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Full text of "Report of the attorney general for the year ending .."

Public Document No. 12 



Ci)e Commontoealtf) of s^assmtvisttts 



REPORT 



ATTORNEY GENERAL 



Year ending June 30, 1945 




Publication of this Document Approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance. 
900. 4.'46. 18434. 



Public Document No. 12 



Cbe Commontoealtb of S@a0sac|)usetts 



REPORT 



ATTORNEY GENERAL 



Year ending June 30, 1945 




Publication of this Document Approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance. 
900. 4-'46. 18434. 



r 



Cbe Commontoealti) of a^a00ac|)u$ett0 



Depahtment of the Attorney General, 
BosTox, January 9, 1946. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the department 
for the year ending June 30, 1945. 

Very respectfully, 

CLARENCE A. BARNES, 

Attorney General. 



Cfje Commontoealtf) of d^asmthmtm 



DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL 
State House 



J 



Attorney General 
CLARENCE A. BARNES 



First Assistant Attorney General 
J. J. Spiegel 

Assistants 

Roger Clapp William Gardner Perrin 

Nathan B. Bidwell Herbert D. Robinson 

William S. Kinney William H. Sullivan 

Charles Shulman Conde J. Brodbine 

George P. Drury ^ Beatrice H. Mullaney 

Michael A. Fredo Vincent J. Panetta^ 

David J. Coddaire Thomas F. McLaughlin 
Alfred E. LoPresti 



Assistant Attorneys General on Leave of Absence 
William G. Andrew ^ Ernest Brenner ^ 

Assistant Attorneys General assigned to Veterans^ Division 
Nicholas DeLeo Joel L. Miller 

Assistant Attorneys General assigned to Division of Employment Security 
Saul Gurvitz Joseph S. Mitchell 

' Specially assigned to N. Y., X. H. & H. R.R. and Boston Elevated Railway case^. 

- Resigned July 31, 1945. 

' On leave of absence because of duties as associate county commissioner. 

* On military leave of absence. 



Chief Clerk to the Attorney (icneral 
Harold J. Welch 

LiM Clerk to the Attorney General 
James J. Kelleher 

Director of Division of Collections 
W. Forbes Robertson 



STATEMENT OF APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES 
For the Period from July 1, 1944, to June 30, 1945 

Attorney General's salary $ 8,000 00 

Assistants and others, salaries ........ 138,900 00 

Expenses 11,000 00 

Settlement of damages by state-owned cars (CI. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 12, § 3B) 8,000 00 

Settlement of certain claims (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 12, § 3A) . . 3,000 00 

Transfer for temporary salary increases ...... 1,36000 



$170,260 00 



E.rpen'litiire>'. 

For salary of the Attorney General $ 8,360 00 

For salaries of assistants and others : 

Actual expenditures $133,778 23 

Amount reserved ...... 6,121 77 

139,900 00 



For office expenses : ' 

Actual expenditures $9,223 63 

Amount reserved ...... 1,755 37 



10,979 00 

For settlement of damages by state-owned cars (G. L. 

(Ter. Ed.) c. 12, § 3B)" 4,795 72 

For small claims (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 12, § 3A) 2,996 48 



Total expenditures $167,031 20 

Financial statement verified. 

By J. D. MacDONALD, 

For the Comptroller. 

Approved for publishing. 

FRAXCIS X. LAXG, 

Comptroller. 
November (J. 1945. 



Cf)e CommontDealtl) of ^a00act)U)BEett0 



Department of thk Attoknky General, 
Boston, January 9, 1946. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives. 

Pursuant to the provisions of section 11 of chapter 12 of the General 
Laws (Tercentenary Edition), as amended, I herewith submit my report. 

The cases requiring the attention of this Department during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1945, totaling 8,451, are tabulated as follows: 

Corporate franchise tax cases ......... 96 

E.xtradition and interstate rendition . . . . . 115 

Land Court petitions .......... 71 

Land damage cases arising from the taking of land: 

Department of Public Works ........ 46 

Metropolitan District Commission ....... 2 

Metropolitan District Water Supply Commission . . . . JO 

Miscellaneous cases, including suits to require the filing of returns by cor- 
porations and individuals and the collection of money due the Com- 
monwealth .......... 3,715 

Petitions for instructions under inheritance tax laws ..... 6 

Estates involving applications of funds given to public charities . . . 733 

Settlement cases for support of persons in state hospitals .... 26 

Pardons : 

Investigations and recommendations in accordance with G. L. (Ter. Ed.) 

c. 127, § 152, as amended 100 

Workmen's compensation cases, first reports ...... 1,994 

Cases in behalf of Division of Employment .Security ..... 1,537 

To preserve the dignity of the individual, carrying with it all of the 
implications of freedom, liberty and justice, is to my mind one of the 
paramount duties of the chief law enforcement officer of the Common- 
wealth. 

To preserve that dignity men and women throughout the world have 
suffered beyond the power of words to describe. To preserve that dignity 
countless millions have sacrificed their lives. 

Upon a.ssuming the office of Attorney General of Massachusetts, I 
resolved upon a course of conduct for this Department that would preserve 
the dignity of the individual — that would be devoid of ballyhoo and 
sensation. I resolved that all matters would be carefully and painstak- 
ingly investigated. I realize fully the power of the criminal indictment, 
and how, all too easily, the reputation and standing of respectable citizens 



8 P.D. 12. 

in the C-ommon wealth could be irreparably damaged by the careless use 
of this power. 

To that end this Department has worked harmoniously with the Dis- 
trict Attorneys throughout the Commonwealth and they have had an 
open door to consult with either my assistants or myself on all matters 
affecting the public welfare. 

The Attorney General has continuously counseled the many depart- 
ment heads of the Commonwealth and frequently informal advice has 
been given. I have endeavored at all times to conduct this Department 
efficiently and with a high standard of administration, ever remembering 
that the citizens of the Commonwealth are entitled to able legal repre- 
sentation. 

I pledged the people of Massachusetts when I assumed the office of 
Attorney General that I would immediately establish a veterans' division 
which would freely advise and act in behalf of the veteran, his widow, 
orphans and other dependents. This has been done. Two assistants 
devote their entire time to this division. A complete file of the work of 
the division is kept in a card index containing a record of the applicant's 
problem and a notation of the advice given and work done. In addition 
there have been innumerable personal requests for information and advice 
— many by telephone. Many letters are received in which requests are 
made for information. Month by month an increasing number of town 
and city officials, department heads and legislators seek advice or informa- 
tion. Many veteran organizations have made use of this division. The 
division is expanding and we are constantly seeking means and adopting 
plans which will enable the division to function at the highest peak of 
efficiency. 

I should like to illustrate briefly the varied cases that have come before 
this division: 

A father of a discharged disabled veteran was very much distracted 
about his son out West who had become involved in a confused court 
situation. This division enabled the father to contact the proper authori- 
ties and was able to straighten out the case in such a manner that the 
boy is now home and in happy surroundings with his parents. 

A veteran who was a doctor prior to entering the service became dis- 
abled while in combat areas, engaged in hospital work, and desired to 
resume his practice upon his discharge from the service. There was some 
difficulty regarding his doctor's certificate and license as he had changed 
his name while in the service and there were complications relative to 
his going back into practice under the changed name. This division went 
into the case very thoroughly and as a result he was given a new certifi- 
cate and license under his present legal name and was thereby enabled 
to resume his practice. 

A mother of a son who was killed in action sought advice on the situa- 
tion where there was a divorce. The wife filed an appeal before a decree 
became absolute, while the son was in the service. There was a question 
of custody of the children and a very much involved probate situation. 
The family had a lawyer who suggested that the veteran angle be looked 
into. This division actively co-operated with the attorney and a final 
adjustment was made. 



IM). 12. 9 

The development of the ahport at Boston is of paramount importance 
to all of the citizens of Massachusetts. On behalf of the Massachusetts 
Aeronautics Commission and in conjunction with the city of Boston, I 
argued the case of the Civil Aeronautics Board (Federal i North Atlantic 
Route before the Civil Aeronautics Board in Washington, seeking to have 
Boston's Logan International Airport certificated as a terminal on the 
proposed air i-outes to Europe. The Board's decision has placed Boston 
as a co-terminal on all the named routes to F]urope. 

This report does not detail the many activities of the Department. 
( )ur work in the coiu'ts — state and federal — has proceeded without fan- 
fare. Contracts of various departments have been examined and approved, 
settlements of inheritance taxes approved, state note issues approved, 
hearings have been attended and conducted on behalf of various state 
boards by the Department, bond issues have been approved, leases, have 
been approved, conferences held with and advice given to state commis- 
sions, boards and divisions, consultations held with the Division of Civil 
Service, and interviews and consultations with city solicitors, town coun- 
sel, members of the Legislature and attorneys. 

I sincerely thank the Assistant Attorneys General and the other mem- 
bers of the Department for their services and loyalty, not only to myself, 
but to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CLARENCE A. BARNES, 

Attorney General. 



OPINIONS. 



Walden Pond State Reservation — Powers of Commission — Lack of 
Authority to Restrict. 

July 18, 1944. 
Walden Pond State Reservation Commission. 

Gentlemen : — You have asked me whether the Walden Pond State 
Reservation Commission is within its proper jurisdiction in restricting 
boating on Walden Pond and requiring that privately-owned boats be 
removed from the pond and reservation after being used. 

It is my opinion that your Commission has no authority to restrict 
boating on the pond or to require the removal of privately-owned boats 
therefrom, but that you may make reasonable rules and regulations for 
the removal of privately-owned boats from the reservation after they have 
been used. 

The Walden Pond State Reservation was acquired by gift and is de- 
fined by St. 1922, c. 499, as "certain lands and rights therein situated on 
the shores of Walden pond in the towns of Concord and Lincoln." The 
statute further provides that "the title to such land shall be and remain 
in the commonwealth of Massachusetts." It is significant that the statute 
refers Only to lands and rights therein and does not mention Walden Pond. 

Your Commission is given full power and authority over the Walden 
Pond State Reservation (St. 1922. c. 499, § 3), is authorized to make rules 
and regulations for the government and use of the reservation (St. 1925, 
c. 26, § 1), and, accordingly, may require the removal of boats from the 
reservation after they have been used, but may not restrict the use of 
boats on Walden Pond, since it is no part of the area committed to its 
icontrol. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Department of Mental Health — Transfer of Surplus Supplies from one 
State Hospital to Another Unauthorized. 

Aug. 11, 1944. 

Dr. Clifton T. Perkins, Commissioner of Mental Health. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether the Depart- 
ment of Mental Health may transfer a surplus of supplies or equipment 
from one institution to another institution within the department at a 
price determined by the department. 

I answer your inquiry in the negative. 

St. 1943, c. 344, § 2, amended chapter 7 of the General Laws by inserting 
therein a new section, 25A, which reads as follows: 

"The state purchasing agent may provide for the transfer of supplies 
from one state agency to another when, in his opinion, such transfer is for 
the best interests of the commonwealth, and may provide for the making 
of suitable adjustments on the state comptroller's books on account of 



P.D. 12. II 

such transfer. He shall also have authority to approve the amount or 
quantities of all supplies and materials purchased by state agencies, not- 
withstanding that such agency has conformed to the regulations relative 
to such purchases and that an appropriation is available therefor. In 
case an application by a state agency is not approved by the state pur- 
chasing agent, such agency may appeal in writing to the commission, 
whose decision shall be final." 

The foregoing section makes the transfer of supplies from one state 
agency to another subject to provisi(ms made or to be made by the state 
purchasing agent. The price to be paid for such supplies or "the making 
of suitable adjustments on the state comptroller's books on account of 
such transfer" is within the scope of such provisions. A transfer of equip- 
ment or supplies from one institution to another within the same depart- 
ment may fairly be said to be a "transfer of supplies from one state agency 
to another," as the quoted words are used in said section 25A. 

It would appear that the disposal of agricultural products is regulated 
by the provisions of O. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 7, § 22 (11), which is as follows: 

"The commissioners of the commission, sitting as a board, shall, sub- 
ject to the approval of the governor and council, make rules, regulations 
and orders which shall regulate and govern the manner and method of 
the purchasing, delivering and handling of, and the contracting for, sup- 
plies, equipment and other property for the various state departments, 
offices and commissions, except when they are for legislative or military 
purposes. Such rules, regulations and orders shall be of general or limited 
application, and shall, so far as practicable, be uniform, shall be in con- 
formity with existing laws relative to the purchase of articles and mate- 
rials made by inmates of penal institutions and articles and supplies made 
by the blind except that such purchase shall be made by or under the 
direction of the state purchasing agent subject, however, to such approval 
by the board as would be required if the purchase were made from some 
other source, and shall include provision for the following: 

(11) The use and disposal of the products of state institutions;" 

You have directed my attention to that part of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 123, 
§ 7, which reads as follows: 

"The department shall provide for the efficient, economical and humane 
management of the state hospitals. It shall establish by-laws and regu- 
lations, with suitable penalties, for the government of said state hos- 
pitals. . ." 

In view of the specific provisions of said sections 25A and 22 (11), 
quoted herein, it is apparent that the matter of the transfer of supplies 
and products from one state hospital to another within the department is 
not included within the scope of that part of said section 7 set forth 
above. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



12 P.D. 12. 

Old Age Assistance — Waiver of Rights — Contributions by Children. 

Aug. 11, 1944. 

Hon. Arthur G. Rotch, Commissioner of Public Welfare. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion on two questions relative 
to the administration of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 118A, entitled "Adequate 
assistance to certain aged citizens." 

Your first question asks "whether or not a recipient (applicant) may 
waive his or her rights to the fidl amount of assistance rather than have 
action taken against a son or daughter to secure a reasonable contribution." 

I answer this question in the affirmative. 

The assistance provided by said chapter 118A is available upon the 
filing of an application therefor, provided the proposed recipient possesses 
certain prescribed qualifications. Unless and until an application is filed 
with the proper authority assistance may not be extended under said 
chapter. I find nothing in the law which would prevent the withdrawal 
of an application once filed or the rejection of assistance that has been 
awarded, regardless of the reason or motive for such withdrawal or rejec- 
tion. Hence I advise you that an applicant for old age assistance or a 
recipient thereof may at any time withdraw his application therefor or 
entirely forego the assistance provided by law which has been awarded 
him, and to which he would otherwise be entitled. 

Your second question inquires as to whether a recipient of old age as- 
sistance may waive such amount thereof for which a son or daughter is 
liable in order to protect the son or daughter from prosecution for failure 
to provide such amount of assistance. I answer this question in the 
negative. 

Section 1 of said chapter 118A provides that adequate assistance to 
desei*ving citizens in need of relief and support, who meet certain enumer- 
ated requirements, shall be granted under the supervision of the Depart- 
ment of Public Welfare, and further provides that assistance shall be on 
the basis of need, and the amount thereof shall be determined in accord- 
ance with budgetary standards established by the local board of public 
welfare and approved by the department. Minimum rates of assistance 
for individuals living within or outside of a family group are established. 

Section 2 of said chapter provides that each local board of public wel- 
fare shall, for the purpose of granting adequate assistance and service 
'to such aged persons, establish a division thereof to be designated as the 
Bureau of (Jld Age Assistance, which in the performance of its duties is 
made subject to the supervision of the Department. 

Said petition further provides that in detei-mining the need for financial 
assistance, said bureaus shall give consideration to the resources of the 
aged person. In considering such resources section 2A sets up a schedule 
to be followed relative to the financial ability of a child to support such 
person. In connection with the granting of assistance, section 2 confers 
authority on the local board of public welfare, "with the approval and 
upon the direction of the department," to prosecute a child of the aged 
person who is of sufficient ability but who neglects or refuses to contribute 
to the support and maintenance of said person. It is also provided by 
said section that until such prosecution is completely adjudicated and the 
resource in question is actually available to the aged person or persons 



P.D. 12. 13 

otherwise eligible, assistance to him or them shall not be refused or reduced 
by reason of such resource. 

In clear language the General Court has charged the Department with 
the duty of seeing to it that certain aged persons receive adequate as- 
sistance and has provided that the amount of such assistance is to be 
computed on the basis of need, subject to a definite minimum fixed by 
law. In determining this need resources of the aged person are to be 
considered and among these resources is the financial ability of a child 
to contribute to the support of his parent. But the General Court has 
expressly provided that the amount of assistance the aged person is en- 
titled to receive shall not be reduced by reason of such resource until it 
is actually available to the aged person. 

Hence I advise you that it is the duty of the Bureau of Old Age Assist- 
ance and of the Department to provide the assistance awarded in any 
given case, reduced only by such resources as are actually available to the 
aged person, and that there is no authority in law for the payment of a 
lesser amount to the aged person, even with his consent. The payment 
of a lesser amount would not be the granting of adequate assistance, as 
those words are used in the law, and would not conform to or be con- 
sistent with the obvious purpose of the law. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Milk Control Board — Orders of Board — Violations — Licenses. 

Aug. 16, 1944. 
Milk Control Board. 

GextleiMen : — You state that : 

"From time to time during the period 1939 to 1942, inclusive, certain 
orders of the Board were after hearing revised and modified. In each 
instance, either by provision in the revised and succeeding order, or by 
separate order, the previous orders covering the same subject matter were 
rescinded. None of these rescinding orders and no other rescinding order 
at any time issued by this Board contained any specific saving clause 
with reference to acts in violation of the preceding orders." 

With reference to the foregoing you have requested my opinion on 
two questions. 

^Your first question reads: 
"Mav a milk dealer now be subjected to any action under G. L. c. 94A, 
§22, as'amended by St. 1943, c. 164 (of under St. 1934, c. 376, § U, as 
amended by St. 1937, c. 428, § 2), on account of an act or omission made 
or committed by him in violation of an order which was lawfully adopted 
by the Board and in force at the time of such act or omission, but which 
has since been rescinded?" 

I answer your question in the affirmative. 

Chapter 94A of the General Laws creates a new Milk Control Board 
and provides for the regulation of the milk marketing industry in Massa- 
chusetts, and was substituted for chapter 376 of the Acts of 1934, which 
was an emergency measure providing for a Milk Control Board and for 
the regulation of the milk marketing industry. Section 22 of said chapter 



14 P.D. 12. 

94 A, as amended, and section 11 of said chapter 376, as amended, referred 
to in your first question, are the sections which prescribe penalties for 
violation of the respective acts and of rules and regulations made there- 
under. 

It is clear that violation of a valid order of an administrative board, for 
which a penalty is provided by the statute creating the board and giving 
the board its powers, makes the offender subject to prosecution or punish- 
ment even though the order has been rescinded prior to the time the 
action is taken against the violator, notwithstanding the fact that the 
rescinding order contains no saving clause. 

In the recent case of United States v. Hark et al., 320 U. S. 531, the 
Court (in reversing a decision of the District Court for the District of 
Massachusetts quashing an indictment for a violation of a Maximum 
Price Regulation issued pursuant to the Emergency Price Control Act, 
the regulation which the appellees were charged with violating having 
been revoked prior to the return of the indictment) says at page 362 : 

"We hold that revocation of the regulation did not prevent indictment 
and conviction for violation of its provisions at a time when it remained 
in force. The reason for the common law rule that the repeal of a statute 
ends the power to prosecute for prior violations is absent in the case of a 
prosecution for violation of a regulation issued pursuant to an existing 
statute which expresses a continuing policy, to enforce which the regula- 
tion was authorized. Revocation of the regulation does not repeal the 
statute; and though the regulation calls the statutory penalities into 
play, the statute, not the regulation, creates the offense and imposes pun- 
ishment for its violation." 

So long as the statute which prescribes the penalty remains in force, or, 
if in the event that it is repealed, there is a saving clause in the repealing 
act, the violation can be made the basis of punitive action. (As to the 
existence of provisions for imposing a penalty, see opinion of the Attorney 
General to the Milk Control Board, dated March 29, 1944, Attorney 
General's Report for the year ending June 30, 1944, p. 148.) 

It is my opinion, therefore, that the amenability of a milk dealer to 
prosecution or other authorized penalty for the violation of an order 
made by your Board or its predecessor, committed while said order re- 
mained in force, is not affected by the fact that the order was subsequently 
rescinded by an order containing no saving clause. Such violations are 
now subject to prosecution or other action by the Board whether the 
orders which were violated and subsequently rescinded were adopted 
under the provisions of G. L. c. 94A, or of St. 1934, c. 376. 

Your second question reads: 

"May the Board now decline to grant or renew a license applied for by 
any milk dealer or revoke a license of any milk dealer pursuant to the 
provisions of paragraph (12) or (13) of section 6 of said chapter 94 A on 
account of an act or omission made or committed by him in violation of 
an order which was lawfully adopted by this Board and in full force at 
the time of such act or omission, but which has since been rescinded? " 

I answer your question in the affirmative. 

G. L. c. 94A, § 6, provides that the Board may decline to grant or renew 
a license or may suspend or revoke a license already granted when it is 
satisfied of the existence of any of the following reasons: 



P.D. 12. 15 

"(12) That hp knowingly purchased, received, processed, sold or other- 
wise handled milk within the commonwealth in violation of any of the ap- 
plicable laws, or of the rules, regulations and requirements of the board; or 

(13) That he has violated any provision of this chapter or of similar 
provisions of earlier laws, or of an order, rule or regulation of the board 
made under authority thereof or of section nine of chajiter twenty." 

The Board may use as the basis for action against a dealer under either 
of these paragraphs the violation of an order lawfully adopted by the 
Board and in force at the time of the act or omission made or committed 
by him. The Board may proceed under these paragraphs although action 
is not taken until after the order has been rescinded and notwithstanding 
the absence of a saving clause in the rescinding provision. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Civil Service — Authority of Director — Seniority of Employees. 

Aug. 23, 1944. 

Hon. William H. Bixby, Chairman, Civil Service Commission. 

Dear Sir: — You have informed me that it has been the custom of the 
Division of Civil Service to keep a record of the seniority dates of em- 
ployees in the various departments under the Civil Service Law and you 
have set forth the manner in which these dates are computed. 

You have informed me further that in the city of Springfield it was 
necessary to reduce the number of clerks in the Department of Public 
Welfare from five to four in order to live within the budget of that depart- 
ment. The Board of Public Welfare inquired of the Director of Civil 
Service as to the employee who was junior in point of seniority according 
to the computation of the Director of Civil Service, and upon receipt of 
this information demoted that employee. The employee so demoted has 
appealed to the Civil Service Commission. 

With reference to the foregoing you have requested my opinion on two 
questions. 

Your first question reads: 

"Has the director the authority to compute seniority dates of employ- 
ees in the classified public service which will bind appointing officers in 
determining the order of layoffs or demotions or reinstatements after lay- 
offs or demotions, under the provisions of G. L. c. 31, § 46G?" 

I answer this question in the negative. 
G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 46G, provides: 

"If the separation from service of persons in the classified service be- 
comes necessary through no fault or delinquency of their own, they shall 
be separated from the service, and reinstated therein in the same position 
or in a position in the same class and grade as that formerly held by them, 
according to their seniority in the service so that the oldest employees in 
point of service shall be retained the longest, and reinstated first and 
before any reinstatement under section forty-six C or the certification of 
new names. Nothing in this section shall prevent reinstatements under 



16 P.D. 12. 

section forty-six D or impair the preference provided for disabled veter- 
ans by section twenty- three." 

I find nothing in the above-quoted section, in chapter 31 generally, or 
in the rules and regulations made thereunder, which confers upon the 
Director the authority to determine the seniority of persons in the classified 
service in case of their separation from the service through no fault or 
delinquency of their own, which determination is made binding upon 
appointing officers. Such computation may be made by the appointing 
officer himself. 

it is to be noted that section 38 of said chapter 31 provides: 

"If, in the opinion of the director, a person is appointed or employed 
in the classified pubhc service in violation of any provision of this chapter 
or of any rule or regulation made thereunder, the commission or the 
director shall, after notice in writing mailed to the appointing or em- 
ploying officer, department, board or commission, and to such person, 
notify in writing the treasurer, auditor or other officer whose duty it is 
to pay the salary or compensation of such person, or to authorize the 
drawing, signing or issuing of any warrant therefor; and the payment of 
any salary or compensation to such person shall cease at the expiration 
of one week after the mailing of the notice to such treasurer, auditor or 
other officer, and no such officer shall pay any salary or compensation to 
such person, or draw, sign or issue, or authorize the drawing, signing or 
issuing, of any warrant therefor, until the legality of such appointment 
or employment is duly established." 

Rule 23 of the Civil Service Rules, entitled "Reappointment and Re- 
instatement", section 2, authorizes the "Commissioner", now called the 
"Director", to place on a "Special List" the name of any person who is 
separated from the service without fault or delinquency on his part, if the 
applicant so requests in writing, and his name shall remain on such " Special 
List" for a period of two years from the date of such separation. "There- 
after, on requisition to fill any position, which in the judgment of the 
Commissioner can be filled from such Special List, the Commissioner, 
before certifying from the regular eligible list, may certify from the Special 
List the names of persons then standing thereon in the order of the dates 
of their original appointment, and appointment shall be made from the 
names so certified." 

The foregoing provisions of law implicitly authorize the Director to 
make computations of the seniority date of employees who are subject 
to the Civil Service Law and the rules and regulations made thereunder, 
for the purpose of discharging the duties incumbent upon him, but I find 
no authority for the proposition that computation so made shall be binding 
upon appointing officers in determining the order of layoffs or demotions 
or reinstatements after layoffs or demotions. 

The purpose of the foregoing provisions of law is that "supervision of 
reinstatement of those separated from the public service" may be main- 
tained. Police Commissioner of the City of Boston v. Commissioner of Civil 
Service, 278 Mass. 507, at 509. 

Your second question reads : 

"If the director has authority to make such a binding computation and 
no particular plan is required by law, is the manner in which the director 



IM). 12. 17 

computes seniority for the purpose above referred to subject to review 
by the Civil Service Commission?" 

Mj'^ answer to your first question makes it unnecessary to answer your 
second question. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushxell, Attorney General. 



Civil Service — Supervising Boiler Inspector in Department of Public 

Safety not Classified. 

Aug. 29, 1944. 

Hon. Thomas J. Greehan, Director of Civil Service. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether or not the 
designation and assignment of a Boiler Inspector as Supenising Boiler 
Inspector by the Commissioner of Public Safety is subject to the provisions 
of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, and the Rules and Regulations made thereunder. 

I answer your question in the negative. 

In an opinion of the then Attorney General to the Director of Civil 
Service on October 14, 1943 (Attorney General's Report for the year ending 
June 30, 1944, p. 89), it was decided that the Commissioner of Pubhc 
Safet}^ could designate and assign permanently to the position of Super- 
visor of the State Police Detective Bureau one of the State Police Detective 
Inspectors without the approval of the Division of Civil Service. The 
considerations set forth in that opinion govern the present inquiry. 

The position of Supervising Boiler Inspector has not been specifically 
placed under the Civil Service Law either by legislative enactment or by 
rule of the Division of Civil Service. It is not included within the estab- 
lished classifications of Rule 4 of the Civil Service Rules. That rule con- 
tains references to "boiler inspectors" and "inspectors." The position of 
Supervising Boiler Inspector, like the position of Supervisor of the State 
Police Detective Bureau, is one of supervisory duties and powers, as 
its name implies, and hence is different from that of "boiler inspector" or 
"inspector." The fact that the salaries of the two positions of Boiler 
Inspector and Supervising Boiler Inspector are different does not, in and of 
itself and as a matter of law, make a change of position from the one to the 
other a promotion within the meaning of said chapter 31 or the Rules and 
Regulations made thereunder. 

As stated in the opinion of October 14, 1943, above referred to, the Civil 
Service Commission may, if it feels that the public interest so requires, 
amend its rules in accordance with law to include this position within 
those subject to the Civil Service Law and Rules. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 

War Emergency Fund — Transfer of Funds — A uthority of Governor. 

Aug. 29, 1944. 

Hon. Walter S. Morgan, Comptroller. 

Dear Sir: — You request my opinion on three questions relative to 
the "limitation on expenditures from the War Emergency Fund as set 



18 P.D. 12. 

forth in St. 1943, c. 370, § 10." You have informed me concerning the 
practical operation of this fund, and state that: 

"Upon request and recommendation as provided in the statute, the 
Governor and Council have made the funds available to the spending 
agencies (a) by transfer to an existing appropriation or (b) by authoriza- 
tion in all other cases. When such transfers and authorizations have been 
made by the Governor and Council they are recorded in appropriate 
accounts on the Commonwealth's books to show the funds are available 
to the amount and for the purpose designated." 

Your first question reads : 

"In your opinion can the Governor and Council legally make such 
transfers and authorizations after January 3, 1945?" 

I answer this question in the negative. 
Section 10 of chapter 370 reads: 

"To provide for divers emergency expenditures which may be neces- 
sary to meet any emergency which may arise by reason of the exigencies 
of the existing state of war and to meet deficiencies in existing appropria- 
tions, there may be expended under the direction of the governor sums 
not exceeding seven million dollars in the aggregate, and for said pur- 
poses there is hereby appropriated from the General Fund the sum of two 
million dollars and from the Highway Fund the sum of two million dollars 
which amounts shall be available for expenditure on and after July first 
in the current year, and said amounts, together with any unexpended 
balance remaining from the funds previously provided under chapter 
eighteen of the acts of nineteen hundred and forty-two, are to be credited 
on the books of the commonwealth to a fund to be known as the War 
Emergency Fund. • All expenditures hereinbefore referred to shall be sub- 
ject to the approval of the council. Requests for any such expenditures 
shall be referred by the governor to the commission on administration 
and finance, which, after investigation of the need of such expenditure, 
shall forthwith submit to the governor its written recommendation of the 
amount of funds required, together with pertinent facts relative thereto. 
All expenditures authorized .under this section and the employment of 
persons whose positions have been created by reason of monej^ made 
available by this section shall cease not later than thirty days after the 
governor, with the advice and consent of the council, shall have pro- 
claimed that the existing emergency has ended, and no new obligations 
may be authorized after January third, nineteen hundred and forty-five." 

The authority of the Governor to expend sums from the War Emer- 
gency Fund, subject to the approval of the Council, whether by transfer 
to an existing appropriation or by authorization, is limited by express 
provision in said chapter 370 that — 

". . .no new obligations may be authorized after January third, nine- 
teen hundred and forty-five." 

Each request for expenditure relates to a "new obligation," whether 
or not the subject matter of the request remains the same as that set 
forth in a previous request. Therefore, the limitation as above set forth 
may be interpreted as though it read : 



IM). 12. 19 

". . .no obligations may be authorized after January third, nineteen 
hundred and forty-five." 

Read in this manner, it is clear that the intent of the Legislature was 
to empower the Governor and Council to make authorizations and trans- 
fers for expenditures from the War Emergency Fund up to and including 
January 3, 1945, but not thereafter. 

Your second question reads : 

"In the cases where such transfers and authorizations shall have been 
made up to January 3, 1945, will the funds so made available be available 
for expenditure, subject to allotment, for the same purposes as before until 
such funds are exhausted?" 

I answer this question in the affirmative, subject to the limitation here- 
inafter set forth. It is apparent from the entire context of chapter 370 
that th(^ Legislature intended that funds previously allocated to a spend- 
ing agency should in the interest of the i^ublic welfare be available after 
January 3, 1945, as well as prior thereto. The time within which the 
allocated funds must be expended is limited by two provisions of law: 

(a) The act itself provides that the Governor, with the advice and con- 
sent of the Council, may proclaim that the existing emergency has ended, 
and all expenditures authorized must cease not later than thirty days 
thereafter; and 

(b) G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 29, § 14, in its pertinent part, provides: 

"An appropriation for any purpose other than ordinary maintenance, 
. . . shall not be available for more than two years after the effective 
date of the appropriation act ... In either case payments to fulfill con- 
tracts and other obligations entered into within the said two years may 
be made thereafter." 

Funds allocated to spending agencies whether by transfer to an existing 
appropriation or by authorization may be expended not later than two 
years subsequent to June 1, 1943, the effective date of the act setting up 
the War Emergency Fund, except that payments to fulfill contracts and 
other obligations entered into within the said two years may be made 
thereafter. 

Your third question reads : 

"Or beginning January 3, 1945, will such funds be restricted to the pay- 
ment of liabilities previously' incurred, or in any other way?" 

I answer this question in the negative for the reasons set forth in my 
answer to your second question. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Milk Control Board — Public Announcement of Prices to be Paid by 
Individual Milk Dealers. 

Sept. 18, 1944. 

Mr. Louis A. Webster, Acting Chairman, Milk Control Board. 

Dear Sir: — You have informed me concerning the three existing 
price plans established by the Milk Control Board to regulate the purchase 



^'J P.D. 12. 

of milk by milk dealers from producers: the Flat Price Plan, the Com- 
posite Price Plan, and the Base Rating Plan. You have explained that 
under either of the latter two plans as now administered each dealer 
calculates his own composite or base and excess price, subject to later cor- 
rection by the Milk Control Board, so that he may, after payment to his 
producers in accordance with his own calculations, be called upon to 
make further supplemental payments if the Board finds his computations 
to have been too favorable to himself. 

You have informed me further that, "In many milk marketing areas 
administered by other milk control agencies . . . each dealer using a 
composite or base rating plan is required promptly after the close of each 
delivery period to report to the controlling agency his receipts and sales 
of milk for the period. On the basis of such reports the agency, prior to 
the date when payment is due, computes and makes public announcement 
of the composite or base and excess prices the dealer should pay for such 
period. The Lowell-Lawrence market is at present so administered under 
joint Federal-State control. 

"It has been repeatedly urged upon this Board by producer organiza- 
tions and by some dealers that the principal secondary markets of Massa- 
chusetts should be placed on the same basis by order of the board, and 
each dealer's composite or base and excess prices be calculated by the 
Director of Milk Control and announced in advance of the date on which 
payment is due." 

With reference to the foregoing, you have asked my opinion upon the 
following questions: 

If the Division of Milk Control were to make periodic public announce- 
ments, as to any marketing area, of the names of all dealers purchasing 
milk for distribution in such area, adding "after the name of each dealer 
who is purchasing milk either on the flat or on the composite price plan, 
the flat or composite price per hundredweight which such dealer should 
pay for all milk received from producers during such period, and after 
the name of each dealer who is purchasing milk on a base rating plan, the 
base and excess prices per hundredweight which such dealer should pay 
respectively for all base and all excess milk received by him from pro- 
ducers during such period, " 

(1) Would such an announcement be violative of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) 
c. 94A, § 13 (rf), as to dealers purchasing milk on the composite price plan, 
having in mind that the publication of such a dealer's composite -price 
would disclose the percentages of his receipts of milk disposed of for Class I 
use (milk to be distributed for beverage purposes) and for Class II use 
(milk disposed of for the manufacture of dairy products)? 

(2) Would such an announcement be violative of said section 13 {d) 
as to dealers purchasing milk on the base rating plan, having in mind 
that the publication of such a dealer's base and excess price would disclose 
(a) whether his Class I sales were greater or less than his "base milk 
receipts" (the "base" being an arbitrary daily quota assigned to each 
producer, usually equal to that percentage of his average daily delivery 
of milk during the prior "base period" which was, during such period, 
sold by the dealer as Class I), (6) if they were greater, the percentage of 
excess milk (milk delivered by the producer in excess of his daily base) 
sold as Class I, and the percentage sold as Class II, and (c) if they were 



I 

P.D. 12. 21 

less, the percentage of his receipts of base milk sold as Class I and the 
percentage sold as Class 11? 

I answer your question in the affirmative. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 94A, § 13 (d), provides that "The information ob- 
tained by an}' inspection authorized or reports required by this chapter 
or by similar provisions of earlier law shall be treated as confidential and 
shall not be disclosed by any person except as may be required in the 
propcn- administration of this chapter; provided, that the board may use 
such information together with other similar information, for compilation 
and publication of statistics of the milk industry in this commonwealth. 
Such statistics shall not contain the name of, or disclose, by inference or 
otherwise, information obtained from the books and records of any milk 
dealer." 

Your letter states that the basis for any such public announcement as 
you describe would be "either through inspection authorized by said 
chapttn- 94A ... or through a report required ... by order of the board 
issued under said chapter. " It is, of course, obvious that such an announce- 
ment would effect a disclosure of the information so obtained. Unless, 
then, the publication of such information can be said to be "required 
in the proper administration of this chapter," within the clause of the 
statute excepting such matters from its operation, said section 13 (d) 
prevents the execution of the plan described in your letter. 

The statutory prohibition against disclosure of information exists or 
does not exist, in any particular case, quite apart from the question of 
the cpiantum of the harm to any individual resulting from the disclosure: 
hence, it is immaterial whether a dealer operates on the composite price 
plan or upon the base-rating plan. The publication of any information 
concerning him, obtained by inspection or report, when not "required in 
the proper administration of this chapter," falls within the ban of the 
statute. 

It is not apparent from the substance of your letter that the practice 
proposed by you is "required in the proper administration of this chapter." 
While there may be little question that the Board's official predetermina- 
tion of prices would be most salutary and little argument that notification 
of such determination should be given to each dealer prior to the date of 
payment, it does not appear that the public announcement of prices to be 
paid by each named dealer in each marketing area should be necessary 
to effectuate this result. Nothing in the statute, of course, would prevent 
the Board from notifying each dealer of the results of its computation of 
prices to be paid by him. 

Again, the plan for price announcements outlined in your letter calls 
for the periodic publication of the names of individual dealers as well as 
of information obtained from their books and records. Since the proposed 
announcements would be, in a very real sense, "statistics of the milk 
industry," compiled and published by the Board, the second sentence of 
said section 13 (rf) affords a complete and affirmative answer to your first 
two questions. 

The answers to the foregoing questions being in the affirmative, it 
becomes unnecessary to consider your third question relative to the 
propriety of publishing the proposed announcement in the event that 
either of the foregoing questions be answered in the negative. 
•Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



22 P.D. 12. 

Department of Public Health — Transportation of Shellfish — Certificate of 

Foreign Board. 

Sept. 19, 1944. 

Dr. Vlado a. Getting, Commissioner of Public Health. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether you may ap- 
prove certificates for the transportatio^i into the Commonwealth of shell- 
fish from Canada, for consumption as food, in a form which I assume 
complies with that required as to the purity of shellfish by G. L. (Ter. 
Ed.) c. 130, § 81, as amended, issued by the Department of Pensions and 
National Health of Canada. 

Said section 81 forbids the transportation into the Commonwealth of 
shellfish, unless there is on file with your department a certificate approved 
b}^ it from a state board of health or other board or officer having like powers 
of the state, country or province in the areas outside Massachusetts from 
which the shellfish were dug or taken. 

Section 81 also provides with regard to such certificate that — 

"No such certificate shall be approved by the department of pubHc health 
which does not meet the provisions of the laws, rules, regulations and re- 
quirements of the United States as to interstate commerce in shellfish." 

You inform me that the United States authorities advise you that they 
have no authority to submit an "approved list" so far as Canadian cer- 
tificates are concerned. 

The United States authorities under the Federal Food and Drug Act, 
U. S. C. Aj Title 21, as amended, have authority to require the withdrawal 
from interstate commerce of imported articles of food which are likely to 
be injurious to the public health. If, as appears from the communications 
which you have submitted to me, the United States authorities permit the 
importation and shipment of shellfish from Canada, it would seem that a 
certificate from a Canadian authority having the powers of a board of 
health for Canada certifying the facts required by said section 81 with 
relation to the purity of such shellfish could not be said "not" to "meet 
the provisions of the laws, rules, regulations and requirements of the 
United States as to interstate commerce in shellfish." 

Accordingly, if the Department of Pensions and National Health of 
Canada is such a board as is specified in said section 81, you would have 
authority to approve its certificates if in compliance with the other provi- 
sions of said section 81. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 

Insurance — Group A nnuity Policy — Dividends — Terms of Insur- 
ance Contract. 

Sept. 29, 1944. 

Hon. Charles F. J. Harrington, Commissioner of Insurance. 

Dear Sir: — You have informed me that heretofore the Division of 
Insurance has required : 

" each contributory group annuity policy form to* contain, among other 
provisions required by law, a stipulation which in substance requires the 



P.D. 12. 23 

policyholder to distribute the dividends receivc^d under such contract to 
the premium payers in the same proportion in which premium contribu- 
tions to the contract were made . . . 

A domestic mutual life insurance company ha\iu<;- had a policy form 
approved, said form containing a provision in substance which required 
the holder of the master policy to distribute dividends equitably to the 
premium j^ayers in the ])rop()rtion to which th(\y had contributed to the 
same, has now submittecl to the Department a form of rider to l)e attached 
to the previously approved form of group annuity contract, thereby con- 
stituting a part of the contract, said rider form amending the afore- 
mentioned provision in the policy form by substituting therefor the 
following : 

'The company (issuer) shall annually ascertain and apportion any 
divisible surplus accruing under contracts of this class. Any such divisible 
surplus apportioned to this contract shall be applied toward the payment 
of employer's future servic(> contributions or past service considerations 
falling due hereunder, unless retirement annuity purchases hereunder have 
been discontinued in accordance with Section 6 of Article 3 in which event 
any such divisible surplus shall be paid in cash to the employer.' " 

You have advised me that the contract to which you refer is one issued 
to an employer through a master policy covering employees to whom 
certificates showing their interest therein are issued. 

With relation to the foregoing you have asked my opinion upon the 
following question : 

"Is the Commissioner authorized under sections 4, 132 and 192 of chap- 
ter 175 to disapprove the rider form outlined above on the ground that 
the proposed dividend stipulation is not equitable in that it does not 
require the policyholder to disburse the dividends to the premium payers 
in the same proportion in which the premium contributions to the con- 
tract were made?" 

Whether or not the proposed stipulation that the dividend surplus 
which may be apportioned to an annuity group insurance contract shall 
be applied toward the payment of the premiums due from the employer, 
the holder of the master policy, without distribution by him to the various 
employees, members of the group who are covered by the policy and who 
also pay premiums, is fair and equitable, is a question peculiarly for the 
determination of the Commissioner, involving, as it does, numerous factual 
considerations. 

Inasmuch as the provisions of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 4, as amended, 
require the Commissioner to ascertain "the equity of" a domestic insur- 
ance company's "dealings with its policyholders," he has by implication 
the authority to refuse to give the approval, which a company must seek 
from him under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, §§ 132 and 192, of annuity con- 
tracts and riders, to those contracts and riders which he det(M-mincs to be 
unfair and inequitable toward policyholders. 

Various factual matters exist which must be taken into consideration 
in relation to the fairness of the proposed stipulation. You have informed 
me that the expense of bookkeeping and distribution involved in paying 
over small proportions of an allotted portion of dividend surplus to nu- 
merous and scattered premium payers under a group annuity contract is 
often so great that it may al-)soi-b the employer's entire share of the divi- 



24 P.D. 12. 

dend or even exceed it. In forming your determination this consideration 
is to be weighed by you, with other facts connected with the relation of 
the parties to a group contract of this character. The Attorney General 
does not pass upon questions of fact. Although the mode of distribution 
provided by the proposed rider does not on its face appear to be equitable, 
there may be factual considerations involved which will affect your de- 
termination. A mode of distribution similar to that provided by the 
proposed rider has been specifically authorized by the Legislature of New 
York (N. Y. Const. L. c. 628, ^ 216, par. 2). 

In answer to your question I advise you that if you determine that the 
provisions of the proposed rider are unjust to employees covered by the 
group annuity contract and unfairly enrich the employer, you should not 
approve the rider. If, on the other hand, you find that under all the cir- 
cumstances they are fair and equitable, you should give your approval. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Civil Service — Custodian of Contraband in Department of Public Safety — ■ 

Failure to Classify. 

Sept. 29, 1944. 

Hon. John F. Stokes, Commissioner of Public Safety. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether the position 
of "Custodian of Contraband and Evidence" in the Department of Public 
Safety is subject to the Civil Service Law and Rules. 

I am of the opinion that the position is not subject to the Civil Service 
Law and Rules. 

You inform me that the position in question was formerly called "Con- 
traband Handler" and that in 1943 its title was changed to that of "Cus- 
todian of Contraband and Evidence" and was classified, apparently under 
G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 30, § 45, by the Division of Personnel and Standard- 
ization, with the approval of the Governor and Council, in the following 
manner : 

Salary Range 
Base Salary under c. 170, 

Range. 1943. 

"Custodian of Contraband and Evidence . . 1800-2280 2070-2622 

Definition of Class: Duties: Under direction to collect money, goods 
or other property which has been stolen, lost, abandoned or taken from 
a person under arrest; to identify and act as custodian of evidence 
obtained and held at department headquarters pending court trial or 
other legal disposition; to assist in or be in charge of transportation of 
such propert}^, and evidence and of forfeited liquor, firearms and other 
confiscated dangerous weapons; to represent the Commissioner of Pub- 
lic Safety in taking of warrants and disposing of forfeited articles; to 
assist in the sorting and destruction of forfeited liquor and otherwise 
to help in its final disposition in accordance with the law; and to per- 
form related work as required." 

By G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 22, § 6, the Commissioner of Pubhc Safety is 
authorized to appoint and remove "assistants" in his department. There 
is nothing in its phraseology which would appear to indicate an intention 



P.D. 12. 25 

on the part of the Legislature that the positions of such assistants, of 
whom the "Custodian of Contraband and Evidence" is one, should be 
outside the sweep of the Civil Service Law. 

However, with the exception of certain positions which have been 
definitely specified by the Legislature (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 4), only 
such positions in the pui)lic service as are brought thereunder by the rules 
and regulations of the Civil Service Commission (O. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 3) 
are subject to the Civil Service Law. 

Rule 4 of the Civil Service Rules provides : 

"1. All persons performing duties or rendering scivice in any of the 
offices and positions and classes of positions classified by statute, or in any 
of the following offices and positions and clashes of positions, or performing 
duties or rendering service similar to that of any such offices or positions 
and classes of positions, under whatever designation, . . . are subject to 
the Civil Service Law and Rules, and the selection of persons to fill such 
appointive offices or positions in the government of the Commonwealth 
... is subject to the Civil Service Law and Rules. 

The following classes . . . apply to both the Commonwealth and the 
several cities thereof: — 

Class 24. Janitors, custodians, and persons employed in the care of 
schools, or other public buildings." 

The Civil Service Commission has set up no class of custodians of personal 
property. It is obvious from the "Definition of Class" set up by the 
Division of Personnel and Standardization, already quoted, that the in- 
cumbent of the position under consideration is a custodian of personal 
property' only and is not employed in the care of public buildings. 

It is apparent from the phraseology employed in describing "Class 24" 
that the "custodians" therein referred to, like the other employees men- 
tioned therein, are persons having the care of schools or other public 
buildings and that persons having the care of personal property onh' do 
not render the same or similar service to that required of those employees 
mentioned in Class 24 and are not comprehended as members of such 
class. 

I am informed that it has recently been the contention of the Division 
of Civil Service that the position in question falls within Class 24. Such 
a contention is not as a matter of law a reasonable one, in view of the 
phraseology used by the makers of the rules in describing the employees 
who constitute this class. 

There is no other class estabHsh(>d by the rules which can reasonably be 
said to include a custodian of personal property having such duties as are 
set forth in the quoted "Definition of Class" set up by the Division of 
Personnel and Standardization. 

It follows that the position in question has not been so classified by the 
Civil Service Commission in its rules as to bring it within the provisions 
of the Civil Service Law. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



26 P.D. 12. 

Municipalities — Public Assistance — Amounts Payable for Hospitalization. 

Oct. 13, 1944. 

Hon. Arthur G. Rotch, Commissioner of Public Welfare. 

Dear Sir : — You have asked my opinion upon the five following questions 
with relation to the limit which is placed by the statutes upon the amount 
which cities and towns may pay for hospital services rendered recipients of 
public assistance. 

" 1. May a town pay more than S4.00 per day for hospitalization either 
by contract or in the absence of a contract? 

2. If the town does so pay, may it collect the full amount from the 
town of settlement or the Commonwealth if unsettled, as the case may be, 
if the patient is not settled in the town where aided? 

3. If the town in any case is limited to payment of S4.00 per day for 
hospital care, may the town pay an additional amount for so-called extras 
such as operating room fees, laboratory fees, X-ray services, or private 
room charges? 

4. May the town of settlement or this department, as the case may be, 
reimburse for such extras in excess of $4.00 per day? 

5. If question 4 is answered in the negative, may a town pay and be 
reimbursed for unusual items procured by the hospital especially for the 
patient such as special nursing services, blood, blood plasma, penicillin, 
oxygen, and special serums?" 

Questions 1 and 3 relate solely to the authority of cities and towns to 
make expenditures and are not connected with reimbursement by the 
Commonwealth. You have no duties to perform with relation to such 
expenditures and as these two questions are hypothetical as far as con- 
cerns your office, I must respectfully decline to answer them in accordance 
with the long-continued practice followed by my predecessors in office 
with relation to hypothetical questions. 

In answer to your second question, I advise you that a city or town may 
not collect from the Commonwealth in reimbursement for payments made 
by it for hospital services rendered to unsettled persons or to those settled 
in another town a greater amount than S4.00 a day for such services. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 122, § 18, as amended by St. 1943, c. 476, provides 
in its applicable part: 

"Reasonable expenses incurred by a town under section seventeen 
(which relates to the hospitalization of certain sick persons) . . . shall be 
reimbursed by the commonwealth . . . There shall be allowed for the 
support of a person in a hospital such amounts, not exceeding four dollars 
a day, as may be provided by rules and regulations. . . ." 

The context of section 18 indicates that the amount to be "allowed for 
support" refers to the amount to be paid by the Commonwealth as re- 
imbursement to a town for the hospital expenses of persons liable to be 
maintained by the Commonwealth. It is plain from the phraseology of 
the section that the Commonwealth may in no event reimburse a town for 
expenses of hospitalization greater than $4.00 a day. 

In answer to your fourth question, I advise you that the Common- 
wealth may not reimburse a town for any charge or charges in excess of 



P.D. 12. 27 

$4.00 a day connected with hospitalization such as you have described in 
3'our third question. 

I refrain from answering; that part of question 2 and question 4 which 
refers to the amount which may be collected from the town of settlement, 
for the reasons set forth in my answer to questions 1 and 3. 

In answer to your fifth question, I advise you that the Commonwealth 
may not reimburse a town for any charge or charges in excess of $4.00 a 
day for any of the items mentioned in the fifth question. The only excep- 
tion to the statutory limitation of reimbursement to $4.00 a day is that 
contained in the last sent(^nce of the amendment of said section 18 as set 
forth in said 8t. 1943, c. 476, namely, that there shall be reimbursement for 
the expense of tonsil and adenoid operations to the extent of $15.00, which 
amount is payable irrespective of the expenditure per day. 

\^ery truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorneij General. 



Workmen's Compensation — Self-I nsurer — Bonds. 

Oct. 23, 1944. 
Mrs. Emma S. Tousant, Chairman, Department of Industrial Accidents. 

Dear Madam: — You have informed me that a self-insurer of work- 
men's compensation, licensed under the provisions of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) 
c. 152, § 25 A, notified your department that it would cease to do business 
on January 17, 1944, and that your department revoked the license as of 
that date. You further state that in accordance with said section 25A 
(2) (b), demand was made upon the self-insurer for a deposit; that the 
self-insurer failed to comply with the notice and made no demand for a 
hearing to which he would have been entitled under said section 25A (3). 
if he had requested it within ten days after the receipt of such notice ; and 
that thereafter similar demand was made upon the surety on the bond 
given by him under said section 25A (2) (6). 

It would appear from the statements in the letter which you have 
written me that this self-insurer qualified as such by furnishing to the 
State Treasurer a corporate surety bond in the amount of $20,000 upon 
the condition (as required by said section 25A (2) (6) : 

"that if the license of the principal shall be revoked . . . the principal 
shall upon demand fully comply with sub-paragraph (a) of this section 
relative to the deposit of securities or a single premium non-cancellable 
polie^^" 

The self-insurer, therefore, did not qualify, as he might have done under 
said subparagraph (a), "by keeping on deposit . . . such amount of securi- 
ties ... as may be required by the department, said securities to be in 
the form of cash, bonds, stocks or other evidences of indebtedness." 
You have directed my attention to said section 25A (4) which reads: 

"Such expenses as shall be determined by the department of administra- 
tion and finance as necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter 
relating to self-insurance shall be assessed against all self-insurers, includ- 
ing for this purpose employers who have ceased to exercise the privilege 
of self-insurance but whose securities are retained on deposit in accordance 
with the rules of the department. The basis of assessment shall be the 



28 P.D. 12. 

proportion of such expense that the total securities deposited by each 
self-insurer or penal sum of bond or bonds furnished by each self-insurer 
at the close of each fiscal year bears to the total deposits and bonds of all 
self-insurers. All such assessments when collected shall be paid into the 
state treasury." 

— and you have informed me that you have determined and assessed as 
against the said self-insurer who has ceased to exercise the privilege of 
self-insurance the proportionate part of the total expense of carrying out 
the provisions of chapter 152 relating to self-insurers. 

You have asked my opinion as to whether your mode of determining 
the amount to be assessed against the said self-insurer is correct as a matter 
of law. 

Before passing upon this question it is necessary to determine whether 
this self-insurer, who has qualified under subparagraph (6) and not under 
subparagraph (a) and has on deposit only a corporate surety bond and 
not cash, bonds, stocks or other investments which are evidences of in- 
debtedness, is within the class of employers who have ceased to exercise 
the privilege of self-insurance but who, notwithstanding, are to be assessed 
a proportionate part of the expenses of administration because they have 
"securities . . . retained on deposit in accordance with the rules of the 
department." 

When this employer ceased to be a self-insurer on January 17, 1944, he 
had no securities which have been retained on deposit, and he has deposited 
none since, unless the corporate surety bond which he furnished in lieu of 
the deposit of "securities" referred to in subparagraph (a) is to be con- 
sidered as a security such as is comprehended by the word "securities" in 
the phrase "securities retained on deposit" as used in said subsection (4). 

I am of the opinion that such a bond is not to be considered as one of 
the "securities" comprehended by the words "securities . . . retained 
on deposit" in said subsection (4). Consequently, an employer who has 
ceased to be a self-insurer and has on deposit nothing but a corporate 
surety bond furnished by him under subparagraph (6) is not to be in- 
cluded among those upon whom the expenses of administration may be 
assessed after the date when he has ceased to be a self-insurer. 

I am confirmed in my opinion by the fact that in said subsection (4) 
when making provision for the basis of an assessment of administration 
expenses, the Legislature has clearly differentiated between "securities" 
deposited by self-insurers and the "bonds" such as the corporate surety 
bond under consideration, furnished by self-insurers, and that a similar 
differentiation appears to have been made by the Legislature throughout 
the phrases of said subparagraphs (a) and (6) when the words "security" 
or "securities" and the words "bond" or "bonds", referring to corporate 
surety bonds, are used. 

Accordingly, I advise you that in my opinion you may not assess any 
part of the expenses of administration against an employer who has 
ceased to be a self-insurer and has on deposit nothing but a corporate 
surety bond given under the provisions of said subparagraph (b), for a 
period subsequent to the revocation of his license as such self-insurer. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



P.D. 12. . 29 

Public Officers — Salaries while in Military Service. 

Oct. 24, 1944. 
Hon. Francis X. Hurley, Treasurer and Receiver General. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion upon the following question: 

"Will you kindly advise me if a register of probate who enters the 

military service, his place being filled under the provisions of section IIC 

of chapter 708 of the Acts of 1941 inserted by section 5 of chapter 548 of 

the Acts of 1943, is entitled to receive his salary while in said service?" 

I answer your question in the affirmative. 

St. 1941, c. 708, § 1, as last amended by St. 1943, c. 548, 5 1, provides 
in part : 

" ai' ' ^"-^ person who . . . shall have tendered his resignation from 
an office or position in the service of the commonwealth, or any political 
subdivision thereof, or otherwise terminated such service, for'the purpose 
of serving in the military or naval forces of the United States and who 
does ... so serve . . . shall ... be deemed to be ... on leave of 
absence; ..." 

It is not provided that officers generally shall be deemed to be on leave 
of absence without compensation, and, in the absence of an applicable 
provision specifically taking away or reducing the salary of a public officer 
on leave of absence, the ordinary principle of law that the salary attached 
to a public office is incident to title to the office itself and not to the exer- 
cise of the functions of the office applies. 46 C. J. p. 1015; Fitzsimmons v. 
Brooklyn, 102 N. Y. 536. The fact that a public officer has not performed 
the duties of his office does not deprive him of the right to receive his 
salary (46 C. J. pp. 1015, 1016; Leonard v. Terre Haute, 48 Ind. App. 
104) unless his failure of performance is so great as to amount to an aban- 
donment of the office (see Phillips v. Boston, 150 Mass. 491, 493; At- 
torney General's Report, 1941, pp. 56, 59). Any possibility of such an 
abandonment by one leaving his office for the purpose of entering the 
military service of the United States is precluded by the provisions of said 
chapter 708, section 1, which create a presumption of a leave of absence 
under such circumstances. 

With respect to certain officers, the Legislature has specifically provided 
by applicable provisions that their mihtary leaves of absence shall be 
without full compensation. Among these are certain elected municipal 
officers (St. 1941, c. 708, $ lOA, as amended), certain town officers (said 
c. 708, § 11, as amended), and certain elected district officers (said c. 708, 
§ 11 A, as amended). 

The Legislature has also specifically provided by applicable provisions 
of said chapter 708, section IIB, that elected county officers on such leaves 
of absence shall be without full compensation, their salaries being reduced 
by one-half while on such leave. The Legislature appears to have made a 
determination in said section IIB that registers of probate are county 
officers, but has by express provision excluded them from the scope of the 
provisions reducing salaries. No provision applicable to them appears 
in the statute whereby their military leaves of absence are established as 
leaves without full salaries. 



30 P.D. 12. 

In its pertinent part said section IIB reads: 

"In case an elected county officer, other than the register of probate, is 
unable to perform the duties of his office by reason of said military or naval 
service, a board . . . may . . . appoint an acting officer. . . . 

. . . The salary or compensation paid to the elected official on leave of 
absence shall be one half of the amount fixed for the office ..." 

Section IIC of said chapter 708, as amended, provides for the appoint- 
ment of a temporary register of probate to perform the duties of the 
register while the latter is on a military leave of absence, sets the compensa- 
tion of such temporary register as the same salary fixed for the position of 
register, and makes no provision for any lessening of the compensation 
of the register while the latter is on military leave of absence. 

Accordingly, I advise you, as I have already indicated, that a register 
of probate who leaves his office for the purpose of entering the military 
services of the United States is entitled to receive his salary, which, under 
the provisions of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 217, § 35, is to be paid by the Common- 
wealth. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Old Age Assistance — Husband and Wife Owning Real Estate in Common — 
Security for Reimbursement of Municipality. 

Oct. 24, 1944. 

Hon. Arthur G. Rotch, Commissioner of Public Welfare. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether a husband and 
wife owning in common real estate upon which they reside, having an 
equity of $5,030, are required to execute a bond and mortgage in the 
amount of S2,030, to reimburse a municipality for old age assistance to be 
given them. 

I am of the opinion that they are not required to execute such a bond. 
G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 118A, § 4, provides in part: 

"The ownership of an equity in vacant land from which no income is 
derived or in real estate upon which an applicant actually resides shall 
not disqualify him from receiving assistance under this chapter; provided, 
that if such equity, . . . exceeds an average of three thousand dollars 
during the five years immediately preceding his application, the board of 
public welfare of the town rendering such assistance, or the bureau of old 
age assistance . . . shall . . . require such applicant to execute a bond 
in a penal sum equal to the amount of the equity in excess of three thousand 
dollars, . . . conditioned on repayment ... of all amounts of such 
assistance, without interest, such bond to be secured by mortgage upon 
the applicant's real estate. ..." 

It cannot reasonably be said that the equity owned by one of the tenants 
in common in such a parcel of real estate exceeds $3,000 because the total 
equity therein is greater than such sum. The words "the ownership of an 
equity ... in real estate upon which an applicant actually resides shall 
not disqualify him" refer to equitable rights which enrich a particular 
applicant and as to these there is an exemption in his favor in the amount 



P.D. 12. 31 

of $3,000. A tenant in common cannot bo said to be enriched by that 
.share of the total equitable rights in a piece of real estate which inure to 
the other tenant. 

If the Legislature had intended to provide that in the case of tenants in 
common or in the case of such ownership by husband and wife the exemp- 
tion of equitable rights to the extent of $3,000 should not apply it would 
doubtless have used language appropriately expressing an exception to 
the general rule set forth in said section 4. 

It follows that a city which has furnished old age assistance to both a 
husband and wife owning real estate, upon which they reside, having a 
value of $5,030 above the amount of a mortgage, without taking a mortgage 
bond from them, is entitled to reimbursement for the assistance so fur- 
nished under the provisions of section 8 of said chapter 118 A. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Metropolitan District Commission — Transjer of Supervision of 
Mystic Lakes — Lack of Authority. 

Nov. 8, 1944. 

Hon. Eugene C. Hultman, Commissioner, Metropolitan District Comission. 

Dear Sir : — You have asked me whether your Commission may trans- 
fer "the supervision and maintenance of the Mystic Lakes in Arlington 
and Winchester from the Water Division to the Parks Division." 

You state that these lakes were originally a source of water supply. I 
assume from what you further state that although not used for such pur- 
pose for many years they could again be so used after reconstruction. 

I am informed by your department that these lakes were acquired by 
the old Metropolitan Water Board, of which your department is the 
successor, under the provisions of St. 1895, c. 488, which authorized the 
acquisition of waters for the purpose of water supply. 

It is a general principle of law that real property "appropriated to one 
public use cannot be diverted to another inconsistent public use without 
plain and explicit legislation to that end." Higginson v. Treasurer, d'C. of 
Boston, 212 Mass. 583, 591. 

It would seem, therefore, that these lakes, acquired for water supply 
purposes, cannot now by a departmental order or ruling be converted into 
parks or portions of parks as such. 

Heretofore they have been, you advise me, under the control of the 
Water Division established in your department. The precise scope of the 
authority of the divisions in your department is not defined by the statutes. 

If these lakes can be maintained as potential sources of water supply 
when supervised and maintained by the Parks Division in your department 
as effectually as when supervised and maintained by the A\'ater Division, 
and there are appropriations available to the Parks Division for such pur- 
pose, there would appear to be no objection as a matter of law to the 
exercise of such supervision and maintenance of the lakes as a potential 
source of w^ater supply by the Parks Division. 
\'ery truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General 



32 P.D. 12. 

Civil Service — Fire Department of West Springfield — Call Firemen — 

Classified Service. 

Nov. 8, 1944. 
Hon. Thomas J. Greehan. Director of Civil Service. 

Dear Sir: — You have informed me that in 1917 the Town of West 
Springfield accepted the provisions of Spec. St. 1916, c. 350, entitled 
''An Act to extend the provisions of the civil service laws to the members 
of the fire department of the town of West Springfield"; that at the time 
of such acceptance there were no call firemen in the service of the town, 
and you desire my opinion as to whether by force of such acceptance call 
firemen employed by the town thereafter come within the provisions of the 
Civil Service Law. 

I am of the opinion that such call firemen are within the sweep of the 
Civil Service Law. 

In 1916, when the Legislature enacted this special act applicable only 
to West Springfield, the Revised Laws were in effect, and chapter 19, section 
37, contained general provisions substantially corresponding to those now 
embodied in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 48, that in a town which accepted 
the provisions of the existing Civil Service Law relating to the fire forces 
of cities except Boston such provisions should "apply to all members of 
the regular or permanent . . . fire forces, or to the call fire force, or to 
either of said forces. ..." 

By acting under said section 37, a town could determine for itself whether 
or not call firemen should be included within the protection of Civil Service 
or whether such protection should be limited to members of the regular 
and permanent fire force only. It is with relation to this mode of accept- 
tance that G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 48, provides that: 

"... a town which has accepted this section or the corresponding pro- 
visions of earlier laws as to regular firemen may afterward accept it as to 
call firemen. ..." 

The Legislature, however, by enacting said special act of 1916 provided 
for West Springfield a mode of acceptance of the Civil Service Law which 
did not permit an inclusion of regular and permanent firemen and an ex- 
clusion of call firemen. By its terms all members of the town fire depart- 
ment were to be brought under Civil Service if the voters accepted the act. 

The first section of the said special act reads: 

"The provisions of chapter nineteen of the Revised Laws (the Civil 
Service Law), and all acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto, 
are hereby made applicable to all present and future members of the fire 
department of the town of West Springfield." 

No provision for the inclusion or exclusion from the acceptance of the 
special act with regard to any branch or division, regular or call, of the 
firemen of West Springfield was contained in the special act. The special 
act unlike said section 37 of chapter 19 of the Revised Laws afforded the 
voters of West Springfield, if they accepted it, no opportunity to express 
an intent to exclude either regular or call firemen from the protection of 
Civil Service. 

In view of the existence of the general provisions of said section 37 it is 
apparent that unless the Legislature intended that acceptance of the 
special act should draw into the Civil Service both regular and call fire- 



i 



r.D. 12. 33 

men alike there would have been no occasion for its enactment, and the 
measure would have been of no practical efl'ect, as its terms otherwise 
make no material variation from those of said section 37. 

The words "fire department" comprehend at least the fire-fighting 
forces of a town (see Elliott v. Fire Commissioner of Boston, 245 Mass. 
330, 332). Call firemen are a part of such forces. In certain statutes the 
phraseology indicates a legislative determination that call firemen are 
members of the fire departments of cities (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 32, §§ 80, 82) 
and of towns (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 32, § 85A; c. 48, § 42). In an opinion of 
the Attorney General to the Director of Civil Service of December 31, 
1941 (Attorney General's Report, 1942, p. 49), it was stated: 

"Call firemen are a part of the 'fire forces' of cities and towns which 
emplo}- them." 

To construe the words "fire department" as used by the Legislature in the 
special act under consideration as not embracing both the regular and 
call firemen would be to give them an unusual meaning and, moreover, 
would result in an interpretation of the special statute which, for reasons 
that I have suggested, would render it an unnecessary duplication of 
existing legislation, barren of any accomplishment. 

As was stated by Chief Justice Rugg in Flood v. Hodges, 231 Mass. 
252, 257: ^ 

"A legislative act ought to be interpreted, whenever permitted by its 
words, so as to make it effective toward a substantial end and not devoid 
of vitality. Barrenness of accomplishment cannot be imputed to the 
legislative department of government." 

An intention to pass an ineffective statute should not be imputed to the 
Legislature. Boston Elevated Railway Co. v. Coynmonwealth, 310 Mass. 
528, 548; Maclnnis v. Morrissey, 298 Mass. 505, 509; B. (k A. E^R. v. 
Boston, 275 Mass. 133, 135. 

It follows that by the acceptance of the special act of 1916 the Town of 
West Springfield brought all those who were or should thereafter become 
call firemen within the provisions of the Civil Service Law. 
Very truly 3'ours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 

Public Safety; Inspection of Places of Assembly; Regidations; G. L. (Ter. 

Ed.) c. 14^, § SB. 

Nov. 13, 1944. 

Hon. John F. Stokes, Commissioner of Public Safety. 

De.\r Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether the following 
proposed regulation is a proper one to be made under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) 
c. 143, §3B: 

"Section 103. The duty of inspecting existing places of assembly is 
placed by section 3A of Chapter 143 upon the local municipal officer or 
Board and all action by inspectors of the Department acting under au- 
thority granted such State inspectors by other sections of Chapter 143 
shall therefore, be taken by such State inspectors through the municipal 
officer or board acting under section 3A as the Commissioner's authorized 
representative." 



34 P.D. 12. 

In my opinion, this proposed regulation is not a proper one. G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 143, § 3B, provides: 

"The commissioner of public safety, herein and in the six following 
sections called the commissioner, subject to the approval of the board of 
standards and appeals shall, and said board of its own motion may, make 
rules and regulations relating to the construction, reconstruction, altera- 
tion, repair, demolition, removal, use and occupancy, and to the standards 
of materials to be used in such construction, reconstruction, alteration, 
repair, demolition, removal, use and occupancy of any building or portion 
thereof which, under section one, may be deemed to be a place of assembly; 
and such rules and regulations shall be in accord with the generally 
accepted standards of engineering practice and not inconsistent with 
law. ..." 

The duty of inspecting places of assembly has been placed upon state 
inspectors as well as upon various municipal officers, and the duty of 
taking appropriate action to remedy faulty conditions discovered by 
state inspections in places of assembly has been placed by the Legislature 
upon the state inspectors as well as upon municipal officers (see G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 143, as amended, §§ 15, 21, 28, 31, 36, 37, 38, 54, 55). 

The proposed regulation purports to relieve the state inspectors from 
full compliance with these duties placed upon them by the ' Legislature 
and to destroy their power to perform fully such duties themselves by 
providing that they shall take action to compel the remedy of faulty con- 
ditions discovered by them in places of assembly through municipal offi- 
cers. Although certain municipal officers, acting as representatives of the 
Commissioner of Public Safety under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 143, § 3A, have 
duties of inspection and enforcement with relation to places of assembly as 
do state inspectors, this fact does not lessen the obligation of the state 
inspectors to perform their corelative duties in person nor enable them to 
escape responsibility by a delegation of their authority of enforcement 
to municipal officers. 

It is apparent, therefore, that the provisions of the proposed regulation 
limiting the exercise of that authority, which has been vested in the state 
inspectors, by requiring that their actions necessary to the enforcement 
of the laws relative to places of assembly shall be taken through municipal 
officers, are repugnant to the intent of the Legislature with regard to the 
duties and powers of such inspectors as expressed in said chapter 143. 

The exercise of the rule-making power by an administrative department 
or officer does not authorize the making of a rule or regulation in opposi- 
tion or repugnant to the legislative intent as expressed in a statute of 
general application. The authority vested in officers or employees by the 
Legislature may not be reduced by a departmental rule or regulation as 
would be the case under the proposed regulation. Wyeth v. Cambridge 
Board of Health, 200 Mass. 474, 481. Commonwealth v. McFarlane, 257 
Mass. 530. Commonwealth v. Johnson Wholesale Perfume Co., 304 Mass. 
452, 457. 

It follows that the proposed regulation is not a proper one and, if 
adopted, would be without validity. 

I see no objection to the legality of the compromise proposed b}' you. 
Whether this compromise should be adopted as a rule is a question of 
policy on which I express no opinion. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



P.D. 12. 35 

Civil Service — Promotions in Clerical Service of Municipal Fire Depart- 
ment— G. L. {Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 15 or § 20. 

Nov. 27, 1944. 
Hon. Thomas J. Greehan, Director of Civil Service. 

Dkar Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether promotions in 
the clerical service of the fire departments of cities and towns are regulated 
by G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 15, or § 20. 

Section 15 of said chapter 31, as amended, sets forth general provisions 
regulating promotions in the official service. However, it provides that 
such provisions shall apply "except in police and fire departments." 

Section 20 of said chapter 31, as amended, sets forth provisions regu- 
lating promotions, somewhat different from those of said section 15, appli- 
cable to "promotions in such police forces and fire forces of cities and towns 
as are within the classified civil service." 

The answer to your request depends upon the construction which should 
be put upon the word "departments" as used in the quoted phrase of 
exclusion contained in said sectfon 15. 

I am informed that in the administration of the Civil Service Law your 
division has construed the word "departments" in said section 15 as 
embracing only those members of the police who engage in actual police 
duty as such and those firemen who are employed in Jir'e fighting forces: 
that is, you have interpreted the word "departments" in said section 15 
as being synonymous with the word "forces" in said section 20. 

I am of the opinion that this construction which you have adopted is 
correct. 

The word "department" is susceptible of different meanings with rela- 
tion to police and fire organizations. According to the context in which 
it is employed, it may comprehend all the activities associated with the 
administration of a municipal pohce or fire organization, or it may be 
restricted so as not to include the clerical and auxiliary employees of such 
an organization. Elliott v. Fire Commissioner of Boston, 245 Mass. 330. 
Fickeft V. Firemen's Relief Fund, 220 Mass. 319. Nolan v. Boston Fire- 
men's Relief Fund, 236 Mass. 420. 

The word "forces" in the statute as applied to firemen has an accepted 
meaning as designating the employees engaged in fire fighting {Elliott v. 
Fire Commissioner of Boston, 245 Mass. 330. 332) and as applied to police- 
men, it would appear to signify those engaged in the duty of policing as 
such. 

Said section 20 as originally enacted (St. 1920, c. 368) was made appli- 
cable to "pohce forces." Its provisions were extended to "fire forces" by 
an amendment made by St. 1939, c. 419, § 3. 

The said provisions of section 15, excluding "police and fire depart- 
ments" from the general requirements made by that section for promotions 
in the official service, were first enacted by St. 1939, c. 506, § 2. 

It is to be assumed that the Legislature when making a new enactment 
is familiar with pre-existing statutory provisions related to the same 
subject matter (Devney's Case, 223 Mass. 270; Kneeland v. Emerton, 280 
Mass. 371), and intended that the new and old provisions should be parts 
of an harmonious whole, especially when the new and the old are enacted 
in the same year. Commonwealth v. King, 202 Mass. 379, 388. 

Inasmuch as no provisions are to be found in section 20 with regard to 
the promotions of any employees of a police or fire department other than 



36 P.D. 12. 

those of employees in the "poHce or fire forces," clerical and auxiliary 
employees would be left without statutory provision for promotions if the 
word "departments" in section 15 were not employed in the same sense 
as the word "forces" used in section 20. 

It cannot reasonably be thought that the Legislature intended to pro- 
duce such a result. It follows that the word "departments" should be 
construed in its limited sense as synonymous with "forces" in order that 
an effectual, reasonable and harmonious interpretation may be given to 
the statute (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31) as a system of Civil Service Law. 

"A statute as a whole ought, if possible, to be so construed as to make 
it an effectual piece of legislation in harmony with common sense and 
sound reason." 

Morrison v. Selectmen of Weymouth, 279 Mass. 486, 492. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Emergency Public Works Commission — Postwar Projects — Port of Boston. 

Nov. 30, 1944. 

Emergency Public Works Commission. 

Dear Sirs: — You have asked my opinion upon the following question: 

"Is the Emergency Public Works Commission empowered by chapter 
517 of the Acts of 1943 to prepare plans and specifications for the construc- 
tion as a postwar project of the piers authorized by chapter 714 of the 
Acts of 1941, provided the funds for such plans and specifications are made 
available from the Governor's Emergency War Fund?" 

I answer this question in the negative. 

St. 1943, c. 517, authorized the Emergency Public Works Commission 
"to prepare a program of post-war public works which may be undertaken 
by the commonwealth, and to submit such program to the governor." 
It was provided that the program "shall include provisions deemed desir- 
able for the preparation, during the continuance of the war, of plans, sur- 
veys and other information needed to permit prompt, effective and eco- 
nomical action in the period immediately following the termination of the 
existing states of war. . . ." 

It does not appear from the phraseology employed to have been the 
intent of the Legislature in enacting said chapter 517 to entrust to the 
Emergenc}'^ Public Works Commission authority to prepare, as a part of 
its postwar program, plans and specifications for particular public works 
for which the Legislature has already provided by vesting the authority 
to construct in a specified department of the Commonwealth. 

St. 1941, c. 714, is entitled "An Act authorizing the department of public 
works to acquire certain waterfront properties in the city of Boston, to 
construct a pier thereon and to lease the same." 

By its terms the Department of Public Works is authorized, for the 
purpose of improving the pier facilities in the Port of Boston, to acquire 
so much of certain designated real properties as might be necessary to 
construct ramps and their accessories essential to the development of a 
waterfront terminal, with highway and railroad connections. The depart- 
ment is also authorized to construct a pier, with sheds, tracks, roadways 



P.D. 12. 37 

and other apT>urtenaiices, to "dredsjo berths ai t! •ipuroaches th?reto and 
provide such other accessories as it may deem desirable," and to lease the 
])roperty to a responsible party. 

Plainly the duty and the authority to prepare i)lans and specifications 
for the construction of the ramps, piers and accessories which the depart- 
ment is authorized by said chapter 714 to construct in the development of a 
waterfront terminal had been entrusted to the Department of Public 
Works before the enactment of said St. 1943, c. 517. Whether the con- 
struction which the said department is empowered to undertake is a project 
presently to be carried out or is one which of necessity becomes a postwar 
project, it is clear that the authority to make plans and specifications and 
to do other similar necessary work incident to such construction or to the 
])reparation for such construction is vested in the said department. 

There is nothino- in the provisions of said St. 1943, c. 517, authorizing 
the EMieri2;ency Public Works Commission to prepare a postwar program 
of public works, which operates to repeal St. 1941, c. 714, or which indicates 
that the Legislature intended that said Commission in preparing a post- 
war program should take over or duplicate work already entrusted to 
another agency of the Commonwealth in connection with a scheme for 
development and construction specifically authorized by the Legislature, 
and as a part of w'hich the adoption and execution of the detail of the 
work have been entrusted to the discretion of such agency. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushxell, Attorney General. 



Insurance — Group Annuity Contracts — Approval — Options — 
Particular Provisions. 

Deo. 1, 1944. 

Hon. Charles F. J. Harrinoton, Cominissioner of Insurance. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked mj^ opinion upon four questions with 
relation to the form of a group annuity contract, which you have laid 
before me. 

You inform me that for many years the Department of Insurance has 
required life insurance companies issuing such contracts to file them for 
the purpose of j-our approval. 

1. Your first question reads: 

"Is the approval of the Commissioner of a group annuity contract 
necessary before such contracts may be issued in the Commonwealth?" 

I answer this question in the affirmative. 

In an opinion w^hich the Attorney General rendered to you on September 
29, 1944 (ante, p. 22), it was held that you had the authority and the 
duty to approve or disapprove a form of group annuitv contract. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 132, as amended, provides that: 

"No policy of life or endowmient insurance and no annuity, survivorship 
annuity or pure endowment contract shall be issued . . . until a copy of the 
form thereof has been on file for thirty days with the conitnissiofier, iinless 
before the expiration of said thirty days he shall hare approved the forrn 
of the policy or contract in writinq: nor if the commissioner notifies the 
company in writing, within said thirty days, that in his opinion the form 



38 . P.D. 12. 

of the policy or contract does not comply with the laws of the common- 
wealth, specifying his reasons therefor, ..." 

I am of the opinion that the words "annuity contract" as employed in 
said section are sufficiently broad to include a group annuity contract. 
Although the Legislature has seen fit to define a group life insurance 
poHcy in section 133 of said chapter 175, as amended, and has specifically 
provided for its approval by the Commissioner in section 134 of said 
chapter 175, as amended, and has omitted similar specific provisions with 
regard to group annuity contracts, nevertheless, in view of the general 
legislative design of subjecting contracts of life insurance companies to 
the approval of the Commissioner, as shown in said chapter 175, such 
omission cannot well be taken as showing a legislative intent to exclude 
annuity contracts issued to a group from the safeguard of effective scru- 
tiny by the Commissioner, which is required by said section 132 for annuity 
contracts generally as well as for Hie policies. 

2. Your second question is : 

"Have the rules and regulations and the applicable provisions of section 
134 which are used by the Department in examining group annuity con- 
tract forms the force of law, and, in the event of disapproval of a group 
annuity contract form, are they sufficient to comply with the statutory 
requirement that the Commissioner specify his reasons whereby the con- 
tract does not comply with the laws of the Commonwealth?" 

I answer this question in the negative. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 132, as amended, provides that if the Com- 
missioner does not approve the form of a contract of annuity, he is to 
notify the insurance company that in his opinion it does not comply with 
the laws of the Commonwealth and specify his reasons therefor. 

Section 134 of chapter 175, as amendecl, contains no provisions which 
relate to or are applicable to annuity contracts. Its standard provisions 
are specifically made applicable to group policies of fife insurance. They 
are not laws of the Commonwealth with which annuity contracts of any 
type must comply. 

No authority to make rules and regulations with regard to the form of 
annuity contracts has been vested in the Commissioner -of Insurance. 
Any so-called rules and regulations which may have been made in this 
respect can be nothing but directives for the guidance of the department 
and the insurance companies. They are not "laws of the commonwealth" 
with which annuity contracts of any type must comply. It follows that 
lack of conformity to the said provisions of section 134 or to the said 
"rules and regulations" as such could not furnish proper "reasons" for 
an opinion that a group annuity contract "does not comply with the laws 
of the commonwealth," as the quoted words are used in said section 132. 

3. You have informed me that a group annuity contract which has 
been filed with you — 

"contains a provision which has an option available to the annuitant 
when he reaches age 60. By availing himself of this option when he 
reaches the age 60, the annuitant, if he then retires from work, may have 
the amount of the annuity to which he would otherwise be entitled at 
that age increased by the amount which will be payable to him at age 65 
under the Federal Social Security Act and a proportionate deduction 
will be made to the amount otherwise payable to him under the group 



P.D. 12. 39 

annuity contract at a^e 65. The amount which will be payable to him 
under the Federal Social Security Act caiuiot, of course, be known at the 
time when the policy is issued, and the calculation of the .amount of the 
annuity which will be paj^able should this option be adopted by the 
annuitant in the future cannot be known at the time when the policy is 
issued." 

And with relation to this contract your third question reads: 

"May the Commissioner approve a form of group annuity contract con- 
taining such an option since the contract itself does not contain sufficient 
information so that the annuitant can know at its date of issue the amount 
of future benefits which will accrue to him if he adopts such an option when 
he reaches the age 60?" 

I answer this question in the affirmative. 

The Legislature has not, as I have already said, made the standard 
provisions concerning life policies in said section 132 or those relating to 
group life policies in said section 134 applicable to annuity contracts. 

It has set forth certain requirements with relation to the form and con- 
tents of annuity contracts in general. G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 130, 
prohibits incorrect dating of such a contract. Section 129 requires that 
"a plain description . . . so fully defining its character, including dividend 
periods and other peculiarities, that the holder thereof shall not be likely 
to mistake the nature or scope of the contract," shall be borne in bold 
letters on the face of the contract. Section 120 prohibits discrimination 
"in favor of individuals between insurants of the same class and equal 
expectation of life in . . . the dividends or other benefits payable thereon, 
or in any other of the terms and conditions of the contracts." Section 22 
forbids the inclusion in an annuity contract of certain provisions depriving 
the courts of jurisdiction or limiting the time for commencing action against 
a company to a period of less than two years or making the company's 
agent the agent of the annuitant. Section 22B forbids the inclusion in a 
contract of any provision for a waiver by an annuitant of any of the pro- 
visions of said chapter 175, except as authorized therein. 

There is no provision of the statutes that the applications and the con- 
tract as written shall constitute the entire contract between the parties, 
as has been specifically provided by said section 134 for group life insur- 
ance policies, nor is there any statutory provision of similar import. Since 
this is so, there is no requirement that- the form of an option, such as you 
have described, in a contract of group annuity, should contain sufficient 
information so that the annuitant can know at the date of issue the amount 
of future benefits which will accrue to him if he later chooses to adopt the 
option. 

The option is plainly for the benefit of the annuitant and the amount 
which will be received under the option is capable of being calculated at 
the time when the annuitant considers whether he desires to avail himself 
of it. 

The provisions of this option do not appear to be contrary to any law 
of the Commonwealth, and there does not appear to be anything in their 
nature calculated to mislead the annuitant, or to lead to any discrimination 
or to any unfair practice. 

4. You have also informed me with regard to the group annuity con- 
tract which has been filed with you that — 



40 P.D. 12. 

"The group annuity contract form referred to above contains a pro- 
vision whereby the annuity payments to individual employees in the upper 
salary brackets may be reduced and the payments to individual employees 
in the lower salary brackets may be increased proportionately if the con- 
tract is discontinued in less than ten years. The amount of this reduction 
cannot be determined at the time of issuance of the policy, and, therefore, 
it cannot be known to or be computed by a proposed annuitant from any 
terms appearing in the contract. 

The reason for inserting this provision allowing for the reduction of some 
of the annuity payments and the increase in others upon discontinuance 
within ten years is that the Federal Government will not give credit to an 
employer for his share of premium payments on the annuity contract as a 
deduction from his income taxes unless the premium payments in such a 
contract continue for more than ten years or unless the contract contains 
this provision for the indicated redistribution of annuities upon such 
discontinuance." 

And with relation to this contract you have asked my opinion upon the 
following question: 

"May the Commissioner approve a group annuity contract allowing the 
reduction of annuity payments to individual employees in the upper salary 
brackets with a proportionate increase in the annuity payments to indi- 
vidual employees in the lower salary brackets upon discontinuance of the 
policy as outlined above?" 

The fact that the amount of reduction in the annuity payments to indi- 
vidual employees in the higher brackets which will occur if the contract is 
discontinued within ten years cannot be computed at the time of issue 
does not render its provisions unlawful since, as I have said, the statutes 
do not require that an annuity contract must contain within the applica- 
tions and the contract form all the provisions of the contract. 

If the terms of the contract describing what will occur upon its discon- 
tinuance within ten years are set out therein so plainly as not to fall 
within the prohibition of said section 129 so "that the holders thereby 
shall not be likely to mistake the nature and scope of the contract," it 
would not appear to be contrary to any specific provision of law concern- 
ing annuity contracts nor would it appear to be inequitable or discrimina- 
tory since this mode of dealing with annuity payments upon a discon- 
tinuance is a part of the agreement knowingly entered into by all the 
parties at the time of its issue. 

If the Commissioner determines upon an inspection of the contract, as 
a matter of law, that its terms are set out in the manner indicated in the 
preceding paragraph, and that no others of its terms are in violation of 
statutory provisions, I am of the opinion that he may properly . approve 
the contract. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



P.D. 12. 41 

Workmen's Compensation — Self- Insurance — Reinsurance — Catastrophe 

— Service Company. 

Dec. 13, 1944. 
Department of Industrial Accidents. 

Dear Sirs: — Yoii have informed me that your Department, acting 
under the provisions of G. L. (Ter. l^xl.) c. 152, § 25A, recjuired a self- 
insurer to furnish a poHcy reinsuring its compensation ristc against catas- 
trophe in , accordance with subparagraph (r) of subsection (2) of said 
section 25A. 

You have laid before me a pohcy furnished b}^ the self-insurer in accord- 
ance with your requirement containing an endorsement, and with relation 
thereto you have asked my opinion upon two questions: 

Your first question is: 

"(1) Is the poHcy referred to one which 'reinsures self-insurers' com- 
pensation risk against catastrophe' within the meaning and as required 
by G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 152, § 25A, subsection (2), subparagraph (c) as 
enacted by St. 1943, c. 529?" 

I answer this question in the affirmative. 

Your second question relates to the endorsement which is attached to 
the policy laid before me, and is as follows: 

"(2) If your answer to the foregoing question is in the affirmative, do 
the provisions in the endorsement attached to said policy that the services 
described in paragraph (2) and section J of the policy shall be performed 
by the nominee of the reinsurer violate provisions of section 25D of said 
chapter 152, as enacted by chapter 529 of the Acts of 1943?" 

Mv answer to this question is in the negative. 

(Ij G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 152, § 25A, subsection (2) subparagraph (c), 
reads: 

"As a further guarantee of a self-insurer's ability to pay the benefits 
provided for by this chapter to injured employees, the department may 
require that a self-insurer reinsure his compensation risk against catas- 
trophe, and such reinsurance, when so required, shall be placed only with 
an insurance company admitted to do business in this commonwealth." 

The insurer in this policy agrees, among other things, "to reinsure this 
Self-Insurer against all loss in excess of seventy per cent (70) of the Self- 
Insurer's 'Normal Premium,' or the sum of $7,000, whichever may be the 
greater, for Workmen's Compensation ... by reason of his liability for 
damages on account of such injuries to such of said employees as are 
legally employed, and within the contemplation of the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Law. ..." 

This form of agreement is similar to that in a proposed policy form 
considered by the Supreme Judicial Covu't in Friend Brothers, Inc. v. 
Seaboard Surety Co., 316 Mass. 639. In its opinion in that case the court 
held that such a form of agreement "is in reality a contract for reinsur- 
ance," treated it as creating insurance against " catastrophe," and stated 
that such a contract "is not offensive to our laws or public policy." 

In the light of that opinion the policy which you have laid before me 
must be taken to reinsure a self-insurer's compensation against catastrophe. 



42 P.D. 12. 

(2) The endorsement of the poUcy in question to which you refer in 
your second question in its pertinent part reads : 

"In consideration of the premium charged for this policy, it is under- 
stood and agreed that the services described in paragraph 2 and section ' J ' 
of the pohcy to which this endorsement is attached shall be performed 
by a nominee of the reinsurer." 

Paragraph 2 of the policy referred to in the endorsement reads : 

" That this contract is issued to the Self-Insurer on the express condition 
that this Self-Insurer undertakes at all times to utilize the services of 
- . . , hereinafter referred to as the 'Service Organization', which serv- 
ices shall comprise, in accordance with their usual practices, the following 
duties : 

(a) The strict discharge of the Employer's Workmen's Compensa- 
tion and/or occupational disease obligations to his employees; 

(6) The maintenance of accurate records of all details incident to 
such payments; 

(c) The furnishing of complete inspection and safety engineering 
services; and 

(d) Furnishing of monthly claims' records on an approved form; 

the acceptance of which services shall be a condition precedent to any 
liability which may attach to the Company in accordance with the terms 
and conditions of this Contract." 

Section J of the policy referred to in the endorsement reads: 

"J. The services contemplated under this Contract to be rendered 
through the aforesaid Service Organization shall include frequent inspec- 
tion of the Self-Insurer's plants; the rendering of adequate engineering 
services; the compilation and hling of all notices and reports required 
under the Workmen's Compensation and/or Occupational Disease Law; 
the furnishing of a full and complete monthly report to the Self-Insurer 
and to the Company of all accidents, and a tabulation of all payments 
made and reserves set up for benefits and expenses on account of liability 
for injuries sustained by employees; the attendance on behalf of the Self- 
Insurer at all scheduled hearmgs befoi'e the Workmen's Compensation 
Board; and a general administration of all other details looking to the 
effectual discharge of the Self-Insurer's obligations towards his em- 
ployees." 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 152, § 25, inserted by St. 1943, c. 529, reads: 

"Section 25D. No self-insurer or attorney acting in its behalf shall 
engage a service company or like organization to investigate, adjust, or 
settle claims under this chapter or to represent it in any matter before 
the department. Any violation of this section shall constitute reasonable 
cause for revocation of the license of a self-insurer under section twenty- 
five A of this chapter." 

The provisions of said paragraph 2 and of said section J of the policy are 
broad enough to include within the work to be performed by the "Service 
Organization," therein referred to, investigation, adjustment and settle- 
ment of claims under said chapter 152. The performance of such acts on 
behalf of a self-insurer by "a service company or like organization" are 
prohibited by said section 25D. if the nominee of the insurer under the 



P.D. 12. 



43 



endorsement is "a service company or like organization," its employ- 
ment to do the work described in parafiraj)h 2 and section J of the pohcy 
by the self-insnrer will be in violation of the terms of said section 25D, 
and will require the revocation of the self-insurer's license. 

Although the phraseology of said paragraph 2 and section J seems to 
indicate that the employment of "a service company or like organization" 
is contemplated by the parties to the contract, nevertheless the insurer 
might, under the terms of the endorsement, choose to nominate for em- 
ployment an individual who functions in such a maimer that he could 
not be deemed to be "a service company or like organization." For this 
reason the endorsement as it stands, even when read in conjunction with 
paragraph 2 and section J of the policy, cannot presently be said to be 
unlawful as requiring a violation of said section 25D. 

If and when by force of the terms of the endorsement the self-insurer 
employs, directly or indirectly, a "service company or like organization" 
to perform the services described in said paragraph 2 and section J an 
unlawful act will have been committed and the self-insurer's license will 
be subject to revocation. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Conservation — Shellfish — Permits — Municipal Leases — Non-residents 
— Director of Division of Marine Fisheries. 

Dec. 14, 1944. 
Hon. Raymond J. Kenney, Commissioner of Conservation. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion on three questions with re- 
lation to so-called leases from the Commonwealth to cities and towns in 
Essex County "of the right to control and regulate the taking of clams 
from all flats within" the borders of such municipalities under the provi- 
sions of St. 1912, c. 710, as amended by St. 1927, c. 307. You state that 
your request for an opinion is occasioned by a controversy over the rights 
of certain shellfishermen holding "master digger's permits" to take shell- 
fish in contaminated areas from the waters of cities and towns to which 
such leases have been issued. 

Your first two questions are: 

"Has such a city or town the right to exclude non-residents of its city 
or town holding the tj^pe of permits heretofore mentioned fi'om taking 
clams from the waters of said city or town? 

Has the Director of the Division of Marine Fisheries the authority to 
issue valid permits of the type above mentioned to non-residents of any 
city or town in Essex County holding such a lease to take clams from 
contaminated areas in said city or town?" 

I answer your first question that by virtue of such a lease such city or 
town has the right to exclude non-residents, with the exception of those 
mentioned in section 6 of said chapter 710, as amended, from taking 
clams from its waters, except that when an area within its borders lias 
been determined by the State Department of Pul)lic ncalth to be a co7i- 
taminated area under the terms of G. L. (Ter. Va\.) c. 130, § 74, it may 
not exclude any person to whom a "master digger's permit" or a "dig- 
ger's permit" to take shellfish from such a contaminated area has been 



44 P.D. 12. 

issued by the Director of Marine Fisheries under the provisions of G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 130, § 75. 

I answer your second question to the effect that the Director of Marine 
Fisheries has authority to issue permits to take clams from an area deter- 
mined to be contaminated by the State Department of PubUc^ Health to 
non-residents of a town in Essex County within whose borders the area 
lies irrespective of the fact that the town has a lease issued under said 
St. 1912, c. 710, as amended. 

St. 1912, c. 710, in its applicable parts, provides: 

*' Section 1. Any city or town in the county of Essex may take from 
the commonwealth a lease of the right to control and regulate the taking 
of clams from all the flats within its borders. 

Section 2. The commissioners on fisheries and game shall issue a lease 
as aforesaid to each city or town in said county which makes application 
therefor, for a term of ten years, at an annual rental of five dollars a year, 
to be paid into the treasury of the commonwealth. 

Section 4. All rights granted to a city or town under a lease as afore- 
said shall be held by the city or town for the benefit of its citizens. 

Section 5. After acceptance of this act, cities through their city gov- 
ernments and towns at any annual or special meeting duly called for the 
purpose, may make rules and regulations in regard to the taking of clams, 
and may authorize the granting of permits to citizens of such cities and 
towns to take clams, and may prescribe the time and methods of such 
taking. 

Section 8. All acts and parts of acts incoQsistent herewith are hereby 
repealed. 

Section 9. This act shall take effect in any city upon its acceptance 
by the city council or corresponding body of such city, and in any town 
upon its acceptance by a majority of the voters of such town present 
and voting thereon at any annual town meeting, or at any special town 
meeting duly called for the purpose." 

Section 6 of said chapter 710, as amended by St. 1927, c. 307, reads: 

"Section 6. Any inhabitant of the commonwealth may, without a 
permit, take clams, not exceeding one bushel, including shells, in any one 
day, for the use of his owii family from the waters of his own or any other 
city or town in the county of Essex, and may so take from the waters of 
his own city or town clams for bait, not exceeding three bushels, includ- 
ing shells, in any one day, subject to the general rules and regulations 
adopted by cities and towns, respectively, in the manner specified in the 
preceding section as to the time, place and methods of taking clams. 
Whoever, without a permit, takes any clams from the flats within the 
borders of any city or town holding a lease from the commonwealth under 
section two, except as permitted by this section, shall forfeit not less than 
five nor more than fifty dollars for such offence." 

In 1912, when chapter 710 was enacted, the statutes of the Common- 
wealth provided that the State Department of Public Health might de- 
termine that areas of tidewater and flats were contaminated ; that the Com- 
missioners on Fisheries and Game should prohibit the taking of shellfish 



P.D. 12. 45 

from such areas, and that anyone taking shellfish from such areas might 
be punished by a fine, R. L., c. 91, §§ 113, 114. 

The authority of the State under the police power to make and enforce 
a plan established by the Legislature whereby contaminated areas might 
be determined by a State department and tlie taking of shellfish from such 
areas prohibited has been held to be constitutional. Commonwealth v. 
Feetiey, 221 Mass. 323. Such a plan was in existence when St. 1912, c. 710, 
was passed by virtue of the provisions of II. L., c. 91, §§ 113, 114, and said 
chapter 710 should be interpreted in the light of the then existing legislation. 
As so construed, said chapter 710 constitutes a grant of regulatory powers 
to cities and towns, subject to the paramount authority of the Common- 
wealth under its police power to regulate contaminated areas for the 
protection of the ])ublic health. 

This general plan was reenacted in various forms and now appears in 
G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 130, §§ 74, 75, as most recently amended by St. 1941, 
c. 598. Specific provision is now made in said section 75 for the granting of 
permits ("master digger's permits" and "digger's permits") by the Direc- 
tor of Marine Fisheries to persons to take s-hellfish from areas determined 
to be contaminated upon condition that such shellfish be purified in an 
approved plant. See G. L. (1921) c. 130, §§ 137-140; St. 1926, c. 370; 
St. 1928, c. 266; St. 1929, c. 372, § 25; G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 130, §§ 137, 138, 
prior to amendment by St. 1941, c. 598. 

The provisions of said section 75, whereby permits may be issued by 
State officials authorizing persons to take shellfish from contaminated 
areas upon condition of the purification of the shellfish in approved plants, 
are mere details incident to the plan for state regulation of the taking of 
shellfish from contaminated areas as a public health measure under the 
police power. 

The authority of the State under the police power to make all laws 
necessary to secure the health of the community can neither be abdicated 
nor bargained away. Accordingly, anj^ grants and all contract rights are 
held subject to its exercise. Opinion of the Justices, 261 Mass. 523, 553. 
Instruments containing a grant of power from the Commonwealth, such 
as the leases authorized by St. 1912, c. 710, should, as a general principle 
of IsiW, be construed if possible so as to preserve their validity as impliedly 
reserving the right to the State to exercise its police power. Boston EI. 
Ry. v. Commonwealth, 310 Mass. 528, 552. See Commonwealth v. Alger, 
7 Cush. 53, 84, 85; Commonwealth v. Bailey, 13 Allen, 541, 544. Moreover, 
it is a principle of law that a grant from the State is to be construed strictly 
against the grantee. Attorney General v. Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Co., 
133 Mass. 361, 365, 366; Stoneham v. Commonwealth, 249 Mass. 112, 117. 

In so far as the regulation of uncontaminated area.s or of contaminated 
areas as to which the authorized State officials have made no determination 
is concerned, a city or town may make, and enforce- under a lease, regula- 
tions relative to the digging of shellfish, and may exclude non-residents 
from so digging except for the particular purposes set forth in said St. 
1912, c. 710, § 6, as amended bv St. 1927, c. 307. SeJe Commonwealth v. 
Hilton, 174 Mass. 29. 

Your third question is: 

"Whether or not the Department of Conservation or the Division of 
Marine Fisheries has authority to execute new leases including renewal of 
existing leases under the provisions of chapter 710 of the Acts of 1912 in 



46 P.D. 12. 

view of the General Laws, chapter 130, section 104, as inserted by chapter 
598 of the Acts of 1941?" 

I advise you that the Director of the Division of Marine Fisheries is 
now the officer authorized by the statutes to execute leases and renewals 
under St. 1912, c. 710. 

The offices of Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, who were em- 
powered by St. 1912, c. 710, to issue the leases under consideration, were 
abolished by Gen. St. 1919, c. 350, pt. Ill, § 39. By a series of enactments 
the powers which they formerly exercised with relation to marine fish, 
including shellfish, have been vested in an official called the Director of the 
Division of Marine Fisheries (Gen. St. 1919, c. 350, pt. Ill, § 43; G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 21, § 6; St. 1929, c. 372, § 1; St. 1939, c. 491, §§ 1, 8: St. 
1941, c. 598, § 6, c. 599, § 3). 

The authority to make the leases under consideration has now vested 
in the Director of the Division of Marine Fisheries. This authority is not 
affected by the provisions of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 130, § 104, inserted by St. 
1941, c. 598, to which you refer in your question. Section 104 reads: 

"This chapter shall not be deemed to affect any provisions or penalties 
contained, or any privileges granted, in any special statute relating to 
fisheries in any particular place, except such provisions thereof as relate 
to shellfish and shellfisheries and to the alewife fisheries." 

Since the provisions of said St. 1912, c. 710, which are affected by G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 130, as amended, are provisions relating to shellfish and shell- 
fisheries, such effect is not modified by the terms of this section. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushnell, Attorney General. 



Architects — Registration — "Residence" — "Prior" — St. 1941, c. 696 § 3. 

Dec. 27, 1944. 

Mrs. Hazel G. Oliver, Director of Registration. 

Dear Madam: On behalf of the Board of Registration of Architects 
you have asked my opinion upon two questions relating to registration of 
architects. 

1. The first question reads: 

"What is considered a person's legal residence?" 

Inasmuch as the words "legal residence" do not occur in the statutes 
relating to the duties of the said Board nor in the "Application for Certi- 
fication as a Registered Architect," prepared by the Board, and because a 
construction of said words is not germane to the performance of any duty 
required of the Board, the question appears to be hypothetical and is, 
therefore, one which the Attorney General following a long line of practice 
does not answer (Attorney General's Report, 1935, p. 31). 

For the guidance of the said Board, I inform you that th(^ words "legal 
resident of Massachusetts," as used by said Board in section 4 (g) of the 
"Application" are not synonymous with the words "citizens of the com- 
monwealth" as employed by the Legislature in St. 1941, c. 696, § 3, con- 
cerning an applicant for registration. 

2. Your second question reads: 



P.D. 12. 17 

"Does the word 'prior' in the following quotation from the Board of 
Registration of Architects' Law mean 'immediatelv' prior? Section 3, 
chapter 696, Acts of 1941. 

'Anj^ person compl3-ing with section sixty D of chapter one hundred 
and twelve of the General Laws, inserted by section two of this act, who 
applies to the board of registration of architects prior to January first, 
nineteen hundred and forty-three, and has been a citizen of the common- 
wealth for at least two years prior to date of application, shall be given a 
certificate of registration if qualified as follows: — '" 

The reference to "section sixty D" appearing in said section 3, is plainly 
a typographical error and was intended to read section C, or B, for unless 
so read it is without meaning. 

Reading the statute in the latter manner, I answer your question in 
the affirmative. 

The word "prior" may be used in more than one sense. It may refer, 
as it most commonly does, to any time antecedent to a particular event 
or it may refer only to a time which occurred just before an event. Its 
precise meaning in any instance is to be gathered largely from the context. 
When used, as in said section 3, with "to" in conjunction with a phrase 
such as "at least two years" it msiy be construed as meaning "immedi- 
ately prior to." Co7nmonwealth v. Stephens, 345 Pa. 436. It would appear 
from the phraseology of the provision made by the Legislature in said 
section 3 with regard to citizenship that it was intended that the benefits 
of said section were to inure to persons who were citizens of the Common- 
wealth at the time of application for registration, not to persons who 
were no longer citizens at such time though possessing citizenship at some 
previous period. In order to effectuate such intent, it was also provided 
that the necessary citizenship existing at the time of application should 
have a continuous status for two years before such application was made. 
This intent was expressed by employing the words "and has been a citi- 
zen of the commonwealth for at least two years prior to date of appli- 
cation." 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Busknell, Attorney General. 



Old Age Assistance — Husband and Wife — Tenancies. 

Dec. 27, 1944. 

Hon. Arthur G. Rotch, Commissioner of Public Welfare. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion upon two questions of law 
which are as follows: — 

"(1) Where husband and wife own real estate upon which they reside, 
having an equity of $5,030 as joint tenants. If husband is receiving 
assistance, should he be required to execute a bond ; or if wife is receiving 
assistance, should she be required to execute a bond; and what is the 
requirement, if any, as to bond and mortgage where both are receiving 
assistance? 

(2) The same questions raised in (1) where the real estate is held as 
tenants by the entirety." 



48 P.D. 12. 

1. In answer to your first question, I advise you that in my opinion 
when husband and wife own real estate as joint tenants, upon which 
estate they reside and have an equity therein of $5,030, if the husband or 
wife receives old age assistance, he or she may not be required to furnish 
a bond and mortgage under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 118A, §4, upon the theory 
that he or she owns an equity in such estate exceeding $3,000. The same 
principle applies if both are receiving assistance. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. USA, § 4, 'provides in part: 

"The ownership of an equity in vacant land from which no income is 
derived or in real estate upon which an applicant actually resides shall 
not disqualify him from receiving assistance under this chapter; pro- 
vided, that if such equity, . . . exceeds an average of three thousand 
dollars during the five years immediately preceding his application, the 
board of public welfare of the town rendering such assistance, or the 
bureau of old age assistance . . . shall . . . require such applicant to 
execute a bond in a penal sum equal to the amount of the equity in ex- 
cess of three thousand dollars, conditioned on repayment ... of all 
amounts of such assistance, without interest, such bond to be secured by 
mortgage upon the applicant's real estate. . . ." 

In an opinion rendered you on October 24, 1944 (ante, p. 30), I stated 
that when real estate upon which husband and wife resided, owned by 
them as tenants in common, had an equity of $5,030, neither one nor 
both of them upon receiving old age assistance were required to furnish a 
bond and mortgage under said chapter 118A, section 4, because "a tenant 
in common cannot be said to be enriched b}^ that share of the total equi- 
table rights in a piece of real estate which inure to the other tenant." 

The same considerations apply when the estate is held by husband and 
wife as joint tenants. 

A joint tenancy and a tenancy in common are alike to the extent that 
in both cases the co-tenants hold by unity of possession. They differ in 
that joint tenants hold by one joint title and in one right, whereas ten- 
ants in common hold by several titles and several rights. 33 Corpus 
Juris 901. 

The feature of joint tenancy which chiefly distinguishes it from tenancy 
in common is the right of survivorship which exists in joint tenancy but 
not in tenancy in common. 

It has been stated by the Supremo Judicial Court that "the doctrine 
of survivorship is the distinguishing incident of title by joint tenancy" 
(Morris v. McCarty, 158 Mass. 11, 12, 13), but the right of survivorship does 
not enable one to say of a joint tenant any more than of a tenant in com- 
mon that he is "enriched by that share of the total equitable rights in a 
piece of real estate which inure to the other tenant." 

2. The foregoing principles apply also with relation to real estate of 
tenants by the entirety, and I am of the opinion that a bond and mortgage 
may not be required of such tenants receiving old age assistance in any 
of the instances outlined in your second question. 

A tenancy by the entirety is a tenancy by a husband and wife with 
right of possession in the husband, and, as has been said by the Supreme 
Judicial Court: 

"An estate in entirety is an estate in joint tenancy, but with the limi- 
tation that during their joint lives neither the husband nor the wife can 



P.D. 12. • 49 

destroy the right of survivorship without the assent of the other party." 
Morris v. McCarty, 158 Mass. 11, 12. 

Palmer v. Treasurer and Receiver General, 222 Mass. 263; I'ray v. .S7c6- 
hins, 141 Mass. 219, 221. 

An estate or tenancy in entirety is in its nature a joint tenancy and the 
feature which chiefly distinguishes the former from the hitter tenancy in 
no real sense indicates an enrichment of one tenant by that share of the 
total equitable rights which inure to the other tenant any more than if 
they were tenants in common. It follows, therefore, that a bond and 
mortgage should not be required in the situation which you have set 
forth. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bishnell, Attorney General. 



Insurance — Classification of Fire Risks by Domestic Fire Insurance Com- 
panies — Contracts made oidside the Commonwealth. 

Jan. 16, 1945. 

Hon. Charles F. J. HARRixciTON, Commissioner of Insurance. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion upon three questions of law 
relating to the classification of fire insurance risks by domestic mutual 
companies under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 80, as amended. 

1. Your first question reads: 

"May a domestic mutual fire company apportion any of its fire insur- 
ance risks located in the Commonivealth and insured under contracts made 
in Massachusetts into classifications other than such classifications as are 
definitely specified in section 80?" 

I answer your ciuestion in the negative. 

Said section 80 in its applicable portions provides: (1) that the direc- 
tors of a mutual fire company may fix the percentages of dividend or ex- 
piration return of premium to be paid on expiring or cancelled policies 
which may, with the approval of the Commissioner of Insurance, be 
different from policies insuring against the different kinds of risks speci- 
fied in section 47 of said chapter 175 which may be written by such a 
company; (2) with regard to polici(>s insuring against loss by fire the sec- 
tion specifically provides that such percentage may be different for "farm 
risks, fireproof risks, . . . manufacturing or storage risks, or manufac- 
turing or storage risks confined to lumber and woodworking only" from 
"that for pohcies insuring other risks against fire for the same term." 
The section further provides that " policies insuring risks in this common- 
wealth in the same classification shall have an equal rate of dividend or 
return of premium." 

Inasmuch as the Legislature in the foregoing terms of saitl section SO has 
specifically designated the classes of fire risks which may be given per- 
centages of dividend or expiration return of premium different from the 
percentage established for other fire risks, ^ it has shown an intention that 
such designated classes of fire risks shall be exclusive of any other fire 
risks and has not accorded authority to domestic mutual fire companies 
to add to such classes or to apportion y?re risks for the purposes of giving 



50 P.D. 12. 

different percentages into other classifications than those set forth in the 
said section. 

As a principle of construction, express mention of one or more matters 
in a statute is generally held to exclude by implication other similar mat- 
ters not mentioned. Boston it Albany Railroad v. Commonwealth, 296 
Mass. 426, 434; Spence, Bryson, Inc. v. China Products Co., 308 Mass. 
81, 88. 

2. Your second question reads: 

"Does the requirement of section 80 that classifications of risks be 
approved by the Commissioner apply to classifications of risks which are 
located outside the Commonwealth and insured under contracts made outside 
Massachusetts?" 

I answer this question in the negative. 

A contract of insurance made outside the Commonwealth is governed 
by the laws of the State in which it is made. Bottomley v. Metropolitan 
Life Ins. Co., 170 Mass. 274. Dolan v. Mutual Reserve Fund, 173 Mass. 
197. Johnson v. Mutual Life Ins. Co., 180 Mass. 407, 408, 409. Stone v. 
Old Colony Street Railway, 212 Mass. 459. 

Fire policies written outside Massachusetts conforming in their terms 
concerning classification for percentages of dividend or expiration return 
of premiums with the laws of the State in which the contract is made are 
valid. In making the various provisions respecting such classifications, 
including approval by the Commissioner of Insurance, the Legislature 
would appear to have been regulating the making of such contracts of fire 
insurance only as are executed within the Commonwealth. As to these, 
the provisions of said section 80 govern contracts made in Massachusetts 
by both domestic mutual fire companies and by foreign mutual fire com- 
panies (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 150) irrespective of the laws of the 
States where such foreign companies are situated, but as to contracts 
made outside Massachusetts by domestic and foreign companies alike, 
the provisions of said section 80 do not apply. 

If the Legislature had intended to impose a prohibition in this connec- 
tion upon domestic companies with respect to risks outside Massachu- 
setts, it doubtless would have used words indicating such an intent, such 
as, referring to the risks designated in section 80, "wherever located", 
as was done in the amendment of R. L., c. 118, § 20, by St. 1907, c. 576, 
§ 20, now embodied in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 21, with respect to the 
insurable limits of a single risk. 

The provision in section 80 that "policies insuring risks in this com- 
monwealth in the same classification shall have an equal rate of dividend 
or return of premium" and the further provision that "every policy placed 
in any classification made under this section shall, when issued, bear an 
endorsement, satisfactory to the commissioner, to the effect that it is so 
classified" indicate that the Legislature intended by the terms of section 
80 to regulate the classifications therein provided for contracts made in 
Massachusetts and did not intend in respect to such classifications to 
attempt to regulate contracts made outside the Commonwealth. 

3. Your third question reads : 

"May a domestic mutual company apportion any of its risks located 
outside Uie CommonwealtK and insured under contracts made outside Massa- 
chusetts into classifications other than such classifications as are specified 
in section 80?" 



P.D. 12. 51 

I answer this question to the effect that such a company may apportion 
risks located and insured outside the Commonweahh into classifications 
other than thosc^ specified in said section 80 if th(> hiw of the State where 
the contract of insurance is made permits such classifications. 

The same considerations which wen^ applicable to your .second finest ion 
also apply to the third and make it apparent that th(>' implied prohibitions 
contained in said section 80 of classifications other than tho.se specified 
therein are not applicable to contracts of fire insurance made outside the 
Commonwealth. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert T. Bushxell, Attorneij General. 



Workmen's Compensation ~ Director of Division of the Blind — "Officer'' 

— '' Employee' \ 

Jan. 31, 1945. 
Industrial Accident Board. 

Dear Sirs: — You have asked my opinion upon three questions of law 
regarding the application of the Workmen's Compensation Act to the 
Director of the Division of the Blind. 

1. Your first question reads: 

"Is the Director of the Blind, appointed under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 15, 
§ 13, an 'employee' within the provisions of St. 1936, c. 403, amending 
G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 152, § 69?" 



i9" 



I answer this question in the negative. 

It is apparent from a consideration of the statutes concerning the place 
of the said Director that such place is an office, not an employment, in 
the service of the Commonwealth so that the incumbent is an officer and 
not an employee. 

The distinction between an officer and an employee is a well-recognized 
one and has often been made by the Legislature and recognized by the 
Supreme Judicial Court. 

There are certain criteria which have been said by oiu- courts to dis- 
tinguish an office from an employment: the holder of an office has en- 
trusted to him some portion of the sovereign authorit}^ of the state, his 
duties are not merely clerical but myst be performed in the administra- 
tion of authority bestowed by law, a tenure defined by statute, a selection 
of the holder by appointment imder statute rather than by a contract, a 
salary fixed by law rather than by a contract of hiring. Attorneij General 
V. Tillinghad, 203 Mass. 539, 543-545. 

Judged by an application of this test, the place in question is an office. 
The Director of the Division of the Blind is appointed by the Governor, 
with the advice and consent of the Council, for a term of five 3^ears, at a 
salary fixed by them (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 15, § 15); he is the head of the 
division (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 69, § 17), and is vested with authority to 
appoint and remove subordinate officers, agents, teachers and clerks, with 
the advice of the advisory board in such division (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 15, 
§ 16) ; he is empowered to administer the law relative to the blind and 
expend public moneys for the establishment of workshops and for the 
relief of blind persons (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 69, §§ 14, 16, 24). 



52 P.D. 12. 

It follows that the Director, who is the executive and administrative 
head of the Division of the Blind, is an officer. See Robertson v. Commis- 
missioner of Civil Service, 259 Mass. 447, 449, and cases there cited. 

2. Your second question reads : 

"Is the language contained in the amendment (chapter 403 of the Acts 
of 1936) to the effect that the terms laborers, workmen and mechanics shall 
include 'other employees . . . , regardless of the nature of their work,' to 
be construed broadly as expressing the legislative intent that all 'persons' 
in the employ of the commonwealth, as the governor and council may 
determine, may be made subject to the provisions of sections 69 to 75, 
both inclusive, of chapter 152 of the General Laws, as amended?" 

I answer this question in the negative. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 152, § 69, as amended, in its applicable parts provides: 

"... The terms laborers, workmen and mechanics, as used in sections 
sixty-eight to seventy-five, inclusive (which sections relate to workmen's 
compensation) shall include all employees of any such city or town, except 
membcu's of a police or fire force, who are engaged in work being done 
under a contract with the state department of public works, and shall 
include other employees except members of a police or fire force, regard- 
less of the nature of their work, of the commonwealth or of any such 
county, city, town, district or county tuberculosis hospital district, to such 
extent as the commonwealth or such county, city, town or district, acting 
respectively through the governor and council, county commissioners, 
city council, the qualified voters in a town or district meeting, or the 
trustees of such county tuberculosis hospital district, shall determine, as 
evidenced by a writing filed with the department." 

The terms "laborers, workmen and mechanics" indicate employees of a 
certain type. When the Legislature by an amendment of section 69, as 
previously written by St. 1936, c. 403, added the words, as to which you 
inquire, "other employees . . . regardless of the nature of their work," 
it did not indicate an intention to embrace officers of the Commonwealth 
within the sweep of the Workmen's Compensation Law. 

It is a general principle of statutory construction that a word used in a 
statute is to be construed in connection with the words with which it is 
associated. Commonwealth v. Dee, 222 Mass. 184, 186; Leavitt v. Leavitt, 
135 Mass. 191, 193; In re Schouler, 134 Mass. 426, 427. 

So the words "other employees," employed by the Legislature in said 
section 69 in association with the terms "laborers, workmen and mechan- 
ics "all of which terms refer to employees, are not to be construed as being 
used in so broad or loose a sense as to comprehend officers as well as 
employees. 

The General Court has in other statutes employed the words "officers" 
and "employees" as having distinct and separate meanings. Cf. G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 5. If, in relation to the statute under consideration, the 
Legislature had intended to make its provisions applicable to officers as 
well as to employees of the Commonwealth, it doubtless would have so 
indicated by using the word "officers" in addition to "employees" in the 
sentence of said section 69 under consideration. 

3. Your third question reads: 

"Is the language 'other employees . . . regardless of the nature of 
their work ' as used in said chapter 403 of the Acts of 1936 to be construed 



P.D. 12. 

5d 

in a restricted sense as limiting its application to those who ma^». ,, , . . . • 

'employees,' in the narrow sense, as that term is distinguisheu i'*^'', "i 

from the word 'officers,' as so used?" *'" . .^ 

d by 

The same considerations which required me to answer your secotf<e 

question in the negative make it necessary for me to answer this question 

in the nffirmati\c. 

\'ery truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Civil Service — Preference of Veterans in Promotional Examinations. 

Feb. 5, 1945. 

Civil Service Commission. 

Dear Sirs: — You have informed me that: 

"A competitive promotional examination, provided foi- in th(> second 
.sentence of section 15 of the General Laws, chapter 31, has been held by 
this Division to establish an eligible list from which a promotion might be 
made of a superintendent of sewers of the Metropolitan District Com- 
mission. Several of those who took the examination are veterans, and 
some are also disabled veterans. The Director of Civil Service was re- 
quested to give one of the disabled veterans who passed this promotional 
examination preference as a disabled veteran. The Director denied the 
request on his finding that there was no provision therefor in the Civil 
Service Law or Rules. This action of the Director has been appealed to 
the Civil Service Commission." 

You have asked my opinion "as to whether or not preference to dis- 
abled veterans can be allowed by the Director in preparing a list of eligibles 
for promotion to the position to which reference is made." 

I advise you that in my opinion a preference in promotion as a result of 
a competitive promotional examination such as you have described may 
not be given a disabled veteran. 

The second sentence of the last paragraph of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, 
§ 15, as amended, to which you refer, provides with relation to promotions 
in the classified Civil Service other than a special type of promotion men- 
tioned in the first sentence, that: 

". . . any promotion shall be made after a competitive promotional 
examination open to the next lower grades in succession in the service of 
the same department, board or commission until a sufficient number of 
applicants to hold a competitive examination is obtained." 

It is provided in C;. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 23, that: 

". . .A disabled veteran shall be appointed and employed in preference 
to all other persons, including veterans." 

This provision was introduced into said section 23 in 1922 by chapter 
463 of that year. 

Section 23 also provides a preference for veterans to positions in the 
classified Civil Service, limited to preference in '' appointmenV only. The 
distinction between these two forms of preferences, involving the added 
advantage given the disabled veteran by preference in "employment" as 
well as in appointment, is well recognized. Younie v. Director of the Divi- 



52 P.D. 12. 

It ioWQ^mploy merit Compensation, 306 Mass. 567. McCabe v. Judge 

head cfstrict Court, 277 Mass. 55. 

mzae Legislature has not by specific enactment provided a preference in 

omotion for veterans or disabled veterans. 

It has by implication made provision so that such a preference in pro- 
motion may come into existence, for by G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 3, it has 
provided with relation to the Rules of the Civil Service Commission that: 

"... Such rules . . . shall include provisions for the following: — 



(/) Preference to veterans in appointment and promotion, not incon- 
sistent with this chapter." 

The terms of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 3 (f), were contained in G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 3, when said St. 1922, c. 463, was enacted. Voume v. 
Director of the Division of Unemployment Compensation, 306 Mass. 567, 571. 

The legislative provision, however, is not self-executing by its terms; 
it requires to be implemented by the rule-making power of your Com- 
mission. This power your Commission has never exercised and in spite 
of the requirement that the rules formulated by the Commission "shall 
include" provisions concerning veterans' preferences, both in appointment 
and promotion, no rule or regulation with regard to preference of veterans 
in promotions has ever been made. 

From the manner of employment by the Legislature in said chapter 31 
of the words "appointment", "employment" and "promotion" as dis- 
tinct and separate terms, it is clear that none of the three words was used 
as embodying the meaning of either of the others. 

It follows that at the present time, since no rule with relation to veterans' 
preferences in promotion has been made by your Commission, no provi- 
sion of law exists whereby in a competitive examination for promotion 
from a position in one class or grade to a position in a higher grade or class, 
held under the terms of the second sentence of the last paragraph of said 
section 15, preference may be given to a disabled veteran. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Civil Service — Custodian of Municipal Building — '^0[ficer" — 

''Employee". 

Feb. 9, 1945. 
Hon. Thomas J. Greehan, Director of Civil Service. 

De.^r Sir : — You have asked my opinion as to whether the position 
of custodian of the G. A. R. Memorial Building in Lynn is subject to the 
provisions of the Civil Service Law. 

I answer j^our question in the affirmative. 

By the terms of the Civil Service Rules (Rule 4.1.) made under authority 
of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 3, the position of custodian of a municipal pub- 
lic building would appear to have been made subject to the Civil Service 
Law by the establishment through said Rule of Class 24 of the classified 
Civil Service. This class is described in said Rule as consisting of: 

"Janitors, custodians, and persons employed in the care of schools, or 
other public buildings." 



VAX 12. 55 

By Spec. St. 1919, o. 220, the City of Lynn was autliorized to accept in 
trust a conveyance of the said Grand Army building;, and by section 4 of 
said chapter 220 an unpaid board of seven trustees, to be appointed by 
the mayor with the api)roval of tlie city council, was created by the statute 
and empowered : 

"to have charge and care of the building subject to the approval of the 
mayor and city council." 

Provision was made in said section 4 for a custodian of the building and 
authority for his appointment and removal was given as follows: 

"They (the trustees) shall appoint a custodian therefor, and shall fix 
his compensation but the custodian may at any time be removed by the 
trustees, or a majority of them, without such apjiroval. The trustees may 
appoint other necessary officers or employees for the care of the building, 
and may fix their compensation." 

The duties of the custodian are not set forth in the statute and there is 
nothing to indicate that his position is other than an employment. There 
is nothmg about the position of a custodian of a building, as the word 
"custodian" is ordinarily used, which tends by necessary implication to 
carry with it a grant of any part of the authority of the state or munici- 
pality as such, so as to raise the position to the status of an "office." The 
use of the words "other necessary officers or employees" in the last sen- 
tence of said section 4 above quoted, does not indicate a legislative intent 
to make the place of custodian an office. 

It follows that the place in question is not an office and the incumbent 
not an "officer" as the word "officer" is used in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 4, 
exempting certain "officers" from the sweep of the Civil Service Law in 
the following language: 

"No rule made by the (civil service) commission shall apply to the 
selection or appointment of any of the following: 

. . . officers whose appointment is subject to confirmation by the . . . 
city council of any city; ..." 

The place in question does not fall within any of the other exemptions 
from the Civil Service Law provided for in said section 5. 

There is nothing in the phraseology of said section 4 of chapter 220 with 
relation to the place which by implication indicates a legislative intent to 
exempt it from the force of the Civil Service Law. The provision in said 
section 4 that "the custodian may at any time be removed by the trustees 
. . . without such approval" (i.e. approval by the mayor and city council), 
while providing that removal from the position may be made by the trus- 
tees without tlie necessity of obtaining approval of their action from the 
mayor and council, as might otherwise have been thought to be required 
by the phrase in said section 4, "the trustees shall have charge and care of 
the building and of its maintenance and use, subject to the apjoroval of the 
mayor and of the city council," does not vest the trustees with power to 
remove in any other fashion than that required by the Civil Service Law 
in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 81, § 43. 

It has not been held that an intent on the part of the Legislature to 
exclude a position from the benefits of the Civil Service Law can properly 
be said to arise by implication from the wording of a statute except when a 



56 P.D. 12. 

specific provision relative to appointment or removal directly contrary 
to the general terms of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, has been set forth, a provi- 
sion, for example, authorizing removal at "pleasure." Opinion of the 
Attorney General to the Civil Service Commission (Attorney General's 
Report for year ending June 30, 1944, p. 144). No such provision with 
relation to the place in question has been made by the Legislature. 

Unless a place in the public service has been specifically or impliedly 
excluded by the Legislature from the control of the Civil Service Law and 
Rules, or is within some group of places w^hich has been so specifically or 
impliedly excluded, it is within the sweep of those measures and is governed 
by them when, like the place under consideration, it falls within a, classi- 
ficp^tion established by the Civil Service Commission. Wells v. Commis- 
sioner of Public Works, 253 Mass. 416, 419. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Civil Service — Promotions — G. L. {Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 15. 

Feb. 26, 1945. 
Hon. Thomas J. Greehan, Director of Civil Service. 

Dear Sir : — In a recent letter you have written me as follows : 

"I have been requested to approve the promotion of an employee who 
is the fifth oldest employee in point of service in the next lower grade, in a 
case where the oldest and second oldest employees are unwilling to be con- 
sidered for the promotion. 

The question has arisen as to whether the words quoted mean the oldest, 
second oldest or third oldest who are willing to accept such promotion. 

I would, therefore, respectfully request your opinion on the point raised, 
all the other conditions for approval of promotion being present except 
that of determining the meaning of these words." 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 15, as amended, in its applicable parts reads: 

". . . an appointing official may with the approval of the director pro- 
mote in the official service an emploj^ee in one grade to the next higher 
grade; provided, that such employee has been employed at least three 
years in the lower grade, is the oldest employee, the second oldest employee 
or the third oldest employee therein in point of service, and that such em- 
ployee passes a qualifjnng examination ..." 

The phraseology used by the Legislature in the quoted sentence is ex- 
plicit as to the employees who may be promoted in the manner described. 
Such specific provision by a well-recognized rule of statutory construction 
excludes the inclusion therein of employees not designated in view of the 
fact that such a construction is not opposed to the purposes of the Civil 
Service Law^ and there appears to be nothing in the statute to indicate a 
legislative intent to give the privilege of promotion without a competitive 
examination to anyone but the three employees in the appropriate grades 
who are actually the three oldest "in point of service." Words such as 
"who are wilhng to accept such promotion" cannot properly be read into 
the statute. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



P.D. 12. 57 

Food — Sale of Canned Lobster Meat — Label. 

March 5, 1945. 
Mr. Ralph H. Osborn, Director, Division of Marine Fisheries. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether it is legal to 
sell in the Commonwealth canned lobster meat derived from "erustacea 
of the species genus poUnunis" labeled with various trade names and with 
the word "lobster" preceded by the word "rock." 

I am of the opinion that a sale of such lobster meat so labeled would be 
in violation of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 130, § 51. 

Said section reads: 

"No person shall sell, or represent for the purpose of sale, any lobster 
as a native lobster unless the same shall have been originally caught or 
taken in the coastal waters; nor shall any person so sell, or represent for 
the purpose of sale, any crustacean as a lobster unless the same is of the 
species known as Homarus americanus; nor shall any person so sell, or 
represent for the purpose of sale, any meat as lobster meat unless such meat 
is wholly from crustaceans of such species. Violation of any provision of 
this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more than 
fifty dollars." 

It would appear that the described labeling represents the canned meat 
to be "lobster meat." Neither the trade names nor the use of the word 
"rock" can reasonably be said to alter the nature of such representation. 
You have stated the fact to be that the canned meat in question is not 
from a lobster of the species known as "Homarus americanus." This 
being so, its sale as "lobster meat" is contrary to the provisions of said 
section 51. 

Section 46 of said chapter 130 permits the sale of canned "lobster meat" 
when certified by health authorities under certain designated circumstances 
but the provisions of section 46 do not authorize the sale of canned "lobster 
meat" of a kind forbidden by the specific provisions of said section 51. 
The sections of said chapter 130, as of all statutes, are to be read together 
so as to form as far as possible an harmonious whole {Killam v. March, 
316 Mass. 646; Fluett v. McCabe, 299 Mass. 173, 178.). 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Insurance — Fraternal Benefit Society — By-Laws — Delegation of 
Authority — Election of Officers. 

March 9, 1945. 
Hon. Charles F. J. Harrington, Commissioner of Insurance. 
Dear Sir: — You have informed me that: 

"In connection with a recent examination conducted by this Depart- 
ment of the affairs of a domestic fraternal benefit society incorporated 
on the Lodge System, a question has arisen as to the power of the society to 
enact a by-law authorizing its executive committee which has the powers 
of directors to appoint the supreme treasurer and the supreme secretary." 



58 P.D. 12. 

and you have asked my opinion as follows: 

"Will you please advise us as to whether or not a society of this kind 
may by by-law delegate to its executive committee the right to appoint 
its supreme treasurer and its supreme secretary." 

I am of the opinion that such a society may not by by-law delegate to 
its executive committee the right to appoint its supreme treasurer and 
secretary. 

The method of organizing such a society at its first meeting is set forth 
in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 176, § 7. The third sentence of said section 7 reads: 

". . . At such first meeting, including any reasonable adjournment 
thereof, an organization shall be effected by the choice by ballot of a 
temporary clerk, who shall be sworn, and by the adoption of by-laws, 
and the election by ballot of directors, president, secretary and treasurer, 
or other officers corresponding thereto, with powers and duties similar to 
those of such officers, and such other officers as the by-laws may provide 
for; but at such election no person shall be eligible as a director or other 
officer who has not subscribed the agreement of association." 

Section 3 of said chapter 176, as amended, reads as follows: 

' "Any such society shall be deemed to have a representative form of 
government when it shall provide in its constitution and by-laws for a 
supreme legislative or governing body, composed of representatives 
elected either by the members or by delegates elected directly or indirectly 
by the members, together with such other members as may be prescribed 
by its constitution and by-laws; and provided, further, that the meetings 
of the supreme or governing body and the election of officers, representatives 
or delegates shall be held as often as once in four years, and that a complete 
stenographic record of the proceedings of each such meeting, so far as it 
■ relates to matters within the jurisdiction of the commissioner of insur- 
ance, shall be filed in the home office of the society within thirty days 
after the adjournment of such meeting. The members, officers, representa- 
tives or delegates of a fraternal benefit society shall not vote by proxy." 

Section 32 of said chapter 176, as amended, relative to the constitution 
and by-laws of such a society, provides: 

"Every society may, subject to this chapter, make a constitution and 
by-laws for its government, admission of members, management of its 
affairs, and the fixing and readjusting of the rates and contributions of its 
members frpm time to time, and may amend its constitution and by-laws, 
and it shall have such other powers as are necessary or incidental to carry 
into effect its objects and purposes. The constitution and by-laws may 
prescribe the officers and elected members of standing committees, who 
may be ex officiis directors or other officers corresponding thereto, and 
may, with the approval of the commissioner, provide for a system of absent 
voting, other than proxy voting, under which absent members entitled 
to vote may vote in the election of the officers and directors or similar 
governing body; provided, that the commissioner shall not approve any 
provision for such a system of absent voting unless the society submitting 
such provision for approval satisfies the commissioner that absent voting 
is necessary in order to have an adequate representation of the member- 
ship of the society at its elections." 



P.D. 12. ')[) 

St. 1901, c. 422, from which the provisions of said sections 3, 7 and 32 
stem, provided in its section 4 for the election at tlie first meeting of such a 
societv for organization of officers bv ballot, and in section 6 provided 
that ■/ 

"Officers chosen as requinHl in section four shall hold office until the 
next meeting of the corporation for the election of officers. ... At the 
said meeting, and thereafter at least biennially, the officers shall be chosen, 
and shall hold office until their successors are elected and qualified. . . ." 

Section 5 of said chapter 422 provided with relation to b3'-laws in part 
as follows: 

"The by-laws may prescribe, where no other provision is specially made,^ 
the manner in which and the officers ... by whom the piu'poses of the 
corporation shall be carried out; ..." 

Similar provisions, including one for the election of a secretary at the 
first meeting, appear likewise in the revision of the law relative to such 
societies in St. 1911, c. 628. 

In said chapter 422, section 3, the Legislature made plain its intent that 
the officers elected at the first meeting of such society were to be there- 
after elected by the members, and by said section 5 vaiuh clear that the 
by-laws might prescribe the manner of election of officers only in such 
instances as had not been provided for by statute. 

I am of the opinion that in the compilation of the law relative to such 
societies in said chapter 176 of the General Laws, the Legislature in re- 
quiring the election of the designated officers at the first meeting and "the 
election of officers ..." thereafter "as often as once in four years," 
provided the manner of such election, and that the power to make by- 
laws given by said section 32 of chapter 176 was not intended to grant 
any authority to make by-laws with relation to the manner of election of 
officers when such provision had been specifically made by the Legislature 
itself, as in said section's 3 and 5. 

\'erbal changes in the re-enactment or codification of earlier statutes 
are to be treated, by a familiar principle of statutory construction, as not 
altering the meaning of such statutes but as continuations of the previous 
law. Delaney v. Grand Lodge A.O.U.W., 244 Mass. 556, 563. Davis v. 
School Committee, 307 Mass. 354, 361, 363. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Constitutional Law — Alcoholic Beverages — Sales — Aliens — Treaty with 

Great Britain. 

March 9, 1945. 

His Excellency Maurice J. Tobin, Governor of the Commonwealth. 

Sir: — Your Excellency has advised me of the case of a British suljject 
who was discharged from her position, which I assume from what you 
have written, to have been that of a waitress, serving alcoholic beverages 
in a restaurant licensed under the provisions of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 138, 
as amended, by her employer because he was threatened with prosecution 
under G. L. (ter. Ed.) c. 138, § 31, as amended, for employing her since 
she was not a citizen of the United States. 



60 P.D. 12. 

You have asked my opinion as to whether said section 31 is repugnant 
to the terms of the existing Treaty between the United States and Great 
Britain made in 1815, and with minor changes still in force. 

Statutes which are in opposition or repugnant to treaties of the United 
States are of no more force than unconstitutional statutes. Todok v. 
Union State Bank, 281 U. S. 449, 453; In re Wyman, 191 Mass. 276. 
Statutes, however, are to be construed whenever reasonably possible so 
as to give them an interpretation which will prevent their being invalid 
or ineffective (Lehan v. North Main St. Garage, 312 Mass. 547, 559). 

Construed so as to prohibit the employment of a British subject to 
serve liquor in a licensed restaurant, the said section would in my opinion 
be repugnant to said Treaty* 

To be valid and enforceable, the section is to be construed as having 
no application to aliens who are British subjects. 

Said G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 138, § 31, reads: 

"No person, except a citizen of the United States, shall sell, serve or 
deliver any alcoholic beverages or alcohol on any premises covered by a 
license, permit or certificate of fitness issued under this chapter, and no 
holder of such a license, permit or certificate of fitness shall, directly or 
through any agent, employ or permit any such person to sell, serve or 
deliver any alcoholic beverages or alcohol upon the premises covered by 
such license, permit or certificate. No holder of a transportation permit 
issued under this chapter shall, directly or through any agent, employ or 
permit any person, except such a citizen, to transport any alcoholic bever- 
ages or alcohol. Whoever violates any provision of this section shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred 
dollars, and such a violation, if committed by the holder of a license, 
permit or certificate of fitness issued under this chapter, shall be sufficient 
cause for the revocation or suspension thereof." 

The applicable portion of the existing Treaty between the United States 
and Great Britain (8 Stat. 228) reads: 

"Article I. 

There shall be between the territories of the United States of America, 
and all the territories of His Britannick majesty in Europe, a reciprocal 
liberty of commerce. The inhabitants of the two countries, respectively, 
shall have liberty freely and securely to come with their ships and cargoes 
to all such places, ports, and rivers, in the territories aforesaid, to which 
other foreigners are permitted to come, to enter into the same, and to 
remain and reside in any parts of the said territories, respectively; also 
to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for the purposes of their com- 
merce; and, generally, the merchants and traders of each nation, respec- 
tively, shall enjoy the most complete protection and security for their 
commerce, but subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries, 
respectively." 

Although it is true that not every gainful occupation in which a British 
subject may engage while in the United States can reasonably be said to 
be so related to "commerce" as to be within the guaranties of the said 
Treaty for securit}^ to carry on commerce (Clark v. Deckerbach, 274 U. S. 
392), yet a hberal rather than a narrow construction should be given to 



P.D. 12. 61 

the phraseology of the Treaty {In re Wymau, 191 Mass. 276, 278; Tucker 
V. Alexandroff] 183 U. S. 424, 437; Asakura v. City of Seattle, 265 U. S. 
332, 342), to effectuate what under present-day conceptions would appear 
to be the intent of the treaty makers, namely, to accord the same liberty 
to pursue commercial affairs to British subjects as to citizens of the United 
States. 

To sell alcoholic beverages in a licensed restaurant or to assist in selling 
by serving them as a waiter or waitress is, as has been held by one of my 
predecessors in office (Attorney General's Report, 1938, pp. 56, 57), to 
perform commercial work and to carry on commercial affairs so related to 
"commerce" as to be comprehended by the quoted word as used in the 
said Treaty and to bring the person so emploj^ed within the sweep of the 
words "merchants and traders" as set forth in the Treaty. 

It follows that the said section 31 does not prohibit the employment of 
British subjects to perform the work described therein in connection with 
the sale, service or delivery of alcoholic beverages. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Military Leave of Absence — Resignation — United States Puhlic 

Health Service. 

March 14, 1945. 
Hon. Clifton T. Perkins, Commissioner of Mental Health. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion upon the following question 
with relation to the specific case of Dr. Irene O. Grandmont, formerly 
Assistant Physician at the Foxborough State Hospital: 

"Does an Assistant Physician who enters the United States Public 
Health Service come under the provisions of Chapter 708 of the Acts of 
1941, when the physician in question was assigned to duty immediately 
with the United States Coast Guard, according to data submitted by 
her?" 

You have informed me that Dr. Grandmont did not file a written resigna- 
tion when leaving the service of the Commonwealth at some time prior 
to December 7, 1944, but gave only an oral notice of resignation to the 
superintendent of the said hospital; that at the time of giving such notice 
she informed the superintendent that she was leaving to enter the United 
States Public Health Service; that subsequently she did enter the Public 
Health Service; that immediately thereafter she was detailed to serve in 
the United States Coast Guard. 

The United States Public Health Service (U. S. C. Title 42) is not as 
such a part of the, naval or military forces of the United States. • The 
personnel of the United States Coast Guard is a part of the naval forces 
of the United States (U. S. C. A. 14, 1943, Pub. Law 184, c. 298) by virtue 
of an executive order of the President (Exec. Ord. Nov. 1, 1941, P>d. Reg. 
Vol. 6, p. 215). 

St. 1941, c. 708, § 1, as amended by St. 1943, c. 548, provides that : 
"... any person who . . . shall have tendered his resignation from 
an office or position in the service of the commonwealth, . . . for the 
purpose of serving in the military or naval forces of the United States and 



62 P.D. 12. 

who does so serve , . . shall ... be deemed to be ... on leave of 
absence; . . . 

... If no written resignation is filed, entrance into the military or naval 
service of the United States . . . shall he 'prima facie evidence that his 
service to the commonwealth ... is terminated for the purpose of entering 
said military or naval service." 

As appears by the foregoing statutory provisions, the fact that Dr. 
Grandmont did not enter the naval forces of the United States in the Coast 
Guard after resigning, is prima facie evidence that she left the service of the 
Commonwealth for the purpose of entering such forces. 

The Attorney General does not pass upon questions of fact. 

Upon the facts as you have presented them to me, it cannot be said, 
as a matter of law, that the mere statement of Dr. Grandmont to the 
superintendent, that she was leaving to enter the Public Health Service 
(a service from which she might be detailed to the Coast Guard) is in 
itself evidence of a lack of intent to enter the naval forces at the time of 
resignation sufficient to overcome the presumption arising by force of the 
statute from her actual entry into such naval forces. It may well be that 
at the time of resignation she knew that by prior arrangement she was to 
enter the Coast Guard through the medium of induction into the Public 
Health Service. 

It follows that upon the facts of which you have informed me Dr. 
Grandmont should be regarded as upon a leave of absence such as is men- 
tioned in said section 1, commonly called a military leave. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Division of the Blind — Vocational Rehabilitation — Federal Funds. 

.April 5, 1945. 
Hon. Julius E. Warren, Coynmissioner of Education. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion upon three questions in the 
following communication: 

"The Division of the Bhnd, Department of Education, is about to 
embark upon a program for the blind which contemplates participation 
in the benefits made available under Public Law 113, 78th- Congress, and 
the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. 

Therefore, I respectfully request your opinion on the following questions 
which relate to the conduct of the above-mentioned program. 

1. Is the Division of the Blind, State Department of Education, au- 
thorized to provide vocational rehabilitation for the adult blind? 

2. If so, is said division authorized to expend state funds for this pur- 
pose" 



3. If so, may federal funds be received and expended as provided for 
in the vocational rehabilitation act, amendments of 1943, and the regula- 
tions issued pursuant thereunder." 

1. "Vocational rehabilitation" is defined by Congress in the Vocational 
Rehabilitation Act of June 2, 1920, as amended by Public Law 113 of the 
78th Congress, to which you refer, as "any services necessary to render a 



P.D. 12. 63 

disabled individual fit to ongago in a rcmunorative occupation." The 
words appear to be used in the same sense in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 15, § 6A, 
and I assume that they are so employed in your letter. 

Although broad powers are given to the Director of the Blind to amelio- 
rate the condition of the blind, authority to engage in "vocational reha- 
bilitation" is not specifically conferred. Doubtless vocational rehabilita- 
tion may be the result in some in.stances of the exercise by the division of 
its power to ameliorate the condition of the l)lind, and since this is so 
such incidental "vocational rehabilitation'' and the expenditui'e of funds 
which make it possible are within the authority of the Division of the 
Blind, so that I answer your first two questions in the affirmative. 

2. It does not follow, however, that the Division of the Blind is author- 
ized "to embark upon a program for the blind which contemplates par- 
ticipation in the benefits made available under Public Law 113, 78th 
Congress," as suggested in vour letter. 

Public Law 113 of the 78th Congress (57 Stat., pt. 1, c. 190) amends 
"An Act to provide for the promotion of vocational rehabilitation of per- 
sons disabled in industrv or otherwise and their return to civil employ- 
ment", approved June 2, 1920 (U. S. C, title 29, c. 4, §§ 31-45B) so as 
to make the benefits of the act applicable to "war disabled civilians." 

By the enactment of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 15, § 6A, as amended, the 
Legislature has created the State Board of Vocational Education and has 
specifically empowered such Board to co-operate with a federal agency in 
the administration of said Congressional act of June 2, 1920, and acts in 
amendment thereof, of which acts in amendment said Public Law 113 is 
one. The said Board is also authorized by said section 6A to expend "any 
funds received by the state treasurer from the federal government under 
the provisions of said act or acts" of Congress. 

Moreover, by G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 74, § 22A, as amended, said State 
Board is fully empowered to do all things necessary to carry out a broad 
program for "vocational rehabilitation" of persons disabled in industry 
or otherwise, with the use of federal funds, a progi'am which may embrace 
specific training for the "vocational rehabilitation" of the blind. 

Consequently, since the said Board has been so specifically authorized 
to act in conjunction with the federal authorities in carrying out the 
federal act as amended and to expend the money receivable under the 
act, no authority, by implication or otherwise, is vested in the Division 
of the Blind with respect to the administration of the federal act or the 
expenditure of the funds paid to the State under it. 
Very truly j'ours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Constitutional Law — Rules and Regulations of State Departments — 7s/)- 

croachment of Legislature upon Authority of the Executive Branch of 

the Government. 

April 13, 1945. 

Hon. Charles F. Holman, Chairman, Legislative Committee on Depart- 
mental Rules and Regidations. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion on behalf of said committee 
as to the constitutionality, if enacted into law, of a propos(>d measure, 
entitled "An Act establishing a Joint Standing Committee of the General 



04 P.D. 12. 

Court to act with respect to rules and regulations of state departments, 
commissions, boards and officials." 

I am of the opinion that this proposed measure, if enacted into law, 
would not be constitutional since it provides for the exercise by the legis- 
lative department of the government of executive powers in contraven- 
tion of the prohibitions of Article XXX of Part the First of the Constitu- 
tion of the Commonwealth. Furthermore, the manner provided for the 
establishment of the committee which is to administer the provisions of 
the measure would appear to be in violation of Article LXVI of the Amend- 
ments to the Constitution. 

A proposed act similar in all material respects to the instant measure 
was submitted in 1943 by the House Committee on Ways and Means to 
the then Attorney General, and the latter, on May 26, 1943 (Attorney 
General's Report for the year ending June 30, 1944, p. 51), rendered an 
opinion to that committee to the effect that the proposed act would be 
unconstitutional and set forth at length the reasons which induce a con- 
clusion that such a measure is not constitutional. I am in accord with 
that opinion. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Insurance — Dornestic Stock Liahility Insurance Company — Increase of 
Capital — Commissioner's Approval. 

April 16, 1945. 
Hon. Charles F. J. Harrington, Commissioner of Insurance. 

Dear Sir.* — In a recent communication you have written me that : 

''A domestic stock liability insurance company which has voted to in- 
crease its capital by a transfer from its surplus in the manner outlined in 
G. L. c. 175, § 70, has forwarded to the Department within the prescribed 
time the documents executed in connection with such proposed increase. 

Previous to taking this vote the company's capital, surplus and liabili- 
ties were as follows: 

Capital $350,000.00 

Surplus $400,000.00 

Liabilities $2,135,626.02 

The proposed stock dividend which is in the amount of $150,000 would 
increase the company's capital to $500,000 and decrease its surplus to 
$250,000 but would not change the total amount available for the protec- 
tion of policyholders, although it would remove from the free surplus a 
substantial sum which otherwise would be available in the future if ad- , 
verse circumstances were encountered." m 

In connection with the foregoing facts you have asked my opinion on 
two questions. Your first question reads: 

"In taking action under section 70 is the Commissioner's duty merely 
a ministerial act in which he is limited to ascertaining that the increase in 
capital has been made in accordance with the certificate filed with him 
within thirty days after the issuance of the new stock and which sets 
forth the proceedings thereof and the amount of such increase and that 



P.D. 12. 05 

such certificate has been signed and sworn to by the president, secretary 
and a majority of the directors of the company and also to passing upon the 
form of the documents presented to him for approval?" 

1. I answer your first question in the affirmative. 

It is to be noted that the Legislature has enacted no requirement as to 
the amount of surplus which such an insurance company as you refer to 
must have nor established any provision as to any ratio which must be 
maintained between the capital of such a company and its surplus or be- 
tween surplus and outstanding liabilities. 

As you have yourself pointed out in your letter, the proposed increase 
in capital under consideration, although involving a change in the amount 
of capital and surplus, respectively, does not change the total amount of 
the company's capital and surplus available for the protection of policy- 
holders. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 175, § 70, sets forth in some detail the two ways in 
which a domestic stock insurance company may increase its capital and 
the various steps which must be taken by a company to effect such in- 
crease. (These ways were considered at length in an opinion of October 
17, 1930, *by one of my predecessors in office, given to the then Com- 
missioner of Insurance. Report of the Attorney General, 1930, p. 120.) 
After setting forth specifically the steps necessary to be taken by a com- 
pany to effect an increase of capital, said section 70 provides: 

"In whichever mode the increase is made, the company shall, within 
thirty days after the issue of such certificates, submit to the commissioner 
a certificate setting forth the proceedings thereof and the amount of such 
increase, signed and sworn to by its president and secretary and a majority 
of its directors. If the commissioner finds that the increase is made in 
conformity to law, he shall endorse his approval thereon ; and upon filing 
such certificate so endorsed with the state secretary and the payment of a 
fee of one twentieth of one per cent of the amount by which the capital 
is increased for filing the same, the company may transact business upon 
the capital as increased, and the commissioner shall, upon payment of the 
fee prescribed by section fourteen, issue his certificate to that effect." 

The phrase "if the commissioner finds that the increase is made in con- 
formity to law, he shall endorse his approval thereon," as emplo3'-ed in 
said section 70, does not indicate a legislative intent to vest the Commis- 
sioner with discretion to determine the; amount of surplus which must be 
available following an increase in capital, but merely to require him to 
ascertain whether in making an increase in capital the company has 
taken those steps and fulfilled those requirements which the Legisla- 
ture has specified in said section 70 as necessary prerequisites to such 
an increase. 

The Commissioner is not authorized to withhold his approval to an 
increase in capital, or the certificate that a company may transact business 
upon such an increased capital, because of his own views as to the de- 
sirability of such an increase. 

Said section 70, in its. provision for an approval by the Commissioner of 
Insurance of an increase in capital voted ])y a company, does not contain 
a phrase such as is to be found in section 71 of said chapter 175, wherein^ 
with relation to the Commissioner's approval of a reduction of capital 
stock it is provided: 



66 P.D. 12. 

"If the commissioner JBnds that the reduction is made in conformity to 
law and that it ivill not he prejudicial to the public, he shall endorse his 
approval thereon." 

The general provisions of section 47 of said chapter 175, to which you 
refer, which relate to examination of insurance companies and inspection 
of their affairs, business meetings and dealings with their policyholders, 
do not enlarge the scope of the particular authority to approve or dis- 
approve an increase of capital stock given to the Commissioner by said 
section 70, nor do the terms of section 72 of said chapter 175 have such an 
effect. 

Said section 70 specifically provides that "if the commissioner finds 
that the increase is made in conformity to law, he shall endorse his ap- 
proval thereon." "Shall" as so used is a mandatory word inconsistent 
with the idea of discretion. The phraseology of section 70 requires that if 
the Commissioner finds that the law specifically applicable to the ways and 
manner in which a company may increase its capital has been complied 
with, he "shall" endorse his approval and thereafter "shall" issue a 
certificate. There is no suggestion in the language of the section that the 
Commissioner may approve some increases of capital stock made in con- 
formity with the particular provisions of said section 70, and reject others 
so made, according to his own opinion as to desirability. See Elmer v. 
Commissioner of Insurance, 304 Mass. 194, 196. 

2. Your second question reads: 

"Is it the duty of the Commissioner to make an inquiry into the general 
financial condition of an insurance company proposing to increase its 
capital under section 70 and may he use the discretion of a reasonably 
prudent man in determining whether such action is in the interest of 
policyholders and the public to approve or disapprove such increase?" 

I answer this question in the negative for reasons which have been set 
forth in my answef to your first question. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Insurance — Fraternal Benefit Society — Annual Meeting — Officers Holding 
Over — Authority of Commissioner. 

April 24, 1945. 
Hon. Charles F. J. Harrington, Commissioner of Insurance. 

Dear Sir: — You have written me with relation to the approaching 
annual session of the High Court of the Massachusetts Catholic Order of 
Foresters, an incorporated fraternal benefit society, and have informed 
me that the Order is having difficulty in obtaining the necessary permis- 
sion from the Federal "War Committee on Conventions" to hold such 
session. 

You have directed my attention to Public Law 15, section 2, enacted by 
Congress and signed by the President on March 9, 1945, which in its 
applicable part reads : 

"Section 2. (a) The business of insurance, and every person engaged 
therein, shall be subject to the laws of the several States which relate to 
the regulation or taxation of such business. 



P.D. 12. 67 

(6) No Act of Congress shall bo construed to invalidate, impair, or 
supersede any law enacted by any State for the purpose of regulating the 
business of insurance ..." 

In this connection you have asked my opinion upon the two following 
questions : 

"1. In view of the requirement of the Society's Constitution and By- 
Laws that the Annual Session of the High Court be held annually between 
May 15 and May 31, may the Commissioner of Insurance order the 
Society to hold said Annual Session? 

2. Does section 2 of Public Law 15 signed on March 9, 1945, repeal or 
supersede the Rules and Regulations of the Director of War Mobilization 
and Reconversion governing the War Committee on Conventions thereby 
rendering such Rules and Regulations inapplicable to the Business of In- 
surance and persons engaged therein and placing the responsibility for the 
supervision of the insurance business upon the supervisory officers of the 
several states?" 

1. I answer your first question in the negative. 

The laws of the Commonwealth embodied in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 176, as 
amended, with relation to fraternal benefit societies, of which the Massachu- 
setts Catholic Order of Foresters is one, do not empower you to order or 
direct such societies to hold annual meetings. Said Public Law 15 does 
not purport to enlarge the powers of the Commissioner of Insurance in the 
various states, nor does it appear to have been the intent of Congress in 
passing such law to increase the authority of those entrusted by the states 
with the administration of the insurance laws. 

2. I answer your second question in the negative. 

The provisions of said section 2 of Public Law 15 do not repeal or super- 
sede "the Rules and Regulations of the Director of War Mobilization and 
Reconversion governing the War Committee on Conventions." Such 
rules are of general application, as they affect the holding of conventions 
and do not invalidate or impair state laws regulating insurance as such. 

You have also asked third and fourth questions which read: 

"3. Since the Constitution provides that officers shall be elected an- 
nually and makes no provision for their continuance in office until their 
successors are elected, will the officers be regarded as holding office legally 
beyond the period for which they were elected? 

4. Will the acts of the officers perfoi'med after the date of expiration of 
the terms for which they were elected be legal and valid in every respect 
without a proclamation by the Governor under his War Emergency 
powers, or a special act of the Legislature?" 

3. I answer both these questions to the effect that under the circum- 
stances set forth in your letter, if officers of the Order cannot be elected 
at the annual meeting, the present officers would, as a matter of law, like 
public officers, be regarded as holding over until their successors are 
chosen. The acts of such officers when so holding over as at least de facto 
officers would be treated as valid as concerns the public and third persons 
dealing with them and, since under the stated conditions no factional con- 
troversy with relation to title to the offices would e.xist, as concerns the 
Order and its members. Stratton Mass. Gold Mines Co. v. Davis, 222 Mass. 
549, 553, 564. Thompson on Corporations, Vol. 2, §§ 1555, 1557, and 
cases there cited. 



68 P.D. 12. 

You have also asked me four other questions relative to possible con- 
tingencies which might arise in the future if the annual session of the 
society in question is not held. 

These questions relate to matters with regard to which you are not 
presently required to perform any official duties, are based on speculation 
as to possible future factual contingencies, and are hypothetical in char- 
acter. Consequently, they are such as the Attorney General is not required 
to answer. Attorney General's Report, 1935, p. 31; I Op. Atty. Gen. 273, 
275; II Op. Atty. Gen. 100; III Op. Atty. Gen. 425. 
\'ery truly yours, 

CLARE^x'E A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Division of Fisheries and Game — Authority of -Officers to enforce Game 
Laws on Public Lands including Area of Quahhin Reservoir. 

April 26, 1945. 

Hon. Raymond J. Kenney, Cojnmissioner of Conservation. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to the extent of the author- 
ity of officers of the Division of Fisheries and Game to enforce the game 
laws on land of the Commonwealth in the Quabbin Reservoir area, in 
view of the provisions of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 131, §§ 4, 18 and 89, as 
amended, and of St. 1941, c. 599, § 5A. 

All lands and waters acquired for the purposes of the Quabbin Reser- 
voir and the water supply needs of the Metropolitan Water District in 
connection therewith are maintained and operated and under the control 
of the Metropolitan District Commission (St. 1926, c. 375, § 1, St. 1927, 
c. 321, § 2) and constitute "land or waters of said commission," as the 
quoted words are used in St. 1941, c. 599, § 5A, and said Commission has 
"the control and charge" of such land within the meaning of G. L. (Ter. 
Ed.) c. 131, § 89, as amended by said St. 1941, c. 599. 

The various provisions of said G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 131, as amended, and 
of the amending act, said St. 1941, c. 599, are to be read together so as to 
form as far as possible an harm.onious whole, in accordance with the estab- 
lished rule of statutorv construction {Piatt v. Conimonwealth, 256 Mass. 
539, 542; Moloney v. Selectmen of Milford, 253 Mass. 400, 402). 

Section 18 of said chapter 131, as amended, in its pertinent portion, 
reads : 

"The director (of the Division of Fisheries and Game), conservation 
officers, deputies, wardens and members of the state police shall enforce 
the laws relating to fish, birds and mammals." 

Section 4 of said chapter 131, to which you refer, empowers such officers 
to enter upon private lands in the performance of their duties. This sec- 
tion has no direct apphcability to public lands and no specific provision 
in the statute was necessary to authorize public officers to enter upon 
state lands; such authority being implicit in the grant of power to them 
in said section 18 to enforce the game laws. Nor is such authority cur- 
tailed by the terms of said section 5 A in the amending act of 1941, chapter 
599, which, with reference to the amended provisions of said chapter 131 
therein contained as well as to certain other provisions, provides as 
follows : 



P.D. 12. 60 

"Nothing in this act shall be construed as authorizing any person, 
without a permit from the metropolitan district commission, to enter or 
go upon the land of the water division of said commission ..." 

"Person" by itself is an equivocal word. It has no fi.xed and rigid 
signification, but has different meanings dependent upon contemporary 
conditions, the connection in which it is used, and the result to be accom- 
plished. See Commonwealth v. Welosky, 276 Mass. 398, 404, 406. 

The word "person" in the quoted phrase is not to be construed as em- 
bracing public officers charged with the enforcement of the laws of the 
Commonwealth as are those officers of the Department of Conservation 
named in said section 18 of chapter 131 whose power of enforcement is 
further implcunented, though not enlarged, by section 6A of G. L. (Ter. Ed. j 
c. 21, inserted by St. 1941, c. 599, § 3, providing: 

"There shall be in the division a bureau of law enforcement, under the 
charge of a chief conservation officer. All conservation officers, deputy- 
conservation officers and fish and game wardens of the division shall be 
assigned to duty in said bureau. The director shall, subject to the provi- 
sions of section three, enforce chapter one hundred and thirty-one and all 
other provisions of law relative to inland fisheries, birds and mammals and 
in the enforcement thereof may act through said bureau. The director 
shall, subject to the provisions of section three, have general supervision 
of all such enforcement officers." 

The provisions of said section 5 A of chapter 599, accordingly, do not 
bar the said officers of the Department of Conservation from entering 
upon the said lands under the control of the Metropolitan District* Com- 
mission for the purpose of performing their duties to enforce the game laws. 

Section 89 of said chapter 131, in its material part reads: 

"No person shall hunt, or in any manner molest or destroy, any bird or 
mammal within the boundaries of any state reservation, park, common, 
or any land owned or leased by the commonwealth or any political sub- 
division thereof, or any land held in trust for public use, except that the 
authorities or persons having the control and charge of such reservations, 
parks, commons or other lands ma}^, with such limitations as they may 
deem advisable, authorize persons to hunt within said boundaries any of 
the unprotected birds named in section fifty-three, or the fur-bearing 
mammals mentioned in section sixty-eight, or fo.xes, weasels or wildcats. 
Such an authorization shall be by written license, revocable at the pleasure 
of the authority or person granting it. The boards, officials and persons 
having control and charge of such reservations, parks, comm.ons or lands 
owned or leased or held for public use shall enforce this section." 

Said section 18, already referred to, empowers- and directs designated 
officers of the Division of Fisheries and Game to "enforce the laws relating 
to fish, birds and mammals." Said section 18 stems directly, through 
various re-enactments of the game laws, from R. L., c. 91, § 4, which author- 
ized the then Commissioners on Fisheries and Game and their deputies to 
arrest any person whom they found violating any of the game laws. 

Said section 89 stems directly, in like mannin-, from St. 1909, c. 362, § 1, 
which in its provisions material to the instant matter is similar to section 
89 and empowers and requires public officers in charge of reservations 
and lands held for public use, as in section 89, "to enforce" the provisions 



70 P.D. 12. 

of said chapter 362, which provisions were, as I have pointed out, similar 
to those now appearing in section 89. 

In 1920 Attorney General Allen, in an opinion to the Department of 
Conservation, with which I concur (V Op. Atty. Gen. 628), held that 
while St. 1909, c. 362, placed upon those in charge of public lands the duty 
of preventing any killing of game within the boundaries of such lands, 
whether such killing was or was not done in violation of the game laws, the 
duty of enforcing the general game laws on such lands still rested upon 
the officers of the Division of Fisheries and Game. 

The fact that R. L., c. 91, § 4, and St. 1909, c. 362, have been reenacted 
by amendment of the game laws from time to time and their provisions con- 
solidated in the reenactment of G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 131, in 1941, does not 
show an intent upon the part of the Legislature to alter their meaning. 
It is rather to be presumed that the Legislature intended to employ them 
with the meaning which they originally had. Great Barrington v. Gibbons, 
199 Mass. 527, 529. Maiii v. County of Plymouth, 223 Mass. 66, 69. 
Commonwealth v. Bralley, 3 Gray 456, 457. 

Accordingly, I advise you that the officers of the Division of Fisheries 
and Game, referred to in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 131, § 18, as amended, have 
the power and the duty of enforcing the game laws on the public lands, in- 
cluding those of the Quabbin Reservoir under the control of the Metro- 
politan District Commission, and have the right to enter upon such lands 
when necessary for the purpose of such enforcement. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Constitutional Law — Incompatibility of Offices of Representative and 
Member of Governor's Council. 

April 30, 1945. 

Hon. Frederick B. Willis, Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Dear Sir: — I am in receipt from you of the following communication: 

"Will you please advise the members of the House of Representatives 
if Carl A. Sheridan who was elected yesterday as Councillor in the 3rd 
Councillor District by the House of Representatives and the Senate may 
continue to serve as a Representative in the General Court in addition to 
discharging his duties as a Councillor, provided he accepts only one salary 
— that of Councillor." 

I advise you that in my opinion the acceptance by the Representative, 
to whom you refer, of the office of member of the Governor's Council and 
his qualification as such a Councillor will, as a matter of law, act as a 
resignation of his seat in the House of Representatives. 

The Constitution of the Commonwealth, chapter II, section III, 
provides : 

"Article I. There Jshall be a council for advising the governor in the 
executive part of the government, ..." 

Such council is beyond all doubt a part of the executive department of 
the government of this Commonwealth, and as such the exercise of its 



P.D. 12. 71 

powers is restricted by Article XXX of Part the First of the Constitution, 
which reads: 

"In the government of this commonwealth, the legislative department 
shall never exercise the executive and judicial powers, or either of them; 
the executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers, or 
either of them; the judicial shall never exercise the legislative and execu- 
tive powers, or either of them : to the end it may be a government of laws 
and not of men." 

It was said bj^ one of my predecessors in office (I Op. Atty. Gen. 233) 
that Article 30 of the Declaration of Rights has no application to an indi- 
vidual member of the Legislature; that "the limitations of the individual 
members of the several departments are carefully guarded by other por- 
visions in the Constitution, to wit, c. 6, art. 2, and Amendments, art. 8. 
The specific prohibitions contained in the articles quoted would be plainly 
unnecessary if art. 30 of the Declaration of Rights was intended to apply 
to individuals rather than to departments." 

The opinion was to the effect that a senator might lawfully hold the office 
of a member of the then Board of Education, which was assumed to be 
an office in the executive branch of the government, and was not stated to 
be of such a nature by rea^n of its duties as to make it incompatible with 
the office of a senator. • ' 

With this opinion I concur; but it does not follow that because the Con- 
stitution has not specifically prohibited the holding of two particular offices 
by one incumbent, a single incumbent may occupy both, if the offices are 
of such a nature as to be incompatible. 

The Constitution has in said chapter VI, article II, and Arnendments, 
article VHI, set forth in detail specific provisions prohibiting incumbents 
of various offices of the Commonwealth from holding other designated 
offices. None of these relate to members of the Executive Council, except 
as they prohibit a judge of the Supreme Judicial Court or a judge of pro- 
bate from accepting a seat in the Council and prohibit a Councillor from 
accepting the office of either of such judges. 

Nevertheless, I am of the opinion that if the duties of the oflfices of a 
Councillor and a member of the House of Representatives, such offices 
being in the executive and legislative departments of the government, 
respectively, are incompatible, they may not be occupied by the same 
incumbent. See Opinion of the Justices, 307 Mass. 613, 620. 

The House of Representatives is by constitutional provision the judge 
of the qualifications of its own members (Const, c. I, § III, art. V). How- 
ever, the acceptance of an office incompatible with one already held by 
an officer works a resignation of the prior office. Commonwealth v. Hawkes, 
123 Mass. 525, 529, 530. 

In my opinion, the duties of the office of a member of the Executive 
Council and that of a member of the House of Representatives are of such 
a nature as to render the respective offices incompatible. 

As has been said by the Supreme Judicial Court, the framers of our 
Constitution, warned by experience of the dangers which had arisen "from 
the vesting of incompatible powers in the same persons under the royal 
government while this state was an English province, have made most 
careful provision for separating the three great departments of govern- 
ment" (Ca.se of Supervisors of Elections, 114 Mass. 247, 249), and as it has 
been the endeavor of the people of Massachusetts since colonial times to 



72 P.D. 12. 

guard against the vesting of powers and duties of more than one branch 
of the government in a single officer, the assertion of a right to hold offices 
in more than one of such branches should always be subject to the most 
careful scrutiny. 

The duties of the governor of the Commonwealth as the chief executive 
officer, having the power of veto and the authority to prorogue and adjourn 
the Legislature and to call it together again (Const, c. II, § I, art. IV), are 
plainly of such a nature as to render his office incompatible with that of 
a member of the House of Representatives- even if the Constitution, c. VI, 
art. II, had not prohibited him from holding another office.. The duties of 
a councillor are those of an adviser of the governor (Const, c. II, § III, 
art. I), and the advice and consent of the council, by legislative enactment, 
have been made necessary for the performance of a wide variety of execu- 
tive duties by the governor. In a remote but very real sense the councillor's 
functions are similar to those of the "governor. 

The members of the council share in the governor's power to prorogue, 
adjourn and recall the Legislature, in that his power in such respect can 
only be expressed when implemented by the advice of the council (Const, 
c. II, §' I, art. V). The councillors are required to take their oath of office 
''in the presence of the two houses of assembly." The representatives are 
required to take their oath of office in the presence of five members of the 
council (Const, c. VI, art. I). The Legislature divides the Commonwealth 
into districts from which the individual councillors are to be chosen. 
Vacancies in the council, when the General Court is in session, are filled by 
the Legislature (Const. Amend, art. XXV). The salaries of the councillors 
are fixed by the Legislature (G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 6, § 3). 

These duties, some of which are required to be performed by repre- 
sentatives and some by councillors, appear to me to be such that they may 
not properly be performed by the same person, since the performance of 
each of such duties would either affect the person himself in one or the 
other of two capacities or might require him to act in different capacities 
at one and the same time. 

This being so, the two offices in question are, in my opinion, incom- 
patible and may not be held simultaneously by one person. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Banks — Credit Unions — Acquisition of Shares of One Credit Union by 

Another, 

May 1, 1945. 
Hon. F. Earl AVallace, Commissioner of Banks. 

Dear Sir: — In a recent letter you have advised me as follows: 

"The Lynn Police Credit Union, a corporation recently chartered under 
General Laws, chapter 171, and now qualified and ready to commence 
business, was organized and is now requested to assume the share liabilities 
and acquire all of the assets of the Lynn (Mass.) Policeman's Federal 
Credit Union, a credit union chartered under the Federal Credit L'nion 
Act, U. S. C. A. Title 12, Sections 1751-1770. The members of the two 
credit unions are or will be substantially the same. It is expected that all 
of the assets of the Lynn (Mass.) Policeman's Federal Credit Union will 



P.D. 12. 73 

meet the statutory requirements governing investments of shares and 
deposits of credit unions incorporated in this State." 

In relation to the foregoing facts, you have asked my opinion upon the 
following question : 

"whether or not a credit union incorporated under General Laws, chapter 
171, may assume and undertake to pay the share liabilities of a federally 
chartered credit union and in the process purchase and acquire all of the 
assets of such a credit union." 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 171, § 10, in its apphcable part provides with regard 
to the capital stock of a credit union as follows: 

"... Shares of capital stock may be subscribed for and paid for in 
<uch manner as the by-laws shall provide; provided, that the par value of 
the shares shall be five dollars. ..." 

Assuming from the statement of facts which you have set forth that 
the proposed mode of paying for the shares of a domestic credit union, 
which it would appear are to be issut^d to the members of ? federal union, 
is authorized by the by-laws of the domestic union and that the assets of 
the federal union used as such payment are, as you have stated, such as 
meet statutory requirements and that other requirements of said chapter 
171 afTecting the domestic union are not violated b)' the a^-quisition of 
said assets, I answer your question in the affirmative. 

No prohibition of the acquisition of shares and assets of one credit union 
by another has been set up by the Legislature. The fact that the shares to 
be acquired are those of a federal as distinguished from a domestic union 
is immaterial. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarexce a. Barnes, Attorneij General. 



W arehouseman — "Public Warehouseman^^ — License. 

May 4, 1945. 
To the Executive Council. 

Gentlemen: You have asked my opinion upon the following question 
of law: 

"Whether or not one who is engaged in storing the merchandise of one 
customer as security for a loan must seek a license as a Public Warehouse- 
man in compliance with G. L. c. 105?" 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 105, § 1, as amended, provides in its first sentence: 

"The governor, with the advice and consent of the council, may license" 
suitable persons, or corporations established under the laws of, and having 
their places of business within, the commonwealth, to be public ware- 
housemen. . . ." 

I answer your question in the affirmative. 

It is true that there is a well-recognizt^l distinction in law betw(H'n a 
public warehouseman, who like a common carrier holds himself out as 
maintaining a public service for all who may resort to him, and a private 
warehouseman, who furnishes storage only to a particular person or per- 



74 P.D. 12. 

sons. Security Machi7iery Co. v. Hand, 143 Fed. 32, 40. Citizens'' Bank v. 
Willing, 109 Wash. 464. 

The words "pubUc warehouse" and "pubHc warehouseman" may be 
given a distinctive meaning by statutory provisions so that such words 
will not only embrace the warehouseman who holds himself out as doing 
business with the general public, but also inckide any person who main- 
tains a warehouse for hire, irrespective of whether he does business with a 
particular person or class of persons or with the general public. Gulf 
Compress Co. v. Harris, 158 Ala. 343, 350. Gray v. Central Warehouse 
Co., 181 N. C. 166. State Public Utilities Commission v. Monarch Refrig- 
erating Co., 267 111. 528. Long well Transfer v. Elliott, 267 S. W. 346. 

Said chapter 105, as now contained in the Tercentenary Edition of the 
General Laws, is composed of two parts which, in the main, spring from 
separate and distinct sources. 

Sections 1 to 6 of said chapter were first enacted by St. 1860, c. 206, 
and were codified in substantially their original form in Revised Laws, 
chapter 09. The rest of the sections of said chapter 105, with a few minor 
exceptions, but in substantially their present form, derive from an en- 
tirely separate source, St. 1907, c. 582. This latter portion of chapter 105 
was part of a uniform law regarding warehouse receipts, and deals, in the 
main, with such receipts and the liabilities of warehousemen. 

St. 1907, c. 582, defined "warehouseman," for the purposes of that act, 
as "a person lawfully engaged in the business of storing goods for profit" 
so that it would seem that the word "warehouseman," as used in the lat- 
ter part of chapter 105, would have a broader significance than as used in 
its first part, especially in section 1, where it is made to refer to public 
warehousemen. This would be so if chapter 105, as it now stands, was 
only a combination of the terms of said R. L. c. 69, and said St. 1907, 
c. 582, but in 1915, the Legislature, by chapter 98 of that year, by amend- 
ment added to the provisions of R. L. c. 69, definitions of the words "pub- 
lic warehouse" and "public warehouseman" which brought them in har- 
mony with the definition of "warehouseman" contained in said St. 1907, 
c. 582, and by their terms enlarged the meaning of "public warehouse" 
and "public warehouseman" as employed in reference to said chapter 69, 
section 1, whose phraseology is now embodied in G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 105, 
§ 1, as amended. Said R. L. c. 69, was amended by Gen. St. 1915, c. 98, 
as follows : 

"The words 'public warehouse', as used in this chapter, shall mean any 
building, or part of a building, kept and maintained for the storage of 
goods, wares and merchandise as a business; and the words 'public ware- 
houseman' shall mean any person, corporation, partnership, association 
or trustees keeping and maintaining a pubHc warehouse as defined in this 
section." 

When the compilers of the General Laws of 1921 set forth said chapter 
105 they dropped the particular definition of "warehouseman" which 
was set forth previously in said St. 1907, c. 582, and in place thereof in- 
serted in section 7 of chapter 105 the definitions of "pubHc warehouse," 
"warehouseman" or "public warehouseman" which had been added to 
chapter 69 of the Revised Laws, and which were of the same general effect 
as the particular definition contained in said St. 1907, c. 582. These 
definitions, by the phraseology of said chapter 105, section 7: "The follow- 
ing words as used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, 



P.D. 12. 75 

shall have the following meanings:" now apply to and govern the meaning 
of "public warehousemen" and "warehouse" as contained in section 1 
of chapter 105; there being nothing in the context of the chapter which 
requires otherwise. 

This being so, it follows that a person or corporation which maintains a 
building for the storage of goods, wares and merchandise as a business, 
even if it is so maintained for the purpose of storing the merchandise of one 
particular customer only, is a "public warehouseman" and is required to 
be licensed by virtue of the provision in the first sentence of said section 1 
of chapter 105, since by the definition of the words "public warehouse- 
man" such person is brought within the requirements of said section 1. 

Very truly .yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



Settlement — Member of United States Military Forces — Executive Order 
No. 32 — G. L. {Ter. Ed.) c. 116, ^ 1. 

.Mav 9, 1945. 

Hon. Arthur G. Rotch, Commissioner of Piiblic Welfare. 

Dear Sir : — You have informed me of the following facts in connec- 
tion with questions relative to the settlement of one James Joseph Kelley: 

"James Joseph Kelley was born in Charlestown May 24, 1900; to 
Maiden when young and enlisted World War I from Maiden and on active 
duty April 9, 1917, until his honorable discharge March 14, 1920. Two 
years after his discharge he removed to Boston and resided at 7 Polk 
Street, Charlestown until his marriage November 29, 1932; then Medford, 
Charlestown and Somerville with no five years' residence anywhere. He 
enlisted in World War II from Somerville on October 19, 1942; called to 
active duty January 25, 1943, and received an undesirable discharge on 
October 11, 1943, due to his misconduct. 

Somerville notified Boston on February 19, 1944, and Boston denied on 
March 9, 1944, claiming that although this man may have acquired a 
Boston settlement by his residence there from 1922 to 1932, his enlistment 
in World War II gave him a settlement in Somerville per Executive Order 
No. 32, thus wiping out his Boston settlement." 

It appears from the facts which you have set forth that prior to October 
19, 1942, the said Kelley had a settlement in Boston, which had not been 
defeated. 

Executive Order No. 32, issued by the Governor on August 20, 1942, 
to which you refer, provided that; 

"Any person who serves as a member of the military or naval forces of 
the United States at any time during the present war . . . shall be deemed 
to have a settlement in the place where he actually resides or resided at 
the time of his induction, enlistment or entry into such service." 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 116, § 1, cl. fifth, by force of St. 1943, c. 455, § 13, 
amending section 1 in a certain immaterial detail and reenacting it, effec- 
tive September 8, 1943, contained a provision to a like effect. If the quoted 
provision had been set forth in said Executive Order or had been set forth 
in said chapter 116, section 1, as amended, without any qualifying provi- 
sion, the settlement gained by said Kelley in Somerville by virtue of his 



76 P.D. 12. 

enlistment in the military or naval service of the United States in World 
War 11 while actually residing in Somerville, under the terms of the said 
Executive Order or of said chapter 116, section 1, as amended, would have 
defeated his prior settlement in Boston. 

However, both the said Executive Order and said chapter 116, section 1, 
as amended, contain provisions qualifying the quoted provision and the 
similar provision, already referred to, in said chapter 116, section 1, respec- 
tively, which, since the discharge of said Kelley from the military or naval 
service of the United States, was not, according to the facts as you have 
stated them, "an honorable discharge or an honorable release" or "by 
reason of disability," prevent the acquisition of a settlement in Somerville 
by Kelley. 

The qualifying provisions of said Executive Order 32 read: 

"The provisions of this order shall not apply to any person who has 
been proved guilty of wilful desertion or who left the service otherwise 
than by reason of disability, an honorable discharge or an honorable 
release." 

The qualifying provision of said chapter 116, section 1, cl. fifth, as 
amended, reads: 

"But these provisions shall not apply ... to any person . . . who 
left the service otherwise than by reason of disability or an honorable 
discharge." 

Accordingly, I am of the opinion that, upon the facts which you have 
stated, the said Kelley did not acquire a settlement in Somerville and that, 
consequently, the settlement which he had gained in Boston was not 
defeated so that his settlement is in Boston, and he cannot be said to be a 
person without a settlement as you say has been suggested. 

In your letter you asked me three specific questions relative to said 
Kelley 's settlement, which are as follows: 

"1. When did the man gain a settlement in Somerville? 

2. When did his settlement in Somerville end? 

3. What settlement, if any, does he hold at present?" 

In view of the opinion which I have already expressed, the answer to 
the first question is never. Since such is the answer to the first question, 
no answer is required to the second question. The answer to the third 
question is, a settlement in Boston. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Metropolitan District Commission — Lack of Authority to Transfer Land 

to a State Department. 

May 10, 1945. 
Metropolitan District Commission. 

Dear Sirs: — In a recent letter you have asked my opinion "as to the 
rights of the Commission to release about ten acres of land acquired for 
parkway purposes to the State Department of Public Health for the 
construction of a chronic disease hospital." 

I answer your question to the effect that your Commission has no 
"rights" or authority so to do. 



P.D. 12. 77 

It is a general principle of law that land appropriated to one public use 
cannot be diverted to another inconsistent public use without plain and 
explicit authorization by the Legislature. No legislation exists at the 
present time, giving your Commission authority, or "rights", "to release" 
land foi- the purjxjse referred to in your letter. The provisions of G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 92, $ 84, which authorize your Commission to sell land ac- 
quired under sections 33 to 35, do not give your Commission authority 
in this respect. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 

Contracts for Posttvar Projects — St. 1943, c. 370, § 10. 

May 10, 1945. 
Hon. Francis X. Lang, Comptroller. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to whether you may 
certify for payment the amounts shown by various vouchers for archi- 
tectural and engineering services rendered under contracts for the prepara- 
tion of "postwar projects." 

You advise me that funds ample to take care of these payments have 
been made available by tran.sfer "from the War Emergency Fund for 
the purpose of Emergency Public Works Commission plans — Postwar 
Projects." You also inform me that payments for similar services so 
rendered have been made in the past from such funds. 

The preparation of posttvar projects, including architectural and engineer- 
ing services incident thereto, are "emergency expenditures" of a type 
"which may be necessary to meet any emergency which may arise by 
reason of the exigencies of the existing state of war" within the sweep of 
the quoted words as they have been employed by the Legislature in the 
authorization of the expenditures contained in St. 1943, c. 370,- § 10, to 
which you refer. 

The emergency for which postwar project expenditure is to provide is 
obviously one which "may arise" by reason of the exigency of the existing 
state of war. It is not necessary that an emergency growing out of the 
war should be actually upon us before provision may be made under said 
section 10 to meet it. It is a matter of common knowledge that unemploy- 
ment is an inevitable accompaniment of the demobilization of large num- 
bers of servicemen. At the close of a war such an emergency will in part 
be met by opportunities for employment on public works but unless possible 
public works are projected beforehand, such opportunities will not exist 
and the emergency will not be met. 

Consequently, I advise you that expenditures from the funds, to which 
you refer, to meet correct charges for architectural and engineering services 
connected with the preparation of bid plans and specifications for postwar 
projects under properly drawn contracts would be valid. 
Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



78 P.D. 12. 

Public Works — Entry on Private Property to Make Survey for Future 

Highway Projects. 

May 17, 1945. 

Hon. Herman A. MacDonald, Commissioner of Public Works. 

Dear Sir: — You have requested my opinion as to the right of your 
department to enter upon private property to make surveys for future 
highway projects without permission from the owners, and where in one 
particular case the owner has refused such permission. You state that in 
this particular case the taking will be made under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 81, 
§ 7. This section provides: 

"If it is necessary to acquire land for the purposes of a state highway 
outside the limits of an existing public way, the department (meaning the 
Department of Public Works) may take the same by eminent domain in 
behalf of the commonwealth under chapter seventy-nine. ..." 

We find in the case of Willar v. Commonwealth, 297 Mass. 527, 528, some 
significant language by the court: 

"We think that when the Legislature gave to the department power to 
take land by eminent domain 'under chapter seventy- nine ' it intended 
to give to the department full and complete power to carry the necessary 
proceedings through to a final termination, ..." 

While this reference is to the statutory procedure, it is fair to construe 
the language of this case and those referred to hereinafter as giving the 
department full power of initiating the taking by way of preliminary 
surveys. It is true that this act does not expressly provide that the mem- 
bers of the department and their agents shall not be liable for trespass, as 
has been provided in other similar statutes of the Commonwealth in 
reference to forest wardens and militia, but such surveys and incidents 
thereto are justified by the authority given to the department by the act. 

A statute of this character grants power incidental to the carrying out 
of its provisions. VIII Op. Atty. Gen. (July 19, 1927) 344, 345. Winslow 
V. Gifford, 6 Gush. 327. When an act of the Legislature imposes duties 
upon a public officer, it confers upon him by implication whatever authority 
is necessary for the performance of such duties. I Op. Atty. Gen. (Dec. 
19, 1896) 403, 404. 

The department and its agents are public servants authorized by statute 
to acquire land when necessary for the purposes of a state highway, and in 
the discharge of these duties it may become necessary to enter temporarily 
upon private lands to make surveys. If this entry is reasonable, intended 
in good faith, temporary in its nature, and attended by no unnecessary 
damage, it does not constitute actionable trespass. Winslow v. Gifford, 

6 Gush. 327. Cavanagh v. Boston, 139 Mass. 426, 435. Brigham v. Edwards, 

7 Gray 359, 363. 

In Winsloiv v. Gifford the court held that there was no trespass where 
under authority of a statute the commissioners entered upon the lands of 
the plaintiff and made certain surveys, with the view of ascertaining the 
boundaries of a tract of land devoted to public purposes, where no com- 
pensation was provided for such apparent trespass. This case has been 
followed and approved several times in Massachusetts and has been cited 
by the United States Supreme Gourt in Montana Co. v. St. Louis Mining 
and Milling Co., 152 U. S. 160, 167. 



P.D. 12. 79 

From other cases it seems to be well settled that general rights in prop- 
erty have their limitations, in that entry upon such private property may 
be made by public officers for the protection of public welfare, and that 
such entry is not an exercise of the right of eminent domain nor permanent 
appropriation of this property to the exclusive use of another, the entry 
being made for the public welfare and subject to the limitations in Winslow 
V. Gi'iford. 

It seems, therefore, clear that such survey may be made if the taking of 
the land is necessary for highwa}^ purposes, if the entry is reasonably neces- 
sary, intended in good faith, a temporary one, and accompanied by no 
unnecessary damage. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



State College — Tuition — N on-Resident Students — Trustees. 

June 14, 1945. 
]\Ir. Robert D. Hawley, Treasurer, Massachusetts State College. 

Dear Sir: — You have asked my opinion as to the legality of the 
tuition charges of $110 per semester made by the Massachusetts State 
College by vote of its trustees for students who are not residents of Mas- 
sachusetts. 

In my opinion these charges are legal and valid. The charges were put 
into effect by the following vote of the Board of Trustees on January 19, 
1933: 

"Voted: That tuition for all students, residents of Massachusetts, be 
increased to $100 per year and the tuition for students who are not resi- 
dents of Massachusetts be increased to $220 per year and that these tuition 
charges include present student fees: laboratory fees, $12; health fee, 
$4.50; matriculation fee, $5, which are now separately charged." 

The trustees of the college have been vested by the Legislature with the 
powers of management, administration and government of the college, 
and the authority to determine and regulate instruction therein. G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 75, §§ 9-11. 

It has been held by one of my predecessors in office, with whose opinion 
I agree, that the trustees may establish such rates of tuition as they may 
deem reasonably necessary. II Op. Atty. Gen. (1899) 84. 

In the recent case of Lynch v. Conumssioner of Education, 317 Mass. 73, 
the Supreme Judicial Court has held that when power of general manage- 
ment of a college is conferred by the Legislature on a public authority, it 
carries with it a grant of power to such an authority to establish reasonable 
tuition fees. 

The Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts State College is such a 
public authority, serving in the Department of Education, its members 
being persons holding certain designated offices in the service of the Com- 
monwealth, acting ex officio as trustees, and persons appointed as trustees 
by the Governor. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



80 P.D. 12. 

Towns — Members of Fire Department — Payments for Death — 
G. L. {Ter. Ed.) c. 48, § 83. 

June 21, 1945. 
Hon. Francis X. Lang, Comptroller. 

Dear Sir: — You have informed that the Town of Hingham has sub- 
mitted a claim under G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 48, § 83, for the payment of .|2,500 
to the use of persons mentioned in said § 83 as a result of the death of a 
fireman of said town, who, I assume, had served for more than a year 
preceding the first of May prior to his death. 

You have advised me of certain material facts and, in your first question, 
have asked my opinion, based upon them, as to whether as a matter of 
law the Commonwealth is liable for such payment under said § 83. 

I answer this question in the negative. 

G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 48, § 83, in its pertinent parts provides that if a 
fireman dies as a result of injuries received in the performance of his duties, 
upon certification of the relevant facts to the Comptroller, the latter shall 
certify for payment to the executor or administrator of the deceased $2,500 
for the use of certain persons connected with the deceased, in a manner 
designated in the section. It is, however, specifically provided in the last 
sentence of the section as follows : 

"No payments shall be made under this section on account of the death 
of a member of the fire department of a city or town in respect to which 
compensation is payable under section eighty-nine of chapter thirty-two." 

Section 89 of chapter 32 provides in its applicable portions that if a 
"member" of a "fire force" dies from injuries received in the performance 
of his duties, the town which employed him shall pay certain specified an- 
nuities to designated persons connected with the deceased, and that the 
total amount of all annuities shall not, except in instances not here mate- 
rial, exceed the annual rate of compensation received by such person at 
his death. Provision is also specifically made for payment by the town 
of annuities to call and reserve firemen. 

It appears from the facts of which you have advised me that the de- 
ceased, though a "volunteer" fireman, was a member of the regular "fire 
force" or fire department of Hingham. 

The nature of the employment and duties of a "volunteer" fireman as 
they appear from the facts of which you have informed me in connection 
with the Hingham fire department and as they exist in relation to some 
other fire departments of rather antiquated kinds in various towns, differ- 
entiate the status of the "volunteer" firemen from that of a "call fireman" 
or of a reserve fireman. 

The regular fire force or fire department of Hingham appears from said 
facts to be made up of two types of firemen, one of which is called "perma- 
nent" and receives a substantial annual compensation; the other is called 
"volunteer" and those included therein are governed by the terms of 
G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 48, § 38, which provide that: 

"Enginemen or members of the fire department who have served for 
one year preceding May first in any year, shall receive from the town a 
sum equal to the poll taxes paid by or for them and such further com- 
pensation as the town determines." 



P.D. 12. 81 

This "further compensation" consists in the Town of Hinghani of pay 
at a per-hour rate for all time spent at wood fires and for work at a building 
fire after two hours of attendance thereat. 

That the payment by the town to a fireman of a sum equal to the 
amount paid for or by him by way of poll tax is "compensation" for his 
services appears to be settled by the language employed by the Supreme 
Judicial Court in Greenough v. Wakefield, 127 Mass. 275, 277, where it 
considered the phraseology of Gen. St. c. 24, § 18, from which said G. L. 
(Ter. Ed.) c. 48, § 38, is derived. See also II Op. Atty. Gen. 253. 

It follows, then, that the deceased, as a member of the fire department 
of Hingham, receiving such compensation annually from the town, was one 
on account of whose death compensation is payable to persons designated 
by the town in said section 89. 

It is true that since the amount of the deceased's annual compensation 
as a fireman, being based upon the poll tax paid, is very small, and as it 
may not be exceeded by the annuities payable to the beneficiaries, such 
annuities would appear to be totally inadequate. The remedy for such a 
situation lies with the Legislature. Your second question is hypothetical 
in character and in relation to the subject matter of your letter concerning 
the death of said fireman, in view of my reply to your first question, requires 
no answer. 

Very truly yours, 

Clarence A. Barnes, Attorney General. 



82 P.D, 12. 

INDEX TO OPINIONS 



PAGE 

Architects; registration; "residence"; "prior"; St. 1941, c. 696, § 3 . . 46 

Banks ; credit unions ; acquisition of shares of one credit union by another . 72 

Blind, Division of the; vocational rehabihtation ; federal funds ... 62 

Civil service; authority of Director; seniority of employees ... 15 
Custodian of Contraband in Department of Public Safety; failure to 

classify ........... 24 

Custodian of municipal building; "officer"; "employee" . . ' 54 

Fire Department of West Springfield; call firemen; classified service . 32 
Preference of veterans in promotional examinations . . . .53 

Promotions; G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 31, § 15 56 

Promotions in clerical service of municipal fire department; G. L. (Ter. Ed.) 

c. 31, § 15 or § 20 35 

Supervising boiler inspector in Department of Public Safety not classified . 17 
Conservation; shellfish; permits; municipal leases; non-residents; Director 

of Division of Marine Fisheries ....... 43 

Constitutional law; alcoholic beverages; sales; aliens; treaty with Great 

Britain ........... 59 

Incompatibilit}^ of offices of representative and member of Governor's 

Council ........... 70' 

Rules and regulations of state departments; encroachment of Legislature 

upon authority of the e.xecutive branch of the government . . 63 
Contracts for postAvar projects; St. 1943, c. 370, § 10 . . . .77 

Emergency Public Works Commission; postwar projects; Port of Boston . 36 
Fisheries and Game, Division of; authority of officers to enforce game laws 

on public lands, including area of Quabbin Reservoir ... 68 

Food ; sale of canned lobster meat ; label ...... 57 

Insurance; classification of fire risks by domestic fire insurance companies; 

contracts made outside the Commonwealth ..... 49 

Domestic stock liability insurance company; increase of capital; Com- 
missioner's approval . • . . . . .64 

Fraternal benefit society ; annual meeting; officers holding over; authority 

of Commissioner .......... 66 

Fraternal benefit society; by-laws; delegation of authority; election of 

officers ........... 57 

Group annuity contracts; approval; options; particular provisions . . 37 

Group annuity policy: dividends; terms of insurance contract . . 22 
Mental Health, Department of; transfer of surplus supplies from one state 

hospital to another unauthorized . . . . .10 

Metropolitan District Commission; lack of authority to transfer land to a 

state department ......... 76 

Transfer of supervision of Mystic Lakes; lack of authority . . .31 

Military leave of absence ; resignation; United States Public Health service . 61 
Milk Control Board ; orders of board ; violations; licenses . . . .13^ 

Public announcement of prices to be paid by individual milk dealers . .19* 

Municipalities; public assistance; amounts payable for hospitalization . 26 
Old age assistance ; husband and wife owning real estate in common ; security 

for reimbursement of mimicipality ...... 30 

Husband and wife; tenancies ........ 47 

Waiver of rights; contributions by children ...... 12 

Public Health, Department of; transportation of shellfish; certificates of 

foreign board . . . . . . . . . . 22 ^ 

Public officers; salaries while in military service ..... 29«| 



P.J>^12. 83 

PAGE 

Public Safety; inspection of places of assembly; regulations; G. L. (Ter. 

Ed.) c. 143, § 3B . 33 

Public works, entry on private property to make survey for future highway 

projects . . . . . . . .78 

Settlement; member of United States military forces; Executive Order No. 

32; G. L. (Ter. Ed.) c. 116, § 1 75 

State college; tuition; non-resident students; trustees .... 79 
Towns; members of fire department; payment for death; G. L. (Ter. Ed.) 

c. 48, § S3 80 

^^^alden Pond State Reservation; powers of commission; lack of authority 

to restrict ........... 10 

Warehouseman; "public warehouseman"'; license ..... 73 

War Emergency Fund ; transfer of funds; authority of governor . . .17 

Workmen's compensation; Director of Division of the Bhnd; "Officer"; 

"Employee" .......... 51 

Self-Insurance; reinsurance; catastrophe; ser\ace company ... 41 
Self -insurer; bonds .......... 27 



1