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Full text of "Report no. 3 to the United States District Court, District of Massachusetts on Boston school desegregation"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY i//''^ I c/ / ' ' "^ ^rfV-^ir. 

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COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
BOARD OF EDUCATION 



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REPORT NO. 3 

TO THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT, 
DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS 

ON 

BOSTON SCHOOL DESEGREGATION 

VOLUME I 



JULY 15,1984 



*-6-84- 177964 



PUBUCATION OF THIS DOCUMH^ APPROVED BY DaNEL D. CARTER, STATE PURCHASING ACEhfT « 

Estimated Cost Per Copy $2.26 



MASSACHUSETTS BOARD OF EDUCATION 

Mr. James R. Grande, Hanover, Chairperson 
Mrs. Mary C. Wright, Falmouth, [/ice Chairperson 

Mr. Robert A. Farmer, Brookline 

Mrs. Anne C. Fox, Needham 

Rev. Paul V. Garrity, Maiden 

Ms. Milca R. Gonzalez, Worcester 

Mr. Howard A. Greis, Holden 

Mr. Gregory G. Nadeau, Marblehead 

Mrs. Loretta L. Roach, Boston 

Mr. Joseph C. Savery, Lee 

Ms. Mary Ellen Smith, Boston 

Mrs. Dorothea A. Zanetti, Wilbraham 



Dr. John H. Law/son, Commissioner of Education, Secretary^ 
Mr. John B. Duff, Chancellor, Board of Regents, Ex Officio 



Report Coordinated by — 

Franklin Banks, Special Assistant to the Commissioner on 

Boston Desegresation 



Produced by the Bureau of Operational Support 

Cecilia DiBella, Director 

Susan Gardner, Publications Communications Coordinator 

Susan M. Ridge, Typographist 



The Massachusetts Department of Education insures equal employment/educational opportunities/affirmative action regardless of race, 
color, creed, national origin or sex, in compliance with Title IX, or handicap, in compliance with section 504. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE. NO. 



Overvi ew 1 

I. Monitoring Reports 

Student Assi gnments B 

Staff 26 

Special Desegregation Measures 29 

Special Education 60 

Bi 1 i ngual Educati on 69 

Vocational and Occupational Education 78 

Transport at i on 91 

Facilities 98 

Safety and Security 102 

Student Di sci pi i ne 110 

Inst i tut i onal Pai ri ngs 118 

Parent and Student Organizations 119 

II. Dispute Resolution 128 

III. Modifications 129 




BOSTON 
PUBLIC 
LIBRARY 




OVERVIEW 



INTRODUCTION 

This is the Third Monitoring Report on Boston Public School 
Desegregation, filed by the Massachusetts Board of Education and 
Commissioner of Education under the Orders of Disengagement entered by 
Federal District Court Judge W. Arthur Garrity, Jr. on December 23, 
1982. The report covers Boston Public School operations from December 
1983 through May 1984, and is based upon data collected by Massachusetts 
Department of Education monitors during this period. 

We feel that the present report represents an improvement over our 
prior efforts, resulting from our growing familiarity with the Boston 
system and the continued input of the parties and other interested 
members of the public. The spirit of cooperation continues to deepen 
between monitors and their counterparts in Boston, for which we express 
appreciation to Superintendent Spillane and members of his staff. 



THIRD MONITORING REPORT 

As has previously been the case, this report is presented in two 
volumes. Volume I is an "executive summary" of findings in each of the 
twelve monitoring areas enumerated in the Orders of Disengagement. In 
addition to a description of objectives, procedures, findings and 
recommendations, all of which were contained in previous reports, each 
section of Volume I contains a summary of previous findings to provide a 
gauge of progress during the period of State Board monitoring. Volume I 
will, as in the past, receive wide distribution. 

Volume II includes all supporting documentation, much of which was 
provided to monitors by members of the Boston School Department. Page 
references to Volume II are again provided in the margins of Volume I. 
While Volume II is again intended to receive more limited distribution, 
additional copies have been printed to insure that they may be available 
for every elementary, middle and high school building in Boston. 



CRITICAL MONITORING ISSUES 

In the overview of Report No. 2, the State Board identified six 
desegregation-related issues of greatest concern, and noted that 
"Efforts to address these issues in the next twelve months will provide 
a basis on which to evaluate proposals for further procedural 
modifications", which any party may propose after January 1, 1985. 



These issues, summarized below, were addressed to varying degrees 
by the Boston Public Schools. Since a large portion of those responses 
that the State Board did receive arrived after staff monitors had 
concluded their data gathering for this monitoring period, it was often 
not possible to include analysis of the given response in the body of 
the report and maintain our court submission schedule. We therefore 
feel that it is appropriate to reiterate the six issues, and to 
summarize the responses received to date, as an introduction to the more 
specific findings. The six issues are listed below in no particular 
order of priority: 

(1) Impediments to program access for limited English proficient 
students must be eliminated throughout the system. Similarly, a higher 
level of support both prior to entrance and after enrollment in the 
examination schools must be provided to minority students. 

RESPONSE: A May 23, 1984 memorandum from Raffael DeGruttola to 
Oliver Lancaster, provided to the State Board under Superintendent 
Spillane's cover letter of May 31, lists four policy directives to be 
implemented in the coming school year. These directives, which deal 
with "access of bilingual students into mainstream classes," will be 
monitored in the next report. Few improvements in problems cited in 
Reports No. 1 and 2 have been found in the current monitoring period. 

On the subject of examination school support. Minority Students 
Retention Plans for Boston Latin School and Boston Latin Academy were 
provided under the Superintendent's cover letter of May 29, 1984. The 
majority of the critical improvements described in these Retention Plans 
have yet to be implemented, and will be monitored for the next report. 

(2) The number of administrators serving in an acting capacity 
must be drastically reduced at both the school and district/central 
office level. The Boston School Department, after consultation with the 
Unions and the Citywide Parents Council (CPC) should implement a 
schedule for making permanent appointments to those positions currently 
filled with acting appointees. 

RESPONSE: By letter dated May 2, 1984, Counsel for the Boston 
School Committee requested that the State Board convene a meeting of the 
parties for the purpose of negotiating a proposed modification to the 
Court's administrative desegregation orders. The proposed modification, 
which has been approved by the School Committee, contemplates both an 
expedited procedure for reducing the backlog of acting appointments and 
a modified procedure for filling future administrative vacancies. The 
initial negotiation session was held on May 23, and was attended by all 
parties of record and the CPC. A second negotiating session is 
tentatively scheduled for late June. 



(3) Racial/ethnic guidelines have yet to be met in several 
schools, as well as most citywide vocational education programs. In 
many instances, enrollments should be improved through vigorous 
recruitment and program development efforts. 

RESPONSE: An analysis of assignment issues by the Senior Officer 
for Implementation was provided as Attachment II to the Superintendent's 
May 31 letter . A discussion of both system-wide recruitment efforts 
launched by the Department of Implementation, and follow-through in 
specific schools appears in the section of this monitoring report 
dealing with Special Desegregation Measures (see Vol. I, pp. and Vol. 
II, pp. ). As was the case during the State Board's initial 
monitoring period, no conclusion regarding the success of these efforts 
can be drawn until enrollment data is gathered in the fall. Recruitment 
efforts during 1983-84 have had a minimal impact upon deseyregati ve 
applications, with the exception of English High School. 

(4) The Unified Plan for Vocational and Occupational Education 
should be subject to extensive review. Where appropriate, modifications 
should be proposed in order to strengthen equal opportunity in 
vocational training for all students. 

RESPONSE: A summary of Boston's efforts in this area is contained 
in Attachment III to the Superintendent's May 31 letter. While specific 
progress has been made on a small scale, including the recent 
appointment of a Development Officer at the Humphrey Center (which 
monitors received notice of by letter dated June 1, 1984), most of the 
initiatives described in Attachment III remain in the planning stage. 
Representatives of the State Board and the Boston Public Schools met in 
the previous monitoring period to initiate general discussions regarding 
the Unified Vocational Plan, but no further meetings were held during 
the current monitoring period. 

(5) While declining enrollment continues to work its way through 
the grade structure to the middle school and high school levels, the 
Boston School Department has yet to seriously address the need for a 
secondary school facilities plan grounded in long-term desegregation 
considerations. This effort must be undertaken immediately, in 
conjunction with city and state officials. 

RESPONSE: Initial efforts toward the development of a secondary 
school facilities plan were undertaken during the current monitoring 
period. These efforts led to the filing of data by City of Boston and 
School Department representatives with the State Board on May 3, 1984; 
this data included projected grade organization, enrollments, 
capacities, capital improvement needs, and schools in operation as 
envisioned in the current draft of Boston's Long Range Plan. These 
materials were incorporated in a Longe Range Facilities Plan arriving at 
the Department on June 6, 1984. To a great extent, the validity of 
these materials will be determined by the action ultimately taken on the 
Long Range Plan currently under consideration in Boston. 



(6) Safety and security continue to be major concerns for 
students, parents and school staff. A comprehensive proyram to improve 
safety and security throughout the system must be implemented. 

RESPONSE: An April 13, 1984 letter from Deputy Superintendent 
Peterkin, appearing as Attachment IV to Superintendent Spil lane's cover 
letter of May 31, addresses issues regarding student discipline. On the 
more general issues of safety and security, the Deputy Superintendent 
provided a draft response to the Safe Schools Commission report in a 
memorandum to the Superintendent dated March b, 1984; to date, this 
response remains in draft form. Funds have has been budgeted for 2 
school climate/school discipline teams and for the selective use of bus 
monitors, although the specifics of how bus monitors will be deployed 
have yet to be determined; see the section of this monitoring report 
dealing with Safety and Security (Vol. I and II). 

In summary, while we are encouraged that Boston has begun to 
address the six issues of major concern, most of these efforts remain in 
the planning stages and will require close monitoring during the next 
reporting period. We have stressed, and will continue to stress, the 
potential that Chapter 636 funding provides for addressing many of these 
crucial issues. 



FURTHER ISSUES CITED IN EARLIER MONITORING REPORTS 

In addition to the issues listed above, previous reports have 
identified additional concerns. Those findings are summarized in the 
chart below, with summary information regarding remedial action taken 
during the present monitoring period. A more complete discussion of 
these findings is contained in the various appropriate sections of this 
report: 



Report #2 (February 1984) 

1) Career Education requirements 
are only partially being met. A 
city-wide career education plan 
is nearly completed, and many 
middle schools have improved 
offerings. However, many 
compliance issues remain at 
individual schools. 



Report #3 (July 1984) 



1) A city-wide career education 
plan has been developed, and all 
but two middle schools provide 
programs in the 3 required 
career clusters. Compliance 
issues remain at some high 
schools. 



2) Support for limited English 
proficient students remains 
inadequate in many vocational 
and occupational education 
programs. 



2) Support for limited English 
proficient students remains 
inadequate in many vocational 
and occupational programs 
despite the hiring of 3 
additional bilingual aides. 



3) Improvement has been noted in 3) 
the appropriate placement of 
students in bilingual special 

needs programs serving their 
language category. 

4) Although English High has taken 4) 
steps to improve safety and 
school climate, this school 
remains out of compliance for 

Black and White enrollments and 
requires continued attention. 



5) Special Desegregation measures 5) 
are being implemented at Burke 
and Dorchester High Schools, 
although delays in facilities 
improvements have occurred at 
Burke High School. Preliminary 
indications suggest improved 
compliance with Court orders at 
both schools. 



Problems with adequate materials 
for some bilingual special needs 
programs persist. Mixing of 
language groups was observed in 
one school . 

The reorganization plan for 
English High promises an 
improved safety climate and 
improved compliance with racial 
enrollment guidelines. 
Recruitment efforts appear to 
have resulted in increased 
desegregati ve applications. 

Facilities improvements at Burke 
High are still delayed. 
Compliance with enrollment goals 
at Burke and Dorchester High are 
projected within the permitted 
range. 



6) On-site monitoring suggests that 
Charlestown has begun to address 
its high suspension problems, 
although delays in the 
compilation of statistics 
inhibit confirmation until the 
next Monitoring Report. 



7) The percentage of other minority 
teachers continues to increase 
slowly; the concentration of 
these teachers in bilingual 
programs has been reduced. 
Other minorities continue to be 
underrepresented among 
headmasters and principals. 



6) Although still the highest in 
the city, Charlestown's 
suspension rate has been reduced 
to 40% of the 1982-1983 rate. 
Suspensions citywide have 
dropped significantly, possibly 
indicating that greater efforts 
are being made to employ 
alternatives before relying on 
suspensions. 

7) The percentage of other minority 
teachers has declined slightly ; 
other minority administrators 
are steadily increasing. 



8) Significant progress has been 
made to obtain and assign 
appropriately certified special 
education staff. Continued 
difficulties remain in securing 
certified bilingual/special 
needs educators. Significant 
difficulties remain in securing 
certified bilingual instructors 
in specific linguistic 
categories (Cambodian, Haitian, 
Laotian). 



8) The lack of certified 
bilingual/special education 
teachers and specialists remains 
a major concern. 



9) Certain schools continue to have 
problems in assuring the safety 
of students and staff. 
Effective programs are sorely 
needed to address the needs of 
violent and disruptive students, 
and to end their disruption of 
the educational process. 



y) In response to the Safe Schools 
Commission Report , Boston has 
a draft plan for 
safety citywide, 
the expansion of 



developed 
improving 
including 
alternative 



education. 



10) The level of participation in 
School Parent Councils (SPC's) 
is growing, as is cooperation 
between the Boston School 
administration and The Citywide 
Parents Council . 



11) Many schools designated for 
special desegregation measures 
by the Court remain in non 
compliance with assignment 
goals, due to a lack of central 
office coordination and school- 
level initiatives. 



10) The level of parent 

in SPC's is low, 

disputes have 

major personnel 

CPC. Problems of 

cooperation between the CPC and 

the Boston School administration 

have been noted. 



The level 
participation 
and internal 
brought about 
changes in the 



11) The Department of Implementation 
has undertaken a variety of 
activities to encourage school- 
level recruitment, and a few 
schools have made significant 
outreach efforts to recruit 
students, especially those in 
underenrol led racial 

categories. The impact of these 
efforts will be measured in the 
Fall of 1984. 



One additional significant finding was noted for the first time. 
Considerable problems exist in the handling of transportation 
complaints. Problems were also noted with frequent changes in route 
assignments, increasing absenteeism and tardiness among drivers. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The period covered by the present monitoring report has been a 
critical time of transition in the governance of the Boston Public 
Schools as the Boston School Committee, which previously consisted of 
five at-large members, was restructured to include four at-large and 
nine district representatives. The State Board and Commissioner are 
encouraged to see that the School Committee has moved through an initial 
transition stage and has begun to address the critical issues identified 
in the previous report. We are also pleased to note the continued 
responsiveness of School Department staff, and wish to single out 
Superintendent Spillane, Deputy Superintendent Peterkin and Senior 
Officer Coakley for their cooperation in this regard. Our close working 
relationship with the Department of Implementation again proved 
essential in approving student assignments, which are processed during 
this monitoring period, and in reviewing activities in the schools 
designated for special desegregation measures. 



James R. Grande John H. Lawson 

Chairperson, Massachusetts Commissioner, Massachusetts 

Board of Education Department of Education 



STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS 



MANDATE 



Carry out the student assignment and transfer process, on all 
levels, in such a manner that (a) the procedural requirements 
established by the Court are met, and (b) the greatest possible 
compliance is achieved in each school with the permitted 
enrollment ranges for each racial/ethnic group. 



OBJECTIVE 



To assure that all assignments for 1984-85 are made consistent 
with the process approved by the Court, and to estimate the extent 
of compliance which will be achieved with Court-ordered 
desegregation objectives. 



1. ASSIGNMENT PROCESS 

QUESTIONS 

What is the process for providing information to parents 
and students about attendance options for the subsequent 
year? 

PROCESS 

Monitors reviewed parent/student information and application 
materials, and visited a district office to observe the 
application process. 

FINDINGS 

(80-99) 
The process of giving an assignment for the 1984-85 school year to 
each student attending or seeking to attend the Boston Public 
Schools is complex. Under the student assignment orders, each 
student (except those assigned to substantially-separate programs) 
is offered a number of school assignment choices each year, 
subject to explicit desegregation requirements. The assignment 
process seeks to give each student in similar circumstances an 
equal chance for desirable options. It must be protected from 
illicit influence or manipulation. In addition, the process must 
be carried out after promotion decisions are relatively firm yet 
in time to permit school scheduling before the close of the 
academic year. To the extent that parents are considering 



educational alternatives, an early indication of an assignment may 
help to persuade them to keep their children in the public 
schools. 

(100-103) 
Volume II includes a selection of the instructions sent to 
principals and headmasters, the application forms sent to parents, 
and the assignment notifications. Briefly, the process for 1984- 
85 was as follows: 

personalized application forms were prepared for each 
student, based upon his/her grade, residence, program, etc.; 
these were distributed in each school on March 27th; parents 
of students new to the system (including kindergarten) 
applied at district offices during the same time period; 
applications were due April 11th; proposed assignments were 
developed by the Department of Implementation and provided to 
the Board on May 7i:h for review and approval; assignment 
notices were delivered to district offices on May 16th and 
given to students in school that day or the next; notices 
were not mailed because of bad experience with lost notices 
in previous years, but arrangements were made for delivery in 
cases of prolonged absence. 

Monitors found that the process was carried out with no 
significant problems. Target enrollments for examination schools 
and advanced work/academically talented classes were reviewed and 
approved, as were lists of potential invitees. Space matrices, 
indicating projected capacity and location of each program, were 
approved as a basis for assignments. The Board was provided with 
proposed student assignments for regular programs, bilingual 
programs, substantially-separate programs, and magnet vocational 
programs in district high schools on May 7th; these were approved 
after review and clarification of several issues. Extended Day 
Kindergarten programs were approved after one modification to 
bring a program into line with approved racial composition. 
Assignments were issued the week of May 14th. 

2. EXTENDED DAY KINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS 

QUESTIONS 

The Second Monitoring Report found that certain Extended 
Day Kindergarten Programs had not achieved the 
enrollment levels and proportions which had been 
approved in February 1983. In five cases, more White 
students had been admitted to programs located in 
predominantly White neighborhoods than had been 
approved, and concerns were also expressed about two 
programs to which more Black or Other Minority students 
had been admitted than had been approved. In other 



instances, while approved levels had been exceeded, the 
effect was to strengthen desegregation, and no objection 
was raised. Do initial assignments to these seven 
programs cited in the last Report correct these 
problems? What contribution do such programs make to 
desegregation? 



FINDINGS 



Initial (May 1984) assignments for 1984-85 were approved by the 
Boards' after correction of a slight over-assignment of White 
students to one of the schools cited for that problem in the 
Second Monitoring Report. Additional assignments to all programs 
cited will be followed closely, as indicated by the memoranda of 
April 28th and May 16th 1984 . 

(109-110) 
In general, extended day kindergarten programs appear to be one of 
the most effective methods currently used by Boston to attract 
White students into the public schools and to schools in 
predominantly minority neighborhoods on a voluntary basis. 
Preferences expressed in April 1984 for the 1984-85 school year 
show that substantially more White students are applying for a 
number of programs including programs in two of the most heavily- 
minority schools in Boston (Blackstone, 92% minority; Hernandez, 
89% minority), than can be assigned. 

Extended day programs are also strongly popular among Black and 
Other Minority parents. It is notable that the Perkins School in 
South Boston, a new extended day program approved with some 
hesitation in 1983, had no difficulty in enrolling ten Black and 
eight Hispanic kindergarten students for 1983-84, and is already 
over-subscribed for Black students for 1984-1985. 

The next round of monitoring will include an assessment of the 
extent to which White students in extended day programs remain in 
the public schools for the elementary grades, and also whether 
parents who are disappointed on their first choices for these 
programs accept other kindergarten assignments and thus remain 
within the public schools. 

Present monitoring included several schools (Chittick, Mattahunt, 
Higginson, Lee) for which extended day programs might be expected 
to increase White enrollment in the elementary grades. 
Unfortunately there seem to be several problems with taking full 
advantage of their undoubted attractiveness including lack of 
deliberate efforts to do so. 

In short, initial review - which will be supported by statistical 
analysis in the next Report - suggests that extended day 
kindergarten is not realizing its full potential for 



10 



desegregation, despite abundant evidence of its appeal to 
parents. It should be noted that extended day programs are an 
important and effective element in the desegregation in Worcester 
and Springfield, and that Lawrence and other desegregating systems 
are planning to use them as well. 

3. ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOLS 

QUESTIONS 

The assignments proposed each Spring for the following 
year, and especially those at the elementary level, give 
only an approximate indication of the likelihood that 
schools will be in compliance with the permitted 
enrollment ranges. In particular, hundreds of White 
students who presently attend kindergarten are assigned 
to first grade classes even though the experience of 
many years indicates they will transfer to non-public 
schools for the elementary grades. Taking this into 
account, to what extent do the assignments proposed for 
1984-85 promise to achieve desegregation compliance? 

PROCESS 

The monitor calculated the proportion of "shrinkage" between 
assigned White enrollment in the Spring and actual White 
enrollment in the Fall of 1983 in the elementary grades of each 
school and then applied that proportion to the proposed 
assignments for 1984-8b. Assignment monitoring visits were made 
to the Tobin, Winthrop, Kennedy, Chittick, Mattahunt and Hennigan 
schools. 

FINDINGS 

Schools with A High Proportion of White Students 

In Report No. 2 certain schools were identified (Volume II, page 
24) as enrolling too high a proportion of White students. Review 
of the projected enrollments for 1984-85, adjusted as described 
above, made it clear that this would be a continuing problem. 
The following schools - among others - could "afford" to encourage 
White students to attend "special desegregation" or other schools 
offering educational options: 

Permitted and Projected White Proportion 1-5 

Projected 
School White Range White % 

I Gardner 13-21% 29% 

11 



Baldwin 


13-21% 


10% 


Manning 


13-23% 


32% 


Kennedy 


13-23% 


11% 


F. Roosevelt 


16-26% 


41% 


Chittick 


16-26% 


4% 


Perry 


26-44% 


56% 


Perkins 


26-44% 


50% 


Emerson 


26-44% 


22% 



II 
III 

VI 



Since the problem of over- and under-enrol Iment of white students 
has persisted since long before Report No. 1 it should become a 
priority for the development (subject to approval) of new 
voluntary measures, and for vigorous recruitment. 

Magnet Elementary Schools 

Report No. 2 noted that the Hennigan and Jackson Mann schools were 
in persistent non-compliance because of large bilingual programs, 
and urged the development of a long-term assignment strategy for 
these magnet schools. The proposed assignments exacerbate this 
problem, with the enrollment of the Hennigan going up to 45% Other 
Minority (including 205 students in its Spanish Bilingual 
program). A 36% increase of the Other Minority enrollment of the 
Hennigan in two years should be the result of explicit program and 
desegregation decisions. 

In this connection, the evident success of the Hernandez in 
attracting more White student applications than can be 
accommodated (so that, for example, 50% of the White kindergarten 
applicants must be disappointed) indicates that strong support 
exists for educational options which are truly bilingual. What 
has worked for the Hernandez might well work for the Hennigan or 
(with modification of the Plan) for the Kennedy or other schools 
in predominantly-Hispanic neighborhoods. 

Report No. 2 noted concerns about the educational impact of the 
very high proportion of Hispanic students (68%, with 9% White) at 
the Hernandez. The projected first grade assignments begin to 
correct this situation; Boston should follow through on this 
corrective action in making additional assignments. 

Projected enrollments for magnet elementary (grades 1-5) and 
middle schools compare as follows with city-wide projected 
enrollments (exclusive of exam schools) for those grades: 



12 





Magnet Sc 


hools 


All Schools 


1-5 








Black 


1,735 


17.3% 


9,985 


White 


804 


14.1% 


5,698 


Other 


1,169 


20.6% 


5,673 


6-8 








Black 


692 


12% 


5,747 


White 


315 


11% 


2,858 


Other 


321 


11% 


2,937 



(Note that the elementary projection for White enrollment in all 
schools is undoubtedly too high, as a result of the "shrinkage" of 
kindergarten enrollment discussed above.) 

These projections indicate that Black students will be enrolled in 
magnet elementary and middle schools at a rate at least 
proportionate to that for White students, and the Other Minority 
students will be "over-represented" in magnet elementary schools 
as a result of the large bilingual programs at the Hennigan, 
Hernandez, and Jackson-Mann schools. As pointed out Reports No. 1 
and No. 2 magnet schools in Boston seem to be equitable in their 
effect. 

Middle Schools 



As noted in Report No. 2 (Volume II, page 14), the problem of 
enrollment compliance is particularly difficult in middle schools 
because of the large number of White students who, though they 
leave certain schools for the exam schools, are counted in 
determining the compliance standard. Most middle schools are 
clearly more desegregated at present than they were in 1973, and a 
substantial number of schools can project full compliance for next 
year. 

The chart which follows, from the 1983 Annual Desegregation Report 
of the Bureau of Equal Educational Opportunity, compares the 
enrollment of some middle schools in 1970 with their Fall 1983 
enrollment: 

Percent White 





197C 


)_ 


1983 


Timilty (Roxbury) 
Holmes (Dorchester) 
Lewenberg (Mattapan) 
Lewis (Roxbury) 
Dearborn (Roxbury) 


0. 
1. 
3. 
4. 
7. 


.2% 
.2% 
.4% 
.8% 
.0% 


13, 
18, 
21, 
20, 
25, 


.8% 
.6% 
.6% 
.8% 
.5% 



13 



This improvement, resulting directly from Court-ordered 
desegregation, has taken place even as the enrollment of the 
school system overall has gone from 67.5% White (including some 
Hispanics) in 1970 to 28% White in 1983. 

Within each district the distribution of students of each 
racial/ethnic group is roughly even, and it is difficult to see 
how more compliance could be achieved without (a) persuading more 
White students to attend public middle schools, or (b) persuading 
more District VIII students to attend District IX middle 
schools. Student preferences for 1984-85 show that only four 
White students from District VIII gave a magnet middle school as 
first choice (two for sixth grade, two for eighth grade), while 
257 expressed a first preference for the Barnes or Cheverus! As a 
result, 43% of the White seventh and eighth graders attend either 
the Latin schools or schools in East Boston. 



HIGH SCHOOLS 



QUESTION 



Do the May 1984 high school assignments for 1984-85 promise to 
result in greater desegregation compliance? 



PROCESS 

Preferences expressed by eighth grade students for ninth grade 
assignments were reviewed for all racial/ethnic groups, and 
compared with preferences expressed last year, as reported in 
Report No. 1. Proposed 1984-85 high school assignments were 
reviewed in relation to (a) desegregation objectives, (b) student 
preferences, and (c) the relation between 1983-84 assignments and 
actual 1984-85 enrollment. Special attention was given to those 
schools for which concerns were expressed in Reports No. 1 and No. 
2. Where necessary, clarifications were obtained from the 
Department of Implementation. In addition, assignment monitoring 
visits were made to Burke, Dorchester, South Boston, Jamaica 
Plain, East Boston, and English High Schools. 

FINDINGS 

District High Schools - Previous Conclusions 

Report No. 1 (July 1983) noted that all district high schools were 
in compliance with respect to projected Fall 1983 Black 
enrollment, with the possibility that Brighton High would be 



14 



slightly over the permitted range. Jamaica Plain and Burke High 
Schools were projected to fall below the Court-mandated White 
enrollment proportion. 

Other Minority (Hispanic, Asian, American Indian) enrollment was 
held to a more flexible standard, since the presence of bilingual 
programs in certain schools has the effect - recognized by the 
Court - of inflating Other Minority enrollment in those schools 
while deflating it in others. On the other hand, a review of the 
location and size of Spanish bilingual programs at the high school 
level found that there were too many such programs to achieve, in 
each one, the optimal enrollment level of at least 100 students. 

In an analysis of preferences expressed by students in the eighth 
grade in 1982-83 for a high school assignment for 1983-84, the 
Report found that, contrary to concerns expressed by Plaintiffs, 
few students who expressed a first preference for a district 
school were denied it. 

A second conclusion was that certain district high schools were 
particularly unappealing to students of all racial groups. Burke 
and Dorchester were least appealing, followed closely by Hyde 
Park, then by Charlestown, Jamaica Plain, and Brighton. Only West 
Roxbury and South Boston were relatively appealing to all 
groups. Report No. 1 concluded that special efforts should be 
made by the staff of Burke, Dorchester and Jamaica Plain High 
Schools to encourage those White students receiving assignments to 
attend in September. 

Report No. 2 (February 1984) reviewed November 1983 enrollments 
and noted that four district high schools - the predicted Burke 
and Jamaica Plain but also Brighton and South Boston - were below 
the permitted range for White students. 

District High Schools - Proposed Assignments in 1984 

Review of ninth grade preferences for 1984-85 found some 
encouraging trends. White eighth graders expressed fewer first 
preferences for district high schools located in White 
neighborhoods, and more for the city-wide Boston High (work- 
study), English High, and Madison Park High: 

1983 1984 



Brighton 


24 


13 


West Roxbury 


67 


62 


South Boston 


75 


67 


East Boston 


158 


137 


Boston High 


22 


72 


English High 


22 


53 


Madison Park 


15 


19 



15 



There was a slight (from 7 to 11) increase in first preferences by 
White students for Jamaica Plain High School, and an increase from 
5 to 9 in the number of White first preferences for the magnet 
vocational programs at Dorchester High. 

Based upon the number of students assigned for 1984-85, all 
district high schools should be in compliance with the permitted 
ranges for Black and White enrollment, with Dorchester slightly 
and South Boston substantially high in Other Minority enrollment - 
the result of bilingual programs. Whether actual enrollments in 
November remain in compliance will depend, in large measure, upon 
efforts to reach out to newly-assigned students and persuade them 
to attend. 

There has been an increase from 1983 in the number of students of 

each racial group assigned to a district high school who gave 

another school as first preference. 

The largest number of such assignments of Black students in 1983 

and again in 1984 is to Hyde Park, with substantial numbers also 

to Burke and Dorchester, to West Roxbury, and to Charlestown in 

1984. 

The largest number of such assignments of White students has 
consistently been to Burke, Dorchester, and Jamaica Plain. 
Brighton received the largest number of such assignments of Other 
Minority students both years, with Charlestown second. 

West Roxbury is clearly the most popular among Black students, and 
East Boston, South Boston and West Roxbury among White students. 
Jamaica Plain is well ahead in first preferences among Other 
Minority students. 

City-wide High Schools - Previous Conclusions 

Report No. 1, reviewing proposed 1983-1984 assignments, found that 
several city-wide high schools - English, Madison Park, Copley 
Square - had slightly higher proportions of Black students and 
lower proportions of White students than permitted by the Court. 
Special concern was expressed about Madison Park and English High 
Schools; they deserved "priority attention ... to assure that 
they are safe environments in which a first-rate program is 
available" (Volume II, page 107). 

The analysis of preferences found that the new "International 
Program" at Copley Square High School was extremely popular with 
all racial/ethnic groups, with far more students applying for 
ninth grade than could be accommodated. Regret was expressed that 
a similar effort in program development had not occurred at a 
larger school, such as English High School, which would have been 
able to satisfy more of the applicants. 



16 



Report No. 1 concluded that most students who expressed preference 
for high school received their first preference, and that 
desegregation was thus accomplished through a combination of 
voluntary assignments and the assignment of students who failed to 
indicate a preference by returning an application. 

Report No. 2 reviewed the actual 1983-1984 enrollments, and found 
that English and Madison Park both enrolled substantially more 
Black students than had been projected, and that English was out 
of compliance with respect to White enrollment. 

City-wide High Schools - Proposed Assignments for 1984-8b 

Boston High received a very large increase in first preferences 
from Black students (from 30 to 155) and Other Minority students 
(from 15 to 71). The implications of this "vote" for job-oriented 
secondary education should be taken into account in secondary 
planning in Boston. Boston High's share of all first preferences 
for ninth grade jumped from 2% of each group in 1983 to 9% of 
Black, 7% of White, and 8% of Other Minority students in 1984. 

English High also received many more first preferences from Black 
(up from 116 to 207) and Other Minority (from 30 to 79) 
students. This increase seems to reflect efforts made to improve 
school climate and educational programs. On the other hand, it 
will remain necesssary to assign 36 White and 15 Other Minority 
students to English who did not give it as their first 
preference. English High's share of first preferences jumped from 
7% to 12% of Black, from 2% to 5% of White, and from 4% to 9% of 
Other Minority students. 

Madison Park's share of first preferences for ninth grade dropped 
from 20% to 15% of Black students and from 13% to 8% of Other 
Minority students, but increased from 1% to 2% of White students. 

Copley Square High's International Program, so popular last year, 
is substantially less so this year. This suggests that the 
reported difficulties experienced this year in delivering on the 
promises made for the International Program have had their effect 
- Boston students and their parents are shrewd "consumers" and 
capable of making well-informed choices among educational options. 

Copley Square's share of first preferences for ninth grade dropped 
from 10% to 7% of Black, from 8% to 6% of White, and from 9% to 7% 
of Other Minority students in 1984. 

The number of first preferences for the Umana has also fall off 
from 9% to 5% of Black, from 7% to 4% of White, and from 5% to 4% 
of Other Minority students in 1984. 



17 



Assignments for 1984-85 indicate that all city-wide high schools 
should be in compliance with the permitted ranges, with English 
slightly over in Other Minority enrollment. Much will depend upon 
efforts to persuade all students to attend their assigned schools, 
and upon how supplemental assignments and transfer requests are 
handled over the next several months. 



5. OCCUPATIONAL RESOURCE CENTER ASSIGNMENTS 

QUESTIONS 

Are the assignments for 1984-85 consistent with the provisions and 
goals of the Unified Plan of September 1975? Based upon the 
ratio of enrollment to assignments last year, is improved 
compliance projected in 1984-85? Is there evidence that 
improvements have been made in recruitment and counselling for 
Occupational Resource Center programs? 



PROCESS 



The Monitor met with leadership of the Department of 
Implementation and the Humphrey Occupational Resource Center to 
review assignment requirements and recruitment activities. The 
Monitor also reviewed an "action plan" for recruitment, and the 
proposed 1984-85 Occupational Resource Center assignments, 
received May 25th. 1984-85 assignments were compared with 1983-84 
assignments, and 1984-85 enrollment projections were made, based 
upon the ratio of enrollment to assignments in 1983-84. Student 
preferences for ORG assignments for 1984-85 were compared with 
last year's preferences. 



FINDINGS 



Assignments to the HHHORC are governed by the "admissions 
criteria" stated in the Unified Plan of September 1975. The most 
important of these criteria include: (a) students may only be 
assigned voluntarily, (b) assignments to city-wide occupational 
programs are governed by a modified version of the criteria for 
city-wide magnet schools, (c) insufficient applications from any 
racial/ethnic group for particular programs will result in 
underenrol Iment of that program, and (d) assignment of male and 
female students to programs in which one sex has represented less 
than 35% of enrollment is to be made on a 1:1 basis until all 
applicants of one group have been assigned. 

As of June 1984, 21 of the 35 HHHORC programs are underassigned 
for 1984-85. In almost all cases this reflects insufficient 



18 



applications rather than enrollment limitation for desegregation 
purposes. As occurred last year, the Board has approved initial 
HHHORC assignments, while urging continuing recruitment efforts to 
permit assignment of additonal students by September. In some 
cases such additional assignments may bring programs into 
compliance with the Court-ordered standards. 

(113) 

On the basis of students assigned for 1984-85, 13 of 35 programs 
are in compliance for Black enrollment, 15 for White enrollment, 
and 4 for Other Minority enrollment. At this point last year, 
projected compliance for 1983-84 was 12 for Black enrollment, 7 
for White enrollment, and 5 for Other Minority enrollment. Some 
progress is evident, though a substantial majority of the programs 
are out of compliance in each racial/ethnic category. 

(113,120) 
(121) 

Black assigned enrollment is below the Court-established range in 
ten programs, including data processing, electronics and 
photographic technology, and plumbing, and above the range in 
twelve programs. 

White assigned enrollment is below the Court-established range in 
fourteen programs, including machine (also available at Hyde Park 
High School), advanced office (also available at East Boston High 
School), food service, health aide, and electronics technology, 
and above the range in six programs. 

Other Minority assigned enrollment is below the range (a narrow 
range for this group) in thirteen programs, including plumbing and 
retailing, and above the range in eighteen. 

Ten programs have an assigned enrollment for 1984-85 above 65% 
female, and fourteen an assigned enrollment above 65% male. This 
compares with ten above 65% female and sixteen above 65% male 



assigned for 1983-84. 



(115,122) 



In brief, there is slight improvement in assignments with respect 
to sex as with respect to racial/ethnic group. 

Overall, the total number of students assigned to the HHHORC for 
1984-85 is lower than the number assigned last May for 1983-84. 



ASSIGNED 1983-84 1984-85 

Black 1344 1233 -8% 

White 432 429 -1% 



19 



other Minority 493 465 -6% 

Total 2305 2149 -7% 



Previous monitoring reports stressed that the problems of under- 
enrollment and failure of many programs to comply with Court- 
ordered desegregation standards would only be solved through 
effective recruitment, counselling, and career exploratory 
programs, as mandated in the Court-ordered Unified Plan. 
Although there has been discussion and some encouraging first 
steps toward improvement of recruitment, including the May 22, 
1984 appointment of a development officer for the HHHORC, there 
are no signs of actual improvement. 

(130-139) 

The impact of recruitment can best be measured, not by actual 
assignments (which are governed by desegregation and capacity 
limitations), but by the number of students expressing a first 
preference for a city-wide occupational program. There was a 
substantial decline in first preferences for HHHORC programs for 
1984-85 compared with last year, from 2256 to 1978. White first 
preferences declined by nearly 17%, Black first preferences by 
over 12%, and Other Minority first preferences by 10%, for an 
overall decrease of 12.3% By comparison, projected enrollment in 
grades 10-12 in Boston declined by only 4.3%. HHHORC programs 
are becoming less rather than more popular with Boston students, 
despite the extensive opportunities which they offer for 
vocational training. 

(126) 

The moderate improvement in assigned enrollments for 1984-85 is 
the result of the assignment process alone, and not of recruitment 
efforts. Student first preferences are even more 
disproportionate this year than last, since White applications 
declined more rapidly than did Black applications. It does not 
appear that the recruitment measures which have been discussed 
since Spring 1983 have contributed to desegregation compliance. 

Discussion with several headmasters and with officials of the 
Department of Implementation and the HHHORC suggests that a major 
recruitment problem is created by luke-warm encouragement - and 
even discouragement - in the sending schools. The next 
Monitoring Report will include a school -by-school analysis of the 
rate of participation in HHHORC programs, and an in-depth analysis 
of the pattern of applications for these programs. 



20 



6. TRANSFERS 
QUESTIONS 



What are the requirements and process for student transfers? What 
is the impact of such transfers on desegregation? Is there any 
indication that disciplinary transfers have a destabilizing effect 
on high schools? 



PROCESS 



Transfer guidelines were reviewed. The Department of 
Implementation provided a print-out of transfers in and out of 
each school between July 1, 1983 and March 23, 1984, and this was 
reviewed for patterns which might indicate either unequal 
treatment or negative impact upon desegregation. 



FINDINGS 



There are five categories of student transfers identified in the 

Student Assignment Procedures: 

(14U-144) 

a. change of address 

b. programmatic 

c. desegregati ve 

d. sibling 

e. medical 

Each category requires specific procedures and 
principals/headmasters must explain the policies and procedures 
required for each type. Volume II includes an extended extract 
from these policies and procedures. 

Review of transfers granted between July 1, 1983 and March 23, 
1984 did not find apparent patterns of abuse. White students made 
greater use of "medical" and "desegregati ve" transfers than did 
other groups, which may reflect greater sophistication about how 
to obtain the desired school assignment, but the numbers involved 
are small, and the process for review by the Department of 
Implementation should restrict abuse. Data on the transfers 
approved, by type and by race, is provided in the Appendix. There 
are two additional types of transfers which have caused concern in 
previous monitoring. Transfers for disciplinary reasons require 
certification, by the Community District Superintendent, that all 
requirements of the Code of Discipline have been met, and approval 
by the Community District Superintendent of the receiving school 
if a cross-district transfer is involved. Such transfers are 
used, monitors have been told, to remove students from situations 
in which they may be a danger to other students or to the 
educational process. 



21 



Analysis of transfers which are reported as "behavioral" does not 
suggest an obvious pattern of "loading" certain schools with 
troubled students, because of the small numbers involved. On the 
other hand, additional transfers which are really behavioral or 
disciplinary in origin may be treated as though initiated by 
student request, and thus as "programmatic." No high school 
received more than three behavioral transfers: 

Jamaica Plain, Charlestown 3 

Hyde Park, Burke, Madison Park 2 
Brighton, Dorchester, Boston 
High, Copley Suare, English, 

Umana 1 

West Roxbury, South Boston, 

East Boston 

The Examination Schools, because of their special admission 
requirements, did not receive such transfers. The great majority 
of these transfers are of Black students and are into schools 
which are predominantly minority; to the extent that these 
transfers are governed by the Code of Discipline, safeguards exist 
against unequal treatment. Nevertheless, the pattern of 
behavioral transfers will be reviewed in the next monitoring 
period. 

The other category of transfers about which concerns have been 
expressed during school-level monitoring is those between 
Instructional levels. The issue of "mid-term promotions" and 
their impact upon school stability was noted in the Report No. 1 
in relation to Burke High, a special desegregation school. The 
Community District Superintendent subsequently agreed to limit 
this practice, as reported in the Second Monitoring Report No. 
2. A letter included in Appendix provides recent evidence of a 
new vigilance with respect to such transfers. 

The process for student transfers is as follows: a parent or 
guardian, or student eighteen or older, may request a transfer at 
any school office or community district office. Boston staff 
assist in completing the application, in whatever language is 
appropriate. In the case of an address change or requested 
medical transfer, additional information is required. An 
Assignment/Tranfer Specialist within the Department of 
Implementation determines whether the transfer meets the 
requirements spelled out in the "Procedural Manual". If 
approved, the transfer information is provided to the sending and 
receiving schools as well as to the applicant. 



22 



COMMENDATIONS 



The Department of Implementation is to be commended for its 
efforts to assign students to every school, and especially to high 
schools, in such a way that each school will be in compliance with 
the permitted ranges for all racial groups. Close observation of 
the process for two years had demonstrated the integrity of the 
assignments, and the extreme complexity and sensitivity of the 
task. If a number of schools will not be completely desegregated 
next Fall, it will not be because of faults in the assignment 
process as such. 

Efforts to strenghten the educational program and to improve the 
school climate at English High, Jamaica Plain High, Dorcester 
High, and Burke High also deserve commendation, as they have 
already produced an increase in student first preferences. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



1. The preferences expressed by parents and students at all 
grade levels, and especially at the eighth/ninth grade 
transition, should be given careful consideration in 
developing a Long Range Secondary Plan and in developing or 
modifying secondary school options. 

2. Efforts are needed at Madison Park and several district high 
schools, parallel to the efforts commended above, to increase 
the attractiveness of the educational program and school 
climate. The determination to gain additional applications 
can be a powerful impetus for change and cooperation among 
staff and with parents and students. 

3. The promises made for Copley Square a year ago and for 
English High this year must be delivered on, or it will 
become even more difficult to retain White students in the 
non-examination magnet high schools. 

4. The continuing existence of elementary schools whose White 
enrollment exceeds the permitted ranges demonstrates that a 
pool of White students remains available for recruitment to 
appropriate schools, on the basis of attractive educational 
options. The in-depth analysis of certain attendance zones 
in the section of this Report on "special desegregation 
schools" documents how many White students either do not 
attend public schools or do not attend their district school, 
and are similarly available for persuasion to accept a 
desegregati ve assignment. Such voluntary measures would in 
some cases require modification of the present Student 
Assignment Plan, though the provision for programmatic and 



23 



desegregati ve transfers under existing orders has not 
apparently been used to this end. A number of schools are 
identified which might send or receive White students (and, 
conversely, receive or send minority students) under such 
special desegregation efforts. 

5. Several magnet elementary schools - the Hennigan and the 
Hernandez - are singled out for continuing concern because of 
extremely high Hispanic enrollment. On the other hand, the 
success of the Hernandez in attracting applications from 
White parents suggests the possibility of increasing the 
number of elementary options with a two-way bilingual 
emphasis. 

6. Further recruitment for Extended Day Kindergarten Programs, 
and strict attention to assignment limitations in certain 
cases, will be necessary to assure that all programs are in 
compliance in the Fall. The demonstrated popularity of such 
programs with all racial/ethnic groups, in other 
Massachusetts cities as well as in Boston, makes it important 
to find ways to increase their positive impact upon 
desegregation compliance in the elementary grades. 

7. Projected enrollment in programs at the Humphrey 
Occupational Resource Center continues seriously out of 
compliance in many cases, despite some improvement, and there 
is a disturbing decline in the number of applications from 
students of all racial/ethnic groups. Efforts to recruit 
students through active outreach, career education and 
counselling, and encouragement at the sending high schools 
should be a major priority. 



24 



STAFF 



MANDATE 



The desegregation of faculty and administrative staff shall be 
implemented according to the standards contained in the orders of 
July 31, 1974; January 28, 1975; the amended Order of August 30, 
1975; the Order of February 24, 1976, the Special Order of July 7, 
1977; the Further Order of July 5, 1978; the Modification of 
January 27, 1981; the Conditional Order of June 2, 1981; and the 
Bench Order of July 9, 1981. 



PROCESS 



The following documents from the School Department were 
analyzed: 

Report to the United States District Court on Administrators of 
January 15, 1984; Report on the number of White, Black, and Other 
Minority Permanent and Acting Administrators of March 19, 1984; 
Status Report - Affirmative Action (Memorandum of Superintendent 
Spill ane to the School Committee, March 9, 1984); two memoranda 
from Dr. Spillane to the School Committee on Acting Positions, one 
dated March 27, 1984; one dated April 23, 1984, and adopted by the 
School Committee; and several additional letters and memoranda, 
all included in volume II of this report. Monitors also 
interviewed appropriate central office personnel. 



OBJECTIVE 



1. To determine whether the 20% Black requirement for teaching 
and administrative positions continues to be met. 



FINDINGS 



PERCENTAGE OF BLACK TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS 



REPORT #1 REPORT #2 CURRENT 
(6/83) (2/84) FINDINGS 



TEACHERS 



20.46 



20.30 



20.85 



CATEGORY I 21.14 
ADMINISTRATORS 



21.14 



22.76 



CATEGORY II 
ADMINISTRATORS 



21.76 



NOT 
MONITORED 



24.44 



25 



Source: 



Boston 
Court 



Public 
on the 



Schools 
Number 



(Report to 
of White, 



the United 
Black, and 



District 

Minority Teachers and Administrators, March 19, 1984). 

(221) 



States 
Other 



QUESTION: 

Are 
the 

FINDINGS 



acting administrative appointments being used to circumvent 
requirement for 20% black administrators (both categories)? 



Problems with acting appointments will be discussed below, but it 
is clear from the statistics already reported that appointments to 
an "acting" rather than "permanent" status are not being used to 
evade the 20% requirement. 



OBJECTIVE 



2. 



QUESTION: 



To determine whether the required procedure 
administrative ratings has been followed in all cases. 



for 



How many ratings have been conducted during this monitoring 
period? 

PREVIOUS FINDINGS: 

Report #1: (not monitored) 

Report #2: Seven, two completed ratings 

FINDINGS 

(152,162) 
Of the seven ratings being conducted in the last reporting period, 
two more were completed. Since that time, four more have been 
scheduled, but none completed. For all practical purposes, the 
promotional rating system described in the court's orders is not 
being used by the Boston Public Schools. Almost all 
administrative appointments are on an acting basis; there are now 
approximately 350 acting administrators in Boston, out of a total 
administrative staff of 710. 

(173-188) 



26 



OBJECTIVE 



.To assess the affirmative action efforts of the School 

Department to reach the goal of 25% Black teachers and 
administrators. 



STATUS 



As reported previously, the School Department is filling vacancies 
from the recall list, as specificially allowed by the court. 
Nonetheless, as reported above, the percentage of Black teachers 
and administrators is slowly increasing. 



OBJECTIVE 



QUESTION: 



4. To assess the best efforts of the School Department to 
increase the percentage of other minority teachers and 
administrators. 



Have the percentages of other minority teachers and 
administrators increased? 



PREVIOUS FINDINGS 

Percentage of Other Minority Teachers and Administrators 







REPORT 
NO. 1 


REPORT 
NO. 2 


CURRENT 
FINDINGS 


Teachers: 
Category I: 
Category II: 


8.25% 
1.63% 
4.01% 


8.54% 
2.44% 
Not Monitored 


8.42% 
3.25% 
5.72% 


FINDINGS 









The percentage of other minority teachers on March 15, 1984, was 
8.42%, a slight increase over a year ago, but a slight decrease 
since the last monitoring period. The percentage of other 
minority administrators has increased significantly, however, to 
3.25% in Category I and 5.72% in Category II. 

(221) 



27 



QUESTION: 



What affirmative action and recruitment activities have taken 
place? 



FINDINGS 



Volume II contains a copy of a report of the recruitment 
specialist recently hired by Boston's Department of Personnel and 
Labor Relations. While there are as yet no substantial results of 
these recruitment efforts, they appear to the monitors to be 
positive and appropriate steps towards an effective minority 



recruitment program. 



(153-156) 



SPECIAL NOTE 



On May 2nd, 1984, Counsel for the School Committee informed the 
Department of Education that the School Committee had approved a request 
for modification of the orders requiring a promotional rating system. 
Such a modification had been recommended in Report No. 1. The specific 
terms of any modification will have to be determined through the court- 
established procedure, but the request for such a modification is a very 
positive step. At present, the School Department's refusal to use the 
promotional rating procedure, and to make acting appointments instead, 
has in effect excluded parents and teachers from the process by which 
administrators in Boston are chosen. (172) 



28 



SPECIAL DESEGREGATION MEASURES 

MANDATE 

Special desegregation measures at specific schools shall be 
implemented according to the orders of May 3, 1976, pages 20 to 
25; May 6, 1977, pages 25 and 43 - 44; March 21, 1978, page 6; and 
the Bench Order of April 20, 1982 regarding the Hispanic Bilingual 
Program, Charletown High School. 

OBJECTIVES 

To determine whether all measures required by the Court continue 
to be carried out. 

To determine the effectiveness of all continuing special 
desegregation measures. 

To determine compliance with all terms of voluntary measures with 
respect to special desegregation which have not been formalized as 
court orders, and with all terms of special desegregation measures 
arrived at pursuant to the process of dispute resolution. 

1. RECRUITMENT 

QUESTIONS 

It is a commonplace of civil rights implementation that strict 
compliance with legal requirements should be matched with active 
efforts to achieve the purpose of those requirements. 

In other desegregating school systems in Massachusetts "active 
efforts" have focused on program development in individual schools 
and on outreach to prospective parents and students, including 
those who might otherwise select a non-public school. 

The First Report expressed concern about school -level efforts to 
reach the parents of students newly-assigned to "special 
desegregation" schools, and thus to increase the likelihood that 
White enrollment would meet Court-established goals. The failure 
of Madison Park and English High Schools to attract students of 
all racial/ethnic groups also required priority attention. 

The basic conclusions were that "the assignment process was 
carried out appropriately, but the assignment outcomes are not 
satisfactory in all cases," leading to a need to "strengthen the 
attractiveness" of many schools and to "follow up on assignments 
by energetic outreach." 



29 



Have new program development and recruitment efforts been 
implemented to improve compliance with desegregation goals? Is 
there evidence that they have been effective? 



PROCESS 



Discussion with Senior Officer for desegregation; review of 
recruitment materials developed by Department of Implementation. 



FINDINGS 



In a review of White enrollment trends. Report No. 2 pointed out 
that many schools lost a high proportion of the White students 
assigned to them for first grade. Twenty schools were identified 
which showed "promise of coming into compliance without mandatory 
reassignments," through "program development, communication with 
parents, and measures to create a safe and positive learning 
environment in each school." 

The Department of Implementation undertook a variety of activities 
this Spring to encourage school-level recruitment. These 
included: (286) 

a. printing mailing labels for students who live in the 
geocodes for certain schools but do not attend the 
Boston Public Schools, so that these schools could send 
direct mailings to prospective students; and 

b. reminding administrators of the concern, expressed in 
the Board's Reports to the Court, about recruitment to 
schools which are not in compliance with Court 
requi rements. 

Efforts at the school level range from sending a general letter of 
information, perhaps including an open house or an invitation to 
visit the school, to sophisticated efforts to communicate an 
educational commitment and direction, in the case of the Shaw 
elementary and Dorchester and English High Schools. 

(287-289) 

Successful recruitment efforts obviously rely upon having 
something to communicate about, and must reflect a year round 
effort to be responsive to educational needs and to parent 
concerns. Again and again monitors were told that "word of mouth" 
was the best recruiter, that satisfied parents could best convince 
other parents. In this sense, "recruitment" must begin the first 
week of school, and include many outreach and communication 
efforts which show no immediate results. 



30 



2. SPECIAL DESEGREGATION RECRUITMENT 

QUESTIONS 

Report No. 2 found little evidence of proyram development or 
recruitment designed to increase with desegregation requirements 
in the "special desegregation" schools, with the exception of the 
Shaw Elementary School and Dorchester High School. What efforts 
were made between December 1983 and May 1984 to increase the 
likelihood that these schools will be in compliance? 



PROCESS 



Review of recruitment materials provided by special desegregation 
schools; review of student preferences and projected enrollment 
for 1984-85. Monitoring visits to schools. 



FINDINGS 



In each special desegregation school the history of non-compliance 
has involved enrollment of too few White and/or too many Black 
students. Compliance could thus be achieved by assigning fewer 
Black students, as was initially proposed with Burke High School 
last Spring. While this may be appropriate in some instances, 
there are obvious problems: to the extent that the "special 
desegregation" school can offer a sound or superior educational 
opportunity, a limitation of Black enrollment frustrates a major 
purpose of desegregation, to improve opportunities for minority 
students. In addition, the students who are not assigned must be 
assigned to another school, and this may worsen compliance in the 
receiving school. Finally, the assignment provisions of the Plan 
limit the schools to which a particular student - especially at 
the elementary and middle school levels - may be assigned. 

Less objectionable is the approach of encouraging Black students 
(or potential students) to express a preference for a District IX 
city-wide school or program, and to give preference to such 
applications in the assignment process. The fact that far fewer 
Black students express a first preference for Burke or Dorchester 
High School, for example, than must be assigned to those schools 
has made it possible to limit the assignment of Black students 
without in any sense denying them a desired opportunity for the 
sake of desegregation compliance. Similarly, only 38 Black 
students have been assigned to the ninth grade of Jamaica Plain 
High for 1984-85, contrasted with 124 assigned for the current 
year, but in fact only 20 Black students gave Jamaica Plain as 
their first choice, so desegregation progress can be made without 
denying admission to this school; in fact, the number of 
involuntary assignments to the school will be reduced 
substantially. 



31 



This approach has not been used with Burke and Dorchester this 
year; the number of Black students assigned originally to these 
schools has increased from 60 at this time last year for 1983-84 
to 230 for 1984-85. This is actually lower than the 285 Black 
ninth graders enrolled in the two shools as of November 1983. It 
appears that a realistic number of students has been assigned 
initially, and a number which will make it at least possible for 
both schools to be in compliance in the Fall. Whether compliance 
is in fact achieved depends, in part, on the number of late 
assignments and promotions of Black students; a substantial growth 
in Black enrollment could place either school out of compliance. 

The other approach to desegregation compliance is to increase the 
number of White students attending each "special desegregation" 
school. Such students could (a) be persuaded to attend the school 
in preference to a non-public school, or (b) be required to attend 
the school instead of a preferred magnet school. Needless to say, 
neither approach is fool-proof. In some neighborhoods and some 
families attendance in a particular non-public (usually parochial) 
school is a matter of both tradition and conviction, predating 
desegregation. Public educators must accept such choices, even 
while making a better effort to present the advantages which a 
particular public school can offer. 

On the other hand, interviews identified a number of White parents 
who had no particular commitment to a non-public school, but had 
not been convinced that the public schools could offer an 
equivalent educational environment. Few had actually visited a 
Boston public school or received information about the schools. 

It is these parents who can and should be reached, not only to 
increase desegregation compliance but also to increase the long- 
term support for the public schools. 

In this respect, the effort of the Department of Implementation, 
this Spring, to encourage contact by school leadership with 
parents of non-public school students was an important step and 
one deserving commendation . Sets of address labels were printed 
and sent to each school which requested them, and some which did 
not. Examples of the letters which were sent out by special 
desegregation schools are included in Volume II. Though of 
obviously uneven quality and appeal, these letters represent a 
start to "telling the story" of what the Boston Public Schools can 
offer at the level of the individual school, which is of course 
the primary concern of parents. The other approach to increasing 
White enrollment is to deny magnet school assignments to White 
students who would otherwise attend their geocoded "special 
desegregation" school. While this approach has an obvious logic - 
why allow magnet schools, many of which have an excess of White 



32 



applicants, to complicate the problem of desegregation compliance 
in community district schools? - it is not without difficulties. 
Will the White students denied a place in a magnet school actually 
attend the district school, or will they simply leave the public 
schools altogether? Unless the district schools can be seen as a 
desirable choice , they may benefit little from a restriction of 
magnet assignment. 

It is clearly important to find ways to increase White enrollment 
in special desegregation schools which minimize the difficulties 
which have just been identified. Probably the best approach is to 
seek to invest each special desegregation school with the aura of 
distinctiveness and high morale which make magnet schools an 
attractive alternative to so many parents. Extensive monitoring 
experience with magnet and non-magnet schools in Boston and other 
cities has demonstrated that the essential differences are in the 
perception which school staff and parents at magnet schools have 
that they are engaged in a dynamic process of mutual influence and 
school improvement. The fact that the magnet school is chosen is 
a key element in this perception and the high morale which flow 
from it. Every school, in Boston, is a "school of choice" in the 
sense that parents and students have the opportunity to choose it 
or choose against it. The challenge for special desegregation 
schools, within the constraints of the present geocoding, is to 
begin to operate like schools which have something distinctive and 
important to offer. 

It is clear that some are doing so. The impact of program 
development and recruitment measures undertaken since Report No. 2 
will not be measurable until the Fall, but the monitors were 
impressed with efforts to strengthen Dorchester and Burke High 
Schools, with attention both to new programs and also to the 
educational basics and school climate. 

What is still lacking, however, is a coordinated approach which 
uses information on parent and student preferences to develop 
attractive programs and then to present them convincingly to those 
who are not firmly committed to non-public education. Such a 
strategy, already in place in several Massachusetts cities, 
provides information to school staff on the most fruitful forms of 
program development, supports program and staff development, and 
coordinates public information and recruitment. While a 
supplement and stimulus rather than substitute for school-level 
initiatives, such a developmental approach can make the difference 
between compliance with the letter of desegregation orders and 
successful desegregation which strengthens educational 
opportunities for all students. 



33 



3. IMPACT OF NON-PUBLIC AND MAGNET ENROLLMENT 

QUESTION 

Report No. 2 noted the difficulties caused for desegregation by 
the large number of White students attending non-public schools, 
especially after kindergarten. Note has also been made of the 
impact of attendance in magnet schools, which may have a 
disproportionate impact upon certain district schools, including 
"special desegregation" schools. To what extent are special 
desegregtion schools competing with non-public and with city-wide 
public schools? 



PROCESS 



The number of Black, White and Other Minority students residing in 
the geocodes assigned to each elementary special desegregation 
school and attending kindergarten and grades 1-4 in Boston Public 
Schools and in other schools (parochial, other non-public, and 
suburban public) was compared with the number attending the 
special desegregation school. The proportions attending the 
latter, attending other Boston public schools (presumably magnet), 
and attending non-(Boston)-Public Schools were calculated. 



FINDINGS 



A very substantial proportion of the White students residing in 
the geocodes assigned to the elementary special desegregation 
schools do not attend those schools for grades 1-4: 

White Students 

Grades 1-4 Ellis Lee Shaw Emerson 



Attending District 



22 

14% 



10 
6% 



129 
80% 

Only the Shaw enrolls as many as one in four White elementary 
students in the geocodes assigned to it, supporting the 
conclusion of Report No. 2 that the Shaw does the most 
effective job of reaching out to parents to encourage the 
attendance of their children. 



34 



School 


21 


48 


41 


Percent of all stidemts 


9% 


11% 


23% 


Attending other Boston 








public school 


43 


30 


11 


Percent of all student 


19% 


7% 


6% 


Attending no-Boston 








public school 


166 


363 


127 


Percent of all students 


72% 


82% 


71% 



b. The Ellis is strongly affected by the competition of magnet' 
schools, with two-thirds of the geocoded White students 
assigned to the school attending other Boston public 
schools. This presumably reflects the popularity of the 
Curley and Trotter schools in Jamaica Plain. For comparative 
purposes, note that 16% of White elementary students in 
Boston (20% exclusive of East Boston) attend magnet schools; 
among special desegregation schools only the Shaw, with 21% 
of the students in its geocodes attending magnet schools, is 
in this range. 

c. The Lee, drawing White students from West Roxbury, and the 
Emerson, drawing White students from South Boston, are 
particularly affected by non-public (presumably parochial) 
school attendance, amounting to four out of five White 
students in their geocodes. By comparison, total White 
enrollment in non-public schools located in Boston is 
slightly above total White enrollment in the Boston Public 
Schools (see Report No. 2 section on White Enrollment 
Trends); one would thus expect 50-5b% of the White students 
in these geocodes to attend non-public schools. 

d. The Ellis and Lee have fourth grade advanced work classes 
which draw White students from other geocodes, so that in 
fact the figures above give too favorable a picture of the 
ability of the two schools to hold their geocoded White 
students. The Shaw and the Emerson, on the other hand, send 
fourth graders from their geocodes to advanced work classes 
in other schools, and thus actually do somewhat better than 
these figures suggest. 

e. How desegregated could these schools be, given their present 
geocodes? If all students living in those geocodes grades 1- 
4 attended their district public schools (and leaving aside 
the question of capacity), the Ellis would be 45% White (vs. 
the present 8%), the Lee would be 70% White (vs. 22%), the 
Shaw would be 55% (vs. 28%), and the Emerson would 51% (vs. 
24%). 

How is Black enrollment affected by the competing options for 
grades 1-4? 

Black Students 

Grades 1-4 Ellis Lee Shaw Emerson 

Attending District 

School 124 155 101 34 

Percent of all students 60% 90% 80% 39% 



35 



Black Students 








grades 1-4 


Ellis 


Lee 


Shavy 


Attending other Boston 








public school 


41 


* 


b 


Percent of all students 


20% 


* 


4% 


Attending non-Boston 








public school 


41 


15 


21 


Percent of all students 


20% 


10% 


17% 


* more Black students 


attend 


the 


Lee 


geocodes. 









Emerson 

39 

53% 



15 
17% 

than live in its 



a. The Ellis loses a high proportion of Black students to other 
options for grades 1-4, including both magnet schools (20% of 
Black enrollment) and non-Boston-public schools (20% of Ellis 
geocodes). It is possible to speculate that this reflects 
the Metco program and also the strong Black enrollment in St, 
Joseph's and several other parochial schools, as discussed in 
Report No. 2. Note that the Ellis has an advanced work class 
which draws in Black students in the fourth grade from other 
geocodes, so that the actual loss is larger than these 
figures indicate. 

b. The Shaw loses very few Black students to magnet schools or 
to fourth grade advanced work class), which speaks well for 
its attractiveness. On the other hand, the Shaw loses 21 
Black students to Metco and/or the nearby Adventist and 
parochial schools. 

c. The Emerson loses a substantial number of Black students - 
more than it retains - to other Boston public schools, some 
of them perhaps to advanced work classes, others to magnet 
schools. Other students are lost to non-Boston public school 
options, including Metco and/or St. Patrick's and other 
schools. 

d The Lee actually enrolls more Black students than live in its 
geocodes, presumably because of its advanced work class, 
which enrolls 46 Black students. It is impossible to 
determine how many Black students living in its geocodes 
attend magnet schools, but the number is presumably small. 
Only 15 Black students are in Metco and/or non-public 
schools. 

It is not possible to provide a similar analysis of Other Minority 
enrollment from the geocodes assigned to these schools, because of 
the distorting effect of bilingual program assignments. The 
proportion of Other Minority students living in the geocodes of 



36 



these special desegregation schools who attend non-Boston public 
schools ranges from 14% for the Lee to 9% for the Emerson, 8% for 
the Ellis, and none for the Shaw. 

In summary, non-public school enrollment has a very substantial 
impact upon White enrollment in all four schools, though not to an 
equal extent, as does attendance in magnet schools. The advanced 
work classes located at two of the schools do not seem to make a 
significant difference. Overall the Shaw does the most effective 
job of holding its White students, with only one out of five 
attending a magnet school or advanced work class, followed by the 
Emerson, the Lee, and the Ellis, with two out of three attending a 
magnet school . 

Black enrollment is much less impacted by non-public school 
enrollment, though this is not insignificant. 

In assessing the impact of recruitment measures undertaken since 
the First Monitoring Report and over the coming summer, we will 
compare the 1983-84 enrollments for kindergarten through grade 
four with the 1984-85 enrollments for first through fifth grade, 
to determine what proportion of all students, and especially White 
students, are attracted to or retained in their district special 
desegregation school. 

Black enrollment is much less impacted by non-public school 
enrollment, though this is not insignificant. 

In assessing the impact of recruitment measures undertaken since 
Report No. 1 and over the coming summer, we will compare the 1983- 

84 enrollments for kindergarten through grade four with the 1984- 

85 enrollments for first through fifth grade, to determine what 
proportion of all students, and especially White students, are 
attracted to or retained in their district special desegregation 
school . 



4. PROJECTED COMPLIANCE 



QUESTIONS 



Do the assignments for 1984-85 make it likely that special 
desegregation schools will be in compliance with the Court-ordered 
enrollment ranges? 



37 



PROCESS 



For each special desegregation school, the number of White 
students assigned at each grade for 1983-84 was compared with the 
actual enrollments for November 1983; the resultant "shrinkage" 
rate was then applied to the proposed enrollments for 1984-85 to 
permit a projection of the November 1984 enrollments. Both the 
proposed White proportion and the projected White proportion for 
1984-85 were compared with the "ideal" proportion of White 
enrollment. 



FINDINGS 



The Ellis School would be in ideal compliance (18% White) if all 
assigned White students attend in the Fall. Based upon 
"shrinkage" in 1983, however, the school is projected to be 50% 
below the ideal. If more than 33 White students are in attendance 
in November 1984, the Ellis will be able to claim improvement in 
its ability to retain assigned students. 

The Lee School would be 10% above the ideal (32% vs. 29% White) if 
all assigned White students attend in the Fall. Based upon 
projected "shrinkage," the school will be slightly below the 
permitted range for White enrollment, though not as much so as 
this year (66% of the ideal this year, projected 72% of the ideal 
next year). If more than 79 White students are in attendance in 
November 1984, the Lee will be able to claim improvement. 

The Pauline Agassiz Shaw School would be 48% above the ideal (31% 
vs 21% White) if all assigned White students attend in the Fall. 
Based upon projected "shrinkage," the school should still be 
slightly above the ideal and well within the permitted range, as 
it is also this year. If more than 44 White students are in 
attendance in November, the school will be able to claim 
improvement. 

The Emerson School would be well below the permitted range for 
White enrollment even if all assigned White students attend in the 
Fall (19% vs 35% ideal). The school experienced little 
"shrinkage" from what was a low level of White assignments in 
1983, and is projected at 18% White for the Fall. If more than 27 
White students are in attendance in November, the school will be 
able to claim improvement. In this case as in the others, of 
course, additional White students might be assigned as they enter 
the system over the next months. 

The Robert Gould Shaw School would be substantially below the 
permitted range if all assigned White students attend in the Fall 
(23% vs. 36% ideal). In 1983 the White enrollment improved 
slightly over the number assigned, and a similar performance this 



38 



year should raise the White proportion to 26%. If more than 65 
White students are in attendance in November, this will represent 
improvement over the 1983 retention rate. 

The Thompson Middle School would be below the permitted ranye if 
all assigned White students attend in the Fall (17% vs. 24% 
ideal). "Shrinkage" was substantial in 1983, and projected White 
enrollment is 12%. If more than 44 White students are enrolled in 
November, this will represent improvement in the retention rate. 

Burke High School would be just within the permitted range for 
White enrollment (14% vs. 18% ideal) if all assigned White 
students attend in the Fall. Additional assignments last summer 
brought an improvement over the projected number; if this is 
repeated, the school should be slightly below the ideal in the 
Fall. If more than 108 White students are in attendance in 
November, the school will have improved its retention rate. Since 
much of the improvement last summer depended upon action by the 
Department of Implementation, it is perhaps unfair to place too 
high an expectation upon the school's own efforts beyond retaining 
the students already assigned. 

Dorchester High School would also be just within the permitted 
range (14% vs. 18% ideal) if all assigned White students attend, 
and a "shrinkage" rate similar to last year's would produce a 
slight improvement. More than 123 White students in attendance in 
November would represent progress. The primary difference is that 
Dorchester operates a number of magnet vocational programs for 
which it is permitted and encouraged to recruit city-wide; Burke 
has nothing to compare with this opportunity to attract White 
students. 

In 1983 a total of 633 White students were assigned to these eight 
schools, and 527 were in attendance in November, for a "shrinkage" 
rate of 17%. This Spring 612 White students have been assigned to 
attend next Fall; more than 512 White students in attendance in 
November will represent overall progress in retention and 
supplemental assignments. 

In summary, the Ellis, Lee and Shaw Elementary Schools and Burke 
and Dorchester High Schools have been assigned enrollments for 
1984-85 which appear within or above the permitted range for White 
enrollment, but projections based upon 1983 "shrinkage" show only 
the Shaw and the two high schools in compliance. In the Fall it 
will be possible to assess whether program development and 
recruitment measures (together with additional assignments) have 
in fact improved the ability of these eight schools to achieve the 
desegregation requirements set by the Court. 



39 



5. JEREMIAH E. BURKE HIGH SCHOOL 
MANDATE 

Draft Order of November 6, 1981: With respect to Burke, the 
Department of Implementation shall prepare three plans: a 
curricular proyram plan, a facility improvement plan, and a plan 
for staffing which fits the curricular program for Burke High 
School . 

CURRICULUM AND STAFFING 

QUESTION 

Are curriculum revisions and staffing patterns consistent with 
the special desegregation plans submitted to the Court? 



PROCESS 



Two monitoring visits; interviews with Headmaster; review of 
parent comments. 



FINDINGS 



During the last phase of monitoring, the Headmaster stated that 
the Burke's computer program was doing well, but that the 
originally-planned Communication Arts program had been reduced to 
a Theatre Arts program supported with 636 funds. 

(32U-321) 

The Department of Education recommended that, in light of the 
reduced scope of the Theatre Arts and the "computerization" of 
most Boston schools, the Burke should develop a new magnet program 
to enhance the ability of the school to attract students. 

During this monitoring period the Headmaster reported that his 
goal is to strengthen and expand the school's computer program. 
He himself is taking computer classes, and is learning firsthand 
the complexities and potential pitfalls associated with developing 
a computer program. 

He believes that the Burke's program is developing satisfactorily 
(there are already 12-14 trained staff, and Burke students are at 
the forefront of the Urban Scholars' Program at U Mass), but does 
not want to proceed hastily. 



40 



His immediate objectives are to establish a computer software 
library and to train staff in the software already available at 
the school, which includes software in virtually all the subject 
areas. Since their excellent "computer liaison" from U Mass has 
moved to a new position, he is using 636 funds to hire a 
consultant. 

The Headmaster wants to obtain some IBM PC's because the Burke's 
business partner. New England Life, uses them (New England Life 
employs 30-60 Burke students every year). Given the Apples and 
dec's already in place, the Burke would be able to train students 
on most of the computers used by businesses. 

The Headmaster's goal is to ensure that each student who graduates 
from the Burke is computer literate. This year, the Burke has 
focused particularly on developing computer literacy classes for 
special needs students. 

He realizes that "Computer literacy" does not suffice as a magnet 
theme, and is considering expansion of related curriculum areas. 
He would like to develop a pre-engineering/math specialization, 
but knows it will be difficult. The math scores of students 
entering 9th grade in District V are among the lowest in the 
city. This approach would require significant changes in teaching 
staff. 

The programs available, while improving, still do not constitute 
an effective magnet offering which could draw students for whom 
other high school options are available. 

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS 

QUESTION 

Previous Reports noted delays in carrying out the facility 
improvements cited in the plan submitted to the Court. Have these 
now been undertaken and completed? 



PROCESS 



Review of written documents submitted to monitors for school 
facilities, and on-site observation. 



41 



FINDINGS 

Facility improvement at the Burke has not yet begun and is a full 
year behind schedule. As of April 25, the bid had been awarded to 
a general contractor. Actual work is scheduled to begin in June, 
and to finish by the end of the summer. Monitors were informed 
that these delays have continued to have a serious impact upon 
staff, student and parent morale. 

) RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION 

QUESTION 

Is the school effectively recruiting students, and are students 
being retained? 



METHOD 



Interview with Headmaster; review of student applications for 
ninth grade assignments. 



FINDINGS 



Burke High School is working closely with its business partner to 
develop an attractive and informative brochure that will include 
an expression of interest form. 

Improved attendance has been a major priority for the school this 
year. The Headmaster has been experimenting with several 
approaches, and expressed interest in a system-wide colloquium on 
this topic. 

To date, no major recruitment efforts have been undertaken. There 
was no increase in the number of White students giving Burke as 
first preference for 1984 over 1983. The Department of 
Implementation has assigned additional white students, and 
currently projects compliance with the Court-ordered enrollment 
ranges in 1984-85. 

The Headmaster expressed concern about the school's ability to 
mobilize resources effectively for continuing improvement in light 
of the large number of 5U2.4 LA/B students assigned to the Burke, 
and the prospect of a substantial increase. The monitors analyzed 
the assignment patterns of substantially separate LA/B students 
and found that the number of .4 LA/B students assigned to District 
V is disproportionately high, relative to the District's share of 
high school students (see Figure 1). 



42 



6. DORCHESTER HIGH SCHOOL 

MANDATE 

Draft Order of November 6, 1981: "With respect to Dorchester, the 
D.I. shall conduct an assessment of the curricular, physical plant 
and staffing needs of Dorchester High School for the 1982-83 
school year and shall file a report of the results of such study. 
Including recommendations for change." 

In May 1982 Superintendent Spillane submitted his plan for 
facility and program improvements. 

CURRICULUM AND STAFFING 

KEY QUESTION: 

Are curriculum revisions and staffing patterns consistent with the 
special desegregation plans submitted to the Court? 



METHOD 



Two visits to the school and to individual programs, and 
interviews with the Headmaster. 



FINDINGS 



Last year, monitors found that the curriculum had been 
strengthened by adding an ROTO instructor/program and by 
developing a Health Careers Magnet program, although 
transportation problems threatened to jeopardize the latter. 
Staffing problems were weakening the cooperative Magnet Shops, and 
plans were being discussed to remove the shops from Dorchester 
High. 

(322) 

It was recommended that the School Department (1 review this 
potential removal for its impact on the desegregation of the high 
school, (2) provide staff for the operation of the cooperative 
education program, and (3) resolve the transportation difficulties 
of the Health Careers Magnet. 

During this monitoring period, it was found that most of these 
problems are being or have been resolved. 

The magnet shops have now been established permanently at 
Dorchester, and are being expanded. The Director is planning a 
program of several clusters (house carpentry, urban retrofit. 



43 



furniture repair and refinishing, upholstery and draperies and 

painting and decorating). In addition, each vocational student 

will take classes each year in entepreneurship: general business, 
typing, marketing and advertising. 

Two new teachers have been promised for this program, and there 
are negotiations to improve supervision of the cooperative 
education program. 

Transportation is now provided to take Health Careers students to 
their observation sites. The Directors of the program, which has 
benefitted greatly from the cooperation of Carney Hospital, 
believe the clinical observation component has been quite 
successful. Students experience the routine work of various jobs, 
including their less pleasant aspects, and learn first-hand the 
educational requirements necessary to advance beyond low- 
skill/low-pay jobs. Next year, the second year students will 
receive long-term observation-site assignments, which could become 
jobs for the non-college-track students. 

A second staff person has been added to the ROTC program. The 
sergeant-major (the first Black member of the ROTC staff) has been 
received as favorably as the commanding officer was. The program 
has retained all its students (except one who left for health 
reasons), and is proving to be an attraction for the school. 



CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS 

QUESTION 

To what extent have the facility improvements cited in the plan 
submitted to the court been undertaken and/or completed? 



PROCESS 



Review of written plans submitted to the school facilities 
monitor, and on-site observation. 



FACILITIES 



The improvement of Dorchester High facilities is more than 40% 
complete. The final phase should commence June 1 and be completed 
by the end of the summer. 



44 



SAFETY AND SECURITY 
QUESTION 

Dorchester High School has experienced safety and security 
problems. Are these concerns being resolved? 



PROCESS 



Consultation with the monitor for safety and security, and on-site 
observation. 



FINDINGS 



According to the Headmaster, the internal security of the 
buildings has been as good this spring as it was last fall; there 
have been no significant problems. 

Problems persist outside the buildings that may deter students 
from attending. In particular, there is a field that must be 
crossed to get to school in which students, especially white 
students, are sometimes harassed. 



On one 

visitors 

staff. 



monitoring visit 
was observed; it 



an incident 
was handled 



involving 
effeci vely 



unauthorized 
by security 



RECRUITMENT 
QUESTION 

Is the school effectively recruiting students? 



METHOD 



Interview with the Headmaster; review of recruitment materials. 
Review of student applications for ninth grade. 



FINDINGS 



effort this 
it in ur 
visited middle 



Dorchester High undertook an ambitious recruiting 

year. A recruiting team, which included a ROTO student in uniform 

and a Health Careers student with a program badge, 

schools. An attractive brochure, "Home Improvement", about the 

new magnet was among the materials distributed. Individualized 

follow-up letters, prepared on the school's new word processor, 

were sent to 300 students who expressed interest in Dorchester. 



45 



Despite these efforts, only four White students expressed a first 
preference for a Dorchester magnet program, and it is clear that 
continuing efforts will be needed. On the other hand, a number of 
White students expressed the preference to remain in the programs, 
and the recruitment efforts may well assure that more White 
students who are assigned involuntarily actually enroll in the 
school in September. On the basis of projected enrollment the 
school will be in compliance. 

The number of Black students who gave a Dorchester magnet program 
their first preference for 1984-85 doubled from 12 to 25 this 
year. 



7. EAST BOSTON HIGH SCHOOL BUSINESS MAGNET 



MANDATE 



Order of May 3, 1976: "East Boston High shall ... be 
desegregated in accordance with plans to be formulated by the 
parties and submitted to the court." 



QUESTION 



What is the curriculum of the Business Magnet Program and does it 
comply with the Court-approved plan? 



PROCESS 



The monitor corresponded with and met with the Headmaster of East 
Boston High School and District VIII Superintendent. 



FINDINGS 



The last report found the Business Magnet to be a weak program 
that suffered from neglect by the School Department. There were 
no teaching or administrative staff assigned full time; the 
Director of the Program is also Chair of the Business Department, 
and the Business Magnet teachers are also Buisness Department 
teachers. 

(322-333) 

No special support services were provided to the Business Magnet 
students, most of whom are minority students from outside District 
VIII. No staff were specially assigned to develop cooperative 
(work site) experience or job placements. No seats were reserved 
(as promised) in a post-secondary business education institution. 



46 



The curriculum had not been systematized, and the Magnet's earlier 
affiliation with Salem State College had languished. 

The monitors commenced this phase of monitoring by requesting in 
writing a written response from Boston to its previous monitoring 
report. (See attachment #1,) The Headmaster responded with a 
lengthy letter that described a number of improvements (both 
planned and already accomplished) for the Magnet. A meeting was 
subsequently held between the monitor and the Superintendent of 
District VIII, the Headmaster of East Boston, and the Director of 
the Business Magnet. 

The school officials showed evidence of commitment to improving 
the quality of education at East Boston High School, have begun 
developing a comprehensive plan, and have started implementing 
some of its components. A major portion of the meeting centered 
on strengthening the desegregati ve component of the Business 
Magent. 

Unfortunately, the scope of potential improvements is limited, at 
present, to the resources of District VIII. Central office has 
not, as yet, made any effort to promote compliance with the Court 
orders at East Boston High School and attempts to support District 
VIII have been limited (see paragraph below on computers). 

The changes already implemented by East Boston High School are 
described in the attached letter from the Headmaster. They are: 

Downgrading Reprographics from a major to a one-semester 
course. 

Consultation with Dr. Sperber of Boston University and 
investigation of an affiliation with Fisher Junior 
College. 

Boston's Director of Computer Education is responding 

favorably to the high school's request for 20 Apple 

computers to be used exclusively in the Business 
Department. 

There have been four training sessions for high school 
staff in computers presented by Salem State College. 

A guidance Counselor has been assigned to the Business 
Magnet to improve work-site and job placement. 

The plans for long-range curriculum improvement at the high school 
would also affect the Magnet. These plans, which are still in the 
development stage, focus on a 9th and lOth grade core Curriculum 



47 



that would satisfy most of the School Department's new graduation 
requirements as well as ensuring a solid foundation in basic 
ski 1 Is. 

Several elements are necessary to strengthen the Business Magnet: 

1. Support services for students, especially for freshmen 

Most of the Magnet students are minorities unfamiliar with, 
and perhaps apprehensive of, the community of East Boston. 
The plan for the Business Magnet originally included a 
support component with guidance and multicultural aspects. 
This commendable plan should be revived and refined. 

2. Placement 

It is essential that a magnet vocational education program 
provide students with opportunities for work-site experience 
related to their training, and assistance in obtaining 
employment. A program with several hundred students should 
have a full-time staff person assigned to job development, 
placement and, possibly, career counseling. 

3. Opportunities for Higher Education 

East Boston High School administrators have long been aware 
that a number of magnet students develop an interest in 
higher education after coming to their school. The 
educational goals of some of them can be accommodated by 
transfers into the regular program at the high school, the 
procedure for which has recently been facilitated by the 
Department of Implementation. 

However, there will be other students who want a business 
education that prepares them to continue their studies after 
graduation. It is important that the business magnet open 
this option to the students recruited to the program; 
otherwise, the "magnet" will be closing off educational 
options for its students. 

There are numerous alternatives. A college-oriented business 
management major could be developed. Some or all of the 
existing majors could be expanded to include a college- 
oriented level as well as a clerical and secretarial level. 

Of course, all of this will require additional funding. At this 
point. East Boston High School is not only not receiving any funds 
or staff to improve the Business Magnet, but it is also losing 
four staff positions. Furthermore, central office has done little 
to assist District VIII in obtaining grants or other funds from 



48 



external sources. For example, federal Vocational Education Act 
(P.L. 94-482) funds could be used to develop virtually all the 
improvements described above, but central office has not given 
East Boston High School the opportunity to apply for these 
funds. The high school receives Chapter 636 (state desegregation) 
funds for a reading program which serves most ninth graders; none 
of these funds are used to strengthen the Business Magnet. 

Reforms of the Business Magnet are long overdue. The 
administration of District VIII and East Boston High School appear 
to have begun those reforms that can be accomplished at the 
district level. Their scope will be seriously circumscribed 
without support from central office. 



RETENTION AND JOB PLACEMENT RATES 

QUESTION 

What are the retention rate and the job placement rate of the 
Business Magnet? 

FINDINGS 

Regular monitoring revealed that no systematic records were kept 
for the Business Magnet students, so that it was impossible to 
obtain reliable information regarding retention and placement 
rates. Monitors again tried to obtain these data, and they are 
still not available. 

However, the Headmaster has responded--in the absence of 
additional funds or staffing--by assigning one of the high school 
guidance counselors who will maintain records for Magnet students 
(transfers, departures from program, placements). 
The Headmaster has stated that he will need additional data from 
the Department of Implementation to keep proper records of the 
Magnet students. 

ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSFER POLICIES 

QUESTION 

How has Boston reevaluated its assignment and transfer policies 
between the Business Magnet and the rest of East Boston High 
School? 



49 



FINDINGS 

The Department of Implementation submitted, in response to the 
last monitoring report, a written assurance that requests for 
transfers from minority students would be expeditiously honored. 

During this monitoring period, the Headmaster has assigned a 
guidance counselor to manage the records of transfer requests. 

PARENT/COMMUNITY MONITORING 

QUESTION 

How effective is the parent/community monitoring required by the 
Court-approved plan? 



PROCESS 



The monitor conferred with resopesentatives of the City-wide 
Parent Council (CPC). 



FINDINGS 



During the last pohase of monitoring, the CPOC provided assurances 
that it would monitor the Business Magnet. The CPC has begun, for 
this monitoring period, a two-pronged effort: active oversight of 
Boston's management of the program and, simultaneously, 
organization of Business Magnet parents. 



8. ATTRITION AT THE EXAMINATION SCHOOLS 
QUESTIONS 

1. The Department has been investigating the causes of high 
attrition rates among Black and Hispanic students at the exam 
schools as part of its monitoring of the court orders. 
During this monitoring report the Department focused on the 
students of the exam schools. The monitors inteviewed 135 
students, using a 14-page questionnaire prepared for computer 
coding. What does this survey reveal about the causes of 
Black and Hispanic attrition rates at the exam school? 

2. In Report No. 2, Boston's Advanced Work Class/Academically 
Talented Section Program was cited for inadequately preparing 
students for the examination schools. The report 
specifically 

cited: (a) an inappropriate selection process that relies on 
two test scores; (b) the lack of a specific, differentiated 
curriculum; (c) the lack of a teacher training program and a 



50 



specific staff evaluation process; (d) the lack of any links 
between the exam schools and AWC/ATS; and (e) a poorly 
coordinated and unsuccessful bilingual component. 

3. In Report No. 2, the monitors cited the examination schools 
for several problems relative to the inadequate delivery of 
support services to Black, Hispanic and other students. Some 
of these problems were found to prevail at all three exam 
schools, and some were found only at particular schools. 
What has Boston done to provide appropriate and effective 
support services for Black and Hispanic students. 



PROCESS 

Because the Department's mandate concerned both students who 
have experienced trouble at the exam schools and minority 
students who have attended those schools, the students 
selected for interviews included a high proportion of both 
groups. Most were minority students (74%): 26% were White, 
56% were Black, 8% were Hispanic and 10% were Asian. Forty 
percent of the 135 students had left an exam school before 
graduating. Many of them had experienced trouble while at an 
exam school: 76% had failed one or more classes, and 23% had 
been suspended. However, those interviewed included honor- 
roll students and students with exemplary discipline 
records. All 135 students are currently enrolled in a public 
school in Boston. We believe these in-depth interviews 
represent the best data available regarding students at the 
exam schools. 

The monitors also talked and corresponded with the Director 
of the AWC/ATS and with the Headmasters of the examination 
schools, and made follow-up monitoring visits to all three 
schools to supplement visits during the last monitoring 
period. 

FINDINGS FROM STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE 

The scope of this project was so extensive that it was not 
possible to analyze all the resulting data in time for this 
report. Consequently, this report focuses on the data concerning 
three topics: support services, support from family and friends, 
and school climate. 

(344-362) 

(363-376) 

(377-402) 



51 



1. Support Services 

Forty percent of the students who failed a class reported 
that no one offered to help them. The rate was the same at 
all three exam schools and for White and for Black and 
Hispanic students. A somewhat hiyher percentage of the 
students now in an exam school (67%) reported offers of help 
than did students who had left (54%), which may reflect 
recent improvements in support services at the exam schools. 

(348-352) 

2. Support from Family and Friends 

The students reported a generally high level of support from 
families and friends for their efforts at the exam schools. 
There were some differences among the racial/ethnic groups. 
For example, 64% of the Black and Hispanic students said 
their friends thought going to an exam school was a good 
idea, compared with 77% of the White students. There was no 
perceptible difference between the responses of the leavers 
and the students still in an exam school on questions 
concerning friends' attitudes and parental help with 
homework. 

(352-354) 

3. School Climate 

a. Students and Race 

The students' responses were overwhelmingly positive (71%) 
when asked how people of different races and ethnic 
backgrounds got along at their schools, and about their own 
degree of comfort with the rcial mix (81% said they were 
comfortable); these results must be qualified by noting that 
the students seem to have interpreted these questions as 
referring only to race relations among students. There was 
no noticeable difference among the responses of students who 
left an exam school and those who are still in attendance. A 
lower percentage of Black and Hispanic students responded 
favorably than did White students, and Tech and Latin Academy 
students were, proportionally, more favorable than Latin 
School students about racial climate. 

(354-355) 

b. General School Climate 

Despite the students' highly favorable perceptions of race 
relations, their general attitudes toward their schools were 
negative; only 23% responded "positive" when asked to rate 
their schools, 32% were neutal , and 45% responded 
"negative." Surprisingly, the students who had left an exam 



52 



school were far more positive than the students who are 
currently enrolled (the percentage of positive responses was 
twice as high among levers as among current attenders). 
Again, minority students were more negative than White 
students, and Latin School students gave the highest 
proportion of negative responses. 

(355-356) 

c. Relations with School Staff 

When asked what they like least about their exam school, 

students most frequently citd relations with school staff. 

In fact, it is the only factor examined in this report that 

provoked widely differing responses from leavers and current 
enrollees. 

(356-359) 
Although no question on the survey instrument directly asked 
students about their perceptions of staff, 87% of the leavers 
referred spontaneously to staff with "bad attitudes" and/or 
teachers with unsound teaching practices, compared with only 
35% of the current enrollees. The highest proportion of such 
responses came from Tech (75%); 60% of Latin School and 42% 
of Latin Academy students made such references. More than 
half of the students from each racial/ethnic group made such 
references. A much smaller percentage of the students (15%) 
talked of racism among school staff. Twice as many minority 
students as White students, and twice as many dropouts as 
current enrollees, referred to such alleged racism 

Several implications can be drawn from the responses of these 
students. First is the importance of early, coordinated 
intervention at times of academic and other problems. Individual 
students spoke enthusiastically of the effectiveness of school- 
initiated support. The overall impression, however, is that such 
intervention is isolated and haphazard at all three exam schools. 

Second, this survey does not substantiate the hypotheses that lack 
of support from family and friends accounts for exam-school 
attrition, especially among Black and Hispanic students. To be 
sure, some students related that trouble with family or friends 
interfered with their ability to perform at school. In general, 
students of all races felt supported by family and friends. 
Leavers and currently enrolled students did not report any 
appreciable differences in such support. 

The students' responses to school climate issues clearly 
differentiated between the atmosphere created by relations with 
other students, and that created by relations with school staff. 

The critical students were selective, contrasting "good" and "bad" 

53 



staff in the same school. Students were also specific and 
functional in their criticisms, describing in detail the behaviors 
and attitudes they found discouraging or provocative, and the 
failure, in specific cases, to perform the functions of teaching, 
counseling or administration effectively.. It is doubtful that 
support services alone will be able to (or should be asked to) 
redress these internal problems, or that the high attrition rate 
will be significantly reduced until the problems are redressed. 

The students we interviewed had high expectations of the exam 
schools, but many of them have been disappointed. Boston cannot 
afford to waste the talents of these bright and ambitious 
students. 



FINDINGS FROM MONITORING 



1. AWC/ATS 



In response to Report No. 2 findings citing inadequacies in the 
Advanced Work Class and Academically Talented Sections (AWC/ATS), 
Boston has developed plans to remedy many of those inadequacies. 
Specifically, Boston has: (a) proposed an improved selection 
process for AWC/ATS which includes multiple criteria and citywide 
versus district-wide selection (this would have to be approved as a 
modification of existing Court orders); (b) begun to work on a 
differenciated curriculum through planning summer workshops, 
bringing in a national authority on curriculum development for 
gifted programs; (c) initiated some inservice workshops for AWC/ATS 
teachers; (d) initiated periodic meetings between Boston Latin 
School staff and AWC/ATS staff; and (e) begun to plan for improved 
services to the Spanish bilingual AWC/ATS, with the aid of a 
U. Mass/Boston proposal for Chapter 636 funds. 

(334-337) 



(337-a-e) 



2. Support Services 



In Report No. 2, monitors cited the examination schools for 
several problems of inadequate delivery of support services to 
Black, Hispanic and other students. Some of these problems were 
generally shared among all three schools and some were 
specifically found at particular schools. The general problems 
cited have been responded to as follows: 

(339-343) 



54 



Problem Cited in Report No. 2 



Actions Taken or Planned 



a) Lack of a comprehensive early 
warning system for students 
with academic problems 



b) Lack of a comprehensive 
structure for the delivery of 
basic support services. 



a) 



b) 



Improved summer orientation 
programs and stronger outreach 
to improve attendance. Other 
changes noted at individual 
schools 



Plans formulated at 
schools to 
counseling structure 
support services 



individual 

reorganize 

and other 



c) Lack of a uniform procedure for 
exit interviews for Black and 
Hispanic students seeking 
transfers. 

d) Lack of appropriate summer 
school courses and of 
coordination between 
requirements for passing summer 
school courses and Latin 
School /Latin Academy make-up 
test requirements (necessary to 
receive course credit) 

e) Latin School and Latin Academy 
promotion policy which requires 
students not promoted to repeat 
even those courses they have 
passed 



c) No uniform procedure evident, 
although some exit interviews 
are held at each school 



d) No apparent changes yet, but 
perhaps some greater effort to 
provide summer school 
instructors with Latin School 
and Latin Academy curricula and 
syllabi 



e) Monitors have not been informed 
of any change in this policy 



5b 



The following is a summary of actions taken or planned at each 
examination school : 

Boston Latin Academy 

a) A major revision in the structure of counseling services is 
planned, the results of which should be evident in the Fall of 
1984. This plan will include the use of teachers to provide some 
academic counseling. 

b) While a full physical education program is not evident, students do 
participate in some physical activities or inside outside, as 
weather permits. 

c) 235 students are served in 3 different tutoring programs: School 
volunteers. Project Assist, faculty-to-student. 

d) A more refined and focused summer orientation program for incoming 
7th graders. 

e) 60 students will attend 3-week Shady Hill Summer School Program 
(instead of Boston Summer School Program). 

f) A revitalized Mass PEP (Pre-Engineering Program). 

g) A new computerized reporting system on student attendance (part of 
early warning system). 

h) Plans for introduction of computer science courses in lower grades. 

Boston Latin School 

a) Plans to reorganize the structure of counseling services. 

b) Plan for an after-school tutorial program staffed by Latin School 
teachers. 

c) Shady Hill summer school for 7th graders, especially minority 
students having failed 2 subjects, 

d) Planned addition of another reading specialist to provide remedial 
help. 143 students are currently served, 

e) A revitalized Mass PEP. 

f) 98 students tutored through school volunteers and peer tutoring. 

g) 3 week summer orientation program (Summer Enrichment Program) for 
incoming 7th graders. 



56 



Boston Technical High 

a) 30-45 limited English Proficient students receive language support 
services from 1 ESL (English as a Second Language) teacher. 

b) 50 students served in peering tutoring program. 

c) 3 additional counselors from the Human Services Collaborative will 
serve students daily in the fall 1984. 

d) A study skills curriculum is being developed. 

COMMENDATIONS 

The efforts made by the Department of Implementation to encourage 
and assist principals of special desegregation and other schools in 
need of recruitment to identify and reach out to students eligible 
to attend those schools, including students not presently attending 
public schools. 

The program development and recruitment efforts of Shaw Elementary 
School and English and Dorchester High Schools, and the efforts to 
improve school climate and program at Burke High School. 

The measures taken by East Boston High School to improve the 
Business Magnet, including the assignment of a guidance counselor 
to improve student record-keeping. 

The recognition of the need for major improvements in the AWC/ATS 
program, with a well thought-out plan developed by the AWC/ATS 
program director and support for some of the proposed changes. 

Boston Latin School and Boston Latin Academy for beginning to plan 
for improvement of the presently inadequate structure of counseling 
services. All three examination schools for efforts to redress 
problems Black and Hispanic students face in completing programs in 
those schools. 



57 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Boston should make student recruitment efforts a clear priority for 
each school identified in the Second Monitoring Report as requiring 
school-level measures to improve desegregation compliance. 
Assistance should be made available as school staff clarify and 
present the educational strengths of their schools. 

2. Facility improvements outlined for Burke to the Court in May 1982 
have still not commenced, a full two years later; they should 
proceed on a priority basis. 

3. The computer offerings at Burke should be developed into a coherent 
and attractive program, distinctive from those available in other 
high schools. 

4. Additional staff support at Burke is essential if it is to continue 
to enroll a disproportionate number of LA/B substantially separate 
students with behavioral problems. 

5. Safety must be improved for students walking to Dorchester High 
School . 

6. Boston should support the development of the East Boston Business 
Magnet along the lines originally submitted to the Court, with a 
wel 1 -structured course of studies, appropriate staffing, learning 
objectives for each student, work-site experience and employment 
counseling, college preparatory opportunities, and coordination 
with other programs in the school. More support should be provided 
to freshmen and to minority students. Records should be kept of 
all transfers requested and of their disposition. 

7. Boston should finalize plans for improving the Advanced Work 
Classes/Academically Talented Sections and provide both the 
resources and funds needed for its full implementation. More 
efforts should be made to provide a strong mandatory staff training 
program for all AWC/ATS staff, as well as an evaluation procedure 
tailored to their different performance expectations. 

8. Boston should change the promotion policy at the Latin Schools so 
that students who are not promoted do not repeat those courses they 
have passed; coordinate summer school requirements with Latin 
School and Latin Academy make-up tests; and begin a uniform and 
centrally documented process for exit interviews for Black and 
Hispanic students desiring to transfer out of an examination 
school . 



58 



9. Remedial assistance (most of which is provided by peer tutors at 
present) is seriously inadequate at the two Latin schools. Boston 
needs to hire full-time, professional remedial teachers who should 
concentrate on meeting the needs of 7th, 8th and 9th grade 
students. 

10. The survey found that minority students report attitudes on the 
part of some staff at the three examination schools which 
discourage them from persisting at those schools. Boston should 
undertake a systematic investigation of these problems, and develop 
and submit to the Department a plan describing in detail how they 
will be resolved. The generally good race relations among 
students should be used to create an atmosphere of support for 
Black and Hispanic students. 



59 



SPECIAL EDUCATION 



HANDATE 



Desegreyation of special education programs shall be implemented 
according to the standards contained in page 5 of the Student 
Desegregation Plan dated May 10, 197b. 



PROCESS 



In monitoring objective 1, the monitors conducted on-site visits 
to 10 schools and interviewed 70 teachers. Additionally, monitors 
continued to review teacher certification waiver requests as 
submitted by Boston. 

In the course of conducting teacher interviews, the number of 
students in each program and the age span of students by 
prototype, were verified against enrollment rosters. 

In monitoring objectives 3 and 4, the Division of Special 
Education monitors, in consultation with the Bureau of Equal 
Educational Opportunity, secured from Boston further documentation 
for assigning special education students city-wide and, in 
particular, to substantially separate "high incidence" programs. 
In addition, monitors reviewed Boston's Corrective Action Plan in 
response to the Department's citation of over-representation of 
minority students in the 502.3 special education prototype. To 
follow up on objective 5, monitors randomly selected 
transportation complaints to determine resolution and to review 
the effectiveness of the Department of Student Support Services' 
complaint management system. 

The Department will be conducting, during May and June, 1984, its 
annual approval on-site visits to Boston's 502. 4(i) programs 
(substantially separate programs in a facility other than a 
regular education facility). Annual Program Applications for 
these programs have been received. 



60 



GENERAL FINDINGS: 



The majority of problems identified in Report No. 1 for those 7 
schools visited have been remediated. However, some findings and 
problem areas have not been corrected as recommended. The process 
for deploying substitutes has been modified. The State Board is 
also charged with monitoring under the Allen v McDonough case. A 
report was filed with the Massachusetts Superior court in February 
1984. 



OBJECTIVE 



To determine whether there is a resource room and appropriate 
staff and materials in each school. 



QUESTION 



Does Boston have a resource room in every school? 



STATUS 



Prior documentation provided by Boston indicated the existence of 
a resource room in every school. However, on-site visits to 
Brighton and Dorchester High Schools and Mackey Middle indicated 
that 6 resource room teachers do not have classroom space provided 
which is at least comparable in all physical aspects to the 
average standards of regular education facilities. This problem 
was cited in the February 1984 report and has not been 
corrected. The Chinese Resource Room teacher now has a separate 
classroom for these bilingual students. The space problem at 
Charlestown High School has been remediated. 



QUESTION 



In Report No. 2, based upon a review of the roster for 
bilingual/special education staff, several teachers were 
identified by the monitors and Boston as needing updated 
or new waiver requests for 1983-84 school year. 
Monitors requested certification waivers for these 
individuals. Have problems with assignment of qualified 
staff, especially bilingual, been resolved? 



FINDINGS 



There are 7b bilingual/special education staff, 53 of whom are 
certified. In addition, 3 of the remaining 22 need to provide 
evidence of certification. 



61 



From November 1983 to February, 1984, Boston submitted 
certification waiver requests for 19 bilingual/special education 
staff, including 2 bilingual psychologists. In reviewing these 
waiver requests, the monitors recommended approval of 6. The 
remaining 13 waiver requests need further clarification or 
additional information submitted. It is anticipated that the 
majority of the 13 will be approved. 

The lack of certified and/or certifiable bilingual/special 
education teachers and specialists is a major area of concern. 
Boston projects it will have between 16 to 23 vacancies for such 
personnel to recruit and fill for the 1984-85 school year. The 
inability to fill these vacancies with appropriately qualified 
staff will have a critical impact on special education service 
delivery to bilingual/special education students. 

In addition to the above-noted bilingual/special education 
certification waivers, Boston also submitted 31 certification 
waivers for monolingual special education staff. Based upon a 
review of these waiver requests, monitors recommended approval of 
11. The remaining 20 need further clarification or additional 
information. Further, there are 10 teachers who were granted 
third year waivers for the 1982-83 school year, for whom the 
Department needs evidence of certification. 

Of the 70 teachers interviewed during the recent on-site visits, 4 
need to submit evidence of their special education certification. 



QUESTION 



In Report No. 2, monitors noted that based upon site 
visits, there was minimal use of short and long term 
substitutes. In addition, Boston established, for the 
1983-84 school year, a pool of 20 substitutes to be 
available on a day-to-day basis as needed. Does Boston 
have an adequate pool of substitute teachers to ensure 
special education service delivery? 



FINDINGS 



There are 2 methods of deploying substitutes. In response to the 
Allen vs. McDonough state court case, Boston has established a 
pool of substitutes" to be assigned by the Department of Student 
Support Services, as needed, to address non-compliance issues 
under Chapter 766. The majority of these substitutes are deployed 
to serve as aides in an overcrowded class until an aide can be 
budgeted. In addition. Principals and Headmasters also obtain 



62 



short and long term substitutes through the Personnel Department 
for teachers who are on leave or absent due to illness. 

The monitors requested a summary from Boston to explain the 
utilization of substitutes from the pool during the 1983-84 school 
year. In its April 27, 1984 response, Boston provided monitors 
with a listing of schools where these particular substitutes have 
been deployed. Boston also provided evidence of recruitment of 
substitutes via advertisements and circulars to colleges and 
universities. Boston further stated that as many as 32 
substitutes from this pool may be deployed at any 1 time; that 
only 2 are special education certified and that none are currently 
long term substitutes. 

During this round of on-site monitoring, 7 long term substitutes 
and 6 short term substitutes were identified. Only 1 of the 
substitutes possessed special education certification. Long term 
substitute coverage ranged from a maximum of 8 months to a minimum 
period of 4 weeks. These substitutes are not from the pool of 
substitutes. 

Based upon on-site visits and teacher interviews, monitors are 
concerned that deployment of non-certified long term substitutes 
may have a negative impact on the effectiveness of delivering 
special education services. According to the Chapter 766 
Regulations, major service providers are responsible for 
monitoring the student's progress, for writing progress reports, 
for participating in review and re-evaluation team meetings, 
recommending modifications to the Individualized Education Plans 
(lEPs), and writing goals and objectives on the lEPs. Teachers 
who do not possess the appropriate education, training and 
experience may not be prepared to deal with the special needs of 
handicapped students. 

In addition, based upon Principal and Headmaster interviews, there 
appear to be differences as to how long term substitutes are 
acquired and assigned. Boston needs to provide further 
clarification regarding their long term substitute policies and 



procedures. 
QUESTION 



Report No. 2 indicated that there exists a process at each 
school for ordering supplies and materials. In addition, the 
Department of Student Support Services' Central Office has 
set aside $20,000 to purchase materials and equipment for new 
classes as a first priority. Does Boston have a system for 
ordering, distribution, inventory control, and budget 
maintenance for educational supplies and materials, which 
also ensures equalization of materials distribution? 



63 



FINDINGS 



Based upon teacher interviews each school and district has a 
process for ordering supplies and materials, and a per capita 
allowance based upon the number of students attending a given 
school. The majority of teachers interviewed indicated they had 
adequate supplies and were familiar with the processes. However, 
specific problems persist, as previously noted in Report No. 2. 
The specific problems which continue are: 

1. inadequate number of materials in Spanish, Chinese and 

2. inadequate materials for new teachers to the system or 
teachers who have been transferred from 1 school level 
to another. 



QUESTION 



FINDING 



Have problems involving the mixing of different language 
groups in the same resource room, cited in both previous 
reports been resolved? 



The on-site visit to the Condon Elementary bilingual resource 
room indicates that there continues to exist the problem of 
mixing of Spanish and Cape Verdean special education 
students. 



OBJECTIVE 



II. To determine whether there are substantially separate classes 
in at least 3 schools in each district. 



STATUS 



OBJECTIVE 



This objective has been met and Boston remains in compliance. 



III. To determine whether out-of-district placements of special 
needs students are programmatically appropriate (in 
consultation with the Director of Equal Educational 
Opportunity for assignment implications). 



64 



QUESTION 



FINDINGS 



Report No. 2 noted that in response to the citation of 
over-representation of minority students in the 502.3 
prototype, Boston submitted on September 30, 1983, its 
Corrective Action Plan to address this matter. This 
Plan was approved by the State Department of Education. 

Is Boston continuing to implement the Prima Facie Denial 
Action Plan under Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 
71B, Section 6, to address over-representation of Black 
students in 502.3 prototypes? 

Where disproportional ity has been cited through the 
prima facie denial procedures, is Boston appropriately 
reviewing and placing identified special education 
students in accordance with Chapter 766 procedures? 



In response to the citation of over-representation of 
minority students in the 502.3 prototype, Boston submitted on 
January 25, February 23, and April 4, 1984, status reports to 
its September 1983 Corrective Action Plan. The Plan and 
status reports indicate that the majority of elements are 
being implemented on schedule. 

Boston entered into a voluntary LAD plan which describes its 
procedures for identifying the primary languages of all 
students. This includes assessing the language dominance and 
proficiency as well as achievement levels for insuring non- 
biased assessment of minority children referred for a Chapter 
766 evaluation. LAD categories and steps represent the 
language proficiency levels of students and must be noted on 
the students' Individualized Education Plans. 

While Boston has a LAU Plan and bilingual special education 
programs, it has experienced problems in recruitment and 
hiring of appropriately qualified staff for its special 
education programs, and in obtaining current LAD categories 
and steps of bilingual students with special needs. 



QUESTION 



Report No. 2 noted 
procedures for 
representation of 



that Boston submitted to the monitors 
addressing the apparent over- 
minority students in Learning and 



65 



Adaptive Behavior (L/AB) programs. In addition, Boston 
reviewed all L/AB placement recommendations between May 
1983, to December 1983, and to insure compliance with 
Chapter 766 procedures. Is Boston appropriately placing 
identified special education students into substantially 
separate prototypes (502.4)', especially L/AB programs, 
in accordance with Chapter 766 procedures? 



FINDINGS 



Boston operates three 502.4(1) programs (substantially separate 
classes outside the regular public school). The Department of 
Education will conduct its annual approval on-site visits to the 
Carter, Tileston and McKinley 502. 4(i) programs during (May and) 
June, 1984. 

Boston has established procedures to ensure that placement of 
minority students in L/AB programs are for "compelling educational 
reasons", in accordance with C.71B, S.6. To monitor the 
implementation of these procedures, Boston committed itself to use 
the Prima Facie Denial (PFD) checklist • for all minority students 
at their original evaluation team meeting, and for all re- 
evaluations of students placed in the L/AB programs. In addition, 
as part of Boston's Comprehensive Internal Program Review Process 
(CIPRP) developed pursuant to the Allen vs. McDonough case, Boston 
randomly reviewed case records of 25 L/AB students. While the 
CIPRP review found no inappropriate placements, Boston 
acknowledged in its April 27, 1984 response that not all schools 
are following the newly established procedures. Therefore, a 
reminder to all schools has been distributed. Monitors will 
continue to follow these procedures and will request periodic 
updates from Boston. 

Further, Boston is currently re-evaluating its educational, 
psychological and sociological assessments to ensure that they are 
culturally non-biased. Analysis of assessments will be completed 
by June, 1984. Any changes will be implemented during the 1984-85 
school year and in-service training will be provided. 



OBJECTIVE 



IV. To advise the Director of Equal Educational Opportunity as to 
the appropriateness of proposed program locations, 
space/program matrices, and student assignments to programs 
during the annual assignment process. 



66 



STATUS 



Documentation on program locations of substantially separate "high 
incidence" programs, as well as a copy of the analysis of students 
by prototype and race, was forwarded to the Bureau of Equal 
Educational Opportunity. The proposed assignments for the 1984-85 
school year were reviewed and approved, in accordance with the 
Orders of Disengagement. 



OBJECTIVE 

V. To determine the appropriateness of transportation 
arrangements for special needs students and the effectiveness 
of Boston's responses to transportation complaints. 

FINDING 

Monitors have received 2 direct transportation complaints since the 
February, 1984 monitoring report. In addition, monitors conducted a 
random follow-up on 16 transportation complaints received by the 
Department of Student Support Services' internal complaint management 
system. Calls to parents indicated that out of the 16, 12 were remedied 
and 4 need further follow-up. 



OTHER FINDINGS 

Of the 10 classes in 4 schools (Brighton, Dorchester, Charlestown 
High and Mackey Middle) identified in Report No. 2 as exceeding 
Chapter 766 Regulations for class size, 3 remain in non- 
compliance, 4 have been corrected, and 2 need further follow-up. 
On-site visits and teacher interviews indicated that 1 resource 
room at the Marshall Elementary School exceeds requirements for 
class size. In addition, 1 L/AB class at Dorchester High School 
exceeds class size limits during its self-contained physical 
education class. 

Of the 12 classes in 3 schools (Brighton, Dorchester and 
Charlestown High) that had students with age span ranges exceeding 
the regulatory requirements, Brighton and Dorchester High age span 
waivers submitted by Boston were approved During the site visit 
to Charlestown High School, it was difficult to verify the age 
span waivers because the information submitted was incomplete 
and/or inaccurate. During this round of monitoring, age span 
waivers were also approved at the Kent and Condon Elementary 
Schools and the Lewenberg Middle School. 



67 



Based upon April 1984 monitoring visits, teacher interviews and 
case study reviews, it was found that all contacts with the 
parents, written and oral, were not in the parents' primary 
language at the Marshall Elementary, Lewenberg Middle and Brighton 
High School . 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Insure that a consistent method of distribution and inventory 
control exist at each school, district, and Central Office. This 
is necessary to ensure that appropriate materials are available 
when needed, particularly for new teachers and for bilingual 
special education teachers. 

2. Continue to recruit appropriately certified bilingual/special 
education teachers. Boston should submit a plan to the Department 
of Education by July 9, 1984, indicating the status of 
bilingual/special education personnel for the 1984-85 school year. 

3. Provide documentation by July 9, 1984, of the steps Boston has 
taken to recruit and hire appropriately certified special 
education staff and to develop a pool of certified long term 
substitutes. 

4. Continue to ensure that Boston's procedures for placement of 
minority students in substantially separate prototypes (502,4), 
especially L/AB, are implemented. 

5. Insure by July 9, 1984 that special education instruction areas 
are at least equal in size to those for regular education, in 
accordance with Chapter 766, regulation 508.1. 

6. Insure by July 9, 1984 that problems regarding class size in those 
schools cited in this report meet the requirements of the Chapter 
766 Regulations, S. 502.2(b)(iv). 



68 



BILINGUAL EDUCATION 



MANDATE 



Desegregation of bilingual education programs shall be implemented 
according to the standards contained in the Student Desegregation 
Plan, May 10, 1975, pages 4-5, 44-45, 48-49, 70, 73-74; and the 
Memoranda and Orders of May 6, 1977, pages 23 and 27; and March 
21, 1978, page 5. 



PROCESS 



A number of activities were conducted by the monitors to gather 
the data for this report. The monitoring activities dealing with 
bilingual vocational occupational education were conducted 
collaboratively between bilingual and occupational/vocational 
monitors. All other bilingual education issues were monitored and 
documented by one bilingual specialist. 

The monitors conducted the following activities: analysis of 
documents, computer printouts and correspondence from Boston; 
informational meetings held with Boston personnel; development of 
instruments for data collection; on-site visits in 15 schools, 
including interviews with teachers, administrators, community 
field coordinators, and guidance counselors; and 
analysis/synthesis of data. 



OBJECTIVE 



1. 



QUESTION: 



To review proposed program locations and space/program 
matrices during the annual assignment process to assure that 
adequate space and other provisions have been made for the 
required programs, including bilingual kindergarten and 
extended day kindergarten and to advise the Director of Equal 
Educational Opportunity accordingly. 



This objective was monitored for the first time during this 
report period. What is the availability of space assignments 
in the targeted languages? 



69 



FINDINGS: 



A desk review of the proposed Transitional Bilingual Education 
assignments and space matrix for each school in Boston for 1984-85 
indicates that in all schools there are more spaces available than 
projected enrollments. On the average there are 25 additional 
spaces available in each school for next year. (524) 

During the fall of 1984, the monitors will determine actual 
enrollments through document reviews and on-site visits in order 
to verify the present findings. 



OBJECTIVE 



2. 



QUESTION: 



To determine, through regular monitoring activities, whether 
all approved and required bilingual programs, including 
kindergarten and extended day kindergarten, are in place and 
functioning appropriately. 



In the previous report, it was indicated that 16 of 28 
monitored classes were in non-compliance. At the Hubert 
Humphrey Occupational Resource Center), 17 bilingual teachers 
representing 5 languages teach in only 13 of the 37 program 
offerings. In 9 other schools offering 
vocational/occupational education, only 1 teacher teaches in 
a language other than English. 

During this monitoring period, did the monitors continue to 
find deficiencies in the availability of bilingual staff in 
the targeted languages, including native language teachers, 
aides, and supportive staff (counselors, etc.) in bilingual 
education programming as well as bilingual 
vocational /occupational education? 



FINDINGS: 



Once again the monitors found the need for 7 bilingual teachers 
and 13 bilingual aides in the regular bilingual programs at 5 
additional schools. Also, native language guidance counselors are 
needed in 6 additional middle and high schools. Three schools 
reported that they had bilingual counselors only for 1 or 2 days a 
week. (425) 



7U 



In 9 vocational/occupational education programs monitored, 
teachers who conduct their classes in English use bilingual 
students to translate for limited English proficient students. In 
only 1 of the schools, Jamaica Plain. High, are aides used in the 
vocational/occupational classrooms. 8 teachers in 4 schools teach 
courses outside their areas of certification. (426) 



QUESTION: 



Last fall the monitors reported that there was a lack of 
sequential curriculum materials developed for the 
majority of native language instruction including the 
occupational/vocational programs. It was also reported 
that instructional materials in the native language 
within the classrooms, resource rooms and libraries were 
either non-existant or inappropriate. This spring, did 
the monitors continue to find the need for sequential 
curricula and materials in the targeted native 
languages? 



FINDINGS: 



The 15 additional schools monitored continued to show the lack of 
sequential curriculum materials, including the occupational/ 
vocational programs, for the majority of native language 
instruction. Teachers interviewed reported that native language 
instructional materials for the classrooms, resource rooms, and 
libraries, are either non-existant or linguistically/culturally 
inappropriate. This was found to be especially so in math, 
science, social studies, native language arts and native history 
and culture. 

(428,43U-433-436) 



QUESTION: 



In the last report, it was found that limited English 
proficient (LEP) students in Boston did not have the 
same access to educational programs as monolingual 
(English) students because of the absence of native 
language instructors and aides, absence of native 
language support services in the examination schools and 
the HHORC, and limited required course offerings in the 
native language at the high school level. Did continued 
investigation reveal similar issues of access? 



71 



FINDINGS: 



The present findings confirm previous findinys. In 9 out of 10 
schools with vocational/occupational education programs, all 
courses mandated under Chapter 71A were not offered, instructors 
in the native language were non-existent, and native language 
support services in the examination schools (Boston Technical 
High) were not available. Boston Technical High has, however, 
hired an English as-a-Second Language (ESL) teacher. 

(429-433) 

Bilingual teachers were needed in 6 and bilingual aides in 9 
schools without Vocational Education programs. Chapter 71A 
mandated native language courses were not offered in the schools 
in need of bilingual teachers nor in some of the schools with 
bilingual teachers. (425) 



QUESTION: 



In the previous monitoring period, 6 out of 11 Hispanic 
program clusters visited did not conform with the 
cluster concept (100 LEPs at the high school level and 
80 at the middle and elementary school level, as 
specified in the Voluntary Lau Plan). During this 
monitoring period did the monitors continue to identify 
a similar status for the language cluster concept at 
both the middle and high school levels for all language 
groups? 



FINDINGS: 



Present findings confirm previous findings. The cluster concept 
is undersubscribed in 7 out of 9 Hispanic programs visited even 
though there are 850 Hispanic LEP students enrolled at the middle 
school level and 637 enrolled at the high school level. The 
Laotian program at English High and the Greek program at West 
Roxbury High which seemed to be undersubscribed were actually not 
so because there are not enough high school students in those 
language categories citywide. The same was found to be true for 
14 Portuguese speaking students who attend the Madison Park High 
Cape Verdean program. 

(427) 



72 



QUESTION: 



In the last report, the monitors found that partial and 
full ma inst reaming did not occur in some schools because 
of overcrowded regular classes; the lack of parallel 
scheduling among the bilingual and non-bilingual 
classes; and absence of native language support services 
in the mainstream program. During this spring's 
monitoring cycle the monitors continued to evaluate the 
space assignments allocated by Boston. Did the space 
assignments provide for partial and full mainstreaming 
of bilingual students? 



FINDINGS: 



Again, present findings confirm previous findings. In 4 out of 14 
schools visited, school staff interviewed reported overcrowded 
regular clasess. Six of the 14 schools did not have parallel 
scheduling to facilitate mainstreaming. 

(424) 



QUESTION: 



The last cycle of monitoring indicated that problems 
existed in assessing procedures for assignment of Lau 
categories and in appropriate identification. Did these 
problems continue during this monitoring period? 



FINDINGS: 



Teachers interviewed said that all students are assessed within 30 
days of their arrival at school, but they reported delays in the 
processing of the information after it goes to the central 
office. As a result, they said, the computer printouts don't 
reflect the information until much later (sometimes 1 to 2 months 
later). Next fall, the monitors will compare a sample of LBP 
student records in the schools monitored with data available in 
computer printouts in order to verify the information provided. 



QUESTION: 



In the previous monitoring report (February 1984) the 
monitors indicated that efforts had been made by Boston, 
especially through activities conducted by Chapter 636 
state funded projects, to coordinate parent training and 
involvement. During this spring the monitors met with 
bilingual community field coordinators to investigate 
this issue. What opportunities exist for bilingual 
parents to participate in the educational process of 
bilingual students in Boston? 



73 



FINDINGS: 



Staff interviewed reported that, even though some efforts had been 
made to coordinate parent training and involvement in the past, 
more training of bilingual community field coordinators and the 
new parents who come into the system every year, is needed. That 
training should prepare them to participate in all state, local, 
and court-mandated activities. Local and State mandates require 
parental participation in the planning, development and evaluation 
of bilingual programs. 



OBJECTIVE: 



3. 



QUESTION: 



To advise the Director of EEO on all bilingual education 
aspects of student assignments, including: examination 
school invitation, advanced work class invitations, student 
assignment handbooks, assignments (including bilingual, 
special, vocational), transfers, exceptions to racial 
percentage limits for assignments. 



In the previous monitoring report, it was found that 
recruitment of LEP students to programs such as 
vocational/occupational education, special education, 
bilingual education, etc., was conducted in the various 
native languages. Information about admissions tests 
for the examination schools was available only in 
English. Information about the advanced work class and 
academically talented sections was available only in 
English. During this monitoring period the monitors 
followed up on last fall's findings. Were invitations 
to examination schools and advanced work classes 
translated into the various native languages? 



FINDINGS: 



As of the writing of this report the advanced work class 
invitations had not been translated into any language other than 
English, although information about the program is available in 
Spanish. The invitations to examination schools have only been 
translated into Spanish. 



COMMENDATIONS 



Based on the data collected and analyzed, we commend: 

1. The Bilingual Community Field Coordinators for trying to 
organize and train parents in spite of countless other 
responsibilities assigned to them. 



74 



2. The Jamaica Plain High School administration for their 
efforts to develop a program of academic excellence to 
respond to the linguistic and cultural needs of both the 
LEP and bilingual students within a desegregated 
context. 

3. The high expectations of some bilingual teachers for the 
limited English proficient students' achievement in the 
bilingual classroom. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



1. In order to enhance mainstreaming possibilities, the 
Department of Implementation should reduce 
student/teacher ratios for non-bilingual curriculum 
classes in those schools which house bilingual education 
programs. This should be implemented by the fall of 
1984. 

2. The Bilingual Office should continue to train school 
personnel in the areas of parallel scheduling and sister 
clustering (pairing a bilingual and non-bi lingual , 
curriculum teachers to facilitate partial and full 
mainstreaming). 

3. All necessary bilingual teachers, aides, and counselors 
should be hired to provide appropriate bilingual 
education programming in accordance with local and state 
mandates. These positions should be budgeted, for 
school year 1984-85 . New staff should be in place when 
classes start next September. 

4. The information on all bilingual teachers should be 
updated to ensure that everyone is teaching in his or 
her area of certification by September 1984. 

5. Boston should revise job descriptions of the Bilingual 
Community Field Coordinators so that they can dedicate 
more of their time to parent organizing and training 
activities and less to helping parents with non- 
bilingual education problems. 

6. Boston should train all present and future bilingual 
aides in teaching methods so that they can be of greater 
help to the bilingual teachers in the classrooms. 

7. The Lau Unit should complete the updating of the Lau 
categories within 3U days from the enrollment of each 
LEP and bilingual student. 



7b 



8. The bilingual office should develop, reproduce, 
disseminate, and guarantee the use of all necessary 
curricula in native language arts, Science, Math, Social 
Studies, Native History and Culture as well as any other 
state and locally required courses for all language 
groups. Guarantees of reproduction, dissemination, and 
use in the classrooms of the curricula should be given 
in order to make sure that the curricula developed is 
available for the students, not just for one or two 
years, but for many years to come. 

9. The acquisition of linguistically and culturally 
relevant materials for the classrooms and 
libraries/resource centers should be instituted 
immediately. Wherever possible, formal contacts should 
be established with the departments of education of the 
countries from which students come under to acquire 
copies of materials available in the native language. 
This effort should like other efforts complement not 
supplant, the school department's responsibility towards 
the education of limited English proficient and 
bilingual students. 

10. Boston should involve the Master PAC, the City-wide 
Parents Council (CPC), Plaintiffs Interveneers, staff of 
the Department of Implementation and others in the 
development of a plan to consolidate some of the high 
school clusters. 

11. Boston should extend, at the middle and high school 
levels, their successful cultural enrichment programs as 
well as other bilingual services to include non- 
bilingual and bilingual students. 

1^. The bilingual office should reproduce copies of the 
local, state and federal mandates and guidelines in the 
native language of parents for use by the community 
field coordinators; provide training to parents, 
teachers and other school department personnel 
(including principals and headmasters) about those 
mandates and guidelines; and expand the particpation of 
bilingual parents in the planning, development, and 
evaluation of the bilingual programs. 

13. In the absence of a certified bilingual/vocational 
teacher, LEP students enrolled in vocational/ 
/occupational education programs should be provided 
supoortive services through native language speaking 
aides and native language instructional materials. 



76 



14. Policies of bilingual language instruction in the 
vocational/occupational programs should be enforced by 
building administrators. 

15. To insure that the LEP students achieve the same level 
of concept development as the English proficient 
students, the vocational/occupational bilingual and ESL 
teachers should coordinate the teaching of the content 
of the vocational/occupational program. 



77 



VOCATIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION 



MANDATE 



In its order of September 25, 1975, the United States District 
Court incorporated the "Unified Plan for Vocational and 
Occupational Education in the City of Boston" as part of the 
Court's May 10, 1975, School Desegregation Plan. The Unified Plan 
was filed with the Court on September 8, 1975, and amended on June 
14, 1976 and January 28, 1978. 

The Unified Plan for Vocational and Occupational Education 
includes eight major areas: (1) compliance with relevant court 
orders, state laws and regulations; (2) district core programs; 
(3) magnet programs; (4) in-school bilingual; (5) out-of-school 
youth, ages 16-21; (6) vocational/occupational education for 
special needs students; (7) program changes; and (8) program 
support components. Each component of the Plan contains a set of 
activities for improving vocational/occupational education in the 
City of Boston. 



PROCESS 



The process for monitoring the implementation of this mandate by 
Boston has involved both data collection and analysis and on-site 
visits to selected schools. Information and supportive 
documentation were provided by Boston. On-site visits were 
conducted for the purpose of verification, clarification and 
obtaining additional information. 

Report II expanded the original list of major monitoring 
objectives from six to eight, in order to reflect and coincide 
more accurately with elements of the Unified Plan. The ultimate 
goal is to determine the extent to which the activities of each 
discrete component of the Unified Plan have been accomplished, and 
in the process to assess the quality of vocational/ occupational 
education in the City of Boston. Each component contains distinct 
objectives and raises key questions. 



78 



OBJECTIVE 



1, Compliance with Relevant Court Orders, State Laws and 
Regulations: 

To determine if all vocational/occupational education 
programs (1) conform to racial ratios established by the 
Court and (2) comply with the admissions criteria specified 
by the Unified Plan, including proportional representation by 
sex. 



QUESTION 



In Report No. 2, programs cited for disproportionate 
enrollment by sex showed improvement. However, programs 
cited for disproportionate enrollment by race continue 
to show disporportional ity. How does Boston justify 
disproportionate enrollments by race and sex in certain skills- 
training programs? What is being done to remedy this situation? 



FINDINGS 



The disproportionate enrollments by race remain substantial in 
most programs. Of 35 programs at the Hubert Humphrey Occupational 
Resource Center (HHORC), only 8 are in strict compliance with the 
goal for Black enrollments, 4 for White enrollments, and 2 for 
other minorities. Significant over-enrollments of Whites also are 
noted in the Agriculture-Business program at West Roxbury High and 
the Machinist Program at Hyde Park High. Some non-magnet 
occupational programs in 6 other high schools also over-enroll by 
a single racial category. 

(541-545) 

The disproportionate enrollments by sex are also a concern in 
certain programs at the HHORC. There is no female enrollment in 
Plumbing, Building Maintenance, Welding, and Heating and Air 
Conditioning programs, and no male enrollment in the Nursing 
Assistant program. Enrollments follow the traditional patterns: 
less than 10% of the Auto Repair, Auto Body, Small Engine Repair, 
Electrical, Carpentry, Machine Drafting, and Electronics 
enrollment is female; and less than 10% of the Cosmetology, 
Medical Office, and Fashion Illustration enrollment is male. 



79 



OBJECTIVE 

2. District Core Programs : 

To determine whether middle school career exploratory 
programs, as well as high school exploratory and 
employabil ity programs, are in place as specified by the 



Unifed Plan. 



QUESTION 



In the last report, Cheverus Middle School and Dearborn 

Middle School did not offer required exploratory programs. 

Brighton and Madison Park were the only 

high schools offering required exploratory and 

employabi 1 ity programs. Which programs are currently 

operational? What steps has Boston taken to comply with the 

district core program provisions? 



FINDINGS 



Although some career education activities are already in place, 
career guidance provided to middle school students entering high 
school vocational program needs more coordination and 
strengthening. Boston has drafted a comprehensive career 
education plan outlining city-wide career education competencies 
for all grade levels (K-12). Additional staff support will be 
required to implement this plan. 

(552-556) (561) 

All middle schools, except the Cheverus and Mackey, presently 
provide programs in the three required cluster areas. Most middle 
schools provide some degree of computer education. The scheduling 
of cluster offerings varies; however, double periods rather than 
single periods are needed to maximize learning in the Industry 
Related and Foods-Home-Health-Services Related clusters. 

In grade nine, ten high schools, excluding examination schools, 
offer all 3 exploratory clusters. All district high schools send 
exploratory students to the HHORC. 

In grades 10-12, all 14 high schools visited, except the Umana and 
Boston Technical offer the Business cluster. Only 4 schools offer 
the Distributive Marketing program, and 7 schools offer the Food- 
Home-Health Services Related cluster. Brighton High, Dorchester 
High, J. E. Burke High and Madison Park High offer all 3 required 
clusters. Eleven district high schools send students to the 3 
employabil ity cluster areas at the HHORC. 



80 



OBJECTIVE 



3. Magnet Programs: 



To determine whether all required magnet satellite programs 
are in place as specified by the Unified Plan. 



QUESTIONS 



In Report No. 2, enrollments in magnet programs 

decreased. No magnet program was offered at Jamaica 

ordered magnet programs not being offered? What is being done to 

Implement these programs? 



FINDINGS 



Dorchester High now lists two additional magnet programs: Health 
Careers and Interior Design. The magnet programs at Brighton High 
(District I/Automobile), West Roxbury High (District III/Agri- 
Business) and Hyde Park High (District IV/Machine) are still in 
place as required. 

(563-b64) 

East Boston High offers a Business magnet program. The East 
Boston Machine Shop program is being phased out this school year 
(Objective VII). The Magnet Information Management Program 
designed for Jamaica Plain High is not in operation. 



OBJECTIVE 



4. In-School Bilingual 

To assess the provisions for supportive services, including 
administrative, counseling and instructional support 
services, to limited English-proficient students enrolled in 
vocational/occupational education programs. 



QUESTION 



In the last report, although a Bilingual Vocational policy was 
developed, its procedures and provisions were not widely 
disseminated and implemented. Adequate numbers of bilingual aides 
were lacking. Are adequate and sufficient supportive services 
being provided to limited English-proficient students? What 
action has been taken to strengthen supportive services to this 
student population? 



81 



FINDINGS 

Adequate and sufficient support services are not provided. 
Bilingual staffing for vocational/occupational programs continues 
to be inadequate, particularly with regard to native language 
speaking aides and vocational guidance counselors. Resources must 
be allocated to address this concern. The Bilingual Vocational 
Education Policy has not been adopted and implemented. 
Appropriate administrative procedures and policies must be 
directed toward ensuring successful implementation. 

(565-567) 

OBJECTIVE 

5. Out-of-School Youth, Ages 16-21 

To assess the provisions for services for out-of-school 
youth, ages 16-21. 

QUESTION 

In the last report, the Neighborhood Development 

and Employment Agency, the responsible agency for 

providing services to out-of-school youth, prepared a job training 

plan that contains services to this priority population. What is 

the nature and scope of services being provided by the responsible 

agency? Are these services being coordinated with the Boston 

Public Schools? 

FINDINGS 

The City of Boston provides a wide range of services to meet the 
education and employment needs of out-of-school youth through its 
Neighborhood Development and Employment Agency (NDEA). The 
program's comprehensive system of services includes outreach and 
assessment, remedial and basic skills instruction, job readiness 
and skills training, career and individual counseling, and job 
placement. Many of the programs are coordinated with the Boston 
Public Schools and lead to credit toward a high school diploma and 
entrance into skills training. Strengthening the coordination of 
resources of the Boston Public Schools and the NDEA would expand 
the capacity to serve this population. (578-579) 



82 



OBJECTIVE 

6. Vocational/Occupational Education for Special Needs Students 

To determine if vocational and occupational education program 
services for special needs students are maintained, and to 
assess vocational/occupational instructor training in this 
area. 

QUESTION 

Report No. 2 stated that Boston had made significent 
achievement in instituting a comprehensive delivery 
system of vocational and occupational services to special needs 
students. Does Boston continue to provide vocational education 
program services to this target population? What action has been 
taken to provide vocational education instructor training on 
strategies and approaches for instructing learners with special 
needs? 

FINDINGS 

Boston continues to provide a comprehensive range of vocational/ 
occupational services for special needs students. These services 
exceed the requirements set forth in the Unified Plan. 

The need to provide in-service training for instructors of special 
needs students enrolled in vocational/ occupational programs 
remains an outstanding concern. This requirement has not been 
adequately addressed. (581-582) 

OBJECTIVE 

7. Program Changes and Deletions 

To ascertain what action is being taken by Boston to complete 
all program relocations as specified by the Unified Plan. 

QUESTION 

As stated in Report No. 2, Boston continued to plan for the 
closing of the Machinist program at East Boston High School and 
Upholstery/Cabinet Making program at Dorchester High School rather 
than transfer of these programs to the Humphrey Occupational 
Resource Center as required by the Unified Plan. Has Boston 
completed all court-ordered program relocations? If such 
relocations are not desirable, what motions have been filed with 
the Court to modify the Unified Plan? 



83 



FINDINGS 

The status of program relocations has not changed since the 
previous reporting period. Boston has moved to close the 
Machinist program at East Boston High School and to modify the 
Upholstery and Cabinetmaking programs at Dorchester High School 
rather than to relocate them to the Humphrey Center. No effort to 
modify the requirements of the Unified Plan has been undertaken. 

(584, b85) 

OBJECTIVE 

8. Program Support Components 

A. Management Modifications 

To determine if a distinctive management structure for 
vocational/occupational education has been implemented 
as specified by the Unified Plan. 

QUESTION 

In the last report, Boston had not instituted a 
distinctive management structure which defines clear lines of 
authority over fiscal and programmatic operations, as specified by 
the Unified Plan. What action has been taken to institute and 
implement this structure? 

FINDINGS 

A distinctive management structure which defines clear lines of 
authority over programmatic operations to insure an effective 
vocational and occupational education delivery system as specified 
by the Unified Plan has not been instituted in Boston. The 
Director of Education and Employment does not have total fiscal 
and supervisory authority over all occupational education programs 
at the district level under the current management structure. 
Furthermore, evaluations (of outreach efforts and annual 
systemwide program activity and accountability reports) need to be 
elaborated in measurable terms. (586-588) 

B. Public Information 



To examine steps taken by Boston Public Schools to 
institute and implement a systematic, aggressive and 
pervasive public information system for 
vocational /occupational education. 



84 



QUESTION 



In Report No. 2, it remained neccessary for Boston to 
appoint a full-time public information officer to coordinate an 
effective and persuasive public information campaign. Has a 
systematic, aggressive and pervasive system been instituted and 
implemented in Boston? Do the activities encompass the scope, 
impact and thrust of the public information system described in 
the Unified Plan? 



FINDINGS 



Noteworthy progress has been made in establishing a focused 
direction and planned approach to a marketing and public 
information system for vocational /occupational education. The 
marketing plan which is being developed should incorporate the 
appropriate strategies and elements set forth in the Unified Plan. 

(590-591) 

C. Professional and In-service Development 

To determine what action Boston has taken to develop and 
implement in-service training for all vocational/ 
occupational education instructors in the areas of equal 
educational opportunity and bilingual vocational 
education. 



QUESTION 



Report No. 2 indicated that a comprehensive plan to 
provide inservice training in equal educational opportunity, 
bilingual vocational education and special education to 
instructors systemwide was not submitted. Has a training plan 
been devised to address these areas? What relevant activities 
have been implemented? 



FINDINGS 



A myriad of staff development and in-service training activities 
have been conducted, primarily for personnel at the HHORC. 
However, the inventory of activities does not include equal 
educational opportunity and instructional strategies for learners 
with special needs and/or limited English proficiency. Plans are 
being devised to address these concerns in conjunction with the 
Institute for Professional Development, an office of the Boston 
Public Schools with primary responsibilities for staff training. 
Follow-up on the results of these efforts will appear in the next 
report. 



8b 



D. Industry /Agency /Community Involvement 

To determine if the composition of the Advisory Council 
for Career Vocational and Occupational Education 
(ACCVOE) is representative' of all target populations 
specified by the Unified Plan. 

(592,593) 



QUESTION 



In the last report, the existing Advisory Council for 
Career, Vocational and Occupational Education included all target 
groups and representatives specified by the Unified Plan. Does 
the current membership of the council continue to be in compliance 
with the requirements of the Unified Plan? 



FINDINGS 



The current membership of the Advisory Council for Career 
Vocational and Occupational Education continues to reflect full 
compliance with the target group representation required by the 
Unified Plan. The active and sustained participation and 
involvement of the full council membership, however, is lacking. 

(6U7) 

E. Curriculum Acquisition/Revision: 

To review Boston's efforts to develop and implement a 
full-scale Competency-Based Vocational Education 
curriculum for all programs at the HHORC and other 
schools. 



QUESTION 



While Boston was commended for its progress in the 
development some Competency Based Vocational Education curricula, 
what is the status of curriculum development and revision for all 
vocational/occupational education programs? 



FINDINGS 



Boston has progressed in developing and implementing Competency- 
Based Vocational Education curricula for vocational programs at 
the HHORC and for some business education programs and electronic 
programs at district schools. Although some progress has been 
made in curriculum revision, the development of curricula for all 
programs is far from complete. 



86 



F. Comprehensive Job Development and Placement 

To determine whether a comprehensive and responsive 
city-wide job development and placement component based 
upon current manpower demands, system capabilities and 
student capabilities/interest is in place. 

(6Uy,61U) 



QUESTION 



In the previous report, it was found that a city-wide 
comprehensive job development and placement system was not yet 
developed. Nor was a city-wide coordinator for coordinating all 
job development and placement activities appointed. What action 
has Boston taken to implement a city-wide comprehensive job 
development and placement system? 



FINDINGS 



The development of a city-wide comprehensive job development 
system, as specified by the Unified Plan, has not been fully 
instituted. Based on a previous action plan developed to address 
this concern, a city-wide coordinator was to be selected and 
appointed. To date, this has not been accomplished. 

(619-621) 

Implementation of Boston Compact goals and objectives took place 
this school year in most schools as specified in their local plans 
for job preparation and placement. The Career Passport Program, 
G.I.S. (Guidance Information System) Jobs Collaborative, P.I.C. 
(Private Industry Council) counselors, and active school business 
partners have played a substantial role in designing and 
implementing development and placement services. Follow-up 
studies on recent graduates and job placements indicate current 
student placement status and reveal areas needing further 
development. 



COMMENDATIONS 



1. Boston's draft city-wide career education plan demonstrates 
comprehensive and systematic planning. 

(556) 

2. Significant progress has been made to increase the number of 
computers in the middle schools so that all middle school 
students will have some degree of computer education. 

(556) 



87 



3. The increased magnet program offerings at Dorchester High are 
a positive development. 

(564) 

4. Although the approach is not consistent with the Unified 
Plan, the development of a Bilingual Vocational Education 
Policy constitutes a positive and significant step toward 
structuring a comprehensive, coordinated approach for 
delivering vocational/occupational education services to 
limmited English-proficient students. 

(568) 

5. The City of Boston provides a wide range of services to meet 
the education and employment needs of out-of-school youth, 
ages 16-21. (580) 

6. Boston currently provides a number of exemplary vocational/ 
occupational education programs for special needs students. 

(582) 

7. Noteworthy progress has been made in establishing a focused 
direction and planned approach to a marketing and public 
information system for vocational/occupational education. 

(591) 

8. Boston's efforts in developing Competency-Based Vocational 
Education curricula are commendable. 

((610) 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



1. The lack of sufficient applications from each racial/ethnic 
group for programs demonstrates that career exploratory 
programs are not yet having the impact intended by the 
Unified Plan. Boston should develop an action plan covering 
measures by the school system to encourage sufficient 
applications from each racial/ethnic group to permit 
assignment of and maintenance of enrollments in each program 
consistent with the "admissions criteria" section of the 



Unified Plan. 



(545) 



2. The preparation and transition process for 8th graders 
entering high school continues to be the area in greatest 



need of coordination, 



(557) 



88 



3. The capacity of the computer lab at Jamaica Plain High School 
should be expanded to provide an Information Management 
Program for that district as planned. 

^ (b64) 

4. Appropriate administrative procedures and policy directives 
should be forthcoming to ensure successful implementation of 
the Bilingual Vocational Education Policy developed by 

Boston. 

(568) 



ate support 
vocational 



It continues to be essential to implement an adequ 
system for limited English-proficient students in 
programs. Appropriate action must be taken to appoint 
additional bilingual counselors in order to provide adequate 
counseling services. 

In addition, steps should be taken to provide bilingual aides 
to vocational/occupational programs where the identified need 
exists. 

5. The systematic and planned coordination of these resources 
with Boston should be strengthened. 

(580) 

6. The need to provide in-service training for the instruction 
of special needs students remains a concern. In-service 
training in this area should be provided to vocational/ 
occupational education instructors city-wide. 

^ (582) 

7. If designated program relocations are no longer desirable, a 
motion for modification should be filed with the Court. 

(585) 

8a. Boston should file a motion with the Court to modify the 
organizational and management structure specified by the 
Unified Plan if it feels such a structure is no longer either 
programmatically desirable or financially feasible. 

( 588) 

8b. The marketing plan should incorporate the appropriate 
trategies and elements set forth in the Unified Plan. A 
full-time coordinator for public information activities 

should be appointed. 

(591) 



89 



8c. A comprehensive staff development plan for all vocational/ 
occupational instructors should be developed. In addition, 
this plan should include in-service training on strategies 
for instructing limited English-proficient and special needs 
students, and should address the area of equal educational 
opportunity. 

(593-594) 

8d. The membership of the Advisory Council for Career, Vocational 
and Occupational Education continues to reflect full 
compliance with the Unified Plan requirements. Active and 
sustained participation and involvement of the full council 
membership, however, is lacking. Creative steps should be 
taken to strengthen the active participation of the Council 
in improving vocational/occupational education in Boston. 

(608) 

8e. The curriculum development process should be accelerated. 
The total Competency-Based Vocational Education (CBVE) 
curricula for all programs at the HHORC should be available 
by June 30, 1984. The CBVE curriculum completed at the HHORC 
also should be disseminated city-wide to other school 
programs for adaptation and instructional use. 

(610) 

8f. In order to coordinate and strengthen the comprehensive job 
development and placement system for vocational/occupational 
education, a city-wide coordinator for job development/ 
placement activities should be appointed. 

(622) 



90 



TRANSPORTATION 



MANDATE 



Transportation shall be provided according to the standards 
contained at pages 80-83 of the Student Desegregation Plan, dated 
May 10, 1975. These standards include transportation for students 
assigned to elementary schools more than one mile from home, to 
middle schools more than 1 1/2 miles from home, and to high schools 
more than 2 miles from school. "The reason for mandatory 
transportation may be distance, safety, or controlled transfer, or a 
combination of these. . . The court has required no transportation, 
however, that would pose a risk to the health of students or impinge 
on the educational process for those students due to excessive time 
or distance travelled." 



PROCESS 



The monitor (1) visited the Transportation Unit, examining its 
operations and interviewing the Director, and some of his staff; 
and (2) reviewed data that included sample routing schedules, 
transportation locators by school and geocode, routing sheets and 
all complaint forms submitted as of March 31. 



OBJECTIVES 



1. To approve proposed transportation arrangements developed 
pursuant to the approved student assignment plan each year, 
assuring that such arrangements will adequately support both 
desegregative and program assignments. 

2. To determine whether transportation arrangements are in place 
for the opening of the school year in September. 

3. To monitor complaints received by the Boston Public Schools 
in relation to transportation, and to assess whether 
appropriate responses have been made. 



QUESTIONS 



Have adequate transportation arrangements been provided for 
desegregating schools and programs? What kinds of transportation 
complaints are being reported, and how is Boston responding to 
these problems? 



91 



FINDINGS 

Monitoring during the last period revealed these types of problems 
that potentially undermine the effectiveness of the student 
assignment plan: 

1. Inadequate performance by the contractor operating 
School Department buses. 

2. Threats to the safety of student passengers from other 
passengers and from persons outside the school buses. 

3. Inadequate performance on the part of the MBTA. 

The School Department was asked to: 

Review procedures for handling complaints about bus 
contractor performance, 

Review procedures for controlling excessive changes 
of route assignments, 

Consider the use of monitors on runs with persistent 
problems, and 

Review its precedures for allocating MBTA and school bus 
assignments. 

1, Contractor Inadequacies 

Complaint Management 

The School Department has two parallel systems for tracking 
complaints about contractor performance. 

The first is established in the School Department's contract with 
the bus company (ARA), and allows the School Department to impose 
monetary penalties 

The second system records complaints registered with the 
Transportation Unit by parents and others. These complaints are 
forwarded to the contractor for comment and possible action. 

The School Department still does not have a formal procedure for 
tracking complaints and identifying inadequate responses from the 
contractor. The Transportation Unit used to have a staff person 
assigned full time to Complaint Management. Staff reductions in 
the Unit, however, eliminated that position and others. 



92 



Change of Route Assignments 

Frequent changes of route assignments have been responsible for 
much of the contractor's inadequate performance, since drivers 
unfamiliar with their routes are more likely to be late, miss 
stops, etc. The School Committee chose to permit the drivers to 
police themselves, on the condition that the situation be reviewed 
after the first year of the contract. 

A preliminary report has already been filed by the contractor with 
the School Department. 

Contractor Cooperation 

Even should the report show that changes of route assignments have 
been controlled, it will not mean that contractor-related problems 
on school buses have been solved. For example, the Transportation 
Unit has indications that drivers' absenteeism and tardiness are 
increasing. 

There is little that the School Department can do. As in the case 
of changes in route assignments, absenteeism and tardiness are 
exclusively regulated by the contract between ARA and the drivers' 
union. The desciplinary system for refractory drivers (which 
consists of a series of verbal warnings, culminating in suspension 
and then dismissal) is defined in the contract, and the School 
Department has no control over it. 

Under the present system, an improvement in driver performance 
depends almost entirely on the contractor, which has yet to 
demonstrate an effective commitment to higher standards. 

2. School Bus Safety 

The School Department has acknowledged that there are persistent, 
significant problems with safety and discipline on its school 
buses, and has made a commitment to "some type of bus safety 
program in the Boston Public Schools." The elements of this 
program have not yet been clarified; the program will include 
some use of bus monitors. 

3. MBTA vs. School Buses 

There are significant problems associated with revising the 
allocation of MBTA and school buses among Boston students. The 
pressure to favor political constituencies could lead to 
overlooking equity considerations. The School Department's 
reluctance to undertake such a revision should be overcome in the 
interest of effective and efficient service. 



93 



There appear to be serious liabilities related to MBTA 
assignrnents. For example, a number of Boston schools assign 
strict penalties for tardiness. Presumably, school bus students 
are protected because school officials take note of late arrivals 
and inform teachers, while students using the MBTA are unable to 
verify the reason for their tardiness. 

The monitors again analyzed all complaints filed with and 
forwarded to the Transportation Unit. Three elements of the 
complaints were analyzed: type of complaint, contractor's 
response and adequacy of response. 

Type of Complaint 

The monitors examined 453 complaints during this monitoring 
period. "No shows" represented, as they did last fall, almost two 
thirds of all complaints. The percentage of complaints addressing 
safety matters has decreased since last fall (from 18% to 6% of 
the total). However, the percentage of complaints concerning 
buses arriving early at stops or schools has increased 
significantly, and there has been a slight increase in the 
complaints alleging that drivers made unauthorized stops or 
transported unauthorized passengers. 

Contractor's Response 

The monitors also examined the contractor's response to the 
complaints. Unfortunately, the contractor does not employ 
systematic categories when responding to complaints. Only 
complaints that had been responded to by the contractor were 
examined. 





% Fall 


% Spring 


# Spring 


Type 


1983 


1984 


1984 


verbal warning 


5 


15 


7U 


allegation denied by 








driver 


lU 


14 


62 


problem resolved/ 








backup sent 


42 


26 


118 


no response 


41 


4 


18 


late (driver, etc.) 




9 


4U 


response unclear. 








unintelligible 




6 


28 


paperwork 


3 


14 




traffic/weather 




2.4 


11 


run change 




2 


9 



94 



standby driver 

driver says no students 

dispatcher error 

other 14 



l.b 


7 




1.9 


1 


4 


64 





Adequacy of Response 

The complaint form currently used by Boston does not require the 
contractor to indicate whether the complaint was well founded or 
whether it was resolved. In many cases, it is impossible to see a 
connection between the complaint and the contractor's response. 
The monitors developed several categories that address adequacy of 
response. 

First, 'acceptable': The contractor resolved the problem, for 
example, by sending a backup bus to replace a bus with mechanical 
problems. 

Second, 'uncertain': The contractor took some step (for example, 
issuing a verbal warning to the driver), but it is impossible to 
tell whether the transportation problem was resolved (was a backup 
bus sent, for example, to replace a driver who was late to work). 

Third, 'unacceptable': response does not address complaint. Most 
complaints falling into this category contained complaints such as 
"no show" and a response such as "4U7 broke down and SBl was a 
back up." 



Fourth, 'unacceptable': contradiction between complaint and 

response. For example, a complaint stated "driver arriving at 

stop too early — have been arriving at school 

being at the stop at 8:55 (child not being 

contractor responded, "no student was at that 

driver." 



at 8:55 instead of 

picked up)." The 

stop said a standby 



Adequacy of Response 

Acceptable 

Uncertain 

Unacceptable, response does 
address complaint 

Unacceptable, contradiction 



% of 


All 


# of 


Responses 


Responses 


13.5 




61 


18.1 




62 


31.8 




144 


37.0 




168 



95 



Allegations of Child/Sexual Abuse 

Two complaints received by the School Department, but not yet 
responsed to by the contractor, are sufficiently serious to 
warrant special mention: they both concern potential sexual abuse 
of children on schoolbuses. 

The first complaint states, "[son] came home today and told his 
mother that [the driver] is kissing and touching the girls on the 
bus. Happened before. [A second parent] called with the same 
complaint." The second states, "driver of this bus is using 
abusive language to the girls. Complaint is he calls them 
prostitutes and 4-letter words." The first allegation was written 
up as an "incident report" as well as a complaint. In neither 
case does the Department have a contractor response. 

Since these two incidents may fall under the provision of the 
mandated reporter section of the Child Abuse Law (Section 51a of 
Chapter 119 of the Massachusetts General Laws), it is important 
that the School Department review its procedures for responding to 
and referring complaints alleging sexual and other forms of child 
abuse. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



1. Boston should develop and implement a complaint management 
procedure to: 

identify trouble spots, and 

identify and follow up inadequate responses from the 
contractor. 

2. The Transportation Unit should revise its complaint log forms 
to require the contractor to: 

identify by name the driver involved in the alleged 
infraction 

identify the bus run by name 

indicate whether substantiated infractions involved a 

recent change in route assignment and/or 
tardiness/absenteeism. 

Develop a standardized list of complaints and responses 
on the log, for better accounting and accountability. 



96 



3. Boston should continue to press the bus contractor to make 
complaint investigation and management a full-time staff 
responsibility with significant authority. 

4. Boston should undertake, in conjunction with parents, a study 
to determine what, if any, liabilities are associated with 
MBTA and school bus transportation and recommend solutions. 

5. Boston should ensure that bus drivers receive training in the 
laws that define and prohibit child abuse and sexual 
harassment. It should revise its complaint procedures to 
ensure that educational administrators and other mandated 
reporters comply with Section 51a of Chapter 119 of the 
Massachusetts General Laws ("child abuse law"). 

6. Boston should implement a plan for student safety through 
selective use of well-trained monitors, with clearly-stated 
responsibilities and supervision, and through the use of 
mobile security teams as needed. 



97 



FACILITIES 



MANDATE 



Construction, renovation and closing of school facilities shall 
occur according to the standards contained in the interlocutory 
Order of June 21, 1974; the Plan of May 10, 1975, pages 6-7; the 
Memoranda and Orders of May 6, 1977, pages 37-40; August 15, 1979; 
March 21, 1980; April 2, 1980; and the Order on Joint Defendants' 
Motion for Adoption, May 11, 1981. 



PROCESS 



The Director of School Building Assistance has conducted the 
reviews, assisted by the Division's Regional Center staff, through 
meetings with Boston staff in the Department of Implementation, 
the Office of the Deputy Superintendent for School Operations, and 
the City of Boston Public Facilities Department. 

OBJECTIVE 

1. To determine whether all school closing measures ordered by 
the Court have been fully complied with. 

STATUS 

Compliance reported in July 1983 Monitoring Report. 
OBJECTIVE 

2. To review all proposed construction, renovation, and other 
school facility measures for consistency with desegregation 
and other requirements of the Court. 



QUESTION 



In Report No. 2, monitors reported approval of renovation plans 
for Dorchester High as of June 28, 1983. It was also reported 
that plans for renovation of Jeremiah Burke High were expected to 
be approved at the January 1984 Board Meeting. Have the 
renovation plans for the Burke and Dorchester High Schools 
outlined by Superintendent Spillane in a submission to the Court 
in May 1982 progressed as expeditiously as possible? 



98 



FINDINGS 



A recent site visit by the monitors verified that the Dorchester 
High School renovation project is approximately 50% completed with 
sub-stantial completion scheduled for September 1984. 

The Burke High School renovation project was also approved by the 
Board at the January 24, 1984 meeting. However, the project has 
been seriously delayed due to complications encountered during 
bidding. The bids were substantially higher than the anticipated 
construction costs. The Boston Public Facilities Department is 
presently seeking authorization for increased funding in order to 
proceed with the agreed upon scope of work. Completion of the 
work is scheduled for one (1) year from the date of contract 
signing. 



QUESTION 



In Report No. 2, it was found that joint long-range facilities 
planning had not commenced. What progress has been made to 
develop the required long-range facilities plan? 



FINDINGS 



Other than the Burke and Dorchester renovations, no formal 
proposals for construction, renovation, or other school facility 
measures have been received as of May 14, 1984. However, meetings 
have been encouraging and are the first steps in the development 
process. On Hay 3, an initial segment of a plan containing 
enrollment projections, capacities, and a list of schools which 
the Boston School Committee has determined will remain open over 
the foreseeable future was received. 
(65U-709) 

Boston has recently submitted educational specifications for a new 
Boston Latin School/Latin Academy building, and other renovations 
are planned. The State Board has not been involved in any of the 
planning on this project. This project, like all others, must 
become a part of Boston's long-range facilities planning. This 
planning process should include the city of Boston, the School 
Department as well, as the Department of Education. Under current 
orders, projects beyond Burke and Dorchester must await 
development and approval of a complete secondary school facilities 
plan, a component of the Court-Ordered Unified Facilities Plan. 



99 



OBJECTIVE 

3. 



To review the placement or proposed placement of any portable 
unit, or the rental of any space for instructional purposes, 
for consistency with the desegregation and other requirements 
of the Court. 



STATUS 



Monitors have been informed of no plans for the rental of space 
for instructional purposes. 



OBJECTIVE 

4. 



To determine the extent of compliance with outstanding orders 
with respect to development of a Unified Plan, including a 
schedule of further school closings, a schedule of 
construction, renovation, replacements, as well as repair and 
refurbishing of all facilities, and a plan for secondary 
school utilization, in accordance with the provisions of the 
Manual for District Planning Activities and other 
requirements of the Court. 



QUESTIONS 



Report No. 2 stated that "joint planners" had not met for the 
purpose of developing a long-range facilities plan. Have 
discussions occurred among the "joint planners" about a long-range 
secondary school facilities plans as a necessary part of the 
Unified Facilities Plan? What progress has been made toward 
determining priorities for the available resources and for 
possible closings? 



FINDINGS 



Since the last report, representatives of the Boston Public 
Schools, City of Boston Public Facilities Department, and 
representatives of the State Board of Education have met twice to 
begin to develop a long-range facilities plan on which individual 
school construction, renovation, or improvement projects may be 
based. Volume II of this report contains summaries and reports 
related to those meetings. 

The first of the two meetings occurred on April 24, 1^84, and was 
convened by a representative of the Mayor's Office. At this 
meeting a proposed outline for the contents of the facilities plan 
was discussed. (648-649) 



lOU 



On May 3, 1984, a second meeting was held during which 
representatives of the Boston Public Schools and the Public 
Facilities Department advised the monitors that the Boston School 
Committee had voted approval of a list of schools to be retained 
in the system on a long-range basis, some of which would be the 
subject of enlargement, renovation, or improvement projects. A 
list of proposed projects keyed to the schools identified in the 
list, together with cost estimates, is to be submitted to the 
State Board. 

It has also been determined that funding for these proposals will 
be derived from City Council orders, and not from Boston school 
maintenance funds, which will be used for day-to-day repair and 
maintenance problems. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



The school department, city and state should continue joint 
development of an educationally and financially sound long-range 
facilities plan. 



101 



SAFETY AND SECURITY 



MANDATE 



School Safety and Security shall be provided according to the 
standards contained in the following order: 

Further Order Concerning Security September 5, 1975 (this order 
replaces Order or Motion for Relief Concerning Security, 
December 4, 1974) 



PROCESS 



On-site monitoring was conducted in 14 schools: English High, 
Charlestown High, South Boston High, Jamaica Plain High, McKinley, 
New Horizons (King Middle), The Log School (Dist. V), Cleveland 
Middle, Mary Curley Middle, Gavin Middle, Edwards Middle and 
Michelangelo Middle, Lewenberg Middle and McKay Elementary. 
Conversations were held with Deputy Superintendent Peterkin and 
safety Department staff. In addition the following reports were 
reviewed: Safe Schools Commission Report, Deputy Superintendent 
Peterkin's response to the Safe Schools Commission Report, School 
Incident Reports for November 1983 through March 1984. 



OBJECTIVE 



1. To review monthly reports on school incidents with special 
attention to those perceived as racial in nature. 



QUESTIONS 



Several schools were identified in Report No. 1 as having sporadic 
but serious racial violence (Charlestown and Hyde Park) and others 
were cited for high incidence of violence (English, Hyde Park, 
Brighton, Thompson). After a year of monitoring, has this 
situation changed and have other schools surfaced in need of major 
improvements in safety and security? VJhat is Boston doing to 
develop and implement a citywide plan for improving safety and 
security? How are the increasing reports of weapons in schools 
being dealt with by Boston? What is Boston doing to identify 
causes for safety problems and provide solutions? 



102 



FINDINGS 



Despite considerable efforts to improve safety and discipline, 
English High remains the most troubled school in the system with 
160 (crimes against persons and safety' related) incidents reported 
for a five month period (November 1983 - March 1984). Plans have 
recently been approved by the School Committee to reorganize that 
school into 4 distinct alternative programs: The Fenway School, 
9th grade cluster. Magnet Arts, and a traditional high school 
program. It is expected that by compartmentalizing the school and 
by expanding mastery learning educational approaches, the school 
will become both more manageable and more successful in 
educationally engaging students. 

(716,730,732) 

As indicated in Report No. 2, of the other schools originally 
cited, most have shown improvements. Hyde Park High, however, 
despite its excellent business partnerships and work-study 
programs, still has a high number of violent incidents(mostly 
fighting and assaults) - 67 for five months (November 1983 - 
March 1984). 

On a pro-rated basis, the overall number of incidents for this 
cycle when compared to last year (January 1983 - April 1983), 
appears to have declined. Reported racial incidents have 
increased both in actual numbers and in percentage, while reported 
school bus incidents have declined (see section on school bus 



(731) 



incidents). 

REPORT NO. 1 REPORT NO. 3 

Jan. - April 1983 (4 mos.) Nov. 1983 - March 1984 (5 mos.) 

Racial = 34 (4.7%) Racial = 64 (8.1%) 

School Bus = 50 (7.9%) School Bus = 37 (4.8%) 

Total = 718 Total = 774 
(4/5 of 774 = 619) 

English High (11 racial incidents), Hyde Park High (7 racial 
incidents), Cleveland Middle (6 racial incidents) and Mary Curley 
Middle (6 racial incidents) lead the field for numbers of racial 
incidents reported during this monitoring cycle. While the 
number of racial incidents has increased the pattern of those 
incidents has not changed; most occur sporadically, involve racial 
slurs, physical assaults or fighting, and are limited to two or 
three individuals. The majority of these incidents occur between 
Blacks and Whites, although more incidents between Blacks and 
Hispanics or Asians or between Whites and Hispanics or Asians are 



103 



being reported. Patterns of self-imposed social separation by 
race and ethnicity are characteristic of most high schools and 
some middle schools. Patterns of sporadic racial harassment 
persist at certain schools (English High, Cleveland Middle). 

(717) 

Plan for Citywide Improvement of Safety and Security 

Deputy Superintendent Peterkin's written response to the Safe 
Schools Commission's Report constitutes a blueprint for improved 
safety and security citywide. Components of this blueprint are: 

- shortening and simplifying the Code of Discipline 

- expansion of alternatives to suspensions 

- development of 2 school climate/school discipline teams to 
circulate among troubled schools ($140,000 has been 
budgeted for these teams) 

- "Oversight Committees" in each district and in the central 
office to review student discipline policies and specific 
disciplinary decisions 

- an improved comprehensive record-keeping system on safety 
and disci pi ine 

- a strengthened weapons policy 

- specific security plans for each school 

- improved bus safety procedures 

(714-715) 

This plan is still in a formative stage, and has not been 
officially approved by the School Committee in its entirety. Only 
portions of alternative education expansion, bus monitors for some 
school bus runs, and the school climate/discipline teams appear to 
have been budgeted for 1984-85. 



WEAPONS 



Deputy Superintendent Peterkin has proposed a new policy on 
weapons for the system. Students using "dangerous weapons" (the 
scope of which still must be defined) in the commission of violent 
acts would be recommended for expulsion. Students found in 
posession of weapons would receive long-term suspensions, and a 
second apprehension for weapons posession would result in a 
recommendation for expulsion. 

(716,731) 



104 



In Report No. 2 monitors recommended a stronger weapons policy. 
The fact that weapons posession is now involved in 30% of reported 
incidents, an increase of 4% over Report No. 2 findings, supports 
the argument that a stronger policy, such as has been proposed, is 
needed. 



QUESTION 



In Report No. 2 monitors reported that Boston had done little to 
remedy safety and security problems on school buses. It was also 
reported that, according to a Safe Schools Commission survey, 
school buses are seen by students as being among the least safe 
places in their school environment. What steps is Boston taking 
to resolve safety problems on school buses and to provide a more 
secure environment for students? 



FINDINGS 



Boston now appears committed to changes in safety procedures used 
on school buses. Among these proposed changes are: 

- the placement of monitors on troubled bus runs at 
elementary and middle schools. These monitors would be 
paid out of a specific fund assigned to each district (or 
school). As a first choice, monitors would be selected 
from among staff already at schools in need. 

- required safety training for bus drivers and regular 
reinforcement of specific school rules pertaining to bus 
safety for all students 

- increased responsibilities for school administrators to 
oversee school bus safety and discipline 

- changes in the discipline code to specify circumstances 
under which unruly students can be removed (permanently or 
temporarily) from school bus services. 

(739-740) 
(757-759) 

The Citywide Parents Council recommends the placement of bus 
monitors on ^21 school buses for the 1984-85 school year, with a 
provision for the elimination of monitors on those runs which 
prove to have no problems. Monitors view the School Department's 
plan for the placement of monitors as more practical and cost- 
effective at this time. 

(741-755) 

Specific plans have not been finalized but a budget ((P $640,000) 
for bus monitors has been approved by the School Committee. 



105 



QUESTIONS 



Report No. 2 described Boston's development and expansion of 
alternative programs to reduce certain safety and discipline 
problems by better serving the needs of disruptive and non- 
achieving students (Fenway School, Boston Prep, New Horizons). 
Monitors also reported that most of these alternatives were 
reluctant to accept 'hard-core' habitually offending students, 
leaving special needs placement schools such as the McKinley and 
Tileston as the only options for such students. What further 
steps are being taken to develop and expand alternative 
programs? How is the McKinley serving the needs of disruptive 
students evaluated under Chapter 766 with multiple problems? 



FINDINGS 



Boston continues to develop plans to expand its alternative 
education offerings for the 1984-85 school year through: 

- the expansion of the Fenway School (English High) from 120 
to 180-20U students 

- the creation of 3 additional alternative programs at 
Engl ish High School 

- the expansion of New Horizons (King Middle School) from 
100 to 170 students 

- the expansion of the Re-Cap program from 8 middle schools 
to 11 

- the creation of a $100,000 fund to provide seed money for 
middle schools proposing alternative programs. (This has 
neither officially received school committee approval nor 
been budgeted.) 

(721-723) 

It is the intent of alternative education planners to avoid the 
complete segregation of disruptive and multiple-offending students 
by providing alternative programs and schools which appeal to a 
variety of students. The planners hope that eventually each 
district will have one alternative program to handle district-wide 
referrals of disruptive students and other students desiring a 
different educational approach. Deputy Superintendent Peterkin 
asserts that disruptive students (other than those who are 
evaluated under Chapter 766 and placed in the McKinley, the 



106 



Tileston, a LAB program, or a private school) will be 
appropriately served in one of the expanding alternative programs, 
and that the new Human Services Collaborative will provide 
additional services to both alternative and regular school 
programs. 

The McKinley School 

The McKinley is a 502.4 (i) special needs school for students 
with serious psychological and behavioral problems. The school 
has a highly structured behavior management system, is 60% Black 
and 38% White; has a 3:1 studentrstaff ratio, and an 80% success 
rate as measured by students who complete graduation 
requirements. It serves 250 students in its middle, high, and 
technical school components, and will include an elementary 
component in the 1984-85 school year. Much of the staff has been 
carefully screened and all are thoroughly indoctrinated in non- 
confrontational approaches to discipline while still holding 
students accountable for their behavior. According to the 
Headmaster, both the number of students being referred to this 
program and the severtiy of the problems incoming students bring 
are growing, particularly at the middle school level. Earlier 
intervention strategies are sorely needed, which explains the 
expansion of the school to include an elementary component. 
Approximately 75% of Chapter 766 evaluated students referred, 
through a three-tiered review process (sending school, central 
office, McKinley) are actually accepted. The headmaster expressed 
a need for the development of other non-special needs options, to 
serve some of the students now referred to the McKinley. 

(723-724) 

QUESTION 

In Report No. 2 monitors reported on the persistence of problems 
in the consistent and complete reporting of incidents required by 
the Safety Procedural Manual , despite Safety Department efforts to 
cross-check incidents reported. It was also reported that in some 
schools many students and staff failed to cooperate in reporting 
incidents, due to fear, apathy, or disillusionment with the poor 
follow-up accorded many incidents reported. The Safe Schools 
Commission Report cited major discrepencies between the rates of 
school offenses reported by students and staff in its survey of 
school offenses, and the frequency with which those same offenses 
appear in incident reports and suspension data. This varies 
considerably from school to school. What additional steps has 
Boston taken to insure completeness and consistency in the 
reporting of school incidents and greater reliability of the 
reports themselves? 



107 



FINDINGS 



The major problems preventing complete and consistent incident 
reporting rest on unresolved problems in convincing: 

- administrators that complete and consistent reporting will 
not be viewed as a direct assessment of their building 
management competence; 

- students and staff that they will not be threatened or 
harmed for reporting incidents, and that appropriate 
disciplinary and other actions will follow from their 
report. Students and staff must also be convinced that 
existing disciplinary options will have a preventative 
effect on perpetrators of school offenses. 

The Safety Department has initiated an improved method of keeping 
track of school incidents, suspensions, and repeat suspensions on 
the computer, enabling them to compare these reports with each 
other and against other direct sources of information provided by 
Boston security staff. The Deputy Superintendent has already 
begun writing requests for responses from headmasters of schools 
in which discrepencies between various reporting procedures have 
appeared. 



OBJECTIVE 



2. To confirm the adequacy of arrangments for dealing with race- 
related incidents, including, for example, the existence of 
an emergency reporting and action plan for school and law 
enforcement personnel. 

STATUS 

Compliance stated in Report No. 1, no change. 
OBJECTIVE 

3. To confirm that the student discipline code and its 
implementation deal adequately with racial slurs and other 
actions tending to create race-related incidents. 



STATUS 



As stated in Report No. 1 (Vol. II), 7.7 of the Code of Discipline 
describes the use of racial slurs for the purpose of inciting 
violence as a suspendable offense. 



108 



OBJECTIVE 



4. To review quarterly reports on deployment of law enforcement 
personnel specifically ordered for South Boston Schools. 



FINDINGS 



There have been no significant changes in deployment patterns of 
Boston School Police. 

OBJECTIVE 

5. To confirm that plans exist to close any school in the event 
that safety cannot be assured (as the Court specifically 
ordered in 1974 for South Boston High). 

STATUS 

Compliance stated in Report No. 1. 
COMMENDATIONS 

Boston should be commended for the expansion of its successful 
alternative education offerings. Boston should also be commended 
for taking some initial steps to develop a systemwide safety 
improvement plan and specifically a plan for improving school bus 
safety. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

Boston should: 

1. finalize plans, fund and implement systemwide improvement 
of safety and security; 

2. finalize plans, fund, and implement school bus safety 
procedures; 

3. continue to expand its alternative education options for 
disruptive and non-achieving students so that all districts 
are covered; 

4. continue to expand early intervention strategies for 
students showing signs of maladaptive and disruptive 
behaviors; 

5. continue to resolve issues preventing complete and 
consistent reporting of school incidents. 



109 



STUDENT DISCIPLINE 

MANDATE 

Student discipline shall be enforced according to the standards 
contained in the Order Approving Addition to Code of Discipline, 
January 9, 1975. 



PROCESS 



Suspension statistics for the first semester of the school year 
1983-1984 were analyzed and compared with suspension statistics of 
the school year 1982-1983 to determine the progress made by 
schools previously cited for high and/or racially disproportionate 
suspension rates, and to identify any other schools with these 
suspension rates that were not previously cited. Thirteen schools 
that had high and/or racially disproportionate suspension rates 
were monitored on site. Visits to four schools - Charlestown 
High, Boston Latin, English High and Edwards Middle - were follow- 
up visits to ascertain what success, if any, new programs have had 
on improving discipline problems within each school. Nine schools 
were visited for the first time - East Boston High, Mario Umana 
Harbor School, Jamaica Plain High, Edwards Middle, Gavin Middle, 
Michelangelo Middle, Curley Middle, Roosevelt Middle, Eliot 
Elementary and McKay Elementary. Monitors interviewed 
administrators, teachers and some students to determine causes of 
suspension as well as to identify existing successful 
alternatives. In addition, Boston's response to the student 
discipline section of the second monitoring report was reviewed. 



OBJECTIVE 



1. To review, on a semi-annual basis, a report of suspensions 
and expulsions at each school, with the nature of the 
offense, the grade, race and sex of the students affected, 
and the length of time for each suspension. 



QUESTION 



Suspension statistics for all schools for the 1982-1983 
school year were analyzed in the February 1984 report to identify 
those schools that had high and racially disproportionate 
suspension rates, as well as those schools that had predicted 
racially proportionate suspension rates. Which Boston Public 
Schools in the first semester of 1983-84 have: 

significant disproportionate suspension by race? 

high suspension rates as compared to other Boston schools? 

low suspension rates as compared to other Boston schools? 



no 



FINDINGS 

Overall, when comparing the first semester of 1983-84 to the first 
semester of 1982-83, Boston was able to reduce its suspensions by 
849, possibly indicating increased efforts system-wide to use 
suspension only as a last resort and to increase use of 
alternatives to suspension. This is a substantial improvement. 
However, there is still a significant number of schools that have 
high and/or racially disproportionate suspension rates. 

At the high school level, Charlestown High continued to have the 
highest suspension rate, although its suspension rate has been 
significantly reduced to about 40% of last year's rate. English 
High, which last year had the second highest suspension rate, has 
also considerably lowered its rate, while Brighton High and 
Jamaica Plain High have notably increased their suspension rates. 

Boston Latin School continued to suspend Black students at 2 1/2 
times the expected rate but there were only 18 suspensions the 
entire first semester. Charlestown, Brighton and East Boston High 
Schools continued to suspend Black students at a 
disproportionately high rate. Also, the suspension rate for Black 
students at Boston Technical High significantly increased to be 
disproportionately high. Of those schools that had 
disproportionate suspension rates for Black students last year, 
only the Umana High School had a suspension rate that dropped. 

Suspensions for White students at Jamaica Plain and Burke High 
Schools continued to be disproportionately low. The rate of 
suspension for White students at Brighton, Charlestown and Boston 
Technical High Schools was significantly low, while Hyde Park, 
Dorchester, Boston and Copley Square High Schools did not suspend 
any White students. The suspension rates for White students at 
Madison Park High and the Umana School rose to be more 
proportionate, while suspensions for White students at West 
Roxbury High rose to be disproportionately high. Finally, Burke 
High suspended Hispanic students at twice the expected rate. 

At the middle school level, the Edwards Middle, which had the 
highest suspension rate in 1982-1983, reduced its suspensions to 
1/4 of last year's rate. The Mackey, Cheverus, Timilty and Curley 

The expected rate is arrived at by dividing the percent of 

suspensions for a particular racial group by the percent of 

students of that racial group in the school. 1.00 would indicate 

that students of a particular racial group are suspended at 
exactly the rate that their proportion of total enrollment would 

predict, while 2.00 would indicate suspensions at double the 
expected rate, and .5, at half the expected rate. 

Ill 



Middle Schools all dramatically increased their suspension rates, 
and the Roosevelt Middle continued to have a high suspension 
rate. The Michelangelo and Gavin Middle Schools significantly 
reduced their previously high suspension rates. All schools cited 
last year for suspending Black students at a disproportionately 
high rate (Roosevelt, Michelangelo, Gavin and Thompson Middle 
Schools) dropped to more proportionate suspension rates, while the 
Edison, Irving and Edwards Middle Schools significantly increased 
their suspension rates for Black students. 

At the elementary school level, the McKay and Eliot Elementary 
Schools continued to have high suspension rates, while the 
Beethoven and Manning Elementary Schools increases merited on-site 
monitoring. Black students at the Tobin, Manning, Eliot and 
Prescott Elementary Schools were suspended at more than twice the 
expected rate. 

Future statistical analysis will include examining suspension 
records of those schools that employ in-school suspension 



programs. 
OBJECTIVES 



2. To monitor on site, if necessary, schools in which there are 
apparent patterns of inequitable application of the Code of 



Discipline. 



QUESTION 



Ten schools were monitored on-site during the fall monitoring 
period to identify school factors that may contribute to high and 
racially disproportionate suspension rates. Identified factors 
included the small numbers of Black and Hispanic administrators at 
some schools, conf rontati ve approaches to behavior management by 
some teachers, lack of adequate support services and alternatives 
to suspension for students who are discipline problems, a low 
level of parental involvement, lack of adequate classroom 
materials, and most importantly, a small group of students in each 
school who continually disrupt the educational environment. What 
steps has Boston taken to identify solutions for these problems? 
What additional school factors contribute to the suspension rates 
identified above? 



112 



FINDINGS 



Some progress has been made in addressing underlying causes of 
discipline problems. All schools visited by the monitor during 
this monitoring period had new headmasters or assistant 
headmasters appointed to the school in the last two years, a 
significant number of whom are Black or Hispanic. Through 
increased focus on student discipline policies, school climate and 
basic skills development, the majority of these administrators 
have helped to reduce student discipline problems. However, the 
inadequate number of Black and Hispanic regular education teachers 
at the Umana School and the lack of Black or Hispanic 
administrators at the Roosevelt Middle are thought to contribute 
to student discipline problems for some Black and Hispanic 
students at those schools. (766) 

The Office of School Operations also has proposed several changes 
for next school year that may have a positive impact on student 
discipline. Two teams of Boston teachers proficient in "Positive 
Approaches to Discipline and Reality Therapy" will be created and 
these teams will establish residency in an estimated 40 to 50 
schools throughout the year to help devlop a plan for the 
improvement of student discipline and to teach intervention 
techniques. A general in-service for all schools on non- 
confrontation approaches to student discipline is planned. 
Purchase of textbooks and materials has been inserted into next 
year's budget to more adequately address academic needs which are 
often related to discipline problems. Deputy Superintendent 
Lancaster is developing remediation opportunities for students to 
complement next year's new promotional policy and graduation 
requirements, althoough administrators expressed fears that these 
new requirements will still "glut" the 9th grade (which is already 
approximately 25% repeaters in each school) with additional 
repeating students and increase student discipline problems. The 
Boston Human Service Collaborative was formed this year and has 
targeted 17 schools in which to provide a wide range of 
coordinated academic and social services next year. 

(767-768) 

Progress in increasing parental support in student discipline 
efforts was noted by the Edwards Middle, Curley Middle, Gavin 
Middle and Eliot Elementary, although low levels of parental 
involvement continued to be cited by many other school 
administrators as an obstacle to resolving student discipline 
problems. Developing effective parent outreach programs should 
continue to be a focus at the high school level. 

(767) 

Most importantly, suspension statistics for all schools visited 
supported the belief expressed by all administrators that, in each 



113 



school, there was a small number of students who were habitual 
offenders of school rules and habitual non-attenders, and whom, 
given the limited resources and support services available, the 
schools cannot serve. Two notable examples are Charlestown Hiyh, 
where 33 students accounted for 50% of the total suspensions, and 
McKay Elementary, where 5 students accounted for 49% of the 
suspensions. (769) 

Three new alternative programs have been established in the past 2 
years -- Fenway School (English High), Boston Prep and New 
Horizons Academy (King Middle) — that serve a wide range of 
students, including habitual non-attenders and habitual offenders 
of school rules, in an intimate, supportive learning environment 
while providing intensive basic skills and some college 
preparatory skills. These schools have already demonstrated some 
success in motivating "marginal" students to achieve success in 
school. Next year, English High will be reorganized into 4 
schools based upon the school -within-school concept, increasing 
alternative program options on the secondary level. In addition, 
the Department of School Operations has indicated that it will 
focus next year on creating alternative school programs on the 
middle school level . 



QUESTION 



This past year, the Department of School Operations has worked 
to systematize discipline procedures in all schools, including 
accuracy in reporting suspensions, development of school-based 
rules and encouraging use of alternatives to suspension. There 
continued to be, however, widespread inconsistencies by school 
administrators in the administering of the Code of Discipline, and 
possible inaccurate reporting of suspensions by some schools. Is 
the Code of Discipline being consistently enforced, especially 
regarding suspension rates and alternatives to suspensions? 



FINDINGS: 



Schools that have in the past suspended hiyh numbers of students, 
like Charlestown High and Edwards Middle, have lowered their 
suspensions and increased use of alternatives to suspension. 
However, administrators at some schools, most notably Charlestown 
High, argue that the pressure to lower their suspension rates, 
coupled with the lack of alternative school placements, has 
inhibited their efforts to establish an orderly and controlled 
environment. This emphasizes the need for school administrators 
to be provided with adequate resources to develop alternatives to 
suspension and improved educational programs. 

(769-770) 



114 



Policy changes by the Department of School Operations have helped 
improve consistency in the enforcement of the Code of Discipline. 
The Code is currently being revised into a shorter and more 
understandable version. School-based rules may be reviewed in the 
spring (instead of in the fall) to be distributed with the Code at 
the beginning of the school year. Headmasters have been informed 
that all suspensions must be recorded and schools cannot send 
students home to "cool-off" without being suspended. A Review 
Committee to review discipline policies and school climate is 
being proposed for each school; and a proposed Oversight Committee 
in each district and at the city-wide level will monitor 
consistency in the application of school rules. 

Most importantly, Boston, in a draft response to the Safe Schools 
Commission Report , has proposed several modifications to Boston s 
overall safety and security plan (see Volume II student discipline 
report). Specific proposals already mentioned in this report — 
the behavior management teams, Boston Human Services 
Collaborative, alternative schools development plan, revision of 
the Code of Discipline, Review Committees in each school and 
Oversight Committees in each district - are key components of 
this response. The response, if enacted and supported with proper 
funding, could be instrumental in establishing constructive and 
uniform city-wide discipline policies. However, it must be noted 
that these proposals are still in a formative stage and have not 
yet been assured proper funding for next year. Future monitoring 
will examine the progress of approval and implementation of this 
blueprint for improved safety and disicipline. 



QUESTION 



Of those schools identified in the first 2 monitoring reports 
disproportionate suspensions by race, what steps is Boston taking 
to identify causes for these problems and identify solutions? Can 
the success of any of these solutions be documented? What 
alternatives could identified schools employ? 



FINDINGS 



Of the 13 schools visited, Edwards Middle, Curley Middle, Gavin 
Middle and Eliot Elementary had made the most significant progress 
in resolving discipline problems. All 4 schools had established a 
structured discipline process that required a high level of 
teacher participation and parent involvement. They developed 
alternatives to suspension (e.g., academic and counseling support 
services, in-house suspension programs) and improved their 
educational programs, with special emphasis on basic skills 

115 



curriculum. Edwards Middle created a Student Planning Center (in- 
school suspension program), the Gavin Middle a model comprehensive 
support services program, and the Eliot Elementary and Curley 
Middle reorganized their curricula to better address basic skills 
needs. New building administrators in all 4 schools have been 
instrumental in these changes. (773-779) 

English High's reorganization next year should provide a more 
manageable school environment, a sense of programmatic identity 
for students and a more structured curriculum. Charlestown High 
has implemented several innovative programs to address students' 
academic and counseling needs (Teacher Advisory Program, BU 
counseling interns), but should also consider the creation of an 
in-school suspension program or school-within a school program, 
and use of learning and classroom management strategies employed 
at Boston Prep. Boston Latin School Assistant Headmaster Leonard 
has improved the administration of discipline (quicker referral 
process, continuous presence in the halls), although the school 
should continue to address the disportionate suspensions ofBlack 
students. East Boston High has a highly structured discipline 
program, but this school and the Umana School need to develop 
alternative support services for those Black students reluctant to 
use agencies in East Boston. The Umana school has improved 
discipline through staff stability and an additional security 
officer, but needs to reduces the amount of grafitti on the 
walls. Jamaica Plain High has developed a wide range of support 
services and alternatives to suspension (teen parenting program, 
remedial tutoring programs and an In-School Suspension Program), 
and coupled with a stable staff, these programs will hopefully 
lower its high and racially disproportionate suspension rates. 
The Michelangelo Middle, while strengthening its academic program, 
needs to develop additional alternatives to suspension (for 
example, in-house suspension program) and address the reluctance 
of Black parents to attend parent conferences at the school. The 
Roosevelt Middle Headmaster last year replaced 5 teachers who were 
excessively absent (a total of 341 school days) and the resulting 
staff stability has helped to improve student discipline; however, 
a lack of a uniform discipline policy, poor communication between 
administrators, and building disrepair have contributed to 
continuing school climate and school discipline problems. And the 
McKay Elementary School needs help to address discipline issues 
more systematically and employ additional alternatives to 
suspension. 



COMMENDATIONS 



The Department of School Operations should be commended for their 
continuing efforts to systematize discipline procedures, improve 
consistency in the adherence to the Code of Discipline, encourage 



116 



the creation of alternatives to suspension, and lower suspension 
rates systemwide. Director of Alternative Programs Smith is also 
to be commended for his continuing efforts to create alternative 
programs for all students, and especially for his efforts in the 
reorganization of English High School. 

(17-18) 

Finally, the new administrators at Edwards Middle, Curley Middle, 
Gavin Middle, Eliot Elementary, Boston Latin and Charlestown High 
should be commended for improving student discipline at those 
schools. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



In addition to the following recommendations, all proposed plans 
detailed in this report will be monitored in the next monitoring 
period. 

A. Black and Hispanic administrators and teachers should 
continue to be appointed where needed. Specifically, 
there is a need for a Black or Hispanic administrator at 
Roosevelt Middle School and Black and Hispanic teachers 
at the Umana School . 

B. Boston should continue to provide resources to schools 
to develop support services and other alternatives to 
suspension. Specifically, the creation of a school- 
within-a-school alternative program or an in-school 
suspension program at Charlestown High should be 
considered. Continued support for the Boston Human 
Services Collaborative should be provided. 

C. Alternative programs for students who are not succeeding 
in regular school programs, specifically at the middle 
school level, should continue to be created. 

D. Parent outreach strategies centered around student 
discipline issues should be intensified. These efforts 
should be targeted at the high school level and 
developed in collaboration with the Citywide Parents 
Council . 

E. Means to accelerate the referral process for both 
alternative program and special education placements 
should be explored. 

(18) 



117 



INSTITUTIONAL PAIRINGS 
MANDATE 



Institutional Pairings shall continue according to the standards 
contained in pages 50 through 58 of the Student Desegregation Plan 
of May 10, 1975. 



PROCESS 



Monitoring has consisted of meetings with university and college 
coordinators, representatives of the cultural institutions, and 
staff of the Tri-Lateral Council. In addition, all of the Chapter 
636 funding proposals, which embody the college, university, and 
cultural institution contracts, have been reviewed by Department 
staff. 



OBJECTIVE 



1. To determine whether the institutional pairings 
identified in orders of continuing validity are 
operational . 



QUESTION 



Are the Boston Public Schools continuing to make a 
positive effort to reach mutually agreeable 
contractual arrangements with the universities, 
colleges, businesses, and cultural institutions? 



PREVIOUS FINDINGS 



Report #1: The School Department had mutually agreeable 
contractual arrangements with all of the institutions specified in 
the court order who chose to enter into such agreements. 

Report #2: No change. 

FINDINGS 

The institutional pairings all continue to operate through mutual 
contractural agreements between the institutions involved and the 
School Department. The cultural and university pairings are 
funded with state funds through Chapter 636; proposals for these 
pairings have been reviewed by Department staff. Many of the 
colleges and universities are currently involved with the School 
Department in planning some changes in programs and increased 
involvement for next year. 



118 



PARENT AND STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 



MANDATE 



Court-ordered parent and student organizations shall operate 
according to the standards contained in the memoranda and Orders 
of October 4, 1974; August 24 and November 8, 1976; September 1, 
1977; September 15, 1978; May 5, 1980; July 20, 1982; and August 
25, 1982; and the Desegregation Plan of May 10, 1975, pages 86- 
100; and the Amalgamation Plan. 

PROCESS 

PARENT ORGANIZATIONS 

Information regarding the CPC (Citywide Parent Council) and SPC 
(School Parent Councils) was gathered through attendance at 
council meetings; review of Council minutes; discussion with the 
Executive Director and the staff of the Council; Boston officials; 
and review of Chapter 636 Proposal Applications. 

STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 

Circulars were reviewed for uniform student council election 
procedures. The elections of student councils and representatives 
to school parent councils were reviewed. The monitor attended 6 
training sessions for Charlestown High students and faculty on the 
implementation of a Communication Board in that school. Also, the 
monitor received a report on implementation of Communication 
Boards in all high schools. 



OBJECTIVE 



1. 



PARENT ORGANIZATIONS 



To determine whether Parent Councils are monitoring matters 
which are apt to facilitate or hinder the desegregation 
process in particular schools, districts and/or citywide. 
For instance, are they monitoring the implementation of Court 
orders for special desegregation measures at some schools, 
repair and construction of facilities, vocational and 
occupational education programs, and support of participation 
by college, business, and cultural pairings? 



QUESTIONS 



Last year the CPC was not able to monitor the desegregation 

CPC has established subcommittees to overview the mnonitoring in 

each area. What is the status of the newly established 



119 



subcommittees, which are responsible for monitoring in specific 
areas? What assistance are these subcommittees receiving from 
various community agencies? Is the desegregation process in areas 
not monitored by the CPC last year, such as vocational and 
occupational education and university, cultural and business 
pairings being monitored this year? How is Boston responding to 
the CPC's monitoring efforts? 



FINDINGS 



The Desegregation Monitoring Committee of the CPC has expanded its 
activities to include areas which were not monitored last year. 
However, the committee's plan to establish subcommittees to be 
responsible for the monitoring of each area of desegregation has 
been modified. The energy which is required to implement the 
subcommittee structure is being used to support parent involvement 
in the monitoring process on the local school level instead. 
Also, the plan to have various community agencies assist in the 
monitoring has been delayed indefinitely. The parent councils are 
now monitoring the desegregation process in all of the required 
areas. However, their monitoring efforts are generally 
fragmented more thorough in some areas than in others. Parent 
Councils' monitoring in all areas is strongly connected to 
parents' efforts to advocate for student and parent rights. 

Because the Parent Councils are strong advocates for student and 
parent rights, according to the CPC, the school department often 
views their monitoring efforts as antagonistic. Further, the CPC 
reports that Boston is slow to respond to requests for assistance 
in the Parent Councils' monitoring efforts, and in several 
instances has tried to hinder the monitoring process. 

On the other hand, Boston officials report that the CPC's 
priorities are confused. They are not able to recruit parents for 
involvement in the SPCs because much of the CPC's time is spent 
bickering internally and petulantly attacking the school 
department. Boston officials question the legitimacy of the CPC's 
monitoring findings because of the low level of parent involvement 
in the monitoring process as well as in the overall CPC-SPC 
structure. 



120 



Special Assistant Robert Hayden, the superintendent's liaison to 
the CPC, reports that the CPC has not availed itself of his offers 
to provide assistance in working with Boston. He attends the 
monthly CPC meetings, and responds to all requests for information 
in writing. Otherwise he reports that the CPC's contact with the 
school department has been limited. He has made several attempts 
to open new channels for parent involvement in Boston. Among 
these, he tried to initiate monthly meetings with the 4 co- 
chai members, and he tried to involve parents in the "long-range" 
Boston planning. The CPC did not respond. 



OBJECTIVE 



To determine whether parents are responsible for planning and 
investigating matters which are apt to facilitate or hinder 
the promotion of racial harmony at their school. Also 
whether Boston is supporting parents by providing access to 
school records as well as supporting their efforts to send 
out pamphlets and newsletters, visit schools, propose 
modification of student programs, and receive reasonable 
operating expenses from the individual schools. 



QUESTIONS 



It was recommended in Report No. 2, that the CPC 
and local SPCs (with the support of the school department) become 
more actively and directly involved in Chapter 636 proposal 
development and program implementation as an appropriate means for 
parents to assume the responsibility for planning and promoting 
matters which are apt to facilitate racial harmony in schools. 
Are parents becoming more actively and directly involved in 
Chapter 636 proposal development and program implementation? 



FINDINGS 



It was recommended in the last Monitoring Report that the CPC and 
local SPCs (with the support of the school department) become more 
actively and directly involved in Chapter 636 proposal development 
and program implementation, as an appropriate means for parents to 
assume the responsibility for planning and promoting matters which 
are apt to facilitate racial harmony in schools. Accordingly, The 
Bureau of School Programs mandated that each Boston school 
district earmark 1% of its Chapter 636 allocation for parent 
participation. Although each district's proposal application 
reflects the Bureau's requirements, overall, the activities 
prescribed for parent participation are superficial, limiting 
parent involvement to the publication of newsletters or monitoring 
students' attendance. The central office proposal which was not 
subject to the 1% requirement but which was expected to have a 
significant emphasis on parent participation, was inadequate in 



121 



addressing this area. In addition, two proposals submitted by the 
CPC to the school department for parent involvement training were 
rejected. 



OBJECTIVE 



3. To determine whether Boston is providing monthly and semi- 
annual reports by principals and community district 
superintendents to Parent Councils, and other reasonable 
educational statistics and data analyses to the CPC. 



QUESTIONS 



Is the format for monthly data reports by Boston to 

the CPC for 1983-84 working? What progress is being made in. the 

CPC receipt of other supplementary reports and data from Boston. 



FINDINGS 



The CPC reports that Boston 
timetable for providing the 
There is a delay of a month 
mixed to a recent survey of 
meaningful ness of data from 



is not living up to the agreed upon 
CPC with needed reports and data, 
in the schedule. The response was 
SPCs concerning the timeliness and 
Boston. Some SPCs are receiving 



meaningful reports 
and reports at all . 



on schedule and others are not receiving data 



Special Assistant Robert Hayden reports that he was under the 
impression that there were no problems with Boston's data 
dissemination to the SPCs. He has received no complaints from the 
CPC concerning data. 



OBJECTIVE 



STATUS 



4. To determine whether parents have participated in the 
evaluation of community district superintendents and 
principals, and in the screening and rating of administrative 
positions. 



See Report No. 
this volume. 



2 (Vol. I, pages 88-89). and the Staff report in 



OBJECTIVE 



5. To determine whether parents are participating in collective 
bargaining, the budget review process, major policy planning 
initiatives, and training of school department staff as 
provided by the November 8, 1982 Agreement. 



122 



QUESTIONS 



What is the status of CPC's subcommittee's involvement 

in the collective bargaining process? To what degree is the CPC's 

position taken into consideration. 



FINDINGS 



The CPC was involved in the collective bargaining process with 
full support from the school department. The CPC reports that 
parents played an important role in averting a one day teachers' 
strike. However, Boston officials report that the CPC's 
involvement in the process was problematic. On several occasions, 
according to Boston officials, the CPC was not prepared for 
meetings to discuss issues of collective bargaining, and on other 
occasions parents held up the process with demands for information 
which was not available even to School Committee members. 



OBJECTIVE 



6. To determine whether: (a) all elections to Parent Councils 
have been conducted, (b) Councils are properly organized and 
meeting, and (c) Council staff are racially balanced. 



QUESTIONS 



What is the level of parent participation in 

the CPC-SPC structure? How effective are the SPCs? 



FINDINGS 



It was reported in the last Monitoring Report that 8 schools did 
not conduct elections, and that several schools had rescheduled 
their elections for times more convenient to parents. Since that 
report there has been one (1) additional election held, leaving 7 
schools without elections. 

The level of parent participation is extremely low. There is 
widespread criticism of the CPC by parents and school officials 
due to the low level of parent participation in the CPC-SPC 
structure. In more than 50 schools the SPCs do not meet 
regularly; also, parent attendance at CPC meetings is low and 
irregular. 

The CPC is facing serious organizational problems, which have led 
to the resignation of the Executive Director and 3 of the 4 co- 
chairmembers. Currently, the CPC has Acting Executive Co- 
Directors who conducted interviews with present and past CPC 
members and staff regarding the organizational problems of the 
CPC, the results of which are included in a report to Judge W. 



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Arthur Garrity, Jr. with recommendations for change based on an 
internal evaluation of the CPC. Also, the former Executive 
Director will report his perception of the CPC's organizational 
problems to Judge Garrity and make recommendations for 
modifications in the present structure. 

Boston officials maintain that the CPC is not following up on its 
commitments in general and specifically its responsibility to 
involve parents in Boston, adding, "given its annual budget of 
over $500,000 and staff of 22 the level and quality of parent 
participation in Boston should be much higher." 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



Considering that there are several issues pending regarding the 
organizational problems of the CPC, the monitors will not make 
recommendations in this report. However, they note the need for 
the CPC to strengthen its connection to Boston officials, using 
Special Assistant Hayden as their main link. 



STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 



OBJECTIVE 



1. To determine whether all activities provided under the 
Amalgamation Plan have taken place. 



QUESTION 



What steps has Boston taken to develop and 
implement uniform Student Council election standards 



FINDINGS 



The Student Affairs Office developed uniform Student Council 

election procedures which were distributed through Deputy 

Superintendent Circulars last spring and fall. These procedures 
will continue to be used in future years. 



QUESTION 



A procedure to elect student representatives 

to Parent Councils in all high schools was established by the 
Student Affairs Office, and 9 high schools elected student 
representatives to Parent Councils. What has been done to 
increase student representation on parent councils in the 
remaining 8 high schools? 



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STATUS 



The Student Affairs Office was in contact in the late fall with 
the Citywide Parents Council (CPC) to encourage elections in the 8 
high schools (Boston High, Boston Latin Academy, Boston Latin 
School, Boston Technical High, Brighton High, Burke High, Copley 
Square High, and South Boston High) that did not elect student 
representatives to Parent Councils in the fall. However, neither 
the Student Affairs Office nor the CPC knew at the time of this 
report whether this effort had resulted in achieving either 
goal. The next monitoring period will examine whether student 
representation to all high school Parent Councils is insured. 



QUESTION 



A tentative training schedule for implementation 
of Communication Boards in all high schools and the hiring of a 
consultant trainer for the initial training at Charlestown High 
were approved by the Student Affairs Director in the fall. What 
steps has Boston taken to modify the Amalgamation Plan to replace 
the Racial-Ethnic Student Councils with Communication Boards? 



FINDINGS 



A training program on Communication Boards was conducted this 
winter for selected Charlestown High students and faculty. 
However, scheduling of meeting times and difficulties in 
administrative and faculty assignments have impeded efforts to 
initiate the Board. Communication Boards are also in operation at 
Boston Latin School and Boston Latin Academy, although both Boards 
suffer from a lack of administrative and faculty support similar 
to that experienced at Charlestown High School. Although East 
Boston, Brighton and Hyde Park High Schools have "active 
grievance/recommendation student groups who meet on a regular 
basis with Headmasters," these schools do not have Communications 
Boards. 

The Student Affairs Office has targeted implementation of 
Communication Boards at South Boston, Copley Square High and 
Madison Park High Schools by the end of this school year or at the 
beginning of next year. This effort has been stalled, though, by 
scheduling difficulties and a lack of funds necessary to train 
participating faculty and administrators. 

No party has yet sought a modification to the Amalgamation Plan 
and Court orders to replace the RESC's with Communication Boards 
in all high schools. 



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The Comments of El Comite de Padres Regarding Second Monitoring 
Report , states, "We are concerned that the RESC's have been and 
become 'moribund' due to school defendants' deliberate non- 
compliance with court orders. Why should 'Communication Boards' 
be blithely accepted by the State Board as the solution to 
this. ..sabotage of court orders?" 

Boston may not have provided adequate support to the RESC's. 
However, Communication Boards, if properly implemented, have the 
potential not only to address conflicts of a racial nature and to 
promote racial harmony, but also to address other school climate 
and school policy issues as well. A Communication Board is 
composed of a representative body of administrators, teachers and 
students. Any individual within a school may submit a complaint, 
grievance or school issue to the Board. These issues may be 
interpersonal or relate to school rules, school climate or other 
school policy issues. They therefore may include issues regarding 
racial disharmony or racial conflicts. The Board is then 
responsible for hearing all points of view, investigating all 
facts, and mediating a mutual resolution. Many times, a 
resolution may involve a recommendation for a school policy 
change. Communication Bocfrds would meet regularly with the 
headmaster to communicate these concerns. Student Affairs 
Director Carlo has recommended that all Boards should have student 
representation from all racial and ethnic groups in which there 
are 20 or more students enrolled in the school. (See Volume II 
student organizations report) 

El Comite raises a valid point when they question Boston's 
commitment to the implementation of these Boards. These Boards 
will experience success only if adequate resources and support are 
devoted to implement them, and if administrators and faculty 
accept an increased student role and a democratic process in their 
schools. 



OBJECTIVE 



2. To review the composition of the Boston Student Advisory 
Council as well as the Student Councils in all middle and 
high schools. 



QUESTION 



All 29 schools that submitted data in the fall 

on composition of student organizations were found to have proper 
representation of racial and ethnic groups. Thirteen schools did 
not submit this data (Boston High, Boston Latin School, Taft 
Middle, Curley Middle, Lewis Middle, Roosevelt Middle, Cleveland 



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Middle, Holmes Middle, Wilson Middle, Dearborn Middle, Gavin 
Middle, McCormack Middle and Mackey Middle). What is the 
composition of the student councils in schools that did not submit 
data in the fall? 



STATUS 



None of the 13 schools submitted any data on Student Council 
representation for this school year. 



COMMENDATIONS 



The Student Affairs Director should be commended for her 
continuing efforts to develop the concept of Communication Boards 
in all high schools. The Boston Student Advisory Council members 
should be commended for their efforts to provide an increased 
city-wide student voice. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



1. Department of Education officials should meet with Boston and 
the plaintiffs in order to discuss modifying the 
Analagamation Plan and Court orders to replace the RESC's 
with Communication Boards. If modified, adequate resources 
and support should be provided by the Office of School 
Operations to implement the Communication Boards and to 
insure necessary faculty and administrative support in all 
high schools; and an implementation schedule of Communication 
Boards in all high schools should be developed. 

2. Proper student representation needs to be ensured next year 
on all school Parent Councils. 

3. Student Council elections with proper racial and ethnic 
representation need to be ensured in all middle and high 
schools next year. 



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DISPUTE RESOLUTION 



During the present monitoring period, one dispute reached the 
mediation stage described at section V(D)(1) of the Orders of 
Disengagement. This complaint, filed by plaintiffs, questioned the 
process for assigning special needs students to substantially separate 
classes. The complaint was withdrawn after information was provided by 
members of the School Department during the mediation session. 

Three other complaints, all brought by El Comite , remain at the 
negotiation stage described at section V(cy(2l of~ the Orders of 
Disengagement. These disputes, and the date on which they were raised, 
are as follows: (1) the absence of bilingual services at the 
Occupational Resource Center, filed on August 18 and September 6, 1983; 
(2) overcrowding in the Hiatian bilingual program at English High 
School, filed on November 14, 1983; and (3) inadequate funding of 
bilingual programs, filed on April 27, 1984. An earlier dispute 
regarding access of Spanish bilingual students to District IX magnet 
programs, filed on September 20, 1983, was resolved through negotiation 
in the previous monitoring period. 



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MODIFICATIONS 



Any of the primary parties or intervenors in the case may initiate 
a motion to modify existing orders as long as the proposed modifications 
have been presented to all parties and the Citywide Parents Council 
through a negotiation process under the auspices of the Board of 
Education. 

Such modifications must be shown to be necessary in light of 
changed circumstances since the order to be modified was issued, must be 
detailed, complete, and show what the impact will be on the educational 
rights of minority students, must be "ripe for hearing and decision by 
the Court," and must not be inconsistent with Supreme Court decisions or 
federal statutes and regulations. 

On May 2, 1984, the Boston School Committee requested that the 
State Board convene the parties to negotiate proposed amendments to the 
orders relating to administrative desegregation. A negotiating session 
was convened on May 23, 1984, with a second session expected to occur 
during the month of June. 



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