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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPOET 



OF THB 



SIXTY-NINTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOU THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



DOVER IN SEPTEMBER 1899. 




■'■*■>, '•!» \r£i '• \ 



\l H'.- 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1900. 

Offi,ce of the AssQciation : Burlington House, I/ondon, W. 



PniXTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE A;v'D CO., Sfiff-STREET SQUAKE 
LONDON 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



•«»■ 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xxix 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement ...^ xl 

Trustees and General OfficerSj from 1831 lii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 ,.. liii 

List of Evening Discourses Ixxi 

Lectures to the Operative Glasses Ixxv 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Dover Meeting Ixxvi 

Treasurer's Account Ixxviii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxx 

Officers and Council, 1899-1900 Ixxxii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxiii 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Dover Meet- 
ing in September 1899 xciv 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso ciii 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

desirable ciii 

Change of Hours of Meetings, &c ciii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money civ 

Places of Meeting in 1900 and 1901 cvi 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes , cvii 

General Meetings cxxiv 

Address by the Presidt-nt, Sir Michael Fostek, K.C.B., Sec.R.S 3 

A 2 



iv REPORT — 1899. 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



\An asterisk * indicates that the title only is given,. The mark -f- indicates the same, 
hvt a reference is given to the journal or newspaper where it is jiublished in extenso.] 



Page 

Oorrespondinp; Societies Committee. — Eeport of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor R. Meldola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary), Mr. 
Francis Galton, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Dr. J. G. Gakson, Sir John Evans, 
Mr. J. HoPKiNsON, Professor T. G. BoNNEr, Mr. W. Whitakee, Sir Cuth- 
BEET Peee, Mr. HoEACE T. Beoavn, Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Professor W. AV. 
Watts, and Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing 27 

Radiation from a Source of Light in a Magnetic Field. — Preliminary Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor Geoege Feancis FitzGeeald 
(Chairman), Thomas Peeston (Secretary), Professor A. Schusteh, Pro- 
fessor 0. J. Lodge, Professor S. P. Thompson, Dr. Geealb Molloy, and 
Dr. W. E. Adeney 63 

Determining Magnetic Force at Sea. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor A. W, Ruceee (Chairman), Dr. C. H. Lees (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Professor A. Schustee, Captain E. W. Ceeak, Professor W. 
Steoud, Mr. C. V. Boys, and Mr. W. Watson, appointed to investigate 
the Method of determining Magnetic Force at Sea 64 

Meteorological Observatory, Montreal. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor H. L. C.iXLENDAE (Chairman), Professor C. McLeod 
(Secretary), Professor F. Ai>ams, and Mr. R. F. Stupabt, appointed for the 
pui'pose of establishing a Meteorological Observatory on Mount Royal, 
Montreal, Canada 66 

Tables of the G (?•, i^)-Integrals. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Rev. 
Robeet Haeley (Chairman), Professor A. R. Foesyth (Secretary), Dr. J. 
W. L. Glaishee, Professor A. Lodge, and Professor Karl Pearson. (Drawn 
up by Professor Kael Pearson.) 65 

Appendix. — Table of F (r, v) and H (r, v) Functions. By Miss Alice 

Lee, D.Sc 71 

Report on the Progress of the Solution of the Problem of Three Bodies. 
By E. T. Whittaker 121 

On Solar Radiation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney (Chairman), Professor H. McLeod (Secretary), Sir G. G. 
Stokes, Professor A. Schustee, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain W. de W. 
Abney, Dr. C. Cheee, Professor G. F. FitzGerald, Profe-ssor H. L. 
Callendae, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. E. Wilson, and Professor A. A. 
Rambaut, appointed to consider the best methods of recording the Direct 
Intensity of Solar Radiation 159 

Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Griffiths, Rev. T. C. Fitz- 
PATRiCK, Mr. S. Seinnee, and Mr. W. C. D. Whetham (Secretary), 
appointed to Report on the Present State of our Knowledge in Electrolysis 
and Electro-chemistry 160 



CONTEXTS. V 

Page 
Tables of Certain Matliematical Functions. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cunningham 
(Secretary), Dr. J. W. L. Glaishek, Professor A. G. Geej)nhill, Professor 
W. M, Hicks, Major P. A. MacMahon, and Professor A. Lodge, appointed 
for calculating Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary, 
for taking steps to carry out the calculations, and to publish the results in 
an accessible form 160 

Seismological Investigations. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. W. Jedd (Chairman), Mr. John Milne (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. C. V. Boys, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Daewin, Major L. Darwin, 
Professor J. A. Ewing, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Professor J. H. Poynting, 
Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. G. J. Symons and Professor H. H. Turner. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary, Mr. John Milne.) 161 

I. On Seismological Stations already established. By J. Milne ... 161 
II. Notes respecting Observing Stations and Registers obtained from 

the same. By J. Milne 162 

III. Discussion of the Preceding Registers. By J. Milne 192 

IV. Varieties of Earthquakes and their respective Durations. Bv 

J.Milne .'. 225 

V. Earthquake Echoes. By J. Milne 227 

VI. Earthquake Precursors. By J. Milne 230 

VII. On Certain Disturbances in the Records of Magnetometers and the 

Occurrence of Earthquakes. By J. Milne 233 

Vm. Form of Reports 238 

Photographic Meteorology. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. 
Symons (Chairman), Mr. A. W. Clayden (Secretary), Professor R. Mel- 
dola, Mr. John Hopkinson, and Mr. H.,N. Dickson, appointed to apply 
Photography to the Elucidation of Meteorological Phenomena. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.) 238 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for use in 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Ratleigh (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Professors W. E. Atrion, J. Perry, W. G. fVoAMs, Oliver J. Lodge, and 
G. Carey Foster, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Peeece, Professors J. D. 
Everett and A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. Fitz- 
Geeald and J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomlet, 
Rev. T. C. FiTZPATRiCE, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stonet, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. H. Griffiths, 
Professor A. W. Rucker, and Professor H. L. Callendae 240 

Appendix I. — On the Mutual Induction of Coaxial Helices. By 

Lord Rayleigh 241 

„ II. — Proposals for a Standard Scale of Temperature based 
on the Platinum Resistance Thermometer. By Pro- 
fessor H. L. Callendae 242 

„ HI. — A Comparison of Platinum and Gas Thermometers 
made at the International Bureau of Weights and 
Measures at Sevres. By Dr. P. Chappuis and 
Dr. J. A. Harker 243 

„ IV. — On the Expansion of Porcelain with Rise of Tempera- 
ture. By T. G. Bedford 245 



/ 



Vi REPORT — 1899. 

Page 
Heat of Comljination of Metals in the Formation of Alloys. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Professor G. F. Fitz- 
Geeald, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Professor O. J. Lodge, and Dr. Alexandee 
Galt (Secretary) 246 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaren, Professor A. Cktjm Beoavn (Secretary), Sir Jokn 
Mtteray, Professor Copeland and Dr. Alexander Buchan. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Bfchan.) 250 

"Water and Sewage Examination Results. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor W. Ramsat (Chairman), Dr. R. S. Rideal (Secretary), 
Sir W. Ceookes, Professor F. Clowes, Professor P. F. Feankland, and 
Professor R. Boyce, appointed to establish a Uniform System of I'ecording 
the Results of the Chemical and Bacterial Examination of Water and 
Sewage 255 

Bibliography of Spectroscopy. — Interim Report of the Committee,Jconsisting 
of Professor H. McLeod, Professor Sir W. C. Robeets- Austen, Mr. H. G. 
IVLiDAN, and Mr. D. H. Nigel 256 

On Wave-lengthTablesof the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H, E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mae- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir J, N. Locktee, Professor J. Dewae, Pro- 
fessor G. D. LivEiNG, Professor A. Schxxstee, Professor "W. N. Haetlet, 
Professor Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain Abnet 257 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — In- 
terim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W, Noel Haetley 
(Chairman and Secretary), Professor F. R. Japp, and Professor J. J. 
DoBBiE, appointed to investigate tlie Relation between the Absorption 
Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances 316 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor H. E. Aemsteong 
(Secretary), Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. Geoege Gladstone, Sir John 
Lttbbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Professor A. Smithells, 
and Professor S.P.Thompson 359 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor W. A. Tilden (Chairman) and Dr. H. E. Aemsteong (Secretary) 362 

The Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor T. E, Thoepe (Chairman), Professor J. J. Hummel (Secretary), 
Dr. W. H. Peekin, Professor AV. J. Russell, Captain Abney, Professor 
W. Steoud, and Professor R. Meldola. (Drawn up by the Secretary) .... 363 

Life Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Maee (Chairman), Mr. E. J. Gaewood (Secretary), 
Mr. F. A. Bathee, Mr. G. C. Cetck, Mr. A. H. Fooed, Mr. H. Fox, 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
J. W. KiEKBY, Mr. R. KiDSTON, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor G. A. 
Leboue, Mr. G. H. Moeton, the late Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. B. N. 
Peach, Mr. A. Steahan, and Dr. H. Woodwaed. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 371 

Appendix I. — Report on Carboniferous Rocks and Fossils; South 

Pennine District. By Dr. Wheelton Hind 371 

„ II. — Report on Carboniferous Rocks and Fossils; North 

Wales District , 375 

,, III. — Report on Carboniferous Rocks and Fossils; Isle of 

Man District 375 

Irish Elk Remains. — Report of the Committee, consisting'of Professor W. Botb 
Dawkins (Chairman), his Honour Deemstee Gill, Rev. Canon Savage, 



CONTENTS. vii 

Page 
Mr. G. W. Lamplttgh, and Mr. P. M. C. Keemodb (Secretary), appointed to 
examine the Conditions under -which remains of the Irish Elk are found iu 
the Isle of Man 376 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Tenth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), 
Professor T. G. Bonnet, Dr. Tempest Anderson, Mr. J. E. Bedforb, 
Mr. H. CoATES, Mr. C. V. Ceooe, Mr. E. J. Garwood, Mr. J. G. Good- 
child, Mr. William Gray, Mr. Eobert Kidston, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. 
J. H. Teall, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Mr. H. B. Woodward, Mr. F. 
WooLNOUGH, and Professor W. AV. Watts (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
the Secretary) ' 377 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. Hull (Chairman), Mr. P. F. Kendall (Secretary), Professor 
T. Q. Bonnet, Mr. C. E. De Range, Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H. 
Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Mr. J. Hohne, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. 
J. LoMAS, Mr. A. R. Dweeeyhouse, Mr. J. W. Stathee, and Mr. R. D. 
Tttckee, appointed to investigate the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles, 
and to take measures for their preservation. (Drawn up by the Secretary). 398 

Caves at Uphill. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 0. Lloyd 
MoEGAN (Chairman), Professor A^^ Boyd Daavkins, Mr. W. R. Baeeke, 
Mr. T. H. Reynolds, Mr. E. T. Newton and Mr. H. Bolton (Secretary), 
appointed to excavate the Ossiferous Caves at Uphill, near Weston-super- 
Mare 402 

Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palseozoic Rocks. — Fifteenth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor T. Wiltshire (Chairman), Dr. H. 
WooDWAED, and Professor T. Rupeet Jones (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
Professor T. Rupeet Jones) 403 

Registration of Type Specimens of British Fossils. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. H. Woodwaed (Chairman), Rev. G. F. Widboene, Mr. 
R. KiDsioN, Professor H. G. SEELEY,Mr. H. Woods, and Mr. A. S. VVood- 
WAED (Secretary) 405 

Ty Newydd Caves. — Report of a Committee, consisting of Dr. H. Hicks 
(Chairman), Rev. G. C. H. Pollen (Secretary), Mr. A. Strahan, Mr. E. T. 
Newton, Mr. G. H. Morton, and Rev. E. R. Hull, appointed to investi- 
gate the Ty Newvdd Caves, Tremeirchion, North Wales. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary)..". 406 

Canadian Pleistocene Flora and Fauna. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir J. W. Dawson (Chairman), Professor D. P. Penhallow, Dr. 
Ami, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh and Professor A. P. Coleman (Secretary), 
reappointed to continue the investigation of the Canadian Pleistocene Flora 
and Fauna 411 

Drift at Moel Tryfaen. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. Hicks 
(Chairman), Mr. E. Greenly (Secretary), Professor J. F. Blake, Professor 
P. Kendall, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. J. Lomas, Mr. T. Mellard 
Reade, Mr. W. Shone, and Mr. A. Steahan, appointed to make Photo- 
graphic and other Records of the Disappearing Drift Section at Moel Try- 
faen. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 414 

Appendix A. Notes by President and Members 420 

"^ „ B. Foraminifera from the drifts of Moel Tryfaen. By Mr. 

T. Mellard Reade 420 

„ C. Diagram at E. side of Alexandra Quarry shoAving dome- 

like arrangement of sand and gravel beneath boulder 

clay 422 

„ D. Bibliography 422 



viii REPORT — 1899. 

Page 
Pedigree Stock Records. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Feancis 
Galton, D.C.L., F.R.S. (Chairman), Professor E. B. Potjlton, F.R.S., and 
Professor W. F. R. Weldok, F.R.S. (Secretary), appointed to promote the 
Systematic Collection of Photographic and other Records of Pedigree 
Stocli. (Drawn up by the Chairman.) 424 

Index Animalium.— Report of a Committee, consisting of Dr. H.Woodataed, 
(Chairman), Mr. P. L. Sclatee, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. R. 
McLachlan, Mr. AV. E. Hoyle, and Mr. F. A. Bathee (Secretary), ap- 
pointed to superintend the Compilation of an Index Animalium ;. 429 

A Circulatory Apparatus for keeping Aquatic Organisms under definite Physi- 
cal Conditions. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. E. 
HoxLE (Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson, Mr. F. W. Keebie, and Mr. 
F. W. Gamble (Secretary) 431 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Heedman (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor E. Rat Lankestee, Professor AV. F. R, Weldon, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Professor G. B. 
Howes (Secretary) 431 

ArrENDix I. Report on the Occupation of the Table. By Dr. H. 

Ltstee Jameson 432 

„ II. List of Naturalists who have worked at the Zoological 

Station from July 1, 1898, to June 30, 1899 433 

„ III. List of Papers which were published in 1898 by Natu- 
ralists who have occupied Tables in the Zoological 
Station 434 

„ IV. List of Publications of the Zoological Station during the 

Year ending June 30, 1899 436 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Ninth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Blanfoed, 
Professor S. J. HiCKSON, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, Mr. P. L. Sciatee, 
Mr. E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Shaep (Secretary) 436 

Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. A. Bouene (Chairman), Professor 
E. Ray Lankestee (Secretary), Professor S. H. Vines, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
Professor W. F. R. Weldon, and Mr. W. Gaestang 437 

The Embryology of the Polyzoa.— By T. H. Tatloe 437 

The Rearing of Larvae of Echinidro. — By Professor E. W. MacBeide 438 

Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands. — Final Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclatee (Chairman), Mr. W. Caeeuthees, 
Dr. A. C. L. Gt'NTHEE, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, Professor 
Newton, Sir George Hampson, and Mr. G. Mueeat (Secretary), on the 
Present State of our Knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of the West 
India Islands, and on taking Steps to investigate ascertained Deficiencies 
in the Fauna and Flora , 441 

Zoological and Botanical Publication. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing (Chairman), Professor W. A. Heedman, Mr. 
VV. E. Hoyle, Dr. P. L. Sclatee, Mr. Adam Sedgwick, Dr. D. Shaep, 
Mr. 0. D. Sherboen, Professor W. F. R. Weldon, Mr. A. C. Seward, 
Mr. B. Daxdon Jackson, and Mr. F. A. Bather (Secretary) 444 

Plankton and Physical Conditions of the English Channel. — First Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Rat Lankestee (Chairman), 
Professor W. A. Heedman, Mr. H. N. Dickson, and Mr. W. Garstang 
(Secretary), appointed to make Periodic Investigations of the Plankton 
and Physical Conditions of the English Channel during 1899 444 



CONTE>TS. IX 

Page 
Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland.— Second Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), the late Mr. 
John Cokdeatjx (Secretary), Mr. Haevie-Bkown, Mr. 11. M. Baekington, 
Eev. E. PoNSONBY Knubley, and Dr. H. O. Foebes, appointed to work 
out the details of the Observations of the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Lightships, 1880-87 447 

The Climatology of Africa. — Eighth Eeport of a Committee consisting of Mr. 
E. G. Ravenstein (Chairman), Sir John Kiek, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Dr. H. 
R. MiLX., and Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Chair- 
man.) 448 

Exploration of Sokotra. — Report of the Committee, consisting of J. Scott 
Keltie (Chairman), Professor I. B. Balfoue, Professor W. F. R. Weldon, 
and Dr. H. 0. Foebes (Secretary), appointed to Explore the Island of 
Sokotra. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 460 

Small Screw Gauge. — Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Sir AV. H. 
Peeece (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Beamwell, Sir H. Teueman 
Wood, Major-Gen. Webbek, Col. AVatkin, Messrs. Conead W. Cooke, 
R. E. Crompton, a. Steoh, A. Le Neve Fostee, C. J. Hewitt, G. K. B. 
Elphinstone, T. Buckney, E. Rigg, C. V. Boys, and W. A. Peice (Secre- 
tary), appointed to consider means by which Practical Effect can be given 
to the Introduction of the Screw Gauge proposed by the Association in 1884 464 

Appendix L— Report by Colonel Watkin, R.A., C.B 46G 

„ II. — Report from Mr. H. J. Chanet, Superintendent of the 

Standards Department of the Board of Trade 468 

On the Erection of Alexander III. Bridge in Paris.— By M. Amedee Alby... 469 
Dover Harbonr Works.— By J. C. Coode, M.Inst.O.E., and W. Matthews, 
M.Inst.O.E 470 

Mental and Physical Deviations from the Normal among Children in Public 
Elementary and other Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of the 
late Sir Douglas Galton (Chairman), Dr. Feancis Waenee (Secretary), Mr. 
E. W. Beabeook, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, and Mr. E. W^hite Wallis. (Report 
drawn up by the Secretary.) 489 

Appendix, — Table showing the conditions of 1,120 children requiring 

special care and training 490 

Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom, —Seventh and Final Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. E. W. Beabeook (Chairman), Mr. E. Sidney 
Hartland (Secretary), Mr. Feancis Galton, Dr. J. G. Ctaeson, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Dr. Joseph Andeeson, Mr. J. Romilly Allen, Dr. J. 
Beddoe, Mr. W. Ceooke, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Professor W. 
Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Aethue J. Evans, Dr. H. 0. Foebes, Mr. F. G. 
Hilton Peice, Sir H. Howoeth, Professor R. Meldola, General Pitt- 
RivEES, Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, Mr. Geoege Patne, Mr. Edwaed Clodd, 
Mr. G. Laueence Gomme, Mr. Joseph Jacobs, Sir C. M. Kennedy, Mr. 
Edwaed Laws, the Yen. Archdeacon Thomas, Mr. S. W. Willlams, 
Professor John Rhys, and Dr. C. R. Browne 493 

Silchester Excavation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. J. 
Evans (Chpirman), Mr. John L. Myees (Secretary), and Mr. E. W. 
Beabeook, appointed to co-operate with the Silchester Excavation Fund 
Committee in their Excav? tions 495 

Ethnological Survey of Csinada. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor D. P. Penhallow (Chairman), Dr. G. M. Daavson (Secretary), 
Mr. E. AV. Beabeook, Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Haetland, 
Sir John G. Bourinox, Abbe Cuoq, Mr. B. Sulte, Abbe Tanguay, Mr. 



X REPORT— 1899. 

Page 
C. HiLL-ToTJT, Mr. David Botle, Rev. Dr. Scadding, Rev. Dr. J. 
MACLEAif, Dr. Meeee BEArCHEMiK-, Mr. C. N. Bell, Hon. G. Eoss, 
Professor J. Mavoe, and Mr. A. F. Httnter 497 

ArrENBix I.— Early French Settlers in Canada. — By B. Stjlte 499 

,, II. — Notes on tlie N'tlaka'pamuQ of British Columbia, a 
Branch of the great Salish Stock of North America. 
— By C. HiLL-Tori' 500 

The Anthropology and Natural History of Torres Straits. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir William Tfrnee (Chairman), Professor 
A. C. II ADDON (Secretary), Sir Michael Foster, Dr. J. Scott Keltie, 
Professor L. 0. Miall, and Professor Marshall Ward 585 

Appendix I. — Notes on the Yaraikanna Tribe, Cape York, Queens- 
land. — By Dr. A. C. Haddon 585 

„ II. — Contributions to Comparative Psychology from Torres 
Straits and New Guinea.— By Dr. W. H. R. 
Rivers, C. S. Mtees, and AV. McDoug all 58G 

„ III. — The Linguistic Results of tbe Cambridge Expedition to 
Torres Straits and Nev/ Guinea. — Bv Sidney H. 
Rat '. 589 

„ IV. — Seclusion of Girls at Mabuiag, Torres Straits. — By 

C. G. Seligjiann 590 

„ V. — Notes on the Club Houses and Dubus of British New 

Guinea. — By C. G. Seligjiann 591 

„ YI. — Notes on Savage Music. — By C. S. Myers 591 

Photographs of Anthropological Interest. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. S. Haetland, 
and Professor Flinders Peteie, nppointed for the Collection, Preservation, 
and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropological Interest... 592 

The Lake Village at Glastonburj'. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. R. MuNEO (Chairman), Mr. A. Bulleid (Secretary), Professor 
W. BoTD Daweins, General Pitt-Rivees, Sir John Evans, and Mr. A. J. 
Evans. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 591 

Histology of the Suprarenal Capsules. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor Schafer (Chairman), Mr. Swale Vincent (Secretary), and 
Mr. Victor Hoesley 598 

Electrical Changes accompanying the discharge of the Respiratory Centre. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. Wallee (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor E. Wayjiouth Reid (Secretary), Professor F. Gotch, and Mr. J. S. 
Macdonaid. (Drawn up by Mr. J. S. Macdonald.) 599 

The Comparative Histology of the Cerebral Cortex. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor Gotch (Chairman), Dr. G. Mann (Secretarvt, 
and Dr. F. W. Mott .■. . 603 

The Physiological EGects of Peptone and its Precursors when introduced into 
the Circulation. Third Interim Report of a Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. A. Schafee (Chairman), Professor C. S. Sheeeington, Pro- 
fessor R. W. BoYCE, and Professor W. II. Thompson (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 605 

The Influence of Drugs upon the Vascular Nervous System. Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor F. Gotch (Chairman), Professor Halli- 
burton (Secretary), and Dr. F. W. Mott 608 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

The Micro-cheruistry of Cells. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor E. A. Schafeb (Chairman), Professor E. Rat Lankestek, 
Professor W. D. Halliburton, Mr. G. C. Bofene, and Professor A. B. 
Macallxtm (Secretary) 609 

Fertilisation in the Phseophycaj. — Report of the Committee, consistinj^ of 
Professor J. B. Farmer (Chairman), Professor R. W. Phillips (Secretary), 
Professor F. 0. Bowee, and Professor HARVEr Gibson, (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 610 

Assimilation in Plants. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
Francis Daeavin (Chairman), Professor J. R. Green (Secretary), and Pro- 
fessor Marshall Ward, appointed to conduct an Experimental Investi- 
gation of Assimilation in Plants 61J 



\ 

/ 



xii REPORT — 1899. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER U. 

Page 

Address ty Professor J. H. Potxting, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of tlie Section 615 

1. On the Spectroscopical Examination of Contrast Phenomena. By George 

J. BuRCH, M.A G24 

2. Preliminary Note on the V^ariation of the Specific Heat of "Water. By 

Professor H. L. Callendar, M.A., F.R.S., and H. T. Barnes, M.A.Sc... 624 

3. On the Expansion of Porcelain -n'ith Piise of Temperature. By T. G. 
Bedford 632 

4. Interim Report on Methods of Determining Magnetic Force at Sea G32 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Report on Electrolysis and Electro-Chemistry 632 

2. On the Energy per Cubic Centimetre in a Turbulent Liquid when Trans- 
mitting Laminar Waves. By Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, F.K.S 632 

3. On the Permanence of certain Gases in the Atmospheres of Planets. By 

G. H. Bryan, Sc.D..F.R.S 634 

4. On some Novel Thermo-Electric Phenomena. By W. F. Barrett, F.R.S. 635 

5. Report on the Heat of Combination of Metals in the Formation of Alloys 636 

6. Report on Radiation from a Source of Light in a Magnetic Field 636 

7. On the Production, in Rarefied Gases, of Luminous Rings in Rotation 
about Lines of Magnetic Force. By C. E. S. Phillips 636 

8. Note on Deep-Sea Waves. By Vaxjghan Cornish, M.Sc, F.O.S., 
F.R.G.S 637 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. tOn the Existence of Masses Smaller than the Atoms. By Professor 

J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 637 

2. fOn the Controversy concerning the Seat of Volta's Contact Force. By 
Professor Oliver Lodge, F.R.S 638 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

Department I. — Mathematics. 

1. Report on Tables of certain Integrals 638 

2. Report on Tables of certain Mathematical Functions 638 

3. The Median Estimate. By Francis Galton, D.C.L., F.R.S 638 



CONTENTS. Xiii 

' Page 

4. A System of Invariants for Parallel Configurations in Space. By Pro- 

fessor A, R. FoESYTH, Sc.D., F.R.S 640 

5. On the Notation of the Calculus of Differences. By Professor J. D. 

Everett, F.R.S 645 

6. On the Partial Differential Equation of the Second Order. By Professor 
A.C. Dixon 646 

7. On the Fundamental Differential Equations of Geometry. By Dr. Irting 
Stringham 646 

8. Report on Recent Progress in the Problem of Three Bodies. By E. T. 
Whittakbr, M.A 647 

9. *0n Singular Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations. By Professor 

A. R. Forsyth, Sc.D., F.R.S 647 

10. An Application and Interpretation of Infinitesimal Transformations. By 
Professor E.O. Lovett 648 

11. On Format's Numbers. By Lieut.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E 653 

Department II. — Meteorology. 

1. Interim Report on Solar Radiation 654 

2. On a Connection between Sunspots and Meteorological Phenomena. By 
Dr. VAN Rijckevoesel 654 

3. Report on Seismology 654 

4. Seismology at Mauritius. By T. F. Olaxton, F.R.A.S 6.54 

5. Progress in Exploring the Air with Kites. By A. Lawrence Rotch, 

S.B., A.M 655 

6. Remarks Concerning the First Crossing of the Channel by a Balloon. 

By A. Lawrence Rotch, S.B., A.M 656 

7. The Hydro- Aerograph. By F. Napier Denison, Victoria, B.C 656 

8. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 658 

9. Report on Meteorological Photography 658 

10. Report on the Meteorological Observatory, Montreal 658 

11. The Rainfall of the South-Eastern Counties of England. By John 
HoPKiNSON, F.R.Met.Soc, Assoc.Inst.C.E 658 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. fOn a Gravity Balance. By Professor R. Threlfall, F.R.S., and Pro- 
fessor J. A. Pollock 659 

2. Report on Electrical Standards 659 

3. Discussion on Platinum Thermometry 660 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

1 . Recent Magnetic Work in North America. By L. A. Bauer 660 

2. The Spectral Sensitiveness of Mercury Vapour in an Atmosphere of 
Hydrogen, and its Influence on the Spectrum of the latter. By E. 
Percival Lewis, Ph.D 660 

3. On the Theory of the Electrolytic Solution Pressure. By R. A. Lbh- 

EELDT 661 

4. Temperature and the Dispersion in Quartz and Calcite. By J. W. 
GiFFOED ., ; 661 



xiv REPORT — 1899. 

Page 

5. ■'^A Workshop Form of Resistance Balance. By Professor J. A. Flemino, 

F.R.S 662 

6. A Method of Making a Half-shadow Field in a Polarimeter by two 
inclined Glass Plates. By J. H. Potniixg, Sc.D., F.R.S 663 

Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 
Address by HoEiCE T. BROWif, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section ... 664 

1. *The Solidification of Hydrogen. By Professor J. Dewak, F.R.S 683 

2. Report on a New Series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 

Element s 683 

3. Interim Report on the Continuation of the Bibliography of Spectro- 
scopy , 683 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Report on the Relation between the Absorption Spectra and Chemical 
Constitution of Organic Bodies 683 

2. Report on Isomeric Napthalene Derivatives 683 

3. A Discussion on the Laws of Substitution, especially in Benzenoid Com- 
pounds. Opened by Professor H. E. Aemsteong, F.R.S 683 

4. The Relative Orienting Effect of Chlorine and Bromine. By Professor 

Henry E. Aemsteong, F.R.S 687 

<5. Isomorphism in Benzenesulphonic Derivatives. By Professor Henby E. 
Aemsteong, F.R.S 687 

6. Oxidation in the Presence of Iron. By Henet J. Hoestman Fenton, 
M.A., F.R.S 688 

7. Condensation of Glyeollic Aldehyde. By Heney J. Hoestman Fenton, 
M.A., F.R.S., and Heney Jackson, B.A., B.Sc 689 

8. Some New Silicon Compounds. By Professor J. Emeeson Reynoids, 
F.R.S 690 

9. Report on recording the Results of the Chemical and Bacterial Examina- 
tion of Water and Sewage 691 

10. Intermittent Bacterial Treatment of Raw Sewage in Coke-beds. By 
Professor Feank Clowes, D.Sc 691 

11. *0n the Place of Nitrates in the Biolysis of Sewage. By W. Scott- 

MoNCEiEFi- \ 692 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 
Joint Meeting with Section K. 

1. *The Excretory Products of Plants. By Professor Haneiot 092 

2. Discussion on Symbiotic Fermentation : 

Symbiosis. By Professor Maeshall Waed, F.R.S C92 

Note sur les Fermentations Symbiotiques Industrielles. Par Monsieur 
le Docteur A. Calmeite , 697 

Symbiotic Fermentation : its Chemical Aspects. By Professor H. E. 
Aemsieong, F.R.S , 699 



CONTENTS. XV 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

Page 

]. Report on the Teaching of Natural Science in Elementary Schools 703 

:?. Discussion on Atomic Weights : 

Proposed International Committee on Atomic "Weights. By Professor 

F. W. Clarke 703 

Atomic Weights. By Professor W. A. Tildbx, P.R.S 706 

3. ^Development of Chemistry in the last Fifteen Years. By Professor 
Geheimrath Dr. A. Ladenbukg 707 

4. The Chemical Effect on Agricultural Soils of the Salt-water Flood of 

November 29, 1897, on the East Coast. By T. S. Dtmond, F.I.C, and 

F. HlTGHES 707 

Z. The Influence of Solvents upon the Optical Activity of Organic Com- 
pounds. By William Jackson^ PorE 70S 

6. A Method for Resolving Racemic Oximes into their Optically Active 
Components. By William Jacksos^Pope 709 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. Phenomena connected with the Drying of Colloids, Mineral and Organic. 

By J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., and'WALTEK Hibbeet 709 

2. The Influence of Acids and of some Salts on the Saccharidcatinn of Starch 

by Malt-Diastase. By Dr. A. Fernbach 709 

3. Note on the Combined Action of Diastase and Yeast on Starch-gi-anules. 

By G. Harris Morris, Ph.D., F.I.C 710 

4. The Action of Acids on Starch. By G. Harris Morris. Ph.D., F.I.C. 711 

5. The Action of Hydrogen Peroxide on Carbohydrates in the Presence of 
Ferrous Salts. By R. S. Morrell and J. M. Crofts 712 

6. Influence of Substitution on Specific Rotation in the Bornylamine Series. 

By M. 0. Forster, Ph.D., D.Sc 712 

7. New Derivatives from Camphoroxime. By M. 0. Foesxee, Ph.D., D.Sc. 713 

8. *The Action of Caustic Soda on Benzaldehyde. By Dr. C. A. Kohk 
and Dr. AV. Trantom 714 

9. On the Action of Light upon Metallic Silver. By ColonelJ. Waterhouse 714 

10. Some Experiments to obtain Definite Alloys, if possible, of Cadmium, 
Zinc, and Magnesium with Platinum and Palladium. By Professor 
W. R. E. HoDGEiNsox, Captain Waring, R.A., and Cajptain Des- 
BOEOXfGH, R.A 714 

11. Action of Acetylic and Benzoylic Chlorides on dried Copper Sulphate. 

By Professor W. R. E. Hodgkinson and Captain Leahy, R.A 715 

12. The Reaction between Potassium Cyanide and 1 : 3 Dinitro-benzene. By 
Professor W. R. E. Hodgkinson a.id Lieut, W. H. Weblet-Hope, R.A. 716 

13. The Presence of Potassium Nitrite in Brown Powder Residue when the 
Powder is Burnt in Air under Ordinary Pressure. By 3Ir. Seton, R.A., 
and Mr, Sievenson, R.A '. 717 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

Address by Sir Archibald Geikie, D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the 
Section 718 



XVi REPORT — 1899. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 

I. On the Relation between the Dover and Franco-Belgian Coal BasiDS. 

By Robert Etheridge, F.R.S '30 

9 On the South-Eastern Coalfield. By Professor W. Botd Dawkins, M.A., 
F.R.S • 734 

3, Note on a Boring through the Chalk and Gault near Dieppe. By A. J. ^ 
Jukes-Bkowne, B.A., F.G.S "'^^ 

4, Some Recent Work among the Upper Carboniferous Rocks of North 

Staffordshire, and its bearing on concealed Coal-fields. By Walcot 
Gibson, F.G.S 738 

5, Report on the Drift Sections at Moel Tryfaen 739 

G Note on Barium Sulphate in the Bunter Sandstone of North Staffordshire. 

By C. B. AVedd, B.A., F.G.S 740 

7. Report on Seismological Investigations 740 

8. *Interim Report on the Structure of Crystals 740 

9. Report on Life-Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 740 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. The Photo-micrography of Opaque Objects as applied to the Delineation 
of the Minute Structure of Fossils. By Dr. Arthur Rowe, F.G.S 740 

2 Water-zones : Their Influence on the Situation and Growth of Concretions. 
By G. Abbott, M.R.C.S 741 

3. Tubular and Concentric Concretions. By G. Abbott, M.R.C.S 741 

4. On Photographs of Sandstone Pipes in the Carboniferous Limestone at 
Dwlbau Point, East Anglesey. By Edward Greenly 742 

5. Glaciation of Dwlbau Point, East Anglesey. By Edward Greenly 742 

6. On the Glacial Drainage of Yorkshire. By Percy F. Kendall, F.G.S... 743 
7 On the Origin of Lateral Moraines and Rock Trains. By J. Lomas, 

A.R.C.S., f'.G.S 744 

8. Note on the Origin of Flint. By Professor W. J. Sollas, F.R.S 744 

9, Calcareous Confetti and Oolitic Structure. By H. J. Johnston-Lavis, 

M.D., D.Ch. F.G.S 744 

10. Report on the Tyn Newydd Cares 746 

II. Report on Fossil Phyllopoda 740 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER IG. 
The President's Address 718 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Ilomotaxy and Contemporaneity. By Professor W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 746 

2. Note on the Surface of the Mount Sorrel Granite. By W. W. Watts, 
M.A., F.G.S , 747 

3. *0n the Origin of Chondritic Meteorites. By Professor A. Renaed 747 

4. On Coast Erosion. By Captain McD akin 747 

5. On Coast Erosion. By G. Dowser, F.G.S 747 

G. *Preliminary Report on Observations of Coast Erosion by the Coastguard 748 

7. On Photographs of Wave Phenomena. By Vaitghan Cornish, M.Sc. 
(Vict.), F.R.G.S., F.C.S 748 

8. The Eruption of Vesuvius of 1898. By Tempest Anderson, M.D., B.Sc. 740 



CONTENTS. Xvii 

Page 
9. *Inve8tigation of the Underground Waters of Craven. The Sources of 
the Aire. By Percy F. Kendall, F.G.S 7oO 

10. The Recent Eruption of Etna. By Professor Giovanni Platania 750 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1!). 

1. Tlie Geological Conditions of a Tunnel under the Straits of Dover. By 

Professor VV. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S 750 

2. On a Proposed New Classification of the Pliocene deposits of the East of 
England. By F. W. Hakmer, F.G.S 751 

3. The Meteorological Conditions of North- Western Europe, during the 
Pliocene and Glacial Periods. By F. W. Haemer, F.G.S 753 

4. On Some Palaeolithic Implements of North Kent. By the Eev. J. M. 

INIello, M.A., F.G.S 753 

5. Report on Photographs of Geological Interest 754 

6. Report on Irish Elk Remains in the Isle of Man 754 

7. Report on the Flora and Fauna of the Interglacial Beds in Canada 754 

WEDNESDA Y, SEPTEMBER 20. 

1. Sigmoidal Curves. By Maria M. Goedon, D.Sc 754 

2. 'Discussion on Wave Phenomena 755 

3. Report on the Ossiferous Caves at Uphill 755 

4. Report on Erratic Blocks of the British Isles 755 

5. On the Subdivisions of the Carboniferous System in certain portions of 
Nova Scotia. By H. M. Ami, M.A., F.G.S 755 

6. Report on the Registration of Type Specimens of British Fossils 756 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Address by Adam Sedgwice-, M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section 757 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Astrosclera Willeyana, the type of a new family of Recent Sponges. By 

J. J. Lister, M.A., F.Z.S \ 775 

2. On the Morphology of the Cartilages of the Monotreme Larynx. By 
Professor Johnson Symington, M.D 779 

3. The Palpebral and Oculomotor Apparatus of Fishes. By N. Bishop 

Harman, M.B., F.R.C.S 780 

4. The Pelvic Symphysial Bone of the Indian Elephant. By Professor R. 

J. Anderson 781 

5. "A few Notes on Rhythmic Motion. By Professor R. J. Anderson 782 

6. The Crystallisation of Beeswax and its Influence on the Formation of the 

Cells of Bees. By Charles Dawson, F.G.S., and S. A. Woodhead, 
B.Sc, F.C.S 782 



7. Report on Photographic Records of Pedigree Stock 

1899. a 



iO:2 



sviii REPORT — 1899. 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 



Page 



1 First Report on tlie Plankton and Physical Conditions of the English 
Channel ■■ 782 

2. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 782 

3. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 

Plymouth 782 

MOy^DAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. *The Development of Lepidosiren paradoxa. By J. Geaham Kere 782 

2. Animals \\\ which Nutrition has no Influence in Determining Sex. By 
James F. Gemmill 782 

3. Exhibition of Newly-discovered Remains of Neomylodon from Patagonia. 

By F. P. Moreno and A. Smith AVoodwaed 783 

4. Exhibition of and Remarks on a Skull of the extinct Chelonian Miolania 
from Patagonia. By F. P. Moreno and A. Smith Woodward 783 

5. *The Fur Seals of the Behring Sea. By G. E. H. B.verett-Hamilton... 784 

6. Report on Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland 784 

7. Report on 'Index Animalium' 784 

8. Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 784 

9. Report on Zoological and Botanical Publications 784 

10. Report on the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands 784 

UESDAT, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. Experiments on the Artificial Rearing of Sea-Fish. ByW. Garstang,M.A. 784 

2. Plaice Culture in the Limfjord, Denmark. By Dr. C. G. JoH. Petersen 784 

3. On the Occurrence of the Grey Gurnard {Trigla gurnurdus, L.), and its 

Spawning in the Inshore and Offshore Waters. By W. C. McIntosh ... 787 

4. *0n the Thames Estuary : its Physico-Biological aspects as bearing upon 

its Fisheries. By Dr. j! Mtjeie 788 

6. Report of the Committee for constructing a Circulatory Apparatus for 
Experimental Observations on Marine Organisms 788 

6. *Exliibition of Dr. Petersen's Closing Net for Quantitative Estimation of 
Plankton. By W. Garstang 788 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Addre-ss by Sir John Mtjeeat, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc, LL.D., President of the 

Section 789 

1 . On Polar Exploration by means of Icebreakers. By Admiral Makaeoff 802 

2. *Physical Observations in the Barents Sea. By W. S. BRrcE 802 

3. Report of the Committee on African Climatology 802 

4. Seismology in Relation to the Interior of the Earth. By John Milne, 
F.R.S 802 



. CONTENTS. XIX 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

Page 

1. On the Voyage of the ' Southern Cross ' from Hobart to Cape Adare. By 

Hugh Robeet Mill, D.Sc. F.R.S.E 803 

2. The Problem of Antarctic Exploration. By Heneye Aectowski 803 

3. Notes on the Physical and Chemical Work of an Antarctic Expedition. 

By J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S 804 

4. *0n Antarctic Exploration with Reference to its Botanical Bearings. 

By G. MuEEAY, F.R.S 80G 

5. Report of the Committee on the Exploration of Sokotra 806 

6. Travels in East Bolihara. By Mrs. W. Ricemee Rickmees 806 

7. A Journey in Western Oaxaca, Mexico. By 0. 11. IIowaeth 806 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Oceanographical and Meteorological Results of the German Deep-sea 

Expedition in the 'Valdivia.' By Dr. Geehaed Schoit 808 

2. On the Mean Temperature of the Surface Waters of the Sea round the 
British Coasts, and its Relation to that of the Air. By II. N. Dickson, 
F.R.S.E 809 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. *The Bathymetrical Survey of the Scottish Fresh-water Lochs. By Sir 

John Mueeat, K.O.B., and F. P. Pullae 809 

2. *The Distribution of Nitrogen and Ammonia in Ocean Water. By Sir 
John Mueeay, K.C.B., and Robeet Irvine 810 

5. Temperature and Salinity of the Surface Water of the North Atlantic 
during 1896 and 1897. By H. N. Dickson 810 

4. On the Terminology of the Forms of Suboceanic Relief. By Hugh 
Robeet Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E .- 810 

6. Twelve Years' Work of the Ordnance Survey. By Colonel Sir John 
Faequharson, K.C.B 811 

6. On Sand-dunes bordering the Delta of the Nile. By Vaughan Coe- 
NisH, M.Sc, F.R.G.S., F.C.S 812 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. "The Anthropogeography of Certain Places in British New Guinea and 

Sarawak. By A. C. Haddon, D.Sc, F.R.S 813 

2. A Visit to the Karch-Chal Mountains, Transcaucasia. By W. Rickmee 

RiCKUERS 81? 

3. A Journey in King Manelek's Dominions. By Captain M. S. Wellby ... 814 

4. The Discovery of Australia. By Edward Heawood, M.^^ 814 

6. *Journey to Wilczek Land and the Problem of Arctic Exploration. By 
Walter Wellman 814 

6. The Relations of Christmas Island to tbe Neighbouring Lands. By C. W. 

Andrews, B.Sc, F.G.S 815 

a 2 



XX REPORT — 1899. 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 
Address by Henet Higgs, LL.B., F.S.S., President of the Section 816 

1. The Mercantile System of iaissar i^aw-e. By Ethel E. Faeaday, M.A. 824 

2. On Geometrical Illustrations of the Theory of Rent. By Professor J. D. 
EvEEETT, F.R.S 825 

3. On the Use of Galtonian and other Curves to represent Statistics. By 
Professor F. Y. Edgewoeth 825 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Some Aspects of American Municipal Finance. By J. H. Hollandee, 

Ph.D 82o' 

2. Municipal Trading and Profits. By Robeet Donald 826 

3. The Single Tax. By Professor William Smaet, M.A., LL.D 827 

4. The State as Investor. By Edwin Canitan, M.A. 828 

5. The Mercantile System. By Professor G. J. Stokes 828 

I 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER lU. 

1. Agricultural Wages in the United Kingdom from 1770 to 1895. By 

A. L. BowLBT, M.A., F.S.S \ 829 

2. *JS'ote sur la situation agricole d'un canton du Pas-de-Calais. Par un 

Membre de la Soci^td d'Economie Sociale de France 820 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. *The Census, 1901. By Miss Collet 829 

2. The Course of Average Wages between 1790 and 1860. By Geoege 

Hy, Wood, F.S.S 829 

3. The Regulation of Wages by Lists in the Spinning Industry. By S. J. 
Chapman .". 830 

4. The Teaching University of London and its Faculty of Economics. By 

Sir Philip Magnus 831 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. Increase in Local Rates in England and Wales, 1891-2 to 1896-7. By 
Miss Hewaet ^. 832 

2. Bank Reserves. By Geoege H. Pownall 833 

3. Indian Currency after the Report of the Commission. By Heemann 

Schmidt 834 

4. *The Silver Question in Relation to British Trade. By John M. 
Macdonald 835 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

1. The Results of Recent Poor Law Reform. By IIaeold E. Mooee, F.S.I. 835 

2. Old Age Pensions in Denmark : their Influence on Thrift and Pauperism. 

By Professor A. W. Flux, M.A 835 



CONTEXTS. xxi 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDA Y, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 
Address by Sir W, H. White, K.C.B., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., President 

of tlie Section 837 

1. The Dover Harbour Works. By J. C. Coode, M.Inst.O.E., and W. 
Matthews, M.Inst.C.E 854 

2. On Non-Flammable Wood and its Use on Warships. By E. Marshali, 
Fox 854 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Report on Small Screw Gauges 855 

2. 'A Short History of the Engineering Works of the Suez Canal to the 
Present Time. By Sir Charles Hartley, K.C.M.Gr 855 

3. *Fast Cross-Channel Steamers Driven by?Steam Turbines. By Hon, C. A. 

Parsons, F.R.S ". 855 

4. *The Niclausse Water-Tube Boiler. By Mark Robinson, M.Inst.C.E.... 855 

5. On the Discharge of Torpedoes below Water. By Captain E. W. Llotd 855 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 
1. Erection of the New Alexander III. Bridge in Paris. By M. M. Albt... 856 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. *Electrical Machinery on Board Ship, By A. Siemens, M.Inst.C.E 856 

2. On the Electric Conductivity and Magnetic Properties of an Extensive 

Series of Alloys of Iron, prepared by R. A, Hadpield. ' By Professor 
W. F. Barrett, F.R.S., and W. Brown, B.Sc 85G 

3. Some Recent Applications of Electro-Metallurgy to Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, By Sherard Cowper-Coles, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E., M.I.E.E. 857 

4. *SignalliDg without Contact, a New System of Railway Signalling. By 

Wilfred S. Boult, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E 858 

5. Our Lighthouses of the English Channel in 1899. By J. Kenward, 
F.S.A 858 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

L Recent Experiences with Steam on Common Roads. By John I. 
Thorntcropt, F.R.S 858 

2. The Dymchurch Wall and Reclamation of Romney Marsh. By Edward 
Case, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E., F.R.Q.S 859 

3. An Instrument for Gauging the Circularity of Boiler Furnaces and 

Cylinders, Producing a Diagram. By T. Messenger, A.M.I.C.E 859 

4. Experiments on thi=i Thru.^t and Power of Air-Propellers. By William 

George AValker, M.I.M.E., A.M.I.CE 860 



xxii REPORT — 1899. 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 
Address by C. H. Read, President of the Section 861 

1. fReport on the New Edition of Anthropological Notes and Queries' 868 

2. Eeport on Photographs of Anthropological Interest 868 

3. The Presidential Address 861 

4. *The Personal Equation in Anthropometry. By Dr. J. G. Garson 868 

5. Finger Prints of Young Children. By Francis Galton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 868 

6. Finger Prints and the Detection of Crime in India, describing the System 
of classifying Finger Prints and how all the great Departments in 
India have brought Finger Prints into use. By E. R. Henry, C.S.I. ...869 

FRIDA T, SEPTEMBER .15. 

1. Report on the Expedition to Torres Straits and New Guinea 870 

2. The Linguistic Results of the Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits and 

New Guinea. By Sidney H. Rat 870 

3. Notes on Savage Music. By C. S. Myers , 870 

4. Seclusion of Girls at Mabuiag, Torres Straits. By C. G. Seligmann 871 

5. Notes on the Club Houses and Dubus of British New Guinea. By C. G. 

Seligmann 871 

6. *Notes on the Otati Tribe, North Queensland. By C. G. Seligmann... 871 

7. Contributions to Comparative Psychology from Torres Straits and New 

Guinea 871 

8. *Exhibition of Photographs from Torres Straits and British New Guinea. 

By Professor Haddon, F.R.S 871 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Some New Observations and a Suggestion on Stonehenge. By Alfred 
Eddowes, M.D., M.R.C.P 871 

2. *Interim Report on Investigations of the Age of Stone Circles 871 

3. Notes on the Discovery of Stone Implements in Pitcairn's Island. By J. 
Allen-Brown, F.G.S., F.R.G.S 871 

4. On the Occurrence of ' Celtic ' Types of Fibula of the Hallstatt and La 

Tene Periods in Tunisia and Eastern Algeria, By Arthur J. Evans, 
M.A., F.S.A 872 

5. On Irish Copper Celts. By George Coffbt 872 

6. *Stone Moulds for New Types of Implements from Ireland. By G. 
Coffey 873 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Final Report on the Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom 874 

2. On Recent Ethnographical Work in Scotland. By J. Gray, B.Sc 874 

3. Report on the Mental and Physical Condition of Children in Elementary 
Schools 875 

4. On Recent Anthropometrical Work in Egypt. By D. MacIver, B.A. ... 875 



CONTENTS. xxiii 

Page 

5. *Notes on a Collection of 1,000 Egyptian Crania. By Professor A. Mac- 
ALISTEE, F.R.S 876 

6. *0n a Pre-basi-occipital Bone in a New Hebridean Skull, and an anoma- 
lous Atlauto-oecipital Joint in a Moriori. By Professor A. Macalistek, 

r.R.s : :876 

7. Notes on Colour Selection in Man. By Dr.BEDDOE, F.R.S 876 

8. Report on the Lake Village of Glastonbury 87G 

9. Sequences of Prehistoric Remains. By Professor W. M. Flinbebs Peteie 876 
10. On the Sources of the Alphabet. By Professor W. M. Flindees Peteie 877 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. Notes on the Yaraikanna Tribe, Cape York, North Queensland. By Dr. 
A. C. Haddon, F.R.S 877 

?. Report en the Ethnological Survey of Canada 877 

3. Primitive Rites of Disposal of the Dead, as illustrated by Survivals in 
Modern India. By William Ceooke, B.A 877 

4. Pve-animistic Religion. By R. R. Maeett, M.A-. 878 

5. The Thirty-seven Nats (or Spirits) of the Burmese. By Colonel R. C. 
Temple, CLE 878 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

1. Report on recent Excavations in the Roman City of Silchester 879 

2. Two New Departures in Anthropological Method. By W. H. R. Rivees, 
M.D 879 

3. *The « Cero ' of St, Ubaldino : The Relic of a Pagan Spring Festival at 
Gubbio in Umbria. By D. MacIvee 880 

4. *Exhibition of Ethnographical Specimens from Somali, Galla, and Shan- 
galla. By Dr. R. KoETTLiTZ 880 

5. *The Ethnography of the Lake Region of Uganda. By Lieut.-Colonel J. 

R. L.Macdonald, R.E 880 

6. *Notes on some West African Tribes north of the Benue, By Lieut. H. 
Pope Hennesst 880 

Sectiox I.— physiology, including Experimental Pathology 
and Experimental Psychology. 

Address by J. N. Langlet, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section 881 

' THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1 . Report on the Influence of Drugs upom the Vascular System 892 

2. Report on the Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors when 
Introduced into the Circulation 892 

3. Report on the Electrical Changes accompanying the Discharge of the 

Respiratory Centre 892 

4. Report on the Comparative Histology of the Cerebral Cortex 892 

5. 'Interim Report on the Histological Changes in the Nerve Cells 892 



xxiv REPORT — 1899.. 

Page 

6. Report on the Micro-ctemistry of Cells 892 

7. Interim Report on the Histology of the Suprarenal Capsules 892 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 
The President's Address 881 

1. Autointoxication as the cause of Pancreatic Diahetes. By Ivor L. 
TucKETT, M.A 892 

2. The Physiological Effects of Extracts of the Pituitary Body. By Pro- 

fessor E. A. ScHAFEE and Swale Vincent 894 

3. 'On the Theory of Hearing. ByA. A. Geat 894 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER IQ. 

1. On the Resonance of Nerve and Muscle. By F. C. Busch 894 

2. The Propagation of Impulses in the Rabbit's Heart. By H. Keonecker 
and F. C. Bttsch 895 

3. Concerning Fibrillation and Pulsation of the Dog's Heart. By F. C. 
Bttsch 896 

4. On the Effects of Successive Stimulation of the Visceromotor and Vaso- 
motor Nerves of the Intestine. By J. L. BuBCH, D.Sc, M.D 897 

5. On Stimulation and Excitability of the Antemic Brain. By "William J. 
GiES 897 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. On the Innervation of the Thoracic and Abdominal parts of the Oesopha- 
gus. By W. MiTHLBEEG, of Cincinnati 898 

2. Observations, Physiological and Pharmacological, on the Intestinal Move- 
ments of a Dog with a Vella Fistula. By J. E. EssELMONT 899 

3. On Respiration on Mountains. By Dr. Emil Buegi 900 

4. "On Protamines, the Simplest Proteids. By Professor A. Kossel 901 

5. "Protamines and their Cleavage Products : their Physiological Effects. 

By Professor W. H. Thompson 901 

6. The Vascular Mechanism of the Testis. By W^ltee E. Dixon, M.D., 
B.Sc. London 901 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER. 19. 

1. The Dependence of the Tonus of the Muscles of the Bladder in Rabbits 

on the Spinal Cord. By John P. Aenold 902 

2. Observations on Visual Acuity from Torres Straits. By Dr. VV. H. R. 
Rivers „ 902 

3. *Observations on Visual Acuity from New Guinea. By C. G. Seligmanx 902 

4. On a New Instrument for measuring the duration of Persistence of 
Vision on the Human Retina. By Eeic Stuaet Beuce, M.A. Oxon., 
F.R.Met.Soc 902 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 
Address by Sir George King, K.C.I.E., LL.D., M.B., F.R.S., President of 

the Section 904. 

1. Some Methods for Use in the Culture of Algre. By Professor Marshall 
Ward, F.R.S 919 

2. On the Growth of Oscillaria in Hanging Drops of Silica Jelly. By Pro- 
fessor Marshall Ward, F.R.S ". 920 

3. On the Life-history and Cytology of Halidrys Siliquosa. By J. Llotd- 
WlLLIAMS 920 

4. The Sand-Dunes between Deal and Sandwich, with Remarks on the 

Flora of the Districts. ByG. Dowker, F.G.S 921 

5. *The Research Laboratory in the Royal Botanic Garden, Peradeniya, 
Ceylon. By J. C. Willis '... 921 

6. Report on Fertilisation in the Phtneophycepe 921 

7. Report on Experimental Investigation of Assimilation in Plants 921 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. On White-Rot, a Bacterial Disease, of the Turnip. By Professor M. C. 
Potter 921 

2. *0n the Phosphorus-containing Elements in Yeast. By Harold Wager. 922 

3. On the Influence of the Temperature of Liquid Hydrogen on the Germi- 
native Power of Seeds. By Sir William Thiselton Dyer, K.C.M.G., 
F.R.S 922 

4. *0n a Horn-destroying Fungus. By Professor Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 922 

5. Bulgaria polymorpha (Wettstein) as a Wood-destroying Fungus. By R. 

H. BiEFEN .' , 92.3 

6. On a Disease of Tradescantia fluminensis and T. sebrina. By Albert 
Howard, B.A ! 923 

7. *Demonstration of Vermiform Nuclei in the Fertilised Embryo-Sac of 

Lilium Martagon. By Miss Ethel Sargant 923 

8. *0n the Sexuality of the Fungi. By Harold Wager 923 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 
Joint Discussion with Section B on Symbiosis 923 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. On the Localisation of the Irritability in Qeotropic Organs. By Francis 
Darwin, F.R.S 924 

2. Studies in Araceae. By Professor Douglas Campbell 924 

3. On the Morphology and Life History of the Indo-Cevlonese Podostemacese. 

By J. C. Willis " 924 

4. Note on the Anaboena-coutaining Roots of some Cycads. By W. G. 
Freeman 925 

5. A Mixed Infection in Abutilon Roots. By E. J. Butler, M.B 925 



XXvi REPORT — 1899, 

Page 
G. *Remark9 on Fern Sporangia and Spores. By Professor F. 0. Bowek, 
F.R.S 926 

7. The Jurassic Flora of Britain. By A. C, Seward, F.R.S 926 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. A New Genus of Palaeozoic Plants. By A. C. Sewaed, F.R.S 926 

2. On the Structure of a Stem of a Ribbed Sigillaria. By Professor C. Eg. 
Bbrteand 926 

3. On a biserial Halonia belonging to the genus Lepidophloios. By Pro- 

fessor F. E. Weiss 927 

4. The Maiden-hair Tree (Ginkgo biloba, L.). By A. C. Sewaed, F.R.S., 
and Miss J. GowAif 928 

5. Stem-structure in Schizseaceae, Gleicheniaceae, and Hymenophyllacese. 

By L. A. Boodle 928 

6. Notes on Indiarubber. By R. H. BiFFEN 929 

7. Some isolated Observations on the Function of Latex. By J. Paekin, 
M.A 929 

8. Intumescences of Hibiscus Titifolius, L. By Miss E. Dale 9.30 

Index 931 



PLATE. 



Plan of DoTer Harbour. 



/ 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATIOK 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compoaitions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the lleports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXX REPORT — 1899. 

gratuitoushj the Reports of tlie Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay ivWiout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or io purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memhers' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 cojpies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

> A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXxi 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less tban two years in advance ^ ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and pi-eceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of suh- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must be 
sent to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting 
of the Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee io be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to exercise the func- 
tions of Sectional Committees until their names are submitted to the 
General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,* and of preparing Reports 

■ Revised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 
^ Kevised, Montreal, 1884. 

^ Passed, Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. 

* Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 



XXXll 



REPORT — 1899. 



thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first "Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
2 P.M., to appoint members of the Sectional Committee.^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Comriiittees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section, who will be appointed by the 
General Committee at 4 p.m., and those previous Presidents and Vice- 
Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., 
in their Committee Rooms, and appoint the Sectional Committees by 
selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,^ Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee except for Saturday.'^ 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible deterinined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Sheffield, 1879. ^ Swansea, 1880, revised, Dover, 1899. 

3 Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. 

* The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. ' Nottingham, 1893. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXxiii 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 

3. Papers wliicli have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 
ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
hast year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minnte-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of ihe proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished hij Authors, are to be fnrwa.rded, at the close. of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxxi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasui-er in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Gotnmittee should be named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
^ This and the following sentecce were added by the General Committee, Ediij- 
burgh, 1871. 

1899. b 



XXxIv REPORT 1899. 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the respo7isihility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Seport in due time ; and, further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee shojild be as small as is consistent with its efficient icorking. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for presentation to the Committee of Kecommendations. Unless this be 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. "^ 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
4- Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication, 

• Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

5. In each Committee tlie Chairman ia the only person entitled to 

call on the Treasurer, Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
•which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of Natural History are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Association. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and apj^roaclies thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,> and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. _ 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often aa the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

» The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours 
of meeting of the Section and of the Sectional Committee, except for Saturday. 
" b2 



xxxvi KEPORT — 1899. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to tlie Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Committee of Recommendations are the 
President and Yice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General and Assistant- 
(reneral Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents 
of the Association in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.* 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.' 

' Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
* Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVii 



Corresponding Societies.^ 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a List of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, a, 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee, 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



xxxviii REPORT — 1899. 

the Secretaries of tlie Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise vray in ■which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed hj a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 
( 3 There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

' Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



KDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the gi-eatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

OflBcers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, ty Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



xl 



REPORT — 1899. 



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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. 



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REPORT — 1899. 



TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831— ] 900. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) E. I. Muechison (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egehton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1872 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883 Lord Rayletgh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (now Lord) PlatfAIE, 

F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. A. W. Ruckee, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Gray, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
1891-98 Prof. A. W. Ruckee, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



Veenon Haecouet, 

Veenon Haecouet, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1832-35 Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
1835-36 Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 

F.R.S. 
1836-37 Rev. W. Veenon Haecouet, 

F.R.S., and R. I. Muechison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1837-39 R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1839-45 Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine. F.R.S. 
1845-50 Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine.F.R.S. 
1850-52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
1852-53 J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
1853-59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1859-61 Prof. R. Walkee, F.R.S. 
1861-62 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
1863-65 "W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R S, 
1865-66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 



18C6. 
1868. 
1871 
1872. 

1876 
1881 



-68 



-82 



1882. 
1883 



1895 
1897 



and 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hiest, F.R.S. 

71 Dr. T. A. Hiest, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 

72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S., andCa.pt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
76 Capt. Douglas Galton. F.R.S., 

and Dr. Michael Foster, 

F.R.S. 
81 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Dr. P. L. ScLATEE, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Prof. F. M. Balfour, 

F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G. Veenon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof, E. A. 

SCHAFEE, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. ScHAFEE, F.R.S.. and 

Sir W. C. ROBEETS-AUSTEN, 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 



-97 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Foebes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. GOEDON, Esq., B.A., 

Assistant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretai-y. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A. Acting 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 



liii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAI, PHYSICS. 



1832. 

1833. 
1834. 


Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 


1835. 


Dublin 


1836. 


Bristol 


1837. 


Liverpool... 


1838. 


Newcastle 


1839. Birmingham 


1840. 


Glasgow ... 


1841. 
1842. 


Plj'mouth 
Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844. 


York 


1845. 


Cambridge 


1846. 
1847. 


Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 


1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 


1850. 


Edinburgh 


1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.K.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Wiewell, F.K.S. 



llev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Piof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTLON A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Wiewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . WTiewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I. A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S. ..., 
William Hopkins, F.R.S....- 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. f!r.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I. A. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof, 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. PowslI, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevell}', 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W, J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. TyndalJ. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Pnckle, Prof, 
Stevelly, J. TjTidall, J. Welsh. 

Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, I'rof . 
Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull, 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
Prof. Stevelly, 



liv 



EEPOKT — 1899. 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 



Presidents 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton 

1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 



1875. Bristol... 

1876. Glasgow 

1877. Plymonth 
1S78. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.E.S. 
Kev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W.J. Macqviorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.LA. 

Prof. BalfoiTr Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof, G . C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Henness}% 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J.S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, 11 . 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whit worth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomle}-, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof . W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel . 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher,"Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlistcr. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 
1898. 



Montreal ... 

Aberdeen. . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

CardifE 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 

Liverpool... 

Toronto . . . 
Bristol 



1899. Dover 



Presidents 



Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. W. Riicker, M.A., 

K Tt S 
Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, 0. J.Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge. 

J Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, 

W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J.C. McLennan. 
Prof. A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, 

C. H. Lees, Prof. W. Watson, E. T. 

Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. 

Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 

1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840, 

1841. 
1842. 
1843, 
1844. 
1845. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 



1846. Southamp- 



ton. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S, 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S, 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Re}'Tiolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clai-k, 
Dr. L. Playf air. 

J. Prideaux, R. Hunt, W. M.Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 



l71 



KEPOET 1899. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1847. Oxford Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Swansea ..., Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878, 

1879. 



Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.MiUer, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 



Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. . 

Dublin., 

Leeds ., 



Aberdeen... 
Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 



Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C. B., F.R. S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof.W.n.Miller,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. \V. "Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crimi Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 



B. C. Brodie, R, Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. AVard. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt , G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 



PRKSIDENTS AND SECEETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 



Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

CardifE...... 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



Presidents 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool.., 

1897. Toronto ... 



1898. Bristol. 

1899. Dover . 



Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.A.W.Williamson.F.E.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E Eoscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tildnn, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. PhiUips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morlev, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H, Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



SECTION B (continued). — chemistry. 



Trof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof . F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 



E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn.J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Euttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGT AND GEOGRAPHT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. L Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J. Yates, 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool.., 

1838. Newcastle., 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGT AND GEOGRAPHY, 

R. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

(?eo^.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

<?«o^.,G.B.Greenough, F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geogrojiliy, Lord Prudhoe. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M.Denham,R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Gvograpliy, Capt. Washington. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1899. 



Date and Place 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp. 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh" 



Presidents 



Eev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
Geoff. ,G.B.GTeenough,F.'R.S. 

Charles Lyell, F.B,.S.—Geo- 
ffrajjJuj, G. B. Greenough, 
F.K.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. ... 

E. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Eichard E. Griffith, F.E.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.E.S. ., 
Leonard Horner, F.E.S 

Very Eev.Dr.Buckland,F.E.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Eoderick I. Murchison, 

F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 

land, Charles Darwin. 
W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 

Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 

Scoular, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 

E. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, E. Hutton, Dr. E, 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Eev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Eamsay, 

Eev. W. Thorp. 
Eobert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Eamsay, J. Euskin. 
S.Benson,Prof. Oldham, Prof. Earn say. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Eamsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION c (continued). — geology. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenliam 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.E.S, 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, E.E., 
F.E.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.E.S. 

Sir E. L Murchison, F.E.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, F.E.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

■WilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, Eev. E. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Eobert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Eev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Eupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Eupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
E. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 



' Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixiv. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1867, 
1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 
1876. 

1877. 



Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton... 

Bradford . . . 

Belfast 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin. 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford . . . 

Ips%^-ich 

Liverpool 
Toronto 

Bristol... 

Dover ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Archibald Geikie, F.K.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.E..S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.B.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S.. 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Hudleston, F.R S 

Sir Arch. Geikie, F.R.S 



E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. n. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew^ L. C. lu'iall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Topley. 
J.Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
' Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Man-, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 
Capt. McDakin, Prof. H. A. Bliers, 



Ix 



REPORT — 1899. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



Ifi32. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 
1534. Edinburgh. 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...jRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
Eev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.l C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham IW. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett, 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford , 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. . 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 1 Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S iG. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. j Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... i Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., ; Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

F.R.S. I Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

I Wollaston. 



SECTION D {continued). — zoology and botany, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixiii.] 

Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerle}', Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1/849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 
185?. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S... . 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixiii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861, 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 



Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



Bath. 



B i r m i n g- 
ham ' 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.?. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. K 

Lankester, Dr. B. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H, 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Bradv, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D {continued'). — biology. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. 
1868. 



Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool.. 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton .., 



1873. Bradford ... 



Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— Dp/;. 

of Physwl.,FToi. Humphry, 

F.R.S. — Bej}. n/Anthropol, 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpe}', M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bej}. of Zuol. and Bat., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. RollestoD, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — i)e/A of 
Anat. and P7iysiol.,'Pvoi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.h.S.—Bep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.'R.S.—Bep. of Bot. and 
.2'wZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S.— 
Bej}. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— i?f^. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,Tioi. Ru- 
therford, M.i>.—Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H, 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T . 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
Kinsr. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F, AV. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



> The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



Ixii 



EEPORT — 1899. 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Redfern, M.T).—Dep. of W.T.Thiselton-Dyer.R.O.Cunning-- 



1877. Plymouth.., 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea 



Zool. and Bat., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— jDrjw. ofAn- 
throp.. Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 
L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Z»e^.o/ 
Atuit. and Physiol., Prof. 
Cleland, F.U.i-.—Dej}. of 
Anthropol., Prof. RoUeston, 

I F.R.S. 
1876. Glasgow ... | A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Bej?. of Zool. and Bat., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bej). of An at. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
Anthropol.,¥.GzXton,¥.'R.b. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthrojwl., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Dcp. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Bej). of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Giinther, M.D.,F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Atmt. and Phi/- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler.'F.G.S. 
1881. York Richard Owen, C.B., F.R.S. 

— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. J. S. Burdon Sander- 
son, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. G, 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Be}), of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester.M.A., G 
F.R.S.— i)^7A of A nthrojjnl 
W. Pengellj% F.R.S. 



ham. Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 
E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn. F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



1882. Southamp 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Pricstle}-, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



W. Bloxam, "W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



W. Carruthers, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Pres. L.S. 



W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 



• Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixx. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE EECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford 2 ... 



Presidents 



Prof. A. Newton, M. A., P.E.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.K.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.E.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.E.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 



Secretaries 



1895. 


Ipswich . . . 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 


Dover 



C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, iG. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. | W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

1 W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A.,lW. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 
F.R.S. j Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

I Hickson , G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 

SECTION D (continued). — zoology. 

G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 



Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S. .. 
ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMT AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



18.33. Cambridge 
1834. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. Haviland... 
Dr. Abercrombie 



Dr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 
Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. B. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly. M.D., F.R.S.. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr.J. Brown, Prof. Couper,Prof. Eeid. 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S, 
Sir James Pit cairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sarg:ent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Isxi. 
' The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixiv 



REPORT — 1899. 



Date and Place 



1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' .. 



Presidents 



Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S. . 



Secretaries 



C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod, 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham.'' 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S. L.& B. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett,Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith, 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Ivii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton]Dr. J. C. Pritchard 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGKAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 



Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Sir R. L Mm-chison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Havtland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



1 By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D— Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (.'566 [). IX.). Section B, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

' Vide note on page Ixi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 




1865. Birmingham 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Sir R.I. Murchison,G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright." 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markliam, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Jlarkham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geographt. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 
!877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 
1899. 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. - General Strachey, 
R.E.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir B. Ommanney, C.B. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R.S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 
K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tackett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.Abb^Laflamme.J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J S. O'HaUoran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Kev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 



Ixvi 



BEPORT — 1899. 



Date and Place 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 



Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle 

upon-Tyne 
Leeds ... 



CardifE 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 

Bristol j 

Dover 



Presidents 



Col. Sir C. Warren, K.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravensteiu, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. E.G.S. 

J. Scott-Keltie, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John Murray, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltic, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey, H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill.E. C. DuD. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 



1833. Cambridge! 

1834. Edinburgh | 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1843. Swansea ... 
Ie49 Birmingham 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, TI. — STATISTICS. 

Prof. Babbage, F.R.S | J. E. Drinkwater. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. lion. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
jRt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R.W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. E. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F, G. P. 

Neison, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 


Very Eev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.B,.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

E. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 


Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J, 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 


1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 


E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (^continued). — economic science and STATISTICS 
1856. Cheltenham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



1857. Dublin ' 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich... 

1869, Exeter 



1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875, Bristol 

1876, Glasgow ... 

1877, Plymouth... 

1878, Dublin 



1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea ,. 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 
ton, 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M, E. Grant-Duff, M.P, ... 



Samuel Brown 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P 

Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



James Heywood, M.A,,F,R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K, Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S, 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof, R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H, D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 

E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G, J, Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi, 

B. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E, Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T, G. P. Hallett, E, 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr, 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack, 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn, 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C, 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 

C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F, 
Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

d2 



XVlll 



heport — 1899. 



Date and Place 



1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 




Southport R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.E.S. 

Montreal ... Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
I G.C.S.I., CLE., F.E.G.S. 

Aberdeen... 'Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
I Litt.D. 

Birmingham J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 



Manchester 



Bath. 



Robert GifEen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof, f . Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 



Secretaries 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 1 Prof. A. MarshaU, M.A., F.S.S 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F.S.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
K.C.B. 



Nottingham Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 



Oxford . 



Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 
F.S.S. 
Ipswich ... L. L. Price, M.A 



Liverpool... 



Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 



Toronto ... Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D. 



Bristol 
Dover 



H. Higgs, LL.B 



Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

, Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. EUiott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K." Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

W. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
South'mpt'n 

Oxford 

Swan.sea ... 
Birraingh'm 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S, 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. "Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I. A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S. 
Rev. R. Robinson ,.,,.:.. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J, 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Jielfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 

1850. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. iS'ewcastte 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 



Presidents 



1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ., 



] 873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast.. 

1875. Bristol ... 

1876. Glasgow 



William Cubitt.F.E.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
John Scott Eussell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S... . 

William Fairbairn, F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.E.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.E.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Thomas Hawkslej', V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.E.G.S, 

C. W. Siemens, F.E.S. . 



Secretaries 



John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Eamsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery, 
Prof. Downing, W.T. DojTie, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
E. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

0. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 



P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauermaai. 
Chas.B.Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

I King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Prof. FleemingJenkin, F.R.S. H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

I J. G. Gamble, J. N. Slioolbred. 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S C'.Barlow,H.Bauerman.E.H.Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John' 

C.E., F.E.S. E. ! Smyth, jun. 

W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.E.S. W. E. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G.. 

j Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.E.S iW. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar,.. 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 

1877. Pl3-mouth... I Edward Woods, C.E A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
Edward East on, C.E. 



1878. Dublin .. 

1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



A. T. Atchison, E. G. Syme.s, H. T. 
Wood. 

J. Eobinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. I A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridgc, 
Eng. j H. T. Wood. 

J. Abernethy, F.E.S.E 'A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B.,'A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. \ H. T. Wood. 

John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... A. T Atchison, F Churton, H. T. 

j Wood. 
J. Brunlees, Pres. Inst.C.E. !A. T. Atchison, E. Eigg,H. T.Wood. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.E.S.,! A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 
V.P.Inst.C.E. I Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 

B. Baker, M.Inst. C.E A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

I Eigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. |C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 
C.E. I Marshall, E. Eigg. 



Ixx 



REPORT 1899. 



Date and Place 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 



Presidents 



Prof. Osborne Eeynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.E S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.E.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.E.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. P. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 

Sir W. AVhite, K.C.B., F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Eigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Eigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Eigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Eigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Eigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Eigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Eigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Eev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 

dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stilgoe. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 
189.3. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L.. F.E.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.E.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P., D.C.L., F.E.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Eivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. E.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max MuUer, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. E. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B.. 

F.E.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

Sir W. Turner, F.R.S 

E. \V. Brabrook, C.B 

C. H. Read, F.S.A. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W, 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. E. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

E. Morison, Dr. E. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. E. Howden, H. 

Ling Eoth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

E. Howden, H. Ling Eoth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Eaven, H. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, .J. L. Myres, G. Parker. 
H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixxi 




SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1894. Oxford. 



180G. 
1897. 



Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 



1899. Dover 



I 



Prof. E. A. Schilfer, F.R.S., Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haklane, 

M.R.G.S. I M. S. Pembre}'. 

Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. | Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C.S.Sherrington. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. \ Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton, Dr. L. E. Shore. 
Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 
H. Starling. 



jj. N. Langley, F.R.S. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY^ 



1805. Ipswich ... W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S, 

189G. Liverpool... Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

1898. Bristol Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 

1899. Dover Sir George King, F.R.S 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss". 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 
G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTUEES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 



1849. 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M.L Brunei 

R. L Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the Mgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 



Ixxii 



REPORT — 1899. 



Date and Place 



1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull, 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



1867. Dimdee, 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.K.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.E.S.,Astron. Eoyal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

Colonel JPortlock, E.E., F.E.S. 



Prof.J.Phillips,LL.D.,F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 

Eobert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
CoL E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson ... 

Col. Sir H. Eawlinson 



W. E. Grove, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.E.S. ... 
Eev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.E.S. 
Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S. ... 

Eev. Prof. Walker, F.E.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, E.N. 
Prof.W. A. Miller, M.A., F.E.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron. 

Eoyal . 
Prof. l>ndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.E.S 



James Glaisher, F.E.S.. 



Prof. Eoscoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S. . 
J. Beete Jukes, F.E.S 



William Huggins, F.E.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.E.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.E.A.S. 



Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and tlieir changes of Form. 

Total.Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Eecent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Eecent Discovery of Eock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
pract ical considerat ions connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Eesearchesin Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Eecent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cimeiform Eesearch up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eecent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorksliire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarelied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Eecent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The i^resent state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 



LIST OF EVEI^ING LECTURES. 



IXXlll 



Date and Place 



18G8. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



1873. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.. F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall,LL.D.. F.R.S. 
Prof .V/. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

Prof. W." K. Clifford 

Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart. .M. P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D., F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S. E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof.E. Ray Lanke-ster, F.R.S. 
i Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Daliinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. 

John Murrajs F.R.S. E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. , 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. , 

Col. Sir F. de Wiuton 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. . 



Archa3ology of the early Buddhist 
j Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Phj'sical Constitution ol the 
j Stars and Nebulre. 

The Scient itic Use of the Imagination, 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
I tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
[ plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
j Civilisation. 
! Insect Metamorphosis. 
I 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
I tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plajits. 
j Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The H^'pothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The CluMnujcr Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
I the Mines of Cornwall and 
I Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas ol 
I Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Jlental Imagery. 

; The Rise and I'rogress of Pala^on- 
1 tology. 

The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission oi 
Power. 



Ixxiv 



REPORT — 1899. 



Date and Place 



1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 

1892. 
1893. 



Bath. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 



Edinburgh 
Nottingham 



Lecturer 



1894. Oxford 



1895. Ipswich 



1896. 
1897. 
1898. 



Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 
Bristol 



1899. Dover 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 

E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. Roberts Austen, F.R.S. 

J. Milne, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. .. 

Herbert Jackson 

Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming. F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some Difficulties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 

JIagnetic Induction. 
Flame. 
The Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 
Experiences and Prospects of 

African Exploration. 
Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 
Magnetism in Rotation. 
The Work of Pasteur and its various 

Developments. 
Safety in Ships. 
Man before Writing. 
Canada's Metals. 
Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 
Funafuti: the Study of a Coral 

Island. 
Phosphorescence. 
La vibration nerveuse. 
The Centenary of the Electric 

Current. 



Ixxv 



LECTUEES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



Lecturer 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887, 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892, 
1893. 
1894. 
1895, 
1896, 
1897. 
1898, 



Liverpool 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast ... 

Bristol ... 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

. Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

, Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 
, Bristol 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.,F.E.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.K.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W.Siemens, D.C.L.,F.E.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oi:ygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone, 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their enemies and Signal to their 

friends. 



Ixxvi REPORT — 1899. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE DOVER MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Fi-oi. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. R. Foi'syth, F.R.S. ; Sir Norman Lockyer, 
F.R.S. ; Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. ; Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — J. L. Howard, D.Sc. ; C. H. Lees, D.Sc. ; Prof. "W. 
Watson, B.Sc. {Recorder) ; E. T. Wliittaker, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Horace T. Brown, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ; Prof. R. Fittig ; 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Ladenburg ; Prof. G. Lemoine. 
Secretaries. — A. H. Hall ; C. A. Kohn {Recorder) ; T. K. Rose ; 

Prof. W. P. Wynne, F.R.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. ; Prof. C. Lapworth, 

F.R.S.; M. Mourlon; J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S. ; W. Whitaker, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — J. W. Gregory, D.Sc. ; G. W. Lamplugh ; Capt. McDakin ; 

Professor H. A. Miers, F.R.S. {Recorder). 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— 2voi. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S.; Prof. W. C. 

Mcintosh, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Walter Garstang, M.A. {Recorder) ; J. Graham Kerr, M.A. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— ^iv John Murray, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. ; Major L. Darwin ; 

Colonel Sir J. Farquharson, K.C.B. ; Sir J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. ; 

LI. W. Longstaff ; Sir Erasmus Ommanney. 
Secretaries.— n. N. Dickson, F.R.G.S. ; H. O. Forbes, LL.D. ; H. R. 

Mill, D.Sc, F.R.G.S. {Recorder). 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— B.. Higgs, LL.B., F.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— 3. Bonar, M.A., LL.D. ; Prof. F.iY. Edgeworth, M.A. ; 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle, K.C.B. ; Arthur Lee, J.P. 
Secretaries. — A L. Bowley ; E. Cannan, M.A., F.S.S. {Recorder) ; 

Prof. A. W, Flux, M.A., F.S.S. ; Rev. G. Sarson, M.A. 



OFFICERS OF THE SECTIONAL COMMITTEES Ixxvii 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Sir William H. White, K.C.B., F.R.S., Pres.Inst.M.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir Frederick Bramwell, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Q. F. 
Deacon ; E. Easton ; Sir W. H. Preece, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; E. Ric/cr 
M. A. ; Sir John Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. {Recorder) ; W. A. Price, 
M.A. ; H. E. Stilgoe, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— C. H. Read, F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents. — E. W. Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A. ; Sir John Evans, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Sebastian Evans, LL.D. 

Secretaries.— U. Balfour ; W. H. East ; Prof. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ; 
J. L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A {Recorder). 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — J. N. Langley, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vroi. Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S. ; Prof. Hugo 
Kronecker ; Prof. A. Kossel ; Prof. Charles Richet ; P. H. Pye- 
Smith, M.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. Sir J. Burdon-Sanderson, Bart., F.R.S. ; 
Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. ; Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Dr. HoAvden ; Dr. L. E. Shore ; Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— Sir George King, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. F. O. Bower, Sc.D., F.R.S. ; Francis Darwin, 
F.R.S. ; Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., F.R.S. ; Sir AV. T. Thiselton- 
Dyer, K.C.M.G. F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. Dowker ; A. C. Seward, F.R.S. {Recorder) ; Harold 
Wager. 



Ixxviii KEPORT — 1899. 



I>r. THS GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1898-99. KECEIPTS. 

£ t. d. 

Balance brought forward 1704 4 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 366 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 230 

Annual Subscriptions 564 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 1028 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 639 

Sale of Publications 174 12 1 

Interest on Deposit at Liverpool and Bristol Banks 31 14 3 

Dividend on Consols 200 7 4 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 104 8 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned : — 
Committee on the Fauna of the Singapore 

Caves 25 

Corresponding Societies Committee 18 

Committee on the North- West Tribes of 

Canada 7 18 3 

Committee on Wave-length Tables • 7 

40 16 3 



£5083 1 11 
Investments. 

& s. d. 

Consols 7537 3 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 

£11,137 3 5 
G. Cabey Foster, General Trcaivrer. ,.^______^ 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxix 



from July 1, 1898, to June 30, 1899. Cr. 

1898-99. EXPENDITURE. 

£ 3. a. 

Expenses of Bristol Meeting, including Grant to Local Fund, 

Printing, Advertising, Payment of Clerks, &c 282 3 10 

Rent and Office Expenses 59 19 8 

Salaries 510 

Printing, Binding, &;c 1-uI -^ " 

Payment of Grants made at Bristol : 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations 65 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals in Alloys 20 

Radiation iu a Magnetic Field 50 

Calcnlation of certain Integrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyetl Colonrs 4 19 6 

Relation between Absorption Spectra and Constitution 

of Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks ^* n n 

Photographs of Geological Interest 10 

I Remains of Irisli Elk in the Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna iu Canada 30 

Records of Disappearing Drift Section at Moel Tryfaeii 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at UphiU 30 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum Auimalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aquatic Organisms under Defi- 
nite Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Conditions of the English 

Channel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Socotra ^* n 1! 

Lake Village at Glastonbiu-y 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropological Notes and Queries ' . . 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Pliysiological Effects of Peptone 30 

Electrical Changes accompanying Discharge of Respi- 
ratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the Vascular Nervous System 10 

Histological Chan ges in Nerve Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells Ann 

Histology of Suprarenal Capsules 2 n 

Compara'tive Histology of Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phfeophyceee 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Publication 5 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25 



1430 14 2 



In hands of General Treasurer : 

At Bank of England, Western Branch £342 4 3 

Ze.?s Cheque not presented 59 19 6 

282 4 9 

At Capital and Counties Bank, Bristol 1254 2 1 

Cash 13 1 6 



1549 8 4 
Zm Petty Cash 7 1 



1549 1 3 



£5083 1 11 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the balances at the 
Bankers on Current and Deposit Accounts, and have ascertained that the Invest- 
ments are duly registered in the names of the Trustees. 

Approved W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant, 

.T. H. GLADSTONE, \ . ,., ^, 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, E.G. 

D. H. SCOTT, 1 ^'^d't'^^'- July 21, 1899. 



Ixxx 



REPORT — 1899. 



Table showing the Attendance and Eeceipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27.. 

1832, June 19.. 

1833, June 25 .. 

1834, Sept. 8 .. 

1835, Aug. 10 .. 

1836, Aug. 22.. 

1837, Sept. 11.. 

1838, Aug. 10.. 

1839, Aug. 26 .. 

1840, Sept. 17.. 

1841, July 20 .. 

1842, June 23.. 

1843, Aug. 17 .. 

1844, Sept. 2G.. 

1845, June 19.. 

1846, Sept. 10 

1847, June 23.. 

1848, Aug. 9.. 

1849, Sept. 12.. 

1850, July 21 .. 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20.. 

1855, Sept. 12.. 

1856, Aug. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22.. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, June 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18.. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14.. 

1873, Sept. 17., 

1874, Aug. 19. 

1875, Aug. 25.. 

1876, Sept. 6 . 

1877, Aug. 15. 

1878, Aug. 14. 

1879, Aug. 20. 

1880, Aug. 25 . 

1881, Aug. 31 . 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 . 

1885, Sept. 9 . 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 . 

1889, Sept. 11 . 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19 . 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13 . 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11 . 

1896, Sept. 1 6 . 

1897, Aug. 18 . 

1898, Sept. 7 . 

1899, Sept. 13 . 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Nowoastle-on-Tyne. . 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgli 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublm 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyue. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth ' 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Soutliampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingliam 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 



Presidents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick. F.R.S 

SirT. M.Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D 

The Marquis of Lansdowne 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland 

The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 

The Marquis of Breadalbane 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, DD 

Sir John P. W. Herschel, Bart 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 

The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Air V, Astronomer Royal 

Lieut.-Ge'neral Sabine. F.R'.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D 

Tlie Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L 

H.R.H. Tlie Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 

Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A 

Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch. K.C.B 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxlev, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tvndall, LL.D.,F.R.S. 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir .lohn Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. BramweU, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S, 
The Marquis of SaIisbury,K.G..F.R.S, 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. .. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.G.B., Sec.R.S..., 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



169 


6a 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 



' Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND EECEirTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxxi 



at Annudl Meethigs of the Association. 










Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Suras paid 
on Account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Purposes 


Tear 




Old 
Annlial 
Members 


New 
Annual 

Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 






— 


— 


— 





353 








1831 




— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1832 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


900 


— 


— 


1833 




— 




— 


— 


— 


1298 


— 


£20 


1834 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


167 


1835 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1350 


— 


435 


1838 




— 


-^ 


— 


. — 


— 


1840 





922 12 6 


1837 




— 


— 


— 


1100» 


— 


2400 


_- 


932 2 2 


1838 




— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


1595 11 


1839 




— 


— 


— 


— 


40 


1353 





1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 


— 


60» 


— 


891 





1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331» 


28 


1315 





1449 17 8 


1842 




n 


185 


— 


160 


— 


— 





1563 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 





981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 





831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 





685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


63 


1320 





208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




01 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


763 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1853 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1730 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45: 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 G 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




3U7 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


U 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


24 1 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


21117 1) 


1511 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1321 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


C39 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 



X lucludiug Ladies. § Fellows o£ the Americau Associatioa were admitted as Hou. Members f or tliis Meeting. 

1899. e 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1899-1900. 



PRESIDENT. 

Professor StB mIchAel FOSTER, K.C.B., JX.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Sec. E.S; 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



fiis Grace the Lord ARCHBiSktlp of C.us'ter- 

BtlKY, D.D. 
The Most Hon. the Marquis of Salisbury, K.G-., 

M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
The Mayor of Dover. 
The Majoe-Gbxbral CoMMANtiiNd TfaE SOUTb- 

Eastbrn District. 



TheRightHon. A. Akers-Douglas, M.P; 

The Very Rev. F. W. Fakrar, D.D., F.R.S., Deail 

of Canterbury. 
Sir J. Norman Locktbr, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Professor G. H. Darwin, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 



^'RESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor Sir William Torni:r, M.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Vice-presidents elect. 



The Eight Hon. the Earl of Scarborough, Lord- 
Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

His Grace the Duke of Devonbiiirb, K.&., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

The MoBt Hon. the Marquis dp Ripon, K.G., 
G.O.S.I., D.O.L., F.R.S. 

The Right Rev. the LoRn Bishop of Ripox, D.D. 

The Right Hon; Lord Mashaji. 



The Mayor of Bradford. 

The Hon. H. E. Butler, Lord of the Manor.Brad- 

ford. 
Sir Alexander Binnie, JI.Inst.O.E., F.G.S. 
Professor Rucker, M.A., D.Sc, Sec.R.S. 
Dr. T. E. Thorpe, Sc.D., F.B.S., Pres.O.S. 
Dr. N. Bodington, M.A. 
Professor L. 0. Miall, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Pirofessor E. A. ScuXfer, LL.D.. P.R.S.. the XJiiiversity, Edinburgh. 
Professor Sir W. 0. Robeut.s-Austen, K.C.B., D.G.L., P.R.S., Royal Mint, London, E. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor G. Carey Foster, B.A., F.R.S;, Burlington House, Loudon, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BRADFORD. 
Bambdkn Bacchus, Esq. | J. E. Fawcett, Es<i. | Frederick Ste^'exs, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT BRADFORD. 

W. C. LupTox, Esq., Mayor of Bradford. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



ArjMSTROng, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
BONAU, J., Esq., LL.D. 
Oreak, Captain B. W., R.N., F.R.S. 
Darwix, F., Esq., P.R,S. 
Darwin, Major L., Sec.R.G.S. 
Fremantlk, Hon. Sir C. W., K.O.B. 
Gaskell, Dr. W. H., F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
Harcourt, Professor L. F. Verxon, M.A. 
Herd.man, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
Lodge, Professor 0. J., F.R.S. 
MacMahon, Major P. A., F.R.S. 



Marr, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 
PotJLTdN, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Prbecb, Sir W. H., K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
Sirxw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 
TE.A.LL, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Thiseltox-Dyer, Sir W. T., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. 
TiLDEN, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
White, Sir W. H., K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.E S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Professor A. W. Ruckeu, M.A., D.Sc, Sec. R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Argyll, K.6., K.T. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.O.S.I., F.R.S. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 



Lord Ravleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Abel, Bart., K.O.B., 

■p T> g 

Sic win." Huggins, K.O.B., F.R.S, 



Sir J. S. Burdon Sanderson, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury,' E.G., 

F R S 
Lord Lister, D.C.L., Pres.R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.O.B. , F.R.S. 



Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S.; Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., 
Sec.R.S. 

Dr.D.H. Soott, F.E.S. 



G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

AUDITORS. 
Sir H. Trueman Wood, JI.A. 



Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. RtCKER, Sec.B.S, 

I Dr, Horace Brown, F,R.S. 



REPORT 01'' THE COUNCIL. Ixxxiii 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

tt&port of the Council for the Year 1898-99, presented to the General 
Committee at Dover on Wednesday, September 13, 1899. 

The Meeting this year will be memorable from the fact that for the first 
time in the history of the Association the time and place of meeting have 
been fixed in conjunction with and in response to an invitation of the 
French Association for the Advancement of Science, with the object of 
affording an opportunity for the members of the sister Associations to 
exchange visits and to participate in scientific discussions in their several 
Sections. To carry out this intention, arrangements have been made for 
our Association to receive a visit from the members of the French Asso- 
ciation on Saturday, September 16, and the Association Francaise has, on 
its part, invited the members of the British Association to pay a return 
visit on the following Thursday, and has expressed a desire that some 
of our members should join in an excursion to places of interest which has 
been planned for the following days. 

The Council have to deplore the loss by death of Sir Douglas Galton, 
who, for twenty-four years, occupied the responsible office of General 
Secretary, a post which he resigned only on becoming President of the 
Association in 1895, at the Ipswich Meeting. The Council desire to place 
on record their sense of the invaluable services rendered by Sir Douglas 
Galton to the Association. 

The Council regret to announce that a vacancy has been caused in the 
list of Vice-Presidents for this meeting in consequence of the lamented 
death of Lord Herschell. 

An invitation was received from the Vice-Chancellor of the University 
of Cambridge to nominate a delegate to represent the Association at the 
Jubilee of Sir George Gabriel Stokes, which was celebrated on June 1 
and June 2. The President, Sir William Crookes, was apjaointed to 
represent the Association, and to present the following Address : — 

To Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Bart., D.CL., LL.D., F.R.S. 

The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science desire to 
offer you their cordial congratulations on the completion of fifty years of your tenure of 
the Lucasian Professorship in the University of Cambridge. 

You have been a JMember of the Association for more than half a centurj-, and 
have served it in many capacities during that period. You were appointed Secretary 
of the Section of Mathematical and Physical Science in 1845, and continued in this 
laborious oiSce until 1851. In the two following years you were a Vice-President of 
the Section, and became President in 1854 and again in 1862. Many times Vice- 
President, you were President of the Association in 1869, at the meeting in Exeter, 
and have been a permanent Member of the Council for the last thirty years. 

Your services to the Association, and to the cause for which it exists, are far 
from being fully told by a mere enumeration of the offices you have held. In 1S52 
you gave an Evening Lecture to the Members at the Belfast Meeting on a branch of 
Optics which has been chiefly elucidated by your own researches ; and from 1845, 
the first year of your membership, till the meeting last year at Bristol, the Eei^orts 
of the Association have been enriched year by year by your contributions. Your 
celebrated reports on 'Researches in Hydrodynamics,' published in 1846, and on 
' Double Refraction,' in 1862, are constantly referred to as classical writings by the 
cultivators of those branches of Physics, and have conferred abiding lustre on the 
publications of the Association. 

Of your other conspicuous services to the cause of Science it is almost needless to 



Ixsxiv REPOKT— 1899. 

speak, but your association with the Eoyal Society as Secretary for thirty-one years, 
and subsequently as President, has given you a place which is without a parallel 
among those who, during the last half-century, have fostered the progress of 
Science. 

Tliat you may long continue among our leaders in the advance of knowledge is 
the earnest desire of the Association. 

The following letter has been received from the Secretaries of the 
lloyal Society ; — 

The Royal Society, Burlington House, London, W., 
November 29, 1S98. 

Dear Sie, — We are directed by the President and Council of the Pioyal Society 
to inform you that a Committee, consisting of Fellows of the Royal Society acting 
in conjunction with representatives of the Royal Geographical Society, was formed 
some time since for considering the steps that should be taken for organising an 
expedition to the Antarctic regions. 

As you are probably aware, an appeal to H.M. Government to organise such an 
expedition has met with no encouragement, and the Royal Geographical Society has 
consequently taken steps for raising a fund for the purposes of such an expedition 
by private subscription. To this fund the Royal Society hopes to be able to con- 
tribute through the medium of the Government Grant for Scientific Research, and at 
a recent meeting of the Antarctic Committee the following resolutions were passed, 
which we are directed to bring to your notice, and to request you, so far as they 
concern the British Association, to lay them before the Council of that body at the 
earliest opportunity : 

' (I) That the Treasurer of the Royal Society be requested to apply to the 
Government Grant Committee for a grant of 1,000Z. (payable in instalments), 
in aid of an Antarctic Expedition. 

' (2) That an application be also made to the Council of the British Asso- 
ciation for a graht of 1,000L for the same purpose.' 

We remain, tery faithfully yours, 

M. Foster, 
Arthur W, Rijcker, 

Secretaries, R.S. 
The General Secretary of the British Association. 

After due consideration the Council have resolved to recommend the 
General Committee to contribute the stlm of 1,000^. td the Nationjll 
Antarctic Expedition, and that the grant be given out of tlie accumulated 
funds of the Association, and not out of the sum allocated to annual 
grants. 

The following resolutions, referred to the Council by the General 
Committee for consideration and action if desirable, have been considered 
and acted upon as follows : — 

(1) That having tegard to the letter of December 15, 1897, from Sir 
E. Maunde Thompson, the Council be requested to take further actioh 
with regard to a Bureau of Ethnology, by renewing the correspondence 
■with the Trustees of the British Museum. 

The following statement, in response to a letter from the President, 
has been received from Sir E. Maunde Thompson : — 

British Museum, December 1, 1898. 
Dear Sir, — In reply to your letter of the 23rd ultimo, with reference to the 
establishment of an Ethnographical Bureau in connection witli the British Museum, 
I beg to say that unforeseen delays in carrying out certain rearrangements affecting 
space within our walls have hitherto prevented the Trustees from taking up the 
matter. Now, however, a room has been found which may Serve as an office for 
making a start with the scheme. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. IXXXV 

But while the Trustees have accepted in principle the proposal, I beg to observe 
that the desired end would scarcely be obtained without the influential co-operation 
of the British Association, upon which I assume the Trustees may rely. 

May I then suggest that, as a preliminary step in maturing the scheme, one or 
more members of the British Association should be appointed to confer with tho 
officers of the British Museum as to the most advisable course to follow ? 

A Committee, consisting of the President, the President- Elect, the 
General Officei'S, Mr. Francis Galton, and Professor Tylor, was accordingly 
appointed for the purpose of conferring with the officers of the British 
Museum, as proposed by Sir E. Maunde Thompson. The President has 
also been in correspondence with the Marquess of Salisbury regarding this 
matter, and the Council have the pleasure to announce that satisfactory 
arrangements have been made for the establishment of such a Bureau, 
and that Lord Salisbury has directed that reports prepared by officers in 
the various Protectorates under the administration of the Foreign Office be 
forwarded to the British Museum.^ 

(2) That the Council be requested to consider the desirability of 
representing to the Colonial Government that the early establishment of 
a Magnetic Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope would be of the 
highest utility to the Science of Terrestrial Magnetism, especially in view 
of the Antarctic Expeditions which are about to leave Europe, and that 
the Observatory should be established at such a distance from electric 
railways and tramways as to avoid all possibility of disturbance from 
them. 

The question having been considered, the Council requested the 
President to make the necessary representation to the Colonial Govern- 
ment, and the following letter was accordingly sent to Sir Alfred Milner, 
the High Commissioner and Governor of Cape Colony, for presentation 
to the Government : — ■ 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Burlington House, W., March 1899. 
Sir,— I have the honour to inform you that at the Annual Meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, held last September at Bristol, an 
International Conference met for the purpose of discussing questions connected with 
Terrestrial Magnetism. One of the resolutions, which was adopted by the Conference 
in the following terms, was referred to the Council of the Association for further 
consideration : — ■ 

' That the Council be requested to consider the desirability of representing 
to the Colonial Government that the early establishment of a Magnetic 
Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope would be of the highest utility to the 
Science of Terrestrial Magnetism, especially in view of the Antarctic Expedi- 
tions which are about to leave Europe, and that the Observatory should be 
established at such a distance from electric railways and tramways as to avoid 
all possibility of disturbance from them.' 

I have been requested by the Council to inform you that they have considered 
this resolution, and have decided to transmit it to you for your favourable con- 
sideration. 

If you should require any further information in regard to this proposal, I shall 
be glad to furnish it. 

I am, your obedient servant, 

"\ViLi.iAM Cbookes, President. 

The Council have received the following minute of the Government of 
Cape Colony through the High Commissioner : — 

' Tlje cqrrespqndeiice is given in thp Appendix, p, Ixsxix, 



Ixsxvi REPORT — 1890. 

Prime Minister's Office, Capo Town, May 13, 1899. 

Ministers have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of His Excellency the 
Governor and High Commissioner's Minute, No. 71, of the 19th ultimo, forwarding 
for their consideration a copy of a letter from Sir William Crookes, President of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, urging the establishment of a 
Magnetic Observatory at the Cape. 

In reply thereto, Ministers have the honour to state that they have much sym- 
pathy with the suggestion to establish a Magnetic Observatory, and do not overlook 
the scientific and practical aspects of the project, but do not regard as practicable 
the immediate provision by this Colony of funds for the carrying out of the scheme. 

(Signed) W. P. SCHREINBE. 

(3) That the Council be requested to consider the advisability of urging 
Her Majesty's Government to place at the disposal of the Seismological 
Committee of the British Association a suitable building for the housincr 
of apparatus for continuous seismological observations. 

A Committee, consisting of the President, the President-Elect, the 
General Officers, Professor Riicker, Professor Ewing, and Professor Judd, 
was appointed to report on this resolution. 

The Committee, having received and considered a memorandum, 
drawn up by Professor Milne, on the position and requirements of the 
Seismological Investigation Committee of the Association, reported that 
in their opinion it is desirable that a Central Station should be established, 
and recommended the Council to request the Government to place a suit- 
able building at the disposal of the Seismological Committee which could 
be used as a station for carrying on observations, and would serve as a 
centre for the stations (now twenty-three in number) in various parts 
of the world which, at the request of the Committee, have been supplied 
with seismographic apparatus of the pattern they have recommended. 

The Council decided to reaj^point the Committee for the purpose 
of reporting further on the best situation for the proposed Central 
Seismological Station, and on the cost of its maintenance. 

(4) That the Council be requested to urge strongly on the Indian 
Government the desirability, in the interests both of administration and 
of science, to promote an inquiry, under the direction of skilled anthro- 
pologists, into the physical and mental characteristics of the various races 
throughout the Empire, including their institutions, customs, and tradi- 
tions, and a carefully organised photographic survey. 

A Committee, consisting of the President, the President-Elect, the 
General Officers, Sir John Evans, Professor Tylor, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. C. H. 
Read, and Mr. J. L. Myres, which was appointed to consider this question, 
reported that in their opinion the resolution in its present form is of too 
comprehensive and costly a character to justify the Council in submitting 
it to th.e Indian Government. A more definite and less ambitious scheme 
would in their opinion be more likely to be entertained by the Indian 
Government. 

(.5) That the Council be recommended to issue the collected Reports 
on the North-Western Tribes of Canada in a single volume at a moderate 
price, i-eprinting so many of the Reports as may be necessary. 

The Council, having been informed that a sufficient number of separate 
copies of the Fifth and the following Reports of the Committee on the 
Nprth-Western Tribes of Canada were in stQck for supplying tliosp 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxvil 

Libraries, Public Institutions, and persons who required copies for com- 
pleting sets, resolved that the Reports be not reprinted. 

(6) That the Council be requested to bring under the notice of the 
Admiralty the importance of securing systematic observations upon the 
Erosion of the Sea-coast of the United Kingdom, and that the co-opera- 
tion of the Coastguard might be profitably secured for this purpose. 

A Committee, consisting of the President, the President-Elect, the 
General Officers, Sir Archibald Geikie, Mr. Whitaker, Captain Creak, 
Mr. A. T. Walmisley, and Professor L. Vernon Harcourt, having been 
appointed to report on the above resolution, recommended that the Council 
inquire whether the Admiralty would be willing to arrange that observa- 
tions of a simple character on changes in the sea-coast be recorded and 
reported by the Coastguards. The Committee pointed out that if the 
Admiralty consented to carry out this proposal it would be necessary to 
appoint a committee for the purpose of drawing up a scheme of instruc- 
tions for the observers, making arrangements for starting the work, and 
subsequently examining from time to time such localities as may seem to 
require special attention. This recommendation having been adopted by 
the Council, the President was requested to approach the Admiralty upon 
the subject, and in response to his letter the following reply has been 
received from the Admiralty : — 

Admiralty, March 25, 3 899. 

SlEj — In reply to your letter of the 15th instant, inquiring if instructions can be 
given to the Coastguard to watch and report any changes taking place round the 
shores of the British Islands, I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty to inform you that they see no objection to this proposal, as the required 
observations can be made by the men in the ordinary course of their duty. 

On the receipt, therefore, of the instructions referred to in your letter, their 
Lordships, if they concur in them, will cause them to be issued accordingly. 

Forms on which it is desired that the reports shall be made should also be drawn 
up for communication to the Coastguard. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

Evan Macgeegoe. 

The President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science. 

The following have been appointed a Committee to carry out the 
necessary arrangements as to the despatch of forms, the receiving and 
tabulating reports, and such inspection of coast erosion or upheaval as 
may from time to time appear desirable, viz. : — Sir Archibald Geikie, 
Captain Creak, Professor L. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. \V. "VVhitaker, Mr. 
A. T. Walmisley, and the General Officers. 

(7) That the Council be requested to take into consideration whether 
any alterations in the hours of meeting of the Sectional Committees and 
of the General Committee on the first day of the Annual Meeting of the 
Association are desirable, and to report to the General Committee at the 
Dover Meeting. 

A Committee, consisting of the President, the President-Elect, the 
General Officers, Sir Douglas Galton, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. A. G. Vernon 
Harcourt, Professor Bonney, Professor Riicker, Professor Oliver Lodge, 
Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Professor Herdman, Professor Hudson Beare, 
and Dr. H. Forster Morley, was appointed to consider this resolution, and 
as a result of their inquiries the Council has resolved to recommend to the 



Ixxxviii 



REPORT — 1899. 



General Committee that the meeting of the General Committee be held 
in future at 4 p.m. on the first day of the Annual Meeting, instead of at 
1 P.M. as has heretofore been customary, and that the Organising Commit- 
tees of the Sections should meet at 2 p.m. on that day instead of at 11 a.m., 
and should, until the Sectional Officers are definitely appointed by the 
General Committee, exercise the functions of Sectional Committees, with 
power to add to their number. 

The Report oE the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, and especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1899, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Professor R. Meldola (C/iaM-ma?i), Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir J. Evans' 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor T. G. 
Bonney, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Sir Cuthbert Peek, Mr. Horace T. Brown, 
Rev. J. O. Bevan, Professor W. W. Watts, and Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
is hereby nominated for reappointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., Chairman, 
and Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary, to the Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies to be held during the Meeting at Dover. 

The Council have received Reports from the General Treasurer during 
the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1898, to June 30, 1899, 
which have been audited, are presented to the General Committee. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 



Boys, C. Yernon, Esq., F.R.S. 
Meldola, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



Thompson, Professor S. P., F.R.S. 
Unwin, Professor \V. C, F.R.S. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



^Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
*Bonar, J., Esq., LL.D. 

Creak, Captain E. W., R.N., F.R.S. 

Darwin, F., Esq., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Major L., Sec. R.G.S. 

Fremantle, The Hon. Sir C. AV., K.C.B. 

Gaskell, Dr. W. H., F.R.S. 

Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 

Harcourt, Professor L. F. Vernon, M.A. 

Herdman, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 

Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
♦Lodge, Professor Oliver, F.R.S. 

Ma,cMahon, Major P. A., F.R.S. 



Marr, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Preece, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
Shaw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Thiselton-Dyer, Sir W. T., K.C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. 
Tilden, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
AVhite, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
*Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxix 

APPENDIX TO THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 
Bureau of Ethnology for Greater Britain 

Foreign Office : May 24, 1899. 

Sib,— I am directed by the Marquess of Salisbury to transmit to you the annexed 
correspondence which has passed between this Department and the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, respecting the establishment of a Bureau of 
Ethnology for Greater Britain in connection with the British Museum, and the desire 
of the Association to obtain from Her Majesty's Officers in the various Protectorates 
under the administration of the Foreign Office information of an ethnological 
character with respect to the numerous uncivilised races with whom they come in 
contact. 

Lord Salisbury is of opinion that Her Majesty's Officers should be encouraged to 
furnish information desired by the Bureau, so far as their duties will allow of their 
doing so, and I am to request you to inform Officers under your administration 
accordingly. 

All reports which may be drawn up in answer to questions forwarded by the 
Bureau should be forwarded under flying seal through the Foreign Office. 

I am, sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 

(Signed) Martin Gosselin. 

H.M.'s Commissioners in the Uganda and East and 

Central Africa Protectorates. 
H.M.'s Consul- General in the Somali Coast Pro- 
tectorate. 

Foreign Office : May 24, 1899. 
Sib, — I am directed by the Marquess of Salisbury to transmit to you for your 
Information, and for such effect as you may be able to give to the instructions ccn- 
tained in it, a copy of a despatch which has been addressed to Her Majesty's Com- 
missioners in the Uganda, and East and Central Africa Protectorates, and Her 
Majesty's Consul-General in the Somali Coast Protectorate, on the subject of pro- 
curing information for the Bureau of Ethnology which is about to be established iu 
connection with the British Museum. 

I am, sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 

(Signed) Maktin Goi33ELix. 

H.M.'s Acting Agent at Zanzibar. 
H.M.'s Consul at Brunei. 



Inclosure 1. 

Letter from the President of the British Association to the Marquess 
of Salisbury : — 

Burlington House : March 30, 1899. 

My LOBD,— I have the honour to inform you that a proposal to establish a Bureau 
of Ethnology for Greater Britain has been discussed at several recent meetings of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, and that the Council of the 
Association were subsequently requested to consider the possibility of establishing 
such a Bureau. 

The Council appointed a Committee to consider the proposal, and having adopted 
the report of the Committee, requested the Trustees of the British Museum to allow 
the proposed Bureau to be established in connection with that Institution. The 
Trustees have expressed their willingness to undertake the working of the Bureau, 
and the necessary space for its establishment has now been provided at Blooms- 
bury. 

In forwarding to your Lordship copies of the report of the Committee appointed 
by the Council, I would desire to call special attention to the following paragraph 



XC REPORT — 1899. 

viz. : ' The collecting of the necessary information for the Bureau could be done with 
but little expense and with a very small stafE only, if the scheme were recognised and 
forwarded by the Government. If instructions were issued, for instance, by the 
Colonial Office, the Foreign Office, the Admiralty, and the Intelligence Branch of the 
War Office, to the officers acting under each of these departments, not only that they 
were at liberty to conduct these inquiries, but that credit would be given to them 
officially for good work in this direction, there is little doubt that many observers 
qualified by their previous training would at once put themselves and their leisure at 
the disposal of the Bureau.' 

If the proposed Bureau is to work successfully, it is necessary to have the ap- 
proval and co-operation of the several Departments of the (rovernment concerned 
with the primitive races to be dealt with. The Council have reason to believe that 
a large proportion;of the officers now employed in dealing with these savage people 
would gladly undertake scientific work of the character required by the Report, if 
only they could be assured that such work would not be regarded unfavourably by 
the authorities at home. There is reason to believe that such an impression exists, 
but it is probably the result of some misunderstanding; and, in order to make the 
matter quite clear, I would venture to ask from your Lordship an expression of 
opinion favourable to the terms of the paragraph above quoted. 

The Report itself gives in concise form a statement of the benefit likely to accrue 
from the establishment of such a Bureau, as to the general principle of which I feel 
sure the British Association may count upon your Lordship's entire sympathy. 

I am, my Lord, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) William Cbookes, President. 



Inclosure 2. 

Report of the Committee appointed hy the Council to consider the 
folloioing Resolution : — 

' That it is of urgent importance to press upon the Government the 
necessity of establishing a Bureau of Ethnology for Greater Britain, 
which, by collecting information with regard to the native races within, 
and on the borders of, the Empire, will prove of immense value to science 
and to the Government itself.' 

A central establishment in England, to which would come information 
with regard to the habits, beliefs, and methods of government of the 
primitive peoples now existing would be of great service to science, and 
of no inconsiderable utility to the Government. 

1. The efforts of the various societies which have during the last 
twenty years devoted themselves to collecting and publishing ethnological 
information have necessarily produced somewhat unequal, and therefore 
unsatisfactory, results. Such societies had, of course, to depend upon the 
reports of exjolorers, who usually travelled for another purpose than that 
in which the societies were interested ; and such reports were naturally 
unsystematic, the observers being mostly untrained in the science. Again, 
whole regions would be unrepresented in the transactions of the societies, 
perhaps from the absence of the usual attractions of travellers, e.g. big 
game or mineral riches. This has been to some extent corrected, at least 
as to the systematic nature of the reports, by the publication of ' Anthro- 
pological Notes and Queries ' by the Anthropological Institute, with the 
help of the British Association. 

If it be admitted that the study of the human race is an important 
branch of science, no further argument is needed to commend the 
gathering of facts with regard to the conditions under which aboriginal 
races now live, and, if this work is worth doing, it should be done without 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XCl 

delay. With the excejitioii, perhaps, of the negro it would seem that 
none of the lower races are capable of living side by side with whites. 
The usual result of such contact is demoralisation, physical decline, and 
steady diminution of numbers ; in the case of the Tasmanians, entire dis- 
appearance. Such will probably soon be the fate of the Maories, the 
Andamanese, the North American Indians, and the blacks of Australia. 
While these exist it is possible to preserve their traditions and folk-lore, 
and to record their habits of life, their arts, and the like, and such direct 
evidence is necessarily more A^aluable than accounts filtered through the 
recollection of the most intelligent white man. 

It is scarcely necessary to enlarge upon this point, as no one will 
seriously question the value to science of such information. But it does 
seem necessary to urge that no time be lost. 

2. As to the benefit to the Government of these inquiries, the history 
of our relations with native tribes in India and the Colonies is rich in 
examples. No one who has read of the ways of the African can doubt 
that a thorough study of his character, his Ijeliefs and superstitions, is a 
necessity for those who have to deal with him. And what is true of the 
natives of Africa is also true, in a greater or less degree, of all uncivilised 
races. Their ideas of common things and common acts are so radically 
different from those of civilised man that it is impossible for him to 
understand them without a special training. 

Even in dealing with the highly civilised natives of India it is most 
necessary that an inquirer should be familiar with their religion, and 
with the racial prejudices which the natives of India possess in common 
with other civilised nations. 

A training in knowledge of native habits is now gone through by our 
officers, traders, and missionaries on the spot ; and by experience — some- 
times dearly bought — they, after many failures, learn how to deal with 
the natives. By the establishment of such a Bureau as is here advocated 
much might be done to train our officers before they go out, as is now 
done by the Dutch Government, who have a handbook and a regular 
course of instruction as to the life, laws, religion, &c., of the inhabitants 
of the Dutch Indies. The experience thus gained would then mature 
rapidly, and they would become valuable servants to the State more 
quicklj'. 

The collecting of the necessary information for the Bureau could be 
done with but little expense and with a very small staff" only, if the 
scheme were recognised and forwarded by the Government. If instruc- 
tions were issued, for instance, by the Colonial Office, the Foreign Office, 
the Admiralty, and the Intelligence Branch of the War Office, to the 
officers acting under each of these departments, not only that they were 
at liberty to conduct these inquiries, but that credit would be given to 
them officially for good work in this direction, there is little doubt that 
many observers qualified by their previous training would at once put 
themselves and their leisure at the disposal of the Bureau. 

The Bureau itself, the central office, would be of necessity in London 
— in no other place could it jaroperly serve its purpose — and preferably, 
for the sake of economy and official control, it should be under the 
administration of some existing Government office. But the various 
interests involved make it somewhat difficult to recommend where it 
should be placed. The Colonial Office would obviously present some 
advantages. The British Museum has been suggested, with good reason, 



xcii REPORT — 1899. 

and there appears to be no insuperable difficulty if the trustees are willing 
to undertake the responsibility of controlling such a department. 

The staff wovild not be numerous. A director accustomed to deal 
with ethnological matter would necessarily direct the conduct of the 
inquiries, and until the material assumed large proportions two or three 
clerks would probably suffice. If the value of the results were considered 
to justify it, the increase of the area of operations over the world would 
probably call for additional assistance after the Bureau had been at work 
for a few years. 

The Bureau of Ethnology in the United States aims chiefly at pub- 
lishing its reports, but its area is limited to America. The scope of the 
present proposal is so much wider that the Committee think it better not 
to deal with the question of publication at present. 

Inclosuee 3. 

Letter from the Foreign Office to the British Association .— 

Foreign Office, April 7, 1899. 
Sir, — I am directed by the Marquess of Salisbury to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of the 30th ult, on the subject of the establishment of a Bureau of 
Ethnology for Greater Britain ; and I am to request that you will inform his lord- 
ship whether it is correctly understood that what the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science desires, so far as this Department is concerned, is that Her 
Majesty's officers in the various Protectorates administered under the Foreign Office 
should report on occasion to the best of their ability on the ethnology of the various 
native races in those Protectorates. 

If this be the correct interpretation of the wishes of the British Association, 
Lord Salisbury would be obliged if some more precise definition can be furnished as 
to the points to which attention should be directed, with a view to framing instruC' 
tions for the guidance of the officers concerned. 

I am, sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 

(Signed) Martin Gosselin, 

The President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science. 

Inclosure 4. 

Letter from tlie British Association to the Foreign Office ; — 

Burlington House, London, May 3, 1899. 

Sir,— I have to acknowledge the receipt of the letter from Sir Martin Gosselin 
of April 7, with regard to the proposed establishment of a Bureau of Ethnologj' for 
Greater Britain in connection with the British Museum. 

The purpose of the British Association in applying to the Foreign Office has been 
correctly understood so far that it is desired to obtain from the agents and officers 
of the Foreign Office information of an ethnological character with respect to the 
numerous uncivilised races with whom they come into daily contact. 

But it is not contemplated to give the Foreign Office any trouble in conducting 
these inquiries. The officers of the Bureaa will prepare the questions and forward 
them to the various officers, who, it is hoped, may be willing to furnish the answers. 
All the material thus gathered will be systematically arranged in the British 
Museum, so as to be available both for scientific research and for the purposes of 
the Government. 

The Council of the British Association felt, however, that before entering into 
communication with those officers it would be wise to ask for Lord Salisbury's 
approval of the scheme, in order that the gentlemen who were disposed to undertake 
such work as is contemplated by the Bureau might be assured that the work would 
be favourably regarded by their Depa^rtmept. 



IREPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XCiu 

In the event, therefore, of the scheme meeting with the approval of Lord 
SaUsbury I would venture to ask his lordship to be good enough to express this 
approval in such terms that the letter can be used in opening the correspondence 
with the agents of the Foreign Office. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) William Ckookes, President. 

The Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. 

Inclosure 5. 

Letter from Foreign Office to the British Association, May 24, 1899 : — 

Foreign Office, May 24, 1899. 
Sir, — VVith reference to your letter of the 3rd instant, I am directed by the Mar- 
quess of Salisbury to transmit to you for your information, copies of despatches which 
have been addressed to Her Majesty's Commissioners in the Uganda and East and 
Central Africa Protectorates, Her Majesty's Consul-General in the Somali Coast 
Protectorate, Her Majesty's Acting Agent at Zanzibar, and Her Majestj's Consul at 
Brunei, on the subject of procuring information for the Bureau of Ethnology which 
is about to be established in connection with the British Museum. 

I am, sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 

(Signed) Maetin Gosselin. 

The President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Burlington House, W. 



XCIY 



REPORT— 1890. 



Committees appointed by the GtEneraL Committee at tSe 
Dover Meetixg m September 1899. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Making Experiments for improv- Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 
ing the Construction of Practical \ Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 




Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 
[And 300Z. in hand.] 



Seismological Observations. 



Radiation from a Source of Light 
in a Magnetic Field. 



Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perrj% W. G. Adams, 
Oliver J. Lodge, and G. 
Carej' Foster, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Profes- 
sors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professors G. F. FitzGerald and 
J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottoraley, Rev. 
T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor J. 
Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. John- 
stone Stone}% Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. 
E. H. Griffiths, Professor A. W. 
Riicker, Professor H. L, Callen- 
dar. Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
and Mr. G. Mattliej'. 



Chairman. — Prof. J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Milne. , 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, i 

Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. \ 

Horace Darwin, Major L. Dar- | 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 

Professor C. G. Knott, Professor i 

R. Meldola, Professor J. Perry, I 

Professor J. H. Poynting, Pro- i 

fessor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. i 

Boys, Professor H. H. Turner, ! 

j\Ir. G. J. Symons, I\Ir. Clement j 
Reid, Mr. R. D. Oldham, and 
Mr. W. E. Plummer. 

Chairman. — Professor G. F. Fitz- 
Gerald. 

Secretary. — Professor T. Preston. 

Professor A. Schuster, Professor 
O. J. Lodge, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Dr. Gerald Molloy, 
and Dr. \V. E. Adeney. 



60 



25 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCV 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To consider the most suitable 
Method of Determining the 
Components of the Magnetic 
Force on board Ship. 



To establish a Meteorological 
Observatory on Mount Royal, 
Montreal. 



For calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, 
if necessary, for taking steps to 
carry out the Calculations, and 
to publish the results in an 
accessible form. 



The relation between the Absorp- 
tion Spectra and Chemical Con- 
stitution of Organic Substances. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The Electrolytic Methods of Quan- 
titative Analysis. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sul- 
phonic Derivatives of Benzene. 



The Nature of Alloys. 




Cliairman. — Professor 

Riicker. 
Secretarij. — Dr. C. H. Lees. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor A. Schuster, 

Captain Creak, Professor W. 

Stroud, Jlr. C. V. Boys, and Mr. 

W. Watson. 

Chairman. — Professor H. L. Cal- 

lendar. 
Secretary. — ProfessorC.H.McLeod, 
Professor F. Adams, and Mr. R. F. 

Stupart. 

Chairman. — Lord Kelvin. 
Secretary. — Lieut.-Colonel Allan 

Cunningham. 
Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. 

G. Greenhill, Professor W. M. 

Hicks, Major P. A. MacMahou, 

and Professor A. Lodge. 



Cliairman and Secretary. — Pro- 
fessor W. Noel Hartley. 

Professor F. R. Japp, and Professor 
J. J. Dobbie. 



Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 
Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A.Schus- 
ter, W. N. Hartley, and Wol- 
cott Gibbs, and Captain Abney. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Emerson 

Reynolds. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. A. Kohn. 
Professor Fraukland, Professor F. 

Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. 

A. E. Fletcher, and Professor W. 

Carleton Williams. 



Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 
Dr. W. P. Wynne. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. 

F. H. Neville. 
Mr. C. T. Heycock, and Mr. E. H. 

Griffiths. 



20 



75 



30 



5 



5 



20 



30 



XOVl 



REPORT — 1899. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 

[6Z. in hand.] 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological In- 
terest. 



To examine the Conditions under 
which remains of the Irish Elk 
are found in the Isle of Man. 



To further investigate the Fauna 
and Flora of the Pleistocene 
Beds in Canada. 



The Excavation of the Ossiferous 
Caves at Uphill, near Weston- 
super-Mare. 

\_U. in hand.] 



The movements of Underground 
Waters of Craven. 



To explore Irish Caves. 

[Collections to be placed in the 
Science and Art Museum, Dub- 
lin.] 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretarrj. — Prof. P. F. Kendall. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. 
De Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Mr. J. Home, Mr. 
Dugald Bell, Mr. F. M. Burton, 
Mr. J. Lomas, Mr. A. R. Dwen-y- 
house, Mr. J. W. Stather, and 
Mr. R. D. Tucker. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Senretary. — Prof essorW.W. Watts. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. An- 
derson, and Blessrs. A. S. Reid, 
E. J. Garwood, W. Gra}-, H. B. 
Woodward, R. Kidston, J. J. 
H. Teall, J. G. Goodchild, H. 
Coates, C. V. Crook, G. Bingley, 
and R. Welch. 

Chairtnan. — Professor W. Boyd 

Dawkins. 
iSecretary.—Mv. P. M. C. Kermode. 
His Honour Deemster Gill, Mr. 

G. W. Lamplugh, and Canon 

E. B. Savage. 

ClMirman. — Sir J. W. Dawson. 

Secretary. — Professor A. P. Cole- 
man. 

Professor D. P. Penhallow, Dr. H. 
Ami, and Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 

Chairman. — Professor C. Lloyd 

Morgan. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Bolton. 
Professor W. Boyd Da,wkins, Mr 

W. R. Barker, Mr. S. H. Reynolds, 

and Mr. E. T. Newton. 

Chairman. — Prof essorW.W. Watts. 

Secretary. — Captain A. R. Dwerry- 
house. 

Professor A. Smithells, Rev. E. 
Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
M.P., Iilr. G. Bray, Mr. W. L. 
Carter, Mr. W. Fairley, Pro- 
fessor P. F. Kendall, and Mr. 
J. E. Marr. 

Chairman.— T)x. R. F. Scharff. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. 
Mr. G. Coffey, Professor Grenville 

Cole, Dr. Cunningham, Mr. A. 

McHenry, and Mr. R. J. Ussher. 




10 



COO 



10 



10 



40 



20 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCVU 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To enable Mr. H. M. Kyle and 
Professor Herdman, or, failing 
them, some other competent 
investigator, to carry on definite 
pieces of work at the Zoological 
Station at Naples. 



To enable Mr. Martin T. Wood- 
ward to study the Embryology of 
theMoUusca ; Mr. S. D. Scott to 
snvestigate the Excretory Organs 
of the Tunicata ; and Mr. G. 
Brebner to continue his studies 
on the Eeproduction of Marine 
Algse, and to enable other com- 
petent Naturalists to perform 
definite pieces of work at the 
Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To work out the details of the 
Observations on the Migration 
of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-87. 



The Periodic Investigation of the 
Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Channel. 



To continue the investigation of 
the Zoology of the Sandwich 
Islands, with powerto co-operate 
with the Committee appointed 
for the purpose by the Royal 
Society, and to avail themselves 
of such assistance in their in- 
vestigations as may be oiiered 
by the Hawaiian Government 
or the Trustees of the Museum 
at Honolulu. The Committee to 
have power to dispose of speci- 
mens where advisable. 
1899. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. 
Herdman. 

Secretary. — Professor G. B. Howes. 

Professor E. Eay Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
fessor S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh. 



Chairman. — l\Ir. G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Professor E. Ray 

Lankester. 
Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. 

A. Sedgwick, Professor W. F. E. 

Weldon, and Mr. W. Garstang. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 

Stebbing, Mr. R. McLachlan, 

and Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretavy. — Rev. E. P. Knubley. 
Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Air. 

R. M. Barrington, Mr. A. H. 

Evans, and Dr. H. O. Forbes. 



Chairman. — Professor E. Ray 

Lankester. 
Secretary. — Mr. Walter Garstang. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, and Mr. 

H. N. Dickson. 



Cliairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Dr. Da\'id Sharp. 
Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 

Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. 

F. Du Cane Godman, and Mr. 

Edgar A. Smith. 



Grante 



£ 

100 



s. d. 




20 



50 



15 



40 



100 



iscviu 



REPORT — 1899. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 






£ s. d. 


To investigate the structure, for- 


Chairman. — Mr. A. Sedgwick. 


30 


mation, and growth of the Coral 


Secretary — J. Graham Kerr. 




Reefs of the Indian Region, with 


Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. 




special obsei-vations on the 


Lister, and Mr. S. F. Harmer. 




inter-relationship of the reef 






organisms, the depths at which 






they grow, the food of corals, 






effects of currents and character 






of the ocean bottom, fcc. The 






land flora and fauna will be 






collected, and it is intended that 






observations shall be made on 






the manners, &;c., of the natives 






in the different parts of the 






Maldive group. 






The revision of the Physical and 


Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 


100 


Chemical Constants of Sea- 


Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 




water. 


Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, and Dr. H. R. 
Mill. 




Future dealings in Raw Produce, 


Chairman. — Mr. L. L. Price. 

Secretary. — Prof. A. W. Flux. 

Major P. G. Craigie, Professor 
W. Cunningham, Professor 
Edgeworth, Professor Gonner, 
Mr. R. H. Hooker, and Mr. H. 
R. Rathbone. 


5 


State Monopolies in other 


Chairman. — Professor H. Sidg- 




Countries. 


wick. 




[Balance of grant unexpended. 


Secretary. — Mr. H. Higgs. 




13Z. 13«. Qd.'] 


Mr. W. M. Acworth, the Rt. Hon. 
L. H. Courtnev, and Professor 
H. S. FoxweU, 




To consider whether the British 


■ 
Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 


_ 


Association form of Thread for 


Secretary. — Mr. \V. A. Price. 




Small Screws should be modi- 


Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 




fied, and, if so, in what direc- 


Sir H. Trueman Wood, !Maj.- 




tion. 


Gen. Webber, Jlr. 11. E. Cromp- 




[Balance of grant unexpended. 


tou, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 




ni. \s. 2d.'] 

1 


Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Mr. 
T. Buckney, Col. Watkin, Mr. 
E. Rigg, Mr Conrad "\V. Cooke, 
and Mr. Vernon Boj-s. 




To co-operate with the Silchester 


Chairman. — Mr. A. J. Evans. 


10 


Excavation Fund Committee in 


Secretary. — Mr. John L. Mj'res. 




their explorations. 


Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 


, 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY TflE GENERAL COMMlTTEfi. 
1. Receiving GrtMits of Money — continued. 






Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


To organise an Ethnological Sur- 


Cliairman. — Professor D. P. Pen- 


£ s. d. 
50 


vey of Canada. 


hallow. 

Secretary. — Dr. George Dawson. 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. 8. Hart- 
land, Sir J. G. Bourinot, Abbe 
Cuoq, Mr. B. Suite, Abbe Tan- 
quay, Mr. C. Hill-Tout, BIr. 
David Boyle, Rev. Dr. Scad- 
ding, Rev. Dr. J. Maclean, 
Dr. Meree Beauchemin, Rev. 
Dr. G. Patterson, Mr. C. N. Bell, 
Professor E. B. Tylor, Hon. G. W. 
Ross, Professor J. Mavor, Mr. 
A. F. Hunter, and Dr. W. F. 
Ganong. 




Preparing a new edition of 'Notes 


Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 


40 


and Queries on Anthropolo^.' 


Secretary. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 




General' Pitt-Rivers, Mr. C. H. 






Read, and Mr. J. L. Myres. 




To conduct Explorations with the 


Chairman. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 


— 


object of ascertaining the age of 


Secreta/ry. — Mr. H. Balfour. 




Stone Circles. 


Gen. Pitt-Rivers, Sir John Evans, 




[Balance in hand.] 


Mr. C. H. Read, Professor Mel- 
dola, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. 
Munro, and Professor Boyd- 
Dawkins. 




The Collection, Preservation, and 


Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 


10 


Systematic Registration of Pho- 


Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 




tographs of Anthropological 


Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, 




Interest. 


Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, and Professor Flinders 
Petrie. 




To co-operate with the Committee 


Chairman. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 


5 


appointed by the International 


Secretary. — Dr. Francis Warner. 




Congress of Hygiene and Demo- 


Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. White Wallis, 




graphy in the investigation of 


and Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 




the Mental and Physical Condi- 






tion of Childi-en. 






To examine the Natural History 


CliaiT7nan. — Mr. C. H. Read. 


25 


and Ethnography of the Malay 


Secretary. — Mr. W. Crooke. 




Peninsula. 


Professor A. Macalister, and Pro- 
fessor W. Ridgeway. 




The Physiological Effects of Pep- 


Chairman. — Professor E. A. 


20 


tone and its Precursors when 


Schafer. 




introduced into the circulation. 

! 


Secretary. — Professor W. H. 

Thompson. 
Professor R. Boyce and Professor 

C. S. Sherrington. 




Comparative Histology of Supra- 


Chairman. — Professor E. A. 


20 


renal Capsules. 


Schafer. 
Secretary — Mr. Swale Vincent. 






Mr. Victor Horsley. 





£2 



REPORT — 1899. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


Comparative Histology of Cerebral 
Cortex. 

The Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerve. 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 
Glands. 

Experimental Investigation of 

Assimilation in Plants. 
[&l. 6s. id. in hand.] 

Fertilisation in PhEeophyceEe. 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 


Chairman Professor F. Gotch. 

Secretary/. — Dr. G. Mann. 
Professor E. H. Starling. 

Chairman. — Professor F. Gotch. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. S. Macdonald. 
Professor E. H. Starling. 

Chairman. — Prof. E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. L. Bunch. 
Dr. L. E. Shore. 

Chairman. — Mr. F. Darwin. 
Secretary. — Professor J. R. Green. 
Professor Marshall Ward. 

Chairman. — Prof esBorJ.B. Farmer. 
Secretary. — ProfessorR.W.Phillips. 
Professor F. 0. Bower, and Pro- 
fessor Harvey Gibson. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir 
John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Sir Cuthbert E. Peek, 
Mr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. 0. 
Bevan, Professor W. W. Watts, 
and Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 


£ s. d. 
5 

20 

10 

20 
20 



2, Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To confer with British and Foreign 
Societies publishing Mathematical 
and Physical Pajiers as to the desn- 
ability of securing Uniformity in the 
size of the pages of their Transactions 
and Proceedings. 

Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 

To confer with the Astronomer Royal 
and the Superintendents of other 
Observatories with reference to the 
Comparison of Magnetic Standards 
with a view of carrying out such 
comparison. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor S. P. Thompson. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Swinburne. 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, Mr. C. V, Burton, Mr. 

R. T. Glazebrook, Professor A. W. 

Riicker, and Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney. 

Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Browb, 
Sir John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, and 
Professor R. Copeland. 

Chairman. — Professor A. W. Riicker. 
Secretary. — Professor W. Watson. 
Professor A. Schuster; and Professor H. 
H. Turner. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



CI 



2. Not reoeiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose. 



Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Present State of our Knowledge 
in Electrolysis and Electro-che- 
mistrj'. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Looalities of Dry Land and under 
Water. 



The Application of Photography to the 
Elucidation of Meteorological Phe- 
nomena. 



Considering the best Methods of Re- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation. 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
draw up a Report on the present 
state of the Theory of Point-Groups. 

The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 



The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



Members of the Committee. 



Chairman. —Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. 
Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, the 
Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, 
and Profes.sor A. W. Riicker. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. N. Shaw. 
Secretary.— Mr. W. C. D. Whetham. 
Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, and Mr. S. Skinner. 

Chairman. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor 
Edward Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor 
G. A Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. 
W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
Mr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie 
Smith, and Professor H. L. Callendar. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. W. Clayden. 
Professor R. Meldola, Mr. John Hopkin- 
son, and Mr. H. N. Dickson. 

Chmrman. — Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Sir G. G. Stokes, Professor A. Schuster, 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain W. de W. 
Abney, Dr. C. Chree, Professor G. F. 
FitzGerald, Professor H. L. Callendar, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. E. Wilson, 
and Professor A. A. Rambaut. 



Chairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 



Cliairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Gladstone, Mr. W. R. Dun- 
stan, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Dr. Sil- 
vanus P. Thompson, and Professor A. 
Smithells. 



est 



REPORT — 1899. 



2. iVS>< receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Promotion of Agriculture : to re- 
port on the means by whicli in various 
Countries Agriculture is advanced by- 
research, by special Educational Insti- 
tutions, and by the dissemination of 
information and advice among Agri- 
culturists. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives, 



To establish a Uniform System of Ee- 
cording the Piesults of the Chemical 
and Bacterial Examination of Water 
and Sewage. 



To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on the same. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Canadian 
Photographs of Geological Interest. 



To report upon the Present State of 
our Knowledge of the Structure of 
Crystals. 



To study Life-zones in the British Car- 
boniferous Rocks. 



Members of the Committee 



To promote the Systematic Collection 
of Photographic and other Records 
of Pedigree Stock. 

Climatology of Tropical Africa. 



Cliairmcm. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Sir Michael Foster, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Sir J. H. GUbert, Right Hon. J. 
Bryce, Professor J. W. Robertson, 
Dr. W. Saunders, Professor Mills, 
Professor J. Mavor, Professor Poulton, 
and Mr. S. U. Pickering. 

Chairnw/n. — Professor W. A. Tildon. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ramsay. 

Secretary. — Dr. S. Rideal. 

Professor F. Clowes, Professor P. F. 

Frankland. Professor R. Boyce, and 

Mr. AV. J. Dibdin. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward, 
Rev. G. F.Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidston, Pro- 
fessor H. G. Seeley, and Mr. H. Woods. 



Cludrman. — Professor A. P. Coleman. 

Secretary. — Mr. Parks. 

Professor A. B. WiUmott, Professor F. 

D. Adams, Mr. J. B. TyiTcll, and 

Professor W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor N. Story Maske- 

lyne. 
Secretary. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Mr. L. Fletcher, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. W. Barlow, Mr. G. F. H. Smith, 

and the Earl of Berkeley. 

Cliairman. — Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, Mr. 

A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, Mr. E. J. 

Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor 

P. F. Kendall, Mr. J. W. Kirkby, Mr. 

R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 

Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. G. H. 

Morton, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. 

Strahan, and Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Mr. Francis Galton. 
Secretary. — Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 



Cliairman. — Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 
Sir John Kirk, Dr. H. R. Mill, and 
Mr. G. J. Symons. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



cm 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


The Present State of Anthropological 
Teaching in the United Kingdom and 
Elsewhere. 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury. 

To enquire into the Effectiveness of the 
System of Identification by Finger- 
prints now in use throughout India, 
and on the Probable Limits of its 
Applicability. 

The Micro-chemistry of Cells. 


Gliairm.an.—Vroiessov E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Ling Roth. 

Professor A. Macalister, Professor A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. C. H. Read, Mr. H. Bal- 
four, Mr. F, W. Rudler, Dr. R. Munro, 
and Professor Flinders Petrie. 

Chairman. —Bt. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Bulleid. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, General Pitt- 
Rivers, Sir John Evans, Mr. Arthur J. 
Evans, and Mr. C. H. Read. 

Chairman. — Mr. Francis Galton. 

Secretary. — Mr. L. Gomme. 

Colonel R. C. Temple, Mr. C. H. Read, 
Mr. W. Crooke, Professor Karl Pear- 
son, and Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 

Chairman.— Fioiessoi E. A. Scbafer. 
Secretary.—Fi-oiessox A. B. Macallum. 
Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor 

W. D. Halliburton, and Mr. G. C. 

Bourne. 



Communications ordered to be 2yrinted in extenso. 

« The new Alexander III. Bridge in Paris,' by M. Amedee Alby. 
' The Dover Harbour Works,' by J. C. Coode and W. Matthews. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That in view of the opportunities of ethnographical inquiry which will be 
presented by the Indian Census, the Council of the Association be requested to urge 
the Government of India to make use of the Census Officers for the purposes enume- 
rated below, and to place photographers at the service of the Census Officers. 

That the Council be requested to represent to Her Majesty's Government the 
importance of giving more prominence to Botany in the training of Indian Forest 
Officers. 

That the attention of the Council be called to the wording of the rule regarding 
specimens collected by Committees appointed by the Association, with a view to its 
revision. 

That the complete investigation of the Ichthyology of the West African rivers 
promises extremely important scientific results, and that the Council of the Associa- 
tion be requested to take such means as may seem to it advisable to bring the matter 
to the notice of the Trustees of the British Museum. 

Change of Hours of Meetings, d;c. 

That the Organising Committees meet at 2 p.m. instead of at 11 A.M. ; and shall, 
until the Sectional Officers are definitely ai^pointed by the General Committee, exer- 
cise the functions of Sectional Committees, with power to appoint members of the 
Sectional Committees. 

That the first meeting of the General Committee be held at 4 p.m. instead of at 

1 P.M. 

That the proceedings of the opening meeting begin at 8.30 p.m. instead of at 
8 P.M. as heretofore. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


2') 








GO 








25 








10 








20 








75 









?0 








5 








5 








!0 








50 









Oiv EEPORT — 1899. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money apjwopriated io Scientific Ptirposes hy the 
General Committee at the Dover Meeting, September, 1899. The 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treas^irer 
for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics. 

*E,ayleigh, Lord — Electrical Standards (and £300 in hand)... 

*Judd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 

*Fitzderald, Professor Gr. P. — Radiation in a Magnetic Field 
*Riicker, Professor A. W. — Magnetic Force on board Ship ... 
*Callendar, Professor H. L. — Meteorological Observatory, 

Montreal 20 

*Kelvin, Lord — Tables of Mathematical Functions 75 

Chemistry. 

^Hartley, Professor W. N. — Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of Organic Bodies 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables 

^■Reynolds, Professor J. E. — Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis 
Miers, Professor H. A. — Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives 

of Benzene 20 

Neville, Mr. F. H.— The Nature of Alloys 30 

Geology. 

*Hull, Professor E.— Erratic Blocks {£% in hand) — 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest ... 10 
"^'Dawkins, Professor W. B. — Remains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

*Dawson, Sir J. W. — Pleistocene Fauna and Flora in Canada 10 
*Lloyd-Morgan, Professor C. — Ossiferous Caves at Uphill 

(£8inhand) 10 

Watts, Professor W. W. — Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Bcharff, Dr. — Exploration of Irish Caves 20 

Zoology. 

*Herdnian, Professor W. A. — Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

*Bourne, Mr. G. C. — Table at the Biological Laboratorj^, 

Plymouth 20 

*Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Generum et Specierum Ani- 

malium 50 

*Newton, Professor A. — Migration of Birds 15 

*Lankester, Professor E. Ray— Plankton and Physical Condi- 
tions of the English Channel 40 

*Newton, Professor — Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 100 

Sedgwick, Mr. A. — Coral Reefs of the Indian Regions 30 

Carried forward 755 

* Reappointed, 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. CV 

£ s. d. 
Bronsht forward 755 



-■»' 



Geography. 

Murray, Sir John — Physical and Chemical Constants of Sea 

Water 100 

Uconomic Science and Statistics. 

*Price, Mr. L. L. — Future Dealings in Raw Produce 5 

*Sedgwick, Professor H. — State Monopolies in other Countries 

(£13 13s. Gr?. in hand) — 

Meclianical Science. 
*Preece, Sir W. H.— Small Screw Gauge (£17 Is. Id. in hand) — 

Anthroiwlogy. 

*Evans, Mr. A. J. — Silchester Excavation 10 

*Penhallow, Professor D. P. — Ethnological Survey of Canada 50 
*Tylor, Professor E. B. — New Edition of ' Anthropological 

Notes and Queries ' 40 

*Garson, Dr. J. G.— Age of Stone Circles (balance in hand)... — 

*Read, Mr. C. H. — ^Photographs of Anthropological Interest 10 
*Brabrook, Mr. E. W. — Mental and Physical Condition of 

Children 5 

Eead, Mr. C. H.— Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula 25 

Physiology. 

*Schafer, Professor E. A.— Physiological Eftects of Peptone... 20 
*Schafer, Professor E. A.— Comparative Histology of Supra- 
renal Capsules 20 

*Gotch, Professor F. — Comparative Histology of Cerebral 

Cortex 5 

Gotch, Professor F. — Electrical Changes in Mammalian 

Nerves 20 

Starling, Dr. — Vascular Supply of Secreting Glands 10 

Botany. 

♦Darwin, Mr. F. — Assimilation in Plants (£6 6s. 8cf. in hand) — 
*Farmer, Professor J. B.— Fertilisation in Phseophyceie 20 

Corresjjonding Societies. 
*Meldola, Professor R. — Preparation of Report 20 

£T,115 

* Reappointed. 



cvi REPORT — 1899. 

The Annual Meeting in 1900. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1900 will be held at Brad- 
ford, commencing on September 5. 

. Tlie Annual Meeting in 1901. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1901 will lie held at 
Glasgow. 



GENERAL STATEMEXT. 



evil 



General Statement of Sums ivhich have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Iclithyology ... 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Ajiemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 

Railway Constants 41 12 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 

£932 2 2 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



1839. 

£ 8. (I. 

Fossil Ichthyologv 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 7 

Railway Constants 28 7 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 2 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 4 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 

Stars in Lacaille 11 6 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ...166 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 6 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 

£1546 16 4 



CVUl 



REPORT — 1899. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

"Water onlron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannias 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 16 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 1 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 



d. 



11 




£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell'sMeteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness ., 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen 

clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics , 36 5 8 



GENfeKAL STAtEJifiNT. 



CIS 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1563 10 2 







8 4 





9 6 



1844, 
Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 
Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 23 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 

Stars 33 

Observations on Tides on the 

Bast Coast of Scotland ... 100 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 
Earthquakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 
Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 
the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 
Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 



11 10 





10 







7 3 















1845, 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 331 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 ll 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 23 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinogi-aph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York.. 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



£981 12 8 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplm-a 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



d* 



REPORT — 1899. 



1847. 

£ s. d. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establisli- 

ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 

1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves S 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants ■^_^_P _^ 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19"l5 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 25B 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345"l8 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

'£39r~9"^7 



1852. 

£ s. d 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



185.3. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the Britkh 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205~1) 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 i 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Pei'iodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 423 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Bloon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Qvieries 5 

Dredging near B elf ast 4 

£48(ri6~4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

5854 £ 75 0\ .„ ^ » 

1855 £500 r °* ^ " 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Ilesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Eeport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Eeport on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Eeport on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
laud 10 

£ljl8l8"~2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ 8. d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidre 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 (l 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Eocks and Minerals 25 

Eesearches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Eesearches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Eesearches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 

Dredging Committee :— 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Tranf,- 

actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey .ind 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 








23 



72 















£1111 









5 10 

5 10 



bxu 



REPORT— 1899. 



1862. 

£ s. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal. 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon imder pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperatiire 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 



£ «. d. 

d. Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

I £1608 3 10 

^-i^--—ii- 





































































3 


10 

























































1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observator3^. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hj-droida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 







1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber G 

Hexylic Compoiinds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 60 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£l59r 



























8 























9 




























































































10 








7 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXUl 



186G. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 10 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration T.O 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Poly cyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 60 

Tjrpical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund ... 100 

£1750 13 4 









13 


4 



















































































































































1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c.. Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 
Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739" 
1899, " 



































































































4 


































1868. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee ]20 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ,.. 150 

Steamship Performances . ... 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 80 

British Fossil Corals .-iO 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ..„ 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



4 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Eiltorcan Fossils 20 








































































































































g 



CXIV 



REPORT — 1899. 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry , 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Eossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 























































2 


6 

































1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 60 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 



£ g. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 


























































































































£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 
Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 60 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 
















































































































£1685 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cxv 



1874, 

£ s. 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

:£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Crcsols 20 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960_0 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 150 4 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Steam-vessels .... 



f!. d. 












































10 



































15 












5 












£1092 


4 


2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocaipese, Report on ... 20 
Blechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature... 60 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New- 
Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India , 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 
g 















1 


7 



























































































18 






















9 7 



CXVl 



REPORT — 1899. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Eecord 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siplion 
Kecorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 
for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... G6 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological P^ecord 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal. Conductivity of 

Eocks 4 IG 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Eecord of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground fVaters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Undergroimd Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 6 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors .30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients CO 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Eeport on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Eecord 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 6 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 
at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 6 

£731 7 7 



gejS'ekal statement. 



cxvn 



1S81. 

£ s. d. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Eefractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 60 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



1882. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 1 11 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 
of Ireland 10 

ExplorationofRaygill Fissure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 1 11 



1883. 

£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

AVaters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 
ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1881. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 60 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Pala;o- 

zoic Rocks - 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 6 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee.. . 10 

£1173 4 















4 































































































cxviii 



REPORT — 1899. 



1885. 

£ s. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis nO 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Eaygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North "Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palreozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record .100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ s. d. 

Migration of Burds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 ■ 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

CaeGwyn Cave, N.Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

'Manure 'Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migi-ation of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXlX 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palfeontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Ei-th... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station . . . 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

PreciousMetals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands ■• 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatoiy 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature. . . 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen SIS 



£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Paleeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wiglit 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistiy 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Paleozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polj'zoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya.. 25 



cxs 



REPORT— 1899. 



£ s. d. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Cun-ents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

'iTooTe 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Eays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10 



1892. 

£ s. it. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 60 6 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters lu 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands. . . 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory. . . 5 
Antlu'oijological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 



GENERAL, STATEMENT. 



CXXl 



£ .?. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 



d. 














I 

i 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 6 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 
Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 80 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583~l5~6 



1893. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 G 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis .SO 

Erratic Blocks ,.... 10 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples .....". 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 
of Animals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

ExjDloration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



CXXll 



REPORT — 1899, 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
HiUs 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Paleolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Eauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and • 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 1 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1,104 6 1 































(5 


1 

































































































































1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 
Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phisophyceae 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal , 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXUl 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Bocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 75 

Lake "Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

EthnologicalSurvey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phasophycefe 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations ... 65 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution of 
Organic Substances 50 









4 


8 

























19 6 







£ s. d. 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 

Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Tryf aen ... 500 

Ty Nevrydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
ticOrganisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

EthnologicalSurvey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological EfEects of Pep- ' 

tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phj'^ophyceae 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1430 14 2" 



Cxxiv REPORT — 1899, 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 13, at 8 p.m., in the Connaught Hall, Dover, 
Sir William Crookes, F.E-.S., V.P.C.S., resigned the office of President to 
Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S., who took the Chair, and delivered 
an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 14, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
School of Art. 

On Friday, September 15, at 8.30 p.m., in the Connaught Hall, Pro- 
fessor Charles Richet delivered a discourse on ' La Vibration Nerveuse.' 

On Saturday, September 16, members of the Association Fran9aise 
pour I'Avancement des Sciences visited the British Association at Dover. 

On Monday, September 18, at 8.30 p.m., in the Connaught Hall, 
Professor Fleming, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' The Centenary of 
the Electric Current.' 

On Tuesday, September 19, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Granville Gardens. 

On Wednesday, September 20, at 11 a.m., in the Connaught Hall, the 
concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were 
explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Bradford. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, September 5, 1 900.] 

On Thursday, September 21, members of the Association visited the 
Association Francaise at Boulogne. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1899. " 



ADDRESS 

BT 

Professor SIR :\IICHAEL FOSTER, K.C.B., Sec.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



He who until a few minutes ago was your President said somewhere at 
the meeting at Bristol, and said with truth, that among the qualifications 
needed for the high honour of Presidency of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, that of being old was becoming more and 
more dominant. He who is now attempting to speak to you feels that he 
is rapidly earning that distinction. But the Association itself is older 
than its President ; it has seen pass away the men who, wise in their gene- 
ration, met at York on September 27, 1831, to found it ; it has seen other 
great men who in bygone years served it as Pi-esidents, or otherwise helped 
it on, sink one after another into the grave. Each year, indeed, when it 
plants its flag as a signal of its yearly meeting, that flag floats half-mast 
high in token of the great losses which the passing year has brought. 
This year is no exception ; the losses, indeed, are perhaps unwontedly 
heavy. I will not attempt to call over the sad roll-call ; but I must say a 
word about one who was above most others a faithful and zealous friend of 
the Association. Sir Douglas Galton joined the Association in 1860. From 
1871 to 1895, as one of the General Secretaries, he bore, and bore to the great 
good of the Association, a large share of the burden of the Association's 
work. How great that share was is perhaps especially known to the 
many men, among whom I am proud to count myself, who during his long 
term of office served in succession with him as brother General Secretary. 
In 1895, at Ipswich, he left the post of General Secretary, but only to 
become Piesident. So long and so constantly did he labour for the good of 
the Association that he seemed to be an integral part of it, and meeting as 
we do to-day, and as we henceforward must do, without Douglas Galton, 
we feel something greatly missing. This year, perhaps even more than in 
other years, we could have wished him to be among us ; for to-day the 
Association may look with joy, not unmixed with pride, on the realisation 
of a project in forwarding which it has had a conspicuous share, on the 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1899, 

commencement of an undertaking which is not only a great thing in itself, 
but which, we trust, is the beginning of still greater things to come. And 
the share which the Association has had in this was largely Sir Douglas 
Gal ton's doing. In his Address as President of Section A, at the meeting of 
the Association at Cardiff in 1891, Professor Oliver Lodge expounded with 
pregnant words how urgently, not pure science only, but industry and the 
constructive arts — for the interests of these are ever at bottom the same 
— needed the aid of some national establishment for the prosecution of 
prolonged and costly physical researches, which private enterprise could 
carry out in a lame fashion only, if at all. Lodge's words found an echo 
in many men's minds ; but the response was for a long while in men's 
minds only. In 1895, Sir Douglas Galton, having previously made a 
personal study of an institution analogous to the one desired — namely, the 
Reichsanstalt at Berlin — seized the opportunity offered to him as President 
of the Association at Ipswich to insist, with the authority not only of the 
head for the time being of a great scientific body, but also of one who 
himself knew the ways and wants at once of science and of practical life, 
that the thing which Lodge and others had hoped for was a thing which 
could be done, and ought to be done at once. And now to-day we can 
say it has been done. The National Physical Laboratory has been founded. 
The Address at Ipswich marked the beginning of an organised effort which 
has at last been crowned with success. A feeling of sadness cannot but 
come over us when we think that Sir Douglas Galton was not spared to 
see the formal completion of the scheme whose birth he did so much to 
help, and which, to his last days, he aided in more ways than one. It is 
the old story — the good which men do lives after them. 

Still older than the Association is this nineteenth century, now swiftly 
drawing to its close. Though the century itself has yet some sixteen 
months to run, this is the last meeting of the British Association which 
will use the numbers eighteen hundred to mark its date. 

The eyes of the young look ever forward ; they take little heed of the 
short though ever-lengthening fragment of life which lies behind them ; 
they are wholly bent on that which is to come. The eyes of the aged 
turn wistfully again and again to the past ; as the old glide down the 
inevitable slope their present becomes a living over again the life which 
has gone before, and the future takes on the shape of a brief lengthening 
of the past. May I this evening venture to give rein to the impulses of 
advancing years ? May I, at this last meeting of the Association in the 
eighteen hundreds, dare to dwell for a while upon the past, and to call to 
mind a few of the changes which have taken place in the world since those 
autumn days in which men were saying to each other that the last of the 
seventeen hundreds was drawing towards its end ? 

Dover in the year of our Lord seventeen hundred and ninety-nine 
was in many ways unlike the Dover of to-day. On moonless nights men 
"roped their way in its narrow streets by the help of swinging lanterns 



ADDRESS. 5 

and smoky torches, for no lamps lit the ways. By day the light of the 
Sim struggled into the houses through narrow panes of blurred glass. 
Though the town then, as now, was one of the chief portals to and from 
the countries beyond the seas, the means of travel were scanty and dear, 
available for the most part to the rich alone, and, for all, beset with dis- 
comfort and risk. Slow and uncertain was the carriage of goods, and the 
news of the world outside came to the town — though it from its position 
learnt more than most towns — tardily, fitfully, and often falsely. The 
people of Dover sat then much in dimness, if not in darkness, and lived 
in large measure on themselves. They who study the phenomena of living 
beings tell us that light is the great stimulus of life, and that the fulness 
of the life of a being or of any of its members may be measured by the 
variety, the swiftness, and the certainty of the means by which it is in 
touch with its surroundings. Judged from this standpoint life at Dover 
then, as indeed elsewhere, must have fallen far short of the life of to-day. 

The same study of living beings, however, teaches us that while from 
one point of view the environment seems to mould the organism, from 
another point the oi'ganism seems to be master of its environment. Going 
behind the change of circumstances, we may raise the question, the old 
question. Was life in its essence worth more then than now ? Has there 
been a real advance ? 

Let me at once relieve your minds by saying that I propose to leave 
this question in the main unanswered. It may be, or it may not be, that 
man's grasp of the beautiful and of the good, if not looser, is not firmer 
than it was a hundred years ago. It may be, or it may not be, that man 
is no nearer to absolute truth, to seeing things as they really are, than he 
was then. I will merely ask you to consider with me for a few minutes 
how far, and in what ways, man's laying hold of that aspect of or part of 
truth which we call natural knowledge, or sometimes science, differed in 
1799 from what it is to-day, and whether that change must not be 
accounted a real advance, a real improvement in man. 

I do not propose to weary you by what in my hands would be the rash 
effort of attempting a survey of all the scientific results of the nineteenth 
century. It will be enough if for a little while I dwell on some few of 
the salient features distinguishing the way in which we nowadays look upon, 
and during the coming week shall speak of, the works of Nature around 
us — though those works themselves, save for the slight shifting involved in 
a secular change, remain exactly the same — from the way in which they 
were looked upon and might have been spoken of at a gathering of 
philosophers at Dover in 1799. And I ask your leave to do so. 

In the philosophy of the ancients, earth, fire, air, and water were 
called ' the elements.' It was thought, and rightly thought, that a know- 
ledge of them and of their attributes was a necessary basis of a knowledge 
of the ways of Nature. Translated into modern language, a knowledge of 



6 REPORT— 1899. 

these ' elements of old means a knowledge of the composition of the 
atmosphere, of water, and of all the other things which we call matter, as 
well as a knowledge of the general properties of gases, liquids, and solids, 
and of the nature and effects of combustion. Of all these things our 
knowledge to-day is large and exact, and, though ever enlarging, in some 
respects complete. When did that knowledge begin to become exact ? 

To-day the children in our schools know that the air which 
wraps round the globe is not a single thing, but is made up of two 
things, oxygen and nitrogen,' mingled together. They know, again, 
that water is not a single thing, but the product of two things, 
oxygen and hydrogen, joined together. They know that when the air 
makes the fire burn and gives the animal life, it is the oxygen in 
it which does the work. They know that all round them things are 
undergoing that union with oxygen which Ave call oxidation, and that 
oxidation is the ordinary source of heat and light. Let me ask you to 
picture to yourselves what confusion there would be to-morrow, not only 
in the discussions at the sectional meetings of our Association, but in 
the world at large, if it should happen that in the coming night some 
destroying touch should wither ujs certain tender structures in all our 
brains, and wipe out from our memories all traces of the ideas which 
cluster in our minds around the verbal tokens, oxygen and oxidation. 
How could any of us, not the so-called man of science alone, but even 
the man of business and the man of j^leasure, go about his ways lacking 
those ideas ? Yet those ideas were in 1799 lacking to all but a few. 

Although in the third quarter of the seventeenth century the light of 
truth about oxidation and combustion had flashed out in the writings of 
John Mayow, it came as a flash only, and died away as soon as it 
had come. For the rest of that century, and for the greater part of 
the next, philosophers stumbled about in darkness, misled for the most of 
the time by the phantom conception which they called phlogiston. It was 
not until the end of tlie third quarter of the eighteenth century that the new 
light, which has burned steadily ever since, lit up the minds of the men 
of science. The light came at nearly the same time from England and 
from France. Rounding ofT the sharp corners of controversy, and joining, 
as we may fitly do to-day, the two countries as twin bearers of a common 
crown, we may say that we owe the truth to Priestley, to Lavoisier, and to 
Cavendish. If it was Priestley who was the first to demonstrate the exist- 
ence of what we now call oxygen, it is to Lavoisier we owe the true 
conception of the nature of oxidation and the clear exposition of the full 
meaning of Priestley's discovery, while the knowledge of the composi- 
tion of water, the necessary complement of the knowledge of oxygen, came 
to us through Cavendish and, we may perhaps add, through Watt. 

The date of Priestley's discovery of oxygen is 1774, Lavoisier's classic 
memoir ' on the nature of the principle which enters into combination 

' Sonje may already know that there is at least a third thing, argon. 



ADDRESS. 7 

with metals during calcination' appeared in 1775, and Cavendish's paper 
on the composition of water did not see the light until 1784. 

During the last quarter of the eighteenth century this new idea of 
oxygen and oxidation was struggling into existence. How new was the 
idea is illustrated by the fact that Lavoisier himself at first spoke of that 
which he was afterwards, namely in 1778, led to call oxygen, the name by 
which it has since been known, as 'the principle which enters into combina- 
tion.' What difficulties its acceptance met with is illustrated by the 
fact that Priestley himself refused to the end of his life to grasp the 
true bearings of the discovery which he had made. In the year 
1799 the knowledge of oxygen, of the nature of water and of air, and 
indeed the true conception of chemical composition and chemical 
change, was hardly more than beginning to be, and the century had to 
pass wholly away before the next great chemical idea, which we know by the 
name of the Atomic Theory of John Dalton, was made known. We have 
only to read the scientific literature of the time to recognise that a truth 
which is now not only woven as a master-thread into all our scientific con- 
ceptions, but even enters largely into the everyday talk and thoughts of 
educated people, was a hundred years ago struggling into existence 
among the philosophers themselves. It was all but absolutely unknown to 
the large world outside those select few. 

If there be one word of science which is writ large on the life of the 
present time, it is the word ' electricity ' ; it is, I take it, writ larger than 
any other word. The knowledge which it denotes lias carried its practical 
results far and wide into our daily life, while the theoretical conceptions 
which it signifies pierce deep into the nature of things. We are to-day 
proud, and justly proud, both of the )niiterial triumphs and of the intel- 
lectual gains which it has brought us, and we are full of even larger 
hopes of it in the future. 

At what time did this bright child of the nineteenth century have its 
birth 1 

He who listened to the small group of philosophers of Dover, who in 
1799 might have discoursed of natural knowledge, would perhaps have 
heard much of electric machines, of electric sparks, of the electric fluid, 
and even of positive and negative electricity ; for frictional electricity had 
long been known and even carefully studied. Probably one or more of 
the group, dwelling on the observations which Galvani, an Italian, had 
made known some twenty years before, developed views on the connection 
of electricity with the phenomena of living bodies. Possibly one of them 
was exciting the rest by telling how he had just heard that a professor 
at Pavia, one Volta, had discovered that electricity could be produced, 
not only by rubbing together particular bodies, but by the simple contact 
of two metals, and had thereby explained Galvani's remarkable results. 
For, indeed, as we shall hear from Professor Fleming, it was in that 



8 REPORT— 1899. 

very year, 1799, that electricity as we now know it took its birth. 
It was then that Volta brought to light the apparently simple truths 
out of which so much has sprung. The world, it is true, had to wait 
for yet some twenty years before both the practical and the theoretic 
worth of Volta's discovery became truly pregnant, under the fertilising 
influence of another discovery. The loadstone and magnetic virtues 
had, like the electrifying power of rubbed amber, long been an old 
story. But, save for the compass, not much had come from it. And 
even Volta's discovery might have long remained relatively barren had 
it been left to itself. When, however, in 1819, Oersted made known liis 
remarkable observations on the relations of electricity to magnetism, he 
made the contact needed for the flow of a new current of ideas. And it 
is perhaps not too much to say that those ideas, developing durin"' the 
years of the rest of the century with an ever- accelerating swiftness, have 
wholly changed man's material relations to the cii-cumstances of life, and 
at the same time carried him far in his knowledge of the nature of 
things. 

Of all the various branches of science, none perhaps is to-day, none 
for these many years past has been, so well known to, even if not under- 
standed by, most people as that of geology. Its practical lessons have 
brought wealth to many ; its fairy tales have brought delight to more ; 
and round it hovers the charm of danger, for the conclusions to which it 
leads touch on the nature of man's beginning. 

In 1799, the science of geology, as we now know it, was struggling 
into birth. There had been from of old cosmogonies, theories as to how 
the world had taken shape out of primaeval chaos. In that fresh spirit 
which marked the zealous search after natural knowledge pursued ia the 
middle and latter part of the seventeenth century, the brilliant Stenson, 
in Italy, and Hooke, in our own country, had laid hold of some of the 
problems presented by fossil remains ; and Woodward, with others, had 
laboured in the same field. In the eighteenth century, especially in its 
latter half, men's minds were busy about the physical agencies determining 
or modifying the features of the earth's crust ; water and fire, subsidence 
from a primieval ocean and transformation by outbursts of the central 
heat, Neptune and Pluto, were being appealed to, by Werner on the one 
hand, and by Desmarest on the other, in explanation of the earth's pheno- 
mena. The way was being prepared, theories and views were abundant, 
and many sound observations had been made ; and yet the science of 
geology, properly so called, the exact and proved knowledge of the suc- 
cessive phases of the world's life, may be said to date from the closing 
years of the eighteenth century. 

In 1783, James Hutton put forward in a brief memoir his ' Theory of 
the Earth,' which in 1795, two years before his death, he expanded into a 
book ; but his ideas failed to lay hold of men's minds until the century had 



ADDRESS. 9 

passed away, when, in 1802, they found an able expositor in John Play fair. 
The very same year that Hutton published his theory, Cuvier came to 
Paris and almost forthwith began, with Bronguiart, his immortal researches 
into the fossils of Paris and its neighbourhood. And four years later, in 
the year 1799 itself, William Smith's tabular list of strata and fossils 
saw the light. It is, I believe, not too much to say that out of these 
geology, as we now know it, sprang. It was thus in the closing years of 
the eighteenth century that was begun the work which the nineteenth 
century has carried forward to such great results. But at that time only 
the select few had grasped the truth, and even they only the beginning of 
it. Outside. a narrow circle the thoughts, even of the educated, about the 
history of the globe were bounded by the story of the Deluge — though the 
story was often told in a strange fashion — or were guided by fantastic 
views of the plastic forces of a sportive Nature. 

In another branch of science, in that which deals with the problems 
presented by living beings, the thoughts of men in 1799 were also very 
different from the thoughts of men to-day. It is a very old quest, 
the quest after the knowledge of the nature of living beings, one of the 
earliest on which man set out ; for it promised to lead him to a knowledge 
of himself, a promise which perhaps is still before us, but the fulfilment 
of which is as yet far off. As time has gone on, the pursuit of natural 
knowledge has seemed to lead man away from himself into the further- 
most parts of the universe, and into secret workings of Nature in which 
he appears to be of little or no account ; and his knowledge of the nature 
of living things, and so of his own nature, has advanced slowly, waiting 
till the progress of other branches of natural knowledge can bring it aid. 
Yet in the past hundred years, the biologic sciences, as we now call them, 
have marched rapidly onward. 

We may look upon a living body as a machine doing work in accord- 
ance with certain laws, and may seek to trace out the working of the inner 
wheels, how these raise up the lifeless dust into living matter, and let the 
living matter fall away again into dust, giving rise to movement and heat. 
Or we may look upon the individual life as a link in a long chain, joining 
something which went before to something about to come, a chain whose 
beginning lies hid in the farthest past, and may seek to know the ties 
wliich bind one life to another. As wc call up to view the long series of 
living forms, living now or Hitting like; shadows on the screen of the past, 
we may strive to lay hold of the influences which fashion the garment of 
life. Whether the problems of life are looked upon from the one point 
of view or the other, we to-day, not biologists only, but all of us, have 
gained a knowledge hidden even from the philosophers a hundred years 
ago. 

Of the problems presented by the living body viewed as a machine, 
some may be spoken of as mechanical, others as physical, and yet others 



10 REPORT— 1899. 

as chemical, while some are, apparently at least, none of these. In the 
seventeenth century William Harvey, laying hold of the central mechanism 
of the blood stream, opened up a path of inquiry which his own age and 
the century which followed trod with marked success. The knowledge of the 
mechanics of the animal and of the plant advanced apace ; but the physical 
and chemical problems had yet to wait. The eighteenth century, it is 
true, had its physics and its chemistry ; but, in relation at least to the 
problems of the living being, a chemistry which knew not oxygen and a 
jDhysics which knew not the electricity of chemical action were of little 
avail. The philosopher of 1799, when he discussed the functions of the 
animal or of the plant involving chemical changes, was fain for the most 
part, as were his predecessors in the century before, to have recourse to 
such vague terms as ' fermentation ' and the like ; to-day our treatises on 
physiology are largely made up of precise and exact expositions of the 
j)lay of physical agencies and chemical bodies in the living organism. He 
made use of the words ' vital force ' or ' vital principle ' not as an occasional, 
but as a common, explanation of the phenomena of the living body. During 
the present century, esjaecially during its latter half, the idea embodied 
in those words has been driven away from one seat after another ; if we 
use it now when we are dealing with the chemical and physical events of 
life we use it with reluctance, as a deus ex machina to be appealed to 
only when everything else has failed. 

Some of the problems — and those, perhaps, the chief problems — of the 
living body have to be solved neither by physical nor by chemical methods, 
but by methods of their own. Such are the problems of the nervous 
system. In respect to these the men of 1799 were on the threshold of 
a pregnant discovery. During the latter part of the present century, 
and especially during its last quarter, the analysis of the mysterious 
processes in the nervous system, which issue as feeling, thought, 
and power to move, has been pushed forward with a success conspicuous 
in its practical, and full of promise in its theoretical, gains. That 
analysis may be briefly described as a following up of threads. We 
now know that what takes j^lace along a tiny thread which we call a 
nerve-fibre differs from that which takes place along its fellow-threads, 
that diff"ering nervous impulses travel along different nerve-fibres, and that 
nervous and psychical events are the outcome of the clashing of nervous 
impulses as they sweep along the closely-woven web of living threads of 
which the brain is made. Wo have learnt by expei'iment and by observa- 
tion that the pattern of the web determines the play of the impulses, and 
we can already explain many of the obscure problems not only of nervous 
disease, but of nervous life, by an analysis which is a tracking out the 
devious and linked paths of nervous threads. The very beginning of this 
analysis Avas iinknown in 1799. Men knew that nerves were the agents of 
feeling and of the movements of muscles ; they had leai'nt much about what 
this part or that part of the brain could do ; but they did not know that 



ADDRESS, 11 

one nerve-fibre differed from another in the very essence of its work. It was 
just about the end of the past century, or the beginning of the present 
one, that an Enghsh surgeon began to ponder over a conception which, 
however, he did not make known until some years later, and which did 
not gain complete demonstration and full acceptance until still more years 
had passed away. It was in 1811, in a tiny pamphlet published privately, 
that Charles Bell put forward his ' New Idea ' that the nervous system was 
constructed on the principle that ' the nerves are not single nerves possess- 
ing various powers, but bundles of different nerves, whose filaments are 
united for the convenience of distribution, but which are distinct in office 
as they are in origin from the brain.' 

Our present knowledge of the nervous system is to a large extent only 
an exemplification and expansion of Charles Bell's ' New Idea,' and has 
its origin in that. 

If we pass from the problems of the living organism viewed as a 
machine to those presented by the varied features of the different crea- 
tures who have lived or who still live on the earth, we at once call to 
mind that the middle years of the present century mark an epoch in 
biologic thought such as never came before, for it was then that Charles 
Darwin gave to the world the ' Origin of Species.' 

That work, however, with all the far-reaching effects which it has had, 
could have had little or no effect, or, rather, could not have come into 
existence, had not the earlier half of the century been in travail preparing 
for its coming. For the germinal idea of Darwin appeals, as to witnesses, 
to the results of two lines of biologic investigation which were almost 
unknown to the men of the eighteenth century. 

To one of these lines I have already referred. Darwin, as we know, 
appealed to the geological record ; and we also know how that record, 
imperfect as it was then, and imperfect as it must always remain, has 
since his time yielded the most striking proofs of at least one part of his 
general conception. In 1799 there was, as we have seen, no geological 
record at all. 

Of the other line I must say a few words. 

To-day the merest beginner in biologic study, or even that exemplar 
of acquaintance without knowledge, the general reader, is aware that 
every living being, even man himself, begins its independent existence as 
a tiny ball, of which we can, even acknowledging to thr full the limits 
of the optical analysis at our command, assert with confidence that in 
structure, using that word in its ordinary sense, it is in all cases absolutely 
simple. It is equally well known that the features of form which supply 
the characters of a grown-up living being, all the many and varied features 
of even the most complex organism, are reached as the goal of a road, at 
times a long road, of successive changes ; that the life of every being, from 
the ovum to its full estate, is a series of shifting scenes, which come and 
go, sometimes changing abruptly, sometimes melting the one into the 



12 REPORT— 1899. 

other, like dissolving views, all so ordained that often the final shape 
with which the creature seems to begin, or is said to begin, its life in the 
world is the outcome of many shapes, clothed with which it has in turn 
lived many lives before its seeming birth. 

All or nearly all the exact knowledge of the laboured way in which each 
living creature puts on its proper shape and structure is the heritage of 
the present century. Although the way in which the chick is moulded in 
the egg was not wholly unknown even to the ancients, and in later years 
had been told, first in the sixteenth century by Fabricius, then in the seven- 
teenth century in a more clear and striking manner by the great Italian 
naturalist Malpighi, the teaching thus offered had been neglected or 
misinterpreted. At the close of the eighteenth century the dominant 
view was that in the making of a creature out of the egg there was no 
putting on of wholly new parts, no epigenesis. It was taught that the 
entire creature lay hidden in the egg, hidden by reason of the very trans- 
parency of its substance, lay ready-made but folded up, as it were, and 
that the process of development within the egg or within the womb was 
a mere unfolding, a simple evolution. Nor did men shrink from accepting 
the logical outcome of such a view — namely, that within the unborn 
creature itself lay in like manner, hidden and folded up, its offspring also, 
and within that again its offspring in turn, after the fashion of a 
cluster of ivory balls carved by Chinese hands, one within the other. 
This was no fantastic view put forward by an imaginative dreamer ; it 
was seriously held by sober men, even by men like the illustrious Haller, 
in spite of their recognising that as the chick grew in the egg some 
changes of form took place. Though so early as the middle of the 
eighteenth century Friedrich Caspar Wolff and, later on, others had 
strenuously opposed such a view, it held its own not only to the close 
of the century, but far on into the next. It was not until a quarter 
of the present century had been added to the past that Von Baer made 
known the results of researches which once and for all swept away the 
old view. He and others working after him made it clear that each 
individual puts on its final form and structure not by an unfolding of 
pre-existing hidden features, but by the formation of new parts through 
the continued differentiation of a primitively simple material. It was 
also made clear that the successive changes which the embryo undergoes 
in its progress from the ovum to maturity are the expression of 
morphologic laws, that the progress is one from the general to the special, 
and that the shifting scenes of embryonic life are hints and tokens of lives 
lived by ancestors in times long past. 

If we wish to measure how far off in biologic thought the end of tlie 
last century stands, not only from the end but even from the middle of 
this one, we may imagine Darwin striving to write the ' Origin of 
Species' in 1799. We may fancy him being told by philosophers that one 
group of living beings differed from another group because all its members 



ADDRESS. 13 

and all their ancestors came into existence at one stroke when the first- 
born progenitor of the race, within which all the rest were folded up, 
stood forth as the result of a creative act. We may fancy him listening to 
a debate between the philosopher who maintained that all the fossils strewn 
in the earth were the remains of animals or plants churned up in the 
turmoil of a violent universal flood, and dropped in their places as the 
waters went away, and him who argued that sucli were not really the 
' spoils of living creatui'es,' but the products of some playful plastic 
power which out of the superabundance of its energy fashioned here 
and there the lifeless earth into forms which imitated, but only imitated, 
those of living things. Could he amid such surroundings by any flight 
of genius have beat his way to the conception for which his name will ever 
be known ? 

Here I may well turn away from the past. It is not my purpose, nor 
as I have said, am I fitted, nor is this perhaps the place, to tell even in 
outline the tale of the woi'k of science in the nineteenth century. I am 
content to have pointed out that the two great sciences of chemistry and 
geology took their birth, or at least began to stand alone, at tJie close of 
the last century, and have grown to be what we know them now within 
about a hundred years, and that the study of living beings has within 
the same time been so transformed as to be to-day something wholly 
different from what it was in 1799. And, indeed, to say more would be 
to repeat almost the same story about other things. If our present know- 
ledge of electricity is essentially the child of the nineteenth century, so 
also is our present knowledge of many other branches of physics. And 
those most ancient forms of exact knowledge, the knowledge of numbers 
and of the heavens, whose beginning is lost in the remote past, have, with 
all other kinds of natural knowledge, moved onward during the whole of 
the hundred years with a speed which is ever increasing. I have said I 
trust, enough to justify the statement that in respect to natural knowledge 
a great gulf lies between 1799 and 1899. That gulf, moreover, is a two- 
fold one : not only has natural knowledge been increased, but men have 
run to and fro spreading it as they go. Not only have the few driven 
far back round the full circle of natural knowledge the dark clouds of the 
unknown which wrap us all about, but also the many walk in the zone of 
light thus increasingly gained. If it be true that the few to-day are, in re- 
spect to natural knowledge, far removed from the few of those days, it is also 
true that nearly all which the few alone knew then, and much which even 
they did not know, has now become the common knowledge of the many. 

What, however, I may venture to insist upon here is that the difference 
in respect to natural knowledge, whatever be the case with other differ- 
ences between then and now, is undoubtedly a difference which means 
progress. The span between the science of that time and the science of 
to-day is beyond all question a great stride onwards. 



14 REPORT — 1899. 

We may say this, but we must say it without boasting. For the very 
story of the past which tells of the triumphs of science bids the man of 
science put away from him all thoughts of vainglory. And that by many 
tokens. 

Whoever, working at any scientific problem, has occasion to study the 
inquiries into the same problem made by some fellow-worker in the years 
long gone hj, comes away from that study humbled by one or other of 
two different thoughts. On the one hand he may find, wlien lie has 
translated the language of the past into the phraseology of to-day, how 
near was his forerunner of old to the conception which he thought, with 
pride, was all his own, not only so true but so new. On the other hand, 
if the ideas of the investigator of old, viewed in the light of modern know- 
ledge, are found to be so wide of the mai-k as to seem absurd, the smile 
which begins to play upon the lips of the modern is checked by the thought, 
Will the ideas which I am now putting forth, and which I think explain 
so clearly, so fully, the 25roblem in hand, seem to some worker in the far 
future as wrong and as fantastic as do these of my forerunner to me ? In 
either case his personal pride is checked. Further, there is written clearly 
on each page of the history of science, in characters which cannot be 
overlooked, the lesson that no scientific truth is born anew, coming by 
itself and of itself. Each new truth is always the ofispring of something 
which has gone before, becoming in turn the parent of something 
coming after. In this aspect the man of science is unlike, or seems to be 
unlike, the poet and the artist. The poet is born, not made : he rises up, 
no man knowing his beginnings ; when he goes away, though men after 
him may sing his songs for centuries, he himself goes away wholly, having 
taken with him his mantle, for this he can give to none other. The man 
of science is not thus creative ; he is created. His work, however great it 
be, is not wholly his own ; it is in pai-t the outcome of the work of men 
who have gone before. Again and again a conception which has made 
a name great has come not so iiiuch by the man's own eftbi't as out of the 
fulness of time. Again and again we may read in the words of some man 
of old the outlines of an idea which in later days has shone forth as a great 
acknowledged truth. From the mouth of the man of old the idea dropped 
barren, fruitless ; the world was not ready for it, and heeded it not ; the 
concomitant and abutting truths which could give it power to work were 
wanting. Coming back again in later days, the same idea found the world 
awaiting it ; things were in travail preparing for it ; and someone, seizing 
the right moment to put it forth again, leapt into fame. It is not so much 
the men of science who make science, as some spirit which, born of the 
truths already won, drives the man of science onward and uses him to 
win new truths in turn. 

It is because each man of science is not his own. master, but one of 
many obedient servants of an imjsulse which was at work long before him, 
and will work long after him, that in science there is no falling back. In 



ADDRESS. 15 

respect to other things there may be times of darkness and times of light, 
there may be risings, decadences, and revivals. In science there is only 
progress. The path may not be always a straight line, there may be 
swerving to this side and to that, ideas may seem to return again and 
again to the same point of the intellectual compass ; but it will always be 
found that they have reached a higher level — they have moved, not in a 
circle, but in a spiral. Moreover science is not fashioned as is a house, 
by putting brick to brick, that which is once put remaining as it was put 
to the end. The growth of science is that of a living being. As in the 
embryo phase follows phase, and each member of the body puts on in 
succession ditferent appearances, though all the while the same member, 
so a scientific conception of one age seems to diflfer from that of a follow- 
ing age, though it is the same one in the process of being made ; and as 
the dim outlines of the early embryo, as the being grows, become more 
distinct and sharp, like a picture on a screen brought more and more into 
focus, so the dim gropings and searchings of the men of science of old are 
by repeated approximations wrought into the clear and exact conclusions 
of later times. 

The story of natural knowledge, of science, in the nineteenth century, 
as, indeed, in preceding centuries, is, I repeat, a story of continued progress. 
There is in it not so much as a hint of falling back, not even of standing 
still. What is gained by scientific inquiry is gained for ever ; it may be 
added to, it may seem to be covered up, but it can never be taken away. 
Confident that the progress will go on, we cannot help peering into the 
years to come and straining our eyes to foresee what science will become 
and what it will do as they roll on. AVhile we do so, the thought must 
come to us. Will all the increasing knowledge of Nature avail only to 
change the ways of man — will it have no eflfect on man himself ? 

The material good which mankind has gained and is gaining through 
the advance of science is so imposing as to be obvious to everyone, and 
the praises of this aspect of science are to be found in the mouths of all. 
Beyond all doubt science has greatly lessened and has markedly narrowed 
hardship and suffering ; beyond all doubt science has largely increased 
and has widely diffused ease and comfort. The appliances of science have 
as it were, covered with a soft cushion the rough places of life, and that 
not for the rich only, but also for the poor. So abundant and so promi- 
nent are the material benefits of science that in the eyes of many these 
seem to be the only benefits which she brings. She is often spoken of as 
if she were useful and nothing more, as if her work were only to administer 
to the material wants of man. 

Is this so 1 

We may begin to doubt it when we reflect that the triumphs of science 
which bring these material advantages are in their very nature intellec- 
tual triumphs. The increasing benefits brought by science are the results 



16 REPORT — 1899. 

of man's increasing mastery over Nature, and that mastery is increasingly 
a mastery of mind ; it is an increasing power to use the forces of what 
we call inanimate nature in place of the force of his own or other creatures' 
bodies ; it is an increasing use of mind in place of muscle. 

Is it to be thought that that which has brought the mind so greatly 
into play has had no effect on the mind itself 1 Is that part of the mind 
which works out scientific truths a mere slavish machine producing results 
it knows not how, having no part in the good which in its working it 
brings forth ? 

"What are the qualities, the features of that scientific mind which has 
wrought, and is working, such great changes in man's relation to Nature ? 
In seeking an answer to this question we have not to inquire into the 
attributes of genius. Though much of the progress of science seems to 
take on the form of a series of great steps, each made by some great man, 
the distinction in science between the great discoverer and the humble 
worker is one of degree only, not of kind. As I was urging just now, the 
greatness of many great names in science is often, in large part, the great - 
ness of occasion, not of absolute power. The qualities which guide one 
man to a small truth silently taking its place among its fellows, as these go 
to make up progress, are at bottom the same as those by which another 
man is led to something of which the whole world rings. 

The features of the fruitful scientific mind are in the main three. 

In the first place, above all other things, his nature must be one whicli 
vibrates in unison with that of which he is in search ; the seeker after 
truth must himself be truthful, truthful with the truthfulness of Nature. 
For the truthfulness of Nature is not wholly the same as that which man 
sometimes calls truthfulness. It is far more imperious, far more exacting. 
Man, unscientific man, is often content with 'the nearly 'and ' the almost.' 
Nature never is. It is not her way to call the same two things which 
differ, though the difi"erence may be measured by less than the thousandth 
of a milligramme or of a millimetre, or by any other like standard of minute- 
ness. And the man who, carrying the ways of the world into the domain 
of science, thinks that he may treat Nature's differences in any otlier way 
than she treats them herself, will find that she resents his conduct ; if he in 
carelessness or in disdain overlooks the minute difference which she holds 
out to him as a signal to guide him in his search, the projecting tip, as it 
were, of some buried treasure, he is bound to go astray, and the more strenu- 
ously he struggles on, the farther will he find himself from his true goal. 

In the second place, he must be alert of mind. Nature is ever making 
signs to us, she is ever whispering to us the beginnings of her secrets ; the 
scientific man must be ever on the watch, ready at once to lay hold of 
Nature's hint, however small, to listen to her whisper, however low. 

In the third place, scientific inquiry, though it be pre-eminently an 
intellectual effort, has need of the moral quality of courage — not so much 
the courage which helps a man to face a sudden difiiculty as the courage 



ADDRESS. 17 

of steadfast endurance. Almost every inquiry, certainly every prolonged 
inquiry, sooner or later goes wrong. The path, at first so straight and 
clear, grows crooked and gets blocked ; the hope and enthusiasm, or even 
the jaunty ease, with which the inquirer set out leave him and he falls 
into a slough of despond. That is the critical moment calling for courage. 
Struggling through the slough he will find on the other side the wicket- 
gate opening up the real path ; losing heart he will turn back and add 
one more stone to the great cairn of the unaccomplished. 

But, I hear someone say, these qualities are not the peculiar attributes 
of the man of science, they may be recognised as belonging to almost every- 
one who has commanded or deserved success, whatever may have been his 
walk of life. That is so. That is exactly what I would desire to insist, 
that the men of science have no peculiar virtues, no special powers. They 
are ordinary men, their characters are common, even commonplace. 
Science, as Huxley said, is organised common sense, and men of science 
are common men, drilled in the ways of common sense. 

For their life has this feature. Though in themselves they are no 
stronger, no better than other men, they possess a strength which, as I 
just now urged, is not their own but is that of the science whose servants 
they are. Even in his apprenticeship, the scientific inquirer, while learn- 
ing what has been done before his time, if he learns it aright, so learns it 
that what is known may serve him not only as a vantage ground whence 
to push off into the unknown, but also as a compass to guide him in his 
course. And when fitted for his work he enters on inquiry itself, what a 
zealous anxious guide, what a strict and, because strict, helpful school- 
mistress does Nature make herself to him ! Under her care every inquiry 
whether it bring the inquirer to a happy issue or seem to end in nou'dit 
trains him for the next effort. She so orders her ways that each act 
of obedience to her makes the next act easier for him, and step by step 
she leads him on towards that perfect obedience which is complete mastery. 

Indeed, when we reflect on the potency of the discipline of scientific 
inquiry we cease to wonder at the progress of scientific knowledge. The 
results actually gained seem to fall so far short of what under such guid- 
ance might have been expected to have been gathered in that we are fain 
to conclude that science has called to follow her, for the most part, the 
poor in intellect and the wayward in spirit. Had she called to her service 
the many acute minds who have wasted their strength strugglin<^ in vain 
to solVe hopeless problems, or who have turned their energies to thino^s 
other than the increase of knowledge ; had she called to her service the 
many just men who have walked straight without the need of a rod 
to guide them, liow much greater than it has been would have been 
the progress of science, and how many false teachings would the world 
have been spared 1 To men of science themselves, when they consider 
their favoured lot, the achieyernents of the past should serve not as a 
boast, but as a reproach. 
1899. 



18 REPORT— 1899. 

If there be any truth in what I have been urging, that the pursuit of 
scientific inquiry is itself a training of special potency, giving strength to 
the feeble and keeping in the path those who are inclined to stray, it is 
obvious that the material gains of science, great as they may l)e, do not 
make up all the good which science brings or may bring to man. We 
especially, perhaps, in these later days, thi-ough the rapid development of 
the physical sciences, are too apt to dwell on the material gains alone. 
As a child in its infancy looks upon its mother only as a giver of good 
things, and does not learn till in after days how she was also showing her 
love by carefully training it in the way it should go, so we, too, have 
thought too much of the gifts of science, overlooking her power to 
guide. 

Man does not live by bread alone, and science brings him more than 
bread. It is a great thing to make two blades of grass grow where before 
one alone grew ; but it is no less great a thing to help a man to come to a 
just conclusion on the questions with which he has to deal. We may 
claim for science that while she is doing the one she may be so used as 
to do the other also. The dictum just quoted, that science is organised 
common sense, may be read as meaning that the common problems of life 
which common people have to solve are to be solved by the same methods 
by which the man of science solves his special problems. It follows that 
the training which does so much for him may be looked to as promising 
to do much for them. Such aid can come from science on two conditions 
only. In the first place, this her influence must be acknowledged ; 
she must be duly recognised as a teacher no less than as a hewer of wood 
and a drawer of water. And the pursuit of science must be followed not 
by the professional few only, but, at least in such measure as will ensure 
the influence of example, by the many. But this latter point I need not 
urge before this great Association, whose chief object dui'ing more than 
half a century has been to bring Avithin the fold of science all who would 
answer to the call. In the second place, it must be understood that the 
traiiiing to be looked for from science is the outcome not of the accumula- 
tion of scientific knowledge, but of the practice of scientific inquiry. 
Man may have at his fingers' ends all the accomplished results and all 
the current opinions of any one or of all the branches of science, and yet 
remain wholly unscientific in mind ; but no one can have carried out even 
the humblest reseai'ch without the spirit of science in some measure 
resting upon him. And that spirit may in part be caught even without 
entering upon an actual investigation in search of a new truth. The 
learner may be led to old truths, even the oldest, in more ways than one. 
He may be brought abruptly to a truth in its finished form, coming straight 
to it like a thief climbing over tlie wall ; and the hurry and press of modern 
life tempt many to adopt this quicker way. Or he may be more slowly 
guided along the path by whicli the truth was reached by him who first 
laid hold of it. It is by this latter way of learning the truth, and by this 



ADDliESS. 19 

alone, that the learner may hope to catch something at least of the spirit 
of the scientific inquirer. 

This is not the place, nor have I the wish, to plunge into the turmoil 
of controversy ; but, if there be any truth in what I have been urging, 
then they are wrong who think that in the schooling of the young science 
can be used with profit only to train those for whom science will be the 
means of earning their bread. It may be that from the point of view of 
the pedagogic art the experience of generations has fashioned out of the 
older studies of literature an instrument of discipline of unusual power, 
and that the teaching of science is as yet but a rough tool in unpractised 
hands. That, however, is not an adequate reason why scope should not 
be given for science to show the value which we claim for it as an intel- 
lectual training fitted for all sorts and conditions of men. Nor need the 
studies of humanity and literature fear her presence in the schools, for if 
her friends maintain that that teaching is one-sided, and therefore mis- 
leading, which deals with the doings of man only, and is silent about the 
works of Nature, in the sight of which he and his doings shrink 
almost to nothing, she herself would be the first to admit that that 
teaching is equally wrong which deals only with the works of Nature and 
says nothing about the doings of man, who is, to us at least, Nature's 
centre. 

There is yet another general aspect of science on which I would crave 
leave to say a word. In that broad field of human life which we call 
politics, in the struggle not of man with man, but of race with race, 
science works for good. If we look only on the surface it may at first 
sight seem otherwise. In no branch of science has there during these 
later years been greater activity and more rapid progress than in that 
which furnishes the means by which man brings death, suffering, and 
disaster on his fellow-men. If the healer can look with pride on the 
increased power which science has given him to alleviate human suffering 
and ward off the miseries of disease, the destroyer can look with still 
greater pride on the power which science has given him to sweep away 
lives and to work desolation and ruin ; while the one has slowly been 
learning to save units, the other has quickly learnt to slay thousands. 
But, happily, the very greatness of the modern power of destruction is 
already becoming a bar to its use, and bids fair — may we hope before 
long 1 — wholly to put an end to it ; in the words of Tacitus, though in 
another sense, the very preparations for war, through the cliaracter which 
science gives them, make for peace. 

Moreover, not in one branch of science only, but in all, there is a deep 
undercurrent of influence sapping the very foundations of all war. As I 
have already urged, no feature of scientific inquiry is more marked than 
the dependence of each step forward on other steps which have been made 
before. The man of science cannot sit by himself in his own cave weaving 

c 2 



20 REPORT — 1899. 

out results by his own efforts, unaided by others, heedless of what 
others have done and are doing. He is but a bit of a great system, a 
joint in a great machine, and he can only work aright when he is in due 
touch with his fellow-workers. If his labour is to be what it ought to be, 
and is to have the weight which it ought to have, he must know what 
is bein" done, not by himself, but by others, and by others not of his own 
land and speaking his tongue only, but also of other lands and of other 
speech. Hence it comes about that to the man of science the barriei's of 
manners and of speech which pen men into nations become more and more 
unreal and indistinct. He recognises his fellow- worker, wherever he may 
live and whatever tongue he may speak, as one who is pushing forward 
shoulder to shoulder with him towards a common goal, as one whom he 
is helping an'd who is helping him. The touch of science makes the whole 
world kin. 

The history of the past gives us many examples of this brotherhood of 
science. In the revival of learning throughout the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, and some way on into the eighteenth century, the 
common use of the Latin tongue made intercourse easy. In some respects 
in those earlier days science was more cosmopolitan than it afterwards 
became. In spite of the difficulties and hardships of travel, the men of 
science of different lands again and again met each other face to face, 
heard with their ears, and saw with their eyes what their brethren had to 
say or to show. The Englishman took the long journey to Italy to study 
there ; the Italian, the Frenchman, and the German wandered from one 
seat of learning to another ; and many a man held a chair in a country 
not his own. There was help, too, as well as intercourse. The Royal 
Society of London took upon itself the task of publishing nearly all the 
works of the great Italian Malpighi, and the brilliant Lavoisier, two years 
before his own countrymen in their blind fury slew him, received from 
the same body the highest token which it could give of its esteem. 

In these closing years of the nineteenth century this great need of 
mutual knowledge and of common action felt by men of science of different 
lands is being manifested in a special way. Though nowadays what is 
done anywhere is soon known everywhere, the news of a discovery being 
often flashed over the globe by telegraph, there is an increasing activity in 
the direction of organisation to promote international meetings and inter- 
national co-operation. In almost every science inqviirers from many lands 
now gather together at stated intervals in international congresses to 
discuss matters which they have in common at heart, and go away each 
one feeling strengtliened by having met his brother. The desire that in the 
struggle to lay bare the secrets of Nature the least waste of human energy 
should be incurred is leading more and more to the concerted action of 
nations combining to attack problems the solution of which is difficult 
and costly. The determination of standards of measurement, magnetic 
gurveys, the sohition of great geodetic problems, t}ie mapping of the 



ADDRESS. 21 

heavens and of the earth — all these are being carried on by international 
organisations. 

In this and in other countries men's minds have this long while past 
Ijcen j^roatly nio\cd by the desire to make fresh ellbrts to pierce the dark 
secrets of the forbidding Antarctic regions. Belgium has just made a 
brave single-handed attempt ; a private enterprise sailing from these 
shores is struggling there now, lost for the present to our view ; and this 
year we in England and our brethren in Germany are, thanks to the 
promised aid of the respective Governments, and no less to private 
liberality, in which this Association takes its share, able to begin the 
preparation of carefully oi'ganised expeditions. That international amity 
of which I am speaking is illustrated by the fact that in this country and in 
that there is not only a great desire, but a firm purpose, to secure the 
fullest co-operation between the expeditions which will leave the two 
shores. Tf in this momentous attempt any rivalry be shown between the 
two nations, it will be for each a rivalry, not in forestalling, but in assist- 
ing the other. May I add that if the story of the past may seem to give 
our nation some claim to the seas as more peculiarly our own, that claim 
bespeaks a duty likewise peculiarly our own to leave no effort untried by 
which we may plumb the seas' yet unknown depths and trace their yet 
unkiiown shores 1 That claim, if it means anything, means that when 
nations are joining hands in the dangerous work of exploring the un- 
known South, the larger burden of the task should fall to Britain's share ; 
it means that we in this country should see to it, and see to it at once, 
that the concerted Antarctic expedition which in some two years or so 
will leave the shores of Germany, of England, and, perhaps, of other lands, 
should, so far as we are concerned, be so equipped and so sustained that 
the risk of failure and disaster may be made as small, and the hope of 
being able not merely to snatch a hurried glimpse of lands not yet seen, 
but to gather in with full hands a rich harvest of the facts which men not 
of one science only, but of many, long to know, as great as possible. 

Another international scientific effort demands a word of notice. The 
need which every inquirer in science feels to know, and to know quickly, 
what his fellow- worker, wherever on the globe he may be carrying on his 
work or making known his results, has done or is doing, led some four 
years back to a proposal for carrying out by international co-operation 
a complete current index, issued promptly, of the scientific literature 
of the world. Though much labour in many lands has been spent 
upon the undertaking, the project is not yet an accomplished fact. Nor 
can this, perhaps, be wondered at, when the difficulties of the task are 
weighed. Difficulties of language, difficulties of driving in one team all 
the several sciences which, like young horses, wish each to have its head 
free with leave to go its own way, difficulties mechanical and financial of 
press and post, difficulties raised by existing interests — these and yet 
other difficulties are obstacles not easy to be overcome. The most striking 



22 REPORT— 1899. 

and the most encouraging features of the deliberations which have now 
been going on for three years have been the repeated expressions, coming 
not from this or that quarter only, but from almost all quarters, of an 
earnest desire that the effort should succeed, of a sincere belief in the 
good (Jf international co-operation, and of a willingness to sink as far as 
possible individual interests for the sake of the common cause. In the 
face of such a spirit we may surely hope that the many difficulties will 
ultimately paSxS out of sight. 

Perhaps, however, not the least notable fact of international co-opera- 
tion in science is the proposal which has been made within the last two years 
that the leading academies of the world should, by representatives, meet 
at intervals to discuss questions in which the learned of all lands are 
interested. A month hence a preliminary meeting of this kind will be 
held at Wiesbaden ; and it is at least probable that the closing year of 
that nineteenth century in which science has played so great a part may 
at Paris, during the great World's Fair — which every friend, not of 
science only, but of humanity, trusts may not be put aside or even injured 
through any untoward event, and which promises to be an occasion not 
of pleasurable sight-seeing only, but also, by its many international con- 
gresses, of international communing in the search for truth — witness the 
first select Witenagemote of the science of the world. 

I make no apology for having thus touched on international co- 
operation. I should have been wanting, had I not done so, to the memorable 
occasion of this meeting. A hundred years ago two great nations were 
grappling with each other in a fierce struggle, ^\'hich had lasted, with 
pauses, for many years, and was to last for many years to come ; war was 
on every lip and in almost every heart. To-day this meeting has, by a 
common wish, Jieon so arranged that those two nations should, in the 
persons of their men of science, draw as near together as they can, with 
nothing but the narrow streak of the Channel between them, in order 
that they may take counsel together on matters in which they have one 
interest and a common hope. May we not look upon this brotherly 
meeting as one of many signs that science, though she works in a silent 
manner and in ways unseen by many, is steadily making for peace ? 

Looking back, then, in this last year of the eighteen hundreds, on the 
century which is drawing to its close, while we may see in the history of 
scientific inquiry much which, telling the man of science of his short- 
comings and his weakness, bids him be humble, we also see much, perhaps 
more, which gives him hope. Hope is indeed one of the watchwords of 
science. In the latter-day writings of some who know not science, much 
may be read which shows that the writer is losing or has lost hope in the 
future of mankind. There are not a few of these ; their repeated utter- 
ances make a sign of the times. Seeing in matters lying outside science 
few marks of progress and many tokens of decline or of decay, recognising 



ADDRESS. 23 

in science its material benefits only, such men have thoughts of despair 
when they look forward to the times to come. But if there be any truth 
in what I have attempted to urge to-night, if the intellectual, if the moral 
influences of science are no less marked than her material benefits, if, more- 
over, that which she has done is but the eai-nest of that which she shall do, 
such men may pluck up courage and gather strength by laying hold of her 
srarment. We men of science at least need not share their views or their 
fears. Our feet are set, not on the shifting sands of the opinions and of the 
fancies of the day, but on a solid foundation of verified truth, which by the 
labours of each succeeding age is made broader and more firm. To us the 
past is a thing to look back upon, not with regret, not as something which 
has been lost never to be regained, but with content, as something whose 
influence is with us still, helping us on our further way. With us, indeed, 
the past points not to itself, but to the future ; the golden age is in front 
of us, not behind us ; that which we do know is a lamp whose bi-ightest 
beams are shed into the unknown before us, showing us how much there 
is ahead and lighting up the way to reach it. We are confident in the 
advance because, as each one of us feels that any step forward which he 
may make is not ordered by himself alone and is not the result of his own 
sole eflbrts in the present, but is, and that in large measure, the out- 
come of the labours of others in the past, so each one of us has the sure 
and certain hope that as the past has helped him, so his efforts, be they 
great or be they small, will be a help to those to come. 



REPORTS 



ox THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Corresponding Societies' Committee. — Report oj the CommiUee, con- 
sisting of Professor K. Meldola (^Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes 
{Secretary), Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Dr. J. Gr. 
GrARSON, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor T. G. 
BoNNEY, Mr. W. Whitaker, Sir Cuthbert Peek, Mr. Horace T. 
Brown, Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Professor W. W. Watts, and Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing. 

TiiK Corresponding Societies' Committee of the British Association 
beg leave to submit to the General Committee the following Report. 

The Committee have pleasure in being able to state that the resolution 
passed at the Bristol Conference of Delegates last year, respecting the 
desirability of securing the co-operation of the Coastguard for carrying on 
.systematic observations on Coast Erosion, having been adopted by the 
British Association, has been favourably received by the Admiralty. The 
Committee were informed that the Council of the British Association 
appointed a Committee to consider and report on the proposal. The 
Committee having reported favourably, the Council approached the 
Admiralty, and in their Report give an account of their application. 

The necessary forms, prepared by the Committee of the Council, have 
been issued by the Admiralty. Many have already been returned, filled 
in by the Coastguard. As a knowledge of their nature may be useful to 
the Corresponding Societies, and may tend to promote uniformity in the 
observations made by such of their members as are interested in Coast 
Erosion, copies of Forms I. and II. are appended. 

The Committee regi-et to have to report that the East of Scotland 
Union of Naturalists' Societies (which was founded in 1884) has ceased to 
exist. The Secretary of the Union, in reply to inquiries as to the cause 
of its dissolution, replied : — ' I think that the chief reason of the downfall 
of this Union is that the majority of those men who originally founded 
it and who took an active part in its work are now dead, and that those 
left do not see the same necessity for combined work.' He added that 
many of the smaller societies which belonged to the Union perished 
through the decease of the older members and the want of a supply of 
new ones from the younger people. 



28 REPORT— 1899. 



Form No. I. — Observations of Coast Changes. To be filled in and 
returned as soon as convenient. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 
Burlington House, London, W. 

Itistnictions to Observers hi regard to Changes that are taking place along the 
Coast-line of the British Isles. 

1 . Mention the part of the coast on which j-ou report, and give its limits. 

2. State whether the coast is clifEy or low ; whether rocliy, sandy, gravelly, or 
muddy. If it is cliffy, give the average height of the cliffs, and, if possible, the 
nature of the material of which they consist, especially whether hard rock, chalk, 
clay, &c. State also the nature of the beach. 

3. What is the vertical range of ordinary spring-tides ? 

4. Is the sea encroaching on the coast ? If so, state brioUy the proofs of this 
change. 

5. Is the land gaining on the sea? If so, give shortly the evidence of such 
advance. 

G. Are there any artificial causes which tend to increase or retard the natural 
changes on the coast? For instance, are there any groynes along the shore, and if 
so, what effect have they on the travelling shingle or sand ? Are the shingle, sand, 
or slabs of stone, removed for industrial or other purposes 1 

.__ Signature of^wrson reporting. 

Coad Guard Station. 



[.irtditional Copies of this Form cau be Ijud on apiiliration.] 



Form No. IT. — Observations of Coast Changes. To be retained until there 
are some actual changes to be reported, after ivhich the form should b 
filled up and returned without delay, in order that if needful a more 
careftd survey of the changes reported on may be made by the Com- 
mittee of the British Association. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 
Burlington House, Loudon, W. 

Instructions to Observers in regard to Changes that may take place 
along the Coast-line of the British Isles. 

A. When changes are actually observed to be taking place on the coast, either a;5 
to advance or retreat of the sea, it is very desirable that information regarding them 
should be forwarded as soon as possible. For example, when auj' fall of a portion of 
shore cliflE occurs, note of the circumstances should be taken, with measurements 
(if that be found practicable) or estimates of the area or amount of material that 
has been dislodged. When any groynes or other artificial protections of the coast 
are washed away, this should also be reported, and likewise when any new groynes 
or other works on the coast are constructed. 

B. The Council of the British Association will be glad to receive any other 
information of which the observer may be in possession, bearing upon the changes 
that are taking place along the shore. 

[The answers to these two paragraphs A aufl B cau be written below, 
or if necessary on other sheets of foolscap paper.] 

^__^ Signature of person reporting. 

Coast Guard Station. 



[Additional Copies of this Form can be had on application.] 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



29 



Report of the I'roceedinys of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 

Societies held at Dover. 

The Council nominated the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Chairman, and 
Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary, to the Dover Conference. These nomina- 
tions were contirmed by the General Committ.ee at a meeting held at 
Dover on Wednesday, September lo. The meetings of the Conference 
were held in the Mayor's Parlour at the Town Hall on Thursday, 
September 14, and Tuesday, September 19, at 3 p.ji. The following 
Corresponding Societies nominated as delegates to represent them at the 
Dover meeting : — 



Andersonian Naturalists' Society 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club . 
Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 

Society 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . 
Birmingham Natural History and Philoso- 
phical Society 
Buchan Field Club ..... 
Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club 
Chester Society of Natural Science, Litera- 
ture, and Art 
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 

Field Club 
East Kent Scientillc and Natural Historj' 
Society 

Essex Field Club 

Glasgow Geological Society 
Glasgow Natural History Society 
Hampshire Field Club .... 
Hert.ordshire Natural History Society 
Hull Geological Society .... 
Institution of Mining Engineers 
Isle of j\lan Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society 
lieeds Geological Association 
Liverpool Geographical Society . 
Liverpool Geol 'gical Society 
Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 

Society 
Manchester Geographical Society 
Manche.-ter Geological Society . 
Manchester Microscopical Society 
Midland Institute of Mining, Civil, and 

Mechanical Engineers 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society. 
North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club 
North of England Institute of Mining and 

Mechanical Engineers 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science 
Piochdale Literary and Scientific Society . 
Scotland, Mining Institute of . 
Soulh-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies 
South Staffordshire and East Worcester- 
shire Institute of ^Mining Engineers 
V\'arwickshire Naturalists' and Archa;olo- 

gists' Field Club 
Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club 
Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 

Society 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 



Professor M. Laurie, D.Sc. 
William Gray, M.K.I.A. 
T. Workman. 

G. P. Hughes. J.P. 
Professor T. W. Bridge, D.Sc. 

John Gray, B.Sc. 

Professor W. W. Watts, F.G.S. 

A. O. Walker, F.L.S. 

Vaughan Cornish, B.Sc. 

A. S. I'leid, F.G.S. 

T. V. Holmes, F.G.S. 

J. B. Murdoch. 

J. K. Gemmill, M.B. 

T. W. Shore, F.G.S. 

W. Whitaker, F.R.S. 

J. W. Stather. 

Professor Henry Louis, M.A. 

P. M. C. Kermodc. 

Professor P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 
Captain Phillips, R.N. 
J. Lomas, F.G.S. 
M. B. Slater, F.L.S. 

Eli Sowerbutts, F.R.G.S. 
Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 
F. W. Hembry, F.K.M.S. 
Professor Henry Louis, M.A. 



J. T. Hotblack. 

Dr. Wheel ton Hind, F 

J. H. Merivale, M.A. 



G.S. 



Professor J. W. Carr, F.L.S. 

A. M. Rodger. 

James Ogden. 

James Barrowman. 

Dr. G. Abbott. 

Professor Henry Loui.-;, M.A. 

'Wm. Andrews, F.S.A. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A 
Wm. Greg,son, F.G.S 

Harold Wager, F.LK. 



,30 EEroKT — 1899. 



First Covference, Dover, September 14, 1899. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Rev. 
T. E,, R. Stabbing (Chairman), Rev. J. O. Bevan, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary). 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee (see p. 27), a 
copy of which was in the hands of every delegate present, was taken as read. 

After briefly calling attention to the forms for recording observations 
of coast changes, a result of the discussion on Coast Erosion at the Bristol 
Conference, the Chairman delivered the following Address : 

The Living Siibterranean Fauna of Great Britain and Ireland. 

It would have been easy to enlarge the subject of this address and 
extend its interest by omission of the word ' living,' and joining the flora 
to the fauna. All the province of the palaeontologist would thus have been 
included, and we should have been free to discuss the distribution of trufiles 
and pio-nuts. But better results may be hoped for from a more restricted 
ambition. The cave-bear must be passed over with a fond regret. We are 
concerned only with animals still living. If among vertebrates we have to 
content ourselves with birds and bats and rats, with badgers and foxes and 
rabbits and moles, and in general a group of creatures not prominent for 
size or ferocity, there ai-e compensations which none but a ^-ery ardent 
spoi-tsman will despise. Our country is too much overrun by that digging, 
delvinf, and destructive species, homo sapiens, to allow us any hope of 
turninc up a Neomylodon (or Glossotherium), or even a mudfish. The 
animals above-mentioned are of course only in a modified sense subtei"- 
ranean. They seek their shelters or make them in caves or holes of the 
earth but are still both free and forced to come abroad for various pur- 
poses into the light of day or beneath the nocturnal sky. 

Like so many other terms applied to natural knowledge, the word 
' subterranean ' is highly indefinite. How much earth must I put on my 
head and how long must I keep it there to make me truly a Troglodyte 1 
There is the giant Enceladus, whose uneasy turnings cause, as you know, 
the eruptions of Mount Etna, under which he is permanently imprisoned. 
From him, then, the conception of an underground animal may vary to 
Virgil's an<^ry bees lulled for a few moments by the sprinkling of a hand- 
ful of dust. Under loose stones a crowd of creatures take refuge, frame 
their dwellinf'S, lay snares, and in various ways make themselves at home. 
Amon" the.se are vipers and lizards, ants and bees and beetles, centipedes, 
spidei's, and woodlice, with slugs and other slimy and seductive specimens 
to suit almost every imaginable taste. Of burrowing spiders, none in Great 
Britain has yet been found making a door to its trap. Whether the dis- 
credit attaches to the British spider's want of ingenuity or to the British 
arachnologist's want of research is still an open question. As to the dis- 
tribution of the mole cricket, of the bee that burrows in footpaths, and 
the history of mining insects in general within our islands, there may still 
be information worth gleaning. The soils they favour, the temperatures 
they can endure, their modes of working, their means of subsistence, the 
good and the evil they do to mankind are among the obvious points of 
interest connected with them. One has, however, to remember that 
entomolo<^y is a science with innumerable students, a boundless literature, 
and an infinite subject. There is, therefore, always a risk that in suing for 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 31 

its assistance one may suffer the fate of the husbandman who, in a drou^lit, 
incautiously prayed to Jupiter for rain, without specifying the quantity 
required, and presently had to swim for his life from his flooded farm. 

There is the same chance of a surplus, of having, so to speak, rather too 
much of a good thing, were we to take into our survey all those marine 
specie.s which on the shore or in the sea hide under stones or bury them- 
selves in sand and ooze— sea-anemones and sand-eels, annelids and amphi- 
pods, sea-urchins and starfishes, cockles and razor-shells, friends and foes, 
the blind and the seeing, the brilliant and the dull, the agile and the slow — 
a list that might be extended into details of inexhaustible interest, but 
interminable length. 

From these fields of research, so well known and so bewilderingly wide, 
I turn to one which is by comparison exceedingly small and obscure, to 
onewhich has certainly not been overworked or exhausted in this country — 
to one, moreover, in which the organisation of affiliated societies might 
easily render essential service. The animals which are born and bred and 
pass their lives in wells and caverns may be regarded as the true under- 
ground fauna. Though in wells they may have no ground actually overhead, 
still they live far below the surface, and, whether in well or cave, they are 
the permanent occupants, distinct from those creatures which scuttle in and 
out, and do most of their lighting, feeding, and foregathering in the external 
world. 

The first undoubted mention of an underground crustacean seems to be 
that of an amphipod found in London, and named by Dr. Leach of the 
British iluseum in 1813, nor in earlier times do any important researches 
appear to have been made as to the subterranean fauna of any part of the 
globe. But, whatever the novelty and narrowness of the subject may be, 
there are now scores of valuable treatises upon it, in a variety of European 
languages, Polish and others. In the long list of authors one may note 
in passing the names of Fries and Gustav Joseph, Wrzeonisowski and 
Vejdovskiand Moniez, leaving the majority to be discovered in two admir- 
able works, of which the English student will be well advised to make 
himself master. One of these is ' The Cave Fauna of North America,' by 
Dr. Alpheus Spring Packard, published in the ' Memoirs of the National 
Academy of Sciences,' vol. iv., Washington, 1888. The other is 'The 
Subterranean Crustacea of New Zealand,' by Dr. Charles Chilton, pub- 
lished in the 'Transactions of the Linnean Society of London for 1894.' 

Packard enumerates 308 European cave animals and 102 American. 
This total of 410 includes a few Protozoa, a sponge, two hydi-as, a few 
worms, one mollusc, several Crustacea and myriapods, numerous arachnids 
and a host of Coleoptera, the other insects being chiefly Thysanura. The 
vertebrates are limited to four American fishes and one European 
batrachian, the celebrated Proteus anguineus. In the specific names of 
these animals there are, as might be expected, abundant references to 
their peculiar choice of residence, as in the designations cavaficns, cavicola. 
camcolens, caver narum, speluncarnm, and, with more particularity, 
■iryaadottensis, nickajackensis, manunothia, not to speak of the blood- 
curdling stygius, orcinus, and infernalis. To the colouring, or, rather, 
want of colouring in many of them, the epithets alhus, jxvlHdus, niveus, 
pellucidus, bear their testimony. To the feature, or, rather, want of feature, 
which in cave animals has attracted more attention than anything else, 
notice is called in several of the generic as well as the specific names, as in 
TyphHchthys and Amhhjopsis, the blind fishes, in Adelovs, Aphcenops, and 



32 REPORT— 1899. 

Anophthalmus, eyeless genera of beetles. To the locality, or, rather, 
want of locality, which in these lists more immediately concerns ourselves, 
attention is directed only by a single name. As our inquiring eyes 
scrutinise the European assemblage, and take note of the famous caverns 
and countries through which this fauna is distributed, we find mention of 
France and Germany, of Hungary and Spain, of Italy and Sicily, but 
never a word of England. Only a veiled allusion occurs in the entry, 
without specified locality, of the name Niphargus subterraneus (Leach). 
So far as Dr. Packard's list is concerned, the explanation is simple, in that 
the species in question has not been recorded from any English cavern, 
though it belongs to the spelaean fauna of the Continent. To put a better 
face upon the affair, it may be stated that the well fauna of England and 
Ireland includes four species of Amphipoda, though even this quartette 
was audaciously reduced to a single species by De Rougemont. From the 
deep recesses of a disused coal mine near Glasgow Tinea ustella was 
recorded by John Scott in 1850. A copepod has been described by Dr. 
G. S. Brady from a Northumbrian coal mine. Whether coal mines any 
more than coal cellars can properly be included among caverns, we need 
not now pause to inquire. Unless the entomologists can come to the 
rescue with a goodly supply of cave-dwelling beetles and spring-tails, the 
subterranean fauna of Great Britain and Ireland will perhaps never prove 
to be rich in numbers. Still, when records are collected and investiga- 
tions extended, we may reasonably hope that the balance of over three 
hundred ac'ainst us in the European catalogue will be seriously diminished. 
Since the scientific history of lite below ground may be said to have begun 
in England, it should be our pride to take what share we can in the 
sequel. In the last fifty years, and moi-e especially in the last twenty, a 
series of remarkable forms have been discovered in subterranean waters 
in various parts of the world. Even since Dr. Chilton's paper appeared 
in 1894 many curious additions have been made to the well fauna 
of North America, such as the woodlouse, HajdojjJitlialmus puieus, 
described by Mr. P. Hay, from an old well in Indiana, and the 
Sphceroma thermophilum, described by Miss Harriet Richardson, from 
a warm spring in New Mexico, the one genus belonging to the land 
and the other to the sea, and neither of them having till recently been 
thought of in connection with fresh water, either hot or cold. In 
1896 ' the United States Fish Commission completed an artesian 
well at San Marcos, Texas. The depth of the well is 188 feet. The flow 
of water obtained amounts to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The 
water is pure and of excellent quality, and has a temperature of 73° 
Fahrenheit.' To these interesting particulars Mr. James E. Benedict, of 
the U.S. National Museum, adds information v/hich reminds one of the 
two f^irls in the fairy tale, with pearls and rubies falling from the lips of 
the one and toads and lizards from the lips of the other, only that here 
the rewards are not distributed but combined. For not only is the water 
pure and excellent, but it delights the zoologist by sending up from the 
bowels of the earth isopods, amphipods, piviwiis, and salamanders. The 
species are all liUnd. The species are all now. The specimens arc 
vilentiful. The salamander has oddities of its own. The isopod has 
almost no excuse for not being marine. The prawn has eye-stalks, but 
they are totally devoid of ocular pigment. There is a theory that at one 
time the f^lobe was overspread with a blind fauna, the remnants of which 
have been preserved in deep -^^ters and dark holes, whither creatures 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 33 

endowed with sight have as a rule not cared to follow them, It would 
be interesting to know how that theory explains the eye-stalks of a sight- 
less prawn. But this is verging on the controversial, and it will be more 
encouraging to research, if you will l^elieve, to begin with, that, whether 
you are Darwinians or Neolamarckians or advocates of special creation, 
you will tind support for your several opinions iu the prizes and surprises 
that the subterranean fauna of every land, continental or insular, is 
capable of yielding. 

The research suggested is not without difficulties, but they are not 
such as need daunt the brave explorers of British caverns, who have 
hunted down the sabre-toothed tiger and the prehistoric hyjena with 
candle and torch and pick-axe. The difficulties in .searching for speci- 
mens of well fauna are partly moral and partly physical. Many wells in 
our country have, for sound reasons, been entirely closed. That in itself 
is a barrier to collecting specimens from them, but, according to my 
experience, the closure of some has indirectly barred the investigation of 
others. The distribution of the well shrimp {Nij)harg^i>>) is known for 
the neighbourhood of Dublin and for the whole south of England from 
Devonshire to Kent. Yet for years I inquired for it in vain, though 
using a pertinacity something like that imputed to the fair Saracen, who, 
in the story, by constantly asking for London and for Gilbert, found her 
way all across Europe to her affianced lover, and, marrying Gilbert a 
Becket, became the mother of St. Thomas of Canterbury. Like hers, 
my perseverance was in the end rewarded ; but, in the meantime, some 
met my inquiry with smiles, and some with frowns. I am inclined to 
suspect that the smiling ones were under a real incapacity of understand- 
ing what sort of object was being asked for, but that the frowning set 
understood pi'etty well, and that they took me for an inspector in dis- 
guise, seeking, under pretence of an idiotic enthusiasm, for evidence out 
of their own mouths on which to order the closing of their favourite 
spring. It is obvious that, if such was their point of view, they com- 
pletely misjudged my motives, for evidence, so far as it goes, all favours 
the belief that the springs in which crustaceans are found living supply 
water that is wholesome. 

In some inti'oductory remarks I assumed that our Conference, though 
not a Section of the Association, was in fact an epitome of the whole. 
If now I conclude by inviting the members of the Conference to go 
•shrimping with a bucket and a string, it may appear to bo a terrible 
■example of bathos. Bathos has ever been exposed to derision in connec- 
tion with poetry and eloquence. But bathos has been otherwise called 
the art of sinking, and that art is profoundly essential in connection 
with wells. 

It will be indeed extraordinary if the caverns and springs and artesian 
borings in Great Britain and Ireland do not yield, to a united effort of 
investigation, a fauna in some degree comparable in interest with that 
which, under similar circumstances, has been and is being found in other 
pnrts of the globe. It will be extraordinary if the research, whatever its 
direct results, does not stimulate, in many of those who pursue it, highly 
pleasurable and profitable activities both of body and mind. At the 
wonst, if the old proverb may be trusted, while groping for creatures at 
the bottom of a well, you will always have the chance of combining two 
enjoyments, fishinir for amnhinods and finding Truth. 

1S99. - ^ ^ - ^ 



34 REPORT— 1899. 

On the conclusion of his Address, the Cliairman, in answer to a question 
as to the best way of catching the well shrimp, replied that it was best to 
wait till the well was almost empty, and then to let down a bucket and 
withdraw it as quickly as possible, lest the creatures, being scared, should 
have time to get away. Sometimes well shrimps were brought up when 
pumping was going on. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan said that he had visited the Mammoth Cave of 
Kentucky, where he saw a great many bats which had apparently passed 
the whole of their lives within the cavern. 

The Chairman felt inclined to agree with the late Mr. Cordeaux, M'ho 
had stated that in many caverns bats and birds alternated — the birds 
going out when the day came and the bats going in. It was, liowever, a 
matter of opinion. 

Mr. T. Workman had never seen birds in the Mammoth Cave of Ken- 
tucky, though he had caught bats there by day, and he thought they lived 
in the cave only in the daytime. They were not found in the depths of 
the cave, though they were in great numbers near the mouth. He asked 
tlie Chairman if the eyeless fishes found in caves belonged to any special 
species ; also if the wells mentioned in connection with well shrimps 
were open wells ? 

The Chairman replied that all the blind species were special. There 
was a blind tish in caverns in Cuba. He included wells of all kinds. All 
along the south of England, in Dublin, and, he believed, in Jersey, there 
were records of these amphipods. Four species of well shrimps could be 
obtained, and he thought that if England were searched more thoroughly 
a greater number of species would be found. 

Mr. Hotblack thought that there was no evidence then existing of 
bats which spent all their time in caverns. Consequently they should 
not be classed as subterranean fauna. A member of the Society he repre- 
sented not long ago brought to one of their meetings a well shrimp 
obtained at Norwich. All would probably agree with him in believing 
that these well shrimps did not get into a well from its mouth, but from 
underground water percolating into the well. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup said that some few years ago a society was started 
in Yorkshire for cavern exploration, with which the search for subter- 
ranean fauna might well be combined. The subject appeared to have 
attracted more attention in America than in England, perhaps because 
the underground waters in the great caverns of America had been more 
productive. The Chairman doubtless wished the delegates to bring the 
subject before the Societies they represented. He had certainly opened 
out for them a new held of research. 

The Chairman remarked that two gentlemen had written to him on 
this subject, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, of the Department of Comparative 
Anatomy, Oxford, who would be glad to liave any specimens of blind 
Crustacea from wells and caves for experimental purposes, and Dr. Charles 
Chilton (to whose work on the underground fauna of New Zealand he 
had referred in his paper), who was living in Edinbui-gh. Dr. Chilton 
was collecting particulars of the English well amphipods, and would be 
glad of specimens. 

Mr. Hotblack asked whether either of the gentlemen mentioned would 
name specimens and return them. 

The Chairman thought that they would be only too glad to do it. 

Mr. William Gray expressed the hope that in the Report of the Con- 



CORRESPOXDIXG SOCIETIES. 35 

ference the Chairman's address would he printed in full. And Mr. 
Hotblack suggested that proof copies should be supplied to the delegates, 
so tliat they might bring the subject before their Societies at an early 
date. Both propositions received the unanimous support of the meeting. 



Second Meeting of the Conference, September 19. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Rev. T. 
11. R. Stebbing (Chairman), Dr. Garson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor W. 
AV. Watts, and Mr. T. N. Holmes (Secretary). 

The Chairman opened the proceedings by reading the following letter, 
which he had received since their last meeting : 



*o 



Eeception Koom, British Association: September 18, 1809. 
SiR,^ — -A feeling by quite a number of those interested in the work of 
Delegates at our British Association Meetings, exists, that the interchange 
of ideas regarding the organisation and development of the Local Societies 
is not offered an opportunity of being discussed at the Conference of 
Delegates at yearly meetings of the British Association. I should feel 
inuch obliged if, as Chairman of our Conference, you could set aside a few 
minutes for a discussion on ' the working by sections of large scientific 
Societies, whether in Exact or Natural History Science ' at our meeting 
on Tuesday the 19th inst. 

I am, yours faithfully, 

(Signed) G. P. Hughes, F.R.G.S., 
Representing the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. 

A long and desultory debate then followed, in which many delegates 
present took part, as to the best ways of making the meetings of the 
Conference moi'e useful than they now are. While it was proceeding 
Mr. Stebbing was obliged to leave, and Professor AV. W. Watts became 
Chairman. At length it was decided that the best course would be for 
individual delegates to send their views to the Corresponding Societies 
Committee not later than the first week in November. Letters received 
by that date would be considered by the Committee when they met latei- 
in that month. And, as some delegates were not present, it was thought 
desirable that the Secretary should write, stating that this discussion had 
taken place, and that any recommendations from delegates must be sent 
in by the date mentioned. 

Mr. Hugh Blakiston, the Secretary of the ' National Trust for Places 
of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty,' then read a paper on the aims 
and work of the Trust. 

Mr. Blakiston remarked that the National Trust was founded in the 
year 1894 by the Duke of Westminster, the Earl of Carlisle, Lord 
Hobhou.se, the Right Hon. James Bryce, Sir Robert Hunter, ]Miss 
Octavia Hill and others, and was incorporated as a Limited Liability 
Company ' to promote the permanent preservation, for the benefit of the 
nation, of lands and tenements (including buildings) of beauty or historic 
interest ; and as i-egards lands, to preserve (so far as practicable) their 
natural aspect, features, and animal and plant life ; and for this purpose 
to accept, from private owners of property, gifts of places of interest or 

D2 



36 REPORT— 1899. 

l)eauty, and to hold the lands, houses, and other property thus acquired, 
in trust for the use and enjoyment of the nation.' The Memorandum of 
Association also declares that no property thus acquh-ed shall be dealt 
with, in the event of the dissolution of the Trust, in a manner inconsistent 
with the objects of the Trust. 

]Mr. Blakiston then touched upon the wealth oE the Bi-itish Isles in 
buildings of historic interest, and on the non-existence here of a Minister of 
State one of whose functions was their preservation, though a Minister 
for this purpose existed in Austria, France, and Italy. The extraordinary 
growth in size of our towns during the reign of Queen Victoria had made 
the last fifty years a peculiarly disastrous peiiod as regards the destruction 
of ancient monuments, apart from such destruction as altered circum- 
stances had made inevitable. And our larger cities tended more and 
more to be divided into a central more ancient part, made up chiefly of 
shops, offices, and eating-houses, thronged only by day, and monotonous 
modern suburbs in whicli the bulk of tlie inhabitants slept and passed 
their leisure time. Children, therefore, to a much greater degree than in 
earlier periods, were brought up v,'ith little or nothing around them to 
stimulate their imaginations, or to help them to realise the history of the 
past. And these islands were looked upon as ' home ' by millions of 
people scattered over the face of the earth, who might fairly expect to 
find that the ancient monuments existing onl}- in the centre of the British 
Empire were carefully preserved by those dwelling around them. 

Mr. Blakiston then referred to some of the work already done by the 
National Trust during its short life. It had purchased Barras Head 
opposite Tintagel Castle, and a most beautiful clitF overlooking Barmouth 
had been presented by a lady to the Trust. Toys' Hill near ()xted, 
Kent, and Ide Hill in the same district had also been acquired. The 
purchase and restoration of the old Clergy House at Alfriston, Sussex, 
and of Joiner's Hall, Salisbury, had secured to tlie nation two fine speci- 
mens of medijeval domestic architecture. The Falkland monument on the 
battlefield at Newbury was also under the care of the Trust. And it had 
recently purchased in Wicker Fen, Cambridgeshire, a piece of the primi- 
tive fenland, which will remain for ever undrained and untouched, with 
its original plant and animal life. 

Turning to the question of further developments, he remarked that 
tlie task before them was one which could not be achieved either by a 
national society acting by itself or by local societies acting by themselves. 
No central society could possess the full and complete information in a 
given case which some local society possessed, nor could it influence local 
feeling to the same degree. On the other hand, no local society is so 
fully in touch with Parliament, or can appeal to so large a public as a 
gi'eat central society. Coming to practical details, the two important 
points were the creation of local committees to watch over the ancient 
monuments of each county or district, and the formation of a central 
fund. The Trust experienced much difficulty in obtaining timely informa- 
tion, and thought that a federation of local societies would provide 
machinery to obviate this difficulty. The creation of a central fund 
would enormously strengthen the hands of the federated societies, by 
enabling their representatives to purchase, or make grants towards the 
purchase of properties of national interest. "With a small subscription 
and a large membership a very considerable sum might be raised, from 
which .orants could be made in local cases as occasion arose. The details 



CORKESrJNDING SOCIETIES. 37 

of the scheme would, of course, require careful consideration, and he 
would be glad to receive any suggestions rcgaiding them fi-om members 
of the Conference. 

Mr. Gray said that in Belfast they had endeavoured to prevent a 
syndicate from enclosing the Giant's Causeway. The syndicate, however, 
prevailed, and railed in the Causeway. On appealing to the National 
Trust they received a grant of 5/., and were now 1,500^. in debt, i;^ ...w< 
Mr. Blakiston remarked that his society was a very young one, and 
not in a position to make a large grant. Had they possessed sufficient 
funds they would have bought the Causeway. 

Mr. Gray rejoined that he had mentioned the matter to show the 
desirability of giving more adequate support to the Trust. 

Dr. Abbott hoped that every delegate present would mention the use- 
fulness of the Trust to his society, and that it would gain many addi- 
tional supporters. He wished, also, that people would get into the way of 
leaving money to the Trust. 

Mr. Blakiston remarked that the authorities of the Trust were going 
to make a proposal for federation to the natural history and archaeologi- 
cal societies of the country, probably during next month. 

Rev. H. H. Winwood inquired what constituted membership of the 
Trust, and Mr. Vaughau Cornish asked to what extent the aims and 
objects of the National Trust were those of the other societies. 

Mr. Blakiston replied that thei-e was another society for the protection 
of ancient buildings, which was almost entirely composed of architects. 
It had no power to hold buildings, as the National Trust could, and could 
intervene only when an ancient building was in danger of being injured. 
The National Trust was in close touch with the society, also with the 
Commons Preservation Society, the Selborne and other societies. He did 
not think there was any fear of overlapping as regards the work of these 
societies. 

The Chairman proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Blakiston for 
his paper. He regretted that the discussion at the beginning of the 
meeting had occupied so much time, and was sure that they had since 
found out that it would have been better spent in listening to Mr. 
Blakiston, who had put before them things which might profitably engage 
the attention of all local societies. 

A vote of thanks having been heartily accorded to Mr. Blakiston, the 
Chairman inquired if there were any representatives of the various 
Sections present wishing to bring some subject before the delegates. 

Section A. 

Mr. G. J. Symons, representing Section A, said that the Committee 
for Seismological Observations were badly in want of a home, and 
would be very glad if some ancient building could be allotted to them. 

Section C. 

The Chairman, representing Section C, could mention two investi- 
gations in which the local societies had been of much assistance. The 
Committee to investigate the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles presented 
a. Report this year. The Committee for the Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Photographs of Geological Interest, of wbaoh 



38 KEPOKT— 1899. 

he was secretary, would be glad to receive any contributions of such 
photographs. The Committee hoped to be able to undertake the publica- 
tion of typical geological photographs in such a way as to render them 
easily obtainable by those who could make good use of them. It would 
greatly help the Committee if local societies would agree to purchase a 
series of these photographs. There was also a duplicate collection ot 
prints and lantern slides which could be sent to any local society 
wishing to exhibit them and to see what kind of work was being done, 
the only expense incurred by the society being that of carriage. They 
proposed, when publishing the photographs, to add letterpress descrip- 
tions. 

Section D. 

Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, representing Section D, said that the secretary 
of that Section recommended the study of the fauna of wells and ca\ern& 
by the Corresponding Societies. 

Sectiox K. 

Mr. H. Wager, representing Section K, had to inform the delegates 
of the Corresponding Societies that the Section had appointed a Com- 
mittee to consider the geographical distribution of mosses, a matter of 
interest to all the local societies. 

Mr. Yaughan Cornish thought that the Corresponding Societies 
might congratulate themselves on the result of the discussion, at the 
Conference of Delegates last year, on Coast Erosion, initiated by Mr. 
Whitaker. Seldom, if e^ er, had the Admiralty been induced to act so 
promptly as in their consent to the co-operation of the Coastguard as 
observers of Coast Erosion. 

Dr. Garson hoped that the delegates would come to Bradford ne.vt 
year well primed with any scheme of Mork they might wish .sliould be 
taken up the following year at Glasgow. The meeting then came to 
un end. 



CORIlESrOXDINCJ SOCIETIES. 



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42 REPORT— 1899. 



List of the more important Papers, and especially tJiOSo rcferrinij io 
Local Scientific Investigations, pmhlislied by the Correspondiiuj 
Societies durinr/ the year endiiiy June 1, 1899, 

*^* This list contains only the titles of papers published in the volumes or parts 
of the publications of the Corresponding Societies sent to the Secretarj' of the 
Committee in accordance with Rule 2. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Andson, Eev. Wm. The Meteorology of Dumfries for 1897. ' Trans. 

Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 14, 39-47, 1898. 
Baldock, J. H. Photograjjhy in relation to Science. 'Trans. S.-E. 

Union,' iii. 81-86, 1898. 
Balfour, C. B. Meteorological Observations at Newton Don, 1898- 

1897. ' History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xvi. 87-88, 1898. 
Black, W. G. Ocean Eainfall by Rain-gauge Observations at Sea, 

1864-75-81. General and Special Oceans. ' Journ. Manch. 

Geog. Soc' XIV. 36-56, 1898. 
Bladen, W. Wells. Report of the Meteorological Section. ' Trans. 

N. Staff. F. C xxxiii. 76-80, 1899. 
Bean SON, F. W. On a Method of Measuring the Intensity of the X 

Rays. ' Trans. Leeds Nat. C. Sci. Assoc' iv. 8, 1899. 
Campbell-Bayard, F. Report of the Meteorological Sub-Committcc 

for 1897. 'Trans. Croydon M. N. H. C 1897-98, 273-275 and 

Appendices, 1898. 
Caeadoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Meteorological Notes, 1898. 

' Record of Bare Facts,' No. 8, 24-30, 1899. 
Collins, J. R. Correction for ' Schaeberle Aberration ' in Gregorian 

and Cassegrain Telescopes. ' Trans. Toronto Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 

143-146, 1899. 
Craw, H. Hewat. Rainfall and Temperature at "\^'est Foulden and 

Rawburn during 1896. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Clitb,' xvi. 130, 

1898. 
Grossman, Major-Gen. Sir "Wm. Meteorological Observations at Cheswick, 

1895 and 1897. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xvi. 234-235, 1898. 
Denison, Napier. Our Astronomical Ocean. ' Trans. Toronto Astr. 

Phys. Soc' IX. 42-43, 1899. 
DixoN, H. N. The Divining Rod. ' Journ. N'ton N. H. Soc' x. 85- 

104, 1898. 
Eaton, H. S. Returns of Rainfall, &c., in Dorset in 1897. ' Proc. 

Dorset N. H. A. F. C xix. 161-171, 1898. 
Elvins, Andrew. The Great Sun Spot of September 4-15, 1898. 

' Trans. Toronto Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 78-79, 1899. 
Greenwood, Capt. W. Nelson. Unification of Time at Sea. 'Journ. 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xiv. 24-35, 1898. 
Harvey, Arthur. The Meteor of July 5, 1898. ' Trans. Toronto Astr. 

Phys. Soc' IX. 71-78, 1899. 
■ — — Recent Developments in the By-ways of Astronomy and Physics. 

(Presidential Address). ' Trans. Toronto Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 112- 

140, 1899. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 4o 

IIkvwood, H. The liainfall in the Society's District in 1897. 'Trans. 

Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxx. lG-20, 1899. 
Hoi'KiNsox, John. Eeport on tlie Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the Year 

1897. ' Trans. Herts N. H. See' x. 23-32, 1898. 

Meteorological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the Year 

1897. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' x. 49-60, 1898. 

IIuiiNARD, S. F., and others. Eainfall and Temperature in Essex in 

1898. ' Essex Naturahst,' x. 413-416, 1899. 

LixDSAY, Thomas. Historical Sketch of the Greenwich Nautical 

Almanac, Chapters y.-yiii. ' Trans. Toronto Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 

2-10, 27-39, 1899. 
Lodge, Prof, Oliyek J. Telegraphy by Electric "Waves Across Space. 

' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xix. 141-143, 1898. 
LuMSDEN, Geoege E. A Popular Astronomical Observatory. ' Trans. 

Toronto Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 44-60, 1899. 
^Mac'Leax, Dr. Magncs. Lord Kelvin's Patents. ' Proc Glasgow Phil. 

Soc' XXIX. 145-192, 1898. 
Mantell, Surgeon-Major A. A. On some supposed Electrical Pheno- 
mena in Water-finding. ' Proc. Bath N. H. A. F. C ix. 101-109, 

1899. 
Maekham, C. a., and F. Coyentey'. Meteorological Reports, January 

to September 1898. ' Journal N'ton. N. H. Soc' x. 35-43, 77-83, 

118-127, 159-165, 1898. 
Maelp.oeough College Natueal Histoey Society. Meteorological 

Report. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 47, 77-103, 1899. 
Maskelyne, Edmund S. On the Purpose, the Age, and the Builders 

of Stonehenge. ' Proc. Bath N. H. A. F. C ix. 1-39, 1898. 
Meeedith, Dr. E. A. The Expected Meteors of November 1898. 

' Trans. Toronto Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 95-104, 1899. 
MooEE, A. W. Report of Meteorological Section, with Summary of Ten 

Y'ears' Observations. ' Y''n Lioar Maiininagh,' iii. 387-394, 1898. 
MooEE, H. Cecil, Robeet Claeke, and Alfeed Watkins. The Eartli- 

quake of December 17, 1896. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. C. 1895-97,' 

228-235, 1898. 
Mussox, W. B. A Visit to the Y'erkes Observatory. ' Trans. Toronto 

Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 63-68, 1899. 
Some Ancient Theories regarding Motion and the Cosmos. 

' Trans. Toronto Astr. Phys. Soc' ix. 79-88, 1899. 
Pateeson, John A. The Muskoka Skies. ' Trans. Toronto Astr. Phys. 

Soc' IX. 90-92, 1899. 
Phillips, R. C. The Musical Philosophy of Ancient Greece. ' Journal 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xiv. 57-80. 1898. 
PiiESTOx, A. W. Meteorological Notes, 1897. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. 

Soc' VI. 393-401, 1898. 
Sloan, Dr. Samuel. Faradimeter, for measuring Alternating Currents 

for Therapeutic Use. 'Proc Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxix. 230-237, 

1898. 
SouTHALL, H. On the Remarkable Deficiency of Rainfall in Hereford- 
shire for nearly Ten Years ending Midsummer, 1896. ' Trans. 

Woolhope N. F. C. 1895-97,' 181-184, 1898. 

On the late Extraordinary Season, 1894-95, including Frosts, 

W'inds, and Effects on Vegetation. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F, C. 
1895-97,' 185-188, 1898. 



44 EEPORT — 1890. 

Thompson, Beeby. Eainbows. ' Journ, N'ton. N. H. Soc' x. 65-67, 
1898. 

The Divining Kod. ' Journ. N'ton. N. H. Soo.' x. 105-111, 1898. 

Whiteley, J. Meteorological Table for the Year 1898 (Halifax). 
' Halifax Naturahst,' in. 122-123, 1899. 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

AcKKOYD, Wm. On Halifax Waters. .'Halifax Naturalist,' in. 120-121. 

1899. 
Anderson, W. Careick. A Contribution to the Chemistry of Coal, with 

special reference to the Coals of the Clvde Basin. ' Proe. Glasgow 

Phil. Soc' XXIX. 72-90, 1898 ; ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 335-357, 

1899. 
Bedson, Prof. P. Phillips (N. Eng. Inst.). Eesults of the Analysis of 

Samples of New Zealand Coal and Ambrite, and of Barbados Manjak. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 388-390, 1898. 
Breakell, J. E. Treatment of Eefractory Silver-ores by Chlorination 

and Lixiviation. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 31G-330, 1899. 
Burrell, B. a. The Composition of the Spar occurring in Mothe 

Shipton's Cave, Knaresborough. ' Proe. Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xiii. 

284-285, 1898. 
Golding, John. Notes from some of the Technical Laboratories in 

Copenhagen. 'Report Nott. Nat. Soc' 1897-8 ; 31-32, 1899. 
Haldane, Dr. John S., and F. G. Meacham (S. Staff. Inst. Min. Eng.). 

Observations on the Relation of Underground Temperature and 

Spontaneous Fires in the Coal to Oxidation and to the Causes which 

favour it. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 457-192, 1899, 
Heise and Thieji, ]\Iessrs. Experiments on the Ignition of Fire-damp 

and Coal-dust by Electricity. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 88-llG, 

1899. 
Oesman, Wm. Jas. Safety Explosives. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 

51-59, 1899. 
PiCAED, Hugh K. The Direct Treatment of Auriferous Mispickel-ore by 

the Bromo-Cyanide Process at Deloro, Ontario, Canada. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xv. 417-433, 1898. 

Section C. — Geology. 

Bain, H. Foster (N. Eng. Inst.). The Western Interior Coal-field of 
America. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 185-210, 1898. 

Barke, F. Report of the Geological Section. ' Trans. N. Staff. F.C 
xxxiii. 65-66, 1899. 

Barron, T. On a new British Rock containing Nepheline and Riebeckite 
[1896]. ' Hist. Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xvi. 92-100, 1898. 

Bates, J. I. The Geology of Swanage and Neighbouring District. 
' Proe Warw. N. A. F. C'.' 43, 14-32, 1899. 

Beasley, H. C. Notes on Examples of Footprints, &c., from the Trias 
in some Provincial Museums. ' Proe Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 233- 
237, 1898. 

A Section of the Trias recently Exposed on Prenton Hill. ' Proe. 

Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 238-241, 1898. 

Becher, S. J. (N. Eng. Inst.). The Nullagine District, Pilbarra Gold- 
field, Western Australia. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 44-51, 1898. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 45 

Brewek, Wm. M. Mining in British Columbia, ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XV. 455-459, 1898. 
Briakt, a. The Mining Industry of Belgium. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XV. 470-490. 
Burton, F. M. Boulders at Brigg. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 257-258, 

1898. Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. 'The Naturalist for 1899,' 

105-111, 1899. 
Cadell, Henry M. On an Ash Neck in the Broxburn Shale Workings 

at Philpstoun. With an Appendix by J. S. Flett. ' Trans. Edinb. 

Geol. Soc' vn. 477-481, 1899. 
Churchill, Frank F. Notes on the Geology of the Drakensbergen, 

Natal. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' x. 419-42G, 1899. 
Clark, Percy. The Encroaching Sea on the East Coast. 'Essex Natu- 
ralist,' X. 297-299, 1898. 
Clough, C. T., and Alfred Harkek. On a Coarsely Spherulitic (' Vario- 

litic ') Basalt in Skye. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 381-389, 

1899. 
Collins, J. H. Notes on Cornish Fossils in the Penzance Museum. 

' Trans. Cornw. R. Geol. Soc' xii. 233-240, 1899. 
Cornish, Vaughan. On the Grading of the Chesil Beach Shingle. 

' Proc Dorset N. H. A. F. C xix. 113-121, 1898. 
CuRRiE, .James. Note on the Feldspars of Canisp. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. 

Soc' VII. 494-496, 1899. 
Cuttriss, S. W. Notes on the Caves of Yorkshire. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. 

Poly. Soc' XIII. 311-324, 1898. 
Dawson, Charles. Natural Gas in Sussex. ' Trans. S.-E. Union,' iii. 

73-80, 1898. 
De Rance, C. E. The Occurrence of Anhydrite in the North of England, 

&c. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 75-84, 1899. 
Dickinson, Joseph. Subsidence caused by Colliery Workings. ' Trans, 

Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 583-612, 1898. 
Elwek, T. L. (N. Eng. Inst.). Notes on the Glacial Deposit or ' Wash ' 

of the Dearness Valley. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 220-229, 

1899. 
Flett, John S. On Phenocrysts of Micropegmatite. ' Trans. Edinb. 

Geol. Soc' VII. 482-487, 1899. 
Foord, Dr. Arthur H. (Dublin N. F. C). The Brachiopoda and Mollusca 

of the Carboniferous Rocks of Ireland : Irish Fossil Shells, and their 

Modern Representatives. ' Irish Naturahst,' viii. 08-86, L899. 
Fox, Howard. Supplementary Notes on the Cornish Radiolarian Cherts 

and Devonian Fossils. ' Trans. Cornw. R. Geol. Soc' xii. 278-2S2, 

1899. 
Fox- Strange WAYS, C. Filey Bay and Brigg. 'Proc Yorks. Geol. Poly. 

Soc' XIII. 338-345, 1898. 
Notes on the Coast Sections between Hayburn Wyke and Filey. 

' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xiii. 356-357, 1898. 
Gascoyne, Rowland, and G. Blake Walker (Midland Inst. Eng ). The 

Coal-fields of Chili. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.,' xv. 234-242, 244-249, 

1898. 
Green, Upfield. On some New and Peculiar Fossils from the Lower 

Devonians of the South Coast of Cornwall. ' Trans. Cornw. R. Geol. 
Soc' xir. 227-228, 1899. 
Greenly Edward. The Hereford Earthquake of December 17, 1896, 



4G REPORT — 1899, 

considered in relation to Geological Structure in the Bangor- Anglesey 

Ecgion. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 469-476, 1899. 
GuNN, William. Notes on the Correlation of the Lower Carboniferous 

Eocks of England and Scotland. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 

361-367, 1899. 
Hakker, Alfked. Chemical Notes on Lake District Eocks : I. The 

Ordovician Volcanic Series. II. Intrusive and Sedimentary Eocks. 

' The Naturahst for 1899,' 53-58, 149-154, 1899. 
• The Southward Movement of Beach Material across the Humber 

Gap. ' The Naturalist for 1899,' 155-156, 1899. 

Norwegian Ehomb-Porphyries in the Holderness Boulder Clays. 

' Proc Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xiii. 279-281, 1898. 

HvREisoN, Eev. S. N. Some remarkable Boulders noticed in 1897. ' Yn 
Lioar Manninagh,' iii. 823-324, 1898. 

Heddle, Prof. M. F. The Minerals of the Storr [1856]. ' Trans. Edinb. 
Geol. Soc' VII. 328-331, 1899. 

Herdman, Prof. W. A., and J. Lomas. On the Floor Deposits of the 
Irish Sea. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 205-232, 1898. 

Hewitt, W. Notes on some Sections Exposed by Excavations on the 
Site of the New Technical Schools, Byrom Street, Liverpool. ' Proc 
Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 268-273, 1898. 

Hill, C. Bastian. The Lower Palaeozoic Eocks of the South of Scot- 
land, viewed in connection with the Lower Palasozoic Eocks of 
Cornwall. ' Trans. Cornw. E. Geol. Soc' xii. 258-277, 1899. 

Hind, Dr. Wheelton. The Subdivisions of the Carboniferous Series in 
Great Britain and some of their European Equivalents. ' Trans. 
Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 332-360, 1899. 

On the Correlation of the British and European Carboniferous 

Eocks. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxvi. 96-112, 1899. 

What are the Eeal Equivalents of the Yoredale Eocks of W'ensley- 



dale in the Midlands? ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxiii. 67-71, 1899. 

HoLROYD, W. F., and J. Barnes. On tlie Superposition of Quartz 
Crystals on Calcite in the Igneous Eocks occurring in the Carboniferous 
Limestone of Derbyshire. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxvi. 46-49, 
1899. 

HoPKiNSON, John. The Chadwell Spring and the Hertfordshire Bourne. 
' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' x. 69-83, 1899. 

Howard, F. T. The Geology of the Cowbridge District. ' Trans. 
Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxx. 36-46, 1899. 

. Notes on the Geology of the Precelley Hills, Pembrokeshire. 

' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxx. 51-56, 1899. 

and E. W. Small. Notes on the Geology of Llanvaches, Mon- 
mouthshire. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxx. 80-35, 1899. 

HowARTH, J. H. The Y'orkshire Boulder Committee and its Eleventh 
Year's Work, 1896-97. ' The Naturahst for 1898,' 353-856, 1898. 

Humphreys, .John. Notes on the C-reology and Botanv of the Neighbour- 
hood of Droitwich. 'Trans. Woolhope N. F. C. "1895-97,' 202-206, 
1898. 

Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society. Eeport of 
the ' Irish Elk ' Committee. 'Yn Lioar Manninagh,' iii. 327-830, 
395-401, 1898. 

Jones, Professor T. Eupert, Jas. W. Kirkby, and Dr. John Young. 
On Carbonia : its Horizons and Conditions of Occurrence in Scotland, 
especially in Fife. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 420-442, 1899. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 4.7 

Keegan, Dr. P. Q. On a certain Structure in the Lakeland Lavas. 

' The Naturalist for 1898,' 365-3G7, 1898. 
Kendall, Percy F., and J H. Howarth. The Yorkshire Boulder 

Committee and its Twelfth Year's Work, 1897-98. ' The Naturalist 

for 1899,' 13-19, 1899. 
KiRKBY, James W. On the Occurrence of Carboniferous Limestone 

Fossils at Viewforth, near Largo, Fife. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol, Soc' 

VII. 488-493, 1899. 
Kynaston, Herbert. Contributions to the Petrology of the Cheviot 

Hills. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 390-415, 1899. 
La Touche, Rev. J. D. The Great Ice Age. The Parallel Roads of 

Glen Roy. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. C. 1895-97,' 28-30, 1898. 
Pot Holes and the Erosion of Rock Basins. ' Trans. Woolhope 

N. F. C. 1895-97,' 170-17G, 1898. 
Law, Robert. Sketch of the Geology of Shibden. ' Halifax Naturalist,' 

in. 97-102, 1898. 
Lawrance, David H. The Kalgoorhe Mines of the Great Western 

Australian Gold Backbone. 'Txans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 436-441, 

1898. 
LoBLEY, Prof. J. Logan. The Place of Geology in Education. ' Trans. 

S.-E. Union,' iii. 54-64, 1898. 
LoMAS, J. Do the Crystalline Gneisses represent portions of the 

Original Earth's Crust ? (Presidential Address). ' Proc. Liverpool 

Geol. Soc' viir. 169-180, 1898. 
On a Drift Section near Borough Road, Birkenhead. 'Proc. 

Liverpool Geol. Soc' vin. 294-295, 1898. 
LoTT, Frank E. Burton Waters — Drinking and Brewing. ' Trans. 

Burt. N. H. Arch. Soc' iv. 5-31, 1899. 
Mackie, Dr. Wm. The Felspars Present in Sedimentary Rocks as 

Indicators of the Conditions of Contemporaneous Climate. ' Trans. 

Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 443-468, 1899. 
j\[cMurtie, J. Notes on Ancient British Remains found in a Lias 

Quarry at Tyning, Radstock. ' Proc. Bath N. H. A. F. C ix. 39-49, 

1898. 
INFacnair, Peter. The Geological Factors in the Distribution of the 

Alpine Plants of Perthshire. ' Trans. Perths. Soc. N. Sci.' ii. 240- 

249, 1898. 
Mansel-Pleydell, J. C. Wookey Hole. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C 

XIX. 176-183, 1898. 
Mantle, H. G. The Skiddaw Granite of Syning Gill, Cumberland. 

' Proc Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' xi. 1-5, 1899. 
March, Dr. H. Colley. The TAvin Problems of Plateau Flint Imple- 
ments and a Glaciation South of the Thames. ' Proc Dorset N. H. 

A. F. C xix. 130-144, 1898. 
Moore, Chas. C, and J. Lomas. The Chemical Examination of Sand- 
stones from Prenton Hill and Bidston Hill ; with Appendix on their 

Microscopic Examination. 'Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 241- 

267, 1898. 
Morton, G. H. The Carboniferous Limestone of the Vale of Clwyd. 

Part II. ' Proc Liverpool Geol. Soc' viir. 181-'204, 1898. 
Oldham, R. D. Earthquake [in India] of .June 12, 1897. 'Journal 

Manch. Geol. Soc' xiii. 142-145, 1898. 
Peile, William (N. Eng. Inst.). Transvaal Coal-Field. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xvi. 20-31, 1898. 



48 EEPORT — 1899 

Phillips, J. St. J. (Dublin N. F. C). Geology at the Kenmare Confer- 
ence of the Irish Field Club Union. 'Irish NaturaUst,' vii. 228, 

1898. 

Piper, Geoege H. The Passage Beds at Ledbury. ' Trans. Woolhope 
N. F. C. 1895-97,' 310-313, 1898. 

Platnauee, H. M. The Work of the Ouse. ' Report Yorks. PhiL Soc. 
for 1898,' 3G-38, 1899. 

Peeston, Heney. Geology South of Grantham. ' The NaturaUst for 
1898,' 247-255, 1898. 

Reade, T. Mellaed, and Philip Holland. The Phyllades of the 
Ardennes compa,red with the Slates of North AYales. ' Proe. Liver- 
pool Geol. Soc' VIII. 274-293, 1898. 

Reid Clement. The Palaohthic Deposits atHitchin and their Relation 
to' the Glacial Epoch. ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' x. 14-22. 1898. 

Reid, James, and Petee Macnaie. On the Genera Psilophyton, Lyco- 
podites, Zosterophyllum, and Parka decipiens of the Old Red Sand- 
stone of Scotland : their Affinities and Distribution. ' Trans. Edinb. 
Geol. Soc' VII. 368-380, 1899. 

RoGEES, A. W., and E. H. L. Schwaez. Notes on the Recent Lime- 
stones on parts of the South and West Coasts of Cape Colony. 
' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' x. 427-436, 1899. 

Sheppaed, Thomas. Bibhography: Geology and Palfeontology, 1893, 
1894. ' The NaturaUst Ibr 1898,' 273-296, 1898 ; for 1899, 81-103, 

1899. 
Spe'-'cee, James. The Halifax Coal Strata. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Poly. 

Soc' XIII. 302-310, 1898. 
Stainiee, X. The Geology of the Congo. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 

491-501, 1898. 
"Stathee, John W. A Glaciated Surface at Filey. ' Proc. Y''orks. Geol. 

Poly. Soc' x:ii. 346-349, 1898. 
Stephens, F. J. Recent Discoveries of Gold in West Cornwall. ' Trans. 

Cornw. R. Geol. Soc' xii. 241-257, 1899. 
Stevenson, William (the late). Notes on the Geology of the Upper 

Vale of WhiLadder, 1847-1850. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club," xvi. 

58-62, 1898. 
Yaughan, a. The Argument for Solidity [of the Earth] drawn from 

Ocean Tides. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' viii. 269-273, 1899. 
Wallace, Thomas D. Geological Notes on Strathdeam and the Avie- 

more Railway. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 416-419, 1899. 
Weir, Robert. The Douglas Coalfield, Lanarkshire. ' Trans. Min. 

Inst. Scot.' XX. 55-65, 1899. 
Wellburn, Edgar D. Fish Fauna of the Lower Coal Measures of the 

HaUfax District (Part I.) ' HaUfax Naturalist,' iv. 12-14, 1899. 
Whitaker, William. Chalk Water in Hertfordshire (Anniversary 

Address.) ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' x. 1-13, 1898. 
Hampshire Well Sections. Second Paper. ' Hants F. C iv. 21-45, 

1899. 
Wilson, Aethue P. Sulphur Mines in the South of Spain. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 71-74, 1899. 
Woodeuffe-Peacock, Rev. E. A. Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union at 

Grantham. ' The NaturaUst for 1898,' 241-245, 1898. 
Lincolnshire Naturalists in the Isle of Axholme. ' The Naturalist 

for 1898,' 335-340, 1898. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 49 

Woodruffe-Peacock, Eev. E. A. Lincolnshire Naturalists at Woodball 

Spa and Tumby Woods. ' The Naturalist for 1899,' G5-68, 1899. 
WooDWAED, A. Smith. On some New Specimens of Pteraspis cornnhica 

from the Devonian of Lantiver Bay. 'Trans. Cornw. R. Geol. Soc' 

XII. 229-232, 1899. 
— — On the Fossil Fishes of the Upper Lias of "Whitby. Part iii. 

' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xiii. 325-337, 1898. 
Young, Robert. Some recent Deep Borings for Water at Belfast. 

' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc. 1897-98,' 80-83, 1899. 

Section D. — Zoology, 

Alcock, Dr. N. H. (Dublin N. F. C.) The Natural History of L-ish Bats. 

'Irish Naturahst,' viii. 29-3G, 1899. 
Allen, Rev. F. A. Sea Snakes, with special reference to the Great Sea 

Serpent. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. Vail. F. C ii. 153-154, 1898. 
Armitt, Miss Mary L. Trees and Tree-nesters. ' The Naturalist for 

1899,' 5-12, 1899. 

Lakeland Bird Names. ' The Naturahst for 1899,' 36, 1899. 

AsHDOWN, W. C. Ornithology in Herefordshire from January to De- 
cember 1895. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. C 1895-97, 104-105, 1898. 

Ballantyne, J. Occurrence of Sirex gic/as, Linn., in Bute and Arran. 

' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 187-189, 1898. 
Bloomfield, Rev. E. N. On Collecting Materials for a Fauna or Flora 

of a District or County. 'Trans. S.-E. Union,' iii. 111-113, 1898. 
BoLAM, George. Ichthyological Notes. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club ' 

XVI. 201-204, 1898. 
BouLGER, Prof. G. S. Presidential Address ('The Position of Natural 

History Societies Sixty Y'ears Ago and at Present Contrasted ') 

' Trans. S.-E. Union,' iii. 1-20, 1898. 
Brown, Mrs. The Wild Animals of Palestine. ' Trans. Dum. Gal 

N. H. A. Soc' No. 14, 68-72, 1898. 
Butler, Colonel E. A. Albatross in Cambridgeshire. ' Trans. Norf 

Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 414-415, 1898. 

Honey Buzzard in Suffolk. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi 416 

1898. 

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Zoological Notes, 1898 
' Record of Bare Facts,' No. 8, 17-19 [1899]. 

Entomological Notes, 1898. ' Record of Bare Facts,' No. 8, 20-23 

[1899J. 

Carr, Professor J. W, On the Nesting Habits of Osmia rufa, Linn 

' Journ. Nott. Nat. Soc. 1897-8,' 33, 1899. 
Clark, Percy. A Visit to the Black-Headed Gulls in Essex (1898) 

' Essex Naturahst,' x. 388-393, 1898. 
Clarke, H. S. Report of Entomological Section. ' Y'n Lioar Manninaf'h ' 

HI. 384-387, 1898. 
Coates, Henry. Annual Address (' The Progress of Natural Science 

during the Victorian Era '). ' Proc. Terths. Soc. N. Sci.,' ckviii- 

clxxxiii., 1898. 
Cole, Wm. The Essex Museum of Natural History. ' Easex Naturah'st,' 

X. 837-346, 1898. 
An Annual Congress or Conference of ' East Anglian' Natural History 

Societies. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 360-3G8, 1898. 

1899. B 



50 EEPORT— 1899. 

C'oEDEAUX, John. Bird Notes from the Humber District. ' The 
Naturalist' for 1898, 237-239, 1898; for 1899. 21-2G, 1899. 

Eecent Notes from North Lincohishire. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 

261-2G7, 1898. 

The Kush of Arctic Birds on the East Coast of Great Britain in the 



Winter of 1894-5. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. C 1895-7, 32-36, 1898 
Ceabteee, Aethue. Zoological Specimens in the Belle Vue Museum. 

1. The Three-toed Sloth (Brcuhjpus tridactijlus). ' Halifax Natural- 
ist,' III. 8G-87, 1898. 
Ceellin. J. C. Eeport of Zoological Section. ' Yn Lioar Manninagh,' 

III. 381-384, 1898. 
Crossman, Alan F. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during 

the year 1897. 'Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' x. 38-43, 1K99. 
A List of the Birds of Hertfordshire. ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' 

X, 84-102, 1899. 
Crouch, Walter. Further Notes on the Occurrence of Crepidulafor- 

nicata, L., in Essex Waters. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 353-355, 1898. 
Crctwell, Eev. Canon. On the Genera Depressaria and Gelechia. 

' Trans. Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' v. 67-72, 1898. 
Cunninc4ham, James. The Kingfisher about Halifax. ' Halifax Natu- 
ralist,' III. 38, 1898. 
Daltry, Eev. T. W. Eeport of the Entomological Section. ' Trans. N. 

Staff. F. C xxxiii. 57-60, 1899. 
Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd. The Chartley White Cattle. 'Trans. N. Staff. 

F. C XXXIII. 48-54, 1899. 
Dixon, G. B. A Group of Insects' Home-made Cradles. ' Trans. 

Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' v. 13-24, 1898. 
Dixon, H. N. Phenological Observations. ' Journal N'ton. N. H. Soc' 

X. 155-156, 1898. 
DoNisTHOErE, H. St. J. Notes on the British Longicornes. ' Trans. 

Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' v. 25-37, 1898. 
All that is known of Metacus paradoxus, L. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. 

Phil, Soc' V. 183-186, 1899. 
DuTHiE, Col. W. H. M. Birds of the Mountain Tops. ' Trans. Berths. 

Soc. N. Sci.' II. 191-196, 1898. 
Eldred, E. J. H. Notes on some Foreign Animals living in British Parks. 

' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 360-362, 1898. 
Forrest, H. E. Feathers and Wings — the Mechanism of Flight. ' Trans. 

Car. and Sev. Vail. F. C ii. 89-99, 1898. 
Fowler, Eev. Canon W. W. Presidential Address to the Lincolnshire 

Naturalists' Union (Natural History). ' The Naturalist for 1899,' 

37-44, 1899. 
Friend, Eev. Hilderic. New Cumberland Annelids. ' The Naturalist 

for 1898,' 297-299, 1898. 
Gillandebs, a. T. The Hemiptera-Homoptera. ' Trans. Manch. Mic. 

Soc' 1897, 28-41, 1898. 
Geabham, Oxley. Yorkshire Bird Names. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 

369-371, 1898. 

Yorkshire Bats. ' The Naturalist for 1899,' 69-75, 1899. 

Grimshaw, Percy H. Lincolnshire Diptera : a Preliminary List (con- 
cluded). ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 161-170, 1898. 
GuRNEY, J. H. The Economy of the Cuckoo {Cuculus canorus). ' Trans. 

Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 365-384, 1898. 



COItUESrONl'IXU SOCIETIES. 51 

Guthrie, "WiLLi.vr.r Grant. Lepidoptera of the Hiiwick ])i.strict : 
Corrigenda et Addenda. 'History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' x\i. 101, 
1898. 

Halifax Scientific Society and Geological Field CLrr,. Loc-al 
Records in Natural History : Zoology. ' Halifax Naturalist," iii. 12(>- 
127, 1899. 

Hall, W. J. ()n the Structure and Life-History of the Cockroacli 
(PeriplanetaojiciitaHs). 'Trans. Leicester Lit. Plul. Soc' v. 12:-5 - 
133, 1899. 

H vrmer, Sidney F. On some Bones of a Pelican from the Cambridge- 
shire Fens. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 363-304, 189H. 

Harris, G. H. Notes on the Herring Fishery of 1897. ' Trans. Norf. 
Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 402-404, 1898. 

Hawkins, -John. Food as influencing Variation in Helices. ' The Natu- 
ralist for 1K99,' 48, 1899. 

Herdman, Prof. AV. A. Why j\Ian should Study Nature. ' Yn Lioar 
Manninagh,' in. 324-327, 189H. 

Hey, Ptev. W. C. Snainton Brick-Ponds and their Beetles. ' The Natu- 
ralist for 189S,' 228, 1898. 

Bird Names in Use at West Ayton, Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 

1898,' 308, 1898. 

Hick, Miss E. S. A Eamble in the Isle of Lindisfarne. ' The Natu- 
ralist for 189S,' 21 1-218, 1898. 

HoBSON. Dr. J. ]\I.,E.A. Pankhurst, andG. Do\vker. Ideals for Natural 
History Societies, and ho^v to attain them. ' Trans. S. E. Union,' in. 
87-93, 109-110, 1898. 

Hoi'Kinson, John. Charles Darwin : a Sketch of his Life and Work. 
' Trans. Car. and Sev. Valley F. C ii. 121-12.-;, 1898. 

Report on the Conference of Delegates to the British Association, 

at Liverpool in LsOG. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. xlii.^1., 1«9K. 

Hughes, G. P. Notes on the Red Deer {Cerviis claphus, Linn.) 

' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xvi. 81-85, 1898. 
Kane, W. F. de V., J. N. H.\lbert, Mrs.E.M. TATLO^v,R.LL.PRAEGER, 

and H. Hanna (Dublin N. F. C). Impressions of Achill : Lepidoptera, 

Coleoptera, Marine Mollusca, Flowering Plants, &c., Sea -weeds. ' Irish 

Naturahst,' vii. 135-143, 1898. 
Kaye, W. J. On the Evolution of the Hind Wing in Lepidoptera. 

' Trans. Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' v. 73-78, 1898. 
Kerjiode, p. C. ]\I. Sharks in "Manx Waters. ' Yn Lioar Manninagh,' 

in. 339-341, 1898. 
Lees, G. Dumville. British Rats and Mice. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. 

Vail. F. C II. 118-120, 1898. 
LoFTHOusE, T. Abhton. Lepidoptera noticed in Kilton Woods and 

Vicinity during 1898. ' The Naturalist; for 1899,' 113-114, 1899. 
Lonsdale, H. Pond Life in the Neighbourhood of Halifax. ' Halifax 

Naturahst,' iii. 58 59, 1898. 
LoRT, Laisters F. The White Cattle of Vaynol Park. ' Trans. N. Staff. 

F. C xxxiii. 55-56, 1899. 
Lowe, Dr. John. Migration of Ring Ouzel (Turclus iorqnaiits, L.) 

' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 416-417, 1898. 

Lcitcochroa candidissiina. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 

418, 1898. 

Psydic bomhycella. 'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 418, 1898. 

jc 2 



52 KEPOiiT— 1890. 

McLean, Kenneth. The Avifauna of Staithes and Loftu8-in-Clevelan5, 
Yorkshire. * The Naturalist for 185)0.' 129-147, 1899. 

MANSEri-pLKYDELij, J. C. Clciusilui, lioli)hii, Gray. ' Proc. Dorset 
N. H. A. F. C XIX. 109-112, 189H. 

Maiitindalr, J. A. Vernacular Nanioa of Birds at Staveloy, Westmor- 
land. ' T1)0 Naturalist for 1899,' 79-80, 1899. 

Masefikld, J. E. B. Report of tlio Zoological Section. ' Trans. N. 
Staff. F. C xxxiir. 41-47, 1899. 

Mabon, J. E. Additions to the List of Ilemiptera-Hetcroptera of Lincoln- 
shire. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 209-210, 1898. 

MAWTiioY, Edwaud. Report on Phenological Phenomena ohscrved in 
Hertfordshire during the year 1897. ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' x. 
01-()7, 1H99. 

Maxwell, W. J. Natural History Notes. ' Trans. I)um. Gal. N. H. A. 
Soc' No. 14, 84-88, 1898. 

Mhyuick, E. Notes on Lepidoptcra. 'Report Marlh. Coll. N. H. Soc' 
No. 47, 44-54, 1899. 

Scientific Work in Local Societies. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' No. 47, G5- 08, 1899. 

MosH, C. E. On the Structure of Crocus Leaves. ' Halifax Naturalist,' 
IV. 5-11, 1899. 

Nelson, WiLi-iAM. Extracts from a Conchologist's Note Book. ' Tbo 
Naturalist for 1899,' 45-47, 77-78, 1899. 

Noni-oLK AND Nouwrcif NATUTiAiJBTs' SOCIETY. Wild Birds' Protection: 
Riicord of Action of tlio Society. 'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vr. 
418-414, 1898. 

OiiD, Geouoe W. Notes on the Tipnlid;c of the Cilasgow District. 'Trans. 
Glasg. N. H. Soc' v. 190-190, 1898. 

P/U-MER, J. E. (Duhlin N. F. 0.) Lesser Blackdiacked Gull Nesting in 
CO. Kildare. ' Lish Naturalist,' vii. 180-187, 1898. 

Pattkn, Dr. CiiAnLEH J. (Dublin N. F. C). The Birds of Dublin Bay. 
' L'ish Naturalist,' vii. 'J29 289, 1898. 

Patterson, A. Natural History Notes from Yarmouth. 'Trans. Norf. 
Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 405-408, 1898. 

Pi';RiNour',Y, Ij.,and A. Raffray. Descriptive Catalogue of tlie Colooptcra 
of Soutli Africa. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' x. 808-417, 1899. 

PiCKARD-CAMJUiiDCiE, Rev. 0. Natural History Notes for 1897. 'Proc. 
Dorset N. H. A. F. C xix. 43-50, 1898. 

Prakoer, R. Ll., G. H. Carpenter, H. K. Gore Cuthijert, Hon. R. E. 
Dir,L0N, J. N. Halheut, and R. Standen (Dublin N. F. C). Report 
of the Second Triennial Conference and Excursion of the Irish Field 
Club Union, held at Kenmaro, July 7-18, 1898: Arachnida, Hymen- 
optera, Lepidoptcra, Colooptera, Hemiptcra, MoUusca. 'Irish Natu- 
ralist,' VII. '201 -22(;, 1898. 

Rawson, F. G. S. Some Birds of the Ryburn Valley. (Third Paper.) 
' Halifax Naturalist,' hi. 00 02, 1898. 

Richardson, N. ]\I. Notes on the Collections at Montevideo [near Wey- 
mouth]. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xix. 154-100, 1898. 

Reports on Observations of tlie First Appearances of Birds, 

Insects, itc, and the First Flowering of Plants in Dorset during 1897. 
'Proc Dorset N. IT. A. F. C xrx. '202-211, 1898. 

RoEnucK, W. Dknison. Bibliography: J jand and Freshwater Mollusca, 
1892 and 1893. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 189 199, 1898. 



I'OUUKSroNDl.Nli WUlMKTlKS. 53 

liO\vi.i:v, 1'. Iv. Report of the Dolojjato to Iho l"\)url,li lutorniitional Con- 

},M-t<ss of /,oolof,Msts, Ciinil>ritlji;o, Aui^'ust 23- '2(5, IH'JS. ' 'rrans. Loiccs. 

lor Lit. Phil. Soc.' v. J;U IJ'J, 1S!)«». 
ScuAUKF, Dr. IX. l'\ (Duhlin N. F. I'.) Tlio Irish Froshwator Leeches. 

Mri.sli Naturalist,' vii. ISS 1«M. 1S!)8. 
BooTT, Tiios. Notes on the MiiMO-faima of Ailsa Craig, Firth of Clyth'. 

"I'laiis. (ilasij. N. H. So.-.' v. ir.:i IT.S, ISDS. 
Bcoi'iu'iKM), ]). .1. Tho Miitoniostraca of I'^ppinj:: I'orost, with sonio 

CJonoral Uoiiiarks on tho (ironp: Part 111. A nolaiknl List of tho 

Fppin;;: l'\)r('st Sp«H'ios ; l\irt IV. A lUhlio^'raphy of tho Litoratnro 

roiatinj^ to tlu> lU-itish l''r('sIi\\ator Mntonioylraca. 'Kssox Naturalist,' 

X. JM!» !>;M, 18S)8. 
Shaw, Wu.i.um. Notes on some of tlie \novo mieonnnon T/epidoptora in 

the lS'ei!,'hhourhooil of tlalashiils. ' llislor}- J>(>r\\ieksli. Nat. Cliih,' 

XVI. 2;U" 2MM. 1S!)8. 
Smitm, Miss 'PnKononA. Ant Noighlnnirg (eonehuled). ' Halifax 

Naturalist.' iii. 2() :U, 18!)8. 

The llihernation of .Xius. 'Halifax Naturalist,' iii. 11(5 11!), 

18'.);). 

SoiiHY, Or. IT. 0. On the Troparatiiui of ^larino Aninia's as Trans- 
part'ut l.iintern slides. ' l-'.ssex NaturalisI,' \. ;M(5 n.">0, 181)8. 

On the Preparation of Marnie Animals and Plants as Transparent 

Lantern-slidos. ' Trans. Woolhopo N. F. C. ISd'y 7,' H02, 185)8. 

Soi TM Afku'AN Pim.osornu'Ai, Soruvrv. Tvesunu^ of n-eent Seientiric 
Piililiealions hearins,' on South Afriea, fron» .lanuarv 1, 18i)7, to 
.luno JU), 185)8. 'Trans. 8. African Phil. Soc' x. VM -178. 181)!). 

Sorrnwia.i,, T. Feltwtdl Peeov. 'Trans. N(nf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 
;).V2 n.M}, 181)8. 

l\xhil)ition of a Norfolk l>ustard. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc. 

VI. 558.') :)S(), 18!)8. 

The St. HoloM's Swan Pit. 'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc.' vi. 

887 :581). 185)8. 

Some additi(ms tv> the Norwich Castlo Museum ill 1807. 'Trans. 

Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 85)0 85)8, 18!)8. 

— — Ooeurronee of tho McMliterranean ll»>rring ("lull (Lttn/.t cachinminx) 

in Norlolk. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soe.' vi. 117, 18l»8. 
Tawny Pipit in Norfolk. * Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 118, 

18!)8. 
>STKrnKNsoN, Thomas. Natural History Notes from ^Vhithv, ^^ay 18S)(> 

to Fehruary 1898 | VertobrataJ. ' Tho Naturalist for 18<J8,' 201-2015, 

185)8. 
Sykks, ^tAUK L. Natural Selection in tho Lepidoptora. ' Trans. Manoh. 

Mic Soc 185)7,' At (M. 18!>8. 
Thomtson, M. li. The Yorkshire Colooptcra Commitloo. ' The Natu- 
ralist for 181)8,' 22;") 227, 185)8. 
TnoKNi.KY, Rev. A. The Funeticna of a Natm-al History Society 

(Presidential Adtlress). ' Report, Nott. Nat. Soc 185)7 8,' )i:> i\6, 

181);). 
To.Mi.iN, l>uooKTON. Coleoptera of the Llandaff Dislriet. 'Trans. 

Leieestor lat. Phil. Soc' v. 187- 11)1,185)5). 
Tct'K, W. H. Aeulento Hvmenoptera at Tostoek, near l>ury St. 

Edmunds. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 115) i'20, 185)8. 
TuTT, J. W. Ihitoniologv as a Scientific Pursuit. ' Trans. S.-E. Union,' 

111.2188,1808. 



54 REPORT — 1899. 

Wal,keb, James J. A List of the Coleoptera of the Rochester District. 
' Rochester Naturahst,' ii. 509^514, 517-531, 542-559, 1898 and 1899. 

AVallace, R. Hedgek. White Cattle : An Inquiry into their Origin and 
History. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Hoc' v. 220-273, 1898. 

Waltek, J. H. A Visit to an Egyptian Ostrich Farm. ' Trans, Norf. 
Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 350-351, 1898. 

Ward, J. Smnmary of Literature relating to the Geology, Mineralogy, 
and Palaeontology of North Staffordshire, chronologically arranged 
[1895-99]. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxiii. 72-75, 1899. 

Waterworth, ii. Birds of the Luddenden Valley. Fourth Paper — ■ 
The Finches. ' Halifax Naturahst,' in. 82-84, 1898. 

WvTKixs, C. J. Some Notes on Lepidoptera from the Painswick Dis- 
trict. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' viii. 274-278, 1899. 

Webtj, Sydney. The Working of Natural History Societies, with the 
view to their Success and Popularity. ' Trans. S. E. Union,' iii. 
94-98, 1898. 

W^HELER, E. G. IMarked Woodcocks. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' 

VI. 41(), 1898. 

Piecilosci/tus rulneratus at Yarmouth. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. 

Soc' VI. 419, 1898. 

Williams, Dr. R. Curious Experiences in Birds' Nesting. ' Trans. 
Woolhope N. F. C. 1895-97,' 14G-147, 1898. 

Wright, .John. Natural History Notes from Terrrington Church- 
warder, s' Accounts. ' The Naturalist for 1H98.' 305-30(5, 1898. 

W^'Nx, William H. Altruism and Organic Evolution. ' Proc. Birm. 
N. II. Phil. Soc' XL 6-43, 1899. 

Section E. — Geography. 

Adamson, D. B. Yquitos. ' Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc' vii. 39-44, 1899. 
Breweu, William M. Prospecting in British Columbia. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng." xvi. 291-299, 1899. 
Browx, IL ^^^VLT0N. The Equipment of Exploring Expeditions. 

' Trans. Inst. ]\Iin. Eng.' xv. 443-448, 1898. 
Bullock, T. L. The Geography of China. ' Manch. Geog. Soc' xiv. 

113-129, 1898. 
Casartelli, Very Rev. L. C. Report on the Eleventh Congress of 

Orientalists in Paris, September 5 to 12, 1897. ' Journal Manch. 

Geog. Soc' xiiL 183-188, 1898. 
Colvile, Lady Zelie. Madagascar. ' Trans. Liverpool. Geog. Soc' 

VII. 17-30, 1899. 

De Wixdt, Harry. Through the Goldfields of Alaska to Bering Straits. 
'Journal Tyneside Geog. Soc' iv. 165-187, 1898. 

Fox, C. E. the Parish of Halifax. ' Halifax Naturahst,' in. 21-26, 
1898. 

Fraxklix. John. Farthest North with Nansen. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. 
Vail. F. C n. 101-103, 1898. 

Holway, H. C. Schuxke. Bibliography of Books, Pamphlets, Maps, 
]\Iagazines, Articles, &c., relating to South Africa, with special refe- 
rence to Geography. From the time of Vasco da Gama to the 
formation of the British South Africa Company in 1888. ' Trans, 
S. African Phil. Soc' x. 131-294, 1898. 

Leonard, Major A. G. Notes of a Journey to Bende. ' Journal Manch, 
Geog. Soc' XIV. 190-207, 1898. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 55 

Merian, Alfred. Tlie Seycbelle Islands. ' Trans. Liverpool Gee 

Soc' vii. 30 89, 1899. 
Moore, H. Cecil. Heights in Herefordshire. • Trans. Woolhopc 

N. F. C. 1895-97,' 270-277, 1898. 
Nevixs, Dr. J. BiiiKUECK. Geographical Picture of Mediix;val Europe 

during the Thirteenth Century. ' Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc' vii. 

44-03, 1899. 
PoLiTEYAN, Rev. J. Palestine : its Physical Features, Flora, Fauna, 

Antiquities, and Eehgion. ' Trans. Car. and 8ev. Vail. F. C' ii. 

154-157, 1898. 
Prideaux, Colonel. Abyssinia : the Country and People, ' Trans. Car. 

and Sev. Vail. F. C ii. 104-118, 1898. 
EoTH, Felix N. A Diary of a Surgeon with the Benin Punitive Expe- 
dition. ' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xiv. 208-221, 1898. 
Russell, E.J. The Shetland Islands. 'Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' 

XIII. 125-138, 1898. 
ScLATER, W. L. Notes on Portions of the Cross or Memorial Pillar 

erected by Bartholomew Diaz near Angra Pequena, in German South- 
West Africa. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' x. 295-302, 1899. 
Shawe, F. B. Western Tibet. 'Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xiv. 1-23, 

1898. 
SowERBUTTS, Eli. Conference of Missionaries on Geography, ]\Ian- 

chester, October 29, 1897. ' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc* xiii. 189- 

202, 1898. 
Temple, Sir Richard. The Country of Cashmere. 'Journal Manch. 

Geog. Soc' XIII. 139-141, 1898. 
The Upper Waters of the Rivers Irawaddy and Mekong. ' Journal 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xiii. 181-182, 1898. 
Verner, Lieut. -Col. Willoughby. The Soudan in 1885 and 1898. 

' Journal Tyneside Geog. Soc' iv. 205-207, 1898. 
W , P. J. A Lady's Notes on Residence in Queensland. ' Journal 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xiv. 222-224, 1898. 
Wardrop, a. Tucker. All About North Borneo, the New Ceylon 

' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xiii. 165-180, 1898. 
Wells, Lieut.-Col. H. L. Caravan Routes and Road Making in Persia, 

' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc" xiv. 176-189, 1898. 
Woodward, Prof. W. H. Report on the Geographical Prize Competition. 

' Report Liverpool Geog. Soc' vii, 3-6, 1899. 

Section F. — Economic Science and St.\tistics. 

Addison, W. H. The Present State of Deaf Mute Education. ' Proc 

Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxix. 241-253, 1898. 
Armstrong, W. (N. Eng. Inst.). Presidential Address. (The Position 

of the Coal Trade.) ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 37-42, 1898. 
Carlile, W. W. The Indian Mints. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' sxix. 

123-144, 1898. 
Chambers, A. M. Presidential Address (Coal Mining in 1854 and 1898). 

' Trans. In.st. Min. Eng.' xv. 293-300, 1898. 
Craske, W. R. Presidential Address (The Cement Trade of Rochester). 

' Rochester Naturahst,' ii. 501-508, 1898. 
Daly, E. D. Neglected Children and Neglectful Parents. 'Journal 

Stat. Soc. Ireland,' x. 350-306, 1898, 



56 iiEPORT— 1899, 

Dawson, Chaeles. Greater Dublin : Extension of the Municipal 

Boundaries. ' Journal Stat. Soc. Ireland,' x. 341-350, 1898. 
Dick, G. H. On Indian Economics. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxix. 

4.5-71, 1898. 
Geaky, Major-Gen. Industrial Ti-aining and Technical Education, 

' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc. 1897-98,' 17-32, 1899. 
Gilpin, E., jun. Underground Certificates in Nova Scotian Coal Mines. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 300-315, 1899. 
Hall, Henry. On the Coal Industry of the Rhenish-Westphalian 

Provinces. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 569-572, 1898. 
Johnston, W. J. The Coming Change in Irish Local Government. 

' Journal Stat. Soc. Ireland,' x. 3G6-377, 1898. 
May, George. (N. Eng. Inst.) Presidential Address (The Progress of 

Mining since 1852). ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 279-287, 1898. 
Smart, Prof. Wm. The Report of the Pioyal Commission on Agricultural 

Depression. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxix. 1-21, 1898. 

Section G.— Mechanical Science. 

Addenbrooke, G. L. (S. Staff. Inst. Eng.) The Midland Electric 
Corporation, Limited, and its liearing on Mining in the South 
Staffordshire District. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 493-494, 1899. 

Barr, Thomas H. Two Types of Electrical Coal Cutters. ' Trans. Min. 
Inst. Scot.' XX. 66-71, 1899. 

Brightmore, Dr. A. W. The Masonry Dam Problem. ' Trans. Liver- 
pool E. Soc' XIX. 144-153, 1898. 

Brough, Bennett H. Historical Sketch of the First Institution of 
Mining Engineers. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 2-13, 1899. 

Chambers, W. H. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Inaugural Address (Safety 
in Mining). ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 91-98, 1898. 

Clark, Percy. Some further Notes on the Effects of the Great Tide of 
November, 1897. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 355-359, 1898. 

CowPER-CoLES, Sherard. Elcctro-Zinciiig. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' 
XIX. 17-32, 1898. 

Davis, F H. Davis Calyx-drill. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 363-369, 
1898. 

DowsoN, J. Emerson. Gas Power. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 
326-337, 1898. 

Farren, George. Inaugural Address (On the Necessity of Accuracy in 
Statement and Reasoning in Engineering, and the Slowness of the 
Human Intellect in Grasping the Idea). ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' 
XIX. 1-16, 1898. 

GooLDEN, AV. T. Coal-cutting by IMachinery. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 
XV. 378-384, 1898. 

Hamilton, Andrew. Diagrams as illustrating Ship and Engine Per- 
formances. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc" xix. 168-173, 1898. 

Hardie, W. D. L. Machine-mining and Pick-mining Compared. 
• Trans. Min. Inst. Scot.' xx. 79-87, 1899. 

Hedley, John L., and Wm. Leck. Timbering in the Iron Ore Mines of 
Cumberland and Furness. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 281-288, 
1899. 

Hele-Shaw, Prof. H. S. Experiments on the Flow of Water. ' Trans. 
Liverpool E. Soc' xix. 109-116, 1898. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. bl 

HiLLER, E. G. The Working of tho Boiler Explosions Acts, 1882 and 

1890. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng." xvii. 19-46, 1899. 
Kerr, Gf-orce L. Timbering and Supporting Underground Workings. 

' Trans. Min. Inst. Scot.' xx. 30-47, 1898. 
Krosererg, Dr. C. The Otto Coke Oven. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XV. 402-407, 1898. 
Little, Gilceet. The Automatic Manipulation of Coal and Coke. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 117-120, 1899. 
Louis, Prof. 11. Tho Strength of Pit Props. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XV. 343-3G0, 1898 ; xvii. 14-17, 1899. 
Marshall, W. Bayley. Pioller-bearings. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 

302-318, 1898. 
Marten, E. B., and Edmund Howl. The South Staffordshire Mines 

Drainage Scheme, with Special Regard to Electric-power Pumping. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 2G8-276, 1899. 
Martin, Egbert. Underground Steam Appliances and Temperature of 

the Strata at Niddrie Collieries. ' Trans. Min. Inst. Scot.' xix. 266- 

269, 1898. 
Maxton, James. The Evolution of Floating and other Dry Docks. 

'Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc. 1897-98,' 62-73, 1899. 
Meacham, F. G. (S. Staff. Inst. Min. Eng.) The Martin and Turnbull 

System of Water Sprays. ' Trans. Inst. ]\Iin. Eng,' xvi. 497-498, 

1899. 
Moore, H. Cecil. The Severn Tunnel Pumping Works. ' Trans. 

Woolhope N. F. C. 1895-97,' 90-99, 1898. 
A Visit to the Works of the proposed Birmingbam Water Supply 

from the Elan Valley in Wales. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. C. 1895-97,' 

153-170, 1898. 
Morris, W. H. Railways and their Practical Working. ' Proc. Belfast 

N. H. Phil. Soc. 1897-98,' 60-61, 1899. 
Priest, Frank E. Experiments in the Acceleration of the Setting of 

Portland Cement. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xix. 46-54, 1898. 
Rateau, Prof. A. Experimental Investigations upon the Theory of the 

Pitot Tube and the Woltmann Mill. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XVII. 124-163, 1899. 
Eeid, Frank. (N. Eng. Inst.) The Felling of a Chimney. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xvii. 230-232, 1899. 
EoGiTRs, Hugh. Liverpool Landing Stage Extension and Prince's Jetty. 

' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xix. 159-166, 1898. 
Saint, William. On an Improved Decking Table for facilitating tho 

Loading of Pit Cages. 'Trans. Manch.'Geol. Soc' xxv. 577-579, 

1898. 
ScHAAV, Major-General H. The Use of High-pressure Steam as a Pos- 
sible Substitute for Gunpowder or other Dangerous Explosives in 

Coal-Mining. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xvi. 331-334, 1899. 
Shaw, Prosser A. H. Portland Cement. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' 

XIX. 35-45, 1898. 
Thompson, Beeby. Reservoirs. ' Journal N'ton N. H. Soc' x. 145- 

154, 1898. 
Tritton, Seymour B. Shallow Draught Steamers. ' Trans. Liverpool 

E. Soc' XIX. 96-104, 1898. 
Tudsbery, Dr. J. H. T. Engineering Survey Work. ' Trans. Liverpool 

E. Soc' XIX. 125-136, 1898. 



58 REPORT— 1899. 

Walker, G. Blake. (Midland Inst. Eng.) The Elienisli-Westphalian 
Coal Syndicate. ' Trans. Jnst. Eng.''xvL 401-412, 1899. 

White, J. Walwyn. Aerial Eope Railways, with special reference to 
Traffic between Liverpool and Manchester. ' Trans. Liverpool K. 
Soc' XIX. G9-91, 1898. 

Section H. — Anthbopology. 

Andsox, Eev. Wii. A Description of an Underground Dwelling, com- 
monly called a Pict's House, at Pitcur, near Cupar-Angus. ' Trans. 

Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 14, 61-60, 1898. 
BiDGOOD, William. Norton Camp. ' Proc. Som'setsh. A. N. H. Soc' 

XLiv. 198-202, 1898. 
Cole, Rev. E. Maule. Notes on the Danes' Graves near Driffield. 

'Proc Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xiii. 299-301, 1898. 
Cooke, John H. Neolithic Life in Lincolnshire (Third Paper). ' The 

Naturalist for 1898,' 221-224, 1898. 
Ceellix, IMiss A. M. Report of Anthropological Section. * Yn Lioar 

Manninagh,' in. 379-380, 1898. 
Crosslaxd, Chables. The Place-name ' Royd.' ' Halifax Naturalist,' 

III. 109-112, 1899. 
Dale, W. Bronze Implements from the Neighbourhood of Southamp- 
ton. ' Hants F. C iv. 75-78, 1899. 
Dawson, Chables. Ancient and Modern ' Dene Holes ' and their 

Makers. ' Trans. S.-E. Union,' iii. 34-46, 1898. 
Hogg, Alexaxdee J. The Flint Implements of Addington. ' Trans. 

Croydon M. N. H. C, 1897-98,' 257-202, 1898. 
HoLBOYD, W. F. Neolithic Flint Implements from the Y'orkshire Wolds. 

' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxvi. 14-10, 1898. 
Keemode, p. M. C. Report of the Archfeological Section (with List of 

Local Antiquities in the Society's Collection). ' Yn Lioar Manninagh,' 

III. 372-379, 1898. 
L.wv, EoBEBT. The Discovery of Cinerary Urns at Todmorden. 

' Halifax Naturahst,' in. 49-52, 1898. 
LovETT, Edwaed. Fish-hooks of Wood used on the Essex Coast. 

'Essex Naturahst,' x. 300-305, 1898. 
Observations on the Implement made from a Deer's Antler in the 

Museum of the Essex Field Club. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 351-353, 

1898. 

The Folk Lore of Amulets and Charms. ' Trans. S.-E. Union,' 



m. 47-53, 1898. 
Lynam, C. Presidential Address (Glimpses of the Countv of Stafford). 

' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxiii. 28-38, 1899. 
Mansel-Pleydell, J. C. Lake Dwellings at Glastonbury. ' Proc. 

Dorset N. H. A. F. C xix. 172-175, 1898. 
Meytiick, E. Anthropometrical Statistics. ' Rep. Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' No. 47, 100-136, 1899. 
MoBTiMEB, J. R. A Summary of what is known of the so-called 

' Danes' Graves,' near Driffield. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' 

XIII. 286-298, 1898. 
MoTHEESOLE, Henby. Notes on some Relics of Early Man in the 

Neighbourhood of Chelmsford. ' Essex Naturahst,' x. 305-306, 1898. 
Phillips, W. The Berth — a remarkable Earthwork. ' Trans. Car. 

and Sev. Vail. F. C ii. 144-148, 1898. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 59 

Eain, Rev. Thos. A Century's Changes in a Pastoral Parish. ' Trans. 

Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc." No. 14, 48-60, 1898. 
EoTH, H. Ling. Examples of Metal Work from Benin. ' Halifax 

Naturalist,' ni. 32-38, 1898. 
SHEPrAED, Thomas. Traces of an Ancient Lake Dwelling at Land-le- 

Mere, near Withernsea, East Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 

801-307, 1898. 
Smith, Wouthington G. An Implement made from a Stag's Antler, 

from Wormingford, Essex. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 310-312, 1898. 
Thomson, Rev. J. H. The Kindly Tenants of the Four Towns of 

Lochmaben. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 14, 73-81, 1898. 
Wakdle, Sir Thomas. Notes on the Explosions and Reports in Red- 
hurst Gorge, and the Recent Exploration of Eedhurst Cave. ' Trans. 

N. Stati'. F. C xxxiii. 97-115, 1899. 
Watkins, Rev. M. G. The Keltic Lanes of South Herefordshire. 

' Trans. Woolhope N. F. C. 1895-97,' 61-64, 1898. 

Section I. — Physiology. 

Allen, Dr. F. G. What is Life? 'Proc. Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' xi. 
44-67, 1899. 

BiBDWooD, Dr. H. M. The Recent Epidemics of Plague in Bombay. 
' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xiv. 130-175, 1898. 

Beownlee, Dr. John. Observations on the Aerial Transmission of the 
Enteric Fever Poison, with a Record of an Outbreak presumably 
caused by that Means of Infection. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxix. 
298-315, 1898. 

Feeguson, Dr. A. R. On the Bubonic Plague. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. 
Soc' XXIX. 254-261, 1898. 

Haeeis, Dr. D. F. Note on a New Instrument (Oliver's) for the Esti- 
mation of the Colouring-matter of Blood. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' 
XXIX. 238-240, 1898. 

Kennedy, Dr. Robeet. Degeneration and Regeneration of Nerves : an 
Historical Review. ' Proc Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxix. 193-229, 1898. 

MacCoemac, Dr. John j\I. Abnormal Ideas of Nervous Super- 
excitability. ' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc. 1897-98,' 36-44, 1899. 

Wolstenholme, Jno. B. Botriomyces (Bollinger), a Micrococcus which 
produces Tumours in some of the Domesticated Animals. ' Trans. 
Manch. Mic Soc. 1897,' 23-28, 1898. 

Section K. — Botany. 

AuDLEY, J. A. Report of the Botanical Section. ' Trans. N. Staflf. F. C 
XXXIII. 61-64, 1899. 

Axon, Thomas. The Influence of Light and Temperature on Vegeta- 
tion. ' Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc 1897,' 46-47, 1898. 

Baiestow, U. a Fungus Foray in Luddenden Dean. ' lialifax Natu- 
raUst," III. 84-85, 1898. 

BoLAM, Geoege. Notes on Coniferous Trees at Twizell. 'History 
Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xvi. 49-50, 1898. 

Note on Fitzroy a patagonica (Sir J. D. Hooker), at Belsay Castle. 

' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xvi. 147-148, 1898. 

Boyd, D. A. ]\Iicro-fungi observed near Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. ' Trans. 
Glasgow N. H. Soc' V. 159-160, 1898. 



GO REPORT— 1899. 

Boyd, D. a. Additional Notes on the Peronosporeae and UstilagmeiE of 

North Ayrshire. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 161-1G2, 1898. 
Beown, Alfred. Grasses and other Forage Plants, ' Trans. Pertbs. 

Soc. N. Sci.' II. 217-222, 1898. 
Bueton-on-Trent Natural History and Arch.eological Society. 

(Botanical Section.) The Flora of Burtou-on-Trent and Neighbour- 
hood : Part iir. Rubiacefc to Solanacea?. ' Trans. Burt. N. H. A. 

Soc' IV. 75-88, 1899. 
Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Botanical Notes, 1898. 

' Eecord of Bare Facts," No. 8, 5-10 [1899]. 
€are, Prof. 3. W. Nottinghamshire Fungi [A Complete Localised List 

of all the Basidiomycetes recorded for tlie County]. 'Journal Nott. 

Nat. Soc' 1897-8, 89-55, 1899. 
Christy, Miller. Two Interesting Primula Plants. ' Essex Naturalist,' 

X. 307-310, 1898. 
CoATES, Henry. Opening Address (The Summer Excursions, 1897). 

' Proc. Perths. Soc. N. Sci.' ii. cli.-clviii. 1898. 
CooMBE, J. Newton, and M. H. Stiles. Diatoms observed at Hatfield 

West Moor, near Doncaster. ' The Naturalist for 1899,' -19-51, 

1899. 
Crossland, Charles. Fungus Foray at Harewood and East Keswick. 

' The Naturahst for 1898,' 357-362, 1898. 
Crump, W. B. Facts and Factors in the Distribution of Halifax Plants. 

' Hahfax Naturahst,' in. 43-41, 62-GG, 1898. 
The Flora of the Parish of Halifax. ' Halifax Naturalist,' in., iv. 

App. 65-96, 1898, 1899. 
Dixon, H. N. l^.otany of Martin's Brickyard. ' Journal N'ton N. H. 

Soc' X. 138, 1898. 
Druce, G. Claridge. Notes on the Botany of Northamptonshire. 

' Journal N'ton N. H. Soc' x. 135-137, 1898. 
The Botanologia of Northamptonshire. ' Journal N'ton N. H. 

Soc' s. 19-21, 50-59, 112-114, 1898. 
Elliott, F. W. The Existing Trees and Shrubs of Epping Forest. 

♦ Essex Naturalist,' x. 277-287, 1899. 
Epps, James, jun. The Cacao Plant. ' Trans. Croydon M. N. H. C. 

1897-98,' 202^272, 1898. 
Fov/ler, B.ev. William. Mycology in its Popular Aspect. ' The Natu- 
rahst for 1S98,' 317-319, 1898. 
GiBBS, T. The Climatal Distribution of British Plants. ' Trans. Burt. 

N. H. Arch. Soc' iv. 48-55, 1899. 
Halifax Scientific Society' .\nd Geological Field Club. Local 

Eecords in Natural History : Botany. ' Hahfax Naturalist,' in. 127- 

128, 1899. 
Hamilton, W. P. The Life History of a Fern. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. 

Vail. F. C II. 125-127, 1898. 
Hey, Eev. W. C. Plant-Names in Use at West Ayton, York, N.E. ' The 

Naturalist for 1899,' 123-124, 1899. 
Hodgson, William. Occurrence of Ears Plants in Cumberland. * The 

Naturahst for 1899,' 1-3, 1899. 
Holmes, E. M. Botanical Work Wanting Workers. ' Trans. S.-E. 

Union,' in. 98-108, 1898. 
Ingham, William. IMosses New to Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 

1898,' 207-208, 1898. 



CORUESPONDING SOCIETIES. Gl 

Ingham, William. ]\Iosses and Hepatics of Skipworth Common, S.E. 

Yorkshire. ' The Naturahst for 1898,' 249-352, 1898. 
Mosses and Hepatics of Strensall Common. ' The Naturahst for 

1899,' 61-63, 1899. , ^ ^^ 
Mosses New to Yorkshire and Additional Eecords of Rare Mossen. 

' The Naturahst for 1899,' 64, 1899. 

Mosses of Tadcaster and Immediate District. ' The Naturahst for 



1899,' 117-122, 1899. ^._ ^ ^^ ^ ^^. 

Keeble, F. W. Impressions of Tropical Life. 'Trans. Manch. Mic. 
Soc. 1897,' 48-54, 1898. 

Keegan, Dr. P. Q. The Chemistry of the Lakeland Trees. ' The Natu- 
rahst for 1898,' 181-187, 1898. 

The Bursting of the Buds in Spring. ' The Naturahst for 1899,"" 

125-128, 1899. 
Lua\, Charles. Some ]\redicinal Plants of Leicestershire. ' Trans. 

Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' v. 17G-182, 1899. 
MacAndrew, Jas. Botanical Notes for 1897. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. 

H. A. Soc' No. 14, 5-8, 1898. 
M'Intosh, C. Notes bv a Naturahst round Dunkeld. ' Trans. Perth. 

Soc N. Sci.' II. 223-227, 1898. 
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' Trans. Perth. Soc. N. Sci.' ii. 197-200, 189S. 
Mansel-Pletdell, J. C. Order Oryzece.—Lccrua Oryzoides, Sow. 

' Proc Dorset N. H. A. F. C xix. 106-108, 1898. 
Marshall, J. J. Additions to Dr. Parsons' Moss Flora of the East 

Riding. ' The Naturahst for 1898,' 240, 1898. 
Meldrum, Robert H. A Preliminary List of Perthshire Mosses. 

' Trans. Perth. Soc. N. Sci.' ii. 227-239, 1898. 
Moss, C. E. Green Scums. ' Halifax Naturahst,' iii. 79-81, 1898. 
Murray, James, and R. D. Wilkie. The Mosses of Campsie Glen : A 

Contribution towards a List of Mosses of the West of Scotland. 

' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 217-219, 1898. 
P\RSON-s, Dr. H. Franklin. On the Times of Flowering of Early 

Spring Flowers. ' Trans. Croydon M. N. H.C 1897-98, 241-245, 

1898. 
On the Nature of the Soil in Relation to the Distribution of Plants 

and Animals. ' Trans. S.-E. Union,' iii. 65-72, 1898. 
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-1893. ' The Naturahst for 1898,' 309-316, 321-333, 1898. 
New Plant Records for North Lancashire, 1897 and 1898. ' The- 

Naturahst for 1898,' 363-361. 1898. 
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Dubhn and Wicklow. ' Irish Naturalist,' vii. 173-185, 1898. 
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of the Irish Field Club Union. ' Irish Naturalist,' vn. 227, 1898. 
A Botanist in the Central Plain : being Notes on Field Work m 1897 

and 1898. 'Irish Naturalist,' viii. 87-103, 1899. 
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122, 1899. . , ^, 

Preston, A. W. Presidential Address (Recording of Phenological Phe- 
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1899. 



62 REPORT — 1899. 

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the Species. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' x. 44-48, 1899. 
Eeport on the Mycetozoa of the South Midlands for the Years 1895 

to 1898. ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' x. 103-104, 1899. 
Smith, Eobeet. Plant Associations of the Tay Basin. ' Trans. Perths. 

Soc. N. Sci.' II. 200-217, 1898. 
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Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1899,' 27-31, 1899. 
Stablek, George. On the Hepaticte and Musci of Westmorland. 

' The NaturaHst for 1898,' 229-236, 341-348, 1898. 
Tatlow, Mrs. Emily M. (Dubhn N. F. C.) Wild Flowers in a County 

Dublin Garden. 'Irish Naturalist,' vii. 129-134, 1898. 
Teow, a. H. Liverworts found in the Neighbourhood of Cardiff. ' Trans. 

Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxx. 57-59, 1899. 
Turner, Charles. The Functions and Structure of Leaves. ' Trans. 

Manch. Mic Soc. 1897,' 64-70, 1898. 
Wager, Harold. Notes on Botrydium qranulatam, Grev. ' Trans. 

Leeds Nat. C. Sci. Assoc' iv. 9-15, 1899. 
Ward, Edward. A Visit to Kew Gardens. ' Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc, 

1897,' 42-45, 1898. 
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1897,' 71-74, 1898. 
Wellwood, S. M. Observations on some Morphological Abnormalities 

in the Tomato. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 181-186, 1898. 
Whitton, Jas. Meteorological Notes, and Remarks upon the Weather 

during the year 1897, with its General Effects upon Vegetation. 

' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 163-178, 1898. 
Wilkinson, Henry J. Catalogue of British Plants in the Herbarium of 

the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Part V. ' Report Yorks. Phil. 

Soc for 1898,' 1-16, 1899. 
Woodruffe-Peacock, Rev. E. A. Old Lincolnshire Plant Records, 1724 

and 1726. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 177-179, 1898. 



Heddle, Dr., and his Geological Work. By .J. G. Goodchild. ' Trans. 

Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 317-327, 1899. 
Newton, Sir Edward. Memoir, byT. S[outhwell]. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. 

Nat. Soc' VI. 409-412, 1898. 
SoppiTT, Thomas Henry. In Memoriam. By A. H. Pawson. ' The 

Naturahst for 1899,' 157-160, 1899. 
Spencer, James (with List of Geological Papers). By W. B. Crump. 

'Halifax Naturahst,' iii. 69-74, 1898. 
Tate, Thomas. By Rev. W. Lower Carter. ' Proc Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' 

XIII. 350-352, 1898. 
TuTE, Rev. John Stanley. By W. H. Hudleston. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. 

Poly. Soc' XIII. 353-355, 1898. 



ON RADIATION FROM A SOURCJO OF LIGHT I\ A MAGNETIC FiKLI). G3 



li'ndudiun froni a Source vf LiijJit in, a Magnetic Field. — PreUminari/ 
Rejiort of the Committee, condsting of Professor Geoikjk Francis 
FitzGerald (Chairman), Thomas Preston (Secretari/), Professor 
A. Schuster, Professor 0. J. Lodge, Professor tS. P. Thompson, 
Dr. Gerald Molloy, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 

TiiK work undertaken by this Committee has not yet terminated. This 
occurs partly from the difficulties which arose in obtaining a satisfactory 
supply of electric current with which to excite the powerful electro-magnet 
now in the hands of the Committee, and partly from the circumstance 
that the Secretary was not always free to work at svTch times as the staft 
of the Royal University found it convenient to permit I'esearch work in 
the Physical Laboratory. 

Considerable advance has been made, howevei-, during the past session, 
and the magnetic perturbations of the spectral lines of several substances 
have been observed and photographed from one end to the other of the 
spectrum. A considerable amount of work remains to be done in this direc- 
tion still, and this we hope to complete in the near future. 

The chief points of interest determined by the Committee since its 
appointment are as follows : — 

1. On Friday, September 9, 1898, Professor S. P.Thompson attracted 
the attention of the British Association (see ' Brit. Assoc. Report, 1898,' 
p. 789) to an elegant experiment devised by Professor Righi for the 
purpose of illustrating the absorption of light in a magnetic held. This 
experiment was stated by Professor Righi to succeed only when the light 
traversed the field along the lines of force, but it appeared to us from 
theoretical considerations that similar absorption should also take place 
when the light traverses the field across the lines of force. On trying the 
experiment on the following Tuesday (September 13, 1898), it was found 
at once that the experiment was capable of demonstrating absorption 
across the lines of force ' as markedly as that ascertained by Professor 
Righi along the lines of force. This result was also ascertained subse- 
<|uently, and independently, by M. Cotton. - 

2. The next point of interest consisted in placing beyond doubt that 
the various moditied forms of triplet, that is the quartets, octets, etc., are 
not produced by reversal or any other extraneous cause, but are ti'ue 
magnetic perturbations of the same kind as the normal triplet, which is to 
be expected from the simplest theoretical considerations. An account of 
the experiments by which this was determined will be found in the 
'Philosophical Magazine' for February 1899 ('Phil. Mag.' vol. xlvii. 
p. 165). 

In pursuing this inquiry it was found that in a very strong magnetic 
field the quartets ultimately became resolved into sextets, the side lines 
of the ([uartets splitting up into pairs and separating as the strength of 
the tield gradually increased. 

These (juartet forms, and various other types of perturbation, were 
observed by Mr. Preston in the beginning of November 1897, and were 
shown at the following meeting of the Dublin University Experimental 

' See NaUire, lix. 228-!), January 1899. 
- Comptcs Rmdus, 1898, 127, p. 953. 



64 KEPORT— 1899. 

Science Association. Subsequently the quai-tet form (which we have now 
proved in the cases observed to be really a sextet) was independently 
observed by M. Cornu ^ and others. 

3. Finally, from the various observations of the character and measure- 
ments of the amount of the magnetic effect experienced by the various 
spectral lines of several substances, a general law has been inferred con- 
cerning the effect which may be stated as follows : - — 

(i) The spectral lines of a given substance may be divided into groups 
such that all the members of one group suffer the same kind of perturba- 
tion in the magnetic field, but the kind of perturbation of all the members 
of another group is different. Thus, for example, in the series of triplets 
of zinc, the first of one triplet is similarly affected to the first of each of 
the other triplets, while the second of one triplet is affected in the same 
way as the second in each of the other triplets, but in a different way from 
first a,nd third of the triplet. Hence the series of firsts of each triplet 
constitute a group all the members of which are similai-ly affected, and the 
series of seconds and thirds are other such groups. 

(2) The character of the effect is the same in the corresponding lines 
of the spectra of chemically related elements. Thus, the triplets of cad- 
mium are affected in the same way, both as regards the character and the 
magnitude of the effect, as are the triplets of zinc. 

(3) If the magnitude of the effect be measured by the difference of 
wave-length of the lateral comporients of the magnetically resolved line, 
then throughout any one group the magnitude of the effect is inversely 
as the square of the wave-length of the line. This means that e/m is 
the same for all the lines of the same group, but not the same for all the 
lines of the spectrum. In other words, the difference of frequency 
between the lateral components of the magnetically resolved line is the 
same for all the lines of the same group ; and if the maQnitnxle of the 
effect be measured by this difference of frequency, then we may say that 
the effect is the same in character and magnitude for all the lines of the 
same group. It differs from group to group in any one substance, but is 
the same for corresponding groups in difierent substances. 

Further information will be found in this connection in the ' Philo- 
sophical Magazine,' vol. xlvii. p. 165, February 1899, and the ' Phil. Trans. 
Royal Dublin Society,' vol. viii. series II. p. 7, 1899. 



Determining Magnetic Force at Sea. — Beport of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. W. Euckeii (Chairman)., Dr. C. H. Lees, 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor A. Scuustei}, Captain E. W. 
Ckeak, Professor W. Stroud, Mr. C. V. Boys, and Mr. W. 
Watsox, apj.io,inted to investigate the Method of determining Mag- 
netic Force at Sea. 

Some information has been collected as to the methods used at sea by 
different countries, and Captain Creak has carried out experiments at 
Kew by Lloyd's method with encouraging results. 

' amjifes Benduf, 1898, 12G, p. 181 nnd p. .300. 

* iiiis law was published in ISatun-, lix. 218, January 12, 1899. 



ON THE METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATORY, MONTREAL 



Meteurological Observatory, Montreal. — Eeport of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. L. Callendar {Chairman), Professor C. 
McLeod {Secretary), Professor F. Adams, aiul Mr. R, F. Stupart, 
appointed for the purpose of establishing a. Meteorological Observatory 
on Mount Royal, Montreal, Canada. 

As reported last year, some very good records of temperature on the top 

of the mountain were obtained by means of a recorder set up in the 

College Observatory at the base, and connected by a line about a mile 

long to an electrical thermometer set up in the tower on the summit. 

Unfortunately, the grant for meteorological purposes had been reduced by 

the present Government, and the sum of money at the disposal of the 

Committee, amounting to only half the estimated cost, did not permit of 

protection for the line and the instruments in a sufficiently permanent 

manner. In the early part of the summer the lock was broken, and the 

instruments mischievously damaged. At a later date, the thermometer 

was struck by lightning, and the insulation of the line suffered. After 

some delay, owing to the winter, the cost of a new thermometer was 

defrayed by the Physics Building Committee, but it was found that the 

insulation of the line had deteriorated seriously in the course of the winter 

and the accuracy of the records was considerably impaired. It is hoped 

that these defects will shortly be located and repaired, and that the 

apparatus will soon be in good working order. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with a further grant of 20^. 
for the more efficient protection of the line and instruments. 

Tables of the G (r, v)-Integrah. — Iteport of the Committee, consistin 1 
of Rev. Robert Harley {Cludrman), Professor A. R. Forsytji 
{Secretary), Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. Lodge, and 
Professor Karl Pearson. {Dratvn up by Professor Karl 
Pearson.) 

Appendix.— TaJZ«« of F (r, v) and H (r, v) Functions. By Miss Alice Lee, 

^■^•^ 2)a<j'0 71 

(1) In determining the area a of the curve 

where r, r, a are constants of known numerical value in terms of the 
constant y^, we find ' : 

a=yQae-'^''A sin' e"' d6. . . . (ii.) 

Tliis curve occurs frequently in certain forms of statistical investiga- 
tion, and if we write 

G {r, v) = r sin' e"' dd . . . . (iii.^ 

' bee Phil. Trans., \o\. clsssvi. A, p. 377, 
1899.. '^ . _ 



6() REPORT— 1899. 

We have : 

a 1 

2/0 



a 1 



a F (r, v) • • ■ • • (i^-) 

where we write : F (r, >') = e'^"" G (;•, r) (v.) 

It was shown in a preliminaiy report ' that : 

F (r,7')=./^I(cos (/.)'■+! e"*-^-^"-'*' . . . (vi.) 

where tan ^=1' and )^ (r, 0) is a function which can be fairly easily calcu- 
lated, when certain preliminary functions have been tabulated. These 
Xi) X3» Xo' X7 functions were calculated in the preliminary report above 
referred to.'^ 

Now, in actual statistical application r may take as large a value as 
40 to 00. Hence, if cos f be taken from the tables (cos (b)'*^ is liable to 
a large error often reaching to the fifth place of figures when we are 
tabulating log F (r, r). Clearly, for accuracy, it is better not to find 
F (r, )') by interpolating between two tabular values of log F (?•, y), but 
to deal with some new function in which (cos (p)''^^ does not occur, and 
then multiply by the actual value of (cos 'P)'*'- deduced from the exact 
value of the angle (j> and the quantity ?•. This will not, of course, free us 
from the error, which arises from a value of cos </> tabulated to only 
seven figures being raised to a high power. The value of (cos <j))''^' must, 
therefore, be found from 10-figure logarithmic tables of trigonometrical 
functions like those of Vega's : ' Thesaurus Logarithmorum Completus ' 
of 1791. But the error due to the determination of (cos^))''^ from 
7 -figure tables is not significant in the case of statistical investigations. 
For 2/o) ^'^ determined for any observed frequency series— probably not 
containing more than 1,000 to 4,000 observations at a maximum — is subject 
to a considerable percentage error.-* It seemed, accordingly, desirable to 
tabulate for statistical purposes a function which is without the factor 
(cos (i>y*^, and has yet a real statistical importance. This function is 
obtained in the following manner. The frequency y^ per unit of variable 
X at the mean for the normal curve : 

where o- is the standard deviation, is given by 

r, 1 

where « is the area of the normal curve. For the curve (i) it is given '' by 

f^ V2n- V r—l 

' J}. A. Trans., Report IS'JC. 

- Tlic following slip has been since discovered in the tables of that report : 
loj X. for </) = 25°, should be 2.677,7543, and not 2.667,754;-!, as tabulated. 

' See Phil. Trans, vol. cxci. A, p. 297 et seq. ; uumerically, perhaps, the error may 
amount in practice to "5 to 2 jier cent. 

^ riee Phil. Trans, vol. cxci. A, p. 298 (equation cxxsvi.), where, however, the 
sTmbol X is used for 2 x (j, <P) of the present notation and of that of the Preliminary 
Beport. 



TABLES OF THE G {r, i/)-lNTEGRALS. 67 

This result we may write : 

a 1 / ••• \ 

where: H (r, v)=n/2^ ^!:^1 e"-"'*' .... (ix.) 

It is this function H {r, v) which has been chosen for the purposes of 
tabulation. Equation (viii.) shows its statistical importance — it enables 
us, knowing the standard deviation o- of the observations — to at once 
determine the frequency of mean values. It will approximate more and 
more to \/2rr as the frequency approaches a normal distribution, which it 
does when r is large. Hence the differences of H (r, i) will be small, 
and are likely to be smooth, when r is. large, and consequently F (r, v), 
owing to the factor (cos ^)'''^^ is not capable of very accurate determina- 
tion. 

The relations between the three functions already mentioned are : 

F (r, ,0=6--'^" G (r, ,') (x.) 

F (r, r)=£*_(cos_«y;^H (r, .) . . . . (xi.) 

G (r, v)=e''- F (?•, . ) (xii.) 

G (r, .')=e^*^(cos 0)2^H (?•, v) . . . (xiii.) 

H (r, v)=n/7^1^-^*F(/-, )') .... (xiv.) 

(cos (py^^ 



H (r, i)=s/r-l e^-^-^-G (r, . i . . . (xv.) 

(cos ^y+1 

so that any one can be found from either of the others. 

(2) But while H (r, »') is clearly the best function to tabulate when r 
is moderately large, it is not so satisfactory when /' is small ; for although 
in that case (cos (p)''*'^ may be fairly easily found from the tables in 
ordinary use, so that it might seem that F (r, i') could be accurately 
determined, yet the expression for x (>"> ^) i^ow becomes unsatisfactory. 
As has been shown in the Preliminary Report, § 2, we have to deal 
with a semi-convergent series, and cannot for small values of r go beyond 
\-j ; Ijut this may involve an ei'ror as large as 6 in 10,000. Accordingly, 
as the tables only proceed by integers, we have used the following results 
which can, for r= an integer, be deduced by direct integration : 

F (2r, I') =2 sinh i irv 



», (,,24.22) (,,2 + 42) . . . (./■i + (2r)-0 (xvi.) 



I 2r + l 
F (2r-M, r)=2 cosh \ ^Vfyr^^^^y,^^^ _ , („2 + (2r+lf) (xvii.) 

The function H (r, v) was then deduced from these values of F (?•, v) by 
(xiv.). 

f2 



68 ■ REPORT— 1899. 

This process was used for values of F (r, v) for r=l to 7, and the 
values of F (r, >) and H (r, »-) as found from the x-functions of the 
tables of the Preliminary Report were compared and found to agree with 
these for r=6 and r=7. For r=6 to ?-=50 the x-function tables were 
used. The values of ip are taken from 0° to 45° proceeding by degrees, 
for no instance has yet been found in statistical investigations in which 
V is greater than r. Should such cases arise in future, then F (r, v) or 
H (r, )') must be calculated from the x-tables for (^=46" to 90° given in 
the Preliminary Report. 

(3) The whole of the arithmetical work (which proved far more 
laborious than was initially anticipated) has been undertaken by Miss 
Alice Lee, B.A., D.Sc, Assistant-Lecturer in Physics in Bedford College, 
London. The arithmetic has been done twice independently. Miss Lee 
having been most kindly assisted in the verification of the tables by Miss 
M. Fry, Miss C. D. Fawcett, B.Sc, Miss E. Bramley-Moore, B. A„ and Miss 
L. Bramley-Moore. To the extent of the methods used we think the accu- 
racy of the tables is guaranteed by the agreement reached by the two sets 
of calculations. But soui'ces of error common to both independent calcu- 
lations have been already referred to, and may be indicated more particu- 
larly here. So far as H {r, v) as obtained from (ix.) is concerned, 2x has 
been worked to 9 figures and is certainly correct to 8 figures. 2)^ log e was 
then found by actual multiplication. We consider', accordingly, that 
log H (r, v\ is correct to 7 figures in all cases, from r=6 to ?'=50. Any 
inaccuracy of log F (r, v) arises from the extra factors in (xi.). To begin 
with, the factor e''*=e'*''"" * appears as r$ tan (p log e. ^ was obtained from 

'^ X n°, usinff the Brunsviga calculator ; tan was taken from Bheticus' 
180 ° ' r 

10-figure trigonometrical tables of 1-596, and the product r^/* tan log e 
obtained by the Brunsviga. We consider, therefore, that r./< tan </< 
log e, like the previous product '1 \ log e, should lie correct to at least 10 
places of figures. ('"+1) log cos f was found from Vega's 10-figure 
trigonometrical tables by actual multiplication. It is unlikely, accordingly, 
that there will be an error in this product in the 8th place, and we feel 
fairly certain that the method, when all the factors are added in, cannot 
afiect the value of log F (?', > ) to the 7th place. Still, the diflerences in 
the tabulated values of log F (r, r) are in parts of the table considerable, 
and interpolated values, such as we get in practice, can hardly be con- 
sidered as accurate beyond the 6th figure, or even at certain parts of the 
table beyond the 5th figure. This, of course, is suflBcient for statistical 
purposes, but if for physical or mathematical calculations it should be 
needful to have the G (?•, v) integrals to a closer value, a table will have 
' to be constructed for much smaller diSerences of r and 0. At present 
the physicist or mathematician must use our H (r, v) integral and find 
(cos </>)"^ and e'*'""* for the actual values of r and by lO-figui-e logarith- 
mic tables. He will hardly be sure of being correct to the 6th figure, if 
he uses the usual 7 -figure logarithmic tables. 

For values of r less than 6, formulte (xvi.) and (xvii.) have been used, 
as already noted. The factorial denominators were calculated by aid of 
the Brunsviga and Vega's 10-figure tables. For the hyperbolic sine and 
cosine tables have been calculated to 14 figures by J. W. L. Glaisher and 
F. Newman, but the differences were so large in the part of the tables 
required, that it seemed safer to recalci^late e^^ for the special valvies of 



TABLES OF THE G (r, j/)-INTEGRALS. 



69 



X needed.' In these cases H (r, r) had to be derived from F (r, .') by 
(xiv ) and the logarithms of the factors were obtained from Vegas 
lO-figure tables. The methods applied should give both log H (r, .) and 
log F (r, r) correct to seven figures. 

On the whole we consider that the Table, if the calculations are not 
in error, ought to be correct to the number of figures tabulated. The 
calculations have been done with much labour and care, twice indepen- 
dentlv with 7 -figure tables, and then again with 10-figure tables. The 
latter investigation modified generally the seventh figure, and occasion- 
ally the sixth, but gave a much smoother system of differences. 
Logarithms of the functions and their differences were worked to ten 
figures and then cut off at the nearest figure in the seventh place, thus 
ihe recorded differences are the nearest values of the true differences, and 
not the differences of the recorded logarithms. 

(A) With regard to interpolation formulae for tables of double entry, 
we have been unable to discover much consideration of the subject, pos- 
sibly because hitherto such tables have been rather rare. We do not 
know of any formulte, similar to those for interpolation on a curve, for 
interpolating on surfaces. The simplest formula, using second differ- 



ences, is 



* + 4Wa;-l)AX,o + 2x-2/AAXo + 2/(2/-l)^'X..} • • (^^^"•) 

where A denotes a difference with regard to x, and A' with regard to y. 
But if we consider »,., ,, to be the ordinate of a surface, and the figure 
to represent the xy plane of such a surface, then it is clear that, if P be 
the point x, y, and A, B, C, D, &c. the adjacent points at which the 
ordinates are known from the table of double entry, only the points 
A, B, C, D, J, and N are used by the formula ; and of these points, not 
equal weight is given to the fundamental points A, B, C, D, for C only 
appears in a second difference. If another point of the fundamental 
square other than A be taken as origin, we get a divergent, occasionally 
a widely divergent result. If we use only four points — A, B, C, D— to 
determine the value of the function at P, then we might take the ordinate 
at P of the plane which (by the method of least squares) most nearly 
passes through the four points of the surface vertically above A, B, C, D. 
We have then 

but by trial it has been found that this formula gives occasionally worse 
results than that for first differences, using only three points. To find 
by the methods of simple interpolation (with first or first and second 
differences) the points a and h,"^ and then interpolate P between them, 
generally gives a fairly good result ; but this result usually differs some- 

' For other investigations we have found, 

gix_g±:ro±(x-^o)=e±-fo(l±(a._a^„) + i|(a;-a;o)*± (i(ar-ar„)»+ -), 

where lUo is the nearest value in Glaisher and Newman's tables, to give e*^ ^dth 
great accuracy when four or five terms of the exponential expansion are used. But 
this method was more laborious than direct calculation when some 600 values were 
needed. 

< Ree diagram on p. 70. 



70 



REPORT — 1899. 



what from that obtained by first finding the value of the function at e 
and f by simple interpolation, and then interpolating P between these. 
On the whole we consider that methods of intei-polating in the case of 
tables of double or multiple entry require a full discussion and treatment 
which would be out of place here. The chief source of error which will 
arise in using the present tables will, we believe, be the error of inter- 
polation ; but this error with caution will not, we consider, amount to 
more than 3 or 4 in the 10,000, an error which is of no importance in 
statistical investigations. 



F 


G 


H 


I 


O 


O 


O 


o 


(-1,-1) 


(0,-1) 


(1--1) 


(2,- 



1) 



(-1,0) 
E 
© 



© 

S 

(-1,1) 



(0,0) 
A 
0- 



<- a" -^ a 



0... 
D 
(0,1) 



(1,0) 
B 
xt 

: y : 

: t ; 

OP :/ 



....0 
C 

(1,1) 



(2,0) 
J 






K 

(2,1) 



© 





© 


© 


R 


N 


M 


L 


(-1,2) 


(0,2) 


(1,2) 


(2,2) 



(5) Should the G (r, i) integrals ever become, like the I'-integrals, of 
physical or mathematical importance, e.g. in relation to F-integrals with 
a complex variable, then the present table will serve as a skeleton table 
to be filled in for much smaller differences of r and ^. The present 
determination of G (r, v) through a knowledge of H (r, r), and the use 
of 10-figure tables like those of Vega, will serve for almost all purposes 
that are likely to arise, and even without such 10-tigure tables for all statis- 
tical purposes. The latter were indeed those for which they were planned. 
To give greater accuracy for interpolated values we should have had to 
increase at least ten to twenty fold the 2,300 entries of the present table, 
and this could only be done by an amount of labour wholly incommensur- 
able with our initial aims. The table as it is has involved between five 
and six thousand independent calculations, and has consumed an amount 
of time and energy which, had it been foreseen — which luckily it was not 
— ^would probably have sufficed to discourage any attempt to carry out 
the work. 



TABLES OF THE G (»•, J/)-INTEGRALS. 



71 



<f° 



log P (r, v) 






0-301 0300 


I 


■301 0G09 


*} 


•301 153.S 


ii 


■301 308? 


4 


•301 5262 


5 


■301 8067 


e 


•302 1508 


_ 

7 


•302 5594 


8 


•303 0335 


9 


•303 5741 


10 


•304 1825 


11 


•304 8603 


12 


•305 6091 


13 


•300 4307 


14 


•307 3271 


15 


•308 3006 


IG 


•309 3538 


17 


•310 4892 


18 


•311 7098 


19 


•313 0189 


20 


•314 4200 


21 


•315 9169 


22 


•317 5137 


23 


•319 2150 


24 


•321 0256 


25 


•322 9507 


26 


■324 9963 


27 


•327 1685 


28 


•329 4740 


29 


•331 9202 


30 


•334 5150 


31 


•337 2672 


] 32 


•340 1860 


33 


•343 2818 


i 34 


•346 5656 


35 


•350 0496 


36 


•353 7469 


37 


■357 6722 


38 


•361 8410 


39 


•366 2708 


1 40 


•370 9805 


41 


•375 9908 


42 


•381 3246 


43 


•387 0070 


44 


•393 0658 


45 


•399 5316 



A log F (r, v) 



•000 0309 
92.S 
1550 
2175 
2805 
3441 
4086 
4740 
5406 
6085 
(;77S 
7488 
8216 
8964 
9735 
10532 
11353 
12206 
13091 
14011 
14969 
15968 
17013 
18106 
19252 
20456 
21722 
23055 
24462 
25948 
27521 
29188 
30958 
32838 
34840 
36974 
39252 
41689 
44298 
47096 
50103 
53338 
56824 
60588 
64658 



a2 log F (r, y) 

•000 0619 

621 

625 

630 

636 

645 

654 

666 

679 

693 

710 

728 

749 

771 

796 

822 

853 

885 

919 

958 

999 

1045 

1093 

1146 

1204 

1266 

1334 

1407 

1486 

1573 

1667 

1769 

1881 

2002 

2134 

2279 

2436 

2609 

2799 

3007 

3235 

3486 

3764 

4069 



72 



REPORT — 1899. 



log F (r, v) 




1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
U 
15 
IG 
17 
IS 
10 
20 
21 
22 
23 
21 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
81 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



log H {r, v) 



0196 1199 


0-196 1199 


■196 2052 


•196 1391 


•196 4614 


•196 1966 


•196 8890 


•196 2924 


•197 4890 


•196 4264 


•198 2627 


■196 5985 


•199 2118 


•196 8087 


•200 3385 


•197 0567 


•201 6452 


■197 3424 


•203 1349 


■197 6655 


•204 8110 


•198 0260 


•206 6774 


•198 4234 


•208 7382 


•198 8574 


•210 9985 


•199 3280 


•213 4631 


•199 8314 


•216 1383 


•200 3764 


•219 0303 


•200 9537 


•222 1462 


•201 6667 


•225 4936 


•202 2120 


•229 0807 


•202 8921 


•232 9167 


■203 6054 


•237 0114 


■204 3514 


•241 3755 


■205 1294 


•246 0203 


■205 9387 


■250 9584 


•206 7787 


•256 2034 


•207 6487 


•261 7697 


•208 6478 


■267 0733 


•209 4753 


■273 9311 


•210 4302 


■280 5618 


•211 4118 


■287 5852 


•212 4190 


■295 0232 


•213 4509 


•302 8992 


■214 5064 


•311 2388 


•215 5846 


■320 0696 


•216 6842 


•329 4214 


•217 8041 


■339 3271 


■218 9431 


•349 8221 


•220 1000 


•360 9451 


•221 2734 


•372 7382 


■222 4621 


■385 2475 


•223 6644 


■398 5232 


•224 8791 


•412 6205 


•226 1048 


■427 5995 


•227 3397 


•443 6266 


■228 5824 


•460 4745 


•229 8313 



A log H (r, I/) 



A-' log H ( V 



000 


0192 




575 




958 




1340 




1722 




2102 




2480 




2857 




3231 




3604 




3974 




4341 




4705 




5064 




5420 




5773 




6120 




6463 




6801 




7133 




7460 




7780 




8093 




8400 




8700 




8991 




9275 




9549 




9816 




0072 




0319 




0556 




0782 




0996 




1199 




1390 




1569 




1734 




1886 




2023 




2148 




2266 




2350 




2427 




2489 



•000 0383 
383 
382 
381 
380 
379 
377 
375 
373 
370 
367 
364 
360 
356 
352 
347 
343 
338 
332 
327 
320 
313 
307 
300 
291 
284 
275 
266 
256 
247 
236 
226 
213 
203 
191 
178 
165 
152 
138 
125 
109 
94 
77 
62 



TABLES OF THE G (r, i/) -INTEGRALS. 



73 







r 


= 3 




«° 










log F (r, u) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A-' log H (r, v) 




1 


0-124 9387 
•125 0847 


©•275 4537 
•275 4674 


•000 0137 


•000 0273 


2 


•125 5230 


•275 5084 


410 


273 


3 


•126 2545 


•275 5767 


683 


272 


4 


•127 2807 


•275 6721 


955 


271 


5 


•128 6039 


•275 7948 


1226 


270 




7 


•130 2270 
•132 1533 


•275 9444 
•276 1209 


1496 

1766 


269 

267 


8 


•134 3870 


•276 3242 


2032 


266 


9 
10 


•136 9331 
•139 7969 


•276 5540 
•276 8101 


2298 
2561 


263 
261 


11 


•142 9850 


•277 0923 


2822 


258 


12 


•14G 5043 


•277 4003 


3080 


256 


13 


•150 3626 


•277 7338 


3336 


252 


14 


•154 5688 


•278 0926 


3588 


249 


15 


•159 1322 


•278 4762 


3837 


245 


16 


•164 0636 


•278 8844 


4082 


241 


17 


•169 3743 


•279 3167 


4323 


237 


18 
19 


•175 0768 
•181 1848 


•279 7726 
•280 2519 


4560 
4793 


233 

228 


20 
21 


•187 7130 
•194 6774 


•280 7539 
•281 2782 


5020 
5243 


223 

217 


22 


•202 0955 


■281 8243 


5460 


212 


23 


•209 9858 


•282 3915 


5673 


206 


24 


•218 3688 


•282 9794 


5879 


200 


25 


•227 2664 


•283 5873 


6079 


194 


26 


•236 7023 


•284 2145 


6272 


188 


27 


•246 7020 


•284 8604 


6460 


180 


28 


•257 2933 


•285 5244 


6640 


173 


29 


•268 5060 


•286 2057 


6813 


165 


30 


•280 3725 


•286 9035 


6978 


158 


31 


•292 9278 


•287 6170 


7136 


150 


32 


•306 2096 


•288 3456 


7286 


141 


33 


•320 2589 


•289 0883 


7427 


133 


34 


•335 1201 


•289 8443 


7560 


124 


35 


•350 8413 


•290 6127 


7684 


115 


36 


•367 4747 


•291 3927 


7800 


106 


37 


•385 0770 


•292 1832 


7905 


97 


38 


•403 7099 


•292 9834 


8002 


87 


39 


•423 4403 


•293 7923 


8089 


77 


40 


•444 3416 


•294 6089 


8166 


67 


41 


•466 4933 


•295 4321 


8232 


57 


42 


•489 9829 


■296 2610 


8289 


46 


43 


•514 9055 


•297 0945 


8335 


36 


44 


•641 3658 


•297 9316 


8371 


23 


45 


•569 4783 


•298 7710 


8394 





74. 



REPORT — 1899. 



<p° 




T — 


4 




log P (r, y) 


log H (r, ^) 


A log H (r, v) 


a2 log H (r, v) 




1 


0071 1811 
•071 3902 


0-309 7418 
•309 7523 


•000 0105 
316 


•000 0211 


2 


•072 0177 


•309 7840 


527 


211 


3 


•073 0650 1 


•309 8366 


737 


210 


1 

4 


•074 5342 


•309 9103 


946 


209 


5 


•076 4285 ' 


■310 0049 


1154 


208 


G 


•078 7517 


■310 1204 


1361 


207 


7 


•081 5088 


■310 2565 


1 567 


206 


s 


•084 7055 


•310 4132 


1771 


204 


9 


•088 3486 


•310 5904 


1973 


202 


10 


■092 4458 


•310 7877 


2174 


201 


11 1 


•097 0060 


•311 0051 


2372 


19S 


12 ' 


•102 0399 


•311 2423 


2567 


196 


: i:5 


•107 5555 


•311 4990 


2760 


193 


1 14 


•113 5680 


•311 7751 


2950 


190 


15 


•120 0895 


•312 0701 


3137 


187 


17 


•127 1349 
•134 7199 


•312 3838 
•312 7159 


3321 
3501 


184 
180 


18 
19 


•142 8621 
•151 5802 


•313 0660 
•313 4337 


3677 
3849 


176 
172 


20 


•160 8948 


•313 8186 


4018 


168 


21 


•170 8281 


■314 2204 


4181 


164 


22 


•181 4042 


•314 6385 


4341 


160 


23 


•192 6491 


•315 0726 


4495 


154 


24 


•204 5907 


•315 5222 


4645 


150 


25 

' 26 


•217 2596 
■230 6885 


■315 9866 
•316 4655 


4789 
4927 


144 

138 


27 


•244 9127 


•316 9583 


5062 


134 


28 


•259 9707 


•317 4644 


5189 


127 


29 


•275 9034 


•317 9833 


5310 


121 


30 


■292 7555 


•318 5143 


5426 


116 


31 


•310 5754 


•319 0569 


5535 


109 


32 


•329 4149 


•319 6104 


5637 


102 


33 


•349 3304 


•320 1741 


5733 


96 


34 


' ^370 3832 


•320 7474 


5822 


89 


35 


•392 6390 


•321 3297 


5904 


82 


36 


•416 1697 


•321 9201 


5980 


75 


37 


•441 0529 


■322 5181 


6047 


68 


38 


•467 3733 


•323 1228 


6107 


60 


39 


•495 2227 


•323 7335 


6160 


53 


40 


•524 7011 


■324 3495 


6205 


45 


41 


•555 9177 


•324 9700 


6243 


38 


42 


•588 9916 


■325 5943 


6272 


30 


43 


•624 0530 


■326 2216 


6295 


22 


44 


•661 2446 


■326 8510 


6307 


12 


45 


•700 7225 


1 •327 4817 


1 





TABLES OF THE G ('/', l/)-INTEGRALS. 



75 





1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
C7 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



log P (r, v) 



log H (,-, „) 



0-028 
■028 
■029 
•030 
■032 
•034 
•037 
■041 
•045 
•050 
•055 
•061 
■068 
•075 
•083 
•091 
•101 
•110 
•121 
•132 
•145 
•158 
•171 
•186 
•202 
•218 
•236 
•254 
•274 
•294 
•316 
•339 
■364 
•390 
•417 
•446 
•476 
•509 
•543 
•579 
•617 
•657 
•700 
•745 
•793 
•844 



0289 


0329 0589 


3019 


•329 0673 


1221 


•329 0930 


4908 


•329 1357 


4110 


•329 1956 


8865 


•329 2723 


9224 


■329 3661 


5250 


•329 4765 


7016 


•329 6037 


4609 


•329 7474 


8130 


•329 9075 


7690 


•330 0838 


3415 


•330 2761 


5446 


•330 4842 


3937 


■330 7079 


9061 


•330 9469 


1002 


•331 2010 


9967 


•331 4700 


6176 


•331 7532 


9872 


•332 0508 


1317 


•332 3621 


0795 


•332 6870 


8614 


•333 0250 


5105 


•333 3757 


0627 


■333 7387 


5568 


•334 1137 


0346 


•334 5001 


6413 


•334 8976 


1255 


•335 3057 


8399 


•335 7239 


7413 


•336 1516 


8909 


•336 5884 


3553 


•337 0339 


2059 


•337 4874 


5203 


•^37 9485 


3827 


•338 4164 


8841 


•338 8908 


1232 


•339 3709 


2072 


•339 8563 


2529 


•340 3463 


3872 


•340 8404 


7483 


•341 3378 


4872 


•341 8381 


7688 


•342 3405 


7739 


•342 8446 


6999 


•343 3495 



A log H (r, v) 



•000 0084 
257 
428 
598 
768 
937 
1105 
1272 
1437 
1601 
1763 
1923 
2081 
2237 
2390 
2541 
2689 
2833 
2975 
3114 
3249 
3380 
3507 
3630 
3750 
3864 
3975 
4081 
4182 
4277 
4368 
4455 
4535 
4610 
4680 
^ 4744 
4802 
4854 
4900 
4940 
4975 
5003 
5024 
5040 
5049 



A^ log H (r, v) 



•000 0173 

171 

171 

170 

169 

168 

167 

165 

164 

162 

160 

158 

156 

153 

151 

148 

144 

142 

138 

135 

131 

127 

123 

119 

115 

110 

106 

101 

96 

91' 

87 

80 

75 

70 

64 

58 

52 

46 

40 

34 

28 

22 

16 

9 



76 



REPORT — 1899, 







r = 


= (5 




r 


log P (r, u) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


a2 log H (r, v) 




1 


i-991 9999 
•992 3379 


©•341 4849 
•341 4921 


•000 0072 
216 


•000 0144 

144 

143 

143 

142 

141 

140 

139 

137 

136 

134 

133 

131 

128 

127 

123 

121 

119 

115 

112 

109 

106 

103 

99 

95 

92 

88 

84 

78 

76 

71 

66 

62 

57 

52 

47 

43 

38 

33 

28 

22 

17 

12 

7 


2 


•993 3526 


•341 5137 


359 


3 


•995 0459 


•341 5496 


503 


4 
o 


•997 4213 
0-000 4836 


•341 5999 
•341 6644 


645 

787 


(5 


•004 2390 


•341 7432 


928 


7 

S 



10 

11 


•008 6950 
•013 8607 
•019 7468 
•026 3653 
•033 7300 


•341 8360 
•341 9428 
•342 0635 
•342 1980 
•342 3461 


1068 
1207 
1345 
1481 
1615 


12 


■041 8562 


•342 5075 


1747 


13 
14 
15 
16 


•050 7609 
•060 4633 
•070 9839 
•082 3457 


•342 6823 
•342 8701 
•343 0707 
•343 2839 


1878 
2006 
2133 
2256 


17 

18 
19 


•094 5734 
•107 6941 
•121 7375 


•343 5095 
•343 7472 
•343 9968 


2377 
2496 
2611 


20 


•136 7352 


•344 2579 


2723 


21 

22 
23 


•152 721!) 
•169 7350 
•187 8149 


•344 6302 
■344 8135 
•345 1074 


2833 
2939 
3041 


24 


•207 0053 


•345 4115 


3141 


25 


•227 3532 


•345 7256 


3236 


26 


•248 9095 


•346 0492 


3328 


27 


•271 7291 


•346 3819 


3415 


28 
29 
30 
31 
32 


•295 8713 
•321 3998 
•348 3836 

•376 8974 
•407 0214 


•346 7235 
•347 0734 
•347 4311 
347 7965 
•348 1689 


3499 
3577 
3653 
3724 
3791 


33 
34 
35 


•438 8428 
•472 4556 
•507 9618 


•348 5480 
•348 9332 
•349 3242 


3852 
3910 
3962 


36 

Of 

•> 1 

38 
39 


•545 4718 
•585 1052 
•626 9922 
•671 2739 


•349 7204 
•350 1213 
•350 5265 
•350 9354 


4009 
4052 
4090 
4122 


40 


•718 1040 


•351 3477 


4150 


41 
42 
43 
44 
45 


•767 6502 
•820 0951 
•875 6383 
•934 4983 
•996 9145 


•351 7627 
•352 1799 
•352 5989 
•353 0191 
•353 4399 


4172 
4190 
4202 
4209 



TABLES OF THE G (r, z/)-INTEGRALS. 



77 



"f 


log F (r, v) 


log H (r, v) 





i-961 0819 


0350 1576 


1 


•961 4851 


•350 1638 


2 


•962 6953 


•350 1824 


3 


•964 7151 


•350 2134 


4 ■ 


•967 5483 


•350 2567 


5 


•971 2008 


•350 3123 


6 


•975 6796 


•350 3801 


7 


•980 9940 


•350 4601 


8 


•987 1544 


•350 5522 


9 


■994 1735 


j ^350 6562 


10 


0002 0658 


! ^350 7720 


11 


■010 8465 


•350 8995 


12 


•020 5347 


•351 0386 


13 


•031 1503 


•351 1891 


14 


•042 7157 


•351 3508 


15 


•055 2551 


•351 5235 


16 


•068 7956 


•351 7071 


17 


•083 3665 


•351 9012 


18 


•098 9997 


•352 1058 


19 


•115 7298 


•352 3206 


20 


•133 5946 


•352 5452 


21 


•152 6347 


•352 7795 


22 


•172 8941 


•353 0232 


2n 


•i94 4'206 


■:!5;! 2760 


2+ 


•217 205:; 


■353 5375 


25 


•2-11 4839 


■353 8075 


26 


•267 1362 


•354 0857 


27 


•294 2868 


•354 3717 


28 


•323 0053 


•354 6652 


29 


•353 3670 


•354 9659 


30 


•385 4529 


•355 2732 


31 


•419 3506 


•355 5871 


32 


•455 1549 


•355 9070 


33 


•492 9680 


•356 2324 


34 


•532 9005 


•356 5632 


35 


•575 0721 


•356 8988 


36 


•619 6127 


•357 2388 


37 


•666 6629 


•357 5829 


38 


•716 3753 


•357 9306 


39 


•768 9159 


•358 2814 


40 


•824 4653 


•358 6350 


41 


•883 2199 


•358 9910 


42 


•945 3944 


•359 3488 


43 


1011 2229 


■359 7080 


44 


•080 9618 


■360 0682 


45 


•154 8920 i 


■360 4290 



A log H (r, v) 



A- log H (?•, y) 



000 0062 


•000 0124 


186 


124 


310 


123 


433 


123 


556 


122 


678 


122 


800 


121 


921 






120 


1040 






118 


1158 






117 


1275 






116 


1391 






114 


1505 






112 


1617 






no 


1727 






109 


1836 






106 


1942 






104 


2040 






102 


2148 






99 


2247 






97 


2343 






94 


2437 






91 


2528 




2615 


88 




85 


2700 




2782 


82 


2860 


79 




75 


2935 




3007 


72 


3074 


67 


3138 


64 


3199 


60 


3255 


56 


3308 


53 


3356 


49 


3400 


41 


3441 


40 


3477 


36 


3509 


32 


3536 


28 


3559 


23 


3578 


19 


3592 


11 


3603 


10 


36U8 


(i 



78 



EEPORT — 1899. 



,p° 




r= 


8 




log F (r, v) 


log H (r, y) 


A log H {r, v) 


a2 log H (r, v) 




1 


1-934 0080 
■934 4765 


0-356 5570 
■356 5624 


•000 0054 


•000 0109 


2 

a 

4 


•935 8831 
•938 2304 
•941 5232 


■356 5788 
■356 6059 
•356 6440 


163 
273 

380 


109 
108 
108 


5 


•945 7679 


■356 6928 


488 


107 


G 


•950 9729 


•356 7524 


596 


107 


7 


•957 1486 


•366 8236 


702 


106 


8 
9 


•964 3073 
•972 4634 


•356 9034 
•356 9947 


808 
913 


105 
104 


10 
11 


•981 6333 
•991 8357 


•357 0964 
•357 2083 


1017 
1120 


103 

101 


12 


0^003 0914 


•357 3304 


1221 


100 


i:j 


•015 4237 


•357 4625 


1321 


98 


14 
15 


•028 8583 
•043 4233 


•357 6044 
•357 7560 


1419 
1516 


97 
95 


lo 


•059 1498 


•357 9170 


1611 


93 


17 


•076 0714 


•358 0874 


1704 


91 


18 


•094 2250 


•358 2669 


1795 


89 


I'J 


•113 6505 


•358 4553 


1884 


87 


20 
21 


•134 3912 
•156 4939 


•358 6524 
•358 8570 


1971 

2055 


84 
83 


22 


•180 0093 


■;i59 071(i 


2137 


SO 


23 


•204 9923 


•359 2933 


3217 


77 


24 


•231 5019 


•359 5226 


2293 


74 


25 


•259 6019 


•359 7594 


2368 


71 


2G 


•289 3613 


•360 0033 


2439 


68 


27 
28 . 
29 


•320 8543 
•354 1610 

•389 3678 


•360 2540 
■360 5112 
■360 7747 


2507 
2572 
2635 


65 
63 
59 


30 
31 


•426 5682 
■465 8626 


■361 0441 
■361 3191 


2694 

2750 


.56 
53 


32 


•507 3601 


■361 5993 


2802 


49 


31 
35 
3G 


•551 1780 

•597 4436 

i •64(5 2911 

■697 8795 


■361 8844 
■363 1741 
■362 4681 
■362 7659 


2851 
3897 
2939 
2978 


46 
43 
39 
35 


37 


•752 3605 


■363 0671 


3013 


31 


38 
39 
40 


•809 9127 
•870 7267 
•935 0097 


■363 3715 
■363 6787 
•363 9883 


3044 
3072 
3096 


38 
24 
20 


41 


r002 9876 


•364 2998 


3116 


16 


42 


•074 9063 


•364 6130 


3132 


13 


43 


•151 0353 


•364 9274 


3144 


9 


44 
45 


•231 6680 

■317 1271 


■365 2427 

■365 5584 


3153 

3157 


5 



TABLES OF THE O (v, l^)-lNTEaRALS. 



79 



V 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

f. 
7 
8 
9 
10 
il 
12 
IS 
U 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
2i 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

oO 

31 
o2 
33 
34 
35 
3t'i 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
41 
45 



log F (r, v) 



log H (r, v) 



1-909 
■910 
•912 
•914 
•918 
•923 
•929 
•93G 
•944 
•953 
•964 
•975 
•988 

0^002 
•018 
•034 
•052 
•071 
■092 
•114 
•138 
•163 
•190 
•218 
•248 
•280 
•314 
•350 
•388 
•428 
•470 
•515 
•562 
•612 
•665 
•720 
•779 
•841 
•906 
■975 

1-048 
•125 
•207 
•294 
•385 
•482 



9294 

4635 

0669 

7427 

4961 

3346 

2675 

3067 

4661 

7619 

2128 

8398 

6667 

7197 

0278 

6230 

5403 

8179 

4974 

6239 

2465 

4180 

1960 

6422 

8237 

8124 

6864 

5295 

4323 

4925 

8156 

5153 

7146 

5463 

1511 

6932 

3322 

2531 

6549 

7519 

7784 

9892 

6624 

1013 

6379 

6360 



0^361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•361 
•362 
•362 
•362 
•362 
•362 
■362 
•362 
•362 
•363 
•363 
•363 
•363 
•363 
•364 
•361 
•364 
•364 
•364 
•365 
'365 
•365 
•365 
366 
•366 
•366 
•367 
•367 
•367 
•367 
•368 
•368 
•368 
•368 
•369 
•369 



4744 
4793 
4938 
5180 
5520 
5955 
6485 
7111 
7831 
8644 
9550 
0547 
1635 
2812 
4075 
5426 
6860 
8378 
9976 
1654 
3409 
5239 
7142 
9115 
1157 
3264 
5435 
7666 
9955 
2300 
4697 
7141 
9636 
2173 
4750 
7365 
0013 
2693 
5400 
8131 
0884 
3654 
6438 
9233 
2036 
4843 



A log H (r, v) 



•000 0049 

146 

242 

339 

435 

531 

626 

720 

813 

90(5 

997 

1088 

1177 

1264 

1350 

1435 

1518 

1599 

1678 

1755 

1830 

1903 

1973 

2013 

2107 

2171 

2231 

2290 

2345 

2397 

2417 

2493 

2537 

2577 

2615 

2649 

2680 

2707 

2731 

2752 

2770 

2784 

2795 

2803 

2806 



A- log H (r, v) 



•000 0097 
97 
97 
96 
96 
95 
94 
94 
92 
92 
90 
89 
88 
86 
84 
S3 
81 
79 
77 
75 
73 
71 
68 
66 
63 
61 
58 
55 
53 
50 
47 
44 
40 
37 
34 
31 
28 
24 
21 
18 
14 
11 



80 



REPORT — 1890. 



r=10 





1 

o 

3 

4 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
86 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



log F (r, I/) 

i-888 2505 
•888 8503 
•890 6508 
•893 6556 
•897 8705 
•903 3037 
•909 9658 
•917 8700 
•927 0317 
•937 4692 
■949 2033 
•962 2575 
•976 6581 
•992 4345 

0-009 6193 
•028 2179 
•048 3595 
•069 9966 
•093 2058 
•118 0374 
•144 5461 
•172 7930 
•202 8360 
•234 7504 
■208 6087 
•304 4913 
•342 4851 
•382 6838 
•425 1882 
•470 1076 
•517 5593 
•567 6703 
•620 5776 
•676 4293 
•735 3855 
•797 6194 
•863 3188 
•933 6869 

1-005 9444 
•083 3313 
•165 1080 
•251 5588 
•342 9931 
•439 7491 
•542 1966 
-650 7407 



log H (r, v) 



A log H (r, v) 



0-365 3717 

•365 3761 

•365 3892 

•365 4111 

•305 4416 

•365 4808 

•365 5387 

•365 5851 

•365 6500 

•365 7233 

•365 8050 

-365 8949 

■365 9929 

■366 0990 

•366 2129 

•366 3346 

•366 4639 

•366 6C07 

■366 7447 

•366 8960 

•367 0541 

•367 2190 

-367 3904 

•3G7 5682 

•367 7522 

•367 9420 

•368 1376 

•368 3386 

•368 5448 

•368 7559 

■368 9718 

■369 1922 

-369 4167 

■369 6451 

■369 8772 

•370 1126 

■370 3510 

•370 5923 

•370 8360 

•371 0819 

•371 3297 

•371 5790 

■371 8296 

■372 0813 

•373 3335 

■372 5861 



a2 log H (r, v) 



000 0044 


■000 0087 


131 


87 


219 


87 


306 


87 


392 


86 


479 






86 


564 


85 


649 


84 


733 


83 


817 


82 


899 


82 


981 


80 


1061 


79 


1139 


78 


1217 


76 


1293 


75 


1368 


73 


1441 


72 


1512 


69 


1581 


68 


1649 


66 


1714 


64 


1778 


CI 


1839 


59 


1899 


57 


1956 


55 


2010 


62 


2063 


50 


2112 


47 


2159 


44 


2303 


43 


2245 


39 


2284 


36 


2321 


33 


2354 


31 


2385 


28 


2413 


25 


2437 


22 


3459 


19 


2478 


16 


2494 


13 


2506 


10 


2516 


6 


or;90 




• O'^-^ 


4 


2526 





TABLES OF THE O (r, v)-INTEGRALS. 



81 



r = ll 



<t>° 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
() 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

2G 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

82 

33 

34 

35 

3G 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 



log P (r, v) 



log H (»■, v) 



i-868 5367 
•869 2023 
•871 2002 
■874 5345 
•879 2114 
•885 2402 
•892 6324 
•901 4027 
•911 5681 
•923 1487 
•936 1674 
•950 6505 
•966 6268 
•984 1288 
0003 1923 
•023 8567 
•046 1651 
•070 1646 
■095 9063 
•123 4460 
•152 8439 
•184 1654 
•217 4809 
•252 8669 
•290 4057 
■330 1857 
•372 3033 
•410 8615 
•463 9718 
•513 7544 
•566 3390 
•621 8657 
■680 4854 
•742 3617 
•807 6710 
•876 6045 
•949 3690 
1026 1888 
•107 3073 
•192 9888 
•283 5209 
•379 2165 
•480 4171 
•587 4953 
•700 8587 
•820 9540 



0368 


5367 


•368 


5407 


•368 


5527 


•368 


5725 


•368 


6004 


•368 


6361 


•368 


C79(; 


•368 


7310 


•368 


7900 


•368 


8568 


•268 


9311 


•369 


0129 


•369 


1022 


■369 


1987 


•369 


3024 


•369 4132 


•369 


5308 


•369 


6553 


•369 


7864 


•369 


9240 


•370 


0679 


•370 2179 


•370 3739 


•370 5357 


■370 7030 


•370 


8757 


•371 


0536 


•371 


2365 


■371 


4241 


•371 


6162 


•371 


8125 


•372 


0129 


•372 


2171 


•372 


4249 


•372 


6359 


•372 


8500 


•373 0669 


■373 


28C2 


•373 


5078 


•373 


7314 


•373 


9567 


■374 


1834 


•374 


4113 


■374 


6400 


•374 


8693 


•375 0990 



A log H (r, v) 



•000 0040 

•000 0120 

199 

278 

357 

435 

514 

591 

668 

743 

818 

892 

965 

1037 

1108 

1177 

1245 

1311 

1376 

1439 

1500 

1560 

1618 

1673 

1727 

1779 

1829 

1876 

1921 

19G4 

2004 

2042 

2078 

2110 

2141 

2169 

2194 

2216 

2236 

2253 

2267 

2279 

2287 

2293 

2296 



a2 log H (r, v) 



•000 0080 
79 
79 
79 
78 
78 
77 
77 
76 
75 
74 
73 
72 
71 
69 
68 
66 
65 
63 
62 
60 
58 
56 
54 
52 
50 
47 
45 
43 
40 
38 
36 
33 
30 
28 
25 
23 
20 
17 
14 
12 
9 
6 
3 



1899. 



G 



82 



REPORT — 1899. 



r 




r= 


12 




log P (r, p) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


a2 log H (r, v) 




1 

2 


i-860 4619 
•851 1933 
•853 3889 


0'371 1582 
•371 1619 
•371 1729 


•000 0036 
110 


•000 0073 
73 


3 

4 


•857 0528 
■862 1923 


•371 1912 
•371 2166 


183 
255 


73 

72 


5 


■868 8171 


•371 2494 


328 


72 


C) 


•876 9402 


•371 2893 


400 


71 


7 
8 
9 


■886 5774 
•897 7474 
•910 4722 


•371 3364 
•371 3907 
•371 4519 


471 
542 
613 


71 
70 
69 


10 
11 


•924 7770 
•940 6901 


•371 5201 
•371 5952 


682 
751 


69 

68 


12 


■958 2436 


■371 6771 


819 


67 


13 
14 


•977 4727 
•998 4167 


•371 7656 
•371 8608 


886 
951 


66 
65 


15 


0-021 1187 


•371 9624 


1016 


64 


16 


•045 6258 


•372 0703 


1080 


62 


17 


■071 9896 


•372 1845 


1142 


61 


18 


■100 2660 


•372 3048 


1203 


59 


19 


•130 5159 


•372 4310 


1262 


58 


20 


•162 8054 


•372 5630 


1320 


56 


21 


■197 2059 


•372 7006 


1376 


55 


22 


•233 7945 


•372 8437 


1431 


53 


23 

24 


•272 6547 
•313 8765 


•372 9921 
•373 1456 


1484 
1535 


51 
49 


25 


•357 5571 


•373 3040 


1584 


47 


26 


•403 8013 


•373 4672 


1632 


45 


27 


•452 7221 


•373 6349 


1677 


43 


28 


•504 4412 


•373 8069 


1720 


41 


29 


•559 0903 


•373 9831 


1762 


39 


30 


•616 8111 


•374 1631 


1801 


37 


31 


•677 7567 


•374 3469 


1838 


35 


32 


■742 0923 


•374 5341 


1873 


33 


33 


•809 9965 


•374 7246 


1905 


30 


84 


•881 6625 


•374 9182 


1935 


28 


35 


•957 2989 


•375 1145 


1963 


25- 


36 


1037 1322 


•375 3133 


1988 


23 


37 


•121 4073 


■375 5144 


2011 


21 


38 


■210 3905 


•375 7176 


2032 


18 


39 


■304 3704 


•375 9226 


2050 


16 


40 
41 


•403 6615 

•508 6058 


•376 1291 
•376 3370 


2065 

2078 


13 
11 


42 


•619 5764 


•376 5458 


2089 


8 


43 

44 


•736 9806 
•861 2638 


•376 7555 
•376 9657 


2097 
2102 


5 
3 


45 


•992 9140 


•377 1762 


2105 





TABLES (JF THK (i (/•, i/)-INTKGRALS. 



8:5 



<^" 




r= 


= 13 


1 


log F (r, v) 


log H 0; ^) 


A log H (r, v) 


A- log H (?•, v) 




1 1 


i-833 7746 
■834 5719 


0-373 3653 
■373 3686 


•000 0034 
101 


•000 0068 


] 2 


•836 9652 


•373 3787 


ii;9 


67 


3 


•840 9592 


•373 3956 


•J 36 


67 


4 


•840 5615 


•373 4192 


30:! 


67 


5 


j •853 7829 


•373 4494 


:!(i9 


67 


a 


•862 6374 


•:!73 1864 


135 


tu\ 


i 


•873 1421 


•373 5299 


501 


(U't 


s 


•885 3174 


•373 5800 


566 


65 


!) 


•899 1873 


•373 6365 


630 


(•>:, 


10 


•914 7789 


•373 6995 


694 


64 


11 


■932 1233 


•373 7689 


756 


63 


12 


•951 2549 


•373 8445 


SIS 


()2 


13 


•972 2124 


•373 9263 


879 


61 ' 


14 


•995 0382 


•374 0142 


938 


60 


15 


0^019 7792 


•374 1081 


997 


59 


16 


•046 4865 


•374 2078 


1055 


58 


17 


•075 2161 


•374 3132 


1111 


56 


LS 


•106 0288 


•374 4243 


llCi; 


55 


10 


•138 9908 


•374 5409 


1219 


53 


20 


•174 1737 


•374 6628 


1271 


52 


21 

22 


•211 6551 
•251 5187 


•374 7899 
•374 9221 


1322 
1370 


51 
49 


23 
24 


•293 8552 
•338 7623 


•375 0591 
•375 2008 


1417 
1464 


47 

46 


25 
21! 


•386 3455 
•436 7186 


•375 3472 
•375 4978 


1506 
1549 


43 

42 


27 

28 


490 0042 
•546 3346 


•375 6527 
•375 8115 


1589 
1627 


40 

38 


29 


•605 8526 


•375 9742 


1663 


36 


30 


•6G8 7120 


•376 1405 


1697 


34 


31 
32 


•735 0790 
•805 1331 


•376 3102 
■376 4831 


1729 
1759 


32 
30 


33 


•879 0680 


■376 6589 


1787 


28 


34 
35 


•957 0932 
1^039 4354 


•376 8376 
•377 0188 


1812 
1836 


26 
23 


36 


•126 3402 


•377 2024 


1857 


21 


37 


•218 0735 


•377 3881 


1876 


19 


38 


•314 9240 


•377 5757 


1893 


17 


39 


•417 2053 


•377 7649 


1907 


14 


40 
41 
42 


•525 2583 
•639 4542 
•760 1977 


•377 9556 
•378 1475 
•378 3403 


1919 
1928 
1936 


12 
10 

7 


43 


•887 9308 


•378 5338 


1941 


5 


44 


2^023 1367 


•378 7279 


1943 


2 


45 


•166 3448 


•378 9222 







g2 



84 



REPORT — 1899. 



r = 14 



losF 



I'J 



log H (r, v) 



A log H (»•, v) 



AnogK{r,v} 




1 
o 

t'> 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
23 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

no 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
3G 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
43 
43 
44 
45 



1-818 2772 


•819 


1404 


•821 


7316 


•826 0558 


•832 


1212 


•839 


9395 


•849 


5258 


■860 


8985 


•874 


0798 


■889 0954 


•905 


9746 


•924 


7510 


•945 4618 


•968 


1485 


•993 


8571 


0019 


6383 


•048 


5469 


•079 


C435 


•112 


9939 


•148 


6693 


•186 


7470 


•227 


3107 


•270 


4509 


•316 


2653 


•364 


8594 


•416 


3469 


•470 8506 


•528 


5029 


•589 


4465 


•653 


8353 


•721 


Oooo 


•793 


6358 


•869 


4003 


•949 


3679 


1033 


7545 


•122 


8047 


•216 


7831 


•315 


9768 


•420 


6970 


•531 


281 S 


•648 


0989 


•771 


5487 


•902 


0674 


2-040 


131S 


•186 


2627 


•341 


0309 



0^375 2489 
-375 2520 
•375 2614 
•875 2771 
•375 2990 
•375 3271 
•375 3614 
•375 4019 
•375 4484 
•375 5010 
•375 5595 
•375 6239 
•375 6943 
•375 7702 
•375 8518 
•375 9390 
•376 0317 
•376 1297 
•376 2329 
•376 3412 
•376 4544 
•376 5725 
•376 6952 
•376 8225 
•376 9542 
•377 0901 
•377 2301 
•377 3739 
•377 5215 
•377 6726 
•377 8270 
•377 9846 
•378 1452 
•378 3085 
•378 4745 
•378 6428 
•378 8133 
•378 9857 
•379 1599 
•379 3356 
■379 5127 
•379 6909 
•379 S699 
•380 0497 
•3S0 2299 
•380 4103 



•000 0031 
94 
157 
219 
281 
343 
404 
465 
526 
585 
644 
703 
760 
816 
872 
926 
980 
1032 
1083 
1133 
lisi 
1338 
1273 
1317 
1359 
1399 
1439 
1476 
1511 
1544 
1576 
1606 
1634 
1659 
1683 
1705 
1724 
1742 
1757 
1771 
1782 
1791 
1797 
1802 
1804 



-000 0063 
63 
62 
62 
62 
61 
61 
GO 
60 
59 
68 
57 
56 
55 
54 
53 
52 
51 
50 
48 
47 
45 
44 
42 
40 
39 
37 
35 
33 
32 
30 
28 
26 

2-1 
22 
19 
18 
15 
13 
11 
9 
7 



TABLES OF THE G (r, i/)-INr£GKAL8. 



85 



r= ID 




1 
2 
H 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
10 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2G 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



log F (r, v) 



1-803 8114 
•804 7405 
•807 5297 
■812 1842 
•818 7130 
•827 1285 
•837 4469 
•849 6881 
•863 8758 
•880 0376 
•898 2051 
•918 4141 
•940 7047 
•965 1215 
•991 7138 

0020 5357 
•051 6467 
•085 1115 
•121 0005 
•159 3904 
•200 3641 
•244 0113 
•290 4293 
•339 7229 
•392 0053 
•447 3985 
•506 0343 
•568 0547 
•633 6129 
•702 8740 
•776 0162 
•853 2318 
•934 7285 

1020 7304 
•111 4801 
•207 2399 
•308 2938 
•414 9495 
•527 6412 
•646 4313 
•772 0144 
•904 7199 

2^045 0157 
•193 4131 
•350 4709 
•516 8011 



log H {r, v) 



O^370 8754 
•376 8783 
•376 8871 
•376 it018 
•376 0222 
•376 9485 
•376 9805 
•377 0183 
•377 0617 
•377 1108 
•377 1655 
•377 2256 
•377 2912 
•377 3622 
•377 4384 
•377 5199 
•377 6064 
•377 6979 
•377 7942 
•377 8953 
■378 0011 
•378 1113 
•378 2259 
•378 3448 
•378 4677 
•378 5946 
•378 7252 
•378 8595 
•378 9973 
•379 1383 
•379 2825 
•379 4296 
•379 5795 
•379 7320 
•379 8869 
•380 0440 
•380 2031 
■380 3641 
•380 5267 
•380 6907 
•380 8560 
•381 0223 
•381 1894 
•381 3572 
•381 5254 
•381 6938 



A log H (r, v) 



■000 0029 

88 

146 

205 

262 

321 

378 

435 

491 

547 

602 

656 

710 

762 

814 

865 

915 

961 

loll 

1().";7 

1102 

1146 

1189 

1229 

1269 

1307 

1343 

1377 

1411 

1442 

1471 

1499 

1525 

1549 

1571 

1591 

1610 

1626 

1640 

1653 

1663 

1671 

1678 

1682 

1684 



A2 log H (;■, ;;) 



•000 0059 
58 
58 
58 
58 
57 
' 57 
56 
56 
55 
54 
54 
53 
52 
51 
50 
•19 
48 
46 
45 
44 
43 
41 
39 
38 
36 
34 
33 
31 
30 
28 
26 
24 
22 
20 
18 
17 
14 
12 
11 
8 
6 
4 



8G 



REPORT — 1899. 



r 




r = 


16 




log F (r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A^ log H (r, v) 




1 


i-790 2485 
•791 2436 


0-378 2941 
•378 2969 


•000. 0028 

82 

137 

192 

246 

300 

354 

408 

460 

513 

564 

615 

666 

715 

764 

811 

858 

904 

948 

992 

1034 

1075 

1114 

1153 

1190 

1225 

1259 

1292 

1323 

1352 

1380 

1405 

1430 

1452 

1473 

1492 

1509 

1525 

1538 

1549 

1559 

1567 

1573 

1577 

1579 


•000 0055 


2 


•794 2308 


•378 3051 


55 


3 


■799 2158 


•378 3188 


55 


4 


•806 2081 


•378 3380 


54 


5 


•815 2211 


•378 3626 


54 


(■) 


•826 2719 


•378 3927 


54 


7 


•839 3819 


•378 4281 


53 


8 


•834 5764 


•378 4688 


53 


i 10 


•871 8848 
•891 3410 


•378 5149 
•378 5661 


52 
52 


i 11 

! 12 


•912 9831 
•936 8541 


•378 6226 
•378 6841 


51 

30 ^ 


13 


•963 0016 


•378 7507 


49 ] 


14 


•991 4782 


•378 8222 


49 


15 


•022 3418 


•378 8985 


48 


16 


•055 6559 


•378 9796 


47 


17 


•091 4895 


•379 0654 


46 


18 


•129 9181 


•379 1558 


45 


19 


•171 0234 


•379 2506 


43 


20 


•214 8939 


■379 3498 


42 


21 
22 


•261 G258 
•311 3226 


•379 4532 
•379 5606 


41 

40 


23 


•364 0964 


•379 6721 


38 


24 


•420 0G81 


•379 7874 


37 


25 
26 


•479 3681 
•542 1372 


•379 9063 
•380 0289 


35 
34 


27 


•608 5269 


■380 1548 


33 


28 


■678 7007 


■380 2839 


31 


29 
30 


•752 8356 
•831 1213 


•380 4162 
■380 5514 


29 

28 


31 


•913 7633 


•380 6893 


26 


32 


1^000 9834 


•380 8299 


24 


33 
34 


■093 0211 
•190 1352 


•380 9729 
•381 1181 


23 
21 


35 


•292 6060 


•381 2654 


19 


36 

37 


•400 7368 
•514 8561 


•381 4146 
•381 5655 


17 
15 


38 


•635 320C 


•381 7180 


13 


39 


•762 5175 


•381 8718 


12 


40 


•896 8681 


•382 0267 


10 


11 


2038 S307 


•382 1826 


8 


■12 


•188 9051 


■382 839:! 


6 


43 


•347 6370 


•382 4966 


4 


44 
45 


•515 6232 
•693 5170 


•382 6543 
•382 8122 


2 



TABLES OF THE G (r, j/)-INTEGKALS. 



87 





I 




r = 


= 17 




1 log F (r, v) 


log H {r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


a2 log H (r, y) 


' 1-777 4825 
•778 5436 


0-379 5425 
■379 5450 


•000 0026 


•000 0052 


*> 


•781 7289 


•379 5528 


78 


52 


o 


•787 0445 


•879 5657 


129 


51 


i 


■794 5004 


•379 5838 


181 


51 


5 


•804 1110 


•379 6070 


232 


51 


t) 


•815 8945 


•379 6352 


283 


51 


7 


•829 8736 


•379 6686 


333 


50 


« 


•846 0751 


•379 7070 


384 


50 


!) 


•864 5306 


•379 7503 


433 


49 


10 
11 


•885 2758 
•908 3516 


•379 7986 
-379 8517 


483 
531 


49 
48 


12 


•933 8035 


-379 9096 


579 


47 


13 


•961 6821 


-379 9723 


627 


47 


14 
15 


•992 0436 
0^024 9495 


-380 0396 
-380 1115 


673 
719 


46 
45 


16 


•060 4672 


-380 1878 


764 


44 


17 


•098 6704 


-380 2686 


808 


43 


18 


■139 6392 


■380 3537 


851 


42 


19 


•183 4606 


•380 4430 


893 


41 


20 
21 


;230 2288 
•280 0460 


•380 5363 
•380 6336 


933 
973 


40 
39 


22 


•333 0225 


•380 7348 


1012 


37 


23 
24 


•389 2774 
•448 9393 


•380 8397 
•380 9482 


1049 
1085 


36 
35 


25 


■512 1471 


•381 0602 


1120 


33 


26 


•579 0504 


•381 1756 


1153 


32 


27 


•649 8104 


•381 2941 


1185 


31 


28 
29 


•724 6013 
•803 6106 


■381 4157 
•381 5402 


1216 
1245 


29 
28 


30 


■887 0408 


•381 6674 


1273 


26 


1 ^^ 


■975 1103 


•381 7973 


1299 


24 


! 32 ' 


1^068 0549 


•381 9296 


1323 . 


23 


33 


•166 1294 


•382 0642 


1346 


21 


34 1 


•269 6092 


•382 2009 


1367 


20 


35 


•378 7922 


•382 3396 


1387 


18 


36 I 


•494 0009 


•382 4800 


1404 


ii; 


37 ! 


•615 5849 


•382 6220 


1420 


14 


38 


•743 9235 


•382 7655 


1435 


13 


39 


•879 4285 


•382 0102 


1448 


U 


40 


2022 5477 


•383 0561 


1458 


9 


41 


•173 7686 


•383 2028 


1468 


7 


42 


•333 6229 


•383 3503 


1475 


6 


43 1 


•502 6906 


•383 4984 


1480 


4. 


44 


•681 6063 


•383 6468 


1484 


2 


45 

1 


•871 0649 


•383 7953 


1486 





88 



RUiPORT — 1899. 



<t>° 




,• = 


18 




log F (r, «/) 


log H [r, r) 


A log H h; v) 


A" log H (r, I/) 





i-765 4249 


0-380 6494 






1 


•766 5520 


•380 6518 


•000 0024 


■000 0049 


2 


■769 9355 


•380 6591 


73 


49 


3 


■775 5818 


•380 6713 


122 


49 


4 


■783 5015 


•380 6884 


171 


48 


5 


■793 7099 


•380 7103 


219 


48 


6 


•806 2262 


•380 7370 


267 


48 


7 


•821 0746 


•380 7685 


315 


47 


8 


■838 2835 


•380 8048 


362 


47 


9 


•857 8863 


•380 8457 


409 


47 


10 


■879 9209 


•380 8913 


456 


46 


11 


•904 4307 


•380 9415 


502 


45 


12 


■931 4638 


•380 9962 


547 


45 


13 


■961 0741 


•381 0554 


592 


44 


14 


•993 3209 


-381 1190 


636 


43 


15 


0028 2696 


•381 1869 


679 


42 


16 


•065 9915 


•381 2591 


722 


42 


17 


•106 5648 


■381 3354 


763 


41 


18 


■150 0744 


■381 4157 


804 


40 


19 


■196 6125 


■381 5001 


843 


39 


20 


•246 2790 


■381 5882 


882 


38 


21 


•299 1823 


■381 6802 


919 


36 


22 


■355 4391 


■381 7757 


956 


35 


23 


•415 1758 


■381 8749 


991 


34 


24 


•478 5288 


■381 9774 


1025 


33 


25 


•545 6451 


•382 0832 


1058 


31 


26 


•616 6833 


•382 1921 


1089 


30 


27 


•691 8145 


■382 3041 


1120 


29 


28 


•771 2230 


-382 4189 


1148 


27 


29 


•855 1078 


-382 5365 


1176 


26 


30 


•943 6834 


■382 6567 


1202 


25 


31 


1-037 1813 


•382 7794 


1227 


23 


32 


•135 8513 


■382 9043 


1249 


22 


33 


•239 9636 


•383 0314 


1271 


20 


34 


•349 8099 


•383 1605 


1291 


19 


35 


•465 7060 


•383 2915 


1310 


17 ■ 


36 


•587 9937 


•383 4241 


1326 


15 


37 


■717 0435 


•383 5583 


1342 


14 


38 


•853 2571 


•383 6938 


1355 


12 


89 


•997 0711 


•383 8305 


1367 


10 


40 


2-148 9600 


•383 9683 


1377 


9 


41 


•309 4403 


•384 1069 


1386 


7 


42 


•479 0754 


•384 2462 


1393 


5 


43 


•658 4799 


•384 3860 


1398 


4 


44 


•848 3263 


•384 5262 


1402 


2 


45 


3049 3507 


•384 6665 


1403 





TABLES OF THE G (r, i;)-INTEGKAL8. 



89 



<p° 




r= 


19 




log P (r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A2 log H (r, v) 





1-754 0014 


0-381 6376 






1 


■755 1945 


-381 6399 


•000 0023 


-000 00-16 


2 


•758 7762 


•381 6469 


70 


46 


3 


•764 7532 


•381 6584 


116 


46 


4 


•773 1369 


-381 6746 


162 


46 


5 


•783 9431 


•381 6954 


208 


46 


6 


•797 1925 


•381 7207 


253 


45 


7 


•812 9104 


•381 7505 


299 


45 


8 


•831 1269 


•381 7849 


343 


45 


9 


•851 8772 


•381 8237 


388 


44 


10 


•875 2015 


•381 8669 


432 


44 


11 


•901 1455 


•381 9144 


476 


43 


12 


■929 7603 


•381 9663 


519 


42 


13 


■961 1020 


•382 0224 


561 


42 


14 


•995 2351 


•382 0826 


603 


41 


15 


0032 2269 


•382 1470 


643 


40 


16 


■072 1535 


•382 2154 


684 


39 


17 


■115 0974 


•382 2877 


723 


38 


18 


•161 1483 


•382 3638 


701 


38 


19 


•210 4036 


•382 4437 


799 


37 


20 


■262 9690 


■382 5273 


836 


30 


21 


■318 9588 


•382 6144 


871 


35 


22 


■378 4966 


-382 7049 


906 


33 


23 


■441 7157 


•382 7988 


939 
971 


32 


24 


•508 7603 


•382 8960 


31 


25 


•579 7858 


•382 9962 


1002 


30 


26 


•654 9597 


•383 0994 


1032 


29 


27 


•734 4627 


•383 2055 


1061 


27 


28 


•818 4896 


•383 3143 


1088 


26 


29 


■907 2506 


•383 4257 


1114 


25 


30 


1-000 9723 


•383 5396 


1139 


23 


31 


•099 8993 


•383 6558 


1162 


22 


32 


•204 2956 


•383 7742 


1184 


20 


33 


•314 4464 


•383 8940 


1204 


19 


34 


•430 6601 


•384 0170 


1223 


17 


35 


•553 2702 


•384 1411 


1241 


16 


36 


■682 6377 


•384 2667 


1257 


14 


37 


■819 1539 


-384 3938 


1271 


13 


38 


■963 2435 


•384 5222 


1284 


11 


39 


2115 3673 


•384 6518 


1295 
1305 
1313 
1320 
1324 
1328 
1330 


10 


40 


•276 0267 


•384 7823 


8 


41 


•445 7673 


•384 9136 


7 


42 


•625 1841 


•385 0455 


5 


43 


•814 9263 


•385 1780 


3 


44 


3015 7041 


•385 3108 


2 


45 


•228 2962 


•385 4437 





90 



REPORT — 1899. 



r = 20 



r 



log F (r, v) 



4 
5 
G 

7 

8 

U 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



i-743 1485 
■744 4077 
•748 1876 
•754 4955 
•763 3431 
•774 7474 
•788 7299 
•805 3174 
•824 5417 
•846 4398 
•871 0541 
•898 4326 
•928 6293 
•961 7039 
•997 7224 

0036 7574 
■078 8894 
•124 2043 
•172 7969 
•224 7699 
•280 2346 
•339 3115 
■402 1306 
•468 8327 
■539 5695 
■614 5047 
•693 8148 
■777 6902 
■866 3362 
■959 9740 

1^058 8424 
■163 1992 
■273 3224 
•389 5124 
•512 0941 
•641 4188 
•777 8668 
■921 8503 

2^073 8165 
•234 2509 
•403 6815 
•582 6831 
•771 8822 
•971 9629 

3^183 6730 
•407 8314 



log H (r, v) 



0-382 5253 
•382 5275 
•382 5341 
•382 5451 
•382 6605 
•382 5802 
•382 6042 
•382 6326 
•382 6652 
•382 7021 
•382 7432 
•382 7883 
•382 8376 
•382 8909 
•382 9482 
•383 0093 
■383 0743 
■383 1430 
■383 2153 
•383 2912 
•383 3706 
•383 4534 
■383 5394 
■383 6286 
•383 7209 
•383 8162 
•383 9142 
•384 0150 
■384 1184 
■384 2243 
■384 3325 
•384 4429 
■384 6554 
•384 6698 
•384 7860 
•384 9039 
•386 0233 
■385 1440 
■385 2660 
■386 3891 
■386 6130 
■385 6378 
■385 7632 
■385 8890 
■386 0151 
•386 1414 



A log H (r, v) 



a2 log H {r, J/) 



000 0022 


•000 0044 


66 


44 


110 


44 


154 






44 


197 






43 


241 


43 


284 


43 
42 
42 


327 


369 


411 




41 


452 






41 


493 






40 


533 






40 


573 


39 


611 




39 


650 






37 


687 


37 


724 




36 


759 




794 


35 




34 


828 






33 


860 






•J.9 


892 


31 


923 




30 


952 




981 


28 


1008 


27 




26 


1034 




1069 


25 


1082 


23 


1104 


22 




21 


1125 




1144 


19 


1162 


18 


1179 


17 


1194 


15 


1208 


14 


1220 


12 


1231 


11 


1240 


y 


1247 


8 
6 


1254 


1258 


5 


1261 


3 




9 


1263 


^ 



TAULES OF THE G (r, it')-JNTEGRALS. 



91 



f'' 




r= 


21 




log F {r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


AlogH(r, ^) 


A2 log H {r, v) 





i-732 8121 


0^383 3271 






1 


•734 1352 


•383 3292 


•000 0021 


■000 0042 


2 


•738 1155 


•383 3354 


63 


43 


3 


•744 7542 


•383 3459 


105 


42 


4 


■754 0660 


•383 3606 


146 


41 


5 


•766 0683 


•383 3793 


188 


41 


t> 


■780 7641 


•383 4022 


229 


41 


7 


•798 2414 


•383 4293 


270 


41 


8 


■818 4736 


•383 4604 


311 


40 


!) 


•841 5196 


.383 4955 


351 


40 


10 


•867 4241 


■383 5346 


391 


39 


11 


•896 2374 


.383 5776 


430 


39 


12 ■ 


•928 0162 


•383 6245 


469 


38 


]3 


•962 8233 


•383 6753 


508 


38 


14 


0-000 7283 


■383 7299 


545 


37 


! 1*^ 


•041 8074 


•383 7881 


582 


36 


1 16 


■086 1444 


■383 8500 


619 


36 


17 


•133 8306 


•383 1)154 


654 


35 


18 


•184 9653 


•383 9843 


689 


34 


li) 


•239 6563 


•384 0566 


723 


33 


20 


•298 0208 


•384 1322 


756 


32 


21 


•360 1851 


•384 2111 


788 


31 


22 


■426 2861 


•384 2930 


820 


30 


23 


■496 4716 


•384 3780 


850 


29 


24 


■570 9011 


•384 4659 


879 


28 


25 


•649 7464 


•384 5566 


907 


27 


26 


•733 1933 


•384 6500 


934 


26 


27 


•821 4416 


•384 7460 


960 


25 


28 


•914 7070 


•384 8445 


985 


23 


29 


1013 2222 


•384 9453 


1008 


22 


30 


■117 2380 


•385 0484 


1031 


21 


31 


■227 0250 


•385 1535 


10.52 


20 


32 


•342 8756 


■385 2607 


1071 


18 


33 


•465 1055 


•385 3696 


1090 


17 


34 


•594 0558 


385 4803 


1107 


16 


35 


■730 0957 


■385 5926 


1123 


14 


36 


•873 6248 


•385 7063 


1137 


13 


37 


2025 0761 


•385 8213 


1150 


12 


I 38 

1 


•184 9195 


•385 9375 


1162 


10 


, ^"-^ 


•353 6651 


•386 0547 


1172 


9 


' 40 


•531 8676 


•386 1728 


1181 


7 


i 41 


■720 1308 


•386 2916 


1188 


6 


42 


■919 1130 


■386 4110 


1194 


4 


43 


3129 5327 


•386 5308 


1198 


3 


44 


•352 1756 


•386 6510 


1201 


2 


45 


•587 9021 


•386 7712 


1203 





92 



REPORT — 1899. 



r = 22 



log F (r, ;.) 




1 
2 
3 
i 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



i-722 
•724 
•728 
•735 
•745 
•757 
•773 
•791 
•812 
•837 
•864 
•894 
•927 
•964 

0004 
•047 
•093 
•143 
•197 
•255 
•316 
•381 
•450 
•524 
•602 
•685 
•773 
•865 
•963 

1'066 
■176 
•291 
•412 
•541 
•676 
•819 
•969 

2-128 
•296 
•473 
•660 
•858 

3^066 
•287 
•521 
•768 



9451 
3364 
5130 
4826 
2584 
8590 
3082 
6354 
8757 
0698 
2646 
5129 
8740 
4139 
2054 
3287 
8713 
9291 
6061 
0156 
2801 
5322 
9155 
5848 
7073 
4632 
0472 
6689 
5543 
9472 
1108 
3286 
9072 
1773 
4967 
2523 
8630 
7827 
5039 
5612 
5361 
0615 
8272 
5865 
1629 
4580 



log H (r, u) 



0^384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
■384 
■384 
■384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•384 
•385 
•385 
•385 
•385 
■385 
■385 
■385 
•385 
■385 
•385 
•386 
•386 
•386 
■386 
•386 
■386 
•386 
•386 
•386 
•386 
•387 
•387 
•387 



0548 
0568 
0628 
0728 
0867 
1047 
1266 
1523 
1820 
2155 
2529 
2940 
3388 
3872 
4393 
4949 
5540 
6164 
6822 
7513 
8235 
8987 
9770 
0581 
1420 
2286 
3178 
4094 
5034 
5996 
6980 
7984 
9007 
0047 
1104 
2175 
3261 
4359 
5468 
6586 
7713 
8848 
9987 
1131 
2278 
3426 



A log H (r, v) 



•000 0020 

60 

100 

140 

. 179 

219 

258 

297 

335 

373 

411 

448 

485 

521 

556 

591 

625 

658 

690 

722 

753 

782 

811 

839 

866 

892 

916 

940 

962 

984 

1004 

1023 

1040 

1057 

1072 

1085 

1098 

1109 

1119 

1127 

1134 

1140 

1144 

1147 

1148 



a2 log H (r, v) 



•000 0040 
40 
40 
40 
39 
39 
39 
38 
38 
38 
37 
37 
36 
35 
35 
34 
33 
32 
31 
31 
30 
29 
28 
27 
26 
25 
24 
22 
21 
20 
19 
18 
16 
15 
14 
12 
11 
10 
8 
7 
6 



Tables of the c. (/•, v)-integrals. 



93 



r = 23 



log P (r, v) 



log H (r, u) 






i-713 5069 1 


0-384 7182 


1 


•714 


9643 


•384 7202 


2 


•719 


3391 


•384 7259 


•> 


•720 


6397 


•384 7355 


4 


•736 8798 


•384 7488 


i> 


•750 0786 j 


•384 7660 


fi 


•766 


2613 


•384 7869 


7 


•785 4585 ' 


•384 8116 


8 


•807 


7070 


•384 8400 


9 


•833 


0493 


•384 8721 


10 


•861 


5346 


•384 9078 


11 


•893 


2180 


•384 9471 


12 


•928 


1617 


•384 9899 


13 


•966 


4346 


•385 0363 


14 


0-008 


1129 


•385 0861 


15 


•053 


2804 


•385 1393 


16 


•102 


0289 


•385 1958 


17 


•154 


4588 


•385 2556 


18 


•210 


6783 


•385 3185 


19 


•270 


8064 


•385 3845 


20 


•334 


9713 


•385 4536 


21 


•403 


3116 


•385 5256 


23 


•475 


9774 


■385 6004 


23 


•553 


1308 


•385 6780 


24 


•634 


9466 


•385 7583 


25 


•721 


6136 


•385 8411 


26 


•813 


3351 


■385 9264 


27 


■910 


3304 


•386 0141 


28 


1-012 


8363 


•386 1040 


29 


•121 


1074 


•386 1961 


30 


•235 


4191 


•386 2902 


31 


•356 0681 


•386 3862 


32 


•483 


3750 


•386 4840 


33 


•017 


6859 


•386 5836 


34 


•759 


3748 


•386 6846 


35 


•908 


8466 


•386 7871 


36 


2 •060 


5394 


•380 8910 


37 


•232 


9279 


•386 9960 


38 


•408 


5272 


•387 1021 


39 


•593 


8968 


•387 2091 


40 


•789 


6446 


•387 3160 


41 


•996 


4325 


•387 4254 


42 


3^214 


9823 


•387 5344 


43 


1 -446 


0817 


•387 6438 


41 


•690 


5919 


•38/ ( U.jiJ 


45 


•949 


4501 


•387 8633 



A log H (r, y) I A2 log H (»•, v) 



■000 0019 

57 

96 

134 

172 

•209 

247 

284 

321 

357 

393 

429 

464 

498 

532 

565 

598 

629 

660 

691 

720 

748 

776 

803 

828 

853 

877 

899 

921 

941 

960 

978 

995 

1011 

1025 

1038 

1050 

1061 

1070 

1078 

1085 

1090 

1094 

1097 

1098 



I •OOO 0038 

I 38 

38 

38 

38 



37 
37 
36 
36 
36 
35 
34 
34 
33 
33 
32 
31 
80 
29 
28 
28 
27 
26 
25 
24 
23 
22 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 
8 



94 



REPORT — 1899. 







7=24 








1 










log F (r, v) 


logH(n^) 


A log H (r, V) 


A2 log H (r, v) 


i-704 4618 
•705 9852 


0^385 3256 
•385 3275 


•000 0018 
55 
92 
128 
164 
201 
236 

0"0 


•000 0037 


2 


•710 5584 


•385 3330 


37 


3 


■718 1899 


•385 3421 


36 


4 
I) 


■72S 8942 
•742 6914 
•759 6077 


■385 3519 
•385 3714 
•385 3915 


36 ; 

;>.6 

36 


7 


•779 6750 


•385 4151 


36 


<S 


•802 9317 


■385 442;', 


Ztl 


35 


9 


■829 4225 


■385 4730 


307 

342 

377 

411 

444 

477 

510 

542 

573 

603 

633 

662 

690 

717 

744 

769 

794 

818 

840 

862 

882 

902 

920 

938 

954 

969 

982 

995 

1006 

1017 

1026 

1033 

1040 

1045 

1048 

1051 

1052 


35 


10 


•359 1983 


•385 5073 


34 


11 


■892 3170 


•385 5450 


34 


12 


■928 8434 


•385 5860 


34 


i:; 


•968 S495 


■385 6305 


33 


14 
15 
16 
17 


0^012 4148 
•059 6268 
•110 5814 
•165 3831 


•385 6782 
•385 72S2 
•385 7834 
•385 8406 


32 
32 
31 
30 


18 
19 


•224 1458 
•286 9928 


■385 9009 
•385 9642 


30 
29 


20 


•354 0583 


•386 0304 


28 


21 


•425 4870 


•386 0994 


27 


22 
23 


•501 4356 
•582 0734 


•386 1711 
•386 2455 


26 
26 


24 


■667 5830 


•386 3225 


25 


25 


•758 1612 


•386 4018 


24 


26 


•854 0205 


•386 4836 


23 


27 


•955 3899 


•386 5676 


22 


28 
29 


1^062 5163 
•175 6661 


•386 6538 
•386 7420 


21 
19 


30 


'295 1263 


•386 8322 


18 


31 


•421 2069 


•386 9242 


17 


32 


•554 2426 


•387 0180 


16 


33 


•694 5945 


•387 1134 


15 


34 


•842 6534 


•387 2102 


14 


35 
36 


•998 8417 
2^163 6169 


•387 3085 
•387 4080 


13 
11 


37 


•337 4747 


•387 5086 


10 


38 


•520 9526 


•387 6103 


9 


39 


•714 6347 


•387 7128 


8 


40 


•919 1558 


•387 8162 


6 


41 


3^135 2068 


•387 9201 


5 


42 


•363 5411 


•388 0246 


3 


43 


•604 9809 


•388 1295 


3 


44 


•860 4254 


•888 2346 


1 


45 


4^130 8591 


•388 3398 





TABLES OF THE G (v, i/)-INTEGRALS. 



95 



r 




r = 


25 




log P (r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A3 log H (r, v) 




1 


i-695 7781 
•697 3659 


0-385 8838 
•385 8855 


•000 0018 
53 


•000 0035 


2 


•702 1393 


•385 8908 


88 


35 


3 


•710 1019 


•385 8996 


123 


35 


4 
5 


•721 2704 

! -735 6600 

•753 3158 


•385 9119 
•:185 9277 
•385 9470 


158 
193 
227 


35 
35 
35 


7 


•774 2534 


•385 9697 


261 


34 


s 


•798 5185 


•385 9958 


295 


34 


9 


•826 1578 


•386 0253 


329 


34 


10 


•857 2243 


•386 0582 


362 


33 


11 


•891 7784 


•386 0943 


394 


33 


12 


•929 8876 


•386 1338 


427 


32 


13 


•971 6270 


•386 1764 


458 


32 


U 


0^017 0795 


•386 2223 


489 


31 


13 


•066 3362 


-386 2712 


520 


31 


ii; 


•119 4971 


-386 3232 


550 


30 


17 


•176 6711 


-386 3782 


579 


29 


18 


•237 9768 


•386 4361 


608 


29 


19 


•303 5430 


•386 49G9 


635 


28 


20 


•373 5093 


-386 5G04 


662 


27 


21 


•448 0267 


•386 6267 


689 


26 


22 


•527 2584 


•386 6955 


714 


25 


23 


•611 3809 


•386 7669 


739 


25 


24 
25 


•700 5843 
•795 0741 


•386 8408 
•386 9170 


762 

785 


24 
23 


26 


•895 0715 


-386 9955 


807 


22 


27 
28 


1000 8153 
•112 5627 


•387 0762 
•387 1589 


827 
847 


21 
20 


29 


•230 5913 


•387 2436 


866 


19 


30 


•355 2004 


•387 3302 


883 


18 


31 


•486 7129 


•387 4185 


900 


17 


32 


•625 4776 


•387 5085 


916 


16 


33 


•771 8709 


•387 6001 


930 


14 


34 


•926 3001 


•387 6931 


943 


13 


35 


2-089 2053 


•387 7874 


955 


12 


36 


■261 0633 


•387 8829 


966 


11 


37 


•442 3906 


•387 9795 


976 


10 


38 


•633 7476 


•388 0771 


985 


9 


39 


•835 7426 


•388 1756 


992 


7 


40 


3^049 0373 


•388 2748 


998 


6 


41 


•274 3517 


•388 3746 


1003 


5 


42 


•512 4708 


•388 4749 


1007 


4 


43 


•764 2515 


•388 5756 


1009 


2 


44 


4-030 6307 


•388 6765 


1010 


1 


45 


•312 6342 


•388 7775 







96 



REPORT — 1899. 







r= 


26 




r 




















og F (r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, «/) 


A Mog H (r, v) 




1 


i-687 4284 
•689 0840 


386 3984 
-386 4001 


•000 0017 


■Ono 0034 


2 


•694 0540 


■386 4052 


51 


34 


3 


■702 347G 


■386 4136 


85 


34 


4 


•713 9805 


•386 4254 


118 


34 


5 


•728 9746 


■386 4406 


152 


33 


6 


•747 3581 


■386 4591 


185 


33 


7' 


•769 1658 


■386 4810 


218 


33 


8 


•794 4395 


•386 5061 


251 


33 


9 
10 


•823 2272 
•855 5847 


■386 5345 
•386 5661 


284 
316 


32 
32 


11 


•891 5743 


•386 6009 


348 


31 


12 


•931 2665 


•386 6388 


379 


31 


13 


•974 7393 


•386 6798 


411 


30 


14 


0-022 0791 


•386 7239 


440 


30 


15 


•073 3806 


■386 7710 


471 


29 


16 


•128 7480 


■386 8210 


500 


29 


17 


•188 2945 


•386 8738 


529 


28 


18 
19 


•252 1435 
•320 4290 


•386 9295 
•386 9880 


557 
584 


27 
27 


20 


•393 2963 


•387 0491 


fill 


26 


21 


•470 9025 


•387 1128 


637 


25 


22 


•553 4176 


•387 1790 


662 


24 


23 


•641 0250 


•387 2477 


687 


24 


24 


•733 9226 


•387 3187 


710 


23 


25 


•832 3242 


•387 3920 


733 


22 


26 


•936 4600 


■387 4674 


755 


21 


27 


1-046 5783 


■387 5450 


776 


20 


28 


•162 9470 


■387 6246 


796 
815 


19 


29 


•285 8547 


•387 7060 


18 


30 


•415 6129 


•387 7893 


833 
850 
865 
880 
894 
907 
919 
929 
938 
947 
954 
960 
964 
968 
970 
972 


17 


31 
32 


-552 5576 
•697 0516 


•387 8742 
•387 9608 


16 
15 


0'> 
.>0 


•849 4867 


•388 0488 


14 


34 


2010 2864 


■388 1382 


13 


;!5 


•179 9088 


•388 2289 


12 


30 


•358 8499 


•388 3208 


11 


37 


•547 6471 


•388 4137 


9 


38 


•746 8833 


•388 5075 


8 


39 


•957 191G 


•388 6022 


7 


40 


3-179 2602 


•388 6975 


6 


41 
1 '^'■^ 


-413 8384 
•661 7426 


•388 7935 
j •SSS 8900 


5 

4 ; 


43 


•923 8647 


•388 9868 


2 


44 


4-201 i786 


•389 0838 


1 


45 


-494 7524 


•389 1810 





TABLES OP THE G (r, iy)-INTEGRALy. 



97 



r = 27 



log F (r, v) 



log H (r, v) 





1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

1899. 



1-679 


3877 


•681 


1094 


•686 


2778 


•694 


9025 


■706 


9998 


•722 


5923 


•741 


7096 


•764 


3877 


•790 


0698 


•820 


6063 


•854 


2546 


•891 


6799 


•932 


9552 


•978 


1615 


0^027 


3887 


•080 7353 


•138 


3092 


•200 


2283 


•266 


6208 


•337 


6258 


•413 


3944 


•494 


0896 


■579 


8882 


•670 


9806 


•767 


5727 


•869 


8863 


•978 


161G 


r092 


6538 


•213 


6439 


•341 


4310 


•476 


3386 


•618 


7157 


•768 


9393 


•927 4164 


£•094 


5869 


•270 9268 


•456 


9512 


•653 2186 


•860 


3344 


3078 


9562 


■309 


7991 


■553 


6412 


■811 


3309 


4^083 


7948 


•372 0436 


•677 


1878 



0^386 8744 
•386 8760 
•386 8809 
•386 8891 
•386 9005 
•386 9151 
•386 9329 
•386 9539 
•386 9781 
•387 0055 
•387 0359 
•387 0694 
•387 1059 
•387 1454 
•387 1879 
•387 2332 
•387 2814 
•387 3323 
•387 3859 
•387 4422 
•387 5010 
•387 6624 
•387 6261 
•387 6923 
•387 7607 
•387 8312 
•387 9039 
•387 9786 
•388 0552 
•388 1337 
•388 2138 
•388 2956 
•388 3790 
•388 4638 
•388 5499 
•388 6372 
•388 7257 
•388 8151 
•388 9055 
•388 9967 
•389 0885 
•389 1809 
•389 2738 
•389 3670 
•389 4604 
•389 5540 



A log H (r, v) 



A- log H (r, v) 



•000 0016 
49 
81 
114 
146 
178 
210 
242 
273 
304 
335 
365 
395 
424 
453 
482 
509 
536 
563 
588 
613 
638 
661 
684 
706 
727 
747 
766 
784 
802 
818 
833 
848 
861 
873 
885 
895 
904 
912 
918 
924 
929 
932 
934 
936 



•000 0033 
33 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
31 
31 
31 
30 
30 
29 
29 
28 
28 
27 
26 
26 
25 
24 
24 
23 
22 
21 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 



98 



REPORT — 1899. 



r = 28 



<P° 



log F (r, ,') 



6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
li 
15 
Ifi 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
13 
44 
45 



i-C71 C341 
■G73 4219 
•678 7887 
■687 7445 
•700 3063 
•716 4973 
-736 3483 
•759 8968 
•787 1876 
•818 2728 
•853 2121 
■892 0731 
•934 9315 
•981 8715 

0032 9863 
■088 3780 
•148 1586 
•212 4505 
•281 3865 
•355 1112 
•433 7811 
•517 5657 
•606 6479 
•701 2256 
•801 5122 
•907 7380 

1^020 1512 
■139 0194 
•264 6312 
•397 2979 
•537 3550 
•685 1648 
•841 11S2 

2005 6375 
■179 1790 
•362 2366 
■555 3447 
•759 0825 
•974 0781 

3^201 0137 
•440 6310 
•693 7374 
•961 2127 

4^244 0178 
•543 2028 
•859 9176 



log H (r, J/) 



0-387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
■387 
■387 
■387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•387 
•388 
•388 
■388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•388 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 



3160 
3176 
3223 
3301 
3411 
3552 
3724 
3927 
4160 
4424 
4717 
5041 
5393 
5774 
6183 
6620 
7084 
7576 
8093 
8635 
9203 
9794 
0409 
1047 
1706 
2387 
3088 
3808 
4547 
5303 
6077 
6865 
7669 
8487 
9317 
0159 
1012 
1875 
2746 
3625 
4511 
5402 
6298 
7197 
8098 
9000 



A log H (r, J/) 

•000 0016 
47 
79 
110 
141 
172 
203 
233 
264 
293 
323 
352 
381 
409 
437 
464 
491 
517 
543 
567 
592 
615 
638 
660 
681 
701 
720 
739 
756 
773 
789 
804 
818 
830 
842 
853 
863 
872 
879 
886 
891 
896 
899 
901 
902 



a2 log H (r, v) 

•000 0031 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
30 
30 
30 
30 
29 
29 
28 
28 
27 
27 
26 
25 
25 
24 
23 
23 
22 
21 
20 
19 
18 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 
9 
7 
7 
5 
4 
3 
2 

1 



TABLES OF THE G (r, t')-INTEGRALS, 



99 





1 




r= 


= 29 




log F (r, v) 


log H (r, y) 


A log H (r, v) 


A' log H (r, v) 


i-664 1478 
•606 0017 


0-387 7268 
•387 7283 


•000 0015 


-000 0030 


2 


•671 5669 


•387 7328 


46 


30 


3 


■080 8538 


•387 7404 


76 


30 


4 


■603 8799 


•387 7510 


106 


30 


5 


•710 6695 


•387 7647 


136 


30 


6 


•731 2544 


-387 7813 


160 


30 


7 
8 


•755 6734 
•783 9728 


-387 8008 
•387 8234 


196 
225 


30 
29 


9 


•816 2068 


-387 8488 


254 


29 


10 


•852 4372 


•387 8772 


283 


29 


11 


•892 7340 


-387 9084 


312 


28 


12 
13 
14 


•937 1757 

•985 8495 

0038 8519 


-387 9424 
-387 9792 
•388 0187 


340 
368 
395 


28 
27 
27 


15 


•096 2888 


•388 0609 


422 


20 


16 


•158 2763 


•388 1057 


448 


26 


17 


•224 9410 


-388 1531 


474 


25 


18 


•296 4208 


•388 2031 


499 


25 


19 


•372 8653 


•388 2555 


524 


24 


20 


•454 4367 


•388 3103 


548 


23 


21 
22 


•541 3106 
•633 6767 


•388 3674 
•388 4268 


571 
594 


23 
22 


23 
24 


•731 7398 
•835 7212 


-388 4883 
•388 5520 


616 
637 


21 
20 


25 


•945 8594 


•388 6177 


657 


20 


26 


r062 4115 


-388 6854 


677 


19 


27 
28 
29 


•185 6549 
•315 8886 
•453 4351 


■388 7550 
-388 8263 
■388 8993 


696 
713 
730 


17 
17 
16 


30 


•598 6420 


■388 9740 


747 


15 


81 


•751 8846 


-389 0501 


762 


14 


32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 


•913 5680 

2-084 1297 
•204 0426 
•453 8181 
•654 0100 
•865 2184 

3-088 0940 


-389 1277 
-389 2067 
-389 2868 
-389 3682 
•389 4505 
•389 5338 
•389 6179 


776 
789 
802 
813 
824 
833 
841 


13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 


39 


-323 3436 


-389 7028 


849 


6 


40 


•571 7357 


-389 7883 


855 


5 


41 


•834 1065 


-389 8744 


860 


4 


42 


4-111 3678 


•389 9608 


865 


3 


43 


•404 5148 


■390 0476 


868 


2 


44 


•714 6355 


•390 1346 


870 


1 


45 


5^042 9213 


-390 2217 


871 





H 2 



100 



REPORT— 1890. 



30 



log F (r, v) 



log H (r, v) 






1G56 9109 


0-388 1099 


1 


•658 8309 


•388 1113 


2 


•664 5945 


•388 1157 


3 


•674 2126 


•388 1231 


4 


•687 7031 


•388 1333 


5 


•705 0914 


•388 1465 


G 


•726 4101 


■388 1625 


7 


•731 6995 


•388 1815 


8 


•781 0077 


•388 2032 


9 


•814 3906 


•388 2278 


10 


•851 9121 


•388 2552 


11 


•893 6447 


•388 2854 


12 


•939 6698 


•388 3183 


13 


•990 0775 


•388 3538 


14 


0-044 9676 


•388 3920 


15 


•104 4498 


•388 4328 


16 


•168 6443 


•388 4762 


17 


•237 6820 


•388 5220 


18 


•311 7056 


•388 5703 


19 


•390 8701 


•388 6209 


20 


•475 3432 


•388 6739 


21 


•565 3065 


•388 7291 


22 


•660 9566 


•388 7865 


23 


•762 5053 


•388 8460 


24 


•870 1816 


•388 9076 


25 


•984 2323 


•388 9711 


26 


1104 9235 


•389 0366 


27 


•232 5423 


•389 1038 


28 


•367 3981 


■389 1727 


29 


•509 8245 


•389 2433 


30 


•660 1814 


•389 3155 


31 


•818 8570 


•389 3891 


32 


•986 2707 


•389 4642 


33 


2^162 8749 


•389 5405 


34 


•349 1593 


•389 6180 


35 


•545 6529 


•389 6966 


36 


•752 9288 


•389 7762 


37 


■971 6080 


•389 8567 


38 


3-202 3639 


•389 9380 


39 


■445 9277 


•390 0201 


40 


•703 0947 


■390 1028 


41 


•974 7302 


•390 1859 


42 


4^261 7776 


•390 2695 


43 


•565 2668 


•390 3534 


44 


•886 3234 


•390 4375 


45 


5^226 1804 


•390 5217 



A log H (r, v) 



A- log H (r, v) 



•000 0015 
44 
73 
103 
132 
161 
189 
218 
246 
274 
302 
329 
356 
382 
408 
433 
458 
483 
507 
530 
652 
574 
595 
616 
635 
654 
672 
690 
706 
722 
736 
750 
763 
775 
786 
796 
805 
813 
820 
827 
832 
836 
839 
841 
842 



•000 0029 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
28 
28 
28 
27 
27 
26 
26 
25 
25 
24 
24 
23 
22 
22 
21 
20 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



TABLES OF THE G ()', i;)-lNTEGRALS. 



101 



31 




1 
2 



7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 

45 



log P (r, y) 



1-649 9073 
•651 8935 
•657 8555 
•667 8048 
•681 7598 
•699 7466 
•721 7993 
•747 9592 
•778 2762 
•812 8080 
•851 6207 
•894 7893 
•942 3977 
•994 5394 
0051 3173 
•112 8450 
■179 2464 
•250 6573 
•327 2249 
•409 1093 
•496 4842 
•589 5372 
•688 4714 
•793 5058 
•904 8771 
1022 8405 
•147 6710 
•279 6653 
•419 1433 
•566 4498 
•721 9568 
■886 0657 
2'059 2096 
•241 8567 
•434 5127 
•637 7246 
•852 0847 
3-078 2349 
•316 8712 
•568 7494 
•834 6915 
4^115 5919 
•412 4256 
•726 2571 
5^058 2499 
•409 6782 



log H (r, v) 



0-388 4679 
•388 4694 
•388 4736 
•388 4808 
•388 4906 
•388 5034 
•388 5189 
•388 5372 
•388 5583 
•388 5822 
•388 6086 
•388 6378 
•388 6G9G 
•388 7041 
•388 7410 
•388 7805 
•388 8225 
•388 8668 
•3S8 9136 
•388 9626 
•389 0138 
•389 0673 
•389 1228 
•389 1804 
•389 2400 
•389 3015 
•389 3648 
•389 4299 
•389 4966 
•389 5649 
•389 6348 
•389 7060 
•389 7786 
•389 8525 
•389 9275 
•390 0035 
•390 0806 
•390 1585 
390 2372 
•390 3166 
•390 3966 
•390 4771 
•390 5580 
•390 6392 
•390 7206 
•390 8021 



A log H (r, v) 



A' log H (r, „) 



■000 0014 
43 
71 
99 
127 
155 
183 
211 
238 
265 
292 
318 
344 
370 
395 
419 
444 
467 
490 
513 
534 
556 
576 
596 
615 
633 
650 
667 
683 
698 
713 
726 
738 
750 
761 
770 
779 
787 
794 
800 
805 
809 
812 
814 
815 



•000 0028 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
27 
27 
27 
26 
26 
26 
25 
25 
24 
23 
23 
22 
22 
21 
20 
20 
19 
18 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
13 
12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
•> 
5 
4 
3 
2 

1 



102 



REPORT — 1899. 



r=32 





1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
21 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



log F (r, r) 



log H (r, v) 



A log H (r, v) 



a2 log H (r, v) 



1-643 1226 
•645 1748 
•651 3354 
•661 6158 
•676 0352 
•694 6208 
•717 4073 
•744 4379 
•775 7637 
•811 4444 
•851 5483 
•896 1530 
•945 3449 
•999 2205 

0-057 8864 
•121 4595 
•190 0681 
•263 8522 
•342 9638 
•427 5684 
•517 8452 
•613 9879 
•716 2063 
•824 7266 
•939 7929 

1^061 6692 
•190 6391 
•327 0091 
•471 1094 
•623 2962 
•783 9534 
•953 4956 

2-132 3701 
•321 0601 
•520 0879 
•730 0183 
•951 4628 

3-185 0841 
•431 6009 
•691 7938 
•966 5111 

4-256 6765 
•563 2967 
•887 4707 

5'230 3999 
•593 3997 



0-388 8034 
•388 8048 
•388 8089 
•388 8158 
•388 8254 
■388 8378 
•388 8528 
•388 8706 
•388 8910 
•388 9140 
•388 9397 
•388 9680 
•388 9988 
•389 0322 
•389 0680 
•389 1062 
■389 1469 
-389 1899 
•389 2351 
•389 2826 
•389 3323 
•389 3840 
•389 4379 
•389 4937 
•389 5514 
•389 6109 
•389 6723 
•389 7353 
•389 8000 
■389 8661 
•389 9338 
•390 0028 
•390 0732 
•390 1447 
•390 2174 
•390 2911 
•390 3657 
•390 4412 
■390 5174 
•390 5944 
•390 6719 
•390 7498 
•390 8282 
•390 9069 
•390 9857 
•391 0646 



000 0014 




41 
69 


•000 0028 


27 


96 


27 


123 


27 


151 


27 


177 


27 
27 


204 




26 


231 




257 


26 


283 


26 




26 


308 




333 


25 


358 


25 




24 


383 




406 


24 


430 


23 


453 


23 




22 


475 




497 


22 




''1 


518 


*-x 


538 


20 




20 


558 




577 


19 


596 


19 


613 


18 


630 


17 


646 


16 


662 


15 


677 


15 


690 


14 


703 


13 


715 


12 


727 


11 


737 


10 


746 


9 


755 


9 


763 


8 


769 


7 


775 


6 


780 


. 5 


784 


4 


787 


3 


789 


2 


789 


1 



TA15LES OF THE G (l*, J/)-lNTEGRALS; 



103 



?- = 33 



t>° 




1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2(5 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
82 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
30 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



logF 


' (r, v) 


rG36 


5434 


•638 


6617 


•645 


0208 


•655 


6323 


•G70 


5163 


•689 


7005 


•713 


2210 


•741 


1222 


•773 


4368 


•810 2865 


•851 


6818 


•897 


7225 


•948 4980 


0004 


1077 


•064 


6615 


•130 


2802 


•201 


0960 


•277 


2533 


•358 


9091 


•446 


2340 


•539 


4127 


•638 


6453 


•744 


1480 


■856 


1542 


•974 


9160 


1^100 


7050 


•233 


8145 


•374 


5602 


■523 


2830 


•680 


3501 


•846 


1578 


2021 


1335 


•205 


7387 


•400 


4717 


•605 


8714 


•822 


5204 


3-051 


0494 


•292 


1420 


•546 


5396 


•815 


0471 


4-098 


5399 


■397 


9704 


•714 


3773 


5^048 


3939 


•402 


7596 


•777 


3311 



log H (r, v) 



0^389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
■389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
■390 
•390 
■390 
•390 
•390 
•391 
■391 
■391 
•391 
•391 



1183 
1197 
1237 
1304 
1397 
1516 
1662 
1835 
2033 
2256 
2505 
2780 
3078 
3402 
3749 
4120 
4514 
4931 
5370 
5830 
6312 
6814 
7336 
7877 
8437 
9014 
9609 
0220 
0847 
1489 
2145 
2815 
3497 
4190 
4895 
5610 
6333 
7065 
7805 
8551 
9302 
0058 
0818 
1581 
2345 
3111 



A log H (r, v) A^ log H (»■, v) 



•000 0013 
40 
67 
93 
120 
146 
172 
198 
224 
249 
274 
299 
323 
347 
371 
394 
417 
439 
461 
482 
502 
522 
541 
560 
578 
595 
611 
627 
642 
656 
669 
682 
693 
705 
715 
724 
733 
739 
746 
751 
756 
760 
763 
765 
766 



•000 0027 

27 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

25 

25 

25 

24 

24 

24 

23 

23 

22 

22 

21 

20 

20 

19 

19 

18 

17 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

ti 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 



104 



REPORT — 1899. 



r 




r= 


34 




log F (r, v) 


log. H {Vj v) 


A log. H (r, v) 


a2 log H (r, v) 





reSO 1576 


0-389 4146 


•000 0013 
39 
65 
91 
116 
142 
167 
192 
217 
242 
266 
290 
314 
337 
360 
382 
405 
426 
447 
4G7 
487 
507 
525 




1 


•632 3421 


-389 4159 


•000 0026 


2 


•638 8996 


•389 4198 


26 


3 


•649 8424 


•389 4262 


26 


4 
5 


•665 1908 
•684 9738 


•389 4353 
•389 4469 


26 

26 


6 


•709 2283 


•389 4611 


25 


7 


•738 0001 


•389 4778 


25 


8 


•771 3436 


•389 4970 


25 


9 


•809 3225 


•389 5187 


25 


10 


•852 0090 


•389 5429 


24 


11 


•899 4858 


•389 5695 


24 


12 


•951 8449 


■389 5985 


24 


13 


0-009 1887 


•389 6299 


23 


14 


•071 6306 


•389 6636 


23 


15 


•139 2949 


-389 6996 


23 


16 
17 

18 


•212 3180 
•290 8487 
•375 0487 


•389 7379 
•389 7783 
•389 8209 


22 
21 
21 


19 


•465 0938 


-389 8656 


20 


20 


•561 1746 


•389 9123 


20 


21 


•663 4971 ■ 


•389 9611 


19 


22 


•772 2842 


•390 0117 


19 


23 


•887 7765 


•390 0643 


543 


18 


24 
25 


1-010 2336 
•139 9357 


•390 1186 
•390 1746 


561 

677 


17 
17 


26 

27 


•277 1848 
•422 3065 


•390 2324 
-390 2917 


593 
609 


16 
15 


28 
29 

30 


•575 6518 
•737 5995 
•908 5576 


•390 3525 
•390 4148 
•390 4785 


623 
637 

650 


14 
14 
13 


31 
32 
33 


2088 9669 
■279 3029 
•480 0791 


•390 5435 
•390 6097 
•390 6770 


662 
673 
684 


12 
11 
11 


34 


•691 8509 


•390 7454 


694 


10 


35 


•915 2186 


•390 8148 


703 


9 


36 


3-150 8322 


•390 8850 


711 


8 


37 


•399 3963 


•390 9561 


718 


7 


38 


•661 6747 


•391 0278 


724 


6 


39 


•938 4971 


•391 1002 


729 


5 


40 


4-230 7654 


•391 1732 


734 


4 


41 


•539 4613 


•391 2466 


738 


4 


42 


■865 6549 


•391 3203 


740 




43 


5-210 6144 


•391 3943 


742 


2 


44 


•575 3166 


•391 4686 


743 


1 


45 


•961 4600 


•391 5429 







TABLES OF THE G (r, z/)« INTEGRALS. 



105 



r 




r = 


= 35 




log F (r, v) 


log H (r, „) 


A log H (r, v) 


A-' log H {r, v) 




1 


1-623 9542 
■G26 2048 


0-389 G937 
•389 6949 


•000 0013 


•000 0025 


2 


•632 9608 


•389 G987 


38 


25 


o 


•644 2348 


•389 7050 


63 


25 


4 


•660 0478 


•389 7138 


88 


25 


5 


•680 4295 


•389 7251 


113 


25 


G 


•705 4180 


•389 7389 


138 


25 


7 


•735 0604 


•389 7551 


162 


24 


8 


•769 4129 


•389 7738 


187 


24 


9 


•808 5407 


•389 7948 


211 


24 


10 


•852 5188 


•389 8183 


235 


24 


11 


•001 4317 


•389 8442 


259 


23 


12 


•955 3744 


•389 8724 


282 


23 


13 


0-014 4525 


•389 9029 


305 


23 


14 


•078 7824 


•389 9356 


328 


22 


15 


•148 4925 


•389 9706 


350 


22 


16 


•223 7229 


•390 0078 


372 


21 


17 


•304 6270 


•390 0471 


393 


21 


18 


•391 3713 


•390 0884 


414 


20 


19 
20 


•484 1369 
•583 1198 


-390 1319 
■390 1773 


434 
454 


20 
19 


21 
22 
23 


•688 5333 
■800 6039 
•919 5823 


•390 2246 
■390 2738 
■390 3248 


473 

492 
510 


19 

18 
17 


24 
25 
2G 


1045 7350 
•179 3502 
•320 7390 


■390 3776 
■390 4321 
•390 4881 


528 
545 
561 


17 
16 
16 


27 


•470 2366 


■390 5458 


576 


15 


28 
29 


•628 2047 
•795 0329 


■390 6049 
•390 6654 


591 
605 


14 
13 


30 


•971 1417 


•390 7273 


619 


13 


31 


2-156 9847 


•390 7904 


631 


12 


32 


•353 0516 


•390 8547 


643 


11 


33 
34 


•559 8711 
•778 0150 


•390 9201 
•390 9865 


654 
664 


10 
9 


35 


3-008 1016 


■391 0539 


674 


9 


3G 


•250 8O0O 


•391 1222 


682 


8 


37 


•506 8356 


•391 1912 


690 


7 


38 


•776 9950 


•391 2609 


697 


G 


39 


4-062 1324 


•391 3312 


703 


5 


40 


•363 1764 


■391 4021 


709 


4 


41 


•681 1377 


■391 4734 


713 


4 


42 


5'017 1183 


■391 5450 


716 


3 


43 


•372 3207 


■391 61G9 


719 


2 


44 


•748 059G 


■391 6890 


721 


1 


45 ; 

i 


6145 774» 


•391 7612 


722 





106 



EEPORT — 1899. 



7-=3G 





1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 



log F (r, v) 



log H {,; u) 



A log H (;•. v) 



A- log H (r, «/) 



1-617 
-620 
•627 
•638 
•655 
•676 
•701 
•732 
•767 
•807 
•853 
•903 
•959 

0019 
•086 
•157 
•235 
•318 
•407 
•503 
•605 
•713 
•829 
•951 

1-OSl 
•218- 
•364 
•518 
•680 
•852 

2033 
•225 
•426 
•639 
•864 

3101 
•350 
■614 
•892 

4^185 
•495 
•822 

5^168 
•534 
•920 

6330 



9231 
2399 
1943 
7995 
0771 
0575 
7800 
2932 
6546 
9316 
2010 
5502 
0766 
8889 
1070 
8628 
3007 
5782 
8669 
3529 
2380 
7407 
0968 
5615 
4096 
9381 
4667 
3405 
9313 
6402 
8997 
1766 
9744 
8374 
3536 
1591 
9424 
4497 
4902 
9427 
7624 
9894 
7569 
3023 
9782 
2655 



0-389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•389 
•3S9 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
■390 
•390 
■390 
•390 
•390 
■390 
■390 
■390 
•390 
•390 
■390 
■390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•390 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
■391 
■391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 



9572 
9584 
9620 
9682 
9767 
9877 
0011 
0168 
0350 
0555 
0783 
1035 
1309 
1605 
1924 
2264 
2625 
3007 
3409 
3832 
4273 
4733 
5212 
5708 
6221 
6750 
7296 
7856 
8431 
9019 
9621 
0234 
0859 
1495 
2141 
2796 
3460 
4131 
4809 
5492 
6181 
6874 
7571 
8270 
8971 
9673 



000 0012 


•000 0024 


37 


24 


61 


24 


85 


24 


110 


24 


134 


24 


158 


24 


182 


24 


205 


23 


228 


23 


251 


23 


274 


22 


296 


22 


318 


22 


340 


21 


361 


21 


382 


20 


402 


20 


422 


19 


441 


19 


460 


18 


478 






18 


496 






17 


513 






16 


529 






16 


545 






15 


560 






14 


575 






14 


588 






13 


601 




614 


12 


625 


12 




11 


636 






10 


646 


9 
8 


655 


664 


8 


671 


7 


678 


6 


684 


5 


689 


4 


693 


3 


697 


3 


699 


2 


701 


1 


702 





TASLES of Tlii: G ()', i/)-lNTEGRALS. 



107 



1 




r= 


37 




<p° ' 










log V {r,v) 


log H {r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 
•000 0012 


A-' logH (r, v) 
•000 0024 




1 


i-612 0550 
•614 4378 


0-390 2063 
■390 2074 


2 


•62] 5908 


•390 2110 


36 


24 


•! 1 


•633 5272 


•390 2170 


60 


24 


^ 1 


•650 2694 


•390 2253 


83 


24 


5 ! 


•671 8485 \ 


•390 2360 


107 


23 


6 

7 


•698 3051 i 
•729 6890 


■390 2490 
•390 2643 


130 
154 


23 
23 


8 


•766 0594 


■390 2820 


177 


23 


9 


•807 4855 


■390 3020 


200 


23 


10 


•854 0464 


•390 3242 


*i^^ 


22 


11 


•905 8318 


•390 3486 


245 


22 


12 


•962 9420 


•390 3753 


267 


22 


13 


0-025 4886 


•390 4041 


288 


21 


1-1 


•093 5948 


•390 4351 


310 


21 


15 
16 
17 


•167 3965 
•247 0418 
•332 6929 


•390 4682 
■390 5034 
■390 5405 


331 
352 
372 


21 
20 
20 


18 


■424 5260 


•390 5797 


391 


10 


19 


•522 7325 


•390 6208 


411 


19 


20 


•e27 5199 


•390 6637 


430 


18 


21 


•739 1128 


•390 7085 


448 


18 


22 


•857 7536 


•390 7551 


466 


17 


23 


•983 7045 


•390 8033 


483 


16 


24 


1^117 2483 


•390 8532 


499 


16 


25 


•258 6900 


•390 9048 


515 


15 


26 


•408 3585 


•390 9578 


530 
545 


15 


27 


•566 6085 


•391 0123 


14 


28 


•733 8222 


•391 0682 


559 


13 


29 
30 


•910 4119 
2-096 8223 


•391 1255 
•391 1840 


573 

585 


13 
12 


31 


•293 5330 


•391 2437 


597 


11 


32 


•501 0620 


•391 3046 


608 


10 


33 


•719 9685 


■391 3664 


619 


9 


34 


•950 8571 


•391 4293 


628 


9 


35 
36 


3^194 3816 
i ^451 2499 


•391 4930 
j ^391 5576 


637 
646 


8 

7 


37 


•722 2290 


•391 6229 


653 


6 


38 


4^008 1507 


' ^391 6888 


659 


G 


39 


•309 9183 


i ^391 7553 


665 


5 


40 


•628 5140 


1 •Sgi 8224 


670 


4 


41 


1 -965 0066 


•391 8898 


674 


3 


42 


j 5^320 5613 


•391 9576 


678 


3 


43 


•696 4499 


•392 0256 


680 


2 


44 


1 6-094 0627 


•392 0938 


682 


I 


45 


•514 9222 


•392 1621 


683 





108 



EXPORT— 1899. 



r 



38 



log F (r, v) 



log tL [r, v) 



A log H (r, v) 



A- log H (r, v) 



1 


i-606 3413 i 


0390 4421 


1 


■G08 7902 


•890 4483 


2 


•61G 1417 


•390 4468 


o 


•628 4093 


•390 4526 


-1 


•G45 G161 


•390 4607 


5 


•G67 7940 


•890 4711 


G 


•694 9847 


•890 4837 


7 


•727 2393 


•390 4987 


8 


•764 6187 


•390 5159 


9 


•807 1940 


•890 5353 


10 


•855 04G4 


•390 5569 


11 


•908 2680 


•390 5808 


12 


•966 9620 


•390 6067 


13 


0031 2429 


•390 6348 


14 


•101 2374 


•390 6650 


15 


•177 0849 


•390 6972 


k; 


•258 9378 


•890 7314 


17 


•346 9624 


•390 7676 


18 


•441 8400 


■390 8057 


19 


•542 2671 


•390 8457 


20 


•649 9569 


•890 8876 


21 


•764 6400 


•890 9312 


22 


■886 6655 


•390 9765 


23 


1016 0028 


•391 0285 


24 


•158 2423 


•891 0721 


25 


•298 6974 


•391 1223 


26 


•452 4059 


•891 1739 


27 


•615 0321 


•391 2270 


28 


■786 8688 


•391 2815 


29 


•968 3394 


■891 3372 


30 


2159 900G 


•391 3942 


31 


■362 0454 


•391 4523 


82 


•575 3055 


•391 5115 


33 


•800 2556 


•391 5718 


34 


3^0a7 5167 


•391 6380 


35 


•287 7G04 


•891 6950 


3G 


•551 7138 


•891 7579 


37 


■880 1647 


•391 8215 


38 


4'123 9677 


•391 8857 


39 


•434 0507 


•391 9505 


40 


•761 4223 


•392 0157 


41 


5^107 1807 


•392 0814 


42 


•472 5225 


•392 1474 


43 


•858 7544 


•392 2136 


44 


6^267 3043 


•892 2800 


45 


•699 73G1 


•892 3465 



■000 0012 
35 
58 
81 
104 
127 
149 
172 
194 
216 
238 
260 
281 
302 
322 
842 
362 
381 
400 
418 
436 
453 
470 
486 
502 
517 
531 
545 
557 
570 
581 
592 
603 
612 
621 
629 
636 
642 
648 
653 
657 
660 
662 
G64 
665 



•000 0023 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
22 
22 
22 
22 
21 
21 
20 
20 
20 
19 
19 
18 
18 
17 
17 
16 
16 
15 
14 
14 
13 
12 
12 
11 
10 
9 
9 
8 
7 
6 
6 
n 



TABLES OF THK G (v, j^)-INrEGRALS. 



loy 



<t>° 




r=39 




log F {r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A' log H (,-, y) 




1 


1-600 7740 
•603 2891 


0-390 6658 
•390 6669 


•000 0011 
34 
56 
79 
101 
124 
146 
168 
189 
211 
232 
253 
274 
294 
314 
334 
353 
371 
390 
408 
425 
442 
458 
474 
489 
503 
517 
530 
543 
555 
566 
577 
587 
596 
605 
612 
619 
626 
631 
636 
640 
643 
645 
647 
648 


•000 0023 


3 


•610 8391 


•390 6703 


23 


.> 


■623 4380 


•390 6760 


23 


4 


•641 1093 


•390 6838 


22 


r> 


•663 8860 


•390 6940 


22 





•691 8107 


•390 7063 


22 


7 


•724 93G1 


•390 7209 


22 


8 


•763 3246 


•390 7377 


22 


f) 


•807 0490 


•390 7566 


22 


10 


•856 1930 


•390 7777 


21 


11 


•910 8510 


•390 8009 


21 


12 


•971 1287 


•390 8262 


21 


13 


037 1440 


•390 8535 


20 


14 


•]09 02G8 


•390 8829 


20 


15 


•186 9202 


•390 9143 


20 


IG 
17 


•270 9806 
•361 3789 


•390 9477 
•390 9829 


19 
19 


18 
19 


•458 3010 
•561 9488 


•391 0201 
•391 0591 


18 

18 


20 


■672 5410 


•391 0998 


17 


21 
22 


•790 3143 
■915 5247 


•391 1423 
•391 1865 


17 
16 


2:^, 


1-048 4484 


•391 2323 


16 


24 


•189 3837 


•391 2796 


15 


25 


•338 6522 


•391 3285 


14 


2G 


•496 6007 


•391 3788 


14 


27 


•663 6033 


•391 4306 


13 


28 


•840 0630 


•391 4836 


13 


2!) 


£•026 4145 


•391 5379 


12 


30 


•223 1268 


•391 5935 


11 


31 
32 


•430 7056 
•649 6970 


•391 6501 
•391 7078 


11 
10 


33 
34 


•880 6908 
3124 3244 


•391 7665 
•391 8261 


9 
8 


35 
36 


•381 2874 
•652 3259 


•391 8866 
•391 9479 


8 
7 


37 


•938 2488 


•392 0098 


6 


38 


4^239 9332 


•392 0724 


5 


39 


•558 3315 


•392 1355 


5 


40 


•894 4793 


•392 1991 


4 


41 


5^249 5035 


•392 2631 


3 


42 
43 


•624 6328 
6^021 2079 


•392 3274 
•392 3919 


2 

2 


44 


•440 6950 


•392 4566 


1 


45 


•884 6991 


•392 5213 





110 



REPORT — 1899. 







r= 


40 




r 








1 


log F {r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A= log H (r, v) 




1 


i-595 3459 
•597 9271 


0-390 8782 
•390 8793 


•000 0011 


•000 0022 


2 


•605 6756 


•390 8826 




22 


3 


•618 C058 


•390 8881 


oo 


22 


4 


•G3G 7416 


•390 8958 


i 1 

99 
120 
142 
163 
185 
206 
226 
247 
267 
287 

:i06 
325 
344 
362 
380 
397 
414 
431 
447 
462 
477 
491 
504 
517 
530 
541 
552 
563 
572 
581 
590 


22 


5 


•660 1171 


•390 9057 


22 


6 


■6S8 7760 


•390 9177 


22 


7 


•722 7721 


-390 9319 


21 


S 
9 


•762 1697 
•807 0434 


•390 9483 
•390 9667 


21 

21 


10 


•857 4789 


•390 9873 


21 


11 


•913 5732 


•391 0099 


20 


12 


•975 4348 


•391 0346 


20 


13 


0043 1845 


•391 0612 


20 1 


14 


•116 9556 


■391 0899 


19 i 


15 


•196 8949 


•391 1205 


19 


16 
17 


•283 1630 
•375 9350 


•391 1530 
•391 1874 


19 

18 


18 


•475 4017 


•391 2236 


18 


19 


•581 7701 


•391 2616 


17 


20 


•695 2648 


•391 3014 


17 


21 


•816 1285 


•391 3428 


16 


22 


•944 6237 


•391 3859 


16 


23 

24 


1081 0339 
•225 6650 


•391 4305 
•391 4767 


15 
15 


25 


•378 8470 


•391 5243 


14 


26 


•540 9357 


•391 5734 


14 


27 


•712 3146 


•391 6238 


13 


28 


•893 3974 


•391 6756 


12 


29 
30 


2084 6300 
■286 4933 


•391 7285 
•391 7827 


12 
11 


31 


•499 5062 


•391 8379 


10 


32 


•724 2290 


•391 8942 


10 


33 


•961 2666 


-391 9514 


9 


34 


3^211 2729 


•392 0095 


8 


35 


•474 9551 


•392 0685 


8 


36 


•753 0789 


•392 1282 


O.' t 

604 
610 
615 
620 
624 


7 


37 


4-046 4738 


•392 1886 


6 


38 
39 
40 


•356 0397 

•682 7535 

5-027 6774 


•392 2496 
-392 3112 
•392 3732 


5 
5 
4 


41 


•391 9676 


•392 4355 


627 
629 
630 
831 


3 


42 


•776 8842 


•392 4982 


2 


43 


6-183 8028 


•392 5612 


1 


44 


•614 2272 


•392 6242 





45 


7-069 8037 


•392 687+ 





TABLES OF THE G (7-, i/)-INTEGHALS. 



Ill 



r 



1 




r = 


41 




log P {r, v) 1( 


)g H (r, u) 


A log H (r, v) 


A2 log H (r, v) 


• i-r)90 0501 
•592 (1975 


391 0801 
391 0812 


•000 0011 


-000 0021 


2 


•000 0445 


391 0844 


32 


21 


3 


■613 9059 


391 0898 


54 


21 


4 


■032 5064 


391 0973 


75 


21 


5 


•056 4807 


391 1069 


96 


21 


6 


•685 8737 


391 1187 


118 


21 


7 

s 


•720 7406 
•761 1472 


391 1325 
391 1485 


139 
159 
180 
200 
221 
241 


21 
21 


!) 
10 
11 

12 


■807 1702 
■858 8973 
•910 4280 
•979 8734 


391 1665 
391 1865 
391 2080 
391 2327 


20 
20 
20 
20 


i:^ 


0049 3576 


391 2587 


200 


19 


It 


•125 0171 


391 2867 


280 


19 


15 


•207 0023 


391 3165 


299 


19 


16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 


•295 4780 
•390 6238 
•492 G351 
•601 7243 
•718 1215 
•842 0755 


391 3483 
391 3818 
391 4172 
391 4542 
391 4930 
391 5334 


317 
335 
353 
371 
388 
404 
420 
436 
451 
465 
479 
492 
505 
517 
528 
539 
549 
558 
507 
575 
583 
589 
595 
600 


18 
18 
17 
17 
16 
16 


22 
2:1 
24 
25 


•973 8556 

1^113 7524 

■202 0794 

•419 1750 


391 5754 
391 6190 
391 6640 
391 7105 


16 
15 
14 
14 


26 


•585 4038 


391 7584 


13 


27 
28 
29 
30 


•761 1593 

•946 8652 

2-142 9789 

•349 9933 


391 8070 
391 8581 
391 9097 
391 9626 


13 
12 
11 
11 


31 


•568 4405 


392 0164 


10 


32 


•798 8947 


392 0713 


09 


33 


3041 9761 


392 1272 


9 


34 
35 
36 


■298 3551 

•568 7507 
•853 9658 


392 1839 
392 2414 
392 2997 


8 
8 

7 


37 
38 
39 


4^154 8329 
■472 2803 
•807 3096 


392 3586 
392 4181 
392 4782 


6 
5 
5 


40 
41 


5-161 0098 
•534 5660 


392 5386 
392 5995 


605 
009 


4 
3 


42 


■929 2701 


392 6607 


612 


2 


43 


6-346 5322 


392 7221 


614 
615 


1 


44 


•787 8938 


392 7836 


1 


45 


7-255 0429 


392 8452 


616 





112 



KEPORT — 1891). 



42 



log F (r, v) 



log H (r, v) 



G 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



1'584 
•587 
•595 
•609 
•62S 
•652 
•683 
•718 
•760 
■807 
•860 
•919 
•984 

0055 
•133 
•217 
•307 
•405 
•509 
•621 
•741 
•868 

1003 
■146 
•298 
•459 
•629 
•810 

2-000 
•201 
•413 
•637 
•873 

B^122 
•385 
•662 
•954 

4^263 
•588 
•931 

5^294 
•677 

6-081 
■509 
■961 

7-440 



8804 
5939 
7394 
3321 
3972 
9704 
0975 
8352 
2510 
4232 
4419 
4089 
4383 
6569 
2048 
2361 
9195 
4390 
9950 
8050 
1047 
1492 
2143 
5976 
6206 
6298 
9989 
1308 
4600 
4548 
6204 
5019 
6876 
8129 
5647 
6857 
9802 
3195 
6485 
9935 
4700 
2923 
7839 
3896 
6887 
4103 



0-391 
-391 
■391 
■391 
■391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 

. •391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
-391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 



2724 
2734 
2766 
2818 
2891 
2985 
3100 
3235 
3391 
3567 
3763 
3978 
4213 
4467 
4740 
5032 
5341 
5669 
6014 
6376 
6754 
7149 
7559 
7984 
8424 
8878 
9345 
9826 
0318 
0823 
1338 
1864 
2400 
2945 
3499 
4060 
4629 
5204 
5785 
6371 
6962 
7556 
8153 
8752 
9353 
9954 



A log H [r, v) A-' log H (r, v) 



•000 0010 
31 
52 
73 
94 
115 
135 
156 
176 
196 
216 
235 
254 
273 
292 
310 
328 
345 
362 
378 
395 
410 
425 
440 
454 
467 
480 
493 
504 
616 
526 
536 
545 
554 
562 
569 
575 
581 
586 
590 
594 
597 
599 
601 
601 



•000 0021 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

20 

20 

20 

20 

19 

19 

19 

19 

18 

18 

17 

17 

16 

16 

16 

15 

15 

14 

13 

13 

12 

12 

11 

10 

10 

9 

9 

8 

7 

7 

6 

5 

4 

4 

3 

2 

1 

1 



TABLES OF THE G (/, i/)-lNTEGRALS. 



113 



r = 43 



log F (r, u) 



log H (r, v) 



4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



1-579 8310 
•582 610G 
•590 9546 
•604 8785 
•624 4083 
•649 6803 
•680 4416 
•717 0501 
•759 4750 
•807 7965 
•862 1068 
•922 5103 
•989 1236 

0062 0767 
•141 5130 
•227 5903 
•320 4814 
•420 3748 
•527 4755 
•642 0063 
•764 2086 
•894 3438 

1032 6937 
•179 5637 
•335 2826 
•500 2054 
•674 7149 
•859 2234 

2^054 1759 
•260 0519 
•477 3687 
•706 6845 
•948 6018 

3-203 7711 
•472 8957 
•756 7363 

4-036 1162 
•371 9277 
•705 1384 

5^056 7991 
•428 0520 
•820 1404 

6-234 4197 
•672 3690 

7135 6055 
•625 8999 



A log H [r, v) 



0^391 4556 
•391 4566 
•391 4597 
•391 4648 
•391 4720 
•391 4812 
•391 4924 
•391 5056 
•391 5208 
•391 5380 
•391 6571 
•391 5781 
•391 6011 
•391 6259 
•391 6526 
•391 6810 
•391 7113 
•391 7433 
•391 7770 
•391 8123 
•391 8493 
•391 8878 
•391 9279 
•391 9694 
•392 0124 
■392 0567 
•392 1024 
•392 1493 
•392 1974 
•392 2467 
•392 2970 
•392 3484 
•392 4007 
•393 4540 
•393 6081 
•392 5629 
•392 6185 
•392 6747 
■392 7314 
•392 7886 
■392 8463 
•393 9044 
•392 9627 
•393 0212 
•393 0799 
•393 1386 



•000 0010 
31 
51 
72 
92 
112 
132 
152 
172 
191 
210 
230 
248 
267 
285 
303 
320 
337 
353 
370 
385 
40] 
415 
430 
443 
457 
469 
481 
493 
504 
514 
523 
533 
541 
548 
556 
562 
567 
572 
677 
580 
583 
585 
587 
587 



A- log H (r, v) 



•000 0021 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

18 

18 

17 

17 

17 

16 

16 

15 

15 

14 

14 

13 

13 

12 

12 

11 

10 

10 

9 

8 

8 

7 

6 

6 

5 

4 

3 

3 

2 

2 
1 



1899. 



114 



REPORT— 1899. 



,■=44 



r 



log F (r, u) 



log H [r, v) 




1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



1-574 
•577 
•586 
•600 
•620 
•646 
•677 
•715 
•758 
•808 
•863 
■925 
•993 

0-068 
•149 
•238 
•333 
•435 
•545 
•662 
•787 
•920 

1-062 
•212 
•372 
•540 
•719 
•908 

2-108 
•318 
•541 
•775 

3023 
•284 
•560 
•850 

4-157 
•480 
•821 

5^181 
•561 
•963 

6-387 
•835 

7-309 
•811 



8962 
7420 
2845 
5397 
5341 
3049 
9004 
3798 
8138 
2846 
8866 
7265 
9238 
6113 
9861 
0595 
1584 
4256 
0710 
3227 
4277 
6532 
2883 
6450 
0600 
8966 
5463 
4315 
0073 
7645 
2327 
9829 
6317 
8450 
3426 
9027 
3682 
6520 
7444 
7208 
7502 
1049 
1719 
4649 
6389 
5060 



0-391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
-392 
•392 
-392 
■392 
•392 
-392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
-392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•393 
•393 
•393 
•393 
•393 



6305 
6315 
6345 
6395 
6465 
6564 
6664 
6793 
6942 
7109 
7296 
7502 
7726 
7769 
8229 
8508 
8803 
9116 
9445 
9791 
0152 
0528 
0920 
1326 
1746 
2179 
2625 
3084 
3554 
4035 
4528 
5030 
5541 
6062 
6590 
7126 
7669 
8218 
8773 
9332 
9896 
0463 
1033 
1605 
2178 
2752 



A log H (r, v) 



•000 0010 
30 
50 
70 
90 
109 
129 
149 
168 
187 
206 
224 
243 
261 
278 
296 
318 
329 
346 
361 
377 
391 
406 
420 
433 
446 
459 
470 
482 
492 
502 
512 
520 
528 
536 
543 
549 
655 
559 
564 
567 
670 
572 
673 
574 



A' log H (r, v) 



•000 0020 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

19 

19 

19 

19 

18 

18 

18 

17 

17 

17 

16 

16 

15 

15 

14 

14 

13 

13 

12 

12 

11 

11 

10 

9 

9 

8 

8 

7 

6 

6 

5 

4 

4 

3 

2 

1 

1 



TABLES OP THE G (/*, v)-lNTEGRALS. 



115 







r = 


= 45 




r 




















log F ()•, 1/) 1 


og H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A= log H {>; v) 





1-570 0711 


391 7975 






1 


•572 9830 


391 7984 


•000 0010 
29 
49 


•000 0020 


2 


•581 7241 


391 8014 


20 


it 


•596 3106 


391 8063 


10 


i 


•616 7696 


391 8131 


68 


19 


5 


'643 1393 


391 8219 


107 
126 
145 
164 


19 


d 


•675 4689 


391 8326 


19 


7 


•713 8192 


391 8452 


19 


8 


•758 2623 


391 8598 


19 


9 


•808 8824 


391 8762 


19 


10 


•865 7761 


391 8944 


183 
201 
219 
237 
255 
272 
289 
306 
322 
338 
853 
368 

OOO 

307 
411 
424 
436 

448 
460 
471 
481 
491 
500 


is 


U 


•929 0524 


391 9145 


18 


13 


•998 8337 


391 9365 


18 


13 


0075 2558 


391 9602 


18 


14 


•158 4691 


391 9857 


17 


15 


•248 6386 


392 0129 


17 


16 


•345 9453 


392 0418 


17 


17 


•450 5863 


392 0724 


16 


18 


•562 7765 


392 1046 


16 


19 


•682 7492 


392 1383 


15 


20 


•810 756S 


392 1737 


15 


21 


•947 0729 


392 2105 


iL5 


22 


l'09i 9931 


392 2488 


14 


2.3 


•245 8365 


392 2885 


14 


2i 


•408 9476 


392 3295 


13 


25 


•581 6979 


392 3719 


13 


26 


•764 4880 


392 4155 


12 


27 


•957 7499 


392 4603 


12 


28 


2-161 9490 


392 5063 


11 


29 


•377 5876 


392 5534 


10 


;;o 


•605 2071 


392 6015 


10 


31 


-845 3918 


392 6506 


n 


32 


3-098 7723 


392 7006 


509 


9 


33 


■366 0297 


392 7515 


517 
524 
531 
537 
542 
547 
551 
555 
557 
550 


8 


34 


•647 9002 


392 8032 


7 


35 


•945 1800 


392 8566 


7 


36 


4-258 7310 


392 9087 


6 


37 
38 
30 


-589 4872 

•938 4614 

5-306 7534 


392 9624 

393 0166 
393 0713 


5 
5 
4 


40 


•695 5595 


393 1264 


3 


41 

42 


6106 1805 
•540 0352 


393 1818 
393 2376 


3 

2 


43 

44 


•998 6720 
•483 7836 


393 2935 
393 3496 


561 
561 


I 
1 


45 


•097 2234 


303 4057 


OUi 





1 2 



116 



REPORT — 1899; 



r 






i-565 


1 


■568 


o 


•577 


3 


•592 


4 


■613 


5 


•640 


6 


•673 


7 


■712 


8 


•757 


9 


•809 


10 


•867 


11 


•932 


12 


0003 


13 


■082 


14 


•167 


15 


•259 


16 


•358 


17 


•465 


18 


•580 


19 


•703 


20 


•834 


21 


■973 


22 


1121 


23 


■279 


24 


•445 


25 


•622 


26 


•809 


27 


2007 


28 


■215 


29 


•436 


30 


•669 


31 


■914 


32 


3174 


33 


•447 


34 


•735 


35 


4-039 


36 


•360 


37 


•698 


38 


5^055 


39 


•431 


40 


•829 


41 


6-249 


42 


-693 


43 


7-161 


44 


•658 


45 


8-183 



,- = 46 



log F {r, v) 



3509 
3289 
2685 
1863 
1100 
0785 
1423 
3634 
8157 
5852 
7706 
4834 
8487 
0054 
1071 
3228 
8372 
8522 
5873 
2808 
1911 
5979 
8031 
1333 
9406 
6047 
5352 
1738 
9964 
5163 
2873 
9064 
0186 
3201 
5636 
5631 
1998 
4283 
2844 
8925 
4749 
3623 
0048 
9854 
0347 
0474 



log H (r, v) 



A log H {r-, v) 



0-391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
•391 
■391 
•391 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
■392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
•392 
-392 
•392 
•393 
■393 
•393 
•393 
•393 
•393 
■393 
•393 
•393 
■393 



9572 
9581 
9610 
9658 
9725 
9811 
9915 
0039 
0181 
0342 
0520 
0717 
0932 
1164 
1413 
1679 
1962 
2261 
2576 
2906 
3252 
3612 
3987 
4375 
4776 
5191 
5618 
6056 
6506 
6967 
7437 
7918 
8407 
8905 
9410 
9923 
0442 
0967 
1498 
2033 
2572 
3115 
3660 
4207 
4755 
5301 



■000 0010 
29 
48 
07 
86 
105 
124 
142 
161 
179 
197 
215 
232 
249 
266 
283 
299 
315 
331 
346 
360 
376 
388 
402 
414 
427 
438 
450 
461 
471 
480 
489 
498 
505 
513 
519 
525 
530 
535 
539 
543 
545 
547 
548 
549 



A' log H (r, v) 



■000 0019 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

17 

17 

17 

16 

16 

16 

15 

15 

14 

14 

13 

13 

12 

12 

11 

11 

10 

10 

9 

8 

8 

7 

6 

6 

5 

5 

4 



TAHLES OF THE G (/', ;^)-INTEGRALS. 



u; 







r= 


47 




<t>° 










log F {r, y) 1 


og H (r, c) 


A log H (?-, V) 


A- log H (r, J/) 




1 


i560 7311 
•563 7753 


392 1100 
392 1110 


-000 0009 
28 


•000 0019 


2 


572 9134 


392 1138 


47 


19 


3 


•588 1625 


392 1185 


66 


19 


4 


•609 5508 


392 1250 


84 


19 


5 


•637 1182 


392 1334 


103 


iS 


(i 


•670 9162 


392 1437 


121 


18 


7 


•711 0082 


392 1557 


139 


18 


8 
9 


•757 4696 
•810 3885 


392 1697 
392 1854 


157 
175 


18 
18 


10 
11 
12 


•869 8656 

•936 0149 

0^008 9642 


392 2029 
392 2221 
392 2431 


193 
210 
227 


IS 
17 
17 


13 


•088 8555 


392 2658 


244 


17 


14 


•175 8458 


392 2902 


261 


17 


15 


•270 1076 


392 3163 


277 


16 


16 

17 


•371 8299 
•481 2188 


392 3440 
392 3732 


293 
308 


16 
16 


18 


•598 4987 


392 4041 


323 
338 
353 
367 
380 
393 
406 
418 
429 
440 
451 
461 
470 
479 
487 
495 
502 
508 
514 
519 
524 
528 
531 
534 
536 
537 
537 


15 


19 


•723 9132 


392 4364 


15 


20 


•857 7263 


392 4702 


14 


21 


1000 2236 


392 5055 


14 


22 


■151 7141 


392 5421 


1^ 


23 
24 


•312 6311 
•483 0345 


392 5801 
392 6194 


13 
13 


25 


•663 6124 


392 6600 


12 


26 


■854 6834 


392 7018 


12 


27 


2^056 6988 


392 7447 


11 


28 


■270 1448 


392 7887 


11 


29 


•495 5462 


392 8338 


10. 


30 


•733 4685 


392 8799 


9 


31 


•984 5222 


392 9269 


9 


32 


3-249 3662 


392 9748 


8 


33 


■628 7119 


393 0235 


8 


34 
35 
36 
37 


■823 3284 

4134 0476 

■461 7700 

■807 4710 


393 0729 
393 1231 
393 1740 
393 2254 


7 
6 
6 
5 


38 


5-172 2090 


393 2773 


5 


39 
40 
41 
42 


•557 1330 

•963 4920 

6-392 6458 

-846 0761 


393 3297 
393 3824 
393 4355 
393 4889 


4 
3 
3 

2 


43 
44 


7-325 4006 
■832 3876 


393 5424 
393 5961 


1 




45 


8-368 9732 


393 6498 





118 



REPORT — 1899. 



4>o - 




r = 


48 




log F (r, p) 


log H {,; „) 

0-392 2565 
•392 2574 


AlogH(r, v) 


A-'logH(r,r) 




1 


i-556 2075 
•559 3178 


■000 0009 
28 
40 
64 
82 
100 
118 
136 
154 
171 
189 
206 
222 
239 
255 
271 
287 
302 
317 
331 
345 
359 
372 
385 
397 
409 
420 
431 
441 
451 
460 
469 
477 
485 
491 
498 
503 
508 
5J3 
517 
520 
522 
524 
526 
520 


■000 OOIS 


2 


•5G8 6545 


•392 2601 


18 




•584 2348 


■392 2647 


18 


4 


•606 0878 


•392 2711 


18 


5 


•634 2541 


•392 2794 


18 


6 


•668 7863 


•392 2894 


18 


7 


•709 7492 


•392 3012 


18 


8 


•757 2198 


•392 3149 


18 


9 


•811 2881 


•392 3302 


17 


10 


•872 0569 


•392 3474 


17 


11 


•939 6427 


•392 3662 


17 


12 
13 
14 


0014 1760 
•095 8020 
•184 6808 


■392 3868 
•392 4090 
•392 4329 


17 

17 
16 


15 
16 


•280 9888 
■384 9189 


•392 4584 
•392 4855 


16 
16 


17 


•496 6818 


•392 5142 


15 


18 


•616 5060 


•392 5444 


15 


19 


•744 6421 


•392 5760 


15 


20 


•881 3579 


•392 6092 


14 


21 
22 


1020 9460 
•181 7210 


•392 6437 
•392 679G 


14 
13 


23 


•346 0254 


•392 7168 


13 


24 


•520 2250 


•392 7553 


12 


25 


■704 7169 


•392 7950 


12 


26 


•899 9284 


•392 8359 


11 


27 


2106 3205 


•392 8779 


11 


28 


•324 3901 


•392 9210 


10 


29 


•554 6729 


■392 9652 


10 


30 


•797 7467 


•393 0103 


9 


31 


3'054 2350 


•393 0563 


9 


32 


•324 8107 


•393 1032 


8 


33 


•610 2007 


•393 1509 


8 


34 


•911 1903 


•393 1993 


7 


35 


4-228 6293 


•393 2485 


6 


36 


•563 4374 


•393 2982 


6 


37 


•916 6109 


•393 3486 


5 


38 


5-289 2309 


■393 3994 


4 


39 


•682 4708 


■393 4507 


4 


40 


6097 6065 


•393 5024 


3 


41 


•536 0267 


■393 5543 


2 


42 


•999 2449 


•393 6066 


2 


43 


7-488 9134 


•393 6590 


1 


44 
45 


8-006 8381 
•554 9966 


■393 7110 
•393 7642 


1 



TABLES OF THE G (r. Z')-INTEGRALS. 



119 



<p° 






r = 


= 49 




log F (r, v) 


log H (r, v) 


A log H (r, v) 


A^ log H (r, v) 


i-551 7763 


0^392 3969 


•000 0009 
27 
45 
63 
81 
98 
116 
133 
151 
168 
185 
201 
218 
234 
250 
266 
281 
296 
310 
324 
338 
352 
365 
377 
389 
401 
412 
422 
432 
442 
451 
459 
467 
474 
481 
488 
493 
498 
502 
506 
509 
512 
514 
515 
516 




1 


•554 9527 


■392 3978 


■000 0018 


2 
3 


•564 4879 
•580 3995 


■392 4005 
■392 4050 


18 
18 


4 
5 
C 

7 


•602 7172 
•631 4824 
•666 7488 
•708 5826 


•392 4113 
•392 4193 
•392 4291 
•392 4407 


18 
18 
18 
17 


8 


•757 0624 


-392 4541 


17 


9 


•812 2801 


•392 4692 


17 


10 
11 


•874 3406 
•943 3629 


•392 4859 
•392 5044 


17 
17 


12 


0^019 4803 


•392 5245 


17 


13 
14 
15 


•102 8409 
•193 6083 
•291 9625 


■392 5463 
•392 5697 
•392 5947 


IG 
16 
16 


16 


•398 1005 


•392 6213 


15 


17 


•512 2374 


■392 6493 


15 


18 


•634 6070 


•392 6789 


14 


19 


•765 4636 


■392 7099 


14 


20 


•905 0822 


•392 7424 


14 


21 


1^053 7610 


•392 7762 


13 


22 


•211 8218 


•392 8114 


13 


23 


•379 6125 


■392 8478 


12 


24 


•557 5084 


■392 8855 


12 


25 


■745 9141 


•392 9244 


12 


26 
27 


■945 2662 
2-156 0351 


■392 9645 
■393 0057 


11 
11 


28 


•378 7283 


■393 0479 


10 


29 


•613 8925 


■393 0911 


10 


30 


■862 1178 


■393 1353 


9 


31 


3124 0408 


■393 1804 


8 


32 


•400 3485 


■393 2263 


8 


33 


■691 7826 


■393 2731 


7 


34 


•999 1454 


■393 3205 


7 


35 


4^323 3043 


■393 3686 


6 


36 


■665 1980 


•393 4174 


6 


37 


5^025 8441 


•893 4667 


5 


38 
39 


■406 3461 
■807 9020 


•393 5165 
•393 5667 


4 
4 


40 


6^231 8144 


■393 6174 


3 


41 


•679 5011 


■393 6683 


3 


42 


7^152 5073 


■393 7195 


O 


43 
44 


•652 5197 

8-181 3822 


■393 7708 
■393 8223 


1 
1 


45 


•741 1137 


•393 8739 





120 



REPORT— 1899, 







7- = 


50 




r 










log F {r, v) 


log H (r, y) 


A log H (r, v) 


a2 log H (r, v) 




1 


1-547 4336 
•550 6762 


0^392 5316 
•392 5325 


•000 0009 


■000 0018 


2 


•560 4099 


•392 5352 


26 


18 


3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


•576 6529 
•599 4352 
•628 7993 
-664 7999 
•707 5046 
•756 9936 : 
•813 3607 
•876 7129 


•392 5396 
•932 5457 
•392 5536 
•392 5633 
•392 5746 
•392 5877 
-392 6025 
•392 6189 


44 

62 

79 

96 

114 

131 

• 148 

164 


18 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 


11 
12 
13 


•947 1718 

0^024 8733 

•109 9685 


•392 6370 
•392 6568 
•392 6781 


181 
197 
213 


16 
16 
16 


14 


•202 6245 


•392 7010 


229 


16 


15 


•303 0249 


•392 7255 


245 


15 


16 


•411 3709 


•392 7516 


260 


15 


17 
18 


•527 8818 
•652 7964 


•392 7791 
•392 8080 


275 
290 


15 
14 


19 


•786 3739 


•392 8384 


304 


14 


20 


•928 8954 


•392 8702 


318 


14 


21 


1-080 6649 


•392 S034 


331 


14 


22 


•242 0110 


•392 9378 


345 


13 


23 


•413 2886 


•392 9736 


357 


12 


24 


•594 8807 


•393 0105 


369 


12 


25 


•787 2004 


•393 0486 


381 


11 


26 


•990 6930 


•393 0879 


393 


11 


27 


2^205 8389 


•393 1282 


404 


10 


28 


•433 1556 


•393 1696 


414 


10 


29 


•673 2014 


•393 2120 


424 


9 


30 


•926 5783 


•393 2553 


433 


9 


31 


3-193 9359 


•393 2995 


442 


8 


32 


•475 9753 


•393 3445 


450 


8 


33 


•773 4538 


•393 3903 


458 


7 


34 


4-087 1898 


•393 4368 


465 


7 


35 


•418 0685 


•393 4840 


472 


G 


36 


-767 0481 


•393 5318 


478 


5 


37 


5-135 1668 


•393 5801 


483 


5 


38 


•523 5508 


•393 6289 


488 


4 


39 


•933 4228 


■393 6781 


492 


4 


40 


6-366 1119 


■393 7277 


496 


3 


41 


-823 0651 


•393 7776 


499 


2 


42 


7-305 8593 


•393 8278 


502 


2 


43 


-816 2157 


•393 8781 


504 


1 


44 


8-356 0160 


•393 9286 


505 


1 


45 


-927 3206 


•393 9791 


505 





PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROHLEM OF THREE BODIES. 121 



Refort on the Progress of the Solution of the ProUem of Tliree Bodies. 

By E. T. Whittaker. 

Introduction. 

The present Report is the fulfilment of the author's engagement to draw 
up a report on the planetary theory for the Association. The above title 
has been adopted in place of that originally chosen, as indicating more 
definitely the aim of the Report. 

The fundamental problem of dynamical astronomy is that of deter- 
mining the motion in space of any number of particles which attract each 
other according to the Newtonian law. The solution of the problem 
depends on the integration of a system of differential equations ; and 
various methods have been given for the solution of the equations by 
means of infinite series of known functions. The methods are, however, 
in general cumbrous ; the convergence of the series employed has only 
recently been considered with any success, and the true nature of the 
integrals of the problem is unknown. 

The theory has hitherto been developed chiefly with the object of 
determining the motion of the moon and planets. While, however, the 
lunar and planetary theories are, both of them, attempts to solve the 
problem of three bodies, yet the results of the two theories are quite 
different in form ; this is owing to the fact that the assumptions on which 
the approximations are based are not the same in the two cases. Thus 
it is known that if the masses of all but one of the particles are zero {i.e. 
do not exert any attraction on each other), these particles will circulate 
round the remaining particle in elliptic paths ; and so a method of approxi- 
mation, known as the planetary theory, has been developed, in which it is 
supposed that the mass of one body preponderates and the other bodies circle 
round it. In the lunar theory, on the other hand, it is assumed that two of 
the bodies circle round each other, while circling together round a prepon- 
derating third body. This gives rise to a solution of the problem by means 
of a diSerent set of infinite series. 

Of course, the planetary and lunar theories do not by any means 
exhaust the list of possible methods of approximation. For instance, it is 
known that a particular solution of the problem of three bodies exists, in 
which the three particles are always at the vertices of a moving equilateral 
triangle ; and that, under certain conditions, this is a stable form of 
motion. It would therefore be possible to form a theory, analogous to 
the lunar and planetary theories, in which the approximation would be 
based on the supposition that the motion differed but little from this 
type ; and the only reason why this theory has not been developed is, that 
it is not called for by the practical needs of computers of the solar system. 

The results of the planetary and lunar theories may be regarded as 
furnishing solutions of the fundamental problem by means of infinite 
series, valid in each case only so long as the initial conditions are subject 
to certain inequalities. In addition to this, there is a considerable litera- 
ture dealing with the differential equations of the problem and their 
transformations ; and in recent years discoveries have been made relating 
to the nature and general properties of the solution, e.g. Bruns's theorem 
that no algebraic integrals of the problem of several attracting bodies 



122 REPORT— 1899. 

exist, beyond the integrals of energy and momentum. In this Report it is 
intended to review the state of these various branches of the theory at the 
present time, solely in so far as they help in the mathematical discussion 
of the fundamental problem ; no attempt is made to consider numerical 
applications, or the suitability of the various developments for purposes of 
computation. On this account, many jDapers which are of the highest 
importance in the practical lunar and planetary theory are left unnoticed ; 
this is in some respects to be regretted, but it has been rendered necessary 
by limitations of space and time. 

The Report attempts to trace the development of the subject in the 
last thirty years, 1S6S-98 ; this period opens with the time when the 
last volume of Delaunay's ' Lunar Theory' was newly published ; it closes 
with the issue of the last volume of Poincar^'s ' New Methods in CelestiaJ 
Mechanics.' Between the two books lies the development of the new 
dynamical astronomy. 

The work will be distributed under the following seven headings ; — 

§ I. — The differential equations of the problem. 
§ II. — Certain particular solutions of simple character. 
§111. — Memoirs of 1868-89 on general and particular solutions of 
the differential equations, and their expression by means of 
infinite series (excluding Gylden's theory). 
§ IV. — Memoirs of 1868-89 on the absence of terms of certain classes 
from the infinite series which represent the solution. 
§ V. — Gylden's theory of absolute orbits. 
§ VI.— Progress in 1890-98 of the theories of §§ III. and IV 
§ VII. — The impossibility of certain kinds of integrals. 

§ I. The Differential Equations of the Problem. 

Taking any fixed axes of reference, the motion of three mutually 
attracting bodies is determined by nine ordinary differential equations, 
each of the second order, or, as it is generally expressed, by a system of 
the eighteenth order. The known fact that the centi'e of gravity may be 
regarded as at rest is equivalent to six integrals of the system, and so the 
system can be reduced to the twelfth order. The further fact that the 
components of angular momentum about the axes are constant yields 
three more integrals, and the system can thus be reduced to the ninth 
order. The integral of energy makes possible a reduction to the eighth 
order ; and since the time t only enters by means of its differential dt, it 
can be eliminated, and the system reduced to the seventh order. A 
further simplification can be made, which was first pointed out explicitly 
by Jacobi,^ though it is really contained in the work of Lagrange,- namely, 
that the variables can be so chosen that one of them fi enters only by 
means of its differential clQ, ; it can therefore be eliminated (and after- 
wards found by a simple quadi'ature), and the system can be reduced to 
the sixth order. 

Later writers have not succeeded in reducing the problem to a lower 
order than the sixth. It will be seen, however, that distinct advances 
have been made in the formulation of the equations and the theory of their 

' ' Sur relimination des nceuds dans le probleme des trois corps,' Crclle, sxivi. 
pp. 115-31, 1813. 

? ' Essai sur le probleme des trois corps,' Prix de VAcademie de Paris, ix. 1772, 



PROGRESS OK THE SOLUTIOX OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 123 

transformation, although progress has not been as marked here as in the 
other investigations connected with the jDroblem of three bodies. Besides 
the general problem of tliree bodies and of u bodies, several problems of a 
more special character are often considered, such as the problem of tliree 
bodies in a plane, and the restricted jn-oblem of three bodies. The last- 
named, which has occupied a prominent place in recent researches, may 
be described as follows : Two bodies, S and J, revolve round their centre 
of gi-avity in circular orbits, under the influence of their mutual attrac- 
tion. A third body P without mass (i.e. such that it is attracted by R 
and J, but does not disturb their motion) moves in the same plane as S 
and J. The restricted problem of three bodies is to determine the motion 
of P. This problem was first discussed by Jacobi ' in 1836, who showed 
that it depends on a system of differential equations of the fourth order, 
one integral of which can be written down. This is now generally called 
the Jacobian integral of the restricted problem of three bodies. 

The most satisfactory reduction of the differential equations of the 
problem of three bodies, previous to 1868, was that of Bour - Bour first 
applies a theorem due to Jacobi ^ and Bertrand,-* in which, by making 
use of the integrals of motion of the centre of gravity, the problem of 
three bodies is made to depend on the motion of two fictitious masses 
mj and ^i.,, whose potential enei'gy depends only on the lengths of the 
lines joining them to each other and to the origin. Bour takes as his co- 
ordinates 5'i and (j.y, the distances of m^ and m^ respectively from the 
origin ; q^ and q^, the angles made by q-^ and q.j respectively with the 
intersection of the plane through the bodies and the origin with the 

invariable plane ; p^ and 7^3, which denote my ^' and mg^ respectively ; 

at at 

and^jj and ^j.,, which are the components of angular momentum of m^ 
and m.2 respectively, in the plane through the bodies and the origin. 
"With these coordinates the equations become 

dplB. dq,__m ,. ^ 

at \ql 'at~ Jp': ^'-^' "' '^' *>' 

where H is a certain function of the quantities p and q, and H=constant 
is an integral of the system. 

Por the rectification of an error in Bour's paper, see Mathieu's paper 
of 1874, referred to later in this section. 

For the problem of three bodies in a plane, Bour's system becomes 

dpi_cB. dq;__r>B. ^ 

dt-lqt at- cp: ^'-^'-''^) 

where ;>,, p^, qi, q^ are defined as before, but q^ is now the angle between 
q\ and (72, and ih is the difference of the angular momenta of m^ and vi.^ 
round the origin. 

The problem was reduced in various ways to systems equivalent to, or 

' Comjytes Bendus, iii. pp. 59-61. 

= ' M6moire sur le probleme des trois corps,' Journal de I'lJcole Polyteohnimie, 
xxi. pp. 35-8, 1856. 

' ♦ Sur relimination des noeuds dans le probl&me des trois corps,' Crelle, xxvi. 
pp. 115-131, 1843. 

•* M6moire sur I'integration des Equations difiE6rentieUcs de la mecanique,' Liou- 
ville, svii. pp. 393-436, 1852. 



124 REPORT— 1899. 

little diifering from, Bour's system, by Brioschi ' in 1868, and Siacchi ^ in 
1871 and 1874 ; Vernier-'' in 1894 published what is substantially only a 
reproduction of Siacchi's paper of 1874. Amplifications and corrections 
were also made by Mathieu '^ in 1873-8. 

Previously to 1868 the restricted problem of three bodies had been 
discussed by Scheibner"' in 1866. His equations refer to a somewhat 
more general case, but for the restricted problem of three bodies they are 
as follows : Let n be the mean motion of the two bodies, and x, y the 
coordinates of the particle, referred to the centre of gravity of the bodies, 
the (moving) a;-axis being the line joining the bodies. Also let 

dx , y dii 

dt -^ ' dt " 

then the equations of motion are 

dx^?K d^^_m dy^cK dn__m 

dt 8^' dt ex' dt cr)' dt cy' 

where H is a certain function of x, y, ^, >/, and H=constant is the Jacobian 
integral of the system. 

In 1868 Scheibner" reduced the general problem of three bodies to a 
canonical system of the eighth order without using Jacobi's transforma- 
tion to the two fictitious masses. Let 9',, q2, qi, be the mutual distances 

^rr\ ^m ?rrp 

of the three bodies, and let 1^1^=- — ) ?^2 =-<>—) l'3 = o ^ where T is the 

c?i_ o?2 f"Z3' 

kinetic energy ; let q^ be the angle which the node (of the plane of the 
bodies, on the invariable plane) makes with one of the principal axes of 
inertia of the bodies at their centre of gravity ; and let Pi^k cos i, where 
k is the constant of angular momentum on the invariable plane, and i is 
the angle between the plane of the bodies and the invariable plane. Then 
the diflPerential equations become 

dq,_m f7?;,_ cH ,._, 9 3 4^ 
dt 62)1 at cqi 

where H is a certain function of the quantities jy and q, and H= constant 
is an integral of the system. 

When the motion is in one plane, the system reduces to the sixth 
order, as ^^4 becomes a constant, and q^, now measured from a fixed line 
in the plane, is determined by a simple quadrature. This reduction is 
more symmetrical than one given by Perchot and Ebert " in 1899. 

' ' Sur line transformation des equations diff4rentielles du probl6me des trois 
corps,' C. E. Ixvi. pp. 710-14. 

2 ' Intorno ad alcune trasformazioni delle equazioni differenziali del problema 
dei tre corpi,' Atti di Torino, vi. pp. 440-54 ; ' Sur le probleme des trois corps,' C. If. 
Ixsviii. pp. 110-13. 

' ' Sur la transformation des equations canoniques du probleme des trois corps,' 
C. Jt. cxix. pp. 451-4. 

■* ' Memoire sur le probleme des trois corps,' C. Jt. Ixxvii. pp. 1071-4, Ixxviil. pp. 
408-10; 'Memoire sur le probleme des trois corps,' Lionville (3), ii. pp. 345-70; 
' Sur rapplication du probleme des trois corps d la determination des perturbations 
de Jupiter et de Saturne,' Journal de VEcole Polytechnicpie, xxviii. pp. 245-69. 

^ ' Satz aus der Storungstheorie,' Crelle, Ixv. pp. 291-2. 

^ ' Ueber das Problem der drei Korper,' Crelle, Ixviii. pp. 390-2. 

• ' Sur la reduction des Equations du probleme dps trois corps dans le plan,' 
Bulletin AfStronomiq'ue, xvi. p. 110-16. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 125 

In 1868 Eadau published, first in a series ^ of notes in the ' Comptes 
Rendus,' and subsequently in a memoir - in the ' Annales de I'Ecole 
Normale Superieure,' his researches on the differential equations of the 
problem of n bodies. He finds the effect of an orthogonal substitution 
performed on the variables in the problem, and shows that Jacobi's substi- 
tution in the problem of three bodies is a case of this. Two other cases are 
worthy of mention : firstly, a transformation which is equivalent to referring 
the second body to the first as origin, the third body to the C.G. of the 
second and third, the fourth body to the C.G. of the first three, and so on, 
at the same time modifying the masses ; and, secondly, a transformation 
wliich shows the existence of n ' canonical ' points, each of which has, 
with reference to the motion of (n— 1) of the bodies, properties similar to 
those possessed by the C.G. for the whole system. Considering the case 
of three bodies, he deduces Bour's equations, and also a new canonical 
system of the eighth order. 

A modification of the transformation of Jacobi and Radau was con- 
sidered in 1889 by Andrade,"* and in 1896-7 Poincare * gave another 
transformation which appears to be still better suited for effecting the 
same reduction. 

The results obtained by Allegret ■'' in 1874 are substantially equivalent 
to some of those in Radau's papers. 

Radau's researches were continued in 1869 in a number of pa^Ders,*" of 
which that in Liouville's journal is the most complete ; the author dis- 
cusses the reduction of the order of a canonical system when one of the 
coordinates does not enter explicitly in the energy-function, and applies 
his results to the problem of three bodies, arriving at Scheibner's system. 

Hesse' in 1872 published a fresh discussion of the problem of three 
bodies, somewhat on the lines of Lagrange's memoir ; but it was pointed 
out by Serret * in 1873 that the equations in one of Hesse's systems were 
not independent, and consequently his results were invalid. Serret's 
paper contains also an exposition, in an improved and symmetrical form, 
of the essential parts of Lagrange's memoir. Other reductions of the 

' ' Sur un theorfeme de m§canique,' C. It. Ixvi. pp. 1262-5 ; ' Eemarques sur le 
probleme des trois corps,' ibid. Ixvii. pp. 171-5 ; ' Sur une transformation orthogonale 
applicable aux equations de la dynamique,' ibid. Ixvii. pp. 31G-9 ; ' Sur relimination ' 
directe du nceud dans le probleme des trois corps,' ibid. Ixvii. pp. 841-3. 

- ;_ Sur une transformation des equations differentielles de la dynamique,' Annales 
de VEcole Norm. Sup. v. pp. 311-75. 

^ ' Sur une reduction du probleme des m corps, qui conserve '* ou 'i^_ distances 

mutuelles,' C. R. cviii. pp. 226-8 ; ' Sur les reductions du probleme des n corps, qui 
conservent certaines distances mutuelles,' ibid, cviii. pp. 280-1. 

■* ' Sur une forme nouvelle des equations du probleme des trois corps,' ibid, cxsiil. 
pp. 1031-5; Acta Math. xxi. pp. 83-97. 

^ 'Sur une transformation des equations de la mucanique celeste,' C R cxsix 
pp. 656-8. 

" ' Betrachtungen iiber die Fliichensatze,' Ast. Nach. Ixxiii. pp. 337-44 ; ' Weitere 
Bemerkungen iiber das Problem der drei Korper,' ibid. Ixxiv. pp. 145-52;' ' Sur une 
propriete des systemes qui ont un plan invariable,' C. R. Ixviii. pp. 145-9 ; ' Sur une 
transformation des coordonnees des trois corps dans laquelle figurent les moments 
d'inertie,' ibid, cxviii. pp. 1465-9; 'Ueber gevvisse Eigenschaften der Differential- 
gleichungen der Dynamik,' Math. Ann. ii. pp. 167-81; 'Sur une propriete des 
systemes qui ont un plan invariable,' Lioiiville, xiv. pp. 167-230. 

' ' Ueber das Problem der drei Korper,' Crelle, Ixxiv. pp. 97-115. 

'* ' Kcflfcsioiis sui- le memoire de Lagrange intitule "' Essai sui- le probleme des 
troii corps," ' C. B. ksvi. pp. 1557-65 ; and BicU. den So. Math. vi. p. 48. 



126 REPORT— 1899, 

problem of three bodies, which seem scarcely o£ sufficient importance to 
be here described in detail, are those of Weiler^ in 1869-70, Hill''^ in 
1875, Weiler3 in 1879-80, Seydler-" in 1884, and Duport^^ in 1898. 

The problem of n bodies can be reduced from the 6nth order to the 
(6?2.-12)th order, just as the problem of three bodies can be reduced from the 
18th order to the 6th. This subject has been discussed in the period 
under review by Allegret^ in 1875 (who fell in errors which were pointed 
out by Mathieu ^ in 1 877), by Betti ** in 1877, Mathieu ■' in 1877, Ball lo in 
1877, Dillner ^' in 1877 (who attempted to use quaternions, but made mis- 
takes which were pointed out by Bruns '^ in 1880), and Dillner '^ in 1882-S. 

Seydler ^^ in 1885 extended the analysis of Lagrange's treatment of the 
problem of three bodies to the case of the problem of four bodies. The 
system is reduced ultimately to a system of the twelfth order and quad- 
ratures. 

The general theory underlying the work of this section has been 
developed by Lie and Mayer. A special consideration of the proljleni of 
three bodies will be found at p. 282 of a paper '' published by Lie in 1875. 

In 1887 Bruns '" published a paper which will be analysed later, but 
which contains a new reduction of the problem of three bodies. 

IjQt q^,q-i,qi be the mutual distances of the three bodies ; and let q^-=- 
2«i(.%'j+i2/i)/-6i(^--'i + i,'/i), whei'e {x^,y^, z^) &c. are the coordinates of 
the bodies when the origin is taken at the centre of gravity, and the 

' ' Ueber die Elimination des Knotens in dem Problem der drei Korper, etc.,' Ast. 
JVac/t. Ixsiv. pp. 81-9G, Isxv. pp. 113-28; 'Notes sur le probleme des trois corps,' 
JOiouviUe, xiv. pp. 305-20. 

2 ' Reduction of the Problem of Three Bodies,' 'llie Analyst, iii. pp. 17D-85. 

3 ' Ueber die Differentialgleichungen der Bewegnno: in dem Problem der drei 
Korper,' Ast. Nach. xcvi. pp. 161-82; "Das Problem der drei Korper in der neuen 
Storungstheorie,' ibid, xcvii. pp. 97-112, 129-44, 161-7G, 193-208. 

■• ' Ueber einige neue Formen der Integrale des Zwei-und-Dreikorper-Problems,' 
SitztMifjsbcrichte der Ak. zu Wien, Ixxxis. pp. 851-72 ; ' O integrovani nfikterych 
ro^Tiic vyskytrujic ich se v problemu tfi teles,' Sitcutif/sbericJdc d. Ges. der Wiss. in 
Praq, 1884, pp. 16-29 ; ' Dalsi pf ispevky k integrovani,' etc., ibid. pp. 106-26. 

"" ' Sur le probleme des trois corps,' Bull. Astr. xv. pp. 377-83. 

^ ' Memoire sur le probleme dos trois corps,' Liovrille (3), i. pp. 277-316. 

' Mathieu, ' Sur le probleme des trois coTps.' Liourille (3), iii. pp. 216-9; Alle- 
gret, ' Note sur le probleme des trois corps,' ibid. pp. 422-6 ; Mathieu, ' Reponse a la 
note de M. Allegret sur le probleme des trois corps,' IJourille (3), iv. pp. 61-2. 

» ' Sopra il moto di un sistema di un numero qualunque di punti che si attraggono 
o si respingono tra loro,' Annali di matematica (2), viii. pp. 301-11. 

'•• ' Memoire sur les equations du mouvement d'un systeme de corps,' Liouville (3), 
ii. pp. 5-21. 

'" 'Note on a transformation, etc.,' Monthly Notices, xxxvii. pp. 265-71. 

" ' Memoire sur leprobl5me des ii corps,' Nova Acta R.S.S. Upsal. vol. extra ord., 
1877, 18 pp. 

'- Jalirbuch iiber die Fortschritte der Matkematik, 1877, p. 788. 

" ' Om integration af differentialeqvationerna i ?i-kroppiirs problemet,' Ofversir/f 
af K. Vet.-ah. For handling ar,' 1882, No. 4, pp. 13-20, No. 8, pp. 9-29 ; 1886, 
pp. 173-84, 217-22 ; 1888, pp. 367-78 ; ' Svu- I'integration des Equations difEerentielles 
du probleme des iV corps,' Annali dl matematica (2), xi. pp. 56-64. 

" ' Ausdehnung der Lagrange'schen Behandlung des Dreikorper-Problems auf 
das Vierkorper-Problem,' Abliandlungen der h. bohm. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 
(7), i. No. 5, 20 pp. 

'^ Begriindung einer Invarianten-Theorie der Beriihrungs-Transformationen,' 
Math. Ann. viii. pp. 215-303. 

>'* ' Ueber die Integrale des Vielkorper-Problems,' Serichte der hfil. SacJmschen 
GeselUclwft der Wiss. zu Leipziy, 1887, pp. 1-39, 55-82 ; Acta Math. si. pp. 25-96. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 127 

invariable plane is the plane of xy, and where rtj, o.^, «3, 6,, 60, 63 are con- 
stants subject only to the conditions 

«i + «2 + "3 = 0) ^1 + ^2 + ^3 = 0, ajij, — tia^a^ !• 

Then the problem can be reduced to the Hamiltonian system of the 
eighth order. 

dq, _ SH dpi, _ IB. ,. _ ^ , .T o ^ 

at cp^ at cq^ 

where 

B.=^;±^P^+^^^^'^:^+^Up^,-h,q;)+kh^, 

In this, i^ is the constant of angular momentum. Bruns then reduces 
this to a system of the sixth order by eliminating the time and using the 
integral H=— /ij writing H=Hi/Jo-fH2, where Hj and H,, do not 

involve^; , and putting K= — — ^= — , we have 

dqi_cK dpi_ oK ,._-, ^ „> 
dqo ciXi dqo cq^ 

which is the required system. 

It may be noted that a particularly simple case of Bruns's transforma- 
tionis affoi'ded by putting ai = — l, a2 = l) ^3=0, 61 = — 1,^12=0, 63=1 ; in 
this case q is simply the ratio of the two vectors which join the projection 
of m, to the projections of mj and ni-i respectively on the invariable plane. 
Kiaier^ in 1891, starting from Jacobins transformation, likewise reduced 
the problem to a canonical system of the sixth order. 

The difierential equations of the restricted problem of three bodies 
were discussed by Tisserand^ in 1887 and by Poincare " in 1890. Both 
authors reduce the problem to a canonical system of the fourth order ; 
Tisserand takes variables defined by means of the elements of the 
instantaneous ellipse described by the particle round one of the bodies, 
while Poincare uses the instantaneous ellipse described by the particle 
round the centre of gravity of the system. 

§ II. Certain Particular Solutions of Simpih Clw.racter. 

Lagrange '' in 1772 had shown that the equations of motion of the 
problem of three bodies can be satisfied by two particular solutions of a 
very simple character ; in one case the three particles are always at tlie 
vertices of a moving equilateral triangle and in the other they are always 
on a moving straight line. "We shall generally call these respectively the 
motions of Lagrange's three equidistant particles and three collinear 
particles. 

' ' Sur la reduction du probleme des trois corps au syst^me canonique du sixieme 
ordre,' Astr. Nach. cxxvi. pp. 69-76. 

^ ' Sur la commensurabilite des moyens monvements dans le syst^me solaire,' 
£M. Astr. iv. pp. 183-92. 

^ ' Sur le probleme des trois corps,' Acta Math. siii. pp. 1-270. 

* ' Essai faur le probleme des trois corps,' Prix de VAoademie de Paris, vs.. 



128 REPORT— 1899. 

The first paper oil the subject in the period under review was 
published by Routh ^ in 1875 ; he showed that the three equidistant 
particles are stable when the square of the sum of the masses is greater 
than twenty-seven times the sum of the products of the masses taken two 
and two together ; a result which, however, had already been stated by 
Gascheau. The stability was considered from a somewhat more general 
point of view by Liapunow^in 1889; and Gylden^ in 1884 discussed 
solutions which differ but little from the three coUinear particles. 

Lagrange's results have been generalised, and corresponding theorems 
found for the motion of more than three bodies. An attempt made in 
this direction by Veltmann* in 1875 is open to criticism, but Hoppe'^ in 
1879, and Lehmann-Filhes " in 1891, discovered solutions in which more 
than three particles are placed at the corners of a regular polygon or poly- 
hedron, or on a straight line. Sloudsky 'in 1892 claimed to have given 
some of Hoppe's results in 1878, in a paper published in Russian. In 
Hoppe's paper the masses of the particles are supposed to be equal, 
which detracts from the value of his results ; in Lehmann-Filhes's paper 
the masses are not so restricted. 

Cases in which the triangle formed by the bodies is isosceles were 
discussed by Fransen* in 1895, and Gorjatschew^ in 1895-6. 

§111. 2Iemoirs of 1868-89 o?i General and Particular Solutions c^ the 
Differential Equations, and their Expression by Means of Infinite 
Series (exchtding Gylden's Theory). 

From the time when it was first realised that the motion of the three 
bodies cannot be represented in a finite form by means of known functions, 
interest has centred chiefly round that division of the subject to which 
the present section will be devoted, namely, the derivation, nature, and 
properties of the infinite series by means of which the problem can be 
solved. 

The result of our observations of the heavenly bodies suggests a form 
into which we may try to put the analytical solution. It is found that 
the facts can be represented, at any rate for as far back as our records 
take us, by supposing that the planets move in ellipses round the sun. 
These ellipses are, however, not fixed, but their elements (the eccentricity, 
'&c.) vary from year to year. Some of these variations, or iivequalities, are 
jxriodic — that is to say, can be expressed by terms such as a sin (bt -{• c), 

' ' On Laplace's three particles, with a Supplement on the stability of steady 
motion,' Proc. Land. Math. Soc. vi. pp. 86-97. 

- ' On the stability of the motion in a special case of the problem of three bodies,' 
Trans. Math. Soc. of KraUow (3), ii. pp. 1-94. (Russian.) 

^ ' Om ett af Lagrange behandladt fall af tre-kroppars-problemet ; Ofversigt af 
K. Vet.-ak. Forliandlingar, xli. pp. 3-11; 'Sur un cas particulier du probl^me des 
trois corps,' Bull. Astr. i. pp. 361-9. 

* ' Bewegung in Kegelschnitten von mehr als zwei Korpern, welche sich nach 
•dem Newton'schen Gesetz anziehen,' Ast. Nach. Ixxxvi. pp. 17-30. 

^ ' Erweiterung der bekannten Speciallosung des Dreikorperproblems,' Archiv 
der Math. u. Phys. Ixiv. pp. 218-23. 

« ' Uebei- zwei FaUe des Vielkorperproblems,' Astr. Nach. cxxvii. pp. 137-44. 

' ' Note sur quelques cas particuliers du probleme de plusieurs corps/ Bulletin 
de la Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou, 1892, pp. 437-40. 

8 ' Ett specialfall af tre-kroppars-problemet,' Qfwrsigt af K. Vet.-ak. Forhand. 
lii. pp. 783-805. 

^ Transactions of the Invp, Soc. of Nat. Moscow, vii. viii. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 120 

•where aj h, c are constants ; such variations obviously do not in the long 
run produce any marked change in the solar system ; while other variations 
are secular — that is to say, are expressed by terms such as at + bt'^ + . . . ; 
these variations of course have the effect of continually altering the 
orbits, leading ultimately to a completely different configuration. 

The method of the classical planetary theory is to express the solution 
in this way : differential equations are found for the variations of the 
elliptic elements, and from them is found an approximate solution, which 
in the earlier memoirs was of the kind just described. 

The question naturally arose. What would be found to be the true 
nature of the secular inequalities if the equations were solved rigorously 
instead of approximately ? The first approximation can be represented 
by terms like ct, where c is a constant ; but it is possible that this is only 

the first term in the expansion of (say) sin mt, where vi is a very small 

number. If this were the case, the secular terms would really be periodic, 
though of a very long period. In researches relating to the stability of 
the solar systeni, and the expression of the coordinates after long intervals 
of time, the settlement of this question is of fundamental importance. 

Although the founders of the planetary theory succeeded to some 
extent in their approximation in thus replacing secular terms by trigono- 
metric terms of long period, the most important contribution to the sub- 
ject previous to the period under review was the method by which 
Delaunay ^ discussed the motion of the moon, the essence of which may 
be described as follows. 

Let S, J, P be the three bodies, and let the mass of P be zero ; then 
the motion of S and J, being elliptic, may be supposed known, and to 
determine the motion of P we have a system of the sixth order. This 
can be brought to the form 

dp, _ 2H dq,_ cH / . _ 1 •i\ 
at cq, at hjy, 

where H is a function of t and of the generalised coordinates ^;,., g,i 
H may be called the disturbing function, and can be expanded as an 
infinite series, each term of which consists of a function of 2^ij P-jy Pm 
multiplied by the cosine of a linear function of q^, q.,, q-^, t. Delaunay then 
fixes the attention on some particular one of these terms, and shows how 
to find a transformation from the variables p,, q, to new variables ^?',, q',. 
such that the equations become 

dt ~ Iq''; ~dt ~ '8p"' ^ ~ ' '' ' 

•where H' is a function of ^;',., q',, t of the same kind as H ; but H' does not 
contain any term correspondinc/ to the term in H ivhich is under considera- 
tion. This transformation has therefore robbed the disturbing function 
of one of its terms ; by a fresh transformation we can deprive H' of any 
other term, and so on. In this way all the important periodic terms are 
abolished from the disturbing function, and when the residue has become 
negligeable, the equations are integrated ; and the coordinates are thus 
expressed in terms of six arbitrary constants, and the time by means of 
series in which the time occurs only in the arguments ofjKriodic terms. 

' ' Theorie du mouvement de la Lunc' Paris. Vol. i. 1S60 ; vol. ii. 1867. 
1899. K 



130 REPORT— 1899. 

In 1872 Newcomb,' assuming that the coordinates of the planets can 
be expressed by ti-igonometric series, as in Delaunay's theory, proved 
various properties of the coefficients, &c., by using the function called by 
Clausius the virial, which is the mean value of the kinetic energy of the 
system. This was extended by Siacchi ^, in 1873. 

In 1874 Newcomb ^ proceeded to justify his assumption regarding the 
expression for the coordinates as functions of the time. He applies the 
transformation of Jacobi and Radau to the equations of (/t + 1) bodies, and 
so obtains a system of the 6?ith ordei". It is assumed tliat a set of infinite 
series of the forms 

Pi^ S I'^',. '=.•••'.„ sin (^l'^l+*2'^2 + ^3^3+ • • • -^Hn^Zn) 

can be found, where p, is one of the coordinates and A,.=/,. + i,i! (the quan- 
tities I being 3» arbitrary constants, and the quantities h and K being 
functions of 3?i other arbitrary constants), such that the differential equa- 
tions are approximately satisfied by these series. Newcomb, then, using 
the method of variation of arbitrary constants, replaces these series by 
others of the same form which satisfy the differential equations to a higher 
degree of approximation. Proceeding in this way, it appears that the 
problem of three bodies can be formally solved by series of this kind. 

The year 1877 saw the appearance of a paper'' which maybe regarded 
as the beginning of the new era in Dynamical Astronomy. The author, 
Mr. G. W. Hill, was at the time an assistant on the staff of the American 
Ephemeris. 

The first of the novelties in this paper is the abandonment of Kepler's 
ellipse. It had hitherto been usual to take, as the first approximation to 
the orbit of the moon, an elliptic path round the earth ; the orbit, in fact, 
which the moon would actually describe if the sun did not exist to disturb 
it ; the actual j^ath of the moon was then found by calculating the per- 
turbations caused by the sun on this elliptic motion. Hill, however, does 
away with the elliptic orbit altogether, and takes, as the intermediate 
orbit or first approximation to the moon's path, an orbit which includes 
all the inequalities which depend only on the ratio of the mean motions 
of the sun and moon, but takes account of no other inequalities. This 
difference between Hill and the older theorists may be otherwise stated 
as follows : the old astronomers first solved the problem of two bodies, 
and then attempted to solve the problem of the three bodies by suitably 
varying the solution so obtained ; whereas Hill begins by solving the re- 
stricted problem of three bodies, and then attempts to solve the problem 
of three bodies by suitably varying this solution. 

Suppose, then, that an orbit for the particle is known, which is periodic; 
i.e. w^hich is such that the two bodies and the particle retake the same 
relative positions after the lapse of a certain interval of time. Then the 
coordinates of the particle can be expressed as sums of sines and cosines of 
multiples of a linear function of the time. We can now consider the small 

' ' Note sur un thdor^me de mecanique cSleste,' C. R. Ixxv. pp. 1750-3. 

^ ' Sur un th6orlme de mecanique celeste,' C. R. Ixsvii. pp. 1288-91. 

" ' On the General Integrals of Planetary Motion,' Smithsonian Contribution to 
Knowledrie, 1874, pp. 1-31. 

■' ' On the part of the Motion of the Lunar Perigee which is a Function of the 
Mean Motions of the Sun and Moon,' Cambridgej Mass., Press of John Wilson & 
Son. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE TROliLEM OF THREE BODIES. 131 

oscillations of the particle about this orbit, when the initial conditions of 
its motion are not exactly such as to cause it to describe the pei-iodic orbit. 
These oscillations represent those inequalities in the moon's motion which 
depend only on the eccentricity of the lunar orbit and the ratio of the 
mean motions of the sun and moon ; and the period of the oscillations 
represents the time between two successive perigees of the moon, so that the 
difference between this period and the period of the orbit gives that part 
of the motion of the lunar perigee which is a function of the mean motions 
of the sun and moon — whence the title of the memoir. 

Let IV represent the distance (measured along the normal) of the 
particle from the periodic orbit, at any time t during the performance of 
the small oscillations. Then Hill finds that iv is given by an equation of 
the form 

where depends only on the relative position of the two bodies and the 
particle ; is therefore a known periodic function of t, and can be ex- 
panded in the form 

0=00 + 0, cos 2^ + 02 cos it+ . . . , 

where 0^, 0,, 0^ . . . are pure constants. 

(It ought to be stated here that, since all inequalities in the moon's 
motion which involve the sun's parallax are neglected, the distance of the 
two bodies from each other is supposed to be infinite, and the one of them 
at infinity is supposed to possess such an (infinite) mass as would correspond 
to a finite mean motion.) 

The problem therefore is to solve the differential equation 

5?+{f^o+0iCOs2« + 0oCO3 4^+ . . .}w=0. 

(Xt 

Equations of this type had been discussed by the founders of dynamical 
astroiiomy, D'Alembert,' Lagrange,- and Laplace,^ and have since been 
discussed by a large number of mathematicians. Tisserand called the 
equation 

wliich is a particular case of the above, the Gylden-Lindstedt equation ; 
the name does not seem very appropriately chosen, but as it has now 
become established we shall use it here. The same equation occurs in 
the Potential Theory as giving rise to the functions appropriate to the 
Elliptic Cylinder ; it is discussed from this point of view in Heine's 
' Kugelfunctionen.' The more general equation above will be called either 
HilVs equation or the r/eneralised Gylden-Lindstedt equation. The theory 
of these equations is a matter of pure mathematics, and the papers in 

' 0})uscules Mathematic[ues, v. p. 3.S6. 

- ' Solutions de diffi^rents problemes de calcul integral,' Miscellanea Taurinensia, 
iii. ((Eiivres, i. p. 586.) 
^ CEuvres, viii. and ix, 

k2 



132 BEPORT— 1899. 

which it has been developed will not be reviewed here ; the result 
important for our purpose is that an integral can be found in the form 

CO 

tv— "S a,.cos[(c + 27')t + a\, 

r=-CO 

Vhere c depends on the coefficients in the equation, and a,, and a depend 
on these coefficients and on two arbitrary constants of integration. For 
the determination of c Hill devised the following beautiful method : — 

CO 

Putting e''=4, we have G= ]V 9,,^-", where the quantities 9„ are 

CO 

constants. Hill assumes that iv is of the form to= V b„C"^'" and sub- 

11 = -co 

stitutes this value of iv in the differential equation. Since the whole 
coefficient of each power of ; must now be zero, an infinite number of 
equations are obtained, which involve the 6's linearly ; on eliminating the 
^)'s a determinant with an infinite number of rows and columns (an idea 
first introduced by Kotteritzsch in 1870) is obtained, which involves only 
c and the known quantities 0,j. This determinant, equated to zero, 
furnishes the value of c, and consequently the motion of the lunar 
perigee. 

The convergence of the infinite determinant was not considered by 
Hill ; this gap in the work was filled by Poincare ' in 1886. 

Hill's paper was reprinted,- with some additions, in 1886. 

In 1877, Adams,^ referring to Hill's paper, remarks that he had himself, 
many years previously, investigated the motion of the moon's node by a 
method similar to that used by Hill for the perigee, and had found the 
same infinite determinant. 

In 1878 Hiin published in a more complete form the derivation of the 
periodic solution, which in its character of intermediate orbit had been 
the foundation of his pi'evious paper. The solution is found by actually 
substituting, in the differential equations of the restricted problem of 
three bodies, expansions of the desired form with undetermined coefficients ; 
these coefficients are then determined as functions of a parameter m, which 
depends on the ratio which the period of the periodic solution bears to 
the period of revolution of the two principal masses round each other, i.e. 
on the ratio of the mean motions of the sun and moon. By varying m, 
different periodic solutions are obtained ; the last one of Hill's solutions 
(the orbit of maximum lunation) has cusps at the points where the elonga- 
tion from the sun is a right angle. 

Hill's work soon led to further developments. In 1883-4 Poincare,'' 
using a theorem due to Kronecker in the general theory of functions, 

' ' Sur les determinants d'ordre infini,' Bulletin de la Soc. Math, de France, 
xiv. pp. 77-90. 

- ' On the part of the motion of the Lunar Perigee, wliich is a f unctira of the mean 
motions of the Sun and Moon,' Acta Math. viii. pp. 1-36. 

3 ' On the motion of the Moon's Node in the case when the orbits of the Sun and 
Moon are supposed to have no eccentricities, and when their mutual inclination is 
supposed to be indefinitely small,' Monthly Noticen, Roij. Ast. Soc. vol. xxxviii. 
pp. 43-9. 

•* ' Kesearches in the Lunar Theory,' Amer. Journ. Math. i. pp. 5-27, 129-48, 
245-61. 

'" ' Sur certaines hclutions particulieres du probleme dei trois corps,' C. H. scvii. 
pp. 251-2 ; Bull, Ast7. i. pp. 65-74. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION. OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE nODIES. 133 

proved the existence of an infinite number of periodic solutions in the 
general problem of three bodies; and in 1887 Bohlin ' applied an idea of 
Hill's (viz. using the Jacobian integral to separate off regions of space 
into which the moon cannot enter) to a more general class of dynamical 
problems. In the same year (1887) Hill ^ discussed the different systems 
of variables which might be employed in solving a system somewhat more 
general than the restricted problem of three bodies, namely, that of a 
particle of zero mass, attracted by two bodies which move in Keplerian 
ellipses round their common centre of gravity. 

Poincare's^ memoirs of 1881-6 on curves defined by differential 
equations lead to one result of importance in Dynamical Astronomy. In 
oixler that the system of n bodies may be stable, two conditions must be 
fulfilled : firstly, the mutual distances must always remain within certain 
limits ; and, secondly, if the system has a definite configuration at any 
instant, it must be possible to find a subsequent instant at which the 
configuration differs from this as little as we please. It follows from the 
investigations of this series of memoirs that, if the first of these conditions 
is satisfied, the second is also. 

In 1883 Lindstedt* resumed the consideration of the problem which 
had been treated by Newcomb nine years before, namely, the expression of 
the coordinates in the problem of three bodies as trigonometric series, 
whose arguments are linear functions of the time. A fuller account '^ of 
the work was published in 1884. The author starts from the equations of 
Lagrange's ' Essai sur le probleme des trois corps ' ; the system is reduced 
to four different equations, each of the second order ; and these are solved 
by successive approximation. After the rth approximation has been 
effected, the (r + l)th approximation is obtained by solving four linear 
non- homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients. This 
can be done by known methods ; but if the solution is carried out in the 
usual way, term^ will arise in which the time t occurs as a factor (these 
are the ' secular terms ' of the old planetary theory). Lindstedt therefore 
modifies the equations in accordance with a method indicated by himself 
in a previous paper," and obtains a solution in which t occurs only in the 
arguments of trigonometric functions. It thus appears that the mutual 
distances of the three bodies can be expressed as trigonometric series of 
four arguments, each of which is a linear function of the time. The 
defects of Lindstedt's memoir in regard to convergence, &c., will be 
noticed in connection with other papers. 

A fresh proof of Lindstedt's results was given by Tisserand" in 1884-5, 

' ' Ueber die Bedeutung des Princips der lebendigen Kraft fiir die Frage von der 
Stabilitilt dynamischer Systeme,' Acta Math. s. pp. 109-30. 

2 ' Coplanar Motion of two Planets, one having a Zero Mass,' Annals of Math. 
iii. pp. 65-73. 

^ ' Sur les courbes definies par les 6quations diflerentielles ' ; Limtnlle (.3) vii. 
pp. 375-422 ; (3) viii. pp. 251-96 ; (4) i. pp. 167-244 ; (4) ii. pp. 151-217. 

■* ' Sur la forme des expressions des distances mutuelles dans le probleme des 
trois corps,' C. R. xlvii. pp. 1276-8, 135.3-5 ; ' Ueber die Bestimmung der gegen- 
seitigen Entfernungen in dem Probleme der drei Korper,' Astr. Michr. cvii. 
pp. 197-214. 

' ' Sur la determination des distances mutuelles dans le problfeme des trois corps,' 
Annates de VEoole Norm. (3) i. pp. 85-102. 

« ' Beitrag zur Integration der Differentialgleichungen der Storungstheorie, 
Memolres de VAcad. de &t,int- Peter sbourg, xxxi. No. 4. 

' ' Note sur un theor^me de M. A. Lindstedt concernant le probleme des trois 
corps,' C. R. xcviii. pp. 1207-13 ; ' Memoire sur le probleme des trojs corps,' Annale$ 
de V Observatoire de Paris, Mevwires, xvjii. 



134 REPORT— 1899. 

on the lines of Delaunay's lunar theory ; Tisserand extended Lindstedt's 
theorem, and in 1887 Lindstedt ' showed how this extension could be 
derived from his own original paper. An imperfection in Lindstedt's 
first paper was removed by Poincare - in 1886, who, by an ingenious 
application of Green's theorem, proved that only one secular term appears 
in each of Lindstedt's approximations, and that this can always be 
removed. 

In 1889 Poincar^^ gave a fresh method of derivation for Lindstedt's 
series, by transforming the Gylden- Lindstedt difierential equation into a 
Hamiltonian system of the fourth order, replacing this Ijy tlie corre- 
sponding Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation, and solving the 
latter by a series proceeding in ascending powers of a small parameter, 
the coefficients being trigonometric series of two arguments. Poincari^ 
observes, however, that in the problem of three bodies this method will 
not apjDly if Kepler's ellipse is taken as the first approximation, and 
consequently another intermediary orbit must be used. 

The number of independent arguments required in order to express 
the coordinates in the problem of n bodies, without having the time out- 
side trigonometric functions, was shown by Harzer'* in 1889 to be 

3(7i-l). 

The question of the convergence of sums of periodic terms, such as are 
obtained in Lindstedt's expansions, had now become a matter of prime 
importance. Poincare'' in 1882-4 showed, firstly, that if such a series is 
absolutely convergent for certain values of the time, it is so for all values 
of the time ; and, secondly, that a function cannot be represented by two 
different absolutely convergent series of this kind. Further, a function 
represented by such a series can assume indefinitely great values if the 
convergence is not uniform. In a further note " in 1885, he showed that 
this can happen in two ways : either the function may steadily increase, 
or its value may oscillate, the amplitude of the oscillations increasing 
indefinitely. Bruns " in 1884 further discussed the series of Dynamical 
Astronomy : as these are usually obtained by the integration of trigono- 
metric series, it follow.=: that the coefficients of those terms whose periods 
are very long will be affected by very small divisors. Bruns shows that 
this causes the series to fluctuate between convergence and divergence, 
when the constants, on which the coefficients of the time in the arguments 
depend, are altered in value by small amounts. 

Features of special interest present themselves in the planetary theory 
when the periods of two planets are very nearly commensurate with each 
other. In this case some of the inequalities of long period rise to im- 
portance ; thus, in the theory of Jupiter and Saturn an inequality with 
a period of 900 years has a large coefficient ; the grandeur of this 
coefficient is due to the fact that its denominator contains a factor 

' ♦Ueber ein Theorem des Herrn Tisserand axis der StoruDgstheorie,' Acta Math. 
X. pp. 381-4. 

- ' Sur une methode de M. Lindstedt,' Bull. Astr. iii. pp. 57-Gl. 
' 'Sur les series de M. Lindstedt,' C. JR. cviii. pp. 21-4. 

* 'Ueber die Argumente des Problems der w-K6rper,' Astr. Nach. cxx. pp. 
193-218. 

* ' Sur les series trigonometriques,' C.R. scv. pp. 766-8, xcvii. pp. 1471-3 ; ' Sur la 
convergence des series trigonometriques,' Bull. Astr. i. pp. 319-27. 

" ' Sur les series trigonometriques,' C. R. ci. p. 131. 

' ' Bemerkungen zur Theorie der allgemeinen Storungen,' Ast. Nach. cix. pp. 
215-22 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 135 

^n—1n' (where n and n' are the mean motions of Saturn and Jupiter), 
and this factor is very small, on account of the approximate commensura- 
bility of n and n'. In certain cases (called lihrutions) the comniensura- 
bility is exact ; thus a linear relation exists between the mean motions of 
three of Jupiter's satellites. 

Tisserand ' in 1887 applied Delaunay's method of integration to dis- 
cuss the effect of approximate commensural)ility, showing that commen- 
surability is not inconsistent with the stability of the system. 

Bohlin^ in 1888-9 gave a new method for treating the cases in which 
terms with small divisors appear likely to endanger the coiavergence. He 
considers the equation 

^j2 = -Si/3y sin (Oi—jw), 

where the coefficients {3^ are of the order of the disturbing masses and 
form an absolutely convergent series, and where the independent variable 
lu is, in the applications to the planetary theory, a multiple of the time. 

If in this equation we write if = — x, -■- = — jj^, we have 
d~ dw 1 dp, _.-, . /.J. . ,, 

which we can write 

dc._c'R w_m. dp,___lB. dp^_ _8I1 
dx (J) I dx cj)o, dx cC dx Sio 

where 

H=^Pi2-.;92— S/3y cos {i>;-jw). 

The solution of this Hamiltonian canonical system depends in the 
ordinary way on the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential 
equation 

This is now replaced by the equation 
fhYY dV 

in order to mark the fact that g and the /3's are small (in the applications 
i;'^ is the mass of the disturbing body) ; and Bohlin integrates this equa- 
tion by expanding V as a power-series in k, 

It is found that the occurrence of small divisors can be avoided in the 
series which represent the quantities V,., and hence the original difficulty 
would appear to have been removed. It is, howevei-, possible that large 

' 'Sur la commensurabilite des moyens mouvements dans le systeme solaire,' 
C. R. civ. pp. 259-G5 ; Bull. Astr. iv. pp. 183-92. 

- 'Ueber eine neue Annaherungsmethode in der StOrungstheorie,' Bihang till 
Egl. Srenslia Vet-aU. Bandlingar. xiv. No. C ; ' Zur Frage der Convergenz der 
Reihenentwickelungen in der Storungstheorie,' Ast. Kach. csxi. pp. 17-24. 






136 REPORT— 1899. 

numerators may occur, and so the question of convergence is not definitely 
settled. 

The above expansion in powers of /: is noticeably similar to that of 
Poincare. 

§ IV. Memoirs o/" 1868-89 on the Absence of Terms of certain Classes 
Jrovi the Infinite Series which Represent the Solution. 

The distinction between the secular and periodic inequalities of the 
elliptic elements of a planet's orbit has already been explained. Laplace 
in 1773 showed that one of these elements — the mean distance or semi- 
major axis of the orbit — has no secular inequalities at all, when terms of 
higher orders than the first powers of the masses and the squares of the 
eccentricities and inclinations are neglected. Lagrange in 1776 proved 
that this result still holds when all powers of the eccentricities and 
inclinations are taken into account ; and in 1 808 Poisson showed that it 
is still true when terms involving squares of the masses are included in 
the calculations. 

In the period under review, Tisserand ' in 1875-6 simplified Poisson's 
proof by using the transformation of Jacobi and Radau, thus reducing the 
problem of three bodies to a system of the twelfth order, depending on a 
single perturbing function. 

In 1874-5, Mathieu'^ extended the discussion so as to include terms 
multiplied by the cubes of the masses. He first, by using Jacobi's sub- 
stitution, replaces the sun and three planets by three fictitious planets 
moving round a fixed centre ; the orbits of these bodies are homothetic 
with the actual orbits, and consequently the study of the variations of the 
mean distances in the fictitious orbits will give the required results. The 
aiithor then, by developing the disturbing function as far as terms of the 
third order in the masses, shows that the reciprocals of the mean distances 
have no secular variations of this order. 

In 1877 Haretu ^ published an extract from a memoir '' which appeared 
in 1883. He uses the transformation by which Tisserand had, in 1875, 
simplified Poisson's work, and discusses a memoir published in 1816, in 
which Poisson believed he had proved the non-existence of secular tei"ms 
in the mean distances, of the third order in the perturbing masses, when 
the variations of the elements of the disturbed planet only were taken 
into account. Haretu shows that Poisson had ovei'looked a certain class 
of terms, and proves that secular inequalities arise from these terms, 
which are not ultimately cancelled ; and hence that the theorem of the 
invariability of the mean distances holds only to terms of the second order 
in the disturbing masses. Haretu, however, does not give the explicit 
analytical expression of the third order terms in the secular inequalities. 

' ' Memoire sur un point important de la th§orie des perturbations plane taires,' 
Memoires de VAcademie de Toulouse (7) vii. pp. 374-88 ;lAnnales de V&ole Norvi. 
Sup. (2) vii. pp. 261-74 (merely a reprint) ; ' Note sur I'invariabilite des grands 
axes des orbites des planetes,' C. R. Ixxxii. pp. 442-5. 

- ' Memoire sur les inegalites seculaires des grands axes des orbites des planfetes,' 
C. B. Ixxix. pp. 1045-9 ; Crelle, Ixxx. pp. 97-127. 

^ 'Sur I'invariabilite des grands axes des orbites planetaires,' C. R. Ixxxv. pp. 
504-6. 

* ' Sur rinvariabilitS des grands axes des orbites planetaires,' Amiales de VOhs. de 
Paris, Memoires, xviii. (39 pp.). 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 137 

In 1889, Eginitis ' gave the analytical expression for those secular 
inequalities of the roeau distances which are of the third order in the dis- 
turbing forces. After showing that they can arise only from a term 






where -=— denotes the aggregate of terms of the first and second order, 
ct 

he finds V-^dt by substituting the ordinary development of the disturb- 

J ci 
ing function, squares it, and shows that secular inequalities arise from the 
multiplication of terms with the same arguments. He further shows that 
these secular inequalities are periodic, though their period is very long. 

The transition from the old planetary theory, with its secular and 
periodic inequalities, to the new Dynamical Astronomy, in which all terms 
are periodic, had its effect on theorems such as that now under considera- 
tion. Tisserand ^ in 1888 gave the new formulation of the theorem of the 
invariability of the mean distances, when the solution of the problem of 
three bodies is expressed as in Delaunay's lunar theory. He shows that 
the theorem does not hold when terms of the order of the fourth power of 
the ratio of the mean motions are taken into account, and for the general 
problem of three bodies confirms Haretu's result that the theorem does 
not hold for terms of the order of the cube of the disturbing forces. 

In 1878 Adams ^ published .some curious results relating to one of the 
expansions in the lunar theory. Let e be the eccentricity of the lunar 
orbit, and let y be the sine of half the inclination of the moon's orbit to 
the ellipse ; these quantities are supposed defined as in Delaunay's 
theory : let n be the moon's mean motion, (1 — c)?ithe mean motion of the 
lunar perigee, (1 — g)n the mean motion of the moon's node, a the mean 

distance, and r the radius vector. Then the non-periodic part of - can 

be expanded in the form 

A + Be2 + C72 + Ee'' + 2FeY + Gy''+ . . . 

where A, B, C . . . are functions of the solar eccentricity and of the 
ratio of the mean motions of the sun and moon ; similarly the terms in 
c which involve e^ and y^ can be denoted by He^ + Ky-, and the similar 
tei-ms in g by Me'' -f- Ny^. 

Then Adams's theorems are that 

B=0, C^O, EK-FH=0, FN-GM=0. 

These results are all obtained by one process, which for the case of the 
first may be thus described : consider two moons, of which the orbit of one 
has no eccentricity or inclination, and the orbit of the other has no inclina- 
tion. It is proved that a certain function of the coordinates of the two 
moons is purely periodic ; and it is shown that this requires the vanishing 
of the quantity B. 

• 'Sur la stabilite du systeme solaire,' C. li. cviii. pp. 1156-9; ' Memoires sur la 
stabilite du systeme solaire,' Annales de V Ols. de Paris, Memoires, sis. 

- ' Sur un point de latheorie de la Lune,' C. R. cvi. pp. 788-93. 

' Note on a remarkable property of the analytical expression for the constant 
term in the reciprocal of the moon's radius vector,' Monthly Notices, Roy. Astro, Sac, 
xxxviij. pp. 460-72. 



138 REPORT— 1899. 



§ V. Gyldc'n's Theory of Absolute Orbits. 

In 1881 Hugo Gyld^n, Director of the Observatory at Stockholm, began 
the publication of a new method for calculating the motions of the 
heavenly bodies. The method has been made of practical importance by 
its application, in the hands of Gyld^n's pupils, to the minor planets, and 
is of theoretical interest from the fact that (as in Delaunay's, Newcomb's, 
and Lindstedt's memoirs) the time appears only in the arguments of 
periodic terms. In this report it seems best to give, first of all, a general 
account of the method, and then briefly to notice the series of memoirs in 
which Gylden and his pupils have developed it. 

Consider, then, a system consisting of the sun and two planets. For 
convenience one of these will be spoken of as the disturbed and the other 
as the disturbing planet. At any instant the motion of the disturbed 
planet is taking place in a certain (moving) plane, which passes through 
the sun ; this we can call the plane of its instantaneous or-bit ; in this 
plane we take (as an axis from which to measure angles) a line which 
moves with the plane in such a way that the surface formed by the 
motion of the line always cuts the plane orthogonally. The angle between 
this line and the radius vector to the planet can be called the planet's 
trtie longitude, and denoted by v ; the radius vector from the sun to the 
planet will be denoted by r. 

The quantities r, v are given by differential equations of the form 



dL,dv\^h^ ^d^r^_^JdvY -K^^^cU 
dt\ dt) dv' dt^ \dt ) T cr ' 



where O (which is called the disturbing function) is supposed to be 
expressed in terms of r, v, and the quantities which define the moving 
plane and the position of the disturbing planet, and where M is the sum 
of the masses of the sun and the disturbed body. . 

Let the perpendicular distance of the disturbed body from some fixed 
plane be zr. Then the third diflerential equation of the disturbed body's 
motion may be written in the form 

d^ (zr) 

—-^-g- +Msr=a function of the positions of the planets. 

Now introduce new variables p, rj, S connected with the old variables 
by the relations 

,_«(1^) .jlv^ (Mfl(l - ,r-)V 
1+P ' dt ' 1 + S ^ 

where a is a constant called the jrrotometer, as yet undetermined ; as there 
are only two conditions here to determine the three quantities p, ?/, S we 
can impose another condition later. 

The equations for r and v now transform into 

_ 1 f =(l+S)^Q + i 1 J^^ 

l+ba« • 1— jj^ dii 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 139 
and 

llv- H—rfdv^ J dv 

,.2 






where 



Also, the equation in .t can be written 

f-, + .t = - (l + S)2Qf +(l+S)oZ„ 
dv- dv 

where Zj is a certain function of the positions of the planets. 

Now let us consider the form in which Gyld(5n wishes to express the 
solution of these equations. 

The differential equations will finally be solved by means of sums of 
periodic terms whose arguments are linear functions of v ; these terms 
may be classified in the following way : — 

Firstly, there will be terms which vanish altogether when the dis- 
turbing mass is put equal to zero ; these are called coordinated terms, and 
correspond to the ' periodic inequalities ' of the classical planetary theory. 

Secondly, there will be terms which, when the disturbing mass is put 
equal to zero, do not vanish, but coalesce with the terms which represent 
the Keplerian elliptic motion of the disturbed planet round the sun. 
These terms involve the disturbing mass in their arguments, but not in 
their coefficients ; they are called elementary terms, and correspond to the 
' secular inequalities ' of the classical planetary theory. Terms will also 
occur in the course of Gylden's process which involve the disturbing mass 
in the denominator of their coefficients, and so would become infinite if 
the disturbing mass were put equal to zero ; these are called hyper- 
elementary, and it is shown that they do not appear in the final result. 
And, lastly, we have already seen that when the periods of two planets 
are nearly commensurable, certain terms of long period rise to importance ; 
these are called the sem,%- elementary or characteristic terms for the planet 
under discussion. 

The quantity i>, as already defined, will be composed of both elementary 
and coordinated terms. Let {(>) denote the elementary terms, and let V\> 
denote the coordinated terms, so 

p=(p) + R. 

It will appear that p is of the form 

CO 
(p)=(.- cos[(l-e)r-r} +5'''«<^°^{(l~-»)^~^">' 



where k (called the diastemmatic modulus) and V (called the longitude of 
the absolute perihelion at the origin of time) are two of the six constants of 
integration of the problem, /.•„ and r„ are functions of the constants of 
integration, and c and c„ are small constant quantities of the order of the 
perturbing forces. 



140 REPORT— 1899. 

We can now define rj ; let 

T) cos 7r=(c cos r+ Sh',, cos {(e — c„) v — T,,} 
V sin 7r=»; sin F— S^-k sin {(c— c„) •!;— T,,}. 

Thus ?7 contains only elementary terms, and 
{p)=i} cos {(1 — c)u — tt}. 

T) is called the diastemmatic function, and (1 — c)i^ — ir is called the dia- 
stemmatic argument. 

If in the expressions for the coordinates we strike out all the co- 
ordinated terms, leaving only those which are elementary, these modified 
expressions for the coordinates will define a new orbit, which will be so 
near to the true orbit that the dilFerence between them will be only of the 
same order of magnitude as the disturbing forces. This new orbit may be 
called the absolute orbit. The radius vector in the absolute orbit (r) is 
thus defined by 

The vai'iable z can be divided into two parts just as p was ; thus 
where (s) contains all the elementary terms ; (k) is of the form 

00 

{z)=i sm{(l + -)v-e}+^i, sin{(l + r>-e4 



where i (called the anastemmatic mod^dv^s) and 6 (called the longitude 
of the absohite node) are two more of the six constants of integration of 
the problem, and t, i„, t„, G,j are constants depending on them. If this 
be written in the form 

(s)=J sin{(l + r)v-0}. 

J is called the anastemmatic function, and (1+t)v — Q is called the 
anastemmatic argument. 

Gylden (who, however, is not in this particular followed by his pupil 
Harzer) further introduces a quantity ^ called the rediiced time, which is 
defined by the equation 

dr ai (l->?^)^ 
dv~M'- [l + (p)}-' 

and a quantity called the time reduction,— ^W, defined by 

W therefore satisfies the difierential equation 

1 + S 



dw_(i-,^) r ^-^^ -n . 

the integration of this will clearly introduce another arbitrary constant, 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE TROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 141 

which will be denoted by A, and will be called the absolute longitude, or 
mean longittide for <=0. 

The six arbitrary constants which have now been defined are the 
elements which fix the absolute orbit of the disturbed body, namely, A 
(the absolute longitude), F (the longitude of the absolute perihelion), 9 
(the longitude of the absolute node), a (the protometer), k (the diastem- 
matic modulus), and i (the anastemmatic modulus). 

Having now described the form in which the solution is to be obtained, 
we can resume the consideration of the differential equations. 

First, we have to expand in a suitable way the disturbing function O 
and the quantities P and Q. This is effected by means of infinite series, 
each term of which consists of a product of powers of the various small 
quantities such as j?, multiplied by a trigonometrical function of the 
longitude. 

Next, we have to substitute these expansions in the differential equations 
for p, s, and W, and integrate these equations. 

The equations for p and S are respectively of the forms 

^ + (l~/3)p=2«„ cos (\„«-./3„), 

-^=26„cos(X„i;— /3„), 

where the quantities X,j are constants, but the quantities «,„ b„, /3„ contain 
the unknown variables. These equations are solved by processes of suc- 
cessive approximation ; only those terms are initially retained which have 
a considerable effect, and in this way the elementary part {p) is determined. 
A feature of Gylddn's treatment of equations such as that given above for 
l> is the use of the horistic function, which is a modification of the term 
containing the first power of the dependent variable, and is designed to 
ensure the convergence of the approximations. 

"We may regard the arbitrary constants k and F as arising from the 
integration of the equation in p, i and B as arising from that in z, a as 
arising from that in S, and A as arising from that in W. 

The principal papers in which Gylden's theory has been developed will 
now be briefly noticed. In 1881 Gylden published three short papers ' in 
French and German, and three long memoirs in Swedish. ^ The deriva- 
tion of the differential equations of the first Swedish memoir was simplified 
by Backlund ^ and Callandreau. ' 

Further notes and criticisms on the early part of the theory of 
intermediate orbits were given in 1882 by Thiele' and E.adau.° The 

' ' Sur la theorie du mouvement des corps celestes,' 0. R. xcii. pp. 1262-5 ; ' Snr 
rintegration d'une equation differentielle linlaire du deuxi^me ordre dont depend 
I'evectioD,' C. R. xciii. pp. 127-31 ; ' Ueberdie Theorie der Bewegungen der Himmels- 
korper.' Ast. Nach. c. p. 97. 

- ' Undersokningar af theorien for himlakropparnas rorelser,' Bihang till K. Sv. 
Vet.-ak. Handlingar, vi. and vii. I -wish gratefully to record my obligations to Mr. 
W. F. Sedgwick, late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, who has kindly placed 
at my disposal a manuscript English translation of the Under sbkiiingar, with many 
corrections of his own. 

" ' Ableitung von Professor Gylden's DifEerentialgleichungen fiir die intermediiire 
Bewegung,' Ast. Nach. ci. pp. 19-22 ; Professor Gylden's ' Neue Untersuchungen iiber 
die Theorie der Bewegung der Himmelskcirper,' Copernimsy ii. 

* ' Sur la theorie du mouvement des corps celestes,' C. R. xciii. pp. 779-81. 

^ ' Ueber Professor Gylden's intermediiire Bahnen,' Ast. JVach. cii. pp. 65-70. 

« ' Sur uu poiut de la theorie des perturbations,' C. B. xcv. pp. 117-20. 



142 REPORT— 1899. 

notion of the absolute orbit and the definitions of elementary and co- 
ordinated terms are introduced in the second part of the ' Undersokningar.' 
Gylden wrote another paper ' on this in 1882, and in the same year dis- 
cussed further ^ one of the difl'erential equations of his theory of inter- 
mediate orbits. 

A long series of papers dealing -with the processes for integrating 
differential equations of the second order by successive approximation, and 
with the convergence of the developments, was published''^ by Gylden in 
1882-96. On this see also Harzer.^ 

In 1885 Gylden-^ and Shdanow'^ applied the theory of intermediate 
orbits, which had been given in the 'TJndersdkniugar,' to the case of the 
moon's motion. The problem is made to depend on the solution of the 
Gylden-Lindstedt equation, and the results yield an approximation to the 
motion of the perigee. Andoyer "^ also applied Gyld(5n's theory to the 
moon in 1887 ; and Tisserand * in 1888 discussed the Gylden-Lindstedt 
equation, and applied his results to Andoyer's equations. 

Harzer '' in 18S6 applied Gylden's ideas to the determination of the 
motion of those of the minor planets {e.g. Hecuba) whose mean motion is 
approximately twice as great as that of Jupiter. On account of this 
approach to commensurability, some of the characteristic terms become 
very important. Harzer modifies Gylden's original procedure in two 
respects : firstly, in using the true longitude throughout as the independent 
variable ; and, secondly, in abandoning the use of the ' reduced time.' 

' ' Ueber die absoluten Elemente der Planeten-Balinen,' Ast. Nacli. ciii. pp. 
49-58. 

^ ' Sur r6quation differentielle qui donne imm6diatement la solution du probleme 
des trois coixjs jusqu'aux quantit^s de deuxieme ordre inclusivement,' C. R. xcv. 
pp. 55-8. 

3 ' Eine Annalierungsmethode im Probleme der drei Korper,' Acta Math. i. 
pp. 77-92 ; ' Untersuchungen iiber die Convergenz der Reihen, welche zur Darstellung 
der Coordinaten der Planeten .ingewendet werden,' ibid. ix. pp. 185-294; 'Nouvelles 
recherches sur les series employees dans les theories des planetes,' ibid. xv. pp. 
65-189; xvii. pp. 1-1)58; 'Ueber die Convergenz einer in der Storungstheorie vorkom- 
menden Reihe,' Ast. Nach. cxix. pp. 321-30 ; ' Bemerkungen iiber die Convergenz der 
nach der Potenzen der storenden Kriifte geordneten Anniiherungen im Storungs- 
problem,' ibid. cxxi. pp. 80-94; ' Sur une equation difterentielle du second ordre, non 
linealre et ^ coefficients doublement periodiques,' C. R. cxxii. pp. lGO-5 ; ' Remarques 
ulterieures relativement a ma derniere communication i\ M. Hermite,' ibid, cxxii. 
pp. 585-8 ; ' Om bestiimningen af ojemnheter med mycket lang period i tbeorien for 
planeters och satelliters rorelser,' Ofversigt af Eongl. Yat.-ah. F'nr. lii. pp. 419-32 ; 
' En transformation af den diflferentialekvation, som bestiimmer ojemnheterna med 
mycket ISnga periorder i en planets longitud,' ihid. lii. pp. 503-6 ; ' Olika methoder att 
bestiimma de horistika termerna i den diflferentialekvation, som formedlar htidled- 
ningen af ojemnheterna i en planets longitud,' ibid. liii. pp. 421-30. 

■• ' Ueber eine Differentialgleichung der Storungstheorie,' Ast. Nach. cxix. 
pp. 273-94. 

* ' Sur I'orbite intermediaire de la Lune,' C. R. ci. pp. 223-6 ; ' Die intermediare 
Bahn des IMondes,' Acta Math. vii. pp. 125-72. 

'^ Recherches siir le mmivement de la. Lune autour de la Terre d'aprcs la Thcorie 
de M. Gylden, Stockholm, 1885. 

' ' Contribution a la theorie des orbites intermediaires,' Annales de la Fac. des 
So. de Toulouse, i. 

* ' Sur une equation difl[6rentielle du second ordre qui joue un role important 
dans la mecanique celeste,' ibid. ii. 

" 'Untersuchuiigen iiber einen speciellen Fall des Problems der drei Korper,' 
31cmoires de Saint-riHersbourg, xxsiv. No. 12; 'Quelques remarques sur un cas 
special du probleme des trois corps,' Astronomiska laMtagelser och Undersokningar 
anstdldapa Stockholms Observatorium, iii. No, 4. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 143 

Some criticisms on Harzer's paper (and also on Brendel's paper of 1889) 
were made by Charliei' in 1890 ; and Harzer himself made some correc- 
tions in 1891.'- BreudeP in 1887 derived Harzer's equations as a special 
case of Ctyldon's system. 

After this several applications of Gyklen's theories to definite cases 
were published. Wellmann ^ in 1888 discussed the intermediate orbit of 
Thetis, and Brendel ^' in 1889 found the absolute orbit of planets of the 
Hestia type, whose mean motion is approximately triple that of Jupiter. 

Some developments useful in the theory were given in 1889 by Masai,'' 
and improvements in the integration of the equations were introduced by 
Wolf ' in 1890. 

Backlund** in 1892 discussed by Gylde'n's methods the motion of the 
group of small planets whose mean motion is approximately twice that of 
Jupiter ; in distinction to Gylden and Harzer he takes the time as the 
independent variable. The same subject was treated by an improved 
analysis in a number of papers '•' published in 1897-8. 

Researches in connection with the properties of series such as those 
occurring in Gylden's work were published by Gylden ^" and Backlund " in 
1889, and by Olssoni'^ in 1890 and 1891. 

' Vierteljahrsschrift der Astron. Gesells. xxv. p. 175. 

- ' Berichtigimg zur Abhandlung " Untersuchungen iiber einen speciellen Fall des 
Problems der drei Korper," ' Ast. JYach. cxxvi. p. 399. 

^ ' Ueber einige in neuerer Zeit angewandte Formen fiir Differentialgleichungen 
im Problem der drei Korper,' ibid. cxvi. pp. 161-U. 

* ' Die intermediare Bahn des Planeten (17 j Thetis nach Herrn Gyldens Theorie,' 

Archiv der Math. u. Physih (2) vi. pp. 353-91. 

^ ' Cm Anviindningen af den absoluta Storungsteorien pa en Grupp af 



sma planeterna, med numerisk Tilliimpning pu Planeten 4bJ Hestia,' ^«?r. laldtagelser 
och Under, anst.pd Stochholms Ohs. iv. No. 3 ; ' Sur les perturbations de la planete Ug) 

Hestia, d'apr^s la theorie de M. Gylden,' C. R. cviii. pp. 49-51 ; Ueler die Anwcndung 
der Gyldin'scken ahsoluten Sforunf/Sftlieorio auf die Breitemtomngen einer genisscn 
KlasBC Meiner Planeten, Inaugural-Dissertation, Gottingen, 1890. 

" ' Formeln und Tafeln zur Berechnung der absoluten Storungen der Planeten,' 
Kgl. SvensM Vet-ah. IlandUngar, xxiii. No. 7. 

' Sar les termcs elcmentaires dans Vex^jression du rayon vectcur, Habilita- 
tionsschrift, Stockholm, 1890. 

" ■' Ueber die Bewegung einer gewissen Gruppc der kleinen Planeten,' Memoires dc 
VAcad. de Saint-Pctersbour(j (7) xxxviii. No. 11. 

" ' Ueber die Integration der Differentialgleichung des Radius vector einer 
gewissen Gruppe der kleinen Planeten,' Bulletin de VAcad. de Saint-l^etershourg 
(5) vi. pp. 311-19; 'Sur la determination des termes b, longues periodes dan.? 
I'expression de la longitude des petites planetes du type de H6cube,' Bull. Astr. 
xiv. pp. 321-5 ; 'Deuxifeme mfithode pour la determination des termcs a longues periodes 
dans I'expression de la longitude des petites planetes du type de H6cube,' ihid. xv. 
pp. 5-9 ; ' Formeln zur Berechnung angenaherten Bahnen der kleinen Planeten vom 



Hecuba-Typus, nebst ihrer Anwendung auf den Planeten (184) Dejopeja,' Antr. 

j\''ach. cxlv, pp. 241-8 ; ' Ueber die Bewegung der kleinen Planeten des Hecuba-Typus,' 
Mimoires de VAcad. de Saiiit-Petcrshourg (8) i. 

'" ' Sur les termes 61ementaires dans les coordonnees d'une planete,' C. R. cviii. 
pp. 79-82, 116-9 ; ' Sur la representation analytique des perturbations des planetes,' 
ihid. cix. pp. 395-6. 

" ' Ueber die Kleiner Divisoren bei den elementaren Gliedern in der Theorie der 
Planetenbewegungen,' Astr. Nach. cxxii. pp, 273-302. 

'- ' Bemerkungeu iiber die Integratiousmethoden der Zeitreduction in der 



144 REPORT— 1899. 

Gylden in 1893 published the first volume of a work ^ which was 
intended to furnish, in three volumes, a complete exposition of his theory 
of absolute orbits. His death occurred in 1896 before the second volume 
was ready, but it is expected that Dr. Backlund, who has charge of 
Gylden's manuscript, will as far as possible carry out the original design. 

Backlund - in 1896 described a method, founded on Gylden's woi'k, 
for integrating the differential equation which determines the radius 
vector in the case of minor planets whose mean motion is nearly twice that 
of Jupiter. Brendel ^ in the same year discussed the relation of Gylden's 
series to the gaps in the distribution of the minor planets; in 1897 
Brendel** announced that he had found an improved process of integration, 
and in 1898 the same author published the theoretical part ^ of a memoir 
in which the motions of the minor planets are discussed by a modified 
form of Gylden's process ; the second part, which is not yet published, is 
to deal with definite applications to the solar system. 

§ VI. Progress in 1890-8 of the Theories o/§§ ///. and IV. 

A new impetus was given to Dynamical Astronomy in 1890 by the 
publication of a memoir ^ by Poincare. 

The first feature is the introduction of integral invariants. We can 
regard a system of ordinary differential equations 

_^_A„ . . . --_X„ 

as defining thfe motion of a point whose coordinates are (.•c,, a;,, . . . x„) 
in space of n dimensions. If now we consider a group of such points 
which occupy a r-dimensional region ^^ at the beginning of the motion, 
they will at any suljsequent time t occupy a region 'C. A r-ple integral 
taken over 'C is called an integral invariant if it has the same value at all 
times t. Thus, in the motion of an incompressible fluid, the volume of 
the fluid which was contained initially in any given region is an integral 
invariant. 

Poincare gives a number of integral invariants which exist in particular 
cases, and then proceeds to apply his results to the question of the stability 
of the motion in the problem of three bodies. There are, he remarks, two 
senses in which the word ' stability ' may be taken. It may be taken to 
mean that variations in the mean distances of the bodies are always 
restrained within finite limits — Hill and Bohlin have proved that under 

Gylden'schen Theorie,' Archiv f. Math, og Natur. Christiania, siv. pp. 1-10 (1890); 
' Ueber die Convergenz der Annaherungen in der Gyld6n'sclien Storungstheorie,' ibid. 
pp. 232-9 ; ' Untersuchung iiber eine Gruppe von langperiodisch elementiiren Gliedern 
in der Zeitreduction,' Blhang till h. Sv. Vet-ak. Handlingar, xvii. No. 4. 

' Traite analytique des orbites absolves des hiiit jplanetes princijpales, tome 1, 
' Theorie g^n^rale des orbites absolues,' Stockholm. 

•^ ' Sur I'intSgration de I'eq nation difEerentielle du rayon vecteur d'un certain 
groupe des petites planetes,' C. R. cxxii. pp. 1103-7. 

3 • Ueber die Liicken im System der Kleiner Planeten und iiber ein Integrations* 
verfahren im Problems der drei Korper,' Ast. Nacli. csl. pp. 145-60. 

< 'Ueber stabile und instabile Bewegungen in unserem Planetensystem,' 
JahresbericM der Dentscher Math. Verein, vi. pp. 123. 

s ' Theorie der kleinen Planeten,' erster Theil, Abhandlungen der Kon. Gcs. der 
Wiss. cu Gdttingen, Neue Folge, i. No. 2. 

■* ' Sur le probleme des trois corps et les equations de la dynamique,' Acta, Math, 
siii. pp. 1-220. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROHLEM OF THREE ]!ODIES. 145 

certain conditions the motion in the restricted problem of three bodies is, 
in this sense, stable, — or stability ' may be taken (as by Poisson) to mean 
that the system is to pass infinitely often through positions as near as we 
please to the initial position ; the intervening oscillations may be of any 
magnitude. 

The existence of asymptotic solutions (which will be explained later) 
shows that an infinite number of particular solutions of the restricted 
problem of three bodies exist, which are not stable inPoisson's sense of the 
word. But M. Poincare now proves that there are also an infinite number 
which are stable, and, further, that the former are the exception and the 
latter are the rule, in the same sense as commensurable numbers are 
the exception and incommensurable numbers are the rule. In other 
words, the probability that the initial circumstances may be such as to 
give rise to an unstable solution is zero. 

The proof of this is made to depend on the following theorem ; when 
the point (.x-j, ccg, . . . a;,,, 2/1, y-j, • • • 2/n) moves so that its coordinates are 
always finite, and the integral invariant 

rfa;i . . . dx^,, dy^ . . . dy^ 

exists, then for every region i'q in space, however small this region may be, 
there exist trajectories which pass through r^ an infinite number of times; 
and, in fact, those points of r^, which do not give rise to such trajectories 
form a volume which is infinitely small compared with ?'o. 

It is thus shown that, when the constant of relative energy in the 
restricted problem of three bodies lies between certain limits, the motion 
is stable not only in the sense of Hill and Bohlin, but in the sense of 
Poisson ; the number of exceptional cases to which this law does not 
apply being infinitely small in comparison with the number of orthodox 
cases. The result is, however, not extended to the general problem of 
three bodies. 

The author next passes to the theory of periodic solutions. 

Consider a system of differential equations 

§=X (i=l, 2. . . . n), 

where the X's are functions of ,t,, a;,, . . . .r,„ and a parameter ^i ; 
X,, X2, . . . X„ may also involve t, but if so they are supposed to be 
periodic functions of t with a period 2tt. 

A periodic solution of these equations of period T is of the form 

«^i—9i{i\ (*=1. 2, . . . n) 

where the functions <p are such that ^i(< + T)=:^,(<). (If rc; is an angular 
variable, this may become ^,(< + T)=^,(<) + 27i7r, where n is an integer.) 

The meaning of this for our purpose is, of course, that the relative 
motion of the moving bodies repeats itself at regular intervals T of time. 

Suppose that, for the value of the parameter //, these equations 
admit of a periodic solution, 

Xi=U^), (^=l, 2, . . . «) 

' A discussion of general definitions of stability is given in the second volume of 
Klein and Sommerf eld's Thcorie des Kreisels. 

1899. L 



146 REPORT — 1899. 

the period being, for example, ^tt. The question is now propounded, 
whether the system admits of periodic solutions diflfering but little from 
this, when /u has values which, though very small, are different from zero. 
M. Poincare finds the answer. By choosing, as initial values of the co- 
ordinates, certain functions of /.i, it is in general possible to obtain such 
periodic solutions. 

It is further shown that as jj. varies, periodic solutions disappear in 
pairs in the same way as the real roots of algebraic equations. This 
happens when a certain functional determinant is zero. 

Poincare next proceeds to define the characteristic exponents of a 
periodic solution. 

Suppose that a periodic solution, as above, has been found. Consider 
a motion differing but little from this, and defined by 

Xi=(l>i{t) + ^i, {i=l, 2, . . . n), 

where. the quantities t, are supposed to be so small that their squares and 
products can be neglected. 

Then to determine the t's we have 

-^7=v:^.?S {i=l, 2, . . . n). 
dt ' cx^ 

As these are linear differential equations of a definite type, with 
periodic coefficients, £{ will be a sum of n quantities, each of the form 
eVfii^, where the quantities S;, are periodic functions of t with the same 
period as f,{t), and the n constants a, are the roots of a certain algebraical 
equation. 

The constants a are called the characteristic exponents of the periodic 
solution. If they are purely imaginary the t's will remain small, and the 
periodic solution is stable ; if not, the solution is unstable. 

If two of the characteristic exponents are equal, the form of the 
solution is altered, as the terms of the form te"' now appear. 

When the original equations have the Hamiltonian canonical form, 
the characteristic exponents can be arranged in pairs, the exponents in 
each pair being numerically equal, but of contrary signs. The n values of 
a^ are called the coefficients of stability of the periodic solution considered ; 
if they are all real, negative, and distinct there is stability. When the 
Hamiltonian function does not involve t, one of the n coefficients of 
stability is zero, so two of the characteristic exponents are zero. 

The author now shows that the functional determinant already men- 
tioned vanishes only when one of the characteristic exponents of the 
original periodic solution is zero ; the theorem already given can thus be 
put in the more precise form. 

If a set of equations, ivhich depend on a jjarameter ^, admit of a 2:>eri- 
odic solution when fi=^0,for which no one of the characteristic exjwnents is 
zero, then they also admit of a periodic solution for small values of f^t. 

Poincare then turns to the periodic solutions of the differential equa- 
tions of dynamics. For greater definiteness, the system is supposed to 
have three degrees of freedom ; the equations are taken in the form — 

dx.,_ oF rfy,__SF ,. ^ 
~cU~-hy-: -dt'- '^' ^'-'' ^' ^^ 

and F is supposed to be a uniform function of the a"'s and ?/'.'3 independent 



i 



PROGfiESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE JiODIES. 147 

of t, and to ))e periodic in the y's of period 27r. F is further supposed to 
depend on an arbitrary parameter p, and to be expansible in the form 

F=Fo+/iF + ^-^F, + ^3y^+... 

where F^ does not involve the quantities y. 

When /i=0, the equations can be integrated ; a;,, x^, x^ are in this case 
constant, and 



") 



yi = nit-\- 10 i, where 11^=- -^, 



rx: 



the quantities w^ being arbitrary constants of integration. The solution 
will be periodic if 71], n.2, 11^ are commensurable with each other ; the 
period T will then be the least common multiple of the quantities 

27r 2t 2_jr 

In general, it will be possible to choose Xi ajj, x^^ so that w,, n2, n^ 
may have any prescribed values — at least in some domain ; so that there 
are oo^ periodic solutions, when fx is zero. 

The author nest proceeds to investigate whether periodic solutions of 
period T exist, when ^i is not zero. By a process of reasoning similar to 
that used before, it is shown that, corresponding to any periodic solution 
which exists when {.1=0, and whose constants satisfy certain conditions, 
ther^e exists in general a solution of yeriod T when ^ has small values dif- 
ferent from zero. The quantities Xi and yi — nf, can be expressed as series 
of ascending powers of ju, the coefficients in which are circular functions of 

" ; and a method of forming these expansions is given. 

The results are applied to the restricted problem of three bodies ; a 
difficulty arises, which in this case is solved by a simple artifice, but which 
is not so easily disposed of in the general problem of three bodies. 

Still considering the dynamical system with three degrees of freedom, 
Poincar^ considers a solution 

differing but little from a periodic solution, and writes 

where S; and T; are periodic functions of t. 

When the periodic solution corresponds to ^=0, the six exponents a 
are all zero ; when fi is not zero it is shown that the quantities «, S„ and 
T; are expansible in ascending fotoers (not of /x, but) of sj ^x. It is shown 
that to every set of values of n^ and n.^ there correspond at least one 
stable and one unstable periodic solution ; and that there are exactly as 
many stable solutions as unstable when /x is sufficiently small. 

The next idea to be introduced is that of asymptotic solutions. Re- 
turning to the general system 

^^=X,, (i=l, 2,...w) 

let Xi=:X^ 

L2 



148 




REPORT— 


-1899 


define 


a known 


periodic solution. 




Put 




^j=3J, 


°+'^i- 



The system now becomes a set of n equations to determine the £'s ; if 
these are solved on the supposition that squares and products of the ^s 
can be neglected, the solution is of the form 

where the A's ai'e constants of integration, the a's are the characteristic 
exponents, and the (//s are periodic functions of t. In order to solve the 
equations when products of the ^'s are not neglected, assume 

The equations determining the rj's can now be written down ; it is 
proved that they can be solved by assuming each of the quantities rj to be 
a series of ascending powers of Aie"'', A2e°=', . . . A„e""' ; the A's being 
constants of integration, and the coefficients being periodic functions of t. 

In general, some of the quantities a will have their real parts negative. 
The other a's can be got rid of in the expression for £, by taking the cor- 
responding A's to be zero. Then, when i increases indefinitely, £; will 
diminish indefinitely ; in other words, the solutions thus obtained approxi- 
mate more and more closely to the original periodic solution as the time 
increases ; they are called asymptotic solutions. 

Similarly, another class of solutions can be obtained which differ widely 
from the periodic solution when t=+oo, but approximate to it for 
^= — CO. These form a second kind of asymptotic solutions. 

In the case n=2, the solution can be represented by the locus of a 
point whose coordinates are 

e^' cos t, e'' sin t, x. 

If the solution is periodic, this locus is a closed curve in space, and 
the solutions asymptotic to it are represented by curves asymptotic to this 
curve. The aggregate of these asymptotic curves is called an asymjitotic 
surface ; there will of course be two asymptotic surfaces corresponding 
to ^=00 and i5=: — 00 respectively, and each of them passes through the 
periodic curve. 

M. Poincar^ then discusses the case in which the original equations 

•|.=X, (i=l,2,...») 

contain a parameter ^. It is shown that, when the X's and the 
characteristic exponents o of the periodic solution are expansible in 
powers of p, the coordinates of a point describing an asymptotic solution 
can also be expressed as series of ascending powers of ju. 

The theory of asymptotic solutions is then specially developed for 
the differential equations of dynamics. The system is taken in the form 

dxj^lF dj/j^_h^^ ,.^^^ 2,...n) 
dt ?y' dt cxl 

where F is expansible in powers of ^. 

It has already been shown that the characteristic exponents a are 
developable in powers of \//i(, and are all zero when ^=0. It is now 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE liODIES. 1 19 

proved that series can be found which proceed in ascending powers of tlic 

quantities \/ fj, A.e"'', e'^'^i, and c"'^"^, and satisfy formally the differential 
equations which must be satisfied by the coordinates in an asymptotic 
solution ; but that these series are not convergent. 

The series in question belong, in fact, to that important class of 
developments which are now called AsymjAotic JExpmisions ; of which 
the best-known examples are Stirling's series for the F-function, 

and the so-called ' semiconvergent ' expansions for the Bessel functions 
and Riemann's 4-function. An example given by M. Poincare is the 
function 



F(i/-,/x)=5rz! 



This series converges uniformly when /x is positive and ] w \ <ii\, where 
iv^ is a positive quantity less than unity. If F (i/;, /x) is developed in 
ascending powers of ^, it becomes 



H, p 



tu"{-nYn''. 



This series does not converge, but is an asymptotic expansion ; that 
is to say, if 0,, denote the sum of those terms for which the index of yu, is 
not greater than 2^, the quantity 

F{w,u)-(t>p 
/x" 

tends to zero as fi takes a sequence of positive values tending to zero. 
The series thus represents the function F(iv, yu) for small values of /.i in 
the same way as Stirling's series represents the T-function for large 
values of z. The series found in this section are of the same character, 
regarded as functions of V/i for small values of /j. 

Passing in the second part of the memoir to the special discussion of a 
dynamical system with two degrees of freedom, the author studies the 
asymptotic sui-faces, which have already been defined. An infinite 
number of doubly asymptotic solutions is shown to exist ; these belong at 
the same time to both of the classes of asymptotic solutions, i.e. they are 
approximately periodic when <=— 00 and <=;oo, but are not periodic in 
the meantime. 

Poincare next discusses periodic solutions of the second kind. Suppose 
that a set of periodic solutions of the kind already discussed is known, 
the expressions for the coordinates being expansible in ascending powers 
of //. Let fjQ be a definite value of (a. In certain cases there exists a set 
of periodic solutions, in which the expressions for the coordinates are 
expansible in ascending powers of (^ — /^(q)*- These are called periodic 
solutions of the second kind. Their period is approximately a multiple of 
the period of the solution from which we started. When /■ > pn there are 
two of these solutions of the second kind corresponding to each value of f.i ; 
when ju=//o they coalesce into a single solution of the first kind, namely, 
the member for ^=^/oof the set of solutions from which we started ; when 
//<yi/g they are imaginary. 



150 REPORT— 1899. 

Poincare now goes on to discuss the question of the convergency of 
Lindstedt's series. He takes the differei\tial equations in tiie form 

dt c'l/i' dt iy^ dt Ix^ dt cx.^ 

where 

F=Fo + A'I^i 

and Fq is a function of a;, and x.2 only. The a;'s and y'a are regarded as 
functions of ly, and 1V2, wliore 



•iyj=Xji-f Wi, iv.,=}.2i + '^-^, 



and where 



K 

<1 



n 

-==0 



(^=1, 2) 



The author sketches Lindstedt's result, that the constants A," can be so 
determined that these expressions for .r, and y, (in which x", and y] are 
periodic functions of lo^ and W2) inay formally satisfy the above differential 
equations, with an error of the order ^'' + ^ 

The series are first assumed to be uniformly convergent ; and it is 
shown that if this assumption were true, all the characteristic exponents 
of the periodic solutions (which arise when A, is commensurable with Aj) 
Avould be zero. Since this is not the case, the assumption must be false ; 
and thus the result is obtained, that Lindstedt's series do not converge 
uniformly for all values of the arbitrary constants of integration which 
they contain. 

The author next discusses the nature of the integrals of the differential 
equations, other than those integrals which are already known. 

The system 



^a-j_cF dyi__cF .^_j ^n 
dt cy' dt ixj 



has an integral 



'&'■ 



F(ri'i, Xo, 2/1) 2/2) = constant. 

Suppose, if possible, that another integral exists of the form 

^(i«i, a-'2. yu 2/2) = constant, 

where cp is a uniform analytic function of fi, ,t,, x.^, 2/1, y-z, and is periodic 
in yi and y.y, of period 27r. It is proved that in this case the equations 

SF 8F gF gF 

Sxi Sx.2 83/1 8?/2 

~ ~ If ~ _8(j)_ Sf" 

8x'i 8x2 S^i 8^2 

must be satisfied at all points of all periodic solutions. It is then further 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 151 

shown that these equations must be satisfied identically ; thus <■/» is a 
function of F, and so the two integrals (^ and F are not distinct. 

Hence the result. The system possesses no integral (other than the 
integral F), which is a uniform analytic function of ,t,, x.2, y,, z/o, A' for 
all values of i/, and y^, for small values of fi, and for values of x^ and x^ 
contained within certain limits, and which is periodic in y^ and 2/2- 

This forms an important complement to Bruns's result, which will be 
reviewed in the next section of this report. 

The last section of Poincare's memoir is occupied with the extension 
of the results, which have been obtained for systems with two degrees of 
freedom, to more general systems, i.e. to the problem of n bodies. 

Poincare's paper gave a fresh stimulus to the investigation of periodic 
solutions. In 1890 v. HaerdtP calculated numerically two cases of the 
restricted problem of three bodies. Charlier - in 1892 discussed the same 
cases by means of expansions proceeding in ascending powers of the time, 
and the same author ^ in 1893 found a set of periodic solutions of the 
problem of three bodies in a plane, whose expansion involves four arbi- 
trary constants ; the mutual distances of the bodies are given as series of 
ascending powers of a quantity 

{a"- + a"~ - 2a' cos {\t + £)} '-, 

the coefBcients in the series being constants. 

Callandreau^ in 1891 discussed the equations which lead by successive 
approximations to solutions differing but little from periodic solutions. _ 

Lord Kelvin '' in 1892 traced by graphic methods a looped orbit, which 
may be regarded as a continuation of the set of periodic solutions which 
Hill believed to be terminated by the moon of maximum lunation. 

Coculesco*^ in 1892 proved the stability (in both Hill's and Poisson's 
senses) of the motion in one of the cases treated by v. Haerdtl. The 
motion of the same system, under fresh conditions of projection, was 
investigated in 1894 by Burrau ^ ; in the second paper he considers those 
purely libratory motions in which the zero particle does not, in the rela- 
tive movement, circulate round either of the other bodies, and finds that 
the series of solutions is terminated by an orhit of ejection, in which the 
zero particle stai'ts from a colHsion with one of the other bodies. These 
libratory orbits were further discussed in 1895 by Thiele,^ and (by use of 
Poincare's theory) by Perchot ^ and Mascart. 

' ' Skizzen zu einen specielleD Fall des Problems der drei Ki5rper,' Alhand. Aer 
K. Bayer. All. in Blunchen, xvii. pp. 589-644. 

- ' Studier of ver tre-kroppar-probleinet,' Biliang till K. So. Vet.-ak. Handlingar, 
xviii. No. 6. 

' Ihid. six. No. 2. 

* ' Snr quelques applications des theories concernant les solutions particnlieres 
p6riodiques du probleme des trois corps et rintegration des equations dif3:6rentielles 
lin6aires :\ coefficients periodiques,' Bull. Astr. viii. pp. 49-67. 

'^ ' On Graphic Solution of Dynamical Problems,' Brit. Assoc. Bej)ort, 1892, 
pp. 648-52 ; PJdl. 3faf/. xxsiv. p. 447. 

" ' Sur la stabilite du mouvement dans un cas particulier du probleme des trois 
corps,' C. B. cxiv. pp. 1339-4L 

' ' Recherches numeriqnes concernant des solutions periodiques d'uii cas special 
du probleme des trois corps,' A. JV. cxxxv. pp. 233-40, cxxxvi. pp. 161-74. 

» Ibid, cxxxviii. pp. 1-10. 

» ' Sur une classe de solutions periodiques dans un cas particulier du probleme 
des trois corps,' C. R. cxx. pp. 906-9 ; Bull. Ast. xii, pp. 329-52. 



152 REPORT— 1899. 

Poincare's method for the direct calculation of periodic solutions of 
dynamical systems was modified in 1895 by Kobb/ so as to be applicable 
to the problem of three bodies. 

Darwin in 1896 published a preliminary notice- of a paper ^ which 
appeared in 1897, and in which a large number of periodic solutions are 
calculated numerically. The case considered is the restricted problem of 
three bodies ; two of the bodies, S and J, revolve round each other in 
circular orbits, and the mass of tho third body P is zero. Darwin finds 
six families of periodic orbits ; in one (Planet A), P describes a closed 
path round S, as in Hill's periodic orbit ; in two others (oscillating Satel- 
lites a and h) P oscillates about a position on the line joining S and J, as 
in the libratory motions of Burrau, Thiele, and Perchot and Mascart ; and 
in the remaining three (Satellites A, B, C), P describes a closed path 
round J. In the numerical work, the mass of S is supposed to be ten 
times the mass of J. When difierent values are assumed for the constant 
of energy, the orbits of these families change their form, pass from 
stability to instability and vice versa, and even go out of existence 
altogether. 

Another class of periodic solutions of the restricted problem of three 
bodies was found in 1898 by Schwarzschild.'' 

An application of Poincare's theories in a different direction was made 
in 1893 by Perchot.'' In the first part of his memoir the coefficients of 
the principal periodic inequalities of the longitudes of the lunar node and 
perigee are calculated ; the author takes the equations in Delaunay's 
form, and applies the theory of periodic solutions. In the second part, 
the secular variations of the eccentricities and inclinations are discussed, 
with the aid of Poincare's theory of stability. 

The theories of periodic solutions, characteristic exponents, asymptotic 
solutions, and the non-existence of uniform integrals were somewhat 
more completely discussed in 1892 by Poincare'' himself in the first 
volume of his treatise on the new developments of dynamical astronomy. 
The second volume, which was published in 1893, and contains a good 
deal of matter which had not appeared in the memoir of 1891, opens with 
a chapter on asymptotic expansions ; after this the author discusses, by 
Jacobi's method, Lindstedt's theory of the solution of the equations of 
dynamics by means of sums of periodic terms, using his own proof of its 
applicability, as given originally in C. R. cviii. Newcomb's method is 
shown to be fundamentally equivalent to Lindstedt's. Lindstedt's theory 
is then applied, firstly, to prove a result obtained by Poincare ^ in ' C. E,.' 
cxiv. regarding the expression of the secular inequalities in the planetary 

• ' Sur le calcul direct des solutions periodiques dans le probleme des trois corps,' 
Ofversigt af K. Sv. Vet.-ah. Fork. lii. pp. 215-22. 

■-' ' On Periodic Orbits,' Bnt. Assoc. Report, 1896, pp. 708-0. 

' ' Periodic Orbits,' Acta McitJi. xxi. pp. 99-242 ; Math. Annalcn, li. pp. 523-83. 

■• ' Ueber eine Classe periodischer Losungen des Dreikorperproblems,' Astr. Nacli. 
cxlvii. pp. 17-2i ; ' Ueber weitere Classe periodischer Losungen des Dreikorper- 
problems,' Hid. pp. 289-98. 

^ ' Sur les mouvements des noeuds et du perigee de la lune, et sur les variations 
s6culaires des excentricites et des inclinaisons,' Annalcs do VEc. Norm. Sup. (5) 
X. suppl. pp. 3-94. 

" Les Mcthodes Nouvclles de la 3Iccanitpte Celeste, Paris, Gauthier-Villars, vol. i. 
1 892, vol. ii. 1893, vol. iii. 1898. 

' ' Sur I'application de la methode de M. Lindstedt au probleme des trois corps,' 
C. R cxiv pp. 1305-9. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OK THREE BODIES. 153 

theory as sums of periodic terms, and, secondly, to effect the general 
expansions in the problem of three bodies ; as explained in the paper 
referred to, there is a difficulty here, since in Kepler's ellipse the node 
and perihelion are fixed, and thus there is a linear relation between the 
mean motions of the arguments used. This difficulty is surmounted, and 
another is considered in the following chaptei', arising from the fact that 
if the eccentricities are very small (supposing that e is used as one of the 
variables, and not e cos ns and e sin ■ro-), some of the developments bi-eak 
down. It is shown that this difficulty can be avoided by taking as starting- 
point a periodic solution instead of Kepler's ellipse. 

The author then proceeds to discuss the convergency of Lindstedt's 
expansions ; his results in this connection were disputed by Hill, ^ and led 
to some controversy. 

After some interesting I'emarks on the theorem of the secular invaria- 
bility of the mean distances, Poincai'e pi'oceeds to show how the coefficients 
in Lindstedt's series can be calculated directly, without the complicated 
transformations which were introduced in the proof of their existence ; 
and then a new way of forming Lindstedt's series is explained, in which 
half of the original equations of motion are replaced by the equation of 
energy and certain equations involving an auxiliary function S. Two 
equalities which can be used in the verification of these pi'ocesses were 
given in 1895.^ 

The first half of the book may be said to centre round a theorem, 
which may be stated as follows : — 

Let the equations of dynamical astronomy be given in the form 

^^^ dt-fy! Ht- Tx: ^'-^' -^ • ■ ■ '^h 

The function F is periodic in the quantities y, and may depend on the x-'s 
in any manner. Moreover, certain of the terms are small in comparison 
with others, and the order of magnitude of the different terms may be put 
in evidence by introducing a small quantity ju, and developing F in 
ascending powers of /(, in the form 

F=Fo + /<F, + ^2F,+-... 

Fq does not involve the quantities y. 

Then it is proved that the equations (1) can be formally satisfied by 
series of the form 

where the quantities .x-/"' and i//'' are periodic functions of the quantities 
to^=nfi + 'mi ; (i=l, 2, . . .n) ; 

' Hill (1895), ' On the Convergence of the Series used in the subject of Perturba- 
tions,' Bull. Amcr. Math. Soc. ii. pp. 93-7. Poincarfi (1896), ' Sur la divergence des 
series de la MScanique Celeste,' C.R. cxxii. pp. 497-9. Hill (1896), ' Rem.arkson the 
Progress of Celestial Mechanics since the middle of the century,' Bull. Amer. Math. 
Soc. ii. pp. 125-36. Poincare (1896), ' Sur la divergence des series trigonometriques, 
C. R. cxxii, pp. 557-9. 

- ' Sur un proced6 de verification, apnlicable au calcul des series de la Mccanique 
Celeste,' C. 11. cxx. pp. 57-9. 



154 REPORT— 1899. 

the quantities -ra-j are constants of integration ; the quantities n^ are 
constants (called the mean viotions) which can be developed as power- 
series in jj. The quantities x/'' and 2//"' can themselves be developed in 
series of the form 

(3) .r/''(or ^/'')=^A cos («iiW, +m2?«2+ • • • +'",.w'„ + A). 

Suppose for simplicity that n^2. If the ratio of the mean motions 
is commensurable, one of the terms of the series (3) becomes infinite ; 
leaving this case, it is shown (pp. 96, 97) that incommensurable values of 
the ratio of the mean motions can be sorted into two categories — those 
for which the series converges and those for which the series diverges — 
and in every interval, however small, there are values of the first category, 
and also values of the second category ; in particular, the series converges 
for incommensurable values whose square is commensurable. The con- 
vergence is in no case uniform. By an artifice, howevei-, the series (3) 
can be regarded as composed of only a finite number of terms, and so the 
series (2) can be formed. 

What may be regarded as the second half of the book begins, in the 
sixteenth chapter, with an introduction to Gylden's theory ; the Gylden- 
Lindstedt equation is treated by the methods of chapter ix. and by those 
of Gylden, Bruns, Hill, and Lindstedt ; and then the author proceeds to 
the more difficult of Gylden's differential equations. The last three 
chapters of the volume are devoted to an exposition of Bohlin's method, 
and to an extension in which some of the limitations of Bohlin's work 
are removed. 

The theorem regarding the expression of the coordinates as trigono- 
metric series was still fui'ther improved' by Poincare in 1897. It is 
shown that the coordinates in the problem of three bodies can be expressed 
by series proceeding in ascending powers of a small parameter /.t of the 
order of the two small masses, and of several constants p of the order of 
the eccentricities and inclinations. These series are periodic functions of 
five arguments : 

Here -ro-j, wg, fj, £21 £3 ^^'6 constants of integration ; n^, n.^, v^, r.^, i',, are 
functions of /:, the quantities p, and two other constants z^ and z.j, and 
can be expanded as power-series in ji and the quantities p- ; the coeffi- 
cients in the series depend on z^ and z.,. The quantities n-^ and n., may be 
called the mean motions of the planets ; z^ and ;:/ may be called their mean 
distances ; m^ and •zr-j correspond to their longitudes at the epoch, the 
quantities p to the eccentricities and inclinations, the quantities w to the 
longitudes of the perihelia and nodes. The development of ra, and n., in 
powers of jj. commences with terms of order 0, while the development of 
''d ''i') ''s commences with terms of oi'der one, so the w's vary quickly and 
the w's vary slowly. Terms whose arguments are compounded of the w's 
only may, by analogy with the older theories, be called secular terms. 
Poisson's theorem on the invariability of the mean distances, in its new 
interpretation, is proved in the course of the paper. The mutual distances 
of the bodies depend only on the differences of the above five arguments. 
The third (and last) volume of Poincar^'s book was published in 

' ' Sur I'integration des equations du probleme de trois corps', Brill. Astr. xiv. 
. pp. 261-70. 



I'ROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE fROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 155 

1898-9. The first half of it is devoted to the theory of Invariant 
Integrals, which is given here in a more developed form than in the 
memoir of 1890 ; while the second half is concerned chiefly with the 
theory of periodic solutions of the second kind. Since the publication of 
the 1890 memoir, periodic solutions had been connected by the author' 
witli the theory of least action. In the first of the two notes referred to 
it is shown that the existence of periodic solutions of different kinds can 
be inferred from the principle of least action, when the law of attraction 
is .some inverse power of the distance higher than the square ; in the 
second note, a classification of unstable periodic solutions is made, which 
depends on the principle of least action ; and it is shown that when the 
constants of the motion are varied, a periodic solution cannot pass from 
one kind of instability to the other. In this volume, the theory of least 
action is further applied. 

After developing the theory of periodic solutions of the second kind, 
Poincare shows that some of the results of Darwin's paper of 1897 are in 
accordance with his own theorems, and criticises others ; and terminates 
the book by a study of doubly-asymptotic solutions. 

Since 1892 Brown- has published several memoirs dealing with the 
lunar theory on the plan projected by Hill. The first paper extends 
Hill's paper of 1878 by including in the work the inequalities which 
involve the sun's parallax ; in other woi'ds, Hill found periodic solutions 
of the motion of a particle in a plane under the influence of two bodies 
which revolve round each other in circular orbits, and whose distance 
apart is infinite, while Brown supjaoses this distance to be finite. In the 
second paper the inequalities dependent on the moon's eccentricity are 
included, i.e. the general solution of Hill's problem, which of course is 
not periodic, is found. The investigations of the thii'd paper relate to the 
more general pi-oblem of the moon's motion, and include a deduction and 
extension of the theorems of Adams's memoir of 1878. (See § IV.) Brown 
is at present preparing a complete numerical lunar theory. 

In 1895 HilP calculated numerically the periodic solution, which may 
be taken as the base of the lunar theory, and in 1896 Liapounow^ dis- 
cussed Hill's series, and proved their convergence in the case of the actual 
motion of the moon. 

Andoyer"' in 1890 gave another method for finding the solution of the 
differential equations of Dynamical Astronomy by means of series of 
periodic terms. He obtains the series directly by assuming that they are 
of the required form but with undetermined coefficients, aiid finds these 
coefficients by successive approximation. It is shown that the mean dis- 
tances of the planets contain no long-period terms of orders zero or one, 
which corresponds to the theorem of the invariability of the mean distances. 

' ' Sur leg solutions periodiques et le principe de moindro action,' C. Ji. csxiii. 
pp. 915-8 (1896) ; ' Les solutions periodiques et le principe de moindre action,' ildd. 
cxxiv. pp. 713-G (1897). 

■■^ ' On the part of the Parallactic Inequalities in the Moon's motion which is a 
function of the mean motions of the Sun and Moon,' Amer. Jovr. Math. x\v. jDp. 
141-60 (1892) ; ' The Elliptic Inequalities in the Lunar Theory,' iUd. xv. pp. 244-6.1, 
321-38 (1893); ' Investigations in the Lunar Theory,' ihid. xvii. pp. 318-58 (1895). 

^ ' The Periodic Solution as a first api^roximation in the Lunar Theorv,' Ast. Jour. 
XV. pp. 137-43. 

' Transnctions of the Physical Section of the Imp. Sac. of Nat. J^-c. Moscoiv, viii. 

'" ' Sur les formules generales de la Mecanique Celeste,' A/males de la Fao. de 
Toiilovse, iv. K. 35 pp. 



156 KEPORT— 1899. 

The same author^ in 189G showed that a theorem analogous to the invari- 
ability of the mean distances can be obtained for a general class of 
dynamical systems. 

The solution of canonical systems of equations by series was discussed 
in 1891-2 by Wand ^ ; suggestions for dii-ecting the approximations in the 
problem of 7i bodies were published in 1891 by Laska,^ and in 1897 by 
Kovesligethy,'' and (for solving the differential equation for the mean 
distance) in 1893 by Gylden.' The first pai-t of a paper*' published by 
Newcomb in 1895 contains a solution of the problem of three bodies based 
on continued approximation. Hill ^ in 1893 and 1897 showed how, by 
dividing the potential function otherwise than in the old theories, an inter- 
mediate orbit may be obtained which is free from the disadvantages of 
Kepler's ellipse ; and Krassnow * in 1898-9 obtained an intermediate 
orbit for the moon, making the suppositions of the restricted problem of 
three bodies, by integrating a Hamilton- Jacobi partial differential equation, 
in which small quantities of the third order are neglected. 

Painleve ^ in 1896 showed that the problem of three bodies can be 
integrated by means of series of polynomials, convergent for all values of 
t, except when the initial conditions are such that two of the bodies collide 
after a finite interval of time. The same author i" in 1897 showed that 
the conditions which must be satisfied in order that, after a finite interval 
of time, two of the bodies may collide, cannot be algebraical conditions. 

Brown '^ in 1897 discussed the properties of the general solution in 
trigonometric series of the problem of three bodies, by supposing it to 
have been derived by integrating the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Several 
properties of the constants of the solution are deduced, including those 
previously given by Newcomb. In a second paper,'- the same method is 
applied to the Lunar Theory, and Adams's theorems on the constant part of 

^ ' Sur I'extension que Ton peut donner au th^oreme de Poisson, relatif a. Tinvari- 
ability des grands axes,' C. U. cssiii. pp. 790-3. 

'' ' Ueber die Integration der Diiferentialgleichungen, welche die Bewegungen 
eines Systems von Punkten bestimmen,' Ast. Nack. cxxvi. pp. 129-38, cxxvii. 
pp. 353-60, cxxx. pp. 377-90. 

' 'Zur Bereclmung der absoluten Storungen,' iSi^JMM^iieno^^e der lu B'dhm, Gcs. 
der Wiss., Prague, 1891, pp. 147-53. 

"i ' Storungenim Vielkorpersystem,' Mathem.it. Katm: Berichte aus Unjarn,xm, 
pp. 880-412. 

^ ' Ueber die Ungleichlieiten der grossen Axen der Planetenbahnen,' Aat. NacJi. 
cxxxiii. pp. 185-90. 

" ' Action of the Planets on the Moon,' A^nerican Ejjlwmeris Papers, v. Part III. 

' 'On Intermediate Orbits,' Annals of Maths, viii. pp. 1-20 (1893). 'On Inter- 
mediary Orbits in the Lunar Theory,' Astrnn. Jonrn. xviii. pp. 81-7 (1897). 

* ' Zur Theorie der intermediaren Bahnen des Mondes,' Ast. Nacli. cxlvi. pp. 7-10 ; 
' Weitere Mittheilung betreffend die Theorie der intermediiiren Bahnen des Mondes,' 
ibid, cxlvi. pp. 337-40 ; ' Zur Integration der Jacobi'sche Differentialgleicbung fiir 
die Mondbe-wegung,'('i2V?. cxlviii. pp. 37-42. 

" ' Sur les singularites des equations de la Dynamique et surle problSme des trois 
corps,' C. R. cxxiii. pp. 871-3. 

"• ' Sur les cas du probleme des trois corps (et des n corps) oil deux des corps se 
choquent au bout d'un temps fini,' C. R. cxxv. pp. 1078-81. 

" ' On the application of Jacobis Dynamical Method to the General Problem of 
Three Bodies,' Proc. Lond. Math. Roc. xxviii. pp. 130-42. There is a slight error in 
result (x.), p. 141 of the paper. 

'-' ' On certain properties of the Mean Motions and the Secular Accelerations of 
the principal arguments used in the Lunar Theory,' Proc. Lond. Math. Soo. xxviii. 
P13. 143-55. 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE liODIES. 157 

the lunar parallax, in the generalised form pre\'iously given by the author, 
are shown to be simple deductions from a single equation. 

Researches relating to the convergence of the trigonometric series of 
dynamical astronomy were published in 1896 by Charlier ^ and in 1S98 by 
Poincaro.2 The former, by expanding in descending powers of m the 
coefficient of the mt\\ term in such a series, arrived at the conclusion that 
the convergence can be augmented by dividing the function expressed into 
two parts, one of which depends on the first terms in these expansions of 
the coefficients. In Poincare's paper the author first connects the series of 
the older theories, in which the time occurs explicitly, with the new 
expansions, and then observes that the slow convergence of the latter 
is to some extent compensated for by the fact that the terms can be 
grouped together in such a way that, although the individual terms of a 
group may be large, yet their sum is small. The latter part of the 
paper is devoted to showing how the expansions which represent periodic 
and asymptotic solutions can be derived from the general expansions. 

§ VII. The ImjMssibility of Certain Kinds of Integrals. 

Poincare's theorem on the non-existence of uniform integrals of the 
problem of three bodies, other than those already known, has already 
been reviewed in § VI. Before the publication of Poincare's memoir, 
however, an important theorem on the non-existence of algebraic integrals 
had been obtained by Bruns.^ 

In Bruns's paper, the differential equations of the problem are first 
taken, in their unreduced form, as a system of the Gwth order ; they can 
be written 

■J^=y-. ^''=/(^i> X,, . . . x^„, c), (r=l, 2, . . . 3„) 

where c denotes the sum of all the mutual distances of the bodies ; the 
reason for introducing c is that the quantities / are rational functions of 
£c,, a;,, . . . x^n, c, whereas they would be irrational functions of 
a;,, 032, — x-^n alone, c is a function of the cc's, given as a root of an 
algebraical equation. 

Bruns supposes that this system of equations possesses an integral of 

the form ^(a;,, x^, . . . x^„, y^, y.^, . . . y^^), where -4=^ and where ^ 

is an algebraic function of its arguments. <p must therefore be a root of 
an algebraic equation whose coefficients are rational functions of the 
quantities a-, y, and which we may take to be irreducible. On differen- 
tiating this, it appears that either the coefficients of the algebraic equation 
in ^ are themselves integrals, or else (p satisfies an equation of lower 
degree, whose coefficients are rational in the quantities x, y, c. In this 
way it is proved that all integrals which are algebraic functions of the 
quantities x and y are algebraic combinations of other integrals which 
are themselves rational functions of the quantities x, y, and q. We need 

' ' Ueber die trigonometrischen Entwickelungen in der Storungstheorie,' Ast, 
JVacJi. cxli. pp. 273-8. 

- ' Sur la fa^on de grouper les termes des series trigonomStriques qu'on rencontre 
en mccanique cfeleste,' Bull. Astr. xv. p. 289-310. 

3 ' Ueber die Integrale des Vielkorper- Problems,' BeHchte der Kijl. SdcJmschen 
Gcs. der Wiss. zu Lei])zig, 1887, pp. 1-39, 55-82 ; Acta Math. xi. pp. 25-96. 



158 REPORT — 1899. 

therefore only consider this latter class of integrals. It is shown that 
integrals of this class can be compounded of another kind of integrals, 
called by Bruns homogeneous. When a homogeneous integral is resolved 
into factors which are rational integral functions of the quantities y, it 
appears that each of these factors either is itself an integral or can be 
made into an integral by associating certain factors with it ; and so, 
finally, every integral of the problem of n bodies which is algebraic in the 
variables x, y, and is independent of t, can be compounded algebraically 
from integrals of a very special class, which are rational integral functions 
of the quantities y, and rational functions of the quantities x and c, and 
which are, moreover, homogeneous. It is further shown that if <^ denote 
an integral of this last class, and ^o denote the terms in it which are of 
highest order in the quantities y, then ipo involves the .x's rationally and 
integrally, and only by means of the expressions (y^ x,. — y,. x-^), and (p^ 
does not involve e. 

Now let A, B, C be the three components of angular momentum of 
the system, let L', M', W be the three components of linear momentum, 
let L, M, N be the coordinates of the centre of gravity, and let 

A'=MN'-NM', B'=LN'-L% C'=LM'-L'M ; 

all these quantities are supposed to be expressed in terms of the quanti- 
ties X and y, so that any one of them equated to a constant represents 
one of the known integrals of the system of differential equations. Then 
it is shown that 0q involves the variables x only in the combinations 
A, B, C, A', B', C, and is a rational integral function of A, B, C, A', B', C, 
and the y's, ; and then (^q is proved to be a rational integral function of 
A, B, C, A', B', C, L', M', N , T, say 

(/,o=/(A, B, C, A', B', C, L', M', N', T). 

Now let — U be the potential energy of the system, so T — U is an 
integral. Then the quantity 

J=/(A, B, C, A', B', C, L', M', N', T-U) 

is also an integral, since it is compounded solely of integrals ; and when 
it is arranged according to powers of the variables y it coincides with the 
integral f in the terms of highest degree. The difference 

is therefore an integral of the same kind as <^, except that its degree in 
the variables y is at least one unit lower than the degree of <t> in these 
variables. Thus any integral <p can be made to depend on the known 
integrals and an integral of lower degree in the y's : proceeding in this 
way, (p can be made to depend on the known integrals and an integral of 
the same kind as 4>, but of zero degree in the y's ; but such an integral 
would be a constant. Thus Bruns arrives at the theorem : In the jJrohlem 
of n bodies, the only integrals which involve the coordinates and velocities 
algebraically, and which do not involve the time explicitly, are comjMunded 
of the integrals of the centre of gravity, of angular momentum, and of 
energy. 

Bruns then proceeds to the reduction of the differential equations of 
the problem of three bodies which has already been given in § 1 of this 
report, and shows that the system of the 6th order at which he arrives has 



PROGRESS OF THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES. 159 

no algebraic integrals, and that it is not possible by any algebraic trans- 
formation which leaves the canonical form of the equations unaltered to 
obtain any further separation of the variables analogous to the elimina- 
tion of the nodes. 

In the second part of the paper (pp. 67-96), the author first, by an 
easy extension of the previous result, shows that no integrals exist which 
involve the time and the variables algebraically, except the known 
integrals, and then finds the integral-equations of the reduced system of 
equations for the problem of three bodies, i.e. functions of the variables 
whose derivatives with respect to the time vanish when the functions 
themselves vanish ; and shows that the only integral-equation is the one 
whose vanishing expresses the condition that the motion takes place in 
one plane. 

The author then discusses the question, whether any integrals of the 
reduced system exist in the form of integi-als of algebraic total differen- 
tials, i.e. the generalised Abelian integrals which have since been studied 
by Picard. This also is shown to be impossible ; and, lastly, this result 
can be extended to the problem of n bodies, since, if such an integral 
existed for the problem of n bodies, a corresponding integral for the pro- 
blem of three bodies could be derived by equating all but three of the 
masses to zero. 

A defect in Bruns's proof (pp. 37 sqq. of Bruns's paper) was pointed out 
and remedied by Poincare ^ in 1896. 

Gravd^ in 1896 showed that the differential equations of the problem 
of three bodies, in the form given by Bertrand, possess no integrals inde- 
pendent of the law of attraction other than those already known ; and 
Painlev^^ in 1897-8 extended Bruns's result, by showing that every 
integral of the problem of n bodies which involves the velocities alge- 
braically (whether the coordinates are involved algebraically or not) is 
an algebraic combination of the known integrals of energy and momentum 



On Solar Radiation. — RejMrt of the Committee, consisting o/Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney {Chairman), Professor H. McLeod {Secretartj), Sir 
Gr. G. Stokes, Professor A. Schuster, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain 
W. de W. Abney, Dr. 0. Chree, Professor G. F. FitzGekald, 
Professor H. L, Callendar, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. E. 
Wilson, and Professor A. A. Rambaut, a/ppointed to consider the 
best Methods of Recording the Direct Intensity of Solar Radiation. 

The Balfour Stewart actinometer is now in the hands of Professor 
Callendar, who proposes to employ it in connection with one of his bolo- 
metric methods. 

The Committee therefore asks for reappointment. 



' ' Sur la methode de Bruns,' C. R. cxxiii. pp. 1224-8. 

2 ' Sur le probleme des trois corps,' Nouvelles Annates (.'?) xv. pp. 537-47. 

3 ' Sur les integrales premieres de la Dynamique et sur le probleme des n corps, 
C. R. cxxiv. pp. 173-6, 1897; ' M6moire sur les integrales premieres du probleme 
des n corps,' Bull. Astr. xv. pp. 81-113, 1898. 



160 REPORT — 1899. 



JElectrolysis and Electro-cJiemdstry. — Beport of tlie Committee, consisting 
of Mr. W. A. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Griffiths, Kev. T. C. 
FiTZPATRiCK, Mr. S. Skinner, and Mr. W. C. D. Whetham 
(Secretary), appointed to report on the Present State of our Know- 
ledge in Elecirolj/sis and JLlectro-chemistrij. 

The conductivity of a number of salts in very dilute aqueous solution 
at the freezing point of water has been determined by Mr. Whetham, while 
Mr. Griffiths has concurrently made observations of the freezing point for 
corresponding solutions. The observations of conductivity extend to 
solutions of sulphuric acid, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, barium 
chloride, copper sulphate, potassium permanganate, potassium bichromate, 
and potassium ferricyanide. The range of dilution is, speaking generally, 
from below the hundred-thousandth to about the twentieth part of a gram 
equivalent per thousand grams of solution. 

The water used was specially distilled three times, and finally 
from a platinum still, and collected in platinum vessels. Its approximate 
conductivity was about \1 xlO"^^ at 18° C. in C.G.S. units. The best 
water obtained by Kohlrausch by distillation in vacuo had a conduc- 
tivity of 0'2 X 10"^° in the same units at the same temperature. 

The results obtained this year, while confirming those described at the 
last meeting of the Association for solutions of moderate concentrations, 
show differences when great dilutions are reached, but the constancy of 
the present measurements shows that the water now used is good enough 
to enable trustworthy values to be obtained even at the lowest limits of 
dilution above mentioned. 

Mr. Griffiths has remodelled his apparatus for determination of freezing 
points, and is now able to carry the measurements of temperature to a 
higher degree of accuracy than hitherto. 

As .soon as the observations are completed it is intended to publish 
the results of both investigations together. 

No further progress has been made with the rest of the Report. 



Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Lieutenant-Colonel 
Allan Cunningham, E.E. (Secretary), Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. M. Hicks, Major P. A. 
Macmahon, and Professor A. Lodge, appointed for calculating 
Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary, for 
taking steps to carry out the calcidations, and to publish the residts in 
an accessible form. 

The Tables (Binary Canon) were reported complete last year. The Com- 
mittee only wait for a grant to proceed with the printing, estimated at 
120Z. for 100 copies, or 135^. for 200 copies ; a portion of which would be 
hereafter repaid by the sale of copies of the Tables. 



ox SEI3M0L0GICAL INVESTIGATION. IGl 



Seismologiciil Investigations. — Fourth Report of tlie Cjin.mtte';, eon- 
sistirig of Professor J. W. Judd (Ch'-oirnutn), Mr. Joil.v MiLNE 
(Secr'etan/), Lord Kelvix, Professor T. G. Boxney, Sir F. J. 
Bramweli-, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor G. H. Darwix, Mr. Horace 
Darwix, Major L. ])ar\vix, Professor J. A. EwiXG, Professor C. 
<}. KxoTT, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldiiam, Professor 
J. Perky, Professor J. II. Poyntixg, Mr. Clement Reid, ]\Ir. 
G. J. Sy.moxs, and Prof. H. H. TuRXEU. Draicn up bij the Secretarij. 



Contents. 

I. On SfUmoJoriical S/ations aJrcailij e.^tahlislicil. By .T. Milne . 
II, Kott^s rrxpccthit] Ohsercimj Statioiix and Heffisters ohtnlued from the same 

Bii ^. MiLNK .."....'.... 

III. DisGHxx'um ofthe Precp.dinq Be.qhterx. Bi/ J. "MlhyE 

IV. Bart. 1/ qua /in Varieties and Etirthqitalus Duration. i?yJ. ^iiLXE 
V. Earthqiinha Echoes. By J. IMiLSE 

\1. Eart/ifjiiahe Precn.rsor.t. i>'// J. Milne 

VII. Earthijiiahe and Magnetometer Disturbances. 77// J. Milne 
VIII. Form of Bejwrts 



r\r:K 

lOL 

ir.2 

193 
22.1 
237 

2:10 
2;i:! 

23 i 



I. Oil Seismological Stations already established. 

Instruments of the same type have been forwarded to the followinpf 
twenty- three stations : — Shide, Kew, Toronto, Victoria, B.C., San Fernando 
'(Spain), IMadras, Bombay, Calcutta, Batavia, Mauritius, Cape Town, 
Arequipa, Strathmore College (Philadelphia), Tokio, Cordova (Argentina), 
New Zei,land (two instruments), Cairo, Paisley, Mexico, Beyrout, Hono- 
lulu, and the last to Trinidad. 

It is expected that shortly instruments will be installed in Ireland, 
New South Wales, and Victoria, and your Secretary has had correspondence 
about the establishment of seismographs in other countries. 

The following Report contaijis registers from the first eleven of the 
above-mentioned stations, and reports from several of the remainder are 
•expected to arrive shortly, 

The principal analysis of these registers has been made in reference to 
the one from Shide, but as many earthquakes have been recorded which 
did not reach that station, but were common to groups of observatories in 
other parts of the world, it is evident that if similar analyses are made in 
reference to other localities, our knowledge respecting the distribution of 
seismic disturbances will be largely increased. Should any of the observers 
who have forwarded copies of their observations to Shide consider it 
advisable to undertake this work, it is hoped that this report will be of 
assistance in carrying out the same. 

The Committee thank the Directors of observatories in Italy, Germany, 
and R,ussia for copies of recoixls corresponding to those obtained in Shide. 
For the purpose of seeing the installation in the Isle of Wight and dis- 
cussing records, Shide has been visited by Colonel Gore, ]i.E., of the 
Trigonometrical Survey of India, Mr. R. D. Oldham, of the Geological 
Survey of that country, Dr. Figee, in charge of the instrument in Batavia, 
Mr. T. F. Claxton, Director of the Observatory in Mauritius, Dr. F. 

1899. M 



1G2 



REPORT — 1899. 



Ouiori, in charge of Seismological Observatories in Japan, Mr. T. Heath, 
of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, and by many others directly or 
indirectly interested in the work of this Conimitt3o. 

II. Xotes respectinij Ohserving Stations and Jiff/istei-s obtained from 

the same. 

1. England : Isle of Wight, Xeirport, Shide. Observer, Mr. J. Milne. 

The continuity of records obtained from this station has largely been 
<lcpendent upon the interest shown in the work Ijy Shinobu Hirota, Mr. 
Milne's assistant. 

At rare intervals, usually in consequence of some irregularity in the 
band of bromide paper, the clock driving the same has been stopped. 
Failure.s due to this cau.se have been extremely few. The greater number 
of failures arise from 'air tremors,' which during the winter months, in 
frosty weather, and at night are frequent. Slight continuous movements 
of the boom produced by these air currents have no doubt eclipsed many 
amall earthquakes, and have certainly hidden the commencement of larger 
disturbances. These difficulties, which occur from time to time, and 
interfere with observations for at least one month out of twelve, are not 
likely to be overcome until the instrument is moved to a larger and better 
\entilated room. 

A pair of horizontal pendulums recording on .smoked paper have 
given records of the periods of earth vibrations. 

The Shide Itegtster. 

The following register is compiled from tlie photographic records of a 
Milne Horizontal Pendulum, and refers to E.W. displacements. The time 
used is Greenwich Mean Civil Time. Midnight=2-4 or hours. 

Amp. = Amplituf^e, or half the complete range of motion. It is expressed 
in niillimetre.s. 1 mm. = 0"oof arc. Records of ■.") mm. or less refer to a 
meie thickening of the line, and indicate half its width. 

D = Duration expressed in hours, minutes and seconds. 

I'.T.'s- Preliminar}'Tremors,thedurationof wliich i.s fromthefirst movement 
to the maximum motion. 

L.W.'s = Large waves, and refers to the maximum motion. 

Doubtful means that it is not certain that the record refers to earthquake 
motion. 

The instrument stands on a brick pier founded on the upended beds of 
hard chalk. 



No. 


Date 


Time of Com- 
mencement 


Remarks 










1&98. 








H. M. s. 






170 


Fob. 27 


11 7 44 


Amp. •25mm. D 4ni. 




171 


Mar. 3 


15 37 34 


Doubtful. 




172 


4 


1(5 53 35 


)» 




17.-} 


4 


21 13 46 


Amp. ^omm. D Cm. 




174 


•> 


16 35 12 


Doubtful. 




175 


1" 


16 44 22 


11 




17(i 


19 


4 45 29 


Amp. •25mm. D 2m. 




177 


21 


22 51 50 


Thirteen small group up to 
Max. about Oh. 30m. 


Ih. 30m. on 22nd. 


3 78 


„ 23 


20 48 G 


Amp. •25mm. D 2m. 





ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
The SniDE Eegister — contiimed. 



163 



No. 



170 



ISO 




Mar. 



181 
182 

18.5 
184 



185 
186 



187 

188 
189 



190 
I'.tl 



28 
28 
28 
28 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
29 
20 
29 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 



Time of Com- 
mencemeut 



1» 


29 


>» 


30 


» 


31 


n 


31 


)' 


31 


»» 


31 


»> 


31 


TJ 


31 


>» 


4 


J» 


4 


)1 


4 


»> 


C 


J» 


6 


>l 


15 


»» 


15 


M 


18 



H. M. S. 

17 44 28 

18 11 55 
18 21 5 
23 44 5 

5 11 
13 33 
15 20 .30* 
15 4r> 3G 
15 40 48 

15 56 12* 

16 13 16 
16 39 18 

16 53 32 

17 3 42 
17 13 52 
17 15 .54 
17 23 2* 
17 27 6 

17 58 37 

18 12 51 
18 27 6 

18 54 33* 

19 35 14 

19 38 17 

20 12 51 
20 27 6 

20 30 

21 56 35 

22 1 40 
22 8 47 
22 43 22 

22 51 30 

23 30 

12 7 
8 21 1 

11 24 56 

13 15 42 

13 45 12 

13 50 26 

14 15 42 
7 38 35 

11 42 II 

12 24 53 
12 30 8 
14 30 



12 37 17 
7 47 55 



22 15 31 
17 51 31 



Remarks 



Amp. -omtn. 



U 4m. 
., 3m. 



This is tlie first of at least 28 distinct disturb- 
ances, \vith durations o£ from 2 to 6 minutes. 
Those marked with an asterisli commenced 
gently, and the others abruptly. The largest of 
the series is that at 15h. 56m. 12s., which has 
an amplitude of Imm., and a duration of 7m. 
Other luarlced members in the series are at 
]5h. 20m. 30s.. nh. 23m. 2s., and ISh. o4m. 33s. 
Many of tliesc are of doubtful character. 



Amp. 1mm. D 6m. 

Maxima at 5-7, and 11m. later. Amp. 1mm. 

D 24m. 
Doubtful. Amp. •5ram. D 10m. 
The first of a series of 22 very slight shocks, 

ending at 5 p.m. Greatest amp. 1mm. 



Amp. -Smm. B 10m. 
,, •25mni. ., 5m. 
,, -Smni. ,, „ 
„ •25mm. ,, „ 

From 13-30 to 15-.30. About 12 small disturb- 
ances ; each commences suddenly. The one 
at 14-30 has 2 mas. each -Smm. D 8m. 

Ten min. later a max. amp. 2mm. Small P.T.'s 
6m. D 35m. 

Six niin. later a max. amp. 2mm., 7m. still later 
another, max. l-5mm. D 54m. bmall P.T.'s 
4m. 

Amp. -5mm. P 3ni. 

M 2 



164 



REPORT — 1899. 
The Shidb Kegistee— cow<J«?«<f. 



No. 


1 
Date 


Time of Com- 
mencement. 


Remarks 








n. M. s. 




192 


April 


2;"; 


9 8 49 


Five min. later a max. amp. 1mm. Small P.T.'s 
3m. D 16m. 


193 


I) 


2a 


23 .58 55 


Thirty-sis min. later a max. amp. 6mm. Small 
P.T.'s 25m. D about 21i. Commencement 
earlier than noted. 


194 


fi 


25 


17 55 27 


Doubtful. 


195 




25 
25 


11 14 17 

12 25 10 


, „. T^ 1. fSix or eight similar 
Amp. •2omm. D 6m. j disturbances between 

" L these two. 


196 


i» 


29 


IC 39 4 


Continuou.s to 17h. 37m. 34s., with at least 7 max. 
each 1mm. 


197 


May 


1 


10 33 


Doubtful. 


198 


»t 


7 


4 9 55 


Seven other small shocks up to 5.30. Amp. 
•25 to -omm. D 2 to 5. All doubtful. 


199 


M 


7 


6 4 6 


Thirty-five rain, later a max. amp. l-75mm. 
Motion rises and falls every 5 to 9m. for 2h. 


200 


)1 


20 


23 29 5 


Amp. 1mm. D 5m. 


201 


)» 


22 


17 28 15 ) 

18 31 15 

19 20 15 
22 50 ) 






1» 


22 
22 


Amp. 1mm. and D for each about 5m. 


202 


1» 


22 




203 


»> 


22 


1 31 21 


Amp. ^Smm. D 8m. 


204 


M 


30 


1 16 .54 


„ •25mm. „ Im. 


205 


>• 


30 


1 30 54 




» »i M »» 


206 


»» 


30 


2 56 54 




t »t )» i» 


207 


,^ 


30 


4 18 55 




, •Imm. „ 10m, 




?» 


30 


5 30 




„ „ 5m. 


208 


1» 


30 


12 57 50 




, •25mm. „ 2m. 


209 


1» 


31 


1 38 51 




, -Smm. „ 3m. 


210 


Jane 


3 


17 14 44 




„ 10m. 


211 


»» 


19 


7 8 50 




„ •25mm. „ 3m. 


212 


)i 


20 


18 52 47 




•5mm. „ 6m. 


213 


•1 


21 


46 42 


Fourteen min. later amp. 2omm. Small P.T.'s 
12m. D extends 2h. 


214 


»» 


22 


6 52 42 ) 






»» 


22 


7 14 42 ( 


From a series of 10 max. each with amp. -25 to 






22 


7 39.42 1 


•5 mm. D 5m. 




>i 


22 


9 7 42 j 




215 


»» 


29 


18 48 37 


Forty min. later a max. amp. 8mm. Small P.T.'s 
9m. D 3h. The seismogram shows a marked 
symmetry. Period of L.W.'s 23s. 


216 


July 


2 


4 27 24 


Max. amp. Nimm. D 4m. 


217 


»» 


2 


17 3 23 


„ 1mm. „ 8m. Doubtful. 


213 


H 


3 


21 42 23 


Amp. •5mm. D 5m. 


219 


)) 


12 


10 30 


Max. amp. ■75'iim. D om Doubtful. 


220 


11 


13 


23 51 8 


„ „ •5mm. „ 3m. 


221 


l» 


14 


17 46 15 


„ l-25mm. „ 40m. Small P.T.'s 14m. 


222 


t( 


20 


16 59 26 


„ „ •75mm. „ 45m. 


223 


*J 


21 


11 35 56 


„ „ •25mm. „ 4m. 


224 


>1 


26 


23 21 14 


Amp. •25mm. D 3m. 


225 


Aug. 


8 


8 53 30 


Max. amp. 1mm. D 35m. 


226 


l» 


19 


1 51 12 


„ „ 25mm. „ 3m. 


227 


)» 


20 


16 4 19 


Amp. -25. D 2m. 


228 


tf 


21 


17 28 


Max. amp. 2'5mm. D 2ra. 


229 


l» 


22 


23 39 3 


„ „ 4mm. „ 17m. Doubtful. 


230 




31 


20 5 2 


„ 10mm. „ 3h. Smallest P.T.'s 5m. 
Max. 31m. from commencement. Shows sym- 


*- 


V. 








metry. Period of L.W.'s 32s. 









ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 165 








The Suide Eegister — continued. 


No. 


Date 


Time of Com- 
meucemeiit 


Kemarks 






n. M. s. 




231 


Sept. 


3 


16 4 48 


Max. amp. ] -25111111. D 56m. 


232 


»» 


13 
13 


18 11 37 \ 
20 7 35 J 


Slight thickenings until 20h. 7m. 35s. 


233 




22 


12 30 54 1 


A series of G max. with amps, reaching 3mm. 






22 


13 37 52 j 


D for each 3 to r, m. 


234 




25 


12 51 50 


Amp. -omm. D 13iii. 


235 


Oct. 


11 


16 58 52 


Max. amp. l-5mm. D Ih. 40m. About 19 
maxima. 


236 


ft 


11 


19 26 38 


Amp. •25mm. D 2m. 


237 


99 


12 


13 21 2 


1) 1) II II 


238 


tf 


15 


4 2 44 


Max. amp. -5 mm. D 7m. 


239 


Nov. 


17 


13 20 15 


„ ;!5m. 


240 


Dec. 


1 


12 48 16 


„ „ „ „ 50m. About ]1 thickenings. 


241 


)t 


3 


3 18 43 


Amp. -25 mm. D Jm. 


242 


*f 


3 


6 25 53 


„ 5iii. 


243 


»> 


3 


17 42 26 


„ ^u'. 


241 


ji 


4 


20 20 40 


1S99. 


245 


Jan. 


6 


10 11 9 


Max. amp. •25ram. D 20m. 


246 


„ 


12 


3 58 18 


„ „ -'Smm. „ 6m. 


247 




12 


9 2 26 


„ •25mm. „ 12m. 


248 


u 


14 


2 48 .=.5 


„ „ 2-5mm. „ 50m. Two shocks, the 
second from 3b. 25m. 30s. 


240 




22 


8 22 53 


Max. amp. 1mm. D 30m. 


250 


1» 


24 


23 47 42 


„ „ 6mm. ,, SOm. Commencement 
and end uncertain. 


251 


1» 


no 


18 55 52 


Amp. •25mm. D Im. 


252 




31 


11 22 47 


Max. amp. 1mm. D 20m. 


253 


n 


31 


17 32 31 


,, ,, ■25mm. ,, 8m. 


254 


Feb. 


23 


13 47 23 


„ •75mm. „ lOm. 


255 




26 


13 47 29 


1mm. „ 12m. 


256 




27 


10 12 19 


„ „ 2mm. „ 28m. Two fcliocks. 


257 


If 


27 


15 2fi 40 


„ 1mm. „ 5m. 


258 


)» 


28 


16 7 14 


Amp. •25mm. D 3m. 


259 


JI 


28 


19 47 38 


Max. amp. 75mm. D 15m. 


260 


») 


28 


23 1 5 


„ •25mm. „ 6m. 


261 


Mar. 


6 


15 .12 52 


Amp. •25mm. D 15m. 


262 




6 


20 52 31 


,1 1, 11 7m. 


263 


i» 


7 


1 31 1 


Max. amp. 15 mm. D80m. Commencement and 
end uncertain. 


264 


II 


12 


9 55 10 


Max. amp. 1mm. D SOm. 


265 


11 


17 


19 44 48 


Amp. •25mm. D 4m. 


266 


)} 


19 


13 45 35 


,1 10m. 


267 


II 


21 


14 58 47 


„ -Smm. „ 43m. Max. at 15h. 39m. 8s. 


268 


II 


23 


10 45 16 


■„ 1^5mm. „ Ih. 38m. JMax. at lib. 16m. 16s. 
Small P.T.'s 28m. 


209 


II 


23 


14 57 41 


Amp. •75mm. D 41m. Max. at 15h. Om. 47s. 
Small P.T.'s Im. 2s. 


270 


11 


25 


14 53 10 


Amp. -Omm. D 45m. Max. at 15h. 2Jm. 14s. 


271 




25 


20 39 52 


Amp. •25mm. D 3m. 


272 


Aijril 


3 


11 1 6 


„ -umm. „ 12m. 



The preceding part of tliis Li.st is coritained in the 
tion Report ' for 1^98, pp. 179-276. 



British AsBOcia- 



166 



REPORT — 1899. 



In its original form the above List did not contain records numbered 
170, 173, 176, 177, 178, 190, 191, 198, 204, 205, 206, 208, 209, 211, 212, 
218, 224, 227, 234, 236, 237, 241, 242, 243, 244, 251, 258, 261, 262, 265, 
266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 27l, and 272. The reason for the omission was 
that these records were so small that it was not considered likely that 
they would be recorded at other stations. I call them the subsidiary 
list. ^ 

Between March 18 and 21 the original list was sent to stations No. 1 
to_ 19,' and also to Strassburg, Padua, Rome, Eocca di Papa, Casa- 
micciola, Catania, Potsdam, Nicolaiew, Edinburgh and Bidstone. 

On April 14 the subsidiary was forwarded to Cadiz, Bombay, Toronto, 
Potsdam, Rome, Rocca di Papa, Catania, Paisley and Kew. 

The responses have, when necessary, been reduced to Greenwich mean 
civil time, and are contained in the following tables : — 

2. Enrjland: Kew Observafo/y. Siq}erintendent, Bv. GH.A.Tit.-ES Ckkeh, F.R.S. 

Kew has met with difficulties in common with Shide, but the tremors 
have not been so frequent or pronounced. Why certain earthquakes like 
Nos. 196, 207, 214, 220, 221, 225, 246, 247, <L-c., M-ere not recorded, whilst 
the amplitudes of large earthquakes are smaller than the same at Shide 
and at the same time show phases of maxima movements farther separated 
in time than they appear to be at the latter place, is difficult to under- 
stand. The most likely explanation is that at Kew the foundations of 
the instruments rise from an extremely thick bed of soft tertiary materials 
more or less saturated with water, whilst at Shide the piers rise from the 
surface of upended beds of comparatively hard, diy chalk. 

The Kevj Register. 

Such a statement as ' normal line or line, -2 mm. ; tremors, 0-4 mm.' 
means that the full width of the line {not the half width) was -2 mm. when 
undisturbed, but ^mm. when disturbed. In such a case the amplitude 
would be \ (-4 — '2), or -1 mm. On the other hand, when it is said either 
that ' max. amplitude = 0-9 mm.,' or ' amplitude = 5-5 mm.,' it is meant 
that the half width of the central line was 9 in the former and 5-5 in 
the latter case. The true amplitude would be in the former case, say, 
0'9— .T, when 2.r was the undisturbed width of the line, whatever that 
might be at the time. 

At Kew variations in the full width of the line from -1 to -3 mm. are 
noticed. 

Milne Seumof/raph started at Kew Olscrratonj on Ajml 10, ]898. 



No. 



Shide 
No. 



Date 



Time of 
Commence- 
ment 



Remarks: (D = duration in minutes) 



1S98. 



195 



April 



28 



H. 
11 

15 



G-9 



Character slight. D = 2. Faint tremors 

llh. 11m. to llh. 24m. 
Fairly well marked. D = 12. Mas. 

tremor O'l mm. 



' See British Association licjwrt, 1898, pp. 180-182. 



No. 

3 

i 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 

15 

16 
17 
18 

19 



20 
21 

22 



23 



24 



ON SKISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
The Kew Kegistee — continued. 



ig: 



Shide 
No. 



Date 



Time of 
Commence- 
ment 



— I April 2i» 



199 



210 

211 

213 



214 



215 



216 



May 



n. 



jr. 
5-7 

40 



}t 


s 


8 


37-3 


)1 


10 


1.5 


49-2 


11 


11 


12 


31 


)l 


17 


8 


37-7 


^■J 


21 


12 


45'5 




22 


11 


54-5 


11 


22 


12 


r.'.o 




23 


14 


7-4 




27 


2 


58-6) 




27 


.» 


7-2 
21-7 1 


, 


27 


3 


„30Sc3L 






June 


1 


IG 


182 


51 


o 


17 


10-7 




13 


14 


22"S 


It 


17 


IS 


41-7 


11 


lit 


7 


8-4 



21 



4G3 



21 19 2-8 



99 



29 



C, 5t-4 

7 12-2 

7 3G-5 

IS 47-2 



July 2 4 25-4 



217 „ 2 16 25-S 



Remarks: {D = duration in minutes) 



Slight. D = 2. Normal line = -2 mm. 

Max. tremor = •;> mm. 
Very faint tremors at intervals from 

6h. 4ra. to 6h. 41m. Most marked at 

6h. 10-5m. and 6h. 39m. 
Slio-ht. D = 2. Normal line = -2 mm. 

Tremor = 04 mm. 
Slight. D = 2i. Normal line =-2 mm. 

Tremor = 0-.5 mm. 
Slight. D = 2. Normal line = -2 mm. 

Tremor = 4 mm. 
Slisfht. D = 2. Normal line = "2 mm. 

Tremor = 0'5 mm. 
Very slight ; little more than a broaden- 
ing of ihe line. 



Slight pulsations for about 35min. I 
Mas. at 3h. 15m. 

Boom ' off ' greater part of time. 
Smallmovement. D = 3. Line = T.jmm. 

Tremor = 04 mm. 
Fairlj^ well marked. 

17h. 14-5m. 
Very slight. D = 5. 

Little more than a broadening of 
line. 

Fairly well marked movement. D = 
64-8. Max. at 0-59-1, with a sud<len 
movement. Max. amplitude = 0'9 mm. 
= 0''-5.5, followed by slowly decreasing 
tremors till Ih. 51Tm. 

Slight. D = 4m. Normal line = -2 mm. 
Tremor = -4 mm. 

j A long series of slight tremors, the 
times given beinp for thecommence- 
lueut of the major movements, but 
there was almost constant movement 

V till apparently 9h. Oom. 

The largest disturbance recorded here 
during 1898. The maximum move- 
ment was at 19h. 2rGm., with au 
amplitude of 5-5 mm. = 3''-3C of arc; 
the next largest swing occurred at 
19h. 26-2m., with amplitude of 
5 mm. The movements grew smaller 
and smaller until 20h. 4-2m., but 
there were numerous tremblings up 
to 21h. 8Gm. 

Short, but well defined. Began sud- 
denly, with almost no preliminary 
tremor. Max. was at 4!i. 28-5m., 
with an amplitude = 0-5 mm. 

Very slight. D 



D = 8. Max. at 



the 



:41. 



168 



KEPOKT — 1899. 
The Kbw ^.tugiSiTeu— continued. 



No. 


Shide 

No. 


Da 


te 


Time of 
Commence- 


Ecraarks ; (D = duration in minutes) 








ment 












11. 


M. 




25 


218 


July 


3 


21 


44-5 


Very slight. D = 2. 


26 





11 


13 


18 


3 


Succession of slight tremors, lasting for 
15m. 


27 





)> 


15 


22 


93 


Ver)/ slight ; little more than abroaden- 
ing of the line. 


28 


22.*? 


,, 


21 


n 


35 


Very slight. 


29 


— 


•' 


22 


14 


2-5 


Slight. D = 3. Line 15 mm. Tremor 
= •3 mm. 


30 


— 


It 


25 


14 


36-1 


Slight. D = 7. Line -2 mm. Tremor 
= -G mm. 






Aug. 


13-28 




— • 


Action of boom doubtful. ' Grazing 
scale plate. 


31 


— 


it 


30 


15 


39-3 


Vcri/ slight ; a mere broadening of tbe 
line. 


32 


2:^0 


*' 


31 


20 


4-0 


Large disturbance, lasting for Ih. 
33Grn. 5Ia.\-. amplitude = 5o mm. 


33 


— 


Sept. 


3 


9 


0-3 


Ver}/ slight. D^l^. Line -2 mm. 
Tremor '4 mm. 


34 


231 


»i 


3 


15 


540 


Veri/ slight. End at IGh. 14m. 


3.5 


2:i2 


»> 


13 


18 


11-3 


Vcri/ slight. 


30 


— 


)» 


20 


12 


28-4 


Veiy slight. D = 1|. Line •2mm. Tremor 
•4mm. 


37 


233 


»» 


22 


12 


4G5 


Long periods of small swings, lasting 
from 12h. 4G-5m. to 2h. 9^8m. 
Maxima at Ih. 10m., Ih. 39^1m., and 
Ih. 44-2m. Max. amplitude = 0"-31. 


38 


234 


*> 


25 





50-3 


Small. D = 13. Max. at Oh. 53m. Line 
•3 mm. Tremor S mm. 


30 


— 


»t 


28 


17 


400 


? Tremor or light flare. D = 1 ^ . 


40 




11 


29 


14 


48-8 


I'eri/ slight ; just a broadening of lins 
for 3m. 


41 


235 


Oct. 


11 


10 


C9-2 


Fairly well ranrked period of small 
swings, lasting Ih. IGm. Max. at 
17h. HS^'Jm. and 17h. 45.3m. Am- 
phtude = 0"-33. 


42 


237 


» 


12 


13 


20-6 


Small. Preliminary tremors 2-5m. 
Max. at ]3h. 23^5m., with ampli- ' 
tude = 0"-30. 


43 


238 


»» 


15 


4 


28 


Slight. D = 3. Line 15 mm. Tremor 
•5 mm. 


44 


239 


Nov. 


17 


13 


37-2 


Movement well marked, hut swing.s not 
large. Preliminary tremors IGSni. 
Max. atl3h. 4fi-4m. and 13h. 58-6m. 
ToialD = 53. Max. amplitude =0"^G0. 


4.-5 


2-10 


Dec. 


1 


12 


51G 


Very slight. D = 24. 


46 


241 


„ 


O 


O 


1-3 


Very slight ; scarcelj' more than a 
broadening of line. 






t) 


3 


3 


70 
18 


n >i If 
99. 


47 


245 


Jan. 


6 


19 


370 


Slight. D = 15. Line ^4 mm. Tremor 
•8 mm. 


48 




>i 


G 


19 


41-5 


Slight ripples lasting, say, for 28 mins., 
with max. at 20h. 4-2m. Line •o mia. 
Tremor 1 mm. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



169 



The Kew UnGlSTViu—coniinned. 





Shido 
No. 


49 


248 


CO 


249 


51 


— 


52 


250 


53 


251 


54 


252 


55 


253 


5G 


— 


57 




58 


— 


59 


— 


GO 


254 


61 


255 


62 


250 


G3 


257 


01 


— 


Co 


259 


66 


202 


67 


263 


68 


264 


6!) 


— 


70 


— 


71 


2i;7 


72 


— 



Dato 



Jan. 14 



30 
31 



„ 3] 
Feb. 1 



Mar. 



1 
2 

12 



2G 
27 

27 

28 

28 

(> 

7 



12 
]5 
16 
21 



Time of 
Commence- 
ment 



24-25 



Remarks: (D = duration in minutes) 



IT. M. 

2 58-2 



22 8 22-2 



19 52-6 
23 47-6 



18 45-8 
11 21-8 



17 31-3 

10 27-7 

12 42-7 

13 !10 
21 43-7 
10 42-8 



n 

12 



16-9 
120 



13 495 

13 490 

11 275 

15 27-2 

7 7-2 

19 48-5 

20. .".6-7 

1 17-7 

1 23-5 

1 41-8 

9 55-7 

12 28-9 
1 2 0-5 
15 25-5 



22 157 



'Well-marked disturbance. First max. 
at 8h. 2()-5ni., .second at 3h. 28-2m. 
Max. amplitude 1'75 mm. = 1"03. 
Totalduration Ih. ll-3ni. (Daration 
of prelimin.-.ry tremors 27'2m.) 

Short, but Well maiked. Wax. at 
Kh. 29m., with amplitude 0"-77. 
D = 27 5. (Preliaiinary tremors 5'Gm.) 

Slight. D = ;'.. Line 4 mm. Tremor 
"7 mm. 

Large and di.stinct movement. First 
max. at Oh. :'..5om. on 25th, with 
amplitude 2''-14 ; second max. at 
Oh. 42 Om., with amplitude 2" 44. 
The amplitude exceeded 0"-5 till 
Ih. 10m , and then died down very 
gradually. Total D=2h. 59-6m. 
(Preliminary Ircmors 43'4m.) 

Only a broadening of the normal line. 

A short but distinct movement, dying 
off very gradually. Max. at llli. 25m. 
Amplitude = 0" 30. 1) uncertain, pro- 
bably 21m. 

Vori/ small ; just a broadening of lice. 
D from 2-4. 



T> = 25. Line 3 mm. 

3 mm. Tremor 
3 mm. Tremor 



Slight. D = 2',. Normal line -4 mm. 

Tremor -8 mm. 
Slight. D = (!. Normal line -3 mm. 

Tremor -6 mm. 
I'cry slight ; just a thickening of line. 

D = 9 mm. 
Small movement. 

Trace 10 mm. 
Very slight. U = .'!. 
Slight. D = 8. Line 

•8 mm. 
Slight D-6. Lice 

•8 mm. 
Very slight. End at 21h. 9-2m. 
A short series oC small movements, 

lasting from Ih. 177m. to about 

2h. ll-8m. Max. at Ih. 53'4m. 
[ Line -'2 mm. Tremor '8 ram. 
Faint suspicion of movement. 
Small. D = 2. Line 1 mm. Trace 5 mm. 

,, D=1;V „ •2 mm. „ '5 mm. 
Trace rather ill-defined, focus not being 

good, but apparently lasted about 

12m. (Jhanicter slight. 
Slight. D = 4. Koniial line -2 mm. 

Trace '5 mm. 



170 



REPORT — 1899. 
The Kbw Eegistee — continued. 











Time of 




No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
ment 


Remarks : (D = duration in minutes) 










H. M. 




73 


2G8 


Mar. 


23 


11 0-5 


A series of small swings. Total dura- 
tion 45m. First max. lib. 20'2m., 
second at llh. 22-2m. Max. ampli- 
tude =0" -30. 


74 


2G9 


1) 


23 


15 4 


Small. D = 18'5. Max. at 15h. 14-7m. 
Line -'2 mm. Tremor '8 mm. 


75 


— 


j» 


24 


4 53 6 


Slight movements on and oS till 5h.30m. 
Line -4 mm. Tremor -9 mm. 


76 


270 


Tf 


25 


14 64 


Distinct movement. 


77 


271 


)' 


25 


20 4G 1 


Merely a broadening of the line. 
(No further movements during March, 
1899.) 



3. Canada : Toronto. Meteorological Ohserratorij, 
Professor R. F. Stupaet, Director. 

The instrument has been moved from the small building outside the 
Magnetic Observatory to the inside of the same. One result is that air 
tremors have apparently entirely disappeared. The Observatory is 
situated on a bed of alluvium, perhaps 100 feet in thickness and stretching 
20 miles North, East, and West with Lake Ontario on the South. Beneath 
the alluvium are granitic and other primitive rocks. 

The purchase money for the Toronto instrument and the funds required 
for the installation and maintenance of the same, and also for the installa- 
tion of a seismograph at Victoria, B.C., have been provided by the Dominion 
Government. Tlie excellent series of results obtained from these stations, 
amongst other things, throw light upon changes taking place along the 
Eastei-n and "Western Canadian seaboards. They have already attracted 
the attention of scientific men, and will undoubtedly act as an incentive 
for other Governments to work on similar lines. 

The Toronto Ilerjistcr. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
ment 


Maximum 


End 


Amp. 


Remarks 












1857. 












H. M. S. 


H. M. S. 


H. M. S. 


MM. 




1 


133 


Sept. 


20 


19 24 


• 


Aircurrents 





— 


2 


— 


»J 


21 


— 


G 53 30 


— 





— _ 


3 


— 




25 


15 16 16 


15 17 


15 20 16 


0-5 





4 


— 


Oct. 


13 


20 05 30 


— 


— 


0-2 


— 


5 


— 




13 


22 14 


Thickenin 


g of line. 


Dur. 4 


m. 


6 


— 


Nov. 


10 


14 58 Q 


15 2 


15 7 


0-7 


— 


7 


— 




19 


6 21 19 


6 23 19 


Aircurrents 


— 


— 


8 


153 


Dec. 


11 


10 


10 3 


10 36 


1-0 


— 


9 


— 


1) 


19 


14 38 


14 38 


— 




— . 


10 


15(! 




28 


20 24 37 


30 31 40 


20 54 20 


2-0 


— 


11 


157 


)» 


29 


11 32 29 


11 35 31 


12 35 


69 


— 












1898. 




12 





Jan. 


20 


54 


58 22 


12 1 0-3 


- — 


13 


1(51 


i> 


25 


13 30 


29 


1 3 


[ 6-8 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
The Tokonto Registeb — continued. 



171 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
ment 


Maximum 


End 


Amp. 


Remarks 








H. JC s. 


H. M. S. 


H. M. S. 


MM. 




14 





Mar. 


20 


12 48 38 


12 51 8 


13 19 


20 


— • 


15 





" 


25 





20 18 


— 


1-5 


— 


IG 






29 


13 35 30 


15 38 27 


15 41 29 


0-2 


— 


17 


188 


Apr. 


6 


12 44 40 


12 54 44 


13 3 12 


5-0 


Well marked. 


18 


189 


15 


Air currents 


7 26 40 Air currents 


20 


Well marked. 














22nd. 






19 


— 


ji 


21 


22 42 41 


23 24 7 


39 43 

23rd. 


2-2 


— 


20 


193 


ji 


22 


23 59 50 


34 26 
23rd. 


1 49 12 


30 


Very pro- 
nounced. 


21 


196 




2!) 


IC 28 20 


16 35 5 


17 9 46 


7-2 


— 


22 


199 


May 


7 


6 42 


6 16 40 


Air currents 


5-2 


Large shake. 


2.3 




n 


27 


r 2 2G 47 \ 

\ 2 27 57/ 

18 43 41 


2 32 12 


Uncertain 


20 


Moderate. 


24 


215 


June 


29 


18 55 18 


20 43 41 


16. 


Very large. 














About 






25 





July 


n 


Small (lispla 


cements 20 h. and 23h. 


15m. 




2<i 






20 


Uncertain 


17 2 33 


Uncertain 


10 


— 


27 


— 


»1 


23 


23 10 31 


23 24 


23 30 


0-5 


Small but de- 
cided. 


28 






24 


10 oG 54 


10 50 


Uncertain 


0-5 


Small. 


20 




" 


25 


15 31 39 


15 39 


16 40 


10 


Moderate, 






)J 












four distinct 
shocks. 


30 




Auof. 


4 


4 5 21 


4 5 21 


4 23 17 


0-3 





31 


— 


o 


IG 


10 39 5 


10 45 50 


10 48 50 


10 


Three distinct 
shocks. 


1 32 


230 


)» 


31 


20 17 53 


21 3 20 


22 12 3G 


1-1 


Series of 
small shocks 


33 


231 


Sept. 


3 


16 17 22 


16 18 30 


16 31 20 


0-2 


Very small. 


34 


232 




13 


18 21 45 


19 15 44 


21 11 


2-1 


Moderate. 


35 






25 


45 2 


9 53 32 


10 1 


0-3 


Small. 


3(! 







25 


18 56 37 


18 57 32 


10 16 50 


0-7 


Small. 


37 


235 


Oct. 


11 


16 47 20 


17 20 30 


17 47 20 


3-6 


Large. 


38 






22 


51 18 


— 


— 


— 


Very small. 


30 


230 


Nov. 


17 


13 9 46 


13 44 50 


14 44 2 


1-5 


Marked. 


40 






27 


1 24 1 


— 


— 


— 


Very small. 


41 





Dec. 


5 


A noticeable 


thickening 


of the line 


at 16h. 


7m. 


42 


— 


>l 


11 


7 33 15 


— • 


— ■ 


1 — 


Decided, but 
small. 


43 


— 




20 


8 2 55 


— 


— 


1 — • 


Thickening of 
the line. 


; 44 


-,.. 


*l 


23 


r o 26 651 
t 5 40 8/ 


— 


— 


'«■'{ 


1 Two very small 
ones. 


145 


245 


Jan. 


6 


10 9 8 


Uncertain 


10 57 





Succession of 
small shocks. 


4(5 


246 


>t 


12 


3 47 .50 


— 


— 


0-4 


Very small, 
but decided. 


47 


248 




14 


2 42 18 


2 57 6 


4 8 51 


3-2 


Moderate. 


48 




>i 


24 


12 14 59 


— 


— 


— 


Very small. 








1899. 






49 


250 


Jan. 


24 


23 50 24 


12 10 


1 2 27 28 


! 0-5 


Large. 


50 


252 


)f 


31 


11 36 


11 37 12 


12 22 42 


0-2 


— 


51 




Feb. 


7 





22 4 


— 


— 


Minute. 


52 





jt 


8 


19 24 14 


1 10 34 23 


10 58 14 


0-5 


Very small. 


53 


254 


»l 


23 


i Air currents 


! 14 4 


— 


0-5 


Very small. 



172 



REPORT — 1899. 
The Toron'to Register — sontmue/I. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
ment 


Maximum 


End 


Amp. 


Remarks 










H. M. s. 


H. M. s. 


H. M. S. 


MJI. 




54 


256? 


Feb. 


27 


11 41 10 


11 42 20 




10 


Verj- small. 


55 


259 


1» 


28 


20 15 


20 1 


20 8 


0-3 


Very small. 


56 


263 


Mar. 


7 


1 19 29 


2 10 


2 19 29 


0-5 


Small. 


57 


264 


»> 


12 


9 52 11 


9 58 7 


10 52 11 


3o 


lloderate. 


58 


266? 









— 





— 


— 


69 


268 


»» 


23 


10 41 52 


11 6 


11 41 52 


0-6 


Small. 


60 


26!) 


«> 


23 


Thicker.ic 


g of line at 


14h. 45m. 


47s. 


Duration, 20m. 


61 


— 


9* 


21 


5 9 18 





5 14 18 


0-3 


Very small. 


62 


270 


>> 


25 


14 41 37 


14 46 57 




05 


P.T.'s marred 
by air cur- 
rents. 


63 


— 


Apr. 


r, 


R 33 38 


Thickening 


of line unc 


ertain. 




64 


— 


>» 


12 


17 55 


17 59 4 


19 34 3 


0-6 


Small. 


65 


— 


)t 


13 


4 9 8 


4 n 


4 31 8 


0-4 


Very small. 


66 


— 


)■ 


14 


6 56 43 


7 2 37 


7 7 45 


0-6 


Very small. 


67 


— 


»» 


16 


13 48 59 


14 2 48 


15 22 10 


7-0 


Larye and 
continuous. 


68 


— 


it 


17 


2 2 11 


3 


3 59 


0-6 


Series of small 
shocks. 


60 


— 


May 


8 


3 50 22 


3 51 22 


4 47 


0-3 


Very small. 


70 


— 


)' 


12 


15 44 5 


15 46 


15 54 


0-4 


Small. 


71 


— 


June 


y 


4 38 42 


4 54 16 


7 3 51 


14-7 


Very large. 


72 


— 


»» 


5 


15 7 24 


15 16 


17 IS 


100 


Very large. 



Instrument put into basement January 19, 1899. 
Double vibration oC boom 15 seconds or the same as before. 



4. Canada: Victoria, B.C. !Mr. K. Batne.s Eeip, Stqyerintendent. 
Mr. r. Napjer DiiKisoif in charge vf the iSi'inmorjraph. 

The instrument is in the basement of an old brick building with stone 
foundation on the shore of the harbour. It is placed on a solid concrete 
pillar, built on bed rock not many yards distant from the Avater. I am 
not aware that troubles arising from ' air tremors,' or other causes, have 
interfered with the regular working of the instrument. 

T7ie Victoria Register. 



No 



Shide 
No. 



Date 



Commence- 
ment 



Maximum 



Ending 



Amp. 



Remarks 



] 


235 


2 


— 


3 


239 


4 




5 


— 


6 


— 


7 


— 


8 


— 


9 


— 



Oct. 


U 




O.J 


»» 




Nov. 


17 


Dec. 


11 


)» 


>. 


»i 


It 




19 


•1 


20 


M 


23 



n. M. 


s. 


16 44 


34 


40 





13 7 





6 53 


58 


7 13 


52 


8 58 


7 


10 17 





8 11 





1 2 






1393. 

H. JI. S. 

Various pi 

7 25 
Tremors es 



H. jr. s 

1 17 
csl4h.50m. 



9 19 
tending: 15 



0-5 

1-2 
h.45m, 



Faint curve. 
Faint curve. 
Series of small 
shocks. 

Medium. 

Very slight. 

Minute tre- 
mors. 

Minute tre- 
mor. 



No. 



ON SEISilOLOGICAL IXVESTIGATION. 
The Victoeia Eegistee — continued. 



173 



Shide 
No. 



10 



Dat6 



Dec. 23 



Commence- 
ment 



4 1 



Maximum 



n. M. s. 



toria. Some 
sections es- 
caped. 

-VIso on Dec. 1, 13h. to llli., and again at 19h. -lOm. small shakes. 



Endins 



Amp. 



Remarks 



Qualce in Vic- 



11 


246 


12 


21S 


13 


— 


14 


— 


15 


2.50 


16 


252 


17 


— 


18 


254 


19 


2.55 


20 


— 


21 


259 


22 


263 


23 


264 


24 


266 


25 
26 


}268| 


27 


269 


28 


. — 


29 


270 


30 


— 


31 


— 


32 


— 


33 


— 


34 


.^ 


35 


— 


36 




37 


, 


38 





39 


1 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April 



May 



1899. 



12 


3 


35 


IG 


3 3G 15 


3 40 16 


09 


Small. 


14 


2 


42 


30 


2 55 28 


3 43 30 


8-1 


Large. 


23 


o 












" 


Jlarked little 
vibrations, 
2h. 


24 


12 


17 


30 


12 17 50 
25th. 


12 23 30 
25th. 


02 


Very small. 


1» 


23 


51 


i 


5 36 


3 15 


20. 


Very large. 


31 


11 


40 





11 41 26 


11 46 


01 


— 


8 


19 


31 


59 


19 35 


19 40 


0-4 


Very small. 


23 


14 


G 


40 


14 8 .33 


14 12 5 


01 


— 


26 


14 


6 


23 


14 8 24 


14 17 19 


01 


— 


27 


15 


47 


7 


15 47 17 


15 52 7 


01 


— 


28 


Slight thic 


kening of t 


he line 20h 


, 5m. t 


20b. 12m. 


7 


1 


15 


13 


1 16 15 


2 17 13 


0-4 





12 


9 


49 


55 


9 59 30 


10 49 55 


0-4 


— 


19 


13 


15 


43 


— 


13 24 43 


0-9 


— 


23 


10 


35 


47 


11 17 17 


12 4 37 


1-9 


— 


li 


10 45 


51 


— ■ 


— 


— ■ 


Very small. 


»» 


14 


55 


20 


15 5 11 


15 30 48 


10 


— 


24 


5 


19 


39 


5 20 54 


5 27 15 


OG 


. — 


25 


14 


4G 


25 


15 12 


15 23 16 


11 


— 


5 


8 


18 





Thickening 


of the line 


— 


. — ■ 


G 


3 


39 


4G 


4 5 13 


4 38 52 


01 


Very small 
shocks. 


12 


17 


47 


4 


IS 19 


18 59 35 


0-5 


Very small 
vibrations 
from 13h. 
55 m. 


13 


3 


59 


15 


4 25 59 


5 12 28 


0-4 


Series of small 
shocks. 


14 


7 


9 


10 


7 9 39 


7 16 20 


0-4 


Very small. 


16 


13 


42 


30 


Xumber of 
vibrations 
across slit 


15 33 12 




Large and con- 
tinuous. 


17 


1 


59 


8 


2 26 37 


3 34 57 


115 


Medium. 


8 


3 


45 


3r, 


3 40 3G 


4 35 31 


01 


Very small. 


15 


20 


5 


21 


Tliickening 
of tlie line 


20 16 16 




Very small, 
may be air 
currents. 


25 


19 








Thickening 


of the li 


— 


— 


Also 


Jan 


. 3C 


)ab( 


)ut 18h. 44m. 15s. a thi( 


jkening 


of the line. 








Fe 


3. 27 about 


lOh. 12m. Ot 


. air ci 


rrent ett'ect. 



From January 7, 1899, swing was increased from 15 to 20 sees. l\Iarch 25 boom 
put at 17 sees. ; ending March 1, 15 sees. ; April 1, 17 sees.; Aj^ril 8, 17 sec^. 



174 



REPORT — 1899. 



5. Spain: Cadiz 



San Fernando. Instituto y Observatorio de Marina. 
Director, Commodore J, A'iniegra. 



When first installed the instrument at this station showed but few- 
movements of the ground, and these were slight. On April 27, 1899, it 
was therefore dismounted, but set up again on the same day ; the position 
of the balance weight being slightly altered and a more perfect equilibrium 
of the boom assured. Its period is 16 seconds. Now it appears to work 
better, but the vibrations are not very intense as compared with those 
from other localities. This lack of sensitiveness may. Commodore 
Viniegra remarks, be due to the foundations, in which there are several 
'stone furrows,' surrounded with mud. 











The San Feriiando Rerjuter. 


No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
ment. 


Remarks 












1898. 










H. M. P. 




1 




Feb. 


18 


16 25 49 


Rapid barometrical fall. 


2 




„ 


24 


10 54 49 




3 


170 


i» 


27 


,, 


Earthquake recorded. 


4 


172 


Mar. 


5 


16 30 49 


Small movements up to lOh. 


5 


185 


April 


3 


7 44 4 




6 


188 


11 


6 


12 36 49 




7 


193 


»» 


22 


23 59 51 


Max. 23h. Om. 36-6s. Amp. 34mm. D 
Ih. 40m. 


8 


196 


f* 


29 


16 37 19 




9 


199 


May 


7 


5 57 49 




10 


209 


?» 


31 


21 30 


Rapid deviation of 4 mm. 
June 19-Jiily 21, main-spring of clock 
broken. 


11 


230 


Aug. 


31 


,, 


Earthquake recorded. 


12 


234 


Sept. 


13 


18 10 49 




13 




)» 




19 19 4 


September 20-24, not working. 


14 


235 


Oct. 


11 


17 27 19 


1899. 


15 


243 


Jan. 


6 


19 14 4 




16 


256 


Feb. 




11 35 49 




17 


259 


>f 


28 


19 56 49 




18 


263 


Mar. 


7 


1 49 49 




19 


267 


n 


21 


15 58 19 




20 


268 


11 


23 


11 40 34 


Rapid deviations to llh. 56m. and 15h. 42m. 


21 


270 


>» 


25 


14 52 19 


April 1-4, watch removed and replaced by 
an electrically moved pencil. 


22 


290 


June 


5 


4 40 55 




23 


291 


»T 


5 


15 6 55 




24 


293 




14 


11 18 16 




25 


299 


JuVy 


2 


12 59 20 




26 




jl 


7 


7 12 




27 




JJ 


7 


8 2 




28 


.TO2 


f> 


7 


9 42 




29 


306 


1) 


11 


7 57 22 




80 


307 


*} 


12 


1 41 12 




31 






12 


15 13 27 




32 


308 




14 


12 46 30 




33 




»? 


17 


5 17 





ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



175 



6. India : Madras. Director, Dr. C. MiCHiE Smith. 
Dr. C. H. Michie Smith writes as follows : — 

' The instrument is placed in the old magnetic room of the Observa- 
tory on one of the old piers. The surrounding ground is mainly a stiff 
clay which cracks during the hot weather, leaving fissures many inches 
deep. The Observatory is on a plain, and is about three miles from the 
sea and 20 feet above sea level. No air tremors were experienced during 
the time under i-eport, but the instrument gave a great deal of trouble 
specially owing to changes in the length of the suspending silk thread, 
caused probably by alterations in the amount of moisture in the air. The 
instrument will be removed to Kodaikanal as soon as a room is ready 
for it.' 











The Madras . 


Reffist 


er. 






No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


rrelini. 

Tremors 

be^in 


Shock 

begins 


Maxi- 
mum 




Sliock 
ends 


Final 

Tremor 

ends 


Remarks 








1898 
















H. M. R. 


H. M. B. 


H. M. s. 


MM. 


H. M. s. 


H. M. s. 




1 


201 


May 21 ? 


17 14 25 


17 20 1 


17 20 1 


0-75 


17 26 5 


17 35 38 


— 





201 


__ 


. 


19 5-t 





0-5 


19 55 


— 


— 


2 


210? 
















About this time 
a large number 
of small dis- 
turbances, but 
none character- 
istic of a true 
shock — possibly 
they were caused 
by a spider. 






June 4 

to 
Aupr. 11 


__ 


~ 










Instrument not 
working. 


■A 


230 


Aug. 31 


20 2 5 


20 12 25 


20 18 


10 


20 33 35 


20 43 36 


— 


4 




Sept. 9 




3 48 38 


_ 


<0-5 


3 40 47 


— 


— 


5 


232? 


,, 13 


— 


17 34 25 


— 


— 


17 35 37 


— 


Very slight. 


6 


233 


„ 22 





12 34 43 


— 


— 


12 39 13 


— 


j» 


7 




„ 25 


__ 


12 24 13 


— 


— 


12 31 19 


— 


»» 


8 





Oct. 1 





3 27 49 


3 29 1 


-T- 


3 30 31 


— 


,. 


9 


235? 


„ " 


— 


17 2 3G 


— 





17 59 12 


— 


Probably due to 
a thunderstorm. 


10 


238 


„ 15 


— 


3 50 19 


3 52 25 


1-2 


3 56 40 


4 6 26 


Felt as a shock 
in N. India. 


U 





XoT. 12 





9 47 1 


— 


— 


9 48 31 


— 


Very slight. 


12 





„ 30 





13 32 30 


— 


— 


12 35 


— 


)» 


13 


240 


Dec. 1 


12 45 14 


12 52 21 


12 55 9 


1-0 


13 3 43 


13 9 11 




14 




„ 15 




12 6 31 


— 


— 


12 10 31 


— 


Very slight. 


15 


— 


„ 21 


— 


13 15 31 


— 


— 


13 19 1 


— 


}t 








1899 










IG 


_ 


Jan. 23 


.. . 


2 4 25 


2 4 49 


0-5 


2 10 25 


— 


— 


17 


251 


„ 30 


__ 


17 48 19 


17 52 25 


1-0 


17 57 1 


— 


— 


18 




Feb. 5 





14 8 29 


14 18 31 


3-0 


14 52 46 


— 


— 


19 





„ 5 





Ifi 41 5 


16 48 51 


2-0 


16 55 34 


— 


— 


20 





,> 6 





18 32 3G 


18 37 35 


1-5 


18 43 47 


— 


— 


21 





» 6 





20 42 15 


20 46 4 


1-5 


20 54 32 


— 


— 


22 





., 7 





4 53 29 


5 3 31 


1-0 


5 18 


— 


^ 


23 


— 


„ 7 


— 


20 28 27 


20 33 7 


2-5 


20 49 27 


— 


Time slightly un- 
certain. 


24 





» 8 





50 1 


54 31 


1-0 


10 4 


— 


— 


25 


— 


,. 10 





13 36 28 


13 43 21 


1-0 


13 46 54 


~ 


? 



NOTRf.— After November 12 the period of the oscillation may be taken as IG sees. 
was less, but the exact period is very uncertain and was variable. 



Before that time it 



17G . REPORT— 1899. 

7. Bovihmj: Colaba. Abstract from Beport by ^. K. F. Moos, Esq., Director of 

the Government Observatory. 

The instrument at the Bombay Government Observatory is installed 
in a small isolated building 10 feet square and 14 feet up to the eaves, 
which was formerly used for electrostatical observations. It has a gable 
roof, and is well ventilated on all sides. On the west side, at a distance 
of 40 feet, is a carriage drive leading to the Directors' quarters, and at a 
distance of 70 feet in the same direction, and parallel to the drive, is the 
main road outside the Observatory compound. On the east side, there is 
to a distance of GO feet open ground as far as the thermograph shed, 
beyond which an open tract continues to the sea. On the north side 
there is a small well and open ground for 120 feet, where the observers' 
quarters arc situated. Probably in consequence of a copious ventilation, 
no troubles have been experienced with the so-called earth tremors. 

The pier is oriented N.S. and E.W., and located in the centre of the 
room. Its foundation was dug 5^ feet below the flooring of the room, 
which is \h feet above the ground^. At this depth a huge boulder was 
struck, upon which was laid a bed of concrete 5x5 feet square and 2 feet 
deep. Over this a mass of rubble masonry 4x4 feet and l\ feet thick 
was built, .and upon this a brick pillar U, feet square and 5^ feet high. 
On the top of this there is 1 inch of cement and a i-inch marble slab. 
On the north side to carry the clock box there is a heavy table 3 feet 
9 inches square. The Observatory stands on somewhat elevated ground 
formed of basaltic traps, with their inter-trappean beds of hard red earth. 

The records commence on September 8, 1898. The period of the boom 
has been kept at 18 sees., the sensibility being such that a deflection of 
1 mm. corresponds to a.tilt of 0-38". No difficulties have been experi- 
enced in the working of the instrument beyond an occasional .slight falling 
of the boom, due, perhaps, to a stretching of the silk thread at the upper 
end of the tie. The sensibility is determined weekly by observation and 
. by deflections whilst the film is in the box, thus preserving a photographic 
record of the same. By stretching a fine wire across the slit in the clock 
box an accurate zero line is obtained. 

Regular tremors and pulsations are absolutely absent. 

The list on the next page only contains records which correspond with 
records obtained in the Isle of \Vight. The complete Bombay Catalogue, 
commencing on September 8, 1898, to June 2, 1899, contains 2,021 entries. 
These refer to shocks which were local, and do not appear to have reached 
Europe, curious irregular sinuosities varying in period from a few minutes 
to an hour, sudden displacements or dislocations in the position of the 
boom, and numerous thickenings of the normal record. The latter, in 
some instances, may be the result of slight earth tremors, but where they 
are continuous over several hours and have an irregular, bead-like 
appearance, it is likely that they are due to air currents. Movements 
due to such causes are most frequent at night. The cause of the sinuosi- 
ties and sudden displacements is at present unknown. 

In an official report on the condition and proceedings of the Colaba 
Observatory, dated April 29, 1899, in reference to Seismology, Mr. Moos 
says, that the seismograph appears to give every satisfaction. At first 
tremors were absolutely absent, but they appeared in the middle of 
November, and subsequently caused great trouble. To arrive at the 
causes producing these tremors, Mr. Moos has instituted a series of experi- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



177 



ments, and he has found it possible to suppress their existence by regulating 
the temperature and draught in the room by four small kerosine lamps 
kept burning between 8 p.m. and 9 a.m. The introduction of these lamps 
also results in giving the zero of the boom a fluctuation almost analogous 
to that observed in the diurnal wave. 



10 
11 
12 

13 

14 

15 

l<) 
17 

18 
1<) 

20 
21 
22 

2ii 
24 









Excerpt from the Bomlay licglster. 




No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
meuti 


Maximum 


End 


Eemai-ks 






1898. 








II. M. s. 


H. M. S. 


II. M. S. 




1 


232 


Sept. 13 


18 63 28 





18 56 10 


Thickening of line. 


2 


233 


00 


12 40 45 


12 49 8 


12 54 24 


Eleven bead-like 
movements. 


3 


234 


„ 25 


12 18 37 


12 20 36 


12 31 .53 


Small disturbance. 


4 


235 


Oct. 11 


17 2 36 


17 36 42 


17 48 57 


Eartliquukc. Amp. 

0"-78. 
Eart.liquake. Amp. 


5 


238 


„ 1"' 


3 li; 41 


3 47 24 


4 8 49 














2"()3. Felt over 














Northern Bom'bay. 


G 


239 


Nov. 17 


13 11 19 


13 34 


14 39 10 


Eartliquake. Amp. 
3"-80. 




210 


„ 30 


21 4 85 




(Dcc.l) 3 49 2.- 


Real movement 
masked by feeble 
tremors. Also Dec. 
1 from 12h. 43m. 
17.S. 


8 


241 ? 


Dec. 3 


2 49 58 


— . 


— 


Dislocation. 


•J 244 


,, 4 


20 28 5 


— 


(5th) 3 15 58 


Mo\rement masked 




1 


1 








by tremors. 



245 
246 
247 

248 

249 

250 
251 
252 

253 
256 

257 
259 
263 

264 

268 



Jan. 6 

„ 11 

„ 12 

„ 13 



25 
30 
31 



19 13 40 

19 23 44 

9 33 24 

19 41 37 

9 15 47 

12 57 59 
17 50 16 
12 23 20 



„ 31 17 16 21 
Feb. 27 ; 10 42 20 



Mar. 



■i~> : 14 40 50 

28 20 9 23 

7 3 47 



12 
23 



10 31 41 

11 42 30 



X899. 

— ! (7th) 4 43 34 ' 

— '(12tbj 4 11 36 I 

— I — Dislocation with vi- 
I I bration. 

— (14th) 4 21 2 ' Jlovement masked 
[ by tremors. 

— : Dislocation W. with 

vibration. 



17 58 34 



11 47 46 



18 1; 



1 31 13 



12 22 4 



Small disturbance. 
Dislocation E. with 

vibration. 
Thickening of line. 
Dislocation W. with 

vilsration. 



Tremors mask the 

real record. 
Thickening of line. 
Small disturbance. 



8. India : Calcutta, Alipore Observatori/. 

G. W. Ki'CHLEE, Assistajit Mfteorological Reportfr. 

At the aliove Observatory, in consequence of an indifferent foundation, 

dampnes-s, the presence of insects, and from other causes, great difficulties 

have been met with in working the instrument. These to some extent 

1899. N 



178 



REPOKT 1899. 



have ])een overcome, and it is expected that better results will be 
obtained. 











The Calcutta Register. 






No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Time 

1 




Remarks 










1S99. 














II. 51. S. 


II. 


M. 


s. 


1 


— 


Jan. 


IS 


IG 12 2 


End IC 


50 


10 


2 


— 


,, 


25 


21 57 :j 


9-> 


32 


14 \ 


a 


--- 


Feb. 


18 


3 15 52 


,, B 


29 


45 Amp. less than2mnQ. 


■i 


— 


,, 


23 


3 3 33 


„ 3 


21 


2 ., 2 mm. 


i> 


2(;i 


iuar. 


]2 


8 51 20 


„ 10 


41 


3 


1) 


2G6 


It 


l:i 


12 3G 18 


» 15 


8 


58 „ 2 mm. 


7 






21 


9 12 24 






— 


8 


2G7 


>> 


21 


1 4 43 6 


„ 15 


29 


53 


9 


269 


fi 


2:5 


13 )2 38 


„ 14 


22 


53 „ 4 mm. 


10 


— 


»> 


2G 


11 53 47 


(about) 




1 



The above have been extracted from a selected list of disturbances 
commencing January 15, 1899. 

U. Java : Batavia. Maffneetiscli en Meteorohr/isch Observatorium. 
Director, Dr. J. P. v.vN dee Stock. 

Observations with the Milne horizontal pendulum commenced on 
June 1, 1898. The period or time of double swing is kejit at an average 
of 17 seconds. It is in.stalled in the magnetometer room. The observa- 
tory is situated on a plain of alluvium. DitRculties arising from 
tremors ' have not been reported from this station. 

The Batav'ia I}egider. 



air 









Commencement 




No. 


Shide No. 


Date 




Duration 








Small Pul- 
Bations 


Maximum 








1898. 










II. M. 


II. M. 


n. M. 


1 


- — 


Jane 4 


15 3-7 


15 3 9 


13-9 


2 


— 


„ 18 


S 0-5 


8 0-7 


3-5 


it 


214 


22 


6 42 3 


G 44-8 


12-3 


4 


219 


July 12 


11 381 


11 38-4 


6-5 


'.) 


— 


V 17 


11 32-8 


11 37-5 


3-2 


G 


— 


Aug 1 


IG G-8 


— 


3-8 


"' 


230 


„ 31 


20 1-3 


20 21-7 


1 14-4 


S 


-- 


Sept. 1 


9 43 


9 104 


31-9 


;) 


— 


o 


18 47-8 


18 5.5-8 


170 


10 


— 


„ 3 


8 27-3 


8 28-2 


4-4 


11 


232 


„ 13 


18 2-1 


18 10-7 


57-7 


12 


233 


„ 22 


12 27-3 


12 291 


58-9 


i:; 


— • 


,, 30 


12 40 


12 5-2 


5-8 


14 


— 


Oct. 2 


14 44-5 


14 53 


23-4 


15 


— 


3 


9 5 


— . 


Doubtful 


IG 


— ■ 


7 


20 27-7 


20 3G-2 


21-8 


17 


235 


„ 11 


IG 49-7 





1 10-5 


18 


238 


,. 15 


4 11-7 


4 21-2 


13-0 


19 


— 


„ 15 


10 54-5 


10 55-9 


2-3 


20 


— 


„ 18 


19 25 


19 29 


39-3 



ON SEISMOLOUICAL INVESTIGATION. 
The Batavia TxEGISTSU— continued. 



179 





Shide No. 


Date 


Commencement 


Duration 


Xo. 


Small Pul- 
sations 


Maximum 








H. M. 


H. M. 


H. sr. 


21 


— 


Oct. 23 


9-3 


19-6 


2G(; 


■J2 


— 


Nov. 2 


11 28-8 


11 29-3 


1 01 


2;} 


— 


., 5 


11 59-5 


— 


0-8 


• 24 


- 


„ 13 


15 ;!3-4 


15" 33-6 


10-2 


2.-> 


239 


„ 17 


13 12G 


13 130 


37G 


2(i 


— • 


„ 28 


7 45-2 


7 468 


9-3 


27 


— 


„ 29 


22 340 


22 3G-4 


94 


28 


— 


Dec. 2 


12 21G 


12 27 2 


13-4 


29 


213 


M 3 


16 59-9 


17 0-G 


2-0 


:iO 





„ 4 


7 180 


7 25-4 


90 ; 


;u 


— 


„ 6 


7 43-8 


7 44-2 


28-9 


;!2 


— 


„ 6 


10 2S-G 


10 28-8 


21 


:',i 


— 


„ 6 


13 31-5 


13 348 


2'''2 ' 


:H 


— 


„ 10 


3 0-7 


3 1-7 


"go 


35 


— 


„ 11 


2 111 


2 1.3-5 


7-6 


36 


— 


„ 17 


1 511 


1 51'2 


0-6 


37 


— 


„ 21 


3 52 3 


3 53-5 


24 


38 


— 




9 2-9 


9 4-9 


29-.S 


39 


— 


„ 23 


21 560 


21 56-2 


0-7 


40 


— 


„ 29 


2 44-6 


2 44-9 


1) 


41 


— 


„ 31 


9 IGO 


9 22-5 


11-7 




1899. 




12 


217 


Jan. 12 1 


8 4-3 


8 8-8 


190 


1 43 


2G4 


Mar. 12 j 


1 


10 8-2 


2.->-0 



Nos. l-j and 19 were also recorded by Ewing's Bracket Seismograpii. 
Nos. 1, 4, .'i, G, 12, 15 and 19 were also felt at different places in West 
Java and (Sumatra. Earthquakes felt on the Eastern part of the Archi- 
pelago (Moluccas) are not yet regularly recorded. 

10. Manritim : Boyal Alfred Observatory. Director, T. F. Claxtox, F.JR.A.S. 

The Observatory, inlat. 20° 5' 39" S., and long. 3h. 50m. 12-G.s. E., i.s 
situated on a plateau about four miles from the north-west coa.st, and 
180 feet above mean sea level. The soil around the Observatory varies 
from -3 to 14 feet in depth, below which is solid basalt. Extending for 
about half a mile to the west is a forest, thickly wooded with thin acacia 
trees, and to the east are principally fields of sugar cane. 

The instrument is mounted with its boom pointing north, in a small 
hut containing two brick pillai's, formerly used for the electrometer. The 
building is 8 feet long by 5 feet wide, and 9 feet high. The i-oof and 
walls are of wood, covered on the outside with painted canvas, while the 
floor is of concrete. I am not at present in a position to state whether 
the foundation of the piers is on the solid rock, though it certainly is not 
more than a few feet above. 

Observations were commenced in the middle of September, 1898. All 
the seismograms have been tabulated and subjected to analysis, and the 
results will be published in due time ; they shov/ principally tivo 
things : — 

(a) That tliere is a large diurnal variation in level (probably larger 

X 2 



180 



REPORT — 1899. 



than at any other observing station) with a marked bi-diurnal effect, as 
shown by Bessel's interpolation formula, which for the months of October 
1898, to March 1899, is 

2"-61 sin (9 + 295°-470 + 0"-73 sin(29 + 331°-57') + 0"-30 sin (30 + 272^-57'), 

indicating a possible connection with the atmospheric pressure ; the 
formula for the diurnal variation of which is 

0-0108 in. sin (0 + 49°32') + 0-0285 in. sin (23 + 163°2') 

+ 0-0020 in. sin (3a + 26°4'). 

(6) That rapid changes in the vertical occasionally occur on a large- 
scale, notably on 1898 December 5, 6 and 7, and 1899 January 7, and 
February 10 and 11. 

On December 5 (see diagram) after a dry period for a few days, a very 
heavy cloud formed at about 11 a.m. ; its eastern edge was clearly defined,, 
and extended for about a mile to the Eastward ; shortly after noon very 
heavy rain began to fall at and to the west of the Observatory. The 
effect on the seismograph is seen in the accompanying diagram. 

Fig. 1. 



3 30 




{(') That air tremors occur every night, in spite of every precaution to 
ensure copious ventilation, and the prevention of convection currents. 
They begin at sunset with small movements, which rapidly become larger, 
but, although of variable amplitude during the night, do not show a marked 
maximum : they finally die away at sunrise. As a general rule the 
tremors are greatest when the fall of temperature during the night is 
greatest ; but this is not always the case. 

(</) That on almost every day the westerly movement of the boom 
exceeds the easterly, indicating a gradual sinking of the land west of the 
instrument. 

We must conclude that this movement is only local, for if the whole 
island tilted in this way as a rigid body, land would appear on the east 
coast, which was previously submerged, and vice verm on the west coast, 
and up to now I have been unable to obtain evidence that such a thing 
has taken place. 

(e) That the earthquake effects are comparatively small, as -will be 
seen from an inspection of the accompanying list. This makes us question 
v/hether it is possible for the ocean to act as a damper to earthquake shocks. 

V7ben records are forthcoming from Honolulu we may leai'n more of 
this subject. 

Beside the above five phenomena, there is another interesting poiat to 



ON SEISMOLOUrCAL INVESTIGATION. 



181 



be considered : the variation in the scale value of the instrument. As 
tlie boom points to the north, an increased sensibility means that tlie 
boom pillar has tilted towards the south, and vicn versa. 

In the following table will be found the smoothed scale values for 
every four days from 1898, October, to 1899, January. (A bar represents 
an adjustment.) 

Value of 1 Mill. 



Day 


October 


November 


December 


January 


4 


33 


38 


25 


32 


8 


32 


50 


42 


41 


12 


31 


4.5 


38 


50 


16 


30 


36 


38 


58 


20 


2.5 


28 


32 


33 


21 


18 


2« 


28 


33 


28 


.-.4 


25 


24 


33 


32 


4(i 


25 


21 


33 



If the above figures are plotted down on a curve, after allowing for the 
alterations for adjustment, it will be seen that the boom tilted towards 
the south till November 25 ; was then practically stationary till the 
middle of December, after which the tilting continued towards the south 
till the end of the month, when a northerly tilt set in, lasting till 
January 16, after which the boom was stationary. 

Mauritius Register. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commeiice- 
ment 


Maximum 


Remarks 








1 


898. 










11. JI. s. 


11. M. S. 


A. 


1 


— 


Sept. 19 


— 


11 1 3i) 


2"-4. Commencement lb. 
earlier ? 


o 


233 


22 


— 


13 50 25 


0"-45. 


3 


238 


Oct. 15 


4 6 12 


4 10 


0"15. D 22m. 


4 


239 


Nov. 17 


13 45 23 


14 2 


0"G6. D 40m. 


5 


240? 


Dec. 1 


— 


58 43 


Earthquake ? 


C 


244? 


„ 4 


7 30 
About 


7 52 


0"12. D 45m. 


7 




„ 11 


7 30 

1 


7 36 5 
099. 


0"-38. D Ih. 22m. (See 
Register for Toronto, Vic- 
toria, Nicolaiew.) 


8 


250 


Jan. 25 


— 


1 15 45 

and 


0"-99. 


9 




" " 




1 I'J 


From G.30 to noon, about 
20smalldisturbances. One 
about 9h. looks seismic. 


10 


2G3 


March 




23 20 

to March 7 

1 35 


Slight thickenings of the 
line. 


11 


264 


1'' 

11 -i- 




8 20 

to 

10 50 


Slight thickenings of the 

line. 



182 REPORT — 1899. 

H. Cape of GoodHope: Eoyal Observatonj. Director, David Gill, Esq., F.R.S. 

The instrument was mounted on a concrete pier based on a rock 
foundation, and was experimentally started on June 20, 1899. 

At first difficulties were experienced in attaining the necessary amount 
of sensitiveness. Thei'e appeared to he a large amount of friction which 
prevented the boom swinging freely. This, however, was remedied by a 
7-eadjustment of the balance weights, and the instrument has been re- 
cording with occasional interruption since July li. 

The principal events so far registered are as below, the times being 
referred to Greenwich mean civil time. 

Tke Cape Jteghter. 

1899. 

1. July U— 

H. M. 

PreHmiuary tremors . . . . . ].'5 47'2 
Commencement of decided motion . . 14 17'2 
End of decided motion . . . .15 i52C 

Maximum amplitude, 3 mm. 
Also recorded at Shide. 

2. July 18— 

K. yi. 
Preliminarj' tremors . . . . .21 14-0 
Commencement of decided motion . . 21 18'0 
Maximum amplitude, 3 mm. 
Times of maxima, 2]h. 23-2m., 2Ih. 34-4m. 

?>. July 20— 

Slight tremors from about Oh. to 7h., commencement and end not well 
marked. More violent disturbance for about 10m. ; maximum dis- 
placement 2| mm. at 3h. 40m. 

4. July 20— 

Disturbance commenced at 19h. 17m. The motion subsided fron> 
19h. 26-.Sm. but restarted at I'Jh. 44-2m., and finally ceased at lOh. o0-5m. 

5. July 27— 

Disturbance commenced without preliminary tremors at 15h. 4'7m. 
Maximum displacement about 2^m. after commencement. Greatest 
amplitude of swing, 9mm. Total duration, 45m., with cahu interval of 
10m. 

0. July 31— Violent disturbance. 

H. M. 

Preliminary tremors . . ... 2 42*5 
Commencement of decided motion . . 2 4fi'0 
End of decided motion . ... 3 39-8 

The early part of this disturbance shows signs of a periodic character with a 
period declining from about Gm. to about 3m. The latter half is much more 
irregular in form. Well-marked maxima at 2b. 47m., 2h. 52m., 2h. 57m., 3h. Im., 
3h. 4m., and 3h. 25m. Displacements from centre amounting to 20 mm. 

Several insignificant disturbances have also been recorded, besides those quoted 
above. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



133 



12. Hussi'a: l\icolaic'W. The Observatory. 
Director, Professor T. Koetazzi. 

The Observatory of Nicolaiew (lat. 4G° 58'-3, long. 2h. 7m. 9s.) is 
situated on a sandy hill with gently sloping sides at an elevation of 50iu. 
above sea level. The streets of the town are at a distance of 150m., and 
the railway more than 1 km. 

The von Rebeur Horizontal Pendulum, with its photographic regis- 
tering apparatus, is placed in a cellar on a pillar isolated from the walls 
and the Hoor. Tlie pillar is built of large blocks of very compact lime- 
.stone, covered with tar to prevent the absorption of moisture. The annual 
change of temperature in the cellar does not exceed 4° R. Diurnal changes 
are not perceptible. A deviation of 1 mm. in the position of the light spot 
indicates a tilting of the pillar in the direction of the meridian of 0"-012. 
The recording surface moves at the rate of 22 mm. per hour. 



The Nicolaiew Register. 

The times for commenccmv7it, rcinforccinenf, maximum, and Keahciwifi are 
indiciiled in Greenwich mean civil time : — i- amj?litude — ha, in inillimetres. P.'J''s — 
duraiioit, of preliminary tremors. 



No. 



Shide 
No. 



D.ate 



Conimence- 
meut 



Reinforce- 
ment 



Maximum I ia 



AVcak- 
euing 



Dura- 
tion 



P.T.'; 



1 
1 ' 




Mar. C 


■^ 1 


— 


„ 19 


3 


— 


„ 25 


4 





„ 2« 


5 


— 


„ 28 


5 


182 


„ 31 


7 


185 


Apr. 3 


8 


189 


„ 15 


9 


— . 


„ 21 


10 





22 


11 


193 


!! 23 


12 


195 


„ 25 


13 


— 


„ 28 


11 


196 


„ 29 


If, 


199 


Muv 7 


16 


— 


.,' li' 


17 


— 


„ 2B 


IX 


— 


June 1 


19 


210 


.» ■• 


20 


— 


,. ti 


21 


213 


,> 21 


22 


214 


„ 22 1 


23 





., 20 


24 


215 


,. 29 


25 


Slfi 


July 2 I 


2G 


— 


„ 9 ! 


27 


— 


., 13 


2H 


221 


„ 11 


29 


— 


.. 15 


30 


225 


Auy. 8 


31 


— 


„ 13 


32 


— 


., 2H 


33 


230 


„ 31 


34 


— 


Scjit. 1 


35 


— 


.y 


3G 


231 


., 3 


37 


232 


;, 13 



II. JI. 

2 4il 

13 11 
19 39 

9 41 

15 37 

8 22 
i; 53 

7 54 

22 48 

23 47 

11 10'5 

14 27 
lli 30 

r, 4 

9 15 
** 2 

5 47 
l(i 57 
19 37 

37 

G 54 

23 38 

18 42 

4 22 

19 39 
48 

17 30 

6 22 

8 25 

4-5 

IG 37-5 

20 39 

9 11 
19 IG 



IS 14-5 



II. 



M. 



13 19 

19 47 

57-5 

15 59-5 

8 30 



22 57-5 

2 

11 19 

14 44-5 

IG 44-5 
17 2 

G 11 

9 39 

5 52 



41-5 
11 



18 69 ■ 
4 23-5 



17 45 
« 37 
8 4i 



9 20 



15 59 



1S98. 



Remarks 



ir. M. 


MM. 


II M. 


11. 51. 


JI. 


3 5 


3 5 


— 


36 


IG 


13 20 


4 


— 


13 


5 


19 58 


9 


20 31 


2 58 


8 


9 5G 


5'5 


10 7 


40 


3 


IG 2 


1(1-5 


IG 9 


1 15 


22-5 


]« 


7-5 


19 






8 34 


4 


— 


30 


a 


6 58 


3 


_ 


8 


— 


7 57 


23 


— 


23 


— 


23 22 


IG 


23 62 


2 44 


9-5 


23 58 


10 


— 


— 


— 


4-5 


38 


1 37 


3 37 


— 


11 44 


9 


11 49 


1 42 


8-5 


14 54 


7-5 


— 


57 


17-5 


17 7 


21 


17 47 


2 22 


14-5 


6 38 


25 


7 12 


2 33 


7 


9 42 


4'5 


— 


55 


— 


2 22 


4 


— 


1 20 


— 


6 54 


G 


G 7 


48 


8 


17 


5 


— 


30 


— 


19 58 


5 


. — 


21 


21 


ai 


38 


— 


45 


— . 


7 18 


17 


7 46 






7 51 


15 


7 55 


3 1 


— 


23 47 


2 


— 


9 


6 


18 59 


50? 


— 


— 


12 


19 17 


40 y 


— 


3 45 




4 25 


9 


— 


, — 


1-5 


19 41 


3 


— 


15 


— 


54 


3 


— 


34 


— 


17 52 


10 


— 


37 


15 


G 37 


2-5 


— 


32 


12 


8 54 


7 


9 17 


1 47 


19 


7 


G 


_ 


27 


— 


IG 39 


2-5 


— 


75 


— 


20 42 


20 


— 


68 


— 


9 39 


22 


10 10 


2 29 


9 


19 29 


7 


19 47 






20 


G 


— 


1 6 


— 


IG 2 


7 


— 


1 20 


— 


18 34 


10 








19 12 


13 


— 


1 38 


— 



Pcnilulum in- 
clined 8 mm. 
to tlin S. 



P.T.'s folio well 
by a single 
shockatlUli. 
58ui. 



At 18h. ; 
to lull. 



i9m. 
7m. 



anil 

7iu. to 

22m. 

traces 

scarcely 

visible. 



lUh. 

1911. 
the 
are 



The jilioto- 
gnim iudis- 
tinet. 



184 



REPORT — 1899. 
The Nicolaiew Registee — continued. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


38 


233 


Sept. 22 


aa 


234 


„ 25 


40 


_ 


„ 2G 


41 


— 


„ 27 


42 


— 


„ 30 


43 


— 


Oct. 1 


44 


— 


„ 7 


45 


— 


„ 8 


46 


235 


„ 11 


47 


— 


„ 12 


48 


238 


„ 15 


49 





„ 18 


50 


— 




51 





Nov. 2 


52 


— 


,. 9 


53 


— 


,. 14 


54 


239 


„ 17 


55 


240 


Dec. 1 


5G 


241? 


„ 3 


57 


— 


., 4 


58 


— 


., c 


59 


— 


„ G 


CO 


— 


„ 11 


Gl 





„ 12 


G2 


— 


., 27 



Commence- 
ment 



IG 
15 



8 



63 


— 


Jan. 3 


64 


245 


„ 6 


65 


247? 


„ 12 


66 


248 


.. 14 


67 


249 


„ 22 


68 


— 


„ 23 


69 


250 


„ 24 
„ 25 


70 


251? 


„ 30 


71 


253? 


„ 31 


72 


— 


Feb. 10 


73 


— 


,, 11 


74 


256 


„ 27 


75 


— 


„ 28 


70 


— 


Mar. 3 


77 


2G2 


,, 6 


78 


2G3 


.. 7 


79 


2C4 


„ 12 



44 
25 



22 37-5 
5 42 



35 
4 

2 36 
23 40-5 
IG 49-5 
22 14 

3 28 

19 5G-3 
13-3 

11 50 

18 47 

7 29 



12 42 
C 18 



111 



16 58 
15 1 



Eeiii 


force- 


meut 


H. 


ir. 


12 


53 


12 


34 


16 


54 


IG 


59-5 


4 


5 


20 


5 





28 


(1 


40 


12 


14 


7 


39-5 


13 


12 





17 


17 


9-5 




— 1 



G 
19 


49 
23 


8 


37 


2 


51 


8 


19 


o 


13-5 


23 


57-5 


17 


59-5 


17 


1-3 


4 


14-5 


8 


17 


11 


31-5 


o 


6-5 





52 


20 


30 


1 


5 


9 


41-5 



7 17 



8 48 
3 



19 



17 14 

4 24 

8 34 

11 34 

3 22 

54-5 

1 15 
1 o2 

10 7 

10 24 



1899. 

7 19 

19 46 

8 50 

3 32 
8 21 

2 22 
42 

12 

1 2 
18 25 
17 13 

4 27 
8 40 

11 37 

3 32 

56 

20 34 

1 22 
1 39 

10 11 

10 27 



Max 


imum 


*a 


H. 


M. 


MM. 


13 


19 


29 


12 


37 


22 


22 


42 


5 


5 


52 


3 


16 


57 


7 


15 


55 


8 


2 


44 


2-5 


24 


18 


2 


17 


7 


13 


22 


17 


3 


4 


10 


7 





14 


20 


9-5 


6 





32 


4-5 


1 





19 


12 


18 


6 


18 


48 


3-5 


7 


42 


3 


13 


37 


18 


12 


54 


15 


G 


19 


3 


8 


5 


3 


8 


20 


4 


14 


12 


2-5 


1 


28 


3-5 


7 


48 


6 


17 


12 


3-5 


15 


4 


3 



Weak- 
ening 



Dura 



H. M. 

14 10 
12 42 



n. M. 

2 38 

I 7 
() 18 

10 

II 32 

1 18 
H 



1 14 



r.T.'s 



M. 

9 

n 

5 



— 25 

39 , — 

1 27 I 2 25 

— i 50 

— I 5 

— ' 35 
1 34 



1 



13 52 



— i 30 

— ' 52 

— 20 

7 34 

8 7)1 

— [ 49 
~- ! 11 



1 49 



8-5 
9 



lii-o 
9 



10 



9 

n-5 



Remarks 



At 17h. 20m. 
t li e paper 
was chang- 
ed. No de- 
tails. 



3 


— 


38 


28? 


6-5 


19 57 


1 39 


10 


7 


8 59 


45 


11 


8 


3 20 


1 28 


6 


15 


— . 


24 


— 


4 


2 38 


1 8 


5-5 


4 








30 


— 


2 55 


f4 or 
■( 10-5 


3 


— 


37 


— 


4 


— 


11 30 


12-5 


2 


— . 


22 


9-5 


5-5 


— 


35 


17 


3'5 


11 41 


15 


2-5 


16 


3 42 


53 


15-5 


11-5 


1 12 


1 


2-5 


2-5 


_ 


17 


— 


7 


1 27 






27 


1 44 


1 13 


10 


6 


10 21 






15 




1 59 


25 



Earth quake 
in Greece 
(Co mptes 
r e n d n s , 
c X X V i i i. 
No. 8). 



1-3. Potsdam. 

Professor Dr. Eschenhagen, of the Konigliches Meteorologisch- 
Magnetisches Observatorium, in place of a list, kindly sent me photo- 
graphic copies of the various seismographic records he had obtained 
between October 2, 1897 and Jan. 6, 1898. The observations were made 
by means of a conical pendulum, carrying a small mirror on a glass boom, 
20 cm. in length, and held horizontally with a glass fibre. 

Out of forty-three records, on dates between March 3, 1898, which 
corresponds to the commencement of this year's list for Shide, and 
January 6, 1899, there are twenty-nine of them corresponding to the 
Isle of Wight observations. 

In the discussion of registers the times of these are given approxi- 
mately, but can be obtained with greater accuracy if required. 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



185 



14. Excerpt froon the Trieste Register, 

Observations corresponding to those in the Shic/e list, made hy Ilerr Eduakd 
Mazellb, Astron.- 3/eieorol. Observatorium, Trieste. Rebcur-Ehlert Ilurizontal 
Pendulum. Photographic record. 



No. 


Shido 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
ment 


Blaximum 


Range 
and Tilt 


End 


Remarks 










1899. 














11. M. 


U. M. 


MM. 


H. 


M. 




1 


219 


Jan. 22 


8 15-85 


8 21-57 


84 
(l"-47) 


9 


20-20 


The'itnsof com- 
mencement is 


o 


2o0 


„ 241 
., 25 J 


23 58-38 


48-86 


33 
(0"-5) 


2 


35-70 


that of the peu- 
dulum first set 
in motion. For 


3 


255 


Feb. 2G 


13 48-36 


14 0-77 


8 






complete re- 


4 


257 


„ 27 


15 28-28 


15 40-55 


4 






cords see K. 


5 


259 


„ 28 


19 50-20 


20 4-54 


5 






Ahad. der Wis- 


G 


2G0 


„ 28 


22 42-83 


23 14-52 


2 






senschaftcn in 


7 


2G3 


Mar. 7 


1 6-89 


1 42-88 


10-5 
(0"-3) 


2 


19-78 


Wien, Febru- 
ary 1899, and 


8 


2G1 


„ 12 


9 53-10 


10 7-37 


13-lG 
(0"-34) 


11 


al.t. 


s u bseq u e u t 
publications. 


9 


26G 


19 


1 24-29 





2 
(0"-06) 


1 


25 GG 




10 


2G7 


''1 


14 46 63 


15 22-25 


55 
(0"-lG) 








11 


268 


„ 23 


10 42-80 


11 5-12 


5-8 
(0"-13) 


12 


abt. 




12 


269 


„ 21! 


11 29-96 


14 4 7-69 


3-5 
(0"-08) 


15 


30-45 




13 


270 


„ 25 


14 53-48 


14 55-31 


1-5 
(0"-32) 


15 


46-32 





15. The Bidston Register. 

Dartvin JBifilar Pendulum records, from the Liverpool Observatory, Bidston, 
Birkenhead, Cheshire. Director, W. E. Plummee, Esq. 



No. 



Shide 
No. 



Date 



Remarks 



1 





^ 


180 


?, 




4 


196 


5 


200 


6 


— 


7 




8 


— 


9 


— 


10 


— 


11 


225 


12 


• — 


13 


228 


14 


— 


15 


— 


IG 


— 



Mar. 


28 


)» 


29 


April 


3 


»» 


29 


May 


20 


»> 


21 


»» 


26 


June 


4 


July 


21 


»» 


29 


Aug. 


7 


f 1 


19 


»» 


21 


Nov. 


7 


ft 


24 


Dec. 


31 



1898. 

Moderate disturbance about 2.3h. 44m. 

Continual slight disturbances throui;! out tliis period. The 

smallness of the time scale prevents exact identification. 
Trace lost by clock failure. 
Slight disturbance at about 17 hrs. 

At 23h. 30m. 'Max. at Oh. 11m., and .''light till 2h. 15m. 
Commences at loh., with max. at 17h. 30m. The Shide 

record for 22h. 50m. may have been recorded, but it is 

mixed up with an alteration to dettimine the time scale. 
About 22h. 

., Ih. 50m. slight. Trace off the scale. 
Very slight. 
lOh. a disturbance. 
Sh. to Sh. 30m. 
Considerable disturbance. 
Kih. 50m. to 18h. 
12h. slight. 
18h. „ 
Gh. 20m. to 9h. 



ISG 



REPOKT — 1899. 
The BiDSTON Kegister — continued. 



No. 


Shide 

^ro. 


Date 


Remarks 








1899. 


17 


— 


Jan. 20 


] :^)h. to J 4h. tremors. 


18 


• — 


Feb. it 


ish. ;;om. 


1!) 


25-1 


„ 23 


12h. r>Om. slight. 


20 


— 




Slight. 


21 


— 


— ■ 


.. 


22 


— 


Mar. 2 


12h. to March 3 2h. Slight tremors, clearly marksrl. 



l(j. The Edlnlur[/h Heijister, 

Ohserraiions at tin- Itm/al Observatonj, Edhihunjli, n-ith ii. D.irivin Biiiliir 
Fntdnliiin, Director, Dr. R. CoPjblLAND. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Time 


Remarks 










1898. 








H. M. 




1 


17-t? 


Mar. .5 


17 11 


Slight tilt to Soutli. 


2 


17iJ 


„ 28 


IS 25 


Very slight tilt to South. 


3 


180? 


„ 29 


15 41 


„ „ ., North. 


4 


182 ? 


„ 31 


7 36-5 




5 


189 


April 15 


7 39 


„ „ oscillation, just perceptible. 



Mr. Thomas Heath, who is in charge of the instrument, states that 
only one of the above coincidences is of an oscillatory character. A 
number of tilts and slight bends were recorded, but only one of the.se, on 
April 23, from Oh. ISci. to Oh. 36m., was oscillatory. The bends and tilts 
were most numerous in March, April, and May. From May 30 to 
November 11 there is practically not a trace of any kind of disturbance. 
From the latter date to the end of the year the number of tilts is small. 
A second pendulum was placed in position on May 14, and a couple of 
thermometers were installed in the pendulum chamber on May 31. They 
are covered by an earthenware dish. Between May 31 and March 20 the 
maximum temperature was, on September 21, C3"-2 ; the minimum was 
51-0 on February 26. 

17. Eaceiyt from the Rocca di Papa Begister. 

Ohservations made at the JR. Osserratorio Gcodiiiamico di Rocca di Faxm. 
By the Director, Dr. Adolfo Cancani. 

Horizontal and other pendulums recording on smoked paper. 



No. 



Shide 
No. 



Date 



Commence- 
ment 



Maximum 



1 


189 


2 


193 


O 


195 


4 


196 


5 


199 


6 


213 


7 


214 



April 15 



May 
June 



25 
29 
7 
21 
*>2 



1898. 

H. M. S. 

7 54 

23 48 40 

11 40 

16 40 

6 5 30 

53 20 

6 45 2 



H. M. 

8 2 

23 

11 42 

16 4:j 

6 14 

58 



G 45 18 



E 


nd 


n. Ji. 


s. 


8 20 





34 





11 45 





17 18 





6 53 





1 8 





6 55 






ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
The Rocc.v di Papa 'REGiSTEn—conti7iiced. 



187 





Shido 




Comnience- 






No. 


No. 


Date 


mcut 


Maximum 


End 








11. M. s. 


H. M s. 


H. M. s. 1 


8 


21.5 


June 29 


IS -IS 42 


18 59 about 


21 1 


9 


21(j 


JliIv 2 


4 19 


4 21 


4 48 


10 


230 


Aug. 31 


20 3 40 


20 31 


21 30 i 


11 


232 


Sept. 13 


18 11 38 


18 11 55 


18 13 30 t 


13 


233 




12 58 


13 33 about 


14 al>out 


i:5 


23.5 


Oct. 11 


l(i 50 3.5 


17 32 


18 .. 


11 


239 


Nov. 17 


13 4 40 


13 4G 30 


14 10 



15 
IG 
17 
18 



245 
249 
250 
263 



Jan. G 

22 

." 25 

JIarcli 7 



1S99. 

19 49 
8 IG 10 



1 13 



19 52 .30 
8 20 40 

1 52 



20 about 

8 27 

50 .. 

2 15 



None of the very small disturbances on the supplementary list were 
recorded. 

18. Hxcerpt from the Casamicciola Heffister. 

liecords received from Dr. GiULio Geablovitz, Director II. Osscrratorio 

Gcudinamico di Casamicciola, Ischia. 

Eccords from horizontal pendulums recording on smoked paper are marked, 
H.P. ; and those from the Vasca Sismica, V.S. 



No 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Commence- 
ment 


Blaxinium 


End 


Remarks 










1898. 














1 


11. jr s. 


,' 11. jr. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


s. 




1 


189 


April 15 


8 


1 — 




8 


10 





H.P. 


2 


193 


0-) 


23 30 









50 





H.P. The V.S. com- 
menced at 23h. 48ni. 
4Cs. 


3 




„ 24 




25 
and 
33 












H.P. 


4 


190 


„ 29 


16 58 


— 




17 


8 







t 


199 


May 7 


G 33 


— 




G 


38 





H.P. V.S. from Gh. 24m. 
35?. to 6h. 26m. 9s. 


' G 


214 


June 22 


G 51 48 












By several instrument.s. 
Duration several mins. 
Origin, Greece. 


V 


215 


„ 29 


12 20 

and 
18 50 








" 




H.P. feeble oscillations. 
V.S. from 18h. 47m. 

47s. 


8 


21G 


July 2 


4 19 12 






4 


30 





Various instrument.'--. 
Strong. Origin, Dal- 
matia. 


p 


223 


,. 21 


11 31 


— 




11 


41 





H.P. 


10 


230 


Aug. 31 


20 8 45 


20 30 





21 










11 


232 


Sept. 13 


18 12 


— 




20 










12 


233 


„ 22 


12 54 


— 




14 


4 







13 


235 


Oct.. 11 


16 50 34 


. — 




18 


14 







14 


239 


Nov. 17 


13 30 


— 




14 


















1899. 










15 


249 


Jan. 22 


8 14 37 












Origin, Greece. 


16 


2G3 


Mar. 7 


1 30 















188 



REPORT — 1899. 



19. Excerpt from the Catania Register. 

Olscrvations made at tlic 7?. Osscrratorio di Catania e delV Etna hy the Director, 

Dr. A. Eicco. 

The records are from the 'grande seismografo,' a pendulum 23m. long, 

carrying 300 kilos. 



No. 



Shide 
No. 



Date 



Commence- 
ment 



I 



Maximum 



Duration 



Amp. 



Remarks 



1898. 











H. M. s. 


H. M. S. 


H. M. R. ! 


Mir. 




1 


— 


Mar. 


29 


2 13 45 


2 15 30 


1 6 33 


1 




2 




Apr. 


3 










Slight pertur- 
bations es- 
pecially in 
the morning 
occasioned 
by a strong 
W. wind. 


O 




It 


4 










As above, but 
the pertur- 
bations were 
stronger. 


4 


193 


it 


22 


23 48 58 


33 47 
34 29 


5G 25 


1 








»> 


25 










Perturbations 
due to the 
movements 
of the sea 
for 24 hours. 


.5 


196 


If 


29 


16 33 40 


17 1 4 


2 2G 25 


0-5 







199 


May 


7 


G 1 40 


6 45 33 

7 56 IS 


1 11 56 


0-37 




7 




)» 


20 










Perturbations 
due to the 
sea. 


8 


201 


»I 


22 


10 33 39 




34 




Local earth- 
quake S.W. 
of Etna. 


9 


214 


June 


22 


G 51 48 


C 52 56 


2 3 20 


115 




10 


215 


Tl 


29 


IS 49 8 


19 1 5 


2 4 14 


1-5 




11 


216 


July 


2 


4 19 52 


4 23 37 


2G 56 


3-8 




12 




M 


12 










Perturbations 
due to the 
sea. 


13 


220 


11 


14 


?,0 2G 


30 2G 


10 30 


0-25 




14 




») 


14 










Perturbations 
due to the 
sea. 


15 




)1 


20 










Small pertur- 
bations in 
the morning 


IG 


223 


>» 


21 


11 28 41 


11 33 31 


14 35 


0-75 




17 




Aug. 


S 










Small pertur- 
bations all 
day. 


IS 




1 

1 

1 


22 










Small pertur- 
bations in 
the morning 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 

The Catania Register — continued. 



189 



No. 
19 


Shide 
No. 


230 


20 


— 


21 


232 


22 


233 


23 


235 


21 




25 


239 


2G 


240 



Date 



Commence- 
ment 



27 


245 


28 


249 


29 


250 


30 


— 


31 


2G3 


32 


— 


33 


2G7 


34 


2fiS 


35 


269 



Nov. 
Dec. 



Jan. 



Mar. 



Aug. 31 
Sept. 3 

„ 13 

22 

Oct. 11 

15 



17 
1 



G 
22 
25 
2G 



12 

21 
23 
23 



H. M. S. 

20 4 ;•. 

G 19 

18 10 .31 

12 40 32 

17 3 22 



11 59 33 

12 38 11 



19 46 11 
S 14 11 
1 43 



1 ]8 14 



14 4G 24 
]0 34 15 
14 18 1 



Maximum 



Duration 



Amp. 



H. M. f?. 
20 12 33 



18 11 27 

Uncertain 
17 38 42 I 
17 39 56 I 



H. M. S. 

1 34 51 



2 34 30 
2 7 46 
1 2G 43 



Uncertain 1 57 47 
12 49 51 I 48 59 



1899. 

I Uncertain 

i 8 19 48 ■ 

Uncertain 



1 19 23 



14 57 30 
11 9 48 
14 54 45 



28 8 

22 37 

1 19 51 



4 42 



22 24 

1 ]5 45 
59 25 



MJr. 
0-8 



0-5 
05 



0-17 



0-23 



0-5 
0-25 
0-15 



Remarks 



Of doubtful 
cliaracter. 



Movements 
due to the 

sea. 



Movements 
due to the 
sea. 

Movements 
due to the 
sea. 



20. Seismometrical Ohseroation at Tokio. 

Catalogue of Earthqualces recorded by a Gray-Milne Sclmnoyraph at the Central 
Meteorological Ohserraiory, Tnha, January 27, 1898, to Janvary 29, 1899. 
(^Continiiatioii of Catalogue commencing in the Sritish Association Report, 1886.) 







Loc.ll time of 




Horizontal Motion 


Vertical Motion 
















Occurreuee. 


o 






.Maxinnim 
Velocity 


Maximum 




No. 


Date 


9 hrs. in 
advance of 
Greenwich 


5 

P 


Direction 


Maximum Range 


Accelera- 
tion 


Maximum Range 


Period 


Amplitude 


mm. sees. 


mm. sees. 


Period 


Amplitude 








1 


898. 








H. M. S. 


M. s. 




SECS. 


MM. 






SF.rs. 


MM. 


1 '.IK2 


.Tall. 27 


10 43 27 P.M. 


— 








slight 










— 


l,iiH3 


Full, in 


U 15 2 r..«. 


— 





. 










— 


— 


1,'.1S4 


„ 13 


11 52 47 A.M. 


— 





. 


" 





— . 


— 


— 


l.iiSS 


„ 13 


11 58 3(i r.M. 


2 4') 


S.S.E., N.N.W. 


0-7 


:-4 


«•:) 


5G-4 


0-5 


0-5 


l,;i8« 


„ 14 


(> 6 48 A.M. 


— 








sliglit 





— 


— 


— 


1,!1H7 


M 21 


« 49 6 A.M. 








. 




__ 





— 


— ■ 


l.'.isg 


''».'? 


5 57 10 r.M. 


_ 


_ 


; 


" 





_- 




— 


1,'.IK9 


„ 2() 


5 14 47 r.M. 


— 








' 





— 


— 


— 


l.'.illll 


„ 2.S 


:i 51 ;U A.M. 





. 


, 










— 


— 


\,:m 


Mar. :', 


11 G 10 r.M. 


— 




^_ 







— 


— 


— 


1.1132 


■1 


9 5 20 A.M. 


— . 





. 




. . 


— 


— • 


— 


1.W3 


r, 


1 4 21 P.M. 


— 








' 





__ 


— 


— 


1,'.»'J4 


„ 5 


5 41 47 P.M. 


— 


— . 


— 


» 


— 


— 


— 


— 



U),) EEPORT — 1899. 

Catalogue op Eaethquakes eecoeded at Tokio — continued 



Ko. 



1,995 
1,99G 
1,997 
1,998 
1,999 
2,000 
2,001 
2,002 
2,003 
2,004 
2,005 
2,00fi 
2,007 
2,008 
2,009 
2,010 
2,011 
2,012 
2,013 
2,014 
2,015 
2,016 
2,017 
2,018 
2,019 
2,020 
2,021 
2,022 
2,02:) 
2,024 
2,025 
2,02n 
2,027 
2,028 
2,029 

2,o:io 

2,0)! 1 
2,032 
2,033 
2,034 
2,035 
2,03li 
2,1137 
2,038 
2.039 
2,040 
2,041 
2,042 
2,043 
2,044 
2,045 
2,040 
2,047 
2,048 
2,049 
2,050 
2,051 
2,052 
2,053 
2,054 
2,1155 
2,056 
2,057 
2,058 
2,059 
2,060 
2,061 
2,062 





Loc.il time of 


a 


Horizontal Motion 


Vertical Motion 
















Date 


Occurrence. 
9 hrs. in 






Maximum Hanp;e 


llaximnm 
Velocity 


M.aximum 
Accelera- 


Maximum Eange 




.iilyance of 
Greenwich 


fi 


Direction 




tion 




1 

1 




Period 


Amplitude 


mm. sees. 


mm. sees. 


Period 


1 
Amplitude 




11. 3r. s. 


M. S. 




SKff!. 


51 M. 






SKfS. 


MM. 


JlMl-, 5 


11 41 8 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


sli,^'llt 


— 




— 


— 


w 


4 45 9 A.M. 


— 


— 


^ 


„ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


'■) 


6 19 25 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 1 „ 


— 


— . 


— 


— 


:i 


10 2 24 A.M. 


-- 


— 


— „ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


., 1 ■' 


1 21 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


., Jii 


10 13 4 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,. 17 


.3 21 12 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


11 


— 


— 


— 


— 


., 17 


3 26 54 A.iir. 


— 


— 


— . 


^^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


"-'- 


10 31 38 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


— 


— 




10 29 7 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,. 








-- 





,, 27 


3 24 7 A.M. 


1 6 


N.N.W., S.S.E. 


0-3 


(1-7 


7'3 


153-5 


— 


-slight 


^7 


11 25 8 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


sliglit 





— 


— 


. — 


Apr. :: 


6 10 G A.M. 


2 30 


N.W., S.E. 


0-5 


1-5 


O-I 


llS-4 


0-3 


(13 


„ I 


8 27 5 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


slislit 


_ 


_ 


— 


1 


,, 4 


10 42 32 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— i 


6 


1 27 15 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


3 40 5 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


'^ 




— 


— 


— 


!, 11 


'.) 56 32 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


J, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,. I- 


5 41 29 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


)1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,. 1 1 


3 30 23 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


., IX 


8 57 11 P.M. 


j 


— 


_ 


^, 


_ 


— 


— 


— ' 


21 ) 


2 4 24 A.M. 




— 


— 


»» 


— 


_ 


-. 


— 


-'1 


8 4 7 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


[] 23 


55 45 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


23 


8 36 49 A.M. 


12 


S., N. 


0-9 


0-8 


2'8 


15-6 


— 


— 


.. 211 


7 07 51 P.M. 


— 


. — 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-'■< 


23 8 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


( „ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


, 2'.' 


38 21 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


:[u 


3 17 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


mTiv .i 


7 22 59 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


f) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


(i 


7 48 33 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


7 ' 


5 38 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


•' 


2 49 6 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


J '•' 


6 21 40 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 10 


8 26 43 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


V 14 


8 31 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


„ 19 


11 55 55 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.. 22 


1 14 48 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


•^ 


— 


— 


— 


~ 


„ 23 


1 51 43 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


-'■'* 


11 1 8 P.M. 


— 


— 


— . 






— 


— 


— 


„ 26 


3 32 A.M. 


2 10 


N.W., S.E. 


0-5 


l-"s 


11-3 


182-1 


f2 


0-2 


2U 


3 37 4 A.M. 


— 


— 


— sligl(t 


— 


__ 


— 


— 


" 26 


4 55 33 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


_. 


_ 


— 


"". 26 


6 28 2 A.M. 




— 


— 


„ 


— 


_- 





— 


.. 31 


19 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


., 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


JUMU 1 


4 20 12 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


;» 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


6 


10 39 51 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


>» 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


„ S 


9 13 30 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


'■' 


11 40 23 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


— . 


— 


_ 


., 12 


2 31 18 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


., 


— 


— 


— 


— 


., 12 


10 25 52 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


., 1 2 


3 24 54 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


., 1 3 


3 43 15 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


., 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


.. 15 


1 15 8 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


- 


— 


— . 


— 


,. 21 


10 22 19 A.JI. 


— 


— 


— 


,^ 




__ 


. 


^- 


.. 24 


3 47 47 .^..M. 


— 


— 


— 


n 


— 


— 


— 


— 


., 311 


12 6 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


„ 





— 


.. 3,(1 


10 6 19 P.M. 


1 10 


N.E., S.W. 


o-i 


0-3 


•Ji 


592-2 





— 


July 5 


6 56 57 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


tiliglit 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7 


6 35 49 P.M. 


— 


— • 


— 


»» 


— 








. — 


" 12 


35 7 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


» 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.. li 


5 40 30 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 







. 


, , 


. . 


,. 12 


1(1 55 35 P.M. 


1 50 


S.W., N.E. 


0-3 


0-8 


8-4 


175-5 


U-2 


0-2 


,. 13 


1 19 35 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


sli-iit 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,. 13 


8 9 45 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


., 


— 


— 





— 


„ 11 


7 8 50 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


- 


— 


— 


_ 


., 15 


5 10 44 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


)» 




. — 


— 


— 


„ 1« 


3 20 26 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


. 1) 


— 


— 


— 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Catalogue of Eabthquakes EEConoED at Tokio— continued. 



It)] 



1 


Local time of 




1 

Horizontal Jlotioii 


Vertical Slotion 












1 




Ofcunence. 


o 








Jlaximiim 
Velocity 


Maximum 




VlAttl 


9 Iirs. ill 


S 




Jlaxiiunm llaiige 


Accelera- 


Maximum llaiige 




adviiiico of 


j3 








tion 






GreeiiwieU 


« 


Direction 












Period 


Amplitude 


mm. sees. 


mm. sees. 


Perioil .Vmiilituilc 

* 




H. M. s. 


M. S. 




.'iR-fi. 


MM. 






Sl':cs:. 


MM. 


Jiilv 1!) 


2 49 35 A.M. 


— 


— . 




.•^ligllt 







~ 




„ 20 


« 41 51 P.M. 


— 








^ 


. 








22 


7 17 6 A.M. 


— 


— 














Z 25 


6 20 11 A.M. 


2 10 


S.S.W., x.x.i:. 


o-:j 


o-i 


4-2 


87- r 







.. 25 


17 13 I'.M. 


1 20 


S.E., ^.W. 


4 


1-0 


7-9 


123'4 


0-2 


(»-3 


.. 27 


2 35 21 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


slight 











Aug. 1 


1 24 18 P.M. 


— 


. 
















4 


8 48 45 A.M. 











" 












„ 7 


11 3 45 P.M. 


— 


— 






— 










„ 11 


5 40 47 P.M. 


I 20 


x.i:.. s.w. 


u-a 


Vl 


12-6 


263-2 


('-1 


()'2 


„ 17 


4 16 23 P.M. 


— 







sliglit 










„ 21 


9 39 A.M. 


— 













__ 




„ 21 


1 29 51 A.M. 


_ 








" 










„ 22 


11 40 33 P.M. 


— 





._ 


" 


__ 


__ 




„ 23 


8 5 20 A.M. 


— 


















., 23 


11 47 59 A.M. 


— 








" 











., 27 


4 38 14 A.M. 


— 


— 















., 27 


5 5 19 A..M. 


1 


H., X. 


(l-S 


(j'"i 


l-i: 


12-3 




„ 31 


12 24 P.M. 


— 








slight 








Sept. 1 


6 2 19 P.M. 


— 


















., 4 


2 50 46 :-.M. 


— 








"- 


__ 


_ 




4 


3 53 5 P.M. 


-_ 








'' 


. 







., 5 


4 47 27 P.M. 




















„ 7 


1 6 42 I'.M. 


— 








" 











„ 8 


15 9 P..M. 


— 



















., 9 


8 59 25 P.M. 




















„ 31 


10 3 3G P.M. 


-_ 








'" 









., 15 


7 2 45 I'.M. 


— 


. 





_" 


, 










., 16 


4 48 23 A.M. 


2 30 


S.S.E., N.X.W. 


M 


(i'44 


11 


6-5 






., 16 


8 32 42 A.M. 


— 


— 





slight 










., 24 


9 16 41 A.M. 


— 










. 








,. 26 


10 28 43 A.M. 


— 



















„ 27 


10 19 59 A.M. 


— 













_ 




• 


., 28 


1 43 2 A.M. 


3 20 


E.S.E,, W.X.NA'. 


O'S 


1-5 


5-9 


4i;'3 


0-1 n-1 i 


Oft. 1 


36 35 A.M. 


— 







slight 










6 


4 55 59 A.M. 


— 


. 
















., 7 


11 46 A.M. 


— 








" 











„ 20 


3 16 2 P..\t. 


— 





, 


" 











., 26 


10 30 47 A.M. 


— 


__ 





" 











Nov. 6 


9 2 24 A.M. 


— 








]| 












,. 7 


2 59 5 A.M. 


2 40 


E.S.E., ^\'.^■.^v. 


2-0 


I'l 


1-7 


5-4 






„ 10 


10 20 43 A.M. 


— 







sliglit 










,, 12 


2 46 38 A.M. 


— 
















^ 1 


„ 12 


9 42 19 A.M. 


2 10 


W.S.W., E.X.E. 


0-3 


l'2 


12-6 


263-2 




slight 


„ 13 


11 33 12 A.M. 


— 








slight 








,. 14 


4 6 43 I'.M. 


— . 








" 


. 








., 20 


3 41 12 A.M. 








^ 




__ 








.. 21 


9 7 5 A.M. 








' 


" 


__ 








„ 28 


7 2 47 A.M. 








„ 












,. 28 


10 56 10 P.M. 








__ 




__ 








UfO. 4 


1 57 A.M. 






















5 


50 33 A.M. 

















~ 1 


5 


13 46 I'.M. 








— 












., 13 


1 35 38 A.M. 











" 










.. 14 


3 26 9 P.M. 





















,. 19 


11 59 42 A.M. 










" 










.. 21 


3 2 15 A.M. 










" 











! ,. 25 


1 1 4« A.M. 


— 


._ 










_ 






1 ., 27 


4 49 40 P.M. 








„ 












1 ,. 30 


11 31 40 P.M. 


-- 


— 


— 


,. 


— 


— 


— 


— 1 



1899. 



2 123 


.l.ui. 1 


1 51 1 A.M. 







■2,U\ 


,. 5 


9 1 38 A.M. 





_^ 


IM25 


,, 8 


1 10 41 A.M. 







•2,126 


,. 14 


11 30 35 A.M. 





__ 


2,127 


,. 22 


H 4 59 A.M. 








2,128 


23 


2 51 38 P.M. 







2,129 


„ 29 


7 59 33 P..M. 


— 


— 



192 REPORT— 1899. 

21. Hawaii: Honolulu. 

On February 19, 1898, the trustees of the Elizabeth Thompson Science 
Fund assigned me a grant of ^250 in aid of a seismic survey of the world. 
This was expended in purchasing a horizontal pendulum, which was 
shipped to the care of H.M.'s Consul-General, W. J. Kenny, in Hawaii, 
When Mr. Kenny left Honolulu in March 1899, tlie instrument was 
handed to Professor Maxwell, who will work in conjunction with Pro- 
fessor Alexander and Professor Hosmer (Principal of the Government 
High School), and the latter, I understand, will kindly make arrangements 
for its installation. Professor George Davidson, Chairman of a Committee 
appointed by the Council of the University of California to undertake 
Seismic Investigations, writes me that Mr. Bishop of Honolulu has promised 
a site for the instrument, and that Professor Alexander will see that it is 
placed in working order. It is hoped that by next year a series of records 
will have been obtained from this exceedingly important station. Copies 
of the report based upon these records should be sent to the Secretary of 
the Board of Trustees of the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund, Harvard 
Medical School, Boston, Mass., through the liberality of which body the 
Hawaiian Station has been established. 

22. E(/ypt : Cairo. 

Captain H. G. Lyons, R.E., Director- General of the Sur\e\' Depart- 
ment, writes on June 2, 1899, that owing to structural alterations and 
other causes, it has not been possible to commence continuous observations 
with the seismograph. The instrument was handed to him in February 
last, and in about three months' time observations will commence. 

23. U.S.A. : P/iiladelp/iia, Swart/imore Colkffc. Professor S. J. Cuxnixgham. 

When observations commenced at this station Professor Cunningham 
experienced great trouble with 'air tremors,' but from the excellent 
character of the seismogram for the Mexican earthquake of January 24, 
1899, it is anticipated that these difficulties have been overcome, but no 
report has been received. 

III. Discussion of tJie j^receding Registers. 

Although in the following discussions a few disturbances are referred 
to in detail, all that is given for the majority are the time entries. 
The first of these refers to the instant when motion commenced at various 
stations. It is the commencement of the preliminary tremors referred to 
as P.T.'s. In the Milne H.P. records these are usually shown as a mere 
thickening of the line. If there is no entry in this first column it means 
that heavy motion commenced suddenly, or else in consequence of move- 
ments due to air currents the commencement of the P.T.'s was not deter- 
minable. The duration of these first P.T.'s, wliich are regarded as com- 
pressional Avaves which have travelled through the earth, is given where it 
is possible in tlie second column. These quantities are not the same as 
those given in the Shide Register, which refer to the duration of all 
movement from the commencement up to the maximum. The time of 
the maximum, which is not the time when the largest group of waves 
appears, but a point usually midway between this commencement and end, 
is noted in the third column. The diff"erence between the first and tliird 
columns gives the duration of all P.T.'s, and corresponds to entries in the 
Shide Register. The sum of the first and second columns gives the com- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESriGATION, 193 

m«ncement of the second phase of motion. For the commencement of 
other phases of motion, of which there may be several before the 
appearance of the largest waves (L.W.'s.), reference must be made to the 
seismogram. 

For entries in the first cohimn all records should be fairly comparable. 
The entries in the second column are only comparable in those instances 
where I have been able to place the seismograms for the stations to which 
they refer side by side. Where this has been the case will be seen by 
reference to the reproductions of such seismograms. The accuracy of the 
determinations of the times given in the third column is dependent upon 
conditions which govern the accuracy of the entries in the second column. 
If a station reports a series of times for the first, second, third. &c., sudden 
increases in range of motion, unless we have the seismograms before us it 
is by no means certain that these correspond to phases of movement 
whicli have been similarly numbered at a second station. 

The time entries for Potsdam are only given approximately. (See 
p. 194.) 

The first illustration of these three-column entries is Earthquake 
No. 182. 

Determination of Oriyins. 

The methods by which origins may be determined from time observa- 
tions are numerous.' The simplest, perhaps, is that of circles, and its 
application is as follows : — If the large waves of an earthquake reach 
stations B, C and D four, six and eight minutes after reaching station A, 
then when they reach A the wave fronts are respectively about 600, 900 
and 1,200 kms. distant from B, C and D. On a globe with B, C and D as 
centres I draw circles 600, 900 and 1,200 kms. radius. The centre of the 
circle, found by trial, which passes through A and touches the circles round 
B, C and D, is the origin required. The assumption is that whilst the 
P.T.'s are propagated with variable velocities through the earth, the large 
waves traverse the surface of the earth with a velocity that is nearly con- 
stant. In this illustration I have assumed this velocity to be 2'5 kms. 
per second. 

The observations which support these assumptions are too numerous 
to require special reference. 

With times of arrival at only three stations we are left to decide 
between two pos'^ible centres. See Earthquake 252. 

In consequence of the want of sufficient records which are .strictly 
comparable, no attempt has been made in the present i-eport to determine 
origins with any degree of accui'acy. 

As an assistance in these determinations the times at which prelimin- 
•ary tremors have been recorded and intervals by which they have outraced 
the large waves at various stations are not neglected, whilst the topo- 
graphical and geological character of the locality in which the origin 
is placed is often an indication as to whether the determinations are 
correct. 

Earthquakes, Nos. 13:j and 134, September 20 and 21, 1897.- 

These earthquakes, which were separated from each other by an 
interval of about ten hours, evidently came from the same origin, and were 

' See ' Earthquakes,' Int. Sci. Series, pp. 200-212. 
- See British Association Mej>ort, 1898, p. 211. 

1899. o 



194 



REPORT — 1899. 



connected with the throwing up of a small island off the coast of Xorth- 
West Borneo, near to Labuan. 

The first of these disturbed an electrometer at Batavia at 7h. 14m. 20s. 
P.M., a magnetometer being disturbed two minutes later. These disturb- 
ances indicate the arrival of the larger waves, which coming froui Labuan 
had travelled about 1,660 kms. The velocity of propagation of these 
movements may be taken at about 2-7 kms. per second. With this 
assumption the conclusion is that this earthquake originated at about 
7h. 4m. 20s. p.m., the time to travel to Batavia having been 10 minutes. 

The effect of the second earthquake was to disturb a magnetometer in 
Batavia at 5h. 22m. 45s. a.m., which by similar reasoning Jeails to the 
conclusion that it originated at about 5h. 13m. a.m. At Sandakan, which 
is about 300 kms. from the origin, it was noted at 5h. 18m. a.m., the 
inference from which is that the time at the origin would be about 
5h. 16m. A.M. The mean between these two determinations gives as an 
approximation for the true time at the origin 5h. 14m. 30s. a.m. 

Apparent Vdocit;/ of Freliminan; Tremors. 









Septembei 


■20 1 


September 


•11 


Distance 






i 








iu kms. 


Locality 




\ elocity in kms. 




Velocity in kms. | 




of Observation 


Time 


pel 


sec. 


Time 


Xie 


■ sec. 


Jn Arc 


On Chord 


Arc 


Chord 


Arc 


Chord 






H. M. s. 




H. M. S. 






— 





Origin 


7 -4 20 




— 


5 14 30 


— 


— 


9046 


f-302 


Niuolaiew . 


7 23 30 


7-8 


72 


5 27 


12() 


11-0 


10212 


sirjO 


Potsdam 


7 26 


7-8 


7 


5 30 
(about) 


10-9 


9-8 


10545 


9378 


Catania 


7 25 2 


8-4 


7o 


5 29 32 


110 


10-3 


10656 


9453 


Ischia . 


7 21 54 


101 


9 


5 28 12 


12-9 


11-5 


10711 


9489 


K. di Papa . 


7 25 


8-6 


7-6 


5 32 8 


101 


8-9 


10730 


9490 


Rome . 


7 21 54 


101 


9 


5 29 42 


11-7 


10-4 


11211 


9815 


Edinburgh . 


7 66 


3-6 


■A 1 


6 7 30 


3-4 


3 


11433 


9954 


Shide . 


7 24 17 


9-3 


8-1 


5 28 51 


13-2 


11-5 



In discussing the above table, the Edinburgh records may at once be 
excluded as referring to large waves rather than to preliminary tremors. 
Making this exception then, it will be ol)served that the velocities for 
September 21, are greater than those for September 20. Now as these 
two earthquakes, as recorded in Europe, indicate initial impulses of about 
the same intensity, it is extremely likely that they radiated from their 
origins with equal velocities, and therefore the differences seen in the 
tables in all probability are dependent upon errors in the times calculated 
for the origins of these shocks for which there is no sure method of cor- 
rection. On comparing these velocities with velocities determined over 
paths of similar lengths ("see 'British Association Report,' 1897, p. 174) it 
is noticed that one set of results lie about as much above average deter- 
minations, as the other does below the same. 

A fair approximation to truth may therefore possibly be obtained by 
taking the average results recorded for the two shocks. In doing this, 
Catania, Ischia, Rocca di Papa and Rome, may be placed together as 
representing a path, which for each is practically 90° in length. The 
result of this operation is as follows : — 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL OVESTIGATIOX. 



195 



Localities 


Distance 
in degrees 




* 




Velocity in Kms. per sec. 


Average 
Depth 
l.^/ in kms. 


Arc 


Chord 


Nicolaiew .... 
Potsdam .... 
Catania, Iscbia . . ~[ 
Rocca di Papa, Rome . ) 
Shide ..... 


81° 
92° 

9G° 

103° 


9-9 
9-3 

10-4 

11-2 


81 

8-4 

90 

9-8 


8-0 
9 1 

9 5 

102 



The slight discrepancy in the Potsdam record no doubt depends on the 
want of accuracy in the original observation as indicated in the first 
table. 

The figures in the fifth column express in kilometi-es one quarter of 
the square root of the average or mean depth of the chords connecting 
the origin and each of the observing stations. The close correspondence 
between these figures and those in the third and fourth columns so long as 
the records refer to wave paths exceeding 2,000 kms. was pointed out in 
the Report for 1898, p. 22i. These two earthquakes have been discussed 
by Dr. G. Agamennone in the ' Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei,' 
September 18, 1898, vol. vii. Fas. 6, p. 135. Inasmuch as he has calcu- 
lated velocities for the preliminary tremors, based on the supposition that 
the disturbance had only reached the Batavian isoseist when the magneto- 
meters at that station were disturbed, he arrives at velocities practically 
reaching 30 kms. per second, which are very much higher than those dis- 
cussed in the preceding tables. He also gives velocity tables for the 
large waves which are somewhat higher than those which are obtained 
when it is assumed that the disturbances originated at the times used in 
our calculations. For example, the shock of September 20, if it originated 
at 7h. 4m. 20s. apparently gives for the velocities of the large waves 
results like the following : — 



First large wave 
Largest wave 
Last large wave 



Velocity in kms. per sec. 

On Arc On Chord 
. il 2-7 

. 2-7 2-3 

. 1-8 1-G 



In calculations of this description the assumption is that all the waves 
recorded at a distant station left their origin at practically the same time. 
If this were so, inasmuch as the last trace of movement at Shide took place 
three hours after the arrival of the preliminaiy tremors, then the last 
movement only travelled at a rate of 0-9 km. or 0-8 km. per second, a con- 
clusion that is very improbable. The inference to be derived from the 
sections in this report relating to Earthquake Echoes (p. 227) and 
Earthquake Precursors (p. 280) is that the only movements which started 
from an origin at approximately the same time, are those lying between 
the first preliminary tremor and the large slow waves representing the 
maximum motion. The limiting velocities for this earthquake, therefore, 
lie between 9'3 and about 2-7 kms. per second. 



Xo. 180, March 29, 1898. 



Shirle . 
Bidstoa 



H. jr. S. H. M. s. 

5 11 to 23 39 
About these times. 



Series of disturbance.*. 



196 



KEPORT — 1899. 



These small movements may possibly have been connected with an 
earthquake noted at Cadiz on March 30. 

Ao. 182, March 31. (Origin, California ?) 





H. M. s. 




SI 


i[. 


M. 


s 


Shide . 


. 8 21 1 


, 


4 


8 


26 


1 


Nicolaiew . 


8 22 




8 


8 


34 





Potsdam 


— 




— 


8 


26 





Edinburgh . 


. 7 36 30 


• 


— 


• 


— 






No. 185, April 












H. M. S. 




M. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


. 7 38 3.=> 







7 


41 





Nicolaifw . 


6 53 


, 





6 


58 





Potsdaui 


— 







7 


30 





San Fernando 


. 7 44 4 

No. 188, 


April 


6. 


• 








H. M. S. 




M. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


. 12 37 17 




60 


12 


46 





Toronto 


. 12 44 40 




7 


12 


54 


44 


Potsdam 


. 12 39 


, 


3 


12 


40 





San Fernando 


. 12 36 49 




— 




— 





Origin, Western Atlantic. 

The Shide seismogram shows symmetry between the shoclis and first 
acho. 





No. 189, April 15. (Origin, California.) 




Locality 


Commencement 


P.T.'s 


1 1st Max. 


2nd Max. 


3rd Max. 




H. M. s. 


M. S. 


H. M. S. 


H. M. S. 


1 

H. M. S. 


Shide . 


7 47 55 


4 


7 52 65 


8 10 


8 11 


Nicolaiew 


7 54 




7 57 


— 


— 


Rocca di Papa 


7 54 




8 2 


— 


— . 


Ischia . 


8 





. — 


— 


— 


Potsdam 


7 48 


— 


1 7 57 


— 


— 


Toronto 




— 


I 7 26 40 


— 


— 


Edinburgh . 


7 39 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The above was noted at about 7.20 a.m., April 15, in California, at 
Albion, Mendocino Co., where it caused minor damage. The time at 
which the P.T.'s commenced at Shide, owing to air tremors, is not clearly 
■defined. Neither is this phase clear in the seismogram from Potsdam. 
Mr. Ralph R. Funk, of Albion, California, writes me with regard to a 
series of shocks, of which the above is one, saying that ' frequently we 
would be called to the " phone," and in answering would be asked, " Did 
you feel that one ? " ' The movements reached us about the time of our 
reply. The other end of the line was about twenty miles inland, and the 
conclusion is that the shocks must have originated inland. Mr. Funk 
enclosed with his letter cards from a Draper's self-recording thermometer, 
showing the effect of shocks upon the record. Between April 15 and 18 
I count twenty-two sudden displacements with ranges of from 2 to 
10 mm. 

Mr. Funk's observations lead to the conclusion that these earthquakes 
originated at a centrum from forty to sixty miles inland from Albion, and 
the times of their origin would be about one minute earlier than the 



OM SEISMOLOt^JICAL INVESTIGATION. 



197 



times lie noted. The time for the particular earthquake hero considered 
would, therefore, be 7h. 19m. a.m. 

With this assumption we obtain the following table of velocities : — 





Time of travel 


Distance 


Velocity of i 
L.W.'s in kms. 
per sec. 

4-0 




P.T.'s 


L.W.'s 


Degrees 


On Arc 


Shide .... 


29m. 


34m. 


75° 


8325 kms. 


Nicolaiew 


oSm. 


38m. 


91° 


lOlOl „ 


4-4 


Rocca (li Papa . 


35 m. 


43m 


98° 


9768 „ 


3-7 


Potsdam .... 


29m. 


38m. 


79° 


S769 „ 


3-8 


Toronto .... 


— 


8m. 


32° 


3552 ., 


70? 



These velocities are distinctly too high, and as the time of arrival of 
the large waves in P^urope is fairly accurate, we must conclude that the 
shock originated earlier than the time here assumed. For this reason, 
and for the reason that the times of arrival of the preliminary tremors in 
Europe do not appear to have been accurately noted, the velocities of 
the.se precursors have not been calculated. 



Xo. 192, April 2.3. 



Sliide 
Potsdam 



II. M. S. 

9 S 47 
9 (5 



I. 51. 
> 13 
) 12 



yo. 193, April 22-23. (Origin, N.-E. Japan.) 



Localitv 



Shide . 

Rocca di Papa 
Ischia 
Catania 
Toronto 
San Fernando 
Potsdam . 
Nicolaiew . 
Tokio . 







Dura- 


Commence- 


tion 


ment 




of 
P.T.'s 


II. M. 


s. 


M. 1 


23 58 


55 


25 


23 48 


40 


;5 


23 30 







23 48 


58 


— 


23 59 


50 


25 


23 59 


51 


20 


23 51 





— 


23 47 





— 


— 




— ; 1 



M 


iximum 





31 12 





23 





33 47 





34 26 





36 36 


23 


58 


23 


33 49 



Remarks 



Comnii ncemont earlier 



We have here the case of a large earthquake which reached Toronto, 
Shide, and San Fernando (Spain) and other places at about the same 
time. 

The following accounts of this disturbance are taken from newspapers 
published in Japan : — 

' The sharp shock of earthquake which was felt at Yokohama and 
Tokio on the morning of the 23rd instant was not unattended with 
accidents in the north-eastern districts. At Maizawa-cho, Iwata Pre- 
fecture, a house was thrown down ; at Nanamiki-cho fissures were pro- 
duced in the ground at various places ; at Satokawaguchimachi a house 
was damaged, while the premises of the Kuji Police Station were also 
afl'ected. At Sanumo, Miyagi Prefecture, two persons are reported to 
have been injured, while houses and godowns were damaged. At Sendai 



198 



REPORT — 1899. 



a large Buddhist image of the Shurin-ji temple was shattered to pieces, 
and the buildings of the Prefectural Office and other houses all suffered 
more or less injury. The districts of Ishiuomaki, Fukushima and neigh- 
bourhood were also a good deal affected, while at Sakata, Yamagata 
Prefecture, the waters of all rivers overflowed their banks. — Japan 
Times' 

'On Saturday morning (April 23, 1898), at 8.36 a.m., a somewhat 
strong and prolonged shock of earthquake was felt in Tokio. According 
to the bulletin issued by the Central Meteorological Observatory, the 
seismic movement is described as follows : — 



Vibration commenoed at 
Duration of movement 
Direction of movement . 
Maximum horizontal vibration 
Nature of vibration . 



8h. 36m. 49 

12m. 

North to South. 

8 mm. 

Slow. 



A.M. 



' It is conjectured that the shock was caused by a subsidence of the 
sea bed in some part of the Northern Pacific. The following table shows 
the localities where the shock was felt : — 



Localities 


Time 

A. M. 


Nature 




H. M. S. 




Ishikawa ....... 


8 34 .10 


Strong 


Fukushima 












8 86 40 


it 


Akita 












8 30 


f» 


Awomori 












8 36 


fi 


Yamagata 












8 36 


f« 


Utsunomiya 












8 36 80 


»• 


Mayebashi 












I 8 36 34 


>• 


Kumagai 












8 36 39 


>i 


Niigata . 












8 37 9 


n 


Yokohama 












8 36 15 


*f 


Tokachi 












8 29 1.5 


Weak 


Mito 












8 36 35 


It 


Kofu 












8 36 53 


tt 


Nagoya . 












8 37 40 


1? 


Yokosuka 












8 38 47 


• i 


Fukui . 












8 35 


Faint 


Nemuro 












8 37 3 


It 


Numazu 












8 37 53 


It 



Japan Mail.' 

From a consideration of the above time observations, and from the 
position of the places at which the movement was severe, it is probable 
that the origin was from 4° to 5° distant in a north-north-east direction 
from Tokio. The heavy movement travelled to Tokio at a rate of about 
2-5 kms. per second. The time at the origin would, therefore, be 3m. 42s. 
earlier than that recorded in Tokio, or approximately on May 22 at 
23h. 33m. G.M.T. This conclusion is fairly in accord with all the time 
observations made in Japan, excepting those for Akita and Tokachi. 

Professor Omori, by different i-easoning, places the origin 120 to 
200 kms. E.S.E. from Miyako, the time at that place being 23h. 34m. 13s. 
The time at the origin and the position of the same are, therefore, prac- 
tically identical with what has been stated, and we have here another 
illustration of a suboceanic yielding at a depth of from 1,500 to 4,000 



ON SEI3M0LCGICAL INVESTIGATION, 



199 



fathoms on tlie face of the westf rn bink of the Tuscarora Deep. That 
sea waves were not reported indicates that submarine landslips or sudden 
displacements of materials on the ocean floor wera not of marked magni- 
tude. 



Place 


Time in Transit 


Distance 


Velocity kms. 25er sec. 


P.T.'s 


L.W.'s 

M. 

58 

6 1-0 
610 

510 
620 
50 


Degrees 


On arc 
kms. 


On chord 
kms. 


P.T.'s P-T'« 
on 

°"'''^'' chord 


L.W.'s 
on arc 

2-7 

2-4 

2-8 

2-7 
2-4 
3-2 


Shide . 
Iscliia . 
Catania . 
San Kernando 
Potsdam. 
Nicolaicw 
Toronto . 
Rocca (li Papa 


M. S. 

25 55 
-3 

15 58 
27 
18 

14 

26 50 

15 10 


86 
87 
90 
99 
79 
75 
89 
89 


9546 
9657 
9990 
ln989 
8769 
8325 
9879 
9879 


8675 
8756 
8994 
9672 
8091 
7743 
8915 
8915 


6-1 

10-4 
6-7 
8-1 
9-9 
61 

10-5 


5G 

9-3 
5-9 
7-5 
9-2 
5-5 
9-4 



Shide 

Kew 

■Nicolaiew 

Cntania 

rotsdam 



i\'o. 195, April 25. 



H. 


M. 


8. 


M. 


. 11 


14 


17 


— 


to 12 


25 


10 




. 11 


5 


54 





to 11 


24 







. 11 


10 


30 


8 a 


. 11 


40 





— 


. 11 





(1 


(about) 



30 



11 44 



Nu. lOG, April 29. 





H. 


M. 


s. 


Sbide . 


. 16 


3H 


4 




to 17 


37 


34 


San Fernando 


. 16 


37 


I'.t 


Nicolaiew 


. 16 


30 





l!occa di Paj a 


. 16 


40 





Ischia 


. J6 


58 





Catania 


. 16 


33 


40 


Lidston 


. 17 





a(alout) 


'J'oronto 


. 16 


28 


20 


Potsdam 


. 16 


30 


(about) 



n. M. s. 

16 59 (about) 



16 43 

17 1 4 

1 6 35 5 

16 57 (about) 



The Shide and Potsdam seismograms, although they have definite 
commencements, are but marked thickenings of the normal trace. The 
times for maxima are therefore uncertain. The tremors reached Shide at 
least eleven minutes after reaching Toronto, whilst the large waves at 
Shide were twenty-four minutes behind those at Toronto. With a 
velocity of 2-5 kms. per second when the large undulations reached 
Toroi^to they would be at a distance of 32° from Shide. Considerations 
■of this description based upon the above data suggest the idea that this 
earthquake had its origin on the western side of the Atlantic in the 
•direction of the West Indies. 



200 



REPORT — 1899. 





Xo. 199, May 7. 














H. 


jr. 


s 


jr. s 


H. 


M. 


&. 


Rhide . 


. (5 


4 


(1 


— 


(J 


3U 





Kew 


(j 


■i 





7 


t; 


]0 


30 


Nicolaiew 


(! 


4 





— 




— 




Eocca di Papa 


. C 


5 


30 


— 


f. 


14 





Catania 


<! 


1 


40 


— - 


G 


45 


33 


Ischia . 


G 
or 6 


33 
24 



35 


— 




— 




Toronto 


. ■ . . ('. 





42 


— 


6 


IG 


40 


[5 an Fernando 


. . 5 


57 


49 


— 




— 




Potsdam 


. 5 


57 





— 




— 





From the difference in time of the arrival of the maxima movements at 
Toronto and Shide it is likely that the origin of this earthquake should be 
sought for in the direction of the West Indies (see Earthquake Xo.l96). 

i\'o. 200, May 20. 

II. M. S. H JI. S. 

Shide 23 2'.) 5 — — 

Eidbtou 23 30 — 11 

Xo. 201, May 22. 

H. M. S. H. II. S. 

. 17 28 15 — — 

to 22 50 — — 

. IG 33 39 Local eart]iquake — 

. 17 14 25 — 17 20 1 



Shide 

Catania . 
Madras . 



Xo. 207, May 30. 



Shide . 
Potsdam . 



Xo. 210, June 3. 



Shide 

Kew . . . . . 
Nicolaiew . . . . 
Madras. Tremors recorded ? 
Potsdam . . . . 



11. 


M. 


s. 




H. 


If. 


s. 


4 


IS 


55 


and 


4 


28 


5(1 


4 


18 





»7 


5 


30 






0. 














n. 


M. 


s. 




II. 


M. 


s. 


17 


14 


44 


• 









11) 


iO 


42 





17 


14 


30 


IG 


57 








17 









17 



— 17 



This earthquake crossed Europe from the l~f.E. towards the X.W 



Xo. 211, June 10. 
II. 



Shide 7 

Kew ....... 7 

Potsdam 7 

Origin probaLly the same as No. 210. 

Xo. 213, Juue 21. 



M. S. 

8 50 

s :.'4 

u u 



II. jr. s. 



Shide . 
Kew 

Nicolaiew 
Rocca di Papa 



Origin probably the same as No 



. JI. s. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


4G 42 


12 


1 





2 


46 IS 


— 





5!) 


G 


37 


— 





44 





53 20 


— 





58 






210. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



201 



Shide 

to 
Nicoliiiew 
Rocca di Papa 
Ischia 
Catania . 
Batavia . 
Kew 

Origin, Greece 1 



II. M. 



Xo. 214, June 22. 



II. M. 



.V2 42 

7 42 

51 

45 2 

51 48 

51 48 

42 IS 

5-i 24, 



7 14 42 >t 7 i:! 12 Nine maxi na. 

— 7 18 

— C 45 18 

— 6 52 56 

Ob. 5Gm., 6h. 57m., up (o 7h. om. At least 12 

masirca. 



Xo. 215, June 29. 





n. 


M. 


s. 


H. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


H. 


Shide 


IS 


48 


1)7 


9 


i;» 


i!7 


:!7 




Kew 


18 


47 


12 





i<) 


21 


:;<; 


or 19 


Nicolaiew 


IS 


42 





12 


18 


5!) 


(1 




Rocca di Papa 


18 


48 


42 


— 


18 


5'.l 


{} 


(about) 


Ischia 


18 


5(1 





— 




— 






or 


IS 


47 


47 












Catania . 


18 


4',» 


s 


— 


10 


1 


5 




Toronto . 


18 


4:] 


21 


— 


18 


55 


].s 




Potsdam .' 


18 


57 





— 


la 


8 


u 





27 



At Shide the duration exceeded three hours, the amplitude was 8 mm., 
indicating a tilting of 4" -8. The period of the large waves was 13-7s., 
which, with a velocity of 3 kms. per second, indicates a wave-length of 
39 kms. The height of these waves may have been 30-2 cm. 

The records for the preliminary tremors indicate tliat the movements 
commenced at Shide, Kew, Rocca di Papa, Ischia, and Catania about five 
minutes later than at Toronto. The largest group of waves were re- 
corded at Shide and Kew 2Gm. or 32m. after they reached Toronto. 
The corresponding intervals for the remaining stations cannot be inferred 
with certainty from the above data, as the last column of this for 
Nicolaiew, Rocca di Papa and Catania apparently refers to the commence- 
ment of the large motion. 

Although the data taken as a whole point to an origin much nearer 
Toronto than Europe, and the time intervals for large waves noted in 
Toronto, Kew and Shide suggest an origin on the western side of the 
Atlantic in the direction of the West Indies, the marked difference in 
the time at which the first heavy movements were recorded at Shide and 
Kew throw great uncertainty upon the localising of the originating centre 



Xo. 216, July 2. 



Shide . 

Kew 

Nicolaiew 

Rocca di Papa 

Ischia . 

Catania 

Potsdam 

Origin, Dalmatia. 



H. 


M. 


s. 


M. S. 


. 4 


27 


24 


— 


. 4 


25 


24 


— 


. 4 


22 





1 :t() 


. 1 


19 





— 


. 4 


19 


12 


— 


. 4 


19 


52 


— 


. 4 


21 





— 


preliminj 


iry 


tremors 



4 


2H 


30 


4 


25 





4 


21 






4 21! :i7 



and lai-f'e waves 



have been recorded at distant stations in an expected order. 



202 REPORT— 1899. 

Xo. 217, July 2. 

H. M. S. 

Shide . . . 17 3 23 The ideiility of these disturbances is 

Kew . . . , IG 25 48 doubtful. ' 

Ko. 218, Jnlj S. 

Shide 21 42 23 

Kew 21 44 oO 

^^o. 210, July 12. 

H. M. S. 

Shide . . . 10 30 (about) The identity of these two shocks is 
Batavia . . 11 38 G doubtful. 

J\o. 220, July 13-14. 



Shide . 
Catania 


• 


• 


• 


H. M. S. 

. 23 51 8 
. 30 20 


H. M. S. 

— 30 26 






yo. 


22 


I, July 14. 




Shide . 
Nicolaiew . 
Potsdam 


H. 

. 17 
. 17 
. 17 


M. S. 

4G 15 
30 
33 




M. H. M. S. 

15 18 H 27 
15 17 52 
12 17 54 


The r.T.'tf are irregular. 



Origin to the East or South of Nicolaiew. 

i\'o. 222, July 20. 

H. Jt. S. H. M. S. 

Shide ... ... 16 59 20 — IG 59 2G 

Toronto (uncertain) — 17 2 33 

Origin, Mid-Atlantic ? 

No. 223, July 21. 

Shide 

Ischia ...... 

Catania ..... 

Kew 11 35 



H. 


M. 


?. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


11 


35 


50 — 


11 


37 





11 


31 


— 




— 




11 


28 


41 — 


11 


33 


31 


11 


35 


— 




— 





Origin, S.E. Europe 



1 



Ko. 224, July 26. 



H. M. S. 

Shide . 23 I'l 14 This may be connected with a series of shocks 

recorded in Valparaiso and Concepcion, one or 
two of which appear to have been noted in 
Toronto. (See the Toronto Reyister.) 

In a despatch to the Foreign Office, H.M.'s Minister in Chile, Audley 
C. Gosling, Esq., writes respecting these shocks as follows : — 

' I have the honour to report the occurrence on the night of July 23 
of severe shocks of earthquake at Concepcion, in Southei'n Chile, latitude 
36° 50', longitude 73° 10'. 

' Nearly every building in the town suffered more or less damage, 
especially the cathedral and the Bank of Chile and Concepcion. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL 1N\'ESTIGATI0]S'. 



203 



'The first shock happened at 10.30 p.m. (July 24, 3h. 16m. 30s. a.m. 
G.M.T.) lasting 30s., with an oscillation of 10 centimetres, direction 
south-east to north-east, followed by lesser shocks, which continued alto- 
gether for twelve hours, and the sea having receded fears were enter- 
tained of a tidal wave. 

' The winter throughout Chile has been unusually severe and wet, the 
rainfall in May and June having amounted to 22 inches. Seismic 
disturbance has been frequent, espf?cially in the neighbourhood of the 
Andes, where abnormal quantities of snow have fallen. In several passe.s 
of the Cordillera snow has attained the extraordinary depth of from 14 to 
18 metres, and postal communication has been entirely stopped vid the 
Andine route for close on two months, many hundred bags of postal 
matter having been abandoned in the snow lay the carriers, several of 
whom lost their lives whilst performing their perilous duties. 

'On the 12th iust. snow fell heavily in Santiago, a very unusual 
occurrence, to a depth of between 2 and 3 inches : indeed for twelve 
hours the capital presented the appearance of a city of Northern Europe. 

' Valparaiso suflFered considerable damage from inundation in the 
early part of this month, caused by excessive rainfall, which was followed 
by shocks of earthquake and a severe cyclone, causing considerable destruc- 
tion to property.' 



No. 225, August 8. 



Shide . 

Nicolaiew 

Potsdam 



H. M. s. 

8 53 30 

8 25 

8 9 



Ao. 228, August 21. 



Shide . 
Bidston 



The identity of these shocks is doubtful. 



]9 



H. 


11, s. 


<) 


5 


8 


54 


8 


45 


H. 


M. S. 


17 


28 


IG 


50 



Ao. 230, August 31. 



Shide 

Kew . 

Nicolaiew . 

Eocca di Papa 

Ischia 

Catania 

Toronto 

Batavia 

Madras 

Potsdam 

San Fernando (i 



ecorded) 



H. M. S. 


MM. 


H. M. S. 


. 20 5 2 


5 to 6 


20 36 25 


. 20 4 


8 


20 35 


. 20 39 


— 


20 42 


. 20 3 40 


■ — 


20 31 


. 20 "3 45 


— 


20 30 


. 20 4 3 


— 


20 12 33 


. 20 17 53 


— 


21 3 20 


. 20 1 18 


— 


— 


. 20 2 5 


— 


20 18 


. 20 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



At Shide the first P.T.'s lasted about G minutes, after which they 
increased and decreased sometimes gradually and sometimes suddenly 
up to 20h. 31m. 21s. The maximum was attained at 20h. 36m. 25s., to 
be followed by its echo of nearly equal magnitude at 20h. 42m. 29s. 
Following this thei-e were fairly symmetrical sets of earthquake followers. 
(See Earthquake Echoes, p. 227). The period of the P.T.'s reached 12s., 
and that of the L.W.'s 15'4s. The maximum amplitude was 9 mm., 
indicating tilting of 5" •4. 



20'i 



REPORT— 1899. 



At Kew the chief movements were as follows : ■ 



II. M. 




2'J -M-'J 
ST 
:i7-8 
40-7 


semi-Rinp. 5 mm 

2-8 
:i-2 



or S'-io 
l"-55 
l"-75 
l"-65 

It will be observed that the amplitude at Kew is smaller than the one 
from Shide. 

An inspection of the time records shows that the disturbance first 
reached Batavia and Madras. The heavy movement reached Ischia and 
Rocca di Papa 12m. or 13m. later, Shide and Kew 18m. later, and 
Toronto about lr5m. later. With the assumption that the large waves 
travelled at a rate of about 2-5 kms. per second, these time intervals 
Avould lead us to look for the origin of this earthquake in the South 
Indian Ocean eastwards of Madagascar. 



Xij. i>;3], September 3. 



Shide . 

Nicolaiew 
'J'oronto 
Kew 
Potsdam 



n. 
Ji; 

15 
JO 
15 



M. S. 

4 48 



J.J 



s. 
8 ? 



17 
54 







II. 



Coinnieucement badly 
defined. 



2 
IS .■.0 



ii; i; 







The L.AV. records for Shide and Toronto would indicate an origin on 
the west side of the Atlantic, but this does not accord with the record.s 
from Potsdam and Nicolaiew. 



3'o. --'Gi), Septcmljev IG. 





II. 


M. 


s. 




11. 


y\. 


s. 




Shide . 


18 


11 


ii7 


— 








Record small and not 




to 20 


7 


35 


— 




— 




clear. 


San Fernando 


IS 


10 


4!) 


— 




— 






Nicolaiew 


18 


7 


30 


— 


18 


31 







Rocca di Papa 


18 


11 


38 


— 


18 


11 


.}■} 




Ischia . 


18 


12 

















Catania 


IS 


10 


31 


— 


18 


11 


27 




Batavia 


. 18 


2 


6 


— 




. _ 






Toronto 


18 


21 


45 


— 


I'J 


15 


41 




Kew . 


. 18 


11 


18 














Madras . 


17 


:54 


25 


— 




. 






Bombay 


18 


53 


28 


— 











Potsdam 


18 








— 


10 


54 








The minuteness and irregularity of the earlier movements render it 
impossible for Shide, Kew, and other places to give an exact commence- 
ment. The large movement recorded in Toronto suggests an origin nearer 
to that place than to Europe. 

Ao. 233, Septemher L'2. 



Shide . 

Kew 

Nicolaiew 
Rocca di Papa 
Ischia 



. 12 


30 


54 


to 13 


37 


52 


. 12 


46 


30 


. 12 


44 





. 12 


58 





. 12 


54 






II 



13 


10 





13 


19 





13 


33 


about 



ON SEIS.MOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



205 



Catania . 
Batavia . 
Madras . 
Bombay ■ 
Potsdam 
Mauritius 



Shide 
Kew 

Nicolaicw 
Borubav 



H. 


M. 


s. 


12 


40 


;52 


12 


27 


18 


12 


34 


4S 


12 


40 


45 


12 


;u) 






Xo. 234, September 2." 



n 


M. 


s. 


Ocr 12 


51 


50 





no 


18 


12 


25 





12 


IS 


37 



9 



ir. 


11. s. 


Un 


certain 


12 


49 8 


13 


21 


13 


50 


H. 


M. S. 


or 12 


54 





53 


12 


37 


12 


20 36 



The movement apparently crossed Europe from the east towards the 
west. 

y». 235, October 11. 

Shide . 

Kew . 

Nicolaiew 

Eocca di Papa 

Iscbia . 

Catania 

Toronto 

Batavia 

Victoria 

Madras 

Bombay 

Potsdam 

San Fein and 

The probability is that this shock originated in the Pacific, and after 
reaching Victoria spread eastwards to Toronto and Europe. In the seis- 
mograms received there are several maxima, and it seems impossible to 
recognise similar groups of large waves at difierent stations. 

Ko. 237, October 12. 



H. 


M. 


s. 


M. S. 


It. 


M. 


s. 


16 


58 


52 





17 


33 


39 


16 


59 


12 





17 


38 


42 


16 


49 


30 





17 


7 





16 


50 


35 





17 


32 





16 


50 


34 







— 




17 


3 


27 





17 


38 


42 


ii; 


47 


29 


7 


17 


29 


30 


16 


49 


42 


— 




— 




16 


44 


34 


4 




— 




17 


2 


36 


— 




— . 




17 


2 


36 


— 


17 




42 


17 


6 





— 


17 


30 





17 


27 


19 


— 




— 







H. 


M. S. 


n. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


. 13 


21 2 









Kew 


. 13 
Xu. 238, October 15 


20 42 


13 


23 


30 




H. M. S. 


M. S. 


II. 


M. 


s. 


Shide 


.4 2 44 





4 


30 





Kew 


. 4 28 







— 




Nicolaiew- 


. 3 28 


;;7 


4 


10 





Batavia . 


. 4 11 42 


— . 









Madras . 


. 3 50 19 


— 


3 


52 


25 


Bombay . 


. 3 46 41 


— 


3 


47 


24 


Mauritius 


. 4 6 12 


— 


4 


10 






The disturbance apparently crossed Europe from east to w 

X>. 230, November 17. 



est. 



Shide . 
Kew 

Nicolaiew 
Eocca di Papa 



H. 


M. 


s. 


13 


20 


15 


13 


37 


12 


13 


3 





13 


4 


40 



9 



13 


46 


24 


13 


37 





13 


46 


30 



206 



REPORT — 1899. 



Ischia 
Catania 
Batavia . 
Toronto . 
Victoria . 
Bombay . 
Potsdam . 
Mauritius 



H. 


M. 


s. 


13 


30 





11? 


59 


33 


13 


9 


46 


13 


7 





13 


14 


19 


13 








13 


45 


23 



s. 



13 12 18 

13 44 50 

13 34 

13 45 

14 2 



It seems probable that from its origin the shock radiated westwards to 
Java and India, whilst eastwards it successively reached Victoria, Toronto, 
and Europe. 

Xo. 240, December 1. 





H. 


M. 


s. 




n. 


M. 


s. 


Shide .... 


. 12 


48 


16 


— 









Nicolaiew 


12 


4!! 





— 


12 


54 





Catania .... 


12 


38 


11 


— 


12 


49 


51 


Victoria, B.C. . 




'! 




— 




— 




Kew .... 


12 


51 


18 


— 




— 




Madras .... 


12 


45 


14 


— 


12 


55 


9 


Bombay (November 30) . 


12 


43 


17? 


— 




_- 




Potsdam .... 


12 


42 





— 


12 


57 





Mauritius 




— 




— 





58 


43? 



The Shide seismogram consists of a series of small broadenings of the 



normal line, like No. 239. 



Ko. 241, December 3. 



Shide 
Kew 



II. 



Nicolaiew 
Potsdam . 
Bombay , 



Xo. 243, December 3. 



Shide 
Batavia 



M. S. 

3 IS 43 

H 1 18 

and 3 7 

6 18 ? 

6 15 

2 49 58 ? 



H. jr. s. 
17 42 26 
16 59 54 



It is doubtful whether these refer to the same shock. 
, Xo. 244, December 4. 







H. 


M. 


s. 




H. 


JI. s. 


Shide 


, 


. 20 


20 


40 







— 


Bombay . 


, 


. 20 


28 


5? 


— 







^Mauritius 


• 


7 


30 


0? 


— 


7 


52 (1 






Xo. 245, January 


6, 1899 


_ 










H. 


M. 


S. 


M. S. 


H. 


M S. 


Shide 




. 19 


11 


9 









Kew 




. 19 


3 


42 














and 19 


41 


30 





20 


4 12 


Nicolaiew 




. 19 


23 





10 


19 


46 


Eocca di P.i 


pa . 


. 19 


49 





— 


19 


52 30 


Catania . 




. 19 


46 


11 


— 


Uncertain 


Toronto . 




. 19 


9 


8 


— 




ji 


Bombay . 




. 19 


13 


40? 


. — 




5J 


Potsdam . 




. 19 


9 





— 




t* 


San Fernando . 


. 19 


14 


4 


— 







ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



207 



Xo. 246, January 12. 



Shide 
Toronto . 
Victoria . 
Bombay (January 11) 



H. M. s. 

3 58 18 — 

3 47 50 — 

3 35 16 — 

19 23 44? — 



3 3G 15 



Probably originated in the Pacific, and passed across North America 
to Europe. 

Xo. 247, January 12. 

H. M. S. 31. S. H. M. S. 

Shide '.) 2 26 — — 

Nicolaiew 8 37 11 8 50 

Batavin 8 4 18? — 8 8 48 

Bombay 9 33 24 Dislocation of tlie line. 

Xo. 248, January 14. 







H. 


M. 


s. 


M. 


H. 


sr. 


s. 


Shide 




3 


48 


55 





3 


22 


48 


Kew. 


, 


2 


58 


12 


27? 


8 


26 


30 


Nicolaiew 




'. '. 2 


54 





G 


O 


32 





Toronto . 




2 


42 


18 


13 


2 


57 


6 


Victoria, B.C. . 


2 


42 


30 


9 


2 


55 


28 


Bombay (1 


Sth) 


.' 19 


41 


37? 


— ■ 




— 




Potsdam . 


. 


2 


54 





— 


b 


30 






We have here well-defined maxima for Shide, Kew, Toronto, and 
Victoria. The latter place was reached first, whilst at intervals of 2. 29, 
and 36 minutes, Toronto, Kew and Shide, and Nicolaiew and Potsdam 
were reached. These data lead to the conclusion that the origin was in 
the Pacific, at no great distance from the coast of Central America. 



Xo. 249, January 22. Origin, Greece. 



H. 


M. 


s. 


M. S. 


H. 


M. S. 


8 


22 


53 


— • 


8 


33 


8 


22 


12 


5 18 


8 


29 


8 


19 





— 


8 


21 


8 


16 


10 


— 


8 


20 40 


8 


14 


37 


— 




— 


8 


14 


11 


— 


8 


19 48 


8 


15 


48 


— 


8 


21 30 


9 


15 


47 


Dislocation of the line. 


8 


9 





— 







or 8 


IS 





^ — 








Shide 
Kew. 
Nicolaiew 
Eocca di Papa 
Ischia 
Catania 
Trieste 
Bombay . 
Potsdam . 



This earthquake originated in Greece, and is described in the Daihj 
Telegraph of January 23 as follows : — 

' Athens, Sunday. 

' A severe earthquake shock was felt in several parts of the Peloponnesus early 
this morning. The sliock was most violent in the departments of Philiatra, in the 
province of Messinia, and Kyparrisia, in the province of Laconia, the two most fertile 
and beautiful districts of the peninsula. Several villages are completely destroyed, 
and in the towns practically every house is uninhabitable. 

' The loss of life would have been very great had not the majority of the inhabit- 
ants, warned by the first shocks, left their houses in the early morning, and camped 
in the open plains and fields. A great man}% however, have been injured, and 
several are killed, though it is impossible at present to state the exact number. 

' The people, panic-stricken, have been in the fields all to-day, and are in a dis- 
tressing condition. 

' The greatest efforts must be made to give them the urgent succour which is 
necessary. — Centra I Nctvs. ' 



208 REPORT— 1899. 

The fact that the large waves reached Trieste, Rocca di Papa, and 
"Nicolaiew at about the same time, and the English stations 10 minutes 
later, also indicate that the origin of this shock was in Greece. 



Xo. 


250, 


January 


24- 


20. 


Origin 


, Mexico. 












H. 


M. 


s. 


jr. s. 


H. 


M. S. 


Time at tlic oriuii; 


I . 


, , 









— 


23 


43 31 


Shid.' 


, 




23 


47 


42? 


— 





84 42 


Kew . 




• 


23 


47 


24 
or 


;i 

43 2t 





35 30 


i>iicolaievv 






23 


57 


30 
or 


4 

10 





12 


Rocca di Faj-.n . 




, , 











— 




— 


Catania . 









1 


43 


— 


Uncertain 


Toronto . 




. 


23 


50 


24 







7 10 


Victoria, r..C. . 




. 


23 


51 


7 


— 





4 10 


Trieste 






23 


58 


24 


— 





48 


Bombay (25th) . 






12 


57 


5i».' 


— 




— 


Potsdam . 






23 


48 





— 




— 


Mauritius . 


• 


• 




— 




ar 


1 
id 1 


15 45 
19 



At Shide the early part of the disturbance is eclipsed by air tremors. 
The first echo, the amplitude of which is equal to that of the maximum 
at Oh. 34m., was at Oh. 37m. The Kew record is distinctly smaller than 
the one from Shide, the amplitudes at these places being 4 mm. and 
6 mm. respectively. 

The following notes throw light upon the nature of the shock near to 
its origin, and other disturbances, with which it has been confused. 

The Sub-Director of the Central Meteorological and Magnetic 
Observatory in Mexico, Senor Jose Zandejas, writes to Professor Pi. F. 
Stupart of Toronto, as follows : — 

' Owing to the temporary absence of Senor Barcena, Ihave great pleasure 
in answering your favour of January 26 last, and inform you that the 
shock of earthquake on the 24th of the same month was felt here at 
5h. 23m. (local time) and lasted 2 minutes, causing some damage to 
old buildings, but cannot be classified as very strong. Generally they are 
not in the capital. It was felt from Vera Cruz on the east to St. Bias 
on the west, both seaports, one in the Gulf and the other on the Pacific, 
declining towards the south to the Pacific Ocean and Tehuantepec 
Isthmus, including the States of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero, 
Pueblas, Flaxcala, Mexico, Oaxaca, and Vera Cruz, which is the territory 
where earthquakes are generally felt and in which the volcanos of the 
Republic are situated. 

' As these phenomena have not been sufficiently studied, it would be 
hazardous to point out a determinate point of convergence of their 
probable origin, but it has been noticed that the greatest intensity and 
frequency of these earthquakes take place in the States of Michoacan, 
Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas to Guatemala, ikc, and might extend with 
still greater violence to the Pacific Ocean.' 

In a subsequent letter Senor Zandejas corrects the above time to 
January 24, 5.29 a.m., and adds that there was a second shock at 
5.9 P.M. (mean local Mexican time). The former was slight and the latter 
was strong. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 209 

The United Slates Monthly Weather Review for January gives the 
following note : — 

' Reports from Mexico describe the earthquake of Monday evening, 
January 24, as the severest ever known in the City of Mexico. The first 
oscillation began at 9-09 (local time). It was from north-east to south- 
west, and lasted Im. 56s. Three minutes later came a second shock, 
which lasted 5s., oscillating north-west and south-east. The earthquake 
was felt over the entire Republic of Mexico. At Colima it lasted 
Im. 20s. ; at Vera Cruz it lasted 10s. But few reports of this earth- 
quake have been received from the United States, although it must 
have been feebly felt at many stations. 

'At San Barnardino, Cal., a shock was felt at 4.55 p.m., 
January 25. The newspapers of that city state that the shock was of 
little greater severity than usual, and that the barometer dropped from 
30*12 to 29'86, " an unusual occurrence, kc."' 

Mr. 0. H. Howarth, who is interested in recording earthquakes, 
writes to me from Hacienda de Zavalita, Oaxaca, Mexico, as follows : — 

' I think you may be interested to have a local note about the earth- 
quake shock which occurred here on Tuesday, January 24, being the 
longest and strongest I have yet experienced in this country. The time 
was 5.25 A.M., and the duration, as near as I could get it, 20 seconds. We 
are situated here about 13 miles south-west of the city of Oaxaca, in a 
winding cafion, well up into the mountain range : altitude, 6,200 feet. 
We seem to be all agreed that the wave approached from the south. The 
formation of the whole district here is a very hard gneissic granulite in 
which occur the quartz veins with gold. The feature which struck me 
most was the sensation (which I have not experienced before), of the 
wave grinding its way through a hard resisting medium. Just at the 
climax there was a peculiar jerk, as if it had changed its direction, or met 
with some exceptional obstruction. The noise was considerable, and 
some of our people were on their knees saying their " Ora pro nobis " with 
great vigour. One of them told me to watch the clouds, and for three 
hours afterwards I noticed heavy mist down upon the high ridge at the 
head of the cafion (8,700 feet), which otherwise we never see at this time 
of the year — the middle of the dry season. I cannot see any direct 
reason for an atmospheric change, but there is no doubt that a big 
condensation occurred. The shock seems to have been unusually long 
and severe in the city of Mexico (200 miles north from here) — 
Im. 36s. (this I doubt), and damage was done at some points ; but 
probably the accounts which reach England will be exaggerated as 
usual.' 

On May 29 Mr. Howarth again wrote me, saying that in Oaxaca 
where he was (200 miles south from Mexico City), there was a severe 
shock at 5.25 a.m., a slight tremor about 11 a.m., and another slight 
shock about 5 p.m. In Mexico City this was reversed, the slight shock 
being at 5.23 a.m. and the heavy one causing damage about 5 p.m. The 
first coming from the south to reach Mexico City would have to traverse 
the great range of Popocatepetl, Ixtaccehuall, and Ajusco, by which it 
would be absorbed or diverted, and therefore whilst strong in Oaxaca, it 
would be feeble in Mexico City. If the second came from the north or 

1899. p 



210 



EEPORT — 1899. 



north-west these effects would be reversed. The only effect at Zavalita, 
near Oaxaca, on January 24, was to crack walls, and to bring down a load 
of loose rock at the entrance to a mine tunnel, and in this way it acted 
as a service. In Oaxaca the intensity of local shocks is remarkably 
variable at short distances. 

The conclusion we arrive at from the above notes is that we 
have to deal with the shock felt severely in Mexico at 5.9 p.m., or at 
llh. 45m. 31s. G.M.T. The time at the origin would be about 2m. 
earlier than this, or llh. 43m. 31s. 

Velocities of transit, on the assumption that the disturbance originated 

at 23h. iSvi. 31«. 



Place 


Time of Transit 


Leng 


th of path 


Velocities in kms. 
per sec. 












P.T.'s 


L.W.'s 




P.T.'s 


L.W.'s 


Degrees 


Arc 


Chord 
















Arc 


Chord 


Arc 




M. S. 


M. s. 




KMS. 


KMS. 








Shide . 


4 11 


51 11 


80 


8880 


8170 


35 


32 


2-5 


Kew , 


3 53 or 
12 53 


51 59 


80 


8880 


8170 


38 or 
11-5 


35 or 
10-5 


2-6 


Nicolaiew . 


14 1 


28 29 


100 


11100 


9744 


131 


11-5 


6-4? 


Rocca di Papa . 


16 21 


— 


92 


10212 


9150 


10-4 


9-3 


— 


Catania 


18 12 


— 


97 


10767 


9526 


9-8 


8-7 


— 


Toronto 


6 53 


23 39 


30 


3330 


3292 


8-0 


7-9 


2-3 


Victoria, B.C. . 


7 36 


20 89 


34 


3774 


3719 


8-2 


8-1 


30 


Trieste 


14 53 


64 21 


91 


10101 


9072 


11-3 


10-2 


2-6 


Bombay 


14 28? 


— 


141 


15651 


11990 


— 


— 


— 



Because the commencement of the Shide seismogram is partially 
eclipsed by air tremors, there is no certainty in the determination for the 
time of transit of the P.T.'s. The Kew seismogram is perfectly clear, and 
shows a very small movement, commencing at 23h. 47m. 24s., which nine 
minutes later is reinforced by slightly larger tremors. The commence- 
ment of this second group leads to the determination of the velocities 
11 '5 and 10'5 kms. per second. Records from Shide, Kew, Toronto, and 
Victoria, which relate to large waves, are distinctly comparable, and the 
resulting velocities are fairly in accord to what previous investigations 
would lead us to expect. The velocities obtained for the preliminary 
tremors are, however, apparently too high, and suggest that the time 
determined for the origin of the shock is a little late. When more defi- 
nite information is obtained from Mexico this may be altered. 



The amplitude of the first maximutn and the tivie interval to its ' 

Interval 

M. S. 

Shide 3 

Kew 6 30 

Toronto 5 

Victoria 4 30 



echo.' 
Amp. 

MM. 

6 
35 
7-5 
17 



A good 



has been received from Swarthmore, 
U.S.A., but its time scale has not arrived in time for publication. 



Penn. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



21J 



No. 251, January 30. 



Shide 
Kew 

Nicolaiew 
Victoria, B.C. 
Madras 
Bombay . 



Sliide 
Kew 

Toronto . 
Victoria, B.C. 
Bombay . 



H. 


M. 


s. 


18 


55 


42 


18 


45 


48 


17 


59 

7 


30 


17 


48 


19 


17 


50 


16 


rySl. 




H. 


M. 


s. 


11 


22 


47 


11 


21 


48 


11 


36 





11 


40 






18 25 



17 


52 


25 


17 


58 


34 


H. 


M. 


s. 


11 


25 





11 


25 





11 


37 


12 


11 


41 


26 



12 23 20 Dislocation. 



The time intervals for the L.W.'s indicate an origin to the south of 
the Azores or off the coast of North Norway. 



M. 253, January 31. 





H. M. s. 


M. S. 


H. M. S. 


Shide 


. 17 32 31 


2 30 


17 35 


Kew 


. 17 31 18 


— 


— 


Nicolaiew 


.17 1 30 


12 30 


17 15 


Bombay . 


. 17 16 21 
No. 254, February 23. 








H. M. S. 


M. S. 


H. M. S. 


Shide 


. 13 47 23 


2 


13 49 53 


Kew 


. 13 49 30 


_- 


— 


Bids ton . 


. 12 50 


— 


— 


Toronto . 


. Uncertain 


— . 


14 4 


Victoria , 


,14 6 40 


— 


14 8 33 



The time intervals for the L.W.'s suggest an origin west of Cape 
Verd. 

No. 255, February 26. 

H. M. S. H. M. H. 

Shide 13 47 29 — 13 48 

Kew 13 49 — — 

Victoria 14 6 23 — 14 8 24 

Trieste 13 48 18 — 14 42 

Origin probably near to that of No. 254. 



No. 256, February 27. 



Shide . 
Kew 

Nicol.aiew 
Toronto . 
Victoria . 
Bombay . 
San Fernando 



H. 


M. 


s. 


M. s. 


H. ir. s. 


10 


12 


19 


• — 


Light out 


11 


27 


30 


— 


— 


11 


31 


30 


2 30 


11 37 


11 


41 


10 


— 


11 42 20 




? 




— 


11 48 


10 


42 


20 


Dislocation 




n 


35 


49 


— 


— 



Origin probably the same as 252, 254, and 255. 



212 



REPORT — 1899. 



No. 257, February 27. 



Shide . 
Kew . 
Trieste 
Bombay 



H. M. s. 

15 26 40 

15 27 12 

15 28 12 



— 15 40 30 



14 40 50 Dislocation. 



No. 259, February 28. 





H. 


M. 


s. 




H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


. 19 


47 


38 


■ — 


19 


48 


38 


Kew . 


. 19 


48 


30 


— 




— 




Toronto 


. 20 





15 


— 


20 


1 





Victoria 


. 20 


5 





— 




— 




Trieste 


. 19 


50 


12 


— 


20 


4 


30 


Bombay 


. 20 


9 


23 


Dislocation 








San Fernando . 


. 19 


56 


49 


— 




— 





Origin like 2.55, &c. 

No. 260, February 28. 

H. M. S. 

Shide 23 1 5 — 

Trieste 22 42 48 — 

No. 262, March C. 

H. M. R. 

Shide 20 52 31 — 

Nicolaiew 20 30 — 

Kew 20 36 42 — 



H. 


M. 


s. 


23 


14 


30 


H. 


M. 


s. 


20 


50 





20 


34 








H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


. 1 


31 


1? 


Kew . 




17 


42 


Nicolaiew . 




5 





Rocca di Papa 




13 





Ischia 




30 





Catania 




18 


14 


Toronto 




19 


29 


Victoria, B.C. 




15 


13 


Trieste 




6 


54 


Bombay 





3 


47? 



No. 263, March 7. 



10 



H. 


M. 


s. 


1 


53 


42 P.T.'s eclipsed by air 
tremors. 


1 


53 


24 


1 


22 





1 


52 





1 


19 


23 


2 


1 





1 


16 


15? 


1 


42 


48 



Mauritius, Mar. 6, 23 20 to 
San Fernando . 1 49 49 



Mar. 7, 1 35 



This earthquake had its centre in Central Japan, but until the time of 
its origin is more definitely known its complete discussion is impossible. 
The Japan Mail of March 11 gives the following description of the 
occurrence : — 

' The earthquake on the 7th instant belongs to the category of serious 
shocks. Our daily life in this country is perpetually disturbed by 
tremblings and shakings, which become at last so familiar that we scarcely 
notice them. Yet not a few of these ugly visitors fall short of calamitous 
dimensions by only a narrow margin, and the unconcern with which we 
receive them is simply the result of habit. Apparently the centre of dis- 
turbance on the 7th instant was somewhere in the vicinity of Osaka. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



213 



Such, at least, is the conclusion arrived at by the Meteorological Bureau, 
though the record of damage done suggests that Nagoya may share the 
honour. The time telegraphed from Nagoya is 9.45 a.m., and that tele- 
graphed from Osaka 9.56, but it is not possible to place much reliance on 
these figures. Nagoya city does not seem to have sufiered. The damage 
occurred chiefly at Ono, Handa, and Chirin, where houses are said to have 
been overturned. Wakayama, also, was severely visited, houses and go- 
downs being overthi'own in the two districts of Nishi-mura and Higashi- 
mura. The most accurate accounts come from Osaka. There the direction 
of the shock was from south-east to north-west. At first vertical, the 
movement presently became horizontal, the latter phase, which lasted 
about two minutes, developing the maximum intensity. Apparently the 
only personal injuries were not directly due to the shock, but resulted 
from a panic among the employees at the Osaka Cotton- spinning Factory. 
In attempting to escape from an upper story, several fell downstairs, and 
twenty-eight were hurt, two severely. Fuller details may show, however, 
that the falling of chimneys and buildings was not unaccompanied by loss 
of life. 

' Considering the wide area through which the seismic disturbance on 
the 7th instant was felt, it is inferred that the origin of the force must 
have been at a point very deep below the surface. The great majority of 
the earthquakes experienced in this country are of distinctly limited scope. 
Thus the statistics collected by the Seismological Bureau show that out of 
2,670 shocks felt in 1891, only eight were felt throughout an area of over 
10,000 square miles. The great earthquake on August 28 in that year 
made itself pei'ceptible throughout an area of 15,750 square miles, and the 
shock on the 7th of this month had a range of 15,000 square miles. The 
latter did not reach farther north than Yokohama : it was not felt at all 
in Tokio. 

' A telegram received by the Home Department from Nara Prefecture 
gives details of the damage done by the earthquake : — "A strong shock 
was felt at 10 a.m. on the 7th. At Takata-machi twenty farmers' houses 
fell, and two children were buried in the ruins. At Sakmaimachi a man 
was crushed to death. Other damage is in course of investigation." 

' A telegram received subsequently says : " The result of investigation 
shows that three persons were killed and 11 injured, 67 houses destroyed 
and 24 damaged. The mountains in Amanowawa Mura, Yoshino district, 
shook greatly and emitted a thunderous sound, and the ground opened in 
parts, landslips occurring here and there. Roads westward of Hirase 
have been broken away in places." 

' Ten workers in the Tenwa mine were buried alive, but were dug out 
safely.' 






Time of transit 
of L.W.'s 


Distance 


Velocity per sec i 
on arc | 




M. 


o 


KMS. 


Shide ...... 


59 


87 


. 2-7 


Kew . . ... 


59 


86 


2-7 


Nicolaiew 


26 


74-5 


5-2? 


Kocca di Papa .... 


56 


88 


2-9 


Catania 


24 


90 


6-9 ? 


Toronto 


65 


a5 


2-7 


Trieste ..... 


47 


84-5 


3-3 



214 



REPORT — 1899. 



The velocity of transit for the P.T.'s is not given, because small errors 
in the time observations lead to marked discrepancies in the final results. 

A point of interest in the seismograms is that whilst at Shide and 
Kew the range of motion was 3 and -8 mm., at Toronto it was only -5, 
and at Victoria, the nearest station to the origin (71°), the movement 
was barely visible, and so indefinite that certain determinations of time 
are impossible. This latter place would be reached along a path entirely 
beneath the Pacific, Toronto by a path crossing Behring Straits, and 
Shide by a land path across Asia and Europe. 

Observations of this nature suggest that oceanic waters exert a damp- 
ing eflFect upon the earth waves traversing their beds. 

M. 264, March 12. 





H. 


M. 


s. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide 


. 9 


55 


10 


9 


10 


26 


12 


Kew 


. 9 


55 


42 







— 




Nicolaiew 


. 9 


41 


30 


25 


10 


11 





Toronto . 


. 9 


52 


11 


— 


9 


58 


7 


Victoria, B.C. . 


. 9 


49 


55 


— 


9 


59 


30 


Trieste . 


. 9 


53 


6 


— 


10 


7 


18 


Batavia . 




— 




— 


10 


8 


12 


Bombay . 


. 10 


31 


41 







— 




Calcutta 


. 8 


61 


20 


— 




— 




Mauritius 




— 




8h. 20m. 


to 10 


50 






The L.W. records for Toronto and Victoi'ia, followed 13 and 27 minutes 
later by records at Batavia and Shide, suggest an origin in the Mid-South 
Pacific. 

No. 266, March 19. 



Shide . 
Victoria 
Trieste . 
Toronto . 
Calcutta 



H. 


M. 


s. 


13 


45 


35 


13 


15 


43 


1? 


24 


12 


13 


24 


29? 


12 


36 


18 



This disturbance probably travelled from the western side of North 
America towards Europe. 

No. 267, March 21. 





H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide 


. 14 


58 


47 


Kew 


. 15 


25 


30 


Trieste . 


. 14 


46 


24 


Catania . 


. 14 


46 


24 


Calcutta . 


. 14 


43 


6 


San Fernando 


. 15 


68 


19 



H. M. S. 

15 38 17 

15 22 12 

14 57 30 



The movement apparently crossed Europe from the east or south-east. 

No. 268, March 23. 





H. 


M. 


s. 


M, S. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


. 10 


45 


16 


18 




16 


18 


Kew 


. 11 





30 


— 




20 


12 


Toronto . 


. 10 


41 


52 


— 




6 





Victoria, B.C. 


. 10 


35 


47 


— 




17 


17 


Trieste . 


. 10 


42 


48 


— 




5 


6 


Catania . 


. 10 


34 


15 


— 




9 


48 


Bombay . 


. 11 


42 


30 


— 




47 


46 


San Fernando 


. 11 


40 


34 


— 




— 





ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



215 



Apparently we have two small shocks, and it is difficult to disoriuiinate 
between the commencements of the first and the second. For Shide, 
Toronto, and Victoria the times of the L.W.'s refer to the second dis- 
turbance, which may have originated on the western side of the Atlantic. 

No. 2G9, March 23. 







H. 


M. 


s. 




H. 


.M. 


s. 








Shide . 


. 


. 11 


57 


41 


— 


14 


59 


First of three maxima 


Kew 


. 


. 15 





24 


— 


15 


14 


42 








Victoria, 


B.C. 


. 11 


5.5 


20 


— . 


15 


5 


11 








Trieste . 


, 


. 11 


30 





— 


14 


47 


24 








Toronto 


, 




— 




— 


14 


45 


47? 








Catania 


, 


. 11 


18 


1 


— 


14 


54 


45 








Calcutta 


• 


. 13 


12 


38 


— 




— 
















N 


9.27 


0, March 25. 




















H. 


M. 


s 




H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide , 


, 




, 




. 14 


53 


19 


— 


15 


28 





Kew . 


, 








. 14 


54 





— 




— 




Toronto 










. 14 


44 


37? 


— 


14 


46 


57 


Victoria, 


B.C. 








. 14 


46 


25 


— 


15 





12 


Trieste 






, 




. 14 


53 


30 


— 


14 


55 


18 


San Fernando 








. 14 


52 


19 


— 




— 





To suit the L.W. intervals for Toronto, Victoria, and Shide, an origin 
may be sought on the V/est Coast of South America. 

iV^o. 271, March 25. 



Shide 20 

Kew 20 



M. 


s. 


39 


52 


46 


6 



JEartJiqvah-s recorded at Shide, I.W., and also at distant stations, between 
Fclruary 27, 1898, and Ajyril 3, 1899. 



Milne's H. P. (Photographic Eecord) 


H.P. with 
Mirror 
(Photo- 
graphic) 


Eifilar 
Pendu- 
lum 
(Photo- 
graphic) 


H.P. and 

Ordinary 
Pendulums 
(Jlechanical 
Regis- 
tration) 


... 




o 
a 

2 


o 

o 
o 

> 


o 
3 


1 


3 
o 


c3 

Q 
• * 


d 

1 
• • 


a 




1 

o 
o 


1 
1 




o 

■s 

-a 




a. 

•3 

o 


.3 
1 

Hi 


c3 

"5 

6 


17-1 
179 
180 
183 
185 
188 
189 
192 
193 
195 
196 
199 
200 
201 
207 
209 




2 


" 


.. 


- 


" 


2 


^ 



216 KEPORT— 1899. 

Earthquakes recokded at Shide, I.W. kc— continued. 



Milne's H. P. (Photograpliic Record) 


i 

H.P. with 
Mirror 
(Photo- 
graphic) 


Bifilar 
Pendu- 
lum 
(Photo- 
graphic) 


H.P. and 
Ordinary 
Peudulams 
(Mechanical 
Regis- 
tration) 




^ 

V 

W 


o 
o 


d 

s 

> 


o 

a 
a 

a 

d 
CO 


«3 

g 


a 

24 


1 
3 
o 

O 
4 


c3 

1 


m 

'u 
3 


g 


1 




a 
o 

m 

-a 

n 




•1 

i 


.3 


'3 
eg 


210 

211 

213 

214 

215 

2i6 

217 

218 

220 

221 

222 

223 

225 

228 

230 

231 

232 

233 

234 

235 

237 

238 

239 

240 

241? 

242 

244 

245 

246 

247 

248 

249 

250 

251 

252 

263 

251 

255 

256 

257 

269 

260 

262 

263 

264 

266 

267 

268 

26!) 

270 

271 


42 


23 


18 


13 


8 


9 


8 


~ 




- 


- 


* * 


- 


- 




Totals . 67 


35 


29 


13 


4 


5 


18 


15 


22 



Records were kindly sent to me from Rome, Pavia, Livorno Castello, 
and Catanzaro, which unfortunately arrived too late for insertion in this, 
report. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTICfATION. 217 

Earthquakes recorded at Shide and at Distant Stations. 

The preceding table shows the ecarthquakes which were recorded in the 
Isle of Wight and also at distant stations. "When comparing the records 
at one station with those taken at any other station, consideration must 
be given to the dates on which these stations commenced their observa- 
tions. For example, the Kew entries corresponding to those at Shide lie 
between Nos. 195 and 271 or April 25, 1898, and March 25, 1899. Just 
as comparisons may be made between the Isle of Wight list and that from 
Kew, showing that many earthquakes were recorded at the former place 
which were not recorded at the latter, exactly opposite comparisons might 
be made. For example, whilst the above list indicates that Kew only 
recorded forty-two disturbances out of fifty-seven noted at Shide, the 
complete register for Kew (p. 166) indicates that at that place seventy-five 
disturbances were noted, and it is possible that more than forty-two of 
these were common to other countries. 

Although the Indian stations have recorded earthquakes which have 
also been observed in other parts of the world, in consequence of diffi- 
culties largely the result of a tropical environment the value of many 
seismograms has been impaired. Until these difficulties have been over- 
come the frequency of earthquakes common to India and other parts of 
the world can only be imperfectly indicated. 

Although the instruments at Bidston and Edinburgh have yielded 
excellent results respecting slow changes in the vertical, and as such are 
important adjuncts to a seismological laboratory, yet the above table 
indicates that they fail to pick up many earthquakes. 

Analysis of the Table from a Seismometrical Point of Vieiv. 
The last line of the table shows that Kew, Toronto, Victoria, 
Bombay (?), Nicolaiew, Potsdam, and Trieste have recorded more earth- 
quakes in common with the Isle of Wight than have been recorded at the. 
Italian stations. This conclusion is more clearly indicated in the follow- 
ing table : — 

Out of 57 records at Shide -12, or 73 per cent., are common to Kew 

" .^1 " " 23 „ 37 „ „ Toronto 

" f^ •• " 18 „ 56 „ „ Victoria, B.C. 

" ^^ " '• Jl .. 21 „ „ Batavia 

" YL " " "^ " ^^ " " Nicolaiew 

" If. " .. 29 „ 60 „ „ Potsdam 

" "" " " 1^ .. 65 „ „ Trieste 

" ^^ » .. 25 „ 38 „ „ Italy 

If the Italian stations are taken .separately the percentage for each is 
lower than that for Italy as a whole. When we compare the twenty-four 
earthquakes recorded at Shide, Nicolaiew, and Potsdam which lie between 
^os. 182 and 250 with those noted in Italy, we see that six of these, viz. 
Nos 182, 18o, 210, 231, 248, and 264, apparently escaped observation in 
the latter country. 

Again, out of thirteen disturbances noted in Trieste and in the Isle 
ot Wight, only SIX of these, viz. Nos. 255, 257, 259, 260, 264, and 266, are 
tound in the Italian register. It will also be observed that some of the 
shocks which escaped the Italian instruments were well recorded in Toronto, 
Victoria, B.C., Batavia, and other . places ; and it may be added that 
It we except Nos. 182, 260, and 266, the seismograms representing these 
shocks from Shide, Potsdam, and other places are of marked magnitude. 



218 REPORT— 1899. 

Although it may be suggested that these omissions in the Italian 
registers of earthquakes which have spread over large portions of the 
■world are due to a want of sensibility in the instruments employed in that 
country, such an explanation does not accord with the fact that these 
same instruments with their frictional indices pick up the small pre- 
liminary tremors of large earthquakes with apparently the same exactitude 
as the seismographs do which record photographically. 

Whatever may be the true explanation of these lacunce, it must be 
remembered that the open diagi-ams from the Italian instruments furnish 
information not obtainable from the majority of the photographic appa- 
ratus, and they are, therefore, indispensable to fully equipped labora- 
tories. 

Time Intervals between the arrivals of Earthquakes in Victoria, B.C., 
Toronto, and Shide. 

1. Intervals in Minutes hetween the arrival of P.T!s and L. W.'s at Toronto and SJiide 

after reaching Victoria. 



No. of Shock 


Toronto 


Shide 




Toronto 


Shide 






M. 


M. 




M. 


M. 




235 


3 P.T.'s 


14 P.T.'s 










239 


3 „ 


13 


1) 


• — 







246 


12 „ 


23 


)» 










248 


„ 


7 


i» 


2L.W.'s 


28 L.W.'s 




250 




— 




3 „ 


31 „ 


Origin, Mexico,' 


266 


9 „ 


30 


>» 


— 


— 




268 


6 „ 


10 


7 
n 


— 


— 


■ 



As it is known that No. 250 originated in the vicinity of Mexico it may 
be inferred, from the similarity in time intervals, that No. 248 originated 
from the same region. No. 246 probably travelled from the Pacific in an 
east direction through Victoria across North America to Toronto and on 
to Shide. Nos. 235 and 239 had similar origins well out in the Pacific 
considerably to the south of Victoria. The group, as a whole, apparently 
represents adjustments along the western frontier of the North American 
continent. 

2. Intervals in Minutes between tlie arrival of P.7.'s and L.W.'s at Toronto and 
Victoria after reaching the Isle of Wight. 



. of Shock 


Toronto 


Victoria 


Toronto 


Victoria 




M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


188 





— P.T.'S 


9 


— L.W.'s 


252 





)> 


12 


16 „ 


254 





>) 


15 


19 


256 





» 


X 


a; + 6 „ 


259 


3 


18 „ 


13 





The above shocks probably originated on the eastern side of the Mid- 
Atlantic, along the line of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands, or off the 
coast of Norway. 

3. Intervals in Minutes letrveen the arrival of P.T.'s and L. W.'s at Victoria and 
Shide after reaching Toronto. 



No. of Shock 


Victoria 


Shide 


Victoria 


Shide 




M. 


M. 


M. 


s. 


264 





— P.T.'s. 


1 


28 L.W.'s 


270 


2 


9 » 


14 


42 „ 



Origins probably in the Mid-South Pacific. 



OV SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



219 



A shock from Japan, No. 263, reached Victoria first, whilst two and 
four minutes later it reached Shide and Toronto. 



Illustrations of Seismograms. 

The following illustrations of seismograms are only to be regarded as 
sketches of the original ijhotograms. They show the range of motion and 
principal characteristics of wave-groups, but they do not show details like 
small serrations clearly exhibited in the records from which they are 
derived. The numbers correspond with the numbers given for particular 
earthquakes in the preceding text. The arrow with its time-mark gives 
the time for a particular phase of movement, which is usually that of the 
commencement. The number following the letter S gives the time-scale 
in millimetres per hour. Thus S=60 means that 60 millimetres equal 
one hour. 

The locality at which a seisraogram was obtained is indicated by the 
following initial or initials : — 



Isle of Wight 
Kew 

Toronto . 
Victoria, B.C. 
San Fernando 
Madras . 



I.W. 

K. 

T. 

V. 

S.F. 

Md. 



Bombay 

Calcutta 

Batavia 

Mauritius 

Potsdam 

Philadelphia 



B. 

C. 

Ba. 

M. 

P. 

Ph. 



7 . 38 . 35. 

I r ill lT^ 



No. 182.— I. W. S = 59. 

8.26.0. 

1- 
No. 182.— P. S=20. 



No.185.— I.W. S=59-5. 

7.30.0. 

" I iiiw) H[^«| [M!minl»i,..T|i| mi 

t 
No.185.— P. S=20. 



12.37.17. 



No. 188.— I.W. S=59. 



12.44.40. 



No. 188.— T. S =58-25. 



23.58.55, 



7.47.55. 



No. 189.— I.W. S=59-5. 

7.48.0. 

t 
No. 189.— P. S=20. 




No, 193.— I.W. S=59. 




No. 193.— T. S=585. 



220 



REPORT — 1899. 



23 . 51 . 0. 

-<k23^ 



16.39.4. 



No. 193.— P. S=20. 



No. 19G.— I.W. S = 59-75. 



16 . 28 . 20. 





No. 196.— P. S=20 



No. 196.— S.F. S=60. 



6.4.6. 



6 . 57 . 0. 

T 



No. 199.— I. W. S = 59. 



No. 199.— P. S^20. 



6 . . 42. 




17.14.44. 

f ~~ 
No. 210.— I. W. S=60. 



17.0.0. 



No. 210.— P. S=20 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



221 



II 



^. IZi 






18.57.0. 




Ko. 215.— P. S=20. 



17.4G.15. 



8 . 53 . 30. 



1 11 1 i nn^jH*- i i ii I I 1 



No. 221.-I.'W. S=59-5. 



No. 225.-I.W. S = 59-5. 



222 



KEPORT — 1899. 




8.9.0. 



No. 221.— p. S=20. 



No. 225.— P. S=20. 



20 . 5 , 2, 




Ko. 230.— I. W. S=59-25. (Compare witli Kg. 2, p. 228.) 



20.4.0. 



No. 230.— K. S=61. 



20waa»3EI 



18. CI. 45. 










No. 230.— Ea. S=60-5. 
16.21.57. 

'0°" 
t 

No. 231.— I. W. S=59-5. 
3 . 54 . 0. 



—pO*- 



No. 231.— P. S=20. 



— ^VV/^w-^ 



No. 232.— p. S=20. 



No. 232.— T. S=59. 



16 . 58 . 52. 



•<2>OCS3=OC'J>>-!j>»c 



No. 235.— I.W. S=59-5. 




No. 235.— T. S=68. 



ON SETSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 

4 . 11 . 42. 



TSSXK 



-r % 



No. 238.— B. S = 59. 



Toronto, Oct. 21. S = 58-25. 



12 . 48 . 16. 



Xo. 239.— B. S=59. 



No. 240.— LW. S=59. 



12 . 42 . 0, 



12.43.17. 



No. 240.— P. S=20. 



19.9.8. 



No. 240.— B S = 59. 

19.11.9. 

T 
No. 245.— I. ff. S = 58. 



No. 245.— T. S=58-75. 
3.58.18. 



223 





2 . 48 . 55. 



No. 246.— I.W. S=58. 
3.47.51. 



t 
No. 246.— T. S=53. 
3.35.16. 



110.246.— V. S=60-5. 



No.248.— LW. S=58. 



224 



REPORT — 1899. 



2. 12. 18. 



23.47.42. 



23.47.24 



No. 248.— T. S=58. 



2 . 42 . 30 






No 248.— T. S = 60. 




No. 250.-I.W. S=GO. 



'^^>™CC'322350ai^DCO?at2i^ 



No. 250.— K. S=G1. 




No. 250.— Ph. S=ei. 




No. 250.— T. S=58-5. 




No. 250.— T. S=Cl-5. 




1.1D.29. 



No. 2G3.-I.-W. S=58'25. 



No. 263.-T. S=59. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 225 



9 . 65 . 10 

i«i ilipi ■iiiiii"j ^ ' j ii 



No.264.— I.W. S = 58-25. 
9.52.11. 



No. 264.— T. 



9.69.0. 



T 

No. 264.— V. S=60-"5. 



10.45.16. 



t 



No.268.— I.W. S=58-5. 



10.41.52. 



T 



No. 268.— T. S= 58-25. 
11.17.17. 



Ko. 268.— V. S=60-5. 
14.57.41. 



No. 269.— I. W. S=58-25. 
IS. 5. 11. 



No. 269.— y. 
14.63.19. 



t 

No. 270.— I W. S=58-5. 

15 0.12. 

No. 270.— V. 
14.4C.57. 



I 
No. 270.— T. S = 59. 

IV. Varieties of Earthquakes and their Bespectivs Durations. 

Those who live in a country where earthquakes are frequent must 
have observed that the sliocks they feel may at least be divided into two 
groups. The members of one of these groups are phenomena characterised 

1899. Q 



226 REPORT— 1899. 

by their short duration and by the rapidity of their vibrations. The other 
group, which in Tokio form about 5 per cent, of the whole, can be felt for 
several minutes, and the period of movement is long. With many persons 
earthquakes having this character produce feelings of nausea, and there is 
abundant evidence to show that they represent undulations of the surface 
of the ground. By the former of these groups, although they may some- 
times alarm a city, free horizontal pendulums, unless constructed like a 
bracket seismograph, are seldom disturbed, whilst the latter throw such 
instruments into violent and fitful motion which, rather than extending, 
over two or three minutes, continues for as many hours. 

One class of earthquake consists of what are practically elastic vibra- 
tions, which have a short life and do not travel to great distances from 
their origin, whilst the other class gives rise to surface waves which are- 
propagated to very great distances. 

The earthquakes which are merely elastic shiverings may possibly be 
represented at their origin by a blow delivered on a small surface, whilst 
those which are shiverings accompanied by surface heaving are the result 
of collapse in and along an extensive region. 

If we divide earthquakes into these two groups, between which con- 
necting links, if they exist, are very rare, we then see an escape from the- 
prevalent idea that as earthquakes radiate their duration apparently 
increases. 

Although we know that preliminary tremors outrace large waves, that 
both of these forms of movement increase in period, and that a single 
wave at one station may at a more distant station be represented by two 
waves, all of which phenomena tend to the spreading out of a disturbance, 
it is difficult to realise that an earthquake recorded in Japan as having a 
duration of two or three minutes should, when it reaches this country, be- 
represented by movements continuing over two or three hours. The 
circumstances which have led to this supposition are twofold. First, no- 
distinction has been drawn between the two kinds of earthquakes ; and, 
secondly, the duration of a disturbance near to its origin has been deter- 
mined by a method very different from that by which it was determined at 
a distance. 

When these considerations are neglected the results we may arrive at 
are well illustrated in a paper on 'Earthquake Duration' by Dr. E. Odone 
{' Atti della Eeale Accademia dei Lincei,' vol. iv. fas. 10, p. 425). We 
here find a list of twenty-four earthquakes, the origins of which were at 
distances varying between 25 and 11,170 kins, from Rocca di Papa, 
Rome, and Siena. At these places the duration of these shocks were- 
noted by fairly similar seismographs of the heavy pendulum type. A 
glance at this table apparently indicates that the durations of these earth- 
quakes had steadily increased with the distances of their origins from the 
observing stations. With an origin at a distance of, say, 25 kms., we find 
a duration of about 70 seconds, whilst if the origin was at a distance of 
9,000 kms. the duration becomes 4,800 seconds. 

For the first members of this series, which I will call local shocks, had 
the instruments employed been free horizontal pendulums it is very 
doubtful whether they would ever have been recorded, neither would they 
have been noted had the pendulums with their multiplying indices been at 
distances of a few hundred kilometres from their origins. The common 
experience, based on seismographic records of local shiverings in Jaj^an, is 
that the duration of movement decreases with distance from an origin, and 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 227 

it is only very large earthquakes which can be recorded with steady point 
seismographs at distances exceeding 300 miles. 

Directly we come to the other members in the list we are apparently 
dealing with the duration of earth tilting, and with regard to any par- 
ticular earthquake we may ask for information i-especting the duration of 
the same near to its origin or at stations between this point and Central 
Italy, or in countries further afield. The information we have on these 
points is, however, scant, but such as exists is far too definite to be 
ignored. For example. Dr. Odone gives in his list the Japan earthquake 
of March 22, 1894, on which occasion the seismographs at Rocca di Papa 
and at Rome were respectively agitated for Ih. 3m. and Ih. 20m. 

Because the duration of this earthquake as recorded by a bracket 
seismograph in Tokio was ten seconds, it must not be assumed that we 
have here an illustration of a seismic movement increasing in its dura- 
tion as it radiated. On this occasion, after feeling the first heavy move- 
ment, I went to my observatory and watched the boom of a horizontal 
pendulum follow very irregular heavings of the ground for some fifteen 
minutes, when I was joined by my colleague, Mr. C. D. West, and we 
continued to watch the erratic, fitful movements for Ih, 47m. longer. 

"VVe have in this instance — and others might be quoted — distinct 
evidence of earth movements near to their oi-igin continuing for a very 
much longer period than they were observable at distant localities. What 
was noted in Europe were the earthquake precursors or preliminary 
tremors, the duration of which increases with distance from an origin, 
and, after that, the earthquake echoes with possible traces of waves 
which had travelled round the world in a direction opposite to that con- 
stituting the maximum phases in the seismograms. In Tokio, although 
the preliminary movements were of shorter duration than in Europe, the 
total duration of the disturbance in that city, on account of the great 
length of the concluding vibrations, seems to have exceeded that which 
was recorded in Italy, 

The shiverings of our world recur on the average every thirty minutes, 
but the heavy breathing or true ground swell does not happen more than 
once a week. Popularly they are both earthquakes, but they diflTer in 
their character, in their duration, and probably in their origin, and as 
they radiate, their life, as exhibited at stations farther and farther remote 
from their origin, rather than increasing becomes less, 

V. Earthquake Echoes. 

(This and the following Section are in part abstracted from Notes published in 
'Nature,' February 16 and March 1, 1899.) 

An earthquake disturbance as recorded at a station far removed from 
its origin shows that the main movement has two attendants, one which 
precedes and the other which follows. The first of these by its charac- 
teristics indicates what is to follow, whilst the latter in a very much 
more pronounced manner will often repeat at definite intervals but with 
decreasing intensity the prominent features of what has passed. Inas- 
much as these latter rhythmical but decreasing impulses of the dying 
earthquake are more likely to result from reflection than from interference 
I have provisionally called them Echoes. 

When an earthquake is comparatively small, and has originated as a 
single effort at no great distance (one or two thousand miles) from the 

Q2 



228 



KEPOllT — 1899. 



observing station, the seismogram shows a single set of iDreliminary tremors, 
of 3hort duration, a single set of pronounced vibrations corresponding to 
irregularly delivered originating impulses, and finally a series of concluding 
vibrations which rise and fall in value every three or four minutes. That 
which appears on a seismogram as a two-blow earthquake terminates 
with dual reinforcements. As illustrative of this I may refer to the Isle 
of Wight seismogram of the South Indian Ocean earthquake of August .31, 
1898 (see Earthquake No. 230). We have apparently here two large dis- 
turbances — the first I regard as the shock, and the second as its echo. 
They are followed by pairs and groups of echoes. If we closely examine 
the group of movements which I call the shock, and compare the same 
with its echo (the second pair being too small to exhibit details), we find 
that the sub-divisions of each roughly agree in character ; each shows five 
phases (three of which are very distinct) of the same relative magnitudes. 
After this we get another five-phase group, followed by two groups each 
of four phases, beyond which point rhythmical recurrence is lost. 

Fig. 2— Shide, Isle of Wight, August 31. 189S. 
Duration, 21i. 18m. Os. Max. Amp. = 9 mm. = 5" 4. 






a.^z.z9 



T 



■ ;> 

S.36.Z5 



^'TWm©-©. 



li. 




A very good illustration of what maybe multiple echoes is found in the 
Isle of Wight seismogram for June 29, 1898 (see Earthquake No. 215). 
This is a very large earthquake which probably caused the whole of the 
earth to pulsate, and the duration of its preliminary tremors indicates that 
it originated at a very great distance. It had a duration exceeding three 
hours. The main disturbance shows more than fourteen maxima of motion 
which have a fairly symmetrical arrangement to the right and left of a 
central dividing line. In the accompanying figure (Fig. 3), which is an 
enlargement (1-7 times) of the central portion of the original seismogram, 
the line of symmetry is marked SS. To the left of this is the main shock 1, 
and on the right is its echo, 1', a repetition common to many earthquakes. 
That violent shocks are, a few minutes later, sometimes followed by a 
second severe movement, is well recognised in certain earthquake coun- 
tries. In Japan they are called the Uri Kaishi, or return shaking, and 
conditions leading to their production are readily imagined. All that can 
be said about 2, 3, 4, and 5 is that they have approximately the same 
characters as 2', 3', 4', and 5', but inasmuch aV the first series have 



ox SEISxMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



229 



travelled more quickly than 1, whilst the latter have travelled more 
slowly than 1', it is difficult to recognise the latter as echoes of the former. 
Beyond 5' the vibrations suddenly become small, but they apparently 
show such a marked repetition in form and uniformity in their time of 
recurrence that these characteristics can hardly be the result of accident. 
To facilitate comparison these have been enlarged, and are here reproduced, 
the later group being placed beneath those which arrived earlier. (Fig. 4.) 

The triangularly-headed echo 2' is not unlike 2 ; its spherically formed 
successor 3 is repeated in 3' ; and so we may continue through the series 
until we reach the gourd formed 9 and 10 reflected in corresponding shape 
by 9' and 10'. 

The time intervals between these corresponding groups are from twenty- 

FiG. 3. 




eight to thirty-one minutes. We here appear to be dealing with a 
series of vibrational groups each of which took almost exactly half an 
hour to travel to and fro between two reflecting surfaces or districts. If 
the waves were compressional in character the distance between these 
surfaces would be about 8,000 kms., but if they travelled with the velocity 




/' 2' 



3' 



Zl Minutes — '• > 



10' 



of the waves of shock this distance would be reduced to something under 
3,000 kms. From their period and amplitude it is probable that the 
distance lies between these values. 

The main point at issue, and the one to be answered before we enter 
into further speculations, is whether seismograms showing this musical-like 
repetition can be interpreted in the manner here suggested. The con- 
cluding vibrations of an earthquake have usually been regarded as a 
disorderly mob of pulsatory movements resulting from spasmodic impulses 
which gradually gi-ew feebler as the activity at a seismic centre became 
exhausted. The question before us is whether an eartliquake dies by a 
process analogous to repeated and irregulr.r settlements of disjointed 
materials, or whether it is simply a blow or blows which come to an end 



230 



KEPOKT — 1899. 



with musical reverberations inside the world. For the present my opinion 
inclines to the latter, and I see in the earthquake followers the likeness 
of their parents. 

VI. Earthquake Precursors. 

The series of movements to which I now refer is the procession of 
vibrational groups which run before the main disturbance, with tlie 
smaller of which, under the name of preliminary tremors, we are already 
more or less familiar. These precursors have in several respects char- 
acters which are exactly the opposite to those of the earthquake followers. 
They have a definite commencement, and with large eai'thquakes group 
after grcjup usually increases suddenly in amplitude and period. 

Another characteristic of the precursors is that whilst group after group 
may grow larger, they become more and more irregular in their contoui's. 
The first of the preliminary tremors, if they ever had any fretillernents 
have lost the same, whilst those which follow carry serrations which are 
marked. This observation, together with that of growth in amplitude, 
suggests the idea that each group of precursors starting from a common 
origin has reached an observing station by different routes : the first 
have come along the path of least time, and the latter, culminating in the 
shock, along paths continually approximating to that of free surface waves. 

Now and again we see in groups of preliminary tremors a likeness in 
contour and arrangement of what is to follow. Near to an origin they 
may have a duration of from 1 or 2 up to 10 or 20 seconds, and their 
period has been recorded at from 1 to t/tt of a second. When they are 
preceded by a sound wave, we have evidence of a very much higher 
frequency. If these vibrations have travelled long distances and through 
our earth, most records indicate a pei^iod of 3 or 4 seconds. Records from 
Rome have shown periods of less than half a second, but even these are 
probably much too large. My own records only indicate a slight switch- 
ing at the end of a light elastic boom, or that the same has been moved 
very rapidly to and fro relatively to its steady point. Until a steady 
point seismograph with extremely light multiplying indices or some other 
special form of apparatus has been employed as a recorder, our knowledge 
of this end of the seismic spectrum is not likely to increase. 

The last points connected with the earthquake precursors are the 
intervals of time which elapse between the arrival of the first tremor and 
the largest wave or wa v^es corresponding to the originating impulse and 
the duration of the first series of preliminary tremors. As measured on 
seismograms for disturbances which have originated at different distances 
from the Isle of Wight Observing Station, these two intervals are given 
in the following table : — 



Origin 


Distance 
in degrees 


First P.T. to 

Max. motion in 

minutes 


Duration of first 

group of P.T.'s 

in minutes 


Iceland .... 

Greece .... 

Tashkend 

Hayti .... 

Japan .... 

Borneo .... 


17° 

22° 
48° 
62° 
84° 
112° 


4 or 5 
6 

14 
30 
47 
55 


1-4 
3 
8 

13* 
8-5 
6-0 



This is dependent on a single observation, and may be too high. 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 231 

These figures are too few in number to be used as a foundation for any 
certain conclusions, but they may possibly indicate results to be sought for 
in future records. With regard to the first set of intervals, we know that 
for distances up to 8" from an origin that the time by which tremors out- 
race the main movement may be reckoned by seconds. Adding this fact 
to our list, it seems that here we have a table which indicates that as 
eartlujuakes travel at first the tremors only outrace the large waves at a 
very slow rate, but as the distance from the origin increases this rate 
increases. This goes on until a point between 48' and 62^ distant from 
the origin has been reached, after which the rate at which the large move- 
ments are left behind decreases. 

One explanation for this is to suppose that the first precursors came 
thi'ough the earth with an average velocity which observation shows to 
increase approximately with the square root of the.average depth of the 
chord joining the centrum and the observing station, whilst the large 
waves travelled round the surface. One objection to this view is that 
observations exist which show the lai'ge waves have apparently travelled 
over paths varying between 20° and 110° at rates which, rather than being 
constant, have increased from 2-1 to 3-3 kms. per second. 

The velocities giving this comparatively slight difference were however 
•determined on the assumption tl:at the times at which various earthquakes 
originated were known, and there is therefore a possibility that they may 
be apparent rather than real. 

Also it must be remarked, as pointed out by Dr. C. G. Knott, that if 
■we regard the large waves as being distortional, inasmuch as the coefficient 
of elasticity determining the velocity of propagation of such waves may 
not be greatly influenced by jsressure, it is quite conceivable that they 
should follow the preliminary tremors through our earth. The question 
then arises, whether these larger movements would be left farther and 
farther behind their precursors in the manner indicated. 

When we come to our second set of intervals, which indicate the 
■duration of the first preliminary tremors before they are eclipsed by groups 
of vibrations, which usually grow in size, and appear from their periods 
to be distortional, we .see that up to a point about 62° from an origin 
these figures apparently increase, but beyond that point they grow less. 

What we have to explain, in addition to this fact, is that of the 
continuity and growth in magnitude of what very often forms a long and 
continuous series of preliminary motions. As I have already stated, 
their very appearance indicates that they have travelled on difTerent 
ipaths. The first have followed a path entirely through our earth, whilst 
its successors have travelled shorter and .shorter distances through the 
earth to meet a crust, through which they have completed their journey 
to the observing station. The first followed Knott's brachistrochronic 
path, or that of least time, whilst the successors took paths the latter 
parts of which were along arcs of increasing length. The result of this 
would be that at an observing station vibrations would arrive in series, 
each group corresponding to an originating impulse. The last of the 
rabble would be the series representing that portion of the main shock 
which had travelled entirely round and through the crust. 

To complete this hypothesis, I here reproduce a sketch given to me 
by Dr. C. G. Knott, showing the probable form of wave fronts and paths 
of compressional vibrations passing through our earth. 

The assumption on which this is based is that the square of the speed 



232 



REPORT — 1899. 



<jf the movements is a linear function of the average depth, which'corre- 
sponds, as already indicated, with observation.^ 

The result at which Knott arrives indicates that the square of the 
speed increases at 0-9 per cent, per mile of descent in the earth, the- 



formula being 



■y^=2"9 + "026c? in mile second units. 



With an initial velocity of 1-7 mile per second the velocities at depths 
of 400, 800, 1,200, _. . . . 4,000 miles, are 3-7, 4-9, 5-8, 6-7, 7-4, 8-1, 8-7, 
9-3, 9-8 and 10-3 miles per second. The times taken for wave fronts to 




reach tlie positions shown are indicated in the diagram, the time taken, 
to jjass through the earth being twenty -two minutes. 

I assume that when a wave has passed from its origin beyond the 
region vaguely referred to as the crust of our earth, it then spreads in all 
directions through a mass in which there is only an extremely gradual 
change in elasticity and density with regard to its centre. All wave 
paths, however, before they emerge at the surface, encounter at varying 
obliquities the under surface of this crust. For purposes of illustration 
we will assume this region of abrupt change to lie on the 400-mile circle. 
The path P, meets this nearly at right angles, whilst P^ P^ meet the same 
at decreasing angles less than right angles. After each of these incidences 
a condensational wave will be refracted and split up into condensational 
and distortional rays. Now it will be observed that these two waves, 
which I will call c and d, will have diflei-ent distances to travel before 

^ See £nt, Assoc. Bcjjort, 1898, p. 221. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 233 

actual emergence, which distances will increase from P^ towards Pj. 
Directly d^ emerges, not only will c, be eclipsed, but also t'2 c^, coming 
from the direction A -f*3> "^ill ^^so be hidden. 

At some point like P3, when the duration of the preliminary tremors 
reaches a maximum on towards the origin, the quantity will decrease, if only 
on account of the fact that the velocity along the brachistrochronic ray 
differs less and less from that of the distortional wave within the crust. 
Such a view may possibly explain the rise and fall in the values of our 
last column. 

The growth in amplitude of the groups of tremors may be due to the- 
fact that the first group has travelled on the path OF^, whilst the second 
has travelled OP.2 Pj, &c., whilst the crests of these groups, especially of 
those immediately in advance of the large waves, should roughly agree- 
with the impulses which these represent. 

VII. On Certain Disturbances in the Records of 2{agnetometers and the 
Occurrence of Earthquakes. By John Milne. 

In the 'British Association Reports for 1898,' pp. 226-251, a large- 
number of records were brought together, showing what has happened at 
or about the time of large earthquakes to magnetic needles at various 
Observatories. These records may be classified as follows : 

1. Those which show that magnetographs have very frequently been 
disturbed at the time when their foundations have been moved by the- 
large but unfelt waves of earthquakes originating at a great distance. 
Examples of such movements are to be found in the registers from 
Utrecht, Potsdam, and Wilhelmshaven. For the particular kind of earth 
movement referred to, magnetic instruments at these places furnish 
records of value to the seismologist. 

2. Those which show that magnetographs are seldom, and then only 
very slightly, or in some instances apparently never disturbed at the time- 
of large earthquakes. This appears to be the case at Greenwich, Kew,, 
Falmouth, Stonyhurst, Pola, Vienna, Copenhagen, and Toronto. 

3. Those which show that magnetic needles have exhibited perturba- 
tions, frequently of considerable magnitude, a short time before the occur- 
rence of large earthquakes. As illustrative of such observations, reference 
may be made to the registers from Zikawei, Mauritius, Utrecht, and 
Gi'eenwich. Similar observations have been made in Japan. ^ 

On pp. 248-251 of the above-mentioned report, an attempt is made to- 
explain these observations, whilst to extend the same I append the 
following table received from P. Barrachi, Director of the Melbourne 
Observatory. 

Declinometer Disturbances observed at the Observatory, Melbourne. 
P. Baeeachi, Esq., Director. 

The magnetographs at Melbourne are of the same form and dimensions 
as those at Kew. The value of an ordinate of 1 inch in the curves is very 
nearly 29', and the time scale corresponds to 14-7 inches for twenty- 
four hours. 

In dealing with the curves for Observatory purposes — as, for instance, 
taking mean values, ifcc. — oscillations whose amplitudes are less than 2' 

' See Seismology, Int. Sci. Series, pp. 225, 226. 



■234 



REPORT — 1899. 



are not considered disturbances, but much smaller oscillations than these 
can easily be detected in the curves. In order to avoid any arbitration 
as to what disturbance should be singled out for the purpose of comparing 
■with the list of earthquakes, in cases where the curves appeared to be 
generally disturbed, or where more than cne disturbance occurred, or 
where several disturbances presented different characteristics, Mr. Barrachi 
has put down in the following notes all the distinctive features of the 
curves occurring within several hours, in some cases 10 or 12 hours, before 
and after the times specified in the earthquake register, noting also every 
■appreciable oscillation, however small, so that those who make com- 
parisons may discriminate for themselves. All times in the list are 
indicated as Melbourne Mean Astronomical Time, the day commencing 
at Melbourne noon, the hours being reckoned from to 24. By 
amplitude is meant the whole range of displacement. Period means 
the time taken for the double swing. When there is a movement from 
the neutral line upwards and back to the same, followed some time later 
by a movement downwards and back to the same, the latter is said to be 
in the ' opposite phase ' to the former. As these two movements may be 
independent of each other it will be recognised that the term ' opposite 
phase ' is one of convenience. ' Superimposed waves ' means that there 
are small waves which appear as regular or irregular, large or small, 
serrations on the trace of larger waves. 

The earthquake list referred to by the numbers, dates, and times in the 
first three columns is given in the ' British Association Report ' for 1898, 
p. 227. 

Melbourne astronomical time is 9h. 39m. 53 "Ss. in advance of 
<3reenwich. 



Apri 


118. 


July 


11 . 


;i 


28 . 


Aug 


25 '. 



•6 Oct. 27 . 



Mar, IC 



M.M.A.T. 
H. M. 
3 1 

20 2 



13 10 , 



15 40 I, 
17 17 



11 



19 18 



1889. 



Minute wave from Ih. 40m. to Ih. 45m., amp. under 30" 
followed by still minuter Weaves from 2h. Om. to 2h. 20m. 

Minute oscillations commenced 13h. 45m. to 141i. 5m., 
amp. under 20", larger oscillations of longer period, amp. 
above 2', from 14b. 15m. to 17b. 45m., maximum amp. 
at 17b. 20m. about 3'. 

Slightly disturbed from 151i. 40m. to 18h. One oscillation 
of long period from 15h. Om. to 15b. 22m., arap. above 2', 
followed by minute waves of sborter period. Com- 
mencement (more accurately), probably 15h. 35m. No 
other disturbance before that hour appears on this curve. 

Decided disturbance commencing 9h. 50m., with one oscilla- 
tion, amp. 3i', period 40m., followed by another wave, 
amp. 5^', time of max. amp. llh. 5m., then followed by 
less marked and irregular oscillations for Gh., gradually 
becoming normal shortly after. 

1891. 

I Curve disturbed from 7h. 5m. max., disturbances at 7h. 5m., 
with a large wave amp. 6', period 33m., and at 14h. 40m., 
with a large wave in opposite direction, amp. 7', period 
47m., followed by minute waves of very short period till 22h. 

1892. 

Slight, but well marked disturbance, commenced 8h. 30m. 
ending 9h. 35m., consisting of two waves, amp. from 
4' to 5'. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



235 



Mar. 16 



April 19 , 
May 12 , 



Oct. 19 



Nov. 4 

,. 27 
Dec. 8 , 

., 19. 



M.M.A.T. 
H. M. 
15 2 



9 10 
3 23 



2 1 

15 4 

15 37 

22 59 

22 14 



Curve very slightly disturbed, from 12h. 50m., showing 
minute waves of irregular period and amp., but less than 
2'. Almost normal after 15th. 

No disturbance. 

Minute, sudden, and very short disturbance commencing 
23h. 45m., May 11, duration 6m., consisting of two 
minute waves, amp. 1'. 

Sudden decrease of E. declination indicative of sudden dis- 
turbance, commencing Ih. 10m., mas. amp. of disturb- 
ance G', followed by minute waves of two hours, amp. 
only a few seconds of arc. Very considerable disturbances 
from 6h. 10m. continued for many hours after. 

Disturbance, commenced llli., with a large wave, amp. 11', 
period Ih., followed by another large wave, amp. C, 
period 25m., minute and irregular waves between. 

No disturbance preceding, but minute oscillations shown 
after 17h. 30m., amp. about 1'. 

Slight disturbance at I'.lh., Dec. 7, consisting of a wave, 
amp. 3i', period Ih. 20m., commencing 18h. 20m., 
followed by very minute oscillation of amp. under 1'. 

Very minute disturbance at lOh. 37m., consisting of asmall 
wave, amp. under 2'. 



Jan. 28 
„ 31 

Feb. 6 , 



91 



21 20 



1 59 
22 19 



14 47 



16 44 



IJ 


9 . 


15 


53 I 


l» 


» • 


19 


20 


)J 


») • 


20 


40" 


»» 


13 . 


14 


40 


»» 


16 . 


2 


57/ 



9 44 
4 53 



11 58 



1893. 

Minute and irregular oscillations commencing at 17h. 10m., 
amp. generally under 1', but in one wave at 19h. 10m., 
and in another at lOh. 34m., the amp. is 3'. 

No disturbance. 

Very slight disturbance shown, consisting of minute oscilla- 
tions, commencing at 19h. 27m., max. amp. 2^' at 
20h. 15m. 

Curve considerably disturbed from about llh. 30m. Sudden 
and more marked disturbance at 12h. Om., amp. of oscil- 
lation being 9', another marked oscillation at llh. 47m., 
amp. 7j' in opposite phase from the former. Followed 
by a large wave, period Ih., amp. 6' in opposite phase to 
the preceding. This wave is superimposed by minute 
oscillations. 

Minute waves of very short period following after from 
16h. 30m. for several hours afterwards, amp. from under 
1' to 2^'. 

Very minute oscillations from 17h. 50m. continued for 
more than 4h., mas. amp. about 1|'. Only one of these is 
somewhat more conspicuous than the others, this occurring 
at I8h. 55m. and perhaps another at 20h. Om. 

No disturbance. 

Curve disturbed considerably from 22h., Feb. 15, but shows 
no special characteristic to indicate the commencement of 
a sudden disturbance. The curve shows a series of waves 
of irregular period and slightly varying amp. not esceed- 
ing 3' generally ; but one wave is quite conspicuous. 
This occurs at 8h. 40m. mas. phase, period Ih. 20m., 
amp. about 10' (ten minutes of arc). 

No disturbance preceding a wave, amp. 3', commences 
6h. 25m., ends 6h. 57m., followed by two minor very 
minute waves ending 7h. 45m. 

Curve almost normal, a few very minute oscillations, amp. 
under 1' occur from llh. 10m. and continue for nearly 
12 hours after ; of these only one is somewhat more 
conspicuous than the other. This occurs at 13h. 25m., 
amp. about 2'. 



236 



REPORT — 1899. 



Feb. 22 

Mar. 2 
„ 14 



„ 20 
„ 23 



April 8 



„ 17 



„ 23 . 

„ 29 . 


11 
15 


12 
42 


May 2 . 
„ 18 . 


7 
12 


38 
19 


May ]8 . 
„ 23 . 


22 
18 


43 

18 


June 3 . 
„ 7 . 


14 

19 


5 

50 



„ 11 



„ 13 
„ 14 



July 3 . 

„ 5 . 

„ 10 . 

Aug. 1 . 

„ 3 - 

„ e . 



M.M.A.T. 

H. M. 

20 56 



20 46 
4 



14 50 

18 23 



11 31 



18 49 



S 45 
4 27 



7 45 

9 4 

9 54 

23 23 

22 32 

17 22 



„ 10 . I 18 49 



„ 14 



17 28 



Minute oscillations occur throughout for about 13 hours 
preceding this given time. The most conspicuous of these 
small and irregular oscillations occurs at llh. 35m., 
period 28m., amp. 3'. 

Very minute oscillations commence at 18h. 25m., continued 
till 22h., amp. under 2'. 

No disturbance preceding. The curves commence to be 
disturbed at 7h. 30m. : oscillations at first very small, 
but greatly increasing after llh. 30m., considerably dis- 
turbed for more than 30 hours after. 

No disturbance whatever. 

Very slight disturbance commencing 15h. 20m., consists of 
a small wave, period 5m., amp. l^', followed by other 
very minute waves, amp. under 1'. 

Decided disturbance commenced at 7h. Om., consisting of a 
large oscillation, period from 7h. Om. to 8h. 27m., amp. 
7j, with some minute waves superimposed. 

Very slight disturbance at 2h. 15m., showing a small 
oscillation, period 15m., amp. 1^', followed by a few 
almost inappreciable waves, amp. only a few seconds of 
arc. 

No disturbance. 

Disturbance commencing 8h. 30m. consi.«ting of two con- 
secutive waves, period about 25m., amp. 4', followed by 
a few very minute oscillations. 

No disturbance. 

Disturbance commencing 12h. 19m., ending 15h. 10m., con- 
sisting of a sudden small oscillation amp. under 2', followed 
by four waves, period 45m., amp. 3'. 

Small oscillation at 22h. 25m., period 10m., amp. under 2', 

Very slight disturbance, commencing at 17h. 15m., amp. of 
oscillation about 2', period one hour. 

No disturbance. 

Curve for this day slightly disturbed throughout its length. 
No particular disturbance shown for some hours before or 
after the given time. 

Curve for this day slightly disturbed throughout its length. 
No particular disturbance shown for some hours before or 
after the given time. 

No disturbance. 

Very slight disturbance (if it can be so called) at 3h. 45m., 
con-sisting of a small oscillation, period 20m., amp. about 
1'. This curve shows oscillations of this kind throughout 
at irregular intervals. Probably this should not be called 
a disturbance. 

Minute oscillations throughout the curve. No special dis- 
turbance showing. 

No disturbance. 

No disturbance. 

Disturbance very slight at 18h. 15m., consisting of a small 
wave, period 30m., amp. under 2'. 

Very minute disturbance at IGh. 55m., consisting of a small 
wave or oscillation, period 9m., amp. under 2'. 

This curve is very much disturbed thi'oughout ; but it shows 
two very conspicuous and larger disturbances, viz. : — One 
from 8h. 20m. to 9h. 50m. with amp. of 17', and another 
with amp. of 11', at from lOh. 5m. to lOh. 40m. 

Minute disturbance commencing at 19h. 55m., consisting 
of a series of minute waves, max. amp. 1^'. 

Disturbance commencing at 5h. 10m. and continuing till 
17h., but gradually decreasing in amp. from SJ' to 
nothing. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



237 



5(5 



58 

rid 
<ii 



Mar. 22 



Apr. 20 



29 



June 20 

July 10 

„ 12 



Oct. 7 



22 



M.M.A.T. 



H. 



15 



M. 

17 



17 35 



3 25 



8 10 



11 57 
9 20 



C 40 



IS 48 



1894. 



Large disturbance commencing suddenly (after a long 
series of minor oscillations) at 51i. 30m., max. amp. 21m., 
curve disturbed throughout its length. 

Curve somewhat disturbed throughout, but a slightly more 
marked disturbance is shown at 14h. Om., with an amp. 
of 4i'. 

Disturbance (slight) at 9h. 55m., rather sudden displace- 
ment of 3J', followed by a series of oscillations of very 
small ampfit ude and long period. 

Very minute series of oscillations commencing at 23h. 10m., 
April 28, ending at 23h. 55m.. amp. under 2'. 

Small oscillations appear throughout the curve. No special 
disturbance noticeable. 

Same as above, but a slightly larger oscillation occurs at 
from 6h. to 7h., amp. 3|'. 

Disturbance at 9h. 20m., rather sudden displacement of 5', 
followed by a series of minute oscillations. 

Disturbance commencing 8h. Om., with a displacement 
attaining its maximum of 6' in 20m., then followed by a 
long series of minute and short waves for four hours. 

Disturbance at lih. 4m., rather sudden displacement of 4', 
returning to normality at 12h. 40m. 

Disturbance commencing llh. 15m., curve continued dis- 
turbed for 11 hours after; but there are two oscillations 
more conspicuous than others ; one of these occurs at 
15h. 20m., amp. 6', period 50m., and the other at 
18h. Om., amp. 5', period 35m. 



*).'j Jan. 18 . 



^6 
<57 

<5S 



July 8 
Aug. 9 



Nov. 13 



12 17 



20 23 



15 18 



19 11 



r,<.) 


June 16 . 


9 


26 


70 


„ 29 . 


18 


42 


71 


Aug. 26 . 


21 


2 


72 


„ 31 . 

Sept. 5 . 


6 
21 


3 
42 



1895. 

Curve slightly disturbed throughout, viz : — From 22h, 
January 17 to 22h. January 18 ; but shows two waves, or 
displacements a great deal more conspicuous than all 
others. One of these occurs at from 7h. 20m. to 7h. 65m., 
being a wave of 4' amp. The other is a sudden displace- 
ment of 8|', and occurs at ISh. Om. 

Curve slightly wavy throughout. No special disturbance 
noticeable. 

Large disturbance from 5h. to 7h. 30m., consisting of a 
single wave, amp. 11', superimposed by minute and 
irregular waves, amp. under 2'. 

Curve disturbed at several places. The most conspicuous 
displacement occurs between 17h. Om. and ISh. Om., 
consisting of a wave of 10' amp., followed by short minute 
■waves for several hours. 

1896. 

Disturbance commencing at 8h. 5m. showing a wave, 
period 45m., amp. 8'. Another larger displacement 
commences at lOh. 40m., amp. 12', curve considerably 
disturbed for the following 12 hours. 

Curve very slightly wavy (minute oscillations amp. under 2') 
from 16h. to 22h. No special disturbance. 

Slight displacement commencing llh. 55m., ending 
13h. 30m., amp. 5', followed by a series of minute oscilla- 
tions, amp. less than 1'. 

No disturbance. 

Curve disturbed largely at several places, conspicuous 
isolated disturbance at from 6h. 20m. to 7h. 15m., amp. 
12'. Another at from 14h. 40m. to 15h. 5m., amp. 8', 
followed by minute and short waves till 20h. 



238 



REPORT — 1899. 



74 


Sept. 14 . 


M.M.A.T. 

H. M. 

8 10 


75 




2 


33 


76 


Nov. 1 . 


2 


58 


77 


Jan. 10 . 


18 


58 


78 
79 


June 12 . 

Aug. 4 . 


9 

22 


9 
2 


80 
81 
82 
83 


Sept. 20 . 

„ 21 . 

Dec. 28 . 

90 


17 
3 

18 
9 


4 

8 

34 

20 



Slight disturbance at Gh. 55m., being a wave period 20m., 

amp. 2|'. 
Conspicuous Lsolated disturbance at from 6h. 30m. to 

7h. .nOm., being an oscillation with amp. = 11^'. 
No disturbance. 



1897. 

Very minute oscillations, amp. under 2', 
14h. 8m., continued for 5 hours, then at 
slightly larger oscillation occurs, amp. 2|', 
another of same amp., but opposite phase. 

No disturbance. 

Very slight oscillations of small amp. about 2', and long 



commencing 
19h. 40m. a 
followed by 



period, commencing at 14h. 50m. 

disturbance. 
No disturbance. 
No disturbance. 



Hardly to be called a 



VIII. Form of Reports. 

It is desirable that Reports on Earthquakes should contain the follow- 
ing information : — 

1. Greenwich Mean Civil Time (midnight := or 24 hrs.) of the com- 
mencement of motion. 

2. The duration of the^rs^ preliminary tremors (P.T.'s) usually repre- 
sented by a broadening of the normal line. 

3. The interval between the commencement of motion and the maxi- 
mum motion. 

4. The interval between the maximum and its apparent repetition^ 
which, when it occurs, does so a few minutes later. This is the interval 
1 to 1' seen in fig. 3, p. 229. 

5. The amplitude or half-range of the maximum motion expressed in 
millimetres and seconds of arc. 

6. The total duration of the disturbance. 

7. For large earthquakes a contact print, or at least a tracing of 
the disturbance, may be appended. 

8. The time, duration, and amplitude of isolated broadenings of the 
normal trace. These must not be confounded with air tremors. 

For the ordinary working of the instrument, see ' Brit. Assoc. Report/ 
1897, p. 137. 



PhotograpMc Meteorology. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. G. J. Symons (chairman), Mr. A. W. Clayden {Secretary)^ 
Professor K. Meldola, Mr. John Hopkinson, and Mr. H. N. 
Dickson, appointed to apply Photography to the Elucidation of 
Meteorological Phenomena. {Braivn up by the Secretary.) 

The work of the Committee has for some years past been practically 
limited to the photographic measurements of cloud altitudes by the Sec- 
retary. During the year just brought to a close very little progress has 



ON PHOTOGRAPHIC METEOROLOGY. 231> 

been possible with such systematic observations, but some particularly 
good examples of rare types of cloud have been photographed, and some 
valuable studies of lightning have been secured. So far as those latter 
have been examined they fully confirm the conclusions of this Committee 
as expressed in the reports for 1891, 1892, and 1893, which maybe briefly 
summarised thus : — 

1. The reality of the narrow ribbon structure. 

2. The existence of visible multiple discharges. 

3. The compound nature of many discharges. 

4. The long duration of many discharges. 

During a storm which passed over Exeter on July 22, about sunset^ 
a phenomenon was many times observed which seems to deserve further 
study. 

This was a narrow ribbon flash of somewhat long duration (I'O to 
2 "5 seconds) which broke up into a long train of sparks like the trail of a 
rocket. These sparks faded away gradually, some of them lasting for a 
second or two. 

The phenomenon does not seem to have been recorded photographically, 
but is doubtless the explanation of the beads of extra bright light shown 
on some photographs of lightning. 

It is worthy of note that the beaded discharges referred to accom- 
panied exceptionally heavy rain. This suggests that the explanation may 
be the dissociation of water and recombination of the liberated gases. 

The appreciable duration of the combustion may be due to the greater 
diffusibility of the hydrogen carrying some of it beyond the oxygen and 
thereby slackening the velocity of combination. Each dissociated drop 
would give a ball of mixed gases in proportions exact at the centre, but 
departing more and more from exactness towards the margin, where the 
time of combustion would be correspondingly prolonged. 

The relation between the thunder-cloud and lightning has been very 
clearly visible on several occasions. The cloud has always a peculiar 
structure, which may be described as a lower cumulus disc uprising as a 
thick column in the middle, which spreads out again at perhaps twice as 
great an altitude in a more or less cirriform disc. In such a stoi-m, which 
is typical, the majority of the discharges pass between the margins of the 
upper and lower discs, or from one side to the other of either disc. Such- 
flashes seem to be generally of a comparatively simple type. They may 
branch or twist about or resemble the ordinary discharge of an induction 
coil or Wimshurst machine. 

These flashes are often accompanied by, or immediately fulloived by 
more brilliant discharges between the lower disc and the earth. This is 
the 'impulsive rush 'of Dr. Lodge, and it is in such dit-charges that the 
phenomena of multiple and beaded structures are presented. They are 
analogous to the discharges between the knobs of two oppositely charged 
Leyden jars whose outer coatings are imperfectly connected. 

No grant is asked for ; but the work of the Committee cannot be 
regarded as complete until a much larger number of measurements of 
altitude have been made, and they therefore ask for reappointment. 



240 REPORT— 1899. 



Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical StoMdards for 
use in Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
ofliovd Rayleigh (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
Oliver J. Lodge, and G. Carey Foster, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir 
W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. Everett and A. Schuster, 
Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. FitzGerald and J. J. 
Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Eev. T. C, 
FiTZPATRiCK, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, Professor A. W. Rucker, and Professor H. L. 
Callendar. 

APrKXPIX PAGE 

I. On the Mutual Tnductwn of Coaxial Helices. By Loed EAYiiEiGH . . 241 
II. Proposals for a Standard Scale of Temperature based on the Platinum 

Resistance Thermometer. By Professor H. L. Callendar . . . 212 
III. Comparison of Platinum and Gaa Thermometers. By Dr. P. Chappuis 

a7id Dr. J. A. Harker 243 

IV. On the Exjyaiision of Porcelain lelth Else of Tempet-ature. B>/ T. G. Bedford 245 

The Committee have been engaged dui'ing the year on the consideration 
■of the details of the new ampere balance, for which a grant of oOOl. was 
voted at Bristol. 

Professors Ayrton and Viriamu Jones have completed the plans and 
specifications, and the construction of the balance has been authorised. 

An important addition to the plan proposed at Bristol consists of an 
arrangement for adjusting accurately the position of the fixed coils. Sir 
Andrew Noble has generously undertaken to have this constructed at 
Elswick free of cost, and the Committee desire to thank him for the offer, 
which they have gladly accepted. 

In consequence of the fact that the balance is not yet completed, the 
grant of 300^. made last year has not been expended, and the Committee 
apply for its renewal. 

An appendix to the Report contains a proof by Lord Rayleigh of a 
theorem due to Professor J. V. Jones, on which the mathematical theory 
of the new balance is based. 

Details of the balance are reserved until it has actually been con- 
structed. 

Professor Callendar has brought before the Committee proposals for 
the adoption of a standard scale of temperature based on the Platinum 
Resistance Thermometer. These are printed in an appendix and formed 
the basis of a discussion in the Section. A sub-Committee has been 
formed to consider these proposals and to report to the Committee. 

The ordinary testing of standards has been interrupted by the removal 
of the Secretary to Liverpool, and still further by his proposed removal 
to Kew. With respect to this the Committee have passed the following 
resolution : — 

That Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, as Secretary of the Committee, be 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 21.1 

?iuthorised aiid requested to retain the custody of the Electrical Standards 
of the Association, and to remove them from Liverpool to London when 
he takes up his post as Director of the National Physical Laboratory. 

Tlie removal of the Standards and the investigations of a Platinum 
Thermometry will necessitate some expenditure during the year. 

The Committee therefore recommend that they be reappointed, with 
the addition of Sir William Roberts- Austen and Mr. Matthey, and with a 
^rant of 251. in addition to the unexpended balance (300^.) of last year's 
grant, and that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman and Mr. R. T. Glazebrook 
.Secretary. 



APPENDIX I. 



The Mutual Induction of Coaxial Helices. Bij Lord Rayleigh. 

Professor J. V. Jones' has shown that the coefficient of mutual induction (M) 
Tietween a circle aud a coaxial helix is the same as between the circle and a 
uniform circular cylindrical current-sheet of the same radial and axial dimensions 
as the belix, if the currents per unit length in helix and sheet be the same. This 
conclusion is arrived at by comparison of the integrals resulting from an applica- 
tion of Neumann's formula; and it maybe of interest to show that it may be 
deduced directly from the general theory of lines of force. 

In the first place, it may be well to remark that the circuit of the helix must 
be supposed to be completed, and that the result will depend upon the manner in 
which the completion is arranged. In the general case the return to the starting- 
point might be by a second helix lying upon the same cylinder ; but for practical 
purposes it will sulilce to treat of helices including an integral number of revohi- 
tions, 80 that the initial and final points lie upon the same generating line. The 
return will then naturally be efiected along this straight line. 

Let us now suppose that the helix, consisting of one revolution or of any 
number of complete revolutions, is situated in a held of magnetic force sym- 
metrical with re.spect to the axis of the helix. In considering the number of 
lines of force included in the complete circuit, it is convenient to follow in imagi- 
nation a radius-vector drawn perpendicularly to the axis from any point of the 
circuit. The number of lines cut by this radius, as the complete circuit is 
described, is the number required, and it is at once evident that the part of the 
circuit corresponding to the straight return contributes nothing to the total.- 
As regards any part of the helix corresponding to a rotation of the radius through 
an angle dd, it is equally evident that in the limit the number of lines cut through 
is the same as in describing an equal angle of the circular section of the cylinder 
at the place in question, whence Professor Jones's result ibllows immediately. 
Every circular section is sampled, as it were, by the helix, and contributes 
proportionally to the result, since at every point the advance of the vector 
parallel to the axis is in strict proportion to the rotation. It is remarkable that 
the case of the helix (with straight return) is simpler than thst of a system of 
true circles in parallel planes at intervals equal to the pitch of the helix. 

The replacement of the heli.x by a uniform current-sheet shows that the force 
operative upon it iu the direction of the axis ((ZM/^.c) depends only upon the 
values of M appropriate to the two terminal circles. 

If the field is itself due to a current flowing in a helix, the condition of 

' Proc. Roy. Sue. vol. Ixiii. (1897), p. 192. 

- This would be true so long as the return lies anywhere in the meridional plane. 
In the general case, where the number of convolutions is inctmp'ete, the return may 
be made along a path composed of the extreme radii ^ectorcs a- d of the part of the 
axis intercepted between them. 

1899. R 



242 REPORT— 1899. 

pymmetr}- alDout tlie axis is only approximately satisfied. Tlie question wbether 
toth helices may be replaced by the correspondintr current-sbeets is to be 
answered in the negative, as may be seen from consideration of the case where 
there are two helices of the same pitch on cylinders of nearly equal diameters. 
In one relative position of the cylinders the paths are in close proximity through- 
out, and the value of M will be large, but this state of things may be greatly 
altered by a relative rotation through two right angles. 

But although in strictness the helices cannot be replaced by current-sheets, 
the complication thence arising can be eliminated in experimental applications by 
a relative rotation. For instance, if the helix to which the field is supposed to 
be due be rotated, the mean field is strictly symmetrical, and accordingly the mean 
M is the same as if the other helix were replaced by a current-sheet. A further 
application of Professor Jones's theorem now proves that the first helix may also 
be so replaced. Under such conditions as would arise in practice, the mean of 
two positions distant 180°, or at any rate of four distant 00°, would suffice to 
eliminate any difference between the helices and the corresponding current-sheets, 
if indeed such difference were sensible at all. 

The same process of averaging suffices to justify the neglect of spirality when 
the observation relates to the mutual attraction of two helices as employed in 
current determinations. 



APPENDIX II. 

Proposals for a Standard Scale of Temperature based on the Platinum 
Resistance Tliermometer. To he submitted to the Electrical Standards 
Committee. Drawn up by Professor H. L. Callendar, M.A., F.H.S, 

The following proposals are submitted in consideration of the importance of 
adopting a practical thermometric standard for the accurate verification and 
comparison of scientific measurements of temperature. The gas thermometer, 
Avhich has long been adopted as the theoretical standard, has given results so 
discordant in the hands of different observers at high temperatures, as greatly to 
retard the progress of research. 

The arguments in favour of the adoption of the platinum resistance thermo- 
meter as a practical standard were given by Professor H. L. Callendar, in a paper 
' On the Practical Measurement of Temperature,' communicated to the Pioyal 
Society in June 1888, and published in the ' Phil. Trans.' in the following year. 
These arguments have since been confirmed and strengthened by the work of 
many independent observers. 

The Electrical Standards Committee of the British Association has done so 
much in the past with reference to the adoption of the present electrical standards, 
and more recently in connection with the adoption of the joule as the absolute 
unit of heat, that it would appear to be the most appropriate authoritj' for the 
discussion and approval in the first instance of proposals relating to an electrical 
standard of thermometry. 

The suggestions for the standard scale of temperature here proposed may be 
embodied in the following resolutions : — 

(1) That a particular sample of platinum wire be selected, and platinum 
resistance thermometers constructed to serve as standards of the platinum scale of 
temperature. 

(Note. — A degree centigrade of temperature on the scale of a platinum resist- 
ance thermometer corresponds to an increase of resistance equal to the hundredth 
part of the change of resistance between 0° and 100° C. In other words tempera- 
ture ^)f on the platinum scale is defined by the formula 

jpt =^100 (R-R°) / (R'--R°), 

in v/hicli the letters E, R°, and R' stand for the resistances of the thermometer at 



TRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 243 

the teaiperatiives pt, 0°, and 100° C, respectively. The meltiug-poiut of ice is takeu 
as the zero of tiiis scale in accordance with common usage.) 

(2) That the scale of temperature t deduced from the standard platinum scale 
by means of the parabolic difference formula, 

t-pt = d{t\100-\)t I 100, 

■which has been proved to give a very close approximation to the true or thermo- 
dynamic scale, be recommended for adoption as a practical standard of reference, 
and be called the British Association Scale of Temperature. 

(Note. — The gas thermometer would still remain the ultimate or theoretical 
standard, and the exact relation of the British Association scale to the absolute 
scale would be the subject of future investigation. In the present state ol 
experimental science, the' difference between the two scales over the greater part 
of the range is less than the probable errors of measurement with the gas 
thermometer, and the possible accuracy of measurement with a platinum thermo- 
meter, especially at high temperatures, is of a much higher order than with the 
gas thermometer. Measurements directly referred to the British Association scale 
would therefore be of greater permanent value, because they could be subsequently 
corrected when the relation between the scales had been more accurately 
determined.) 

(3) That the value of the difference-coefficient d in the parabolic difference- 
formula be determined for the British Association standard thermometers by 
reference to the boiling-point of sulphur as a secondary fixed point in the manner 
described by Callendar and Griffiths, ' Phil. Trans. A, 1891.' 

{Note.— It is probable that this method gives the best results over the whole 
range at temperatures above —100° C. At very low temperatures there appear to 
be singularities in the resistance variation of metals which require further investiga- 
tion. The boiling-point of liquid oxygen would be a more convenient secondary 
ii.xed point to choose for low temperature research, especially for testing thermo- 
meters the construction of which did not permit their exposure to a temperature 
as high as that of boiling sulphur.) 

(4) That the temperature of the normal boiling-point of sulphur under a 
pressure of 760 mm. of mercury reduced to 0° C, and latitude 45°, be taken for the 
purposes of the British Association scale as 44453° C, as determined by Callendar 
and Griffiths (loe. cif.), with a constant pressure air-thermometer. 

(Note. — Until the relation between the various gas-thermometer scales, and 
the expansion of glass and porcelain, have been more accurately determined, it 
does not appear that anything would be gained by changing this value to which 
so much accurate work has already been referred.) 



APPENDIX III. 

A Comparison of Platinum and Gas Thermometers made at the Interna- 
tional Bureav, of Weights and Measures at Stvrcs. By Dr. P. 
Chappuis and Dr. J. A. Harker. 

Professor Callendar in 1886 investigated the method of measuring temperature 
based on the determination of the electrical resistance of a platinum wire. 

He pointed out that if Pt^ denote the resistance of the spiral of a particular 
platinum thermometer at 0°, and It, its resistance at 100°, we may establish for 
the particular wire a scale, which we may call the scale of platinum temperature,-, 
such that if E be the resistance at any "temperature T°, this temperature on the 

platinum scale will be ^ ^° x 100 degrees. For this quantity Callendar em- 

ploys the symbol pt. 

R 3 



214 REroRT— 1890. 

In order to reduce to tlie standard scale of temperature tlie indications of any 
platinum thermometer, it is necessary to know the law connecting pt and T. 
These are identical at 0° and 100°, but the determination of the relationship 
between them at other temperatures is a matter for experiment. 

The work of (Jallendar established for a particular sample of platinum the 
relation 



r T 



' T_| 
- 100 



I 



over the range G° to 600°, T Ijeing measured on the constant pressure air-scale, 
and S being a constant. 

Later experiments by Cailendar and Griffiths showed that this relation holds 
for platinum wires generalh', provided that they are not very impure. They 
propose that the value of S, the constant employed in the formula, should be 
determined by taking the resistance of the thermometer in the vapour of sulphur, 
and a new determination hy them of the boiling-point of this substance, under 
normal pressure, gave 444°'Ou on the air scale. 

The present communication gives a short account of some experiments which 
are the outcome of the collaboration of the Kew Observatory Committee and the 
authorities of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures at Sevres, for the 
purpose of carrying out a comparison of some platinum thermometers with the 
recognised International Thermometric Standards. A. full account of the 
work will shortly appear in the ' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society ' and in the ' Travaux et Mdmoires du Bureau International des Poids et 
Mesures.' 

A new specially designed resistance-box, together with several platinum 
thermometers, and the other accessories needed, were constructed for the Kew 
Committee, and after their working had been tested at the Kew Observatory, 
they were set up at the Sevres Laboratory in August 1897. The resistance-box 
in its general desiga was very similar to the one previously described before this 
Section by Mr. CTriffiths, but the plugs were replaced by a special form of contact 
maker, and the coils were of manganine instead of platinum-silver. The methods 
adopted for the standardisation of the apparatus only difiered in a few details 
from those of Cailendar and Griffiths. 

The comparisons made between the platinum thermometers and the standards 
of the Bureau may be divided into several groups. The first group of experi- 
ments covers the range (— 23° to 80°), and consists of a large number of com- 
parisons between each platinum thermometer and the primary mercury standards 
of the Bureau, whose relation to the normal hydrogen scale had previously been 
studied by one of us. 

Above 80° the mercury thermometers were replaced by a gas thermometer,, 
constructed for measurements up to high temperatures. 

We at first attempted to use hydrogen as the gas for these measurements, but, 
owing probably to a slow chemical action taking place between the gas and the 
glass reservoir in which it was enclosed, we were afterwards compelled to sub- 
stitute nitrogen, which we have not observed to exert any action on the material 
of the envelope up to a full red heat. 

The comparisons between 80° and 200° were made in a vertical bath of stirred 
oil, heated by diflerent liquids boiling under varying pressures. For work above 
200° a bath of mixed nitrates of potash and soda was substituted for the oil tank. 
In this bath comparisons of the two principal platinum thermometers with the 
gas thermometer were made up to 460°, and with a third thermometer, which was 
provided with a porcelain tube, we were able to go up to 590°, the glass reservoir 
of the gas thermometer being replaced by one of porcelain, whose dilatation had 
previously been measured by the Fizeau method. Comparisons of the platinum 
and gas scales were carried out at over 150 different points, each comparison 
consisting of either ten or twenty readings of the different instruments. 

Bj' the intermediary of the platinum thermometers a determination of the 



TRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 21j 

boiling-point of sulpliur on the nitrogen scale was also made. Three independent 
sets of determinations of this point gave the following results : 

o 

(1) riatiimm thermometer K. 9, and fflass gas-tbermometer, 44o-'27. 
(•2) ., „ K. 9, 2wrcclaia „ 445-2G. 

(••3) ;, „ K.8, „ „ 445-29. 

The mean of these, 445°-27, representing the temperature on the scale of tlm 
constant volume nitrogen thermometer, differs only 0°-7 from that found by 
Callendar and Griffiths for the same temperature expressed on the constant 
pressure air-scale. 

If, for the reduction of the platinum temperatures in our comparisons, we adopt 
the parabolic formula, and the value of 8 obtained by assuming our new number 
for the sulphur point, we find that below 100° the differences between the 
observed values on the nitrogen scale and those deduced from the platinum ther- 
motuetev are very small, seldom exceeding 0°-01, and that even at the highest 
temperatures the difference only amounts to a few tenths of a degree. 

APPENDIX IV. 

On the Uxpansion of Porcelain tvith Rise of Temperahire. 
By T. G. Bedford, B.A. Cambridge. 

In direct comparisons of the scales of temperature given by air and by platinum- 
resistance thermometers at high temperatures, the expansion of the porcelain 
envelope enters as a small correction. 

In the experiments described in this paper, a direct determination of the linear 
expansion of porcelain was made at temperatures from 0° C to 830° 0. The 
method used was essentially the same as that described by Callendar (' Phil. Trans.' 
1887, A. p. 167). 

On a tube of Bayeux porcelain two fine transverse marks were made at a 
distance about 91-3 cm. apart. The tube was heated to as high a temperature as 
possible in a gas furnace, and was then slowly cooled by diminishing the gas 
supply. During cooling the variation in the distance between the marks was 
determined by a pair of reading microscopes which were mounted on stone blocks 
and not touched except by the screw-head during an experiment. The readings of 
the microscopes for a standard length (a glass tube kept in melting ice) were taken 
at intervals. 

The temperatures corresponding to the length measurements were deduced 
from the resistance of a platinum wire running from mark to mark in the axis of 
the tube and supported on a plate of mica. The resistances in ice and steam were 
taken after each exposure to a high temperature. The sample of platinum wire 
from which the piece used in these experiments was cut is known to have a value 
of S, in Oalleudar's formula, from I'oO to ISl. The value 8 = I'oO.j was used, and 
thus a direct determination of the resistance at the temperature of boiling sulphur 
was avoided. An error of -Ol in S causes an error of less than 1° in the calculated 
value oU at 1,000° C. 

Four main experiments were made ; the results were plotted and are reproduced 
on the accompanying slide. 

From 0° 0. to GOC° C. the results are represented fairly well by the formula 

/, = /„(! + 34-25 X lQ-''t + 10-7 .< 10-'"^-). 

Above 600° C. the points are more erratic, but still do not depart far on either 
side from the curve given by the above formula. 

A length of about G cm. at either end of the tube -was not directly heated by 
the furnace. Hence there is an uncertainty due to the ends (greater at the higher 
temperatures), since the coefficient of expansion varies with the temperature. 

For cubical expansion the above formula gives 

i\ = v (1 + 102-7o X 10-'^ + 32-4 X 10 -'"^2). 



216 EEPORT— 1899. 



Heat of Gomhl nation of Metals in the Formation of Alloijs. — Report of 
the Gomviittee, consisting of liord Kelvin (Chairman), Professor 
G. F. Fit/.Gekald, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Professor 0. J. Lodge, 
and Dr. Alexander Galt (Secretary). 

At last year's meeting at "Bristol Dr. Gait submitted to Section A an 
account ' of some experiments which he had made on the heat of com- 
bination of zinc and copper. The Association then granted 20/. for the 
continuance of the experiments. The work was accordingly continued by 
Dr. Gait, and the Committee have received from him tlie following 
account of his experiments made since the Bristol Meeting : — 

Altogether twenty-two different alloys of zinc and copper, whose com- 
position varied from 5 to 90 per cent, of copper, were made for this 
investigation from practically pure metals, and their analyses determined 
by Messrs. Johnson, Matthey, and Co., London. The first set of five, num- 
bered A, B, C, D, E, was sent on March 16, 1898 ; the second set, of 
seven, numbered 1-7, on December 1, 1898, and the third and final set 
of ten, numbei'ed L-Y, on March 8, 1899. With these alloys and witli 
the corresponding mixtures of the metals, all in fine filings, the experi- 
ments were carried out. The procedure adopted was exactly similar to 
that described in detail in last year's paper, and each experiment was 
repeated from three to six times, until consistent results for the heat of 
solution in each case were obtained, and the mean of these was taken. 
The heat of solution of zinc alone and of copper alone was also ascertained 
in a similar manner. The total weight of the whole apparatus (excluding 
acid and metallic filings) was 42 grammes, and its water equivalent 
was found to be 5-7 grammes. The specific heat of the nitric acid used, 
density 1'360 at 15° C, was determined, and the mean of several values 
was ■658. 

A tabular statement of results is appended. The absolute amount of 
heat evolved in dissolving 1 gramme of metal is calculated from the 
following formula : — 

ll=t{(i:r/.s.) + c], where 

t = increase of temperature in Centigrade degrees of the acid used 

per gramme of metal dissolved, 
v = volume of the acid in cubic centimetres, 
g = density of the acid, 
s = specific heat of the acid, 
•c = water equivalent of the apparatus. 

The specific heat of the metal used is negligible, and is not taken into 
account. 

The heat units evolved by the solution of 1 gramme of each alloy 
and of the corresponding mixture are shown on fig. 1, values for mix- 
tures being denoted by a small circle, those for alloys by a small cross. 
On the same figure ai'e shown the results for 1 gramme of zinc alone, and 
also for 1 gramme of copper alone, and on joining these two points by a 

' Brit. Assoc. Itcj). 1898, pp. 787, 788. 



HEAT OV COMmXATION OF METALS IN EORMATIOX OF ALLOYS. 217 
Fig. 1.— Heat of Solution of Copper-Zinc Mixtures and Alloj-s. Sept. 1800. 




/(? 20 30 to 

° Mixtures. 



SO so 70 so 30 lOO 

X Alloys. 



Fig. 2. — Heat of Combination of Copper-Zinc AUojs 

(70X 




218 



KEI'ORT — 1899. 



straiglit line one might expect all the results for mixtures to lie on this line' ;: 
and tliis is approxin)ately true for all, except in the case of those mixtures 
<!0ntaining from about 15 to about 40 per cent, copper which indicate a 
drop, probably due to unavoidable errors in the experimental work. 

The difference between the absolute heat of solution of 1 gramme of 
each mixtui'e and its corresponding alloy indicates the heat of com- 
bination of the metals in forming 1 gramme of alloy. These differences 
are shown on fig. 2, and they indicate that the heat of combination is 
at first negative, which reaches a maximum when the alloy contains about 
16 per cent, of copper. With greater percentages of copper the negative 
value of the heat of combination i-apidly falls to zero and then becomes, 
positive. The maximum positive value is very soon reached at about 
.■}8 per cent, copper, which is near the formula CuoZn;,. Beyond this 
point the heat of combination gradually becomes less, until at 90 per cent- 
copper it almost vanishes. 

















Absolute 


two 
mount 
I of the 
illoy 




Percentnge 


Weight 

of 
metal 
dis- 
solved 
in each 


Quan- 
tity of 
acid 


Mean increase of 
temperature of acid 


amount of 
lieat evolved 
in dissolving 


,U C3 ♦- =» 


No. of 


Compo 


sition 


used in 

each 
experi- 


/ipr f/ramme of metal 
dissolved, expressed 
in degrees Centicrade 


1 gramme of 
metal, ex- 
pressed in 


g) ® O QO 

5^ SrH 


Alloy 






experi- 
ment 


ment 






(gramme- 
wateri heat- 
units Cent. 


T^ on rti CO - 










































— "^^ 1— . 




Copper 
5.00 


Zinc 


Grm. 


Cubic 
centi- 
metres 



100 


Mix- 
ture 


Alloy 


Differ- 
ence 


Mix- 
ture 


Alloy 
1380 


03 ;:: -^ d 


1 


95-00 


•4 


14-52 


14-47 


-I- 0-05:1385 


+ 4-7 


2 


10-50 


8;j-50 


•4 


95 


14-77 


14-85 


-0-08 


1340 


1347 


- G8 


3 


Ifi-OO 


84-00 


•4 


80 


16-65 


lG-95 


-0-.30 


1287 


1310 


-23-0 


4 


20-50 


79-50 


•4 


85 


15-23 


1510 


-0-17 


1244 


1258 


-14 


A 


25-14 


74-8fi 


■5 


90 


13-94 


13-90 


4- 0-04 


1202 


1198-5 


+ 3-5 


.5 


2fi-50 


73 50 


•5 


100 


12-.54 


12-50 


+ 0-04 


117G-3 


1192-5 


+ 3-8 


1j 


28-75 


71 25 


•5 


90 


13-84 


13-74 


-hO-10 


1194 


1185-4 


+ 8-6 


' M 


30 00 


7000 


•5 


90 


13-58 


13-26 


+ 32 


1171 


1144 


+ 27 


N 


HHOO 


(i7 00 


• J^ 


80 


14-60 


14-14 


+ 0-46 


1129 


1094 


+ 35 


() 


34-.50 


65 50 


•5 


80 


1452 


14-04 


+ 0-48 


1123 


108G 


+ 87 


(1 


:-?8-C0 


62 00 


•5 


90 


12-74 


11-98 


+ 0-76 


1099 


1034 


+ 65 


]'. 


38-38 


61-62 


•5 


90 


12-GG 


12-00 


+ 0-66 


1092 


1035 


+ 57 


i P 


43 00 


57-00 


•5 


90 


12-3G 


11-72 


+ 0-64 


1066 


1011 


+ .55 


i 7 


45-50 


54-50 


•5 


80 


13-54 


12-84 


+ 0-70 


1047 


993 


+ 54 


1 


49-10 


50-90 


■5 


80 


13-14 


12-48 


+ 0-6G 


lOlG 


9G5 


+ 51 


' Q 


52-50 


47-50 


5 


75 


13-58 


12 90 


+ 0-G8 


988-8 


939-8 


+ 49 


]t 


58-00 


42-00 


•5 


70 


13-94 


13-32 


+ 0-G2 


952-8 


910-8 


+ 42 


! ^^ 


(i2-27 


37 73 


•5 


70 


13-40 


12-88 


+ 0-52 


915 8 


880-8 


+ .35 


1 !S 


ri9-00 


31-00 


•5 


70 


12-68 


12-28 


+ 0-40 


86G-8 


839-S 


+ 27 


: K 


75-225 


24-775 


.5 


70 


11-82 


11-52 


+ 0-30 


807-9 


787-9 


+ 20 


i T 


81 -.'iO 


18-50 


■r. 


70 


11-lG 


10-92 


+ 0-24 


762-G 


746-6 


+ 16 


1 V 


'JO-25 


9-75 


•5 


70 


10-18 


10-02 


+ 016 


695 5 


684-5 


+ 11 


1 Copper 


100 


— 


.86 


90 


7-00 


— 


— 


604 


— 


— 


j Zinc 


— 


100 


•38 


90 


lG-60 





— 


1432 


— • 


— 



HEAT OF COMBINATION OF METALS IN FORMATION OF ALLOYS. 241*' 

Tlie experiments were made accortling to the method fully described 
in a paper by Dr. Gait, on "Heat of Combination of Metals," com- 
municated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, on March 7, 1898.' 
In each case of solution the nitrous products remained in the liquid, the 
vessel in which the solution took place being kept closed by a cork. The 
importance of this arrangement is illustrated by the following statement 
extracted from the paper just referred to : — 

" If the method of pouring the acid on the filings or of dropping tho 
filings into the acid had been adopted, a violent action would havt-. 
occurred, and it would not have been possible to prevent the loss of heat 
due to escape of fumes. But the plan adopted effectually got rid of this 
<lifficulty by the almost instantaneous projection of the bulb containing tlit; 
filings to the bottom of the acid.'-' It was very interesting to watch the 
scouring effect in the bulb due to the chemical action ; the filings were almost 
instantaneously expelled from it by the rapid evolution of gas, the removal 
being facilitated by the existence of the two apertures already described. 
The gentle rotatory motion given to the acid was kept up while solution 
was going on, and when it was complete the thermometer reading was 
again noted. Tiie time required to effect solution was 50 to 55 seconds, 
and it was observed that complete solution and maximum temperature 
were reached about the same time." 

Addition hy the Chairman. 

The Committee has carefully considei'ed an objection to the method of' 
experiment which was suggested after the reading of the Report at the 
Dover meeting, to the effect that nitrous products evolved from the 
solution might be different in the cases of the solution of the mi.xture- 
and the solution of the alloy. It seems not probable that even if gaseous- 
products liad been allowed to escape, they would have been different in 
these two cases ; but as the whole nitrogenous products remained in the 
solution in each case, it seems scarcely possible that there can have been 
any final chemical difference in the solutions. As, however, the question 
has been suggested, a chemical investigation of the solutions in tlie two 
cases might be interesting. K. 

Addition h)j Dr. Gladstone. 

This suggestion of the Chairman seems to me most important, and one 
that ought to be carried out, as there is reason to believe that the chemical 
products in the two solutions would be different. J. H. G. 

Addition by Professors FitzGeraJd and Lodge. 

The above report was drawn up by Dr. Gait, and though we consider 
it most interesting, and have reason to believe that if the experiments 
■were repeated the results would not be very different, yet, as it has been 
suggested that the chemical products resulting from actions on the mixed 
metals and on the alloy might be different, we do not feel justified in con- 
cluding that the heat of combination of the metals can be safely deduced 
from these results in the simple way suggested. G. F. F.-G., O. J. L. 

' rroc. R.S.E. vol. xxii., 1898, p. l,",?. 

- Andrews's Scientific Papers, p. 214. Every chemist is familiar with the violent 
action of nitric acid on zinc and copper, and "the abundant evolution of gas which 
accompanies it. But the facility with which the gases miybe condensed by the 
acid solution is probably not so generally known, and when the experiment is made 
for the first time it cannot fail to excite* surprise. 



250 



REPORT — 1899. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, 
consistiiKj of Lord McLaren, Professor A. Crum Brown {Secre- 
tary), Sir John Murray, Professor Copeland, and Dr. Alexander 
BucHAN. (Brawn tip hij Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee was appointed as in past years for the purpose of co- 
operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteorologi- 
cal observations at the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

The hourly eye observations, made by night as well as by day, which 
are a speciality of the Ben Nevis Observatory, being as yet not attempted 
at any other first-class meteorological observatory in the world, were 
made with complete regularity by Mr. A.ngus Rankin and his assistants. 

The health of the staff at the high level Observatory continued good, 
and the heavy work of the Observations has been carried on without the loss 
of a single hour's observations. The Directors desire to express their very 
cordial thanks to Messrs. J. S. Begg, M.A., P. S. Hardie, AV. A. Bartlett, 
Andrew Hunter, and T. Kilgour, for the invaluable assistance they 
rendered as volunteer observers, thus enabling them to give the members 
of the staff the relief they greatly stood in need of. Special thanks are 
due to Mr. Begg for the great service he rendered in taking at no small 
personal risk the place of observer at Fort "William during the time of 
the influenza there, which was of an exceptionally severe character. 

The observations at the intermediate station on Ben Nevis, •2,200 feet, 
were again undertaken by Mr. T. S. Muir, M.A., assisted by the late 
Mr. Campbell Irons. These observations, together with those made in 
1897, are being discussed by Mr. Muir, under the superintendence of 
Mr. Omond. Arrangements were made for the resumption of these 
valuable observations during the current holiday season. The observa- 
tions will be made on the lines indicated in your Committee's Report of 
last year. 

The principal results of the observations of 1898 are detailed in 
Table I. 











Table 


I. 












1898 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March 


April 1 May | June 


July 1 Aug. ] Sept. 


Oct. Nov. Dec. 


Yea.r 






Mean Prrssiire in Inches. 




Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort Wil'iiam 
Differences . 


25-430 

30040 
4-610 


25-097 25-2G2I 25-207 25-273' 25-413 

29-720 29-89fij 29-770 29-830 29-914 
4-C23I 4-G34t 4-563t 4-557| 4-501 


25-547 25-394; 25-473 

30-063 29-86G 29-958 
4-51G 4-472 4-485 


25-274' 25-180' 25-149 25-309 

29-779| 29-735 29-716 29'858 
4-505| 4-5j5| 4-567 4-549 






Mean Temperatures. 




BenNevisOb- 

servatorv 
Port William 
Differences . 


o 
29-3 

41-2 
14-9 


o 
22-4 

39-5 
17-1 


23°4 

40-1 

16- r 


1 

29-8 31-3 

47-1 ' 48-2 
17-3 , lG-0 


38°S 

55-1 
16-3 


o 
41-0 

56-5 
15-5 


o 
40-9 

57-0 
lG-1 


o 
42-6 

55-2 
12-6 


o 

35-7 28-9 

50-C 42-7 
14-9 1 13-8 


28°2 

43-8 
15-6 


32-7 

48-4 

15-7 






Extremes of Temiicrature, Maxima. 




BenXevisOb- 

servatorv 
Fort William 
Differences . 


o 

39-0 

53-0 
14-0 


37°-9 

52-4 
14-5 




37-1 

51-7 
14-G 


o 1 o 
41-3 51-2 

GO-G G4-3 
19-3 , 131 


o 
52-1 

72-0 
19-9 


o 
55-9 

74-6 
18-7 


55-3 

:g-9 

21-J 


o 
62-6 

79-7 
171 


o ' o 
57- 1 43-9 

73-8 55-9 
10-0 , 12-0 


o 
39-3 

53-2 
13-9 


79-7 
17-1 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OX BEX XEVIS. 
Tablk I. — continued. 



251 



1898 


Jan. 


Feb. Illarclil April 


May 


June 


Jnly 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Deo. 


Year 






Extremes of Tenqierature, Minima. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servaton- 
Fort William 
Differences . 


o 
21-2 

31-9 
10-7 


o o 
9-0 13-1 

26-2 26-7 
Iti-U : 13-6 


O 

15-2 

28-6 
13-4 


O 

19-3 

32-3 
13-0 


o 
20-5 

42-8 
16-3 


o 
30-1 

42-0 
11-9 


29°0 

43-7 
14-7 


29°0 

33-9 
6-9 


23°5 

no-0 

12-5 


11-1 

21-1 
10-0 


o 
16-4 

27-3 
10-9 


o 

i.-6 

21-1 
11-5 






Mainfall, in Inches. 










BcnXevisOb- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


27-08 

H-22 
12-SB 


30-09 19-07 

11-36 7-41 
lS-73: 11'6U 


10-rC 8-74 10-37 

f77 2-91 4-27 
3-99 i 5-83 6-10 


11-74 

2-84 
8-90 


18-61 24-81 

7-30 10-60 
11-31 14-21 


13-86 

6-83 

7-U3i 


21-27 

7-99 
13-28 


43-65 

24-01 
19-64 


240-05 

106-51 
133-54 






Numher cf Days 1 in. or more fell. 










BenNevi^Ob- 

serviitorv 
Fort William 
Differences . 


12 

4 
S 


15 

1 
14 


« 2 

2 1 
4 1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


6 6 

1 1 

5 1 5 


7 

3 
1 


4 

1 
3 




2 
4 


18 

10 

8 


86 

26 

1 60 






Numlicr of Days 001 in. or more fell. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


27 

28 
-1-1 


24 

23 
1 


27 21 

25 23 
4 


22 

19 
3 


17 

15 



22 

16 
1 


27 

24 
3 


21 

20 
1 


21 

9 



23 
23 


29 

30 
+ 1 


281 

265 
26 






Mean Mainland {sealc 0-8). 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
sen-atory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


2-5 

4-1 

1-U 


2-3 1-5 

3-4 3-4 
1-1 1-9 


2-8 

4-3 
1-5 


2-3 

4-2 
1-9 


1-9 

3-6 
1-7 


30 

3-4 

-4 


2-9 

3-7 
-8 


2-3 

3-6 
1-3 


2-0 

3-8 
1-8 


21 

3-6 
1-5 


21 

3-7 
1-6 


2-3 

3-7 
1-4 






Numlier of Hours of Bright Sunshine. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


11 

14 
3 


19 

48 
29 


43 

104 
61 


33 

117 

84 


149 

213 
64 


116 

170 
54 


141 44 

198 119 

67 1 75 


88 

i-:5 

■i7 


76 

30 

14 


33 

32 
-t-1 


12 

11 
-i-1 


765 

1,241 

476 






Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind, in Miles 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 


15 


17 14 19 10 8 6 10 12 

Percentage of Cloud. 


21 


10 


20 


14 


BenXovisOh- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Differences 


95 

86 
9 


95 

79 
16 


91 

74 

17 


92 

76 
16 


76 

65 
11 


79 

69 

10 


76 

08 
8 


90 

77 
13 


77 

64 
13 


76 

67 
9 


82 

72 
10 


94 

81 
13 


85 

73 
12 



Table I. shows for 1898 the mean monthly and extreme pressure and 
temperature : amounts of rainfall, witli the number of days of rain, and 
the days on which the amount equalled or exceeded one inch ; the hours 
of sunshine ; the mean percentage of cloud ; the mean velocity of the wind 
in miles per hour at the top of the mountain ; and the mean rainband at 
botli Observatories. The mean barometric pressures at Fort AVilliam are 
reduced to 32° and sea-level, but those at the Ben Nevis Observatory 
only to 82°. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure for the year was 
29-858 incites, being 0-014 inch higlier than the mean of the forty years 
from 185G to 1895. The mean at the top was 25-309 inches, being 
0*013 inch above the average of the Observatories made since the opening 
of the Observatory in 1883. The difference for the two Observatories 
was thus 4"5-19 inches for the year, being nearly the average difference of 



252 



REPORT — 1899. 



past years. At the top of the mountain the absolutely highest pressure 
for the year was 25-992 inches on June 10 j and at Fort William: 
30-458 inches on January 23. 

The differences from the mean monthly barometric pressure greatly 
exceeded the averages in January and July, the excesses being respec- 
tively for Fort William 0-231 inch and 0-19G inch, and at the top of Ben 
Nevis 0-227 inch and 0-183 inch. On the other hand the reverse held 
good in February and April, when the defects from tlie averages were 
respectively for Foi't William 0-174 inch and 0-146 inch, and at the top 
of Ben Nevis 0-177 inch and 0-104 inch. The excesses occurred when 
the general type of weather was anticyclonic, and the defects from the 
pressure when it was cyclonic. 

The following shows the deviations of the mean temperature of the: 
months from their respective averages : — 

Fort Top of T^-w 

■ni-u- T> AT • Dmerence.. 
William. Beii Ncyis. 

o o o 

January , 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Jnly 

August 

September 

October . 

Novembf r 

December 

Year 

The absolutely highest temperature for the year recorded for Fort- 
William was 79°-7 on September 6, and at the top 62°'G on the same date. 
The absolutely lowest temperature was 21°-1 on November 29 at Fort 
William, and 9°-G on February 20 at the top of the mountain. A notice- 
able feature of these maximum temperatures in September, when the type 
of weather was strongly anticyclonic, was the lateness of the season when 
they occurred, and, besides, they far exceed any previously recorded in 
September at either of the Observatories. 

In Table II. are given for each month the lowest observed hygrometric 
readings at the top of Ben Nevis : — 

Table II. 



5-2 


5-5 


0-3 


0-3 


1-5 


1-8 


02 


0-4 


0-2 


1-8 


2-3 


0-5 


2-1 


1-7 


0-4 


0-1 


0-5 


0-4 


06 


0-3 


0-3 


y-() 


0-9 


0-3 


2-7 


46 


1-9 


40 


4-1 


0-1 


0(! 


0-3 


0-9 


3-7 


3-2 


0-4 


1-2 


14 


0-2 



— 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 






O 


O 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 









Dry Bulb 


250 


19'3 


26^0 


38-8 


31-0 


45-5 


47-2 


34-1 


53-0 


57-1 


41-4 


20-2 


Wet Bulb 


32-2 


17'3 


22-6 


30^7 


24-3 


32-U 


33-2 


2fi-3 


30-5 


46^3 


30^0 


16-9 


Dew-pnint 


13-a 


2-7 


9'3 


20-2 


6^2 


]5^8 


17-5 


12-3 


2U-0 


36^4 


15-2 


-6-5 


Elastic Force . 


•079 


•049 


•065 


•109 


•057 


•089 


■096 


•075 


•108 


•215 


•086 


•032 


Relative Humidity 


89 


47 


49 


4(3 


33 


29 


23 


38 


27 


4(i 


33 


29 


(Sat. = 100) 


























Day of Month 


3 


21 


30 


09 


G 


2S 


9 


9 


21 


o 


19 


8 


Hour of Day . 


6 a.m. 


3 a.m. 


8 a.m. 


6 a.m. 


11p.m. 


7 a.m. 


9 a.m. 


4 a.m. 


1 p.m. 


5 p.m. 


3 p.m. 


9 a.in. 



Of these lowest relative humidities, the lowest 23 occurred in July with 
a dew-point of 17°-5, and the highest 59 in January with a dew-point of 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OX BEX XEVIS. 253 

13°'3. It is to be noted tliat with these humidities the accompanying dew- 
point fell only once below zero, viz., to — 6°5 on Deceml)er 8, being in this 
respect very different from the low humidities of previous years. 

The registrations of tiie sunshine recorder at the top TGf) hours out of 
a possible 4,470 hours, being 48 hours fewer than in 1897. This is 
17 per cent, of the possible sunshine. The monthly maximum was 
149 hours in May, and the minimum 11 hours in January and 12 hours 
in December. At Fort William the number of hours was 1,241, being 
the largest hitherto recorded. The maximum was 213 hours in May, and 
the minimum 1 1 hours in December. The annual number of hours, 
1,241, is 3G per cent, of the possible sunshine at Fort William. 

At the Ben Nevis Observatory the mean percentage of cloud was 85, 
which is nearly the average, the highest being 9.3 in January and 
February, and the minimum 7G in May, July, and October ; and at Fort 
William, the mean was 73, the highest being 86 in January, and the 
lowest 64 in September. 

The mean rainband observation (scale 0—8) was 2-3 at the top for the 
year ; the maximum being 3'0 in July and the minimum 1-5 in March. 
At Fort William the mean for the year was 3-7, the maximum being 43 
in April and the minimum 3-4 in February, March, and July. 

The mean hourly velocity of the wind was at the top of the mountain 
14 miles per hour, the maximum velocity being 21 miles in October, and 
the minimum G miles in July, being the lowest mean yet recorded on 
Ben Nevis. The means of 10 miles for May, 8 miles for June, 6 miles for 
July, and 10 miles for August, were the lowest means yet observed in 
four consecutive months, thus forming a striking feature of the meteorology 
of Ben Nevis during the summer months of 1898. 

The rainfall for the year was 240-05 inches, which is by far the largest 
rainfall of any year yet observed on the top of Ben Nevis, being 
59 per cent, above the average of the observations made since 1881. This 
high percentage above the average was approximated to at several 
stations in this part of the West Highlands. The largest monthly 
amount was 43"65 inches in December, and, as will be seen from Table I., 
the amount for six of the months was exceptionally large. Another 
singular circumstance is that the amounts for each of the months exceeded 
their average. The heaviest fall on any single day was 5 '39 inches on 
November 2. At Fort William the amount for the year was 106-51 inches, 
the largest yet observed here, being 38 per cent, above the average. The 
largest monthly amount was 24-01 inches in December. The heaviest fall 
on any single day was 3-66 on December 4. 

On the top of Ben Nevis rain fell on 281 days, and at Fort William 
on 265 days. At the top the maximum number of rainy days was 29 in 
December and the minimum 17 in June ; the numbers for Fort William 
being 30 days in December and 15 in June. 

During the year the number of days on which 1 inch of rain or more 
was collected was 86 at the top and 26 at Fort William, these being ^■ery 
greatly above the averages, the percentages excess being 80 and 69 
respectively. In December, at the top, more than 1 inch of rain fell on 
eighteen days and in February on fifteen days. The prominent feature of 
the meteorology of Ben Nevis in 1898 was the unprecedented number of 
days characterised by heavy rainfalls, April and May being tlie only 
exceptions. 

Auroras are reported to have been observed on the following dates : — 



254 REPORT— 1899. 

January 12 ; March 26 ; April 15 ; August 16, 17 ; September 16, 17, 22, 

23, 24, 25 ; November 21, 22, or thirteen nights in all. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on February 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 26, 27, 28 ; 
March 14 ; July 2 ; September 18, 28 ; November 3, 4, 5 ; December 7, 9, 
— seventeen times in all. 

Zodiacal Light, not observed. 

Thunder and lightning were reported June 21 ; July 2 ; November 3 ; 
December 26. Lightning only, February 2 ; October 22. 

Solar Halo, January 1, 3 ; February 5, 24 ; March 30 ; May 2, 7, 17, 

24, 27; June 16, 17; July 9, 30; August 9, 11; September 23; 
November 22 ; December 8. 

Lunar Halo, August 6, 7, 9 ; December 29, 30. 

Much time continues to be given to the discussion of the hourly 
obsei'vatious of the two Observatories. The work of reducing and entering 
these observations for every day, side by side, so as to present a direct and 
easy comparison of the two, is far advanced, being brought down to the 
end of 1897. The number of daily sheets finished is 2,710, and, as each 
sheet contains twenty-two columns, the laboriousness of the work may be 
in some degree appreciated. 

As explained in previous Reports, the rainfall, fog, thunder, lightning, 
halos, aurora, and other phenomena observed at 120 stations on each day, 
are entered on a map of Scotland for that day. The whole of these maps 
are now completed down to December 1898, the number of the maps 
amounting to 2,922. A beginning has been made to enter on these maps 
the gales and storms which have occurred at the seventy lighthouses round 
the Scottish coasts. Care is taken to note the houi' of commencement of 
each storm, so that a comparison may be made as to the commencement 
and violence of storms and the related forecasts issued by the Meteoro- 
logical Office in London. 

Storms which strike the Scottish coasts may be conveniently divided 
into these chief classes, viz. : storms which overspread the whole of Scot- 
land ; storms over the west coast only ; storms over the east coast only ; 
and storms more restricted as to the area they overspread, such as only 
from the Tweed to the Tay, from the Tay to the Moray Firth, over the 
Hebrides, and those confined to Orkney and Shetland. As regards 
the intensity of storms, since this depends on the barometric gradients 
formed within the cyclones, these gradients will be specially examined in, 
the relations they stand to the vertical gradients of pressure, temperature, 
and humidity formed in the stratum of the atmosphere between the top 
and foot of Ben Nevis. 

The Ben Nevis observations indicate that the great majority of 
cyclones show the winds both at the top and bottom of the mountain 
blowing vorticosely inwards upon the central area of the cyclones. But 
no inconsiderable number of cyclones passing over Ben Nevis show that 
while the winds at sea level blow inwards upon the cyclone, the winds at 
the top of the Ben blow outwards from the cyclones. Now the vertical 
gradients of pressure, temperature, and humidity, as disclosed by the two 
Observatories, open up very important lines of inquiry in the investi- 
gation of these difierent types of cyclones. 

Again, the frequent sudden changes of these vertical gradients suggest 
lines of inquiry of no less importance as to the relation of these changes 
to the manner of distribution over the stations of the rain accompanying 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSEKVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 255 

the cyclones and many of the smaller barometric depressions. In several 
respects tliis remark applies also to the distribution of fogs. 

Among the results indicated by the observations made during the past 
four summer seasons at the intermediate station comjDared with the 
observations made at the two Observatories, the more important referred 
to in our last year's Report is this : When the reduced barometer at the 
top of Ben Nevis, for a series of observations, comes higher than that of 
Fort William, the accompanying disturbance of temperature takes place 
in the lower half of the mountain, that is below the intermediate station, 
and denotes the ajyproach of an anti-cyclone. Conversely, when the 
reduced barometer at the Ben Nevis Observatory reads lower than that 
of Fort William, then the disturbance of temperature takes place in the 
upper half of the mountain, and denotes the approach of a cyclone. 

The hourly and other observations at the two Observatories from 
January 1888 to December 1896 are now in the press, together with a 
general discussion of the results, and other discussions of separate inquiries 
raised by observations, nearly all of which have been resumed in the suc- 
cessive annual reports of your Committee. 

Arrangements have been made for the publication during the next 
three years, in the 'Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh,' 
of the hourly observations made at the Observatories from 1888 to 1901, 
the time to which it is proposed by the Directors to continue the obser- 
vations. The observations will fill three large quarto volumes, the cost of 
publishing which will be a little over 1,000*'. Your Committee have much 
pleasure in adding that the Royal Society of London have agreed to give 
SOO^., being half of the whole expenditure, the balance being met by the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh ; and that Mr. Mackay Bernard of Dunsinnan 
has by another donation of 500/. enabled the Directors to continue the 
observations for another year. These handsome gifts, the first two by the 
two leading Scientific Societies of the country, and the third by a generous 
private person, are announced by your Committee with great satisfaction. 



Water and Sewage Examination Resxdts. — Report of the Committee, 
consistinij of Professor W. Ramsay (Ghaironan), Dr. S. Rideal 
(Secretary), Sir W. Crookes, Professor P. Clowes, Professor 
P. F. Frankland, ajul Professor R. Boyce, appointed to establish 
a Uniform Sijstem of recordinr/ the Kesidts of the Chemical and 
Bacterial Examination of Water and Sewage. 

The Committee beg to report as follows : — That it is desirable that 
results of analysis should be expressed in parts per 100,000, except in 
the case of dissolved gases, when these should be stated as cubic centi- 
metres of gas at 0°C. and 760 mm. in 1 litre of water. This method of 
recording results is in accordance with that suggested by the Committee 
appointed in 1887 to confer with the Committee of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, with a view to forming a uniform 
system of recording the results of water analysis. ' 

2. The Committee suggest that in the case of all nitrogen compounds 

> Brit. Assoc. Rej)ort, 1889. 



2oG REPORT— 189P. 

the results be expressed as parts of nitrogen over 100,000, including the 
ammonia expelled on boiling with alkaline permanganate, which should 
be termed albuminoid nitrogen. The nitrogen will, therefore, be re- 
tui'iied as — 

(1) Ammoniacal nitrogen from free and saline ammonia. 

(2) Nitrous nitrogen from nitrites. 

(3) Nitric nitrogen from nitrates. 

(■i) Organic nitrogen (either by Kjeldahl or by combustion, but the 
•process used should be stated). 
(.5) Albuminoid nitrogen. 

The total nitrogen of all kinds will be the sum of the first four deter- 
minations. 

The Committee are of opinion that the percentage of nitrogen oxidised, 
tliat is, the ratio of (2) and (3) to (1) and (4), gives sometimes a useful 
measure of the stage of purification of a particular sample. The purifica- 
tion efiected by a process will be measured by the amount of oxidised 
nitrogen as compared with the total amount of nitrogen existing in the 
'-■rude sewage. 

In raw sewage and in effluents containing suspended matter it is also 
desirable to determine how much of the organic nitrogen is present in the 
suspended matter. 

In sampling, the Committee suggest that the bottles should be filled 
jiearly completely with the liquid, only a small air-bubble being allowed 
to remain in the neck of the bottle. The time at which a sample is 
drawn, as well as the time at which its analysis is liegun, should be noted. 
An effluent should be drawn to correspond as nearly as possible with the 
original sewage, and both it and the sewage should be taken in quantities 
pi'oportional to the rate of flow when that varies (e.g. in the emptying of 
a lifter bed). 

In order to avoid the multiplication of analyses the attendant at 
a sewage works (or any other person who draws the samples) might be 
provided with sets of twelve or twenty-four stoppered [ Winchester 
Itottles, one of which should be filled every hour or every two hours, and 
on the label of each bottle the rate of flow at the time should be written. 
When the bottles reach the laboratory quantities would be taken from each 
proportional to these rates of flow and mixed together, by which means a 
fair average sample for the twenty-four hours would be obtained. 

The Committee at present are unable to suggest a method of reporting 
liacterial results, including incubator tests, which is likely to be accept- 
able to all workers. 



llihliograpJuj of SpedroscoiJii. — Tnterhn Heport of the Commillee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. McLeod, Professor Sir W. C. IIoderts- 
AUSTEN, Mr. H. G. Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

The collection and verification of titles of papers has been proceeded with, 
and the Committee hope to be able to continue the work until it can be 
(taken up by the compilers of the International Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment. 



OS WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 257 



On Wave-length Talks of the Spectra of the Elements and Compouiuls. 
— Report of the Commiitee, consisting of Sir H. E. ROSCOE (Chair- 
nmn), Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. X. Lockyer, Pro- 
fessor J. Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, 
]>rofes9or W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gicbs, aiid Captaiu 
Abxey. 

Chlorine (Vacuum-tube). 

Edcr and Valcnta : ' Dcnkschr. kais. Akad. Wissensch. AVicn," Bd. Ixviii. 1899. 
S. = Salet : P. ■■= Pliicker : T. = Thal6n ; H. = Uasselberir. 











Pres- 








Pressure 


Pressure 


sure 70 




Reduction 




10 to 20 mm. 


30 to 10 


mm. 


to 100 




to Vacuum 












mm. 


Previous Measure- 
ments (Rowland) 




Oscillation 

Frequency 

ill Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


[n ten- 
sity 
and 


1 
Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


A + 


I_ 


(Rowland) 


Cha- 


( Row- 


Cha- 


Cha- 






A 




(a) 

i 


racter 


land] (b) 


racter 


racter 














5672-2 


-i 






1-55 


4-8 


17625 






35-1 


lb 






1-54 


It 


741 






25-5 


1 

a 






1-53 


It 


71 






23-1 


1 






»» 


f» 


79 






5580-1 


i 




.5597-5 P., also T. 


1-52 


4-9 


916 






70-4 


i 




73-7 P. 


9* 


M 


48 






— 


n 




38-0 P. 


)» 


Jt 




5457-70 


^S 


57-70 


-ib" 


" 








r 88-la 
{ 89-5a 
1 92-4a 


57-28 


3s 


67-30 


3b^ 


5457 8II.,alsoS.P.T. 


119 


If 


56-391 


2s 


56-49 


2b' 








4512 


Is 


45-1 


In 


!' 








r 18029-Oa 

362-5a 

[ 65-2a 


44-412 


3s 


44-52 


4b'' 


45-0 H., also S.P.T. 


tl 


5-0 


43-587 


5s 


43-64 


6b' 


1 








23-703 


2s 


23-7 


4l>' 


1^ 








r 432-6a 


28-441 


Gs 


23-4 


lOb- 


24-6 H., also S.P.T 


1-48 


t) 


1 33-5a 


5392-300 


4s 


92-3 


6b 




5393-7 n., also S.P.T. 


1-47 


5-1 


.539-9a 






5285-8 


1 

2 




5285-9 H., also P. T. 


,, 


„ 


913 


5221-4S 


43 


21-54 


6b 


b 


20-8 H., also S.P.T. 


1-44 


5-2 


19146 ."a 


18-07 


3s 


18-16 


8b' 


b 


170 IL, also P. T. 


1 -43 


11 


590a 






5193-6 


-in 




5195-6 P., also T. 


1-42 


5-3 


249 






89-74 


ib 




89-8 H.,also P. T. 


11 


It 


635 






76-0 


1 




78-1 P., also T. 


•• 


>1 


315 






73-4 


in 




' 73-2 H., also P. T. 


1-41 


91 


24 






— 






61-6 H.,alsoP. T. 


,, 


11 


— 






62-50 


1 




63-7 P. 


?» 


11 


65-2 






58-9 


in 






,, 




79 






133 


In 




13-6 H., also P. T. 


1-40 


5-4 


551 


5103-18 


2s 


03-18 


4b 




03-0 H., also P. T. 




n 


90-2a 






5099-36 


lb' 




50988 H.,rdso S.P.T 


1-39 


11 


604-9 






89-6 


An 








It 


43 






83-59 


1 








" 


65-7 


5078-361 


4s 


78-38 


4b' 




7S-3H., also S.P.T 


1-.38 




86 0a 






4995-7 


In 




i99S-7H., also S.P.T 


1-37 


5-5 


20012 






70-3 


In 




73-3 H.nlso S.P.T 


1-36 


M 


114 






43-1 


1. 




■16-2 H., also P. T 


1-35 


5*; 


2-25 


1 




1 — 






39 IL.a'so P. T. 


51 


?i 


— 



1899. 



258 



REPORT — 1899. 
Chlorine (Vacuum-tube) — continned. 







1 


Pres- 








Pressure 


Pressure ! 


sure 70 




Reduction 




10 to '20 mm. 


30 to -10 


mm. 


to 100 
mm. 


Previous Measure- 
ments (Rowland i 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


^^ Inten- 
leng^l\ and 


1 
Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


\ + 


1_ 


(Rowland) q^^^_ 


(Row- 


Cha- 


Cha- 






\ 




t'^' racter 


land) (b) 


racter 


racter 














4927 3 


i 








5-G 


20289 






24-90 


In 




4926-1 H., also S.P.T. 


1-35 


)» 


99-4 


■1917-870 


2s 


17-84 


3b 




17-5 T., also P. 


»» 


)» 


328-4a 


O4-i)05 


4s 


04-85 


4b^ 




05-4 H., also S.P.T. 


1-34 


1» 


82-2a 


4896-905 ; 


5s 


4896-90 


5b' 




4897-6 H., also S. T. 


H 


„ 


415-5a 


19628 


9s 


19-63 


10b 




20-3 H„ also S.P.T. 


1-32 


5-7 


742-8a 


10-194 


9s 


1019 


9b 




10-5 H., also S.P.T. ! 


,, 


»» 


85- la 


4794-665 


10s 


4794-63 


10b 




4794-5 H., also S.P.T.' 


1-31 


U 


850-8a 


85-41 


¥ 


85-5 


In 








)* 


9l-la 


81-49 


5s 


81-44 


5s 




83-4 P., also S. 


»» 


5-8 


908-2a 


79-06 


3s 


79-07 


3s 




81-8 H., also P. T. 


»» 


»5 


18-8a 


71-22 


2s 


71-19 


2n 




74-6 P. 


»f 


»» 


53-2a 


G8-80 


4s 


68-76 


4s 




70-0 H., also S.P.T. 


yt 


»» 


63-8a 






55-9 


In 




54-0 P. 


1-30 


»» 


21021 


40-505 


3s 


40-52 


3b' 




40-5 H., also S.P.T. 


„ 


♦' 


890a 






4661-38 


Is 




4660-9 T. 


1-28 


5-9 


447-0 






54-3 


1 




48-S T. 


1-27 


»l 


80 






49-1 


1 




40-9 T., also P. 


)» 


'» 


504 






24-23 


3b 




28-3 P. 


»i 


60 


619-2 






01-19 


4b' 




07-2 P., also T. 
4595-8 P.. also T. 


1-2G 

1) 


If 


727-5 






4585-05 


In 




90-7 P., also S. T. 


»» 


>f 


804 






72-79 


f.b 




72 1 P. 


1-25 


1) 


62-5 






70-16 


3 




66-5 P. 


»* 


*» 


75-1 






37-0 


i 




37-0 P. 


1-24 


61 


22035 






26-44 


.5b' 




26-0 P., also T. 


If 


If 


86-3 






19-4 


X 
2 








fi 


121 






10-G 


1 








11 


64 






04-50 


I 
2 




05-G P. 


1-23 


»f 


93-9 






4497-45 


1 




4497-2 P. 


)> 


•♦ 


228-7 






91-25 


3b 








62 


59-3 






90-16 


3b 




90-4 P. 


»» 


IT 


64-7 






75-498 


4s 


b' 




ji 


f» 


337-7 






G9-569 


5s 


s 




f* 


»> 


67-3 


444G-348 


2s 


46-.30 


2s 


b 




1-22 


If 


484-2a 


46-090 


2s 


46-10 


2s 


b 




)> 


)f 


85-4 


38-7;)5 


43 


38-72 


2s 


b' 




,, 


„ 


522-8a 






170 


hn 






1-21 


C-3 


634 


03-210 


5s 


03-22 


5s 


b' 




11 


>» 


704-4a 


02-672 


Is 


02-79 


4b 






»? 


)) 


07-2a 






4399-765 


lb 






J» 


)) 


22-2 






99-373 


2 b 






n 


>» 


24-2 


439112 


1 ^ 










1-20 


j» 


66-9 


90-566 


3s 


90-572 


3s 


s 




}1 


»» 


69-8a 


89-949 


1 8s 


89-941 


Gs 


b' 




)» 


„ 


73-Oa 


87-730 


5s 


87-791 


2 






!» 


!' 


84-5a 


80-075 


8s 


80-097 


.^s 


s 




»» 


»» 


824-3a 


73-119 


Cs 


73-111 


8s 


b 




)» 


*) 


GO -7a 


71-715 


5s 


71-740 


2 






)l 


1} 


P8-0a 


69G7C. 


Os 


69-690 


Gs 


s 




»» 


„ 


78-7a 


G3-457 


.Ss 


63-462 


5s 


b' 




t» 


. G-4 


911-2a 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 259 







Chloeink 


(Vacuum-tube) — continued. 












Pres- 




1 




Pressure 


Pressure 


sure 70 




' Reduction 




10 to 20 


mm. 


SO to 40 inm. 


to 100 




to Vacuum 










mm. 


Previous Measure- 
ments (Rowland) 




Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave- 


Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 


Inten- 


length 

{Kowland) 

(a) 


sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


length 
(Row- 
land) (b) 


sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




1 




4343-822 


10s 


4343-82 


lOsr 




4347-1 P., also ». 


1-19 


6-4 


23014 8 


36-371 


5s 


36-39 
33-125 


5s 


s 


39-4 P. 


„ 


11 


54-4a 
71-7 


23-523 
09189 


6s 
3s 


23-54 
OP-19 


4s 
4b 


b'l 


13-7 P., also S. 


1-18 


1» 


ri22-9a 
1 99-8a 


07-593 


6s 


07-627 


8s 


s 




ff 


G-5 


208 .3a 


04-211 


4s 


04-20 


Gs 


s 






11 


26-Ga 


4291-861 


OS 


4291-884 


6s 


s 


4205-fi P. 


» 


11 


9 3 -4a 


80-615 


3s 








82-6 P. 


1-17 


11 


354-7 


76628 


4s 


76-719 


3b' 


b' 


78-8 P. 




11 


76-4a 


70-725 


3s 


70-855 


2b' 


b' 




9t 


11 


408-7a 


64-740 


3s 


64-769 


2s 


n 






11 


41-6a 


61-350 


3s 


61-421 


4b 


b 








60- 2a 


59-628 


4s 


59-640 


5s 


s 


59-7 P., also S. 






09 -7a 


53-532 


9s 


53-638 


lOb' 


b' 






6-6 


503-3a 


41-435 


8s 


41-474 


8b' 


b' 




1-16 


)1 


70-3a 


35-608 


3s 


35683 


4b'' 








11 


G02-8a 


34-137 


5s 


34-19S 


5b' 










10-9a 


26-580 


7s 


2G-585 


4s 


s 








53-2a 






25-139 


1 




■ 




)1 


61-S 


09-866 


5s 


09-861 


4s 










747-la 


08-160 


4s 


08-209 


3b' 


b 




„ 




5G-8a 






1189-379 


In 






1-15 


6-7 


863-2 


4158021 


4s 


5S-001 


5b 






1-14 




- 24043-2a 






49-631 


In 










91-8 


47-203 


4s 


47-3.06 


5b' 


L^ 






6-8 


105-9a 


33-834 


3s 


33-955 


3 






„ 


f1 


83-8a 


32-680 


8s 


32-719 


9b' 


b' 


4130-8 S. 






90-fia 


30-991 


4s 


31-088 


4b' 






1-13 




2005a 


30-34 


In 


30-304 
21-153 


111 
In 


b' 






f, 


04-3a 
40 


04-965 


4s 










• » 




354 






4054-242 


2n 






1 11 


G-9 


658-6 






40-710 


2 11 








7-0 


741-1 


4032-330 


5s 


32-368 


3s 










n2-Ca 






3991-625 


m 






1-io- 


7'l 


25045-4 






82060 


3ii 






»» 


11 


105-5 






61-770 


2n 






109 


«1 


234-1 






55-582 


3ii 






,, 


72 


73-5 


3917-721 


2s 


17-762 


4s 


b' 




1-08 




517-ila 


K; S32 


4s 


16-870 


6s 


b' 








23-6a 


14-055 


5s 


14-105 


6b' 


b' 




" 




41-7a 






3884-045 


2b 


b' 




107 


7-3 


739-1 






83-454 


2* 


s 




" 




13-0 






71-537 


4b 


b 








822-2 






68-844 


6s 


b' 






»> 


40 2 






60-103 


Is 






:; 




58-0 






63-726 


2b 








" 


74-4 


3861-008 


10s 


610061 


10s 1 


b' 




If 




927 



Possibly not due to Chlorine. 



62 



260 



REroKT — 1899. 



Chloeixe (Y ACVVN-rvur.) — nontinued. 







Pre.s. 










Pressure 


Pressure 


sure 70 




Reduction 




lU to 20 mm. 


80 to 40 mm. 


! to 100 




to Vacuum 




1 




mm. 


Previous Measure- 
ments (Rowlanil) 






Oscillation. 

Frequency 

iu Yaicao 


Wave- F"t«" 


Wave- 


Inten- 


Inten- 


length 
! (Rowland' 

(a) 


sity 

and 

Cha- 

ractei 


length 

(Row- 

■ land) (b) 

1 


sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




A + 


1 

1 A 








:!858-8.S 


X 




1-07 


7-3 


25907-3 






55-738 


2s 


s 




1-06. 


n 


28-1 






55000 


41) 


1 

j 


1 


ft 


1 >» 


330 






54-21 


In 




1 


f9 


1 


38-4 


1 


53-63 


In 


1 




ff 


M 


42-3 


r.1-751 In 


51-8 


la 


lb' 






»» 


54 9a-: 


.Ol-o-ll 8s 


51-536 


8s 






n 


56-4a 


51165 ; 10s 


51-172 


10s 






f* 


58-8a 






49-299 


2s 






y* 


>« 


71-5 






48-034 


2.S 








>» 


80-0 


45-825 


8s 


45-83 


8s 


j. 






}i 


94-9a 


45-545 


8s 


4,5-56 


5s 








96-8aj 


43-390 


5s 


43-398 


5s 






)i 


26011-4a 






38-482 


as 










44-7 






3C-658 


9s 










570 


33-502 


8s 


33-510 


6b' 


b' 




, 


ti 


78-5aj 


■ 




30-962 


2n 






y) 


ji 


958 






29-550 


2n 






)f 


>i 


105-4 






27-802 


r> 






)> 


)j 


17-4 






21-850 


1 






It 


„ 


68-0 






20-404 


5 






11 


»» 


68-0 






18-577 


3 








»j 


80-4 






10-215 


2b 






l'(35 


7-4 


237-9 






( 9-€97 


4 






)} 


11 


41-4 






05-384 


«> 






IT 


n 


71-2 






00-105 


1 






1 * 


»» 


307-7 






3798-991 


5b' 






ft 


yy 


15-4 






87-262 


In 






»» 


u 


96-9 






81378 


6s 






*• 


>i 


438-0 






74-324 


4 






1-04 


>> 


87-4 






73-813 


O 






9r 




91-0 






09-187 


Is 






»» 


7-5 


523-4 






68 228 


3s 






11 


>» 


30-2 






67-647 


4s 






}i 


)J 


34-2 






60- 102 


5* 


s 




ti 


»; 


658-a 






48-594 


2s 


b' 




ri 


»» 


09-2 






43-206 


1 






f) 


•» 


707-5 






26 688 


iiS 


)> 




1-03 


7-6 


825-9 






25-912 


iU 




1) 


fl 


31 5 






22-4 


la. 


1 




»» 


» 


57 






20-4 


in 






yy 


>f 


71 






07-4 


In 








ij 


965 






05-5 


}n 1 




It 


)1 


979 






3G89-1 


In ! 




102 


» 


27099 






83 6 


In 1 






J) 


>l 


140 






82-1 


In ! 






)} 




51 






73-9 


In 






n 


fj 


£11 






68-1 


In 






11 


»» 


54 






63-948 


2s 






)i 


7*7 


85-3 






59-913 


2s 1 








}) 


315 1 






58-199 


3s i 






}| 


» I 


25-9 



ON" WAVE-LENGTH TABLES UK THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 261 



Chlorine (Vacuum-tube) — continued. 







Pres- 






Pressure 


Pressure 


sure 70 


Reduction 




10 to 20 nun. 


30 to 4