wire (five-eighths inch), at $3.49 380. 58 

,950 pounds galvanised wire, at $2.79 417.10 

, 440 pounds ^vanized wire, $2.40 1,305.03 

, 300 poands spikes, at $2.29 258.77 

700 pounds staples, at$2.00 t 20.03 



$3,268.73 



3784 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8, ABMT. 

CBSDITS. 

137 cords poles to Greenville Harbor $306.50 

3, 358 cordH bruHb to same 328.01 

300 cubic vard» stonu to narae 730.56 

2,816bufthel«coalloDelta Point 374.S« 

2, 100 bushels coal to survey party 2M.75 

SubHUtcnce stoi os, siirvevparty 86. 27 

Subsist ence (stores, Delta Point 105. 90 

Bubsiatence stores, care of Heet 006. 33 

One-half value of property purchased.'. 1,067. 75 

Clearing bajik below this work 780. Zm) 

Total oredita ' 

Tabulated unit statement of co$t, • 



Kind of work. 



M at t rcss work aqaarea . 

Paving bank and revettnent do. . . 

Loading stone 

Gniding and dressing bank, linear feet 

Clearing bank 

Towing 



Unit coat. 



Labor 
and aub- 
aiatence. 



91.452 

l-«76 

.874 

1.003 



Material. 



$2,287 
8.214 
.01 
.106 



TotaL 



' En- 
o: 



$3,739 
9.887 



LUl 



Office expenditures 

Transportation 

Property, one-half value. 



Total coat work done. 



li 



1€: 



Cost of repairs to old work : 

Cost of material 

Labor and aabsistence . . 



Total cost of repair work 



Entire cost of season's work :.. I**'". 

6,835 linear feet work completed: $162,555.97 -<- 5,835 linear feet = $27.86 per linear foot. 

Very respectfully, 

Gxo. C. Thomas.. 
Superintendent of Conetmi. 
Mr. Arthur Hider, 

IT. S. AaaUtant Engineer, 



Appendix 5 B. 

REPORT OF ASSISTANT ENGINEER H. ST. L. COPP^E ON 1\'0RK AT VICKSBriM 



Sir: 



ViCKSBURG, M188., April 30, i 



Vichshurg Harbor. — At the time of anbrnitting the last annual report the *]> 
Berndon^ of the Alabama Dredging and .Jetty Company, -was working in the ca!i . 
the extension of the originnl contract of 1891 ( 11.9 cents). The contract was coiiij' 
and the Anal estimate submitted July 31, 1892. As soon as the dr«dge -waa rt-n 
from the canal careful cross sections throughout the entire harbor were sonndti 
the fill and general change in form of slopes, etc., obtained, a report of whid 
forwarded to oflBceat Meinpliis, together with detailed drawings, map sections. 
Tlie fill in canal and basin from September, 1891, to August, 1&2, as estimates! r 
the soundings, was 129,()04 cubic yards situ meaHurement, eqnal to 150,340 enbic >. 
scow measurement. The dredging was carried on in such a manner as io obi.i- 
cliannel depth to the zero plane of the gauge, but this was not realized pemiant 
as the Hides of the cut slid in, reducing the level of the bottom to + 2 feet at 
and later to an average in canal of -|- ^ feet on gauge, the basin being consider - 
deeper. 

Tlie theorj' of the subHidence of the sides of the excavation and cause ofexoo^ 
fill was submitted with my re])orfc, mentioned above, it being recommended 
slopes bo cut and the dam at head of basin be completed in order to remedy t: 
defects. 



APPENDIX y y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3785 

On July 22, 1892, 1 snbmitted to yofi, in accordance with instrnctioiis, a project for 
ho further expenditure of $80,000 in the harbor. This project contemplated the use 
f the ** Menge" dredge and a contractor's plant, the continued dredging of the canal 
II d. basin, and deposit of dumpage on dam at head of basin, and the coustruoting 
f a levee on said dam to level of De Soto Island. 

Tlie new contract was let October 1, 1892, to the Alabama Dredffing and Jetty 
/onipany at 16 cents per cubic yard in scows, the increase in priceoeing caused to 
» ^eat extent by clause in specifications requiring dredges to keep channel open for 
tavigation. 

Work was commenced on this new contract January 30, 1893, your orders being to 
ut to the — 5-foot plane, to dump no material on dam, and to cut perpendicularly, 
naking no slopes. The work oi dredging is progressing satisfactorily up to the 
iresent time, the material being placed in Lake Centennial, west of De Soto Island, 
lit such points as will be benencial if the Yazoo project for improvement of harbor 
B undertaken. An' approximate survey of the canal and basin was made March 15, 
.893, and from the soundings it was estimated that a fill had taken place amounting 
:o 120,062 cubic yards (in situ) since August, 1892. This fill includes all the area 
within the limits of the top of changing bank on each side of excavation, and shows 
hat there is a continuation of the increased accretion that has occurred in the last 
;wo years. The only way to check this abnormal fill (as stated iii my former reports) 
18 by building the dam at head of basin to cut off all inflowing currents that are 
laden with sut from the main river. 

Tlie dredging np to date in the harbor is as follows : 

Excavation (scow measurement) : Cubic yards. 

1888...... 324,941 

. 1890 , 465,573 

1891 331,204 

1892 294,447 

1893 (to April 30, inclusive) 156,918 

In 1888 the price in situ was 18 cents (Alabama Dredging and Jetty Company). 

In 1890 the price in scows was 10 and 12 cent« (Alabama Dredging and Jetty Com- 
pany). 

In 1891-92 the price in scows was 11.9 cents (Alabama Dredging and Jetty Com- 
pany). 

In 1893 the price in scows was 16 cents (Alabama Dredging and Jetty Company). 

The 12 cents in 1890 was account long haul, which was never made. The plant 
now employed by the contractor is the same as last year. 

The original intention of working the **Menge" oredge after repairs were made 
was abandoned, and she has been looked after and is held in reserve to use in ca«e 
the contractor fails to carry out the present contract in accordance witb the specifi- 
cations. With the exception of a new roof covering put on October, 1892, no repairs 
have been made since last year's extensive overhauling of her. 

Delta Fointf Louisiana. — Last year the continued caving of the bank above the Delta 
wharf boat and the deterioration of the revetment below necessitated a more careful 
8tudy of the changes in the river along the Delta Point reach. A survey was made, 
and maps and cross sections of bank submitted. A comparison of the lines and sec- 
tions of former years with the results of the survey showed that the change in the 
Delta bank had been gradual and not very extensive since 1884. A deep nole had 
been scoured out by the confined low-water current in the vicinity of the upper end 
of revetted reach, threatening its stability. On January 18, 1893, taking advantage 
of low water and availability of organized party that had just completed work 
above Greenville, outfit was sent down to construct and sink a mattress in the deep 
hole, it being deemed expedient to postpone the upper bank work till another low- 
water season. A mattress 300 by 685 feet was made m the usual manner, but in sink- 
ing was torn from its fastenings and floated to the bar just below the Vicksbnrg, 
Shreveport and Pacific Railway transfer incline, where the sunken end lodged. The 
mattress was cut in two, and the end remaining intact towed up in the eduy about 
lialf a mile and sunk, it being impossible to get it to the desired point. A full report 
of this was submitted in February. The cost of the work was as follows, including 
towing from Greenville and return : 

Subsistence $1,636.69 

Wire spikes, cable, coal, etc., from Greenville 2, 871. 92 

Repairs, brush, stone, hardware, coal, etc., purchased 4, 577. 11 

Time list, labor account 3,896.70 

12, 782. 42 
Credit, material returned, deducted 2, 289. 91 

Total cost of work 10,492.61 



I 

3786 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. I 

This ffivea cost per square of 100 square feet of $5.10, and per ruiuung foot of $lc 
Material per square and per running foot was as follows: 

[MattreM 800 by 685 feet] 



Mftterial. 



Wire cable poande 

AVireNcW do.. 

Spikes do.. 

Jlmsh C 

roles C 

Stone cubic yards 



Total 
amoant. 



15,525 
9,635 

i,70flr 

1,219 

282.8 
1,060.57 




Oulv part of the mattress was sunk, 374.1 cuhio yards of rock reoeired. : 
included in this, being unloaded in a pile on bank for further use. The ootnr ^ 
returned to Greenville, Miss., and party disbanded about February 15, 1893. 
From my report, submitted at close of this work, I quote as follows : 
''The following modifications in the practice in mattress work are suggests! 
me by the present disaster : In the first place, the necessity for reen forcing the d< 
men timber with iron whore cable comes in contact with it, even ^when overi&rr 
to preclude any possibility of shearing; also the advisability of building heads t>v. 
200 feet across mat, so that in case of drift the mat can be cut and the lower j. 
dropped downstream and sunk, or where it gets away it can be cat in 200- foot x. 
tions with heads of sufficient stiffness to sink/' 

As soon as the river drops to a medium low stage a careful examination and sou; 
ings should be made at Delta Point, in view of the probable necessity of fhrtx 
repairs nnd additions. 

Yours, very respectfully, 

H. 8t. L. Copp^x, 

V, 8. AsHaiani Engwtff. 
Capt. C. McD. TowNSEND, 

Corpi of Engineerif U, 8, A. 



Appendix 6 O. 



COMPARISON OF LOW-WATER SOUNDINGS TAKEN TIIROUOH LAKE PROTIDKNCB KLKCl 

1882-1891, INCLUSIVE. 

Memphis, Tbnn., November 5, ISSi. 

Sir : I have the honor to invite your attention to the accompanying tables deiirr 
from the low-water surveys of Lake Providence Reach since 1882, and to certa: 
deductions I make therefrom as to the effect of the works which have tbere Wi 
constructed upon the low-water channel. 

These tables contain the following data computed fronl the maps for every dec:i> 
surveyed: First, the width at bank-full stage ; second, the low- water wridtb. tak' 
at an arbitrary stage (minus 1.5 feet) ; third, the maximum depth on the sect • 
at the same stage ; fourth, the mean depth ; fifth, area of the section — ^these eleniei. 
being computed both with and without chutes. These soundings were taken Ib n< 
years 1882, 1883, 1884, 1886, 1888, 1890, and 1891. 

I have also made the following subdivisions of the reach, and computed tliemp« * 
of the above data for the various sections : First, from Station 61 to 87, inclos:' 
which is opposite and below the dikes which are in existence ; second, from Station 
39 to 60, which includes the section of river in which dikes have been oon8trm tf^. 
and destroyed. 

The portion of the reach above has been divided into three seotions on accoimt ^ 
the imperfections of the records, the early surveys only extending to Station H 
Between Stations 14 and 29 there is a further complication, due to the fact that 
certain years soundings were only taken at the even stations. In making compar 
sons, therefore, I have only selected, through this section, the even stations to deter 
mine the mean shown on blue prints by a full line. The mean of all soondiBg^ > 
shown by a broken line. 

Tables showing these means are also appended, and they Vkte ako graphicali/ 
represented on the accompanying drawings. 



PENOrX y Y — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RlVER COMMISSION. 3787 

^'ill \ye noted from |;hefie tables that there has been, first, a general inore&se in 
tt-l\\ll iwidth; second, a marked increase in the widths at a 1.5 stage to 1888, with 
ex:cei>tion8 of Arom Stations 61 to 87, while in 1891 aJl low-water widths show a 
iuution from those of 1890; third, the maximum depths have diminished (though 
inatorially from Stations 40 to 87 until 1891): fourth, the menu depths have 
iuislied^ except between Stations 61 and 87; fifth, that areas appear to have 
-eased until lw8, and since then diminished. 

\ otlier ivords, the large expenditure on Lake Providence Reach, and for levees 
lie third district, has been aooompanied by a gradual increase in high and low 
:er Tvidtlis, and a diminution of maximum and mean depths, except between Sta- 
^B 61 aud 87, a distance of 26,000 feet, and the survey of 1891 gives grounds for 
a-eheusion that further deterioration may there occur. The reduction in areas 
kvoll as low-water widths in 1891 is also deserving of serious consideration, espe- 
\\y ^wliere accompanied by a reduction of mean and maximum depths. 
tuch injurious changes in the regimen of the river through this reach should be 
.onipanied by a deterioration in the navigable ^channel. A direct comparison of 
t vaxioTis crossings is impracticable on account of the extensive changes in their 
3itiou dnring^the last ten years. 

n tlie following table the lea «t depths on crossings reported since 1884 is given, 
rived from the annual reports to 1890: 



Tear. 



34 . 

^. 

88. 

B7. 
98. 



Least 


Lake 


depth on 


Provi- 


croes- 


dence 


iDga. 


gauge. 


Feet. 


Feet 


11 


5.8 


13 





8.5 


5.3 


7 


4.5 


9 


.9 



Year. 



1889 
1800 
1891 
1892 



Least 
depth on 
cross- 
ings. 



Feet. 

8.5 

11 

7 

6 



Lake 
Provi- 
dence 
gauge. 



FMt. 

2.25 
8.6 
10 
1.2S 



In investigating the causes of these changes of regimen, it has been noted that the 
»8¥ilti8 appear to be independent of the stage of water at which the surveys were 
lade. ( Hydrographs of Lake Providence are submitted for the various years with 
lie dates of survey recorded upon them.) And that records of the rate of cav- 
Qg in the vicinity of Elton, as reported by the Louisiana board of engineers, indi- 
ate that in that section of the river caving has rapidly increased in recent years; 
rom 1860 to 1882 being at the rate of 100 feet a year, and from 1882 to 1890 at the 
ate of 262 feet per year, and from 1890 to 1891 over 600 feet per vear. 

Observations nave been made of the intensity and direction of the river currents 
luring hi^h and low water. Three stations were selected; one near the head of 
each at Pilchers Point, a second at Wilsons Point, about the middle of the reach, 
md the third at Shipland. The accompanying blue prints show the results of the 
>bservations at Wilsons Point and Shipiand. 

The thread of maximum velocity during floods did not coincide with that during 
low water. At Louisiana Bend and Shipland the thread of maximum velocity dur- 
ing floods was on bars outside of the low- water channel. A continual variation in 
the locus of the maximum velocity at Wilsons Point during floods was also observed. 

It is to be noted that on the crossings above Shipland in 1891 there was but 7 feet, 
with the Like Providence gau^e reading 10 feet, and in 1892 7 feet, with the Lake 
Prohridence gauge reading 7.5 ieet. 

The observed mean velocities during floods at Wilsons Point have also been plotted 
under hydrographs. There has been an increase in flood heights from 1882 to 1892 of 
3.6 feet; the floods of 1890, 1891, and 1892 exceeding in height that of 1882. 

The maximum and minimum gauge readings at Lake Providence Heach during the 
period from 1882 to 1892 are as Mlows : 



Bate. 


High 
water. 


Low 
water. 


Date. 


High 
water. 


Low 
water. 


1882 


38.82 
36.47 
38.40 
37.91 
88.00 


8.00 
4.20 
5.56 
2.55 
1.52 


Ig88 


38.10 

29.40 

41.00 

41.1 

41.9 


5.50 


1883 


1889 


2.80 


1884 


1890 


8.50 


1888 


1 1891 


0.6 


1887 


1892 











3788 REPORT OF THE CHlES* OP ENGINEEftS, V. 8. AEHT. 

The8« observations appear to indicate, first, that while the closing of ehut^ 
the diminidiing the widths of the river by means of permeable dikes will teiiri 
rily improve its low-water channel, if the bank opposite be not protected 
cavine, the channel will gradually remove from their sphere of action; ^.' 
that ^le construction of levees in the third district has largely increased th** 
acting dnring high stages, bat that it is very doubtful whether this increaitefi 
is being applied through Lake Providence Reach in such a manner ms to pi< 
work nseful in improving its low-water channel; that the force acting has> 
increased during floods is shown, not only by the gauge heightci recorded, Ul 
the measured maximum discharges past the latitude of Lake Providence, whi' 

as follows : 

Cubi 



1882 l,f" 

1890 1.2^^ 

1891 l.iH 

1892 1,4a 

The principal point-s of application of this increased force appear to be, fir$t 
levees themselves, which it breaks wheu practicable; second, caving banks: tl 
bars beyond the reach of low water; while in some places it is applied in deet 
ing the low- water channel of the preceding year and increai^iug the amount of 
that is necessary to be moved during the sncceeding low water. 

That levees can be constructed that will better direct the flood flow ihrongh I 
Providence Reach is possible; the advisability of such construction is que^t: -.^1 
A levee is primarily and principally intended to protect land from overflow ; to <- 
ize it for improving navigution would necessitate its location in the vicinity oi '. 
currents to be controlled, and render it liable to be breached by caving bank-^ 
normal function of protecting property is too important to expose it to snch r*. 
for the uncertain benefits to be derived from its mflnence on the navigable char 

Levees will continue to be constructed, whether injurious or beneficial to nii\ : 
tion, and it becomes, therefore, a question of vital importance to prevent the fi>^ 
acting during a flood stage from causing a farther deterioration of the navig* 
channel at this locality. 

Lake Providence Reach has been selected by the Commission for the applicatio' 
its methods of river improvement. The country will reasonably expect, with • 
liberal appropriations of the last Congress, some practically benedcial results in \ 
interests of navigation. Without a large portion of the appropriation wl.> 
remains unallotted be applied to Lake Providence Reach, or there is some clia:. 
in the physical conditions which have obtained during the last ten years, tb- 
expectations can not be realized. 

The deductions made above are only iuteuded to apply to the portion of* the ri. 
surveye<l. Data is insuflicient to deduce a general law applicable to the w. 
river. It is deemed probable that where the threads of maximum velocity coir.< ■ 
during high and low water stages, the construction of levees baa improved the i«< 
water channel. I have, however, in vestigated the qnestion whether the iujuri- 
effects noted in Lake Providence Roach might .not be due to a deepening of :. 
river above, which was gradually extending downward and causing a depoaition 
the reach. 

It can be stated that from the limited records of the third district no evidt r 
has been deduced that levees have improved the navigation at any locality betwe 
White River and Warrenton. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. MCD. ToWNSRNDy 

Captain of Enginetru 
Gen. C. B. Comstock, 

Colonel of Engineers^ U, 8. A., 

Frwident Mi9si$9ippi Biver Commi$$ionm 



A.PPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3789 

irt^ey of NovembeTf 1888, — Sections of river from Mange 5 to IS, incluHve, reduced to 

— 1.5 On Lake Providence gauge. 





Main ohanneL 


Chutes. 


Channel and chutes. 


Bange. 


Width. 


Mazi- 

ihnm 

depth. 


Area. 


Width. 


Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 


Area« 


High- 
wat<3r 
width. 


Width. 


Area. 


t »«»^»». .,,..,, ••*•••• 


3,630 
2,440 
2,320 
2,310 
3,660 
2,400 
1,850 
2,110 
7,790 


44 

43 
43 
36 
44 

65 

61 
61 
45 


56,400 
58,100 
57,400 
54,000 
76,400 
64,700 
56,800 
66.5U0 
128,600 








4,850 
4,460 
8,9:K) 
3,260 
4.280 
4,060 
4,200 
10,000 
8,300 


8,630 
2,440 
2,320 
2,310 
3,660 
2,400 
1,850 
2,110 
7,790 


56,400 
58,100 
57,400 


t -^»» «« ««••■•>•'•««••■•• 








f 








\ 








54 000 


1 








76 400 


» 




.\. 1 


64,700 


I 


1 




56,800 


» 








66,500 


I 








128,600 








Total 


28,510 


442 


608,900 








47,340 


28.510 


608,900 










lean aT^ea 


97,666 
8.168 
21.4 
40.1 






67,655 

3,108 
21.4 
49.1 

5,260 




Iea.n viridtli............ 






I liah denth 






feau maximum depth . 
lean high-water width. 

















Purvey of November and December, 1800, — Sections of river from Mange 5 to IS, inclu- 
Hve, reduced to —1,6 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

Total 

t 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Moan depth 

Mean maximnm denth 
Mean high-water wfdtli 



Main channel. 



Width. 



8,320 
4,140 
3,820 
3,600 
3,900 
3,500 
3,340 
3,050 
2,830 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



31,500 



44 
25 
23 
33 
22 
26 
25 
36 
39 



272 



Area. 



53,400 
49,800 
48,700 
49,300 
51,600 
56,300 
59,800 
52,600 
50,600 



472,100 



52,456 
3,500 
15.0 
30.2 



Chutes. 



Width. 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



Area. 



Channel and chutes. 



High- 
water 


Width. 


width. 




4,890 


8,820 


4,700 


4,140 


4.220 


3,820 


3,700 


3,600 


4,020 


3.900 


3,800 


3,500 


3,900 


3,340 


10,000 


3,050 


9,320 


2,830 


48,550 


31,500 



52,455 
3,500 



5,394 



Area. 



53,400 
49,800 
48,700 
49,300 
51,600 
56,300 
59,800 
52,600 
50,600 

472,100 



3790 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABICT. 

Surety of October and NovmbtTj 1891. — SocUonB of rivor from Ramge S io IS, tsu. i 

reduced to — 1,5 on Lake FroMenee gauffe. 



Range. 



& 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 : 

12 

13 

Total 

HMnare* 

>tea& width 

Mean depth 

Hean maximum dept h . . 
Mean high- water width . 



Hain channel. 



Width. 



1,900 
2,350 
2.700 
2,8&0 
3,550 
2.850 
2,800 
2,890 
2,600 



24,490 



Mazl- 

mam 

depth. 



51 
35 
30 
23 
22 
89 
47 
37 
35 



821 



50.200 

49,700 
44,500 
41,000 
40,000 
48,500 
51,900 
56.200 
44.600 



Chotea. 



Width. 



435,600 



48,400 
2,721 
17.7 
35.7 



Haxi. 

mam 

depth. 



Area. 



Cbanofll and chsTs 



High 
^Titer 
width. 



5.04O 
4.8SO 
4.400 
3,800 
4,200 
8,800 
3,900 
10,000 
9,300 



WidtJk. 



1,000 

2.7UC- 
3.8SG 
3,550 
2.S50 

a. SIX) 

2.89U 
2.600 



49,290 



aM,409 



48.400 
2,721 



5,477 



Surveji of September, 188S. — Even eectione of river from Range 14 to SS, inclum 

dnoed to — 1,5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Kange. 



14 

16 

18 

20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum deuth 
Mean high- water wiath 



Main cliannel. 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mum 




depth. 


4,100 


55 


2,100 


74 


1,600 


102 


1,680 


85 


1,600 


64 


2,000 


62 


3,150 


27 


1.700 


82 


17,930 


501 



Area. 



120,200 
88,500 
75,000 
71,200 
66,800 
65,100 
51,500 
28,400 



Chntea. 



Width. 



630 



Maxi- 
mum 

depth. 



18 



566,700 



70.838 
2,241 
81.6 
62.5 
62.8 



630 



18 



7,000 



7,000 



7.600 
630 
12.1 
18 



Channel and cfca'«-> 



High- 

water 

width. 



4,200 
4,270 
4,100 
4,670 
5,900 
3,990 
3,900 
4,620 



35,650 



'Width. J. 



4,100 
2,100 
1.6UQ 
1,«80 
1,609 
2,000 
3,150 
2,330 



18,500 



71.788 

2.320 
30.9 
62.5 

4,456 



Survey of October, 1884, — Even eectione of river from Range 14 to t8, incluHipe, rt&^ 

to — 1,5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



14 

16 

18 

20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth . 
Mean high- water width. 



Main chanuei. 



Width. 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth 



4,16or' 

2,200 

1,600 

1,460 

1,900 

2.490 

8,100 

2,400 



42 
78 
93 
81 
68 
54 
83 
89 



126,000 
96,400 
81,000 
57.800 
69,0(K) 
74,300 
76,700 
43,600 



19, 810 



488 



624,800 



78,100 
2,414 
32.4 
61 



Chut^. 



Width. 



200 



200 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



20 



1,200 



20 I 1,200 



1,200 

200 

6 

20 



CShannelaBd dnnu* 



High- 
water 
width. 



4,250 
4,600 
4,600 
5.120 
6,200 
5,400 
4,100 
4,700 



38,970 



Width. iTr. 



4,160 :."" 

2, 200 • 

1,600 • 

1.40U / 

1,900 ' 

2,490 'i 

3. 100 T' 

2,000 ^ 



10,510 6^ 



78,250 
8,430 
32.1 
61.0 
4,871 



APPENDIX Y Y BEPOBT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3791 

tn-vey of November ^ 1888, — Even seetionM of river from Bange 14 to B8, inoluHve, reduced 

to ^1,5 on Lake Providence gauge. 





Kaia channel. 


Chntee. 


Channel and ohutes. 


Range. 


Width. 


Max!- 
mam 
depth. 


Area. 


Width. 


Mazi. 
mum 
dei)th. 


Axea. 


Hieh. 
water 
width. 


Width. 


Area. 


4 


6,100 
5,200 
3,300 
1,320 
1,760 
2,700 
2,850 
8,300 


88 
48 
61 
49 
61 
58 
86 
24 


181,800 
153,300 
99,700 
50,000 
66,000 
81,600 
54,800 
54,200 






7,740 
5,300 
3,610 
4,300 
4,850 
3.230 
8,040 
4,520 


6,100 
5,200 
3,300 
1,320 
1,760 
2,700 
2,850 
3,800 


131,800 


6 








153,800 


8 








99,700 


50 








50,000 


►2 




, - 


66,000 


»4 




1 


81,600 


M 




.. 1 


54,800 


28 




1 


54,200 






1 




Total 


26,530 


880 


691,400 




1 


87,490 


26,530 


69.1,400 






1 


\Cean area. ............. 


86,425 
8,816 
20.1 
47.6 






86,425 

8,316 
26.1 
47.6 

4,686 




Mf^ft1l "wldtrh . - , T 






Mean depth 

Mean maximom depth . 

Mean hiirli-water 'Width - 
ALeanmsn wa«*rwiaMi 






~ 















Survey of November, 1888. — Seeiicne of river from Range li to 28, inclusive, reduced to 

— 1,5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



14... 
15... 
16... 
18... 
W ... 
21... 

22 . . 

23 .. 
•24 . . 
25.. 
26.. 
28.. 



Bange. 



Total. 



Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth . 
Mean high*water width . 



Main channel. 



Maxi- 
Width.' mum 
depth. 



6,100 
5,700 
5.200 
3,800 
1,820 
1.450 
1,760 
1.920 
2,700 
3,000 
2,850 
8,800 



88,600 



58 
52 
48 
61 
49 
56 
61 
60 
53 
47 
86 
24 



075 



Area 



131, 800 
135,800 
153,300 
99,700 
50,000 
51,700 
66,000 
65,900 
81,600 
65,500 
54,800 
54,200 



1,010,300 



84,192 
8,217 
26.2 
47.9 



Ohntea. 



Width. 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



Channel and chntea. 



High- 




water 


Width. 


width. 


# 


7,740 


6,100 


6,450 


5,700 


5,300 


5,200 


3.610 


8,300 


4,300 


1,320 


4,300 


1,450 


4,850 


1,760 


8,300 


1,920 


8,230 


2,700 


3,620 


8,000 


8,940 


2*850 


4,520 


8,300 


55,160 


88,600 



131,800 
135,800 
153,300 
99,700 
60,000 
51,700 
66,000 
65,900 
81,600 
65,500 
54,800 
54,200 



1,010,800 



84,102 
8,217 
26.2 
47.9 
4,597 



3792 REPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENQINEBRS, U. S. ARMY. 

Survey of Noremler and Deamhetf 1890,SeciUm» of river from Betnge 16 to 55, »«< I 

reduced to —1.5 on Lake Providence gauge, I 



Bange. 



16 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

26 

26.: 

28 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth 
Mean high- water width 



Main channel. 



i Max- 

Width. I imum 

[depth. 



1.760 


51 


4, MO 


54 


3.55U 


44 


2.560 


57 


1,74AJ 


65 


2,360 


59 


1,730 


54 


2,130 


61 


2. 50t) 


51 


3, 300 


22 


4,050 


w 



30,050 I 532 



Area. 



54,300 
152,600 
100.300 
40.300 
72,300 
54,700 
61,400 
68.700 
66,800 
62,100 
38,800 



Chutes. 



Mazl- 
Wldth- ' mum 
depth. 



1,480 



762,800 



69,300 
2,732 
25.4 
48.4 



1,480 



Area. 



4,400 



Chaamel and < fcr* 



High, 
water 
width. 



8,050 
i.6M 

3,610 
3,850 
3,280 
3. 1«0 
3.480 
3,800 
8,060 
4,750 
4,720 



4,400 



4,400 

1,480 

8 

4 



47,180 



Width, i 



S,240 
4,350 
3,550 
2,S«C 
1.740 
2,36i* 
1.7M 
2.15»} 
2,&>J0 
3.3t<J 
4,05U 



31.530 • 



»,700 
2,986 

24. a 

48.4 
4,287 



Survey of Xovemher and December , 1890, — Even eeciione of river from Bange 26 f* 

inclusive, reduced to — 1,6 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



16 

18 

20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth 
Mean high-water width 



Main channel. 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mum 




depth. 


1,760 


51 


4. 350 


54 


2.560 


57 


2, ::go 


59 


2.150 


61 


3, 300 


22 


4,050 


14 


20,530 


818 



Area. 



54,800 
152, 6(0 
40.300 
54.700 
68,700 
52, 100 
38,800 



Chutes. 



Width. 



1,480 



461,500 



65,929 
2,933 
22.5 
45.4 



1,480 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



4,400 



Cbaonal and chaki 



High- 
water 
width. 



3.000 
4,800 
3,650 
3,160 
3,600 
4,750 
4,720 



4,400 



4.400 

1,480 
3.0 
4.0 



1 



32,620 



Width. lu". 



8.249 

4,350 
2,560 
2,360 
2.150 
3,30!) 
4,0» 



22,010 



«■ 




APPENDIX YY — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3793 

»"t?€>y of Ootoher and Novemhei', 1891. — Sections of river from Bange 15 to 28^ incltLeive^ 

reduced to — 1,5 on Lahe Providence gauge. 



' 


Main channol. 


Chutes. 


Channel and chutes. 


KaDge. 


Width. 


Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 


Area. 


Maxl- 

Width. ! mum 

1 depth. 


AreA. 


High 
wat6r 
width. 


Width. 


Area. 




2,460 
2,100 
3,520 
3,400 
2,000 
1,500 
1,400 
1,860 
1, 750 
1,920 
2,550 
3,050 


80 
28 
44 
56 
78 
77 
78 
62 
66 
S4 
29 
16 


49,000 
37,600 
73,300 
92,100 
86,300 
68,500 
59,800 
72,000 
65,200 
62,000 
42,500 
38,800 






8,050 
5.000 
. 4,210 
3.900 
3,500 
2,400 
2,400 
3,850 
3,090 
3,620 
4,000 
4.890 


2,460 
4,060 
3,520 
3.400 
2,000 
1,500 
1.460 
1.860 
1,750 
1,920 
2, 550 
3,050 


49,000 
66,700 
73,800 
92,100 
36,300 
68.500 




1,960 26 


29,100 












» 






( 






■ 




59.800 


" 






^ 72.900 








05 200 


> *...•««.••••••«••«•-•• 






02,000 


t 






42. 500 


\ 






38,800 








Total 


27,570 


618 


748,000 


1,960 1 26 

1 


29,100 


49,510 


29.530 


777,100 




[ t^an area 


62,333 
2,296 
27.1 
51.5 


29,100 
1,060 

14.8 
. 26 




64,758 


[fAzi widtli. .......... . 


2,461 


I €92111 dt^utli ..i 


26.3 


lenn inaximam depth . 
Iea.li hich-water width. 


51.5 
4, 126 

















^uj-vey of October and November j 1891. — Even sections of river from Range 18 to ff8, inclu- 
sive, reduced to — 1.5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



8 

:o 

ii ///.... ..'..I....... '.. 

M 

i8 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean dopl h 

Mean maximum depth 
Mean high- water width 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mum 




depth. 


2.100 


28 


3,400 


56 


1,500 


77 


1,860 


62 


1.920 


54 


3,050 


16 


13,830 


293 



37,600 
92, 100 
68, 500 
72,900 
62,000 
38,800 



371,900 



61,083 
2,305 
26.9 
48.8 



Chutes. 



Width. 


Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 


Area. 


1,960 


26 


29,100 


























— 


""*••*"• 



1,960 



26 



29,100 



29,100 
1.960 
14.8 
20 



Channel and chutes. 



High- 

wator 

width. 



5,000 
3,900 
2,400 
3,850 
3,620 
4,890 



23.060 



Width. 



4,060 
3,400 
1,500 
1,860 
1.920 
3,050 



15,790 



Area. 



66,700 
92,100 
68,500 
72,900 
62,000 
38,800 



401,000 



66,833 
2,632 
25.4 
48.8 
3,943 



ENO 93 — ^238 






3794 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERfi, U. S. ARMY. 

Survey of Septtfmher, 188S.^8ectio99 of river from Range SO toSP, inclumve^ redti 

~i.J on Lake Providence gauge. 



Kaoige. 



30 

31 

32 

83 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth 
Mean high- water width 



Main channel. 



. Maxi- 



Width.! mum 
depth. 



1,700 


36 


1,300 


37 


1,300 


41 


1,450 


33 


1,730 


20 


1,500 


27 


1.800 


17 


2,730 


35 


1,420 


86 


2,000 


85 



16,980 



322 



Area. 



33,900 
20,500 
25,100 
30,000 
29 000 
18,600 
19,600 
43,600 
32,200 
46,400 



804,900 



30,490 
1,098 
17.9 
32.2 



Chntea. 



Width. 



700 

640 

900 

1,130 

1,400 

940 

1,680 



Maxi- 
mam 
depth. 



15 
30 
30 
27 
33 
29 
23 



7,200 
12,200 
14,000 
20,000 
18,0C0 
10,000 
22,400 



7,390 



187 112,800 



16,114 
1,055 
15.3 
28.7 



Channel and chuu 



Higb- 
water 
width. 



4,280 
4,000 
4,120 
4,480 
5,100 
5,550 
5,620 
5,580 
5.680 
5,900 



50,310 



Widtb. 



2,400 
1,940 
2,201) 
2.5*SO 
3.180 
2.4,'0 
3,480 
2,730 
1,420 
2,000 



34,370 41- 



41,770 
- 2,437 
17.1 
33.7 
5.031 



Survey of Ooioherj 18SS, — SeeHone of river eurvey from Bange SO toS9, inclueivey reductA 

— 1,6 Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



Main channel. 



Width 



30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

36 

36 

37 

38 

80 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Meaomaximum depth . 
Mean high-water width 



800 
725 
1,200 
1,525 
2,100 
2,160 
2,600 
2,200 
2,400 
2,900 

18^^610 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth 



42 
39 
44 

39 
52 
87 
42 
28 
20 
17 



8f0 



Area. 



20,800 
22,800 
88,600 
30,000 
35,600 
31,500 
47,400 
87.500 
86,100 
36,000 



336,300 



83,630 
1,861 

18.1 
3G.0 



Chntee. 



Width. 



1.400 
1,400 
1,200 
1,100 



5.100 



Maxi- 

mum 
depth. 



32 
29 
22 
15 



Area. 



22,500 
22,100 
15,000 
10,000 



98 



09,600 



17,400 
1,275 
13.7 
21.5 



Channel 



chutes. 



High 
water 
width. 



4,200 
3,790 
4,100 
4,490 
5,100 
5,600 
5,630 
5.650 
5,700 
5,980 



50,240 



Width- Ar 



%200 
2,125 
2,400 
2.625 
2.100 
2,160 
2^600 
2,20U 
2.400 
2,900 



40,500 
2,371 

17. 

36 
6,024 



tA, 



i: 



r. 



23, 710 41 V 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3795 

\trrey of October, 1884. — Secixonn o/Hverfrom Range SO to 39, inclusive^ reduced to — J,S 

on Lake Providence gauge» 





Main ohanneL 


Chntea. 


Channel and chutes. 


Sange. 


Width. 


Maxi. 

mam 

depth. 


Atea. 


Width. 


Maxi. 

mam 

depth. 


Area. 


High- 
water 
width. 


Width. 


Area. 


> 


2,550 
1,450 
1,550 
1,750 
1,550 
1,540 
1,710 
2,050 
3,040 
2,400 


42 
43 
52 
41 
88 
89 
81 
36 
59 
88 


88,000 
39,000 
40,000 
38,200 
35,100 
31.100 
22,800 
44,500 
66,700 
42,400 


350 

840 
1,150 

900 
1,090 

690 
1,320 
1,550 


10 

2^ 
20 
19 
16 
8 
22 


2,000 
3,700 

11,000 
8,000 
5,000 
8,200 
8,400 

16,000 


4,440 
4,240 
4,320 
4,700 
5,050 
5,590 
5,050 
5,600 
5,700 
6,020 


2,900 
2,290 
2,700 
2.650 
2,640 
2,230 
3,030 
3,600 
8,040 
2,400 


40,000 
42,700 
60,000 
46,200 
40,100 
39.300 


L 


> 


'i 


4 


5 


6 


31,200 


1 •.••*«•«■••••«•••*■••• 


60.500 


8 


66 700 


9 








42,400 












Total 


19,500 


418 


406,800 


7,890 


128 


62,300 


,61,400 


27,480 


409,100 




klean area 




40,68C 

1,961 

2C 

41 


\ 
) 

1.8 
.8 


7.787 
086 
7.9 
16 
\ 


« 


46,910 
3,748 
17.1 
41.8 
6,140 




tf <^nxi widtb ............ 


• 


Id^ean depth 




Sklean maximuxri depth . 
^ean hisrh- water width. 













Survey of November, 1888, — Sections of river from Bange SO to S9, inclvsive, reduced to 

— 1.5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 

3a. 

30. 



Range. 



Total 



Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth. . 
Meam high* water width 



Main channeL 



Width. 



4,880 
2.850 
2,520 
2,050 
1,220 
1,640 
8,800 
2,340 
2,060 
4,250 



Maxl- 

mnm 

depth. 



28,010 



18 
29 
37 
46 
36 
41 
40 
38 
40 
25 



350 



Area. 



47,400 
86,200 
45,100 
45.400 
87.400 
37,800 
59.400 
37,600 
52,500 
74,900 



473,700 



47,870 
3,801 
16.9 
85 



Chutes. 



Width. 



700 
1,800 
1,100 
1,150 

900 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



20 
19 
18 
14 
23 



5,650 



94 



Area. 



8,800 
11,000 
12,700 

9,400 
10,400 



52,800 



10,460 
1,130 
9.3 
18.8 



Channel and chutes. 



Hieh- 
water 
width. 



4,880 
4,760 
5,400 
6,430 
6,940 
7,050 
6,450 
5,820 
5,550 
6.850 



59,130 



Width. 



4,880 
3,050 
4,320 
3,150 
2,370 
2,540 
3,800 
2,340 
2,060 
4,250 



83,660 



52,600 
3, 866 
15.6 
35.0 
5,013 



Area. 



47,400 
45,000 
56,100 
58.100 
46.800 
48.200 
59,400 
37,600 
52,500 
74.900 



526, 000 



3796 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



Survey of November and December y 1890, — SectUma of river from Range SO to SO, ;« 

give, reduced to --1.5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



80 
31 
32 
33 
34 
85 
36 
37 
88 
89 



Bango. 



Total. 



Mean 

Mean width 

Meand/epth 

Mean ni«xiintim depth . 
Mean high water width 



Main channel. 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mum 




width. 


3,390 


17 


3,850 


22 


2,000 


29 


1,460 


37 


1.350 


29 


1,620 


31 


1.150 


40 


1.360 


43 


2,900 


37 


2,100 


42 


21,180 


327 



33,290 
2,118 
15.7 
32.7 



32,000 
83,000 
28,500 
27.400 
27,800 
29,900 
31,300 
34,700 
43,800 
44,500 



Chutes. 



332,900 



Maxi- 
Width.! TDura 
depth, 



650 

220 

1,450 

1,200 

1,400 

1,300 

1,480 

2,600 

780 

560 



Area. 



8 

16 

13 

11 

17 

12 

7 

8 

8 

3 



4,100 
1.400 
7,000 
8,000 

13,700 
9,100 
8,000 

12,000 
4,000 
1,200 



11,540 



103 



70,300 



7, WO 
1,154 
6.1 
10.3 



Channel and cLutc- 



High- 
water 
width. 



4,840 
4,790 
5,320 
6,320 
7,20«» 
7.700 
6,900 
6,000 
5,600 
6,080 



60,950 



Width. Ar, 



3,940 
4,070 
3,430 
2,660 
2,750 
2.930 
2,630 
3,960 
3,6fiO 
2.660 



32,720 



40,320 
3,272 
123 
33.7 
6,093 



Survey of October and November^ 1891. — Sections of river from JRange SO to S9, iml 

reduced to — 1.6 on Lake Providence gauge. 



30 

31 
32 
33 

35 
36 
37 
38 
39 



Kange. 



Total. 



Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth. 



Mean high-wat«r width, 



Main channel. 



Width. 



2,540 
1,600 
l.fjSO 
1,550 
1,500 
1,210 
1,160 
1,280 
1,500 
1,420 



15, 310 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



18 
29 
29 
34 
35 
30 
36 
29 
29 
20 



295 



Area. 



30,000 
24,000 
25.800 
27. 000 
21, UOO 
17.000 
23, 200 
27,000 
27.300 
23,400 



248, 900 



24,890 
1,531 
16.3 
29.5 



Chutes. 



Width 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



300 
220 

800 
1,600 

800 
1,300 

860 
1,600 

400 

640 



7 

7 
15 

4 

6 
11 
12 
11 

9 

3.5 



8,520 



85.5 



Area. 



1.200 
2,000 
8,000 
4.000 
2,800 
7.400 
6,800 
8,000 
2,400 
1,000 



4,360 
852 
5.1 
8.55 



Channel and cliu'r<? 



Hlirh- 

water 
width. 



4,800 
4,720 
5,360 
6,360 
7,200 
7,950 
7,140 
6,520 
6,060 
6,400 



43, 600 62, 200 



Widti. A-- 



2,840 

i,m 

2,350 
3,150 
2.300 
2,510 
2,020 
2,8^ 
1.W0 
2,060 



23,830 



29.250 
2.383 
123 
29.6 

6,2ao 



APPENDIX Y Y— REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3797 

survey of October, 1892. — Seciitms of river from Range 40 to 60 f incluHvCy redticed to 

— 1.6 on Lake Providence gauge. 



0. 

1 . 

^ < 

3 . 
4 
5 , 


*• 

8 
,0 
.0 
»l 
>2 
)3 
>4 
'>5 
iO 
i7 
'>8 

■>o 

30 



Range. 



Total. 



Mean area 

Moan width 

Mean depth 

Maximum depth 

Maxiranm high-water 
width 



Main channel. 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mam 




depth. 


2,740 


20 


2,200 


27 


2,170 


18 


2.270 


25 


1,080 


24 


2,&80 


54 


2,790 


43 


2,»70 


30 


3,130 


22 


2,800 


25 


2,680 


20 


2,100 


27 


2,130 


27 


1,920 


29 


2,030 


31 


2,100 


27 


1,650 


32 


2,380 


35 


2,750 


89 


8,040 


27 


3,080 


23 


61,990 


605 



Area. 



81, 
26, 
81, 
34, 
81. 
53, 
52. 
62, 
48. 
38. 
87. 
80, 
36, 
37, 
33, 
32, 
25, 
89. 
43, 
43, 
47, 



050 
850 
200 
050 
200 
550 
200 
500 
200 
2.50 
500 
150 
900 
350 
450 
250 
650 
450 
200 
950 
850 



804,750 



Chatcs. 



Width. 



38,821 
2,476 
15.5 
28.8 



1,820 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



87 



1,320 



87 



Area. 



31,200 



31,200 



81,200 
1,320 
23.6 
87 



Channel and chutee. 



High- 
water 
width. 



6,050 
6,400 
7,050 
7.300 
4,380 
3,250 
3,570 
4,100 
4,500 
5,200 
6,130 
7.550 
7,880 
9.180 
8,350 
7.000 
6,000 
5,000 
4,630 
4,550 
4,780 



122,940 



Area. 



31, 050 
26,850 
31, 200 
34,050 
62.400 
53,550 
52,200 
62,500 
46.200 
88, 260 
87,500 
80,150 
86,900 
37,300 
33, 450 
32,250 
35,650 
89,460 
43,200 
48,960 
47.850 



845,900 



Width. 



40,281 
2,639 
15.9 
29.4 

5,864 



2,740 
2,200 
2, 170 
2,270 
3,300 
2,580 
2,790 
2,970 
3,130 
2,800 
2,680 
2,100 
2,130 
1,920 
2,030 
2,100 
1,660 
2,380 
2,760 
8,040 
8,680 



63,810 



Survey of Septemher, 1883. — Sections of nver from Range 40 to 60, inclusive, reduced to 

— 1.5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

.53 *.-. 

54 

.55 

56 

.57 

58 

59 

60... 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximnm depth 
Mean high-water width 



Main channel. 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mum 




depth. 


2,200 


30 


2.320 


31 


2,640 


32 


2,940 


36 


4,200 


35 


2,050 


63 


2,160 


45 


2,560' 


37 


3,050 


25 


3,450 


20 


3,030 


16 


2,580 


20 


2.210 


18 


1,250 


89 


1,600 


41 


1,710 


47 


1,570 


38 


1,980 


51 


2,480 


48 


2,750 


40 


8,350 


28 


52,080 


740 



Area. 



45, 
47, 
49, 
52, 
70, 
55, 
60, 
60, 
51. 
26, 
26, 
25, 
24, 
29, 
48, 
45. 
40, 
58. 
61, 
67, 
60, 



200 

200 
900 
000 
000 
500 
500 
400 
700 
400 
000 
000 
500 
400 
500 
600 
000 
200 
200 
200 
800 



47,890 
2,480 
19.1 
86.2 



Chutes. 



Width. 



995,200 



450 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



Area. 



2,000 



450 



2,000 



2,000 
450 
4.4 

7 



Channel and chutes. 



High- 
water 
width. 



6,140 
6,400 
7,050 
7,180 
4,440 
3,310 
3,510 
3,940 
4,430 
5,200 
6,290 
7,500 
8,000 
9,160 
8,150 
7,150 
5,700 
6,100 
4,620 
4.450 
4.805 



122,526 



Area. 



47,200 
47.200 
49,900 
52,000 
70,000 
65.500 
60,600 
60,400 
51,700 
26,400 
26,000 
25,000 
24,500 
29,400 
48,600 
45,600 
40,000 
68,200 
61,200 
67,200 
50,800 



997,209 



Width. 



47,486 

2,601 

19 

35.2 

6,834 



2,650 
2,320 
2,640 
2,940 
4,200 
2,050 
2,160 
2,560 
3,050 
3,450 
3,030 
2,680 
2,210 
1,250 
1.600 
1,710 
1,570 
1,080 
2,480 
2,750 
3.850 



62,680 



3798 REPORT OF THE CmEF OP ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Survey of October , 1884. — Sections of river from Range 40 to 60, tnc/«*frf, rrda 

— 1.5 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

46 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

61 

52 

53 

54 

55 

66 

57 

68 

69 

60 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean widlh 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth . 
Mean high-water width 



Main channel. 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mum 




depth. 


1,220 


40 


1,260 


49 


1,950 


49 


2,350 


36 


8.990 


26 


8,320 


55 


3.400 


47 


3,700 


45 


2.880 


43 


1,430 


60 


2.110 


39 


2,730 


45 


2.900 


47 


2.800 


29 


2,440 


37 


2,180 


22 


2.1»00 


32 


1,780 


24 


1,280 


45 


1,380 


56 


1,780 


46 


48,880 


862 



Area. 



38, 
47, 
56, 
66, 
70. 
58, 
55, 
49, 
40, 
47, 
46, 
37, 
42, 
85. 
31, 
28, 
3:i, 
29, 
20, 
44. 
60. 



000 
000 
400 
900 
200 
200 
•100 
500 
500 
000 
000 
200 
000 
300 
200 
300 
900 
800 
400 
700 
000 



Chntes. 



Width. 



Mud- 

mnm 

depth. 



Area. 



350 
640 
600 



5 
6 
6 



936,900 1,590 



16 



Cluuuiel and elL3! 



:•*. 



High 

water 

width. 



2,^ 
2.400 
2, COO 



6,400 



44.614 
2,328 
19.2 
41 



2,133 
630 
4 
5.8 



6,180 
«.380 
7,120 
7.110 
4.360 
3,440 
3,500 
4,000 
4,580 
5,300 
6,250 
7.500 
8,730 
0,200 
8,340 
7,050 
5,090 
5,030 
4.720 
4,050 
4,790 



Ana 



124,170 



38.00} 
47,010 
56.4iJ0 
56.900 
70, -l^' 

55.40>l 

49.500 
40,9tHJ 

47. OCit 
46,000 
37,200 
42,006 
35. .%0 

30,300 
36,301) 

31.800 
29.400 

4t7«i 
00,000 



Oi3,300 y 






44,919 
2,403 

18.7 
41 
5,913 



Survey of December y lS86y and January, 1887. — Sections of river from Banged i^ 

inclusice, reduced to — 1.5 on Lake Pi'ovidence gauge. 



llange. 



40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
61 
52 
53 
64 
55 
56 
67 
58 
59 
60 



Main channel. 



Width. 



Total. 



Mean area 

Mean width 

Mean depth 

Mean maxim am depth . 
Mean high- water width . 



3,770 
2.610 
2. 395 
1,800 
1.780 
1,810 
3,640 
3,585 
8,920 
3,410 
2,560 
620 
1,680 
2,675 
1,790 
1,720 
2,510 
2,610 
2,900 
3,110 
2,930 



Maxi- 
mnm 
depth. 



53,825 



17 
31 
66 
47 
45 
37 
29 
20 
39 
42 
64 
48 
30 
24 
49 
87 
23 
20 
22 
25 
33 



Area. 



718 



62,250 
88,400 
40,650 
35.550 
45, 750 
45.460 
48,000 
45,450 
87,200 
42,000 
40,200 
28,500 
27,300 
42,000 
51,750 
40,650 
37,800 
85,700 
39,450 
35,400 
37,500 



866,950 



40,807 
2,563 
15.9 
84.2 



Chutes. 



Width. 



380 
400 
160 



670 



1,610 



Maxi- 

mnm 

depth 



6 

13 

6 



10 



84 



Area. 



2,100 
3,000 
1,200 



6,250 



11.550 



2,887 
402 
7.2 
8.6 



Channel and chaw 



High. 

water 
width. 



6,180 
6,560 
7,300 
7,000 
4,370 
3,500 
8,550 
3,820 
4,500 
6.440 
6,520 
7,530 
8,380 
0,250 
8,520 
7,130 
6,800 
6,130 
4,750 
4,680 
4,900 



\r-J 



124.810 



03.25(1 
38,400 
40,650 
35,550 
47,850 
48,450 
49,200 
45,450 
37.200 
42,000 
40,200 
83,750 
27,300 
42,000 
61,750 
40,650 
87.800 
35,700 
39,430 
85 410 
37,500 



868,500 



.V' 



41,857 
S,6S8 

• 15.7 
34.3 
5,943 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^BEPOBT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3799 

^urrep of November , 1888, — Sections of river from Range 4.0 to 60, inclu8iv€f reduced to 

— 1»6 on Lake Providence gauge. 



Bange. 



JO 

tl 

12 

13 

14 

15 .V... 

16 

17 

18 

10 

W 

il 

'>2 

•>3 

>4 

'>5 

•>« 

•>7 

')8 

59 

JO 

Total 

kTeanarea 

^lean width 

Ucan depth 

Sletok maxiunm depth 
tf ean high- water width 



Hain dhaimel. 


Chutes. 




Channel and chutes. 


Width. 


Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 


Area. 


Width. 


Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 


Area. 


High- 
water 
width. 


Area. 


Width. 


4,380 
3,100 
2,450 
2,150 
2,200 
2,150 
2,300 
3,180 
4,320 
4,660 
6,730 
3,700 
2,540 
1,350 
2,100 
2,200 
2.000 
2.150 
2,160 
2,100 
3,380 


20 
38 
46 
47 
43 
42 
37 
32 
26 
21 
17 
83 
47 
87 
27 
88 
88 
54 
47 
40 
81 


60,100 
51,600 
54.100 
56,300 
54,300 
57,500 
53,400 
63,500 
60,000 
58,300 
61,706 








6,280 
6,820 
7, 340 
7,080 
4,d00 
3,550 
3,550 
4,100 
4,750 
5,320 
6,450 
7,940 
8,700 
9,050 
8,520 
7,200 
5,780 
5,120 
4,700 
4.600 
4,960 


60,100 
51,000 
54,100 
56,300 
54,300 
57,500 
53.400 
63.600 
60,000 
58,300 
61,700 
50,800 
48,800 
85,500 
62,000 
52,600 
49,400 
58,200 
62,400 
53,000 
64,400 


4,830 




^ 




8,100 








2,450 








2,150 








2,200 








2,150 




.......i. ....... 


2,300 




t 


3,180 




*! 


4,820 






4,650 








5,730 


50,800 
45,200 
27,700 
43,400 
48,200 
49.400 
69,200 
62,400 
63,000 
54,400 








8,700 


i,i66 

1,050 
1,300 
1,850 


16 

13 

10 

8 


4,600 
7,800 
8,600 
4,400 


8,640 
2,400 
8,400 
8,660 
2,900 








2,150 








2,160 








2,100 








8,380 


1 






61,140 


765 


1,123,500 


4,800 


47 


25,400 


126,110 


1,148,900 


65,040 


53,600 
2,911 
18.4 
36.4 


6,350 
1,200 
5. 
IL 


8 




54,709 
3,140 
17.4 
36.4 
6,005 



















Survey of November, 1890,—SecHon of river from Range 40 to 60, inelueive, reduced to 

— 1,S on Lake Providence gauge. 



10 

11 

12 

la 

iff 

17 

18, 

■>o, 

il 

i2, 

>3 

Hi 

■ m 
►.■> , 

iC 

■>7. 
W. 
>0. 
K). 



Baage. 



Total. 



^feanarea 

dean width 

klean depth 

kf ean maximum depth . . 
dean high- water width. 



Main channel. 



Width. 



2,620 
2,150 
2,700 
8,160 
3,300 
8,700 
8,800 
2,890 
2.400 
2,000 
2,060 
2,080 
2,150 
2,760 
2,700 
2,150 
1,650 
3,700 
2,100 
1,690 
1,960 



58,720 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



83 
61 
86 
82 
46 
47 
44 
87 
84 
80 
28 
22 
14 
26 
28 
22 
16 
48 
60 
60 
61 



760 



44,790 
2,666 
17.5 
86.2 



Chutes. 



IWidth. 



62,400 
52,900 
52,400 
52,500 
78,200 
67,300 
68,700 
62,600 
57,100 
86,500 
88,600 
29,300 
24,700 
80,800 
23,400 
24,700 
15,200 
68,600 
44,800 
82.100 
42,800 



040,600 



460 
600 
460 



750 
700 
700 

aio 

820 

750 

660 

1,200 

400 

900 

400 

1,180 

1,160 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



12,020 



8 

7 
5 



6 
14 
11 

8 
12 
16 
22 
14 


43 

6 
17 
10 



Area. 



600 
1,500 
1,400 



1,400 
5,800 
2,400 
4,800 
6.600 
8,000 
6,000 
6,800 
2,000 
25,000 
1,000 
7,400 
8,400 



Channel and chutes. 



202 89, 100 

1 



5,560 
751 
7.4 
12.6 



High- 
water 
width. 



6,220 
6,700 
7,600 
6,950 
4,600 
8,700 
3,800 
4,300 
4,700 
5,500 
6,550 
7,890 
8.890 
0,500 
9,220 
7,500 
6,010 
6,150 
4,960 
4,750 
4.940 



Area. 



129,880 1,029,700 



Width. 



53,000 

54,400 

53,800 

62,500 

73,200 

67,300 

68,700 

64,000 

62,900 

38 900 

48,400 

85,900 

82.700 

86,800 

80,200 

26,700 , 

40,200 I 

60,600 

62,200 

40,500 

42,800 



48,088 
8,130 
15.7 
37.6 
6,159 



8,070 
2,760 
3,150 
3,160 
3,300 
3,700 
3,800 
3,640 
3.190 
2,700 
2,880 
2,900 
2,900 
3,410 
3,900 
2.650 
2,640 
4.100 
8,280 
2,760 
1,900 



65,740 



3800 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 



Survey of 1891, — !<eciion9 of river from Sange 40 to 60 d^clutive, redmixd t§ - 

Lake Providence gauge. 



Range. 



40 
41 
42 
ill 
44 
45 
4(i 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
6U 



Total. 



Mean aroa 

Moan width 

Mean depth 

Mean maximum depth . 
Mean higli- water width 



Main channel. 





Maxi 


Width. 


mum 




depth. 


1,600 


26 


2.160 


29 


8,520 


19 


2,900 


29- 


3,000 


25 


3,330 


80 


8,120 


42 


2,250 


40 


1,810 


89 


1.650 


41 


1,840 


42 


2.280 


26 


2,550 


23 


2,700 


16 


2,880 


15 


4,000 


17 


1,460 


22 


1,300 


22 


l,40'l 


24 


1.200 


22 


1,610 


24 



Area. 



30,400 
30,000 
32,400 
38,200 
43,200 
59,400 
62,400 
53.600 
45.800 
45,000 
40,030 
4i>,400 
40,000 
30.800 
22. GOO 
29,800 
17,600 
14,800 
13,200 
13.000 
23,200 



Chutes. 



Width. 



Maxi. 
) mum 
depth. 



660 
600 
600 



3 
8 
8 



Ares. 



Cliaimel and rr. 



Higb- 
irater 
width. 



800 

1,000 

800 



48,000 578 



732,400 



84,876 
2,286 
15.8 
27.3 



820 
500 
1,600 
1,600 
1,680 
2,380 



10,860 



25 
27 
18 
20 
17 
12 



128 



10,600 

7.4O0 

18.200 

12,600 

ao,ooo 

15,800 



82,200 



9,133 
1,151 
7.9 
14 2 



6,300 
6.830 
7.430 

T.oao 

4,730 
a, 710 
8,880 
4,35* 
4,750 
6.580 
6,500 
7,040 
9.000 
9,000 
0,280 
7,800 
6.140 
6,320 
5,150 
4,750 
4,960 



Area. 



131,000 



31. ?« 
31, t«. 

33. 2 f 
3i^, 2""' 

4:i,>; 
59. 4f» 

53 ^*^ 

45, t">' 

^m 

40. *•! 

46. AC'j 
40, At 
30. Ji »3 
22,&-» 
40.4C*' 
25, 0«' 
28 (** 
25,t->' 
33, (XX^ 
88,(l0i 



814,601 



38.790 

2,::* 

140 
27.9 
6,238 



Survey of October, 18S2, — Sections of Hirer from Range 61 to 87, Ui<^u9%ee, reduced'*^ 

on Lake Providence gauge. 



Xlonge. 



61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
06 
67 
68 

a» 

70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
70 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
80 
87 



Total. 



Moan arcia % 

M^'ian width 

Mean depth 

Max imiim depth , 

Maximum hlghwater 
-width , 



Main channel. 





Maxi- 


Width. 


mum 




depth. 


3,100 


46 


2,770 


58 


1,170 


54 


1,100 


65 


1, 280 


61 


1.480 


57 


2,220 


56 


2,450 


28 


2. 050 


16 


4,300 


15 


3, 0'JO 


16 


1,080 


20 


1,300 


61 


870 


48 


780 


44 


1,660 


87 


1,880 


29 


1,740 


82 


1,050 


26 


1,360 


18 


1,830 


16 


2,800 


61 


2,310 


48 


1.500 


74 


2,200 


47 


2,420 


38 


5,100 


16 



Area. 



52, 350 
45.000 
41,700 
38,400 
45,600 
52,950 
59,100 
42,000 
31.200 
33,750 
30,300 
14,850 
9,750 
9,600 
8,250 
12,450 
12,450 
22,500 
22,200 
21,750 
16,800 
50,400 
89,900 
29,850 
51,150 
43,950 
45,300 



55,750 



1,077 



883,500 



82,722 
2,065 
15.8 
89.9 



Chutes. 



Width. 



340 
500 
800 
660 
900 



800 
430 
1,030 
1,530 
1,800 
1,830 
1,120 
1,380 
1,200 
1.440 
1,700 
1,720 



19,070 



Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 



25 
16 
25 
26 

ao 



16 
27 
16 
16 
18 
19 
15 
16 
47 
59 
69 
51 



471 



Area. 



6,700 

6,460 

4,050 

11,700 

10,850 



2rl00 
6,160 
28,950 
42,000 
34,800 
84,660 
16,000 
17,460 
22,050 
33,000 
57,150 
87,800 



330,860 



19,432 
1,122 
17.8 
27.7 



Cbaniusl and cL~' 



w»er 
nidth. 



6,020 
6.210 
6,280 
4,020 
4,950 
6,100 
6,450 
0,080 
7,600 
8,290 
8,000 
7; 090 
7,220 
7.810 
6,760 
6,420 
6,060 
4,930 
4.550 
4,750 
6,260 
6.400 
6,710 
4,780 
6,000 
6,100 
6,850 



Area. 



157,450 



52,350 

45.001' 
47,4(« 
44.850 
49.650 
64,650 
69.450 

42.0UO 
31,260 

35.^ 
86.45C' 
43,800 
21,75fl 
84.400 
42,900 
38,450 
29.9(W 
45. ISO 
65,200 
78. 900 
51000 
50,400 
39,900 
39.850 
61.150 
A95(] 
45.300 



1,213,850 



li-; 



44.960 
3,771 
18.2 
4il 

5.831 



APPENDIX y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION, 3801 

Su rrcy of September , 188S, — SeoiUms of river fr<m Range 61 to 87 f incltuive, reduced to — /.5 

on Lake Providence gauge. 





Main ohasuel. 


Chutes. 


Channel and chnteii. 


Range. 


Maxi- 
Width, mum 
: depth. 


Area. 


Width. 


Maxi- 
mum 
depth. 


Area. 


High- 
water 
width. 


Area. 


Width. 


61 


8,830 ; 27 
2,680 ! 39 
2,300 ' 47 
2,250 59 


40,000 

86,200 

51, 200 

47,200 

69,100 

47,500 

49,500 

49,600 

41,800 

81,500 

24.000 

30,000 

61,400 

41,000 

46,800 

40,000 

35,850 

40,200, 

45,600 

20.000 

16, 800 

14,000 

45,600 

40.000 

50,000 

47,000 

50,000 








5,030 
5,480 
5,300 
5,000 
5,050 
5,150 
6,460 
6,110 
7.620 
8.400 
7,800 
7,150 
7,250 
7,500 
6,020 
6,100 
5.910 
6,000 
4,400 
4,800 
6,570 
5,320 
5,150 
4,760 
4,760 
6,100 
5,350 


40,000 
36,200 
51,200 
52,600 
69,900 
49,800 
56,000 
56,600 
42,200 
81,500 
27,800 
35,400 
51,400 
41,000 
46,800 
40,000 
35,850 
40,200 
45,600 
52,000 
41,800 
36,700 
45,600 
40,000 
50,000 
47,000 
60,000 


3,330 


62 








2,680 


6:j 








2,300 


61 


460 
560 
700 
680 
650 
300 


19 
23 

8 
17 
15 

2 


5,400 
10,800 
2,300 
5,500 
7,000 
400 


2,710 


65 


2,110 
1.810 


53 
52 


2,700 


66 


2,510 


67 


1,600 45 
1,660 1 46 
2,200 1 80 
2,200 22 
2,740 16 
4,000 13 
3,400 50 
2.660 ' 20 
2. 360 ' 38 
2,200 ' 33 
2,200 i 85 
960 ' 33 


2,480 


68 


2,810 


69 


2,500 


70 


2,200 


71 ,. 


320 
750 


19 
14 


8,800 
5,400 


8,060 


72 


4,750 


73 


8,400 


74 








2,660 


75 








2,360 


76 








2,200 


77 








2,200 


78 






, 


950. 


79 


1,500 
1,560 
1,500 
2,110 
3,160 
1,560 
1,650 
1,580 
1,880 


23 
20 
15 
12 
51 
64 
60 
57 
49 








1,500 


80 


850 

1,010 

960 


57 
39 
39 


32,000 
25,00(r 
22,700 


2,410 




2,510 


82 


8,070 




8,160 


84 








1,650 










1.650 


86 








1,580 










1,880 














60,340 


1,017 


1,061,850 


7,270 


252 


120,300 


167.440 


1,212,150 


66,610 






M^ean area ............. 


40,436 
2,197 
18.4 
87.7 


10,936 
661 
16.6 
22.9 


44,894 




2,467 


Mf^an flenth , r . 


18.3 


MeaD maximam depth . 
Mean Aigh-Trater width . 


41.1 
6.821 













3802 EEPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Surveff of Ooi<>her, 1884, — Sections of river from Range 61 to 87, inelneive, reducti ( 

on take Providenee gauge. 



BsBCie. 



61 

62 

68 

64 

66 

66 

67 

68 

60 

76 

Tl 

T2 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

P5 

86 

67 

Total 

Mean area 

Mean width ., 

Hean depth 

Mean maximum depth 
Mean high-water width 



Kain ehannel. 



Maxi- 
Width.' room 
depth. 



2, 
3, 
3. 
2, 
2. 
I, 
1, 
1, 
1. 
2, 
2, 
2. 
2. 
3, 
3, 
3. 
2. 
1, 
1. 
2, 
2, 
2, 
2. 
4, 
3, 
1, 
1. 



600 

090 

100 

280 

060 

780 I 

840 I 

390 ! 

750 i 

050 

400 

400 

840 

200 

650 

460 

490 

800 

220 

000 

500 

780 

760 

000 

700 

880 

640 



66,500 



86 
19 
62 
56 
51 
50 
49 
53 
41 
86 
25 
29 
26 
18 
28 
20 
49 
49 
54 
M 
21 
23 
17 
52 
49 
55 
58 



1,025 



53,800 
'40,500 
43,400 
26,000 
33,000 
42,000 
40,600 
48,800 
43,000 
44.800 
38,400 
40.800 
35.000 
23,600 
26.000 
56,800 
48,600 
37,700 
86,000 
36,000 
36,900 
84,400 
28,400 
85,700 
83.400 
40,000 
52,000 



1, 052. 100 



88,966 

2,468 
15.8 
87.9 



Chntea. 



Width 



150 
500 

650 
700 
350 
850 



840 
700 



400 

420 
BOO 
850 
400 
500 
840 
700 



10,100 



Maxi. 

mmn 
depth. 



6 

24 

13 

12 

8 

6 



•0 



17 

17 

6 

5 

4 

8 

27 

40 



1,900 
6,400 
6,000 
5,600 
1,400 
1,800 



18,500 
10.600 
16.000 
3,100 
4.00O 
8,000 
3,800 
1,400 
2,800 
8,000 
1.400 



06.800 



5, 



664 
9.58 
16.6 



Channel and ft 



HIieV 
water 
width. 



6,166 
5,210 
6,400 
5,000 
5,060 
5.140 
5,550 
6,060 
7,660 
S.040 
8.020 
7,150 
7,460 
7,560 
6,000 
6,400 
6,100 
4,900 
4,560 
4.800 
5,490 
5,550 
5.190 
4.600 
5,220 
5,780 
6,160 



166.866 



Area. 



53. 3(^ 
40, 5u 
43.40C 
27.2a 
41 W 
48, &f' 

4«.?A' 

45. av 
44.:.f» 

44.XIJI 

as,**' 
4o.aoo 

53.50^ 
34,201' 
42.00C 
SB. MO 
5S,ftfl 
40, 7W 
31.600 
39,4(K 
39.700 
42. *» 
28,900 
35.700 
33, 4A' 
46,000 
52,000 



1,148,4« 



42,531 

2,837 
149 
38. T 

6,91« 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPOfiT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVBE COMMISSION. 3803 





UaiB oliuiti«l. 


Chntu. 


Chuuet ud ohataa. 


Range. 


Width. 


Mul- 


^. 


™ 


Mui. 


.». 


wldlh. 


Are*. 


wiath. 




s,ooa 

S.MO 
8.U0 
!,S« 
3, MO 

iItso 
\,m 

Hi 

2, £00 
3,1M) 
3,000 

a, MO 
s.oto 

3.MU 


IB 

1 
I 
1 

M 
M 

11 
22 

42 

IS 
2« 

13 


31 9M 

Is 

u^g«o 

si3S0 

H'too 
as! 850 

II 

W.KD 

38,700 

30, goo 








6.100 
\«0 

S.100 

8,190 

e.MO 
b;4oo 

3 

T,K» 
T.OOO 
S.5U 

0.100 

6,400 

i.m 

11 
li 

s:mo 

T.OOO 


31,360 

S:!S 

11 

43,800 
M^OOO 

wisoo 
iTiaM 

42. BOO 
33,000 
39, TOO 
31,360 
Z8,700 
34.060 

ss 
li 

30,000 


3.000 










3,600 
2.040 

a;o«o 

2,200 




100 


J 


UO 
l.MO 








K 


IS 


MO 
1,«» 














31120 
IB 
























230 

3S0 

4M 


12 
3 


«!050 

s,wo 














two 








MM 
MO 

aso 
eao 

MO 

130 








4, 640 












120 

6S0 
TOO 


U 


s:4so 

iuo 




































3.000 



3804 REfOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U- fi. ARMY 

Survey of Novmnbm'f 1888, — Section* of Httr from Range SI to 87, inetunrt, rfi-. 

— 1,5 on Jjiake Providence gauge. 



61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 



72 
73 

74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
70 
81 
82 
88 
84 
85 
86 
87 



Range. 



Total. 



Main channel. 



Widtb. 



Mean area 

Mean widtb 

Mean a^pth 

Mean maximam depth . 
Mean high- water width 



8,740 
3,750 
8,600 
800 
1,150 
1,480 
1,620 
1,910 
1.700 
2.800 



71 1 2,000 



2.150 
2,400 
8,100 
2,120 
8,400 
4,000 
8,750 
4,400 
2,250 
2,200 
4,450 
3,200 
2,250 
1,560 
1,900 
3,140 



70,270 



mnm 
depth. 



26 
39 
52 
67 
67 
62 
66 
46 
88 
38 
37 
41 
38 
42 
45 
23 
17 
23 
21 
19 
26 
30 
82 
85 
88 
88 
31 



996 



Area. 



58.400 
60,200 
45,100 
81,000 
61,400 
67,300 
64,400 
60,400 
48,100 
64,800 
46,300 
68,400 
55,700 
60,700 
40,100 
57,700 
63,000 
44.100 
38,000 
22,0(to 
23,000 
44,000 
40,000 
42,900 
38,800 
42,000 
47,000 



1.266,600 



46,870 

2,608 

18 

86.9 



Chntea. 



Width. 



1,600 



Mazi- 
mum 
depth. 



800 
250 
500 

300 

400 

2,000 



900 
500 
600 



7,250 



10 



10 
3 

13 
7 

25 
7 



16 

22 

7 



120 



4,080 

725 

6.6 

12 



6,200 



1,200 
1,000 
3,600 
1,200 
6,600 
8,400 



ClumnelaDd 



Hlich- 
width. 



6,000 

6,800 

800 



40,800 



6, 

5, 
6. 

5, 

6, 
6s 
5. 
«. 

7. 
8, 
8, 
8, 
8, 
8. 
7, 

•» 
«, 
6, 
6, 
5. 
6, 
«, 
«, 

5, 
6, 

7. 



180 
500 



450 
800 
«50 
960 
750 
040 
490 
000 
OGO 



240 
900 
460 
800 
530 
840 
600 
380 
860 
620 
140 
900 
090 
400 



Area. 



5&40i> 

50, >' 
45. 



i»' 



51. 41' 
57. '^*. 
54, 4C* 
S0,4(^< 
48, 1 * 
64. &s- 
4«,-3'." 

58,iC«: 
55. 7K 

60,7* 
41.3-.*' 

58,:i.»j 

56, »i! 

45.>i>: 

45,300 

30, «i^ 
2S.«.^ 

44,t'C»: 
45,006 
48,7'*'' 
39,100 

47,60£ 



178,760 tl,306,»' 



f- 



48,381 

3.671 

14.8 

37 

6,547 



PPENDIX Y T — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3805 

rvey of ^Tovemher, 1890.— Sections of river from Bange 61 to 87, inclu9ive, reduced to 

— 1,6 on Lake Providence Gauge, 





Main ohanuel. 


Chates. 


Channel and ohates. 


Range. 


Width. 


Maxi- 
mum 
depth 


/Lxea. 


Width. 


Maxi. 

mum 

depth. 


Area. 


HiKh. 
water 
width. 


Area. 


Width. 




1,700 
2,380 
3.000 
;j.3C0 
3, 050 


36 

25 
21 
19 
45 
46 
39 
60 
58 
43 
45 
42 
45 
57 
50 
41 
28 
29 
21 
25 
34 
38 
83 
28 
27 
25 
32 


42,400 
46,900 
46,400 
40,500 
45,800 
48,200 
48,000 
88.200 
52,800 
53,30a 
54,800 
56,000 
58,600 
71f600 
65.500 
52,500 
54,300 
32,100 
45,500 
29.200 
43.000 
40,800 
44,200 
45,400 
44,200 
44,100 
41,800 


• 




• 


6,110 
5,400 
5,580 
5.200 
5,810 
5,480 
6.080 
6,610 
8,000 
9,110 
9,250 
9.150 
9.410 
8,950 
8,050 
6,900 
6,400 
5,650 
5,440 
6,720 
6,700 
7.100 
7,180 
6,900 
6.500 
6,350 
7.000 


42,400 
46,900 
46,400 
46,500 
45,S00 
48,200 
48,000 
38,200 
52,800 
53.300 
64,800 
56,900 
58,600 
71,600 
66,000 
52,500 
68,700 
84,500 
49,900 
32,800 
43,000 
40,800 
46,200 
46,800 
62,600 
48,500 
41,300 


1,700 
2,380 
3,000 
8,800 
3,050 
2,860 
2,200 
600 
1,810 
2,020 
2,080 
2,110 
2,010 
2,420 
3,120 
8,580 
5,880 
4.100 
4,780 
4,800 
3,050 
2,600 
2,600 
2,750 
3,350 
3,300 
2,240 


1 




1 




1 




















2,360 
2,200 
600 
1,810 
2.020 
2,080 
2,110 
2.010 
2,420 
2,900 
3,580 
5.300 
3,700 
4,380 
3,500 
3,050 
2,600 
2,200 
2,450 
2,450 
2,400 
2,240 


















1 




1 ,, 


f 




> 


1 






1 




» 








J 








I 








3 , 


220 


10 


1,400 


5 


7 


580 

400 

400 

1,300 


11 

16 

24 

4 


4,400 
2,400 
4,400 
3,600 


8 





.• 


1 


2 










400 
300 
900 
900 


7 
3 

13 
7 


1,000 

400 

8,400 

4,400 


4 




e 














71,790 


982 


1,292,500 


6,400 


05 


30,400 


184,530 ^1,822.900 


77,190 




(Aeanarea........ 


47,870 

2,659 

18 

3013 


3,377 

600 

5.6 

10.5 


48,096 
2 859 




!^cazi depth 


17 1 


Skfean mtuclmnm depth.. 
Mean hich- water width . 


36.5 















3806 REPORT OP THE CaiBF OP ENOINBEBS, D. 8. ASHY. : 



K.toa 

JT.MO 
41. 400 
tt.MS 



11 3.»l 



17, awl iii,*8ii i.«i,>-v 



Appendix 5 D. 



COST OF UNITKD STiTlta L 
Colt of levtet in the Third Datr 



AltKAKBAfi, AND LOll^U^ 



MISSISSIPPI. 



irout 


K„..,,.™. 


Bnllt b;— 


Cubic yml. 


Cort.iwW 


-i 








J,«1.T7* 


I1.M1J 

i3,ia» 
11, win 






HIgb iraUr proteirllDO ud 

Ult 26SI to 2700. 
From SlBtlon 2800 to 2000 .. 






IMS 

tm 


J.S.U<iTlgh»&Ca... 
W.L.With™ 

j's-urTighoTci;:; 


BM,1B7 

MkM3 

M.UT 
65. M« 




}»^ 


CBlfi^hPdlBl 


t£ 






C.F.IteGJri.*ci-.. 

TlmotbySulllvwi 


























3,iA13> 


m.m» 










_ 



PENDIX Y Y — REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3807 

oj levees in the Third IHstrict, hiili and enlarged by the United States, from X88i to 

May SI, 189S — Continaed. 



AKKAlfSAS. 



lit. 



•92 
•92 



Name of levM. 



Levee ooaBtmGtion 

High- water protection aod 
engineering ezx>eusee. 

Panwer Forest 

Lower Leland 

Middle Place Loop 

Lakeport Crerasse 

Brooks Mill Creyasse 

Upper Leland 

Lona 

Panther Forest (Station 
1635 to station 1742). 

Pastona 

Lakeport 

Expended, high- water pro- 
tection ana engineering 
expenses. Hay 81, 1892, to 
May 81,1888. 

Total to May 81, 1893. 



Boilt by- 



Arnold 8c Co 

Sterling Fort 

J.S.McTighe&Oo... 
James S. ^ak 

Stripling i* Wright'.! '. 

Snlllvan &. Lewis 

Isaac M. Werthington , 



C.F.DeGaris.. 
Jolin C. Hodgo. 



Cnbio yards. 



8,098,606 



172,4:^5 

10,982.5 

75,984.1 

6,941.5 

64,896.7 

95,382.2 

337,229.2 

826.003.8 

28, 186. 8 
85,493.7 



Cost, includ- 
ing extra 
work. 



Location on 
inch to mile 
map. 



$660,148.87 
139,819.08 

56,266.92 
2,196.50 

18, 080. 18 
1,093.28 

V| S44. oS 

19,076.44 
47,802.24 
67,957.78 

6,483.85 
20,411.62 
61, 412. 60 



4,301,490 



1, 109, 707. 70 



R. 451. 
fi. 485. 
R. 430. 
R. 496. 
R. 606. 
R. 409. 
R.408.* 
R. 462-453. 

R« 466. 
R. 467. 



'$5, 311. 35 additional retained and unpaid May 31, 1893. 

LOUISIANA. 



-'92 - . 

-02.. 



Levee constrnctidn 

Higb-water protection and 
engineering expens«*s. 

(MilUkens Bend to Cabin 
Teele) Station to 31. 

Station 31 to 164 

Station 161 to junction with 
levee, below Cabin Teele. 

Expended, high-water pro- 
tection ana engineering 
ex^nses. May 31, 1802, to 
May 31, 1893. 



Total te May 31, 1893 



M. V. Henry 



do 

F. L. Maxwell. 



1,994,557.8 



73, 118 

309,996.5 
77,099.7 



2,454,774 



$443,016.27 
12i»,278.67 

13,892.42 

60,449.70 
11,364.49 

12,928.86 



661,930.80 



[B.681toR. 
584. 



Appendix 6 B. 



TEMKNT, SUBMITTED BY MR. ARTHUR HIDER, UNITED STATES ASSISTANT ENGINEER, 
F COST OF REPAIRS TO PLANT, THIRD DISTRICT, IMPROVING MISSISSIPPI RIVER, MAY 

, 1892, TO APRIL 80, 1893. 

[Boats marked (*) have been dooked, twoity-tbree In nnmber.] 

amer Oseeola*, General repairs; new cylinder timbers, new sides and 
ew frames wbere necessary; new beams and new deck forward of 
ngine; repairs to cabin, same painted; two sheets put in boilers, new 
reoching, machinery oYorbauled, new furnaces, and ordinary repairs 

uring the season $5, 135. 31 

amer Meter, New heaters, shafts welded, wheel rebuilt, new packing 
n engines, furnaces rebuilt, new fire pump, and painting and ordinary 

epairs during the season 859. 61 

amer Vidalia.* General repairs: new sides and new frames where neces- 
ary; stem repaired, new rudders, new deck and beams forward of 
ngines, new boiler deck outside of cabin, new crank pins, new bed plates 
nd fastenings for cylinders, new breeching, three new sheets put in 
toilers, new fire pump, machinery overhauled, painting and ordinary 

epairs during the season 6, 272. 31 

amer Parker (tug). Ordinary repairs; two new head sheets put in boil- 
rs, Jiew breeching and ordinary repairs to hull and machinery during 
he season 939.23 



3808 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENOmEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Steamer Etkeridge. General repairs; new deck forward of eagincs, repain 
to guards, boiler deck, painting, new battery of boilers, new engine luid 
dynamo, new breeching and fire pump, maciiinery overhauled, and ordi- 
nary repairs during the season *»■ 

Steamer I'edeti^.* General repairs; new sides, stem and stem, newbeanu 
and deck forward of engines, new guards, new crank pins, new packing; 
for cylinders, machinery repaired, pipe work in hold renewed, aud 
ordinary repairs during the season 

Grader No. 1. Ordinary repairs; machinery overhauled, new roof over 
after cabin, painting, and minor repairs daring the season 

Grader No. 3.* General repairs, i«ides'and rakes rebuilt, new deck beams 
and deck, new roof over after cabin, machinery overhauled and repaired, 
new sta^k, pninting, and ordmary repairs during the season 

Grader No. 77. Ordinary repairs; new steatti and water pipes, new coil in 
heater, new suction and siphon pipe, two auxiliary Hooker pumps set 
up, and minor repairs made during the season 

Quarter boat No. 16. Ordinary repairs during season 

Quarter boat No. 17. Same '. 

Quarter boat No. 19. Same 

Quarter boat No. 38.* General repairs; new gunwales and rakes, new floor 
timbers where neeessarv, and ordinary repairs during the season 

Headquarters boat No. 31. General repairs to guards, deck, au<l cabin, 
calking above light water, and repairs to water pipes and boiler, and 
minor repairs during season 

Quarter boat No. 34. General repairs to cabin to make ready for service. 
(Cabin now transferred to barge No. 87) 

Quarter boat No. 33. Ordinary repairs to kitchen outfit. (Cabin now traus- 
ferred to Barge No. 86) 

Quarter boat No. 156.* General repairs; new gunwales, rakes, deck beams, 
and deck. Cabin of old quarter boat No. 22 transferred and fitted np 
inside. Kitchen outfit repaired - 

Quarter boat No. 157. General repairs to hull. Cabin of old quarter boat No. 
21 transferred and fitted up inside, and kitchen outfit repaired 

Quarter boat No. 155.* General repairs to hull. Cabin of old quarter boat 
No. 35 transferred and fitted up inside. Kitchen outfit repaire<l '^ 

Quarter boat No. 159.* General repairs; new gunwales, rakes, deck beams, 
floor timber, and bulkheads. Cabin of quarter boat No. 24 transferred and 
fitted up inside. Kitchen outfit repaired 'l^ 

Quarter boat No. 88.* Genenil repairs, nflw gunwales, rakes, deck beams 
and deck. Cabin of old quarter boat No. ^ transferred and fitted np in- 
side. Kitclien outfit repaired -•' 

Qnarter boat No. 154.* General repairs. New bottom giinwales and rakes. 
Cabin of old quarter boat No. 37 transferred and fitted up inside. Kitchen 
outfit repaired * 1' 

Quarter boat No. 36. Ordinary repairs made to cooking ranges and minor 
repairs to cabin. Cabiii now transferred onto barge No. 158 

Quarter boat No. 142 (the Cheater) minor repairs 

Qnarter boat No. 86. General repairs to hull, etc. Cabin of old qnarter boat 
No. 33 transferred and fitted up inside. Kitchen ontfit repaired ' 

Qnarter boat No. 87.* General repairs to hull. Cabin of old <}narter boat 
No. 34 transferred and fitted up inside. Kitchen outfit repaired " 

Quarter boat No. 158.* Cabin of quarter boat No. 36 moved on barge No. 
158, now in dock having new bottom gunwales and rakes put in '^ 

Carpenter shop No. 78.* (General repairs to hull j new guards, deck calked; 
old shop transferred and new shop fitted up with separate engine, boiler, 
and wood-working machinery l** 

Machine shop No. 2^.* General repairs to hull, new guards, calking, oM 
shop and machinery transferred. Shop fitted up with separate engine 
and boiler. Machinery set in place 1" 

Property boat No. 85.* General repairs. Boat sunk in storm ; boat raised; 
new bottom, gunwales, and rakes ; decks calked and cabin repaired 

Pile-driver, No. 31. Ordinary repairs; new stack, new flues put in boiler, 
furnace rebuilt -. 

Pile-driver No. 32. Ordinary repairs ; new pump set up, new fines pot in 
boiUT, furnace rebuilt 

Pile-driver No. 33. Ordinary repairs during the season 

Pile-driver No. 49. Ordinary repairs during the season 

Pile-driver No. 34. Ordinary repairs; new fines put in boilers; furnace 
rebuilt 

Pile-driver No. 5-4. Ordinary repairs ; boilers and hoisting engine set up. 
new flues put in boiler, and furnace rebuilt 



X' 



APPENDIX Y Y REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3809 

Vfodel barge Apache. Ordinary repairs during the season, including calJc- 

ing above light water $111. 99 

Vfode] barge Cheyenne, Same 91.85 

hfodel barge Chinook, Same , 142.48 

VCodel barge Commanohe, Same 151.12 

Vf odel barge Maricopa,* Same. . Also break in hull repaired " 218. 66 

model barge Mohave, General repairs; new deck, new frames, and calking 

above light water 485.59 

tf odel barge Piute, Ordinary repairs during the season, including calking 

above light water 47.00 

Vfodel h&Tge 8ho8li<me, Same 68.82 

Viodel barge Uintah.* General repairs; new frames, stems, side plank, deck 

calked, hew kevils, and hitts 2, 458. 66 

^at boat No. 24. Ordinary repairs to put in service, including calking 

abo^e light water 188.73 

Vf at boat No. 31.' Same 131.23 

yiat boat No. 3(i Same 127.53 

!kf at boat No. 82. Same 117.69 

VIatboatNo.33. Same 128.01 

Vlat boat No. 184. Same 20.09 

Dump scow No. 1. Same 76.69 

Dump scow No. 2. Same 105.52 

Ooal boat No, 139. Repairs to bottom :. 115. 93 

Fuel barge "E." Minor repairs. 7. 43 

Fuel barge "A." Same 8.86 

Fuel barge "F." Same 8.07 

Barge No. 79.* General repairs, new gunwales, rakes, deck beams, and deck 1, 774. 93 

Barge No. 80. Ordinary repairs 11. 13 

BargeNo.82. Same 29.83 

BargeNo.83. Same 18.11 

Barge No. 84. General repairs, new gunwales, rakes, deck beams, and deck . 1, 735. 02 

Barge Np.86. Ordinary repairs 19.77 

Barge No 87.* General repairs, new gunwales, rakes, deck beams, and deck 1, 817. 20 

?argeNo. 106. Ordinary repairs ^ 22.14 

3argeNo.l08. Same 9.68 

Barge No. 111. Same 21.23 

Barge No. 110. Same c 10.80 

Barge No. 135. Same 25.65 

Barge No. 136. Same 74.15 

Barge Ng. 137. Same 82.07 

Barge No. 138. Same 63.26 

Barge No. 530.* General repairs, new gunwales, bulkheads, rakes, and deck 1, 267. 34 

Barge No. 534. Ordinary repairs .♦ 39. 24 

Barge No. 535. Same 57.79 

3argeNo. 539. Same 30.94 

Barge No. 540. Same 37.01 

3argeNo. 541. Same .• 54.41 

5argeNo. 542. Same 28.90 

3arge No.*543.* Same 95.66 

JargeNo. 545. Same 177.28 

Barge No. 546, Same T .' 71.41 

3argeNo. 547. Same 147.78 

Jarg^No. 548. Same 51.38 

5argeNo. 549. Same .• 161.30 

5arge No. 550. Same 31.26 

3arge No. 45. Same 14. 58 

5argeNo.l69. Same 3.30 

}argeNo.204. Same 63.78 

3argeNo.225. Same 66.15 

JargeNo.644. Same 17.63 

rug dock. New stem dock built -- 256. 18 

}arge No. 230. Ordinary repairs 34. 34 

JargeNo.205. Same 125.56 

JargeNo.212. Same •. 24.08 

JargeNo.201. Same 33.10 

5argeNo.207. Same 31.23 

JargeNo.216. Same 14.46 

JargeNo.217. Same 83.03 

$argeNo.219. Same 60.94 

)argeNo.214. Same 22.97 

ENG 93 ^239 



3810 BEPOBT OF THB CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. I 



Barge No. 220. Suae ... 

Barge No. 210. Same - 

Barge No. 226. Same 

Warehouse No. 2. Moving part of old niacfaiae shop on bank and blocking 
it up above high water for uae as a shed 



Total. 



&j. 



Approximate value of plant belonging to the United Statee and uaad tgnnt ike Tkvi 

iricty Mieeieeippi River, Mag SI, 189S. 



CIms of property. 



SUamboati^ eU. 



Xtherldge 

OeceoU 

Tidalia 

Tedette 

Meter 

StMun tac Purker 

Matt^eMlioata 

Headquarter, boat 

Quarter boats with outfit . 

Store boat 

Hydraulic gradem 

Hydraulic gradere (email) 

Bargee, model 

Square bargea 



Pieoea. 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

6 

1 

12 

1 

2 

1 

10 

00 



Approxi* ! 
mate 
raloe. 



Claaa of property. 



$•,000 
7,000 
C,000 
4,000 
8,000 
4.000 
6,000 
1,500 
7.200 
500 

1«,000 
1,000 

15,000 

85,000 



BteambomU, «ee.— Contbraed, 

Machine shop with outfit 

FlfMtine dock 

Camel dock 

Piled-riTers and machinery . . 

Small acow 

Yawla 

Skiffa 

Toola and appliances 

Office furniture, safe, etc 

Dnmpaeawa 

Surveying instmmeDts 
Predge bMit Menge — 



Total ralae 




I 



I 



lAet of oivtltaa engineorn employed on work of river and harJHfr improveiment in tier 
Capt C, MoD. TotDneend, Corpe of Engineere, from June J, 1B9£, to Mag SI. : 
inclueive, under the river and harbor aete approved Auguet 11, 1S88, Sq^tember i:-. :. 
March S, 1891, and July IS, 189S, 



Name and residence. 


Time 

em* 
ployed. 


Compen- 
sation 

month. 


W here cmi^oyed. 


i ' ' — 

Work on wkieh eopbf >i 


^Montht. 






• 


Arthur Hider, Greenville, 
Miss. 


12 


$250 


Greenville, Mias 

fArkaosaa City, Ark . . 


Care and repaixB tofibc^ 
▼etmeht at Loatsaaci ~ 
La.. Aahbrook ^'e^ k. I_- 
and Greenville. Misa 

Conatmction and prot«<t:\. 


X. C. TolUoger, Greenville, 


12 


175 


) 


lereea in Arkanaas. 


Miaa. 






iBenoitMiss 


Construction andproterti : 

levees in MioalasxppL 
DrDdgine in ViekalKUf H< 


H. St L. Copp6e, Vicks- 


12 


176 


Vicksbnrg, Miss 


bnre.Miss. 
John J. Hoopea, Arkansaa 








bor. 


12 


150 


Arkansaa City, Ark . . 


Constraotion andproteeci: 


City, Ark. 






fBenoit. Miss 


levees in Arkanaaa. 
Constructl<in and profef^Lti.: 
levees in Miaeiaaippi. 


J. B. Tan Meter, Bosedale, 


12 


150 




Miss. 






j Arkanaas City.- Ark .. 


Constmction and proickrii : 
levees in Arkanaaa. 


"W. 8. Brown, Lake Provi- 


12 


150 


Millikens Bend. La.; 


Construction and pro4%s-ti - 


dence, La. 






Lake Providence, La. 

■ 


leveea in Louisiana. 



AbBtract of proposals for levee work in Lower Yazoo levee dieiriot, reoeitfed and opene-i 
Capt. C, McD. Townsend, Corps of Engineers, October 5, 189t, 



No. 



1 

5 
6 

« 

9 

31 

16 

17 



Name of bidder. 



Station 
21A8 to 2380 



Sterling Fort 

Wm.R.Harvey 

John G. SeBSions 

Johnson, McLaughlin Sc Sullivan. 

P.F.Lamb 

C.F.DeGaris Sl Co 

J. S. MoTigbe & Co 

BuUivan Sc Lewis 



Cents. 
24 
25 
25 
27* 



21 
22 
22 



Station 
2380 to 2480. 



Cents. 
30 



27* 

24 
22 



Station 
2480 to 2550. 



Station 
12550 to 2838. 



Csnts. 
82 



m 



23 
22 



St:* 

12651 t.j 



Cents. 
37 



m 



241 
22 



Cea* 



I^PENDIX Y T — ^R^PORT OP MISSISSIPPI EIVER COMMISSION. 3811 



thstraet of propdMolf far levee work in Lower Taxoo levee dieiriet, etc, — Continned. 



TSame of blddw. 



I 

i 

S 

I 

1 

B 

7 

5 

e 



Sterlinc JTort 

"Win.I^. With«n 

Oreea CUy 

'Win. IL H*rT6y 

John Ct.SMsiona 

Johnaon, MoLaughlin A Sullivan.. 

CF.ItoGarte&Co 

J.S.MoTi«he&Oo 

Solllvan &Lewi« 

M.V. Henry 

C.A. Winter 



Station 
2700 to 2800. 



Oente. 
22 



21 



22 
22 



Riverside, 

Station 
2800 to 2900. 



Cents. 
25 
20 



22 

27* 

21 

22 



25 



Land Side, 

Station 
2800 to 2900. 



Station 
29O0 to 2962. 



Cmte. 



24 



24 



Cents, 
30 
22 
22 



194 

21 
22 



24| 



Catflsh 

Point 

Levee. 



CerUe. 



49 



24 



27* 

23 

21 

24 

33 



hatraoi of proposate for levee work in Upper Teneas levee diairiet, received and opened 
Ojf Capt. C. McD, Townsend, Corps of Engineers, October 6, 1892, 



7o. 



Name of bidder. 



1 

4 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

13 

16 

17 

18 

20 

23 

25 

27 

28 

29 



SterlingJFort 

BrneatHyner 

Jefhriea & Dameron 

Johnson, MoLaughlin Sc Sullivan. 

P. F. Lamb 

Scott ft Boasell 

BeGaria & Arnold ■ 

JohnMcGuire 

J.S.MoXigbe&Co 

SoUivan ft Lewia 

WhitehiUCo 

Stripling ft Wright 

A. A. Arnold ft Co 

M.V.Henry 

LM.Worthington 

Jaa.S.Peak 

Isaac Henry ft Go 



Closing crevasses. 



Panther 
Porest 
(R.431). 



Oente. 
59 
34 
39 
37 



84 



32| 
46 



Lower 
Leland 
<B.i84). 



CmU. 
*20 



24 
22 



20 



Lakeport 
(B.496). 



Cents. 
20 



22 



23 



80 
16 
16i 
25 



Brooks 

Mill 

(R.506). 



Cents, 



19J 
25 
224 
171 



19 
25 

18 



24| 
24 

m\ 

20 



Closing 
crevasses 

and en* 
larging 
Upper 
Leland 

(R.460). 



Cents. 
21 



28 



24} 



21* 



20 



81 
23 



Baising 
and en- 
larging 
Middle 
Place 
Loop 
(R.430). 



Cents. 



88 



27 
24 



25 
35 



* Contract a-warded. 

Ahelre^ of propoaals for levee work in Upper Tensas District received and opened by Capt, 

C, McD, Townsend, Corps of Engineers, October 5, 1892, 



Ka 



Same of bidder. 



1 
2 
4 
6 

7 
8 

10 
12 
14 
16 
17 
19 
20 
22 
38 
25 
27 



Sterling Port 

W.L. withers 

XmestHyner 

William R. Harvey 

Jslfrles ft Dameron 

Johnson, McLanghlin ft 

SaUiran 

Soottt ft Bnaaell 

Hartnett ft O'Brien 

O.B. Crittenden 

J.&lfoTigheftOo 

Sullivan ft Lewis 

Carlton ft Brya« 

Striding ft Wright 

Ed.C.lunney 

A A. Arnold ft Co 

li.y.Henry 

LlLWortmagUm 

iMasEeny ft Go 



Baiaing and enlarging Pan- 
ther Forest l^vee. 



Station 

1535 to 

1599n 

lB.449i). 



Cents. 
40 



27 

80 
22 



1^ 

21 



2J» 

20 



Station 

1599 to 

1648 

(B. 450). 



Cents. 
43 



29 
87 



29* 



23| 

44 

22 



Station 
1681 to 

1742 
(B.451). 



Cents. 



28 
29 

87 



24 
29* 



224 

45 

21 



Constmcting Lnna Levee. 



Section 1 
(B.468). 



CenU. 
20 
21 



20 

171 
20 



23 
151 
21| 
18 

19i 
22 
16* 
19 



Section 2 
(B.468). 



Cents. 
20 
19 



18 

21* 

I®* 
20 



23 

16| 
19i 
18 

17* 

22 
16 
19 



Section 3 
(K.468). 



Cents. 
20 
21 



20 
18 

21* 
19* 
20 



23 
19| 



i 



19* 
22 
16 
22 



Section 4 
(B.468). 



Cents. 



22 



20 
18 

21» 



^ 



18J 

23 
16 
21 



3810 BKPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMY. 



Barge No. 220. Same 

Barge No. 210. Same 

Barge No. 226. Same 

Warehouse No. 2. Moving part of old machine shop on bank and blocking 
U up above high water for use as a shed 

Total 6^.1 

Appr&ximat€ vulue of plant heJonging to the United States and used upon Ae Tk. 

irictf Misaisiippi Hiver, May SI, 1893. 



CIms of property. 



SttamboaU^ «te. 



Btheridge 

Osceola 

VldidU 

Vedette 

Meter 

Steun tuff Parker 

Hattre8»lK>ata , 

Headqnarter.boat 

Quarter boats with oatfit 

Store boat 

Hydraulic graders 



Hydraolio traders (small) 

Barges, model 

Square barges 





Approxi- 


Pieces. 


mate 




▼alue. 


1 


$•,000 


1 


7,000 


1 


6,000 


1 


4.000 


1 


8,000 


1 


4,000 


ft 


6,000 


1 


1,500 


12 


7,200 


1 


500 


2 


16,000 


1 


1,000 


10 


15,000 


90 


85,000 




SteambooU^ cte.— Contintifld, 

Maebise shop with outfit 

FloRting dock 

Camel (£}ck 

Piled.riTers and machinery . . 

Small scow 

Yawls 

Skitt 

Tools and applisnoes 

Office farniturs, safe, etc 

Dump soews 

Surveying instruments ... — 
Dredge bMit Henge 



Total value 



I 

li 

li 
s 

1 



5t 



2 

i 



.1 z. 



List of oivilum engineers employed on tporl; of river and liarhoT impro^^ememt m dv 
Capt C, MoD, Townsend, Corps of En^neers, from Jnne I, 189gy io MwfSi. 
inclusive, under ike river and harbor acts approved August 11, 18S8, September : 
March S, 1891, and July IS, 189S. 



Name and residence. 



Arthur Eider, Greenville, 
Hiss. 



B. C. Tollinger, GreenviEe, 
Miss. 

H. St. L. Copp6e, Ticks- 
burg, Miss. 
John J. Hoopes, Arkansas 
City, Ark. 

J. D. Yan Meter, Kosedale, 
Miss. 

W. S. Brown, Lake Provi- 
dence, La. 



Time 
em- 
ployed. 



Monthi. 
12 



12 

12 
12 

12 

12 



Compen- 
sation 

pw 
month. 



$250 

175 

175 
150 

150 

150 



Where employed. 



Greenville, Miss 



Arkansas City, Ark .. 

Benoit,Miss 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Arkansfts City, Ark . . 

rBenait,Mi8s 

Arkansas City, Ark .. 



1 



Millikens Bend, La.; 
Lake Providence, La. 



Work OIL which emp'. 



Care and repairs topbc' 

Tet^keht at Louins!^- 

La., Aahbrook >Vi - 

and Greenville. Ilu» 
Constnictioii andiawtp; 

levees in Arkanca*. 
Constraetioa andpretn:; 

levees in MisussippL 
Dredging in Yioksbxirx - 

bor. 
ConstmolioB and pnftert 

levees in Arkanstt- 
Constraetioa and priHa'>^ 

levees In Missunippi 
ConstmetioB and p^ot^ t 

levees in Arkaatai- 
Constraction and profrr^. - 

levees bi X^onlsisDa 



Abstract of proposals for levee work in Lower Tazoo levee distnet, received andop<9* 
Capt. C. McD. Townsend, Corps of Engineers, October S, 1892, 



No. 



1 
5 
6 

« 

31 
16 
17 



Name of bidder. 



Sterling Fort , 

Wm.R.Barvey 

John G. Sessions 

Johnson, McLaughlin & Sullivan. 

P.F.Lamb 

C.F.DeGaris Si, Co 

J. S. MoTighe & Co 

BuUivan &Lewis 



Station 
2148 to 2380. 



Centt. 
24 
25 
25 
27* 



21 
22 
22 



Station 
2380 to 2480. 



Station 
2480 to 2550 



Ststien H-' 
12550 to 2638. 26U: 



CfenU, 
80 



27* 

24 
22 



Cents. 
32 



27* 



23 
22 



Cenis. 

37 



Of^ 



27* 



23 



PPENDIX YT — ^RPPORT OF MISSISSIPPI ElVER COMMISSION. 3811 



ihsiraci of prop69aU for levee work in Lower Yazoo levee disirici, eto. — ^Continned. 



If am« of blddw. 



StetUng Fort 

Wm. !«. With«n 

GroeaCUy 

Wm.ILHarTey ". 

John G. SMaiona 

Johnson, MoLauglilln A Sullivan.. 

C.F.DoG«rit4bCo 

J.S.McTigbe&Oo 

SallWnn &Lewi« 

H-Y.Honry 

C.iL Winter 



Station 
2700 to 2800. 



Oentt. 
22 



21 



22 
23 



Klverside, 

Station 
2800 to 2900. 



Cents. 
25 
20 



22 

21 
22 



25 



Land Side, 

Station 
2800 to 2900. 



CenU, 



24 

'274" 



24 



Station 
2900 to 2962. 



Cent8. 
30 
22 
22 



21 
22 



24 



Catfish 

Point 

Levee. 



Centt. 



49 



24 



27^ 

23 

21 

24 

33 



retract of proposaU for levee work in Upper Tensas levee district, received and opened 
by Capt, C, McD. Townscnd, Corps of Engineers, October 6, 189B, 



Ktme of bidder. 



SterlingjFort 

Ernest Byner 

Jefhries & Duneron 

Johnson, HoLaughlin k. Sullivan. 

P.F.Lamb 

Soott 4& BOBMll 

DeG aria 4& Arnold 

JohnHcGuire 

J.S.McXigheACo 

SaUivan tt Lewis 

WhitehillCo 

Stripling & Wright 

A. X Arnold 4& Co 

M.V. Henrj..: 

L M. Worthington 

Jss.S.Peak 

laaao Henry A Co 



Closing crevasses. 



Panther 
Porest 
(R.4ai}. 



Oente. 
59 
34 
39 
87 



84 



32| 
46 



Lower 
Leland 
(R.484). 



OenU. 
*20 



24 

'22" 



20 



Lskeport 
(B.406). 



Owtt. 
20 



22 



23 

ii' 



80 
16 
16| 
25 



Brooks 

Mill 
(R.506). 



Cmtf. 



19J 
25 
22i 
17i 



19 
25 
18 



24t 
24 

13li 
20 



Closing 
orevasses 
and en- 
larging 
Upper 
Leland 
(R.469). 



Cents. 
21 



28 



24} 



20 



81 
23 



Raising 
and en- 
larging 
Middle 
Place 
Loop 
(R.4a0). 



O0UM. 



88 



27 
24 



25 
85 



* Contract awarded. 

hstraet of proposals for levee work in Upper Tensas District received and opened by Capt. 
C. McD, Townsend, Corps of Engineers, October 5, 1892. 



o. 



1 
3 

4 
5 
7 
8 

10 
L2 
L4 
16 
17 
19 
20 
22 
13 
25 
27 



Kaow of bidder. 



Sterling Fort 

W.L. withers 

Ernest Hyner 

William K. Harvey 

Jeffries ic Dameron 

Johnson, MoLaoghlin it 

Snllivan 

Scottt & Bnssell 

Hartnett St, O'Brien 

O.B. Crittenden 

J.&McTighe&Co 

SnlUvaa A Lewis 

Carlton & Bi 
StripUnc A Wri] 

Ed.C.luainey 

A A. Arnold 4t Co 

M.y. Henry 

LMWortfaiagtou. 
lisssHeniyfGo. 



Raising and enlarging Pan- 
ther Forest I^vee. 



Station 

1535 to 

1599n 

iR.449i). 



Cente. 
40 



27 

80 
22 



21* 
29i 
21 



20 



Station 

1599 to 

1648 

(R. 450). 



Cents, 
43 



29 
87 



29i 



23f 

44 

22 



Station 
1681 to 

1742 
(R.451). 



CsmU, 
69 



28 
29 

87 



24 
29| 



22| 

45 

21 



Constnicting Lnna Levee. 



Section 1 
(R.468). 



CsnU, 
20 
21 



20 

21J 
171 
20 



23 

l^ 
21| 

18 

19i 
22 
16» 
19 



Section 2 
(R.468). 



Section 3 
(R.468). 



Cents. 
20 
19 



18 
211 

i?* 

20 



23 

191 

18 

17i 

19i 

22 

16 

19 



Cents. 
20 
21 



20 
18 

20 



23 
15| 

i9i 



19J 
22 
16 
22 



Section 4 
(R.468). 



Cents. 



22 



20 
18 

21* 



28 



18J 
23 
16 
21 



3812 BBPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIKEEESy U. S. ARMT. 



AMract ofprcpotaUfor Imfee work in Middle Tenwoi i>rM IH$trM, received and §ft 
• oy Capt, C. McD, Town$end, Corp9 of EugiMer^y October 5, 



Ko. 



7 

8 

15 

10 

17 

n 

24 

25 
80 
81 



Kame of bf iftlor. 



JeffrlM & Dameron 

Johnson, McLaughlin &, Sullivan • 

John SooU & Son 

J. S. McTigh« & Co 

SulllTan &Lewia 

F.L.MaxweU 

J. C> HodgB. 

M.V. Henry 

W.O.Flynn 

Dan. L. Hebron 



Hllliken Bend to Cabin Teel^ 



Btaidon 

Oto31 

(R.581J. 



OmUt. 
22 
22| 
24 
29 



Statton 
81 to82 
(S.S82). 



denU. 



?* 

24 

29 



18 

23J 

22 



eStol«4 
(S.568>. 



24 
24 

24 






2* 

22 

23 



1-. 



C^- 



Abstract of proposah for leree work in Upper Tensa$ Dtsiriety reoeiifed and 
C, McD, TowH9end, Corps of Engineers^ November S4, I89B. 



hy 



Ko. 



1 
3 

4 

7 

8 

10 

11 



Jeffiriea & Dameron . 

C.F.lk'tiaris 

Kilpatrirk & Storer 

J.C. Hoc1i*v« 

Z. T. Carfwrti & Co . . 

Isaac Henry 

Timothy Sullivan... 



Name of bidder. 



PaatoriA I Lak^ 
(R.406). r (E, 



CSriU*. 



24 



24 



Cf 



Abstract of proposals for levee work in Lower Tazoo Levee District, received andepe»e^ 
Capt. C MoD. Townsendf Corps of Engineers, November 24, 1S92, 



Ko. 



3 
6 
6 
7 
9 
10 
11 



Kiiuie of bidder. 



C.r.DeGaris 

W.E.Ringo 

C. A. Winter 

J. C. H«>dge 

W.L. Withers.... 

Isaac Henry 

Timothy Sullivan 



840«fa 



Cr%n 



PPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3813 

Uract of proposals far hvee work in Lower Yazoo Levee Dietriot, received and opened hy 
Capi. C. MoD. Townaend, Corps of Engineers^ January 16, 1893, 



Kama of bidder. 



JefiVies Sl DamoTon 

R.T.Mardn 

John G. Sesaiona 

Starlins db Smith Co 

MGTighe& Co 

P.F.Xarab 

Kobert Johnson 

T.J.Bogae 

W.L.Kinebrew 

Thomau Worthiugton & J. C. 

NuU 

John Sc Thomas O' Hears 

W. L. Wilhera & Co 

T.C.FeMfnaon 

Harvev & McGiiire 

WorthilnKton, Nntt & Elkoa.. 

Merritt WilUsims 

Foley Sl McDouell 

McLiaoghlin Bros 

Tim SuUivan 

J. A. Dcaton Sc Co 

StansIIl & Clay 

Arnold, De Garis & Co 

J.B. Lewia..../. 

Connor St hemt«v 

Homan,MoFadden Sl Caasidy. 



Above Greenville. 



Station 
Oto 
250. 



Ctntt. 
20 
2» 



19 
22 
22^ 



27 



224 
22 
20^ 
20 



21i 
23^ 



22^A 

27 

19f 

25 

2U 

21A 



Station 

450 to 

680. 



Cents. 
19 
21 



20 
2S 
20| 



20 



32 
18* 



20 



lOi 
24 



22flflr 
25 

21| 

25 

19 

20/« 



Station 

808 to 

900. 



Centt. 
23 
20| 



lOi 

20 

23 



18^ 
28 



28 
171 



22 



27 

18 

22i% 

25 

241 



19 

i»A 



Station 

0(K)to 

1000. 



CenU. 
35 
39i 



24 
29 



31 



28 
23 



40 



19 

30 
29| 



21 



Station 

1000 to 
12J0. 



Cents. 
25 
25 



18 
27 
21 



27 



2^ 

18i 



22 



19 
25^A 

21,% 
24ft 



22A 



'Station 

1200 to 

1300. 



Cents. 
20 
20 
22| 



20 



18i% 
19 

20 

17i 



20 



18 
22 
23 

1« 



"A 



Station 

1300 to 

1423. 



Cents. 
24 
20 
214 



21 



24 

20 

27| 

17i 



19 



24 
18 

22^A 

22^ 

18| 



21A 



Belowr 
Green- 
ville— 
Leota. 



Cents. 



184 
17*' 



23 



18 
184 

l*iWr 



17 
l«iMi 



16i 
16 



istraot of proposals for levee work in Upper Tensas Levee Districtf received and opened 
by Capt. C. McD* Townsend, Corps of Engineers, January 16, 1893. 



i 

5 
7 

B 

1 

;t 

4 
b 

9 

r> 
s 



,> 

7 
8 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
•0 
.1 

>a 

A 



Name of bidder. 



C. A. Winter 

Jetfrioa & Daroeron 

Juo. G. Soaalona 

J5<1. D. Mantle 

Starling & Smith Co 

McTUhe&Co 

P.F.Lamb 

(). B. Crittenden 

Chan. T. Worthiugton 

T.J.Bogae 

W. L. Killebrew 

Jaa. H. Cary 

John & Thomas O'Hearu 

W. L. Withern & Co 

Stripling & Wright 

Will. H. Warner 

Hartnett & O' Brien 

McI^Aughlin Bros 

M.V.lfenry 

Hebron, Hebron &, Back. 

J. A. Deaton &; Co 

Aniold, De Garia & Co. . . 

Kil|>atrick & St<»rer 

Manning & Gibson 

Kmest Hyner 

J.B. Lewia 

Carlton & Bryan 

John C. Hodge 

WhitobillCo 

BenTalley 



Opoa- 

aam 

Fork, 

Station 

374 to 

414. 



CenU. 



BeU* 

view, 

Station 

95 to 

127. 



Cents. 



35 



*21 
244 



27 



23 
194 



20 
19 



18,!% 



19AV 
25 



214 



33 



24f 



24f 



21 



32 



24 
27 



17 
19 



22 

15| 

17 



22 
18i 



184 
24 



Paa- 

iorla, 

Station 

127 to 

104. 



Cents. 
27 
36 
33} 



28 



27 
27 
83| 



40 



35 



23 

20} 

34 



40 
30 



Dn- 

laney 

Loop, 

Station 

624 to 

000. 



Leland, 

Station 

600 to 

790. 



CenU. 
17 
23 
21| 



27 
'21' 



19tWi 
23 



19| 
184 
21 



20 

174 

33 



ISiWi 
16§ 



20 
23} 



21 
19 



CenU. 
23J 
24 
314 



224 

25 

27 



21 
23 

284 

80 

334 



Van- 
close, 
Station 
832 to 
862. 



CenU. 
31 
87 



32 

43 

20} 

21 

21} 

22 



20 

274 



234 



424 
37 



88 



30 
34 
33 
36 
50 



27 
48 



a4 



34 

42 
89 



85 



Sunny* 
aide to 
Lake> 

port, 
Station 
1116 to 

1216. 




19 



21 
194 



40 



19 
27* 



1:3 



J?** 



23} 



Comtnct mado* 



3814 SEPOBT OF THE CBIEF OF nfflSSEBS, U. & AfiXT. 



Y«. 



1 

3 
4 
7 


t 

u 
u 
u 
u 
1« 

8 
24 

2S 
» 

8 

as 



42 
43 
44 
4S 
44 
48 
SI 




C 

14 

14 

1§ 



04 

u 

IT 
Zl 



i*i 



a 



17 

17 



i*r» 



14 



M* 



I 



f 



IS 

19 

14 

21 
IS 

IH 



a* ' 

22 



U 

94 



19 

34 

14 



C A 

Jri^rjt» h, Lnxi^^m 

J^if.Ti G. Si««.'#C« -.-. 

M/. IlZtt^ A Cm 

p. F lja-> 

O E Cr.t-en.l-^ 

M.<'*Aet M TrS* 

f:t*rie» 1 W #nc:£;t4A 

Rf^Mtn Jo*i&*M* 

T- ■/. fc-^jr.* 

W.LK. .^-r*w 

Jsm««M.^. ...u 

J'.ta A*^ TV '*-fc» • » {l«arm. . 

W L W::ftijr« 1. « o 

S«ni». a« 4c W-i^tt 

HVAit 4 O Lr^c 

J*ii«« » P'-ak 12 

B'-cfT'ja. H-on/:: 4. Back IH 

M'LA--h..s I4ro« 17 

Tm -^uI-.ta* lif 

If V.Hen-r 27 27 33 Zl 

He4rr« h^-rr. B 4 B-Jck ' Sj -• 

J. A r>^a»*>o 4 To l>j 144 2* %% It) 14^ 

Arrx^it I^'AX.* 4 Co 15| 1»| ' 21^ l^t > 14| 

K .jAXn<k 4 "^'T^-r • U^Vt ' UJ^fc 

M&r.c.'-.c 4 ii.'**i.n , 

ErB^»'H:.n«r 15,V. l':\% 1V.\ 14^1 l^M 

J B. LewM U. -IS 23 . 144 ! l44 

D-iwrtat 4 rH.lT 14?, ' 

Jof.n C H'^Z*' - 19J 22| , 23| I 2q 

Wt«i!»-h 11 <-</aii«aiiy ...| ]# 



3 



I 1? 

\ 1% 



17 

14 

13 
14 
15 



r 



2» 









U 

IH 

151 
15 



m 



15 
13 



17 



? 



If 

14 
14 

17 

M» 

1«* 

15* 



H I Ben XftJej. 



I 



I 



n 






If 
1« 



U^ U| 



Contract avarAed. 



Abstract of propo/MU ftjr I free work in Middle Ten 

Capt, C. McD, Tfjtciuend, Corpe of EnfimeerB^ 



26,IS9S, 



opet 



ti 



3fo 



Same of bklder. 



I. 



TiOaTista 



Upper Middle 



1 

2 

4 ! 

4 

7 . 
12 
14 
15| 

16 I 

17 I 

20 ; 

21 I 

23 I 

24 

35 

30 

37 

39 

40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

49 

§1 



j 

C.A.Whit«?r ' 

J^^ffriM &. Damfron 

John G. S*-«i*ion« ! 

Siarline 4 .>niith Co , 

Mr'l ,:h*- 4: Co 

K^>b^rt Jol.nnon ; 

W. L. K.i>:»rew ' 

R/ib^^rt Nw hoi* •II-..-. J. 

JaJi. M. S'il.i»au • 

Albert >. Colrhorp I. 

F. L.Maxw^U I 

KHmui-d T. Whit« ! 

Wm.J. M«<'iinlv 

W.L. W:t}.<?P» k Co 

M^Lan^t.l.n Bro« 

Tiiu S-^lIiran 

M- V. H#-iiry 

John Scott 4 9ifm 

J. A. I>aloii 4 Co 

Arnold, LMiaria 4 0j 

Manuinz & Gib«»on 

J. B. Lewia 

Dnnoran ic Daily 

J. St*-in Sl Co --- 

John C. Hodge 



OniCi; 
15 
IS 

18H 



21 

i"4 

19 




IH 






171 

28 
18 

IH 
16 
15 
14,'.\ 

IVA 

l«i 

IH 

15 

16 



24 



204 

19 

24 

18 jV, 

19 

23 



23 



22^, 
1»| 



XTp] 



17 

23 



21^ 



►17 
19 
22 
181 

IJAIW 
17 

«14 



21 



«l 



LeTW- 






Cr.i 



191 

17A^ 
19 

s» 

91 

l»A 



.3 



:*t 






Contnet awardti. 



?PENDlX t Y — ^BEPO&T OB* litSBISSIPPI KitER COMMISSION. 381 5 

tract of propoaaU fitr atone received and opened hy Capt. C. MeD. Townsend, Corpe of 

Mgineere, February 9, 189S. 



Name of bidder. 



Judge C. MnRgrove. . 
Jas. A. Oeaton St, Co. 



Alfred H. Jalian Sl Co. . . 

Joseph Evans 

J. B. 6l W. L. KiUebrev. 



W. £. Hnnt ic F. C. Bmiii. 

Carey &.Shippey 

Fred Hanger 



J. W. Worthington & Co. . . 
Jno. E. Sc Thos. P. O'Hean. . 



EdwaidHelv 

J. S. MoTighe & J. C. Mcln- 

tyre. 
Alexander Hontgomeiy . . . 



Green B. Greer Sl John 

Atkins. 
DeGaris ft Arnold 



Homan, HcPadden St. Cas- 

sidy. 
Mandah Y. Henry 



Place of delivery. 



Greenville, Miss 

do 

Arkansas City, Ark 

Little Bed Kiver, Arkansas 

Greenville, Miss \ 

White Biver, Arkansas ; Little Bed Biver, Arkansas. . 

Greenville, Hiss 

HontingtOD, Miss 

Little 'S&A. Biver, Arkansas * 

Tasoo Biver, Mississippi 

Greenville, Miss 

do , f 

Arkansas City, Ark 

Little Bed Biver, Arkansas 

Greenville, Miss i 

......do 

Little Bed Biver, Arkansas 

do 

Greenville, Miss 

White Biver and trihutarlos, Arkansas 

Between Wliite Biver nud Louisiana Bend 

Between Louisiana Bend and Warrontou, Miss 



Little Bed Biver, Arkansas. 



Greenville, Miss 

Little Bed Biver, Arkansas. 
Arkansas City, Ark 



Greenville, Miss — 

do 

Arkansas City, Ark. 

do 

Memphis, Tenn 



Price per 
onbio yard. 



$1.79 A 

L80 

L90 

1.80 

2.19 

a. 21 
.54 
*1. 48fl| 

L58A 

1.54A 
1.66 

1.85 
1.51 

.71 
L67i 
1.721 
1.83| 

.6]} 

.78 
1.88 

.824 
L94 
2.19 

.47 

.57 

.74 
1.74 

.73 
2.28 

L87 

L83 

L97, 

L93' 

2.17 



* Accepted and contract made. 

)8iract of proposaU for two quarter hoate, four mat barges, fifteen brush barges, yellow 
pine and oak lumber, received and opened by Capt, C. McD, Townsend, Corps of En- 
gineersj March 10, 1893, 



). 


Name of bidder. 


Per 

qnartor 
boat. 


Per 

mat 

barge. 


Per 
brush 
barge. 


PerM 
feet, 

yellow 
pino. 


Bemarks. 


I 


WicEel Bros 






$3,175 
8,200 
3,250 
2»970 


J $28 
I 33 




2 


M. A Sweenv Co 


$4,400 
5,650 


$4,980 
5,.350 




i 


Ed. J. Howaid 




i 


S.M.Flesher 


Becommended for acceptance for 

15 barges. 
Bough lumber, recommended for 


5 


Woodward & Wight Co., 
limited. 














acceptance. Decking, recom* 
mended for acceptance. 



No bid received for oak Inmber. 



3816 : KPOBT OF THE CHEEP OF £NGIN££BS, U. S. ABMY. 

^ APPBKDIX 6. 

Rkport ot Capt. John Millib, Corps or Enoikebrs, t}pon Ofkbaho^cs l\ i 

Fourth District. 

United States Ekginekr Office, 
New Orleans, La,, Jum L I 

Sir: Ihayethe honor to submit the following report upon works in ci.i.v 
this office for the year ending May 31, 1893: 

The office has charge of the Fourth district, Mississippi RiTer, for the ex» 
of works in accordance with the approved plans, specifications, and Teeou:!.- 
tions of the Mississippi River Commission. The district extends from Wan- 
7i miles below Vicksburg, to ^e Head of the Passes, about 13 miles from thr 
of Mexico, and comprises 484 mil^ of the river. 

The works under the Commission iuclnde improvements of the harbor of y^' 
and Vidalia, Mississippi, and Louisiana; channel improvements at the jmir:: 
the Mississippi, Ked, and Atchafalaya rivers near Tnmball Island, Lohib 
improvement of the harbor of New Orleans; the construction, repair and n. 
nance of a portion of the levee system of the district; the aialntenance oi ct.^ 
gauges; and certain surveys^ observations, and otherispeoial work. 

HARBOR or NATCHXZ AND YIDAUA. 

The rapid caving of the bank in Giles Bend above Natchez has narrowed the 
cent neck so that there is danger that the river eventually will break throu:: 
high water and form a permanent cut-off. Should such cut-off take pUcf 
apprehended that the river may change its course below by rapid erosion ml 
west bank, accompanied by fkccretion on the east bank. This would resalr i: ' 
destruction of a pcvtion or all of the town of Vidaliaand in injury to the ^^ 
£ront and landings at Natchez. The object of the contemplated works is to i 
and if possible prevent the formation or the threatened cut-off across Cowpen : 

By tne river and harbor act of July 13, lSd2, an appropriation of $80,000 wa^r. . 
for this work. 

On August 5 the Commission adopted the following resolution: "That in 
opinion of the Commission the amount appropriated for the harbor at Katrhf : 
V idalia, Mississippi and Louisiana, is too small to justify beginning work ai 
place and thev accordingly recommend that the fhnds be held in reserve nntiir 
shall be very largely increased by future appropriations." 

On November 17, the following resolution was passed by the CommlBsion: 

** That it be recommended to the Secretary of War that the special appropriji 
for improving harbors of Natchez and V idaiia, or so much thereof as may be ur ' 
sary, be expended in constructing a levee along the axis of Cowpen Point'' 

Upon recept of notice of approval of the above recommendation, preparatior^ ■ 
the necessary surveys were made and the tirst survey was made in February, y- ' 
direction of Assistant Engineer Douglas. A preliminary line was located, bat* 
survey developed many features of the locality which, owing to the dense niil 
growth on the neck, were previously unknown, and indicated that a more econoii: 
fine might be found. Aaditional lines were therefore surveyed in April. A v. 
location was adopted as the result of these surveys, and report and project for ' 
strocting the levee will be submitted before the next meeting of the Commissii^u 

If the necessary right of way can be secured the levee will be built dormg*" 
coming season. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892 ^' ^J* 

May 31, 1893, amount expended during fiscal year X^- ' 

June 1, 1893, balance unexpended 78, o<^ 

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending J une 30, 1895 250, (^^' 
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867 and of sundry civil act of March 8, 1893. 



APPENDIX Y V-— REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3817 

Assistant Engineer H. S. Douglas reports as follows upon the surreys made under 
is direction: 

Natchez, Miss., May SI, 189S. 

Str: At date of last report no work was in progress and no funds were available. 
'iie caving of the river banks in the concave bends had pros^ressed at a ranid rate 
iid the high water of 1892 had developed a tendency to cut channels across the neck 
f laud above Natchez. 

The improvement desired consists principally ip the maintenance of existing con* 
itions in the river fronts of the cities of Natchez and Vidalia. These conditions 
re seriously threatened by rapid caving of the river banks m Giles and Marengo 
ends and a prospective ont-oif through the narrow strip of land between Giles and 
*owpen benas on the east bank of tbe Mississippi River immediately above Natchez. 

The river and harbor act approved July 13, 1892^ appropriated the sum of $80,000 
r>r the commencement of the work in accordance with the plans of the Mississippi 
tiver Commission. 

The estimated cost of the necessary plant required for the work of bank protec- 
iou revetment was $65,000, leaving too small a sum available to justify the begin- 
ning of actual construction of this portion of the work. 

It was considered that the most immediate danger to the harbors, and one that 
vonld be irreparable, was the threatened cut-off through the neck of land between 
riles and Cowpen bends. The land forming the neck is not high and at a stage of 
>8 feet on the Natchez gauge the river begins to run across through small channels 
>f recent formation. At extreme high water there is a depth of 10 feet through 
hese channels. The fall across the neck^ during high stages of the river is over 3 
eet, causing a very rapid current with a decided t-endencv to scour where the land 
B free from standing timber, underbrush, and accumulated driftwood. 

The approved project contemplated the construction of a spur levee, commencing 
kt the line of bluffs or high land and extending out on a line generally parallel to 
lie axis of the point sufficiently far to prevent the flow of the water across the neck 
Luring flood stages of the river. It has been decided to undertake the building of 
Lis levee. 

The work of the last season has consisted in making careful surveys of the point 
o determine the best location for the proposed spur levee consistent with economy 
»f construction and reasonable permanence. The topography *of the point is very 
ugged, being made up of a few narrow cleared ridges separated by wide sloughs 
overed with a dense growth of timber and underbrush. This entailed the running 
*f a great many lines, as each one developed some new feature and suggested another 
ine that might be better, the result of all being to give a very thorough knowledge 
»f the locality. The surveys developed among other things that what may be termed 
he effective width of the neck is much less than heretofore supposed, as the lower 
dde is only a flat mud bar which would be of no value in preventing a cut-off. The 
^'idth of high land which constitutes the effective width is onl^y about 2,800 feet. 
Dne of the fines crossed a former channel or old river bed, which is about 2,000 feet 
N ide apd would require a levee about 26 feet high where the line crossed. The traverse 
>f the bank line, or the upper side of the neck, compared with that made in 1891 
ihowed that caving was progressing at the rate of about 150 feet per year, the max- 
mnm recession of the bank from February, 1891, to January, 1893, being 325 feet. 
Eighteen pits were dug at different points on the neck to determine the character of 
mderlaying strata, "nieso pits were generally about 6 feet deep, at which depth in 
nost cases water prevented going deeper. The information obtained. was that the 
'oundation of the levee would generally be on very recent river deposit, and that 
^reat care would have to be exercised in preparing the base. 

Fifteen and one-half miles of alternative lines for a levee have been sun'^eyed, 9 
niles of bank line traversed to ascertain extent and amount of caving, and 6 miles 
)f meander lines ran to locate topography. The field work has been platted and 
3areful estimates of cubical contents of levees on different lines made. 

At the dose of this report no material change had taken place in the condition of 
affairs, except the unnsuallv rapid caving of the river bank in the Marengo Bend, 
Tv^hich has opened the river rally into Lake Concordia. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. S. Douglas, 
ABiiitani Engineer* 

Capt. John Millis, 

dnps ofEngtMtn, U. 8, A. 



3818 EEPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, tJ. s/aRMY. 

JTmcnON OF THB KlSSIfiSIPPI, RKD, AND ATCHAFALATA filVXSS, KKAB TTKSr . 

ISLAND, LOUISIANA. 

A detailed defloriptidn of the difficnlties in this Tioinit^ whick the improTeiL- 
are designed to rectify will be found in the laat annnaf report. In general > 
these difficulties consist in the filling up of Old River, which is the only na^ i. 
entrance from the Mississippi to the Red and Atchaftftlaya riTore and their :: 
taries, so that low- water navigation is impeded and at times entirely ohetnictf< 

This filling up is attributable in part to the deposit of sediment dnringp high «^ 
caused by irregular variations in the strength and direction of the enirent hi 
River, and in part to the caving in or sliding down of tlie soft hanl£B mdimcait u . 
channel during low water. 

The complete system of works contemplated with a view to eorrectin^ these : 
cnlties comprises the following objects : 

To check the enlargement of the Aichafklaya and limit its oatlet eapadrr 
system of low relief dams or sills located near the head of this oatlet xiTCir asti 
below the point where the Bayou des Glaises comes in. 

To separate the Red fh>m the Atchafalaya during low water and np to mi'l •- 
by means of a low dam at the west end of Turn bull Island, which tor all «' . 
below the crest of the dam would deflect the Red around the upper side ot Tan> 
Island through upper Old River. 

To complete the separation by cutting a canal across Carrs Point and ohatri} * 
the lower end of upper Old River, thus making the Red a tributary and the At 
falaya an outlet, separated from each other at medium and low sta^^es; whik \ 
conditions at high stages are not to be materially modified. 

The ^lan also contemplates maintaining low-water navigation throng^h lowfr 
River, if practicable, by dredging or otherwise, until the above system of wi»rk> 
completed. 

The entire Red and Atchafalaya system, whose only outlet is now thron^n 
channels which these works are designed to improve and maintain, comprised a t- 
length of about 4,300 miles of navigable river in those stages during which t 
are at present no difficulties in lower Old River. In low water, when snch di± 
ties are experienced, the narigable portion of the Red and Atchafalaya systcn 
about 345 miles for a^foot draft and 132 miles for a 5-foot draft. 

At the date of the last annual report the following work had been done : 

Two sill dams near the head of the Atchafalaya, with the shore pzotection &: 
necting levees and wing levees, had been completed. 

The sill or foot mattress and shore protection work of the Red River dam ': 
been finished and the dam constructed temporarily at a height of 3 feet abo^ e * 
sero of Barbres gauge with a view to increasing the effect of scour in upper < ' . 
River during the falling stage of the river after the high watw of 1891. The • ~ 
was partly cut down again to afford a navigable channel over it for the low-^.- 
season of 1891, leaving it at a height of about 5 feet abore the zero of Barl : - 
gauge for a width of 450 feet. No further work has been done on the dam. 

The site of the Carrs Point Canal had been surveyed and the timber eat alon«r t. 
center Une. 

Some dredging had been done in upper Old River and the usual work of bulM .. 
temporary spur dikes and of dredging, with a view to maintaining low- water ns' 
gation through lower Old River, had oeen done each low- water season. 

A telegraph line connecting the Gfovemment depot at Barbres Landing with ^^*- 
Melville, La., on the Texas & Pacific Railvray, the nearest telegraph station. i^>- 
been constructed. 

Bids for building or leasing a dredging plant for this work were invited hy adn' 
tisement of June 1, 1892, under geuerS specifications prescribing the conditr< 
which the plant was to fulfill, but leaving the detail of the plant to be propoe^ed i 
the bidders. Bids were opened on August 1. Only one bid was received^ that 
the San Francisco Bridge Company, of San Francisco, Cal., who proposed to l^o: 
pump dredge for $98,000. The bid was considered too high, and rejected. 

A^ertisements for a dredging plant designed specially for securing and mainU:: 
ing a low-water channel through lower Old River were issued on November 30, 1> . 
and opened on January 30^ 1893. The bid of the Bucyrus Steam Shovel and Dre^l. 
Company, of Bucyrus, Ohio, who proposed to build a pump dredge for $69,500, ^ 
accepted. Contract was entered into and construction of the £edge has bef^i 
It is to be delivered August 1, 1893. Th^ hull of the dredse is to be of wood. aK - 
95 feet long by 27 feet beam. The house will be double decked, the lower deok heii . 
occupied by dredging and propelling machinery, boilers, workshop, eto., and t 
upper deck affording accommodations for the crew. The propelling power will e.>: 
sist of a stern wheel with a pair of driving engines, usual steamboat type. Ih 
dredge will have pilot house and regular steering gear. 

The dredging apparatus proper is to consist of a centrifugal pump with 15>iB<' 
suction and dischargei driven by compound condensing engines and si^pUed t% 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OP MiSSISSIlPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 381d 

beam firom two horizontal cylindrical boilers with cormgatod internal fomace fines, 
'be suction pipe is supported on an ^^A'' frame pivoted at the bow of the hnll, which 
nab lea the oredffe to work on 30 feet of water. At the end of the A frame is a conical 
ast-Bteel cutter head for loosening the material. This cutter head is supported on 
abaft and revolved by independent engines mounted on the forward deck through 
specially designed bevel gear. The discharge is to be through steel pipe supported 
n pou toons, or when working in low water through a length of pipe supported direct 
rom the hull. The dredge is to have a practical capacity of 300 cubic yards of soft 
:iud per hour. Work during the past year was confined to dredging in lower Old 
liver. 

The dredge Pah- Ute, belonging to the plant, a Hay ward bucket dredge, belouffing 
o Wood, Bodley & Co., of Baton Rouge, and a clam-shell bucket dredge, the JUem- 
Ion, vrith. tug and scows, belonging to Rittenhouse, Moore & Co., of Mobile, Ala., 
vere employed. 

Dredging tiegan on September 5 and was continued until October 1, when the 
;vater became so low that it was necessary to suspend operations and remove the 
Iredge. 

The steamer J. E, Trudeau passed through Lower Old River on September 30, but 
tiad difficulty in getting through. From that date until early in November, when a 
Light- draft boat passed through, navigation was entirely suspended, and more or 
Less difficulty was experienced until November 19, when navigation was practically 
restored by a rise of water and a current through the channel which removed the 
sand depoaits. The dredge Pah- Ute worked on the clay lumps between Ash Cabin 
and Dead Tree from December 4 to December 19. 

The gauge at the head of TumbuU Island being no longer of any practical use was 
discontinued on September 10. 

The levee on the Simmesport side between the sill dams in the Atchafalaya River 
was repaired and partly rebuilt, and repairs were made to the telephone line con- 
necting the Government depot at Barbres Landing with Melville. 

The usual observations to determine the low-water discharge of the Atchafalaya 
at SimmesiN>rt were made during October. The minimum discharge found was 
12,506.25 cubic feet per second on October 16, 1892. Observations are now in prog- 
ress to determine the high-water discharge. 

Abstraoi of propoBals received in response to advertisement dated June 1, 1892, opened at 
New Orleans, La., August 1, 1892, by First Lieut John Millis, Corps of Engineers, for 
building or leasing a dredging plant for use at the works of improvement at the junction of 
the Mississippi, Red, and Atchafalaya rivers, near TumbuU island, Louisiana. 



So. 


Name and address of bidder. 


Building. 


Leasing. 


Total. 


1 


San Francisco Bridse Co.. New York Citv *. 


$89,000 


No bid. 


(80.000 









Amoant aTftiUble ftrom act of September 19, 1890 $85,000 

Amount avaiUble from act of July 13,1892 80,000 

Total 165,000 

RsMABKS.— Becommendation was made that the above bid be rejected and that new advertisement 
be issued. 

Abstract of proposals received in response to advertisement dated November S9, 189S, 
opened at New Orleans, La., January 2, 1393, by CapU John Millis, Corps of Engi- 
neers, for building or leasing a dredging plant for use at the works of itMsrovement 
at the junction of the Mississippi, Bed, and Atchafalaya rivers, near Tumkull Island, La. 



Ho. 


Kame and address of bidder. 


Building. 


Leasing. 


Total. 


I 
2 


Buoyrns Steam Shovel and Dredge Co., Bncyms, Ohio 

SanTrancisco Bridce Co.. San Francisco. Cal 


$69,500 
87,000 


No bid. 
No bid. 


$69,500 
87,000 


» 


H.S.Brown. Qaincy. HL* 













* Informal letter— no bid. 



Jannary 25, 1893, balance available $150,878.85 

Amoant covered by this abstract 69,600.00 

Balanoe 81,873.86 

SmiSKSi-Bld No. I is the lowest reoeived, and the bidders, being responsible, la reoomme&ded for 
aoosptsDioOb 



8820 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF BNGIKEER8, IT. S, ARMY. 

Money statement. 

Jonel, 1892, balance anexpended - ♦^.*" 

Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 18J)2 *?A" 



16?** 
May 31, 1893, amount expended during fiscal year to date ^'.v 



May 31, 1893, balance unexpended 13!*. 

May 31, 1893, amount covered by uncompleted contracts &\'*' 



May 31, 1893, balance available To. 



Aroountthatcanbeprofitablyexpcnded in fiscal yeareudinKJttneSO, 18^5 350,»»' 
Submitted in compliance with requireiuents of sections 2 of liv-er and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 18G7 and of sundry civil act of March 3, 181»3. 



NEW ORLEANS HARBOR. 

The harbor of New Orleans consists of a total length of about 13 miles of tb* * 
sissippi River and comprises four bends and four eomparati vel^ straight reachf^ r 
2 to 3 miles in length. At two of the bends the river changes ite direction soiseT. 
over 90 degrees, and the mean radius of curvature is about one and one-half i . 
the river's width. The other two bends are less abrupt. The average -width U r « - 
bank lines at mid-stage is about 2,200 feet. At high water the average widtb t- 
determined by the levees which are not in all cases immediately on the ban^- 
somewhat greater. The maximum depth at low water Taries on difierent £«- 
from 70 to 160 feet, and the maximum difference between low and extreme high ^^^ 
is about 19 feet. As the city is about 104 miles inland by the riTer from the G". 
Mexico, the effects of the tides are very slight and quite irregular, varying wit 
stage of the river and the direction and force of the wind. The mean enrrent -»- 
from 5.6 feet per second in high stages to a scarcely pereeptible current at eits' 
low water. The river usually reaches its maximum stage between Maroh 1 aaii . 
30 and its minimum stage between September 1 and November 30, and the vam* 
in height are never abrupt. 

The entrance to the harbor from seaward through South Pass affords a prac 
depth of over 25 feet, the depth of the other Passes or months of the river not i"^ 
sufficient for deep-draft sea-going vessels. From the head of the Passes t*. 
throughout the harbor, the channel depth and width are ample, and in most port! 
of the river navigable depths exist close inshore. For a considerable portion ui ' 
river front on both shores, continuous wharves exist, and there are detiushed wbs' 
and landings at more or less frequent intervals over a greater part of the entire «^ 
front of the harbor. 

The entire country in the vicinity of New Orleans is of recent aUavial ibrmatioi: . 
disturbedby any subsequent geological changes, anditis consequently low and fiat 
ing highest at the river banks, and having a gentle and regular slope away fr<a.i 
river. Borings made in this locality show alternate layers of sand and clay in ^i' 
ing thickness, to a great depth. During flood stages the river reaches ia height i 
or 7 feet above the highest natural level in the city, and the levees, which ai« es^ 
tial for the prevention of overflow, are as a rule necessarily built close to the \ 
line in order to meet the requirements of Ihe various interests along the river m- 

The nse of regular docks or slips and piers in theharbor is generafly impractiei 
owing to the variations in the height of the water, the unstable nature of the k.: 
the swift current at high stages, and the tendency to deposit large quantities oi ^ 
when the current is interfered with. Vessels are usually n^de fast alongside of *: 
continuous wharves, and since there are no good anchorage g^uiids, particularK 
high water, owin^ to the current, the great depth and nature of the bottom, tiiei : 
ditions generally m the harbor are such as to require an unusual development 
water front to accommodate a given amount of shipping. 

Although the condition of the river and its banks in this vicinity is one of er^. 
parative stability when contrasted with the extraordinary changes which often tx< 
u certain portions of the Mississippi above the mouth of Red Biver, the dsiL*. 
which results from even slight changes of the river in a port like that of Kew Orl««i^ 
becomes serious. 

In general the action of the river is to erode and out away and oanse caving ti 
sliding down of the banks on the concave shore and for some distttnce below, red- 
ing in the destruction of wharves, levees, streets, and sometimea of sheds and W- 



APPENDIX Y T — ^EEPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3821 

n^8. When this aotion occnrs on one bank a deposit of sediment ihtid consequent 
»hoaling and damage to the wdter front on the opposite shore nsnally takes place 
ilso. In certain localities caving of the bank has taken place in the straight reaches, 
ind even on a convex shore. In such cases the action is attributable partly to the 
.veight of larse masses of sediment deposited under wharves during hign water, 
vhichy when aeprired by the fall of the river of the support which the water afforded 
luring flood stages, causes large portions of the bank to cratk off and slide down. 
)ince caving on a straight or concave shore is not general and is irregular, the above 
theory as to the cause is not entirely satis^ctory, and it must be largely influenced 
>y some local cause. 

Caving usually ti^es place only during falling and low stages of the river, but the 
erosion which is believed to be its main cause is undoubtedly most active during 
lood stages, and it seems to be well established that with the completion of the 
evee system there is a tendency of the river to enlarge its section and acquire the 
ncreased discharge capacity demanded of it. 

In localities exposed to rapid erosion, where the bank is not protected, the danger 
>f a breach in the levee during high water and an overflow into the city now neoessi- 
bates building the levees at considerable distance from the bank line at such places. 

The genenu object of the works of improvement in New Orleans Harbor is to check 
sknd if possible to prevent the detrimental action of the river as above described, and 
to maintain the river banks in a condition of permanency. 

Under the approved project the work now in progress to accomplish these objects 
consists in the construction of submerged inclined spur dikes along the caving banks, 
which extend out normally to the bai& line, and which have heretofore been placed 
3.t intervals of from 500 to 1,600 feet. 

In addition to these dikes continuous bank revetment has been constructed in the 
intervals where the destrnctivof forces have proved very active. This revetment has 
%n average width of about 400 feet and extends £rom low- water line out to deep 
sv-ater, covering the entire bank slope. In building this revetment mattresses made of 
9^11 loyr brush Ibid poles and fastened with sawed timber and wire are first con- 
itructed in sections of convenient size and about 2 feet thick. These sections are 
;hen fastened together, forming a large mattress, which has a width of 130 to 150 
'e<$t and a length equal to the width of the revetment. This mattress is floated to 
:)o8ition between lines of barges secured by mooring lines, and is sunk by loading it 
jvith rock evenly^ distributed over its surface. After it is sunk additional rock is 
it^posited upon it. The spur dikes are built of successive layers of mattresses of 
liminishing width, oonstnicted in a manner similar to that above described, except 
>hat they are made two to three times as thick, and the willows are so laid as to 
eave square ''pockets " to receive and retain the rock. These mattresses or " cribs " 
ire BO designed that the top of the completed dike has a width of about^lB feet and 
fc slope in uie direction of the length of the dike of about 3 base to 1 i>erpendicular. 
Various side slopes have been given to the dikes, from 1 base to 1 perpendicular to 
i base to 1 perpendicular, the latter slope being now preferred. When the intervals 
lave not befsn continuously revetted the dike rests on a foot mattress about 150 feet 
wide. In places in the harbor where the water front is required for docks the crest 
>f the dike at the shore end is kept below the draft of vessels ; at other localities the 
2Test has been carried up to low- water line and continued up to the main levee by a 
ipur levee built of earth and paved with rock. 

llie design is to begin sinking the mattresses during the end of the low-water 
leason, but this has not always l>een practicable, and some of the work has been 
placed in comparatively high stages. 

The effect which the conttnuous revetment is intended to produce is to cover the 
entire bank slope directly after the caving for the season has ceased and when the 
l)iink has presumably a form best adapted to stability and to protect it from further 
erosion. The dikes are designed to arrest caving by checking the velocity of the 
3urrent and inducing a deposit and to support the bank. Spur dikes without imme- 
liate revetment- have been successful in some of the straight reaches and on concave 
sanks of large radius, but in the abrupt bends the dikes alone are only locally effec- 
sive. 

At the date of the last Aiyiual Report the following work had been completed in 
general accordance with the project as above outlined. A continuous mattress 400 
oet in length had been placed Just above the caving bank in the CarroUton Bend. 
I'^ive spur dikes had been built in the CarroUton Bend, two in the Greenville Bend, 
kix in the Gouldsboro Bend^ and eight in the third district reach. 

All the above work remains in place and has proved successful, with the following 
exceptions : In the third district reach the caving was arrested and a general accre- 
tion took place along that portion of the bank covered by the four lower dikes built 
n 1889, except that a small cave has occurred between Dikes 3 and 4. Along that 
>ortion covered by the four upper dikes no further caving took place at the heads of 
ihe dikes, but caving continued in the intervals between Dikes 1 and 2, 2 and 8, and 



3822 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. fi. AJOMY. 

• 

below 6. Theie has been no noticeable accretion. In tbia locality the i?i*'- 
between dikea are evidently too great, and intermediate dikes should be buiJ: - 
intervals protected with continuoos revetments. 

In the Gonldsboro Bend a small cave has occurred between I>ikes 3 an^l -. 
otherwise the bank line has remained unchanged. 

In the Garrollton Bend the five dikes all remained nndistorbed and the ban'- 
at their head was maintained, but caving between the dikes continu€»d, and ii '^ 
evident that the radius of curvature of this bend is such that spar dikes alei- 
not effective unless built with such shozt intervals as to render the woxlc exn^. 
expensive. 

Destructive caving has also taken place along the water front betireea Canr 
and Exposition Wharf, at Eighth street, at the Soraparu Market^ in the bend . 
below the French Market, and at Algiers Point. No protection work has been *'.>. 
these localities by the United States, but the city of New Orleans haa eonstmrtr> 
work and wooden bulkheads with a view to arresting the caving near the Ft 
Market, at Algiers Point, and in the intervals between the third £strict ^oi '^ 
This work has been partially successful. 

By the act of July 13, 1892, $80,000 was appropriated for continuing the v * 
improvement in New Orleans, and a project was submitted on June 16, ISHQ. i:* 
expenditure of this sum in constructing continuous bank revetment in the mx*r 
between the completed dikes in the Garrollton Bend at Sonthport and the pn:. 
of additional barges for carrying on the work. This project naving been apv' 
advertisements were issued for six decked barges, but as the bids exc€»eded tb 
mate contract was entered into for four only. The barges have been complete*- . 
delivered. 

Contract was made with R. M. White, of New Orleans, for supplying the ir" 
for the work, but as the delivery was too slow to meet the requirements a q .^ 
boat with force of men was sent to Profit Island and cutting of willows bv _ 
labor began on September 22, 1892. Mr. White supplied 1,1^.09 i^rds of ^ .: 
and 54.06 cords of poles. The force at Profit Island i^rnished 3,690 cords of li 
and 72 cords of poles. Rock was obtained partly by contract with J. W. Wi>rt. 
ton & Co., of Birmingham, Ala., who shipped it by rail firom their qnarrit^ i 
Birmingham and delivered it on board barges in the harbor for $2.50 per ton. 
supplied 3,749.26 tons of limestone rock of excellent quality. Nine hnndrv-^ 
ninety-seven and ninety-seven one hundredths tons were obtained by open-i£ ' 

Eurcbase of ships' ballast, delivered on board barges in the harbor at $1 j^i 
umber was supplied by the Brakenridge Lumber Company, Limited, and H. ^Vr^ 
Lumber Company, and wire nails by Woodward, Wignt & Co., Limited, under 
tracts. 

Owing tp the late date at which the appropriation became available and the . 
in the delivery of willows, sinking of the mattresses did not begin nntil Jane:** 
1893. The river had then reached a comparatively high stage. The swift etr 
and eddies in the bend and the large amount of drift running made a consiti'' 
portion of the operations of sinking difiScult, but all the work was successfully p 
without loss. One small section of mattress broke away, but it was recovertt. . 
replaced with no material damage to plant. The work was finely finieli^. 
March 9, 1893, and its successfbl completion, under the difficulties w^hirb « 
encountered, reflect great credit on the assistant engineer in charge, Mr. Wil • 
Garvin. 

Six hundred and fifty-two thousand and twenty square feet of revetmeaat » 
constructed at a field cost of $0.08919 per square foot. The cost of similar work 
season was $0.09604 per square foot. 

During July, August, and September a survey was made by Assistant Engis^ 
Garvin and Mott of the river front from Southport to the Exposition Wharf. 

This survey was made on account of recent serious caving which had neoesM*^^ 
building new levees and the sacrifice of much valuable property, and it is a^t 
pated that the protection work may be eventually extended do im* from Southp 

Money statement. 

Balance unexpended June 1, 1892 .' H,'^ 

Amount appropriated by act approved July 13, 1892 80; i^^ 



84. 7t> 
May 31, 1893, amount expended during fiscal year ' 84,7^' 

( Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June'SO, 1895 300^ OOk' 
< Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and 
( harbor acts of 186$ and 1867 and of sundry civil act of Haroh 3^ 1S9$. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI EIVEB COMMISSION. 3823 

bstract ofpropoMls received in response to advertisement dated October 1.1892, opened 
at New Orleans^ La., October IIS, 1892, by Capt, John MilUs, Corps of kngineers, for 
furnishing rock for New Orleans Harbor work. 



'o. 


Name and address of bidder. 


3, 500 tons 
of 2,000 
pounds. 


Total. 


1 


'^oodwsrd. Wiirbt St, Co.. Limited, l^ew Orleans. La 


Per ton. 

$3.15 

8.24 

8.50 


$11,025 
11,340 
12.250 


I 

8 


The Birmingham MLnhig and Manuracturing Co., Birmingham, Ala ^ . . . 

Onnnincr O^ravel snd Pavipi? Co.. Vickshnrif. Mi^s .-r--r. ............ 









Lmount ATaHahle $51,206 

Lmoimt coTered by this abstract 11,025 

Balance -... 40,180 

BxMABKS.— Becommended that ail of the above bids be rejected and that new advertisement be 
ssaed. 

Abstract of proposals received in response to advertisement by poster, dated November S, 
1892, opened at New Orleans, La,, November 15, 1892, by Capt, John Millis, Corps of 
Engineers, for furnishing S,600 tons of rock. 



No. 



1 

2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
5 
5 
6 
5 
5 
5 



Nome and address of bidder. 



Frederiolc H. Cabot, Ghite Gitv, Ala , 

W. L. Killebrew, Greenville, Miss. (Item No. IX 

W. L. Killebrew, Greenyllle, Miss. Utem No. 2) 

Woodward, Wight Sl Co., Limited, ^ew Orleans, La. (Item No. 1) 
Woodwanl, Wight & Co., Limited, New Orloan.i, La. (Item No. 2) 

Ganning Gravel and Paving Co., Yloksburg, Miss 

J. W. Worthington &, Co., Birmingham, Ala. (Item No. 1) 

J. W. Worthington & Co., Birmingham, Ala. (Item No. 2) 

J. W. Worthington & Co., Birmingham, Ala. (Item No. 3) 

J. W. Worthington 4b Co., Birmingham, Ala. (Item No. 4) 

J. W. Worthington Sl Co., Birmingham, Ala. (Item No. 5) 

J. W. Worthington Sl Co., Birmingham, Ala. (Item No. 6) 



3.500 


tons. 


Per ton. 


$2.(0 


L84ft 


2.70 


8.10 


2.75 


2.09 


2.00 


2.15 


2.50 


2.25 


2.50 


2.75 



Total. 



$9,205.00 
0,471.50 
0,450.00 

10,850.00 
9,625.00 

10,466.00 
7,000.00 
7,525.00 
8, 750. 00 
7,875.00 
8,750.50 
9,625.00 



Amount available $51,205 

Covered by this abstract , 8,750 

Bahinee 42,455 

Kemabxs.— Bid No. 5, items Nos. 8 and 5, as may be selected, is recommended for acceptance; it is 
the lowest and most advantageous bid received and considered reasonable. 

Abstrcuit of proposals received in response to advertisement dated October 1, 1892, opened 
at New Orleans, La., October 12, 1892, by Capt. John Millis, Corps of Engineers, for 
furnishing willow brush and poles for New Orleans Harbor works. 



No. 



Name and address of bidder. 



BobertlC. White,New Orleans, La 

G. W. Beagan, Bed Biver Landing, La 

G. M. Long, Delta, La 

Woodward, Wight Sl Co., limited, New Or- 
leans, La 

Tobias Nagel, M. D., New Orleans, La 



On United States 

barges at 
willow grounds. 



4,500 

cords 

willow 

brush. 



Peroord. 

$1.38 

1.65 

1.70 

2.00 

2.15 



400 cords 
willow 
poles. 



Per cord. 

$3.00 

L90 

2.17 

8.00 

8.25 



On contractors' 

barges at Expo- 

aiflon Whaif. 



4,500 

cords 

willow 

brush. 



Per eord. 
No bid.. 
No bid.. 
No bid.. 
No bid.. 

No bid.. 



400 cords 
willow 
poles. 



Per eord. 
No bid.. 
No bid- 
No bid.. 
No bid.. 

No bid.. 



TotoL 



$7,410 
8,185 
8,518 

10,200 

10,075 



Amount available $58, 615 

Amount ooTored by this abstract 7,410 

Balance 61,205 

BXKABXS.— Bid of Bobert H. White is the lowest and is recommended for aooeptano9* 



3824 REPORT OF THE CHEEP OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



AhBttiUii of propoaaU reeeiwd in reip<mse io adverti$ement daied Ookfber JS, l^'i 
at New Orleans J La. f November 15, 189$, hj Capi, John M%Hi9, Corp$ o/fx^ivn 
oonstructing six decked bargee. 



Na 



1 

9 

8 

4 
6 



Kame and address of bidder. 



Carbolineum l^ood Proseiriog «nd HannfMtBring Co., 
limited. New Orleans, La 

Pelican Saw Mill and lianufactoring Co., Kew Orleana, 
La 



Fourchy &. fonrohy, Kew Orleans, La 

Chiifitian Telson, sr.. New Orleans, La 

Huntington and St. Louis Towboat Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Bids received. 



$8,534.48 9mbh. 



$3,287 each for 2 

For the 6 barges 

t3. 850 each for 2 

Kct urn blanks ; can not bid 



Amount araflable 

Amount covered bv Ibis abstract. 



Balance. 



Rbmabks.— Proposals of Pelican Saw Mill and MannfWstnrin* Co. and Christian Trim. ^' 
for two harsea, being the lowest responsible bidders, are recommended for aoreptaoos. It »' 
mended that the building of the remaining two barges be deferred for the pc^eseat. 



Assistant Engineer Garvin reports M follows : 

Nkw Oblkans^ La., May ^l : 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the works of which ' 
been in local charge from May 18, 1892, to May 31, 1893: 

The condition of the works on the former date was as follows: The plvt 
been moved to lay ing-up quarters at Exposition Wharf and the necestjArr r^ 
work to boats and barges was in progress. The repair work was oarried oo c>v 
onsly except for a few weeks, when the services of the master carpenter were i^. 
to assist in sinking the mattress work in Southport. 

The first barges were sent to the willow grounds on September 10. In th^ c 
of September and October the old mattress ways or float were repaired v^ 
incline ways set up and an additional set of mattress ways built. They wen*'. 
same dimensions as the old ways, capable of holding a section of mattress 106 
in length by any required width. 

Five barges of willows were received in October, and mattress oonstmctiQc ' 
commenced on the 21st. 

The past season's work in the Southport Bend consist-ed of baUding ten man: 
to cover the entire space between Spur Dikes Nos. 3 to 3^, 3^ to 4, 4 to 4|, and b 
tance of 150 feet below No. 4^. 

In addition to the large mattresses for the above work, eight small mattiesBes^ 
built and sunk — one at the head of Spur Dike No. 4, two on the head of Spu-' 
No. 4i, and five in the pocket cave between Spur Dikes Nos. 4 and 4^. The <.' ' 
sions were as follows:- Three mattresses 120 by 400 by 2.15 feet eacb, covenn: 
space from Spur Dike No. 3 to 3}, making a total of 444,000 square £^t,d01).<^*'. 
feet; three mattresses, 140 by 400 by 2.15 feet, covering the space from Spnr P' 
to 4, making a total of 168,000 square feet, 361,200 cubic feet; three mattre^''' 
by 400 by 2.15 feet each, covering the space from Spur Dike No. 4 to 4i, lu^^ - 
total of 166.000 square feet, 335,400 cubic feet; one mattress 105 by 150 by 2.V> '■ 
below Spur Dike No. 4i, a total of 60,000 square feet, 129,000 cnbio feet; one ' 
tress 105 by 150 by 2.15 feet, and one 60 by 105 by 3 feet on the head of Spar 1 
No. 4i, as shown on plan, making a total of 22,050 square feet, 52,762.5 cable i^\ 

One mattress 105 by 150 by 2.15 feet, and four mattresses 60 by 105 by^^ ^ 
each, in the cave between Spur Dikes Nos. 4 and 4^^, as shown on ]daii> ib^^- 
total of 40,950 square feet, 109,462.5 cubic feet. 

One mattress on head of Spur Dike No. 4; it was built to fit the angle fbroif^' 
center jline of spur dike and bank. The dimensions were : width, 70 feet} l^o^; 
lower side, 200 feet; lengthy upper side, 172 feet; area, 61,020 aquaie feet, 1^- 
cubic feet. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^BEPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVEE COMMISSION. 3825 

The quantity and valne of material was as follows : 

,749 tons rock, at $2.50 per ton $9,373.12 

97.97 tons root, at$l per ton 997.97 

0,000 feet, B. M., 3 by 6 lumber, at $12 per M.: 120.00 

.320 feet, B. M., 3 by 6 lumber, at $11 per M 36.54 

6,442 feet, B. M., 3 by 6 lumber, at $10.45 perM 694.32 

.464 feet, B. M.^lumber^ at$10perM : 94.64 

88,745feet, B. M.,2by41umber, at$9.95perM 1,878.01 

pounds 9-inch steel wire nails, at 3 cents per ponnd 1. 50 

,450 pounds steel wire nails. 6-incb, at 2^ cents 30. 45 

50 ponnds 3i-inch steel wire nails, at 2.45 cents 11. 02 

,900 poinds 9-inoli steel wire nails, at 2^ cents 172. 50 

3,400 pounds 6-inch steel wire nails, at 1.95 cents 261. 30 

,600 pounds 3i-inch steel wire nails, at 2.4 cents 38. 40 

,961 pounds No. 10 wire, at 2.45 cents p*r pound 170, 54 

,825 cords wUlow brush, at $2.36 per cord 11,387.00 

39 cords willow brush, at $1.9425 per cord 1, 435. 50 

,135.09 cords willow brush, at $1.38 per cord : . 1, 570. 56 

4.06 cords willow poles, at $3 per cord 162. 18 

jabor, superintendence, etc ^. . 18, 585. 80 

?ng8, witn crew, fuel, material, etc 6, 649. 95 

Provisions, with ice and fuel, for cooking 5, 487. 75 

Total., 58,159.05 

Jubio feet of mattress work 1, 428, 618 

square feet of mattress work : . . 652, 020 

^ounds of rock per square foot to sink 14. 56 

yost per square foot in place $0. 08919 

The first mattress was completed November 6, and the first was sunk January 6, 
wo months after completion. The delay was caused by all the barges being engaged 
n transporting willows and rock. 

The last large mattress was completed on December 31, 1892, and the last large 
aattress was sunk February 2,1893. They were sunk in the following order: 
between Spur Dikes 4 and 4^ from January 6 to 13; mattress below Spur Dike 4^ 
unk on Janna|:y 17; mattress between Spurs 3^ and 4 sunk from January 21 to 26; 
aattress between Spur Dikes 3 and 3^ sunk from January 29 to February 2 ; mattress 
m head of Spur Dike 4 sunk February 6 — the construction of this mattress was com- 
kloted on January 20; mattress 105 by 150 feet was sunk on head of Spur Dike 4^ 
February 16, and mattress 105 by 60 feet on March 7. 

The small mattresses in cave between Spurs 4 and 4^ were sunk from February 25 
.0 March 9. 

The ooustrnction of the mattresses were the same as those previously sunk in the 
iouthport Bend, with the exception of the lower frame, which was built of 3 by 6 
nch lumber to give greater strength to resist the strain of the downstream lower- 
ng lines. No iron rods were used for strengthening the mattress, as they were 
brmerly; the top line of poles were all securely nailed and wired, and an additional 
ine placed near each toggle-pin, which gives all required strength and are cheaper 
ban rods. 

During the rise in December considerable difficulty was' experienced in keeping 
ihe completed mattresses moored to the bank, owing to the large quantity of drift- 
wood accumulating against them, and considerable washing was done to keep them 
ioatiug imtil barges were available for sinking. During tne sinking of the large 
nattresses the river was falling, no drift was running, and the weather was 
avorable for the work. The smaller mattresses were sunk during a rising river, 
ivith large qaantities of driftwood running, and considerable difficulty was experi- 
mced in handling the mattresses and placing the barges in position, owing to the 
rosfl-onrrents and large accumulation of driftwood in the eddy between Spur Dikes 
t and 4^. 

The cost per square foot for mattress work was $0.00685 less than for the previous 
reason ; 3,749.25 tons of rock used was brought by rail from Alabama and loaded on 
he United States barges at New Orleans, the contract price being $2.50 per ton, 
lelivered on barges. 

Nine hundred and ninety-seven and ninety-seven oue-hundredths tons of rock was 
)urGbased from different sailing vessels in the harbor, at $1 i>er ton, loaded on the 
Jnited States barges. A total of 1,143.91 tons was purchased in the harbor, of which 
133.94 tons was unloaded on the bank at Southport. 

One thousand one hundred and thirty -five and nine one-hundredths cords of brush 
ind 54.06 cords of poles were cut by contract below New Orleans, and 4|325 cords 

BNQ 93 ^240 



3826 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

of brush was ont by the United States employ^ at the willow gronndB at P: 
Island; 799 cords was ou hand at Sbutbport. 

On completion of work at Southport the plant was moved to laying op quar 
at the Exposition wharf, all lines, toQls, and other property cleaned a&d stasr 
the warehouses. 

Bepain.— The tng Getieral dmstoekyrhB entirely rebnilt and remodeled: tIa 
was, labor on repairs, $3,476.83; material, $1,383.90; pay of crew, $337.35; furl - 
repairs to machinery, |298.»t. Total, $5,56*9.98. Previously reported, la><.: 
repairs, $1,657.54; material, $603.32; making a total of $7,890.84 for repairs. I 
includes new house, new capstan, and propeller. 

The tng was employed during the month of September on levees, under clu^; 
Assistant Engineer Douglas. 

The cost of running the tug while onder my charge, from October!, 1892, Ui A 
1, 1893, was: Material, $166.99; pay of crew, $1,459.96; fiiel, $777.10; rep« :• 
machinery, $627.15 ; of this amount $2,401.04, or all excepting the repairs to maclij: ' 
was charged to mattress construction. 

TugTilda was employed on levees until June, when she was tied op at £i - 
tion Wharf until September. During this time she was docked and the noil j^ i 
and minor repairs to house and machinery; the cost was, labor for repairs, i^* 
materia], $172.17; pay of crew, $300.50; fuel, $^2; a total of $1,114.99 iar rtui 
The cost of running the tug during mattress construction w^as: Labor on rer 
$71.75; material, $461.64; pay of crew, $1,617.42; fuel, $1,166.85; repairs to marhi.u 
$529.54; of this amount $3,245.91, or all except labor on repaira and repairs 
machinery, was charged to mattress construction. 

The repairs on steamer Oen. Newton were done under my supervision, and con*:^^ 
of extensive repair to deck forward and aft, new quart-era for deck crew, n^ak 
changes in cabin, putting down new steam capstan, repairs to machinery, new brtr 
ing and smokestacks and new woodwork of wheel, and minor repairs to cabin, c^^ 
fenders, railing, nosing, and machinery at different times from date of last re{ic:' 
March 31, 1893. The cost was, for labor, $1,632.24 ; material, $1,242.99; a totjL 
$2,875.23 for repairs. 

Launch No. 5 was engaged with earvey party dorinff month of September, and ~ t 
used on works for supplying steam to engine on aeok, and for xwimping bar? 
From December 3 to 12 she was engaged on levees with Assistant £n^tneer ^^ 
Hardee, and from January 6 to 24, 1893, on levees with Assistant Kn^ineer ^. 
Price. The launch was docked and huU cleaned and painted in Jnly and Anz '^ 
1892. The cost while iiuder my supervision was, pay of orew, $244.S^; fneL $7.' . 
repairs, $240.63; a totiil cost ot $560.32. 

Launch Jiubjf, The following repairs were made under my supervision in tlie bh ' 
of June : New tubes were put in boiler, casing around furnace repaired and fun... 
rebuilt, pump repaired, new flooring put down in kitchen and fire room. Cost ^t- 
Material, $68.30 ; labor, $80.27 ; repairs to machinery, tubes, etc., $165.25. In the » >i * 
of October, 1892, the launch was put in dock^ the hull tarred, calked, and paint -v. 
entire new rake planking of oak lumber put in, new woodworic in wheel, the w(vr 
work on roof repaired, and new canvas put on roof, new breeching for. smokests'-, 
some new brasses, and rudder repaired. Cost was: Material, $55.^; labor, $^ '^ 
a total of $688.28 for repairs. 

Launch Alaska had extensive repairs to boiler and machinery; has been dock^ 
twice and hull scraped and painted and new stem bearing put in, new fender strtj. 
puc on ; the house has been repaired and someminor repairs nave been made to ko.^- 
The launch was engaged with Assistant Engineer W. J. Hardee on levees fifty-^i: 
days. 

The principal service rendered in the harbor was towing small barges with mA\r 
rial from Canal street to works. The cost was: Pay of crew, ^275.27 ; inel,$72/« 
labor on repairs, $281.77; rei^airs to machinery, $431.50; a total cost of $1,061.04. 

Barge No. 5^ Repairs consisted of entire new sides, rakes, head Uocks, deck b^aitr 
and deck. After completion of the new work the oarge was tamed over and '^ 
bottom calked. The cost was: Material, $450.99 ; labor, $2,366.43; a total of $2,817.4. 

Barge No. 4 : Repairs Consisted of entire new sides* rakes, head blocks, deck brw*. 
and deck. After completion of the new work the barge was tnmed over and tr 
bottom calked and repaired. The cost was: Material $64&93; labor, ^l,54a46: 
total of $2,189.39. 

Barges Nos. 9. 11, 12, and 14 were tnmed over, the bottoms calked and repaired. Th" 
cost was: Material, $302.19; labor, $1,342,49; making a total of $1,644.68. 

Quarter boat Beta : Repairs consisted of new hull and minor repaira to house. ^^ 
cost was: Material. $204.54; labor, $599. 12; total, $803.66. 

Quarter boat Alpha : Repairs consisted of new hnll and minor r^aira to house. Tk 
oostwas: Material, $304.95; labor, $648.57 ; total, $953.52. 

Quarter boat New Orleans : Minor repairs to house. The coat was : HatsriaL |8&.I^ 
and labor, $93.13; total, $175.25. 



APPENDIX Y Y — REPORT OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3827 

Qaarter boat Gamma, minor repairs to windows and head blocks. The cost was, 
^faterial, $5.66; labor, $106.75; new cooking range, $104.20; total/ $216.61. 

Dredge Pak-Ute. — Repairs consisted of new deck and deck beams, new topsldes; 
opairs to center black head, new braces nnder deck, and bucket crane and braces 
or same, new coal bunkers, new canvas roof, and other minor repairs to house. The 
epair was done during July and August, 1892, and the cost was: Material, $660.72; 
abor, $1,572.76: total, $2,233.48. The dredge worked in Old River during the low- 
vater season or 1892 and was rtftumed to New Orleans in February, 1893. The buck- 
ets and crane have been taken off the 'spud, post Arames repaired and braced, the 
eiider streak repaired, deck house strengthened, cylinder timbers put down, and 
^all engine ilustened in place. The cost was: Material, $29.73; labor, $482.36; total, 
5512.09. 

Barge "B. — Head blocks and deck were repaired. The cost was, for labor, $108.15. 

Skins : Minor repairs were made to the different skiffs. The cost was : Material, 
{^5.70; labor, 40.35; tcjtal, 46,05. 

Dock barge was turned over and bottom repaired and calked. Two pieces of 
e^harf timber 12 inches square amd 75 feet long was bolted on bottom to give addi- 
liional stiffness and strength to the bottom. The cost was: Material, $38.75; labor, 
M86 00; total, $224.75. 

Barge C*. — House was built on this barge to serve as quarters for engineers and 
inspectors on levees below New Orleans. The cost was: Material, $39.41; labor, 
^203.94. 

The lumber used in building house was material left from levees, and no charge 
las been made for lumber. 

Barge A, — This barge has been fitted up with pile-driver engine and all complete; 
i^lie cost was: Material, $4.80; labor, $113.01 ; total, $117.81. 

Care of plant: There has been expended for material, $1,160.17, and for labor, 
|?2,970, a total of $3,130.17. 

Neto plant. — Four new barges of the standard size have been eonstrficted ; two 
contracted for by the Pelican Sawmill and Manufacturing Company, built at their 
1)111 on the New Basin Canal which cost $3,287 each, and two contracted for by 
I^hristian Telsou, built at the head of Louisiana avenue cost $3,650 each. The first 
jarge was completed and delivered March 4, and the last completed and delivered on 
Vpril 27, 1893. The total cost of the four barges was $13,874. The cost for inspec- 
lon was $445. 

Sin^et/8, — Survey has been made of the Carroll ton Bend extending from Spur 
Dike 3,Carrollton Bend, down to and including the exposition wharf. This survey 
n eludes the old and new levees, streets, and ])rinch>al buildings; each section of 
iouiiding was carried out until the deepest portion of the river bottom was passe<l. 
riie field work was done by Mr. G. Ed. Mott, during the month of July and August, 
1892, with falling river. 

Survey was also made during the months of January, February, and March, 1893, 
)ver the spur dikes in the Carrollton Bend and the mattresses sunk during the past 
)ea«on three lines of soundings were taken over each dike and mattress. The held 
svork on these surveys cost $6i39.26. 

Value of to(fls lost during season's work, $24.50; value of manilla and wire rope 
lost during the season's work, $192.44. * 

Yery respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Wm. Garvin, 
Aaaistunt JSuffineer, 

Capt. John Millis, 

Corps of Engineers, U. S, J, 

• 

LEVEES. 

The levee work of the fourth district having largely increased during the past 
rear a redivision of the district into sections or sub-levee districts was suggested 
ind approved by the commission at its meeting in August last. This subdivision 
8 designed to afford greater convenience in makiug allotments, in executing the 
work of construction' and repair, in maintaining the levees during high water, and 
jO secure greater economy and efficiency in general administration of levee affairs, 
A'hich have now become one of the most important parts of the work in chtLrge of 
-.his district. The first seaaou's experience under the new arrangement has been 
lighly satisfactory. 

The subdivisions now adopted are as follows : 

The Lower Tensas Levee district^ right bank, which extends from the upper limits 
>f the fourth district, opposite Warrenton, to the mouth of Red River, and com- 
prises 157i miles of the Mississippi River. In this district the levee system is con- 
tinuous f^om the upper end down to a point 5 miles below Fairview Landing, a 
Length of 130^ miles of the river, leaving about 26 milea of river on this baw 

i 



3828 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGnnSERS^ U. & ARMT. 



i'^ 



tinier eed. For this distance the lands along tfae west bank are, therefbre, bgv 
ject to overflow from the Mississippi, and they are also exposed to back wat^ 
the lower Red, which is nnleveed. 

Th^ Atchafalaya Levee distrieif right bank, which extends from the month >! 
River to the head of Bay on Lafourche, a distance of 122 miles by river. Tbr 
system in this district is continaons. 

The Barataria Levee dietrictf right bank, which extends fVom New Orleans t 
head of the passes, 102.5 miles, llie levee system is practically continnoDs di 
the Jump, an opening through the bank of the main river about 10 miles abo^-. 
head of the Passes. In the lower parts of the district, however, the strip of 
vated land is narrow and the variations in the height of the river become con 
tively slight and the levees are small affairs. The total length of river cover^^ 
levees ]»91.5 miles. 

The Lafourche Levee dietriet, right bank, which extends from the head of I 
Lafourche to New Orleans. The distance by river is 71 miles, and the levee «> 
is continuous. 

The Pontcknrtrain Levee dietrict, left bank, which extends from New Orleai^ 
Baton Rouge. It comprises 123.5 miles of the river, and the levees are contin 

The Lake Borgne Levee district , left bank, which extends from New Orleans t 
head of the Passes, 102.5 miles. The levee system only extends at present to : 
Jackson, covering 82 miles of the river, and the same remarks oonceming tbe i 
portion of the Barataria Levee district apply to Corresponding parts of tht 1. 
Borgne Levee district. 

Between Warrenton and Baton Rouge the river follows the general dtreeti 
the bluff line on the left bank, being at no point at any great distance from the 
land. NuDierons detached private ^vees exist along this portion of the river, ?^ 
are more or less efficient, and which are designed solely for the local purpose or; 
tecting the cultivated bottom lands between the river and the blnffs from oTeri: 
Certain surveys having been directed by the commission between Warrentos 
Natchez on the left bank, the name Big Blaek Levee district has been adopti-^i 
convenience to designate this locality. Ko work has been done in this di^tTi• ' 
the Federal Government. 

Ass iHtants have been assigned to the local charge of levee districts, as follows 

Assistant Engineer H. S. Douglas to the charge of the lower Teuaas andBi;' I 
Levee districts, in addition to his duties in charge of the work of improveuii. 
the harbor of Natchez and Vidalia, and of certain gauges. 

Assistant Engineer W. J. Hardee to the charge of the Atchafalaya, Lafoarcbr < 
Pontchartrain Levee districts. 

Assistant Engineer W. G. Price to the charge of the Barataria and Lake I^* . 
Levee districts until February 16, 1893. Since that date Sorveyor John Smyi 
been in temporary charge of these districts. 

Up to the date of the last annual report levee construction and extensive repaid '. 
been done by the Federal Government in the fourth district at the foUowingi^j:! 
points : 



Kame of levee and levee district. 




Lower Ten»a» Levee district, 

Bedford 

Point PleMont* 

Do* 

Hardtimea to W iUon 

Ships Bayou to Hardtiiuos 

Do 

E verirreen •. ' 

Hard scrabble 

fiardscrabblc and Bonduraiit 

Kempe 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Gibsons 

Lake Conconlia 

Do 

Ferriday 

Do 

Perriday Break 

Amanldia ^... 

Hendersons 

Greens to Fairview 

Deer Park 

Do 

<— W>»l llIM ■■■■» »» .. - - 

*2f ewlj sU ihxowji out hj aeir Stfttc tovoai 



R. 
R. 

R. 
B. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 



<3i.e 

631.0 
6310 

63^0 
6S7.0 
6S.0 
•40,0 
65^.0 

m.0 

659.0 

m.o 

684.0 
6M.0, 

e»io 

713.0 
720.0 
7a. 5 
72i5 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3829 



Name of levee and levee district. 



AUhafalaiya Levte ditlriet. 

^Vtcbafalaya to Bed Birer^ 

llojr Point to Baooonrci* 

ItaocoarciCreTaaae* 

^lorgansa* 

St-cwarte'* 

^ina 

Highland Extension 

Highland 

Darroza..... 

Mayflower— Union 

Fortville 

^Evergreen 

l>ixnM>7ne " ?. 

Pontckartrain Leve« district. 

Shannon ' 

Martinea 

Gay to Hollywood 

Woodstock 

Hermitage 

Grenada to Meant OUvo 

Soathwood Extension 

Do 

Ashland to Lin wood 

IMcharry 

Irrine 

Union ' 

LUly 

College Point to St Michael 

Tessier— Bourgeois 

Terre Hanto to Hope 

Comland 

Destrahan 

Frellson to Alnedia 

Southport 





Miles 




Bank. 


below 
Cairo. 


Year. 


B. 


765.0 


1883 


B. 


767.0 


1883 


B. 


775.0 


1883 


B. 


789.0 


1887 


B, 


79L0 


1883 


B. 


800.5 


1891 


B. 


815.6 


1802 


B. 


815.7 


1891 


B. 


824.0 


1891 


B. 


853.0 


1892 


B. 


856.0 


1892 


B. 


857.0 


1891 


B. 


865.0 


1892 


L. 


837.0 


1891 


L. 


842.0 


1891 


L. 


845.0 


1891 


L. 


847 5 


1891 


L. 


850.0 


1891 


L. 


856.6 


1891 


. L. 


875.5 


\ 1892 


L. 


875.6 


1891 


L. 


878.0 


1891 


L. 


882.0 


1801 


L. 


802.5 


1891 


L. 


883.5 


1891 


L. 


000.6 


1891 


L. 


003.5 


1890 


L. 


000.6 


1802 


L. 


010.6 


1801 


L. 


922.0 


1891 


L. 


989.0 


1891 


L. 


042.5 


1891 


li. 


955.6 


1892 



" Afterwards extensively enlarged by State and partly abandoned, so identity of United States work 
no longer preserved. 



The foregoing does not include work of minor repairs nor work done to assist in 
protecting and maintaining the levees during high water. 

Proteetion work had been general throughout a greater portion of the district. 

From the appropriation of July 13, 1892, a total of $655,000 was allotted for levee 
work in the fourth district. This was distributed among the several levee aistricts 
and reserves made for high- water protection, as shown in the accompanying money 
statements. 

The localities at which the funds were to be applied were determined by the 
approved recommendation of the board of oi&cers on building and repairing levees, 
whose recommendation was submitted on Auj^ust 29, 1892, after a tour of inspection 
of the entire liver from Memphis down to as far below New Orleans as contemplated 
work extended, and after consultation with numerous State and levee officials and 
with interested citizens. 

The details of levee work completed up to the present date under the allotmentd 
from the appropriations of July 13, 1892, and balance on hand are given in condenses 
form in the following tables: 



3830 REPORT OF TSnC CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMt, 



Fourth dUtrict lev«$, 1S9S-'9S. 



LOWSB TENSAS LBTBS DISTRICT. 



Name and levee. 



Miles 

below 

Cairo and 

bank. 



Hardacrabble.lowerj (MO. 4 K. 



Bondnraat: 

Graaamere to Wic- 

cema. 
Wiccema to j 608 

Fletohor. 
.Tletcber to Minorca 090 



MlnoToa to Minors . 



Morville.. 
Pisb Pond 



6a.5 R. 
ee? R. 



R. 

R. 
R. 



702 

710 
732 



Contzaetor. 



JLmi^b 
of line. 



•'•**• above 



J.S.MoTlgbe&Co 

Manning & Gtbaon. { 
McLaaghlin Brde . . j 



F9«L 

5,348 

3,417 
28,400 



R. 
R. 



Rvtberford ft Oal- 

gam. 
Albert Henry GO- 

lespie. 
Manning & Gibson 
William O. Flynn 

ftCo. 



I 



Manning ft Gibeon . j 28, 813 

18.300 
17,776 



6,200 
^385 



iKt liver 

oov. 

ered. 



4,660 

2,550 
5,600 

4,500 

12,000 

14.000 

4,800 
4.000 



higb 

water 

of 1892. 



FuiL 
2ft 



Orown. 



21 
2| 

2» 



8 

8 

8 

8 
8 
8 t 

8 

8 



•lope. te.. 



3 to 1 



:i 



8 to 1 .. 
S to 1 .{ 

3 to 1 ? 



S to 1 
3 to 1 



1 H 



3 to 1 :• 
3 to 1 i:c 



Name of levee. 



Least 
net 
flU. 



Hardscrabble, lower 

R<Hidurant 

Grassmere to "Wicceroa 
Wiccema to Fletcher. . . 

Fletcher to Minorca 

Minorca to Minora 

Morville 

Fish Pond- 



Ftet. 
1.4 
3.5 
2.2 
L2 
3.7 
1.8 
2.3 
5.4 



Great-I Aver- 


est net 
flU. 


age net 


Fe€t, 


FuL 


17.8 


11.4 


13.8 


6.5 


8.1 


6.0 


10.2 


7.2 


12.6 


7.0 


9.0 


6.5 


9.7 


6.9 


12.1 


8.7 



Embankment. 



Cnbic 
yards. 



80.79L88 

23,736.12 

108,205.45 

125,996.46 

117,789.84 

86,244.40 

28,040.86 

60,921.07 



per 
cubic 
yard. 



26 

17ft 

IfM 

15A 



Filled excavatioB. TOe dr. 



Cnbio 
yard*. 



3,881.86 

Xone. 

206.03 

6,172.71 

1,877.00 

684.72 

661.66 

789.69 



Price j 



cubic 
yard. 



yard*. I 



+ 



13 
15^1 

1^ 



*. 



Name of loveo. 



Hardscrabble, lower. . . 

hondurant 

Graaamere to "Wicoema 
Wiccema to Fletcher. . 

Fletcher to Minorca. . . 

M inorca to Minors 

Morville 

Fish Pond 



Mnck 
ditch. 



IAn.ft. 

4, SOU 
None. 
194 
2,880 

3,050 

1,244 

1,400 

None. 



Date of con- 
tract. 



Got. 31,1802 

do 

Nov. 0,1892 
Nov. 7,1892 

Nov. 14.1892 

do 

Oct. 31.1802 
do 



Contract 

time for 

completion. 



Mar. 1,1803 
Feb. 15,1893 

do 

. . . .do 

Mar. 1,1893 

....do 

Feb. 16,189^ 
Mar. 1,1893 



Extension 
granted to— 



Mav 1,1883 

None. 
Jane 30, 1893 
Apr. 16, 1893 

June 1.1803 
June 80, 1898 

None. 
May 1,1893 



Work oom- 
meneed. 



Nov. 8.189S 
Nov. 14, 1892 
Nov. S.18BB 
. . . .do ....... 



WoTi . ■ 

pl«-i: 



Apr.S 
Dee- 5 



3i< 
»,1A- 



Nov.14.1892 
Nov. 15, 1893 f 
Nov. 3. 1802 I Dec.?: 
Feb. 15.1888 May S 



Name of levee. 



Hardscrabble, lower . . . 

Bondurant 

(xrassmere to Wiccema 

Wiccema to Fletcher . . 
Fletcher to Minorca . . . 

Min oroa to Minors . . . . 

Morville 

Fish Pond 



Embankment, dis- 
tance t^m center of 
levee to river bank. 



Min. 



Feet. 

1,500 
1,300 
2,200 

12.000 
6,000 

8,000 

1,200 
3,800 



Max. 



Feet. 

2,450 

1,800 

16,000 

20,000 
12,000 

8,000 

1,400 
3,600 



Mean. 



Feet. 

1,975 

1,560 

16.000 

16,000 
9.000 

4,600 

1,300 
3,450 



Nature of river bank. 



Caving , 

Caving rapidly 

Permanent on lake bank. 



.do 
.do 

.do 



Caving 

Caving rapidly 



Rcmnrks. 



New. 
New. 
Bnla^emeni. 1:^*: 

not completeil. 
New and einlarg«^- - 
New and 6nl«rp-x - 

Tllinsiiote<Hnp ' > 
New and enlarp!£.-r 

Tiling notcompls'.- 
New. 
New. Une to be e; 

tended. 



APPENDIX Y Y — ^REPORT OF MISBISSIPW EIYEB COMMISSIOK. 3831 

Fourth distriet levee9, /5ftf-^P5— Continued. 
ATCHAFALAYA AND LAFOITBCHE LBVXE DISTRICT. 



X ame of levee. 



A-teha/dlaya dii- 
triet, 

Barroza, npper 

BalToza, middle. . . . 

Belair 

Sllza 

Medora 



Fortvillo, lower. . . . 

Lo/ourohe dittricL 

Buena Viita-Min- 

nie. 
Janioatown 

St. Jnmea Cimrch.. 
St. Jaines eatate... 
Home Place 

Lone Star 

Davis 



Miles 

below 

Cairo and 

Bank. 



823 
823 
828 
842 
852 



S. 



Contraotor. 



Lenctl 
line. 



T^«.^K Grade 
^"«*^ of levee 



of axis 

of 

river 

covered 



Andrews Bros. Con* 



struction Co. 
R. : John Scott &, Son 



B. 
B. 
B. 



85S R. 



Timothy W. Soott . 
^.J.Bentley &Co. 
Sterling Fort « , 



Ovide Laconr. 



890 

897 



R. 
R. 



901 R. 
002.5 R. 

006.5 R. 

941. 6 R. 
948 R. 



James M. SnUivan 
Jamee N. Ogden . . . 



W.O.FIynn 

James M. Sullivan . 
Homan, MoFadden 

& Cassidy. 
P.J.Coflfaian 



John £. Louqae. 



F9et. 
4,407 

2,400 

2,251 

2,600 

3,442 

2,055 

4,370 



above 

high 

water 

of 1892. 



Feet. 

2,875 

1.920 
8,550 
2,780 
2,075 

1,080 

3,540 



1,400 1,260 



8,462 
1,925 
3,482 

4,415 

1,900 



a. 690 
1,375 
3,380 

4,030 

1,660 



Feet. 
2i 

2i 

2i 

2* 

2i 

2| 

2* 

^ 

2i 



24 
2* 



Section. 



Crown. 



Feet. 



8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

8 

8 
8 

« 

8 
8 

8 

8 



River 
slope. 



3 tol 
3 tol 
3 tol 
3 tol 
3 tol 

3 tol 

3 tol 

3 tol 
aiMl 
24tol 
3 tol 
3 tol 
3 tol 

3 tol 

3 tol 



Land 
slope. 



2ft. 4, & 
Otol 

2ft, 4, & 
6 tol 

2ft & 4 
tol 

2ft & 4 
tol 

2ft to 1 
6c 2| 
& 4 
tol 

2ft & 4 
tol 



2i & 4 
tol 

2ft & 4 
tol 



24 to 1 
2ft to 1 
2ft & 4 



i 

tol 
2ft & 4 

to 1 
2ft & 4 

tol 



Name of levee. 



A tcha/aktya dutriet. 

Bnrroza, npnor 

Jiarroza,mludie 

Bt>lair 

Kliza ,... 

Medora 

Kortville, lower 

Lt^fourehe dialriet. 

I^uena Vista-Minnie ... 

J aiiiefttown 

Sr . J ames Church 

St. Jsmes estate 

Iloine Place ■ 

Lone Star 

Davis 



s 






Lcaet 


Great- 


Aver- 


net 


est net 


age ned 


fiU. 


All. 


till. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


1.4 


18.6 


15.8 


16.0 
1 
.6 


19.1 

12 

12.4 


18.8 
11.6 
11.8 


.8 


13.1 


12.1 


.8 


11.6 


1L8 


.5 


13.7 


11.4 


.9 
2.5 


10.9 
10.5 


10.2 
0.3 


3.2 
.9 


10.8 
18.4 


9.4 
11.6 


2.3 


12 


10.1 


2.8 


14.6 


13 



EmbankmeHt. 



Cubic 
yards. 



137.287.84 
106, 719. 57 
42,851.91 
47,737.36 
66,826.99 
86,850.99 



79,909.47 
18. 345. 26 
06. 748. 55 
15,133.01 
63,663.78 
60,921.53 
42,666.26 



Price 

per 

cubic 

yard. 



Cent*. 
27, 

no, 

391 
18 
20 
20| 



in 

20 
21 



Filled excava- 
tion. 



Cnbio 
yards.' 



2,886.10 
1,177.68 
2U8.01 
353.72 
1,332.28 
1,244.09 



2,363.19 
1,208 
&, 121. 69 

672. 62 
1, 443. 74 
2,641.21 

926.25 



Price 

per 

cubic 

vard. 



Cente. 
27ft 
16 
10 
18 
20 
20ft 



19ft 

17 

18ft 

18 

14 

21 



Tile drains. 



Price 
Linear; per 
yards, linear 

yard. 



1,561 
832i 



1, 027ft 
712 



1,675| 
406j 
2,889 



Cente. 
65 
30 



l,lJ8f 
],5»9ft I 
711ft 



50 
29 



50 
40 
40 
5U 

ao 

30 
6U 



3832 REPOET OP THB CHIEF OF EKGINEERS, U. 8. AKMT, 

Fourth duiriet Ucem, tS9S-^9S—Cimtmned. 
ATCH^PAJJLYA AND LAFOUBCftK UEVSE DISTBICT-Oiiitfiiiied. 



Nam« of levM. 



Ateha/alay dutriet. 



Barroia, upper. . 
Barroza, middle. 

Belair 

Elisft 

Iff edora 

FortTille, lower. 



Mnck 
Ditch. 



Lin. ft 
1,500 



Jxf/ottrche dittriet. 

BnenA ViBto-Minnie . 

Jamestown 

St. Jauies Chnreli 

Mt. James ratute 

Homo Place 

Lone Star 

Davis 



Date of 
oontraot. 



650 

:iOO 

1,620 

150 



Not. 7,18»2 

....do 

....do 

Feb. 20.1803 
Nov. 7.1892 
Nov. 4,1892 



OoL 31,1802 
Nov. 7,1802 
Oct. 31,1802 

— do 

Nov. 7,1892 

Nov. 5,1802 

...do 



Contract time 

for 
oompletion. 



Kar. 1,1803 

....do 

Feb. 
Apr. 
Feb. 
— do 



1,1893 
1,1803 
1,1893 



Feb. 1,1803 
Deo. 15,1892 
Mar. 1,1893 
Deo. 15, 1892 
Feb. 1,1893 
Feb. 15,1893 
Feb. 1,1893 



ExtenPion 
granted to — 



Apr. 16, 1893 
Apr. 15,1893 
1,1893 



Apr. 7,1893 
Feb. 10, 1893 



Apr. 20, 1893 
Dec 31.1892 
Apr. 15, 1893 
Jan. 5,1893 
Kar. 15, 1893 



Apr. 1,1808 



Work 



I 



W.'. 



Norv. 4,I89S>AFr 

Not. 23, 1892 : .\p7 
NoiT. 21.1882 Ftb 
Feb. 10,1003 Apr 

Nov. i,iaoelAi.r 
Mow. a.ia9s FcD. 



Not. 1, 189S | Apr . 
Not. 10, im2 I Ittt 
Oct. 21,1892 ; Ap- ' 
Not. 2,]Sa2 Ju - 

do , 

Not. 20. 1292 1 Avr -« 
Hot. 2, 1SB2 I )br ' 
I 



Name of levee. 



Ateh<(falaya diHrict. 

Barroxa, apper , 

Barroza, middle 

Belair 

Kliza 

Me<lora 

Fortvllle, lower 

Lafourche dutriet. 

Bnena Viata-Minnie 

JanioRtown 

St. James Church 

St. Jam«8 estate 

Home Place 

Lono Star , 

Davis 



Eiiibanlnnent, dlstanoe 

fh>m center of levee to 

river bank. 



Min. Max. 



Fwt. 
1,000 
1.150 
470 
400 
550 
450 



350 
160 
140 
240 
590 
160 
340 



FMt 

1,430 

1,490 

1,330 

670 

900 

550 



580 
400 
350 
300 
800 
400 
530 



Mean. 



1,215 

1.320 

1,060 

485 

000 

500 



480 
330 
270 
250 
700 
250 
435 



Nature of rlTcr Inak. 



Caving bank at lower 

Cavinv rapidly. 

Washing bank. 

Washinff and cavinip. 

Caving, fh»m appeanuaoe of bu^ 

Caving slowly. 



Caving bank. 

Caving b^k near upper end. 

Washbig bank. 

• Do. 
Caving rapidly. 
Permanent Inuik. 
Do. 



rONTClIARTRAlN LBVBB DISTRICT. 



Name of lovce. 



MilcH be- 
low (!airo 
and bauk 



Lopes .... 
Bnrtville 



Towles 

Billinifs 

JoliHuut 

Oak lev to St. 

(iabriol. 
Dicbarry, lower . . . 

BuniHide 

Union, upper 

I'nion, lower 

Tippecanoe , 

Pevtnvin 

WhiteHall 

Tesaior .., 

Hope 

Trudeau 



844. 5 L. 

847 L. 

H51 L. 
K52. 3 L. 
858. 8 L. 

862 L. 



Contractor. 



883 
K91 
893 
893 
804 



L. 
L. 
L. 
L. 
L. 



894. 5 L. 
8»5 L. 



C.S.Jones 

Homan. ^f cFadden \ 

Sc CnHsidy. > 

K. W. Hanlon & Co . 

— do 

C. 8. Jones 

Homan, McFadden ? 

&, Cassidy. y 

fJamee M. Sullivan .. 

Israel R. Bobblti . . . 

P. J. Coffnian 

Jeffries &. Dameron. 
Isnu'l R. llobbitt . . . 
Jeffries ic Dameron. . 
McLaughlin Bros. . . 



009. 5 L. Jefft-ics Sc Dameron. 



Length 
of line. 



916. 5 L. 
049 L. 



P.J.Cuflmau 
do 



Feet. 
1,767 

4,727 

1,839 
8,345 
1,496 

4,211 

4,826 
3,520 
1.578 

784 
8,080 
1,010 

590 

4,154 
4,700 
3.576 



Length 

of axis 

of river 

oov- 

ered. 



Feet. 
1,085 

8,610 

1,210 
3,500 
1,865 

8,340 

5,456 
2,850 
1,580 

790 
3,140 

985 
1,040 

3,910 

8,600 



Grade 

of loTee 

above 

high 

water 

of 1892. 



21 






Secti<m. 



Grown, 



Feet. 

S 

8 

8 

8 
8 

8 

8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

8 

8 

8 



Rivrr 
atope. 



2tol 

3tol 

3tol 
Still 
2tol 

3toI 

3 tol 

2tol 
3tol 

atoi 

Stol 
Stol 
Stol 

Stol 

Stol 

Stol 






I 



APPENDIX y Y — REPOET OP MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3833 

Fourth district UveeSy i5PJP-'5J— -Continued. 
POKTCHABTKAIN LEVEE DISTBICT— Continned. 



Name of leree. 



<oi>es 

&urtviUe 

?owlea 

lUUnga 

olisant 

>akley to St. Gabriel 

>icharry, lover 

^umside 

Jnion, upper 

Jnion, lower 

rippecanoe 

Peytavin ;.. 

White HaU 

resaler 

Elope 

rru<1eau 



Ii«ABt 

net fill 



Feet. 
1.4 
1.5 
0.8 
0.8 
2.7 
0.1 
0.8 
0.3 
0.5 
LI 
0.5 
0.9 
0.7 
L5 
2.5 
0.7 



Great- 
est net 
fill. 



Feet. 

10.3 

U 

0.8 

10.5 

1L2 

12.3 

13.1 

ILO 

9.-8 

9.6 



7.7 

8.1 

12.5 

12.1 

14.2 



Aver- 
aire net 

m. 



Feet 

10 

13.2 
9.5 
0.8 

10.1 

10.8 

10.6 
8.8 
8.9 
8«5 
8.2 
7.2 
7 

12 
0.6 

ILO 



Embankment. 



Cnbio 
yards. 



22,184.30 

109,535.44 

15,866.B2 

89.490.21 

20, 090. 18 

66, 681. 00 

76, 824. 33 

40,025.52 

15,770.65 

7,582.29 

28,356.47 

7, 191. 66 

4,889.15 

76,963.56 

67,394.11 



Price 

per 

cubic 

yard. 



Oentt. 

18 A 
21 

19 

22 
22 

19 

20 

21| 

2lf 

18iW, 



Filled excaTa- I 


tion 


. 




Price 


Cubic. 


per 


yarda. 


cubic 




yard. 




Oent». 


114.77 


1«A 


1,630.47 


16 


352.04 


16 


374. 19 


15 


236.07 


18 A 


2,623.21 


15 


1,658.86 


19 


1,587.20 


12 


1,460.08 


20 


96L08 


20 


289.41 


16 


629.86 


20 


207.48 


2H 


1,286.20 


18 


2,248 


18 




14 





Tile drains. 



Linear 



Price 
per 



yards.' linear 
yard. 



Cents. 



l,657f 



L46lf 

1,6211 

1,294 

571 

274i 



350^ 



1,3561 
LWlJ 



29 



27 
50 
30 
^30 
80 



SO 



30 
35 
80 



Name of levee. 



Lopez 

Bartville 

Towles 

BilllDgs 

Jolisaut 

Oakley to St. Gabriel 

Dichar>-, lower ». 

Bamside 

Union, upper 

Union, lower 

Tippecanoe 

Povtavin 

White Hall 

Tessier 

Hope 

Trudeaa 



MnclL 
ditcb. 



Lin.ft, 



726 
175' 



200 



800 



Date of 
contract. 



Dec. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 



7,1802 

7, 1892 

9,1893 

9,1893 

7,1892 

7,1892 

31, 1892 

7,1892 

29,1802 

29.1892 

8,1892 

29,1802 

14,1892 

7,1892 

5.1802 

5,1892 



Contract 

time for 

completion. 



Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Feb, 
Feb. 
Dec 
Deo. 
Jan. 
Doc. 
Mar. 
Fob. 
Feb. 
Feb. 



1,1898 
1,1893 
1, 1893 
1,1893 
1,1893 
1,1803 
15,1893 
15, 1893 

15. 1892 
1,1892 
1,1893 
1,1892 
1,1803 

15,1803 
1,1803 

15. 1893 



Extension 
gnuited 



Mar. 9,1803 
Mar. 80, 1893 
Mar. 8,1893 
Mar. 14, 1893 
Mar. 15,1893 



Mar. 15, 1898 



Jan. 12,1893 
Feb. 4,1893 



Jan. 14,1893 



Mar. 15, 1893 
Mar. 1,1893 



Work 
commenced. 



Dec 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Dec 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Nov. 



9,1892 

81. 1892 

23. 1893 
6,1893 
8, 1892 

i4, 1892 

91, 1892 

5,1892 

1,1892 

18,1892 

27, 1892 

31,1892 

9, 1892 

5,1802 

2, 1892 

5,1892 



Work 
completed. 



Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Apr. 



9,1898 
14,1893 

8,1893 
14,1883 
15, 1893 
13,1893 
10,1893 
13, 1893 
11,1803 
11,1893 

1,1803 
14> 1893 
14,1893 
10, 1893 
10.1893 



Name of levee 



Lopez 

Burtville 

Towles .* 

Billings 

Jolifcont 

Oakley to St Gabriel 

Dicharry, lower 

Bumside 

Union, upper 

Union, lower 

Tippecanoe 

Peytavin J 

White HaU 

Tesaier 

Hope 

Tmdean* 



Embankment, distance 


from center of levee 


to river bank. 




Min. 


Max. 


Mean. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


220 


340 


310 


340 


850 


600 


210 


270 


240 


330 


400 


350 


130 


360 


230 


330 


460 


400 


600 


860 


660 


180 


310 


245 


120 


210 


180 


130 


200 


160 


130 


230 


170 


170 


230 


190 


350 


550 


450 


880 


530 


450 


240 


960 


600 


240 


430 


830 



Nature of river bank. 



WashfuK bank. 

Slonghiog and caving. 

No references as to nature of bank. 

Do. 
Caving below low end of levoe. 
Slonghiug and caving^ 
Caving bank. 
Waabing bank. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Bank making sand bar. 
Small eaves near lower end and crevasse 

in old levee. 
Caving rapidlv. 
Washing ban^. 



* Work 46 per cent completed when contract expired, February 15, 1893; contractor defaulted. 



aiHghtn-hooM 

BlMtlhtsrhouH 
tsnilon. 

ChalmeUe Cen 

»CTT. 

Daboulial 

Pec«ii Grove — 
Story, upper 

Onnga Grove, i 
Onuige Grora.1 



It 

'*."7Mi":iiWii' 



Vhalnella Cenebir;. . 



Orugc OroT«, iawer . . 



S, IXD-J ) Feb, t, IMS 



. 4U Nov. 13, )S 



SIC Kov. R. IS 






APPENDIX Y y — ^REPORT OP MSSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 3835 



Fowth di$tr%ct levees, 1S9S-^ OS—Contmned, 
LAKE BORGNE pBVEB DISTRICT— Continued. 





Name of oontraotors. 


Revctuien(^ 


Date of con- 
tract. 


"Work com- 
menced. 




Xame of levee. 

• 


Linear 
feet. 


Price 

per 

linear 

foot. 


Work com- 
pleted. 


^lau;3:^terhotiBe 

»lauglit«rhouae £x- 

teusion. 
Rx>v — 


Martin & Delaney . . 


716 
784 

1,143 

682.6 

877 
678.75 


Cents. 
50 


Jan. 12, 1883 


Jan. 25,1893 


Feb. 11, 1893 


5MartJn & Delaney. > 

>W.L. Delanev S 

5 Martin &, DeUuey ./ 

^W.L. Delaney < 

\Martin & Delaney .1 

J W. L. Delaney S 

Loais Loaqae 


50 

60 

65 
60 


5 Jan. 12, 1893^ 
7 Feb. 16, 18935 
5 Jan. 12,1893^ 
^Feb. 16, 1893S 
5 Jan. 12, 181^3 ( 
^Feb. 16,18935 
Jan. 12,1893 


Mar. 10, 1893 

Mar. 13, 1803 

Feb. 22, 1803 
F6b. 15,1803 


Mar. 29, 1893 


BonKano ............ 


Mar. 28, 1898 

Mar. 4.1893 
Mar. 4,1893 


Chalinette Ceme- 
tery. 
'T>el>oiialiel 


l^ecan Orove ........ 




Si orv. aT>i>ar ........ 








1 




Storv. lower 












Honoae. ............. 












(Caernarvon .........