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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"



■/.. t- •.. ••• 






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KEPOKT 



OP THE 



SEVENTIETH MEETING 



OP THB 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FCR TEE 



ADVMCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



BRADFORD IN SEPTEMBER 1900. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1900. 

Office of the Association : Btirliugton House, London, W. 



PniXTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AXD CO. LTD., NEW-STREET SQCARB 

LOXDOX 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Fades of the Association xxvii 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement ..., x.xxviii 

Trustees and General Officers, from 1831 1 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 18'32 ... li 

List of Evening Discourses Ixix 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxiii 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Bradford Meeting Ixxiv 

Committee of Eecommendations at the Bradford Meeting Ixxv 

Treasurer's Account 1 xx v i 

Tahle showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxviii 

Officers and Council, 1900-1901 Ixxx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxi 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Bradford Meet- 
ing in September 1900 Ixxxviii 

Communications ordered to be printed in •extenso xc vi 

Alteration of the Title of Section G xcvi 

Women to be eligible for admission to General and Sectional Committees... xcvi 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

desirable xcvi 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xcvii 

Places of Meeting in 1901 and 1902 xcviii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes , xci.x 



General Meetings , , .,.,, cxv 



Address by the President, Sir William TuEifER, F.R.S 3 

a2 



REroiiT — 1900. 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



\_A n asterish * indicates tliat the title only is glreu. The mark \ indicates the same^ 
hit Kith a reference to the Journal or A^e?fqM2}er inwhich it is published in extenso.]) 



Page 

Meteorological Observatory, Montreal.— Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor H. L. C.\i,lexdae (Chairman), Professor C. McLeod 
(Secretary), Professor F. Apams, and ^Ir. R. F. SiurAET, appointed for the 
purpose of establishing a Meteorological Observatory on Mount Royal, 
Montreal 33 

Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr, W. N. SiiAW (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Griffiths, Rev. T. C. Fitz- 
PATfiiCK, Mr. S. Skinnee, and Mr. W. C. D. Whetham (Secretary), 
appointed to Report on the Present State of our Knowledge in Electrolysis 
and Electro-chemistry 34 

On Solar Radiation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. C{. JoHU- 
STO'E Stoney (Chairman), Professor H. McLeod (Secretary), Sir G. G. 
Stokes, Professor A. Schtjstee, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Sir W. de W. 
Abney, Dr. C. (Jheee, Professor G. F. FitzGeeald, Professor II. L. 
Callexdae, Mr. William E. Wilsoij, and Mr. A. A, Rambaut. appointed 
to consider the best methods of recording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation. (Dravpn up by Professor II. L. Callendae) 36 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of Transactions. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor S. P. Thompson (Chairman), Mr. J. Swinbuene 
(Secretary), Professor G. H. Beyan, ]Mr. C. V. Bueton, Mr. R. T. Glaze- 
BEOOK, Professor A. W. Rvckee, and Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, appointed 
to confer with British and Foreign Societies publishing Mathematical and 
Physical Pivpers, as to the Desirability of Securing Uniformity in the Size 
of the Pages of their Transactions and Proceedings. (Drawn up by 
J. Swinbuene.) 45 

Determining ^lagnetic Force on Board Ship. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A . W. RixKEE (Chairman), Dr. C. H. Lees (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professor A. Schitstee, Captain Ceeak, Professor W. 
Steoud, Mr. C. Veenon Boys, and Mr. W. Watson, appointed to con- 
sider the most suitable Method of determining the Components of the 
Magnetic Force on Board Ship 45 

Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of LoED Kelvin (Chairman), Lieutenant-Colonel Allax Clnning- 
HAM, R.E. (Secretary), Dr. J. W. L. Glaishee, Professor A. G. Geeeniiill, 
Professor W. M. Hicks, Professor A. Lodge, and Major P. A. MacMahox, 
R.A., appointed for calculating Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions, 
and, if necessary, for taking steps to carry out the calculations, and to 
publish the results in an accessible form 46 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaren, Professor A. Ceum Beown (Secretary), Sir John 
Mureay, Professor Copeland, and Dr. Alexander Buchan. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Buchan.) 46 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Eadiation in a Magnetic Field. — Report of the Committee, consisting ot 
Professor G. F. FitzGeeald (Chairman), the late Professor T. Preston 
(Secretary), Professor A. Schusxee, Professor 0. J. Lodge, Professor 

S. P. Thompso:!^ , Dr. Gekald Mollot, and Dr. AV. E. Adeney 5'2 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for use in 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Ratleigh (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebeook (Secretary), Lord Kelvijt, 
Professors W. E. Ayetojt, J. Peeet, W. G. Adams, Olivee J. Lodge, and 
G. Caret Foster, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. 
Everett and A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. Fitz- 
Geeald and J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomlet, 
Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrice, Professor J. ViRLiMtr Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stonet, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rexnie, Mr. E. H. Griffiths, 
Professor A. W. Ruckee, Professor H. L. Callendae, Mr. Geobge 

3lATTHEr, and Sir W. Roberts-Aitsten 53 

Appendix. — Note on an Improved Resistance Coil. By Robert 

S. Whipple ^5 

Photographic Meteorology. — Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor 11. Meldola, Mr. A. W. Clatden (Secretary), Mr. J. Hopkin- 
SON, and Mr. H. N. Dickson. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 5G 

Seismological Investigations.— Fifth Report of tha Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. W. Judd (Chairman), Mr. John Milne (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor T. G. Bonney, Sir F. J. 
Beamwell, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor G. II. Daewin, Mr. Horace 
Daewin, Major L. Daewin, Professor J. A. Ewing, Professor C. G. 
Knott, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Peeet, 
Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
Mr. Nelson Richaedson, the late Mr. G. J. Stmons and Professor H. H. 

TUENEE 50 

I. On Seismological Stations ahroad and in Great Britnin 59 

II. Analyses of Earthquakes recorded in 1899. By J. Milne 60 

III. Earthquakes and Timekeepers at Observatories. By J. Milne... 105 

IV. Earthquakes and Rain. By J. Milne 106 

V. Earthquakes and Small Changes in Latitude. By J. Milne ... 107 

VI. Selection of a Fault — Locality suitable for Observations on Earth- 
movements. By Clement Reid 108 

VII. On the Relative Movement of Strata at the Ridgeway Fault, 

By Hoeace Darwin 119 

Report on the Present State of the Theory of Point-groups. Paet I. 
By Feances Haedcastle 121 

1. Introduction 121 

2. Historical Outline 121 

3. Analysis of the Subject according to Content '.... 123 

4. Brill's Memoirs on Elimination and Algebraic Correspondences, 

1863-1873 123 

Report on the Chemical Compounds contained in Alloys. By F. H. 
Neville, F.R.S 131 

Paet I. — Methods of Discovery of Compounds 131 

„ Chemical Methods of Isolation 131 

„ Freezing-point Curves 13^ 

„ Microscopical Study 1-11 

„ Rcintgen-ray Photography ••-• 141 

„ Determination of Electrical Potential and other Physical 

Methods 142 



ri KEPORT — 1900. 

Page 

Pakt II. — Table of Intermetallic Compounds and Discussion of it 144 

„ Molecular Weights of the Metals 146 

„ Tables of Depression of the Freezing-point caused by dis- 
solving other metals in Tin, Zinc, Bismuth, Cadmium, Lead 147 
,, Table of References 149 

Dibliography of Spectroscopy. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor H. McLeob, Professor Sir W, C. RoBEETS-AusTEBr, Mr. H. G. 
Maban, and Mr. D. H. Nagel 150 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — In- 
terim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Noel Haetley 
(Chairman and Secretary), Professor F. R. Japp, and Professor J. J. 
DoBBiE, appointed to investigate the Relation between the Absorption 
Spectra and Chemical Constilution of Organic Substances 151 

Isomorphous Derivatives of Benzene. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor H. A. Miees (Chairman), Dr. W. P. AVynne, and Dr. H. E. 
Aemsteong (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary) IGT 

The Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis. — Sixth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. Emerson Reynolbs (Chairman), 
Dr. C. A. KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Feanklanb, Professor F. Clowes, 
Dr. Hegh Maeshall, Mr. A. E. Fletchee, and Professor W. Caeleton 
Williams 172 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. II. Glabstone (Chairman), Professor II. E. Aemsteong 
(Secretary), Lord Avebuey, Professor AV. R. Denstan, Mr. Geoege 
Glabstone, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir IT. E. Roscoe, Professor A. Smithdlls, 
and Professor S. P. Thompson '. 18T 

On Wave-lengthTables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mae- 
shall Watts (Secretory), Sir J. N. Lockxee, Professor J. Dewae, Pro- 
fessor G. D. LivEiKG, Professor A. Schustee, Professor W. N. Haetlet, 
Professor Wolcott Gibes, and Captain Sir W. be W . Abney 193 

isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Repoit of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor \V. A. Tilben (Chaiiman) and Dr. II. E. Aemsteong (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 297' 

On the Constitution of Camphor. By A. Lapwoeth, D.Sc 299" 

Canadian Pleistocene Flora and Fauna. — lieport of the Committee, consisting 
of the late Sir W. Dawson (Chairman), Professor D. P. Penhallow, Dr. H. 
Ami, Mr. G. W. Lamplegh, and Professor A. P. Coleman (Secretary), 
reappointed to continuethe investigation of the Canadian Pleistocene Flora 
and Fauna 328 

I. Ont he Pleistocene near Toronto. By Professor A. P. Coleman ... 328 
II. On the Pleistocene Flora of the Don Valley. By Professor D. P. 

Penhallow 334 

Exploration of Irish Caves. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. R. F. Schaeef (Chaiiman), Mr. R. Lloyd Peaegee (Secretary), 
Mr. G. Coffey, Professor Geenville Cole, Professor D. J. Cenningham, 

Mr. A. McHeney, and Mr. R. J. Usshee 340 

Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Maee (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hinb (Secretary), 
Mr. F. A. Bathee, Mr. G. C. Cetce, Mr. A. H. Fooeb, Mr. H. Fox, 
Mr. E. .T. Gaewoob, Dr. G. J. Hinbe, Professor P. F. Kenball, Mr. J. 
W. KiEKBY, Mr. R. KiBSTON, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor G. A. 
Leboee, the late Mr. G. II. Moeton, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Steahan, 

and Dr. fl. Woobavaed. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 340 

Appenbix.— Interim Report. By Dr. Wheelton Hinb 340 



CONTENTS. yJ£ 

Page 

Kegistration of Type Specimens of British Fossils. — Report of the Committee 
consisting of Dr. H. Woodwakd (Chairman), Rev. G. F. Widbornb, Mr! 
E. KiDSTOJT, Professor H.G. Seelet, Mr. H. Woods, and Dr. A. S. Wood- 
ward (Secretary) 3^2 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Llotd Morgan- (Chairman), Mr. H. Bolton (Secretary), Professor W. 
BoTD Dawkins, Professor S. H. Retxolds, and Mr. E. T. Newton .' 342 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. Hull (Chairman), Mr. P. F. Kendall (Secretary), Professor 
T. Q. Bonnet, Mr. 0. E. De Range, Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H. 
TiDDEMAN, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Mr. J. Horne, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr! 
J. LoMAS, Mr. A. R. Dweeryhoxise, Mr. J. W. Stather, and Mr. W. T. 
Tucker. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 343 

The Movements of Underground Waters of Craven. — First Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chairman), Mr. A. R. 
DwERRTHOusE (Secretary), Professor A. Sm:ithell3, Rev. E. Jones, 
Mr. Walter Morrison, Mr. G. Beat, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. t! 
Fairlet, Mr. P, F. Kendall and Mr. J. E. Mare, (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 343 

Irish Elk Remains.— Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
W. BoTD Dawkins (Chairman), the late Deemster Gill, Rev. Oanon 
Savage, Mr. G. W. Lampluqh, and Mr. P. M. C. Kermode (Secretary), 
appointed to examine the Conditions under which Remains of the Irish 
Elk are found in the Isle of Man. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 349 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom.— Tenth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), 
Professor T. G. Bonnet, Dr. Tempest Anderson, Mr. Godfret Binglet, 
Mr. H. CoATES, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. E. J. Garwood, Mr. J. G. Good- 
child, Mr. William Grat, Mr. Robert Kidston, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. 
J. H. Teall, Mr. R. Welch, Mr. H. B. AVoodward, Mr. F. Woolnough, 
and Professor W. W. Watts (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.)... 360 

On the Geological Age of the Earth. By Professor J. Jolt, D.Sc, F.R.S.... 369 
The Geological Age of the Earth [summary of calculations] 374 

Plankton and Physical Conditions of the English Channel. - Second Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Rat Lankester (Chairman), 
Professor W. A. _ Hbrdman, Mr. H. N. Dickson, and Mr. W. Garstang 
(Secretary), appointed to make Periodic Investigations of the Plankton 
and Physical Conditions of the English Channel during 1899 379 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor E. Rat Lankester, Professor W. F. R. Weldon, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Professor G. B. 
Howes (Secretary) _ 330 

Appendix I.— Note by the Chairman of the British Association 

Committee 381 

„ II. — Reports on the Occupation of the Table 383 

a. The Anatomy of the Flatfishes (Heterosomata). 

By H. M. Kyle, M.A., B.Sc 383 

b. The Structure of Certain Polychgete Worms. By 

E. S. Goodrich, M.A 384 

c. Observations on Compound Ascidians. By Pro- 

fessor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S 384 

d. The Anatomy of Phyllirhoe, the Ccelenterate 

Plankton, and Certain Cojbnterata. By R. T. 
GUNTHER, M.A 386 



viii REPORT — 1900. 

Page 
Appendix II. — e. The Fertilisation Process in Ecliinoidea. By A. 

H. Reginald BiTLLEE, Ph.D 387 

/. The Methods of Preservation of Specimens used at 
the Zoolpgical Station. By Professor R. Ramsat 
Weight 388 

„ III. — List of Naturalists who have -worked at the Zoological 

Station from July 1, 1899, to June 30. 1900 389 

„ IV. — List of Papers published in 1899 by Naturalists who 

have occupied Tables in the Zoological Station 390 

„ V. — List of the Publications of the Zoological Station 

during the Year ending June 30, 1900 392 

Index Animalium. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Henry Wood- 
ward (Chairman), Mr. W. E. Hoyle, Mr. R. McLachlan, Dr. P. L. 
ScLATER, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Mr. F. A, Baxhee (Secretary) 392 

Natural History and Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. W. Crooke 
(Secretary), Professor A. Macalister, and Professor W. Ridgeavay 393 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Tenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Blanfoed, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Mr. F. Dtr Cane Godman, Mr. P. L. Sclatee, 
Mr. E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary) 398 

Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. C. Bourne (Chairman), Professor 
E. Ray Lankestee (Secretary), Professor Sydney H. "\^ines, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor W . F. R. Weldon, and Mr. W. Gaestang 399 

Coral Reefs of the Indian Regions. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. A. Sedgwick (Chairman), Mr. J. Graham Kerr, Professor 
J. W. JuDD, Mr. J. J. Lister, and Mr. S. F. Haembr, appointed to 
investigate the Structure, Formation, and Growth of the Coral Reefs of 
the Indian Region 400 

Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland. — Third Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Rev. E. P. 
Knubley (Secretary), Mr. John A. Haevie-Brown, Mr. R. M. Barring- 
ton, Dr. H. O. FoEBES, and Mr. A. H. Evans, appointed to work out the 
details of the Observations of Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Light- 
ships, 1880-87 403 

The Climatology of Africa. — Ninth Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. 
E. G. Ravenstein (Chairman), Sir John Kirk, (the late) Mr. G. J. Syjions, 
Dr. H. R, Mill, and Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary). (Drawn up by the 
Chairman.) , 413 

The Revision of the Physical and Chemical Constants of Sea- Water. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Murray (Chairman), Mr. J. Y. 
Buchanan, F.R.S., Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 421 

Future Dealings in Raw Produce. — Report of Committee, consisting of 
Mr. L. L. Price (Chairman), Professor A. W. Flux (Secretary), Major P. 
G. Ceaigie, Professor W. Cunningham, Professor F. Y. Edg-EAvoeth, 
Professor E. C. K. Gonnee, Mr. R. H. Hookee, and Mr. H. R. Rathbone, 
appointed to report on Future Dealings in Raw Produce. (Drawn up by 
the Secretaiy, with the assistance of Mr. Hookee.) 421 

State Monopolies in other Countries. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of the late Professor Heney Sidgwick (Chairman), H. Higgs 
(Secretary), Mr. W. M. Ackwoeth, the Right Hon. L. H. Couetney, and 
Professor H. S. Foxwell 436 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Small Screw Gauge. — Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Sir AV. H. 
Peeece (Chairman), Lord Kelviu-, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Sir H. Tktteman 
Wood, Major-Gen. Webbek, Col. Watkin, Messrs. R. E. Crompton, 
A. Stroh, a. Lb Neve Foster, C. T. Hewitt, G. K. B. Elphinstone, 
E. RiGG, C. V. BoTS, J. Marshall Goeham, and W. A. Price (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of considering whether the British Association 
form of Thread for Small Screws should be modified, and, if so, in what 
direction. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) -i^JG 

Appendix — Report of Experiments on Screw Threads made by 

J. Marshall Goeham and W. A. Price 444 

The Micro-chemistry of Cells. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor E. A. SchXfee (Chairman), Professor A. B. Macallum (Secretary), 
Professor E. Rat Laneestee, Professor W. D. Halliburton, and Mr. G. 
C. Bourne. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 449 

Comparative Histology of Suprarenal Capsules. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor E. A. Schafbr (Chairman), Mr. Swale Vincent 
(Secretary), and Mr. Victor Horslet 452 

The Comparative Histology of Cerebral Cortex.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor F. Gotch (Chairman), Dr. G. Mann (Secretary), and 
Professor E. H. Starling. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 453 

Electrical Changes in Mammalian Nerve. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor F. Gotch (Chairman), Professor E. H. Starling, Dr. J. S. 
Macdonald (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 455 

The Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors when introduced into 
the Circulation. Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor E. A. 
Schafer, F.R.S. (Chairman), Professor C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor R. BoTCE, and Professor W. H. Thompson (Secretary). (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 457 

Vascular Supply of Secreting Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor E. H. Starling (Chairman), Dr. J. L. Bunch (Secretary), and 
Dr. L. E. Shore, on the Eft'ect of Chorda Stimulation on the Volume of 
the Submaxillary Gland. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 458 

Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. G. 
Garson (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Sir John Evans, 
Mr. C. H. Read, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
and Professor W. Boyd Dawkins 461 

Mental and Physical Deviations from the Normal among Children in Public 
Elementary and other Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, (Chairman), Dr. Francis Warner (Secretary), 
Mr. E. White Wallis, Dr. J. G. Garson, and Dr. Rivers. (Drawn up 

by the Secretary.) 461 

Appendix. — Three tables showing, for the 60,000 children examined 
1892-4, all cases presenting one or more abnormal 
nerve-signs, arranged in three age-groups. These cases 
are classed in primary groups presenting nerve-signs 
in the parts indicated only, viz. : (1) the face ; (2) 
the hand ; (3) eye-movements ; (4) in other parts of 
the body. The cases are further distributed in primary 
groups under the main classes of defect 464 

Silchester Excavation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. J. 
Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), and Mr. E._W. Bea- 
brooe:, appointed to co-operate with the Silchester Excavation Fund 
Committee in their Excavations 466 



X REPORT — 1900. 

Page 
Etlinological Survey of Canada. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor D. P. Penhallow (Chairman), Dr. Geoege M. Dawson (Secre- 
tary), Mr. E. W. Beabeook, Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. 
Haetland, Sir J. G. Boueinot, Abbe Cuoq, JMr. B. Suxte, Abbe 
Tanguat, Mr. C. Hill-Tout, Mr. David Boyle, Rev. Dr. Scab ding. 
Rev. Dr. J. Maclean, Dr. Meeee Beauchemin, Mr. C. N. Bell, Professor 
E. B. Tyloe, Hon. G. W, Ross, Professor J. Mavoe, Mr. A. F. Huntee, 
and Dr. ^Y. F. Ganonc 468 

Appendix I. — Early French Settlers in Canada. — By B. Sulte 470 

„ H. — Notes on the Sk-qo'mic of British Columbia, a Branch 
of the great Salish Stock of North America. By 

C. Hill-Tout 47i> 

„ HI. — The Hurons of Lorette. By Leon Geein 540 

Anthropological Photographs. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myees (Secretary), Mr. H. 
Baefoue, Professor Flindees Peteie, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, and Mr. H. Ling Roth, appointed for the Collection, Preservation, 
and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropological Interest... 668 

Fertilisation in the Phseophycese. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. B.Faemee (Chairman), Professor R. W. Phillips (Secretary), 
Professor F. 0. Bowee, and Professor Haevet Gibson 569 

Assimilation in Plants. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. 
Daewin (Chairman), Professor J. Reynolds Geeen (Secretary), and Pro- 
fessor Maeshall Waed, appointed to conduct an Experimental Investi- 
gation of Assimilation in Plants 569 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor R. Meldola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretarv'), Mr. 
Feancis Galton, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Mr. W. Whitakee, the late Mr. G. J. Sykons, Professor T. G. Bonney, 
Sir CuTHBEET Peek, Dr. Hoeace T. Beovvn, Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Pro- 
fessor W. W. Watts, and Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing 570 

Report of the Proceedings of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 
Societies held at Bradford 57S 



CONTENTS. xi 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE, 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Page 
Address by Dr. Joseph Laemor, F.li.S., President of the Section 613 

1. Note on M. Cremieu's Experiment. By Professor G. F. FitzGerald, 
F.R.S 628 

2. *Gn the Creeping of Liquids and the Surface Tension of Mixtures. By 

Dr. F. T. Teouton, F.R.S 628 

S. On a Method of Investigating Correspondences between Spectra. Bj- 
Hugh Ramage 628 

4. Report on Radiation in fi Magnetic Field (p. 52) 629 

5. An experiment on Simultaneous Contrast. By George J. Btjrch, M.A., 
r.R.S 629 

6. A Quartz-Calcite Symmetrical Doublet. By J. W. GirroRD 630 

7. The Production of an Artificial Light of the same Character as Daylight. 

By Arthur Dufion, M.A., B.Sc, and "Walter M. GAEDNfeR 631 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. On the Statistical Dynamics of Gas Theory as illustrated by Meteor 
Swarms and Optical Rays. By J. Laemor, F.R.S 632 

2. The Partition of Energy. By G. H. Bryan, Sc.D., F.R.S 634 

3. Note on the Propagation of Electric Waves along Parallel Wires. By 
Professor W. B. Morton, M.A 635 

4. On the A'ector Potential of Electric Currents in a Field where Disturb- 
ances are propagated with Finite A'elocity. By S. H. Burbuey, F.R.S. 635 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Report on Determining the Magnetic Force on Board Ship (p. 45) 637 

2. Final Report on the Sizes of Pages of Scientific Periodicals (p. 45) 637 

3. On the Similarity of Effect of Electrical Stimulus on Inorganic and 
Living Substances. By Professor Jagabis Chunder Bose, M.A., D.Sc. 637 

4. Wireless Telephony. By Sir William Henry Preece, K.C.B., F.R.S. 638 

6. On the Apparent Emission of Cathode Rays from an Electrode at Zero 
Potential. By Charles E. S. Phillips , 639 

6. On Volta-electromotive Force of Alloys, and a Test for Chemical 
Union. By Dr. G. Goee, F.R.S 641 

7. A Lecture-room Volt and Amperemeter. By Professor F. G. Baily 643 

8. On the Phosphorescent Glow in Gases. By John B. B. Burke, M.A. ... 643 



xii REPORT — 1900. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Department I. — Mathematics. 

Page 

1. Eeport on Tables of certain Mathematical Functions (p. 46) 043 

2. Eeport on the Present State of the Theory of Point-Groups (p. 121) 643 

3. A Property of the characteristic Symbolic Determinant of any n Quantics 

in ?i Variables. By Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S G44 

4. Sur las Relations entre la G^ometrie Projective et la Mecanique. Par 

M. Cyparissos Stephanos 644 

5. The use of Multiple Space in Applied Mathematics. By H. S. Carslaw 644 

6. Determination of Successive Pligh Primes. B\' Lieutenant-Colonel Allan 

Cunningham, R.E., and H. J. Woodall, A^R.C.Sc 646 

7. *0n the Construction of Magic Squares. By Dr. J. Willis 646 

8. The Asyzygetic and Perpetuant Govariants of Systems of Binary Quant Ics. 

By Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S 646 

9. On the Symbolism appropriate to the Study of Orthogonal and Boolian 
Invariant Systems which Appertain to Binary and other Quantics. By 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S 647 

10. A Quintic Curve cannot have more than fifteen real Points of Inflexion. 

By A. B. Bassett, F.R.S 647 

11. On a Central-difference Interpolation Formula. By Professor J. D. 
Everett, F.R.S 648 

12. On Newton's Contributions to Central Difference Interpolation. By 
Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S 650 

Department II. — Meteorology. 

1. Report on Meteorological Photography (p. 56) 650 

2. Report on Seismological Observations (p. 59) 650 

3. Fifth Report on the use of Kites to obtain Meteorological Observations at 
Blue Hill Observatory, Massachusetts, U.S.A. By A. Lawrence 
Rotch, S.B., M.A 650 

4. Charts illustrating the Weather of the North Atlantic Ocean in the 

Winter of 1898-99. By Captain Campbell-Hepwoeth 651 

5. *The Physical Effects of Winds in Towns and their Influence on Ventila- 
tion. By J. W. Thomas 652 

6. *A Novel Form of Mercurial Barometer. By A. S. Davis 652 

7. The Rainfall of the Northern Counties of England. By John Hopkin- 

soN, F.R.Met.Soc, Assoc.Inst.C.E '. 652 

8. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 46) 654 

0. Report on Recording the Intensity of Solar Radiation (p. 3G) 654 

10. Report on establishing an Observatory on Mount Royal, Montreal (p. 33) 654 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Report on Electrolysis and Electrochemistry (p. 34) 654 

2. *A Discussion on ' Ions,' opened by Professor G. F. FitzGerald 654 

3. The Radiation of a Black Bodj' on the Electromagnetic Theory. By 

H. 0. Pocklington, M.A., D.Sc 654 



CONTENTS. xiii 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Page 
3. Report on Electrical Standards (p. 53) 656 

2 *A Form of Wheatstone's Bridge. By E. H. Gkiffiths, F.R.S 655 

3. Note on an Improved Standard Resistance Coil. By R. S. Whipple 

(p. 55) 655 

4. A Preliminary Research on Explosive Gaseous Mixtures. By J. E. 
Petatel 655 

5. On the Relations of Radiation to Temperature. By Dr. J. Larmoe, F.R.S. 657 
G, *0n the Infra-red of the Solar Spectrum. By Dr. S. P. Langley, F.R.S. G5J) 

DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY. 
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

Address by Dr. A. A. Commok, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Chairman 659 

1. On the Application of the Electric Telegraph to the Furtherance of 
Eclipse Research. By Professor Dayid P. Todd, M.A., Ph.D 673 

2. On the Operation of Eclipse Instruments Automatically. By Professor 
David P. Todd, M.A., Ph.D 673 

• 3. On the Adaptation of the Principle of the Wedge Photometer to the 
Biograph Camera in Photographing Total Eclipses. By Professor David 
P. Todd, M.A., Ph.D 674 

4. On the ' Square-shouldered ' Aspect of Saturn. By E. M. Antoniadi, 
F.R.A.S • 675 

6. On the Types of Sun-spot Disturbances. By Rev. A. L. Ooetie, F.R.A.S. 675 
6. On a Cheap Form of Micrometer for Determining Star Positions on 

Photographic Plates. By Professor H. H. Tuenee, M.A., F.R.S 676 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Comparison of Prominence and Corona Photographs taken at Santa 
Pola, Spain, and Wadesboro, in North Carolina, during the Total Solar 
Eclipse of May 28, 1900. By William J. S. Lookyee, M.A., Ph.D. ... 676 

2. "'^Description of the New Photographic Equatorial of the Cambridge 
Observatory. By A. R. Hinks, M.A 677 

3. *Diagram for Planning Observations of Eros at the Opposition of 1900-1. 

By A. R. HiNKS, M.A 677 

4. On some Points in Connection with the Photography of a Moving Object. 

By W. E. Plummer " 677 

5. On Needle-hole Maps for Meteor Observation. By J. C. W. Heeschel 678 

6. ^Stationary Meteor Radiants. By G. C. Bompas, F.R.A.S 67!) 

7. ■•'Cosmic Evolution. By Professor A. W. Bickeeton 679 

8. Duration of Totality of the Solar Eclipse of May 28, 1900. By C. T. 

Whitmell, M.A., B.Sc ' 680 

0. DurationofAnnularityin a Solar Eclipse. ByC.T. Whitmell,M.A.,B.Sc. 680 

10. On the Connection between Latitude-variation and Terrestrial 

Magnetism. By J. Halm 680 



xiy KEPORT — 1900. 

Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 

THUESDA Y, SEPTEMBER C] 

Page 
Address by Professor W. II. Perkin, Jan., Ph.D., P.K.S., President of the 
Section, on The Modern System of Teaching Practical Inorganic Chemistry 
and its Development 681 

1. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools (p. 187) G93 

3. On some Problems connected with Atmospheric Carbonic Anhydride and 
on a New and Accurate Method for Determining its amount, suitable 
for Scientific E.\;pedltions. By Professor Letts, D.Sc, Ph.D., &c., and 
R. F. Blake, F.I.C, F.C.S 693 

3. On the Distribution of Chlorine in West Yorkshire. By William 

AcKEOTD, F.I.C 694 

4. On a limiting Standard of Acidity for Moorland Waters. By William 

AcKROTD, F.I.C 695 

5. On the Effects of Copper on the Human Body. By Thomas Whiteside 

HiME, B.A. M.D 696 

6. Interim Report ou the Continuation of the Bibliography of Spectro- 
scopy (p. 150) 697 

7. Report on Preparing a New Series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra 

of the Elements (p. 103) 697 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Specific Pleat of Gases at Temperatures up to 400° C. By II. B. 

Dixon, F.R.S., and F. W. Rixon, B.Sc 697 

2. *Interim Report on the Nature of Alloys 698 

3. Report on the Chemical Compounds contained iu Alloys. By F. H. 
Neville, F.R.S. (p. 131) 698 

4. *0n the Mutual Relations of Iron, Phosphorus, and Carbon when together 

in 6ast Iron and Steel. By J. E. Stead 698 

5. The Crystalline Structure of Metals. By Professor J. A. Ewing, F.R.S., 

and Walter Rosenhain, B.A 698 

6. *0n the Electric Conductivity of the Alloys of Iron. By Professor AV. F. 
Barrett, F.R.S .• 699 

7. Some new Chemical Compounds Discovered by the Use of the Electric 

Furnace. By C. S. Bradley 699 

8. Report ou the Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis (p. 171) ... 700 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Derivatives of Methyl-furfural. By Henry J. Horstman Fenton, 
F.R.S., and Miss Mildred Gostling, B.Sc 701 

■2. A Simple Method for comparing the ' Affinities ' of certain Acids. By 
Heney J. Horstman Fenton, F.R.S., and Humphrey Owen Jones, 
B.A., B.Sc 701 

45. *Recent Developments in Stereochemistry. By W. J. Pope 701 

4. The Constitution of Camphor. By A. Lapworth, D.Sc. Tp. 299) 702 

5. *The Degradation of Camphor. By Julius Bredt 702 

6. *The Camphor Question. By Professor Ossian Aschan 702 

7. Report on Isomeric Napthalene Derivatives (p. 297) 702 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

8. Ileport on Isomorplious Derivatives of Benzene (p. 167) 702 

9. Ileport on tlie Relations between the Absorption Spectra and Chemical 

Constitution of Organic Bodies (p, 151) 702 

10. *Action of Aluminium Powder on some Phenols and Acids. By W. R. 

HODGKIXSON 702 

11. On the Direct Preparation of /3-Naphthylamine. By Dr. Leoxhard 
LiMPACH and W. R. Hodgkinson 702 

12. Interaction of Furfuraldehyde and Caro's Reagent. By C. F. Cross, 

E. J. Bevan, and J. F. Briggs 702 

13. On the Synthesis of Benzo-y-pyrone. By Dr. S. RuHEiirAKN and H. E. 

Stapletoi^^, B.A. (Oxon.) 703 

14. On the Combination of Thiophenol and Guaiacol with the Esters of the 
Acids of the Acetylene Series. By Dr. S. Ruhemann and H. E. 
Stapleton, B.A. (Oxon.) ". 704 

15. *Chlorination of Aromatic Hydro-carbons. By II. D. Dakin and J. B, 
CoHES^, Ph.D 704 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 
Department I. 

1. *0n some Recent Work on the Diffusion of Gases and Liquids. By 

• Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 704 

2. *0n Recent Developments in the Textile Industries. By Dr. A. Liebmann 70o 

3. Influence of Pressure on the Formation of Oceanic Salt Deposits. By 

H. M. Daavson, Ph.D., B.Sc 705 

4. On the Sensitiveness of Metallic Silver to Light. By Major-General 

J. Waterhouse, I.S.C 706 

0. Some Thoughts on Atomic Weights and the Periodic Law. By J. H. 
Gladstone, D.Sc, F.R.S., and George Gladstone 706 

6. The Heating and Lighting Power of Coal Gas. By T. Fairlet, F.R.S.E., 
F.T.C .'707 

7. *0n Smoke. By J. B. Cohen, Ph.D 707 

Department II. 

1. Bradford Sewage and its Treatment. By F. W. Richardson, F.I.C. ... 707 

2. *0n the Treatment of Woolcombers' Effluents. By W. Leach 708 

3. On a Simple and Accurate Method for Estimating the Dissolved Oxygen 
in Fresh Water, Sea Water, Sewage Effluents, &c. By Professor 
Letts, D.Sc, Ph.D., &c., and R. F. Blake, F.I.C, F.C.S 708 

4. Tlie Utilisation of Sewage Sludge. By Professor W. B. BoTiOMLEr, 
M.A., Ph.D , : 709 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Address by Professor W. J. Soelas, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the 
Section 7IX 

1. Notes on the Geology and the Palaeontology of Patagonia. By W. B. 
Scott, Princeton University 73O 



Xvi REPORT — 1900. 

Page 

2. On tLe Order of tlie Formation of the Silicates in Igneous Eocks. By 
Professor J. Jolt, M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S 7b0 

3. On the Geolop^ical Age of the Earth as indicated by the Sodium-contents 

of the Sea. By Professor J. Jolt, D.Sc, F.R.S. (p. 369) 731 

4. Some Experiments on Denudation in Fresh and Salt Water. Bv Professor 

J. Jolt, D.Sc, F.R.S ". 731 

5. The Inner Mechanism of Sedimentation. By Professor J. Jolt, D.Sc, 
F.R.S 732 

6. On Tidal Sand Ripples above Low-water Mark. By Vaughan C/OENiaH, 

M.Sc, F.C.S., F.R.G.S 733 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. *Remarlvs on a Table of Strata. By Dr. II. Woodwaed, F.R.S 734 

2. Report on Seismological Observations (p. .59) 734 

3. Geological Notes on the Up way Disturbance. By Clejient Eeid, F.R.S. 
Appendix to Seismological Report (p. 108) 734 

4. Tiie Caves and Pot-holes of Ingleborough and the District. By S. W. 
CUTTEISS .. 734 

5. The Undergi'ound Waters of North-West Yorkshire. Part I. — The Sources 

of the Aire. By the Rev. W. Lowee Caeter, M.A., F.G.S 735 

6. Report on the Movement of Underground Waters of Craven. The Ingle- 

borough District (p 346) 737 

7. On Ancient Plateaux in Anglesey and Carnarvonshire. Bv E. (iREENlt, 
F.G.S : 737 

8. On the Form of some Rock-bosses in Anglesey. By E. Geeenlt, F.G.S. 737 

9. The Concretionary Types in the Cellular Magnesian Limestone of Durham. 

By G. Abbott, M.R.C.S 737 

10. The Pebbles of the Hollybush Conglomerate, and their bearing on Lower 

and Cambrian Palseogeography. By Theodore Geoom, M.A., D.Sc 738 

11. On the Igneous Rocks associated with the Cambrian Beds of Malvern. By 
Theodoee Gsoom, M.A.,D.Sc 739 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. On a Possible Coalfield in the London Basin. By Professor W. J, Sollas, 

D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S 739 

2. On the Formation of Reef Knolls. By R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., F.G.S.... "JO 

3. On the Construction and Uses of Strike Maps. By J. Lomas, A.R.C.S., 
F.G.S 7J2 

4. On Rapid C^hanges in the Thickness and Character of the Coal Pleasures 

of North Staflbrdshire. By AV. Gibson, F.G.S 743 

5. Report on the Registration of Type Specimens (p. 342) 744 

6. Suggestions in Regard to the Registration of Tvpe-fossils. By Rev. J. F. 
Blake , '. 744 

7. The Outcrop of the Corallian Limestones of Elsworth and St. Ives. By C. 

B. Wedd, B.A., F.G.S .... 74.5 

8. Report on the Exploration of Caves at Uphill, near Weston-super-Mare 

(P-342) : ^. 745 

9. Report on the Exploration of Irish Caves (p. 340) 746 



COXTENTS. xvii 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

A joint Discussion with Section K. on the Conditions under which the 
Plants of the Coal Period grew, opened by the readino- of the followino- 
Papers:— '. " 746 

(«) Flora of tlie Coal-measures. Ey H. Kidstox 74(5 

(b) The Origin of Coal. By A. Steahan, M.A 746 

(c) Botanical Evidence bearing on the Climatic and other Physical 

Conditions under which Coal was formi'd By A. C. Sewaed 

F.R.S 748 

{(T) TheOrigin of Coal. By J. E. Maee, F.R.S 749 

1. On the Fish Fauna of the Yorlishire Coalfields. ByEDGAE I). Wellbtjen 
F.G.S .'749 

2. On some Fossil Fish from the Millstone Grit Rocks. By Edgae D. 

Wellburn, F.G.S 750 

a. The Plutonic Complex of Cnoc-na-Sroine and its Bearin? on Current 
Hypotheses as to the Genesis of Igneous Rocks. By J. J. H. Teall 
M.A., F.R.S., Pres.G.S .' 750 

4. On a Granophyre-dyke Intrusive in the Gabhro of Ardnamurchan, Scot- 
land. By Professor K. Busz, of Miinster 75I 

5. *Interim Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Structure 

of Crystals 752 

6. Report on Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks (p. 340) 752 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. On Naiaditafrom the Upper Rhaetie (Bed K of Wilson's Section) of Red- 
land, near Bristol. By Igeena B. J. Soleas, B.Sc 752 

2. The Influence of the Winds upon Climate during Past Epochs : a Mete- 
orological Explanation of sonie Geological Problems. By F. W. Harmee 
F-C^-S ' 753 

3. Notes on some Recent Excavations in the Glacial Drift in Bradford. By 

JaS. MONCKMAN, D.Sc 754 

4. On a Glacial ' Extra-morainic ' Lake occupying the Valley of the Brad- 
ford Beck. By J. E. Wilson 755 

5. A Preliminary Note on the Glaciation of the Keighley and Bradford Dis- 

trict. By Albert Jowett, M.Sc, and Heebert B. Muff 756 

6. The Source and Distribution of the far-travelled Boulders of East York- 
shire. By J. W. Stather, F.G.S 759 

7. On the Glacial Phenomena of the North-east Corner of the Yorkshire 

Wolds. By J. W. Staxher, F.G.S 76O 

8. On the Age of the Raised Beach of Southern Britain as seen in Gower Bv 

R. H. TiDDEMAN, M.A., F.G.S '..'...;. 7(59 

9. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the Bi-itish Isles (p. 34-3) 762 

10. A Ferriferous Horizon in the Huronian, North ot Lake Superior. By Pro- 
fessor A. P. Coleman 762 

11. Final Report on the Pleistocene Beds of Canada (p. 328) 762 

12. Glacial Notes at Rhyd-ddu, ' Carnarvon. By J. R. Dakyns, M.A 763 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1, Beach Formation in the Thirlmere Reservoir. By R. D. Oldham 763 

2. The Basal (Carboniferous) Conglomerate of Ullswater and its mode of 

Origin. By R. D. Oldham 7fij 

1900. "^ ' * 



xviii REPORT — 1900. 

Page 

3. Report on Photographs of Geological Interest (p. 350) 764 

4. Sections at the Alexandra Dock Extension, Hull. By W. H. Okopts ... 764 

5. The Jm-assic Flora of East Yorkshire. By A. G. Sewakd, F.R.S 765 

6. Note on the Age of the English Wealden Series. By G. W. L.vmplugh, 
F.G.S 766 

7. Report on the Irish Elk Remains in the Isle of Man (p. 349) 767 

Section D. -ZOOLOGY. 
THUBSDAY, SEPTEMIIER G. 

Address hy RAMSir H. TKAauAiE, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S,, President of the 

section 768 

1. Report on the Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland (p. 403) 783 

2. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 

(p. 380) 783 

3. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Plymouth (p. 3i)9) .' 783 

*4. Report on the ' Index Animalium ' (p. 392) 783 

5. Interim Report on the Plankton and Physical Conditions of the English 

Channel (p. 379) '. 783 

6. Tenth Rei)ort on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 398) 783 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. *The Miocene Fauna of Patagonia. By Professor W. B. Scott 784 

2. *The Nesting Habits of Ornithorhynchus. By Dr. Geegg Wilson 784 

3. *Malaria and Mosquitoes. By Major Ronald Ross 784 

4. The Nuclei of Dendrocometes. By Professor S. J. Hickson, M.A., D.Sc, 

F.R.S : ; : 784 

5. Cyclopia in Osseous Fishes. By James F. Gemmill, M. A., M.B 784 

6. ■•■On some Causes of Brain-configuration in the Brain of Selachians. By 

Professor R. Bueckhaedt 785 

7. ""On the Systematic Value of the Brain in Selachians. By Professor R. 
Bueckhaedt "; -j-gg, 

8. On some Points m the Life-History of the Littoral Fislies. Bv Professor 

W. C, McIntosh, F.R.S ' \\^^ 785 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Report on the Physiological Eflects of Peptone and its Precursors when 
introduced into the circulation (p, 457) , 785 

2. On a Peptic Zymase in Young Embryos. By Maectjs Haetog. M \ 
I>.Sc,F.L.S .'. ....::..: 786 

3. On the Mechanical and Chemical Changes which take place dm-in"- the 
Incubation of Eggs. By R. Irvine, F.O.S ". 787 

4. *0n the Physiological Effect of Local Injury in Nerve. By Professor 

F. GoTCH, F.R.S ." 7gg 

5. Report on the Comparative Histology of the Suprarenal Capsules (p. 462) 788 

6. Report on the Vascular Supply of Secreting Glands (p. 458) 788 

7. Report on Electrical Changes in Mammalian Nerve (p. 455) 788 



CONTENTS. six 

Page 

8. Report on the Comparative Histology of Cerebral Cortex (p. 453) 789 

9. Report on the Microchemistry of Cells (p. 449) 789 

10, *Observations on the Development of the Cetacean Flipper. By Professor 
Johnson Symington .' 789 

11. *The Articulations between the Occipital Bone and Atlas and Axis in the 
Mammalia. By Professor Johnson Symington 780 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER ]0. 

1. Mnestra parasites, Krohn. Preliminary Account. Bv R. T. Gunther, 
M.A.,F.R.G.S : 789 

2." *The Respiration of Aquatic Insects. By Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S.... 790 

•S. "The Tracheal System of Sinmliuni : a Problem in Respiration. Bv T. II. 
Tayloe ...■' ' 790 

4. '^The Pharynx of Eriatnlis. By J. J. AVilkinson 790 

0. *The Structure and Life History of the Gooseberry Sawflv. By 

N. AValkee ." 790 

6. ■■Report on the Coral Reefs of the Indian Region (p. 400 ) 790 

7. *Contributions to the Anatomy and Systematic Position of the Laemargidte. 

By Professor R. Bubckhabdt 790 

8. *0n the Nestling of Rhinochetus. By Professor R. Btjrckhaedt 700 

9. The Dentition of the Seal. By Professor R. J. Anderson, M.A., M.D.... 790 

10. Note on Exhibition of Skulls of Antarctic Seals. By Capt. G. E. II. 
Bakeett-Hamilton ". 793 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Photographs of some Malayan Insects. By Nelson Annandale 792 

2. Observations on Mimicry in South African Insects. By Guy A. K. 
Marshall. (Arranged and Communicated by Edwaed B. Potjlton, 
M.A.,F.R.S.) 79.3 

3. Observations on Mimicry in Bornean Insects. By R. Shelford, B.A. 

(Arranged and Communicated by Edwaed B. Poulton, Af.A., F.R.S.)... 795 

4. *Note on an Experiment supporting the General Principle of ' Miillerian ' 
Mimicry. By Professor C. Lloyd Morgan, F.R.S 797 

5. * Illustrations of Mimicry and Protective Resemblance. By Maek L. 
Sykes 797 

6. *The Colour Physiology of Hippolyte varians. By F. AV. Gamble and 

F. AV. Keeble 797 

7. The Locust Plague and its Suppression. By M. Mtjneo, M.D 798 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
THURSDA Y, SEPTEMBER C. 

Address by Sir George S. Robertson, K.C.S.I., President of the Section 800 

1. Attempts to improve the teaching of Geography in Elementary Schools, 
especially in the West Riding. By T. G. Roopee, II. M.I 809 

2. Commercial Geography in Education. By E. R. AYethey, M.A., F.R.G.S. 810 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Treatment of Regional Geography. By Hugh Robert Mill, 
D.Sc, LL.D 810 

2. "Foreign and Colonial Surveys. By E, G. Ravenstein ,... 811 



a 



9 



\ 



XX REPORT — 1900. 

Page 

3. Military Maps. By B. V. Daebishike, M.A 811 

4. Journeys in Central Asia. • By Captain H. H. P. Deast 812 

5. Large Earthquakes recorded in 1899. By John Milne 812 

6. Eeport on the Climates of Tropical Africa (p. 413) 813 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Railway Connection with India. By Colonel Sir T. H. HoLDlCH, K.O.I.E. 813 

2. The Siberian Railway. By C. Raymond Beazlet 814 

3. *0n the Possibility of Obtaininj? more Reliable Measurements of the 
Changes of the Land-level of the Phlegrsean Fields. By R. T. Guntker 814 

4. The British Antarctic Expedition, 1899-1900. By C. E. Boechgrevink 814 

5. Through Arctic Lapland. By C. J. Cuxcliffe Htne, M.A 815 

6. Eeport on Physical and Chemical Constants of Sea Water (p. 421) 815 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Some Consequences that may be anticipated from the Development of the 
Resources of China by Modern Methods. By Geo. G. Chisiiolm, 
M.A., B.Sc 815 

2. The Commercial Resources of Tropical Africa. Bv Edwaed Heawood, 
M.A ., ". 815 

3. On Snow Ripples. By Vatjghan Cornish, M.Sc, F.C.S., F.R.G.S 81G 

4. The Geographical Distribution of Relative Humidity. By E. G. 

Ravenstein 817 

5. The Origin of Moels, and their Subsequent Dissection. By J. E. Maer, 

F.R.S 818 

6. On the Pettersson-Nansen Insulating Water-bottle. By Hugh Robekx 
Mill, D.Sc, LL.D 810 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDA Y, SEPTEMBER G. 
Address by Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S., President of the Section 820 

1. Report on Future Dealings in Raw Produce (p. 421) 837 

2. Report on State Monopolies in other Countries (p. 421) 837 

3. Population and Birth-rate, viewed from the historico-statistical standpoint. 

By Marcus Rubin 838 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Results of Experimental Work in Agriculture in Canada under Govern- 
ment Organisation. By "William Saunders, LL.D 840 

2. The Economic Possibilities of the Growth of Sugar Beet in England. By 

A. D. Hall, M.A !. 840 

3. The Economical Position of the Agricultural Labourer considered 
Historically. By Frank P. Walker, B.Sc 842 

4. Trade Fluctuations. By John B. C. Kershaw, F.S.S 842 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Municipal Trading. By Arthur Priestman 843 

2. Municipal Building for the Overcrowded. By Auberon Herbert 844 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

3. Eecont Changes aifectiiig the Legal and Financial Position of Local 
Authorities in England. By F. W. Hibst, B.A 845 

4, The Local Incidence of Disease in Bradford : a Comparison betwesn the 

Kates and Causes of JMortality in Bradford and those of England 
generally. By A. Rabagliati, M.D 845 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. American CiuTency Difficulties in the Eighteenth Century. By W. 

CUNHINGHAM, D.D '. 846 

2. Some Economic Consequences of the South African War. By L. L. 
Price 847 

3. Colonial Governments as Money-lenders. By Hon. W. P. Reeves 848 

4. Variations of Wages in some Co-partnership Workshops, with some 

Comparisons -with Non-Co-operative Industries. By Robekt Halstead 849 

5. Labour Legislation for Women. By Margaret E. MacDonald 850 

6. The Treatment of the Tramp and Loafer. By William Habbutt 
Dawson 851 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. The Relation between Spinners and Piecers in the Cotton Industry. By 

S. J. Chapman, M.A 852 

2. Indian Guaranteed Railways ; an Illustration of Laisser Faire Theory and 
Practice. By Ethel R. Farad at, M.A 853 

8. Price-changes in the Foreign Trade of France. By Professor A. W. 
Fltjx, M.A, 853 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Address by Sir Alexander Binnie, M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S., President of the 

Section 855 

1. tWater Supplj^ with a Description of the Bradford AVaterworks. By 

J. Watson, M.Inst.C.E 867 

2. The Disposal of House Refuse in Bradford. By John McTaggart, 
A.M.I.M.E 867 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction. By Professor Hele Shaw, 

LL.D., F.R.S 868 

2. TheViagraph. By J. Broavn 870 

3. A Self-registering Rain-gauge. By W. J. E. Binnie 870 

4. The Coal Fields and Iron Ore Deposits of the Provinces of Shansi and 

Honan and Proposed Railway Construction in China. By J. G. H. 
Glass, CLE 871 

5. The Use of Expanded Metal in Concrete. By Abthltr T. Walmislet, 
M.InstC.E 872 

6. Power Generation. — Comparative Cost by the Steam Engine, Water 
Turbine, and Gas Engine. By John B. C. Kershaw, F.I.C 873 



Xxii KEPORT — 1900. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Page 

1. *Tbe Automobile for Electric Street Traction. By J. G. W. Aldkidge.. 875 

2. Tlie Manchester and Liverpool Express Railway. By Sir W. H. 
Peeecb, F.E.S 875 

3. Maucbester and Liverpool Electrical Express Railway : Brakes and 

Signals. By F. B. Behr .' 876 

4. *Tbe Construction of Large Dynamos, as Exemplified at the Paris 
Exbibition. By Professor S. P. Thosipson, F.R.S 877 

0. *Recent Tramway Construction. By W. Dawson 87? 

6. Measurement of the Tractive Force, Resistance, and Acceleration of 
Trains. By A. Malloce 877 

7. On a Combination integrating Wattmeter and Maximum Demand 
Lidicator. By T. Baeker 878 

8. Tbe Design and Location of Electric Generating Stations. By Alfred 

H. GiBBiNGs, M.Inst.E.E 878 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Report on Small Screw Gauges (p. 436) 879 

2. On Screw Tbreads used in Cycle Construction, and for Screws subject to 

Vibration. By 0. P. Clements 879 

3. Tlie Pbotograpbic Metbod of Preparing Textile Designs. By Professor 

Roberts Beaumont, M.LMecb.E 881 

4. *Shop Buildings. By E. R. Clark, M.Inst.C.E 882 

5. *Tbe Internal Arcbitecture of Steel. By Professor Arnold 882 

6. *A New Form of Calorimeter for Measuring tbe Wetness of Steam. By 

Professor J. Goodman 882 

7. On tbe Reheating of Compressed Air. By William George Walker, 
A.M.LC.E., M.Iust.M.E 883 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 
Address by Profef^sov John Rhy.s, M.A., LL.D., President of tbe Section 884 

1. Some Implements of tbe Natives of Tasmania. By J. Paxton Moir 896 

2. The Stone Age in Tasmania as related to the History of Civilisation. By 

E. B. Tyloe, F.R.S. 897 

8. Report on Mental and Physical Deviations of Children in Schools (p. 461) 897 

4. Report on tbe Silcbester Excavation (p. 466) ... 897 

C. Writing in Prehistoric Greece. By Artht7K J. Evans, M.A., F.S.A 897 

6. On tbe System of Writing in Ancient Egypt. By F. Ll. Griffith 899 

7. *Interim Report on Anthropological Teaching 899 

8. Report on Anthropological Photographs (p. 568) 899 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Cave of Psychro in Crete. By D. G. Hogarth 899 

2. On the Japanese Gohei and tbe Ainu Inao. By W, G. Aston 900 

3. The Textile Patterns of the Sea-Dayabs. By Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 901 



CONTENTS. XXlii 

Page 

4, Relics of the Stone Age of Borneo. By Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S 901 

5. Houses and Family Life in Sarawak. By Dr. A. 0. Hadbon, F.R.S 902 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. On the Anthropology of West Yorkshire. By John Beddoe, M.D., 
LL.D.,F.R.S 902 

2. On the Vagaries of the Kephalic Index. By John Beddoe, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S 902 

3. On certain Markings on the Frontal Part of the Human Cranium, and 
their Significance. By A. Francis DisoN 003 

4. On the Sacral Index. By Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D., F.R.S. ... 903 

5. On the Microcephalic Brain. By Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D., 
F.R.S 904 

6. Developmental Changes in the Human Skeleton from the Point of View 

of Anthropology. By Dayid Watekston, M.D., F.R.C.S.E 904 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Ou the Imperfection of our Knowledge of the Blaclc Races of the Trans- 
vaal and the Orange River Colony. By E. S. Haetland, F.S.A 904 

2. On a Mould showing the Finger-prints of a Roman Sculptor of probably 

the Thu-d Century. By Sir William Turner, M.B., F.R.S 905 

3. Report on the Canadian Ethnographic Survey (p, 468) 905 

4. The Paganism of the Civilised Iroquois. By David Botle 905 

5. Note.s on Malay Metal-work. By Walter Rosenhatn, B. A 906 

6. Note on the ' Kingfisher ' Kriss. By Professor Henry Louis, M. A 906 

7. On some Buddhist Sites. By W. Law Bros 906 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. On Permanent Skin-marks, Tattooing, Scarification, &c. By H. Ling 
Roth 907 

2. Some Peculiar Featm-es of the Animal-cults of the Natives of Sarawak, 
and their Bearing on the Problems of Totemism. By Charles Hose, 
D.Sc, and W. McDougall, M.A 907 

3. Report ou the Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula (p. 393) 908 

4. *0n the Present State of our Knowledge of the Modern Population of 
Egypt. By D. Randall MacIver, M.A 908 

5. Perforate Humeri in Ancient Egyptian Skeletons. By Professor A. 

Macalister, F.R.S .' 908 

6. On Anthropological Observations made by Mr. F. Laidlaw in the Malay 
Peninsula (Skeat Expedition). By W. L. H. Duckworth 909 

7. On Crania collected by Mr J. Stanley Gardiner in his Expedition to 

Rotuma. By W. L. H. Duckworth 910 

8. A System of Classification of Finger Impressions By J. G. Garson, 
M.D 910 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. The Sense of EflPort and the Perception of Force. By Professor G. J. 

Stokes, M.A 912 

2. Ou Interpolation in Memoiy. By Professor Marcus Haetog, M.A., D.Sc. 912 



Xxiv KEI'OKT— lOUO. 

Page 
G. The DefeDsive Earthworks of Yorkshire. By Mes. Aemitage 1)13 

4. *Oii the Prehistoric Antiquities of Rumbald's Moor. By Butlee Wood 913 

5. On the Occurrence of Flint Implements of Pah^olithic Type on an old 
Land-surface in Oxfordshire, near AVolvercote aud Pear Tree Hill, 
too:ether with a few Implements of various Plateau Typos. By A. M. 
Bell, M.A 913 

6. On the Physical Oharacteristics of the Population of Aberdeenshire. By 

J. Geay, B.Sc, and J. F. Tochee, F.I.C 913 

7. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 401) 915 

Section K.— BOTANY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER G. 

Address by Professor Sydney H. Vines, M.A., n.Sc, F.R.S., President of 

the Section 91 G 

1. Report on Experimental Investigation of Assimilation in Plants (p. 569) 930 

2. Report on Fertilisation in the Phseopliycone (p. 569) 930 

3. British Sylviculture. By Samuel Maegeeison 930 

4. The Great Smoke-Cloud of the North of England and its Influence ou 
Plants. By Albeet Wilson 930 

5. A Gymnosporaugium from China. By F. E. Weiss 931 

6. Pemonstration of the Structure and Attachment of tlie Flagellum in 
Euglena viridis. By IIaeold Wauee 931 

7. On the Structure of the Root-nodules of Alnus glutinosa. By T. W. 

WOODHEAD 931 

8. Fungi found in Ceylon growing upon Scale-insects (Ooccidse and Aleuro- 

didse). By J. Paekin, M.A 932 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. *0n the so-called Optimum Strength of CO., for Assimilation. Bv Dr. 

F. F. Blackman ; .'. 933 

2. *0n the Effect of the Closure of Stomata on Assimilation. By Dr. F. F. 
Blackman and Miss Matth.si...., 934 

3. Formation of Starch from Glycollic Aldehyde by Green Plants. By 
Heney Jackson, B.A., B.Sc 934 

4. On the Effect of Salts on the CO., Assimilation of Ulva latisslma, L. By 

E. A. Newell Aebee, B.A .". 934 

6. The Sea-weed Ulva latissiina and its Relation to the Pollution of Sea- 
water by Sewage. By Professor Letts, D.Sc, Ph.D., and John H.vW' 
THOENE, B.A 935 

6. Germination of the Zoospore in Laminariacete. By J. Lloyd Williams 936 

7. *A Lecture on Plant-form in Relation to Nutrition. By Pi'ofessor Peecy 

Geoom 930 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. On Double Fertilisation in a Dicotyledon — Caltha palustris. By Ethel 

N. Thomas 936 

2. The Conducting Tissues of Bryophy tes. By A. G. Tansley 937 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 

3. On a Foui-tli Type of Transition from Stem to Root-structure occurring 

in certain Monocotyledonous Seedlings By Ethel Sargant 937 

4. The Origin of Modern Cycads. By AV. C. Worsdell, F.L.S 938 

5. On the Structure of the Stem of Angiopteris evecta, Hnffm. By II. F. 

finoYE 939 

3I0.VjDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. A Joint Discussion with Section C on the Conditions under which the 

Plants of the Coal Period grew (p. 746) 940 

2. Further Investigations on the Intumescences of Hibiscus vitifolius (Linn.). 

By Elizabeth Dale '. 940 

3. On the Osmotic Properties and their Causes in the Living Plant and 
Animal Cell. By Professor E. F. Overton 940 

4. The Biology and Cytology of a new Species of Pythium. By Professor 

A. H. Trow 94I 

6. Observations on Pythium. By G. Poirault and E. J. Btjtler 942 

6. Observations on some Chytridineic. By G. Poirault and E. J. Butler 942 

7. On the Azygospores of Entomophthora gloeospora. By Professor P. 
VuiLLEMix 942 

8. On the Life History of Acrospeira mirabilis (Berk and Br.). By R. H 
'^i^^S'-s 943 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER. 11. 

1 . Embryonic Tissues. By Professor Marshall Ward, F.R.S 943 

2. The Behaviour of the Nucleolus during Karyokinesis in the Root Apex 
ofPhaseolus. By Harold AVager , 944 

3. On the Presence of Seed-like Organs in Certain Palaeozoic Lvcopods. By 

D. H. Scott, F.R.S ..,.„. 945 

4. The Primary Structure of Certain Palajozoic Stems referred to Araucari- 

oxylon. By D. H. ScoiT, F.R.S 94,5 

5. On the Structure and Affinities of Dipteris conjugata, Reinw., with Notes 
on the Geological History of the Dipteridins. By A. C. Seward, F.R.S., 
and Elizabeth Dale 94Q 

6. *Illu8trationH of Sand-binding Plants. Y},'^ Professor F. 0. Bowek, F.R.S. 946 

I"<iex 947 



XXvi REPORT — 1900. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 



Illustrating the Eeport on the Meteorological Observatory ou Mount Royal, 
Montreal, 

PLATES IL, IIL 

Illustrating the Eeport on Seismologieal Investigation, 

PLATE IV. 

Illustrating the Eeport on Future Dealings in Raw Produce. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with tlie ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

RULES. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may ba 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual SuBSCi?iBEES shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



Xxviii REPORT — 1900. 

gratuitously tlie Reports of tlie Association for tlie year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay luithout intermission their 
Annnal Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other jirivileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to 2^urchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a fui'ther sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members ivho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. Qd. per volume.' 

Application to he made at the Ofiice of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1631 to 1874, are on salcj at £10 the set. 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xxix 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance ' ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Conimittee. 

The General Committee shall sit dui'ing the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1, Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting neio claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must he 
sent to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month hefore the Meeting 
of the Association. The decision of the Cormcil on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members. ^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Bide to be sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to exercise the func- 
tions of Sectional Committees until their names are submitted to the 
General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,* and of preparing Reports 

' Eevised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 
2 Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

' Passed, Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. 

* Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 



XXX REPORT — 1900, 

thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex oficio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
2 P.M., to appoint members of the Sectional Committee.^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.'^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section, who will be appointed by the 
General Committee at 4 p.m., and those previous Presidents and Vice- 
Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., 
in their Committee Rooms, and appoint the Sectional Committees by 
selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particulai'ly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'' Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee except for Satui'day."' 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 



o 



1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the pi'evious Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the hef/inning of the Meetinq. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract "of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , adth-essed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
vvill be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary before the concltision of the Meeting. 

' Shefl&eid, 1879. - Swansea, 1880, revised, Dover, 1899. 

3 Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. 

* The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. = Nottingham, 1893 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. SXXl 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 
ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of tbe Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to coi'rect, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the IVIinute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwo.rded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee {vide p. xxix), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by applicaticn to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Gommlttee should he named, and, 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
"^ This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, 1871. 



xxxii REPORT — 1900. 

one of thevi appointed to act as Chairman, ivlio shall have notified 'per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accent the office, the Ghairman to have 
the respovsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the piresentation of the Report in due time; and, further, it is 
expedient that one of the members sho^dd he appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should he as small as is consistent with Us efficient worhing. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several 8eC' 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement tchetlier the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their resjjective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

Tliat on the proposal to recommend the a'ppointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to theu' number persons wliose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first he sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. ^ 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
•work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

* Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. SXS1H 

5. In each Committee the Chairman is the only person entitled to 

call on the Treasurer, Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchei'S. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must ajjply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of any description are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Council. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

•may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he iised for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,^ and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into. 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowfered to arrange the Lours 
of meeting of the Section and of the Sectional Committee, except for Saturday. 
1900. b 



XXxiv REPORT — 1900. 

A Eeport presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged, 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of RecomTnendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Committee of Recommendations are the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General and Assistant- 
General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents 
of the Association in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of INIoney, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering tlie titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be releri'ed to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meetiug of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall bo 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

' Parsed by tlje Gcnelal Committee at Birmingham, 1865, 
^ Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, ia90. 



tltJLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 



Gwresponding Societies.^ 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of Jnne preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Conncil and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves genei-ally informed of the annual work of the Cori'esponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, a 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the CoiTcspondiag Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

C. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Confcrew'-c of Dcler/atcs of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to scud recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee, 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed toi transmit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 

b2 



XXXVi REPORT — 1900. 

tlie Secretaries of tlie Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before tlie Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 



Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

» Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVll 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

OflBcers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



XXXVUl 



REPORT — 1900. 



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1900. 



feEPORt— 1900. 



TEUSTEES AND GENEllAL Oi^FlCEES, 1831— ] 901. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MuECHlSON (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. BabbAGE, Esq., F.R.S 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabixe, F.R S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

AVEBUKY), F.R.S. 

1881-83 W. SPOTtiSWOODE, Esq., Pres. 
R.S. 
Lord RaylEigh, F.R.S. 
-98 Sir Lyon (now Lord) Playfaih, 
F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. A. W. RucKBB, F.R.S. 



1872 



188S 
1883 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Taylob, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. SroTTisWOODE, Esq., B'.R S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.9. 
1891-98 Prof. A. W. Ruckee, F.R.S. 
18t)8 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



Veexon Haecouet, 

Vbknon Haecouet, 
and F. BAit,Y, Esq., 



1832-35 Rev. "W. 

F.R.S. 
1835-36 Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 

F.R.S. 
1836-37 Rev. W. Veenon Haecouet, 

F.R.S., and R. 1. MuECHisoN, 

Esa., F.R.S. 
1837-39 R. I. MUECHISON, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1839-45 Sir R. L Muechison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1845-50 Lieut.-Colonel B. Sabinb,F.R.S. 
1850-52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J.F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
1852-53 J. F. RoYLB, Esq., FiR.S. 
1853-59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1859-61 Prof. R. Walkbe, F.R.S. 
1861-62 W. Hopkins, E.sq., F.R.S. 
1862-63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
1863-65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. GaLTON, Esq., F.R.S. 
1865-66 F. GALTON, Esq., F.R.S. 



1866-68 

1868-71 

1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1S83-95 

1895-97 



1897- 

1900 

1900 



Dr. 
Capt. 
Dr. 

Capt. 



F. GALtoN, Esq., F.tl.S., abd 

Dr. T. A. Hiest, F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hiest, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Dr.T.THOMSON.F.R.S., and Capt. 

JDOUGLAS Galton, i'.R.S. 
Cape. D. Galton. i\R.S., and 
Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
D. GALtON, F.R.S., and 
P. L. SCLATBE, F.R.S. 
D. GALTON, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balpoue, F R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecoue*, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G. Veenon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof, E. A. 

SCHAFBE, F.R.S. 
Prof. ScHafee, F.R.S., and Sir 

\V.C.Robbets-Austen,F.R.S. 
Sir \V. C. Robeets-Austen, 

F.R S., and Dr. D. H ScoTT, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. FOEBES, Acting 

Secretarij. 
1832 -62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Geifpith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Goedon, Esq., B.A., 

Asmtant Secretarrj. 
1881 G. Geifpith, Esq., M,A., Acting 

Secretary. 
•J 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. BoNNEY, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geifpith, Esq., M.A. Acting 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geifpith, Esq., M.A. 



li 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.K.S.|Rev. H. Coddington. 

Sir D. Brew.ster, F.R.S Prof. Forbes. 

Kev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. |Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1834. 

1855. 

1856. 

1867. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS 

Dublin |Hev. Dr. Robinson 

Bristol Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S 



Liverpool... 
Newcastle 
Birmingham 



Glasgow 



Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Rev! Prof . Whewell, F.R.S... 
Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 



Plymovith Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F. R. S 

Manchester Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

j F.R.S. 

Cork I Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. ... 

York 'The Earl of Eosse, F.R.S. ... 

Cambridge jThe Very Rev. the Dean of 

I Ely. 
Southamp- Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

ton. . ' Bart., F.R.S. 
Oxford iRev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

j F.R.S. 
Swansea ...Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 



Birmingham 



Edinburgh 



Ipswich 
Belfast. 
Hull.... 



William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstoue. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Eev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. PL Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof.Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquom Eankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 



Prof. Dixon, W, J. Macquorn Ean- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
The Veiy Rev. the Dean of jB. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Ely, V.II.S. I Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

Liverpool...'Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle. Prof. 



Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh, 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

T3'ndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. TurnbuU. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankiuo, 

Pi-of. Stevelly. 

c2 



lii 



IlEPORT^-1900. 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 

i859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

li866. Nottingham 
1867. Dundee ... 
1S68. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1876, Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin.. .. 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal... 



Presidents 



Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.AV. J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spotti8woode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wlieatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W, Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L,, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 

M.R.LA. 
Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
1 LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J.S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly, 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley, 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev, G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G, 

S. Mathews, Prof, H, J, S, Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. Q. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev, R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W, K. Clifiord. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof, G. C, Foster, Rev, W, Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J, D, 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley, 
Prof, W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S.Herschel.G.F.Rodwell 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J,W.L.Glaisher,Prof.Herschel, Ran* 

dal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley. 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W,L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W, F, Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 

son, 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 



1885, 
1886, 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1893. 
189G. 

1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



Aberdeen. . . 
Birmingham 
Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ... 



Presidents 



Prof. Ct. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R,S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

TJl T> O 

Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Riicker, M.A„F.R.S 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc. F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsytl), M.A.. 

F.R.S. 
Prof W. E, Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R, T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R, T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
\V. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge. 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. CoweU, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COJIMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTET, MINERALOGY. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope , 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835, 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842, 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S jDr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Rev. Prof. Gumming Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C.Henry, W.Hera- 

j path. 

Michael Faraday, F.R.S I Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

I Reynolds. 
Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. ' Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson,. Thomas 

Richardson. 
Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, R. Hunt.W. M. Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 
Michael Faraday, D.C.L., Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 
F.R.S. 



Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cummins: 



liv 



KEPOET— 1900. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1847. Oxford JRev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A,, ! B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof . Solly. 

F.K.S. i 

Swansea ... Richard Phillips, F.R.S T. H. Hemy, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

Birmingham' John Percy, M.D., F.R.S |R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
]8.51. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1860. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878, 

1879. 



Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast.. 



Hull 



Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 



Prof. .J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 
F.R.S. 
Liverpool , Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 



Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Glasgow ... Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S.i Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
Cheltenham I Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
, Voelcker. 

Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

M.R.I.A. livan. 

Leeds 'Sir J. P. W. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 

! D.C.L, ! nolds. 

Aberdeen... Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B. , F.R.S. I J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveino', Dr. Odling. 

Oxford Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S ^ A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

' A. B. Northcotc. 
Manchester! Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S.; A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
Cambridge Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. | H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S.. 



Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S, 



Dundee ...iProf. T. Anderson, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 



Norwich . 
Exeter .... 
Liverpool. 



Edinburgh 



Brighton ... 
Bradford . . . 



Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe. B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof, T. Andrews, M,D.,F,R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 



Belfast Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 

Bristol A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

I F.R.S. 
Glasgow ...W.H. Perkin, F.R.S 



Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 



F. A. Abel, F.R.S ., 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M,D, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S, ... 



Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcoin-t, H. Adkins, Prof, 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Riissell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. C!rum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkin.son. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. ' 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Riassell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong. W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M, Thomson, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1880. 

1881. 
1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Swansea ... Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.K.S. 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Prof.A.W.Williamson.F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.K.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Pvoscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. H. E.Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 



Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Newcastle- |Sir I. Lowthiau Bell, Bart., 
upon-Tyne D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Leeds Iprof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.E.S., Treas. C.S 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 
Oxford 



1895. Ip.swich ... 

189C. Liverpool... 
1897 Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 



P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T.Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Blorley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. PhiUips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J.Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 

ley,W.W. J.Nicol, C. J.Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. I'isher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 

SECTION B {continued). — chemistry. 

Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S IE. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

I Kohn. J. W. Rodger. 
' Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
|C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Roso, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 



Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S. ... 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE, 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool. . 

1838. Newcastle., 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S , John Taylor. 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof. Jameson | J. Phillips, T. J. Tome, Rev. J.Yates 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHT. 
R. J. Griffith | Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 



Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
<?eo9.,R.I.Mui-chison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 
6!fOf/.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 
Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 



William Sanders, S. Stutchbmy, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M.Denham,R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 



Ivi 



nEi'ORT — 1900. 



Date and Place 



1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Soutbamp- 

tOR. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh' 



Presidents 



Kev. Dr. Buckland, F.E.S.— 
Geoff.,G.B.GTeenongh,F.R.S. 

Charles Lyell, F.E.S.— 6feo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.K.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. ... 

K. I. Murchison, F.K.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Bechc, F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D,, 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S.Benson, Prof. 01dham,Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof, 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION c (continued). — geology. 



1851. 

1852. 

1853, 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 

1863, 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 



Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool . . 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen,.. 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut.- Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins.M. A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.., 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S, 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 



C. J, F. Bunbury, G. \V. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, E. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W.Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E, Hull, J, W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H, C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W, Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 

son, G. H. Wright. 
E. Hull, W, Pengelly, H. M^oodward. 



' Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixji, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 

1872. 

1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 

1877. 



Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Bristol 

Glasgow .. 
Plymouth.. 



18T8. Dublin. 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford . . . 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 
Toronto 

Bristol... 

Dover ... 

Bradford 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin- Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

R. Etlieridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. "W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Sec. 

Prof. .T. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S.. 

L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Hudleston,F.R.S 

Sir Arch. Geikie, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 



Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Plenry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley. 
F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 

R. H. Tiddeman. 
L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Toplej'. 
J,Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. ToiDley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 

W. Whitaker. 
T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West 

lake, W. AVhitaker. 
R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top 

ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, AV 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top 

ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W, 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J, 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Slarr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W, Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Bliers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 
Capt. McDakin, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. Lo^er Carter, 
G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1900. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford [Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...jRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

18.33. Cambridge ' I Pvev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.'c. C. Babington, D. Don. 
1834. Edinburgh. Prof. Graham W. Tarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingliam 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow IJ. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

j Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart ij. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R, Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D .Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch,Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. ] Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S.... G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

i Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S. ... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

F.R.S. ; Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V, 

Wollaston. 



1848. Swansea ...L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 



Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin. 



SECTION D (continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixi.] 

Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 



1849. 
1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Birmingham 
Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S... . 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 



• At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP THE SECTION,*. 



lix 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Presidents 



1864. Bath. 



I860. B ir ming- 
li-am ' 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.K.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Husloy, F.E.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S.... 

Dr. Joliu E. Gray, F.E.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S, ... 



Secretaries 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Ecv. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T, 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Eev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (contimiecl) , — biology. 



1866. Nottingham [Prof. Huxley, V.U.H.—Bi'jf 

of Physiol., ^roi. Humphry, 
] YJR.a.—Dij). of Anthropol, 
I A. R. Wallace. 

1867. Dundee ... Prof. Sharpcy, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

: — Bi'j}. of Zool. and Bat., 
George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

1868. Norwich ...jRev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

j — Dej). of Pliydology, W. 
H. Flower, F.R.S. 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool.. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford 



George Busk, F.E.S., F.L.S. 
— Di'p. of Boi. and Zool., 
C. Spenco Bate, F.E.S. — 
Bip.of miuio., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. Eollcston, \l.k., M.D., 

, F.E.S., Y.l^.'A. — Dvi). of 

Anat. and. Phi/.twl.,Froi.M. 

Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— i^t^^. 

ofBthno., J. Evans, F.E.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.E.S.— i?ciA of Bot. and 
.^oZ.jProf.Wyville Thomson, 
F.E.S. — Bej). of AntJiropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.E.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.E.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.E.S.— i3ry. of 
A)iat.andPhysiol.,Fvoi. Eu- 
therf ord, M .Ti.—Bcj). of An- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.E.S. 



Dr. .J. Bcddard, AV. Felkin, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, AV. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. AVright. 

C. Spenco Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T . 

Stainton, Eev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Eay Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Ev.ans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Eev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland AVake, E. Eay Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. E. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Eay Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H, T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprej', Dr. Gamgee, E. Eay 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson. 
E. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E' 
Eay Lankester, F. AV. Eudler, J 
H. Lamprej'. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



Ix 



REPORT— -1900. 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast. 



1875, Bristol .... 



1876, Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea 



1881. York 



1882. 



Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Eedfern, M.T).—I)qh of ^ 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.^.,Vxes.n.^.—Dep.ofAn- 
tlirop.. Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— i)e/?.fl/ 

Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 

Cleland, Y.Ii.k—Be}}. of 

^wf7i.,Prof.Rolleston,F.E.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Dei), of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of Anat. and Phydoh, 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
BejJ. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bq). of 
Anthro])ol.,¥.(ja].ton,'F.B,.ii. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bcj}. of Antlirojwl., Prof. 
Hiixley, Sec. R.S. — Bej). 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F. R. S. — Bej). of Anthroj)ol. , 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bej}. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye- Smith. 

A.C. L. Giinther, F.R.8.— Z*^^^. 
of Anat. cS- Physiol., F. M. 
Balfour, F.R.S.— i?e/A of 
Anthrojwl., F. W. Rudler. 

R. Owen, F.R.S.— i?e/;. of An- 
throjwl., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S.— i>g7. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bej>. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthrojwl., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins. F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester,M.A., 
F.R.S.— i5c/7. of Anthrojwl., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moselej', M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye- Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof, 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr, 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr, 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr, 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D, J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C, A. Kingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W, Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. E. E. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Eobertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p, Ixviii, 



PilESlCENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



XI 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford* ... 



Presidents 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D,, D.Sc, F.K.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.E.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 

SECTION D (continued). — zoology. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

! Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ...IH. 0. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 
A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S ' W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... W. Garstang, .L G. Kerr, T. H. 

! Taylor, Swale Vincent. 

ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHTSIOLOGT. 



1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


LiverxDOol... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 
1900. 


Dover 

Bradford ... 



Prof. L. C. MiaU, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 



1833. Cambridge iDr. J. Haviland... 

1834. Edinburgh |Dr. Abercrombie 



Dr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 
Dr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P.M. Roget, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W, Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Voae. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J.Brown, Prof . Couper,Prof. Reid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... IP. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 



1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 



Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 



* Physiology V7as made a separate Section, see p. Ixix. 

* The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1900. 



Date and Place 



1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ., 



Presidents 



Prof. Owen, M.D., F.K.S. 
Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.K.S. . 



Secretaries 



C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



1850. 
18.55. 
18.57. 
1858. 
1359. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Binning- 
ham.- 



PHTSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. K. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. .John Davy, F.R.S. h.k E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. RoUeston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wlieelbouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. \V. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smitli. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Pi-esidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section Cj 
p. Iv.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Prit chard Dr. King 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 

1851. Ipswich ... Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., tR. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Pres. R.G.S. ! Norton Shaw. 

1852. Belfast Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L.,iR. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

' F.R.S. I Shaw. 

1853. Hull ! R. G. Latham, BI.D., F.R.S. !r. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 

1854. Liverpool... Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

F.R.S. lime. Dr. Norton Shaw. 

1855. Glasgow ... :Sir J. Richardson, M.D.,- Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

! F.R.S. { Norton Shaw. 

1856. Cheltenham Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson,!R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

K.C.B. Rumscy, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

1857. Dublin | Rev. Dr. J. Hunthorn Todd, j R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

I Pres. R.I.A. 1 Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



» By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. iviii.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1861 to 
Geography. 

- yidc vio\.e on page lix. . 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETAEIB8 OP THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


1858. 


Leeds 


Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.E.S. 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.E.S. 


1860. 


Oxford 


Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 


1861. 


Manchester 


John Crawfurd, F.R.S 


1862. 


Cambridge 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


1863. 


Newcastle 


Sir R. I. Mui-chison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 


1864. 


Bath 


Sir R. I. Murcliison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. [ 


1865. 


Birmingham 


Maior-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P.,K.C.B., F.R.S. 


1866. 


Nottingham 


Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 


1867. 


Dundee ... 


Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 

SECTION E (continued') — 


1869. 


Exeter 


Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 
LL.D., F.R.G.S. 


1870. 


Livetpdol... 


Sit R. LMurcMson, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


Francis Galton^ F.R.S 


1873. 


Bradford... 


Sir Rutherford AlCock, K. C.B. 


1874. 


Belfast 


Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S.j 
F.R.G.S. 


1875. 


Bristol 


Lieut. - General Strachcyj 
R.B.,C.S.I.,F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 


1878. 


Dublin 


Prof. Sir C. "Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R S.E. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 


1880 


Swansea ... 


Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 


1881 


York 


Sir J. D. Plooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.E.S. 






1882 


Southamp- 


; Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 




ton. 


1 F.R.G.S. 


1883 


Southport 


Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 


1884 


Montreal ... 


Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 


1885 


. Aberdeen... 


Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 


1886 


Birmingham 


Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 



Secretaries 



E. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

Eichard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T.Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. fcj. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wriglit. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 

Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 

-GEOGEAPHT. 

H. W. Bates, Clements R. Marklianij 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tiickett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. 0. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Eye. 
John Coles, B. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bate.". 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Eye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.Abb^Lafiamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J S. O'HaUoran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Hougliton, J. S. Keltic. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 



Ixiv 



EEPOKT — 1900. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



Manchester Col. Sir C. Warren, E.E., 
I G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.Pv.G.S. 

Bath Col. Sir C. W.Wilson, R.E., 

I K.C.B., F.R.S., F.K.G.S. 
Newcastle- iCol. Sir F. de Winton, 
upon-Tyne; K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Leeds Lieut.-Col. Sir E. Lambert 

i Playfair.K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

CardifE 1e. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Edinbui'gh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 



H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 
F.Z.S. 



Rev. L. C. Casai-telli, J. S. Keltic, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein 

J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 
Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, K. 
Sulivan, A. Silva White. 

A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 
A. Silva Wliite. 

John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 

J. G. Bartholomevi', John Coles, J. S. 
Keltie, A. Silva White. 



Col. F. Bailev, John Coles, H. O, 
Forbes, Dr.^H. R. Mill. 
Capt. W.J. L.Wharton, R.N., John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

F.R.S. I Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. - 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A.,i John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 



F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. E.G.S. 



J. Scott-Keltie, LL.D. 

Bristol !Col. G. Earl Chiirch, F.R.G.S. 

Dover I Sir John MuiTay, F.R.S. 

Bradford ... Sir George S. Robertson, 
I K.C.S.I. 



R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Baile.y. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. E. Mill,"E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. MUl. H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 

Wethey. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 



1833. Cambridge] Prof. Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh I Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 

1835. Dublin Charles Babbage, F.R.S W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

1836. Bristol | Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. Eev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 

W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr, W. C. 

Tayler. 

Newcastle j Colonel Sykes, F.R.S i W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 

F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, E.W. 



1837. Liverpool... Et. Hon. Lord Saudon .... 



1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1S49 



Birmingham j Henry Hallam, F.R.S. . 
Glasgow 



Plymouth... 
Manchester 



Cork . 
York. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.E.S 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. I 
Oxford I Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S 



Swansea ... J. H. Vivian, M.P,, F.E.S. ... 
Birmingham, Kt. Hon, Lord Lyttelton...... 



Eawson. 
Eev. Dr. Byrth, Eev. E. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J, Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Nelson. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede, 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 



1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .., 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.,. 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Presidents 



Very Eev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.K.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishoi? of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.K.S 

E. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



Secretaries 



Prof. Hancock, J, Fletcher, Dr. J. 
Stark. 

J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
Mac Adam, jun. 

Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 

E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, "W. New- 
march, Prof. E. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (coritinued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich.... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.E.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col, Sykes, M.P,, F.E,S , 

Nassau W, Senior, M.A , 

William Newmarch, F.E.S..., 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.E.S, ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.E.S 
Et, Hon, Lord Stanley, LL,D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E.T.Rogers 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown 



Et.Hon. Sir StaflordH, North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Et. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Et. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P, 
Lord O'Hagan 



882. Southamp- 
ton 
1900. 



James Heywood, M.A,,F,E.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P. 
Et. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Et. Hon. M. E. Grant-Dufe, 

M.A., F.E.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S, I 



Eev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Pishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W, Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Eogers, 
David Chadwick, Prof. E. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Eogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory, 
T, Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leono 

Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdj^, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory. 

J. Miles Moss. 
J, G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillii^s. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E, 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof, H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

d 



Ixvi 



llEPOET — I lit Ml. 



Date and Place 



1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Southport 
Montreal ., 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.E.S. 



Sir Eichard Temple, Bart. 
I G.C.S.L, CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D. 
i Litt.D. 
Birmingham J. ]'.. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 



Aberdeen... 



1891. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 
1900. 



18^6. 
1837. 
1838. 



Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Piev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Fo.Kwell.C. JlcCombie, J.F. Moss. 
F. F. ]'>arham. Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. 8. Foxwell, J. F. Mos.s. 
ManohesterlRobertGifEen, LL.TX,V.P.S.S. Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 

wortli, T. H. ElUott, C. Hughes 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott. 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro. 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. .1. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 
! L. L. F. R. Price. 
rof. .7. S. Nicliolson, D.Sc.,,Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 
]'".S.N. ! Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Oxford Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A.,;E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 



Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. Marshall, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F S.S. 



1892. Edinburgh 



1893. Nottingham 



Hon. Sir 
K.C'.B. 



C. W. Fromantle, 



Ipswich .. 

Liverpool.. 

Toronto . . 
Bristol... . 



Dover 



F.S.S 
L. L. Price, M.A. 



Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P... 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., IjL.D. 



1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
|E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 
! H. Higgs. 

,E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 
i W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
,E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
!e. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Fhrx, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 

H. Higg-s LL.B A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

• W. Flux, ilev. G. Sarson. 
Bradford ... Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 

SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

P-ristol 1 Davics Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. jT. G. Bunt, G. T.Clark, AV. West, 

Liverpool... I Rev. Dr. Robinson Charles Vignoles, Thoma; vVebster. 

Newcastle | Charles Babbage, F.R.S |r. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
Prof. WiRis, F.R.S., and Robt. I W.Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 
Stephenson. 1 Webster. 

Sir .John Robinson I J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 



1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 



Plymouth 
Manchester 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
South 'mpt'n 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingh'm 
Edinburgh 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 



Prof. J. Macncill, M.E.I.A. 



Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 

J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 

James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 

John Taylor, F.R.S Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

George Rennie, F.R.S iRev. W. T. Kingsley. 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. | William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A.,F.R.S.,L Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
Rev. Prof. AValker,M.A.,F.R.S.jR. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struv6. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S. Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Rev. R, Robinson ,,.,., ...,,,, J Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
18.56. 
1857. 

1858. 
18.j». 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 
1872. 

J873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 

1886. 



Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull „. 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge . 
Mewcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton 
Southport . 
Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

BirminghalD 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



William Cubitt.F.R.S 'John Head, Charles Manby. 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., : John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock. 



F.R.S. 

William Pairbairn, F.E.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S. , 



Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
j J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 

J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thomson. 

L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
|C. Atherton. B. Jones, H. M. JefEerj-. 



Rt. Hon. tlic Earl of Rosse, j Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 



F.R.S 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 



G. Armstrong, LL.D. 



J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 
Sir W, 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof . Fleeming Jenkin, F.R. S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S. E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres. Inst. C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 



James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

0. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T, 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.Barlow,H.Bauerman.E.H.Carbutt, 
I J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., I A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 
C.E., F.R.S.E. I Smyth, jun. 

W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. i Atcbison, F Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg,H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 
I Eigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Douglass, M.Inst. C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 
1 Marshall, E. Rigg. 

d2 



Sir J. N, 
C.E. 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 1 OlXl. 



Date and Place 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891, 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900, 



Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Presidents 



Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.Pt S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 
F.R.A.S. 
Cardiff T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 



Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ... 



Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 

Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. 
C.B. 



Secretaries 



C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. P.. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Manshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof . Callen- 

dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stiigoe. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, C. P. Chamock, 

Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 
189.3. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Midler, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B,, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

Sir W. Turner, F.R.S 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, B. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davles, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Eaven, H. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C, Haddon, J. L. Myres, 



LIST OF llVBKlNG DiSCOUESES. 



1X1$ 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1898. Bristol.. 

1899. Dover ., 



E, \V. Brabrook, C.B. 
C. H. Bead, F.S.A. 



1900. Bradford ... Prof. John Rhys, M.A. 



H. Balfour, .T. L. Myres, G. Parker. 
H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 



SECTION 1.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1894. Oxford. 



1896. Liverpool. 

1897. Toronto . 

1899. Dover .... 



Prof. E. A. Schiifer, r.E.S.,|Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 



M.R.C.S. 
Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.E.S. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 

J. N. Langley, F.U.S. 



IM. S. Pembrey. 

Prof. R.Boyce,Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 

Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 

Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 
H. Starling. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

1895. Ipswich ...W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Y^^eiss. 
189C. Liverpool... Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 'Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

I i Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. i Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... [A. 0. Seward, H. Wager, J.W.White. 

Sir George King, F.R.S G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager, 

Prof. K. H. Vines, F.R.S ! A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 



1897. Toronto .. 

1898. Bristol,.... 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford .. 



LIST OF EVENING- DISCOUESES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1842. 


Manchester 


Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 


The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 




Cork 


Sir M. I. Brunei 


The Thames Tunnel. 




R. L Murchison 


The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 


1843 


Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 






The Distribution of Animal Life in 








the .ffilgean Sea. 




York 


Dr. Sobinson 


The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Giijantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 


1844 


Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 












Hills in India. 


1845. 


Cambridge 


G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 


Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 






R. L Murchison, F.R.S 


Geolosry of Russia. 


1846. 


Southamp- 


Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 


Fossil Mammaliaof tlie British Isles. 




ton. 


Charles Ly ell, F. R. S 


Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 






W. R. Grove, F.R.S 


Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein; also 
some Kesearches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 


1847. 


Oxford 


Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 


Shooting Stars. 






Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 


Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 






Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 


The Dodo {Bidus inci'tuf). 



Ixx 



REPORT — 1900. 



Date and Place 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 



Lecturer 



John Percy, M.D.,F.E.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Kev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



1850. Edinburgh iProf. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 

I F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

1851. Ipswich ... I Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull, 



G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof.J.Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 



Robert Hunt, F.R,S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 



1854. Liverpool. 
1853. Glasgow . 
1856. Cheltenham Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson .. 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

1857. Dublin Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C'.L. 

1858. Leeds Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

1859. Aberdeen... I Sir R. L Murcbison, D.C.L.... 

I Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

1860. Oxford Rev. Prof. AValkcr, F.R.S. ... 

I Captain Sherard Osborn. R.N. 

1861. Manchester jProf.W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Roval. 
Prof."Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. .. 



Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 

and its Neighbourhood. 
Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 
Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 
Transit of different Weights with 

varying Velocities on Railways. 
Passage of the Blood through the 

minute vesselsof Animals in con- 
nection with Niatrition. 
Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 
Distinction between Plants and 

Animals, and their changes of 

Form. 
Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 
Recent Discoveries in the properties 

of Light. 
Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 

Carrickfergus, and geological and 

practical considerations connected 

with it. 
Some peculiar Phenomena in the 

Geology and Physical Geography 

of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
.Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the resists of 

Cuneiform Research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of York.shire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands, 
Electrical Discharges in liighly 

rarefied Bledia. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistiyof the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymotith. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal.. 



1885. Aberdeen... 



William Hiiggins, F.E.S 

Dr. J. D.Hooker, F.E.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

Alexander Herschel,F.E.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.E.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockj'er, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof .¥/■. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.E.«. 
F. A. Abel, F.E.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.E.S. 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

Prof. W. K. Clififord 

Prof. AV. C.Williamson, F.E.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.E.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.E.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.E.S 

Prof. Tait, F.E.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.E.S. 
W. AVaringtou Smyth, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

G. J. Eomanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.E.S 

W. Crookes, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Eay Lankester, F.E.S. 
Prof.W.r.oyd Dawkins,F.E.S. 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. li.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. E.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.E.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.E.S. 
Prof. E. S. BaU, F.E.S 



Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Eev. W. H. Dallinger, F.E.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.E.S. ... 
John MuiTay, F.E.S.E 



The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present .state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddliist 
Monuments. 

Eeverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 

I Stars and Nebula;. 

I The Scientitic Use of the Imagination 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec 

' tion with Naval Architecture. 

I Some Eecent Investigations and Ap 

j plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Eelation of Primitive to Modern 

! Civilisation. 

I Insect Metamorphosis. 

j The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
1 Molecules. 

I Common Wild Flowers considered 
i in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarised Light. 
Eailway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The Challenger Expedition. 
Physical Phenomena connected with 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon, 
' The New Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
, Chemical Action. 
Eadiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Eise and Progress of Pahcon- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Eecent Eeseaxches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 
Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Ee- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
\ Forms of Life. 
j The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorption. 
The Great Ocean Basins. 



Ixxii 



REPORT — 19UU* 



Date and Place 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1888. Bath 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



1889. Kewcastlc- 

upon-Tyue^ 

1890. Leeds 

1891. CardifE 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. O.xford 

1895. Ipswich .. 

189G. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 



1899. Dover 



1900. Bradford.. 



A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.E.S, 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. . 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 
F.E.S. ! 

Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Walter Gardiner, M.A 

E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vemon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregor3-, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. Roberts Austen, F.R.S. 

J. Milne, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. ... 

Herbert Jackson 

Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming, F.R.S 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Stroud 



Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of 

Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some Diffculties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 
Flame. 
The Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 
Experiences and Prospects of 

African Exploration. 
Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 
Magnetism in Rotation. 
The Work of Pasteur and its various 

Developments. 
Safety in Ships. 
Man before Writing 
Canada's Metals. 
Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 
Funafuti: the Study of a Coral 

Island. 
Phosphorescence . 
La vibration nerveuse. 
The Centenary of the Electric 

Current. 

Animal Electricity. 
Range Finders. 



Ixxiii 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



Lecturer 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887, 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1807. 
1898, 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.,F.E.S, 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.E.S. ... 



Liverpool... 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ...1 

Belfast 1 

Bristol ' 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 
Sheffield ... 
Swansea . . . 
York 

Southamp- 
ton . 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tj'ne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool. . . 
Toronto ... 
Bristol 



Subject of Discourse 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. E. S. Ball, F.E.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. \V. C. Eoberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.E.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.E.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.E.S.... 

Dr. H. O. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 



1900. Bradford...! Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Tlie modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Osygen, 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their enemies and Signal to their 

friends. 
i Electricity in the Industries. 



Ixxiv KEPORT -190U. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE BRADFORD MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Dr. Joseph Larmor, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dv. A. A. Common, F.R.S. (Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Astronomy) ; Prof. G. F. FitzGerald, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. R. 
Forsyth. F.R.S. ; Prof. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. : Principal Oliver 
Lodge, F.R.S. ; Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. W. 
Riicker, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— P. H. Cowell, M.A. ; A. Fowler ; C. H. Lees, D.Sc. ; 
C. J. L, AVagstaffe, M.A. ; Prof. W. Watson, B.Sc. {Recorder) ; 
E. T. Whittaker, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Vvoi. W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ; Horace T. Brown, 

F.R.S. ; Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ; Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; \Y. H. 

Perkin, sen., F.R.S. ; Sir. H. E, Roscoe, F.R.S. ; Sir William 

Roberts- Au.steu, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— W. M. Gardner ; F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ; W. J. Pope ; T. K. 

Rose [Recorder). 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Vvoi. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vroi. .7. Joly, F.R.S.; Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

F.R.S. ; Clement Reid, F.R.S. ; J. .J. H. Teall, F.R.S. ; W. 

Whitaker, F.R.S. ; Dr. H. Woodward, F.R.S. ' 
Secretaries. — H. L. Bowman ; Rev. W. Lower Carter ; G. W. Lamplugh 

(Recorder) ; H. W. Monckton. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY (AND PHYSIOLOGY). 

President. — Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— 'Froi. Francis Gotch, M.A., F.R.S. ; Prof. S. J. Hick- 
son, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. B. 
Poulton, M.A., F.R.S. ; Prof. Sir J. Burdon Sanderson, Bart., F.R.S. ; 
Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. ; J. W. Woodall, M.A., F.G.S. 

Secretaries. — Walter Garstang, M.A. {Recorder) ; J. Graham Kerr, M.A. ; 
T. H. Taylor ; Swale Vincent. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Sir George S. Robertson, K.C.S.I. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir Thomas H. Holdich, K.C.I.E. ; T. Scott Keltic, 

LL.D. ; H. R. Mill, D.Sc, LL.D. ; E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secreta/ries.—H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E. {Recorder) ■ Edward Heawood, 

M.A. ; E. R. Wcthey, M.A. 



COMMITTEE "of KECOMMENDATIONS IxXV 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. William Cunningham, D.D. ; Prof. E. C. K. 

Gonner, M.A. ; Heniy Higgs, LL.B., F.S.S. ; Rev. W. H. Keeling, 

M.A. ; L. L. Price, M.A. 
Secretaries. — A. L. Bowley, M.A. ; E. Cannan, M.A., F.S.S. {Recorder) ; 

S. J. Chapman, M.A. 3 F. Hooper. 

SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Sir Alexander R. Binnie, M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — G. F. Deacon ; Alexander Siemens ; Sir W. H. Preece, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. ■ J. Watson. 

Secretaries.— Froi. T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. (Recorder) ; G. F. Char- 
nock ; Prof. S. Dunkerley, M.Sc. ; W. A. Price, M.A. 

SECTION H, — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. John Rhys, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— 3 . Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. ; E. W. Brabrook, C.B., 
F.S.A. ; Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Prof. A. C. Haddon, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Macalister, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — -Rev. E. Armitage, M.A. ; H. Balfour, M.A. ; W. Crooke, 
B.A. ; J. L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A (Recorder). 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President— Vi-oL S. H. Vines, F.R.S.i 

Vice-Presidents.— Vvoi. F. O. Bower, Sc.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Reynolds 
Green, F.R.S. ; Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. ; Prof. Marshall Ward, 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — A. C. Seward, F.R.S. {Recorder) ; Harold Wager ; William 
W^est, F.L.S. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President ; the Vice-Presidents of the Meeting ; the Presidents of 
former years ; the Trustees ; the General and Assistant General 
Secretaries ; the Genei'al Treasurer. 

The Presidents of the Sections. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth ; C. Vernon Boys ; Dr. A. A. Common ; Prof. H. E. 
Armstrong ; Dr. Horace Brown ; Prof. Harold Dixon ; J. J. H. 
Teall ; J. E. Marr ; Prof. S. J. Hickson ; W. Garstang ; E. G. 
Ravenstein ; Dr J. Scott Keltie ; E. W. Brabrook ; E. Cannan ; 
Sir W. H. Preece ; Prof. T. H. Beare ; H. Balfour ; Prof. A. C. 
Haddon ; Prof. F. Gotch ; Prof. Johnson Symington ; Prof. F. O. 
Bower; Prof. Marshall Ward; Dr. D. H. Scott; Prof. E. B. 
Poulton. 

' Prof. Vines was unable to attend the Meeting. 



l&XVl 



REPORT — 1900. 



Br. 

1809-1900. 



:he general treasurer's account, 



RECEIPTS. 



Balance brought forward 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions , 

Annual Subscriptions 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 

Sale of Publications , 

Interest on Deposit at Bristol Bank 

Dividend on Consols 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 

Income Tax returned (for three years, to April 1899).. 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned : — 

Corresponding Societies Committee 9 

Committee on Heat of Combination of 

Metals 2 12 

Ethnographical Survey Committee 11 



£ 


1. 


d. 


.54!) 


1 


;! 


311 








150 








566 








538 








120 








203 


8 


» 


24 


4 


1 


200 


7 


4 


104 


8 





30 


2 


U 







14 1 




£3813 12 11 



Investmejitfi. 

Consols 7537 3 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 



£11,137 3 5 



G. Caeey Fosxek, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. lxx\ai 

from July 1, 1899, to June 30, 1900. Cr. 

1899-1900. EXPENDITURE. 

£ s. '/. 
Expenses of Dover Meeting, inchtding Grant to Local Fvind, 

Printing, Advertising, Payment of Clerks, &c. &.c 390 7 6 

Rent and Ofiice Expenses 51 4 -1 

Salaries 513 15 

Printing, Binding, &c 1063 9 8 

Payment of Grants made at Dover 

£, s. d. 

Electrical StaiKlards 25 

Seismological Obsei-vatioiis 60 (J U 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 ., 

Meteorological Obserratory at Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Functions 75 

Relation between Absorption Spectra and Constitution 

of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-leugth Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis 5 

Isomoriilious Sulplionic Derivatives of Benzene 2U 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological Interest 10 

Remains of Elk in the Isle of Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora in Cauada 10 

Movements of Underground Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium 50 o o 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Conditions of tlie English 

Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 100 

Coral Reefs of the Indian Region 30 

Pliysical and Chemical Constants of Sea-water 100 

Futiu-e Dealings in Raw Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 50 

New Edition of ' Anthropological Notes and Queries ' . . 40 

Photographs of Anthropological Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condition of Children in Schools . . 5 

Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula 25 

Pliysiological Effects of Peptone 20 

Comparative Histology of Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Clianges in Mammalian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phsophycefe 20 

Corresponding Societies Committee 20 o 

1073 10 

In hands of General Treasurer : 
At Bank of England, Western Branch £758 5 11 

Zess Cheques not presented 50 

708 5 11 

Cash 5 6 

713 6 5 



£3813 12 11 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of Lord Avebury, Lord Rayleigh, and the late Lord Playfair, transfer to the new 
Trustees not having yet been effected. 

Approved — W. B. Keen, Chartered Acooimtant, 

D. H. Scott, \ a ?■* . 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, E.O 

HOEACE T. Brown, j ^«<**^<"'«- August 2, 1900. 



Ixxviii 



REPORT — 1900. 







Table shoioing the Attendance and 


Receipt 


? 


Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 




Old Life 
Members 

169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
330 
120 
281 
296 
267 


New Life 
Members 




1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, June 25 

18.34, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 26 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 . ... 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The llev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

SirT. M. Brisbane, D.f^.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D 

The Mari|Uis of Lansdowne 


05 
169 
28 
150 
36 
10 
18 
3 
12 
9 
8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
2) 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
Bl 
8 
19 
20 
13 




Oxford 




Cambridge 

Edinbiirgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-OM-Tyne. . . 

Birmingham .'. 

(rlasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 




The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland 




The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 




The Marquis of Breadalbane 

The Rev. W. WheweU, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton 




Cork 


The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, DD 




York 




Cambridge 

Southampton 


Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. ., . 




Sir Roderick I. JturchisoiV, Bart 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart. 




Oxford 




Swansea 


The Marquis of Northampton . 




Birmingham 


The Rev. T. R. Robinson. D.D 

Sir David Brewster, K.H. . 




Ediuburgh 




Ipswich 


G. B. Airy, Astronomer Roy.al 




1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, Aug. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 .... 

1877, Aug. 15.... 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Au,g. 25 

1S81, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 .... 

1891, Aug. 19 .. 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept. 16... 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 ... 


Belfast 


Lieut.-General Sabiue, F.R.S 

•\Villioin Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. 

Prof.(\ G. B. Daubeny, M.D 

Tlie Rev. Humphrey Lloyil, D.D 

Ricliard Owen. M.D., D.C.L. ... 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort 




Hull 




Liverpool 




(ilasgow 




Clieltenham 




Dublin 




Leeds 




Aberdeen . , 




Oxford 


The Lord Wrotteslcv, M..V 

William F.airbalrn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WiUis, M.A. 

Su- William G. Armstrong, C.B 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart.. M.A 

Prof. J. Phillips. M.A., LL.D. 

Willi.-im R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleucli. K.C.B 

Dr. .Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxlev. LL.D. 




Manchester 




Cambridge 

Newcastle-ou-Ty ne. . . 
Bath . . 




Birmingham . 




Nottingham 




Dundee 

Norwich 




Exeter 




Liverpool 




Ediuburgh 


Prof. Sir W. Thomson. LL.D 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir .John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D.. F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A.. F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Alhuau, M.D.. F.R.S. ... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 




Brighton ... 




Bradford . 




Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Dublin 




Sheffield 




Swansea 




York ... 




Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 


Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair K.C.B., F.R.S.... 
Sir J. W. Dawson. C.M.G., F.R.S. .. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. . . . 
Sir P. A. Abel, C.B.. F.R.S. 
Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S. 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S '.'.'.'.'. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of SaUsbui-v,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. U.S. 
Sir John Evaus, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S '..""'' 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.'s. 
Sir AVilliam Turner, D.C.L., F.R.S. '" 




Manchester 




Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Leeds ".... 

CardifE 




Edinburgh 




Nottingham. . 




Oxford 




Ipswich 




Liverpool 




Toronto 

Bri.stol . . .. 




Dover 

Bradford 









« Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admlssiou to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND ]{ECEII'TS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxix 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 


A mount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid 
on Account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Piu-poses 






Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
' ciates 


1 

Ladies 

1 


' 1 
.ForeiguersI Total 


Year 




— 


— 


— 


j _ 


i - 


' 353 


— 





1831 




— 


— 


— 


— 


' — 


— 


— . 


— . 


1832 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


900 


— 


— 


' 1833 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


121IS 


— 


£211 II II 


' 1834 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


]i;7 II II 


I 1 835 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 350 


— 


435 II II 


1 1 8;l6 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1840 


— 


922 12 6 


1837 




— 


— 


— 


1UI0» 


— 


2400 


1 


932 2 2 


1 1838 




— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


1595 11 


1839 




— 




— 


— 


40 


1 1353 


— 


1546 16 4 


1840 




4C 


317 


— 


60» 


— 


1 891 





1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331* 


28 


1315 





1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 




160 


— 


1 ' 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 




— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 


685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


63 


1320 





208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


23 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




fil 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 (1 


3114 6 7 


1852 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 (.1 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 II 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


nil 


lOlU 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


4S 


412 


346 


!» 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 lo 4 


1857 




111 


111 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 IS 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


•i.> 


2564 


2782 (I 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


16S9 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


243 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45: 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 (I 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


9:! 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




338 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


126S (1 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


03 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2613 1 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


112C 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.5 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


« 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4330 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 5 


1888 




413 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1770 


789 10 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 1 


22 


1324 I 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 1 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 ' 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 




297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


ISOl 


1072 10 


1900 



X Including Ladles. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1900.-1001. 



PRESIDENT. 

Professor SIR WILLTAJI TURKER, M.B., D.Sc, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Bight Hon. the Earl of Scarbrouoh, Lord- 
Lieuteuant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

His Grace the Duke of Devoxsiiirb, K.G., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

The Most Hon. the Marquis or Ripon, K.G., 
G.O.S.I., D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op Rirox, D.D. 

The Right Hon. Lord Masham. 

His Worship the Mayor op Bradford. 



The Hon. H. E. BUTLER, Lord of the Manor, Brad- 
ford. 

Sir Alexaxder Bixnie, M.Inst.O.E., F.G.S. 

Professor A. W. Ruckkr, M.A., D.Sc, Sec.R.S. 

Dr. T. E. Thorpe, Sc.D., F.R.S., Pres.O.S. 

Principal N. Bodingtox, Litt.D., Vice-Chanoellor 
of tlie Victoria University. 

Professor L. 0. Miall, P,R.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor A. W. RtJCKER, M.A., D.Sc, Sec.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Rlglit Hon. tlie Earl op Glasgow, K.C.M.G. 

The Right Hon. the LOPJJ Blythswood. 

Tlie Right Hon. the Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Hon. the Lord Provost of Glasgow. 
The Principal of the University of Glacgow. 
Sir John Stir lixg -Maxwell, Bart., M.P. 



Sir Andrew Koble, K.C.B., D.O.L,, F.R.S. 

Sir Archibald Gbikib, D.C.L., LL.D.. F.R.S. 

Sir W. T. Thiseltox-Dter, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., F.R.S. 

James Parker Smith, Esq., liI.P. 

John Ixglis, Esq., LL.D. 

Andrew Stewart, Esq., LL.D, 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Professor Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, K.C.E., D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Harrow, MidiUeses. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor G. Carey Fostei:, B.A., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING 
Sir J. D. Mahwick, LL.D., F.R.S.E. | Prof. JoHx Young, M.D. 



AT GLASGOW. 

I Prof. Magnus Maclean, D.Sc. 



LOCAL TREASURERS FOR Tl 
Robert Gourlay, Esq., Lord Dean of Guild. | 

ORDINARY MEMBERS 

Armstrong. Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
BoNAU, J.. Esq., LL.D. 
Bower, Professor F. 0., F.R.S. 
Callekdar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 
flKEAK. Captain E W , R.N., F.R.S. 
Darwix, F,B3q..F.RS. 
Darwin, Major L., Sec.R.G.S. 
FiiEMAN-n.E, Hon. Sir C. W., K.C.B. 
Gaskell, Dr. W. H., F.R.=!. 
Halliburtox, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
Harcouht, Professor L. F. Verxox, M.A. 
Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
Laxkester, Professor E. Ray, F.R.S. 



IE MEETING AT GLASGOW. 

James Nicol, Esq., City Chamberlain. 

OF THE COUNCIL. 

LocKYER. Sir J. Norman, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Lodge, Principal J., F.R,S. 
MacMahon, Major P. A., F.R.S. 
Marr, J. E., E.sq., F.R.S. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
PhEECB, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S, 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
SOLLAS, Professor W. J., F.R.S. 
Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. 
Tilden, Professor W. A.. F.R.S. 
Ttlor, Professor E. B., F.B.S. 
Wolpe-Barry, Sir Jonx, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, tlie Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents an 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and tlie Local Treasur'jr an 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.G.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Professor A. W. RiJcker, M.A., D.Sc, Sec.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



Sir Joseph D. Hoolser, K.C.S.I. 
Sir George G abriel Stokes, Bart., 

Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W Williamson, F.R.S. 
Lord Aveburv, F.R S. 
Lord Bavleigii, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Abel,Bart.,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
SirWm.Huggins,K.C.B.,Pres.R.S. 
Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir J. S. Burden Sanderson, 
Bart., F.R.S. 



The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G. 

F R S 
Lord Lister, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. 
Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., 

Sec.R.S. 



P. Galtou, Esq., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., 

Sec.R S. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 1 Prof. A. W. Rucker, Sec R.S. 
Prof T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. A. Scbiifcr, F.R.S 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Haroourt. Esq., F.R.S. | 



Dr. Horace Brown, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 

I E. W. Brabrook, Esq., C.B. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxi 



Report of the Council for the year 1899-1900, presented to the General 
Coinviittee at Bradford on Wednesday, September 5, 1900. 

The Council have nominated Dr. N. Bodington, Vice-Chancellor of 
the Victoria University, and Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S., Vice-Presidents 
for the meeting at Bradford. 

The Council have nominated Professor Weldon, F.R.S., to be a 
Governor of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom in 
place of the late Sir William Flower. 

The Council having been informed by Professor Schafer that he does 
not intend to offer himself for re-election as General Secretary after the 
meeting at Bradford, desire to record their sense of the valuable services 
which he has rendered to the Association. 

The Council recommend that Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., be appointed 
General Secretary in succession to Professor Schafer. 

The following resolutions, referred to the Council by the General 
Committee, have been considered and acted upon : — 

(1) That in view of the opportunities of ethnographical inquiry which will be 
presented by the Indian Census, the Council of the Association be requested to 
urge the Government of India to make use of the Census Officers for the purposes 
enumerated below, and to place photographers at the service of the Census 
Officers. 

1. To establish a survey of the jungle races, Bhils, Gonds, and other tribes of 
the central mountain districts. 

2. To establish a further survey of the Naga, Kuki, and other cognate races 
of the Assam and Burmese frontiers. 

3. To collect further information about the vagtant and criminal tribes 
Haburas, Beriyas, Sansij'as, &c., in North and Central India. 

4. To collect physical measurements, particularly of the various Dravidian 
tribes, in order to determine their origin ; and of the Rajputs and Jats of Raj- 
putana and the Eastern Panjab, to determine their relation with the Yu-echi and 
other Indo-Scjthian races. 

5. To furnish a series of photographs of typical specimens of ' he various races ■ 
of views of archaic industries ; and of other facts interesting to ethnologists. 

The Council appointed a Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. 
F. Galton, Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. C. H. Read, and the General 
Officers, to report on this matter. 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Committee, the Council 
requested the President to address the following letter to the Secretary of 
State for India : — 

At the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science at Dover, attention was called to the special opportunity offered 
by the Census about to be taken in India for collecting valuable ethno- 
graphical data concerning the races of the country ; and the Council of 
the Association having taken the matter into consideration, and bein» 

1900. e " 



Ixxxii REPORT— 1900. 

impressed by its scientific importance, have requested me, On their behalf, 
to bring to the notice of Her Majesty's Government the valuable scientific 
results which might be obtained by means of the Census. 

The results of the Census itself constitute, of course, by their very 
nature, an ethnographical document of great value ; and my Council feel 
that, without overburdening the Officers of the Census or incurring any very 
lar^e expense, that value might be increased to a very remarkable degree 
if to the enumeration were added the collection of some easily ascertained 
ethnographical data. They are encouraged to make this suggestion by 
the reflection that the Census Commissioner is an accomplished ethno- 
graphist, well known by his publication on the Tribes and Castes of 
Bengal, the valuable results of which would be supplemented by the 
inquiries now proposed. They feel confident that, with his aid and under 
his direction, most important data may be obtained at a minimum of 
effort and cost. I may add that should the suggestion which my Council 
desire to make be carried out, a great step will have been taken towards 
establishing a uniform method of ethnographical observation in India— a 
matter of great scientific importance. 

Stated briefly, what, my Council desire to see carried out is as 
follows : — 

1. While collecting the oi'dinary information for the Census, to 
investigate the physical and sociological characters of the various races 
and tribes of India. Such data would furnish the basis for a true 
estima,tion of the number and distribution of the tribes in question, and 
thus powerfully contribute to a sound classification of the races of India. 

Special attention to be directed («) to the jungle races^Bhils, Gonds, 
and other tribes of the central mountain districts — concerning which our 
information is at present very limited. 

(h) To the Naga, Kuki, and other cognate races of the Assam and 
Burmese frontiers, and of the vagrant and criminal tribes — Haburas, 
Beriyas, Sansiyas, &c. — in North and Central India. 

(c) To the Dravidian tribes, and the Rajputs and Jats of Rajputana 
and the Eastern Panjab. This will be of service in throwing light on 
the important and difficult problem of the origin of these tribes and their 
relation with the Yu-echi and other Scythian races. 

(d) To pay especial attention to the question of a possible Negrito 
element in certain ethnic groups in India. 

2. To obtain, so far as can be done without too great labour and 
expense, a series of photographs of typical individuals of the various 
races, and, if it should be practicable, of views of archaic industries, &c. 
This, which might be accomplished by placing photographers at the 
service of the Census Officers, would be the commencement of an 
Ethnographical Survey of India similar to, and certainly no less important 
than, the Archteological Survey of which the Government of India may so 
justly be proud. 

My Council, in considering the above proposal, have been assisted by 
a Committee of gentlemen possessing special knowledge of the subject in 
question, and I am to add that this Committee will be pleased to place 
themselves at the disposal of Her Majesty's Government to assist in the 
proposed investigation. If it should seem desirable to Her Majesty's 
Government, the Committee are pre ared to put themselves into direct 



REPOET OP THE COUNCIL. Ixxxiii 

communication with the Officers of the Census, who, however, the Council 
have reason to believe, are fully capable of carrying out the details of the 
investigations proposed. 

The Secretary of State for India has forwarded a copy of this letter to 
the Government of India for consideration. 

(2) That the Council be requested to represent to Her Majesty's Government 
the importance of giving more prominence to Botany in the training of Indian 
Forest OflBcers, 

A Committee consisting of Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Sir George King, 
Professor Marshall Ward, and the General Officers, was appointed to 
report on this matter. 

As a result of their deliberations the following letter was addressed by 
the President to the Secretary of State for India : — 

The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
having had under consideration the remarks made by Sir George King at 
the meeting in Dover in September last, as to the deficiency in botanical 
knowledge of the officers in the Forest Department of India, think that 
the subject is one of such great importance as to justify them in bringing 
the conclusions at which they have arrived before the Secretary of State for 
India. 

The Forest Department in India not only has charge of the great 
forests of that Empire, but is frequently called upon to supply trained 
officers for the care of those of our colonial possessions. It is needless 
to insist that those who practise the art of forestry ought to have a firm 
grasp of the scientific principles on which the art is based. They should 
be able to do more than, as a matter of routine, follow out conscientiously 
the rules laid down for them ; they ought to possess the scientific knowledge 
which will enable them to seize opportunities which may present themselves 
of extending the resources and developing the economic value of our 
forests, and which will give them power over unforeseen difficulties 
occasioned by plant diseases or other causes. 

There seems, however, to be little doubt, from evidence which has 
been laid before a Committee of this Council, that, with some exceptions, 
the forest officers on actual duty have at most a very slender equipment of 
botanical knowledge. It appears that they are in many cases unable to make 
intelligent use, or, indeed, in individual cases, any use at all, of the excellent 
technical works provided for their use at the expense of India by the 
Secretary of State. The majority of them are unable to give scientific 
precision to their reports, or to demonstrate the contents of the forests under 
their charge to foreign experts. Indeed, probably it may be said with truth 
that the native subordinate officers trained in India at Dehra Dun possess 
a more accurate knowledge of Indian botany than do the European 
officers under whom they have to serve. 

My Council desire to urge upon the Secretary of State for India that 
this undesirable state of things — undesirable for many reasons, among 
others that through it the capabilities of our forests are probably not as 
fully developed as they might be, to the detriment of Indian revenues — • 
may be traced in part at least to the circumstances under which the forest 
officers are selected. 

The mode of selection adopted ought to be such that the Indian 
Forest Service should draw into its ranks men whose aptitudes and tastes 

e2 



Ixxxiv heport — 1900, 

fit them for their future duties. The work of a forest officer calls espe^ 
cially for those powers of observation and inference which natural-history 
studies are peculiarly fitted to encourage. Young men with an aptitude 
for such studies would seem to be material which the Secretary of State 
"vould naturally desire to secure for filling the ofiices in question. 

But the mode of selection at present in use, so far from favouring, is 
distinctly antagonistic to such an end. 

In the first place, the present age- limit of twenty is exercising an 
unfavourable influence, since it prevents the entrance into the service of 
men who have had a university training. Training in natural-history 
studies is, at present at least, very imperfectly carried out in our Public 
Schools, even in the best of them ; it is to our Universities and not to our 
Schools that we must look for young men trained in these studies ; and 
such men are excluded by the present age-limit. It may be worth while 
to point out here that some of the ablest Indian forest officers in the past 
have been men of university training who entered the service at a time 
when the age-limit was very difierent from what it is now. 

In the second place, the examination, by means of which candidates 
are selected, does not tend to the selection of men of natural-history, or 
even of scientific, aptitude. 

The examination in question is the same as that for the Indian Police 
Department, with the exception that German is compulsory. My Council 
believe that the Secretary of State for India will agree with them 
in thinking that a system of examination, which may be the best 
for the selection of officers of the Police Depai'tment, whose duties are 
simply administrative, cannot be expected to be the best for the selection of 
officers of the Forest Department, whose duties should be distinctly scientific. 
They therefore submit respectfully, but most earnestly, to the Secretary of 
State, the desirability of making some marked changes in the method of 
selection of candidates for the forest service in India. 

They would wish in the first place to suggest to him whether it would 
not be possible to recruit the service, in part at least, directly from the 
Universities, by placing some of the vacancies at the disposal of young 
men who, by their university career, had given evidence of their aptitude 
for natural-history studies and work, and a promise of success in the 
application of such studies to forestry. In any case, they would urge the 
importance of so extending the age-limit as not to exclude men who have 
had a university training. 

And they may here state that they understand that the candidates, 
who are selected from passed Students of the " Institut Agronomique " 
and the " Ecole Polytechnique " for admission to the French Forest school 
at Nancy, must have acquired the university degree of Bachelier es 
Sciences. 

In the second place, they desire to urge the importance of so modifying 
the nature of the entrance examination as to specially adapt it to securing 
efficient forest officers. 

The forest officer needs, in addition to other general qualifications, a 
kno.vledge of botany and an aptitude for natural-history studies. No 
proper grasp of botanical science can be gained without an adequate 
elementary knowledge of physics and chemistry. And the examination 
which would seem best calculated to select the fittest men for the forest 
service would be one in which prominence was given to botany, and to 
physics and chemistry as introductory to that science, with an adequate 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. IXXXV 

number of marks assigned to other natural-history studies, such as geology 
and zoology. 

If the relatively enormous value now attached to German is connected 
with the sending of candidates to Germany for their professional educa- 
tion, it must be noted that at the present day, in regard both to methods 
of instruction and even, to a large extent, to forest practice, France is 
considered by many competent judges to afford opportunities for training 
as good as, or possibly better than, those offered by Germany. And 
French ought to occupy, from this point of view, the same position as 
German. 

In any case, what is needed by the candidate, whether he goes to 
Germany or to France for part of his training, is not an academic know- 
ledge of the language but a colloquial one, such as will enable him to profit 
at once by a stay in the country. For the purposes of study, a know- 
ledge of one or other tongue, though advantageous, is not necessary, since 
excellent and sufficient treatises and text-books are now to be found in 
the English language. This is shown by what my Council are told is 
the case, that in the French forest service examination English is now 
optional with Gei'man. 

It may be added that if the candidates selected already possessed an 
adequate general acquaintance with botany and the allied sciences, there 
would be no need to teach these introductory and preliminary sciences at 
Coopers Hill. The teaching there might be limited to technical Indian 
botany, to forest surveying and engineering, and to the theory and 
practice of Forestry itself. "Were this done, the stay at Coopers Hill 
might possibly be shortened to two years, instead of three, as at present. 

In conclusion, my Council desire to state that in their opinion it is by 
changes in the method of selection of candidates rather than by changes 
in the training at Coopers Hill that amendment may be secured. They 
are convinced that unless some change is made in the preliminaiy selection 
of candidates, the institution at Coopers Hill cannot be expected to 
produce the kind of forest officers so greatly needed for the welfare of our 
great Indian empire. Were, however, changes made in the mode of 
selection, the acknowledged usefulness of Coopers Hill might be still 
further increased. 

In the reply to this letter, dated February "27, the President was informed 
that the attention of the Secretary of State was drawn last autumn to the 
remarks in Sir George King's address at the Dover meeting, and that he 
has asked Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer and Sir Dietrich Brandis to be good 
enough to look into the matter, and to advise him in what way the 
Botanical teaching at Coopers Hill College can be improved and rendered 
more practical. The report of these authorities will be forwarded with 
the President's letter, for the consideration of the Government of India, 
and for such observations and suggestions as they may have to make, with 
a view to practical measures of reform. 

(3) That the attention of the Council be called to the wording of the rule 
regarding specimens collected by Committees appointed by the Association, 
with a view to its revision. 

The Council recommended that in the Rule referred to, viz., ' Members 
and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money for collecting 
specimens of Natural History, are requested to reserve the specimens so 



Ixxxvi REPORT — 1900. 

obtained to be dealt with by authority of this Association,' the words 
' any description ' be substituted for ' Natural History,' and 'the Council' 
for ' this Association.' 

(4) That the complete investigation of the Ichthyology of the West African 
rivers promises extremely important scientific results, and that the Council of 
the Association be requested to take such means as may seem to it advisable to 
bring the matter to the notice of the Trustees of the British Museum. 

A Committee, consisting of Prof. Herdman, Prof. A. Newton, Mr. 
A. E. Shipley, Prof. Weldon, and the General Officers, was appointed to 
report on this matter. 

In accordance with the recommendation of this Committee, the 
President, with the approval of the Council, addressed a letter to the 
Trustees of the British Museum explaining that the matter had been 
brought under the notice of the Council through an application made on 
behalf of Mr. Boulenger, of the British Museum, for a grant to assist a 
collector in obtaining fishes from the West African rivers, which applica- 
tion the Association had declined to accede to, not from any want of 
appreciation of the importance of the researches, but from the difficulties 
attachiiig to applications made to the British Association for grants in 
aid of researches undertaken by members of the Staff of the Natural 
History Museum as part of their official duties. 

In reply the Director of the Natural History Departments pointed out 
that the application had not been made on behalf, or with the knowledge, 
of the Trustees, and that it was not for any work which formed part of 
his official duties. The small sum of money required by Mr. Boulenger for 
this particular occasion had, since his application to the British Association, 
been arranged for by the authorities of the Museum in the usual way. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, and especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those Societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1900, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Mr. W. Whitaker {Chairman), Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. T. V. 
Holmes, Sir Cuthbert Peek, Mr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, 
Professor W. W. Watts, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. C. H. Read, and 
Mr. F. W. Rudler, is hereby nominated for reappointment by tlie General 
Committee. 

The Council nominate Professor Poulton, F.R.S., Chairman, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, F.R.S., Vice-Chairman, and Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary, to 
the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to be held during 
the Meeting at Bradford. 

The Council have received Reports from the General Treasurer during 
the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1899, to June 30, 1900, 
which have been audited, are presented to the General Committee. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 

Professor W. A. Herdman. i Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer 

Mr. W. N. Shaw. | sir W. H. White. 

Mr. J. J. H. Teall. I 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixxxvii 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Bonar, J., Esq , LL.D. 
*Bower, Professor F. O., F.R.S. 
*Callendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 
Creak, Captain E. W., R.N., F.R.S. 
Darwin, F., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Major L., Sec. R.G.S. 
Fremantle, The Hon. Sir C. W., K.C.B. 
Gaskell, Dr. W. H., F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Profe.ssor W. D., F.R.S. 
Harcourt, Professor L. F. Vernon, M.A.. 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
*Lankester, Professor E, Ray, F.R.S. 



*Lockyer, Sir J. Norman, K.O.B. 

F.R.S. 
Lodge, Professor Oliver, F.R.S. 
MacMahon, Major P. A., F.R.S. 
Man-, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Preece, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
*Sollas, Professor W. J., F.R.S. 
Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. 
Tilden, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Ixxxviii 



EEPORT — 1900. 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
Bradford Meeting in SeptExMber 1900. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[And balance in hand.] 



Seismological Observations. 



To consider the most suitable 
Method of Determining the 
Components of the Magnetic 
Force on board Ship. 



The relation between the Absorp- 
tion Spectra and Chemical Con- 
stitution of Organic Substances. 

[61. 8s. 2d, in hand.] 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
Oliver J. Lodge, and G. 
Carey Foster, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Profes- 
sors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professors G. F. FitzGerald and 
J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. 
T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor J. 
Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. 
E. H. Griffiths, Professors A. W. 
Riicker, H. L. Callendar, and 
Sir W. 0. Roberts-Austen, and 
Mr. G. Matthey. 

Chairman. — Prof. J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. 
Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Major L. Dar- 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Professor C. G. Knott, Pro- 
fessor R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. 
Oldham, Professor J. Perry, 
■ Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor 
J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement 
Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, 
and Professor H. H. Turner. 

Cliairman. — Professor A. W. 

Riicker. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. H. Lees. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor A. Schuster, 

Captain Creak, Professor W. 

Stroud, Mr. C. V. Boys, and Mr. 

W. Watson. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Pro- 
fessor W. Noel Hartiley. 

Professor F. R. Japp, Professor J. J. 
Dobbie, and Mr. Alexander 
Lauder. 




£ s. d. 
45 



75 



10 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxix 



1. Recfiiving Grants of Money — continued. 




Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sul- 
phonic Derivatives of Benzene. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 

[6Z. in hand.] 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological In- 
terest. 

\\0l. in hand.] 



To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. 



The Excavation of the Ossiferous 
Caves at Uphill, near Weston- 
super-Mare. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman.— S,\r H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretai'y. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 
Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. Schus- 
ter, W. N. Hartley, and Wol- 
cott Gibbs. and Sir W. de W. 
Abney. 



-Professor H. A. Miers. 
-Professor H. E. Arm- 



Chairmati. 
Secretary.- 

strong. 
Dr. W. P. Wynne, and Mr. W. J. 
Pope. 



Chairman.— Islr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary.— Vxot P. F. Kendall. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. 
De Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Mr. J. Home, Mr. 
Dugald Bell, Mr. F. M. Burton, 
Mr. J. Lomas, Mr. A. R. Dwerry- 
house, Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. 
W. T. Tucker, and Mr. F. W. 
Harmer. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary. — ProfessorW.W.Watts. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. An- 
derson, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, 
E. J. Garwood, W. Gray, H. B. 
Woodward, R. Kidston, J. J. 
H. Teall, J. G. Goodchild, H. 
Coates, C. V. Crook, G. Bingley, 
and R. Welch. 



Clialrman. — Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Mr. E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. 
Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, 
Mr. J. W. Kirkby. Mr. R. Kid- 
ston, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. 
B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Strahati, 
and Dr. H. Woodward. 



Chairman. — Professor C. Lloyd 

Morgan. 
Secretary.— M.r. H. Bolton. 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. 

W. R. Barker, Mr. S. H. Reynolds, 
and Mr. E. T. Newton. 



Grants 



s. d. 




35 



20 



5 



xc 



KEPORT — 1900. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 




The movements of Underground 
Waters of North-west York- 
shire. 



To explore Irish Caves. 

[Collections to be placed in the 
Science and Art Museum, Dub- 
lin.] 



To enable Mr. H. H. Stewart to 
work at the Annelids, and to 
aid other competent investi- 
gator, to carry on definite 
pieces of work at the Zoological 
Station at Naples. 



To enable Mr. R. C. Punnett to 
continue his investigations on 
the pelvic plexus of Elasmo- 
branch fishes, and to enable 
other competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work 
at the Marine Laboratory, 
Pljrmouth. 

Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum AnimaUum. 



To work out the details of the 
Observations on the Migration 
of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-87. 



Terrestrial Surface-waves 
Wave-like Surfaces, 



and 



Changes of the Land-level of the 
Phlegr^an Fields. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Prof essorW.W. Watts. 

Secretary. — Captain A. E. Dwerry- 
house. 

Professor A. Smithells, Rev. E. 
Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mr. G. Bray, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Mr. W. F.airley, Pro- 
fessor P. F. Kendall, and Mr. 
J. E. Marr. 



Cliairman. — Dr. B. F. Scharff. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. 
Mr. G. Coffey, Professor Grenville 

Cole, Dr. Cunningham, Mr. A. 

McHenry, and Mr R. J. Ussher. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. 
Herdman. 

Secretary. — Professor G. B. Howes. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
fessor S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. Garstang. 
Professor E. Ray Lankester, 

Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. 

A. Sedgwick, and Professor W. 

F. R. Weldon. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretarif. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 

Stebbing, Mr. R. McLachlan, 

and Mr.^W. E. Hoyle. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Rev. E. P. Knubley. 
Mr. John A. Harvie- Brown, Mr. 

R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. 

H. Evans. 

Cliairma/n. — Dr. Scott Keltic. 
Secretary. — Colonel F. Bailey. 
Mr. Vaughan Cornish, Mr. A. R. 
Hunt, and Mr. W. H. Wheeler. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. R. Mill. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 
Dr. Scott Keltic, and Mr. R. T. 
Giinther. 




15 



100 



20 



75 



10 



5 



50 e 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Jteeeiving Orants of Money — continued. 



XCl 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



State Monopolies in other 

Countries. 
[Balance of grant unexpended, 

Ul. 13«. &d.'] 



The Economic Effect of Legisla- 
tion regulating Women's Labour. 



To consider means by which better 
practical effect can be given to 
the Introduction of the Screw 
Gauge proposed by the Associa- 
tion in 1884. 

[And balance in hand.] 



To investigate the resistance of 
Koad Vehicles to Traction. 



To co-operate with the Silchester 
Excavation Fund Committee in 
their explorations. 

To organise an Etlmological Sur- 
vey of Canada. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the age of 
Stone Circles. 

[Balance in hand.] 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman —Sir Robert Giffen. 

Secretarxj. — Mr. H. Higgs. 

Mr. W. M. Acworth, the Rt. Hon. 

L. H. Courtney, and Professor 

H. S. Foxwell. 



Chairman. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. L. Bowley. 
Professor Edgeworth, Professor 

Smart, Professor Flux, ]\Ir. S. J. 

Chapman, Mr. L. L. Price, and 

Mrs. J. R. MacDonald 

Chairman.— ^\T W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Price. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
Sir H. Trueman Wood, Maj.- 
Gen. Webber, Mr. R. E. Cromp- 
ton, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 
Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Col. 
Watkin, Mr. E. Rigg, Mr. Vernon 
Boys, and Mr. J. M. Gorham. 



- Sir Alexander Binnie. 
Professor H. S. Hele 



Cliairman. 
Secretar^j.- 

Shaw. 
Mr. W. W. Beaumont, Sir D. Salo- 

mans, Mr. J. Brown, Mr. H. 

Maclaren, Mr. Aveling, Mr. W. 

H. Wheeler, and Professor T. 

Hudson Beare. 

Cha\rman.—K\x. A. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. John L. Myres. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Cliairman. — Professor D. P. Pen- 
hallow. 

Secretary. — Dr. George Dawson. 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, Sir J. G. Bourinot, Mr. B. 
Suite, Mr. C. HUl-Tout, Mr. 
David Boyle, Mr. C. N. Bell, 
Professor E. B. Tylor, Professor 
J. Mavor, Mr. C. F. Hunter, 
and Dr. W. F. Ganong. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Sir John Evans, Mr. C. H. Read, 
Professor Meldola, Mr. A. J. 
Evans, Dr. R. Munro, and 
Professor Bovd-Dawkins. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 



15 



45 



75 



10 



30 



xcu 



REPORT — 1900. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Pho- 
tographs of Anthropological 
Interest. 

[Balance in hand.] 



The Present State of Anthropo- 
logical Teaching in the United 
Kingdom and Elsev?here. 



To conduct Explorations in Crete. 



The Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors when 
introduced into the circulation. 



The Chemistry of Bone Marrow. 



The Development of the Supra- 
renal Capsules in the Rabbit. 



Fertilisation in PhasophyccEe. 



Morphology, Ecology, and Taxo- 
nomy of the PodostemaccEe. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman.— 'Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, 
Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, and Professor Flinders 
Petrie. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Ling Roth. 

Professor A. Macalister, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. C. H. Read, 
Mr. n. Balfour, Mr. F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. R. Munro, and Pro- 
fessor Flinders Petrie. 

Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretar)/. — Mr. J. L. MjTes. 

Mr. A. J. Evans, Mr. D. J. G. Ho- 
garth, Professor A. Macalister, 
and Professor W. Ridge way. 

Chairman. — Professor E. A. 

Schiifer. 
Secretary. — Professor W. H. 

Thompson. 
Professor R. Boyce and Professor 

C. S. Sherrington. 

Chairman. — Professor E. A. 

Schafer. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. R. Hutchison. 
Dr. Leonard Hill and Professor F. 

Gotch. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. 

Starling. 
Sccretai'y — Mr. Swale Vincent. 
Mr. Victor Horsley. 

Chairman. — Prof essorJ.B. Farmer. 
Secretary. — Prof essorR W.Phillips 
Professor F. O. Bower, and Pro- 
fessor Harvey Gibson. 

Chairman Prof. Marshall Ward. 

Secretary. — Prof. J. B. Farmer. 
Professor F. O. Bower. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Professor R. 
Meldola, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir 
John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Sir 
Cuthbert E. Peek, Mr. Horace 
T. Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, 
Professor W. W. Watts, Rev. T. 
R. R. Stebbing, Mr. C. H. Read, 
and Mr. F. W. Rudler. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 







145 



30 



15 



5 







20 



15 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



XCUl 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Radiation from a Source of Light in a 
Magnetic Field. 



To establisli a Meteorological Ob- 
servatory on Mount Eoyal, Montreal. 



For calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, if 
necessary, for taking steps to carry 
out the Calculations, and to publish 
the results in an accessible form. 



Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



Comparing and Keducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under 
Water. 



Considering the best Methods of Re- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor G. F. FitzGerald. 
Secretary. -~M.r. W. E. Thrift. 
Professor A. Schuster, Professor O. J. 

Lodge, Professor S. P. Thompson, Dr. 

Gerald Molloy, and Dr. W. E. Ade- 

ney. 



Chairman. — Professor H. L. Callendar. 
Secretary. — Professor C. H. McLeod. 
Professor F. Adams, and Mr. 11. F. 
Stupart. 



Chairman. — Lord Kelvin. 

Secretary. — Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cun- 
ningham. 

Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. G. 
Greenhill, Professor "W. M. Hicks, 
Major P. A. MacMahon, and Professor 
A. Lodge. 



Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Sir John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, and 
Professor R. Copeland. 



<7/tfflmMaM.— Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. 
Schuster, Captain B. W. Creak, the 
Astronomer Royal, Mr. "William Ellis, 
and Professor A. W. Riicker. 



Cliairman. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Mr. 
James Glaisher, Professor Edward 
Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor 
A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, 
Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr, A. 
Strahan, Professor Michie Smith, and 
Professor H. L. Callendar. 

Chairman.— T>r. G. Johnstone Stoney. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Sir G. G. Stokes, Professor A. Schuster, 
Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Captain Sir W. de 
W. Abney, Dr. C. Chree, Professor 
G. F. FitzGerald, Professor H. L. 
Callendar, Mr. W. E. Wilson, and 
Mr. A. A. Eambaut. 



XCIV 



REPORT — 1900. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
draw up a Report on the present 
state of the Tlieory of Point-Groups. 

The Nature of Alloys. 



The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 

The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



That Mr. Alfred Harker be requested to 
prepare a Report on the constitution 
of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks. 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on the same. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Canadian 
Photographs of Geological Interest. 



To report upon the Present State of 
our Knowledge of the Structure of 
Crystals. 



To examine the Conditions under which 
remains of the Irish Elk are found 
in the Isle of Man. 



The Periodic Investigation of the 
Plankton and Physical Conditions of 
the English Channel. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. F. H. 

Neville. 
Mr. C. T. Heycock and Mr. B. H. 

Griffiths. 

Chairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Sir W. C. Roberts- Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Lord Avebury, Mr. George Gladstone, 
Mr. \V. R. Dunstan, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Dr. Sil- 
vanus P. Thompson, and Professor A. 
Smithells. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith "Woodward. 

Rev. G. F.Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidston, Pro- 
fessor H. G. Seeley, Mr. H. Woods, and 
Rev. J. F. Blake. 

Chairman. — Professor A. P. Coleman. 

Secretary. — Mr. Parks. 

Professor A. B. Willmott, Professor F. 

D. Adams, Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, and 

Professor W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor N. Story Maske- 

lyne. 
Secretary. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Mr. L Fletcher, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. W. Barlow, Mr. G. F. H. Smith, 

and the Ear] of Berkeley. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Boyd Daw- 
kins. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. M. C. Kermode. 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Canon E. B. 
Savage, and Rev. S. N. Harrison. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Ray Lankester. 
Secretary. — Mr. Walter Garstang. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, and Mr. H. N. 
Dickson. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCV 



2. Not receiving Grants of 7l/b»ey— continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose. 



To continue the investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To investigate the structure, formation, 
and growth of the Coral Reefs of the 
Indian Region, with special observa- 
tions on the inter-relationship of the 
reef organisms, the depths at which 
they grow, the food of corals, effects 
of currents and character of the ocean 
bottom, &LC. The land flora and fauna 
will be collected, and it is intended 
that observations shall be made on 
the manners, &c., of the natives in 
the different parts of the Maldive 
group. 

To promote the Systematic Collection 
of Photographic and other Records 
of Pedigree Stock. 

Climatology of Tropical Africa. 



To draw up a Scheme for a Systematic 
Survey of British Protectorates. 



To examine the Natural History and 
Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula. 



The Lake Village at Glastonbury. 



The Micro-chemistry of Cells, 



Members of the Committee. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S, J. 

Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. F. 

Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar 

A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Mr. A. Sedgwick. 
Secretary. — J. Graham Kerr. 
Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. 
and Mr. S. F. Harmer. 



Lister, 



Chairman. — ]\Ir. Francis Galton. 
Secretary.— I'roiessor W. F. R. Weldon. 



Chairmaii. — Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 
Sir John Kirk and Dr. H. K. Mill. 

Chairman. — Sir T. H. Holdich. 
Secretary. — H. N. Dickson. 
Col. Sir W. Everett, Col. D. A. John- 
ston, and E. G. Ravenstein. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. Crooke. 
Professor A. Macalister, and Professor 
W. Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Bulleid. 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Sir John 

Evans, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, and Mr. 

C. H. Read. 

Chairman. — Professor E. A. Schiifer. 

Secretary. — Professor A. B. Maoallum. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
W. D. Halliburton, Mr. G. C. Bourne, 
and Professor J. J. Mackenzie. 



XCvi IlEPORT — 1900. 

Commwrlications ordered to be printed in extenso. 
The Report on the Chemical Compounds contained in Alloys, by F. H. Neville, 

F.R.S. ^ ^^ 

The Report on the Constitution of Camphor, by A. Lapworth, D.Sc. 
The Paper on the Age of the Earth, by Professor J. Joly, F.R.S. 

Alteration of the Title of a Section. 
That the title of Section G be altered from ' Mechanical Science ' to ' Engineering.' 

Women to be eligible for admission to Committees. 

That in future Women Members of the Association shall be eligible for the 
General and Sectional Committees. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That in connection with the Resolution relating to the admission of women to 
Committees, as well as on general grounds, the Council be requested to reconsider 
the present mode of electing members of Sectional Committees. 

That the Council be requested to consider the appointment of a separate Section 
for Education. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MOXEi'. XCVll 

Synopsis of Ghxmts of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes hy the 
General Committee at the Bradford Meeting, September, 1900. The 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

MathemMtics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

*Rayleigh, Lord — Electrical Standards (balance in hand and) 45 

* Judd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 75 

*Riicker, Professor A. W.— Magnetic Force on board Ship 

(renewed) .". 10 

Chemistry. 

♦Hartley, Professor W. N. — Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution of Organic Substances (£6 8s. 9c?, 

in hand) ; — 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables 5 

*Miers, Professor H. A. — Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives 

of Benzene 35 

Geology. 

*Marr, Mr. J. E.— Erratic Blocks (£6 in hand) — 

*Geikie, Professor J.— 'Photographs of Geological Interest 

(£10 in hand) — 

*Marr, Mr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 20 
*Lloyd-Morgan, Professor C. — Ossiferous Caves at Uphill 

(renewed) 5 

*Watts, Professor W. W. — Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

*Scharff, Dr. — Exploration of Irish Caves (renewed) 15 

Zoology. 

*Hei-dman, Professor W. A. — Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

*Bourne, Mr. G. C. — Table at the Biological Laboratory, 

Plymouth 20 

"'Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Generum et Specierum Ani- 

malium 75 

•Newton, Professor A. — Migration of Birds 10 

Geography. 

Keltie, Dr. J. Scott— Terrestrial Surface Waves 5 

Mill, Dr. H. R. — Changes of Land-level in the Phlegrsean 

Fields 50 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

•Giffen, Sir R. — State Monopolies in other Countries 

(£13 13s. 6d in hand) — 

Brabrook, E. W. — Legislation regulating Women's Labour 15 

Carried forward 535 

•• Reappointed, 
1900. f 



xcviii . REPORT — 1900, 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 535 

Mechanical Science. 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Small Screw Gauge (balance in hand and) 45 
Binnie, Sir A. — Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction ... 75 

Anthropology. 

*Evans, Mr, A. J. — Silchester Excavation 10 

*Penhallow, Professor D. P. — Ethnological Survey of Canada 30 

*Garson, Dr. J. G. — Age of Stone Circles (balance in hand)... — 
*Read, Mr. C. H. — Photographs of Anthropological Interest 

(£10 in hand) — 

*Tylor, Professor E. B. — Anthropological Teaching 5 

Evans, Sir John — Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiology. 

*Schafer, Professor E. A. — Physiological Eftects of Peptone... 30 

Schafer, Professor E. A.— Chemistiy of Bone Marrow 15 

Starling, Professor E. H. — Suprai-enal Capsules in the Rabbit 5 

Botany. 

*Farmer, Professor J. B. — Fertilisation in Phseophycese 15 

Marshall Ward, Professor— Morphology, Ecology, and Taxo- 
nomy of Podostemacese 20 

Corresponding Societies. 
* W hitaker, Mr. "W.— Preparation of Report 15 

^£945 6 
* Eeappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1901. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1901 will be held at 
Glasgow, commencing on September 1 1 . 

The Annual Meeting in 1902. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1902 will be held at 
Belfast. 



GENERAL STATEMENT, 



XCIX 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

±1(57 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

£922 12 6 



18.38. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron ( S trength of ) GO 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 1!) 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides .^O 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 

£932 






1 
12 


6 

3 
8 

9 






10 
10 


6 


7 

_5 



1839. 

£ s. d. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 7 

Railway Constants 28 7 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 2 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 4 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 

Stars in Lacaille 11 6 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 6 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... .50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrouglit Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 Q 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientilic Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1646 16 4 



I- 



REPORT — 1900. 



1841. 

& s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents .3 

Mud in Rivers .TOO 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers fi 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 G 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections -58 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh .... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannias 62 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gaseson Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam- vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 69 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 

mpmetric Instruments 90 



:i *, 



Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 60 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



i. 


d. 




















1 


11 


9 






£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness , . 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 65 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 66 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

ColovTred Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen 

clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



01 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Eeduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



1844. 
Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 
Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 

Association Catalogue of 

Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kevsr Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 
Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 

vcay Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

ofthe Lower Tertiary Strata 100 
Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 
Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 
Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

£ ». d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinogi-aph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 I 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 8 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



cu 



BEPOET — 1900. 



1847. 

£ s. d. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines ^^ ^ A 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores _?5_ 0_0 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) .309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ s. d 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ .,, ^ n 

1855 «500 0/ S^^ ^ ^ 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 







£ 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



13 

















































1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 
lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam -vessels ' Performance ... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents ■ 39 

£684 



s. 


d. 





















































1 


LI 






11 1 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 i- 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ..- 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 80 

Researches on the Constituent s 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 1 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey .and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 











































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 



CIV 



REPORT— 1900. 



1862. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of "Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 


























































£ s. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amy le 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredgi ug Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 



























8 























9 

























































































10 


10 








7 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT, 



CV 



1866. 

£ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750" 



«. d. 









13 


4 


















































































































































13 


4 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 



1868. 

£ t. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances ...,. . 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals i^O 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

ofAnimalSubstanc.es 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils J?0 








































































































































CVl 



REPORT — 1900. 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion •• 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining tlie Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progi'ess 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



1873, 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall , 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 
















































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



evil 



1874. 

£ s. d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors .'iO 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ «. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Undergroimd Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors y. 30 

Elasticity of Wires .'.. 100 

Dipterocarpeae, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel ,. 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India »•• 13 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c •• 15 

£1128 















11 


7 



























































































18 






















9 7 



CVIU 



REPORT — 1900. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Eecorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Wateis 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 
for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 
Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 
Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 
Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 

Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Natural History of Socotra . . . 100 
Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 
Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Meclianical 
Equivalent of Heat 13 









































































































15 


6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 
Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CIS 



1881. 

£, s. d. 

Luflar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Eefractions 7 .3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



1382. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 111 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 
Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Eaygill Fissure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 
Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor- laut 100 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 r~n 

































































1883. 

& s. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Eecord 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 
ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Eocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters... 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

MigTation of Birds 20 C 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Eecord 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£1173 4 



ex 



REPORT — 1900. 



1885. 

£ s. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Fossil PhyUopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

:ei385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
riiysical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius .30 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic PhyUopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 



*. 


d. 

































6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil PhyUopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station .,. 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

R'acial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolj'sis ■•• 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teacliing Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palceontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth.,, 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of "Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands ■■ 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen G 1 8 



£ g. d. 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

PeUian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistiy 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



CXll 



REPORT— 1900 



£ s. d. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Eays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Kegistration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10~0 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 60 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory. . . 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives ,. 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station . . . 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 





















8 


6 



































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXUl 



£ s. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Es ploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

•Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 



d. 

















1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

.-Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

.Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 j 

Observations on Earth-tre- I 

mors .50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Marine Biological Association 5 
Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools .") 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1895. 

£ X. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Pliotographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 

Observatory 60 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 
Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 G 1 

Formation of Haloids from 

Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 
Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint- drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 50 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 
Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 
Calibration and Comparison of 
i Measuring Instruments ... 25 
I Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools .. 5 

' Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 
Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 



£977 15 5 



1900. 



CXIV 



REPORT — 1900. 



189G. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismolngical Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 2 « 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 

Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 

by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examinationof Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palasolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 

near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandvsdch Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna „.. 100 

Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survej' 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee _80 



1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 (>■ 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 a 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 10 »■ 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 O' 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 0' 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8- 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 
Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 O 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phseopbycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

:ei,059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem - 

istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



G£:?JERAL STATEMENT. 



cxv 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Djed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 
Photographs of Geological 
Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 1 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 ( 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- , 

ters 30 ' 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 1 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of j 

Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 oj 

KthnologicalSurvey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 I 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 1 00 ( 

FertUisation in PhfeophyceEe 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,212 ~0 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations ... 65 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 i ) 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 {) 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

(Jolours 4 lit r. 

Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 



£ s. d. 
Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Tryfaen ... 5 

Tv Xewydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 0- 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
ticOrganisms under Definite 

Physical Conditions 15 0' 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899.! 100 0' 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethno'opicalSurveyof Canada 35 
New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
pirator)- Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

VascularNervousSj'stem... 10 
Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap 

sules 20 

Comparative Hiaiology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phya;ophycese 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication ,") 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1.430 14 2 



1!MM). 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Sjiectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis.,,,. 5 



CXvi REPORT — 1900. 

£ n. d. 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

liemains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 

boratorj--, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Beefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 1 00 



£ f. d. 

Future Dealings in Raw 

Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Etfects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex. 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phseophycese 20 

Corresp. Societies Committee 20 

£1,072 10 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 5, at 8.30 p.m., in St. George's Hall, Brad- 
ford, Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S. (represented by Sir Henry E. 
Roscofe, F.R.S.), resigned the office of President to Sir William Turner, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which 
see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 6, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in St. 
George's Hall. 

On Friday, September 7, at 8.30 p.m., in St. George's Hall, Professor 
Francis Gotch, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' Animal Electricity.' 

On Monday, September 10, at 8.30 p.m., in St. George's Hall, 
Professor W. Stroud delivered a discourse on ' Range Finders.' 

On Tuesday, September 11, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in 
St. George's Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 12, at 2.30 p.m., in the Mechanics' Institute, 
the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were 
explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Glasgow. [The Meeting is 
appointed to -ciommence on Wednesday, September 11,1 901 .] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



ignoi 



ADDEESS 



BT 



Professor SIR WILLIAM TURNER, M.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



Twenty-seven years ago the British Association met in Bradford, not at 
that time raised to the dignity of a City. The meeting was very success- 
ful, and was attended by nearly 2,000 persons — a forecast, let us hope, 
of what we may expect at the present assembly. An eminent chemist. 
Professor A. W. "Williamson, presided. On this occasion the Associa- 
tion has selected for the presidential chair one whose attention has 
been given to the study of an important department of biological science. 
His claim to occupy, however unworthily, the distinguished position in 
which he has been placed, rests, doubtless, on the fact that, in the midst 
of the engrossing duties devolving on a teacher in a great University 
and School of Medicine, he has endeavoured to contribute to the sum 
of knowledge of the science which he professes. It is a matter of satis- 
faction to feel that the success of a meeting of this kind does not rest upon 
the shoulders of the occupant of the presidential chair, but is due to the 
eminence and active co-operation of the men of science who either pre- 
side over or engage in the work of the nine or ten sections into which the 
Association is divided, and to the energy and ability for organisation 
displayed by the local Secretaries and Committees. The programme pre- 
pared by the general and local officers of the Association shows that nc 
efforts have been spared to provide an ample bill of fare, both in its 
scientific and social aspects. Members and Associates will, I feel sure, 
take away from the Bradford Meeting as pleasant memories as did our 
colleagues of the corresponding Association Frangaise, when, in friendly 
collaboration at Dover last year, they testified to the common citizenship 
of the Universal Republic of Science. As befits a leading centre of 
industry in the great county of York, the applications of science to the 
industrial arts and to agriculture will form subjects of discussion in the 
papers to be read at the meeting. 



4 REPORT — 1000. 

Since the Association was at Dover a year ago, two of its former 
Presidents have joined the majority. The Duke of Argyll presided at the 
meeting in Glasgow so far back as 1855. Throughout his long and energetic 
life, he proved himself to be an eloquent and earnest speaker, one who gave 
to the consideration of public affairs a mind of singular independence, and 
a thinker and writer in a wide range of human knowledge. Sir J. Wm. 
Dawson was President at the meeting in Birmingham in 1886. Born 
in Nova Scotia in 1820, he devoted himself to the study of the Geology 
of Canada, and became the leading authority on the subject. He took 
also an active and influential part in promoting the spread of scientific 
education in the Dominion, and for a number of years he was Principal 
and Vice-Chancellor of the M'Gill University, Montreal. 

Scientific Method. 

Edward Gibbon has told us that diligence and accuracy are the only 
merits which an historical writer can ascribe to himself. Without doubt 
they are fundamental qualities necessary for historical research, but in 
order to bear fruit they require to be exercised by one whose mental 
qualities are such as to enable him to analyse the data brought together 
by his diligence, to discriminate between the false and the true, to 
possess an insight into the complex motives that determine human action, 
to be able to recognise those facts and incidents which had exercised either 
a primary or only a secondary influence on the aflfairs of nations, or on 
the thoughts and doings of the person whose character he is depicting. 

In scientific research, also, diligence and accuracy are fundamental 
qualities. By their application new facts are discovered and tabulated, 
their order of succession is ascertained, and a wider and more intimate 
knowledge of the processes of nature is acquired. But to decide on their 
true significance a well-balanced mind and the exercise of prolonged 
thought and reflection are needed. "William Harvey, the father of exact 
research in physiology, in his memorable work \De Motu Cordis et San- 
guinis,' published more than two centuries ago, tells us of the great and 
daily diligence which he exercised in the course of his investigations, and 
the numerous observations and experiments which he collated. At the 
same time he refers repeatedly to his cogitations and reflections on the 
meaning of what he had observed, without which the complicated move- 
ments of the heart could not have been analysed, their significance deter- 
mined, and the circulation of the blood in a continuous stream definitely 
established. Early in the present century, Carl Ernst von Baer, the 
father of embryological research, showed the importance which he attached 
to the combination of observation with meditation by placing side by side 
on the title-page of his famous treatise ' Ueber Entwickelungsgeschichte 
der Thiere ' (1828) the words Beobachtung und Reflexion. 

Though I have drawn from biological science my illustrations of the 
nfeed of this combinationj it must ndt be inferred that it applies exclu- 



ADDRESS. 5 



sively to one branch of scientific inquiry ; the conjunction influences and 
determines progress in all the sciences, and when associated with a 
sufficient touch of imagination, when the power of seeing is conjoined with 
the faculty of foreseeing, of projecting the mind into the future, we may 
expect something more than the discovery of isolated facts ; their co- 
ordination and the enunciation of new principles and laws will necessarily 
follow. 

Scientific method consists, therefore, in close observation, frequently 
repeated so as to eliminate the possibility of erroneous seeing ; in experi- 
ments checked and controlled in every direction in which fallacies might 
arise ; in continuous reflection on the appearances and phenomena 
observed, and in logically reasoning out their meaning and the conclusions 
to be drawn from them. Were the method followed out in its integrity 
by all who are engaged in scientific investigations, the time and labour 
expended in correcting errors committed by ourselves or by other 
observers and experimentalists would be saved, and the volumes devoted 
annually to scientific literature would be materially diminished in size. 
Were it applied, as far as the conditions of life admit, to the conduct and 
management of human affairs, we should not require to be told, when 
critical periods in our welfare as a nation arise, that we shall muddle 
through somehow. Recent experience has taught us that wise discretion 
and careful prevision are as necessary in the direction of public affairs as 
in the pursuit of science, and in both instances, when properly exercised, 
they enable us to reach with comparative certainty the goal which we 
strive to attain. 

Improvements in Means of Observation. 

Whilst certain principles of research are common to all the sciences, 
each great division requires for its investigation specialised arrangements 
to insure its progress. Nothing contributes so much to the advancement 
of knowledge as improvements in the means of observation, either by the 
discovery of new adjuncts to research, or by a fresh adaptation of old 
methods. In the industrial arts, the introduction of a new kind of raw 
material, the recognition that a mixture or blending is often more 
serviceable than when the substances employed are uncombined, the 
discovery of new pi-ocesses of treating the articles used in manufactures, 
the invention of improved machinery, all lead to the expansion of trade, 
to the occupation of the people, and to the development of great 
industrial centres. In science, also, the invention and employment of 
new and more precise instruments and appliances enable us to appreciate 
more clearly the signification of facts and phenomena which were pre- 
viously obscure, and to penetrate more deeply into the mysteries of nature. 
They mark fresh departures in the history of science, and provide a firm 
base of support from which a continuous advance may be made and fresh 
conceptions of nature can be evolved 



6 REPORT — 1900. 

It is not my intention, even if I possessed the requisite knowledge, 
to undertake so arduous a task as to review the progress which has recently 
been made in the great body of sciences which lie within the domain of 
the British Association. As my occupation in life has required me to 
give attention to the science which deals with the structure and organisa- 
tion of the bodies of man and animals — a science which either includes 
within its scope or has intimate and widespread relations to comparative 
anatomy, embryology, morphology, zoology, physiology, and anthropology 
— I shall limit myself to the attempt to bring before you some of the more 
important observations and conclusions which have a bearing on the 
present position of the subject. As this is the closing year of the century, 
it will not, I think, be out of place to refer to the changes which a 
hundred years have brought about in our fundamental conceptions of the 
structure of animals. In science, as in business, it is well from time to 
time to take stock of what we have been doing, so that we may realise 
where we stand and ascertain the balance to our credit in the scientific 
ledger. 

So far back as the time of the ancient Greeks it was known that the 
human body and those of the more highly organised animals were not homo- 
geneous, but were built up of parts, the partes dissimilares (ra ayofiom ^eprj) 
of Aristotle, which difiered from each other in form, colour, texture, 
consistency, and properties. These parts were familiarly known as the 
bones, muscles, sinews, blood-vessels, glands, brain, nerves, and so on. 
As the centuries rolled on, and as observers and observations multiplied, 
a more and more precise knowledge of these parts throughout the Animal 
Kingdom was obtained, and various attempts were made to classify 
animals in accordance with their forms and structure. During the 
concluding years of the last century and the earlier part of the present, 
the Hunters, William and John, in our country, the Meckels in Germany, 
Cuvier and Saint-Hilaire in France, gave an enormous impetus to anatomical 
studies, and contributed largely to our knowledge of the construction of the 
bodies of animals. But whilst by these and other observers the most 
salient and, if I may use the expression, the grosser characters of animal 
organisation had been recognised, little was known of the more intimate 
structure or texture of the parts. So far as could be determined by the 
unassisted vision, and so much as could be recognised by the use of a 
simple lens, had indeed been ascertained, and it was known that muscles, 
nerves, and tendons were composed of threads or fibres, that the blood- 
and lymph-vessels were tubes, that the parts which we call fasciae and 
aponeui'oses were thin membranes, and so on. 

Early in the present century Xavier Bichat, one of the most brilliant 
men of science during the Napoleonic era in France, pubUshed his 
' Anatomie Gi^n^rale,' in which he formulated important general principles. 
Every animal is an assemblage of different organs, each of which dis- 
charges a function, and acting together, each in its own way, assists in the 



ADDRESS. 7 

preservation of the whole. The organs are, as it were, special machines 
situated in the general building which constitutes the factory or body 
of the individual. But, further, each organ or special machine is itself 
formed of tissues which possess different properties. Some, as the blood- 
vessels, nerves, fibrous tissues, &c., are generally distributed throughout 
the animal body, whilst others, as bones, muscles, cartilage, tfcc, are found 
only in certain definite localities. Whilst Bichat had acquired a definite 
philosophical conception of the general principles of construction and of 
the distribution of the tissues, neither he nor his pupil Beclard was in a 
position to determine the essential nature of the structural elements. 
The means and appliances at their disposal and at that of other ob- 
servers in their generation were not sufficiently potent to complete the 
analysis. 

Attempts were made in the third decennium of this century to improve 
the methods of examining minute objects by the manufacture of com- 
pound lenses, and, by doing away with chromatic ;ind spherical aberra- 
tion, to obtain, in addition to magnification of the object, a relatively large 
flat field of vision with clearness and sharpness of definition. When in 
January 1830 Joseph Jackson Lister read to the Royal Society his 
memoir ' On some properties in achromatic object-glasses applicable to 
the improvement of microscopes,' he announced the principles on which 
combinations of lenses could be arranged, which would possess these 
qualities. By the skill of our opticians, microscopes have now for more 
than half a century been constructed which, in the hands of competent 
observers, have influenced and extended biological science with results 
comparable to those obtained by the astronomer through improvements 
in the telescope. 

Tn the study of the minute .structui'e of plants and animals the observer 
has frequently to deal with tissues and organs, most of which possess such 
softness and delicacy of substance and outline that, even when micro- 
scopes of the best construction are employed, the determination of the 
intimate nature of the tissue, and the precise relation which one element 
of an organ bears to the other constituent elements, is in many instances 
a matter of difficulty. Hence additional methods have had to be devised 
in order to facilitate study and to give precision and accuracy to our 
observations. It is difficult for one of the younger generation of biologists, 
with all the appliances of a well-equipped laboratory at his command, 
with experienced teachers to direct him in his work, and with excellent 
text-books, in which the modern methods are described, to realise the 
conditions under which his predecessors worked half a century ago. 
Laboratories for minute biological research had not been constructed, 
the practical teaching of histology and embryology had not been organised, 
experience in methods of v/ork had not accumulated ; each man was left 
to his individual efforts, and had to puzzle his way through the complica- 
tions of structure to the best of his power. Staining and hardening 



8 REPORT— 1900. 

reagents were unknown. The' double-bladed knife invented by Valentin, 
held in the hand, was the only improvement on the scalpel or razor for 
cutting thin, more or less translucent slices suitable for microscopic 
examination ; mechanical section-cutters and freezing arrangements had 
not been devised. The tools at the disposal of the microscopist were 
little more than knife, forceps, scissors, needles ; with acetic acid, glyce- 
rine, and Canada balsam as reagents. But in the employment of the 
newer methods of research care has to be taken, more especially when 
hardening and staining reagents are used, to discriminate between 
appearances which are to be intei'preted as indicating natural characters, 
and those which are only artificial productions. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties attendant on the study of the more 
delicate tissues, tlie compound achromatic microscope provided anatomists 
with an instrument of great penetrative power. Between the yeai'S 1830 
and 1850 a number of acute observei's applied themselves with much energy 
and enthusiasm to the examination of the minute structure of the tissues 
and organs in plants and animals. 

Cell Theory. 

It had, indeed, long been recognised that the tissues of plants were 
to a large extent composed of minute vesicular bodies, technically called 
cells (Hooke, Malpighi, Grew). In 1831 the discovery was made by the 
great botanist, Robert Brown, that in many families of plants a circular 
spot, whicli he named areola or nucleus, was present in each cell ; and in 
1838 M. J. Schleiden published the fact that a similar spot or nucleus was 
a universal elementary organ in vegetables. In the tissues of animals also 
structures had begun to be recognised comparable with the cells and nuclei 
of the vegetable tissues, and in 1839 Theodore Schwann announced the 
important generalisation that there is one universal principle of develop- 
ment for the elementary part of organisms, however difierent they may be in 
appearance, and that this principle is the formation of cells. The enun- 
ciation of the fundamental principle that the elementary tissues consisted 
of cells constituted a step in the progress of biological science, which 
will for ever stamp the century now drawing to a close with a character 
and renown equalling those which it has derived from the most brilliant 
discoveries in the physical sciences. It pro\ided biologists with the 
visible anatomical units through which the external forces operating on, 
and the energy generated in, living matter come into play. It dispelled 
for ever the old mystical idea of the influence exercised by vapours or 
spirits in living organisms. It supplied the physiologist and pathologist 
with the specific structures through the agency of which the functions of 
organisms are discharged in health and disease. It exerted an enormous 
influence on the progress of practical medicine. A review of the progress 
of knowledge of the cell may appropriately enter into an address on this 
occasion. 



ADDRESS. 9 

Structure of Cells. 

A cell is a living particle, so minute that it needs a microscope for its 
examination ; it qroM-s in size, maintains itself in a state of activity, 
responds to the action of stimuli, reproduces its kind, and in the course 
of time it degenerates and dies. 

Let us glance at the structure of a cell to determine its constituent 
parts and the role which each plays in the function to be discharged. 
The original conception of a cell, based upon the study of the vegetable 
tissues, was a minute vesicle enclosed by a definite wall, which exer- 
cised chemical or metabolic changes on the surrounding matei'ial and 
secreted into the vesicle its characteristic contents. A similar conception 
was at first also entertained regarding the cells of animal tissues ; but as 
observations multiplied, it was seen that numerous elementary particles, 
which were obviously in their nature cells, did not possess an enclosing 
envelope. A wall ceased to have a primary value as a constituent part of 
a cell, the necessary vesicular character of which therefore could no longer 
be entertained. 

The other constituent parts of a cell are the cell plasm, which forms 
the body of the cell, and the nucleus embedded in its ^bstance. Not- 
withstanding the very minute size of the nucleus, which even in the 
lai'gest cells is not more than - J^yth inch in diameter, and usually is 
considerably smaller, its almost constant form, its well-defined sharp 
outline, and its power of resisting the action of strong reagents when 
applied to the cell, have from the period of its discovery by Robert Brown 
caused histologists to bestow on it much attention. Its structure and 
chemical composition ; its mode of origin ; the part which it plays in the 
formation of new cells, and its function in nutrition and secretion have 
been investigated. 

When examined under favourable conditions in its passive or resting 
state, the nucleus is seen to be bounded by a membrane which separates 
it from the cell plasm and gives it the characteristic sharp contour. 
It contains an apparently structureless nuclear substance, nucleoplasm or 
enchylema, in which are embedded one or more extremely minute particles 
called nucleoli, along with a network of exceedingly fine threads or fibres, 
which in the active living cell play an essential part in the production 
of new nuclei within the cell. In its chemical composition the nuclear 
substance consists of albuminous plastin and globulin ; and of a special 
material named nuclein, rich in phosphorus and with an acid reaction. 
The delicate network within the nucleus consists apparently of the nuclein, 
a substance which stains with carmine and other dyes, a property which 
enables the changes, which take place in the network in the production of 
young cells, to be more readily seen and followed out by the observer. 

The mode of origin of the nucleus and the part which it plays in 
the production of new cells have been the subject of much discussion. 



10 KEPORT— 1900. 

Schleiden, whose observations, published in 1838, were made on the cells 
of plants, believed that within the cell a nucleolus first appeared, and that 
around it molecules aggregated to form the nucleus. Schwann again, 
whose observations were mostly made on the cells of animals, considered 
that an amorphous material existed in organised bodies, which he called 
oytoblastema. It formed the contents of cells, or it might be situated free 
or external to them. He figuratively compared it to a mother liquor in 
which crystals are formed. Either in the cytoblastema within the cells 
or in that situated external to them, the aggregation of molecules around 
a nucleolus to form a nucleus might occur, and, when once the nucleus 
had been formed, in its turn it would serve as a centre of aggregation of 
additional molecules from which a new cell would be produced. He 
regarded therefore the formation of nuclei and cells as possible in two 
ways : one within pre-existing cells (endogenous cell-formation), the other 
in a free blastema lying external to cells (free cell-formation). In 
animals, he says, the endogenous method is rare, and the customaiy origin 
is in an external blastema. Both Schleiden and Schwann considered 
that after the cell was formed the nucleus had no permanent influence 
on the life of the cell, and usually disappeared. 

Under the teaching principally of Henle, the famous Pi'ofessor of 
Anatomy in Gottingen, the conception of the free formation of nuclei and 
cells in a more or less fluid blastema, by an aggregation of elementary 
granules and molecules, obtained so much credence, especially amongst 
those who were engaged in the study of pathological processes, that the 
origin of cells within pre-existing cells was to a large extent lost sight of. 
That a parent cell was requisite for the production of new cells seemed to 
many investigators to be no longer needed. Without doubt this con- 
ception of free cell-formation contributed in no small degree to the 
belief, entertained by various observers, that the simplest plants and 
animals might arise, without pre-existing parents, in organic fluids desti- 
tute of life, by a process of spontaneous generation ; a belief which pre- 
vailed in many minds almost to the present day. If, as has been stated, 
the doctrine of abiogenesis cannot be experimentally refuted, on the other 
hand it has not been experimentally proved. The burden of proof lies 
with those who hold the doctrine, and the evidence that we possess is all 
the other way. 

MultiiJlication of Cells. 

Although von Mold, the botanist, seems to have been the first to 
recognise (1835) in plants a multiplication of cells by division, it was not 
until attention was given to the study of the egg in various animals, and 
to the changes which take place in it, attendant on fertilisation, that in 
the course of time a much more correct conception of the origin of the 
nucleus and of the part which it plays in the forpiation of new cells was 
obtained. Before Schwann had published his classical memoir in 1839, 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

von Baer and other observers had recognised within the animal ovum the 
germinal vesicle, which obviously bore to the ovum the relation of a 
nucleus to a cell. As the methods of observation improved, it was recog- 
nised that, within the developing egg, two vesicles appeared where one 
only had previously existed, to be followed by four vesicles, then 
eight, and so on in multiple progression until the ovum contained a 
multitude of vesicles, each of which possessed a nucleus. The vesicles 
were obviously cells which had arisen within the original germ-cell or 
ovum. These changes were systematically described by Martin Barry so 
long ago as 1839 and 1840 in two memoirs communicated to the Royal 
Society of London, and the appearance produced, on account of the irregu- 
larities of the surface occasioned by the production of new vesicles, was 
named by him the mulberry-like structure. He further pointed out that 
the vesicles arranged themselves as a layer within the envelope of the egg 
or zona pellucida, and that the whole embryo was composed of cells filled 
with the foundations of other cells. He recognised that the new cells 
were derived from the germinal vesicle or nucleus of the ovum, the con- 
tents of which entered into the formation of the first two cells, each of 
which had its nucleus, which in its turn resolved itself into other cells, 
and by a repetition of the process into a greater number. The endogenous 
origin of new cells within a pre-existing cell and the process which we 
now term the segmentation of the yolk were successfully demonstrated. 
In a third memoir, published in 1841, Barry definitely stated that young 
cells originated through division of the nucleus of the parent cell, instead 
of arising, as a product of crystallisation, in the fluid cytoblastema of the 
parent cell or in a blastema situated external to the cell. 

In a memoir published in 1842, John Goodsir advocated the view that 
the nucleus is the reproductive organ of the cell, and that from it, as from 
a germinal spot, new cells were formed. In a paper, published three years 
later, on nutritive centres, he described cells, the nuclei of which were 
the permanent source of successive broods of young cells, which from 
time to time occupied the cavity of the parent cell. He extended also his 
observations on the endogenous formation of cells to the cartilage cells in 
the process of inflammation and to other tissues undergoing pathological 
changes. Corroborative observations on endogenous formation were also 
given by his brother Harry Goodsir in 1845. These observations on the 
part which the nucleus plays by cleavage in the formation of young cells 
by endogenous development from a parent centre — that an organic con- 
tinuity existed between a mother cell and its descendants through the 
nucleus — constituted a great step in advance of the views entertained by 
Schleiden and Schwann, and showed that Barry and the Goodsirs had a 
deeper insight into the nature and functions of cells than was possessed 
by most of their contemporaries, and are of the highest importance when 
viewed in the light of recent observations. 

In 1841 Robert Remak published an account of the presence of two 



12 REPORT — 1900. 

nuclei in the blood corpuscles of the chick and the pig, which he regarded 
as evidence of the production of new corpuscles by division of the 
nucleus within a parent cell ; but it was not until some years afterwards 
(1850 to 1855) that he recorded additional observations and recognised 
that division of the nucleus was the starting-point for the multiplication 
of cells in the ovum and in the tissues generally. Remak's view was that 
the process of cell division began with the cleavage of the nucleolus, 
followed by that of the nucleus, and that again by cleavage of the body 
of the cell and of its membrane. Kolliker had previously, in 1843, de- 
scribed the multiplication of nuclei in the ova of parasitic worms, and 
drew the inference that in the formation of young cells within the egg 
the nucleus underwent cleavage, and that each of its divisions entered 
into the formation of a new cell. By these observations, and by others 
subsequently made, it became obvious that the multiplication of animal 
cells, either by division of the nucleus within the cell, or by the budding 
off of a part of the protoplasm of the cell, was to be regarded as a widely 
spread and probably a universal process, and that each new cell arose 
from a parent cell. 

Pathological observers were, however, for the most part inclined to 
consider free cell-formation in a blastema or exudation by an aggregation 
of molecules, in accordance with the views of Henle, as a common pheno- 
menon. This proposition was attacked with great energy by Virchow in 
a series of memoirs published in his ' Archiv,' commencing in Vol. 1, 1847, 
and finally received its death-blow in his published lectures on Cellular 
Pathology, 1858. He maintained that in pathological structures there 
was no Instance of cell development de novo ; where a cell existed, there 
one must have been before. Cell-formation was a continuous develop- 
meni, by descent, which he formulated in the expression omnis cellula 
e celluld. 

Karyokinesis. 

Whilst the descent of cells from pre-existing cells by division of the 
nucleus during the development of the egg, in the embryos of plants 
and animals, and in adult vegetable and animal tissues, both in healthy 
and diseased conditions, had now become generally recognised, the 
mechanism of the process by which the cleavage of the nucleus took place 
was for a long time unknown. The discovery had to be deferred until 
the optician had been able to construct lenses of a higher penetrative 
power, and the microscopist had learned the use of colouring agents 
capable of dyeing the finest elements of the tissues. There was reason to 
believe that in some cases a direct cleavage of the nucleus, to be followed 
by a corresponding division of the cell into two parts, did occur. In the 
period between 1870 and 1880 observations were made by Schneider, 
Strasburger, Biitschli, Fol, van Beneden, and Flemming, which showed that 
the division of the nucleus and the cell was due to a series of very remark- 
able changes, now known as indirect nuclear and cell division, or karyo- 



ADDRESS. 13 

kinesis. The changes within the nucleus are of so complex a character that 
it is impossible to follow them in detail without the use of appropriate 
illustrations. I shall have to content myself, therefore, with an elemen- 
tary sketch of the process. 

I have previously stated that the nucleus in its passive or resting stage 
contains a very delicate network of threads or fibres. The first stage in 
the process of nuclear division consists in the threads arranging them- 
selves in loops and forming a compact coil within the nucleus. The coil 
then becomes looser, the loops of threads shorten and thicken, and some- 
what later each looped thread splits longitudinally into two portions. As 
the threads stain when colouring agents are applied to them, they are 
called chromatin fibres, and the loose coil is the chromosome (Waldeyer). 

As the process continues, the investing membrane of the nucleus dis- 
appears, and the loops of threads arrange themselves within the nucleus 
so that the closed ends of the loops are directed to a common centre, from 
which the loops radiate outwards and produce a starlike figure (aster). 
At the same time clusters of extremely delicate lines appear both in the 
nucleoplasm and in the body of the cell, named the achromatic figure, 
which has a spindle-like form with two opposite poles, and stains much 
more feebly than the chromatic fibres. The loops of the chromatic star 
then arrange themselves in the equatorial plane of the spindle, and 
bending round turn their closed ends towards the periphery of the nucleus 
and the cell. 

The next stage marks an important step in the process of division of 
the nucleus. The two longitudinal portions, into which each looped thread 
had previously split, now separate from each other, and whilst one part 
migrates to one pole of the spindle, the other moves to the opposite pole, 
and the free ends of each loop are directed towards its equator (meta- 
kinesis). By this division of the chromatin fibres, and their separation 
from each other to opposite poles of the spindle, two star like chromatin 
figures are produced (dyaster). 

Each group of fibres thickens, shortens, becomes surrounded by a 
membrane, and forms a new or daughter nucleus (dispirem). Two nuclei 
therefore have arisen within the cell by the division of that which had 
previously existed, and the expression formulated by Flemming — omnis 
nucleus e nucleo — is justified. Whilst this stage is in course of being 
completed, the body of the cell becomes constricted in the equatorial plane 
of the spindle, and, as the constriction deepens, it separates into two parts, 
each containing a daughter nucleus, so that two nucleated cells have 
arisen out of a pre-existing cell. 

A repetition of the process in each of these cells leads to the formation 
of other cells, and, although modifications in details are found in diflferent 
species of plants and animals, the multiplication of cells in the egg and in 
the tissues generally on similar lines is now a thoroughly established fact 
in biological science; 



14 REPORT — 1900, 

In the study of karyokinesis, importance has been attached to the 
number of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell. Flemming had seen 
in the Salamander twenty-four chromosome fibres, which seems to be a 
constant number in the cells of epithelium and connective tissues. In 
other cells again, especially in the ova of certain animals, the number is 
smaller, and fourteen, twelve, four, and even two only have been described. 
The theory formulated by Boveri that the number of chromosomes is con- 
stant for each species, and that in the karyokiuetic figures corresponding 
numbers are found in homologous cells, seems to be not improbable. 

In the preceding description I have incidentally referred to the appear- 
ance in the proliferating cell of an achromatic spindle-like figure. Al though 
this was recognised by Fol in 1873, it is only during the last ten or twelve 
years that attention has been paid to its more minute arrangements and 
possible signification in cell-division. 

The pole at each end of the spindle lies in the cell plasm which sur- 
rounds the nucleus. In the centre of each pole is a somewhat opaque 
spot (central body) surrounded by a clear space, which, along with the 
spot, constitutes the centrosome or the sphere of attraction. From each 
centrosome extremely delicate lines may be seen to radiate in two direc- 
tions. One set extends towards the pole at the opposite end of the spindle 
and, meeting or coming into close proximity with radiations from it, con- 
stitutes the body of the spindle, which, like a perforated mantle, forms 
an imperfect envelope around the nucleus during the process of division. 
The other set of radiations is called the polar, and extends in the region 
of the pole towards the periphery of the cell. 

The question has been much discussed whether any constituent part 

of the achromatic figure, or the entire figure, exists in the cell as a 

permanent structure in its resting phase ; or if it is only present during 

the process of karyokinesis. During the development of the egg the 

formation of young cells, by division of the segmentation nucleus, is so 

rapid and continuous that the achromatic figure, with the centrosome in 

the pole of the spindle, is a readily recognisable object in each cell. The 

polar and spindle-like radiations are in evidence during karyokinesis, 

and have apparently a temporary endurance and function. On the 

other hand, van Beneden and Boveri were of opinion that the central 

body of the centrosome did not disappear when the division of the nucleus 

came to an end, but that it remained as a constituent part of a cell lying 

in the cell plasm near to the nucleus. Flemming has seen the central 

body with its sphere in leucocytes, as well as in epithelial cells and 

those of other tissues. Subsequently Heidenhain and other histologists 

have recorded similar observations. It would seem, therefore, as if there 

were reason to regard the centrosome, like the nucleus, as a permanent 

constituent of a cell. This view, however, is not universally entertained. 

If not always capable of demonstration in the resting stage of a cell, it is 

doubtless to be regarded as potentially present, and ready to assume^ 



ADDRESS. 15 

along with the radiations, a, characteristic appearance when the process of 
nuclear division is about to begin. 

One can scarcely regard the presence of so remarkable an appearance 
as the achromatic figure without associating with it an important function 
in the economy of the cell. As from the centrosome at the pole of 
the spindle both sets of radiations diverge, it is not unlikely that it acts 
as a centre or sphere of energy and attraction. By some observers the 
radiations are regarded as substantive fibrillar structures, elastic or even 
contractile in their propei'ties. Others, again, look upon them as morpho- 
logical expressions of chemical and dynamical energy in the protoplasm of 
the cell body. On either theory we may assume that they indicate an 
influence, emanating, it may be, from the centrosome, and capable of 
being exercised both on the cell plasm and on the nucleus contained 
in it. On the contractile theory, the radiations which form the body 
of the spindle, either by actual traction of the supposed fibrillas or by 
their pressure on the nucleus which they surround, might impel during 
karyokinesis the dividing chromosome elements towards the poles of the 
spindle, to form there the daughter nuclei. On the dynamical theory, 
the chemical and physical energy in the centrosome might influence the 
cell plasm and the nucleus, and attract the chromosome elements of the 
nucleus to the poles of the spindle. The radiated appearance would 
therefore be consequent and attendant on the physico-chemical activity 
of the centrosome. One or other of these theories may also be applied to 
the interpretation of the significance of the polar radiations. 

Cell Plasm. 

In the cells of plants, in addition to the cell wall, the cell body and 
the cell juice require to be examined. The material of the cell body, or 
the cell contents, was named by von Mohl (1846) protoplasm, and consisted 
of a colourless tenacious substance which partly lined the cell wall 
(primordial utricle), and partly traversed the interior of the cell as deli- 
cate threads enclosing spaces (vacuoles) in which the cell juice was con- 
tained. In the protoplasm the nucleus was embedded, Nageli, about the 
same time, had also recognised the difference between the protoplasm and 
the other contents of vegetable cells, and had noticed its nitrogenous com- 
position. 

Though the analogy with a closed bladder or vesicle could no longer be 
sustained in the animal tissues, the name ' cell ' continued to be retained 
for descriptive purposes, and the body of the cell was spoken of as a 
more or less soft substance enclosing a nucleus (Leydig). In 1861 Max 
Schultze adopted for the substance forming the body of the animal cell 
the term 'protoplasm.' He defined a cell to be a particle of protoplasm 
in the substance of which a nucleus was situated. He regarded the 
protoplasm, as indeed had previously been pointed out by the botanist 
linger, as essentially the same as the contractile sarcode which 



16 REPORT — 1900, 

constitutes the body and pseudopodia of the Amoeba and other Rhizopoda. 
As the term ' protoplasm,' as well as that of ' bioplasm ' employed by 
Lionel Beale in a somewhat similar though not precisely identical sense, 
involves certain theoretical views of the origin and function of the body 
of the cell, it would be better to apply to it the more purely descriptive 
term ' cytoplasm ' or ' cell plasm.' 

Schultze defined protoplasm as a homogeneous, glassy, tenacious 
material, of a jelly-like or' somewhat firmer consistency, in which numerous 
minute granules were embedded. He regarded it as the part of the cell 
especially endowed with vital energy, whilst the exact function of the 
nucleus could not be defined. Based upon this conception of the jelly- 
like character of protoplasm, the idea for a time prevailed that a structure- 
less, dimly granular, jelly or slime destitute of organisation, possessed 
great physiological activity, and was the medium through which the 
phenomena of life were displayed. 

More accurate conceptions of the nature of the cell plasm soon began 
to be entertained. Briicke recognised that the body of the cell was not 
simple, but had a complex organisation. Flemming observed that the 
cell plasm contained extremely delicate threads, which frequently formed 
a network, the interspaces of which were occupied by a more homo- 
geneous substance. Where the threads crossed each other, granular 
particles (mikrosomen) were situated. Biitschli considered that he could 
recognise in the cell plasm a honeycomb-like appearance, as if it con- 
sisted of excessively minute chambers in which a homogeneous more or 
less fluid material was contained. The polar and spindle-like radiations 
visible during the process of karyokinesis, which have already been 
referred to, and the presence of the centrosome, possibly even during the 
resting stage of the cell, furnished additional illustrations of differentiation 
within the cell plasm. In many cells there appears also to be a difference 
in the character of the cell plasm which immediately surrounds the nucleus 
and that which lies at and near the periphery of the cell. The peri- 
pheral part (ektoplasma) is more compact and gives a definite outline to 
the cell, although not necessarily differentiating into a cell membrane. 
The inner part (endoplasma) is softer, and is distinguished by a more 
distinct granular appearance, and by containing the products specially 
formed in each particular kind of cell during the nutritive process. 

By the researches of numerous investigators on the internal organisa- 
tion of cells in plants and animals, a large body of evidence has now been 
accumulated, which shows that both the nucleus and the cell plasm con- 
sist of something more than a homogeneous, more or less viscid, slimy 
material. Recognisable objects in the form of granules, threads, or fibres 
can be distinguished in each. The cell plasm and the nucleus respectively 
are therefore not of the same constitution throughout, but possess poly- 
morphic characters, the study of which in health and the changes 
produced by disease will for many years to come form important mattere 
for investigation. 



ADDRESS. 17 

Function of Cells. 

It has already been stated that, when new cells arise within pre- 
existing cells, division of the nucleus is associated with cleavage of the 
cell plasm, so that it participates in the process of new cell-formation. 
Undoubtedly, however, its role is not limited to this function. It also 
plays an important part in secretion, nutrition, and the special functions 
discharged by the cells in the tissues and organs of which they form 
morphological elements. 

Between 1838 and 1842 observations were made which showed that 
cells were constituent pai-ts of secreting glands and mucous membranes 
(Schwann, Henle). In 1842 John Goodsir communicated to the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh a memoir on secreting structures, in which he 
established the principle that cells are the ultimate secreting agents ; he 
recognised in the cells of the liver, kidney, and othe» organs the character- 
istic secretion of each gland. The secretion was, he said, situated between 
the nucleus and the cell wall. At tirst he thought that, as the nucleus 
was the reproductive organ of the cell, the secretion was formed in the 
interior of the cell by the agency of the cell wall ; but three years later 
he regarded it as a product of the nucleus. The study of the process of 
spermatogenesis by his brother, Harry Goodsir, in which the head of the 
spermatozoon was found to correspond with the nucleus of the cell in 
which the spermatozoon arose, gave support to the view that the nucleus 
played an important part in the genesis of the characteristic product 
of the gland cell. 

The physiological activity of the cell plasm and its complex chemical 
constitution soon after began to be recognised. Some years before Max 
Schultze had published his memoirs on the characters of protoplasm, 
Briicke had shown that the well-known changes in tint in the skin of the 
Chamjeleon were due to pigment granules situated in cells in the skin 
which were sometimes diflused throughout the cells, at others concen- 
trated in tlie centre. Similar observations on the skin of the froe 
were made in 1854 by von Wittich and Harless. The movements were 
regarded as due to contraction of the cell wall on its contents. In a 
most interesting papei' on the pigmentary system in the frog, pub- 
lished in 18.58, Lord Lister demonstrated that the pigment granules 
moved in the cell plasma, by forces resident within the cell itself, 
acting under the influence of an external stimulant, and not by a 
contractility of the wall. Under some conditions the pigment was 
attracted to the centre of the cell, when the skin became pale ; under 
other conditions the pigment was diffused throughout the body and the 
branches of the cell, and gave to the skin a dark colour. It was also 
experimentally shown that a potent influence over these movements 
was exercised by the nervous system. 

The study of the cells of glands engaged in secretion, even when the 

1900. * c 



IS REPORT — 1900. 

secretion is colourless, and the comparison of their appearance when 
secretion is going on with that seen when the cells are at rest, have 
shown that the cell plasm is much more granular and opaque, and con- 
tains larger particles, during activity than when the cell is passive ; the 
body of the cell swells out from an increase in the contents of its plasm, and 
chemical changes accompany the act of seci'etion. Ample evidence, there- 
fore, is at hand to support the position taken by John Goodsir, nearly 
sixty years ago, that secretions are formed within cells, and lie in that 
part of the cell which we now say consists of the cell plasm ; that each 
secreting cell is endowed with its own peculiar property, according to the 
organ in which it is situated, so that bile is formed by the cells in the 
liver, milk by those in the mamma, and so on. 

Intimately associated with the process of secretion is that of nutri- 
tion. As the cell plasm lies at the periphery of a cell, and as it is, alike 
in secretion and nutrition, brought into closest relation with the sur- 
rounding medium, from which the pabulum is derived, it is necessarily 
associated with nutritive activity. Its position enables it to absorb 
nutritive material directly from without, and in the process of growth it 
increases in amount by interstitial changes and additions throughout its 
substance, and not by mere accretions on its surface. 

Hitherto I have spoken of a cell as a unit, independent of its 
neighbours as regards its nutrition and the other functions which it has 
to discharge. The question has, however, been discussed, whether in a 
tissue composed of cells closely packed together cell plasm may not give 
origin to processes or thi-eads which are in contact or continuous with 
corresponding processes of adjoining cells, and that cells may therefore, to 
some extent, lose their individuality in the colony of which they are 
members. Appearances were recognised between 1863 and 1870 by 
Schron and others in the deeper cells of the epidermis and of some 
mucous membranes which gave sanction to this view, and it seems possible, 
through contact or continuity of threads connecting a cell with its neigh- 
bours, that cells may exercise a direct influence on each other. 

Nageli, the botanist, as the foundation of a mechanico-physiological 
theory of descent, considered that in plants a network of cell plasm, 
named by him idio-plasm, extended throughout the whole of the plant, 
forming its specific molecular constitution, a)id that growth and activity 
were regulated by its conditions of tension and movements (1884). 

The study of the structure of plants with special reference to the 
presence of an intercellular network has for some years been pursued by 
Walter Gardiner (1882 97), who has demonstrated threads of cell plasm 
protruding through the walls of vegetable cells and continuous with 
similar threads from adjoining cells. Structurally, therefore, a plant may 
lie conceived to be built up of a nucleated cytoplasmic network, each 
nucleus with the branching cell plasm surrounding it being a centre of 
activity. On this view a cell would retain to some extent its individuality. 



ADDRESS. 19 

though, as Gardiner contends, the connecting threads would be the medium 
for the conduction of impulses and of food from a cell to those which lie 
around it. For the plant cell therefore, as has long been accepted in the 
animal cell, the wall is reduced to a secondary position, and the active con- 
stituent is the nucleated cell plasm. It is not unlikely that the absence of a 
controlling nervous system in plants requires the plasm of adjoinino- cells 
to be brought into more immediate contact and continuity than is the 
case with the generality of animal cells, so as to provide a mechanism for 
harmonising the nutritive and other functional processes in the different 
areas in the body of the plant. In this particular, it is of interest to note 
that the epithelial tissues in animals, where somewhat similar connectin"' 
arrangements occur, are only indirectly associated with the nervous and 
vascular systems, so that, as in plants, the cells may require, for nutritive 
and other purposes, to act and react directly on each other. 

Nerve, Cells, 

Of recent years great attention has been paid to the intimate struc- 
ture of nerve cells, and to the appearance which they present when in 
the exercise of their functional activity. A nerve cell is not a secretin"- 
cell ; that is, it does not derive from the blood or surrounding fluid a 
pabulum which it elaborates into a visible, palpable secretion charac- 
teristic of the organ of which the cell is a constituent element, to be in 
due course discharged into a duct which conveys the secretion out of 
the gland. Nerve cells, through the metabolic changes which take place 
in them in connection with their nutrition, are associated with the pro- 
duction of the form of energy termed nerve energy, specially exhibited 
by animals which possess a nervous system. It has long been known 
that every nerve cell has a body in which a relatively laro-e nucleus is 
situated. A most important discovery was the recognition that the body 
of every nerve cell had one or more processes growing out from it. More 
recently it has been proved, chiefly through the researches of Schultze 
His, Golgi, and Ramon y Cajal, that at least one of the processes the 
axon of the nerve cell, is continued into the axial cylinder of a nerve 
fibre, and that in the multipolar nerve cell the other processes or 
dendrites, branch and ramify for some distance away from the bodv. A 
nerve fibre is therefore an essential part of the cell with which it is 
continuous, and the cell, its processes, the nerve fibre and the collaterals 
which arise from the nerve fibre collectively form a neuron or structural 
nerve unit (Waldeyer). The nucleated body of the nerve cell is the 
physiological centre of the unit. 

The cell plasm occupies both the body of the nerve cell and its pro- 
cesses. The intimate stfucture of the plasm has, by improved methods 
of observation introduced during the last eight years by Nissl and con- 
ducted on similar lines by other investigators, become more definitely 
understood. It has been ascertained that it possesses two distinct * 

c2 



20 REPORT— 1900. 

characters which imply different structures. One stains deeply oti the 
addition of certain dyes, and is named chromophile or chromatic sub- 
stance ; the other, which does not possess a similar property, is the 
achromatic network. The chromophile is found in the cell body and 
the dendritic processes, but not in the axon. It occurs in the foi'm 
of granular particles, which may be scattered throughout the plasm, or 
aggregated into little heaps which are elongated or fusiform in shape 
and appear as distinct coloured particles or masses. The achromatic 
network is found in the cell body and the dendrites, and is continued 
also into the axon, where it forms the axial cylinder of the nerve fibre. 
It consists apparently of delicate threads or fibrillaj, in the meshes of 
which a homogeneous material, such as is found in cell plasm generally, 
is contained. In the nerve cells, as in other cells, the plasm is without 
doubt concerned in the process of cell nutrition. The achromatic fibrillaj 
exercise an important influence on the axon or nerve fibre with which they 
are continuous, and probably they conduct the nerve impulses which 
manifest themselves in the form of nerve energy. The dendritic processes 
of a multipolar nerve cell ramify in close relation with similar processes 
branching from other cells in the same group. The collaterals and the 
free end of the axon fibre process branch and ramify in association with 
the body of a nerve cell or of its dendrites. We cannot say that these 
parts are directly continuous with each other to form an intercellular 
network, but they are apparently in apposition, and through contact exer- 
cise influence one on the other in the transmission of nerve impulses. 

There is evidence to show that in the nerve cell the nucleus, as well 
as the cell plasm, is an effective agent in nutrition. When the cell is 
functionally active, both the cell body and the nucleus increase in size 
( Vas, G. Mann, Lugaro) ; on the other hand, when nerve cells are fatigued 
through excessive use, the nucleus decreases in size and shrivels ; the cell 
plasm also shrinks, and its coloured or chromophile constituent becomes 
diminished in quantity, as if it had been consumed during the jjrolonged 
use of the cell (Hodge, Maun, Lugaro). It is interesting also to note that 
in hibernating animals in the winter season, when their functional activity 
is reduced to a minimum, the chromophile in the plasm of the nerve cells 
is much smaller in amount than when the animal is leading an active life 
in the spring and summer (G. Levi). 

When a nerve cell has attained its normal size it does not seem to be 
capable of reproducing new cells in its substance by a process of karyo- 
kinesis, such as takes place when young cells arise in the egg and in the 
tissues generally. It would appear that nerve cells are so highly special- 
ised in their association with the evolution of nerve energy, that they 
have ceased to have the power of reproducing their kind, and the 
metabolic changes both in cell plasm and nucleus are needed to enable 
them to discharge their very peculiar function. Hence it follows that 
when a portion of the brain or other nerve-centre is destroyed, the 



I 



ADDKESS. 21 

injury is not repaired by the production of fresh specimens of their 
characteristic cells, as would be the case in injuries to bones and tendons. 

In our endeavours to differentiate the function of the nucleus from 
that of the cell plasm, we should not regard the former as concerned 
only in the production of young cells, and the latter as the exclusive 
agent in growth, nutrition, and, where gland cells are concerned, in the 
formation of their characteristic products. As regards cell reproduction 
also, though the process of division begins in the nucleus in its chromo- 
some constituents, the achromatic figure in the cell plasm undoubtedly 
plays a part, and the cell plasm itself ultimately undergoes cleavage. 

A few years ago the tendency amongst biologists was to ignore or 
attach but little importance to the physiological use of the nucleus in the 
nucleated cell, and to regard the protoplasm as the essential and active 
constituent of living matter ; so much so, indeed, was this the case that 
independent organisms regarded as distinct species were described as con- 
sisting of protoplasm destitute of a nucleus ; also that scraps of proto- 
plasm separated from larger nucleated masses could, when isolated, exhibit 
vital phenomena. There is reason to believe that a fragment of protoplasm, 
when isolated from the nucleus of a cell, though retaining its contractility 
and capable of nourishing itself for a short time, cannot increase in amount, 
act as a secreting structure, or reproduce its kind : it soon loses its 
activity, withers, and dies. In order that these qualities of living matter 
should be retained, a nucleus is by most observers regarded as necessary 
(Nussbaum, Gruber, Haberlandt, Korschelt), and that for the complete 
manifestation of vital activity both nucleus and cell plasm are required. 

Bacteria. 

The observations of Cohn, made about thirty years ago, and those of 
De Bary shortly afterwards, brought into notice a group of organisms to 
which the name ' bacterium ' or ' microbe ' is given. They were seen to vary 
in shape : some were rounded specks called cocci, others were straight rods 
called bacilli, others were curved or spiral rods, vibrios or spirillse. All were 
chai-acterised by their extreme minuteness, and required for their exami- 
nation the highest powers of the best microscopes. Many bacteria 
measure in their least diameter not more than ij^s-J-iroth of an inch, 
i\yth the diameter of a human white blood corpuscle. Through the re- 
searches of Pasteur, Lord Lister, Koch, and other observers, bacteria have 
been shown to play an important part in nature. They exercise a very re- 
markable power over organic substances, especially those which are com- 
plex in chemical constitution, and can resolve them into simpler combina- 
tions. Owing to this property, some bacteria are of great economic value, 
and without their agency many of our industries could not be pursued ; 
others again, and these are the most talked of, exercise a malign influ- 
ence in the production of the most deadly diseases which afflict man and 
the domestic animals. 



82 REPORT — 1900. 

Great attention has been given to the structure of bacteria and to 
their mode of propagation. When examined in the living state and 
magnified about 2,000 times, a bacterium appears as a homogeneous par- 
ticle, with a sharp definite outline, though a membranous envelope or 
wall, distinct from the body of the bacterium, cannot at first be recog- 
nised ; but when treated with reagents a membranous envelope appears, 
the presence of which, without doubt, gives precision of form to the 
bacterium. The substance within the membrane contains granules which 
can be dyed with colouring agents. Owing to their extreme minuteness 
it is difficult to pronounce an opinion on the nature of the chromatine 
granules and the substance in which they lie. Some observers regard this 
substance as nuclear material, invested by only a thin layer of protoplasm, 
on which view a bacterium would be a nucleated cell. Others consider the 
bacterium as formed of protoplasm containing granules capable of being 
coloured, which are a part of the protoplasm itself, and not a nuclear sub- 
stance. On the latter view, bacteria would consist of cell plasm enclosed 
in a membrane and destitute of a nucleus. Whatever be the nature of 
the granule-containing material, each bacterium is regarded as a cell, the 
minutest and simplest living particle capable of an independent existence 
that has yet been discovered. 

Bacteria cells, like cells generally, can reproduce their kind. They 
multiply by simple fission, probably with an ingrowth of the cell wall, but 
without the karyokinetic phenomena observed in nucleated cells. Each 
cell gives rise to two daughter cells, which may for a time remain attached 
to each other and form a cluster or a chain, or they may separate and 
become independent isolated cells. The multiplication, under favourable 
conditions of light, air, temperature, moisture, and food, goes on with 
extraordinary rapidity, so that in a few hours many thousand new indi- 
viduals may arise from a parent bacterium. 

Connected with the life-history of a bacterium cell is the formation in 
its substance, in many species and under certain conditions, of a highly 
refractile shiny particle called a spore. At first sight a spore seems as if 
it were the nucleus of the bacterium cell, but it is not always present 
when multiplication by cleavage is taking place, and when present it does 
not appear to take part in the fission. On the other hand, a spore, from 
the character of its envelope, possesses great power of resistance, so that 
dried bacteria, when placed in conditions favourable to germination, can 
through their spores germinate and resume an active existence. Spore 
formation seems, therefore, to be a provision for continuing the life of the 
bacterium under conditions which, if spores had not formed, would 
have been the cause of its death. 

The time has gone by to search for the origin of living organisms by a 
spontaneous aggregation of molecules in vegetable or other infusions, or 
from a layer of formless primordial slime diffused over the bed of the ocean. 
Living matter during our epoch has been, and continues to be, derived 



ADDRESS. 23 

from pre-existing living matter, even when it possesses the simplicity of 
structure of a bacterium, and the morphological unit is the cell. 

Development of the Egg. 

As the future of the entire organism lies in the fertilised egg cell, we 
may now briefly review the arrangements, consequent on the process of 
segmentation, which lead to the formation, let us say in the egg of a 
bird, of the embryo or young chick. 

In the latter part of the last century, C. F. Wolff observed that the 
beginning of the embryo was associated with the formation of layers, and 
in 1817 Pander demonstrated that in the hen's egg at first one layer, 
called mucous, appeared, then a second or serous layer, to be followed by a 
third, intermediate or vascular layer. In 1828 von Baer amplified our 
knowledge in his famous treatise, which from its grasp of the subject 
created a new epoch in the science of embryology. It was not, however, 
until the discovery by Schwann of cells as constant factors in the struc- 
ture of animals and in their relation to development that the true nature 
of these layers was determined. "We now know that each layer consists 
of cells, and that all the tissues and organs of the body are derived from 
them. Numerous observers have devoted themselves for many years to 
the study of each layer, with the view of determining the share which it 
takes in the formation of the constituent parts of the body, more especially 
in the higher animals, and the important conclusion has been arrived at 
that each kind of tissue invariably arises from one of these layers and 
from no other. 

The layer of cells which contributes, both as regards the number and 
variety of the tissues derived from it, most largely to the formation of the 
body is the middle layer or mesoblast. From it the skeleton, the muscles, 
and other locomotor organs, the true skin, the vascular system, including 
the blood, and other structures which I need not detail, take their rise. 
From the inner layer of cells or hypoblast, the principal derivatives are the 
epithelial lining of the alimentary canal and of the glands which open into 
it, and the epithelial lining of the air-passages. The outer or epiblast layer 
of cells gives origin both to the epidermis or scarf skin and to the nervous 
system. It is interesting to note that from the same layer of the embryo 
arise parts so different in importance as the cuticle — a mere protecting 
structure, which is constantly being shed when the skin is subjected to the 
friction of a towel or the clothes — and the nervous system, including the 
brain, the most highly differentiated system in the animal body. How 
completely the cells from which they are derived had diverged from each 
other in the course of their differentiation in structure and properties is 
shown by the fact that the cells of the epidermis are continually engaged 
in reproducing new cells to replace those which are shed, whilst the cells 
of the nervous systeip have apparently lost the power of reproducing 
their kind. 



24 REPORT — 1900. 

In the early stage of the development of the egg, the cells in a given 
layer resemble each other in form, and, as far as can be judged from their 
appearance, are alike in structure and properties. As the development 
proceeds, the cells begin to show differences in character, and in the course 
of time the tissues which arise in each layer differentiate from each other 
and can be readily recognised by the observer. To use the language of 
von Baer, a generalised structure has become specialised, and each of the 
special tissues produced exhibits its own structure and properties. These 
changes are coincident with a rapid multiplication of the cells by cleavage, 
and thus increase in size of the embryo accompanies specialisation of 
structure. As the process continues, the embryo gradually assumes the 
shape characteristic of the species to which its parents belonged, until at 
length it is fit to be born and to assume a separate existence. 

The conversion of cells, at first uniform in character, into tissues of a 
diverse kind is due to forces inherent in the cells in each layer. The cell 
plasm plays an active though not an exclusive part in the specialisation ; 
for as the nucleus influences nutrition and secretion, it acts as a factor in 
the differentiation of the tissues. When tissues so diverse in character as 
muscular fibre, cartilage, fibrous tissues, and bone arise from the cells of the 
middle or mesoblast layer, it is obvious that, in addition to the morphological 
differentiation affecting form and structure, a chemical differentiation affect- 
ing composition also occurs, as the result of which a physiological differen- 
tiation takes place. Corresponding differentiations also modify the cells 
of the outer and inner layers. The tissues and organs become fitted to 
transform the energy derived from the food into muscular energy, nerve 
energy, and other forms of vital activity. Hence the study of the develop- 
ment of the generalised cell layers in the young embryo enables us to 
realise how all the complex constituent parts of the body in the higher 
animals and in man are evolved by the process of cell growth and differen- 
tiation from a simple nucleated cell — the fertilised ovum. A knowledge 
of the cell and of its life-history is therefore the foundation-stone on 
which biological science in all its departments is based. 

If we are to understand by an organ in the biological sense a complex 
body capable of carrying on a natural process, a nucleated cell is an organ 
in its simplest form. In a unicellular animal or plant such an organ 
exists in its most primitive stage. The higher plants and animals again 
are built up of multitudes of these organs, each of which, whilst having 
its independent life, is associated with the others, so that the whole may 
act in unison for a common purpose. As in one of your great factories 
each spindle is engaged in twisting and winding its own thread, it is at 
the same time intimately associated with the hundreds of other spindles 
in its immediate proximity, in the manufacture of the yarn from which 
the web of cloth is ultimately to be woven. 

It has taken more than fifty years of hard and continuous work to 
bring our Jinowledge of the structure and development of the tissues and 



ADDRESS. 25 

organs of plants and animals up to the level of the present day. Amidst 
the host of names of investigators, both at home and abroad, who have con- 
tributed to its progress, it may seem invidious to particularise individuals. 
There are, however, a few that I cannot forbear to mention, whose claim 
to be named on such an occasion as this will be generally conceded. 

Botanists will, I think, acknowledge Wilhelm Hofmeister as a- master 
in morphology and embryology, Julius von Sachs as the most important 
investigator in vegetable physiology during the last quarter of the century, 
and Strasburger as a leader in the study of the phenomena of nuclear 
division. 

The researches of the veteran Professor of Anatomy in Wiirzburg, 
Albert von Kolliker, have covered the entire field of animal histology. 
His first paper, published fifty-nine years ago, was followed by a suc- 
cession of memoirs and books on human and comparative histology and 
embryology, and culminated in his great treatise on the structure of the 
brain, published in 1896. Notwithstanding the weight of more than 
eighty years, he continues to prosecute histological research, and has 
published the results of his latest, though let us hope not his last, work 
during the present year. 

Amongst our own countrymen, and belonging to the generation which 
has almost passed away, was William Bowman. His investigations 
between 1840 and 1850 on the mucous membranes, muscular fibre, 
and the structure of the kidney, together with his researches on the 
organs of sense, were characterised by an acuteness of observation and of 
interpreting diflicult and complicated appearances which has made bis 
memoirs on these subjects landmarks in the history of histological 
inquiry. 

Of the younger generation of biologists Francis Maitland Balfour, 
whose early death is deeply deplored as a loss to British science, was 
one of the most distinguished. His powers of observation and philosophic 
perception gave him a high place as an original inquirer, and the charm of 
his personality — for charm is not the exclusive possession of the fairer 
sex— endeared him to his friends. 

General Morphology. 

Along with the study of the origin and structure of the tissues of 
organised bodies, much attention has been given during the century to 
the parts or organs in plants and animals, with the view of determining 
where and how they take their rise, the order of their formation, the 
changes which they pass through in the early stages of development, and 
their relative positions in the organism to which they belong. Investi- 
gations on these lines are spoken of as morphological, and are to be dis- 
tinguished from the study of their physiological or functional relations, 
though both are necessary for the full comprehension of the living 
organism. 



26 REPORT— 1900, 

The first to recognise that morphological relations might exist between 
the organs of a plant, dissimilar as regards their function, was the poet 
Goethe, whose observations, guided by his imaginative faculty, led him to 
declare that the calyx, corolla, and other parts of a flower, the scales of a 
bulb, (fee, were metamorphosed leaves, a principle generally accepted by 
botanists, and indeed extended to other parts of a plant, which are referred 
to certain common morphological forms although they exercise different 
functions. Goethe also applied the same principle in the study of the 
skeletons of vertebrate animals, and he formed the opinion that the spinal 
column and the skull were essentially alike in construction, and consisted 
of vertebrpe, an idea which was also independently conceived and advocated 
by Oken. 

The anatomist who in our country most strenuously applied himself to 
the morphological study of the skeleton was Richard Owen, whose know- 
ledge of animal structure, based upon his own dissections, was unrivalled 
in range and variety. He elaborated the conception of an ideal, archetype 
vertebrate form which had no existence in nature, and to which, subject 
to modifications in various directions, he considered all vertebrate skeletons 
might be referred. Owen's observations were conducted to a large extent 
on the skeletons of adult animals, of the knowledge of which he was a 
master. As in the course of development modifications in shape and in 
the relative position of parts not unfrequently occur and their original 
character and place of origin become obscured, it is difficult, from the study 
only of adults, to arrive at a correct interpretation of their morphological 
significance. When the changes which take place in the skull during its 
development, as worked out by Reichert and Rathke, became known and 
their value had become appreciated, many of the conclusions arrived at by 
Owen were challenged and ceased to be accepted. It is, however, due to 
that eminent anatomist to state from my personal knowledge of the 
condition of anatomical science in this country fifty years ago, that an 
enormous impulse was given to the study of comparative morphology 
by his writings, and by the criticisms to which they were subjected. 

There can be no doubt that generalised arrangements do exist in the 
early embryo which, up to a certain stage, are common to animals that 
in their adult condition present diverse characters, and out of which the 
forms special to different groups are evolved. As an illustration of this 
principle, I may refer to the stages of development of the great arteries 
in the bodies of vertebrate animals. Originally, as the observations of 
Rathke have taught us, the main arteries are represented by pairs of 
symmetrically arranged vascular arches, some of which enlarge and con- 
stitute the permanent arteries in the adult, whilst others disappear. The 
increase in size of some of these arches, and the atrophy of others, are so 
constant for different groups that they constitute anatomical features 
as distinctive as the modifications in the skeleton itself. Thus in mam- 
mals the fourth vascular arch on the left side persists, and forms the arch 



ADDRESS, 27 

of the aorta ; in birds the corresponding part of the aorta is an enlarge- 
ment of the fourth right arch, and in reptiles both arches persist to form 
the great artery. That this original symmetry exists also in man we 
know from the fact that now and again his body, instead of correspond- 
ing with the mammalian type, has an aortic arch like that which is 
natural to the bird, and in rarer cases even to the reptile. A type form 
common to the vertebrata does therefore in sucli cases exist, capable of 
evolution in more than one direction. 

The reputation of Thomas Henry Huxley as a philosophic compara- 
tive anatomist rests largely on his eai'ly perception of, and insistence on, 
the necessity of testing morphological conclusions by a reference to the 
development of parts and organs, and by applying this principle in his own 
investigations. The prin ciple is now so generally accepted by both botanists 
and anatomists that morphological definitions are regarded as depending 
essentially on the successive phases of the development of the parts 
under consideration. 

The morphological characters exhibited by a plant or animal tend 
to be hereditarily transmitted from parents to offspring, and the 
species is perpetuated. In each species the evolution of an individual, 
through the developmental changes in the egg, follows the same lines in 
all the individuals of the same species, which possess therefore in common 
the features called specific characters. The transmission of these charac- 
ters is due, according to the theory of Weismann, to certain properties 
possessed by the chromosome constituents of the segmentation nucleus in 
the fertilised ovum, named by him the germ plasm, which is continued 
from one generation to another, and impresses its specific character on the 
egg and on the plant or animal developed from it. 

As has already been stated, the special tissues which build up the bodies 
of the more complex organisms are evolved out of cells which are at first 
simple in form and appearance. During the evolution of the individual, 
cells become modified or differentiated in structure and function, and 
so long as the differentiation follows certain prescribed lines the morpho- 
logical characters of the species are preserved. We can readily conceive 
that, as the process of specialisation is going on, modifications or variations 
in groups of cells and the tissues derived from them, notwithstanding the 
influence of heredity, may in an individual diverge so far from that which 
is characteristic of the species as to assume the arrangements found in 
another species, or even in another order. Anatomists had indeed long 
recognised that variations from the customary ari-angement of parts 
occasionally appeared, and they described such deviations from the current 
descriptions as irregularities. 

Darwinian Theory. 

The signification of the variations which arise in plants and animals 
had not been apprehended until a flood of light was thrown on the entire 



28 REPORT — 1000. 

subject by the genius of Charles Darwin, who formulated the wide- 
reaching theory that variations could be transmitted by heredity to 
younger generations. In this manner he conceived new characters would 
arise, accumulate, and be perjaetuated, which would in the course of time 
assume specific importance. New species might thus be evolved out of 
organisms originally distinct from them, and their specific characters would 
in turn be transmitted to their descendants. By a continuance of this pro- 
cess new species would multiply in many directions, until at length from one 
or more originally simple forms the earth would become peopled by the 
infinite varieties of plant and animal organisms which have in past ages 
inhabited, or do at present inhabit, our globe. The Darwinian theory may 
therefore be defined as Heredity modified and influenced by Variability. 
It assumes that there is an heredity quality in the egg which, if we take 
the common fowl for an example, shall continue to produce similar fowls. 
Under conditions, of which we are ignorant, which occasion molecular 
changes in the cells and tissues of the developing egg, variations might 
arise, in the first instance probably slight, but becoming intensified in 
successive generations, until at length the descendants would have lost 
the characters of the fowl and have become another species. No 
precise estimate has been arrived at, and indeed one does not see how it is 
possible to obtain it, of the length of years which might be required to 
convert a variation, capable of being transmitted, into a new and definite 
specific character. 

The circumstances which, according to the Darwinian theory, deter- 
mined the perpetuation by hereditary transmission of a variety and its 
assumption of a specific character depended, it was argued, on whether it 
possessed such properties as enabled the plant or animal in which it 
appeared to adapt itself more readily to its environment, i.e. to the 
surrounding conditions. If it were to be of use the organism in so far 
became better adapted to hold its own in the struggle for existence with 
its fellows and with the forces of nature operating on it. Through 
the accumulation of useful characters the specific variety was perpetuated 
by natural selection so long as the conditions were favourable for its 
existence, and it survived as being the best fitted to live. In the study 
of the transmission of variations which may arise in the course of develop- 
ment it should not be too exclusively thought that only those variations 
are likely to be preserved which can be of service during the life of the 
individual, or in the perpetuation of the species, and possibly available for 
the evolution of new species. It should also be kept in mind that 
morphological characters can be transmitted by hereditary descent, 
which, though doubtless of service in some bygone ancestor, are in 
the new conditions of life of the species of no physiological value. 
Our knowledge of the structural and functional modifications to be 
found in the human body, in connection with abnormalities and with 
tendencies or predisposition to diseases of various kinds, teaches us that 



ADDRESS. 29 

characters which are of no use, and indeed detrimental to the individual 
may be hex'editarily transmitted from parents to offspring through a suc- 
cession of generations. 

Since the conception of the possibility of the evolution of new species 
from pre-existing forms took possession of the minds of naturalists, 
attempts have been made to trace out the lines on which it has proceeded. 
The first to give a systematic account of what he conceived to be the order 
of succession in the evolution of animals was Ernst Haeckel, of Jena, in 
a well-known treatise. Memoirs on special departments of the subject, 
too numerous to particularise, have subsequently appeared. The problem 
has been attacked along two different lines : the one by embryologists, 
of whom may be named Kowalewsky, Gegenbaur, Dohrn, Ray Lankester, 
Balfour, and Gaskell, who with many others have conducted careful and 
methodical inquiries into the stages of development of numerous forms 
belonging to the two great divisions of the animal kingdom. Inverte- 
brates, as well as vertebrates, have been carefully compared with each 
other in the bearing of their development and structure on their affinities 
and descent, and the possible sequence in the evolution of the Vertebrata 
from the Invertebrata has been discussed. The other method pursued by 
palaeontologists, of whom Huxley, Marsh, Cope, Osborne, and Traquair 
are prominent authorities, has been the study of the extinct forms pre- 
served in the rocks and the comparison of their structure with each other 
and with that of existing organisms. In the attempts to trace the line of 
descent the imagination has not unf requently been called into play in con- 
structing various conflicting hypotheses. Though from the nature of thin^^s 
the order of descent is, and without doubt will continue to be, ever a matter 
of speculation and inference and not of demonstration, the study of the 
subject has been a valuable intellectual exercise and a powerful stimulant 
to research. 

We know not as regards time when the fiat went forth, ' Let there be 
Life, and there was Life.' All we can say is that it must have been in 
the far-distant past, at a period so remote from the present that the mind 
fails to grasp the duration of the interval. Pi'ior to its genesis our earth 
consisted of barren rock and desolate ocean. When matter became 
endowed with Life, with the capacity of self-maintenance and of 
resisting external disintegrating forces, the face of nature began to 
undergo a momentous change. Living organisms multiplied, the land 
became covered with vegetation, and multitudinous varieties of plants, 
from the humble fungus and moss to the stately palm and oak, beautified 
its surface and fitted it to sustain higher kinds of living beings. Animal 
forms appeared, in the first instance simple in structure, to be followed by 
others more complex, until the mammalian type was produced. The 
ocean also became peopled with plant and animal organisms, from the 
microscopic diatom to the huge leviathan. Plants and animals acted and 



30 REPORT — 1900. 

reacted on each other, on the atmosphere which surrounded them and on 
the earth on which they dwelt, the surface of which became modified in 
character and aspect. At last Man came into existence. His nerve-energy, 
in addition to regulating the processes in his economy which he possesses 
in common with animals, was endowed with higher powers. When trans- 
lated into psychical activity it has enabled him throughout the ages 
to progress from the condition of a rude savage to an advanced stage 
of civilisation ; to produce works in literature, art, and philosophy which 
have exerted, and must continue to exert, a lasting influence on the 
development of his higher Being ; to make discoveries in natural and 
physical science ; to acquire a knowledge of the structure of the earth, 
of the ocean in its changing aspects, of the atmosphere and the stellar 
universe, of the chemical composition and physical properties of matter 
in its various forms, and to analyse, comprehend, and subdue the forces 
of nature. 

By the application of these discoveries to his own purposes Man has, to 
a large extent, overcome time and space ; he has studded the ocean with 
steamships, girdled the earth with the electric wire, tunnelled the lofty 
Alps, spanned the Forth with a bridge of steel, invented machines and 
founded industries of all kinds for the promotion of his material welfare, 
elaborated systems of government fitted for the management of great 
communities, foi'mulated economic principles, obtained an insight into 
the laws of health, the causes of infective diseases, and the means of 
controlling and preventing them. 

When we reflect that many of the most important discoveries in abs- 
tract science and in its applications have been made during the present 
century, and indeed since the British Association held its first meeting in 
the ancient capital of your county sixty-nine years ago, we may look 
forward with confidence to the future. Every advance in science provides 
a fresh platform from which a new start can be made. The human intel- 
lect is still in process of evolution. The power of application and of 
concentration of thought for the elucidation of scientific problems is by 
no means exhausted. In science is no hereditary aristocracy. The army 
of workers is recruited from all classes. The natural ambition of even 
the private in the ranks to maintain and increase the reputation of the 
branch of knowledge which he cultivates affords an ample guarantee 
that the march of science is ever onwards, and justifies us in proclaiming 
for the next century, as in the one fast ebbing to a close, that Great is 
Science, and it will prevail. 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPOETS 



Olf THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



-*•• 



Meteorological Ohservator;/, Montreal. — Report of iko Committee, cov- 
sistinr/ of Professor H. L. Callendak {Chairman), I'rofessor C. 
McLeod (Secretari/), Professor F. Adams, and Mr. R. P. Stupart, 
appointed for tlie pitrpose of estahllsliinu a Meteoruloijical Ohservator [/ 
on Mount Royal, Montreal. 

[PLATE I.] 

The following preliminary report lias been received from the observers : — 
The difference of temperature between the College Observatory and 
the top of Mount Royal is continuously recorded by means of a Callendar 
Electric Recorder and a pair of differential platinum thermometers. The 
thermometers are of the usual pattern, giving a change of 2 ohms for 
100° Fahr., and the scale of the record is one-fifth of an inch to the 
degree Fahr. By a simple change in the connections the actual tempera- 
ture at either station can be recorded separately instead of the difference 
of temperature between the two. The thermometer at the top of the 
mountain is placed on a platform 50 feet above the ground and 850 feet 
above sea level. The other thermometer is at a height of 4 feet above the 
ground, and 180 feet above sea level. The distance between the two is 
rather more than a mile. The recoi'der is placed in the College Oliserva- 
tory at the lower station, and is connected to the distant thermometer by 
four separate lines of No. 12 copper wire erected on poles with glass 
insulators, and covered with weather-j^roof insulation ordinarily used for 
telephone work. The recorder is of the original Callendar pattern, and 
was made at the McDonald Physics Building in 1897. 

The line to the mountain has been broken by storm on several occa- 
sions ; parts of it have sometimes been carried away by thieves ; on one 
occasion the line Avas struck by lightning, the thermometers were de- 
stroyed, and the instrument burnt out ; on another occasion the instrument 
was burnt out through an accidental short cii-cuit of the electric lighting 
current. The original thermometers which were damaged by lightning 
have been replaced by new and improved instruments, and all other 
damages have been repaired, so that the whole apparatus is at present in 
good running condition. Great delay has been caused by these accidents ; 
and this, coupled with pressure of other work on the observers, has made 
it impossible to secure up to the present date a sufficiently extended series 
1000 D . 



34 REPORT — 1900. 

of observations to be of value for the general discussion of results. To 
show the nature of the records, and the working of the apparatus, a 
sample record sheet for August 21, 22, 1900, including a zero test and two 
comparisons with mercury thermometers, which were read simultaneously 
at the two stations by separate observers, is given herewith. (Plate I.) 

The zero line on the chart was obtained by placing the thermometers 
at the two stations in melting ice simultaneously, and allowing them to 
remain for about an hour at this temperature. The differences between 
the simultaneous readings of the mercury thermometers at the two stations 
were plotted from this zero line, and show a very satisfactory agreement 
with the differential platinum thermometers, considering the continual 
variations of temperature and the difference in sensibility of the two 
instruments. The direction of the wind and the velocity in miles per 
hour are recorded by instruments placed on the summit and connected by 
lines to the electrical recording apparatus in the College Observatory at 
the lower station. The record for August 21, 22 exhibits a complete 
revolution in the direction of the wind from N.W. through E. and S. and 
back to N.W. These changes in the direction of the wind frequently 
appear to be related to the changes in the difference of temperature. The 
amount of sunshine in tenths per hour recorded at the College Observa- 
tory is also marked on the charts, and the general weather conditions 
prevailing. 

The apparatus as at present arranged gives admirable results in fair 
weather, but it has been found impossible to preserve the insulation of the 
line during rain. This has steadily deteriorated since its erection, and 
the results cannot now be relied on when the rainfall is considerable, or 
.for short periods after. This is unfortunate, as it would be interesting to 
study the changes of temperature occurring with the onset of rain. To 
completely obviate the insulation defects in bad weather, and to protect 
the line from thieves and lightning, it would be necessary to replace the 
present pole line with a lead-covered cable buried in the ground. It is 
hardly necessary to say that this was foreseen at the time when the line 
was originally projected, as all installations of platinum thermometers up 
to that date had been provided with lead-covered cables, especially in 
cases where the distance involved was considerable. The original estimate 
of 100?. for the apparatus was based on the assumption of a lead-covered 
cable. But wheii the British Association in 1897 were unable to grant 
more than 50/., it was decided to utilise the existing pole line rather than 
abandon the project entirely. There is still some hope that the necessary 
funds may be forthcoming for the replacement of the existing line by a 
cable ; but until this necessary improvement is effected it is feared that 
the scientific value of the work must be seriously impaired. 



Mectt'objsis and Eledru-chemistri/. — Report of the Committee, cumistincf 
of Mr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman^ Mr. E. H. Griffiths, Eev. T. C. 
FiTZPATRiCK, Mr. S. Skinner, and Mr. W. C. D. Whetham 
(Secretary), appointed to report on the Present State of our Knoiv- 
ledge iii Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. 

The experiments on the conductivity of dilute aqueous solutions of salts 
and acids at the freezing point have been completed by Mr. Whetham, 



allege Observatory, Bt 



[Plate I] 




70th Bfport Brtt. Jstoc.. 1900.] 



[Plate I] 



licQilt College Obiervat(rry, Seeord of thfferenca 0/ Temperature between Moanl Soyal and CoUegc, Aug. 21 rf 22. 1900. 



I 







^^e5\f^ 



W-^: 



ZERO 
' OBSEhVED 



^■ 



"^ v.^vvr-'Ann .^Vwv ' 



e' Mj-'f: 't*y T/ffe 



I 



Y^ 



jv AftTZ-sr- 



1; a: 



:Njf; 
: 6 : 



C/ovav. 



P. 



M. 



:4r 



S 



a« 



12 3 4 5 



6 7 8 9 10 il 12 13 14 15 16 

IlliutTatina the Report on the Meteorological Observatory on Mount Royal, Montreal. 



17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 33 

and the full results published in the ' Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society of London,' series A, vol. cxciv. 1900, p. 321. Curves and 
tables are given showing the values obtained for the ionisation. The 
measurements of the freezing points of the same solutions, undertaken by 
Mr. Griffiths, are still in progress. It is hoped that his results will soon 
be ready, and that a useful comparison of the two lines of research may 
then be made. 

The consumption of a carbon anode in electrolysis has formed the 
subject of some experiments by another member of the Committee, 
Mr. Skinner. 1 Carbofa electrodes are used in many electrotechhical 
processes, and their solution and disintegration forto one of the chief 
difficulties to be overcome. It appears that -v^rhenever a highly oxidised 
product undergoes electrolytic deicotnposition the anion gives, directly or 
indirectly, a considerable quantity of carbonic acid. The experiments 
show that as much as 85 per cent, of the escaping gdses consists of carboh 
dioxide when a solution of potassium permangaliate is the electrolyte. 

Since the publication in 1897 of the Committee's Report on the 
Theot-y of the Migration of Ions and of Specific Ionic Velocities, an 
important paper by Orme Masson has appeared,- giving an account Of an 
experimental method of measuring ionid velocities and of the Results for a 
number of ions. 

The original plan of the Committee, as arranged in 1890, included 
reports on the following additional sections : — § d. Electro-chemical 
Thermo- dynamics ; § e. Electric Endosmose ; and %g. Numerical Relations. 
Information on some of these sections has already been made easily 
accessible. 

A small book,' ' Das Leitvermogen der Electrolyte,' Leipzig) 1898, has 
been published by Dr. von Kohlrausch and Dr. Holborn, giving a complete 
account of the method of measuring electrolytic conductivity by means of 
alternating currents in conjunction with a telephone, with the precautions 
necessary for accurate results. There are also tables of the conductivity 
of certain solutions, which may be used to standardise resistance vessels. 

The thet-mo-dynamics of electrolytic processes is in some degree 
covered by a Report by Professor E. F. J . Love on our Knowledge of the 
Thermo-dynamics of the Voltaic Cell, published by the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Sydney, 1898. 

Since the original appointment of the Committee, very toaany and 
important researches upon the chemical phenomena resulting from or 
associated with the passage of electricity through gases have been 
published. 

In order to make the Committee's Report in any way a complete 
sketch of the subject of electro-chemistry as now developed, its scope 
would have to be enlarged to include such phenomena as the conductivity 
of gases at high temperatures, and under the influence of other ionising 
agencies. The Committee feel unable to undertake such an extension of 
their work, and do not seek reappointment. 

• Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, x. 261, 1900. 
' Phil Trans., A, cxciii., 1899. 



&2 



§6 KEPORT~1900: 



On Solar Radiation. — Report oftJie Committee, consisting ofBv G. JOHN- 
STONE Stoney (Chairman), Professor H. McLkod (Secretary), Sir 
G. G-. Stokes, Professor A. Schuster, Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Captain 
Sir W. DE W. Abney, Dr. C. Chree, Professor Gr. P. FitzGerald, 
Professor H. L. Callendar, Mr. W. E. Wilson, and Professor 
A. A. Rambaut, appointed to consider the best Metliods of Recordinrj 
the Direct Intensity of Solar Radiation. (Drawn vp by Professoi' 
H. L. Callendar.) 

As already reported, the copper-cube actinometcr constructed for this 
Committee, and described in the Report for 1886, was entrusted to 
Professor Callendar in August 1899 for comparison with his automatic 
recording instrument described in the Report for 1898. In the course of 
the past year a number of experiments have been made with this 
apparatus by Miss W. E. Walker, 1851 Exhibition Scholar, working at 
University College, London, under the direction of Professor Callendar. 
The object of the work was to obtain absolute measurements of radiation 
for the calibration of the more convenient form of continuous recorder. 
In its original form the copper-cube actinometer was not very well 
adapted, and probably was not intended, for absolute measurements ; but 
with some modifications very promising results have been already obtained, 
and it is believed that the method thus modified will lead to trustworthy 
and valuable determinations. 

The history of the copper-cube actinometer is contained in various 
reports communicated by this committee, of which the following is a brief 
summary. The method originally proposed was to concentrate the rays 
of the sun by means of a lens through a hole in one side of the cube on to 
a central mercury thermometer with a flat bulb. The steady difference 
of temperature between the central thermometer and the walls of the 
cube would be approximately proportional to the intensity of solar 
radiation, and might be taken as a measure of the same in arbitrary units. 
To obtain the equivalent in absolute measure it would be necessary to 
know the rate of cooling of the thermometer and the coefficient of 
absorption of the bulb and of the lens by which the rays were concentrated 
These might huxe been obtained by auxiliary experiments on the i-ate of 
heating or cooling under various conditions ; but as the mercuiy thermo- 
meters proved unsuitable in many respects, the apparatus was subsequently 
modified by the substitution of a copper disc and a thermo-j unction for 
the central thermometer. This permitted the observation of smaller 
differences of temperature and the more accurate determination of the 
thermal capacity of the irradiated disc. 

The elementary theory of the instrument, assuming that for small 
differences of temperature the rate of cooling of the disc would be pro- 
portional to the difference of temperature between the disc and the walls 
of the cube, was given in the Report of the Committee for 1892. If 6 is 
the excess of temperature of the disc over the enclosure at any time t 
measured from the commencement of the exposure to the radiation to be 
measured, and if r he the initial rate of rise of temperature of the disc in 



ON SOLAR RADIATION. 37 

degrees per second, and qO the rate of fall of temperature at any excess 6 
if the radiation were cut off, we have evidently the equation 

dd/dt=r-qti (1) 

the solution of which under the given initial conditions is 

e={l-e-'^>)rlq (2) 

The limiting steady temperature of the disc when t is infinite is 6°=r/q. 

In 1893 some experiments were recorded verifying the elementary 
theory and the constancy of the coefficient of cooling q. In 1896 a 
photographic recording device was applied to obtain the curves of heating 
of the disc by registering the deflections of the D'Arsonval galvanometer 
on a moving photographic plate. The curves proved to be approximately 
logarithmic, but the reduction of the results to absolute measure was not 
attempted. 

Absolute Measurements. — If I be the intensity of radiation to be 
measured in watts per square centimetre, and A be the area in square 
centimetres normal to the rays over which the measured portion of the 
radiation is incident, the quantity of heat received is lA joules per second. 
This is equal to rSms, where r as already defined is the initial rate of rise 
of temperature of the disc when exposed to the radiation, J is the number 
of joules in one calorie, which may be taken as approximately 4"18 ; m is 
the mass, and s the specific heat of the disc. In applying this method it is 
tacitly assumed that the whole of the disc is at a uniform temperature at 
any moment during the rise of temperature ; it is also necessary to know 
accurately the specific heat s of the material of the disc, and to be able 
to calibrate the thermo-junction so as to interpret the indications of the 
galvanometer in degrees of temperature. Further, the rise of temperature 
must not exceed two or three degrees in order that q, the coefficient of 
cooling, may be taken as constant, and the rate of rise must be sufficiently 
slow to jDermit of accurate measurement, and of the uniform diffusion of 
heat throughout the disc. 

After some preliminary experiments with the apparatus it became 
evident that these conditions were not sufficiently satisfied by the disc 
and thermo-junction employed in the experiments already recorded. The 
disc was about two centimetres in diameter and half a millimetre thick. 
The aperture for admitting the radiation was about one centimetre. 
Under these conditions it was not possible without the use of lenses to 
ensure a sufficiently uniform distribution of the radiation over the surface 
of the disc, and the rate of rise of temperature was too rapid for accurate 
measurement. The disc was supported on a short iron wire nearly 
two millimetres thick, which conducted heat away from the centre of the 
disc so rapidly that the temperature of the junction was always very con- 
siderably below that of the disc. Owing to its form the thermo-junction 
could not be accurately calibrated, and the sensitiveness of the copper-iron 
couple, though suitable for powerful sources such as direct solar radiation, 
was far too small for accurate work with sources of constant intensity 
such as were required for absolute measurement. 

The Galvanometer supplied with the instrument was of the Ayrton 
Mather type, with a resistance of about 7 '5 ohms, and gave a deflection of 
about 2 millimetres at 1 metre per microvolt, equivalent to about 
20 millimetres per degree with a copper-iron junction. In orcler to 



38 REPORT— iPnO. 

increase the accuracy of reading, a good plane mirror was substituted for 
the original concave mirror, and observations were taken with a telescope 
and scale at a distance of about 3 metres. The definition of the imago 
was such as to permit of reading with accuracy to a fifth of a millimetre. 
Owing to the gradual change or ' drift ' of zero, due to imperfect elasticity 
of the suspension, which is always a serious source of error in galvano- 
meters of this type, it was found to be impossible to obtain sufficiently 
consistent observations by the deflection method. To ininimise this 
source of error the potentiometer balance-method was adopted, and care 
was taken not to subject the suspension to excessive torsion. To increase 
the sensitiveness, the iron-copper thermo-junction was replaced by junctions 
of iron and gei'man silver (30 microvolts per degree), and iron and con- 
stantan (52 microvolts). The wires employed for this purpose were very 
fine — about 0"2 millimetre — to minimise the cooling of the junctions by 
conduction, and their thermo-electric powers were determined by a special 
series of observations made on the particular pieces employed. Witli 
these improvements it was optically possible to observe a difference of 
temperature of a thousandth of a degree with certainty, as it corresponded 
to a deflection of about a quarter of a millimetre with the iron and 
constantan couple. 

Thermo-electric Sources of Error. — In observing small differences of 
temperature with a thermo-couple, assuming that drift of the galvano- 
meter zero is avoided by employing the balance method, the most trouble- 
some residual errors arise from accidental thermal effects due to small 
differences of temperature in other parts of the electric circuit, and in 
particular at the junctions of the bridge-wire, and at the point of contact 
of the slider. Tt is usual to employ german-silver or platinoid or platinum 
silver as the material for the bridge-wire to secure a low temperature- 
coefficient and high specific resistance. Unfortunately these materials 
give large thermal effects when joined to copper. The alloy known as 
manganin is greatly to be preferred to platinoid or constantan in this 
respect, but its surface is more liable to tarnish. The superiority of the 
bolometric method (platinum resistance) over the thermo-couple for accu- 
rate measurement of small differences of temperature depends chiefly on 
the relative ease with which these accidental thermal effects may be 
eliminated. In the present instance they were found to be so trouble- 
some that it was eventually decided to make the bridge-wire and the 
whole of the circuit, with the exception of the couple itself, of pure 
copper. By adopting this method the accidental disturbances were 
reduced to a small fraction of a microvolt, without taking any special 
precautions to secure uniformity of temperature throughout the various 
parts of the measuring apparatus. The cold junctions of the thermo- 
couple were contained in a copper plug screwing into the copper cube, 
and were assumed to be at the same temperature as the walls of the cube. 
In order to secure this, and to minimise changes of temperature of the 
copper cube, it was found necessary to wrap the cube and the projecting 
plug in a considerable thickness of cotton-wool, even when exposed to 
feeble sources of radiation. The layer of felt surrounding the cube formed 
no protection for the copper plug containing the cold junction, and proved 
quite inadequate to prevent rapid changes of temperature when exposed 
to strong sources. 

Constant Source of Radiation. — The necessity of a constant source of 
radiation for comparative pieasurements and tests was recognised at a 



ON SOLAE EADIATION. 39 

very early period in the experiments. The first attempt at a constant 
source was an Argand burner with a very delicate pressure regulator, a 
given area of the brightest part of the flame being selected as the source. 
This proved to be a very good method of testing the variations in the 
quality of the gas, but had to be abandoned as a constant source of radia- 
tion. It was also objectionable on account of the difficulty of keeping 
the glass chimney uniformly clean, and because the excessive amount of 
heat generated disturbed the experimental conditions, and the gas fumes 
had the effect of tarnishing the contacts of the electrical apparatus and 
the metallic plates used as reflectors. A pair of one hundred candle- 
power focus-lamps were then obtained from the Ediswan Company. 
These were designed to work on a pressure of 90 volts at an efficiency 
of about 3-6 watts per candle, and a current of 4 amperes. They were 
spherical in form and silvered on one half, which had the effect of nearly 
doubling the radiating power for a given current, while at the same time 
it ensured an almost perfect constancy in the proportion of radiation 
reflected from the rear of the source, which had proved a difficulty with 
the Argand bui-ner. When used as constant sources of radiation the 
lamps were worked at a pressure of only 75 volts and a current of 
about three amperes, supplied l)y a large storage battery of forty-four 
cells. The battery was not used for any other purpose while the experi- 
ments were in progress, and was capable of maintaining the required 
pressure constant to a tenth of a volt for several hours under suitable 
conditions of charge. The pressure on the lamps was regulated and 
recorded during the experiments by means of an automatic recording 
potentiometer working on a scale of one inch to the volt. The readings 
of this instrument were adjusted by means of a Clark cell, and were 
accurate to about one part in 5,000. One of the focus-lamps was set 
apart as a standard, and was used only for occasional comparisons. When 
working at a voltage so far below that for which they were designed, 
the lamps were found to remain exceedingly constant. In the course of 
six months' work the lamp in regular use did not vary with respect to 
the standard by more than one per cent., and its variations over short 
periods could easily have been controlled and corrected if the accuracy 
so far attained in the radiation measurements had made the application 
of such a correction desirable. The area of the incandescent grid was 
about one square inch, and the diameter of the bulb four and a half inches. 
The lamp was set to shine through an aperture of its own diameter in a 
double tin-plate screen, so as to include the whole of the radiation from 
the heated glass, but to exclude as far as possible radiation from the base 
of the lamp and heated objects in its immediate neighbourhood. This 
precaution was particularly important in comparing the indications of the 
tube form of radio-calorimeter with those to the bolometric sunshine 
recpiver intended for the direct exposure of solar radiation, as the latter 
instrument was not provided with a screen and diaphragms for excluding 
lateral radiation, but was intended to integrate the vertical component 
of the whole radiation from the sky as well as that from the sun. 

Determination of the Initial Rate of Heating of the Disc. — To ensure 
uniformity of temperature of the disc, and a sufficiently slow rate of heating, 
it was found necessary to replace the original disc by a much thicker disc 
the size of which was chosen to be just sufficient to catch the whole of the 
rays incident on the aperture. Before commencing an observation, the 
reading of the galvanometer was observed with the slider at the zero o£ 



40 



REPORT — 1900. 



the bridge-wii-e in order to allow for any minute residual difference o£ 
temperature between the cube and the disc when the apparatus was 
screened from radiation. The time of exposure was recorded on an 
electric chronograph by the dropping of the screen on a suitable key. 
The sliding contact was then shifted to successive points on the bridge- 
wire, and the moment of balance at each point was observed and recorded 
on the chronograph. These observations were continued for about five 
minutes, or as long as the rise continued sufficiently rapid. Occasional 
observations were then made to determine the final steady difference of 
temperature B° during the next fifteen minutes, after which the tempera- 
ture remained steady. 

The following is a sample of observations taken with the copper-cube : 

Datr, Apn7 4, 1900. Ohset-vev, Miss W. E. Walkee. 

Temperature of Clark cell, 19^0° C. ; bridge-wire, 20'2°C. ; resistance 
per cm. of B.W., ■001091 ohm ; P.D. per cm., ■7795 microvolt ; diameter 
of disc, 1-40 cm. ; diameter of aperture in cube, I'OO cm. ; distance of 
lamp from aperture, 60-0 cms. ; volts on lamp, 77^2 ; mass of copper disc, 
0-8320 gramme ; J?«s/A=^4206. 



_ 


Bridge 
Keading 


Time t 


Temperature 6 


9 


r 


I 


(1) 

1 (2) 
(3) 


39^8 
59-8 
72-9 


76-56 
1S9-35 

Steady 


•5966 

■8964 
1-090 = 6° 


■01036 
■01084 
^rlq 


•01129 
•01182 


•00475 
•00497 

1 



SoJufinn of tJu' Fqnafions. — Assuming the elementary theory of the 
method as given by equation (2), the simplest method of procedure is to 
take the value of the ratio r/q as given by the final .steady difference of 
temperature 6°= 1^090, and to calculate the values of q from the inter- 
mediate observations of t and by substituting the observed value of 
rjq in equation (2). AVe thus obtain 

qt=2-3026 logio^°/(^°-^) (3) 

The value of r is then found by the relation ?-=q'0, and the intensity of 
radiation I by multiplying r by the constant factor J'ins/A=-4206. The 
values thus obtained are given in the columns headed q, r, I. They 
invariably exhibited a progressive increase with the time. The value of q 
could also be found by eliminating the ratio o-/q between any two 
observations, and solving the equation by trial for q. Taking the observa- 
tions (1) and (2) at 39^8 and 59^S cms. above given, we thus obtain 
^^=•00967, whence r=-01103, and I=-00464, which illustrate the same 
tendency, being smaller than the results obtained by assuming tlie ratio of 
r to q from the final steady temperature. The focus-lamp in this 
experiment was set to shine through an aperture of nearly the same size 
as the incandescent grid, but this was found to be unsatisfactory, as the 
field of illumination was not sufficiently uniform for the bolometric 
receivers. This considei'ation, among others, ultimately necessitated the 
abandonment of the aperture method of limiting the radiation received by 
the disc. 

Effects of Lag. — It was clear from the results above quoted, and from 
a number of others obtained with the same apparatus with different discs 



OS SOLAR RADIATIOxV. 41 

at different distances and different rates of heating, that the equations 
already given did not satisfactorily represent the observations. In con- 
sidering the possible sources of constant error inherent in the method, it 
seemed unlikely that the assumption that the rate of loss of heat was 
proportional to the difference of temperature (q constant) could be 
seriously in error, as the whole difference of temperature did not exceed 
one or two degrees. The most probable explanation of the discrepancy 
appeared to be that time was required for the uniform distribution of 
heat through the disc, and that the indications of the thermo-junction 
were retarded by conduction of heat along the wires, and by lag in the 
movement of the galvanometer coil, which was necessarily very dead-beat 
when shoi't-circuited on the couple. These various sources of error could 
all be approximately represented by assuming a constant time-lag in the 
readings ; a type of error which was necessarily inherent in the method, 
and could not have been detected by the experiments recorded in 1896. 
In order to eliminate the time-lag from the equations, it is only necessary 
to take two observations in addition to the final steady temperature. If 
we write the equations in the form (3) already given, and take the differ- 
ence, we thus obtain 

q{t"-t')=2-3026\og^,{6°-6')/{d°-6") . . (4) 

Treating the observations already given in this manner we find 

q=-OlUO. r=-01232. I=-00.518. Time-lag=6-15 sees. 

With only three observations it is of course always possible to calculate 
a value of the lag to satisfy the readings exactly, but it appeared that a 
.similar assumption satisfied the observations withui the probable limits 
of error in those cases also in which a larger number of readings were 
taken. 

Defects of the Copper-cube Actiiiometer. — The excessive value of the 
time-lag observed in the observations with this apparatus appeared to be 
partly due to the impossibility of securing uniform illumination of the 
disc by the aperture method. It was necessary that the disc should be 
large enough to catch the whole of the radiation passing througli the 
aperture in the cube, and this could not l)e secured without leaving a con- 
siderable margin at the edge of the disc which was either not illuminated 
at all, or only partly illuminated by the penumbra of the aperture. With 
the lamp at 00 cms. it was necessary to use a disc 1"40 cm. in diameter 
for an aperture of I'OO cm. diameter. This was the more necessary because 
the construction of the apparatus, and the method of screwing in the copper 
plug by which the disc was supported, made it extremely difficult to centre 
the disc accurately, and to direct it so as to receive the rays normally and 
centrally. Another serious defect to which allusion has already been 
made, was the variation of temperature of the cube and the copper plug, 
which although greatly reduced was not entirely eliminated by the cotton- 
wool wrappings. For these and other reasons it was decided to design a 
new form of actinometer for the application of the same method in a 
manner more convenient for laboratory use. 

Tuhe-form of Radio-calorimeter. — The terms ' actinometer,' ' bolo- 
meter,' and ' radio-micrometer,' which are otherwise suitable for instru- 
ments of this class, have acquired special significations, and are in general 
use for instruments which are not designed for absolute measurements, 



42 REPORT— 1900. 

It appears therefore preferable to use the more general term ' radio- 
calorimeter ' for this particular instrument, as it was not intended, like 
the ' pyrheliometers ' of Pouillet or Angstrom, for the direct measurement 
of solar radiation. The tube form of radio-calorimeter consists of a pair 
of concentric tubes about nine inches long separated by an annular space 
of about a twentieth of an inch, through which water is caused to circulate 
in a spiral fashion by a helix of copper wire nearly fitting the space 
between the tubes. The inner tube has a diameter of about one inch, and 
is furnished with a series of sliding copper diaphragms, which can be set 
at suitable points to screen off any lateral radiation, and prevent internal 
reflection from the walls of the tube. The blackened copper disc for 
receiving and measuring the radiation is supported near the centre of tlie 
tube by means of the fine wires of the thermo-couple. The diameter of 
the disc is 1-30 cm., and it is set close behind a diaphragm of 14 mm. 
diameter, so that the whole of its surface is exposed to the radiation. In 
this arrangement the quantity of radiation measured is determined solely 
by the diameter of the disc and not by that of the apertures. The disc 
can be accurately centred and directed on the source of radiation by 
looking through a small hole at the back of the tube. The cold junctions 
of the thermo-couples are contained in fine copper tubes soldered to a 
sliding tube which carries the disc, and is a good fit for the inner tube of 
the water-jacket. Water at the temperature of the laboratory is con- 
tinuously pumped by a small motor from one large copper tank to another 
at a higher level, and flows back continuously and uniformly through the 
water-jacket of the radio -calorimeter. By this means the temperature of 
the jacket is maintained very constant Avithout the necessity of making 
the instrument itself massive or unwieldy. 

Observations with, different Coatings on the Disc. — With this apparatus 
it was possible to obtain much more consistent results owing to the 
greater steadiness of the experimental conditions and the greater ease of 
adjustment and manipulation. Among other tests, some comparative 
measurements were made of the relative efficiency of different coatings 
of black for the disc, of which the following may be taken as samples : — 

1. Copper disc clean but not polished. Final excess 1-223° C, 
<7=-00512, r= -00626, 1= -00379. 

2. Copper colour just visible through a thin film of smoke-black. 
Final excess 2-528° C. (7=-00595, r=-01505, I=-00910. 

3. Copper disc covered with thick opaque film of smoke-black. Final 
excess 2-373° C. (^=-006354, ^=-01508, 1= -0091 2. 

4. Copper disc covered with dead-black varnish of shellac and smoke- 
black. Final excess 2-159° C. ^=-00703, 7-=-001517, I=-00918. 

5. Same disc, but with new thermo-couple, thick smoke-film. Final 
excess 2-328° C. »7=-00642, r=-0]494, I=-00904. 

6. Same disc and couple, but thin black varnish ; back also covered. 
Final excess 1-831° C. g=-00812, r=-01487, I=-00900. 

It will be observed in the above results that the final excess tempera- 
ture {rjq) and the coefficient of cooling, q, vary considerably under differ- 
ent conditions, but that the results for the rate of heating, r, and the 
intensity of radiation, q, agree fairly well for the different coatings of 
black. The same focus-lamp was used as a source in each case, at the 
same distance, and it is probable that the actual variations in the inten- 
sity of the radiatiori did not exceed one part in 500. The voltage on the 



ON SOLAR RADIATION. 43 

lamp was kept within less than a tenth of a volt of 75*0 volts by the 
automatic recording potentiometer, and the observations were taken 
within a few days of each other. In case 1, with the clean metal surface, 
the value of the coefficient of cooling g=-00512 is nearly that due to 
convection and conduction alone, as the radiative power of clean metal 
is very small at these low temperatures, although the absorptive power 
for the lamp radiation is nearly 40 per cent. An extremely thin coating 
of smoke-black (2) suffices to raise tho absorptive power for the lamp 
radiation nearly to its maximum, although the radiative power for rays 
of great wave length is still very low, as shown by the small value of 
(y= -00595, and the high value of the final excess of temperature 
)-/^=2-528° C. The thicker coating of smoke-black (3) lowei's the value 
of the final excess to 2'373° C, because the coefficient of cooling is in- 
creased in a much greater ratio than the absorptive power for the lamp 
radiation. It appears from the great increase of q, in case (4), that the 
dead-black varnish is a much more efficient radiator at low temperatures 
than the smoke-black, although the absorptive power for the lamp radia- 
tion is l)ut slightly increased. The back of the disc was not covered in 
these experiments in order to obtain a greater rise of temperature. In 
case (5), with a new thermo-couple, the diminution in the values of r and 
I, as compared with case (3), may be due simply to unavoidable errors of 
observation, or slight variations in the uniformity of the wires, or in the 
quality of the smoke-film ; but it may also be caused by a variation in the 
cooling of the junctions by conduction, due to slight differences in the 
attachment of the wires to the disc. In any case it is satisfactory to find 
that so large a change in the conditions produces a change of less than 
one per cent, in the result. Similarly, in case (6), the effect of blacking 
the back of the disc is to produce a very marked increase in the 
coefficient of cooling ; but although the rate of cooling by radiation is 
nearly twice as great as in case (5) — supposing that the conduction and 
convection effects remain the same as in case (1) — the diminution in tho 
result for I, as compared with (4), is not greater than might reasonably 
be attributed to the thinness of the varnish, which possessed appreciable 
reflecting power. 

It is clear from the above summary that the method is capable of 
giving fairly consistent results in spite of wide variations in the experi- 
mental conditions. But it is evidently necessary to investigate further 
the absorptive powers of different coatings for radiations of different 
qualities if it is desired to obtain an order of accuracy higher than one 
per cent, in the absolute results. Another correction of some importance 
is that for the cooling of the junction by conduction along the wires. 
This correction depends on the size of the wires and on their mode of 
attachment to the disc. Although enormously reduced by the adoption 
of very fine wires for the couple, it remains distinctly appreciable and 
requires further investigation. It is evidently possible to determine this 
correction by employing wires of different sizes simultaneously, or the 
whole correction may be included in the coefficient of cooling by a suit- 
able arrangement of the junction. 

Measurement of Solar Radiation. — Owing to the great intensity and 
incessant variations of solar radiation, it would not be possible to obtain 
absolute measurements directly by exposure of the instrument above 
described to direct sunshine, although such a course has been attempted 
with instruments of the class of Pouillet's pyrheliometer. Even with the 



44 KEPORT — 1900. 

water-jacket, the conditions of cooling are disturbed l)y the excessive 
intensity of the radiation, and the final excess of temperature is much too 
large to permit of the application of the elementary theory of the method. 
For these and other reasons it appeared preferable to employ the automatic 
recording instruments already described ' for direct exposure to sunshine, 
and to calibrate the receivers in absolute measure by exposure to the 
radiation of the focus lamps, which could be satisfactorily determined by 
the absolute method. 

Bolometric Sunshine Receivers. — These instruments are intended for 
recording on an arbitrary scale the vertical component of the radiation 
from the whole sky as well as the sun. This vertical component measures 
the heat received by the soil, and is probably the factor which chiefly 
influences the meteorological conditions at any part of the earth's surface, 
so far as they depend on radiation. It is comparatively useless for this 
purpose to record merely the normal intensity of solar radiation, as the 
heat actually received by the earth's surface depends so greatly on the 
altitude of the sun and the state of the sky. It is proved by actual 
experiment with these receivers, although it is by no means obvious 
a priori, and will perhaps scarcely be credited at the first statement, that 
the heat received by reflection from the sky under certain conditions may 
amount to more than 40 per cent, of the whole vertical component. This 
lieing the case, the readings of an instrument which records only the 
normal intensity of direct sunshine, excluding the radiation from the sky, 
might give a very incorrect account of the total quantity of heat received 
by the soil. The form of bolometric receiver adapted for recording the 
vertical component consists of a difierential pair of flat platinum ther- 
mometers, one blackened and the other bright, placed side by side in the 
same horizontal plane. The difference of temperature between the two, 
which is automatically recorded, is approximately a measure of the 
intensity of the vertical component of the radiation to which they are 
exposed. It would of course be possible, by providing the instrument 
with a water-jacketed tube and an equatoi'ial mounting, to make it record 
the normal intensity of direct sunshine, excluding the greater part of the 
radiation from the sky ; but this would complicate the apparatus consider- 
ably, and it is doubtful whether the record would have so direct a bearing 
on meteorology. It is also certain that the coefficient of cooling by con- 
vection would vary at different angles of inclination, whereas it appears to 
be very constant in the horizontal position. 

Two of the bolometric receivers above described have already been 
compared with the radio- calorimeter by means of the focus-lamps. They 
were of slightly different patterns, and wound with wire of diflferent sizes, 
six mils and four mils respectively, but they showed nearly the same 
difference of temperature when exposed to the same radiation at the same 
distance. This seems to show that the indications of such instruments 
are fairly comparable, even if they are not precisely alike. As we have 
already seen, the absorptive powers of different kinds of black do not 
appear to differ very much for this kind of radiation. The proportionality 
of the difference of temperature to the intensity of radiation was also 
tested by varying the distance from the lamp, and assuming that the 
radiation followed the law of the inverse square. This is very approxi- 
mately true for the focus-lamps, owing to the flatness of the radiating 

' B.A. Itepori, 1898. 



6^ SdLlR RADIATION. 45 

grid, provided that the distance is not too small. It is intended in the 
bourse of the ensuing year to continue the absolute measurements, and to 
test the performance of the automatic recorders under a greater variety of 
conditions, for which Mr. Wilson, of Daramona Observatory, has promised 
his assistance ; but enough has already been accomplished to show that the 
apparatus affords a very promising and practical method of recording and 
reducing to absolute measure the vertical intensity of radiation at any 
point of the earth's surface. 



Vniformitij of Size of Pages of Transactions. — lieport of the Com- 
mitlce, consisting of Professor S. P. Thompson (Chairman), Mr. 
J. Swinburne (Secretary), Professor G. H. Bryan, Mr. C. V. 
Burton, Mr. K. T. Glazebrook, Professor A. W. Ruckek, and 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, appointed to confer with British andj 
Foreign Societies, publishing Mathematical and. Physical Papers, as 
to the Besirahility of securing Uniformity in the Size of the Pages of 
their Transactions and Proceedings. (Drawn up by J. Swinburne.) 

A LARGE number of journals were measured to find what dimensions it 
would be best to choose as standards. An account of this work was 
published in the Report for 189-5, p. 77. 

Since that date a large volume of correspondence has been carried on 
with the English and foreign scientific societies. 

In most cases the societies' publications come within the limits speci- 
fied in the first report. 

In some of the cases the societies agreed to alter their publications so 
as to come within the standard limits. 

In a few cases the societies prefer to continue the use of abnormal 
dimensions rather than alter their publications, especially when the pub- 
lication has been going on for many years. 

The importance of beginning a paper on the right-hand page is 
generally realised, but there are difficulties in carrying it out. In spite 
of this, a few of the societies are endeavouring to arrange that all 
important papers shall begin on the right-hand page. 

The Committee do not ask for reappointment. 



Determining Magnetic Force on Board Ship. — Ileport of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. W. Pucker (Chairman), Dr. C. H, 
Lees (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor A. Schuster, Captain 
Creak, Professor W. Stroud, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, and Mr, 
W. Watson, appointed to consider the most suitable Method of 
determining the Components of the Magnetic Force on Board Ship. 

An instrument which embodies the ideas of Captain Creak, mentioned in 
last year's Report, has been constructed. Although specially designed for 
observations on board ship, it will probably from its strength of construc- 
tion be found suitable for travelling parties. 

The Committee apply for reappointment, with the unexpended grant 
of 10^. made last year. 



46 REPORT — 1900. 



tubies of certain Mathematical Functions. — Reioort of the Committee 
consisting of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Lieutenant-Colonel 
Allan Cunningham, B.JE. {Secretary), Dr. J. W. L. GlaIsher, 
Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. M. Hicks, Professor A. 
Lodge, and Major P. A. MacMahon, 11. A., appohitedfor calcidating 
Tables of certain Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary, for 
talcing steps to carry but. the calculations, ayid to imhlish the results in 
alii acc'essible forrn. 

The cost of printing tlie Tables (Binary Canon) was estimated dt l35^. 
A grant of 75/. only was made d,t the Dover Meeting. As the Tables 
could not have been printed for this sum, Application Was made to the 
llOyal Society for a grant in aid, and the Royal Society has granted the 
remaining sum (60/.) required. The Tables have been put in hand, and 
jlre now (September) nearly all in type : they should be finished befbre 
next Meeting. 



Meteorological Ohservations of Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of 'Lovi\.WLk-R-E^, Professor A. Crum Brown (Secretary), 
Sir John MuRray, Professor Copeland, and Dr. Alexander 
BtCHAN. (Drawn up by Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee was appointed as in past years for the purpose of 
co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteoro- 
logical observations at the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

The hour'ly eye observations made by night as Well as by day, which 
are a specialty of the High Level Observatory, have been made with 
complete regularity throughout the year by Mr. Rankin and his assistants. 

The health of the staff at the High Level Observatory continued good, 
and the laborious work of the observations has been carried on without 
the loss of an hour's observations. The Directors desire to express their 
hearty thanks to Messrs. T. Affleck, George Ednie, M.A., J. S. Begg, M.A., 
G. A. S. Tait, R. C. Marshall, and T. Kilgour for the invaluable service 
they rendered as volunteer observers during the summer of 1899, thus 
affording to the members of the staff the relief and rest they so much 
needed. Owing to the war in South Africa some changes took place in 
the Observatory staff. In October J. Bell, reservist, was called out for 
service, and subsequently R. M. McDougall and D. Grant left to join the 
forces. At the Lov/ Level Observatory at Fort William influenza of an 
acute form for a second time prevailed. But it is gratifying to add that no 
observations have been lost, and the arrears of copying and computations 
which necessarily occurred are being gradually worked off. 

The observations at the intermediate station at Ben Nevis were 
undertaken, single-handed, by Mr. D. W. Wilton. These valuable 
observations, together with the similar observations made at this station 
during the previous three summers, are being discussed under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Omond. 

The principal results of the observations of 1899 are detailed in 
Table I. 



METEOKOLOGrlCAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



4? 



Table I. 



1899 



Jan. 



Feb. 



March 



April May June 



July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Deo. Year 



Mean Pressure in Inches. 



Eeu Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort ■William 
Differences . 



23-048 



29-840 
4-592 



25-149 

29'738 
4-589 



25-3171 25-146 



29-944 2Q-730 
4-627 4-584 



25-431 

30-008 
4-577 



25-558 



30-043 
4-484 



26-628 



30-012 
4-484 



25-5981 25-209 

30-053 29-707 
4-465 4-498 



25-3791 25-321 

29-923 29-875 
4.5441 4-554, 



25-163 

29-775 
5-612 



Meatt Tem])eratur'es. 



o 
23-7 


26-5 


O 

26-3 


26'^4 


32°0 


43'^7 


O 

43-1 


48^7 


35°4 


o 
33-7 


o 
32-3 


23°7 


37-6 

13-9 


39-0 
12-5 


40-3 
15-0 


43-0 
16-6 


47-7 
15-7 


57-4 
13-7 


58-4 
15-3 


60-6 
11-9 


62-2 
16-8 


48-7 
15-0 


48-3 
16-0 


38-1 

14-4 









Extremes 


of Tehijjcratui'e, 


Maxima. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


35-1 

52-0 
16-9 


39-2 

50-0 
10-8 


46-0 

54-4 
8-4 


4t-3 

62-0 
20-7 


47-0 GO-6 

66-0 76-2 
100 15-6 


57-4 

71-1 
13-7 


C3-5 

80-3 
16-8 


50-6 

65-4 
14-8 


48-2 

61-5 
13-3 


43-0 

62-3 
18-4 


40-0 

63-3 
13-3 



Extremes of Temperature, Minima. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



BenNevisOb- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



B eu Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



BenNevisOb- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



BenNevisOb- 1 

servatory 

Fort William 

Differences . ) 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Ne'Nia Ob- 
servatory 



12-2 


10-C 


6-9 


13-1 


20-0 


^0-3 


33-6 


33-1 


23-3 


19-9 


21-0 


10-8 


23-1 
10-9 


24-5 
13-9 


21-0 
14-1 


26-4 
13-3 


32-2 

12'-2 


48-7 
13-4 


47-7 
14-1 


46-2 
12-1 


34-0 
10-? 


32-6 
12-7 


32-2 
11-2 


17-4 
6-6 



25-321 

29-871 
4-550 



32-9 



47-6 
14-7 



63-6 

80-3 
16-8 



6-9 



17-4 

10-5 



Rainfall, iti iHches. 



15-30 i 10-561 



7-38 
7-92 



4-81 

6'65 



25-21 



8-65 

16-56 



17-01 

5-37 

11-64 



6-88 



2-56 
4-32 



7-61 1 15-23 I 5-58 I 20-78 I 18-11 



2-05 4-45 
6-56 10-78 1 



1-77 9-11 
3-81 I 11-67 



9-10 
9-01 



32-48 

13-27 
19-4 



llainfall, Greatest Daily Fall. 



12-55 1187-30 

6-06 74-58 
6-59 1112-72 



4-33 



1-S2 


1-89 


3-34 


3-97 


1-87 


1-19 


3-21 


1-21 


2-26 


3-78 


4-33 


2-08 


1-74 
0-08 


0-86 
1-03 


1-86 
1-98 


0-76 
3-21 


0-48 
1-39 


0-56 
0-63 


1-26 

1-95 


0-54 
0-67 


1-50 
0-76 


1-48 
2-30 


1-68 

2-65 


0-92 
2-06 







Number of Bays 1 in. or more fell. 








7 


3 


11 1 4 


2 


3 


5 


1 


7 





13 


4 : 


1 
6 



o 


2 
9 



4 




O 



3 


1 

4 ■ 



1 


1 
G 


4 
rt 


1^ 



4 







Niimher of Days 


O'Ol in. 01 


niore 


fell. 








22 


11 


27 


26 


14 


20 23 


12 


28 


22 


26 


22 


21 
1 


13 

2 


22 
'5 


20 
« 


11 
3 


14 19 
6 4 


12 



26 
2 


20 

2 


26 



19 
3 



Mean Rainhand {scale 0-8). 



1-8 



3-1 
1-3 



1-5 


2-0 


2-2 


2-3 


2-2 


3-0 


2-0 


2-2 


2-9 


2-7 


1-7 1 


2-9 

1-4 


3-3 
1-3 


3-6 
1-4 


3-5 
1-2 


3-9 
1? 


3-9 
0'9 


4-1 

2-1 


4-0 
1'8 


4-1 
1-2 


4-8 
2-1 


3-2 

1-5 







MtmJ 


er of Hours of Bright Sunshine. 








33 


79 


52 


56 


164 


153 


60 


212 


12 


52 


12 


12 


26 


71 


83 


112 


197 


168 


89 


231 


73 


69 


12 


8 


7 


8 


31 


56 


33 


15 


29 


19 


61 


17 





4 



19 



Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind, in Miles. 

20 I 13 I 17 I 10 I 11 I 10 I 10 I 12 



18 



19 



16 



1-74 
2-59 



60 



12 
54 



253 



223 
30 



2-2 



3-7 
1-5 



897 



1,139 

242 



16 









Mean Percentage of Cloud. 












Ben Nevio Ob- 


85 


68 


86 


88 


71 


73 


92 


60 


9B 


86 


95 


88 


82 


servatory 




























Fort William 


75 


63 


79 


74 


68 


70 


86 


54 


SO 


73 


87 


81 


74 


Differences . 


10 


6 


t 


14 


3 


3 


6 


6 


16 


13 


8 


7 


8 



46 



REPORT — 1900. 



This table shows for 1899 the mean monthly and extreme pressure and 
temperature, amounts of rainfall with the number of days of rain and the 
days on which the amount equalled or exceeded one inch ; the hours of 
•sunshine, the mean percentage of cloud, the mean velocity of the wind in 
miles per hour at the top of the mountain, and the mean rainband at both 
observatories. The mean barometric pressures at Fort William are 
reduced to 32^ and sea level, but those at the Ben Nevis Observatory 
only to 32°. 

At Fort William the mean atmosj^heric pressure for the year was 
29-871 inches, being 0'027 inch greater than the mean of the forty years 
ending 1895. The mean at the top was 25-321 inches, being 0-025 inch 
above the average of the observation since the opening of the Observatory 
in 1883. The difference for the two observatoi'ies was thus 4-550 inches, 
lieing all but identical with the difference of previous years. At the top 
of the mountain the absolutely highest pressure for the year was 26-058 
inches, and at Fort William 30-728 inches, both readings occurring on 
November 17. 

The differences from the mean monthly barometric pressure much 
exceeded the averages in June, July, and August, the excess for the 
three months for Fort William being 0-172 inch, and for Ben Nevis 
0-160 inch. On the other hand, for January and April the deficiencies 
from the averages were 0-161 inch and 0'160 inch for Fort William, and 
for Ben Nevis 0-164 inch and 0-165. In the summer months, when pres- 
sure was abnormally high, the type of weather was anticyclonic, but in 
January and April, when pressure was unusually low, the type of weather 
was cyclonic. 

The deviations of the mean temperature of the months from their 
respective averages are shown in Table II. : — ■ 







Table II. 








Fort 


Top of 




Fort 


Top of 




William. 


Ben Nevis. 




■\Villiani. 


Beu Nevis 


January . 


o 
. —1 ■> 


o 
-(. i 


July . 


o 

. IS 


c 

2-4 


February . 


. 0-2 


20 


August 


. 4-7 


S-2 


March 


. -0-2 


1-5 


September 


. -0-8 


-2-4 


April 


. -li) 


-l-l 


October . 


. ]■: 


20 


May. 


— 2-.". 


-10 


November 


">■() 


3-7 


June 


2 2 


4-4 


December 


. -25 


-1-4 



The highest monthly mean temperature hitherto yet observed on Ben 
Nevis was 48°-7 for August, which was 8°-2 above the mean of previous 
Augusts. The excess of mean temperature of the three summer months 
was 5°-0 above the average, whereas at Fort William the mean excess 
was only 2°-9. In the strongly marked type of anticyclonic weather 
which then prevailed, the temperature at the top of Ben Nevis was 
relatively very much higher than at Fort William. Hence, while the 
normal difference of temperature in August at the top and bottom of the 
hill is 16°-1, in August 1899 it was only ll°-9. The absolutely highest 
temperature for the year at Fort William was 82°-0 on August 24 ; and 
at the top of Ben Nevis 63°-5 on August 23. The absolutely lowest was 
15°-2 at Fort William on December 28 ; and on Ben Nevis 6° -9 on 
March 23. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OX 1!EN NEVIS. 



49 



In Table III. are given for each month 
metric readings at the top of Ben Nevis : — 

Table III. 



the lowest observed hygro- 



— 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 

O 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




o 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 






Dry Bulb 


2U-4 


28-0 


43-5 


19-2 


41^0 


52-G 


4V^b 


51-4 


40^3 


VA-G 


27-0 


12^2 


Wet Bulb 


187 


20-1 


23-8 


lo'9 


2S^9 


38^4 


37^0 


37-0 


31^2 


32^2 


22^0 


9^7 


Dew-point 


-22-9 


-lO'S 


13-4 


-8^1 


13-2 


24^1 


25^4 


21-2 


19^4 


18^5 


-l^O 


-9^8 


Elastic Force 


■014 


•025 


•079 


•029 


•078 


■130 


13^7 


•114 


•105 


■100 


•042 


•02G 


Relative Humulity 


lU 


16 


28 


28 


30 


33 


42 


30 


42 


35 


28 


35 


(Sat.=100) 


























Day of Month 


27 


19 


IG 


21 


11 


15 


30 


1 


10 


21 


15 


14 


Hour of Day . 


8 a.m. 


5 P.ll. 


6 P.M. 


i A.M. 


10 P.M. 


9 I'.M. 


2 a.m. 


9 P.M. 


8 P.M. 


7 p.m. 


2 a.m. 


4 P.M. 



Of these relative humidities, the lowest 10 occurred on January 27 with 
a dew-point of — 22°-9, and the highest 42 on July 30 with a dew- 
point of 25°-4. It is to be noted that with these humidities the accom- 
panying dew-point fell in five of the months below zero, thus being in 
striking contrast with the lowest monthly humidities of the previous year, 
when the lowest was only 23, and the dew-point fell below zero only in 
December. 

The sunshine recorder on Ben Nevis showed 897 hours out of a possible 
4,470 hours, being 132 hours more than in 1898, or 20 per cent, of the 
possible sunshine. This far exceeded the average of past years, which 
is only 750 hours, being only exceeded in 1888, when the number of hours 
was 970. The minimum occurred in 1884, when only 510 hours were 
registered by the sunshine recorder. At Fort William the number of 
hours was 1,139, being 102 hours fewer than in 1898. At both observa- 
tories the monthly maximum was in August, being 231 hours at Fort 
William and 212 hours at the top of Ben Nevis, amounts nearly d uble 
the average of any previous August. This unwonted amount of sunshine 
was occasioned by the strongly pronounced anticyclonic character of the 
weather of August 1899. In the following month, September, only 12 
hours were recorded at the Ben Nevis Observatory, or less than 1 per 
cent, of the possible sunshine. In no previous summer month has the 
recorded sunshine been so decidedly deficient. 

At the Ben Nevis Observatory the mean percentage of cloud was 82, 
or a little under the average, the highest being 96 in September, and the 
lowest 60 in August. At Fort William the mean was 74, the highest 
being 87 in November, and the lowest 54 in August, or little more than 
a sky half covered with cloud. 

The mean raiuband observation (scale 0-8) was 2 '2 at the top for the 
year, the maximum being 3"0 in July, and the minimum 1-5 in February. 
The annual mean at Fort William was 3*7, the maximum being 4-8 in 
November, and the minimum 2 9 in February. 

The mean hourly velocity of the wind at the top of the mountain was 
at the rate of 15 miles per hour, the maximum monthly velocity being 20 
miles in February and the minimum 10 miles in May, July, and August 

The rainfall for the year at the Ben Nevis Observatory was 187 '30 
inches, being 31-82 inches, or 22 per cent, above the average. This large 
annual rainfall has been only twice exceeded, viz. in 1898 and 1890, when 
it was respectively 240-05 inches and 197-95 inches. It is noteworthy 
that while the rainfall at the top of Ben Nevis was 22 per cent above 

1900. H 



50 REPORT— 1900. 

the average, at tlie neighbouring surrounding stations near sea level the 
rainfall was about 10 per cent, under the average. It will be observed 
that the large excess on Ben Nevis was almost wholly occasioned by the 
extraordinarily heavy rainfall there in November and March. In these 
months there prevailed over Scotland an unusual excess of south-westerly 
winds. The largest monthly rainfall, 32-48 inch, occurred in November, 
when south-westerly winds prevailed eight days more than the average, 
and the mean temperature of the month over Scotland was 46°"4, or 5° 8 
above the average of the month, an excess of south-westerly winds and of 
mean temperature hitherto unparalleled for November. The heaviest 
rainfall on any single day was 4"68 inches in December. At Fort 
William the annual rainfall was 74"58 inches, and the largest monthly 
amount was 13-27 inches in November, when the rain-bringing south- 
westerly winds were so prevalent. The heaviest fall on any single day 
was 1-63 inch in March. 

At the top of Ben Nevis rain fell on 253 days, and at Fort William 
on 223 days. At the top the monthly maximum was 28 days in September, 
and the minimum 11 days in February, and at Fort William the 
maximum was 26 days in September, and the minimum 12 in August. 

During the year the number of days on which 1 inch of rain or more 
fell was 66 at the top and 12 at Fort William, the former being 18 above 
the average and the latter 5 below it. 

Auroras were observed on the following dates : — February 1 2 ; March 
10, 16, 21, 22 ; May 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; and October 15. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on January 6, 13, 15 ; March 28 ; August 25 j 
September 19, 20, 23 ; October 30 ; and November 6, 8, 10, 11. 

Zodiacal Light : — On October 15. 

Thunderstorms : — On August 25 ; September 17, 18 ; and October 
13, 30. 

Lightning only : — On January 16 ; February 12 ; and September 29. 

Solar Halos :— January 2; March 30; April 9, 12, 18, 19, 20, 22; 
May 9, 12, 22, 31 ; June 10, 17 ; July 6 ; and August 5, 18. 

Lunar Halos :— January 17, 26, 27, 28 ; February 18, 21, 22 ; March 
24 ; April 19, 20 ; June 27 ; October 21, 22 ; November 9 ; and Decem- 
ber 10, 12, 13, 23. 

Much time has been taken up in revising the proof-sheets of the 
hourly observations of the Ben Nevis Observatories now in the press, and 
the work of printing is proceeding at a fairly satisfactory rate. It need 
scarcely be added that the revision of the work, which will fill three large 
quarto volumes, is peculiarly heavy. The work of reduction and entering 
on daily sheets the hourly observations of the two observatories is practi- 
cally brought down to date. The daily maps of rainfall, fog, storms, and 
other weather phenomena are also completed to date ; and for several 
selected months there are already entered on the same maps the details 
for storms, forecasts, and storm warnings. With these are compared the 
hourly observations at the two observatories with the view of arriving at 
some definite knowledge of the relations existing among the phenomena 
observed. Particular attention is given in the first place to the relations 
between the double set of observations made at Ben Nevis and the fore- 
casts and warnings issued from the Meteorological Office in London of 
storms, rain, fog, and other weather phenomena. 

For several months Mr. Omond had under discussion all hourly tem- 
peratures observed at Fort William and the top of the mountain, showing 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS, 51 

a difference between the two temperatures distinctly less than the usual 
difference, together with all cases where the temperature at the top ex- 
ceeded that at Fort William at the time. It will be readily recognised 
that this work is largely an inquiry into the anticyclone, and its connec- 
tions with the cyclone and weather changes which accompany their 
changing relations. 

Dr. Buchan's time has been largely occupied with the discussion of 
the fogs observed at the Scottish lighthouses night and day from 1889 to 
1899. These data, as stated, arc all entered on two daily maps, to each 
of wliich are attached the weather maps of the Meteorological Office for the 
day in question as issued in the weekly maps of the office, in addition to 
which the daily direction and force of the wind at eleven selected light- 
houses are given. Thus the general character of each day's weather is 
readily seen, and the direction of the wind at the time the fogs were 
recorded. The fogs here examined are not land fogs, but sea fogs, a 
correct knowledge of which is of paramount importance to navigation. 

The more important results arrived at are these : — The annual maxi- 
mum period is from April to June, and the minimum from October to 
February, being thus generally the reverse of land fogs. The worst and 
longest continued fogs occur with easterly winds, and their occurrence is 
restricted to the east coast of Scotland. On the other hand, the fogs on 
the west coast accompany westerly winds. These are much more frequent 
and prolonged at places directly open to the Atlantic than at places such 
as Rothesay, Oban, and Stornoway, which are sheltered from the Atlantic 
by land of a greater or less extent and height. 

Conjoined with this discussion is the excessively heavy rain brought 
by the easterly winds on the east coast of Scotland, and to a. greater or 
less extent inland according to the height to which these rain-bringing 
easterly winds extend in the atmosphere. On this point the conjoined 
observations of the two Ben Nevis Observatories contribute invaluable 
knowledge. 

An examination of daily weather maps of Europe constructed from 
the daily weather maps of the British Islands, France, and Germany makes 
it clear that these heavy rains and easterly winds occur when baro- 
metric pressure dimiziishes from the Baltic and westwards through the 
North Sea to the West of Scotland. It is here particularly to be noted 
that at the same time humidities are high over those parts of the Con- 
tinent whence these easterly winds have come prior to their arrival in 
Scotland. Of these rain storms the great rains in the east of Scotland 
on April 27 to 30, 1898, and on August 22, 1900, are among the most 
remarkable ; they are therefore being investigated in great fulness of 
detail. 

It will be known, from your Committee's previous reports, that gales 
and storms of wind have for many years been observed night and day at 
the Scottish lighthouses with a fulness and an accuracy attempted 
nowhere else. Much time has been given to the discussion of these obser- 
vations in their relations to the other weather phenomena charted on the 
daily weather maps. One of the results already arrived at — and it is an 
important one — is that the first step to be taken in any investigation of 
storms is the partition of Scotland into eight or ten divisions based on 
the physical features of the country in their relations to the more promi- 
nent storm-bringing winds. The inquiry is therefore proceeding on 
these lines. 

B2 



62 iiEPORT — 1900. 

If a meteorologist knows the distribution of barometric pressure over 
Western Europe, he can then at once state what the weather is in each 
part of the countries for which he has this information, and he can de- 
hicribe the weather in fuhiess of detail just according to the accuracy and 
abundance of the barometric readings supplied to him. This valuable 
practical result is a direct consequence of the scientific study of the rela- 
tions of barometer, temperature, and wind as observed over the whole 
world and interpreted in accordance with physical laws. 

Now this is not forecasting, but only the description of the weather at 
the time the barometric readings were taken. But it necessarily follows 
that if the forecaster can guess what the distribution of Isarometric pres- 
sure will be at some future time, he can state what' the weather will be at 
that time. Hence the whole problem of forecasting resolves itself into 
foreseeing the arrangement of barometric pressure in the future. The 
distribution of pressure does not shift arbitrarily, but the areas of high 
and low pressure existing on any one day change into those of the next 
by movement over the surface of the earth and by increase or diminution 
in intensity, in accordance with physical laws. 

The scientific study of the causes of the movements of these areas of 
high and low pressure, called respectively anticyclones and cyclones, can 
only be said to be just beginning. Until this great inquiry has made 
some substantial progress we cannot have a science of forecasting, as we 
now have a science of climatological meteorology. 

These areas of low and high pressures are not mere surface pheno- 
mena, but extend upwards through the atmosphere, and their movements 
are largely determined by the conditions surrounding them in the upper 
regions of the atmosphere. 

Towards the expenses of publishing the hourly observations of the two 
Ben Nevis Observatories the Royal Society of London has made a grant 
of 5001., and a grant to the same amount has been made by the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. These societies thus approve of the publication as 
a necessary preliminary to the scientific study of forecasting. The Ben 
Nevis Observatories have already largely contributed to the fundamental 
data of meteorology, and in the future the observations they supply will 
take a promment place in the development of scientific forecasting. 

Your Committee have the greatest pleasure in adding that at the 
meeting of the Scottish Meteorological Society in March last J. Mackay 
Bernard, Esq., of Dunsinnan, intimated a third handsome donation of 
500^. towards the maintenance of the observatories to the end of next 
year. Another gentleman, on learning that assistants were urgently 
required to assist Dr. Buchan and Mr. Omond in the oSice, at once readily 
and most generously intimated a donation of 300^. to the Council of the 
Society for the purpose. 



Iladicdion in a Magnetic Field. — JReport of tJi,e Committee, consistiiuj of 
Professor G. F. FitzGerald {Chairman^., the late Professor T. 
Peeston (Secretary), Professor A. Schuster, Professor 0. J. 
Lodge, Professor S. P. Thompson, Dr. Gerald Molloy, and Dr. 
W. E. Adeney. 

The Committee regret that they are unable to report that any further 
work ha? been dolie with thfe gfeat spectroscope belorigiilg to the Roy*I 



ON RADIATION IN A MAGNETIC FIELD. 63 

University of Ireland owing to the illness and death of the Secretary of 
the Committee, Professor T. Preston, F.R.S. They desire to be re- 
appointed without a grant for the purpose of publishing copies of Professor 
Preston's photographs, as they believe that a good deal of useful work 
could be done upon these photographs by persons who are not possessed of 
the spectroscopic and magnetic power required to produce the phenomenon 
on a large scale. Others may desire to obtain copies of the photographs 
as illustrations of this interesting effect of magnetisation on light. 



Exjjeriments for improving the Construction of Practical Stdndards for 
use in Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consistimj 
p/Lord Rayleigh {Chairman), Mx. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
Oliver J. Lodge, and G. Carey Foster, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir 
W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. Everett and A. Schuster, 
Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. FitzGerald and J. J. 
Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, Professor A. W. Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, 
Mr. George Matthey, and Sir W. Roberts-Austen. 

Appendix. —]Vote 0)1 an In)2}rofedIteswtance Coll. ^y Robert S. Whippll; 2'- 55 

DuEiNG the year the resistance coils and other apparatus belonging to 
the Committee have been removed to Richmond. Most of the apparatus 
has been set up in an outbuilding attached to the Kew Observatory, which 
has been fitted by the Committee of the National Physical Laboratory as 
a temporary laboratory. 

It is interesting to note that tlie case containing the original coils of 
the Association bears the words, ' To be deposited at Kew.' After many 
wanderings the coils have at last returned to their home. 

The Sub-Committee on Platinvim Thermometry held a meeting in the 
spring, and agreed to the following resolutions : — 

(i) That a particular sample of platinum wire be selected, and platinum 
thermometers be constructed therefrom to serve as standards for the 
measurement of high temperature. 

(ii) That Mr. Glazebrook and Professor Callendar be requested to 
consider the details of the selection of wires and construction of ther- 
mometers for the abuve purpose, and to consult with Mr. Matthey, who 
kindly consented to give his assistance. 

Since tiien Mr. Matthey has supplied the Sub-Committee with two 
specimens of very pure platinum. Portions of these have been made into 
tliermometers and tested at the National Physical Laboratory, with the 
following results, R^ being the resistance at 0^ and R,oo at 100°, while 
8 is the coefficient occurring in Callendar's difference formula : 

R,„(,/R„ 5 

Wire 1 . . 1-388.3 . . 1-493 

„ 2 . . 1-3884 . . 1-498 



54 REPORT — 1900* 

The question of the selection of a wire for the construction of the 
standards is still under the consideration of the Committee. 

During the summer a very full comparison has been made of the unit 
resistance coils of the Association, and the opportunity has been taken of 
comparing these with some coils belonging to the Board of Trade, and 
with others which have recently been obtained from the E.eichsanstalt. 
The coils were also compared with one of the mercury resistance tubes 
prepared by M. Benoit in 1885, and which has been in the care of the 
Secretary since that date. 

The results have not yet been completely worked out, and publication 
is, therefore, necessarily deferred. Moreover, the temperature during 
July was very high, so that the mean temperature of the observations is 
much above that at which previous comparisons have been made. For 
the purpose, therefore, of connecting these results with the past it will be 
desirable to make some further observations in the autumn. 

It seemed desirable to set up some mercury resistance tubes in 
England, with a view of keeping a check on the variations of the wire 
standards. 

Preparations have been made for this. A number of selected tubes of 
' verre dur ' have been obtained, with the kind assistance of the officials 
of the Bureau International, from M. Baudin, while other tubes of Jena 
glass have been procured from Schott & Co. Steps ai'e being taken to 
have some of the best of these calibrated. 

Some advance has been made during the year with the construction 
of the Ampere balance. The Committee greatly regret the serious illness 
of Prof. J. V. Jones, which has prevented more rapid progress. The 
stand for raising and lowering the outer coils has been completed. 
Thanks to the generosity of Sir A. Noble, the cost of this, estimated at 
about 1001., has been saved the Committee. 

During the spring the Secretary, as Director of the National Physical 
Laboratory, visited the Bureau International at Paris and the Reichs- 
anstalt at Berlin. The Committee are glad to put on record their 
appreciation of the great courtesy and kindness with which lie was 
received by President Kohlrausch, M. Benoit, and the other officials con- 
nected with those institutions. 

The Committee are informed that at the recent International Electrical 
Congress at Paris the two following resolutions wei-e unanimously adopted 
by Section I, and confirmed by the Congress and by the Chamber of 
Government Delegates : — ■ 

1. The Section recommends the adoption of the name of Gauss for 
the C.G.S. unit of magnetic field. 

2. The Section recommends the adoption of the name of Maxwell for 
the C.G.S. unit of magnetic flux. 

The question of giving names to the units of magnetic force and flux 
has been before the Committee on several occasions. The Committee 
therefore were in a position to welcome cordially these resolutions, and at 
their last meeting agreed unanimously to a resolution adopting the two 
names selected by the Paris Congress. 

Of the sum of 251. voted last year, 13/. 7s. 7d. has been expended on 
material for the new platinum thermometers and on the transport of the ap- 
paratus from Liverpool to Richmond. If the plan of constructing standards 
for platinum thermometers is adopted, it will be necessary to purchase a 
large stock of suitable Avire, the whole of which should be made at the 
same time. For this a considei'able expenditure will be required ; there 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



55 



will also be incidental expenses connected with the making and standard- 
ising of the thermometers. For these purposes the Committee ask for a 
grant of 75Z. 

The Committee therefore recommend that they be reappointed, with 
a grant of 751., and that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman and Mr. E,. T. Glaze- 
brook Secretary. 



APPENDIX. 

^ote on an Improved Standard Resistance Coil. 
By Robert S. Whipple. 

The coil in question consists of a bare wire wound on a mica frame. 

This form of coil possesses the following advantage over the ordinary 
resistance coil : — (1) The coils can be annealed to a dull red heat in situ, 
thus relieving the wire of any strain caused by the winding. (2) The 
heating of a wire immersed in oil is less than one silk-covered and 
varnished. (3) The temperature of the wire can be accurately determined 
by means of a thermometer placed in the oil surrounding the wire. 
German physicists have adopted a form of coil in which the wire is 
silk-covered and varnished and then placed in a metal case perforated 
with holes. The whole coil is placed in an oil bath when in use. This 
form of coil is open to the objection that it cannot be annealed above 
140° C. without causing injury to the silk covering on the wire, and there 
is a certain amount of lag in the oil obtaining the temperature of the 
coil. 

By request of the Electrical Standards Department of the Board of 
Trade the Scientific Instrument Co., Cambridge, have designed and 
made two standard 1 -ohm coils the wires of which are bare and immersed 
in oil ; a modification suggested by Mr. Horace Darwin was also fitted 
for obtaining the temperature of the coils. The coils proper consist of 
0'035 in. PtAg wire wound on mica frames, the ends of the wires being 
attached to stout copper terminals in the usual manner. A 0'08 in. platinum 
wire is wound alternately with the platinum-silver wire, and is attached 
similarly to stout copper leads. Both coils are adjusted to a resistance 
of 1 ohm at 15°'5 C. Owing to the diflei-ence in the temperature coefficient 
of the two wires (PtAg 0-00024, Pt 0-00350), a small change in the 
temperatui-e of the coil causes a comparatively large difierence between 
the resistances of the two coils. This difference being known, the 
temperatures in degrees Centigrade is given by the adjoined table. The 
table is calculated from the difference in the temperature coefficients of 
the two wires 0-00350-0-00024=0-00326 for 1° C. 



Temperature of 
standard coil 
10°-0 C. 
lI°-0 C. 
ll°-9 C. 
13°0 C. 
14°-0 C. 
15°-0 C. 
15°-5 C. 
16°0 C. 
17°-0 C. 
18°-0 C. 
l!)°-0 C. 
20°-0 C. 



Difference in resistance 

of the coils 

-001793. 

0-01467 

0-01141 

0-00815 

000489 
-0-00163 

000000 
+ 0-00163 \ 

0-00489 I 

0-00815 !- 

001141 1 
+ 001467'' 



Platinum coil having a lower 
resistance than the platinum- 
silver coil. 



Platinum coil having a higher 
resistance than the platinum- 
silver coil. 



5G EEl'ORt— 1900. 

As the temperature coefficient of platinum is about iifteen timeS 
as great aa that of platinum-silver, the resistance of this coil may be 
measured to one significant figure less than the standard coil without 
affecting the value for the temperature of this coil. In measuring small 
resistances the determination of the last figure to O-QOOOl ohm requires 
considerable care, and the advantage of not being compelled to measure 
to such a high degree of accuracy is apparent. The two wires being 
wound on the same frame alternately with each other and immersed in 
oil are at the same mean temperature. Any temperature gradient in the 
oil influences both wires similarly, thus doing away with the necessity of 
a stirrer. The platinum wire is also useful for testing the insulation of 
the windings of the PtAg coil one from the other. The coils are placed 
in a glass vessel in order that the behaviour of the insulating oil with 
time may be studied. 



PltotograpMc Meteorologt/. — Tentlu Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor E. Meldola, Mr. A. W. Clayden (Secretary) . Mr. J. 
iloPKlNSON, and Mr. H. N. Dickson. {Brawn up liy the 
Secretarij.) 

The Committee have suffered a severe loss during the past year by the 
death of the Chairman, Mr. G. J . Symons, F.R.S., whose genial presence 
and energetic support will be greatly missed from many scientific societies, 
and especially from those which are interested in meteorology. This is not 
the place to attempt any adequate eulogium of his life's work, which, 
indeed, is too well known to need description. 

The observational work in progress was brought to an abrupt end 
early in October. On visiting the ground where the cameras stood in 
order to make some measurements it was found that the connecting wire 
between the two stations had been blown down by a heavy gale a few 
days before. The poles were snapped in two, several of the insulators 
broken, and the connections to the cameras damaged. 

It was felt that it was not worth while to re- erect the line on the 
same site, as the number of observations already made was rather more 
than 400, and also because the site had become much less convenient. 

It was on some waste ground belonging to the L. & S. W. R. Co., 
near their engine sheds. At first this was very little disturbed, but for 
the last two years railway operations have been encroaching on the space, 
a preliminary process being the deposit of great quantities of rubbish. 

Attempts were made to find another suitable site, but none seemed 
available within a convenient distance, and the expense of re-erecting the 
line and repairing the apparatas would be considerable and not worth 
incurring unless frequent observations were possible. 

It seemed, therefore, that the best course would be to summarise the 
results so far attained and suspend measurements until a favourable 
opportunity should occur. 

So far the total number of measurements made is 423. These include 
no measurements of the variety of cloud known as nimbus and very few 
of true stratus, the great majority being of cirrus, cirro-stratus, cirro- 
cumulus, alto-cumulus, and alto-stratus. 



ox PHOTOGRAPHIC METEOROLOGY, 



5? 



The following tables show a comparison between the Exeter measure^ 
ments and those made at Blue Hill and Upsala respectively : — 





Max 


imi/m 


Altitudes v 


Metres. 






— 


Blue Hill 


Upsala 


iixeter 


No. of Ob- 1 
Bervations 


Cirrus 


1 14,930 


13,376 


27,413 


58 


Cirro-stratus . 






12,134 


11.391 


15,503 


64 


Cirro-cumulus 






; 10,520 


10,235 


11,679 


63 


Alto-cumulus . 






8,204 


8,297 


9,390 


83 


Cumulus top . 






— 


3,611 


4,382 


42 


Cumulus base . 






3,582 


2,143 


1,959 


48 


Strato-cumulus 






3,328 


4,324 


6,926 


27 


Cumulo-nimbus top 






— 


5.970 


6,409 


15 


Cumulo-nimbus base 






1,590 


1,630 


2,286 


15 





Miniininn Altitudes in Metres. 




— 


I Blue Hill 


Upsala 


Exeter 


Cirrus 


6,392 


4,970 


4,114 


Cirro-stratus 






2,290 


4,740 


3,840 


Cirro-cumulus 






4,772 


3,880 


3,657 


Alto-cumulus 






784 


1,498 


1,828 


Cumulus top 






1.455 


900 


— 


Cumulus base 






1 GOl 


743 


584 


Strato-cumulus . 






i 1,109 


887 


823 


Cumulo-nimbus top 






1 — 


1,400 


2,004 


Cumulo-nimbus base . 






884 


1,180 


766 



Mean Altitudes in Metres. 



— 


Blue Hill 


Upsala 


Exeter 


Cirrus 


9,923 


8,878 


10,230 


Cirro-stratus 








7,617 


7,226 


9,540 


Cirro-cumulus 








7,606 


6,465 


8,624 


Alto-cumulus 








4,787 


4,178 


5,348 


Cumulus top 








2,181 


1.855 


3,006 


Cumulus base 








1,473 


1,386 


1,290 


Strato-cumulus 








2,003 


2,331 


2,248 


Cumulo-nimbus top 






— 


2,848 


S,002 


Cumulo-nimbus base 






1,202 


1,405 


1,045 



In making such a compai'ison there are many difficulties, for the 
different types of cloud so merge into each other that unless the figures, 
are known to relate positively to clouds resembling a certain type picture 
any agreement can only be general. 

It will be seen that the maximum values at Exeter exceed those of 
the American and Swedish observations in every case except that of the 
base of cumulus. It should be noted, however, that several of these 
maxima occurred on one day (June 12, 1896). If that one day had been 
omitted, the maxima for cirrus and cirro-stratus would be only about 
1,000 metres greater than the Blue Hill values. 



58 REPORT— 1900. 

In comparing the mean values a similar remark holds good, the greater 
values at Exeter being due to a small number of extreme observations. 

The minimum altitudes recorded at Exeter compare fairly well with 
the others, some of the ditfereuces being most probably due to nomenclature. 

Several series of observations have been made in a single day with the 
object of determining the rise or fall of clouds. It is clear from these 
that on an average day the cloud planes rise steadily until the early 
afternoon, between 2 and 3 p.m., when the maximum for the day is 
usually reached. This is followed by a fall, which gets more and more 
rapid towards sunset. In calm weather, or weather with only a moderate 
breeze and no great barometric disturbance, this diurnal rise and fall is 
very clearly marked ; but in broken weather, with strong winds, showers, 
or barometi'ic changes, it may be completely masked. 

Cumulus is the result of an upward movement, but cirro-cumulus and 
alto-cumulus may sometimes be the result of a descending movement, in 
which case the lumpy form is never persistent, but passes into a stratiform 
cloud very quickly. 

True cirrus of the whispy form is described by some meteorologists as 
due to a rapid ascending current, by others to an equally rapid descent. 
The measurements made indicate that this form of cloud may exist with 
an upward or a downward movement, or with no recognisable movement 
at all. 

The greatest altitudes have been found with thunderstorm conditions, 
the lowest (excepting fog) with cyclonic. 

The measurements compared in the foregoing tables have all been 
made between April and October inclusive. In the winter months the 
ground has generally been too wet for use, and the figures from the 
foreign stations are for the summer months only. It seems difficult at 
first to see why the altitudes should, on the whole, be greater at Exeter, 
the greater humidity of the air leading rather to the expectation of more 
easy cloud production, and therefore lower altitudes. But the fact of 
thunderstorm conditions being attended, as they seem always to be 
attended, by great cloud altitudes suggests another explanation. This is 
that vapour in a cloud-producing quantity exists to a greater height 
above Devonshire. It will be noticed that the greater altitudes are true 
only of the higher clouds, and that the mean level of the base plane of 
cumulus and cumulo-nimbus is actually lower at Exeter than at either 
of the other stations. 

The photographs collected some years ago by the Committee have 
been placed in the care of the Royal Meteorological Society, with the 
exception of prints from the negatives belonging to the Secretary, who 
will add them as opportunity offers. 

During the past year the Secretary has made a number of experiments 
with the Ives and Joly processes for photography in natural colours, but 
has found that, although either process can be made to record the colour 
of a cloud, the tints of a sunset, or even the colours of the rainbow, the 
reproduction of the colours is so far from being an automatic process that 
neither method promises to be of very great meteorological value except in 
the hands of experts. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 59 



Seismologieal Investigations. — Fifth Report of the Committee, coii- 
sisting of Professor J. W. Judd (Ghairman)^ Mr. John Milne 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor T. G. 
BoNNEY, Sir F. J. Beamwell, Mr. 0. V. Boys, Professor G. H, 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Daravin, Major L. Darwin, Professor J. H. 
EwiNG, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor E. Meldola, Mr. R. D. 
Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor J. H. 
PoYNTiNG, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, the 
late Mr. G. J. Symons, and Professor H. H. Turner. 

[PLATES II. AND III.] 
Contents. 

I'AUE 

I. On Seismolof/loal Stations abroad and in Great JBritidn . . , ,59 
II. Analyses vf JUarthqualies recorded in 1899. By J. MiLNE. 

1. Nature and Ohjcots of these Analyses 60 

2. Velocities of Eartliqualte Waves ........ 61 

3. Errors affecting such Determinations 62 

4. Velocities for Preliminary Tremors or P. T.'s 63 

5. Velocities for Large Waves or L. TF.'s 64 

6. Intervals between P. T.'s and L.W.'s 65 

7. Earihquahe Recurrences 66 

K. Am,2}litude in relation to Continental and Sub-oceanic Paths . . 69 

9. Arcual Velocity in relation to Surface Confignration . . . .70 

10. Earthquake Echoes 71 

11. The Nature of Large Waves 73 

12. Criticisms and Analyses by Br. C. G. Knott 74 

13. Betermination of Origins 78 

By comj)arisons between time intervals 79 

By method of circles 79 

By time intervals between P. T.'s and L.W.'s . . , . .79 
By seismic recurrences ......... 80 

14. The Origins for the Earthqualtes o/"1899 80 

15. Illustrations of Seismograms 87 

III. Earthquakes and Timekeepers at Observatories. By J. Milne . . . 103 

IV. Earthquakes and Rain. By J. Milne 106 

V. Earthquakes and Changes in Latitude. By J. MiLXE .... 107 

VI. Selection of a Fault — Locality suitable for Observations on, Etrth-move- 

vients. By Clement Eeid 108 

VII. On the Relative Movement of Strata at the Ridgeway Fault. By Horace 

Darwin 119 

I. On Seism,ological Stations abroad and in Great Britain. 

In addition to the twenty-three stations referred to in the Report for 
1899 instruments have been ordered for the Observatory, Melbourne, 
the Observatory, Sydney, N.S.W., for Ceylon, for the Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, the Liverpool Observatory, Bidston, and the 
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The total number of similar installa- 
tions which may be expected to be in working order before the end of 
the current year will therefore be twenty-nine. The positions of these 
are shown on the map (Plate II.). 

Registers ending December 31, 1899, referring to Shide, Kew, Cal- 



60 REPORT— 190U. 

cutta, Madras, Bombay, San Fernando (Spain), Cairo, Mauritius, Batavia, 
Cape of Good Hope, and Tokio, have been printed and issued as a circular 
to all co-operating statious, to those who have assisted this committee in 
their work, and to persons expressing a wish to possess the same. With 
the object of finding permanent quarters at which a central observing 
station might be established in England, at the suggestion of this Com- 
mittee its Secretary, in company with Mr. Horace Darwin, visited the 
Office of Works, the Treasury, and the Admiralty, and, with Major 
Leonard Darwin, the Horse Guards. Many sites were discussed, and 
through the kindness of Colonel Hildebrand, R.E., and commanding 
officers of the Royal Engineers facilities were given to visit forts and 
other buildings at Chatham, Folkestone, Porchester, and in the Isle of 
Wight, 

A report on these visits and on those to other places, together with a 
reference to steps generally which have been taken to find the required 
site, has been drawn up for the Council of the British Association. 

In consequence of the generosity of Mr. M. H. Gray, an instrument 
room is now being built at Shide. 

II. Analyses of Large Earthquakes recorded in \%^'d. By John Milne. 
1. Nature and Object of these Analyses. 

In 1S97 the Seisraological Investigation Committee of the British 
Association issued to the directors of observatories and other persons in 
various parts of the world a circular in which they called attention to the 
desirability of observing earthquake waves which had travelled great 
distances. It was pointed out that similar instruments should be used at 
all stations, and the type recommended as being simple to work, and one 
that yielded results sufficiently accurate for the main objects in view, was 
described by the Committee in a report (see Reports of the British 
Association, 1897, p. 137 et seq.). 

The result of this appeal is that instruments have been forwarded to 
the following twenty-six stations : — Shide, Kew, Toronto, Victoria, B.C., 
San Fernando (Spain), Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, Mauritius, Cairo, Cape 
of Good Hope, Tokio, Batavia, Arequipa, Swarthmore College (Phila- 
delphia), Cordova (Argentina), New Zealand (two instruments). Paisley, 
Mexico, Beyrut, Honolulu, Trinidad, Melbourne, Sydney, Johns Hopkins 
University (Baltimore). 

For the year 1899 registers were received from the first thirteen of 
these stations. With the exception of those relating to Toronto and 
Victoria, these have been communicated to observers by the (Jonnnittee 
as a circular. This circular is independent of the present report, but 
continuous with registers contained in corresponding reports subsequent 
to 1895. 

A glance at these registers, or tables based upon them (see pp. 80-87), 
shows that while certain earthquakes have evidently shaken the whole 
surface of our globe, and have probably disturbed the .same throughout its 
mass, there are others of less intensity which have only affected certain 
parts of the same. For example, one set of earthquakes were only 
recorded at stations in Western Europe, whilst another set were appa- 
rently confined to the Indian Ocean. In the following paper the earth- 
;]uakes referred to are only those which were recorded in England, from 



ci 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. Gl 

which it follows that although the largest earthquakes of the year 1899 
are discussed many earthquakes which are comparatively smaller have 
been omitted. 

The object of the discussion is to indicate by examples some of the 
directions in which this extensive system of earthquake observation is 
increasing our knowledge of dynamical phenomena inherent to the world 
on which we live. 

The plan of the discussion is as follows : — First, those earthquakes 
which have been I'ecorded at the greatest number of stations, and which 
have Icnoivn origins, ha\e been selected from the others and analysed 
separately. To contirm tlie results towards which these analyses point, 
references have been made to the more trustworthy records obtained by 
similar instruments in previous years. The principal objects in view have 
been as follows. The determination of the velocities with which various 
types of earth vibrations are propagated and the duration of preliminary 
tremors at varying distances from origins ; to show that earthquake 
repetition and echoes are fairly frequent and to point out the existence 
of phenomena for which satisfactory explanations are as yet wanting. In 
connection with these investigations references are made to hypotheses 
relating to the physical condition of the interior of our earth. 

Second, the results obtained by the above analyses are used as a 
means to determine the foci of disturbances not included in the first 
section of this paper. These foci, which for the most part are sub-oceanic, 
in some instances indicate localities where it would be unwise to lay cables, 
and where we may exjject to find configurations differing from those shown 
ujjon our physical maps. 

Remembering that very many of the earthquakes discussed represent 
initial disturbances which were followed by many after-shocks, the map 
depicting these foci shows the regions on the surface of the earth where 
in the year 1899 seismic activity was most pronounced. 

2. Velocities of Earthquake Waves. 

The knowledge hitherto at our disposal respecting the velocity of trans- 
mission of earthquake motion over long paths has been based on records 
obtained from instruments differing in type and sensibility, all of which 
were installed in Europe. The result of this has been that, although the 
registers led to the determination of average velocities along paths of 
varying lengths, they never gave actual velocity from point to point. It 
was seen that along paths from 10° to 90° the velocity of transmission of 
the preliminary tremors increased rapidly with the lengths of these paths, 
whilst the average velocity for large waves increased but slightly. With 
regard to the former my own analyses of heterogeneous materials led to 
the conclusion that, if the preliminary tremors travelled along paths 
approximating to chords through the earth, then the average velocity of 
transmission to a distant station was practically dependent on the square 
root of the average depth of the chord connecting that station and the 
earthquake centre. This furnished Dr. C. G. Knott with the hypothesis 
that the square of the velocity of these particular vibrations, which were 
in all probability compressional, was a linear function of the depth. With 
this assumption, and with a given initial velocity, the rate of transmission 
at any point within the earth could be determined and wave fronts 
dtawn ; and by acceptihg a law respecting the increase of density within 



62 REPORT — 1900, 

our earth the elasticity governiiig the transmission of condensational 
waves could be determined. The following notes show that, although the 
first conclusion and the consequent hypothesis do not require modification, 
constants necessary in farther calculations require to be modified. 

With regard to the large waves my own assumption was that their 
apparent increase in velocity with distance might be due to the fact that 
it was only large waves which, travelling faster than small waves, reached 
great distances. 

The observations brought together in this paper show that this idea 
has to be abandoned, and in its place we are to accept either the hypothesis 
of a surface wave which increases its velocity in regions 90° from the focus, 
or of a distortional wave passing through the earth the outcrop of which 
"■ives rise to similar surface undulations. 

3. Sources of Error. 

The phases of earthquake motion here considered are the first pre- 
liminary tremors and the first group of large waves, which latter in a 
seismogram representing an earthquake which lias originated at a great 
distance uoually correspond to the maximum movement. 

Altliough near to the origin of an earthquake there is a varying 
interval of several seconds between the first movements and the shock or 
shocks, it is the time of occurrence of this latter phase which is taken as 
the datum to which observations made at great distances from origins are 
referred. The initial time for all large earthquakes has been a matter of 
inference. It may be deduced from the times at which clocks have been 
stopped, or which have been noted with varying degrees of accui-acy by 
survivors in an epifocal district, but more generally it has been deduced 
from automatic time determinations outside such an area, and subtracting 
from the same an interval which the shock is assumed to have taken to 
travel from its origin to the point or points where these chronographic 
records have been made. The determination of this interval is based 
upon repeated observations of earthquake velocities made between stations 
well removed from an epicentre and well outside a meizoseismal area. 
These figures are important, not only for this particular purpose, but also 
for completing velocity curves which may represent transmission over the 
surface and through the material of the whole globe. They have been 
arrived at by many observers, the last being those given by Dr. F. Omori, 
who for paths commencing 100 kms. from an origin and extending to 
distances of 1,000 kms. gives the velocities of 2-2 km. for preliminary 
tremors and 1*7 km. for large waves, and within these limits the former 
outrace the latter at the constant rate of 15 seconds per 100 kms. 

When we remember that large earthquakes may sometimes originate 
as practically simultaneous displacements over very lai'ge areas, it is seen 
that the application of the method here considered might easily result in 
determinations of initial times from a few to some sixty seconds earlier 
than had really been the case. Errors of this nature would result in a 
general lowering of the determinations for true velocity of transmission 
of earthquake motion to distant stations, the deviation from the truth 
being most marked for the preliminaiy tremors, and in records referring 
to transmission to stations comparatively near to an origin. 

Another serious error afli"ecting the determination of initial time arises 
from the difiiculty in accurately locating the position of a focus, especially 
when this is sub-oceanic. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 63 

The assuruptioii that for large earthquakes, at least, the origin has 
been at an epicentre rather than in a region at a certain depth below the 
surface, is, so far as velocity determinations are concerned, of but small 
importance. Although all stations have similar instruments, the recot-ds 
from one or two of them indicate that their adjustment has not been 
similar to that adopted at the remaining stations. Not only should each 
instrument have a period of 15 seconds, but when its boom is deflected 
7 or 8 mm. from its normal position, and then set free, it should take 
7 or 8 minutes before returning to rest. If this latter condition has not 
been observed, an instrument may not respond to the first preliminary 
tremors, with the result that tJie time recorded for the commencement of 
a given earthquake may be registered as one or two minutes after the 
true time. 

Although errors of this order may aftect the results deduced from 
observations within 20° of an earthquake origin, when we deal with paths 
of greater length, and especially with large waves, the errors in the final 
results are practically inappreciable. 

Another assumption made in connection with velocity determinations 
is that the group of vibrations and waves as recorded at a distant station 
extending between the first preliminary tremor and the first maximum — 
which may extend over any interval up to 100 minutes — were all the 
result of the principal movement or movements at the origin ; or, in other 
words, they have the same initial times. To this assumption I do not 
know of any serious objection. The fact that pronounced phases of move- 
ment near to an origin are not only extended in time as they radiate, but 
are also more or less equalised in their amplitude, frequently renders the 
determination of corresponding points in seismograms obtained at different 
stations more or less uncertain. This source of error is sometimes serious. 

4. Preliminm'y Tremors. 

In the compilation of the following table the only seismograms used 
are those which show a distinct commencement. Each earthquake is 
indicated by its British Association Register number, and the locality 
from which it originated. Following this are the initial letters (see p. 88) 
of the station or stations at which it was observed. The figures following 
these initial letters give the number of minutes taken by the preliminary 
tremors to reach these stations, and the number of degrees between the 
stations and the earthquake origins. These figures are respectively placed 
in positions corresponding to the numex'ators and denominators of fractions. 
If an initial letter is followed by a zero for a numerator, this indicates 
that all other time intervals are measured relatively to the observa- 
tion made at the station represented by the initial letter. 

The fewness of these records chiefly arises from these facts : first, 
they only refer to earthquakes with a known origin ; secondly, the 
seismograms of small earthquakes recorded at distant stations do not 
show the preliminary tremors corresponding to those given by large 
earthquakes ; and lastly, in consequence of air tremors and other causes, 
the earlier vibrations have in many instances been eclipsed or lost. Their 
chief merit is that they give for several earthquakes records from point 
to point, and that we have for the first time records relating to paths 
which practically extend from an origin to its antipodes. 



64 



REPORT— 1000. 



36 Japan . 
119 „ 
133 Boiueo . 
157 Hayti . 
193 Japan . 
250 Mexico. 
263 Jaiian . 
333 Alaska . 

337 „ 

338 „ 
343 Smyrna 
347 Ceram . 
381 Mexico . 


87 

^ 13 
"■ 87 

S.^ 
103 

S. « 
(10 

87 

25 
121 


K. 13 

86 

87 

K. L 

70 

K. 1 
70 

K. If 
70 

K. L 
25 

K.JO 

121 

15 

^•8-6 


T. '\ 

1'4 

.J 26 

■ 8a 

T.L 

35 

■^ 26 

■ 89 

T. .1 
40 

T. ^ 

' 40 

rp 

■ 40 

T.l 
35 


^- 33 
t.3 

-r6 

105 

V. «- 
33 


S.F. J.- 
77 


B. '» 
105 

B.1 
43 


1 

Ba.fi 

108 

Ba.^ 
108 

Ba.l 

Z2 

Ba.^ 
148 


Ma. f ' 

105 


50 


aG.H.JL". 

C.G.H.^ 
165 

C.G.PI.-2i 
165 

C.G.H. ;i 
C.G.H.?i 


To.^' 
50 



The numbers given in the preceding table have been plotted on 
squared paper, degrees being measured horizontally and minutes vertically. 
From the curves thus obtained the average times for preliminary tremors 
to travel distances of 20°, 30°, 40°, &c. have been determined, and are 
shown diagrammatically in fig. 1. The initial velocity is taken at 
2-2 km. per second. A glance at the table on which this curve is founded 
indicates that the same can for the present only be regarded as provisional. 
The incurvation between 50 and 80 degrees is evidently due to errors in 
observation. 

•"), Larye Waves. 

The construction of the following table is similar to that given for the 
preliminary tremors. Following the initial letter of each station, in the 
position of a numerator, the number of minutes is given which large waves 
occupied in travelling to that station from the origin or from the isoseist 
of the locality, the initial letter of which is followed by a zero. The 
figures corresponding to denominators are the distances of the localities 
beneath which they appear from the origins of the different earthquakes. 





31 


2 











92 












250' Mexico 


^■80 
32 


'^•34 
2 


^■•30 






— 


86 


^^•itTo 




100 ^ 








381' „ 


^•83 


'^'•36 


v-,-„ 


— 


— 


^"•TWI 


— 


— 


89 


~ 


~ 




333 Alaska 


^•70 


„ i:i 

T-4-0 


v.o 

20 


36 

s.r.f7 


47 
2-105 




81 


— 


CG.H.j^, 


T°-^5 


— 


— 


337 


S?? 


■^•40 


22 
S.F.77 


34 


T, 50 
^^•11)8 




7 
Me. ^-3 


C.G.H.i^, 


— 


Ma.^ 
105 


— 


338 




T^ 
•40 


— 


90 

S.F.7-7 


35 

2- 105 


T, 53 
^■^•1-08 


M.^5 


6 
Me. 5-, 


-•H.^ 


- 




— 


347 Ceram 


=-J 




v.ii 


30 
S.F.J32 


28 
B- 62 


Ba.l« 

22 


M.i^ 




-•H-^. 


TO.,, 


— 


c.L« 

50 


343 Smyrna 


-1, 


— 




10 
S.F.27 


4o 


— 


M.^ 


— 


C.G.H.f: 


m 30 

^"■86 


— 


— 



The times at the birigin lor thtee tn-o earthquakes were 21 and 23 min. before Tiiitbrlai 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL iNVE8TIGATI0N; 65 

When these observations are plotted on squared paper it is found 
that they practically lie on the straight line referring to large waves in 
fig. 1, indicating that this form of movement passes from its origin to 
its antipodes with a constant arcual velocity of 3 km. per second. If, 
however, the direction of propagation has been along a diameter, the 
average velocity becomes 1'9 km. per second. The time taken for an 
earthquake to travel from its origin to its antipodes, whether it does so as 
a surface wave or as a mass wave, is about 110 minutes. 

One modification to this general statement respecting a constant 
velocity rests on the fact that repeated observations made within ten 
degrees of an earthquake origin have shown that the large wave velocity 
within that region is about 1 S km. per second. Whatever the conditions 
may be which give rise to this increase in velocity in a wave as it radiates 
from its origin, it seems probable that the converse would take place as it 
approached its antipodes, while the maximum velocity should be sought 
for in the equatorial or quadrantal ' region of the earthquake's transit. 
Inasmuch as curves drawn for the Alaskan and Ceram earthquakes show 
that between 70° and 110° from their respective origins velocities may 
reach 4 km. per second, and that many earthquakes indicate an increased 
average velocity as their paths increase up to 110° in their lengths, there 
are strong reasons for suspecting that the suggested phenomena may 
exist. The comparatively small initial velocity and the slightly increased 
quadrantal velocity above the average arcual velocity are indicated in 
fig. 1 by dotted lines ; but whether this modification can be retained 
remains to be determined by further observations. That the average 
arcual velocity between O"* and 90^ is practically 3 km. per second finds 
confirmation in the records for earthquakes Nos. 36, S3, 100, 119, and 
193, originating in Japan, 133 and 134, originating near Borneo, and 
105, from N.E. India, all of which were recorded by the same instrument 
in the Isle of Wight. 

6. Interval betioeen the First Tremor and the Maximum Motion, 

In the British Association Reports for 1898, pp. 221-224, I dis- 
cussed a table showing the duration of preliminary tremors or the interval 
in time between the first tremor and the commencement of the large wave 
phase of motion at difierent distances from a number of known origins. 
One object of the discussion was to establish a working rule enabling an 
observer to determine from the inspection of a single seismogram the 
distance of an origin from the station at which such a record had been 
obtained. Inasmuch as the table was to a great extent based upon 
descriptions of records obtained from different types of instruments which 
had difierent degrees of sensibility, the results obtained could not be 
expected to be more than approximately correct. The following table, 
which gives the time in minutes by which the first tremor has outraced 
the maximum movement over paths of varying lengths, is based on 
measurements made on seismograms obtained from similar instruments. 
These intervals not only enable us to correct the working rule indicated 
above, but, as it will be shown, they enable us to check the accuracy of 
the curves relating to the arcual velocity of preliminary tremors and 
large waves. 



■^o^ 



' Thia word means the district 90° distant from the earthquake origin. 
1900. ff 



66 



REPORT — 1900. 



Intervals between the First Tremor and the Maximum Motion. 









Observing Stations indicated by 








initial letters and tmie intervals 


No. 


Date 


Origin 


T T , Minutes 
and distances, as ^ — 








Degrees 


36 


August 30, 189G 


Japan . 


S ^■ 


56 


October 31, ISDC) . 


Tashkent . 


S -la 

IJ.) 4-,. 


83 


February 6, 1897 . 


Japan . 


S., ji. Record not'clear. 


119 


August 4, 1897 


., 


s., Slj. 


131 


September 17, 1897 


Tashlient . 


s..if. 


132 


September 17, 1897 


)J 


s., If. 


133 


September 20, 1897 


Borneo 


S., {i,. 


134 


September 20, 1897 


•1 


O., J03. 


157 


December 29, 1897 . 


Hayti . 


S 2a T -i 

^■» fi2' ' 24* 


163 


January 29, 1898 . 


Asia Minor . 


S., i#. 


189 


April 15, 1898 . 


California . 


T.Sr'-' 


193 


April 22, 1898 . 


Japan . 


S., H (not clear). T., ^. 


249 


January 22, 1899 . 


Greece 


S.,i?. K.,^. 


250 


January 24, 1899 . 


Mexico 


■tr +0 'p Jf, V ii P !■'■' 


333 


September 3, 1899 . 


Alaska . 


■IT- :in Ti IK V 5 S F =!* 

■"^•l 7 0* -'-■•40- '-ll-O- iS.f-, 7Y* 


337 


September 10, 1899. 


)» 


K..?§. T., i|. C.G.H., ^'l 
B.,^. S.F., ^|. Me,||. 


338 


September 10, 1899. 


,, 




343 


September 20, 1899. 


Aidin . 


S., ^. C.G.H., If? B., 11. 
K.,^. To., If. 


347 


September 29, 1899. 


Ceram . 


S.,Ao_ C.G.H.,^. Ba.,^. 


381 


January 20, 1900 . 


Mexico 


TT .S9 T 14 V 13 
J\., yjj. -L., 3g. v., j^. 



These observations have been plotted upon squared paper, and their 
mean position determined. This is shown in fig. 1 as Curve No. III. 

On Curves I, II, and III, Jig. 1. — Although in fig. 1 we have three 
curves which have been obtained from partly independent data, it will 
be observed that any one of them might have been obtained from the 
other remaining two. Although errors exist in all our data, these are 
probably least in the figures relating to the arcual velocity of large 
waves and the duration of preliminary tremors. By subtracting the 
ordinates for the latter curve, marked III, from those of the first curve, 
marked II, the curve 1 6 is obtained. This should coincide with I a. It 
hardly does so ; but if the second incurvature of I a, lying between 50 and 
80 degrees, be effaced as probably doubtful the agreement between these 
two curves becomes closer. 



7. Earthquake Hecurrence. 

It Would be naturally expected that if the large waves of earthquakes 
were simply surface disturbances, we should find in the seismograras 
obtained at stations far distant from origins not only records of the 
waves which had travelled over the shortest paths, but also a record of 
those which had travelled in an exactly opposite direction. The suppo- 
sition that these latter records were without existence has been used as 
evidence in support of the hypothesis that all the movements of a large 
earthquake passed through the earth. Mr. R. D. Oldham, in his account 
of the Indian earthquake of 1897, however, shows thafc in the seismo- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



67 



grams obtained in Edinburgh, Shide, Leghorn, Eocca di Papa, and 
Catania there are excrescences succeeding the maxima movements at 



Fig. 1. 

70 ZO 30 40 60 €0 70 60 dO JOO IW 7W 130 ?40 JSO 360 770 MO 



m 



90 



60 



70 



60 



SO 



OC 



ZO 



W 



































/ 


/ 


































/ 


/ 




IOC 
































/ 




































/ 








9(7 




























/ 


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// 
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/ i 
t 










































































// 






































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b 












70 






















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/ 


































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/ 




































/ ' 






































/ / 






































/ 




































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/ 




































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/ 
















CO 




















/ / 






































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A 
































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/ 




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t 






























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/ 
































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p 
































/ 






































// 




/ 


































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/ 




















to 














/ / 




/ 






































































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/o 
































// 




/ 






































































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30 


<8 








/ 




/ 


























W 








'/ 




/ 


























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// 




/ 


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la 




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lb 


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9^ 




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--;:; 


~>^ 


























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w 




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*•/ 




































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^-F? 


Tees 





























io ZO 30 tw 60 60 70 60 90 too ijo /ZO lao iw 160 160 170 m 



Arcual Velocities. — la. Preliminary Tremors by direct observatiou ; lb. Preliminary Tremors 
deduced from Ila ami III ; Ila. Largo Waves if tlie Velocity is constant ; lib. Large 
Waves if the Velocity varies ; III. Intervals by which Preliminary Tremors outrace Large 
Waves. 



times we should expect them to occur on the supposition that they had 
travelled round the world from their origins on the longest paths. 

"Without discussing the merits of the particular seismograms here 
referred to, we must bear in mind that it is possible for body waves to 
give rise to repetitions by reflection just as easily as two trains of waves 

p3 



68 



REPORT — 1900. 



coming round the surface of the world in opposite directions. Further, the 
repetition at a given station as a reflection of a disturbance at the antipodal 
point of its origin might occur at an interval of time after the first move- 
ment not very different from that separatmg the two surface trains. 

Such a possibility indicates that seismic repetitions cannot be ex- 
clusively used to support the hypothesis of surface radiation. Examples 
of earthquake recurrences are given in the following table. The tirst 
column gives the numbers of the earthquakes in the British Association 
registers and their origins. Where the position of an origin is not 
known from observations made in its vicinity its latitude and longitude 
are determined by one of the methods described in the succeeding sections 
of this report (see pp. 79-80). Such determinations must only be re- 
garded as approximations. The second column gives the arcual degree- 
distances of the origins from the observing stations referred to in the 
third column by their initial letters. In this third column there is also 
noted the number of minutes' interval between the maximum motion and 
its apparent repetition. The fourth column gives the calculated distance 
of the observing station from the origin, and the nearness to which it 
approximates to the corresponding figures in the second column is evi- 
dently an indication of the value of these observations in determining 
seismic foci. The basis for these calculations is that a surface-wave 
travels 180 degrees in 105 minutes. In the last column the letters G, I, 
and B (good, indifferent, and bad) indicate that the determinations in the 
fourth column lie within 10°, 20°, or more than 20° from those in the 
second column, which latter figures, however, it must be remembered, are 
themselves but approximations. 







Repetition 


Distance to 




No. of Earthquake 
and its Origin 


Distance 
to Origin 


Interval 
in minutes 


Origin deter^ 
mined from 


Clial"acter of 
the Deter= 


in Degrees 


at a given 


Eepetition 


mination 






Station 


Interval 




119. Japan . 


o 

87 


m. 

85 S. 


o 

96 


G 


140. 


110 


105 S. 


82 


B 


278. 30" N. 70° W. 


60 


122 S. 


68 


G 


309. 60°N,ifcO°W. 


70 


132 S. 


62 


G 




70 


121 K. 


70 


G 




160 


144 C.G.H. 


52 


B 


333. W. of Alaska . 


16? 


212 V. 





G 




40 


159 T. 


40 


G 




70 


127 to 145 K. 


66 to 52 


G 


337. "W. of Alaska . 


40 


129 T. 


62 


B 




165 


75 C.G.H. 


108 


B 




77 


185 S.F. 


18 


B 


338. W. of Alaska . 


40 


163 T. 


38 


G 




165 


123 C.G.H. 


70 


B 




77 


128 S.F. 


66 


I 


343. Smyrna . 


25 


73 S. 


108 


B 


347. Ceram . 


121 


59 S. 


120 


G 




121 


78 K. 


106 


I 




105 


80 V. 


102 


G 


354. 5S. 130 E. or 
20 S. lOu E. 


120 


70 S. 


no 


G 




100 


63 C.G.H. 


116 


I 




no 


95 V. 


90 


I 


355. Like 354. 


120? 


60 S. 


118 


G 


364. 20°N. 170E.? 


100 


73 M. 


108 


G 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



69 



We have here twenty-four determinations, out of which thirteen are 
considered as being good, four as indifferent, and seven as bad. The three 
bad determinations for earthquake No. 337 may be explained by the 
assumption that we have here been dealing with markings due to second- 
ary shocks which simulated seismic repetitions, a view that is strengthened 
when we refer to the seismograms of this earthquake. It must also be 
noted that No. 337 was less than Nos. 333 or 338, from which it may bn 
inferred that the original impulse was not sufficiently great to give rise to 
duplications. The fact that the Cape of Good Hope records for 309 and 
338 are bad may arise from the circumstance that this station was within a 
comparatively short distance of the antipodes of these shocks, and there- 
fore any wave coming from that point would be eclipsed in the records of 
the main disturbance. The remaining two bad determinations may be 
explained in the same manner that those for No. 337 have been explained. 

The Victorian record for No. 333 is of particular interest as indicating 
that the time taken for an earthquake to travel round the world or to 
traverse two diameters slightly exceeds 210 minutes. 

When considering whether these repetitions are to be regarded as 
surface waves or as mass waves reflected from an antipodes, a feature not 
to be overlooked is their smallness. To illustrate this I here give a table 
for the thirteen good observations showing the amplitudes in millimetres 
of the primary disturbances and those of their repetitions, together with 
the arcual distance each may be supposed to have travelled. 





Primary 


Eepet 


ition 


B. A. No. 










Distance 


Amp. 


Distance 


Amp. 




o 


mm. 


o 


mm. 


119 


87 S. 


> 16 


273 


1-5 


278 


60 S. 


2-5 


300 


•5 


309 


70 S. 


3 


290 


•5 




70 K. 


2-5 


290 


•6? 


333 


20 V. 


>16 


340 


•75 




40 T. 


>17 


320 


•5 




70 K. 


10 


290 


•5? 


.^38 


40 T. 


>17 


320 


•75 


347 


121 S. 


3-5 


239 


1-5 




105 V. 


2 


255 


•5 


354 


120 S. 


2 


240 


•5 


.355 


120 S. 


1-5 


240 


•5 


361 


106 M. 


3 


254 


1 



It is satisfactory to note that the magnitude of these repetition ampli- 
tudes fairly accords with what might be anticipated (see p. 70). 

8. Amplitude in relation to Distance from an Oriiiin. 

In the following table amplitudes are expressed in millimetres and 
occupy a position corresponding to the numerator of a fraction, whilst in 
the position of a denominator distances from origins are expressed in 
degrees. Observing stations are indicated by their initial letter or letters. 

Inasmuch as there are reasons for believing that the instruments 
giving the subjoined records have not in all cases been adjusted to have 
the same frictional resistances and as these records are few, the result 
to which they point must bq received with caution. When they are 



70 



REPORT — 1900. 



plotted as curves it is seen that each has the same general character. 
The rate at which amplitude at first decreases is about '2 mm. per 
degree of travel. Earthquakes like Nos. 343 and 347 from whatever 
may have been their amplitude in the epifocal district, are reduced 
to an amplitude of 4 mm. after about 50° of travel. Larger earth- 
quakes, like Nos. 337, 344, and 345, travelled 80° or 90° before their 
amplitude sank to this quantity ; whilst the largest of all, Nos. 333 and 338, 
show an amplitude of more than 4 mm. after travelling nearly halfway 
round the world. From an amplitude of 4 or 5 mm. the rate of decrease 
becomes less and less. For example, the amplitude of No. 337 between 
77° and 105° falls from 5 mm. to 3 mm., or at the rate of "07 mm. per 
degree ; whilst from 105° to 165° the rate at which amplitude decreases 
has been "01 mm. per degree at travel. 



i 

250. Jtexico . 


s. 


c 

8U 


8U 


T. i 
34 


V. 


>17 

30 


— 




— 


— 




- 


— 


— 




— 


34 


34i. Alaska . 


S. 


5 

7(1 


— 


T.>17 
2U 




— 


— 


B. 


0-5 

ioo 


— 


M. 


•75 
145 


— 


— 




50 




345. ,. . 


s. 


711 


— 


T.>17 
20 




— 


— 


B. 


0-5 
105 


— 






— 


— 




— 


— 


333. „ . 


3. 


>17 


— 


T.>17 
40 


V. 


>L7 

20 


77 


B.>17 
105 


— 


M. 


>17 
145 


— 


C.G.H. 


10 
165 


--i 


— 


337. „ . 


— 


— 


— 


T. ^° 
40 




— 


S.F.i 
77 


B. 


3 

105 






- 


M." 
49 


C.G.H. 


2 
165 


— 


— 


338. „ . 


— 


— 


K. >17 
70 


T.>17 
40 




— 


S.P.LO 

77 


B. 


9 
105 


— 


M. 


4 
145 


— 


C.G.H. 


10 

165 


— 


- 


347. Ceram. 


S. 


2-5 
121 




— 


V. 


2 
105 


— 


B. 


1 
GJ 


Ba." 
22 


JI. 


1-5 

Y3" 


— 


C.G.H. 


0-5 
105 


-^- 


- 


1 
348. Smj-rna 


s. 


9 

25 


— 


■"^ 




— 


~ 


B. 


- 1 
43 





M. 


1 
65 





C.G.H. 


6 

■74 


-W 


— 



These slow rates of decrease indicate that it is reasonable to suppose 
that the large waves of earthquakes may reach distant stations by 
travelling in opposite directions round the world. 

If the large waves of earthquakes are merely surface waves, it would be 
expected that oceans would exert a marked damping effect upon their ampli- 
tude. Indications of this apparently exist in the records for earthquakes 
Nos. 337, 338, and 347 (also see eai'thquake 263, p. 81). In the first the 
amplitude for Toronto is greater than that observed in Mexico, the path 
to the former being across North America, and the latter being sub- 
oceanic. In No. 338 the record for Mauritius is less than that for the 
Cape of Good Hope. In No. 333 this condition is, however, reversed. 
Lastly, in No. 347 the Shide record, which refers to a comparatively long 
continental path, is greater than the records for Victoria, the Cape of 
Good Hope, Bombay, or Mauritius, the shorter paths to which are beneath 
oceans. Although, for reasons already stated, stress cannot be laid upon 
these observations, the latter at least suggests that we are dealing with 
surface waves rather than with mass waves. 



9. Arcual Velocity in relation to Surface Configuration of the Earth, 

With the object of determining whether large waves are propagated 
more quickly over continents than over ocean beds, whether the rate of 
transmission along mountain axes is greater than in directions transverse 
to the same, and generally to determine whether there are directions over 
or through our globe in which motion is transmitted more rapidly than in 
others, the following table has been prepared. The apparent surface 



TO(i Btfon Br<t. Attoc^ ISOa] 



[Platb.II) 



Tlf Larfr EartiputMa of 1880, 



f 




lUiutr^ny tht Heporl on Seigmohgieal Intxitigatimt. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAI- INVESTIGATION. 



71 



velocities indicated in kilometres per second are from the isoseist of the 
place indicated by its initial letter to the place beneath which it is written. 
These latter places in the top line are also indicated by their initial letters 
The letter O refers to a velocity measured between an origin and the 
place named in the upper line 





S. 

T. 3-1 
T. 3-2 
T. 3-2 
T. 2-7 
T. 2-9 
Ba. 2-3 

0. 2-6 


T. 


Y. 


SF. 


B. 


Ba. 


M. 


Me. 


CGH. 


To. 


0. 


250. Mexico . 

381. 

333. Alaska . 

337. „ . 

338. „ 
347. Ceram . 
343. Smyrna. 
193. Japan . 


Me. 2-7 

Me. 2-6 
V. 3-4 

0. 2-8 


Jle. 2-6 

Me. 2'6 

Ba. 2-1 


T. 3-1 
T. 31 
T. 31 

S. 0-3 


T. 3-6 
T. 3-C 
T. 3-4 
Ba. 2-6 

S. 2S 


0. 3-2 

T. 2-9 
T.2-3 


0. 3-2 

B.~2-l 

B. 2-5 
Ba. 21 

S. 2-1 


T. 2-3 

T. 2'7 


T. 3-4 
T. 3-5 
T. 3-7 
Ba. 2-5 
S. 3-1 


V. 3-7 

Ba. 2-6 
S. 3-7 


Ba. 2'8 



As it is difficult to picture the directions of great circle paths outside 
equatorial regions, these are shown with the above velocities and the 
earthquakes to which they refer in the accompanying map (Plate II.). A 
line not referred to in the above table is that for earthquakes numbered 
36, 83, 100, and 119, which originated in Japan and travelled to the Isle of 
Wight with an average velocity of 2 9 kms. per second. 

An inspection of the map (Plate I.) shows that the apparent velocities 
over long paths are greater than those over short paths. Velocities across 
the Pacific are apparently lower than those across the Atlantic, and those 
across Northern Asia to Shide are lower than those across North 
America to Shide. Between Mexico and Victoria along the stiike of 
the chief North American anticline the velocity of transmission is the 
same as that between Mexico and Toronto. Along paths terminating 
at the Cape of Good Hope the rate of transmission has been high, whilst 
on those terminating at Mauritius, excepting that referring to the long 
path for earthquake 250, the velocity of propagation appears to be low. 

There does not appear to be any indication that direction of propaga- 
tion is related to speed, and although earthquake 381 was larger than 250, 
and 333 and 33S were larger than 337, we do not .seem to have any 
definite evidence that velocity of propagation is connected with the 
intensity of the initial disturbance. 

Taking the results of this investigation generally, we are hardly in a 
position as yet to draw definite conclusions, and must wait for further 
observations. 



10. Earthquake Echoes. 

In the British Association Report for 1899, p. 227, I drew attention 
to the fact that in seismograms where a group of large vibrations corre- 
sponding to a shock or shocks at an origin is pronounced, this is frequently 
succeeded by a set of fairly similar movements. These latter impulses, 
which may be repeated, but with decreasing intensity, many times, I pro- 
visionally called earthquake echoes. Although earthquake repetitions (see 
pp. 66-69) which succeed their primaries at very irregular intervals may 
possibly be antipodean reflections of mass waves, they must not be con- 
founded with the so-called echoes which succeed the maxima movements 
at fairly regular intervals. 

The following table gives time intervals in minutes between a number 



72 



REPORT — 1900. 



of shocks and their first echoes, together with their respective amplitudea 
expressed in millimetres. These records are from similar instruments. 



B.A. No. 


Origin and its 


Amplitudes 


Interval 


Observing 


Distance 


Primary Echo 


Station 









mm. 


mm. 


Mins. 




.36 


Japan 


84 


5 


5 


9 


Shide 


66 


Tashkent 


46 


e 


4 


3 


jj 


83 


Japan 


87 


>7 


>7 


8 


»t 


119 


»» 


87 


17 


10 


7 


n 


157 


Hayti 


62 


2-5 


2-5 


7 


)) 


)1 


)» 


24 


6 


3 


3 


Toronto 


163 


Asia Minor 25 | 


3 


4 


5 


Shide. Record 














not clear 


189 


California 


75 


2 


3 


2 


)i 


>» 


j» 


or 


2 


1 


7 


»i 


193 


Japan „ 


86 


5 


3 


3 


)» 


250 


Mexico . 


80 


5 


5 


3 


»» 


)) 


jy • 


80 


6 


7 


7 


Kew. Doubtful 


»> 


J) 


34 


7 


8 


5 


Toronto 


»» 


j» 


30 


17 


9 


5 


Victoria 


322 


Concepcio 


a 


2-5 


1-5 


6 


Toronto 


333 


Alaska . 


20 


>17 


17 


22 


Victoria 


If 


>» 


40 


17 


12 


22 


Toronto 


J) 


»» 


70 


10 


7 


5 


Kew 


»» 


»» 


105 


17 


15 


4 


Bombay 


)» 


»» 


165 


7 


7 


9 or 20 


Cape of Good 
Hope 


♦ t 


i» 


77 


17 


10 


5 


San Fernando 


337 


11 


40 


18 


7 


25 


Toronto 


>» 


j» 


105 


3 


2 


3 


Bombay 


338 


)» 


40 


>17 


15 


25 


Toronto 


?J 


)) 


70 


17 


7 


5 


Kew 


)» 


19 


145 


4 


4 


8 


Mauritius 


tl 


11 


165 


11 


10 


17 


Cape of Good 
Hope 


1) 


»» 


105 


8 


7 


4 


Bombay 


?» 


)» 


49 


17 


7 


3 


Mexico 


343 


Smyrna 


25 


7 


8 


5 


Shide 


f> 


)) 


85 


3 


3 


3 


Tokio 


)» 




. 74 


7 


5 


5 


Cape of Good 
Hope 


it 


n 


. 43 


4 


4 


3 


Bombay 


l» 


,, 


. 25 


5 


5 


4 


Kew 


3i4 


Alaska 


. 70 


4 


3 


4 


Shide 


)» 


n 


. 20 


17 


7 


4 


Victoria 


345 


1 " 


. 70 


5 


4 


5 


Shide 


u 


1 

i '» 


. 20 


>17 


7 


4 


Victoria. Larger 
than 344 



381 Mexico. At Victoria and Toronto the chief motion is followed by 

three reinforcements at intervals of 3 minutes. At Kew 
there are two at intervals of about 3 minutes. 



The second group of waves, giving the large interval for the Cape of 
Good Hope in 333 and 338, may possibly refer to the motion which reached 
that station by the longest path round the earth. 

If so regarded, these entries do not refer to echoes, but to repetitions. 
The large entries for Victoria and Toronto on account of the comparative 
nearness of these places to the origins of earthquakes 333, 337, and 338, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 73 

cannot, however, be so regarded. Between these extremely large rein- 
forcements it must not be overlooked that there are others of less magni- 
tude separated by intervals of from two to four minutes. 

All that we can conclude from an inspection of the above table is 
that after all sensible motion of a large earthquake has ceased horizontal 
pendulums, whether they are situated near to its origin or at a great 
distance from the same, indicate that the earth waves at intervals of from 
two to six minutes show marked increments in amplitude. The earth- 
quake does not die out gradually, but by surgings. In its latter stages, 
for intervals of one or two minutes, the ground may be entirely at rest, 
after which movement recommences. This alternation of rest and move- 
ment may be repeated many times. 

If it can be admitted that large earthquakes result from the collapse 
of ill-supported portions of the earth's crust upon a more or less plastic 
layer beneath, it may be imagined that rest is attained by a series of more 
or less regular surgings, which are propagated to distant places to disturb 
horizontal pendulums in the way observed, 

11. The Nature of Large Waves. 

To explain the existence of the large waves of earthquakes we are 
at present left to choose between two hypotheses. One is that the 
large waves of earthquakes are disturbances travelling partly under the 
influence of gravity over the surface of our earth, and the latter that they 
represent the outcrop of distortional waves passing through its mass. 

Near to the origin of a large earthquake earth waves are visible ; some 
distance away their existence has been inferred from the wave-like motion 
seen on the tops of forests, at a distance of 300 miles, and even at very 
much greater distances the feeling occasioned by the moving ground is 
similar to that which is felt upon a raft moved by an ocean swell. 
Bracket seismographs, hanging pictures and lamps, water in vessels, ponds, 
and even in lakes, do not move with their natural periods, but are clearly 
influenced by a forced tilting. Finally, even as far as the antipodes of an 
origin, the character of motion assumed by horizontal and other pendulums 
shows that this is due to slow but repeated changes in the inclination of 
their supporting foundations. 

If we except the movements observed within the epifocal area, all the 
other movements are as explicable by the assumption of the outcrop of 
mass waves as they are by the assumption of surface radiation. 

The explanation that these waves have an increased velocity in their 
quadrantal region (assuming such to be the case) may perhaps rest on the 
fact that we are not dealing with radiation in uniformly widening rings, 
as would be the case over a plane surface. The condition in this region 
is such that energy is transferred from ring to ring, the diameters of which 
are but little different from each other. Radiation from a pole to its 
antipodes over a spherical surface may be likened to that of a wave which 
runs along a channel, which expands for half its length and then contracts. 

The phenomena which give the greatest support to the idea of surface 
radiation are, first, the existence of earthquake recurrences or waves which 
have travelled from an origin to a distant station in opposite directions 
round the world, the one arriving last having its amplitude reduced to 
expected dimensions ; and second, the observations which show that waves 
trftvelliog over a continental surface £|.re pot so rapidly reduced in magni- 



74 REPORT — 1900. 

tude as those which have been propagated over the beds of deep oceans. 
Were the large waves of earthquakes mass waves, it is assumed that the 
damping effect of oceanic waters would be insignificant. 

When considering the large waves to be distortional mass waves, an 
observation of importance is that they travel from their origin to their 
antipodes in about 110 minutes (see fig. 1). If the path was along a 
diameter, the average velocity of propagation must therefore have been 
1'9 km. per second, which is ^practically the so-called initial velocity. The 
close correspondence of these two velocities suggests the idea that there 
has not been any symmetrical change in the velocity of propagation of 
waves through the earth with regard to its centre, or, in other words, the 
large waves have had a diametral velocity which is practically constant. 
This idea of a constant velocity for all depths indicates that arcual and 
diametral velocities should be equal, which is not the case. An escape 
from the dilemma is to suppose that the large waves do not pass through 
the earth, but round its surface. 

12. Criticisms and Analyses by Dr. C. G. Knott. 

In reference to the conclusion implied in the last paragraph. Dr. Knott 
remarks that it does not necessarily follow from the premises, the initial 
speed referred to being an arcual speed, or a speed for short distances 
from an origin through the surface layers. When a disturbance travels 
straight down it very soon gets probably into more homogeneous materials 
beneath the crust. It may therefore be a mere coincidence that the 
average speed along a diameter may come out almost exactly the same as 
the arcual speed in the crust. 

The evidence seems to show that once you get into the nucleus proper, 
the speed of the large waves decreases with depth. But this does not 
prevent the speed suffering a distinct increase when the disturbance passes 
from the lower layei's of the crust into the higher layers of the nucleus. 
That the arcual speed should be 1"9 for small arcs, and then become on 
the average three when the arc is half a circumference, seems to be an 
immeasurably more difficult thing to understand than that the speed 
downwards should first increase and then decrease as the depth increases. 
A not improbable change in the nature of the material could easily 
account for the latter vai'iation ; but it is dithcult to see how a surface 
■wave of the size of the large waves could gain in speed as it ran round the 
earth. 

Writing more generally respecting the propagation of large waves, 
Dr. Knott says : — 

I have looked pretty carefully into your numbers and curves, and now 
I shall indicate some of my conclusions. As you have pointed out, the 
one doubtful point is the precise instant at which the disturbance began, 
also to some extent the exact position of the origin. I take your deter- 
minations as being as accurate as they can be obtained, and proceed to 
consider the speeds indicated. The accompanying tables will show you 
what I have tried to do. Take the Alaskan group, the most complete of 
all you have. It is gratifying to find how similar the results are for the 
three different earthquakes. The greatest discrepancy is in the two 
numbers for the Batavian records. It is curious that these time records 
do not fit well into the general scheme. Can there be any mistake 1 The 
arcual speed indicated is distinctly smaller than we find in all the other 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 75 

cases, except the case of Mauritius. If there is no mistake in calculating 
the times, then the disturbance travels comparatively slowly along the 
Alaskan Batavian route. This route, if it lies near the si(,rface, is almost 
wholly beneath the deeps of the North Pacific. But then, on the other 
hand, the Alaskan Mauritius route is also a comparatively slow route, 
and it lies further to the west, under Siberia, India, and the Indian 
Ocean. Still, these two routes are in the same quarter of the 
globe, so that a similar value for the speed is not unlikely. It may 
be not merely a question as to whether sea or land is overhead, but may 
depend on the general character of the rocky material. These two routes 
left out of accouiit, there is a very striking constancy in the value of the 
arcual speed calculated for these various routes. In the four routes to 
Shide, San Fernando, Bombay, and Cape of Good Hope, the great circles 
pass all very near the poles. It is beautiful to see how well these four 
polar routes agree, With the somewhat scanty material you have to 
hand, I doubt if you would be at all warranted in making any deductions 
as to variations of speed. The Alaskan results suggest a constant value 
for the arcual speed. The same constancy is indicated in the Mexican 
earthquakes, but the value comes out distinctly smaller than in the Alaskan 
quakes. Why is this 1. Still thinking of great-circle routes, we see that 
there cannot be much difference between the Mexican Batavian and the 
polar routes from Alaska, unless, of course, the former goes pi'eferably by 
way of the South Pole. But that possibility is not considered in calcu- 
lating the speeds. If we took it that way the speed would come out 
larger in the ratio of 210 to 150 or 7 '5, giving 1-9 instead of 1*4, a 
remarkable coincidence truly. The Mauritius number will also be 
increased in much the same ratio. But what are we to make of the 
others ? No, I think we must get at an explanation of the much smaller 
speeds associated with the Mexican earthquakes in some other way. Is 
it possible that the depth of the seismic focus might have something to 
do with it ? Have you any facts to guide you to an estimate of the 
probable depth ? 

And now pass on to the Ceram quake. Here the constancy, so marked 
a feature in the other cases, no longer holds. There is an undoubted in- 
crease in the arcual speed over the longer arcs. The most striking feature 
is the smallness of the Mauritius route speed as compared with that 
associated with the Cape of Good Hope route ; for there cannot be much 
difference in the routes for the greater part of the way. But did not 
Mauritius give a too small value in the Alaskan earthquake also 1 Again, 
I ask, is there no possibility of an error in the time estimate 1 Ceram 
Victoria and Mexico Batavia give approximately the same value for the 
arcual speed — a point which tells in favour of the accuracy of the time 
estimates, for the routes are very different in the two cases. Leaving out 
of account all but the broad features, we may conclude that the speeds 
(arcual) associated with the Alaskan are distinctly greater than those 
associated with the Mexican and Ceram earthquakes- But I confess I 
can give no satisfactory explanation of this, nor can I see why Batavia 
and Mauritius should give smaller values than the others in the Alaskan 
group, and why Cape of Good Hope and Shide should give comparatively 
large values in the Ceram group. 

And now let us see what comes of taking the chord as the approximate 
path of shortest time. Interpreted in this way the results indicate that 
the waves must go diametrically through the earth at a much slower average 



76 REPORT— 1900. 

rate than along a course near the surface. Thus, from the Alaskan group 
■we should infer an average diametrial speed of about 2-2 km. per sec. ; 
from the Mexican group about 1*8 ; and from the Ceram group about 
2*5. This suggests that the speed of propagation along a diameter de- 
pends upon the particular diameter considered-^a very curious result 
surely, unless, of course, the depth of the focus below the surface be very 
different in the different cases. 

As regards the general question of the diminution of speed at greater 
depths, all we can say is that it is not impossible. True, the result is un- 
expected, seeing that there can be little doubt that the preliminary tremors 
travel quicker at the greater depths. But then it is also certain that the 
elastic constants involved in the transmission of the two types of waves must 
be essentially different, and there is no necessity for them to obey similar 
laws of variation with depth. In my ' Scottish Geographical Magazine ' 
article I pointed out that the bulk modulus might increase at a much 
quicker rate than the density, whereas the rigidity might increase at much 
the same rate. To meet the new need we have merely to assume that the 
rigidity does not increase so quickly as the density. We know that the 
density increases with the depth, and we know nothing whatever about 
the elastic constants except what we learn from seismic phenomena. It 
was, in fact, with feelings of surprise that we first recognised the high 
speeds of earthquake disturbances through the body of the earth. That 
another type of wave should travel more slowly at the greater depths 
should not therefore be matter of any surprise, although certainly re- 
markable. 

The hypothesis that the large waves really pass along brachistochronic 
paths seems to require that the speed diminishes with distance from the 
centre. This means that the paths are convex outwards, concave towards 
the centre. Hence the paths to points within 90° of the origin will tend 
to follow more or less closely the arc of the outer crust. When the arcual 
distance exceeds the quadrant, then the paths begin to pass through deeper 
parts of the earth, and the fall off in the value of the average speed be- 
comes more apparent. This is precisely what is indicated in the values 
deduced from the Alaskan group, since it is not till the arc exceeds 105° 
that the value of the calculated average speed shows marked diminution. 
The Mexican group shows the same feature, but not so the Ceram earth- 
quake. Still it is only one against five, and we shall be safer in following 
the five. 

Comparing the two hypotheses, the surface wave and the brachisto- 
chronic path, we see that up to distances of a quadrant or so they give 
much the same result, because the brachistochronic path is largely con- 
fined to the surface layers. As regards greater distances the evidence in 
hand is not very clear. Increased ' arcual speed ' is hinted at, and this, 
if it exist, is a serious stumbling-block in the way of accepting the surface 
wave theory. But at best the increase is small, and, except in the case of 
the Ceram quake, really too small to build any conclusions upon. I should 
rather be inclined to say that the evidence so far is in favour of a practi- 
cally constant ' arcual speed ' over all distances. But I still entertain 
strong suspicion of the possibility of surface waves of the magnitude re- 
quired being transmitted over the earth's surface. If we take the values of 
the arcual speeds in the Ceram earthquake as being accurate, we meet 
what seems to me to be an insurmountable difficulty in the surface wave 
theory. On the other hand, we have no insurmountable diflBculties if we 



TOtk Bipert Brit. Anoc^ 190a] 



[Plate- ml 



^/fmr^t Atib c--" Lfe Layr Watet of EartX^yaXafrmnJit* angiru {atdieated by cirelfn) to renput obterrii^ »l 



f 




lUiutraiing (A« Rrpcnl mi Seitmologieal /nvettigalion. 



ON SElSMOLOGtiCAL INVESTIGATION. 



11 



take the other theory, although there are diflSculties of detail that are 
somewhat troublesome. I do not think we are in a position as yet to 
make any serious calculations. We must get more data and look all round 
them before engaging in complicated calculations. 



Character of path in three cases on the assumption that the path is not along the 
chord, but more approximately along the arc. 



Victoria . 

Toronto . 

Mexico 

Shide 

San Fernando 

Bombay . 

Batavia 

Mauritius . 

Cape of Good Hope 



Alaskan, 

Under sea. 

Half sea, half land. 

Half sea, half land. 

Mostly sea, polar archipelago, Greenland 1 

Half sea and land, largely polarj 

Mostly land, Siberia, Tibet. 

Deep sea, east of Asia. 

Siberia, India, Indian Ocean; 

Polar sea, Europe, Africa. 



Victoria 
Toronto 
Shide 

Batavia 
Mauritius , 



Mexico. 

Under N. America. 

>» >i 

Skirting E. of N. America and then under 

Atlantic. 
N. America, Pole, Asia. 
N. America, Pole, Russia, Persia, Indian 

Ocean, or by way of S. Pole. 



Batavia . 
Mauritius . 
Victoria . 
Cape of Good Hope 
Shide 



Ceram. 

East India Archipelago, 
Indian Ocean. 
Pacific Ocean. 
Indian Ocean. 
India, Persia, Europe. 



Alaskan Earthquakes (333, 327, 338), 
Assuming constant speed for small distances, we find 9 min. as the 



time from the origin to Victoria 



Hence the following table : — 















Speed 




Aro 




Chord 


Time 


of Passage 


















in Min. 


Arc Degrees 


Chord 


Arc Radians 












Min. 


Min. 


Min. 


Victoria . 


6 

16 


•28 


9 




1^8 


•031 


•031 


Toronto . 


40 


•68 


22 


22 22 


1^8' 


•31 


•31 


Mexico . 


49 


•83 





29 28 


1-7 


•29 


•30 


Shide 


YO 


115 


39 


42 41 


1-8 


•29 


•31 


San Fernando 


77 


1-25 


44 


44 44 


1^75 


■28 


•305 


Bombay 


105 


1-59 


55 


65 57 


1-9 


•28 


•33 


Batavia 


108 


1-C2 




65 75 


r 1-66 \ 

1 1-44 J 

1-63 


•23 


— 


Mauritius 


145 


1'91 


90 


— 88 


•215 


•284 


Cape of Good Hope 


165 


1-98 


88 


89 83 


1-9 


•226 


•33 



78 



REPOM— 1900. 



Mexico (250, 381). 
Assuming 21, 22 mins. as times from origins to Victoria 



Arc 


Chord 


Time in Min. 


Arc Degrees 

Min. 


Chord 
Min. 


Victoria . . 30-32 
Toronto . . 84-36 
Shide . . . 80-83 
Batavia . .150 
Mauritius . . 160 


•52--55 

•o8--62 

l-29-l'33 

1-93 

1-97 


21-22 

23-27 

52-54 

108 

113 


1-4 

1-4 

1-52 

1-39 

1-41 


•025 

•25 

•25 

•18 

•175 



Ceram (.347). 
Time calculated as in Alaskan earthquake. 



Arc 


Chord 


Time 


Arc Degrees 
Min. 


Chord 
Min. 


o 

Batavia ... 22 
Mauritius . . 73 
Victoria . . .105 
Cape of Good Hope. 105 
Shide . . .121 


•38 
1-19 
1'59 
1-59 
1-74 


Min. 
14 
47 
74 
Gl 
71 


1-57 
1-55 
1-42 
1-72 
■1-71 


•027 

•25 

•22 

•26 

•246 



chord 1 arc radians „ , j j j. kilom. , i.- i • i i ao 

— , — and , may be reduced to by multiplying by rOb 

min. mm. sec. 



arc degrees 



1-84 



mm. 



It will be noted that there are certain slight differences between the 
figures used in this last table and those in the table on p. 81. These, 
however, do not produce any appreciable effect upon the general character 
of the investigations which have been made. 



13. The Origin of Large Earthquakes xohich were recorded in the 
Isle of Wight in the Year 1899, 

In 1899, at Shide, in the Isle of Wight, 130 earthquakes were recorded. 
One hundred and five of these were also recorded at one or more of the 
following places: Kew, Toronto, Victoria (B.C.), San Fernando, Bombay, 
Madras, Calcutta, Mauritius, Batavia, Cape of Good Hope, Tokio, Cairo, 
and Mexico. There is no doubt that many of these were also recorded 
at other observatories, but from these registers have not yet been 
received. 

The localities at which a certain number of these earthquakes originated 
have been determine^d with a fair amount of accuracy. Other determina- 
tions are somewhat indefinite, whilst a large residuum of comparatively 
small disturbances have been grouped as having originated somewhere in 
the vicinity of the one or two stations at which they were recorded. 

The results exhibited in map (Plate III.) are therefore of varying values, 
and although they give a general idea as to the distribution of seismic 
activity for 1899, they are chiefly of interest as. illustrating the character 
of the more definite information which we may expect to derive from 
the extension of the present system of observation. 



ON SElSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 79 

The methods and considerations which have led to these determina- 
tions have been as follows : 

(1). Determination of Oi'igins by Comparisons bettoeen Time Intervals, 

Earthquakes from the same district will arrive at distant observing 
stations at times the differences between Avhich will be constant. If, for 
example, we have once determined the difference in time at which an 
earthquake originating off the coast of Japan arrives at Batavia, Bombay, 
Cape of Good Hope, Shide, &,c., whenever these differences are repeated 
at four or more stations, without knowing anything about observations 
in Japan, we can at once say where such an earthquake has originated. 
It will be noted that our knowledge respecting the speed with which earth- 
quake motion is transmitted enables us to give approximate values for the 
time differences here considered. 

(2). Bij the Difference in the Times at ivhich the Maximum Motion 
has been recorded at differerd Stations. 

In the present state of our knowledge all determinations of the position 
of oi-igins from time intervals require the assumption that the velocity of 
propagation of earthquake movement is constant. This condition is most 
neai-ly fulfilled by the large waves of earthquakes. The methods by 
which an earthquake origin may be determined from the differences 
between the times at which it was recorded at distant stations are several. 
The method of circles which is here employed has been selected chiefly on 
account of its comparative simplicity in application. It is briefly as 
follows : If the large waves of an earthquake reacli stations B, C, D, &c., 
four, ten, twenty, cfec, minutes after reaching station A, then the centre 
of a circle which passes through A and touches circles drawn round B, C, 
D, &c., the radii of which are respectively 4 x 1°'6, 10 x 1°"6, 20 x 1°'6, kc, 
will be the centre of the origin required. The constant l°-6 means 
that the arcual velocity for large waves is taken at 1°"6 per minute, or 
approximately 3 km. per second. In the British Association Report for 
1899, p. 193, the speed there given was 2*5 km. per second, which appears 
to be too low. The operation of drawing these circles is carried out 
on a ' slate ' globe. For a complete solution observations are required 
from at least four stations. With only three observations we are left to 
choose between two possible centres, but as these may be widely separated 
there is usually but little difficulty in selecting the one required. 

(3). By the Time Intervals between the Arrival of Preliminary Tremors 
and Maximum Movement. 

From what has been said respecting preliminary tremors and large 
waves it may be inferred that the interval in time between the appearance 
of these two phases of earthquake motion at a given station has a relation 
to the distance of that station from the origin. This relationship is shown 
in fig. 1. An observer with this curve before him, although his time- 
keeper may have failed, or although he may be so situated that it is 
impossible to obtain accurate time, is immediately able to determine from 
a well-defined seismogram the distance at which the motion it represents 
originated. With this fact, the magnitude of his record, and a knowledge 
of the physical configuration of districts from which earthquakes originate, 
he is frequently able to locate an origin. With time records from several 



80 



REPORT — 1900. 



Btationa the distances corresponding to each of them from an origin ai*e 
read from tlie curve, and by the intersection of these on a globe seismic 
foci are determined with greater certainty. 



By the Intervals represented by Seismic Recurrences. 

a seismogram shows the interval of time between a 



(4) 
Whenever 
hiaximum movement and a distinct reinforcement of vibratrions which can- 
not be accounted for as forming part of the gradually decreasing surgings 
following the principal disturbance, this interval enables us to state the 
distance of the origin from the station at which the seismogram was 
obtained. Opportunities to apply this method are not frequent 
(see p. 68). 

14. The Application of the above Methods to the Records for 1899. 

To carry into eflFect the method of determining origins by comparisons 
of time differences, the following eleven tables have been prepared. In 
these the 105 Shide records are referred to by their British Association 
register number and their date. For each of these the time intervals 
between the arrival of maximum motion at the station beneath which a 
fcero is placed and its arrival at other stations are given in minutes.' In 
those instances where the time at which an earthquake originated is 
approximately known, as in Table I., the zero is placed beneath the 
word ' origin.' So far as possible the various earthquakes have been 
analysed according to the localities from which they originated. When 
the time intervals in a series are less than three in number, the location 
of an origin is sometimes doubtful. A dash beneath a station indicates 
that an earthquake was observed, but for reasons which are various 
the time of its maximum could not be determined. A query indicates 
that an observation is uncertain. 











Table I. West Pacific. 


Japan. 














d 


o 

•a 






m 






& 
^ 






— 


1 

CQ 




o 
i 


'C 
o 


i 

a 


1 

a 


.3 

> 

1 


*3 


1 


3 


'^3 
O 


o 
'rf 


Origlil 








H 


o 


C5 


« 


w 


s 


O 


O 














> 


^ 












s. 








87 


87 


90 


62 






57 


102 


62 


52 


o 






Distance in 


100 


65 


136 


87 





degrees 




























Expected time 


57 


57 


59 


38 


65 


43 


35 


66 


38 


35 


85 


57 





to travel in 




























mms. 


57 


58 





32 


68 




14 


51 


37 











3G6. Nov. 24 . 


37 


68 


60 


Japan 


364. Nov. 23 . 


— 


20? 


58 


32 


64 


40 


31 


54 


54 


— 


J 54 
( or 85 


[- 


n 


360. Nov. 18 . 


46 


-^ 








— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






»» 


357. Nov. 10 . 


50 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


311. JiUv 17 . 

















__ 


19 








— 





— 


n 


307. July 11 . 


17? 


— 


17 


39? 


— 


— 


17 


21 


— 


— 


— 


— 


It 


306. July 10 . 


53 


— 


— 


— 


— . 


48 


— 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


295. .Tune 17 . 


— 


— 


58 


— 


_ 


67? 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Plnhppiues ? 


263. March 7 . 


58 


58 


68 


23 


— 


47 


17 


42 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Japan 


323. Aug. 3 . 


67 


— 


20 


21 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


" 



The above earthquakes were recorded by seismographs in Japan, and therefore originated in or near 
that country. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



81 



In very many of these entries there must be errors, the reasons for 
the existence of which have already been explained. The values of these 
vary between a fraction of a minute and several minutes. 

Where origins are known from observations made near to the same 
these are stated. 

The geographical positions of these origins are shown in map (Plate II.). 
Some of the entries on this, particularly those for the Atlantic and 
Indian Ocean, are conjectural, whilst others may be taken as correct. 
The reliance which can be placed upon any particular determination is 
shown in the table of time intervals on which the same is founded. 

263. This earthquake, which is described in the British Association 
Eeport, 1899, p. 212, and was recorded in Tokio at Oh. 59m. 29s. G.M.T. 
March 7, is of interest as showing that the amplitudes of motion recorded 
at Shide and Kew were greater than those recorded at Toronto, whilst at 
Victoria, the nearest station to the origin, but reached by a sub-oceanic 
path, it was the smallest of all (see p. 70). 

Other earthquakes, approximately corresponding to entries in the 
Tokio register, and which may therefore have originated near to Japan, 
are Nos. 271, 286, 314, and 363. Noa. 351 and 352 may have originated 
to the east of Japan, about 40° N. lat. and 160° E. long. 





Table II. JFest Equatorial 


Pacific. 


East Indies. 














o 












o 














o 


^3 












M 






— 






a 
o 

s 


1 
> 




1 

a 

o 


a 

1 




1^ 


c3 

3 


o 

o 

CJ 

C3 


o 

3 


Remarks 
























U 






Distance in 


121 


121 


136 


105 


132 


62 


22 


73 


53 


60 


105 


47 


These entries re- 


degrees 


























late to the 


Expected time 


76 


76 


85 


66 


84 


38 


16 


45 


33 


32 


66 


29 


origin. 


intervals 




























347. Sept. 29 | 


70 
or 57 


70 1 
or57 [ 


f 


73 
or 60 


30 
or 17 


28) 
oris ; 


o| 


40 
or33 


}- 


18 

or 5 


60 
or47 


18 
or 5 


According as the 
Batavian max. 
is 17-11 or 17-24 


247. Jan. 12 . 


G3 













? 





, 














_ 


298. Jime 24 . 


67 


— 


56 


71 


— 


13 





15 


— 


— 


— 


— 





299. June 29 . 


60 


— 


— - 


71 


— 


7 





— 


9 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


;ilO. July 17 . 


63 


— 


35? 


48 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


321. Aug. 4 . 


55 


26 { 


21 
or41 


18 1 
or58[ 


32 


13 





42 


11 


12 


58 


— 


— 


332. Aug. 24 . 


71 


70 


52 


35 


13 


— 





49 


— 


— 


59 


— 





354. Oct. 19 ■ 


64 
or 68 


- — 


— 1 


56 
or 52 


}- 


— 


o| 


40 
or36 


■ — 


— 1 


50 
orlG 


■ 6 


— 


355. Oct. 24 . 


61 




91 


61 




_ 





35 








46 


— 


' 



347. Dr. J. P. van der Stok in the ' Kon. Akad. van Wettenschappen 
te Amsterdam,' Nov, 25, 1899, tells us that in the night of Septem- 
ber 29-30, at 1.45 a.m. (September 29, 17h. 9m. G.M.T.), an earthquake, 
followed by sea waves, damaged the south coast of Ceram, and, in less 
degree, the islands of Ambou, Banda, and the Ulias Isles. Several 
villages on the south coast of Ceram were destroyed — in Elpapoeti Bay 
all except two. The prison at Amahei was completely destroyed, and the 
fortifications partly so. 

Dr. R. D. M. Verbeek gives an account of this earthquake in the 
1900. G 



82 



REPORT — 1900. 



' Javasclie Courant/ 1900, No. 21. He gives Amahei time for the shock 
as Ih. 42-2m., and that for Wahei as ± Ih. 43m. (17h. 7m. G.M.T.). At 
the former place five to ten minutes after the shock, the coast was flooded 
by a sea wave. This inundation, to a height of 1 '7 to 9 metres, was also 
experienced at other places along the south coast of Ceram. At Banda, 
187 km. .south-east from Elpapoeti Bay, the water began to rise about 
half an hour after the shock. At Kawa, at the west end of Ceram, and 
at other places, strips of alluvium were submei-ged. Dr. Verbeek places 
the centrum a few miles inland to the west of Elpapoeti Bay, on the line 
of a fault running parallel to the south coast of Ceram. 

The time intervals between the shock and the sea wave observed at 
Amahei indicate an origin at a distance of -o to 1 degree from that place. 
This would probably be sub-oceanic, and on the face of the Webber Deep, 
where soundings have been obtained of 4,000 fathoms. As it is possible 
that there may have been a bodily displacement of materials lying between 
Ceram and the Webber Deep, this does not interfere with Dr. Vei'beek's 
fault line. The time at the origin may therefore be taken as lying 
between 17h. 7m. and 17h. 9m. If the maximum observed at Batavia 
took place at 17h. 24m., and the movement took 15 minutes to reach 
that place, we again reach the conclusion that the time at the origin 
was about 17h. 9m. G.M.T. 

Table III. Mid-Indian Ocean. 



— 


Shide 


Toronto 


Batavia 


Madras 


288. May 1.5 

313. July 20 

319. July 29 


56 

42? 

45 


39 







61 



Table IV. 


North-east Pacijic 


West of Alaska 






























a 
















d 


o 

-3 












w 








— 


3 
la 
cc 




o 

1 


w 

> 


i 

a 


1 


.a 

PI 


1 


1 

a 


! 


o 

a 

o 

<D 

P. 

O 


V 


1 


Remarks 


Distance in de- 


70 


70 


40 


20 


77 


100 


108 


145 


105 


90 


165 


49 


50 


These en- 


grees 




























tries refer 


Expected time in- 


44 


44 


25 


14 


48 


63 


68 


92 


67 


57 


104 


31 


32 


to the 


tervals 




























origin. 


333. Sept. 3 . 


30 


30 


,13 

128? 


}« 


36 


47 




81 






(100, 
'89 79 


}- 


(17 
16 


} 


337. Sept. 10 . 


20 


20 







22 


34or33 


50or43 


• 


39or38 





69or67 


7 


— 


Small 


338. Sept. lu . 


20 


19 





— 


22 


35 


53 


64 


— 


— 


Gl 


6 


— 


— 


246. Jan. 12 . 


23 





13 





_ 


? 






_ 


_ 


. 


_ 


__, 





266. Marcli 19 


30 





9 











. . 





__ 


21 


— 


— 


— 


— 


282. April 16 . 


31 


39 


15 














94 


,_ 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


334. Sept. 4 . 


— 




9 





36 










— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


341. Sept. 16 . 


16 


18 





— 


21 











__ 


— 


64 


— 


— 


— 


342. Sept. 17 . 


27 


27 


10 





34 


47 


. , 





48 


— 


76 


— 


— 


— 


344. Sept. 23 . 


25 


31 


11 





35 


50 


60 


77? 





— 


72 


— 


27 


— 


345. Sept. 23 . 


33 


37 


17 





38 


63 






, — 


— 


87 


— 


— 


— 


309. Julv 14 . 


11 


11 


9 





14 


13 




11' 








35 








BehringSea 


317. JiUy 27 . 


11 


"" 


6 









— 




— 


— 




— 


— 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



8^ 



Nos. 333, 337, and 338. In the 'Toronto World 'of September 25 we 
read that on September 3, about 2.30 p.m., houses in Yakuta Bay were 
rocked violently, doors were slammed, dishes rattled, and tables moved. 
On September 10, about eight o'clock, a more violent movement occurred. 
Trees swayed, and there were slight shakes every few minutes. Just as 
the earthquake ceased tidal waves came rolling in. There were three of 
these waves following each other at intervals of about five minutes. The 
rise was 15 feet from low tide to a foot above the highest tide point. 
On the island of Ivanak, opposite Yakuta, a graveyard sank so that on 
the next day a boat was able to row over the place where it had been, 
and the tops of the submerged trees could be seen. 

These shocks disturbed the declinometer, duplex, and vertical force 
magnetographs in Toronto. 

Scanty as these notes are, they apparently indicate an origin somewhat 
to the east of that shown in Plate III. 

The period of the earth waves for No. 333 as recorded at Shide was 
15 seconds, whilst the maximum angle of tilting was 8". With a velocity 
of 3 km. per second, and the assumption that the motion is simple harmonic, 

so that the height of the waves=-— • tan a, where ^=len2th of wave and 

* 27r *= 

a=maximum angle of tilting, we may conclude that these waves were 
45 km. in length and 29 cm. in height. With periods of at first 40 and 
afterwards 15 seconds for the disturbance recorded in the Isle of Wight 
on September 10, No. 338, it would appear that at first there were waves 
120 km. long and 39 cm. high, followed by others 45 km. long and 43 cm. 
high. Whether we can accept vertical displacements of this order repre- 
senting accelerations not unf requently ^^ of gravity is yet suh judice, and 
an experiment to confirm or modify these conclusions is now in progress. 







Table V 


East Mid-Pacijic. 


West of Mexico. 












6 


o 












1 

W 




— 


■3 




1 

2 

Q 


1 

> 


1 

a 






]I3 


1 


a 
B 

CS 

o 


o 

o 

6 


Origin 


Distance in 


84 


84 


34 


80 


86 


148 


150 


1G8 


148 


138 


138 





degrees 


























Expected time 


52 


52 


22 


20 


54 


93 


95 


105 


93 


87 


87 





intervals 


























250. Jan. 2i . 


31 


31 


3 











92 








Mexico 


381. Jan. 20 . 


— 


32 


2 





— 


— 


8G 


— 


— 


— 


— 




248. Jan. 14 . 


37 


J 31 or 
( 35 


. 







— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 




321. Aug. 2 . 


30 


30 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Concepcion ? 


294? June 14 . 


32 


30 





34 


16 


70 


— 


72 


— 


— 





Jamaica ? 


371. Dec. 25 . 


47 


47 


16 


9 


60 





— 




— 


— 


75 


S. California 



250. The key to the origin of this group is given by earthquake No. 250. 
From Sefior Jose Zandizas, director of the observatory in Mexico, we 
learn that it took place on January 24, 1889, at approximately llh. 
45.5m. P.M. It was severe, caused some damage, but it cannot be siad 



84 REPORT — 1900. 

to have been very strong. It was felt over the whole republic At 
Colinia, on the Pacific side, it had a duration of Im. 20s., and on the 
Atlantic side, at Vera Cruz, it lasted 10s. 

By the method of circles and by the method of preliminary tremor 
intervals I place the origin at a point 30° distant from Victoria, and 34° 
from Toronto, or near to lat. 19° N. and 105° W. long. On January 20, 
1900, 'No. 381 was recorded in Mexico with time intervals similar to 
those for No. 250. The preliminary tremor intervals for this referring to 
Victoria, Toronto, and Kew read 13, 15, and 38 minutes, indicating that 
the Kew reading for No. 250 is the lower of the two values given. 

The time readings for 248 clearly correspond with that for an earth' 
quake with a similar origin. 

294. An origin S.W. of Jamaica roughly agrees with the time differ- 
ences between Toronto, Victoria, and Shide, and the preliminary tremors 
duration for Kew and Toronto. 

371. In 'Nature,' April 19, 1900, we read that on December 25, at 
12.25, an earthquake took place in S. California. In the villages of San 
Jacinto and Hermet every brick building was damaged. 

Professor F. Stupart sends me the following extract from a newspaper 
clipping : 

Los Angeles, Cal., December 25, 1899. 

The towns of San Jacinto and Hernet, in Riverside County, were 
badly shaken by an earthquake at 4.25 o'clock this morning. In San 
Jacinto not a brick house or block escaped injury. Nearly all of the 
business portion is in ruins. The new Southern California Hospital caved 
in. It was not occupied. At Hernet the Hornet's Company mill is 
partly down. The front wall fell flat. The rear of the large Johnston 
block also toppled over. Hernet's new hotel is a ruin. The damage at 
those places cannot be estimated now. Communication by wire is inter- 
rupted. The ' Herald ' has received a telegram from San Bernardino saying 
that six Indians were killed at Hernet by falling walls during the earth- 
quake. The Santa Fe raUroad report is to the effect that no lives were 
lost. 

Los Angeles, December 25. — The total damage at San Jacinto and 
Hernet is estimated at ^50,000. No person was injured at either place so 
far as known. The shock was heavy at Santa Ana, Anheim, San 
Bernardino, Riverside, and other places, but no particular damage is 
reported except from San Jacinto and Hernet. In this city no damage 
was done, though the shock was particularly violent. The houses here 
are well filled with Eastern tourists, and they were in many instances 
terrified at the unexpected disturbances, and rushed from their rooms. 

San Diego, Cal., December 25. — The most severe shock of earthquake 
experienced in this city in fourteen years took place at 4.25 a.m. to-day, 
and was accompanied by a loud rumbling noise. The taller buildings 
in this city were severely shaken, but no serious damage was done. A 
high wave struck the beach ocean front, but no ^damage was done. A 
slight shock followed the first a few seconds later. 

268. The time intervals for Shide, Victoria, Bombay, and Toronto 
suggest an origin near to that given for 322, with which the preliminary 
tremors for Victoria and Mauritius accord. In the British Association 
Report for 1899 this origin was placed on the western side of the 
Atlantic, but additional data having since been obtained this is now 
modified. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 85 

Table VI. South-East Pacific. West Coast South America. 





■2 




t 

o 
H 


d 

M 

1 


a 
u 


a 

o 


■ cl 




n 


c3 


Origin 


322. Aug. 2 . 
321. „ 2 . 

268. Mar. 23 . 

269. „ 23 . 

270. „ 25 . 

278. April 12 . 

279. „ 13 . 

291. June 5 . 

292. „ 5 . 


25 
30 

10 
22 
35 or 8 
26 
21 
33? 
23 


23 
30 

14 
29 

? 

36 
31 


30 







0? 












11 

2U 
14 
20 
14 
15 
15 


? 


41 


u 


23 


43 
44 


9j 


Concepcion. 
Chili? SeeW. 

of Mexico. 

list V. 
S.E. Pacific. 

W. of Chili 



322. The time intervals indicate a possible origin, about 80° due south 
from Toronto, or off the south coast of South America, near Concepcion. 
As this earthquake is not a large one, the whole of the preliminary tremors 
have not been recorded, and therefore these indications may be neglected. 

The similarity of the seismograms for this earthquake and that for 
321, together with the fact that they succeeded each other within two 
hours, suggest a similar origin, and Professor F. Stupart, of Toronto, 
writes me to the effect that it is probable that both originated off the 
South American coast. 



Table VII. North Atlantic. North Noricay to Spitsbergen. 





<v 

CO 




a 
g 


d 
m 

3 
> 


o 



a 


a 


03 


1 




Calcutta 


p. 
o 

w 

■a 

o 

OJ 

a, 
O 


2 


Origin 


252. Jan. 31 

254. Feb. 23 

255. „ 26 











12 
15 


16 
19 

20 


— 


? 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





Table VIII. Equatorial Atlantic. 



308. July 12 





10 


8 


40 


2 36 


— 


23 


84 


- 


— 


— 


— 





Table IX. JVestei-n Central Asia. 


Turkey 


in A I 


da. 






343. Sept. 20 
373. Dec. 31 



4 


2 



33 
31 


40 10 
40 5 


14 


— 


34 
14 


— 


— 


29 
26 


30 
-6 


Smvrna 
Tiflis 



343. From 'Nature,' January 25, 1900, we learn that more than 1,600 
persons were killed, more than 2,000 were injured, whilst 11,000 houses 
were destroyed. The epicentre was in the Meander Valley, between Aidin 
and Sarakijn. Along a line of sixty miles in this valley there are many 



86 



REPORT — 1900. 



damaged towns and villages. This valley and the Legens Valley have 
subsided from 2 to 6 feet. The railway line between Aidin and Omourlou 
was raised fully one yard. 

373. From 'Nature,' January 25, 1900, we learn that the earthquakes 
of December 31 destroyed many houses at Akhalkalaki (Transcaucasia). 
Here and in ten neighbouring villages over 200 people perished. At the 
Tiflis Physical Observatory the following observations were made. In 
Greenwich mean time the first shock was at lOh. 51 •4m. It was severe 
in the hilly part of the city, on the right bank of the river Kura. The 
second shock was feeble and noted at 13h. 39"5m. The third shock was 
not noted by the seismograph at the observatory on the left bank of the 
Kura, but was noted at 17h. 45m. on the right bank. At Kalagelan the 
first was observed at lOh. 49m., and at Sviri and Zugdidi at llh. 23m. 
The latter places are on the Kars Railway. At the railway stations, 
Abasturaan and Kobi, the times were 13h. 51m. and llh. 2ra. 





Table X 


. Origi 


MS ivhich are ea 


tremely doubtful. 


B. A. No. 


3 

6 

4 
64 
16 

? 

6 




22 

28 

16 


1 

43 

19 

1 

30 

9 
46 
? 
4 

9 

f 

? 
? 

? 


W 

? 

1 

15 

•> 

0-5 


? 

J 


1 
50 

9 

? 

? 


o 

a 

o 

H° 




13 



34 


86 

36 


d 
fq 

s" 

B 

O 

> 

1 

5-7 

? 

1 





4 
75 

17 


-§ 
a 

a 
5 

CO 

? 

? 
? 

? 
? 

24 


.a 

g 

o 
M 

? 
^ 

4 

? 

? 
? 

6 






.2 
'> 

c3 
d 

fq 

14? 


21 


1 
? 


19 


1 

a 



J 


3 


n 

o 
? 






a 

o 
o 
a 

o 

ca 
O 


Origin 


245. Jan. 6 . 
249. „ 22 . 
251. „ 30 . 
253. „ 31 . 

256. Feb. 27 . 

257. „ 27 . 

259. „ 28 . 

260. „ 28 . 

262. Mar. 6 . 
2G4. „ 12 . 

267. „ 21 . 

273. April 4 . 
276 „ 6 . 
281. „ 15 . 

283. „ 17 . 

284. „ 28 . 
289. May 17 . 
293. June 9 . 
297. „ 19 . 

300. July 2 . 

301. „ 2 . 

302. „ 3 . 

303. „ 7 . 
305. „ 9 . 
312. „ 10 . 
315. „ 26 . 
318. „ 28 . 
220. „ 31 . 

325. Aug. 7 . 

326. „ 17 . 

327. „ 21 . 

328. „ 23 . 

329. „ 23 . 


28 


N. Atlantic, W. side, 
Greece ? 

Indian Ocean, E. side. 
„ W. side. 
W. Indies. 
N. Atlantic, E. side. 
N. Atliiiitic, 0. Verde. 
Trieste 13 min. after Shlde, N. 

Atlantic, W. side. 
Nicolaievv, before Shide, Caspian 

Sea. 
Origin, S. Pacific. 

The magnitude of the selsmo- 
grams indicates that Toronto was 
reached before Shide and Vic- 
toria. The maximum was not 
well defined at Victoria, whilst 
at Batavia the movements were 
only recorded as a thickeuiug of 
the line. The position of the 
origin was apparently in the 
Mid-South Pacific. 
Trieste, before Shide, Caspiau 

Sea. 
N. Atlantic, E. side. 

N.E. Pacifio. 

N. Atlantic, E. side. 

Indian Ocean ? 

N. Atlantic, E. side. 

E. Pacific Ocean. 
N. Atlantic, E. side. 
N. Atlantic, W. side. 
Equatorial Indian Ocean. 
N. Atlantic, E. side. 
Indian Ocean. 
N. Atlantic, E. side. 
Indian Ocean ? 

Eastern East Indies. 
N. Atlantic, E. side. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Table X. Origins rvliich are extremely doiibtful — continued. 



87 



B. A. No. 


o 

3 

29 


11 

6 

36 
33 


11 

25 
42 
58 

27 
51? 


6 
38 

2 

7? 
25 


o 

a 

o 



1 



31 


33 

7 

41 


d 
«■ 

a" 
1 

> 

15 

7 
9 

27 

23 



50 

18 
34 


o 

-a 
a 

cs 

% 

a 

C3 

cc 

3 

4 
63 


33 


1 

a 

o 

20 



.2 





5 




10 


38 


1 


03 


1 

o 

o 

o 

CD 

a 
o 

7 

2 
63 

49 
3 

9? 

35 

48 


Origiu 


335. Sept. 6 . 

336. „ 6 . 
340. „ 14 . 
346. „ 27 . 
349. Oct. 4 . 

351. „ 13 . 

352. „ 13 . 
356. „ 29 . 
358. Nor. 12 . 

361. „ 18 . 

362. „ 20 . 
365. „ 24 . 
370. Dec. 17 . 
372. „ 26 . 
374. „ 31 . 


W. of Mexico. Group V. 
Mid N. Atlantic. 
N. Atlantic, W. side. 
Mid-Equatorial Atlantic ? 
N. Atlantic, E. side. 

E. of East Indies ? 

Indian Ocean. 

S. Pacific. 

Mili-Equatorial Atlantic. 

Pacific Ocean. 

Japan ? 

N. Atlantic, E. side. 

Japan ? 



The origins indicated in the last table are for the most part conjectural. 
In those instances where a disturbance has only been recorded at Shide 
and Kew, and we are without evidence showing that the seismograms 
refer to earthquakes observed in Great Britain and Europe, it seems pro- 
bable that they represent adjustments in the strata on the eastern side 
of the North Atlantic. Time entries for these stations, a few minutes 
later than the corresponding entry for Toronto, suggest that we are 
here dealing with a disturbance originating on the western side of the 
same ocean. 

Origins indicated by terms like Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean only 
show how little information can be derived from certain seismograms. 

Here and there a few impossible entries are recorded. For example, 
the greatest interval of time which could elapse between the arrival of an 
earthquake in Mauritius and Bombay or Madras is thirty minutes, yet 
for earthquake 326 it will be observed that the entries for the latter places 
are respectively forty-one and forty-five minutes. To correct such entries 
it is necessary to compare together the original seismograms, which has 
not been always possible. 

15. Illustrations of Seismograms. 

The following illustrations of seismograms are only to be regarded as 
sketches of the original photograms. The accuracy of any given reproduc- 
tion has been largely dependent upon the clearness of the figure from 
which it was copied. They show the range of motion and the principal 
characteristics of wave-groups, but they do not show details like small 
serrations so clearly exhibited in many of the original records from which 
they have been reproduced. The numbers correspond with the numbers 
given for particular earthquakes in the preceding text and those in the 
Shide records contained in the first circular of earthquake registers issued 
by the Seismological Investigation Committee. The arrow with its time- 
mark gives the time for a particular phase of movement, which is usually 
that of the commencement. The number following the letter S gives the 
time-scale in millimetres per hour. Thus S=60 means that 60 milli- 
metres equal one hour. 



88 



REPORT — 1900. 



The locality at which a seismogram was obtained is indicated by the 
following initial or initials : — 



Isle of Wight (Shide) 


. S. 


Bombay 


. B. 


Kew 


. K. 


Calcutta 


. C. 


Toronto . 


. T. 


Batavia 


. Ba. 


Victoria, B.C. 


. V. 


Mauritius 


. M. 


San Fernando 


. S.F. 


Cape of Good Hope 


. C.G.K 


Madras . 


. Ma. 


Tokio , . . . 


. To, 


Mexico . 


. Me. 







17.55. 



No. 278.- T. S = 50-5. 



I) 
m 



18.1!). 

4- 



No. 278.— Y. S=60-5, 



4.28.5. 4.37.7. 



t ^t 



No. 2 79.— S. 



4.9.1. 

4. 



4.26. 



No. 279.- V. S = 61. 



,^ff 



No. 279.— T. S = 59-5. 




No. 28.2.— S. S=58, 



CO <_ 




No. 282— T. S=59. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



A' >' 

3.42.5. / \, 



ISasWNd & i ' i - a ieii 'T i m 



2.47,3. 



No.282,^V, S = 60'5, 



Ko. 283,— S. S=58, 



2,29.6. 

4^ 



iii'i'i I I III 



Mil III , aP 



K0.28S.— T. 3=59. 



1 . 59.1. 

■ir 



=ss!BSBsmmsii!>rs= 



No, 283.— V. S=60-5. 



4.46,9, 
T 



No. 291,— S. S=58. 



89 



4,38.7. ,/?^'| 




i . 40.3, 



'1i"6»<»i l>"iiiHl|>ii 



No, 291 V. S = 60-5. 



15.17.7, 



No,292,-S, S=58. 




No 292.— T, S = 59. 



90 



II .21.1. 



REPORT — 1900. 




No. 292.— V. S=60-5. 



12.35.6. 



No. 294.— M. S = 58. 



No. 294.— S. S=58. 



11.18.2. 



"«*N3«>«!!»»« 



No. 294.— S.F. 








11 







;'i ! 



' I 



No. 294.- T. S = 59, 



11.17.6. 




»V' 



No. 294.— V. S=60, 



m^mmimiHgm 



17.1.0. 



No,298.— Ba. S=60. 



17.22.9. 



No. 298.— M. S=58. 



17 . 56.2. 



t 



No, 298.— S. S = 58. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



91 



19.27.5. 



.|iiiiiiiLiniii..i«r-if 



1.42.9. 



No. 305.— B. S=60. 



No. 305.— S. S = 58. 



No. 308.— B. S=59. 



2 . 24.9. 



No. 308.— M. S=58-5. 



No. 308.— S. S=58. 



1.41.2. 
t 



2.3.7. 



No. 308.— S.F, 



92 



REPORT — 1900, 






'I 

w 

6 
d 
I 



II 
m 



I 






II 






to 



!2i 




ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



93 



14 . 60.2^ 



mi^ 



No. 321. S=58. 



15 . 27.3i 



I 



t 

No. 321.— T. S=68-5. 



18.17.2. 



No. 322.— S. S=68. 




18.4.6'\ 



No. 322.— T. S = D8-5. 



gMiap j ^jinjijjjat'ii. i 'i ii ini i ' ii' .w : 



— --r«i"<5C^»l! 



ifo. 3S1.-B. S=69. 



No. 324.— Ba. S=59. 



■lw"*ilW» 



4.53.1, 




No. 324.— C. S=68-6. 



94 



REPORT — 1900. 



l^^"~~^V=c^^=^"*^^ ^ 



II 1 


aJ 


02 J 


la 




II 




w 


w 1 




6 1 


cc 


d i 


, 1 


1 \j 


;?; 



No. 324.— M. S = GO. 



13 



$ 



w 
6 
d 



o 



Air Tremors 

'~'iiiiCiii I WW fill mm I 



18.19.0. 



i<<<klii8w 



No. 332.— M. S=58-6. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



95 




^ JV 


OS 

i: 


^r 


Ul 


^ ^ 




'M 


d 

1 

CO 
CO 




II 



M 



o 



to Jf 



96 



REPORT — 1900. 






II 






II 



" ^-^ 
«» f;-^ 






s 

o 

o 




s-» 




-v Vi 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



97 



II 



■i^^ 



« 



w 

d 



M 



4- 




n 



m o 






1900. 



H 



98 



REPORT — 1900. 



No. 338.— Ba. S=60. 




f|< Boom off. 



s^t^-i^.'^iil 



■'*!»#*'* 



1j>|tg13cS!fcC--^'.- 



No. 338.— Me. S=59. 



2. 23.9. 



---<«BMpL|^>.i,p.==«K:^ 



No. 343.— B. S=59. 



J jftfl 



No. 343.— C.G.H. S=59. 



2. 16.7. 



J/ 



A. .^J , 



No. 343.- K. S=61. 



2 . S9.S. 



No. 343.— M. =59. 



2. 16.5. 




No. 343.— S. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



99 




No. 343.— To. S = G1. 



12. 5.7. 



t 
No. 344.— B. 



■ ■Illl'lllllll I'll jl'lllll"* ■ ll'lf'l 'I'llllWII I I W ■! HUB 



11. 23. 3. 
4. 



No. 344.— M. S = 58. 




No. 34t.— S. S = 58-5. 



11. 20.9. 



No. 344.— To. S = 58. 




r^HP^^- * «■ O *" 



No. 344.— T. S = 60. 



14. 42.1. 



\ 



sssms 



No. 345.— B. 



13. 47.9. 




No. 345.— S. S=58-5. 




No. 338.— B. S = 59. 



u2 



100 



REPORT — 1900. 




o 




u 

01 






ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



101 



. 




I 



u 

m 

M 



o 



102 



REPORT — 1900. 



« 



El 
I 



II 






1-23- 



II 

CQ 






«? 

t 






<- 



<- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



103 



II 
tn 

> 
I 



II 

M 
I 




§ 




II 

W 

6 
d 



t- 



104 



REPORT — 1900. 



19.19.8. 



No. 366.— B. S=59. 



No. 366.— Ba. S=59'o. 



( 



^ 



I 



■^1 





a 



"A 



!zi 




II 

to 



2 *~ 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 105 




No. 371.— V. S=60. 



III. Earthquakes and Timekeepers at Observatories. 

That earthquakes we can feel frequently accelerate, retard, or stop 
clocks with pendulums is a fact well known, but the extent to which 
cryptoseismic disturbances which sweep over the whole surface of our 
globe many times per year aflfect this class of timekeepers has not yet 
been investigated. 

Father J. de Moidrey, S.J., of the observatory at Zikawei, gives me 
the following notes on this subject. On June 12, 1897, ' an excellent clock 
facing north lost 4m. 44-5s. in the afternoon, whilst another, almost 
identical, fixed to the same brick pillar, but facing east, was undisturbed 
(rate 0-ls.). Secchi's barograph shows a slight stroke at llh. 25m. 
G.M.T., corresponding to an oscillation of 1 mm. of the quicksilver. 

'A fast moving barograph (mercury) shows a spot at llh. 2.3m., indi- 
cating a swing of the mercury of 0-2-5 mm. This increased to 0'50mm. 
and died out suddenly. 

' The magnetographs, declinometer, bifilar and Lloyd's balance were 
all disturbed, although it was a day of perfect magnetic calm.' 

On this day, at llh. 5m. G.M.T., a violent earthquake took place in 
Assam. The large waves of this would reach Zikawei at llh. 21m. G.M.T., 
or 7h. 26m. 43s. p.m. local time. 

In a second letter Father Moidrey writes : 

' On June 4, 1898, about midnight, our north clock lost about four 
seconds. That same night at a watchmaker's in Shanghai several clocks 
(six, I believe), all facing north or south, were stopped. Nothing else was 
noticed by the watchmaker, M. Vrard, who in his surprise telephoned to 
the observatory to ask what was the matter. Nobody in the town felt an 
earthquake, nor was one referred to in the newspapers. A missionary 
at Nankin had his clock stopped the same night, but did not notice any 
other phenomena. Our magnetograph and thermograph recorded a shock 
at 16h. 24m. 17s., June 3, G.M.T. On that day there was an earthquake 
at Chemulpo, Corea.' 

We' are here evidently dealing with an earthquake recorded on June 3 
at 17h. 14m. at Shide, and also recorded at Kew, Nicolaiew, and Potsdam. 

From the ' Bulletin Mensuel ' of Zikawei, third quarter, 1897, we learn 
that in the night of September 2 the two clocks were stopped and the 
magnetographs were disturbed at 1.42 (September 1, 17h. 36m. G.M.T.). 
Nothing was felt. This may refer to an earthquake recorded at Shide, 
September 1, 18h. 29m. G.M.T. 

Although Professor E. C. Pickering writes me that on September 3, 
10 and 23, 1898, which are dates for heavy earthquakes in Alaska, and 
on September 20, when there was a severe earthquake in Asia Minor, 
there were no noticeable changes in the rates of the clocks at Harvard 



106 REPORT— 1900. 

University ; the observations made at Zikawei indicate that at certain 
observatories at least the unfelt movements of earthquakes may from time 
to time have serious effects on timekeepers. 

With the object of throwing light upon this subject I shall esteem 
it a favour if directors of observatories will let me know whether any 
changes were observed or not observed in the rates of pendulum time- 
keepers on dates corresponding to those of large earthquakes enumerated 
on p. 108, addressing their communications to me at Shide, Isle of Wight, 
England. 



IV. Earthquakes and Rain. 

In the British Association Reports for 1899, p. 209, I gave a quota- 
tion from Mr. O. H. Howarth respecting a heavy condensation of aqueous 
vapour which he observed for three hours after the Mexican earthquake 
of January 24, 1899. This was in the form of a heavy mist which settled 
over the head of a canon at an elevation of 8,700 feet. 

Mr. Howarth states that in this place such mists are never seen at this 
time of the year, it being the middle of the dry season. 

Something similar to this occurred on June 12, 1897, after the severe 
earthquake which originated on that day in the highlands of Assam. 
Mr. H. Luttman-Johnson, I.C.S., in the 'Journal' of the Society of Arts, 
April 15, 1898, describes the weather before the earthquake as having 
cleared : the afternoon was lovely, and there was not a cloud in the sky. 
Five minutes after the earthquake the residents in Shillong were sur- 
rounded with cloud and mist, and they sat up all night with rain beating 
upon all sides. 

Captain A. A. Howell, I.C.S., deputy-governor of the Garo Hills, 
gives the actual rainfall. "The records taken at 8 a.m. showed that for 
the twenty-four hours preceding the 12th there was no rain. There was 
rain at noon on the 12th, but it cleared off at 2 p.m. The earthquake 
occurred at about 5 p.m., and after that until next morning 3'26 inches 
fell. 

In considering whether there is any possibility of a connection 
between the phenomena here considered we must remember that observa- 
tions showing that rain and cloud have followed closely on the heels of 
certain earthquakes appear to be confined to tropical and semi-tropical 
countries ; and it is in these countries where sudden showers, indicating the 
collapse of critical atmospheric conditions, are frequent. Given, therefore, 
such conditions at no great distance above the surface of the earth, which 
was probably the condition in the highlands of Assam, and then admit 
that beneath the gaseous covering consisting of layers of air of different 
temperatures and with different degrees of saturation 10,000 square miles 
of mountainous country was moved, or that a much larger ai-ea was thrown 
into violent wave-like movement, we recognise that the relationship of 
earthquakes and atmospheric precipitation may not be so improbable as is 
generally supposed. As the ground rose upwards, the air immediately 
above it would suffer compression, and as the ground fell there would be 
rarefaction, whilst layers of air differing in their physical state might be 
mixed, and a vigorous seismic activity might in this way result in pre- 
cipitation. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



107 



V. Earthquakes and Small Changes in Latitude. 

In vol. xvii. of the ' Seismological Journal of Japan,' 1893, p. 17, 
I drew attention to the observation that the period of maxima increase 
in latitude in Berlin apparently coincided with maxima of earthquakes 
recorded in Japan. 

If we compare the wanderings of the pole from its mean position for 
the years 1895-1898 ^ with registers of earthquakes which have disturbed 
continental areas or the whole world, we find a somewhat similar relation- 
ship. This is shown in the accompanying table, the pole displacements 
being measured from Albrecht's figure. 



— 


i 1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


i 





Displace- 
ment 


1 CO 

II 


i 

.2 a 


• 03 

si 


CO f3 
"a. ^ 

.2 a 
ft 


• XIX 




// 












n 


1. January 1 to February 5 


003 


1 


007 


1 


0-14 


5 


0'12 


4 


2. February 5 to March 14 


003 


2 


004 


1 


0-11 


7 


Oil 





3. March 14 to April 19 . 


006 





005 


1 


007 


1 


007 


4 


4. April 19 to May 26 . 


007 


1 


08 


2 


Oil 


5 


0-08 


5 


5. May 26 to July 1 


0-08 


1 


010 


2 


013 


5 


010 


6 


6. July 1 to August 7 


0-03 


1 


Oil 





Oil 


6 


016 


5 


7. August 7 to September 12 


005 





010 


4 


0-10 


5 


0-15 


6 


8. September 12 to October IS 


006 


1 


0-13 


3 


007 


5 






9. October 19 to November 24 


006 


1 


010 


4 


Oil 


4 
,1 

or 
14 






10. November 24 to December 31 


0-08 


1 


013 





012 






Totals . 


0-53 


9 


0-91 


18 


1-07 


,44 

or 

I47 


0-79 


30 



A conclusion suggested by this table is that, during intervals when the 
pole displacement has been comparatively great, large earthquakes have 
been fairly frequent, and vice versd. In the yearly totals this is marked. 

If we turn to a figure given by F. R. Helmert, showing variations in 
latitude as determined from 353 sets of photographic records made on 
forty-two days in the months of April, May, and June, 1897 (see 'Bericht 
iiber eine neue Reihe von Polhohen-Bestimmungen, &c., im Jahre 1897,' 
F. R. Helmert, Potsdam), we see that successive daily means frequently 
differ from 0"-l to 0""2 amongst themselves. Equally large differences 
exist between the separate observations from which these means are 
deduced. 

That is to say, successive observations may show differences as great 
as the annual maximum displacement of the pole, which is about 0''''25 
from a mean position. 

If on Helmert's figure we plot the large earthquakes for these months,, 
it is seen that in the time of their occurrence they closely coincide with 



' See Bericht iiber den Stand der Hr^orscAung der Breiten- Variation am Schlussr 
des Jahres 1898, von Th. Albrecht. 



108 REPORT— 1900. 

the times at which large deviations in latitude occui". In April, when 
these deviations were comparatively small, large earthquakes did not 
occur. 

When considering the possibility of any relationship between earth- 
quakes and these extremely frequent and practically oscillatory changes 
in latitude, there are two points of importance to be remembered. 

The first is that with each of these earthquakes there is a sudden 
shifting of a large mass of material at a seismic origin. The molar dis- 
placement for the Indian earthquake of June 12, 1897, is estimated by 
Mr. R. D. Oldham by an area of 6,000 or 7,000 square miles, and it is 
not improbable that earthquakes which have caused the Pacific Ocean to 
oscillate for a period of twenty-four hours were accompanied by displace- 
ments of larger magnitude. 

The second consideration is that each of the large earthquakes here 
considered has been accompanied by surface or distortional waves 
Avhich in many instances afiect the whole surface of the globe. These 
waves, so far as we can infer from their velocity, period, and maximum 
angle of inclination, vary between twenty and seventy miles in length, 
and are from a few inched to two or three feet in height. If they attain 
the magnitudes here given (see p. 83) they seem certainly sufiicient to 
relieve a district in erogenic strain. 

A further test of the suggestion that slight nutational efiects may 
result from earthquakes would be to compare observations indicating 
small changes in latitude made before and after the times of large earth- 
quakes referred to in the report, the more important of which are as 
follows : 







U. M. 


No 


250. 


Origin Mexico, Januaiy 24, 1899, 23 44 




333 


„ Alaska, September 4 „ 11 




337 


10 „ 16 51 




338 


10 „ 20 21 




343 


„ Smyrna, „ 20 „ 2 9 




347 


„ Ceram, „ 29 „ 17 9 




381 


„ Mexico, January 20 1900, 18 31 



The times given are the approximate times at the origin. These are 
expressed in Greenwich mean time (civil). or 24 hrs.= midnight. The 
times at which the large waves reached any distant station may be calcu- 
lated by the application of Curve II« or 116 in the table on p. 67. 

VI. Selection of a Fault and Locality suitable for Observations on 
Earth-Moveinents. By Clement Reid. 

The selection of a favourable site for observations upon differential 
movement between the two sides of a fault presents many difficulties, and 
the locality we have chosen is more to be regarded as the best available 
than as ideally perfect. Leaving out of account for the present considera- 
tions other tlaan geological, there are certain conditions, most of which 
must be complied with if the observations are to be of real value. 

The fault selected must be : 

1. Of considerable magnitude, and not be merely a branch fault which 
the next earth -movement may easily leave unafiected. 

2. It should be of known date, and belong to a recent geological 
period. This consideration is important, for a Tertiary movement is far 



O:^ SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 109' 

more likely to be still in progress than is one which can only be shown 
to affect Palaeozoic or Secondary rocks. Not only have the older 
movements in many cases ceased long since, and have given place to move- 
ments in different directions ; but a fault which has long remained without 
movement tends to become closed and re-cemented, so that there is a 
considerable likelihood that any future movement may not follow exactly 
the same line, even though the strain be in the same direction. 

3. The fault should crop out on ground fairly level, and in hard rocks, 
otherwise the observations may be masked by the slight irregular ' creep '' 
of the surface downhill, and no firm foundation for the apparatus be 
obtained. 

4. It is desirable that the rocks on the two sides of the fault, though 
geologically far apart, should be as like as possible in lithological charac- 
ter, so that any surface movements due to change of temperature or 
absorption of rain-water should affect the two sides alike. 

5. In order to avoid complications through slow solution of the rocks 
by percolating rain, a fault bringing together insoluble silicious rocks 
would be preferable to any other. 

6. As the records to be obtained may throw great light on movements 
of the earth's crust, it is desirable that the fault selected for observation 
should be one belonging to a set of disturbances of great magnitude, 
having common characteristics, and affecting a considerable area. It is 
therefore important that the district chosen should be one which has been 
carefully studied geologically, and of which the structure is thoroughly 
known. 

These various conditions, added to the consideration of convenience of 
access of the locality, availability of a skilled observer, availability of the 
land, and other minor points, made a series of requirements not easy to 
satisfy, and I will now indicate in what respects the site finally selected 
comes up to or falls short of the ideal set before us. 

Consideration No. 2 confines us at once to the only area in Britain in 
which large earth-movements of Tertiary date can clearly be proved to 
have taken place. This area may be taken to lie between the North 
Downs and the English Channel, and to extend as far west as Weymouth 
and Abbotsbury. But only the parts of it in which Tertiary rocks are 
still preserved will do for our purpose ; the reason being that older move- 
ments of the same general character affected the Jurassic and Lower 
Cretaceous rocks. These intra-Cretaceous disturbances cannot always be 
distinguished from the Tertiary movements, in the absence of the uncon- 
formable Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Thus in the Wealden 
area a good many faults are believed to affect the Lower Cretaceous rocks ; 
but they are of no great magnitude, and it is impossible at present to 
differentiate those of Tertiary date from the older series. 

We are thus confined, by a process of elimination, to the sharply folded 
belt which occupies the southern part of the Hampshire Basin and 
includes the northern half of the Isle of Wight. Even over this area it 
would only be possible to use Mr. Horace Darwin's apparatus at certain 
points ; for much of the country is sharply folded without faulting, and 
any earth-movements now in progress could only be measured by careful 
levelling and triangulation. Thus we are confined ultimately to a limited 
highly disturbed and faulted belt, which extends east and west through 
the centre of the Isle of Wight and reappears in Dorset between Studland 
Bay and Abbotsbury. 



110 REPORT— 1900. 

Within the area thus selected are various sharp monoclinal folds, all 
with an east and west axis, and with the strata so bent as to become 
nearly vertical. In places the lateral pressure and folding have been so 
-violent as to pass into overthrust faulting on a considerable scale. None 
•of the Tertiary disturbances in this part of England is a normal drop- 
fault ; the supposed north and south Tertiary fault in the Medina valley, 
though "often shown in old maps and text books, having no existence. 

The date of most violent disturbance in the system of folds above 
^alluded to is clearly later than Middle Oligocene ; for in the Isle of 
Wight ijhe Hamstead Beds, which belong to that period, and are the 
newest Tertiary strata there preserved, are tilted at a high angle. From 
various considerations, which need not here be recapitulated, it seems 
probable that this set of disturbances commenced in Eocene times, became 
most violent in the Miocene period, and died away in Pliocene times.' 
Though in our south-eastern counties older Pliocene strata to some extent 
have been tilted, tlie disturbance has not yet been shown to affect newer 
■deposits, or to be still in progress. This last is one of the principal points 
which our apparatus should decide. 

Consideration No. 1 limits our choice to a small group of faults, not 
more than half-a-dozen, and as the apparatus employed needs a fairly 
clean-cut fracture, unless the pipes are to be of unreasonable length, it is 
■ only at a few points on these faults that the observations can be made. 
We have thus so greatly reduced the number of possible points at which 
the apparatus could be fixed, that it will now be simplest to describe the 
faults one by one, and point out to what extent they do or do not fulfil 
the rest of the requirements. 

Working from east to west, the first Tertiary fault met with is in the 
main monocline of the Isle of Wight, which occasionally passes into a 
thrust-fault of no great extent. In one place the basement bed of the 
London Clay is brought against Bracklesham Beds ; but the strata are too 
soft and full of water to yield satisfactory fixed points. In the others, 
plastic Clays of the Reading Series have slid over Chalk, the bedding being 
vertical and the surface slope very high. At no point in the Isle of 
Wight could a satisfactory site be found. 

Following this disturbed belt westward, we again meet with a sharp 
monoclinal fold, passing into a slide-fault, at Ballard Cliff in Dorset. 
This is the well-known ' Isle of Purbeck Fault,' which thrusts Chalk with 
flints with curved bedding over similar rock with the bedding vertical. 
The fault itself is very conspicuous in the cliff-face, curving through about 
a tenth of a circle in a height of 280 feet.^ This fault might be a good 
one for observation ; but though it is of considerable magnitude, the 
locality is by no means convenient of access. The disturbance is, however, 
a valuable one to study, for its character is clearly shown in the section. 
The other faults with which we are now dealing apparently are all of this 
type. 

The next Tertiary fault met with is close to Corfe Castle, where in the 
sharpest part of tlie monoclinal curve the London Clay has been thrust 
over the Heading Beds and abuts against the Upper Chalk. This slide- 
fault is of small magnitude, and as in similar slides in the Isle of Wight, 

' Keid and Strahan, ' Geology of the Tsle of Wight,' chapter xiv. Memoirs of the 
Geological Survey, 1889; Reid, 'Pliocene Deposits of Britain,' chapter v. ibid. 1890. 
• ^ See Strahan, ' Geology of the Isle of Purbeck,' chapter xv. 3Iem. Geol. Sv/rvey, 
1898. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. Ill 

the ground is too steep and the rocks too soft to yield satisfactory fixed 
points. Along the same line the junction of the Chalk and Eocene is 
again slightly faulted near Lulworth ; but the fault is of small magnitude, 
and the adjoining rocks are too much shattered for our purpose. The 
Durdle fault runs parallel with and close to high cliffs, so that delicate 
observations might be entirely masked by movements caused by the 
gradual removal of large masses of rock by the sea on the south and the 
consequent rise of the strata qn that side. At Bat's Head the Isle of 
Purbeck Fault is finally lost beneath the sea, and the shattering of the 
rocks is too great to allow of exact observations. This fault does not 
reappear in the Weymouth area. 

There still remains one of the most important Tertiary disturbances 
in the district, that known as the Ridgeway fault. This also is an over- 
thrust fault cutting through a monocline, or through the north limb of a 
sharp anticlinal fold. Its date is clearly later than the Bagshot period • 
its magnitude is great, and if any of the Tertiary faults are still under- 
going changes, this one is likely to partake in the movement. It brings 
together rocks of very different ages and of varying character, so that the 
choice of exact locality for the observations depended on the discovery of 
a spot where the fault is a clean fracture, whei'e the rocks on each side 
are hard and of fairly similar lithological character, and where the ground 
is sufficiently level for the apparatus. Along a good deal of its course 
there is much fault rock or broken ground, and in most parts the strata 
on one or both sides are soft. These parts would not be convenient or 
satisfactory for our purpose. For various reasons the choice narrowed 
down to the neighbourhood of Poxwell, where Middle or Lower Chalk 
abuts against Lower Purbeck ; or to the district between Upway and 
Portisham, a distance of four miles, where Upper Chalk is faulted 
against strata close to the base of the Lower Purbeck, or even against 
Portland Beds. Of these localities Upway was chosen (fig. 2), for there 
the deep lailway-cutting has laid open the structure of the disturbance 
and within a reasonable distance, though not too near, was a piece of 
fairly level ground, one end of which had been opened for chalk-pits and 
the other for quarries in the Purbeck Beds. The railway-cuttintr itself 
would not have been satisfactory, for in it a wide dyke of ' fault-rock ' 
composed of Oxford Clay and Cornbrash, occurs, and south of the fault 
there are soft rocks. Besides this, soft strata in a deep cuttinw will 
almost certainly be subject to slow ' creep ' to such an extent as entirely 
to mask any deeper-seated movement. 

The site finally selected proved by an unexpected series of coincidences 
to be particularly convenient. It is broken ground, now only used for 
rough pasture and not liable to be disturbed by the plough ; it beloni-s 
to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, who have most kindly done all 
in their power to help us in the experiment. Our thanks are not only 
due to the College, but also to the tenant for his assistance in carrying 
out the work. And last, but not least, it was conveniently accessible to 
the member of the Committee who was prepared to undertake the 
recording. 

While our excavations were being made I examined them, and noted 
as exactly as possible the geological conditions in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood, for the fault varies within very short distances, and has 
changed completely in the two hundred yards between the railway 
cutting and our selected site. In that short distance the dyke of Oxford 



112 



REPORT — 1900. 



a 
o 



M 11 






ft 



El 

O 

o 



I 

d 



WO;jD3s 




ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 113 

Clay has disappeared entirely, as is the case with the Middle Chalk on 
the north side of the fracture, as well as the Wealden and Upper and 
Middle Purbeck on the south side. The fault has also become a fracture 
of unusual sharpness for one of so great a magnitude. 

In discussing the character and extent of thrust of the fault at 
Ridgeway, it should not be forgotten that it does not pass through a 
series of conformable strata. The Upper Cretaceous rocks here rest 
unconformably on a folded and greatly eroded surface of Lower Cretaceous 
and Jurassic strata, so that the local absence of Wealden and of most of 
the Purbeck may be due to this unconformity. These intra-Cretaceous 
folds have an axis approximately parallel with the much later Tertiary 
disturbances. The most important of them is the wide anticline between 
Upway and Portland. This is followed northward by a narrow and 
sharp syncline, which brings in the Wealden and Purbeck between Upton 
and Bincombe, and passes unconformably under Upper Cretaceous rocks 
towards the east and towards the north-north-west. Next follows an 
anticline, which is almost entirely hidden by the newer rocks. It is 
touched at Poxwell, where the Jurassic strata dip northward at a higher 
angle than the Upper Cretaceous. It then seems to run beneath the 
Chalk parallel to the southern boundary just north of the Tertiary over- 
thrust. Its southern limb reappears at Bincombe, but soon disappears 
again beneath the overthrust mass of Chalk. The position and character 
of these earlier folds, their relation to the Upper Cretaceous overlap, and 
the relation of both to the overlap of the Bagshot Beds on to the Oolite,' 
are the factors which produced a continuous plane of weakness extending 
obliquely downward from the surface deep into the Jurassic strata, as 
shown in the diagram (fig. 3). 

The outcome of this geological structure has been that any subsequent 
lateral compression in a north and south direction causes the massive 
Chalk, over 800 feet thick, to be driven against the wide arch of rigid 
Purbeck and Portland rocks extending towards Portland. Any such 
movement must tend still more to fold and buckle the already existing 
small anticlines and synclines ; but the main arch of hard Upper Jurassic 
rocks would offer great resistance, as v/ould the horizontal ihick-bedded 
Chalk. Thus the Chalk must approach the main anticline, overriding the 
minor folds, taking with it such parts of them as happened to be above 
the plane of greatest weakness, and smearing the slide-plane with Oxford 
Clay and Cornbrash caught up in the passage over the northern limb of 
the anticline. 

The above explanation will, I believe, account for the whole of the 
curious phenomena recorded along this line of fault. Granted north and 
south compression, any differential movement must be along this plane of 
weakness. The extent of the differential movement must also be greatest 
at the surface where the plane emerges, and must rapidly decrease down- 
ward and northward until the fault entirely disappears. The extent of 
the movement in this case is probably about half a mile. 

From the data in the memoirs and maps of the Geological Survey, and 
from my notes made more recently, I have constructed the subjoined 
geological section across the fault at the point where our apparatus is 
fixed (fig. 4) ; but though the underground structure must be not unlike 
that indicated, the exact curve of the fault, and also the exact character 

' See Reid, 'Geology of Dorchester,' chapter vi., Memoirs Gfeol. Survey, 1899. 
1900. I 



114 



REPORT- -1900. 



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-^ "^i 'T' 



rr */ 



is to 
as3 









^ 


^ 


oj 


" 


C5 


H 




CO 


;-! 


w 

s 


1 


o 


o 


3 


OfepM 


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ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



115 




©lO 'f «M 



12 



J16 



REPORT — 1900. 



of the hidden folds beneath the Chalk, must remain uncertain. The 
Eocene deposits are not shown in this section, as they happen to have 
been denuded along the line selected. They occur only a short distance 
away out of the line of section. . The actual evidence seen at the surface 
close to our site will now be described. 

On the south side of the fault the strata dip northward at varying 
angles for a distance of about two miles from the crest of the main anti- 
cline, the lowest rocks in the district occurring in this anticline north of 
Radipole, where the Forest Marble appears at the surface. To this 
succeed in order the Cornbrash, Oxford Clay, Coraliian Rocks, and 
Kiraeridge Clay, followed at XJpway (at the south border of the map, 
fig. 2), where the slope becomes steeper, by Portland Sand, Portland Stone, 
and Lower Purbeck Beds. The lower quarries at Upway are in Portland 

Fig. 5. — Section of Lower Purbeck Eocks, dipping at 52°. 



^'? 







■ ■>•/-■ ' ■■.■-'■'I •.-'---■•^.''jc- ^yi-.fj^-M.-n, f.'": ■->.'■•■- ,•■.■:■•-,-.--. 



^'/iOL 



^i' J^ fT' 



iC£t 



'■i^/-:/^ 









Rock, dipping north ; the higher are in Lower Purbeck, nearly horizontal, 
for at that point the lowest part of a synclinal fold is reached and the 
strata begin to rise again. 

Higher up the hill in quarry and road- cutting the sections are nearly 
continuous, the dip being about S.S.W. at angles varying from 15° to 30°. 
Signs of lateral compression are also common, this being particularly 
well seen on the west side of the quarry nearest to the fault, where in a 
few yards the dip changes from nearly horizontal, with small sharp folds, 
to an angle of 15°. At the extreme north edge of this quarry the 
Committee undertook special excavations in order to clear up the geology 
at a point close to the fault. We followed a particular rock bed to a 
depth of 9 feet from the surface, obtaining the subjoined section, seen 
from the east (fig. 5). The strata laid bare belong to the ' dirt-bed ' of the 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 117 

Lower Purbeck, and occui* within a few feet of the Portland Rock. The 
strike is almost parallel to the fault, though more nearly east and west. 
Thus it becomes almost certain that Portland Beds crop out at the 
surface immediately east of the Roman road and are probably within less 
than 10 feet of the surface at the point where the recording apparatus 
crosses tlie fault. 

Taking now the trench in which the apparatus is placed, we will 
describe the strata there seen on each side of the fault. The trench is 
9 metres long, and at the four observing stations (see Mr. Horace Darwin's 
Report, p. 119) sections were exposed to a depth varying from 5^ to 7 feet. 
At Station SS (the southernmost) the depth was 5^ feet, of which the top 
3 feet was in disturbed ground, the lower 2^ showing hard brownish fine- 
grained oolite with fossils, the rock being somewhat shattered, with small 
open fissures, which Avere afterwards filled in with concrete. This rock 
undoubtedly belongs to the Lower Purbeck ; it seems to dip at a high angle 
in a southerly direction, the strike, however, not being parallel with the 
fault. The shallower trench between Stations SS and S showed similar 
strata, though no fossils or oolitic grains were observed. At Station S the 
hole was also 5^ feet deep ; the rock being a hard splintery brown limestone, 
more or less nodular and containing small chert nodules. I believe that this 
rock corresponds with some cherty limestones which are seen in the large 
Upway Quarry, just below the 'dirt-bed' and within 5 or 10 feet of the 
base of the Purbecks. Near the fault, however, they are harder and 
more crystalline than in the quarry. I was not able to find the earthy 
and carbonaceous ' dirt-bed ' at this point, though it is so well seen only 
50 or 60 feet away (see fig. 5). The squeezing-out or thickening of a soft 
stratum is, however, a phenomenon constantly to be met with near a big 
distux'bance, and the absence of the cai'bonaceous seam is probably due to 
this cause. The south cheek of the fault consists of brecciated white 
limestone with chert. These exposures seem to indicate that the Portland 
Stone must occur within 5 feet or so of the surface close to the fault, and 
on the strength of the new evidence I have added an inlier of Portland 
rock to the map made by Mr. Strahan, Avho agrees with me that such an 
addition is necessary. 

The fault itself is represented by a band of fault-rock not more than 
2 feet in thickness and quite unlike the wide dyke of mingled Oolite and 
Oxford Clay seen in the railway-cutting. In our trench the fault-rock is 
a hard mass of breccia consisting of Upper Chalk and fragments of 
Purbeck Limestone. 

The north cheek of the fault consists of very hard shattered and 
re-crystallised flinty chalk like that associated with the similar disturb- 
ances at Corfe Castle and at Ballard Clifi", though at Ridgeway I did not 
observe actual calcite veins. Two feet north of the fault I dug out a 
specimen of Anancliytes ovatus ; but this echinoderm and a few fragments 
of Inoceranuis were the only fossils I could find in the Chalk in our trench. 
The flinty character of the Chalk and the presence of the Anancliytes 
show, however, that we have passed suddenly from Lower Purbeck to Upper 
Chalk, and the character of the Chalk and of the included flints indicates, I 
think, that we are at an horizon above the Micraster-zones and probably at 
least 300 feet above the base of the Chalk. 

Between the fault and Station N the Chalk gradually becomes softer 
and less crystalline and contains small broken flints, black with moderate 
rinds. The hole at Station NN showed 6 feet of moderately hard Chalk, 



118 REPORT— 1900. 

with numerous brownish -grey flints ; the Chalk being fissured but not 
altered. At Station NN the hole was 7 feet deep and exhibited Chalk 
with numerous flints, the rock being much slickensided and fissured. It 
contained a few fragments of Inoceramus. I was not able anywhere to 
get a satisfactory dip in the Chalk in the trench or holes ; though the 
general impression suggested was of an ascending succession northward, 
and of a high dip in that direction. 

The general results of the geological examination may thus be sum- 
marised. The fault, at the point where the apparatus crosses it, probably 
cuts out strata having a thickness of nearly 1,000 feet, made up thus : — 

Chalk (part of Upper, whole of Middle and Lower) . . . ,300 

Greensand and Gault 150 

Wealden 350 

Upper Purbcck 50 

Middle Purbeck 50 

Lower Purbeck (to within 5 feet of base) 85 

Total feet 985 

The break, however, is not caused by a normal fault of 985 feet throw. 
It is the result of a sliding movement over a cylindrical surface curving 
downward and northward from nearly vertical to nearly horizontal. 
This view, as pointed out by Mr. Strahan, explains the presence of a 
dyke of Oxford Clay and Cornbrash in the railway-cutting ; a fact which 
cannot be satisfactorily accounted for by normal faulting, even to the 
extent of 2,500 or 3,000 feet. The movement along the curve of the 
thrust-plane amounts to not less than 2,500 feet, even if the strata are 
everywhere vertical to the fault. It is just possible, however, that earlier 
faulting along nearly the same line in intra- Cretaceous times brought up 
Cornbrash, so that it occurs immediately beneath the Upper Cretaceous 
rocks just north of the Tertiary fault. On this supposition, and with 
the most favourable angle of dip throughout, the Tertiary thrust may not 
exceed 500 feet. The most probable estimate of the extent of the 
Tertiary displacement is, however, about half a mile ; a lower estimate 
demands an improbable series of fortuitous coincidences, such as we are 
not j ustified in postulating. 

There is one point that I should like to suggest for future considera- 
tion. The disturbances just described result from lateral compression of 
the strata in a north and south direction, and it is clear that levelling 
across the fractures will only give us one element in that motion. The 
horizontal movement must be of much greater magnitude than the vertical, 
and could be accurately tested by triangulation. As the folds have always 
an east and west axis, and there is no sign of disturbance in other 
directions, triangulation across the folds from fixed points lying east and 
west ought to enable us to test whether any change is now going on over 
wider areas. Even a comparison of the earlier Ordnance triangulation 
of the South of England with the later one might throw light on this 
question, if the stations can be identified with suflicient accuracy. No 
minute re-measurement of a base-line would be necessary for this test. 
If the movement is going on at all it must be far greater in a north and 
south than in an east and west direction — i.e., it will alter the latitude 
but not the longitude. It must therefore distort every triangle which can 
be re-observed from two such points as St. Catherine's Down and the top 
of Portland. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 119 



VII. An atUmpt to detect and measure any relative movement of the strata 
that may be noiv talcing place at the Ridgeway Faidt near Upivay, 
Dorsetshire. — Preliminary Report by Horace Darwin, August 1900. 

The Fault for this experiment was selected by Mr. Clement Reid, and 
is described by him in a separate report. It would have been better if 
the rock had been harder and more impervious to water ; the solubility 
of the carbonate of lime in the rock is also a disadvantage. The site is 
easy of access, an essential point in such an experiment ; this, together 
with the advantages pointed out by Mr. C. Reid, justify the selection of 
the Fault. 

The Fault where the apparatus is fixed is a few yards east of the 
Roman road and about 560 yards north of the cross roads in the village 
of Upway, Dorsetshire, and is about 360 feet above Ordnance datum. 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, allowed the apparatus to be fixed 
on their property and did all in their power to make the experiment 
successful, and the Committee are most grateful to them. I must thank 
Mr. Nelson Richardson for the many hours' help he gave me at Upway, 
and in arranging for the experiment, and for the readings he took after- 
wards. Thanks are also due to Mr. Loveless, the tenant of the land, 
for the care he has taken in carrying out the work and the help he gave 
in every way. 

Four positions were taken in a straight line approximately at right 
angles to the fault ; these positions will be denoted by the letters N.N., N., 
S., S.S. ; N.N. is 9 metres and N. 4^ metres north of the Fault, and S.S. 
is 9 metres and S. 4^ metres south of it. The apparatus is arranged to 
measure the relative vertical movement of the strata at these four 
stations. There are advantages in selecting four instead of two stations. 
If there had been only two stations, and the apparatus got damaged at 
one of them, the experiment must have been a failure ; also, if there had 
been any accidental displacement of the apparatus relatively to the strata 
at either of the two stations it might have led to misleading results. 
With four stations such damage or movement will probably be detected, 
and the results, though less valuable, will not be rendered quite useless, 
as would be the case with only two stations. 

The movement of the strata at the Fault may take place in any or all 
of the following ways : — 

(1) The strata on both sides of the Fault may tilt as a whole without 
any slip taking place at the Fault. 

(2) The strata at the north side may tilt and the south side not tilt, 
and still no slip at the Fault. 

(3) The strata at the south side may tilt and the north side not tilt, 
and still no slip at the Fault. 

(4) There may be slipping at the Fault with no tilting. 

These four movements may be all taking place at the same time, and 
the use of four stations will allow of each movement being separated from 
the others. 

The apparatus has been designed by me and made by the Cambridge 
Scientific Instrument Company, Limited. I have not been able to give 
sufficient time this summer to overcome some difficulties which I regret 
that I did not foresee, and it is for this reason that no numerical results 



120 REPORT— 1900. 

are given in this report. The instrument, however, promises well, and 1 
hope next year to give a description of it and numerical results ; now I 
only propose to explain its general principle. 

A brass casting is permanently fixed to the rock at each of the four 
stations, and it is the relative vertical movement of these castings which 
is measured. A stand carrying a microscope can be placed on any of 
these castings ; it has three feet, each in the form of an inverted V, and 
these rest on three cylindrical pieces forming part of the brass casting. 
This is the usual geometrical arrangement, giving six points of contact, 
and determining absolutely the relative position of the microscope stand 
and the casting. The microscope is about 4 feet long, and thus the eye 
is in a convenient position for taking an observation. The microscope is 
moved vertically in the stand by a micrometer screw, and carries at its 
lower end a needle pointing vertically downward. The micrometer 
screw is turned, the microscope is lowered till the needle point touches 
the surface of some oil contained in a vessel fixed to the rock, and 
the position of the micrometer screw noted. The microscope and stand 
are then removed and placed on the other castings, and the observation 
repeated ; in this way the relative position of the casting at each station 
to the oil surface is measured. The four oil vessels are connected by a 
pipe ; the surface of the oil is therefore at the same level. The needle 
point is illuminated by a mirror fixed in the oil vessel, and the light, 
leaving it in a nearly horizontal direction, is reflected by a vertical 
mirror nearly directly backwards, ajud is then again reflected vertically 
upwards through the object-glass and eyepiece of the microscope. On 
looking vertically downwards through the microscope, the needle point 
and its reflection in the surface of the oil are seen as if the eye were 
placed just above the surface of the oil ; and when the micrometer screw 
is turned the needle point and its image are seen to approach each other. 
The moment of contact is perfectly evident ; the needle and its image 
appear to run into each other in a confused manner, owing to the dis- 
tortion of the oil surface when the needle point touches it. The delicacy 
is considerable ; the divisions in the divided head of the micrometer screw 
correspond to a movement of -j^^ mm., and it is easy to estimate a tenth 
of these divisions, but I do not think that the readings can be trusted to 
this amount, and it is proposed only to read to i^^ mm., which is well 
within the power of the instrument. 

The micrometer readings give the height of each station above the oil 
surface, and from these readings is deduced the movement at each 
station relatively to a datum plane. This datum plane is taken at the 
mean level of the four stations. The necessary calculations also prevent 
any error arising from change of the oil level due to expansion or 
evaporation, damage to the needle point, or expansion of the microscope. 

It is hoped that a very small slip at the Fault will be detected and 
measured, but even if the movement should ever become as much as 
10 mm. to 20 mm., it can still be measured with great accuracy. It is 
unlikely that such a movement will damage the lead pipe where it crosses 
the Fault ; damage to the pipe, however, can be easily remedied without 
impairing the accuracy of the readings. Some readings have been taken, 
but it is feared that they are not perfectly trustworthy ; they may, 
however, be useful in confirming later results. 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE THEORY OP fOlNT-GROUPS. 121 



Report on the Present State of the Theory of Pohit^groiijis . — -Part I. 
Bij Frances Hardcastle, Cambridge. 

Contents. 

PAfiM 

§ 1. Introduction 121 

§ 2. Historical Outline 121 

§ 3. Analysis of the Subject according to Content. ...... 123 

§ 4. Brill's Memoirs on Elimination and Algebraic Correspondences, 1863-1873. 123 

§ 1. Introduction. 

The term point-group is a dii^ect translation of the German word Punkt- 
grujype, first used by Brill and Noether in the year 1873 in their classic 
memoir on algebraic functions,' but to my knowledge, although more than 
a quarter of a century has elapsed since then, there has been no very 
systematic attempt to present the theory of point-groups to English 
readers along any of its lines of development. And yet it should prove 
of interest even to those mathematicians who do not desire to specialise 
in it, for, historically and logically, it touches upon many distinct branches 
of pure mathematics. To mention only those which are most directly 
brought into connection with each other, we have the intersections of 
plane curves, the elimination of variables from systems of equations, the 
algebraic theory of correspondences on a plane curve, properties of linear 
systems of plane curves, and applications of the theory of functions to 
the theory of curves and surfaces in space of any number of dimen- 
sions. 

As frequently happens when the progress of a subject has been due 
to many different writers, the logical and the chronological divisions do 
not coincide. I have therefore in view a dual arrangement of the 
subject-matter. In the present instalment of my Report, I have 
attempted to sketch this proposed arrangement under its two aspects, 
viz- : as an historical outline (§ 2), and as an analysis according to 
content (§ 3). This is followed (§ 4) by a detailed account of one of the 
historical divisions. I hope in the subsequent portions of the Report to 
deal in a somewhat similar way with the remaining divisions, and to 
append a complete bibliography. 

§ 2. Historical Outline. 

A. 1720-1818. Memoirs on the intersections of plane curves from 
Maclaurin to Lame. 

\^Lame was the first to express the linearity of the system of curves through 
the intersections of two given curves.-^ 

B. 1818-1857. Memoirs and other published accounts of theorems on 
the intersections of curves from Lame to Riemann, including those of 
Pliicker and Cayley. 

[Pliicker was the first to introduce explicitly 2^rojective methods by 

' ' Ueber die algebraischen Functionen und ihre Anwendung in der Geonaetrie,' 
Math. Ann., vol. vii., pp. 269-310. 

* Cf. C. A. Scott, Bull. Am. Math. Soc, vol. iv., p. 262, 1898. 



122 REPORT— 1900. 

means of homogeyieous co-ordinates; ' and also to fix one curve in the 
discussion, treating the other curves as variable.- Cayley's theorems are 
interesting on account of the subsequent discussion as to their true 
formidation.^ 

C. 1857-1873. (i.) Memoirs on bi-rational transformation. 

(ii.) Brill's memoirs on elimination and algebraic correspondences, 
(1863-1873). [^ detailed account of these is given in § 4, infra.] 

(iii.) Memoirs and other publications connecting the theory of 
functions with the theory of plane algebraic curves, including those of 
Clebsch and Gordan, Brill and Noether. 

[Clebsch and Gordan's treatise attempted to found Riemann's residta in 
the theory of Abelian functions on an algebraic basis: the standpoint is 
mainly that of projective geometry. To Brill and Noether is due the 
initiation of the main line of enquiry in the theory of linear series of point- 
groups on a base-curve, from, the standpoint of bi-rational transformation.^ 

(iv.) Memoirs on the intersections of curves. 

D. 1873-1890. (i.) Noether's memoirs published in the Mathematische 
Artnalen, and in Crelle, on the theory of functions, and on analytical 
geometry. 

(ii.) .Memoirs on linear systems of plane curves, treated analytically 
from the standpoint of bi-rational transformation. 

[These are chiefly by Italian writers, beginning with Caporali in 

(iii.) Castelnuovo's memoirs on linear series of point-groups on plane 
curves, treated geometrically from the standpoint of bi-rational transforma- 
tion. 

(iv.) Segre's memoirs on curves and surfaces in hyperspace. 

(v.) Intersection theorems as treated by Bacharach and Zeuthen. 

[These connect Cayley's theorems with Brill and Noether' s theorem of 
residtcation.] 

(vi.) Brill's memoirs on algebraic correspondences in the Mathema- 
tische Annalen contrasted with Castelnuovo's memoir on the number 
of rational involutions to be found on a curve of given genus (deficiency). 

E. 1890-1900. (i.) Castelnuovo's memoir on linear systems of plane 
curves as determined by given points (1891, 3fem. Torino, vol. 42). 

(ii.) Memoirs on the theory of algebraic surfaces chiefly by Castel- 
nuovo and Enriques, and summarised by them in an article in vol. 48 
of the Mathematische Annalen (1896). 

(iii.) Segre's paper on the geometry on a simply infinite algebraic 
manifold, in which the properties and applications of linear series are 
derived from theorems in the geometry of hyperspace (Annali di Mat., 
vol. 22, 1894). >. y yf f \ 

(iv.) Bertini's account of the principal theorems concerning linear series 
of point-groups on a plane curve, written chiefly from Brill and Noether's 
standpoint (Annali di Mat., vol. 22, 1894). 

' Cf. Brill and Noether, Jahreaher. d. Beutschen Math. Ver., vol. iii., p. 207, 1894. 
' Cf. Brill and Noether, ibid., p. 290. 
' Cf. Brill and Noether, loo. ait., p. 545. 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 123 

(v.) Brill and Noether's report on the theory of algebraic functions, 
containing succinct accounts of the contents and iraportance of many of 
the memoirs in the above divisions. 

(vi.) Solution of the question of the identity of the terms involution 
and linear series by Humbert and by Castelnuovo (1893). 

(vii.) F. S. Macaulay's papers in the Proceedings of the London Mathema- 
tical Society, vols. 26, 29, 31, 1895-99, on curves through given points. 

§ 3. Analysis according to Content. 

A. The three different methods of investigation, viz. analytical, 
geometrical, transcendental. 

B. Various definitions of the terms in use by English, French, German, 
and Italian writers, and the logical connection of the ideas when defined 
in the language of analytical geometry. 

C. Results obtained by the theory, expressed in the terms defined 
inB. 

(o) Concerning the linear series of point-groups on a given base-curve, 
e.g., Clifford's theorem, the liiemann-Roch theorem. 

(y8) Concerning the base-curve, proved by means of the properties of 
linear series of point-groups, and of linear systems of plane curves, e.g. : 

(i.) Persistence under hi-rational transformation of p {deficiency, 
genus). 

(ii.) Reduction of the order of a curve toith given deficiency. 

(iii.) Classification of plane curves into rational, hyperellij^tic, \i-gonal. 

D. Properties of surfaces in hyperspace in connection with the pro- 
perties of linear systems. 

§ 4. Beill's Memoirs on Elimination and Algebraic Correspondences. 

1863-1873. 

Brill's earliest papers in the Mathematische Annalen are on problems 
which arose naturally out of the subject-matter of his Habilitations- 
schrift, viz. the transformation theory of algebraic functions in connec- 
tion with Riemann's memoirs on Abelian functions. Clebsch and 
Gordan, in their treatise on Abelian functions, published in 1866 (the 
year before Brill's Habilitationsschrift), had attempted to develop 
a theory of the applications of Abelian functions to geometry. Inter- 
preting Abel's and Riemann's equations as curves, they expressed 
the number p, which plays a fundamental part in Riemann's theory of 
Abelian integrals, in terms of the singularities of the corresponding plane 
curve, thus identifying it with the number studied by Cayley under the 
name of deficiency. They further discussed the persistence of this number 
under bi-rational transformation — that is, the simplest type of a one-one 
correspondence — and the existence of certain constants (moduli) invariant 
under such transformation. Brill adopted their interpretation of the 
equations, and his work, though essentially analytical in form, is capable 
of direct geometrical application in its results. 

The number of the moduli is the subject of the first two papers. In 
the earlier of the two ^ he remarks that Riemann, by analysis, found 

' Math. Ann., vol. i., pp. 401-406, 1869, ' Note beziiglich der Zahl der Moduln einer 
Classe von algebraischen GleichuDgen.' 



124 EEPORT— 1900. 

3 p — 3 to be the number of moduli of his ' normal ' function, whereas 
Cay ley ' obtained, by geometrical considerations, the number 4 ^^ — 6 for the 
curve of (2; + l)th order, the 'normal' curve of Clebsch and Gordan ; but 
by actually performing the transformation of the latter — in the case /;=4 
— into Riemann's form. Brill shows that there are in fact only 3 p — 3 
moduli (a result which Cayley verified later.) ^ The second paper ^ was 
occasioned by a memoir by Casorati and Cremona,'' in which the trans- 
formation of Clebsch and Gordan's form into Riemann's is effected, by 
geometrical methods, for the cases jo=4, 5, 6. Brill obtains their results 
by different methods, employing the properties of curves in space of three 
dimensions. An example for p = 6is3i septic with nine double points ; this 
he connects by a one-one transformation with a curve in space of the 8th 
degree, quoting Cayley ^ to show that the transformation can be effected 
in exactly five ways, corresponding to the five straight lines in space 
which meet the tortuous curve of the 8th degree in four points. Similarly 
for^^^T, the transformation of a plane curve of the 8th degree can be 
effected in twenty-one different ways. These examples are important, as 
forming a connecting link between the theory of transformation, in which 
they presented themselves, and the theory of elimination, to which they 
directly lead ; moreover, within the theory of elimination they suggest 
the question of the number of different solutions satisfying a system of 
simultaneous equations. 

In the year 1871, Brill begins to turn his attention to a wider theory, 
that of elimination when stated algebraically, or of correspondences when 
stated geometrically. This is shown in the title of a paper,^ which con- 
tains proof of theorems required in the succeeding paper ; '^ but neither 
of these has any immediate application to our present purpose. 

The geometrical side of the theory of correspondences had been 
already attacked by Chasles, De Jonquieres, and Cayley, but algebraical 
proofs of many theorems were still wanting ; and, moreover, the treat- 
ment of the problems in a purely symbolical and analytical manner led 
to the establishment of theorems in the general theory of elimination, 
which in their turn apply to a region intimately connected with the 
theory of correspondences — that of point-groups on a curve — but at the 
date we speak of, still comparatively unexplored. 

In Brill's first important contribution to the theory of elimination,*' 
he attacks the problem of the number of different solutions which satisfy 
a system of simultaneous equations.^ He remarks that Roberts '" and 
Salmon '^ confined themselves to a discussion of the degree of the 
eliminant in the whole number of variables, not the degree in which 

■ Proc. London Math. Soc, vol. i., 18G5, ' On the transformation of plane curves.' 

- Math. Ann., vol. viii., pp. 359-362. ' On the group of points G^ on a sextic 
curve with five double points,' 1874. 

^ Ibid., vol. ii., pp. 471-474, 1870, ' Zweite Note beziiglich der Moduln einer 
Classe von algebraischen Gleichungen.' 

■* Accad. Milan, May. 1870. ^ Phil. Trans., 1870, ' On skew surfaces.' 

^ Math. Ann., vol. iv., pp. 510-526, 'Zur Theorie der Elimination und der 
algebraischen Curven.' 

' Ibid., pp. 527-549, ' Ueber zwei Beriihrungsprobleme.' 

* Math. Ann., vol. v., pp. 378-396, 1872, ' Ueber Elimination aus einem gewissen 
System von Gleichungen.' 

^ See also Math. Ann., vol. iv., pp. 542-548, 1871. 

'° Crelle, vol. Ixvii., pp. 266-278, 1867. 

" Higher Algebra, Lessons VllI. and XVIII. 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 125 



each variable appears. The latter is the more difficult pi-oblem, and 
admits of complications in which the interpretation of certain equations 
as correspondences is of great value (see infra, p. 129). 

In this paper he finds by induction, without a rigorous proof, a 
formula for the number of solutions of a system of equations in k inde- 
pendent variables (each equation being symmetrical in all the variables), 
the system consisting of a number of equations equivalent to i + \ inde- 
pendent equations ; so that k—i—\ of the variables must have arbitrarily 
assigned values before the expression ' number of solutions ' can have a 
meaning. When k—i—\ have been so chosen, the 'number of solutions' 
means the number of different ways in which the remaining i + \ L,an be 
found to satisfy any i + \ equations of the system. The number (see 
formula (A), infra) is made to depend on the sums and differences of the 
numbers of common solutions of pairs of systems of equations (in square 
brackets in (A) below), one system of each pair being of the same kind 
as the original system, but equivalent to fewer than i + l independent 
equations ; while the second system of the pair is either precisely one 
equation, symmetrical in all the variables, or consists of a system equiva- 
lent to 2, or 3, . . ., or i + l independent equations, involving only k—\, 
k — 2, . k—i variables respectively. As an important example of a 
system of equations of the assumed nature, he considers the original 
system to consist of all the equations formed by equating to zero every 
^-rowed determinant of the following matrix of k + i columns and 
k rows, 

01 (^l). 02 (^l), • • • 0t + «(^l)j 

'1 ('^2)1 02 ('^2). • • • 0A + ;, (^2): 



01 {\), 02 i^k). 



'Pk.i{K) 



where ^1, . . . (^4+,; are integral functions of the mth degree of the 
single variables enclosed in the brackets, these variables A,, . . . /\. being 
all independent. Such a matrix is more shortly written as \\k + i\\,., and 
the number of solutions as {k + i),,. This notation is also employed when 
the ^/s are functions of more than one variable each, the variables beino' 
then connected by k relations (see infra, p. 127). The number of common 
solutions of all the A'-rowed determinants it contains is known to be equal 
to the number of common solutions of the i + l determinants, 

0i(^i)j • • • 0A-i(''^i). 0((^i)| 

0;,-i(^2), 0((^2) 

01 (\.). • • • 0;.-i('\), h{\)\ 

. k-\-i in turn, j^rovided the A — 1 -rowed deter- 
•Pi ('"^i). • • • 0i-i(^i) 



where <=A-, A; + l, . . 
minants of the matrix 



do nob all vanish. 



01 OV), 



0*-i(\.) 



126 REPORT — 1900. 

By a generalisation of simple cases, this number of solutions is 
reduced to the following formula : — 

(A) {k+i),=[{k+i-iuk),,]-[{k+i-2%{k-i),;\+ . . . 

. . . ::^[{k),(k-i + l\]±{k-i% 

where [{k + i — l)k{k)^] stands for the number of common solutions of 
||yi; + i — l|j,.. (equivalent to i independent equations, provided the k — 1- 
rowed determinants, mentioned above, do not vanish), and of \\k\\,, which 
represents precisely one equation ; and so on. A rigorous proof of this 
formula was not given until 1890,^ but, assuming it to hold, the number 
of solutions, when the variables are all independent, is found by perfectly 
valid reasoning in the paper under consideration, and particular cases of 
the more general problem, to which formula (A) also applies [i.e. when 
there are k pairs of variables, connected by k relations), are solved in 
the next paper - by direct evaluation. 

When the terms of the right-hand side of (A) come to be actually 
evaluated, the particular case, here alone considered (i.e. of k independent 
variables), proves capable of direct treatment by algebraic theorems in 
elimination proved in the earlier part of the paper, and the final result is 

/7 . -v (w^ — ^ + l)(m — k) . . . (m—k — i + 1) 

^^+'^^ ITTVsTTTi+l 

From the point of view of the theory of point-groups, a geometri- 
cal problem which Brill solves by means of formula (A) is of interest ; it 
is thus stated : 

Given a {k + i — ^)-ply infinite family of curves of order m, viz. : 
a,0](x,y) + a2^2(x,y)+ ;•• +f';.+i0i+i(x,y)=O. Assuming k-i-1 of the 
points of intersection with a straight line, to find i others such that every 
curve through these k— 1 also passes through a cei-tain kth point. In how 
many ivays can this be done ? 

Or, in other words : 

In hov) many loays can k points he chosen on a straight line, so that an 
i-ply iifinite system of curves, selected from a (k + i — ^)-p>ly infinite system 
may pass through them ? 

Since the number of solutions is all that is required, the problem is not 
made less general by taking the intersections with a definite straight line, 
say y=0 ; substituting this value for y in the equation from the outset, 
we are led to finding the number of solutions of exactly the matrix con- 
sidered on p. 125, leading to formula (A), which, since a;,, . . . x,. are k 
independent variables, can be directly evaluated as above. . 

Brill's investigations into the theory of correspondences definitely 
commenced in 1872.'' In the introductory remarks he attributes the 
origin of this theory (in geometry) to Chasles, who, in 1864, first enun- 
ciated the principle of correspondence for points on a straight line : 
' if to every point x there are n points y, and to every p)oint y tliere are m 
points X, tlben at m + n points an x coincides with ay;' and who af ter- 
wai-ds extended it, in 1866, to points on any unicursal curve.^ Cay ley 

' Math. Ami., vol. xxxvi., p. 326. = Ibid., vol. vi. 

3 Ihid., vol. vi., pp. .33-65, ' Ueber Entsprechen von Punktsj'stemen auf einer 

Curve.' 

* Comptes Rendus, vol. Iviii., June 27, 1864, and vol. Ixil., p. 11. 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 127 

had given 1 an extension of this principle to curves of any deficiency 
«,2 without, however, formally proving it, and it is at this stage that 
Brill took up the subject. He gives an algebraic proof of Cayley's formula 
for the number of united points of one correspondence on a given curve of 
deficiency j), and he finds, moreover, the proper extension to curves 
of any deficiency of the well-known algebraic theorem : ' if betiveen the 
points X, y of a straight line, there exists a relation ,p{^, y)=0 by means of 
which u points x correspond to a j)oint y and X 2yoints j to a point x ; and 
further, if by means of a second relation (p'(x, y)=0 k' points x correspond 
to \' points y ; then the number of jmirs of jjoints lohich satisfy both 
relations is {<P<P')=kX' + >:'\.' The first relation ^(a;, 2/)= is said to establish 
a correspondence (k, X) between the points on the straight line ; the 
second, <p'{x, y)=0, a correspondence (ic', X'), and (ff) gives the number of 
pairs of points which satisfy both correspondences. 

Brill's extension is as follows -.—Given a fixed point z on a curve t oj 
deficiency p, and two movable points, x, y, on the same curve, and let the 
two relations, <l> (x, y,z)=0, (^'{k, y,z)=0 hold, which, regarded as functions 
ofx have k, k' points of intersection, respectively, loith i(x)=0, of which 
/3, /3', respectively, coincide with the point z, and y, y' with the point y ; ^ 
and which, regarded as functions of j, have 1, V p)oints of intersection, 
respectively, with f (y)=0, of ivhich a, a', respectively, coincide with _ the 
point z, and y, y' with the jyoint x ; then the number of pairs of points, 
x, y, {each point being distinct from the other and not coinciding with z), 
ivhich satisfy both relations is given by ((p(l)')=KX' + K'X—2pyy', 

^^^^^ [x=l-y-a,X'=l'-y-a'. 

The first application of this formula is to find in hov) many ivays three 
points on a curve f=:0 can be chosen, so that a singly i^ifinite system of 
curves, selected from a given triply-infinite system, may pass through Jhein. 
This is a simple case of the problem already referred to on p. l'J5 (viz. 
;5._3^ 1=1), but now we have to deal with a base-curve of any deficiency 
p, instead of the straight line, and thus it is impossible to eliminate y and 
to obtain equations in three independent variables ^i, x^, ^3- We obtain 
a matrix similar, but not identical, to that on p. 125, viz. : — 

?>i(^i2/i)> V>2(^i2/i). <}'s(^iyi)> 1>i{^\y\)\ 

fii^-ii/ih 02(^22/2)) fA^iV-i)^ f4{^2y2) 
<pi{^3ys)> ni^zVz)' <p-i{^zyz\ <Pi{^zyz). 

and further, the three e(\\xa.i\onsf {x^y^) = 0, f {x.^'>)=0, f {x-^y^)=Q. 

As before remarked, however, the formula (A) still holds and gives us 
(3-|-l)3=[(3)3(.3).,]— (3 — 1)3 but for this simple case it is worth while to 
work out the problem directly in the first place, without using formula 
(A), as it afi"ords insight into the geometrical meaning of a correspondence 

Observe, first, that before a finite number of solutions can be found, 
one point, z, on /=0, must be assumed arbitrarily, since k-i-l = l. 

' Comptcs Eendus, vol. Ixii., 1866, p. 586. 

- Cayley's result is that the number of ' united points ' is to + w + 2/;Z', where ^ is a 
quantity afterwards known as the Wertigkeit of the correspondence curve. 
3 j3 is said to be the Wertlglteit of (^ at .r = z, 7 at a; = y ; 

3' „ „ „ „ <^'at3: = 2^,y ata> = y; 

a. „ „ „ „ <P at 2/ = 2, 

a' „ „ „ ,, ^'aty = c. 



128 KEPORT — 1900. 

Also, if any two independent curves of the triplj'-infinite system can be 
passed through this arbitrary point z and through certain other two x, y, 
ony=0, then a singly-infinite number passes through these three points, 
and they form one of the triplets whose number is required. To arrive at 
two independent curves of the system, take any two fixed points A, B, in 
the plane, and consider first the curve through sand A, then that through 
;:; and B ; each has still one degree of freedom, but loses this and becomes 
perfectly determinate if passed through a common point y on /=0. Let 
every curve of the triply-infinite system have M movable points of 
intersection with /=0 — that is to say, M points whose co-ordinates depend 
on the variable parameters of the system — then these two independent 
curves determined by y have each M — 2 points of intersection x with/=0 
besides z and y ; and in general the M — 2 a;'s belonging to one curve will 
be all distinct from those belonging to the other ; but if y be properly 
chosen (or, we may say, for certain positions of y on y= 0) an x of one curve 
will coincide with an x of the other, x, y. z thus forming one of the required 
triplets, since two independent curves pass through them. The expression 
for certain positions ofj oni=0 introduces the idea of the movement of the 
point y on/, which necessitates a corresponding movement of the two sets of ' 
M — 2 .r's belonging to the two distinct curves ; we may say with reference 
to each curve, that to every position of y there correspond M — 2 positions 
of X ; moreover, since, when confining the attention to the curve through 
z and A, it is immaterial which of the M — 1 points is called y, we say 
that to every position of x there correspond M — 2 positions oi y : we 
have a symmetrical correspondence (M — 2, M. — 2)heliveen the ^yoints x, j 
established on f=0 by means of the C7trve through z a7id A ; and, similarly, 
we have another established by means of the curve through z and B. 
But we have already pointed out that for certain positions of y, i.e. of the 
one of the M — 1 points which is common to both curves, there will be an 
X common to them as well, and it is the number of such positions of y (or 
of this x, since the relation of this particular x and y is reversible) that 
we wish to find. 

Again, since the original system has three degrees of freedom, the 
system through A (or through B) has two degrees of freedom ; hence one 
curve of the system can always be drawn to touch /=0 at any point on it, 
and no curve can have a double point. In other words, wherever z is 
taken ony=0, there is always one position of y which coincides with z (on 
the curve touchingy=0 at z), or 2/=~ satisfies the correspondence equation 
^ identically once. (If no curve could have been drawn to touch y=0 at 
any arbitrary point, y=^z would not satisfy the correspondence equation 
identically at all, whereas, if a curve with a double point at any arbitrary 
point on/"=0 could have been drawn, then y=z would have satisfied the 
correspondence equation identically twice, &c.) The number of times 
that y'=z satisfies the correspondence equation is called the ' Wertigkeit' 
of the correspondence, and is denoted by \<f\,j-. In symmetrical cor- 
respondences, such as the one above, x, y, z are all interchangeable, and 
therefore [</)]i„= [</>].„= [()!)],-„._ 

The value of the ' Wertigkeit ' is written as a subscript to the bracket 
(i^^') ; thus, in the language of correspondences, the number of solutions 
CO our present problem is the number of pairs of points which satisfy two 
correspondence equations, each given as (M — 2, M — 2)j. But from this 
number must be subtracted those pairs of points which lie on that one curve 
of the triply-infinite system which passes through both A and B as well as 
z, for these do not lie on two distinct curves, and therefore not on a curve 



ON THE PKESENT STATE OF THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 129 

of a singly- infinite system. The number of such pairs is obviously the 
combinations in twos of the M — 1 points besides z, which lie on/=0, i.e. 

it is '^ -. If, therefore, we write k^=k'^=\=z\'=M. — '2 and 

■y=7'=l in the formula given on p. 127 for (i^^') (dividing it, however, 
by 2, since our correspondences are symmetrical), and then subtract 

'- from this, we obtain the number of triplets, viz. (M — 2)^ — 

p - ^(M-l)(M-2)=i(M-2)(M - ?,)-p. 

Now compare the steps of this process with the formula (A) for this 
case, i.e. with (3 + l)3 = [(3);j(3)3] — (3 — 1)3 and we see that the two cor- 
respondences employed, exactly similar, were the determinants, the number 
of whose solutions was denoted by (3)3, (3)3, while (3 - 1)3 gives the num- 
ber of those solutions which needed to be subtracted from the total number. 

In more complicated problems, formula (A) is used at once, and the 
evaluation of the number of common solutions of the equations in the 
square brackets (the number and form of these equations is given above, 
pp. 125 and 126) is performed by interpreting these as correspondence equa- 
tions (cf. p. 124), provided we know how many points correspond to one in 
each correspondence (they are always symmetrical, as is seen at once from 
the form of the determinant) and also the ' Wertigkeit ' of the points 
x—y, kc. (Here again, by symmetry \_<f\iy=[<p\:= .... &c., for the 
determinant will vanish identically exactly the same number of times 
whichever rows are made the same.) 

The other cases to which Brill applies the theory of correspondences 
in the paper under consideration are : — 

{a) To find the mimher of triplets of points on a given base-curve 
through which a doubly-infinite system of curves, contained within a ^-ply 
infinite system, can he made to pass. 

(b) To find the number of sets of four points on a given base-curve 
through which a triply-infinite system, of curves, contained within a &-ply 
infinite system, can he made to pass. 

In the first of these A;=3, i=2 ; in the second A; =4, i=3. They are 
both rather more complicated than the one we have considered in detail ; 
the first, namely, involves finding the number of triplets of points which 
satisfy three correspondences, for 

. (3-f2)3 = [(3 + l)3(3)3]-[(3)3(2)3] + (l)3, 

and the number of independent equations (see p. 126) involved in 
DI3 + III3, !|3||] is 2 + 1=3, involved in [||3||3, II21I3] is l-f-2=3, and involved 
in (1)3 is 3 ; similarly, the second involves finding the number of sets of 
4 points which satisfy 4 correspondences, for here we have 

(4 + 3),=[(6),(4),]-[(5),(3),] + [(4),(2),]-(l)„ 

and the total number of independent equations in each term of this 
expression is 4, namely, 3 + 1, 2 + 2, 1 + 3 and 4. Moreover, it is essential 
to the final evaluation to take notice of the way in which the 4 inde- 
pendent equations are grouped ; the formulae in the theory of correspond- 
ences for finding the number of sets of 4 points which satisfy 4 equations 
when these 4 are grouped as 3 + 1 differs from that in which they are 
grouped as 2 + 2 ; but since the difference only appears in the terms 
1900. K 



130 



REPORT — 1900. 



involving jo, it does not exist when j»=0, i.e. when the base-curve is a 
straight line or a uuicursal curve, and it was for this reason that the 
actual solution of the pi-evious problem (p. 126) was possible. The 
required formulae for i^^l, 2, 3 (leading to 2, 3, and 4 simultaneous 
correspondences), are worked out in the earlier part of this paper for all 
possible different groupings of the sets, and the final results for examples 
(a) and {b) are 

, . M-2.M-3.M-4 .„ .. 

(«) TOO -^(M-4) 



(b) 



1.2.3 

M-3.M-4.M-5.M-6 
1.2.3.4 



M-6.M- 
1.2 



ly+?Oi^) 



where, as before, M denotes the number of movable points of intersec- 
tion of each curve of the given system withy*=0. We notice in passing 
that these results agree with that of p. 126, when^j=0, M=m. 

A. problem in the theory of point-groups, of which the above are par- 
ticular cases, was first enunciated in the most general form in a paper by 
Brill and Noether, in 1873.' They state it thus :— 

Given a t-ply infinite system of adjoint curves — that is, of curves 
passing s — 1 times through every s,- fold point ofi=:.0 — it is required to find 
Ji points on the base-curve, f^O, ivhichform such a point-group — or set of 
points — that the curves of the given system ivhich pass through it form a 
(\-ply infinite system. If the equation of the system is 

this problem leads, by known theorems, to finding the common solutions 
of all the (^ — ^-^-l) rowed determinants of the matrix. 



<i>i{x2y-2)> ■ 



hi^Rys.), 



where 

are connected by the equations 
f{x,y,)=0, . . 



?'t+ 1(^2^2) 



fi^ii^uVn) 



^RyR> 



/(ajRyR)=o. 



The simplest case is therefore to be found by taking R=<— 9 + I, and 
this is, in fact, the only case completely solved. The formula for the 
number of solutions was given in this memoir, viz. : — 

<^> '(-)|(|)(«^'-') . . . ieven 
!<-)n'(|(5 + l)) 'Odd 



+ ■ 



' Math. Ann. vol. vii., pp. 269-310. ' Ueber die algebraischen Functionen und 
ihre Anwendung in der Geometrie.' 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 131 

where Q=2j9-2-R and (j\ stands ior ^^^~l^ ' ' ' ^^"^."^^^ 

but the rigorous proof only appeared in the year 1890. For particular 

values of q, however, viz. q=l, 2, 3, and assuming the rigorous proof of 

formula (A), formula (B) was proved in the previous papers. In fact, we 

-see that (a) and (6) on p. 130 are particular instances in which E,=A;, q=i, 



Report on the Chemical Compounds contained in Alloys. 
By F. H. Neville, F.R.S. 

Past I. 

TLOa 

Methods of Discovery of Compounds ......... 131 

Chemical Methods of Isolation .......... 131 

Freezing -Point Curves ............ 132 

Microscopical Study ............ 141 

Montgen-ray Photography 141 

Determination of iHectrical Potential atid other Physical Methods . . . 142 

Part II. 

Table of Intermetallic Compounds and JDiscussion of it ..... 144 

Molecular Weights of the Metals 146 

Tables of Depression of the Freezing-point caused by dissolving other metals in 

Tin, Zinc, Bismuth, Cadmiuvi, Lead 147 

Table of References 149 

PART I. 

Although most students of alloys are now convinced that they often 
contain definite chemical compounds, yet these 'intermetallic' com- 
pounds are still passed over in silence by the authors of books on descrip- 
tive chemistry. The cause of this omission lies in the difficulty of isolating 
these bodies in a pure state, and in their resemblance to the metals. It 
must be acknowledged that just as the metals resemble one another more 
than do the non-metals, so their compounds often present a gi-eat 
superficial resemblance to their constituent elements. Intermetallic 
compounds might well be compared to the somewhat intangible bodies 
formed by the union of the halogens with each other and with sulphur. 
Many of these bodies show marked dissociation — that is to say, they readily 
form systems in true equilibrium with their components ; it is almost 
certain that ' intermetallic ' compounds present the same phenomenon when 
in contact with liquid alloy. 

Methods of Studying Intermetallic Compounds. 

The method that naturally suggests itself to a chemist is that of ex- 
tracting the pure compounds from an alloy by filtration, by volatilisation 
of excess of a volatile metal, or by removing the excess of metal by 
means of a suitable solvent. Each of these methods has been employed 
with some success. 

Filtration methods are very difficult at high temperatures, but if the 
difficulties can be overcome so that the first solid separating from a liquid 
as it freezes is isolated, we shall get invaluable information. By the 
filtration of a partly solidified solution of gold and cadmium in tin, Heycock 
and Neville (') obtained a crystalline residue approximating to the formula 

K 2 



132 REPORT— 1900. 

AuCd, even when the proportions of gold and cadmium in the original 
mixture varied within wide limits. Again (-), by alloying gold with excess 
of cadmium and distilling off the excess of cadmium they obtained a 
residue having the. composition AuCd. Now that many metals have been 
distilled w vacuo this method may meet with success in other cases. 

M. Lebeau (^) dissolves metals in excess of sodium and distils off the 
excess of sodium by the prolonged passage of ammonia gas followed by 
that of nitrogen. He thus obtains the bodies SbNa^, BiNa^, Sn]Sra4 in a 
pure state. He is also succeeding by the same method with the other 
alkali metals. M. Joannis (■*) some years ago applied a similar method 
successfully. 

The method of fractional solution enabled Debray (") to isolate the 
bodies PtSn^, RhSng, RuSn;,, by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on 
alloys containing excess of tin. M. Le Chatelier {^) has in the same way 
isolated the compound Cu^Sn. He emphasises the opinion that by 
choosing a suitable solvent, suggested by electro-chemical considerations, 
the method will be found generally applicable. For example, by sub- 
jecting alloys of copper and zinc to the prolonged action of a paste of 
lead chloride he has obtained crystals of pure ZnqCu. Mr. Heycock, in 
a research not yet published, obtained large crystalline grains of PtAl3 
by the action of hydrochloric acid on a slowly cooled alloy of aluminium 
and platinum. Mr. Stead (^) has isolated in this way crystals of SnSb, 
Au4Pb, AusPbg, SnaAs,, and probably of some other alloys. The work 
is in some cases not yet published, but he has been kind enough to com- 
municate the results for the purpose of this report. 

Other cases could no doubt be quoted in which fractional solution 
leaves a residue ha^^ing a formula, but there is a great risk of the solvent 
attacking the crystals ; and, as Mr. Stead has found, the existence of mixed 
crystals, or, at all events, of crystals having a core different from the out- 
side, is a sei-ious drawback to this method i-egarded as an independent 
method of discovery. It would seem that the proper moment for the 
application of these methods comes when by the microscope, by the 
freezing-point curve, or by potential determinations the existence of a 
compound has been already indicated. 

In a systematic study of intermetallic compounds I should therefore 
put first that of the chemical equilibrium of the binary system : this is 
generally expressed by the freezing-point curve. Next, and perhaps of 
equal importance, comes the microscopic examination of the solid alloys. 
Thirdly, as more limited in scope, but sometimes more emphatic in its 
indications, comes the determination of the difference of electrical potential 
existing between a metal and its alloys. 

The method of studying chemical equilibrium which we owe so largely 
to Professors Bakhuis Roozeboom and Le Chatelier is now familiar to 
most chemists, and in the case of a binary system it can be sufficiently 
described in a few words. A mixture of two substances, A and b, in 
certain proportions is melted. It is allowed to cool slowly, and the 
temperature is noted at which solid matter begins to separate from 
the liquid. This is the 'freezing-point.' It tells us the temperature 
at which this particular mixture becomes saturated — that is to say, 
comes into equilibrium with a particular solid. By repeating the 
experiment with a series of mixtures of A and b we get as many 
points as we need for plotting the freezing-point curve. In this curve, 
one ordinate is the percentage composition of the mixture expressed 
either in weight per cent, of A and b, or, better, in atomic or molecular 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOCS. 



133 



Fig. 1. 




Cone 



per cents. ; the other ordinate is temperature. It is desirable to observe 
not only the first halt in the cooling, but also any lower ones that occur 
down to the moment of complete solidification, or even below it. It is 
also desirable to isolate by filtration the crystals which form at the freezing 
point, and to analyse them. This would give the composition of the 
solid and liquid phases which could exist in equilibrium at the observed 
temperature. Unfortunately, on account of experimental difficulties, 
isolation of the solid phase has not been carried out in the case of alloys, 
and a later microscopic study of the wholly solid alloy is a very imperfect 
substitute for it. 

We now know pretty well the types of freezing-point or equilibrium 
curves that occur. In the simplest of all cases — that in which the two 
bodies a and b neither combine chemically nor form mixed crystals — the 
•complete curve resembles fig. 1. It consists of two 
branches cutting each other at the eutectic angle. 
One branch, which starts from the freezing-point of 
a liquid wholly composed of A, corresponds to the 
formation of primary crystals of pure A at each 
freezing-point, the other branch to the formation of 
primary crystals of pure B. When the liquid, either 
from its initial composition or through the separation 
of the primary crystals, reaches the composition of 
the eutectic intersection, a and b crystallise simul- 
tajieously but in separate crystals. Thus the solid 
eutectic alloy is a very minute conglomerate, while 
all other alloys contain large primary crystals of 
either a or b embedded in this conglomerate. This 

has been conclusively demonstrated by the exquisite microscopic work of 
M. Osmond (®) and also by that of M. Charpy (^). 

Curves which approximate to this type have been worked (^° *"** ") 
out for the pairs Zn.Al, Zn.Sn, Au.Cu, Ag.Cu, and some other 
metals. Such curves do not indicate the existence of a compound, 
though it would be too much to say that they disprove the existence of 
compounds. 

When a compound exists whose melting-point lies in the region above 
the freezing-point curve of the two metals, it produces a separate branch 
cutting the other two branches. At points on this intermediate branch 
the saturated liquid deposits crystals of the compound. The summit 
of this branch occurs at the concentration corresponding to the formula 
of the compound. If more than one compound exists there is a branch 
for each compound, although parts of the branches may be lost by lying 
below the curves of more stable bodies. 

While the above is the usually accepted view as to the meaning of 
summits and eutectic angles in a freezing-point curve, two points may be 
noted. The first is M. Le Chatelier's opinion as to the position of the 
summit caused by a compound. He thinks ('^) that when a compound 
partly dissociates on fusion, the summit caused by its presence may not 
be exactly at the percentage composition corresponding to its formula, 
and that the formation of mixed cry.stals may have a similar effect on the 
curve. This is a matter needing further investigation. The other point 
concerns the position of the eutectic angle. While it is well established 
that the eutectic alloy is a conglomerate, not a compound, we should be 
•wrong to ignore the fact that the angle often comes surprisingly near to 



134 



REPORT — 1900. 



a simple formula — for example, in the AgCu and AuCu curves. Sir George 
Stokes has lately recalled our attention to this point. Paterno and 
Ampolla (•^) have noticed a number of similar cases in organic 
mixtures. 

A good many curves indicating by intermediate branches the 
existence of compounds have now been determined, but for the purpose 
of illustrating the subject further the curve of AuAl will be taken. 

As can be seen from fig. 2, there are seven branches, each corre- 

FiG. 2. 



Temp 

Cent. 
IIOO 



1000 



8001 



800 



700 



600 



fiOO 




Weight per cent, of Alumiuiuui 



50 



100 



sponding to the crystallisation of a different solid. The extreme branches, 
AB and IJ, being regarded as those of the two metals, we have five left, 
each of which Tnay indicate a compound. The branch def has its 
summit exactly at the formula AuoAl. The microscope shows that the 
summit alloy e is an almost homogeneous body, and that all solid alloys 
whose composition lies between that of d and f contain large crystals of 
the E body immersed in a mother substance. As we descend the curve 
from the summit the large crystals of E are found to occupy less and less 
of the whole alloy, until at d and f they cease to exist. Exactly similar 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 



135 



phenomena show themselves on the branch ghi ; the summit h occurs 
at the formula AuAlo, and large crystals of this body are found embedded 
in mother substance in all alloys between g and i. 

These criteria taken together — ^(1) the occurrence of a summit at a 
formula percentage, (2) the presence of large crystals of the same kind, 
decreasing in amount as we descend the branch on either side — are, I 
believe, an absolute proof of the reality of a compound. The two bodies 
AuqAI and AuAL, as certainly exist as do the two chlorides of copper. 
But there are other compounds more obscurely indicated by the curve ; 
the branch fq has its summit, x, below the branch gh, hence the x 
body which crystallises at points on gp never occurs alone in a solid 
alloy. The microscope shows that solid alloys between G and H contain 
large crystals of AuAl,, surrounded by a coating of the x body, and that 
oatside this coating there are large independent crystals of x embedded 
in a minute conglomerate of x and e. The fact is that in the first stage 
of freezing, while the large crystals of AuAlj, or h, are forming, the 
liquid part necessarily gets richer in gold until it reaches the composition 
G. From this moment the H 

crystals cease to form, and the Fig. 3. 

existing ones become coated 
with the x body, which at 
lower temperatures crystallises 
independently in large crys- 
tals, that in a certain sense 
are primary. Finally, the 
residual liquid reaches the state 
F, and the eutectic conglo- 
merate forms which is com- 
posed of crystals of AU2AI 
and of X. Thus an alloy may 
contain a compound although 
that compound does not occur 
as the sole constituent of any 
particular alloy. This appears 
to be a very common case ; for 
example, Mr. Stead finds that 
in bronzes very rich in tin the 
crystals of Cu-^Sii are coated 
with CuSn, and M. Charpy (9) 
has recorded a similar feature 
in the bronzes very rich in 
copper. In both these cases the 
eutectic lies outside the coating. • 

MM. Le Chatelier ('*), Gautier, and Gosselin ('°) have traced a number 
of remarkable freezing-point curves for pairs of metals, of which 
examples are given here. Unfortunately the composition is stated in 
percentage by weight, not in atomic per cents. 

Copper- Aluminium (fig. 3). — Here we find two well-marked summits, 
one very exactly at CugAl, the other near CuAla. 

Copper-AntimonT/ (fig. 3). — Here there is a well-marked intermediate 
summit which, if it were at a formula point, would almost certainly 
indicate a compound. M. Le Chatelier attributes the formula CuoSb to 
it, but measurement on the curve seems to give the summit the formula 
Cu^Sbj. These two curves, and one of SnCu also due to M. Le Chatelier, 



1000 



900 



800 



700 

Al 

Sb 

6OO 



soo 



400 









L 


Ch 


iteli 


cr 






J 


au 
















/ 


r 

I 


1 
















i 




1 


















/ 


/ 








v" 


\ 






/ 


n 


/ 


/ 








\ 


\ 


\ 


^ 


y 


J 
















s/ 



















0% 10 20 30 40 SO 60 70 80 00 100 



136 



REPORT — 1900. 



are especially interesting, as they were the first high-temperature curves 
of this kind with intermediate summits due to compounds that had been 
published, and the paper ('■•) in which they appeared marks a new 
departure in the subject of alloys. 

Aluminium- Antimony (fig. 4). — The maximum point is very much 
higher than that of either metal ; it is at 1048° C. with 14'66 per cent, of 
aluminium. The curve is remarkable because it shows that nearly all 
mixtures melt above the melting-point of either component. 



Nickel-Tin (fig. 4). 



-Here the intermediate summit is at Ni3Sn2 



M. Gautier gives other 
Fio. 4. curves of great interest, some 

of which were simultaneously 
studied by Heycock and Ne- 
ville (^'), but many of them 
need further work before they 
can be safely interpreted. 

Perhaps the freezing-point 
curves investigated by M. 
Kurnakov throw as clear a 
light on intermetallic com- 
pounds as any work that has 
been done. This work can be 
readily followed from the two 
diagrams contained in his paper, 
and reproduced in figs. 5 and 6. 
The composition is expressed 
in atomic percentages. The 
first diagram (fig. 5) gives the 
freezing-point curves of amal- 
gams of sodium and potassium. 
In the HgNa curve at least six 
separate branches can be seen, 
each corresponding to the crys- 
tallisation of a difierent solid. 
It would be premature to as- 
sert that each branch proves 
the existence of a correspond- 
ing chemical compound, but 
there can be no doubt that the 
summit G proves the existence 
of the compound NaHg,, a 
body whose melting-point is 
much higher than that of either 
component. Similarly, in the 
curve for potassium amalgams, besides minor branches there is a well- 
marked summit at the formula KHga- 

The other figure (fig. 6) gives the freezing-point curves of the mixtures 
NaBi, NaPb, NaCd. It is unfortunate that so few alloys were examined 
on the upper part of the NaBi curve, but the existence of the freezing- 
point M above 700° C. makes a compound very probable. M. Kurnakov 
seems to have no doubt that it indicates Na-jBi, a body already prepared 
by Joannis and by Lebeau. There are two summits on the NaPb curve — 
one at p, which must be very near the formula Na2Pb and one at p' to 
which he does not at present assign a formula. In the NaCd curve we 













Cmu 


tier 








/ 


Nj 


1400 




















/ 










/ 


-V, 








A 


/ 




1200 
1100 
1000 






/ 


/ 


^ 


\ 


\ 


J 












1 








\ 


/ 










rj 


\, 
























^-- 


-^ 














goo 
eoo 

700 


\ 










"^ 




\ 








\ 














\ 


\ 






















\ 


\ 






















\ 




Sb 

600 


\\ 


















\ 


Al 
























cnn 


Sn 























0% 10 20 30 40 SO 60 70 60 90 100 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 



137 



see two well-marked summits, at o and o', the first being exactly at the 
formula NaCdg. It is evident from these curves that the summits of 
many of the branches lie below other branches, and therefore correspond 
to unstable states. The position of the summit and the formula of the 
compound must in such cases be a matter of speculation until experi- 
ments of another kind have been made.^ 

M. Kurnakov has also studied the crystalline matter which separates 
at the freezing-points, and has noted great variations in this as one goes 
from one branch to another. He separated by filtration the hexagonal 
plates which crystallise at points along the branch bc, and analysed them. 



R^Hg KUc, 



Fifi. 5. 

RHg 



RHg^ RHcj^R\ nncj^ Kffcj^ 



10 







40*' 50'" 60"" ./ 70> 

Atomic percentage. 



WJVa 



He found, however, that the composition of the crystals varied from 
point to point along the branch. He attributes this to the presence of 
mother liquor attached to the crystals, and he thinks that the crystals, if 
free from mother liquor, would have had the formula NaaHg. This is a 
very reasonable supposition, but it may be that he was examining mixed 
crystals. The formation of mixed crystals of two bodies which crystallise 
isomorphously is certainly common in alloys, and may be the cause of 
singularities in the freezing-point curve. Indeed, it is doubtful if we 

' The amalgams of sodium and potassium have been examined by various other 
methods ; for example, by the determination of their specific volume— a method 
recently employed by E. Maey (Zeits. Phys. Chemie, xxix. p. 119). He finds a 
number of angles in his plotted curve which he attributes to the existence of 
compounds. 



i; 



REPORT — 1900. 



shall arrive at certainty in the interpretation of such curves until? this 
question of mixed crystallisation has been thoroughly studied. M. Le 
Chatelier some years ago pointed out the importance of this question and 
studied it. 

The curve for mixtures of silver and gold has been quoted as a type 
for bodies which form mixed crystals in all proportions. It is a con- 
tinuous curve joining the 
Fig. 6. 



l^oL^BlNn^Pl 



Na M 




Atomic percentage. 



points of fusion of the two 
components, and diflfers from 
such a curve as that of fig. 1 
by consisting of one branch 
only. Mixed crystallisation 
of two bodies, one or both 
of which were compound, 
might be indicated by a 
continuous curve joining the 
freezing-points of the two 
proximate constituents of 
the crystals. There are 
probably several such cases 
in the curves given by M. 
Gautier. Charpy and Stead 
have independently studied 
with the microscope a pe- 
culiar crystal structure which 
they conjecture to be due to 
mixed crystallisation. But 
no case of isomorphism in 
alloys lias been worked out 
in a manner that is con- 
clusive. Until lately a 
satisfactory theory of the 
subject was lacking, but 
Professor Roozeboom (i°), to 
whom physical chemists owe 
so much, has lately investi- 
gated it, and MM. Van 
Eyk, Reinders, and Hissink 
have verified his views 
in the case of certain mix- 
tures of two salts. It 
seems very desirable that 
students of alloys should 
begin to work in the light 
of this theory. An at- 
tempt will therefore be 



made here to state Roozeboom 's view in the simplest case he gives. 

For this purpose we must look again at fig. 1, the curve for a pair of 
metals which neither combine chemically nor form mixed crystals. Here 
the region above the curve corresponds to liquid states, the line of the 
curve to equilibrium between a liquid and crystals of A for the left branch 
and B on the right branch ; the region below the curve, but above the 
angle, to mixtures of solid a or b with varying liquids ; and, finally, all the 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 



139 



Fig. 7. 



region below the eutectic angle to solid conglomerates of separate crystals 
of A and B. The range of temperature between the first appearance of 
crystals in a liquid alloy and its complete solidification is measured by the 
vertical line drawn from a point on the curve to the level of the eutectic point. 

Let us now suppose that the two metals, which we will still call a and 
B, can form mixed crystals in all proportions. According to Roozeboom 
there will be no angle of intersection of the two curves, but the freezing- 
points of A and B will be joined by a continuous curve, the points on 
which cori-espond to exactly saturated liquids. He calls this the ' L ' or 
' liquid ' curve. But also starting from the freezing-points of A and b, 
and lying under the ' l ' curve, a continuous curve can be drawn giving 
the composition of the mixed crystals that form at each temperature. He 
calls this the ' s ' or ' solid ' curve. The case is represented in fig. 7, 
which, together with figs. 8 and 9, is taken from his paper. To find what 
happens at a particular temperature, draw a horizontal line cutting the 
' L ' curve in 7i and the s curve in o. These two points of intersection 
give the composition of the two phases that can exist together at the 
temperature of the horizontal line. In fig. 7 n gives the composition of 
the liquid that when it begins to freeze deposits 
mixed crystals of the percentage o. 

The complete process of freezing can now 
be stated. Draw through n a vertical line 
mnqz cutting the L curve in n and the s curve 
in q. Then n and all points above it correspond 
to uniform liquid, q and all points below it to a 
uniform mass of mixed crystals (not, as in fig. 1, 
to a conglomerate of crystals of A and b). The 
temperature range during freezing is n q, and 
during the process, if perfect equilibrium is 
ensured, the solids formed undergo continuous 
transformation from the composition o to that 
of q, while the liquid remaining at any moment 
changes from n to p, where p is the intersection 
of|L by a horizontal through q. Thus all the areas shaded vertically repre- 
sent homogeneous states — above l of a liquid, below s of homogeneous 
crystals. The part between l and s, shaded horizontally, represents states, 
in which a solid is mixed with a liquid. 

The L and s curves may have a maximum or a minimum, in both of 
which cases they touch each other at the maximum or minimum point, as 
in figs. 8 and 9. 

The liquid whose composition is that of the maximum or minimum 
will solidify completely at one temperature. Hence in the case of the 
maximum one might mistake the solid for a definite chemical compound, 
and in the case of a minimum for a eutectic mixture. One must remember 
that the diagram need not stand for the whole freezing-point curve 
of two elements, but for the horizontal space between the two points 
corresponding to compounds, and we can treat the compounds themselves 
as the components of the mixed crystals. Our copper-tin curve probably 
shows such a case in the region between Cu^Sn and Cu^Sn. 

These considerations point to a great danger in the interpretations of 
the minor details in complicated freezing-point curves such as those of 
Kurnakov, Gautier, and our AuAl curve. Given perfect equilibrium 
transformations during cooling, it should be fairly easy by appropriate 






z 
Cone 



140 



REPORT — 1900. 



experiments to discriminate between a summit due to the existence of a 
chemical compound and one due to the form of a mixed crystal curve. In 



Fig. 8. 



Fig. 9. 




Ruuxebooin . 



m 



m 



Cone 



Cone 



such cases as Kurnakov's NaHg.j and KHgo, our AugAl, and Roberts- 
Austen's AuAlj, where the formula of the summit is an exact and simple 
one, there can be little doubt. A microscopic examination of the summit 
alloy might not help, but that of alloys at some distance on either side 
of the summit ought to settle the matter. If they are homogeneous, give 
a uniform ignition colour, and etch all over at the same rates, the summit 
must be due to mixed crystals ; while if the alloys show primary ci-ystalli- 
sation embedded in a mother substance, the primary crystals continually 
decreasing in amount as we go down the curve, the summit is probably a 
compound. This is the structure we found near the two summits of the 
AuAl curve. 

But Roozeboom points out as the best method of attacking such 
questions the two following series of experiments : (1) Determine not 
only the freezing-point of each alloy, but also the temperature at which it 
sets to a solid mass. From these data, both of the curves l and s 
could be plotted. The setting-point would probably not be very sharply 
marked, but a recording pyrometer would indicate its whereabouts by a 
greater rapidity in cooling after the point was passed. Cooling-curves 
such as those of Sir W. Roberts- Austen might be made to give the 
information needed for plotting the s curve. We, in a very imperfect 
way, sought for the setting-points in determining our AuAl curves, but 
found instead the usual horizontal lines of second freezing-points. The 
existence of these renders mixed crystals improbable. 

The other line of research, adopted by Reinders and Van Eyk and 
Hissink, is to extract the first crystals that form and analyse them, as 
•well as the mother liquor from which they were taken. If this were done 
for alloys on either side of a summit due to a compound, we should find 
the crystals having all the same composition — namely, that of the com- 
pound ; while if the summit were due to the existence of mixed crystals, 
the solids extracted from alloys of various compositions would differ widely. 
There can be no doubt that this process, troublesome though it would be, 
is the proper way to attack the interpretation of a complicated freezing- 
point curve. 

A few cases out of many may be mentioned where mixed crystals are 
probable in alloys : between CugSn and Cu4Sn, in lead-thallium alloys, 
in bismuth-antimony, in gold-silver, in alloys containing zinc or cadmium 
with either silver, copper, or gold. 

A careful study of some of these cases is probably the most pressing 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 141 

need at present in intermetallic chemistry. The difficulty of this subject, 
whether we use the freezing-point curve or the microscope, is increased 
by the uncertainty as to the maintenance of perfect equilibrium at each 
stage of the cooling. 

Microscopic Examination. 

Osmond, Charpy, and Stead have shown us how much light the micro- 
scope throws on our subject. 

The microscopic examination of the pattern shown by the polished 
surface of an alloy that has, if necessary, been etched or heated to 
produce oxidation colours seems to bring us nearer to the phenomena 
than other methods of experiment. It is often quite easy to determine 
which crystals formed first in the freezing (the primary crystallisation), 
but there are certain types of pattern that are veiy puzzling. Among the 
points calling for an answer are the following : 

1 . Does the existence of coated crystals, such as one finds in gunmetal 
and also bronzes containing more tin than Cu3Sn, indicate the existence 
of a second compound ? The answer is. Yes, in ,some cases — for example, 
in the AuAl curve and, as Mr. Stead thinks, in the bronzes rich in tin, 
where the Cu^Sn crystals are coated with CuSn. M. Le Chatelier has 
lately pointed out that in all such cases the solid alloy is not in equili- 
brium and that the eff'ects of annealing will generally be great. 

2. Can the existence of series of mixed crystals be detected by the 
microscope ? 

M. Charpy and Mr. Stead both describe a similar structure, and are 
disposed to attribute it to this cause. 

3. How far will the microscope supplement the very meagre indica- 
tions that the curve sometimes gives of a compound ? 

As an answer one can take the portion of our copper-tin freezing-point 
curve (fig. 10) between Cu4Sn and Cu^Sn. The curve is almost straight, 
the swelling (one cannot call it a summit) corresponding to CugSn being 
very slight. But the microscope shows Cu^Sn as a homogeneous body, 
while alloys with a little more tin show new crystals embedded in this 
and sharply separated. These new crystals increase as we add more tin, 
until at CuaSn they fill the whole alloy ; thus the microscope is here much 
more decisive in its indications than the curve. 



Rontgen-ray Photography. 

Skiagraphs of thin sections of alloy which contain one transparent 
metal, such as sodium or aluminium, and one metal moi'e opaque, some- 
times give fine views of the crystals in the alloy. This method has the 
advantage of showing the structure of the alloy as it is before any etching 
or other reagent has modified it. The two photographs shown were taken 
some years ago by Mr. Heycock and myself. The first is aluminium 
alloyed with ten per cent, of antimony. One sees that a heavy compound 
has crystallised out first. This is in harmony with M. Gautier's curve 
which presents no branch along which primary crystals of aluminium 
could form. If a series of such photographs had been taken with increas- 
ing percentages of Sb, we might have been able to locate the percentage 
at which the compound was pure. 



142 



REPORT — 1900, 



The other photograph is one of aluminium containing ten per cent, of 
nickel. One sees that an opaque body has again crystallised first The 
varying thickness of some of the crystals gives them an effect of solidity 
which is absent from a surface photograph. 

Unfortunately the alloys have to be very slowly cooled in order to 



















Fig 


. 10. 






























\ 




























\ 












\ 




























\ 












\ 




























nm 


i« 












tS 




























\ 








































\ 









' 


iod 






























' 












. 




























m 








■- 


— 


r\ 


6 






































> 


V 








































\ 








































\ 


V 
























8 


od 














\. 


8. 


























V 












\ 




























\ 


io 












\ 




























\ 












\ 




























70 


^s 











50 


\ 






























\ 










V 


a 









































\ 






























1 


\j 










S 


k 




























6C 


^ 













^ 


4 




























\ 


^? 













N 




























V 


k, 












\ 






























\' 









































50 


H, 










































\f 









































N 


s 








































\ 








































KIC 


'V9 



























































Oi 


■S] 


V 




















\ 










Fn 


ez 


'"^^ 


'Pi 


in 


tc 


itr 


V 


of 














\ 










C 


m 


ler 


-Ti 


%/. 


11 


^ifi 
















a 


)<;> 










































\ 








































\ 








































\ 


-^ 
















^_ 

























obtain large crystals, 
during 



Magnification 



the process of taking 
the skiagraph is clearly 
impossible, and as the 
figure on the plate is 
not a real optical image, 
but a shadow from a 
radiant point of finite 
size, it is not sharp 
enough to bear great 
magnification after- 
wards. The method, 
however, is capable of 
doing more than it has 
done yet. It was first 
successfully carried out 
by Mr. Heycock and 
shown by him in a 
lecture at the Royal 
Institution. 

Electrical Methods. 

Herschkowitz (^'), 
following Laurie (^*), 
has compared the elec- 
trical potential of a 
number of binary al- 
loys with that of the 
more positive metal 
contained in each alloy, 
the electrolyte being 
always a salt of the 
more positive metal 
dissolved in water. 

From theoretical 
considerations he con- 
cludes that when the 
solid alloys contain only 
separate crystals of the 
two metals a and b, the 
potential of all the alloys will be that of the more positive metal A 
(a point practically proved by Laurie's experiments), so that if we plot the 
composition of the alloys horizontally, and their potential referred to that 
of A vertically, we shall get a horizontal straight line ; this is realised 
in the pair Cd-Bi. If, however, the two metals mutually dissolve each 



The numbers below the curve give the Centigr.ide temperature; the 
numbers above the curve give the atomic percentage of tin in 
the alloy. 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 



143 



Atomic Percentage. 



other, but to a limited extent, the curve will show a depression as we 
leave pure A, a flat for alloys containing two conjugate solid phases each 
a saturated solution of one 

metal in the other, and a Fig. 11. 

further depression as we ap- 
proach pure B. If, however, 
compounds of A and B exist, 
that one nearest in composi- 
tion to A will be indicated by 
a marked fall in the potential 
as we reach its formula in 
going from A to B along the 
curve. He gives experimental 
curves showing that this is 
the case with the 
pairs : — 



following 




ZnCu at Zn,Cu. 
ZnAg at Zn4Ag. 
ZnSb at ZnSb,. 
SnCu at SnCug. 
SnAg at SnAg4. 

The curves, four of which 
are reproduced in this report 
(fig. 11), show that the phe- 
nomena are well marked. 
The numbers in the figures 
running from left to right 
are atomic percentages of the 
metal whose symbol is on the Z 
right of the figure. 

If we compare Hersch- 
kowitz's SnCu curve with 
our freezing-point curve for 
the same metallic pair in 
which the indication of the 
existence of SnCu^ is of the 
slightest kind, we see how 
very useful the method may 
be in detecting compounds. 
It appears, however, that 
only one compound of each 
metal pair is likely to be 
indicated by the method. It 
is probable that the method, 
if it can be carried out accu- 
rately, will give us valuable 
indications as to the solubility 
of one metal in the other in the solid state — a point on which both the 
microscope and the freezing-point curve are ambiguous. Although Laurie 
was the originator of this method, the work of Herschkowitz has been 
quoted, as it is more recent and founded on a clearer theory. 



0% ID 



144 REPORT 1900. 



Heat of Formation. 

It is probable that if two metals form compounds whose lieat of 
formation is considerable, whether positive or negative, and if we could 
determine the heat of formation of a series of binary alloys of these two 
metals, we should find a maximum or a minimum heat evolution at 
formulae corresponding to those of the compounds. Herschkowitz has 
attempted to find these heats of formation by dissolving first the metals, 
then the alloy, in a solution oE bromine and KBr in water, and taking 
the difference as the heat of formation of the alloy. But his results, 
though not unpromising, do not yet throw much light on our subject. 
One objection to his method lies in the necessity of crushing his metals 
and alloys to ensure rapid solution in the calorimeter. Now, as Mr. 
Rosenhain has pointed out to me, it is certain that the crushed alloy, 
each fragment of which has been strained, possesses more energy than it 
did before crushing, and this may be quite important as compared with 
the small heats of formation observed. 

Gait Q^) and other workers have followed similar methods, but the 
solvent (nitric acid) used by him does not seem a safe one, as the gaseous 
products of solution may be so varied that one can feel no certainty that 
the final state was the same in the solution of the metals and of the alloy. 
In Tayler's (^"') method of dissolving the metals and the alloy in mercury 
there is not this danger, but the applicability of the method is more 
limited. 

Electric Conductivity of Alloys. 

Since Matthiessen and Wiedemann studied the remarkable changes in 
conductivity produced by alloying two metals, this subject has been one 
of great ititerest. But it is doubtful if research in this direction will 
help us much in detecting the existence of compounds. For the increase 
in resistance due to alloying two metals, while partly due to the Peltier 
effects at the innumerable surfaces of contact of the crystals forming the 
alloy, is also due to the mechanical discontinuities and gaps which exist 
in alloys. It would be very difficult to distinguish quantitatively between 
the effects due to the two causes. The impossibility of drawing many 
alloys into wire, and the changes caused by drawing those which are 
ductile, also limit and complicate this method of research. 



PART II. 

Table of Intermetallic Cornpoundn. 

Column 2 contains the presumed formula of the compound. Column 3 
indicates the kind of evidence on which the formula is based. In 
column 3 the letters F.P.C. stand for freezing-point curve ; I. for the 
fact that the body has been isolated and analysed ; M. for microscopic 
proof ; E.M.F. for determinations of electromotive force, such as those of 
Laurie. 

Column 4 gives the name of the experimenter, and a number referring 
to the table of references, which is placed at the end of the report. The 
more uncertain formulae are placed in brackets. Each alloy occurs twice 
in the table. 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 



HI 



Inter metallic Compounds. 



Na 



K 



A- 



Zn 

Cil 

Hg 
Cu 



Al 



As 
Sb 



• Bi 

Au 

1900. 



NaH^., 


F.P.C. 


NaCd, 


}) 


Na,Pb 


i'. 

F.P.C. 


Na"Bi 


Naj'sb 


1> 


Na3As 




Na.Sn 


• 1 


KHg:. 


F.P.C. 


KPb 


1. 


AgaSb 


F.P.C. 


f* 


A mineral 


>» 


M. 


AgjSn 


^1 


Ag^Sn 


E.M.F. 


Ag,Al 


F.P.C. 


(AgjCcl) 


F.P.C. of ter- ] 


(Ag.Cd) 


nary alloy | 


Zn.Ag 


E.M.F. 


Zn.,Cu 


I. 
M. 




Zn„Sb 


E.M.F. 


Au'Cd 


I. 


)» 


F.P.C. ternary 


Cd.,Na 


F.P.C. 


(CdAg,) 


F.P.C. of ter- 


CCdAg,) 


nary alloys 


Hg„Na 


F.P.C. 


Hg^K 


„ 


Cu^Sb 


F.P.C. 


)I 


M. 


CujSn 


I. 


)» 


E.M.F. 


CuAL, 


F.P.C. 


C«3Ai 




Al„Aii 


F.P.c'.'&M. 


(aIAu) 


>' >J 


AlAu, 




(ALAuj 




CAlAu,) 


" >» 


A).,Cu 




AlCu, 




AlAg, 




AlSb 




,, 


" I. 


AsNa, 


I. 


As.Srij 


I. 


SbNa, 


I. 


SbAg3 


F.P.C. 


SbCu, 




JJ 


M. 


SbSn 


I. and M. 


SbjZn 


E.M.F. 


SbAl 


F.P.C. 


BiNaj 


»» 


») 


I. 


(Au.Al) 


F.P.C. & M. 


(Au.AU) 


>) )» 


Au„Al 




(AuAl) 


)' »> 



Kurnakov ("^) 



Joannis (^) 
Kurnakov (i^) 
Joannis ('), Lebeau (») 

" II 

Lebeau Q) 

II 
Kurnakov Q'") 
Joannis (■•) 
Heycock and Neville (==') 

Charpy (») 

II 
Herschkowilz (") 
Gautier (") 

Heycock and Neville (>) 

Herschkowitz (") 

Laurie ('»), Herschkowitz ('■) 

Le Chatelier («) 

Charpy (") 

Herschkowitz (") 

Ht^ycock and Neville (') 

Kurnakov ('*) 

!■ Heycock and Neville C) 

Kurnakov ('*) 

Le Chatelier («) 

Charpy (s) 

Le Chatelier («) 

Laurie ('»), He'r,schkowitz ('•) 

Le Chatelier ('<) 

II 
Eoberts-Austen (-^) 
Heycock and Neville (-) 



Le Chatelier ("")" 

Gautier '('») 

Wright 

Lebeau (') 

Stead (') 

Joannis {% Lebeau {^) 

Heycock and Neville ("') 

Le Chatelier (") 

Charpy (») 

Stead (') 

Herschkowitz (") 

Gautier ('") 

Kurnakov ('^) 

Joannis (■■) 

Heycock and Neville (") 



146 



REPOET — 1900. 





Intermetallio Com,2)ound^ 


'—continued. 


Au 


AuAl, 


F.P.C. & M. 


Roberts- Austen (2^) 




Au^Pb 


M. and I. 


Stead (unpublished) 




Au,Pb, 


M. 


• > 


Sn 


SnNa, 


I. 


Lebeau ('■) 




SnCuj 


I. 


Le Chatelier («) 




j» 


E.M.F. 


Laurie ("), Herschkowitz (") 




)» 


M. 


Stead ("), Charpy (■') 




)• 


I. by Sn in 
CuCL 


[ Mylius and Fromm (=') 




(SnCu) 


M. 


Stead (0 




(SnCu,) 


M. & F.P.C. 


He? cock and Neville ("') 




(SnAg,) 


M. 


Charpy (») 




SnAg, 


E.M.F. 


Herschkowitz ('") 




SnSb 


I. and M. 


Stead (') 




Sn„Ni3 


F.P.C. 


Le Chatelier ('") 




Sn^Aso 


I. 


Stead (') 




SnjRu 


« 


Debray (s) 


t 


Sn,Rli 


5» 


Jl 




Snalr 


1) 


>> 




Sn^Pfc 


,. 


T) 


Pb 


PbNa,, 


F.P.C. 


Kurnakov ('s) 




PbK 


I. 


Joannis (<) 




PbAu, 


M. and I. 


Stead C) 




PKAu, 


)> 


Jf 


Rh 


RhSn, 


I. 


Debray Q) 


Ru 


RuShj 


>» 


i» 


Fr 


IrSn, 


'») 


n 


Pfc 


PtSn^ 


J» 


)» 



It would be very easy to amplify this list ; for example, various other 
arsenides and antimonides have had formulse assigned to them, and some 
alloys of aluminium and tin with the rarer metals appear to have 
been isolated as crystals. Further research will no doubt enormously 
expand it, though it may also cause the rejection of a few that have been 
included. 

But as the list now stands it offers matter for the consideration of the 
student of valency. One sees that the compounds of the metalloids with 
the metals present formulse that we should expect from the known 
valencies of the elements, but such bodies as NaHg.j, SnCuj, AlAg.j are 
more remarkable. The first of these is evidently a well-marked type, 
which already occurs several times. 

If I rightly understand Professor Kurnakov, he thinks that Mendeleef's 
law of the total valency of an element for oxygen and hydrogen being 
8 will find application in the formulre of alloys, the hydrogen being 
replaced by other metals. In this case, the alkali metals which are 
monovalent to oxygen should be polyvalent in alloys ; his curves certainly 
support this view. The freezing-point curves show that the most marked 
summits — that is, the most stable compounds — occur when a strongly 
positive metal, such as sodium or aluminium, is alloyed with a metal, such 
as antimony, lead, or gold, which is far removed from it in the electro- 
chemical series. 

Tlie Molecular Weights of Metals. 

With the exception of the limited number of vapour -density determi- 
nations which show that mercury, cadmium, and zinc, and perhaps also 
sodium and potassium, have monatomic molecules when gaseous, the only 
evidence as to the molecular weights of metals lies in experiments based 
on Raoult's methods. 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 117 

Professor Ramsay and M. Tammann in 1890 showed thab small 
quantities of various metals dissolved in mercury gave, for the most part, 
depressions of the vapour-pressure and of the freezing-point, which indi- 
cated that the dissolved molecule contained one atom of the added metal. 
At the same time, Mr. Heycock and I found that this was in general true 
when metals were dissolved in tin. At later dates we extended the 
generalisation to solutions of metals in the solvents bismuth, cadmium, 
lead, and zinc, and tables summarising our results are reproduced in the 
present report. If we could be certain that the dissolved metal did not 
form a chemical compound with the solvent, these results would afford 
very strong grounds for holding that the molecules of the dissolved metals 
were in most cases monatomic. But we know now that chemical com- 
bination is not uncommon, and it is evident that in dilute solution the 
dissolved metal a will tend to form compounds of the type A b„„ where b 
is the solvent. Hence the problem of the chemical compounds formed by 
metals with the solvent metal must be solved before we can safely 
dogmatise concerning the molecular weight of the metals when in solution. 
To take a special case, one atom of copper dissolved in tin produces the 
molecular depression of the freezing-point, but from Mr. Stead's work we 
have good reason to attribute this to the presence of a molecule CuSn. 

On the other hand, the abnormal depressions obtained by us in certain 
cases point to the probability of the compounds Bi„As„ Bi Cu^ Cd Ho-, 
Cd„Zn,, Cd„Pd„ Cd„K„ Cd„Au„ Cd„As,„ Pb„(Cd, Hg, Bi)^, PblSn;! 
Pb„Na^, most of which have not at present been studied. It is obvious 
that n may be zero in any of these. 

The question of the depression of the freezing-point in dilute solutions, 
is, however, complicated by the probable appreciable solubility of the 
dissolved metal in the solid crystals of solvent, and by all the thermal 
difficulties that ISTernst and Abegg have discussed. 

The fascinating question as to the condition of association or dis- 
sociation of the molecules of the compounds when melted or in solution 
also comes in when we attempt to interpret our tables, or, indeed, when 
we examine any freezing-point curve. But it is possible to study inter- 
metallic compounds without touching this question, and in the present 
report I have thought it best to do so. 

The vast subject of ternary and more complex mixtures has also been 
avoided as too complex for the present purpose, although Behrens, 
Stead, and especially Charpy, have made most interesting studies of such 
mixtures. 

I have to thank Mr. Heycock for continued assistance in drawing up 
this report. I have also to thank Mr. Stead and Professor H. Le Chatelier 
for valuable information and valuable references. 

Depression of the Freezing-point of the Metals Tin, Zinc, Bismuth 
Cadmium, and Lead, caused by the /Solution of Small Quantities of 
other Metals. 

The theoretical molecular depressions are calculated froai the latent 
heat of fusion by means of the formula 

id = 0-02^' 
A. 

where 6 is the freezing-point of the pure metal, cO the depression,^and 
X the latent heat of fusion. ^ 2 



148 



REPORT — 1900. 



Table I. — Tin as Solvent. 
Atomic Falls for a Concentration of under one Atom. 



I. 



II. 



III. 



Nickel 294 

Silver 2-93 

Gold 2-93 

Copper 2-91 

Thallium .... 2-86 
Sodium .... 2-84 

Palladium .... 2-78 
Magnesium .... 2'76 

Lead 2-76 

Zinc 2-64 

'Cadmium' .... 2-43 

Mercury .... 2'39 

Bismuth .... 2-40 

Calcium .... 2-40 

/Indium 1-86 

\ Aluminium .... 1-25 

Theoretical Molecular Depression = 3° C. 



3 experiments. 
2 

2 

4 

2 expts. concn. 1 — 3 atoms. 

4 experiments. 
1 
8 
4 

3 experiments. 
4 
6 

Q 

5 experiments. 
1 



Table II. — Zinc as Solvent. 





Extreme 








Metal. 


atomic per- 
centage. 


Mean atomic 


Mean 


Mean atomic 




percentage. 


depression. 


depression. 


Bismuth .... 


0386 


0-2075 


1-052° 


5-07 


Antimony 


0-799 


0-4377 


2-247 


513 


„ from curve 


0-500 


0-500 


2-60 


(5-20) 


Lead .... 


0-200 


0-150 


0-78 


5-20 


Thallium .... 


0-393 


0-2.^95 


1-285 


4-95 


Tin 


1-187 


0-655 


3-497 


5-34 


Magnesium 


0-975 


655 


3-572 


5-45 


Cadmium 


1-464 


0-732 


3-377 


4-61 


Aluminium 


0-99 


0-99 


4-10 


(4-14) 



Theoretical Molecular Depression = 5- 13° C. 
Table III. — JBismuth as Solvent. 





No. of 


No. of atoms per 


Blean atomic 




experiments. 


100 atoms Bi. 


depression. 


Lead ..... 


20 


1-1—1-75 


2-1 


Thallium 






2 


03 0-9 


2-07 M. 


Mercury 






4 


0-3-4-3 


2-04 


Tin 






4 


0-16- 2-2 


2-03. Steady. 


Palladium 






4 


0-9—2-2 


2-03 


Platinum 






6 


0-2-1-2 


2-02. Steady. 


Cadmium 






4 


1-0—4-0 


2-01 


Gold . 






4 


4-1-8 


197 


Sodium . 






3 


0-8-4-0 


1-94. Steady. 


Silver . 






3 


0-7—2-5 


1-91 


Zinc 






4 


1-3—4-8 


1-6 


Copper . 






5 


0-23—0-6 


1-23 


Arsenic . 






5 


0-25—2-3 


0-68. Very 








steady. 


It is noticeable thai arsenic both in bismu 


th and cadmium g 


ives i fall. 


Antimony .... 3 


0-23-1-0 


2-79. Rise. 



Theoretical molecular depression = 208° C. 



ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED IN ALLOYS. 
Table IV. — Cadmium as Solvent, 



149 





No. of 


No. of atoms per 


Mean atomic de- 




exiseriments. 


100 atoms dd. 


pression. 


Antimony .... 


2 


0-3-0-5 


4-71 M. 


Platinum .... 


2 


008— 0-13 


4-55 


Bismuth .... 


f 4 


005— 0-5 


4'58 




2-2-3G 


4-09 


Tin 


2 


0-66— 2-6 


4-48 


Sodium .... 


r> 


0-6— 1-3 


4-44 


Lead 


2 


0-84- 1-4 


4-4 


Thallium .... 


8 


0-24- 1-28 


4-34 M. 


Copper 


8 


0-2- 20 


3-5. No falling 
ofl:. 


Mercury .... 


3 


0-23-0-68 


2-77 


Zinc 


3 


006— 1-6 


2-72. No falling 
• off. 


Palladium .... 


3 


013—0 26 


2-35 


Potassium .... 


2 


0-5— 0-6 


2-26 M. 


Gold 


3 


014— 0-7 


1-48 


Arsenic .... 


1 


0-2 


1-6 


Silver 


1 


005 


9-33. Rise. 



Theoretical molecular depression = 4-5° C. 







T 


AI 


JLE y.—Lead 


as Solvent. 








No. of 


No. of atoms per 


Mean atomic de- 






experiments. 


100 atoms of Pb. 


pression. 


Gold . 


. 


4 


0-33— 2-7 


6-45. Steady. 


Palladium 








3 


0-32— 1-8 


645 


Silver . 








G 


02- 1-4 


6-45 


Platinum 








4 


015— 0-6 


6-42 


Copper . 








3 


0-1— 0195 


6-15 


Arsenic 








4 


0-38- 4-9 


5-33 


Magnesium . 








2 


1-5 


4'56 


Zinc 








3 


0-2- 1-2 


4-43 


Antimony 








4 


0-6- 4-7 


3-9. Steady. 


Cadmium 








2 


0'6— 61 


3-62 Steady. 


Mercury 








3 


073-6-7 


3-31 I i Hg,. 


Bismuth 








6 


0-23- 4-6 


3-02 Steady. 


Tin 








r 3 

2 


0-4- 1-8 
60— 9-0 


1-6 / T^''^- 


Sodium 








2 


— 


1-06 ? 




Th 


3oret] 


C£ 


il molecular d 


epression = 6-5° C. 





(') Heycock and Neville 



(') Heycock and Neville 

(^) Lebeau . 

(■*) Joannis . . 

(*) Debray . 



Eefei'ences. 

' The Freezing-points of Triple Alloys of Gold, Catlmium, 
and Tin.' ' Trans. Chem. Soc' p. 936, 1891, and p. 65, 
1894. 

' Isolation of a Compound of Gold and Cadmium.' ' Trans. 
Chem. Soc' p. 914, 1892. 

' Comptes Rendus,' cxxx. p, 502. 

' Comptes Rendus,' p. 585, 1892. 

' Compteis Rendus,' p. 1470, 1887. 



150 



REPORT — 1900. 



C) Le Chatelier 



(') Stead 



(") Osmond 
(») Chai-py 



('») Gautier . 

(") Heycock and Neville 

('=) Le Chatelier . 



C^) Paterno and Ampolla 
(") Le Chatelier . 

('*) Knrnakov 

('^) Bakhnis Eoozeboom . 



(") Herschkowitz . 

('*) Laurie 

(">■) Gait 

(■■^o) Tayler 

I") Heycock and Neville 

('■*-) Heycock and Neville 

(") Mylius and Fromm . 

(-*) Roberts-Austen 



' Sur les combinaisons definies des alliages metalliques.' 

' Soc. d'encouragement pour I'industrie nationale,' p. 388, 

1895. 
' Microstructure of alloys,' ' Metallogi-aphist, ii. p. 314. 

'Jour. Chem. Industry,' xvii. 12, p. 3, and earlier 

numbers. 
' Comptes Rendus,' cxxiv. pp. 1094 and 1234. 
' fitude Microscopique des alliages metalliques.' ' Soc. 

d'encouragement,' p. 384, 1897 ; also ' The Metallo- 

graphist,' i. 2, p. 87, and ' Comptes Rendus,' cxxiv. p. 957. 
' Recherches sur la f usibilite des alliages metalliques.' 

'Soc. d'encouragement,' p. 4, 1896. 
'Freezing-points of Alloys containing Zinc and another 

Metal.' 'Trans. Chem. Soc' p. 383, 1897; also 'Phil. 

Trans. A,' clxxxix. p. 25, 1897, and Roberts-Austen, 

' R. Soc. Proc' 1900. 
' Ueber einige Eigenthiimlichkeiten der Loslichkeitscur- 

ven.' ' Zeits. Phys. Chemie,' xxi. p. 557 ; and also 

' Comptes Rendus,' cxxviii. p. 1444, 
'Gazz. chim. ital.' xxvii. p. 481, 1897. 
'Les alliages metalliques.' 'Revue Gendrale des Sciences,' 

xii. p. 537, 1895. 
' Sur les combinaisons mutuelles des metaux.' 
' Erstarrungspuncte der Mischkrystalle zweier Stoflfe ' 

'Zeits. Phys. Chemie,' xxx. p. 385; Van Eyk, ibid. 

XXX. p. 430 ; Reinders, ibid, xxxiii. p. 494 ; Hissink, 

ibid, xxxiii. p. 537. 
' Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Metallegierungen.' ' Zeits. 

Phys. Chemie,' xxvii. p. 123. 
' Chem. Soc. Trans.' p. 104, 1888 ; ' Phil. Mag.' [5] xxxiii. 

p. 94. 
' B. A. Report,' 1899, p. 246. 
' Phil. Mag.' July 1900. 
' Phil. Trans.' clxxxix. A. p. 67. 
« Phil. Trans.' cxciv. A. p. 201. 
' Berichte der deut. chem. GeselL' xxyii. p. G30. 
' Metallographist,' i. p. 342. 



Biblioqrctpli'ij of Spedroscoinj. — Beport of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. McLeod, Professor Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, Mr. 
H. G. Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

The work of collecting, verifying, and systematically arranging the titles 
of papers bearing on spectroscopy has been steadily carried on during the 
past year ; and the Committee ask to be reappointed for one more year, 
with the intention of presenting to the Association at its next meeting 
the final instalment of the ' Catalogue of Spectroscopic Literature,' com- 
menced in 1870. It is proposed to end the catalogue with the present 
century, since the very satisfactory character of the proceedings at the 
last conference of the delegates appointed to arrange the compilation 
of an International Catalogue of Scientific Papers seems to warrant the 
conclusion that, as from January 1, 1901, the services of the Committee 
will be no longer needed. 



ABSOEPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 151 

Absorption Spectra and Ghemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Noel 
Hartley (^Chairman and Secretary), Professor F. R. Japp, and 
Professor J. J. Dobbie, appointed to investigate the Relation 
between the Absorption Spectra and Ghemical Constitution of Organic 
Substances. 

Four informal meetings have been held during the year, and, as 
much work is still in progress, it has been considered desirable that an 
interim report of that which has been completed should be presented. 
This consists of five communications published by the Chemical Society 
in their ' Transactions ' since March last. Two of these deal with the sub- 
ject of tautomerism and one with stereo-isomerism. The fourth is a 
study of ammonia and its derivatives, of hydroxylamine and oximes ; and 
the fifth an examination of some closed-chain compounds one of which 
contains two nitrogen atoms. Details of the measurements of the spectra 
are omitted from this report for the sake of brevity. In connection with 
the nitrogen compounds a brief abstract of a previous publication has 
been included. It is of interest because it leads towards the conclusion 
that there are two distinct classes of albuminoids, some of which have 
long been known to act as enzymes or soluble ferments towards the 
carbohydrates. 

SpectrograpMc Sttbdies in Tautomerism, 

I. Absorj)tion Curves of the Ethyl Esters of Dihenzoylsuccinic Acid.^ 

According to theory, thirteen isomerides of diethyl dibenzoylsuccinate 
have a possible existence, but only three have so far been prepared and 
studied. On chemical grounds Knorr "^ regards one of the three as an 
enolic, and the other two as ketonic esters. He assigns to the enolic or 
a-ester the constitutional formula 

CPh(OH):C-CO,Et 

I 
CPh(OH):C-CO,Et 

without deciding which of the three possible stereo-isomeric modifica- 
tions of this formula represents the substance examined by him. The 
two ketonic esters are structurally identical but configuratively difi'erent. 
To one of them, which he designates the para- or /5-ester, Knorr assigns 
the formula (a), and to the other, which he designates the meso-, anti 
or y-ester, the formula (6). 

H H 

I I 

CO,EtC-COPh COPh-C-CO^Et 

(«) 'I (6) I 

COPh-C-COaEt COPh-C-COaEt 

I I 

H H 

' Hartley and Dobbie, Trcms. Chem. Soc, vol. Ixxvii. 
" Amialen, 1896, 293, 70. 



152 HEPORT— 1900. 

A mixture of the ft- and y-esters is readily obtained by adding an 
ethereal solution of iodine to the sodium derivative of ethyl benzoyl- 
acetate, obtained by the action of metallic sodium on an ethereal solution 
of the ester. The two ketonic esters are readily separated from one 
another by fractional crystallisation. When either of them is treated 
with sodium methoxide, a yellow crystalline meal, consisting of the 
sodium derivative of the a-ester, is obtained. The aqueous solution of 
this substance, when treated with excess of dilute sulphuric acid at the 
freezing temperature, yields the o-ester, which separates as a thick oil 
possessing the colour of chlorine gas. The /tester, which was first 
described by von Baeyer and Perkin,' melts at 128-130°, the y-ester at 
75°, and the former is less soluble than the latter in most solvents. Both 
esters are optically inactive, the p-ester by external, the y-ester by 
internal compensation. The ketonic esters are neutral to litmus, and 
practically insoluble in cold dilute alkalis. In their chemical properties 
they are exactly alike. 

The a-ester differs, both in physical and chemical properties, from 
the ketonic esters. It is an oily liquid, has a strongly acid reaction, 
and dissolves in cold dilute alkalis. It gives a characteristic dirty brown 
coloration with ferric chloride, which is not shown by the ketonic 
esters, and moreover is unstable, gradually passing into a mixture of 
the ft- and y-esters at the ordinary temperature, the change taking place 
quickly at 130°. 

f the view put forward by Knorr as to the relation of the three esters 
to one another is correct, the ft- and y-esters should give very similar, 
if not identical, absorption curves, since stereo-isomerides which differ 
only in the configuration of their asymmetric carbon atoms so far as they 
have been investigated in essential oils and their hydrocarbons, are not 
found to differ either in the amount or the character of their absorption. 
The a-ester, on the other hand, having a different constitution, should 
exhibit a distinct series of absorption spectra. 

We have photographed and measured the spectra of alcoholic solu- 
tions of the three substances, and the results obtained entirely bear out 
the conclusions arrived at by Knorr on purely chemical grounds. The 
spectra of the ketonic esters are identical. The amount of absorption is 
considerable, all rays beyond ^/X 2795 being cut off by a layer 25 mm. 
thick of a solution containing 1 milligram-mol. in 100 c.c. of alcohol. 
There is also a well-marked band of selective absorption reaching from 
^/\ 3824 to ^ /\ 4306 in a layer 3 mm. thick of a solution containing 
1 milligram-mol. of the ester in 2500 c.c. of alcohol. This band is very 
persistent, and is still distinctly marked in a layer 4 mm. thick of a solu- 
tion containing only 1 milligram-mol. in 12,500 c.c. of alcohol. 

The spectrum of the «- or enolic form is quite different from that 
of the ketonic esters. The general absorption is greater, a layer 25 mm. 
thick of a solution containing 1 milligram-mol. in 100 c.c. of alcohol 
cutting off all rays beyond ^/\ 2171. The absorption band of the 
ketonic esters is altogether absent, whilst a well-marked band makes its 
appearance in a layer 5 mm. thick of a solution containing 1 milli- 
gram-mol. in 500 c.c. of alcohol between V\ 2546 and i/X 3148. This 
band quickly dies out, no trace of it being visible in a layer 4 mm. thick 
of a solution containing 1 milligram-mol. in 500 c.c. of alcohol. 

' Ber. 1884, 17, 60. 



ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 153 

The absorption curves for the ketonic and enolic forms are shown in 
the diagram on p. 156. 

When the solution of the a-ester was allowed to stand, and photo- 
graphs were taken after successive intervals of time, the transition from 
the enolic to the ketonic form could be clearly traced. After an interval 
of only three hours, the absorption band of the enolic ester had almost 
entirely disappeared, ichilst the amount of general absorption had also 
appreciably diminished. Solutions containing 1 milligram-mol. in 100 
and 500 c.c. respectively showed after forty-eight hours a great diminution 
in the amount of the general absorption, whilst after three weeks the 
curve coincided almost exactly with that of the /3- and y-esters, as shown 
on p. 155. 

The result of this investigation exemplifies the value of the spectro- 
graphic method, and shows how it might be applied with advantage 
to the investigation of similar cases of isomerism either to guide the 
chemical investigation or to confirm the conclusions drawn from it, 
especially when any doubt exists as to whether the isomerism is due 
to a diSerence in constitution or merely to a difference in the arrange- 
ment of the atoms in space. The amount of substance required for the 
experiments is small, and can generally be recovered again from the solu- 
tion. 

The esters were prepared by the method described by Knorr.' 
The preparation of the /3- and y-esters offers no difficulty : the 
a-ester is only obtained when strict attention is paid to all the details 
given by Knorr. Two distinct preparations of each of the ketonic 
esters and three preparations of the a-ester were made. Each prepara- 
tion was photographed several times without any difference being ob- 
served in the photographs of the same substance. In the case of the 
o-ester the photographs were taken immediately after the completion 
of the preparation, as the change to the ketonic form sets in almost at 
once. 

II. A Study of the Absorption Spectra of o-Oxycarbanil and its 

Alkyl Derivatives.^ 

The substance o-oxycarbanil, C7H5O.2N, and its alkyl derivatives form 
a group of compounds which stand in the same relation to one another as 
isatin, carbostyril, and their respective alkyl derivatives. 

o-Oxycarbanil can be prepared by the fusion of o-aminophenol hydro- 
chloride with urea, or from its lactim ether by the action of concentrated 
hydrochloric acid."* It can also be obtained by the distillation of o-amino- 
phenyl ethyl carbonate."* Two ethyl derivatives of o-oxycarbanil are 
known. One of these is prepared by boiling o-oxycarbanil for some time 
under a reflux condenser with equivalent quantities of ethyl iodide and 
alcoholic potash, the other by the interaction of o-aminophenol and ethyl 
iminocarbonate. The ether obtained by the first method is considered 
to be a lactam, that is, to have the ethyl group directly attached 
to the nitrogen atom, because on heating for some time with hydrochloric 
acid it takes up water and decomposes into carbon dioxide and the hydro- 

' Log. cit. 

^ Hartley, Dobbie, and Paliatseas, Trans. Chem. Soc, vol. Ixxvii. 

» Sandmeyer, £er., 1886, 19, 2650. * Bender, £er., 1886, 19, 269. 



Scale of Oscillation Frequenciet. 



:/5o 



1/100 



1/500 



1/2,50C 



mliiii 


2 


1 4 


s 


i ■ 
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r. s 1 

mjliiujiiiiliii 


itiiiin 


00 1 

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iiili'ii 


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Cui'ves of Molecular Vibrations. 

Ethyl a.-, ^-, and y-dibenzoylsuccinates. The curves for the /3- and y-esters are identical, and are indi- 
cated by stars upon the line at points where measurements of the spectra were made. The curve of the 
a-ester is indicated by o. 



ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEmCAL CONSTITUTION. 



155 



chloride of ethyl o-aminophenol. Its'; structural formula is therefore 
CtiH4<^^ ^ - °'^C0.'^ The ether prepared by the second method, on 



Scale of Oscillation Frequencies. 



(2 


}0O 

llllllill 


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1 iirtliii 


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1 litilili 


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Curves of Molecular Vibrations. 

Ethyl a-, /3-, and y-dibenzoylsucciuates. a and a' are the curves of the a-ester, the former when the 
substance was freshly prepared, the latter when It had been kept for three weeks. The curves of the /3- 
and y-esters are identical, and are shown as one, |3, y. 

treatment with concentrated hydrochloric acid, yields o-oxycarbanil. It is 
therefore a lactim of the constitution C(;H4<^q^C-OC2H5. 

' Bender, loc. cit. 



156 



hepoet— 1900. 



As in the similai* cases of isatin and carbostyril, the chemical evidence 
leaves the question of the constitution of o-oxycarbanil itself undecided. 
On the one hand, its formation by the distillation of o-aminophenyl 
ethyl carbonate is most easily explained on the assumption that it has the 

Scale of Oscillation Frequencies. 



■3 § 

^ o 

"o '^ 

s s 

" s 

I-t o 

bo ^3 

« I-l 

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Lactam or ketouio ether. o-Oxycarbanil. 

Curves of Molecular Vibration. 



Lactim or enolic ether. 



ketonic or lactam constitution, and that the reaction takea place according 
to the equation 

C.H<<g.H5.oc,H, = CA<gf>CO + C,H.-OH. 

This view is supported by the fact that it forms a v\^ell-defined compound 
with phenylhydrazine.i On the other hand, its direct formation from the 
lactim ether by the action of hydrochloric acid seems to point to the 
enolic or lactim structure as being the more probable. It is, however, 
now generally admitted that arguments based on chemical reactions are 
inconclusive in cases such as that under consideration, where shifting of a 
hydrogen atom may easily take place. 



' Bender,^Zoc. cit. 



ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 157 

The present investigation was undertaken with the view of ascertain- 
ing whether a comparison of the absorption spectra of the two ethers 
with the absorption spectra of o-oxycarbanil would, as in the cases of 
isatin and carbostyril/ yield results from which the constitution of the 
parent substance might be inferred. Assuming that one or other of the 
ethers differs from o-oxycarbanil only in the substitution of the alkyl 
group for an atom of hydrogen, the constitution of the two substances 
being otherwise identical, we should expect the absorption spectra of the 
parent substance and this ether to be practically the same. On the other 
hand, the ether which differs in constitution from the parent substance 
should give a different spectrum. Groenvik '^ gives 136-138°, Sandmeyer 
137°, and Bender 141°, as the melting-point of o-oxycarbanil. Although, 
apart from this slight difference, there was no reason to doubt the identity 
of the substances obtained by these chemists, we thought it well to ex- 
amine specimens prepared independently by two different methods and 
selected for the purpose, the substances obtained by fusion of o-amino- 
phenol with urea and by the decomposition of the lactim ether with 
hydrochloric acid. We found that the two specimens when heated side 
by side in capillary tubes behaved in exactly the same way, softening at 
137° and melting completely at 139°-5. Solutions of the two specimens 
gave identical spectra. 

The spectra of o-oxycarbanil and of the lactam ether are almost iden- 
tical. The amount of general absorption is practically the same in both, 
and the spectra of both substances show a well-marked absorption band 
occupying the same position and persisting, in both cases, through the 
eame range of dilution. The spectra of the enolic ether, on the other 
hand, show a smaller amount of general absorption, and the absorption 
band does not appear until a much greater degree of dilution is reached 
than is required to bring out the band in the other two substances. The 
range of the band of the enolic ester is also very small. The above curves 
drawn from the photographs, show very clearly the relations between 
the spectra of the various substances. 

The conclusion to which the investigation leads is that o-oxycarbanil 
has the same structure as the lactam or ketonic ether, or, at all events 
that the lactam structure very greatly predominates, if the assumption is 
made that the parent substance in solution is a mixture of two tautomeric 
forms. It is worthy of note that in the three cases of this kind which 
have now been examined the parent substance possesses the ketonic or 
lactam constitution. o-Oxycarbanil, it may be noted, gives no colour 
reaction with ferric chloride. 

The substances used in this investigation were prepared exactly in 
accordance with the directions given in the papers already quoted. Two 
distinct preparations of each substance were made and several series of 
photographs were taken of the absorption spectra of each preparation. 
No appreciable difference could be detected in the various photographs of 
the same substance. This is satisfactory evidence of the identity of the 
compounds, and also of the purity of these particular preparations. 

• Hartley and Dobbie, Trans. Chew. Soc, 1899, 76, 640. 
2 Bull Soc. Chim., 1876 [ii.], 25, 177. 



158 REPORT — 1900. 



The Absorption Spectra of Ammonia, Methylam,ine, Hydroxylamine, 
Aldoxime, and Acetoxime} 

It was shown by L. Soret that commercial ammonia, even after many 
recrystallisations as sulphate, still shows an absorption band. Hartley 
and Huntington (' Phil. Trans.,' 1879, Part I., 267) contirmed this observa- 
tion, and, believing the absorption to be due to traces of some constituent 
of gas-liquor, examined specimens of what was sold as ' volcanic ' ammonia 
of special purity for analytical purposes. Three separate samples were 
examined, each measuring half a gallon, with the result that all the rays 
beyond '/'^ 2638-2 (A 2747'7) were absorbed by the strong solution in acell 
15 mm. in thickness. A very distinct absorption band was visible on 
diluting the liquid with eight volumes of water, and was still seen until 
sixteen volumes had been added. 

This result appeared remarkable in view of the fact that gaseous 
ammonia, at atmospheric pressure, in a tube 1 metre in length showed 
no selective absorption, and that ethylamine, even when solutions 
containing as much as 33 per cent, of the base were examined in cells 
25 mm. in thickness, transmitted continuous spectra with very little 
absorption. 

Carbamide also showed no absorption band, but transmitted a con- 
tinuous spectrum.^ A 10 per cent, solution of carbamide in a cell 15 mm. 
in thickness transmits all rays to A 2140, rays more refrangible than 
X 2750 being slightly weakened. 

When we remember that practically all the ammonia of commerce 
is obtained from coal tar, and is liable to contain minute traces of the 
volatile bases of the pyridine and other series, which can only be com- 
pletely separated with great difficulty, it is obvious that great care must 
be taken to obtain chemically pure ammonia for examination before any 
trustworthy conclusion can be arrived at as to the character of its absorp- 
tion spectrum. 

The following investigation was undertaken with the view of definitely 
ascertaining whether or not chemically pure ammonia shows selective 
absorption. An examination of ordinary aqueous ammonia was first made 
in order to determine the exact position of its absorption band. A tube 
150 mm. long was used. With this thickness of layer a solution containing 
5 grams of ammonia in 100 c.c. water showed complete absorption beyond 
^/A 3638 (\ 2749). A layer of the same thickness containing 2'5 grams 
of ammonia in 100 c.c. gave a continuous spectrum to '/'^ 3694 {\ 2707), 
a broad absorption band occupying that portion of the spectrum 
which lies between '/X 3694 (\ 2707) and ^ jX 4306 (X 2322), the spectrum 
again showing beyond this point. This band is persistent, being still 
traceable in a solution containing only 0'625 gram of ammonia in 100 c.c. 
All the samples of commercial ammonia examined showed selective 
absorption, but by converting the base into ammonium chloride the 
absorption band was found to become less marked in the spectrum after 
successive crystallisations of the salt. 

In order to^try the eiiect of crystallisation of one of the less soluble 
salts, ammonia was converted into oxalate and the salt repeatedly 

' Hartley and Dobbie, Trmis. Chem. Soc, vol. Ixxvii. 

2 From unpublished experiments on the determination of aromatic substances in 
urine. See note, Dublin Journal of Medical Science, June 1882. — W. N. Haetlet. 



ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 159 

crystallised. The oxalate was distilled with pure potassium hydroxide and 
the ammonia absorbed in pure distilled water, the spectrum of which was 
photographed on the same plate as that of the ammonia solution. Much 
greater thicknesses of liquid were examined than in previous experiments. 

A layer 200 mm. thick of a solution containing 10'6 per cent, of ammonia 
prepared in this way from oxalate transmitted all rays to ^/A. 3638 (/\2749), 
but the spectrum was feeble from \IK 2738 (\ 3652) to i/X 3638 (\ 2749). 
No band was visible. A layer 100 mm. thick transmitted the rays to 
V\ 4323 (\ 231 3), but the spectrum was very feeble beyond VX 3904 (X 2561). 

From another portion of the purified oxalate the liberated ammonia 
was passed into optically pure hydrochloric acid ; the ammonium chloride 
recrystallised several times was then examined, the solution of the salt 
employed having the same thickness of layer and containing the same 
amount of ammonia as that previously used in determining the position 
of the absorption band in ordinary ammonia. It now showed no trace of 
selective absorption, the spectrum being continuous to '/X 4666 (X 2143) 
with a scarcely perceptible weakness at the extreme ultra-violet end. Pure 
ammonia may therefore be obtained without difficulty by the decomposition 
of a crystallised ammonium salt such as the oxalate. 

Ammonia obtained from Hijdroxylamine. 

Ammonia obtained by the reduction of hydroxylamine was next 
examined. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride was reduced with a zinc- 
copper couple and the ammonia distilled into pure hydrochloric acid ; 
the ammonium chloride thus obtained was subsequently purified by 
recrystallisation. 

A layer of 150 mm. of a solution containing 2*5 grams ammonia in 
100 c.c. distilled water showed a continuous spectrum to ^/X 4411 (A 2267) ; 
the spectrum is weak from '/X 3886 (\ 2573), but there was no indication 
of selective absorption. 

As therefore neither ordinary ammonia, which has been carefully 
purified by the above method, nor ammonia obtained by the reduction 
of hydroxylamine, shows selective absorption, we conclude that the 
absorption band of ordinary ammonia is due to the presence of 
traces of foreign substances which distil over with it from the gas 
liquor. 

We next endeavoured to ascertain the nature, and estimate the 
amount, of the impurity to which the band of ordinary aqueous am- 
monia is due. The position of the band seemed to indicate the pyridine 
bases as the most likely cause of the absorption, and, in fact, we 
found that a layer of 150 mm. thick of a solution containing 7"68 grams 
of pure ammonium chloride (equivalent to 2*5 grams of ammonia) and 
'00001 gram of pyridine in 100 c.c. water, showed almost exactly the 
same amount and character of absorption as a layer of ordinary aqueous 
ammonia of the same thickness and strength. 

In a further experiment we found that the addition of the same 
amount of pyridine (in the form of hydrochloride) to 100 c.c. of distilled 
water produced an identical result, the spectrum being hardly distin- 
guishable from that of ordinary aqueous ammonia.' It follows, there- 

' In this connection it is interesting to note that, although a solution contain- 
ing 0000001 gram pyridine in 100 c.c. distilled water no longer showed an actual gap 
in the spectrnm, there was a perceptible weakening of the lines of that portion of the 
spectrum in which the band of ordinary aqueous ammonia occurs. 



160 REPORT— 1900. 

fore, that the strong ammonia used (35 per cent. NH3) contains approxi- 
mately '000 14 per cent, pyridine. 

Although pyridine is thus shown to be the principal cause of the ab- 
sorption, minute traces of its higher homologues and of volatile bases of 
other series are also probably present, as the slight differences between 
the spectrum of ordinary ammonia and that of pure pyridine appear to 
indicate. 

Methylamine Hydrochloride. 

Methylamine was investigated by Hartley and Huntington in cells 
50 mm. thick. 1 

An aqueous solution of methylamine was converted into hydrochloride 
and the salt purified by repeated recrystallisation. A layer ]50 mm. 
thick of a solution containing 25 grams of methylamine as hydrochloride 
in 100 c.c. distilled water showed practically no absorption. There was 
a slight weakening of the spectrum towards the ultra-violet end, and 
one or two of the lines at the extreme end of the ultra-violet were 
cut off. 

Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride. 

The hydroxylamine hydrochloride examined was subjected to re- 
peated recrystallisation. It gave no precipitate with platinic chloride 
in presence of alcohol and ether, and it was therefore assumed to con- 
tain no ammonium chloride. The salt is highly diactinic and shows no trace 
of selective absorption. A layer 150 mm, thick of the solution containing 
5 grams of hydroxylamine in 100 c.c. water gives a continuous spectrum 
to ^ l\ 4125 (A. 242*). A layer of the same thickness containing 2' 5 grams 
in 100 c.c. water transmits the whole spectrum with the exception of a 
few of the lines at the extreme end of the ultra-violet. 

Acetaldoxime,CR.,-CYi.-:^-Oll. 

Acetaldoxime was prepared in the usual manner by the action of alde- 
hyde ammonia on hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and afterwards purified 
by fractional distillation until the boiling point was constant : it boiled at 
114-115°. In solution this compound shows no selective absorption, but 
very considerable general absorption. A layer 150 mm. thick of a solu- 
tion containing 125 grams of acetaldoxime in 100 c.c. water absorbs all 
lines beyond '/A. 3323 (\ 3009). A layer 25 mm. thick of a solution con- 
taining 1 milligram-mol. in 20 c.c. water gives a continuous spectrum to 
'/A 3952 (\ 2530), and a layer 1 mm. thick of the same solution shows a 
continuous spectrum to '/'^ 4417 (A. 2264). 

Acetoxime, (CII^)P:^-0YL. 

Acetoxime was prepared in the usual manner by the action of hydrox- 
ylamine hydrochloride on acetone, and was purified by repeated recrys- 
tallisation from water : it melted at SO-GO"^. 

Like acetaldoxime, acetoxime shows no selective absorption, but 
general absorption, which is slightly greater than in the case of the 
former substance, as was to be anticipated from the presence of an 
additional methyl group. A layer 25 mm. thick of a solution of ace- 

' PMl Trans., 1879, Part I., 267. 



ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



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'» d ^ — -^ ;.-. c^io *ir:-r^ T, 
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1900. 



if 



1G2 REPORT— 1900. 

toxime containing 1 niilligram-mol. in 20 c.c. shows a continuous spectrum 
to ^/\ 388G (\ 2573) ; a layer 1 mm. thick of the same solution to 
'//\ 4125 (\ 2424). 

The substances above referred to aflford an excellent illustration of 
the intimate relation between the character and extent of absorption 
and the constitution of an organic compound. Ammonia is highly 
diactinic. The substitution of a methyl group for one of the hydrogen 
atoms has the effect merely of very slightly increasing the amount of 
continuous absorption of the most refrangible rays. Again, the sub- 
stitution of hydroxyl for hydrogen has a similar effect, the group OH, 
however, haviiig a greater absorptive power than the group CH3, 
When we come to acetaldoxime and acetoxime, we find that, regarding 
them as derivatives of hydroxylamine, the introduction of the more 
complicated groups -.CH'CHa and :C(CH3)2 respectively for the two 
remaining hydrogen atoms of the original ammoiiia molecule, is 
accompanied by a great increase in the amount of the general absorption. 
Comparing, liowever, acetaldoxime with acetoxime, the latter, which 
differs from the former in tlie possession of an additional methyl group, 
shows only slightly greater absorption. This is in harmony with previous 
observations on COgH groups, and the slightly increased absorption 
caused by the introduction of methyl groups for hydrogen atoms ; also the 
stronger absorption caused by the replacement of hydrogen atoms by 
hydroxyl radicles. 

A diagram drawn to a scale of oscillation frequencies shows at a 
glance the length of spectrum transmitted by these substances in different 
proportions, and through different thicknesses. 

The Curves of the Molecular Vibrations 0/ Benz&ntialdoxime 
and Benzsynaldoxime.^ 

Benzantialdoxime and henzsynsildoxime are now generally represented 
by the following formulae : 

C6H5"C'H C(^Hr^'C'lJ. 

II ' II 

OHN . NOH 

Benzaw^mldoxime. Benzs?/7ialdoxime. 

If these formulae correctly represent the constitution of the two forms of 
benzaldoxime and their relation to one another, we should expect both 
compounds, as stereo-isomerides, to exhibit the same character and 
amount of absorption. As a matter of fact, we have found that the 
curves of the molecular vibi'ations of the two substances in ethereal 
solution are identical. A layer 25 mm. thick of a solution of either form 
of the aldoxime containing 1 milligram-mol. dissolved in 100 c. c. of abso- 
lute ether, absorbs all rays to ^/X 3323 {\ 3009). A layer 1 mm. thick of 
a solution containing 1 milligram-mol. in 500 c.c. of ether transmits all 
rays to ^ /\ 3638 (X 2748), and shows an absorption band reaching from 
VX 3638 (X 2748) to '/^ 4321 (X 2314). This band is still distinctly 
traceable in a layer 1 mm. thick of a solution containing 1 milligram-mol. 
in 2500 c.c. of ether. 

' Hartley and Dobbicj^TVaws; Chen. Soc.,yo\, Ixsvii. 



ARSORPTIOX SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



163 



The benzakloximes used in the experiments were prepared by the 
method given by Beckmann.' The benza«<ialdoxime at 10 and 14 mm. 



i 


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Curve of Molecular Vibrations. 

Benzantisbldoxvme. 
Benz«2/Maldoxime. 

pressure respectively was found to have the boiling point given by 

' Ber., 1890,23, 1684. 

M 2 



1«U. KEPOUT — 1900. 

Luxmoore ^ for those pressures. The benzsT/naldoxime was photographed 
immediately after preparation. It was afterwards recovered from the 
ethereal solution and the melting point redetermined, when it was found 
that no decomposition had occurred while the photographs were being taken. 
These results, which are shown in the above curve, confirm the 
conclusion previously arrived at, that stereo-isomerides, unlike isomerides 
which differ in structure, give identical absorption spectra. 

The Ultra-violet Absorption Spectra of some Closed Chain 
Carbon Compounds.- 

Dlmetliylpyra-inc. 

In a previous report ■^ we gave the results of the examination of the 
absorption spectra of thiophen, pyrrole, furfuran, and some of the more 
important furfuran derivatives. Each of these compounds contains 
two pairs of carbon atoms doubly linked, the chain being closed by a 
polyvalent element other than carbon. No trace of selective absorption, 
such as is shown by benzene, pyridine, and many of their derivatives, 
oould be detected in the spectra of any of these substances. 

We have now extended our investigation to 2 : 5-dimethylpyrazine, 

a substance in which not merely one carbon is replaced by nitrogen in the 
benzene ring, as in pyridine, but two. It thus belongs to a group not 
previously examined. 

From the analogy between the constitution of this substance and tliat 
of pyridine, it was anticipated that it would show a marked selective 
absorption, and this anticipation proved to be correct. One of the 
principal reasons for examining a substance of this constitution lay in the 
fact that whilst pyridine contains the group •C:N- once in the benzene 
structure, dimethylpyrazine contains it twice, and the orginal formula 
proposed for cyanuric acid '' contains it three times. Accordingly, if this 
formula were correct for cyanuric acid and its esters, we should expect 
that they would exhibit a powerful absorption band, more intense than 
that of pyrazine, just as that of pyrazine is more intense than tliat of 
pyridine. But it has been concluded, from a widely extended experience 
of the behaviour of such substances under the ultra-violet rays, and 
particularly from the results of a recent examination of the absorption 
spectra of its derivatives,'' that cyanuric acid does not possess this 
structure, but one in which the acid is represented by a ring composed of 

•N-C:0 
three | groups, a mode of single linking resembling that of a hydro- 

H 
pyridine or of a hydroaromatic group with one carbon replaced by 
nitrogen ; *• it should not therefore exhibit selective absorption. 

The specimen of dimethylpyrazine used in the experiments was pre- 

' Ttoms. CJiem. Soc, 1896, 69, 177. 

■ Hartley and Dobbie, Trans. Chem. Soc, 1900, 77. 

» Tram. Chem. Soc, 1898, 73, 598. B.A. Report, 1899. 

< Trans. Chem. Soc, 1882, 41, 84. * Hartley, Proc Chem. Soc, 1899, 16, 46. 

« Phil. Trans., Part II., 1885, 519 



ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHKMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



165 



pared by the reduction of isonitrosoacetone in accordance with the 
directions given by Gabriel and Pinkus.^ It boiled constantly at 154- 
155° ("corr.) under atmospheric pressure. 

Scale of Oscillation Frequencies. 






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\ 


<t 












J 


r 












♦ 


"" 






V 


^ 








/^ 


»^ 














2 












^ 






r 
















i3 














*- 


to^' 


r 

















2 : 5-Dimethylprazine. 

A layer 25 mm. thick of a solution of dimethylpyraziue containing 
1 mill.-mol. in 100 c.c. of absolute alcohol cuts off all rays beyond 
^ j\ 2994. On reducing the thickness of the layer to 10 mm. an absorp- 
tion band makes its appearance, reaching from '/X 3064 to ^ jX 4321. 
This band is very persistent, and is still traceable in a layer 1 mm. thick 
of a solution containing 1 mill.-mol. of the substance dissolved in 500 c.c. 
alcohol. The band of dimethylpyrazine is thus both wider and also more 
persistent than that of pyridine. These results are shown on the curve 
above. 

Ilexamethylene. — In the paper already referred to, an account was 
also given of the absorption spectra of diketohexamethylene. Previous 
investigations had shown that piperidine- and hexachlorobenzene ' 

' Her. 1893, 26, 220{;. - Hartley, Trans. Cliem. Soc., 1885, 47, G91, 

•' Hartlc}', Trans. Chcm. Soc, 1881, 39, 15;'. 



166 REPORT— 1900. 

exhibit continuous absorption, but show no absorption band, and, as was 
to be expected, diketohexamethylene, in which the six carbon atoms are 
united with each other by a single bond, as in hexachlorobenzene and 
piperidine, likewise showed no bands in the spectrum. 

Thi-ough the kindness of Professor Sydney Young and Miss Fortey, 
we have recently been enabled to examine a specimen of pure hexamethy- 
lene prepared from Galician petroleum. This substance, in comparison 
with benzene and pyridine, is highly diactinic. A layer, 60 mm. thick, 
of a solution containing 1 mill.-mol. dissolved in 20 c.c. of alcohol, trans- 
mits all rays up to ^ /\ 3920, whilst a layer of the same solution, 10 mm. 
thick, transmits practically the whole spectrum. In none of the photo- 
graphs of the spectra of this substance could any trace of a banded struc- 
ture be detected. 

Tetrahydrohenzene. — Professor Young and Miss Fortey were also good 
enough to place a specimen of pure tetrahydrobenzene in our hands for 
examination. This substance exhibits somewhat greater general absorp- 
tion than hexamethylene, a layer, 60 mm. thick, of a solution containing 
1 mill.-mol. in 20 c.c. alcohol absorbing all rays beyond '/\ 3694, while 
absorption is still traceable in a layer of the same solution 1 mm. thick. 
Like hexamethylene, tetrahydrobenzene shows no selective absorption. 
The examination of these two substances thus confirms the conclusion pre- 
viously reached, that the banded spectrum is shown only by substances 
which possess the true benzenoid structure.^ 

Ultra-violet Absorption Spectra of Albuminoids.'^ 

The first investigation of albuminoids of animal origin was made by 
Soret : it included albumen, white of egg, pure albumen, caseine, and 
serine. Absorption bands occur in their spectra in the following posi- 
tions : — Albumen (white of egg) X 2880-2650, pure albumen X 2948- 
2572, caseine A 2948-2572. Serine exhibits a band similar to that of 
caseine. 

In addition to albumen the following substances have been examined -.'^ — 

(1) Gelatine ; (2) maize starch ; (3) cane sugar ; (4) glucose ; (5) yeast 
water ; (6) invertase ; and (7) diastase. These are all highly diactinic 
substances, considering their complex constitution, and they show no 
absorption bands. It is evident, therefore, that the constitution of 
albumen, caseine, and serine is very different from that of invertase, 
diastase, gelatine, starch, glucose, and saccharose. 

This was of interest in connection with C. V. Naegeli's theory of 
fermentation. Naegeli regarded fermentation as a process in which a 
ti'ansference takes place to fermentable matter of the molecular or rather 
intramolecular vibrations of the constituent substances entering into the 
composition of living protoplasm whereby the equilibrium of the molecules 
of the fermentable matter became so disturbed as to cause their resolution 
into simpler molecules. It appears by no means improbable that the 
diastatic ferments may have some such action. From this point of view 

' Hartley, Trans., 1881, 39, 1.53. 

- Comptes Rendiis, 97, p. 642 ; also Archives des Sciences Physiques vt Naturelleg, 
X. p. 139. (L. Soret.) 

' Hartley, Tnms. Chcm. I'^oe., 1887. 51, 59. 



ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 167 

it does not appear likely that a substance of the character of albumen, 
■vyhose mode of vibration, as shown by its absorption spectrum, differs 
widely from that of the carbohydrates, could affect the latter, while on 
the other hand it is possible that the intramolecular vibrations of inver- 
tase and diastase might be communicated to saccharose and stai-ch. That 
the sugars are highly diactinic substances is quite in character with what 
we know of their constitution and of the spectra of similarly constituted 
substances. 

It is of interest to learn that the albuminoid compounds associated 
with the carbohydrates are evidently different in constitution from those 
forms of albumen found in the animal organism. The probability pre- 
sents itself of these albuminoids being derived from the carbohydrates. 



Isomorplious Derivatives of Benzem. — Report of the Committee, con-' 
sisting of Professor H. A. MiERS (Chairman), Dr. W. P. Wynne. 
and Dr. H. E. Armstrong (Secretary). {Vraivn up hij the Secre- 
tary.) 

The existence of morphotropic relationships between the crystalline 
forms of substances which are not isomorphous in the formal sense of the 
term has of recent years acquired new importance, the purely geometrical 
work of Barlow ' and others having demonstrated the superfluity of the 
old view that the units of the crystalline structure are polymerides of the 
chemically active fundamental molecule as a means of explaining poly- 
morphism and kindred crystallographic phenomena, whilst Fock - has 
shown, from the study of the partition coefficients of two isomorphous 
substances in equilibrium in a liquid and a solid solution in contact, that 
in the case of salts, at all events, the molecular weight in the crystalline 
state may be that of the fundamental molecule. Moreover the work of 
Paterno •' and others on the cryoscopic behaviour of substances jjossessing 
constitutions similar to that of the solvent indicates with certainty that 
isumorphism and morphotropy are phenomena which merge gradually one 
into the other. 

The consideration of facts such as these leads to the conclusion that 
moi'photropy and isomorphism have a common cause, and that this is 
more likely to be discovered by the crystallographic study of substances 
showing morphotropic relationships than from the examination jnerely of 
materials likely to exhibit isomorphism. 

The benzene series offers exceptional oppoi-tunities for the study of 
such questions ; indeed, it is remarkable that the publication of Groth's 
important memoir,"' calling attention to the existence of morphotropic 
relationships between benzene derivatives, has not acted as an incentive 
to really systematic work on the subject. 

The two investigations to be referred to form part of a series which are 
being carried on in the chemical department of the Central Technical 
College, South Kensington, in order, as far as possible, to determine the 
effect on the crystalline form of certain definite changes in the composi- 
tion. The work will include the determination of the molecular volumes 

' Proc. Jloi/. I)iih. .Soc, 18'J7, viii. 527. -' Xriff.f. A'ri/st., 18!)7, x.xviii. 337. 

» Gazzetta, 1895, xxv. 1, 411. < Po/fff. Ann'., 1870, 141, 31. 



1G8 REPORT— 1900. 

and of the melting-point curves of mixtures of the moi'photroplcally 
related compounds. 

Morp/iotrojnc JRelations/iijjs bctircen Funnanilide and its Substitution Derivatives. 

In order to determine the morphotropic effect of substitution upon 
the crystalline form of formaniUde the simple anilides of the composi- 
tion C,-,H,.NH (CO.X) (X=H, Me, Et, Pr, &c.) as well as several of 
their alkyl derivatives, and also a number of the mono- and di-halogen 
derivatives, have been crystallographically examined by Mr. L. P. Wilson ; 
a list of the compounds measured is given in the accompanying table, in 
which the geometrical constants are also indicated. It is evident that a 
jDrogressive change in the structural dimensions occurs as each series is 
traversed, although in most cases this only becomes obvious on rearranging 
the axial ratios, and sometimes on taking simple multiples of the ratios. 
The form in which the axial ratios are compared is indicated in the 
second column. 

I. 0. 



FormaniUde 
Acetanilide 
Propionanilide . 
Butyranilide 


a ; 

f : 

r : 

3rt ; 


h\ (- = 2-188 : 

J)-. a = 2-0670 : 

b: « = 2-1605: 

; h : 26- = 2-1 063 : 


1 ; 

; 1 : 

1 : 

1 : 


; 2403 
: 0-8488 
; 1-0428 

: 1-3788 


!)0 
90 
90 
90 


54 


M 


O 


Acetanilide 
Methylacetanilide 
Etbylacetanilide 
Propylacetanilide 


c : 

'2c: 

c : 

f : 


11. 

h : « = 2-0670: 

h: «= 0-7900 : 
h: « = 1-0064: 

h : a = 1-3264 : 

III. 


1 : 
1 : 
1 : 
1 : 


: 0-848S 
: 0-8494 
: 0-8401 
: 0-8410 


90 
90 
90 
90 




O 
O 




P.-brom-formanilide . 
,, acetanilide . 
., propionanilide 


(- : 

a : 

'da : 


h : 2a = 1-4100 ; 

b: c=i-;!'J04: 
: b : c= 1-3400 : 

IV. 


1 : 
1 ; 

: 1 : 


: 2-2056 
; 0-7159 
I 0-89d8 


90 
90 
90 









r.-brom-acetanilide . 
,, methyl acetanilide 
,, ethyl 


II. 
II 

a 


■.b: c--. 1-3904 
■.h: f = 1-5540 
: b : c = 1-4063 

V. 


: 1 
: 1 
: 1 


: 0-7159 
; 0-9719 
: 1-5080 


90 
70 
95 


7 

35 




M 
M 


P.-chlor*acetanilide . 
P.-brom „ 
P.-iodo „ 


a 
a 
a 


:b: c= 1-3263 
: b : << = 1-3904 
:b: 6- = 1-4185 

VI. 


: 1 
: 1 
: 1 


: 0-6804 
: 0-7159 
: 0-7415 


90 
90 
90 


29 




M 
M 


2 : 4 dichlor-acetanilide . 
„ chlorbrom-acetanilide 
„ bromchlor „ 
„ dibvom „ 


a 

ii 
a 
a 


:»: (- = 0-8263 
; h : 6- = 0-8144 , 
: b : c = 0-8214 

:b: c = o-8i3i 


: 1 
: 1 
: 1 
: 1 


: 6828 
: 0-0722 
: 0-7074 
: 0-0895 


77 33 
77 40 

77 46 

78 24 


M 
M 
M 
M 



In series 1, although the first memlier is monosymmetric, whilst the 
others are orthorliombic, a well-marked morphotropic similarity in the 
magnitudes of the ratio n/b is observed to follow the displacement of the 
hydrogen atom in the acidic group by Me, Et or Pr. The effect of dis- 
placing the aminic liydrt)gcn atom by Me, Et or Pr is less, as is shown by 



ON ISOMORPHOUS DERIVATIVES OF BENZENE. 



169 



an inspection of series 2 ; in this case tlie ratio cjb is more nearly constant 
throughout the series than in the case in series 1. In series 3, obtained by 
displacing the acidic hydrogen atom in parabromoformanilide by either 
Me or Et, the ratio a 'h again shows approximate constancy. No simple 
relationship is observable between parabromacetanilide and its methyl or 
ethyl derivative. Parabrom- and paraiod-acetanilide are isomorphous ; 
the corresponding chloro-derivative is not isomorphous with them, although 
it bears a marked morphotropic relationship to them.^ Group 6 forms a 
well-marked isomorphous series. 

Otten - has observed that butyranilide is dimorphous, but has not 
examined the substance in great detail ; a study of this compound has 
shown that the dimorphism is of a very remarkable character. At 
ordinary temperatures the anilide sepai-ates from alcoholic solutions in 
large transpai-ent crystals of pyramidal habit, which are distinctly 
orthorhombic, showing a characteristically orthorhombic interference 
figure of small optic axial angle. The axial ratios of such crystals are 
a : b : c=0-6920 : 1 : 0-6792. On preserving crystals which had been 
measured at a constant temperature of 8° to 11° they have been found to 
change gradually, and in the course of three months completely, into 
tetragonal crystals, without at the .same time losing their brilliancy and 
transparency. The axial ratio a ; c=0-6652 : 1 in these crystals ; they 
exhibit the characteristic uniaxial interference figure. On preserving the 
definitely tetragonal material at OO" for eighty days the reverse change 
occurs, the crystals becoming orthorhombic and biaxial, although the 
axial ratios never revert to quite their original values. The density of 
the orthorhombic form is 1-130, whilst that of the tetragonal form is 1-139. 

The molecular volumes of several of the anilides have been determined, 
■with the object of examining the relations between the topic axial ratios 
of Muthmann ; ^ the ordinary axial ratios seem, however, in most cases to 
express the morphotropic relationships just as clearly as the topic ratios. 



Iso- and Poly-vior^yhous substituted Benzene-sulphonic Chlorides and Bromides. 

It has already been stated •* that the sulphonic chlorides and bromides 
derived fi-om the 1:3:4 dihalogen-benzene-sulphonic acids together 
form an isotrimorphous series. Dr. Jee's further study of this group has 
led to important results. The series includes anorthic, orthorhombic, and 
monosymmetric terms, in the manner shown in the following table :— 



Orientation 


Crystallographio Syst 


sms 


— 


1 


3 


4 


Anortliic 
stable 


Orthorhombic 


Monosymmetric 


I. 


CI 


CI 


SCBr 








II. 


CI 


Br 


SO.Br 


stable 


— 


— 


IK. 


Br 


CI 


SCBr 


stable 


— 


— 


IV. 


Br 


Br 


SCBr 


labile-^ 


stable 


. 1 


V. 


Br 


Br 


SCCl 


(labile)-> 


stable 


labile 


VI. 


Br 


CI 


S0.,C1 


— 


stable 


labile i 


VII. 


CI 


Br 


SCCl 


— 


labile-* 


stable 


VIII. 


CI 


CI 


SCCl 


— 


labile-> 


stable 



Compare Fels, Dissert., Leipzig, liiOO. 
Zcits.f. Kryd.. 1894, xxii 407. 



/eits. f. Kryxt. xvii. :!'.)!. 
JJ A.'lhjixu-t, lyltii, p. 6Si<. 



170 REPORT— 1900. 

Of these eight substances, three are stable in the anorthic system, 
three in the orthorhombic system, and two in the monosymmetric system. 
Change of the one form into the other has been observed in four cases 
(ly-, V"., VII., VIII.) on allowing the fused substance to cool on a 
microscopic slide ; the direction of the change in each case is indicated in 
the table by an arrow. A labile anorthic crystalline form of dibromo- 
benzene-sulphobromide (IV.) has been obtained from solution ; and it has 
been found that each of the four sulphochlorides (V.-VIII.) can be caused 
to crystallise in the alternative system by admixture with a sulphochloride 
which usually separates in that system. It has been possible to determine 
the symmetry of all the forms referred to in the table by crystallographic 
measui'ement, with the single exception of the labile anorthic form of 
dibromo-benzene-sulphochloride, but the existence of this form is indicated 
by the dimorphous change which occurs on cooling from the melting point 
to the atmospheric temperatui-e. 

The detailed study of such a series of isoraorphs — especially of the 
melting points of mixtures and of the conditions which determine the 
separation of the various crystalline forms — will be of importance, as it is 
likely to furnish informatioia of value in discussing the phenomena pre- 
sented by igneous rocks containing isomorphous minerals. 

The investigation has been extended by Dr. Jee to the corre- 
sponding derivatives of the 1:3:5 dihalogen-bens^enesulphonic acids. 
The results obtained indicate the existence of an isodimorphous series 
having no apparent similarity v.dth the 1:3:4 series. One of the 
members of this new series — 1 : 3 : 5 dibromo-benzene-sulphobromide — has 
been obtained in two distinct crystallographic forms, both belonging to 
the monosymmetric system. At atmospheric temperature one of these 
forms is labile and isomorphous with the corresponding sulpho-chloride, 
and with 1:3:5 bromo-chlorobenzene-sulphochloride. The stal^le form 
of 1:3:5 dibromo-benzene-sulphobromide, on the other liand, is iso- 
morphous with 1:3:5 bromo-chlorobenzene-sulphobroraide. The deriva- 
tives of the symmetrical dichloro-acid have not yet been satisfactorily 
measured. 

Even in their present incomplete form these results are of considerable 
importance as showing the manner in which the occurrence of polymor- 
phism may render obscure otherwise well-marked isomorphous or morpho- 
tropic relationships. Apparently a substance may crystallise in a whole 
series of different forms. A, B, C, D, the particular form obtained under 
ordinary conditions being the form stable at the temperature at which the 
crystals are grown. Another substance, the immediate homologue of the 
first in an isomorphous series, can also assume crystalline forms corre- 
sponding with A, B, C, D, etc., but the particular form stable at ordinary 
temperatures will not be the same as before, owing to the non-corre- 
spondence of the transition temperatures. Consequently the first member 
of an isomorphous series may crystallise in a form of type A, the second 
member in a form of type B, the third of type C, and so on, the 
isopolymorphism completely masking the isomorphism. 



ON THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 171 



The Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis — Sixth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. Emerson Reynolds {Chair- 
man), Dr. 0. A. KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Frankland, Pro- 
fessor F. Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, 
and Professor W. Carleton Williams. 

The work of the Committee, appointed in 1894, has hitherto included a 
complete bibliography on electrolytic analysis up to the end of 1894 and 
experimental investigations on the electrolytic determination of antimony, 
bismuth, cobalt, nickel, zinc, and the separation of antimony and tin. 

The present report deals with further work on the determination of 
bismuth, and with the determination of iron, its separation from man- 
ganese, and the application of the electrolytic method to the determination 
of iron in organic products. 

These experiments cover some of the most important applications of 
electrolytic analysis which required further investigation, and the 
Committee propose to conclude their work with the present report. 

The more recent bibliography of the subject has been summarised by 
Neumann.^ The Committee would also refer to Neumann's book on 
electrolytic analysis,'^ which has been issued since their bibliographical 
report, and an English translation of which has been prepared by 
Kershaw ; ^ also to the annual reports on electrolytic analysis published 
in the ' Jahrbuch fiir Elect rochemie.' 

The Determination of Bismuth {Part II.) By Professor J. Emerson 
Reynolds, D.Hc, M.D., F.B.S., and W. C. Ramsden. 

In a previous report (1896) it was shown : — 

1. That carefully spun platinum dishes were better suited for use 
as negative electrodes than any other of the various forms experimented 
with. 

2. That iri-egular results only could be obtained with simple bismuth- 
nitrate solutions containing varying proportions of free nitric acid ; but 
that good determinations were more easily made in solutions of the 
sulphate when electrolysed by currents beginning at 0-08 and finishing 
at not more than 0'2 ampere. 

.3. That the best results were obtained in presence of metaphosphoi-ic 
acid and of citric acid, both of which controlled deposition in a very 
marked manner. 

4. That citric acid is quite as effective as metaphosplioric acid and 
possesses the additional advantage that the metal can also be separated in 
satisfactory condition from ammoniacal solutions of the citrate. 

Two questions i-emained for consideration, viz. {a) the separation of 
bismuth from strong but simple solutions, and (b) from solutions con- 
taining other metals. 



'o 



' Chem. Zeits. 1900, 24, 455. 

• Thcorio II. Prams der annhjtlsclieii Mectroljisc der Mctallc, 1897. 

' The Theory and Practice of Ekctrolytic Methods of Analysis, 1898. 



172 REPORT— 19U0. 

The work under the tirst head was in progress at the time the former 
part of the report was published by one of the present writers and Mr. 
Bailey, and was subsequently carried as far as seemed desirable. The 
results obtained with moderately strong solutions of bismuth were very 
unsatisfactory, even in presence of much citric acid and when treated 
with all the care indicated by our former experience. We then proceeded 
to detei-mine the major limit of concentration at which good determina- 
tions can be made. 

Taking 150 c.c. as the most convenient volume for use in the electro- 
lytic capsules employed, we found that excellent results could be obtained 
in presence of 2-5 gr. of citric acid, so long as the weight of metal in 
150 c.c. did not exceed 0'22 gr. With stronger solutions we failed to 
obtain satisfactory reguline deposits, even when the proportion of citric 
acid was increased and the current at the commencement of the operation 
was reduced to 0'005 ampere, so that the rate of deposition should be very 
slow. 

AVe therefore arrived at the conclusion that 150 c.c. of bismuth solution 
should not contain more than about 0-22 gr. of metal in the form of 
nitrate or sulphate, and that 2-5 to 3-0 gr. of pure citric acid suffice 
to control the deposition, provided the initial current used and acting for 
some hours be about 0-01 ampere, increased at the end, and for a short 
time, to 0-15 or 02 ampere. 

Scjiaraiiun uf Bismuth fro)n other Metals. 

Extended experience in the electrolytic determination of bismuth in 
simple solutions of varying strength led us to doubt that the purely 
electrolytic separation of the element from other metals would prove satis- 
factory. The results obtained by the present writers have justified this 
anticipation. 

The least unfavourable determinations of bismuth in such ndxtures 
with other metals as would probably be met with in practice were those 
obtained with cadmium and zinc ; but even in these theoretically favour- 
able cases it was found that, however feeble the currents used, the deposited 
bismuth carried down sensible amounts of the much more positive metals. 
The method of experimenting was as follows : — 

A carefully measured volume of a bismuth-nitrate solution known to 
contain 6-018 gr. of metal per litre, in the form of nitrate, was placed 
in a platinum capsule. The special treatment to be applied in each case 
was then carried out ; pure citric acid added, the solution diluted with 
water to about 150 c.c, and a current passed through the liquid of such 
strength (generally 0-01 ampere) as to secure a good reguline deposit of 
bismuth. The whole of the metal was seldom separated under fifteen to 
twenty hours, and was hastened at the end by passing a current of about 
0-1 ampere for a short time. The contents of the capsule were then washed 
with water and alcohol, and the vessel dried and weighed. 

Of the experiments recorded below, the first three aimed at fixing the 
degree of accuracy with which bismuth could be electrolytically separated 
from the particular simple nitrate solution used in presence of citric acid. 
The citric acid used in work of this kind should be tested for lead, &c., 
before use, as samples are sometimes met with which contain metallic 
impurities. The total volume of liquid used was the same in these as in all 
other cases, viz. about 150 c.c. 



Oy THE KLECTIiOr^VrrC MKTIKJDS of QlAXTrrATUE ANALYSIS. 173 

Expenment A. 0'2407 gr. of bismuth in solution + ?> gr. of citric acid 
gave after eighteen hours a fairly firm reguline deposit, which weighed 
0-2382 gr. 

Experiment B. 0'1805 gr. of bismuth gave under the same conditions 
a perfectly firm deposit weighing 0'1807 gr. 

Experiment C. 0'1805 gr. of bismuth with 2'5 gr. of citric acid gave 
an excellent deposit of 0-1804 gr. 

The concentration of the solution in experiment A was too high, as 
already pointed out ; but the results obtained in the weaker solutions used 
in B and C were as good as could lie obtained in any determinations of 
this class. 

The effect of the addition of sulphuric acid is shown in the next three 
experiments. 

Experiment D. 0'1805 gr. of bismuth in solution with 0"5 c.c. of pure 
freshly distilled HoSO^ and 2 gr. of citric acid gave, after twenty hours, as 
good a deposit as in B, and weighed 0"1807 gr. 

Experiment E. 0'1805 gr. bismuth with the same volume of H.jSOj, 
but with 4 gr. of citric acid. The metal came down very slowly from 
solution, but in good condition, even when a stronger current was used 
for a longer time than usual : at the end the weight obtained; after 
twenty-six hours, was 0'1801 gr. The proportion of citric acid used was 
therefore needlessly large. 

Experiment F. 0']504 gr. of bismuth in solution, 1 c.c. of H^SO^ and 
2 gr. of citric acid gave a good deposit, which weighed 0-1507 gr. 

Therefore good results can be obtained in presence of much more free 
sulphuric and nitric acids than would probably be present in actual 
analysis, or could be separated from mixed sulphates. 

In the remaining tests cadmium or zinc salts were present. 

Experiment G. 02106 gr. of bismuth in solution, 1 c.c. of 11,80^, 2 gr. 
of citric acid, and 0-125 gr. of cadmium in the form of sulphate. Result : 
0-2687 gr. The deposit easily oxidised and contained some cadmium, 
though the current was kept as low as possible throughout. 

Experiment H. 0-2106 gr. of bismuth in solution, in all respects as last, 
gave 0-2986 gr. of deposit containing cadmium. 

Experiment I. 0-1805 gr. of bismuth as last, except that only 0-5 c.c. 
of H2SO4 was added, gave a fair deposit, but contained cadmium and 
weighed 0-2096 gr. 

Experiment J. 0-1925 gr. bismuth ; treated solution as last, but with 
4 gr, of citric acid, gave 02340 gr. deposit, easily oxidised as in the other 
cases, and cadmium was found in the film. 

The results with zinc were similar ; for example : — 

Experiment K. 0-1504 gr. bismuth; the solution containing zinc in 
the form of sulphate instead of cadmium, O'S c.c. H2SO4 and 2 gr. of 
citric acid. The metal separated in fair condition, but was easily oxidised ; 
it weighed 0-1642 gr. and contained traces of zinc. 

Experiment L. 0'1805 gr. bismuth as last, and with zinc sulphate, gave 
0-1851 gr., and contained zinc also. 

Therefore, while bismuth can be determined electrolytically with 
accuracy in simple and dilute solutions containing citric acid, and even 
relatively large proportions of free nitric and sulphuric acidc, we are 
unable to recommend its electrolytic separation from any of the metals 
with which we have experimented. 



174 



REPORT— 1900. 



Tlie best course, in our opinion, is to separate the bismuth' by any of 
the well-known methods in the form of hydroxide, to dissolve the latter 
in sufficient nitric acid, and, after necessary dilution with addition of citric 
acid, to electrolyse, with the precautions already described. 



The Determination of Iron. ^,y Charles A. Kohn, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Bihliociraphy. 



Author 


Jouraal 


Year 


Volume 


Page 


Composition of 
Electrolyte 












r Ammonium oxalate. 


Avery, S., and 


Bar. 


1899 


32 


64 


J Sodium citrate. 


Dales, B. 










! ' Ammonium meta- 
t phosphate. 


Avery, S., and 


Ber. 


1899 


32 


2233 


Ammonium oxalate. 


Dales, B. 












Brand, A. 


Zeits. anal. 
Chem. 


1889 


28 


581 


Sodium pyrophos- 
phate and ammo- 
nium carbonate. 


Classen, A., 


Ber. 


1881 


14 


1622 


Ammonium oxalate. 


and Reis, 












M.A. 












Classen, A. . 


Ber. 


1894 


27 


2060 


Potassium and am- 
monium oxalates. 


Gibbs, W. . 


Amer. Chem. 
J. 


1891 


13 


570 


Sulphate ; as amal- 
gam. 


Heidenreich, 


Ber. 


1896 


29 


1585 


Sodium citrate and 


M. 










citric acid. 


Kohn, C. A., 


J. Soc. Chem. 


1889 


8 


256 


Potassium and am- 


and Wood- 


Ind. 








monium oxalates. 


gate, J. 












Kollock, L. G. 


J. Amer. Chem. 

Soc. 


1899 


21 


911 


Sodium citrate and 
citric acid. 


Luckow, C. . 


Zeits. anal. 
Chem. 


1880 


19 


1 


Ammonium citrate 
and citric acid. 


Moore, T. 


Chem. News 


1886 


53 


209 


Phosphoric acid. 

Tartaric acid and 
ammonium hy- 
drate. 

Borax and ammo- 
"^ nium oxalate. 


Nicholson, and 


Amer. Chem. 


1896 


18 


654 


Avery, S. 


J. 


















Parodi, G., 


Zeits. anal. 


1879 


18 


587 


Acid ammonium 


and Mascaz- 


Chem. 








oxalate. 


zini, A. 












Rudorff, F. . 


Zeits. angew. 
Chem. 


1892 


— 


197 


Ammonium oxalate. 


Thomaien, H. 


Zeits. Electro- 
chem. 


1894 


1 


304 


Ammonium oxalate. 


Smith, E. F. 


Amer. Chem. 
J. 


1888 


10 


3;!0 


Sodium citrate and 
citric acid. 


Smith. E. F., 


J. Analyt. & 


1891 


5 


488 


Tartaric acid and 


and Muhr, F. 


App. Chem. 








ammonium hy- 
drate. 


Verwer, H., 


Ber. 


1899 \ 


32 


806 


Ammonium oxalate. 


and Groll, F. 












Vortmann, G. 


Monatsh. 

Chem. 


1893 

i 


14 


53G 


Sodium potassium 
tartrate and so- 
dium hydrate. 


"Wolman, L. . 


Zeits. Electro- 
chem. 


1897 




542 


Ammonium oxalate. 



ON THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. ] 



/■) 



The electrolytic metliods for the determination of iron can in no way 
be regarded as comparable with the usual volumetric and gravimetric 
methods in their general applicability. Under special circumstances, how- 
ever, they may be found advantageous, especially in the determination of 
relatively small quantities of iron in organic products, an application 
which has been specially studied in the subjoined experiments. 

Of the various methods proposed, that in which the metal is deposited 
from a solution of the double ammonium oxalate, first suggested by 
Parodi and Mascazzini, and subsequently worked out by Classen, is the 
most reliable. When separated from a citrate or tartrate solution, the 
precipitated iron contains a considerable proportion of carbon, and the 
deposition from phosphoric acid or ammonium pyrophosphate solution is 
too slow to be of practical value ; further, it necessitates a high current 
density, and the introduction of phosphates into the solution is an obvious 
disadvantage from an analytical standpoint. 

The experiments have therefore been restricted to the investigation of 
the deposition of iron from the solution of the double ammonium oxalate. 
They may be conveniently grouped under the following heads]: 

1. The condifAons under ivJnch iron is deposited from ammonium oxa- 
late solutioii and the inost favourahle conditions for its electrolytic deter- 
mination. 

2. The influence of ammonium chloride on the electrolytic determina- 
tion of iron. 

3. The comjilete separation of the iron when deposited from ammonium, 
oxalate solution : the sulphocyanide reaction for iron under the conditions 
of the experiments. 

4. The presence of carbon in iron deposited from ammonium oxalate 
solution and the determination of its amount. 

5. The electrolytic separation of iron and manganese in ammonium oxa- 
late solution. 

6. The electrolytic determination of iron in urine and other animal pro- 
ducts. 

1. The Conditions under tohich Ironis deposited from Ammonium G.valate Solution 
and the nioxt famurahle Conditions for its Electrolytic determination. By 
Chaeles a. Kohn, M.&C., Ph.D., and H. H. Froysell. 

Classen recommends the addition of 6 to 8 gr. of ammonium oxalate 
per gr. of iron in 150-175 c.c. of solution, and conducts the electrolysis 
with a CD., 00 of 1-0 to 1-5 ampere and 3 to 4 volts in a warm solution 
(40''-60° C). Nitrates, if present, must be removed by repeated evapora- 
tion with sulphuric or hydrochloric acid ; free sulphuric acid can be 
neutralised by ammonium hydrate ; any free hydrochloric acid is prefer- 
ably removed by evaporation on the water-bath. The complete deposition 
of the iron is tested with potassium sulphocyanide, after acidifying with 
hydrochloric acid ; 0-2 to 0-3 gr. of iron is deposited in three to four 
hours. 

In a later paper Classen states that the most favourable condition for 
the deposition of iron is with a current N.D.,o„=l-5 ampere at the ordi- 
nary temperature. Neumann ' adds that weaker currents (0-3 to 05 ampere) 
can be used, but then a larger proportion of ammonium oxalate must be 

' Tlworie u: Praxis der anahjtisolien Electrolyse dbr Metalled p. 114. 



]7G REPORT — 1900, 

added and the current increased to 1-0 ampere at the end of the determina- 
tion to ensure the precipitation of the last portion of the iron. According 
to Wolman, eight to ten hours ai-e necessary for the deposition of 0' 15 to 
0-30 gr. of iron with a C.D.,no=0"3 to 1-0, and finally to 1'5 ampere, and 
an E.M.F. of 4 volts at 50° C. The majority of the results recorded by 
this method are slightly low, on an average 0-2 to 0-6 per cent, on the 
weight of iron taken. 

Variations in current and in the proportion of ammonium oxalate 
added constitute the only real differences in the conditions of deposition 
recommended, and they bear on the one practical difficulty of the method — 
the prevention of the separation of any ferric hydrate during the electro- 
lysis. As pointed out in a previous report (1896) on the electrolytic de- 
termination of tin in ammonium oxalate solution, the electrolyte gradually 
becomes alkaline, owing to the decomposition of the oxalate and the for- 
mation of ammonium carbonate ; in jiresence of a sufficient excess of 
ammonium oxalate the iron will still remain in solution after the latter is 
alkaline, but otherwise ferric hydrate separates out and oxalic acid must 
be added from time to time during the electrolysis to redissolve it. Such 
addition of oxalic acid renders it necessary to watch the experiment ; a 
further drawback is that the quantity of ammonium oxalate solution 
necessai-y leaves little room for any further addition of liquid in an ordi- 
nary dish of 175 c.c. to 200 c.c. capacity. Hence the ammonium oxalate 
must outlast the deposition of the iron if an addition of oxalic acid is to be 
avoided. A series of experiments were, therefore, first arranged in which 
the time necessary for the solution to become alkaline, the propoi'tion of 
metal deposited up to alkaline reaction, and the proportion subsequently 
deposited, were noted. 

A ferric chloride solution of known strength was used, made up from 
pure ferric oxide, the method of working being as follows : — The slight 
excess of hydrochloric acid in the measured portion of the solution was 
first neutralised with a few drops of ammonium hydrate, oxalic acid 
solution added to acid reaction, and the whole then added to the ammonium 
oxalate solution. The additional oxalic acid recorded was either added to 
the original solution or at intervals during the electrolysis. The current 
density, C.D.ino=l"0 to 1-5 ampere, and electromotive force of 3-5 to 4-0 
volts employed in these first experiments are the values hitherto regarded 
as the most favourable for the deposition of iron. Both warm and cold 
solutions were tried. The ammonium oxalate solution contained 40 gr. 
per 1.000 c.c. ; the oxalic acid solution 80 gr. per 1,000 c.c. 

Platinum dishes of about 200 c.c. capacity were used as the cathode 
and bored platinum discs as the anode ; the circuits and measurements 
were arranged as described in the Committee's third report (1896). 

The following results illustrate the conclusions to be drawn from this 
series of experiments : — 

Series I. 

In experiments 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, 10 c.c. of oxalic acid solution were added 
to the solution prepared as stated above and the electrolysis continued 
until the mixture became alkaline, when the current was broken and the 
deposited metal washed, dried, and weighed in the usual manner. The 
solution became alkaline very quickly when electrolysed warm, but on an 
average about 25 per cent, of the total iron was deposited in this short 
pei'iod of fifteen to twenty minutes. Although alkaline, no separation of 



ON THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 177 

ferric hydrate took place up to this stage, there being sufficient ammonium 
oxalate left to keep the iron salt in solution. In experiments 6 and 7 
a larger proportion of oxalic acid solution (50 c.c.) was added to the 
original solution, which allowed the electrolysis to be continued for 
H hour before alkalinity was reached ; the rate of deposition is evidently 
slowed by this increase of free acid. When cold solutions are electrolysed 
the deposition is quicker, as shown in experiments 8 and 9 ; the larger pro- 
portion of metal deposited is also partly due to the somewhat higher 
current and E.M.F. employed, and, taking this into account, the solution 
takes longer to get alkaline when electrolysed cold, as would be expected, 
since the rate of the decomposition of the oxalate will be slower. A 
comparison of experiments 5 and 8 with the remainder shows that, 
with less iron and the same proportion of oxalate, there is an increase 
in the proportion of iron deposited, despite the retarding effect of the 



! 








Ammo- 


Oxalic 






' 


No. 


Iron 

taken, 

gr- 


Iron de- 
posited, 
gr- 


Per cent. 
Iron de- 
posited 


Time 


nium 
Oxalate 
Solution 

added, 


Acid 
Solu- 
tion 
added, 


C-D-ioo 
Ampere 


E.M.P. 
Volts. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture 


1 










c.c. 


c.c. 








0-0970 


0-0415 


42-8 


14 min. 


125 


10 


1-5 


3-8 


50° 


a 


00970 


0-0300 


30-9 


11 „ 


125 


10 


1-5 


3-8 


50° 


•6 


0-0970 


0-0270 


27-7 


16 „ 


125 


10 


1-5 


4-0 


50° 


4 


0-0970 


0-0230 


23-7 


17 „ 


125 


10 


1-6 


3-9 


50° 


5 


0-0194 


0-0130 


67-0 


20 „ 


25 


10 


1-4 


4-0 


50° 


6 


0-0970 


0-0410 


42-3 


n hr. 


125 


50 


1-4-1-2 


3-9-4-3 


50°-.'ifi° 


7 


0-0970 


0-0410 


42-3 


1^ „ 


125 


50 


1-4-1-1 


3-9-4-5 50°_5fi°! 


« 


0-0194 


0160 


82-5 


25 min. 


25 


10 


1-5 


4-2 


Cold 


y 


0-0970 


0-0790 


81-4 


n hr. 


125 


50 


1-5-1-8 


4-7 


Cold 


10 


0-0970 


a. 0-0300 


a. 30 9 


U „ 


1 125 
1 125 










11 


- 

0-0970 f 

1 


b. 0630 


b. 65-0 


1^ „ 
Ih. 10m. 


50 
60 


1-4-1-3 
1-5-1-8 


3-9-4-3 

4-8 


50°-53° 
Cold 


a-l-JO-0930 


95-9 


a. 0-0410 


a. 42-3 


i 


b. 0-0520 


6.53-6 


1 hr. 


) 






i 




a + JO-0930 


95-9 



relative increase of free oxalic acid present. In experiments 10 and 11 
the solutions were electrolysed till alkaline, and the deposited metal 
weighed (a) ; the solution was then poured back into the dish, and the 
electrolysis continued until a precipitate of ferric hydrate separated, when 
the additional iron deposited on the cathode Avas weighed (b). The 
deposition in both warm and cold solutions proceeds more rapidly after 
alkalinity than before, and there is evidently little difference in the 
results of the two experiments. 

It is clear from these results that 5 gr. of ammonium oxalate will 
not outlast the deposition of 0-1 gr. of iron under the above condi- 
tions of current and E.M.F. ; further, that an initial acidiiication with 
oxahc acid up to 4 gr. is no real help in preventing a separation of 
hydrate ; and, finally, that it is advantageous to electi'olyse cold solutions 
in preference to warm. To complete the deposition of iron under these 
circumstances it is necessary to add oxalic acid from time to time durina 
the experiment, so as to prevent the separation of ferric hydrate ; if this 

1900. jj 



178 



EEPORT — 1900. 



is done, accurate results can be obtained, our own determinations, which 
need not be detailed here, confirming those of previous experimenters. The 
continuous attention thus entailed of course robs the method of its 
practical value. 

Experiments were made on the use of acid ammonium oxalate instead 
of the neutral salt as the electrolyte, and it was found possible to complete 
the electrolysis without the addition of oxalic acid, 6 gr. of the acid salt 
being added to Q-l gr. of iron as ferric chloride. But there is always a 
risk of ferrous oxalate separating out from this solution after the ferric 
salt has been reduced, which is extremely difficult to redissolve, so that the 
conditions of deposition were not regarded as worth further study. 

By working with a lower current density and allowing the electrolysis 
to proceed for six hours, or preferably ovei-night, in cold solutions, it was 
found that 5 gr. of ammonium oxalate will outlast the deposition of 
0-2 gr. of iron, and these conditions afford a thoroughly satisfactoiy 
method for the electrolytic determination of iron. The metal is deposited in 
a steel -grey, coherent form, and adheres equally well to a polished or sand- 
blasted dish ; the washing and drying can be done without any fear of 
o.\.idation. 

After some preliminary experiments it was found that a C.D.mg of 
0*4 to 0-5 ampere and anE.M.F. of 3-0 to 3'5 volts are best ; from five to 
six hours are necessary for the deposition of 0-1 gr. of ii'on. The following 
experiments illustrate the results to be obtained under these conditions ; 
a ferric chloride solution was used, the excess of free acid being first 
neutralised as in Series I. Nos. 8-1 2 were consecutive experiments. 



Series II. 



No. 



Iron 

taken, 

gr- 



1 
2 

3 

4 
5 
R 

7 

8 



10 

u 

12 



01060 
01060 
01060 
01060 
OlOCO 
01060 
01060 
00950 
0-1840 
0-1050 
0-0920 
0-0920 



Iron clu- 

posited, 

gr- 



0-1060 

0-1064 
0-10,66 
0-1065 
1065 
0-1065 
0-1062 
0-0920 
0-1840 
0-1050 
0-0919 
0-0919 



Ammonium 
Oxalate Solu- 
tion added, 

CO. 



125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 



C.D.,(,„ 
Anipere 



0-42 
0-4 
0-4 . 
3 ■ 
0-3 
0-3 ■ 
0-3 ■ 
4 - 
0-38- 
0-4 ■ 
0-6 . 
0-5 - 



-0-6 

-o-(; 

-0-6 

-0-29 

-0-29 

-0-2 

-0-3 

-0-32 

-0-32 

-0-36 

-0-55 

-0-5 



E.M.F. 


Time, 


Volts 


Hours j 


3-1-3-0 


5 


3-2-3-0 


6 


3-2-3-0 


6 ! 


2-8-2-9 




3-2-3-2 




3-3-3-6 


— 1 


; 3-2-3-6 


— 


2-:?-2-6 


17 


3-1-3-2 


ni- 


2-0-2-5 


ls 


3-0-3-5 


IS 1 


2-8-2-8 


18 ; 



Reparks 



Overnight 



Nutfi. — The two figures for Current and E.M.F. indif-.ate the measurements at the 
beginning and end of the determinations respectively. 

Considerable latitude is permissible in the cun-ent density and E.M.F., 
but it should be on the low side of the values given above. The deter- 
minations require no watching, and by allowing them to proceed overnight 
one of the most marked advantages of electrolytic analysis is gained. 

Experiments made under similar conditions in warm solutions indi- 
cated no advantages whatever ; the rate of deposition is not increased, 
and there is always .ti greater risk of ferric hydrate separating out, as 
already explained 



ox THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 179 

2. The Influence of Ammonium Chloride on the Electrohjtic 
Detennination of Iron. 

Since any iron solution in the ordinary course of analysis is likely to be 
acid with hydrochloric acid, a few experiments were made to decide whether 
the ammonium chloride formed by neutralising it has any deterrent effect 
on the deposition of the metal, since Classen states that it is desirable to 
remove free hydrochloric acid by evaporation previous to the electrolysis. 
1 gr. of ammonium chloride was added to each of the solutions electrolysed 
under the conditions tabulated below ; from the results it is evident that 
the addition is without influence on the determination of the iron. 



Series III. 



1 

Iron 
y^^ taken, 

gr. 


Iron deposited, 


Ammonium 

Oxalate Solution 

added, 

c.c. 


C. D.i,„ 
Ampere 


E.M.F. 

Volts 


Time, 
Hours 


1 
2 


0-1060 
0-1060 


0-1058 
0-1063 


,25 
125 


0-5-0-4 
0-5-0-4 


3-5-3-6 
3-5-36 


5 
5 



3. The complete Separation of the Iron ivhen deposited from Ammonium Oxalate 
Solution : the Sulphocyanide Reaction for Iron under the conditions of the 
Experiments. By Charles A. Kohx, M.Sc, Ph.D., F. J. Bkislee, and H. H. 
Froysell. 

The apparent accuracy of the results obtained in the electrolytic 
deposition of iron from ammonium oxalate solution has led the method to 
be regarded as free from the source of error generally associated with the 
deposition of metals from solutions of organic salts, viz. the separation of 
carbon with the metal at the cathode. Citrate and tartrate solutions both 
yield deposits containing a considerable proportion of carbon, and the 
quantitative results obtained are correspondingly high. Our own results 
with ammonium oxalate solution, contrary to those recorded in the litera- 
ture on the subject, are hardly ever on the low side ; they average from 
0-2 to 0-3 per cent, high (Series II. p. S). The possibility of com- 
pensating errors consisting in the presence of carbon with the deposited 
metal on the one hand, and the incomplete separation of the iron on the 
other, has recently been discussed by Avery and Dales ^ and by Verwer 
and Groll.'- The former find that the deposited iron does contain carbon, 
on an average 0-21 to 0-42 per cent, on the metal deposited, and that some 
iron remains in the electrolysed solution. The latter was determined gra-vi- 
metrically after evaporating the solution and igniting the residue, and in 
the three experiments made averages 0-35 per cent. The results published 
from the Aachen laboratory, on the other hand, confirm Classen's original 
view, that there is no carbon with the deposited iron, and that the iron is 
completely precipitated. Eight experiments are given by Yerwer and 
GroU ; the results are all low, a total of 7-6 mgr. of iroii being wanting 
in the eight experiments. Still, no iron could be detected on evaporating 
all the solutions left after the electrolysis together, and testing with 
potassium sulphocyanide or other reagent after ignition and solution. 
These experiments were conducted with warm solutions, with a C. D. ,gg 



Ber. 1899, 32, 64 and 2233. 



Bar. 1899, 32, 806. 



N 2 



180 



REPORT — 1900. 



= 1-0 ampere, an E.M.F. of 2-5 to 3-0 volts, and the addition of 8 gv. of 
ammonium oxalate for 0-1 to 0-3 gr. of iron. From the contradictory 
nature of these results it became important to ascertain whether the 
accuracy of our own determinations was really due to small compensating 
errors. 

To test the complete deposition of the iron in the experiments in 
Series II. (p. 178) a small quantity of the solution was withdrawn by a 
capillary tube, and tested with potassium sulphocyanide after acidifying 
with hydrochloric acid. The reaction is, however, known to be inhibited 
by the presence of organic acids, such as oxalic, unless a large excess of 
hydrochloric acid is present to prevent the dissociation of the ferric 
sulphocyanide ; this addition may so far dilute the solution as to prevent 
the detection of small quantities of iron. Further, the metal is present 
as a ferrous salt at the end of the electrolysis, and this fact may also be a 
cause of any iron present escaping detection. The delicacy of the sulpho- 
cyanide reaction was, therefore, carefully studied under the conditions of 
the electrolytic experiments, as well as in presence of ammonium oxalate 
and of oxalic acid. Our results show that whilst up to 0-4 mgr. of iron 
can readily escape detection when the test is made by the usual method 
of withdrawing only a little of the solution, 0-1 mgr. can always be 
detected with certainty if the whole of the solution, after electrolysis, is 
tested by acidifying with 75 c.c. of hydrochloric acid (cone), and then 
adding lO c.c. of a 20 per cent, solution of potassium sulphocyanide. 
The coloration is quite distinct in presence of ammonium oxalate, oxalic 
acid, ammonium chloride, or of the salts remaining after the electrolysis 
of the mixture of these salts as used in the deposition of iron under the 
conditions of the experiments in Series II. The sequence of the addition 
of the reagents in no way affects the delicacy of the reaction, nor is the 
addition of any oxidising agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, necessary to 
convert the ferrous into ferric iron when solutions containing oxalic acid 
or its salts, or the products of their electrolysis, are tested ; in their 
presence a little stirring appears ample to completely oxidise small 
quantities of iron. As a matter of fact, less than 0-1 mgr. can be 
detected thus, but this limit is of course sufficient to check the presence 
of iron left in the solution after electrolysis. With this check on the 
complete deposition of the metal a series of determinations were made, in 
which the iron remaining in solution was determined colorimetrically 
by potassium sulphocyanide after the electrolysis. 



Series IV. 



•y Iron taken, 


Iron de- 
posited, 
gr. 

0-1036 
0-15o0 
0-2602 


CD.iQii 
Ampere 


E.M.F. , Time, 
Volts 1 Hours 

1 


Iron left 
in solu- 
tion, 
jngr. 


1 I 

1 3 

3 


0-1036 
0-1558 
0-2590 


0-5-0-43 
0-5-0-45 
0-5-0-46 


;!-4-3-7 1 23 
2-3 -3-0 i 23 
3-1-3-7 i 23 


0-1 
0-2 
0-3 



The above were three consecutive experiments made with a ferric 
chloride solution prepared for electrolysis as in the previous experiments, 
.'ind to which 5 gr. of ammonium oxalate were added. Despite the 
prolonged time of electrolysis a little iron still remained in solution ; other 



ON THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 181 



results showed the presence of 0*2 to 0-3 iiigr. of iron in the electrolysed 
solution. Nevertheless, as in the experiments of Series II., the error in 
the weight of iron deposited is on the plus side. 

4. The Presence of Carbon in Iron deposited from Ammonium Oxalate Solution, 
and the Determination of its Amount. By Charles A. Kohn, M.Sc, Ph.D., 
and F. J. Beislee. 

To ascertain the presence of carbon in the metal deposited under the 
above conditions the following method was adopted :— A solution of ferric 
chloride, neutralised with ammonium hydrate, and to which ammonium 
oxalate was added, was electrolysed under the usual conditions, a piece of 
platinum foil being employed as the cathode. After the electrolysis the 
foil was thoroughly washed, then dried, and rolled up for combustion. 
The combustion was carried out in an ordinary combustion tube in a 
current of oxygen, a solution of barium hydrate being used for the 
absorption of the carbon dioxide. In every case a blank experiment was 
conducted for one hour before the introduction of the deposited iron, and 
the absorption bulbs weighed both at the beginning and end of the blank 
experiment ; no difficulty, however, was found in keeping out all traces 
of carbon dioxide. The results tabulated below leave no doubt as to the 
presence of carbon in the deposited metal ; the quantity appears to be 
independent of the quantity of iron precipitated, but increases with the 
quantity of ammonium oxalate in the solution electrolysed, when this is 
completely decomposed. The results are likely to err on the low side, as 
the combustion of the carbon deposited with the iron is likely to be 
incomplete. In order to make sure that the carbon dioxide was not 
derived from any slight residues that might have adhered to the iron from 
the alcohol used in the washing of the deposit, this washing was omitted 
in experiments 3 and 4, and the precipitated metal dried in vacuo after 
washing with water. Further, in experiment 4 the deposited iron, which 
was beautifully crystalline, was detached as far as possible from the 
platinum, and this portion (a) very completely washed with water before 
drying, so as to be certain that the carbon did not arise from any adhering 
traces of the decomposed oxalate solution ; the iron that still remained on 
the platinum was combusted separately (b). 

Series V. 



No. 

1 


Iron de- 
posited, 
gr- 


Carbon 

found, 

mgr. 


Per cent. 
Carbon 
on Iron 

deposited 


Ammon- 
ium Oxa- 
late 
added 


Time, 
Hours 


C.D.joij 
Ampere 


E.M.F. 
Volts 




Remarks 


0-0814 


0-60 


0-74 


6gr. 


19 


0-4 


5-2 


J 


Washed with 


















■water and 


2 


0-1908 


0-82 


0-43 


6gr. 


21i 


0-2 


5-5 


alcohol 


3 


0-1220 


0-76 


0-62 


6gr. 


19 


0-2 


30 




Washed with 


4 
< 


a. 0-0674 

b. 0-25.56 


0-55 
1-47 


0-82 
0-57 


- 12 gr. 


48 


0-2 


3-1 


■ 


■water and 
dried in 
vacuo 


a -1-6 0-3230 


2-02 


0-62 



The variations in current density and electromotive force do not seem 
to make any appreciable difference. On an average the iron deposited 
from a solution containing 6 gr. of ammonium oxalate contains 0-84 mgr. 
of carbon, and, therefore, proportionately the results recorded in Series 11. 



182 



REPORT — 1900, 



and IV., in which ;") gr. of ammonium oxalate were used, should be 
0'7 mgr. too high from this source of error. In the two sets of experi- 
ments the values obtained average an excess of 0'2 mgr., and the weight 
of metal remaining in solution after the determination is 0'2 to 0"3 mgr. 
These compensating errors, therefore, contribute to the apparent accuracy 
of the method ; they are sufficiently small to bring the process witliin 
the range of practical analysis. This conclusion is in accoi'd with the 
experiments recorded by Avery and Dales ; the difference in the Tper- 
centage of carbon found is in all probability due to the time of electro- 
lysis. It is impossible to reconcile these results with those of Verwer 
and Groll ; but that their results, like those obtained by Classen, are low 
is undoubtedly to be attributed to the method adopted for testing the 
completion of the deposition of iron by means of potassium sulphocyanide. 
The origin and direction of the eri'ors arising in the electrolysis of 
ammonium oxalate solutions containing iron are clearly shown by our 
experiments, and it is unlikely that different conditions prevail when 
other metals are present in the same electrolyte. The facts thus esta- 
blished must be duly considered in judging of the results obtained by these 
methods, especially in such cases as atomic weight determinations. 

The quantities of carbon deposited with the iron were too small to 
allow of the investigation of its condition of combination. We are, how- 
ever, inclined to think that it is present as a carbide, for whenever the 
deposited metal is dissolved in acid the smell of hydrocarbons can always 
be noticed ; also, after the upper layer of the metal has dissolved, the 
underlying portion is very often darker in colour and more difficult to 
dissolve. 



5. T/ie Electroljitic Separation of Iron and JMwnganese in Ammovium Oxalate 
Sohctio7i. By Charles A. Kohn, M.Sc, Ph.D., and H. H. Frotsell. 



Bihliogrupliy . 



Author 


Journal 


Year 
1889 


Volume 


Page 
.581 


Composition of 
Electrolyte 


Brand, A. 


Zeits. anal. 


28 


Sodium pyrophos- 




Chem. 








phate and ammonium 
oxalate 


Classen, A., 


Eer. 


1881 


14 


],G22 


Ammonium oxalate 


nnd Eeis, 












M. A. 












Classen, A. 


» 


1881 


14 


2,771 


Ammonium and 
potassium oxalates 


9> 


j» 


1884 


17 


2,351 


Ammonium and 
potassium oxalates 


» 


•» 


1885 


18 


168 


Ammonium and 
potassium oxalates 


>» 


)> 


1885 


18 


1,789 


Ammonium oxalate 


Engels, C. 


Zeits. IClec- 
trochem. 


189G 


'> 


414 


Ammonium acetate 


j» 


Chem. Kund- 
schau 


1896 


— 


5 and 20 


Sulphuric acid 


Kaeppel, F. 


Zeiis. anorg. 
Chem. 


189S 


16 


2GS 


Sodium pyrophos- 
phate and phos- 
phoric acid 


Moore, T. 


Chem. News 


1886 


53 


209 


riiosphoric acid and 
ammonium carbonate 


Wieland, J. 


Bar. 


1884 


17 


2,981 


Ammonium and 
potassium oxalates 



ON THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 183 

In the electrolysis of manganese salts in presence of dilute mineral 
acids, sodium pyrophosphate, or ammonium oxalate, the manganese is 
separated at the anode as hydrated peroxide. This property is of little 
value, however, for the determination of manganese itself, because it is 
difficult to effect the complete separation of the metal as oxide, and special 
conditions must be adopted to cause the precipitate to adhere to the 
anode. On the other hand, the difference in the behaviour of iron and 
manganese when subjected to electrolysis in ammonium oxalate solution 
is attractive as a method for the separation of the two metals. 

The practical difhculty in effecting a separation on these lines is that 
the precipitated manganic oxide always carries down some iron with it ; 
this can only be overcome by adopting such conditions of electrolysis that 
only one of the metals is separated, the other remaining in solution. By 
means of a divided cell Engels states that manganese can be completely 
separated as peroxide, using a sulphuric acid solution ; this involves the 
subsequent determination of the iron. The chief work on the subject, 
however, has aimed at the determination of the iron by deposition on the 
cathode, obviously the more useful line of separation. 

According to Classen, the separation is possible if 8 to 10 gr. of 
ammonium oxalate are added to the solution of the mixed salts and the 
mixture electrolysed warm with a C.D.,(,n of about 1-0 ampere. This 
proportion of oxalate is said to outlast the deposition of the iron ; the 
manganic oxide does not separate until the mass of the oxalate has been 
decomposed, and even with large proportions of manganese only very little 
peroxide separates at the anode under these conditions. 

Neumann ' and Engels ^ both state that the separation is incomplete, and 
our own experiments confirm this view. We have not found it possible 
to completely deposit iron without a separation of manganese peroxide, 
nor to separate the latter free from iron. The presence of even small 
proportions of manganese has, moreover, quite a remarkable effect in 
hastening the separation of iron as hydrate in the electrolysis of oxalate 
solutions. In some early experiments on the determination of iron the 
results were from 3 to 4 per cent, too low, and a separation of hydrate 
always took place after about two hours ; on testing the precipitate it 
was found to contain manganese, derived from the iron wire used in 
making up the solution. In the subsequent work recorded above the 
iron was always purified from manganese by precipitation as basic 
acetate. 

The following experiments show the extent of the error when the 
separation is conducted under the conditions most favourable for the 
deposition of the iron. The mixed chlorides of the two metals were 
neutralised with ammonium hydrate, 5 gr. of ammonium oxalate added, 
and electrolysed as usual. In experiments 4, 5, and 6, a CD. ion of only 
0*2 ampere was used ; but still the deposition of the iron was incomplete, 
and in all cases manganese peroxide contaminated with iron separated 
at the anode or remained suspended in the solution. A comparison of 
the results tabulated on p. 184 shows that the error in the iron increase?! 
with tlie proportion of manganese taken. 

' Theorie v. Praxis der anahjtischen Electrolyse, p. 194. 
^ Cliem. Rundschau, 1896, pp. 5 an:l 20, 



184 






REPORT — 1900, 
Series VI. 








No. 
1 


Iron taken, 
gi-- 


Iron 

deposited, 

gr- 


Manganese 

taken, 

gr- 


Per cent. 

Iron 
deposited 


C.D.ioo 
Ampere 


E.M.F. 
Volts 


Time, 
Hours 


0-1104 


0-1080 


00100 


97-82 


0-4-0-2 


3-3-3 


18 


2 


0-1104 


0-1080 


0-0250 


97-82 


0-4-0-3 


3-3-8 


18 


3 


0-1104 


0-0964 


0-1000 


87-32 


0-4-0-3 


3-3-8 


18 


4 


0-1104 


0-1086 


00100 


98-37 


0-2-0-lG 


3-31 


18 


5 


0-1104 


01070 


0-0250 


9C-92 


0-2-0-3 


3-3-3 


18 


6 


01104 


0-1045 


0-1000 


94-65 


0-2-0-3 


3-3-4 


18 



Not more than O'l mgr. of iron -was left in the solution as determined 
colorimetrically with sulphocyanide ; the remainder must therefore have 
been carried down by the manganese peroxide ; it was detected qualita- 
tively in each case in the precipitate, but no quantitative estimations were 
made. 

Direct experiments on the electrolysis of solutions of manganese 
chloride, to which 5 gr. of ammonium oxalate were added, and in which 
variations both of current and of electromotive force were tried, showed 
that it is not possible to electrolyse such solutions, under conditions per- 
mitting the deposition of iron, without the separation of manganese per- 
oxide. The separation is eflPected the more rapidly the greater the propor- 
tion of manganese present and the higher the current density and the elec- 
tromotive force. With only G-Ql gr. of manganese in solution, an E.M.F. 
of 3 volts, and C.D.ioo = 0"2 ampere, the precipitation of hydrate occurred 
after four hours' electrolysis in the cold solution, and in eighteen hours, 
the time required for an electrolytic determination of iron, with only 
0-002 gr. of manganese, anE M.F. of 1-35 volts, and CD. , on = 0-1 ampere, 
the hydrate also separated. With the view of delaying this separation of 
the manganese a series of experiments were tried in which a small 
quantity of hydroxylamine sulphate was added to the solution to be 
electrolysed. It has been shown that this reagent acts favourably in 
preventing the separation of stannic acid in the electrolysis of tin salts in 
ammonium oxalate solution,^ and it might, therefore, have a similar 
favourable effect in the case of manganese. 

To a small extent this is the case; the addition of 1 gr. of hydroxyl- 
amine sulphate, under conditions similar to those recorded in Series II. 
of our experiments, considerably delays the separation of the hydrated 
peroxide. But the deposition of iron is also delayed, and attempts to 
separate the two metals with this addition gave results similar to those 
of Series VI. The separated peroxide contained iron, and the deposited 
metal was from 3 to 16 per cent, too low ; in addition, the iron deposit 
was uneven and showed a tendency to scale off. 

We therefore conclude that the quantitative separation of iron and 
manganese in ammonium oxalate solution cannot be effected. Further, 
the influence of small proportions of manganese ou the electrolytic deposi- 
tion of iron, referred to above, is a factor that detracts very considerably 
from the analytical value of the electrolytic method for the determina- 
tion of the latter. 

On the other hand, very small proportions of manganese can be sepa* 



' Tliirfl npro''f> 1896. 



0\ THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUAXTTTATTVE ANALYSIS. 185 

rated qualitatively from iron or other metals, which are deposited at the 
cathode in the electrolysis of their solutions, with greater certainty than 
by the ordinary analytical methods. 

C. The Electrolytic Determination of Iron in Urine and other Animal Products. 
Bij Charles A. Kohn, M.!Sc., Ph.D., and G. C. Clat'xon, Ph.D. 

Iron is the only heavy metal present in the body, and the part it plays 
in animal metabolism is of special interest. The varied conditions of its 
combinations can as yet only be approached by histochemical reactions ; 
for its total and quantitative determination the ordinary volumetric, 
gravimetric, or colorimetric methods have been applied. As the 
quantities present in certain organs and excreta are extremely small, 
special importance attaches to the methods adopted for their estimation. 
The usual method of procedure is to dry and ignite the product to 
be tested, extract the residue with acid, and determine the iron in 
the resulting solution. In the case of urine, for instance, a day's 
discharge (about 1,500 c.c.) is evaporated and ignited until the 
residual ash is quite white, then dissolved in sulphuric acid and titrated 
with a dilute permanganate solution, after reduction with sulphurous 
acid (Hamburger •) or with zinc (Damaskin,-' JoUes ^). Gottlieb and 
Ludwig '^ employed a gravimetric method in which the iron is precipi- 
tated as Prussian blue in presence of a 1 per cent, zinc chloride solution, 
the precipitate subsequently decomposed by alkali, and the resulting ferric 
hydrate weighed after separation from the zinc by repeated precipitation 
with_ ammonium hydrate. More recently Jolles has recommended the 
gravimetric determination of iron in urine by precipitation with nitroso- 
fi naphthol.-' The great variations obtained by the adoption of these 
methods are shown in the following data as to the quantity of iron present 
in a day's discharge of normal urine : — 



Hamburger 

Gottlieb and Ludwi'c 

Lieber and Mohr . 

Damaskin 

Jolles 

Kumberg- 



7-C to 14o mgr. per 24 hours. 

l-.o9 to 3-60 

0-S to 1-7 

0-5 to 1-5 

4-6 to 9-1 

0-47 to 1-15 



The values found by Damaskin, Lieber and Mohr, and Kumberg are 
usually regarded as the most correct, and 1 mgr. iron per diem in normal 
urine is looked upon as the average amount.'' 

Two sources of error beset these methods of analysis. In the first 
place, the very large quantity of iiaineral salts, especially chlorides and 
phosphates, left after ignition has a disturbing influence on the titration 
with permanganate, especially with such small proportions of iron as 
1 mgr. in the total solution ; secondly, it is impossible to completely 
remove the organic matter in the ignition, and its presence in solution 
affects the titration to a marked extent. These errors, which are of 
necessity irregular in character, are still more serious when gi-avimetric 



o"- 



' Robert, Pharmah. Miftnl. ,1891, 7, 40. 

- Arbeifmd. pharmalwlog. Inst., Dorpat, 1871, and i^eits. ayial. CJiem., 1892, 31, 
481. 

^ Zcits. anal. Chen., 1897, 36, 149. ' Arclih-f. e.rpt. Pathdogle. 1889, 27, 139. 
■■' Luc. fit. '■> stockman, Prit. Med. .Joimi., 1893. 



186 



REPOKT — 1900. 



methods are adopted, whilst they make colorimetric methods altogether 
unreliable. 

The electrolytic determination of iron presents the important advan- 
tage over the above by not being afi'ected by these adverse conditions, 
and our results justify the conclusion that it is reliable and accurate. 
The presence of phosphoric acid does not interfere with the determination. 
Any organic matter present in the solution of the ash can be completely 
removed by a preliminary electrolysis in presence of sulphuric acid. This 
was proved in a series of experiments in which the attempt was made to 
effect the deposition of the metal directly in urine without concentration 
and ignition of the resulting ash. In order to overcome the frothing due 
to the decomposition of the urea in the urine, during the electrolysis, the 
latter was first decomposed with nitrous acid, the details of the method of 
determination being as follows : 100 c.c. of urine are treated in a flask with 
12 c.c. of sulphuric acid (1:5) and T) gr. of sodium nitrite, and gently 
warmed. After the decomposition is complete 5 c.c. of sulphuric acid 
(cone.) are added, the solution boiled to complete the decomposition of 
the urea, and electrolysed overnight with a C.D.ioq=1"0 ampere. The 
urine is completely decolorised by the current, a crystal clear solution 
resulting, whilst a deposit of carbon quite free from iron takes place on 
the cathode. The solution is then neutralised with ammonium hydrate, 
oxalic acid added to acid reaction, then 5 gr. of ammonium oxalate, and 
boiled. The precipitated calcium oxalate, which does not retain any of 
the iron, is filtered off, washed, and the filtrate electrolysed either atGO^C. 
with a CD., no = 1-0 to 1*5 ampere, or, better, overnight, cold, with a 
CD. 1110 of O'o ampere and 3-0-4-0 volts. It is important not to de- 
crease the proportion of oxalate, or magnesium carbonate may be 
formed on the cathode ; it is easily soluble in ammonium oxalate. A 
platinum spiral of 1 to 5 gr. weight, according to the cjuantity of iron 
present, is used as the cathode, and a platinum dish of about 200 c.c. 
capacity as the anode. The deposited metal, which is quite bright and 
metallic in appearance, after being washed, dried, and weighed, can be 
dissolved off, and the spiral re-weighed as a check on the determination, 
whilst confirmatory qualitative tests can, of course, be made with the 
resulting solution. In the following experiments known weights 
of iron were added to 100 c.c. of normal mine. (The quantity of metal 
present in the urine is negligible, less than 0-1 mgr.) A blank experi- 
ment was first made, with all the reagents employed in the method as de- 
scribed, to determine the contained iron and to make allowance for the 
carbon deposited ; the total amounted to 0-2 mgr., which was deducted in 
all cases. 



Iron taken. 


Iron found. 


Iron taken. 


Iron found 


gr. 
00151 


gi-- 
0-0152 


gi-- 
0030 


gr. 
0-0027 


0-0101 


00100 


0020 


0-0015 


0-0050 


0-0051 


0-0010 


00008 



The results show that 1 mgr. of iron per 100 c.c. of urine can be very 
satisfactorily estimated by this method ; but this amount is far in excess 
of that ever found in normal urine or likely to be present, even under 
pathogenic conditions. In both cases at least 1,000 to 1,500 c.c. should be 
used for a determination, and this when concentrated to, say, 200 c.c, is 
so highly charged with organic matter that even when electrolysed for 



0\ THE ELECTROLYTIC METHODS OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 187 

forty-eight hours in presence of sulphuric or nitric acid the decolorisa- 
tion is incomplete. This direct method of determination is therefore 
inapplicable. The results are recorded to prove that the salts and 
organic matter are practically without influence on the deposition of 
the iron. The only alternative, therefore, is to evaporate to dryness, 
ignite, best after a preliminary drying at 180° C, and then proceed as 
above, omitting, of course, the decomposition with nitrous acid. Thus 
modified the method loses much of its absolute, but none of its relati\e 
value. A mixture of equal volumes of sulphuric acid (1:2) and hydro- 
chloric acid (cone.) is best for the extraction ; the solution is then con- 
centrated to remove hydrochloric acid, and electrolysed to destroy all 
traces of organic matter ; it is then ready for treatment with ammonium 
oxalate and the final electrolysis as described. 

The following results with normal urine were obtained by this 
method : — 

Volume of urine taken. Iron found. 

c.c. m. e;r. 

.3,750 l-l) 

1,320 l-l 

1.020 0-9 

i.eoo 0-9 

Taking a day's discharge at 1,500 c.c, the average amount of iron per 
diem in the above experiments is 091 mgr., a value v/^hich confirms the 
most reliable of the results given above. 

In all cases in which the determination of very small quantities of 
iron in organic products is concerned, the exceptional delicacy of the 
electrolytic method, its freedom from the sources of error that arise with 
other methods on account of the inherent presence of salts and of organic 
matter, and, finally, the ready check on the nature and amount of the 
deposited metal, render it capable of giving reliable and comparable 
results under all conditions. We have made use of it, with advantage, 
not only in the analysis of urine, but also in the determination of iron 
in liver, spleen, and fjeces, both under normal and pathogenic conditions. 



The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Secretarij), Lord Avebury, Professor W. E. 
Dunstan, Mr. George Gladstone, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir 
H. E. EoscoE, Professor A. Smithells, and Professor S. P. 
Thompson. 

It has been the custom of your Committee to give some comparative 
tables derived from the return of the Education Department showing the 
relative attention given to the teaching of scientific subjects in elementary 
schools for a period of years. By these it has been shown that for the 
eight years prior to 1890, during which time English Grammar was an 
obligatory subject provided any class subject was taken in the school, and 
as the Code allowed only two class subjects to be taken for the purpose of 
a grant, it was only in those schools where two of these were taken th^t 



188 



REPORT — 1900. 



science teaching could be given throughout the standards. But the effect 
of this was that as the other recognised class subjects were History, 
Geography, and Elementary Science, and of these Geography was by far the 
most popular amongst the teachers, while English History was adopted in 
most other cases, Elementary Science scarcely received any attention at all. 
It should be borne in mind, moreover, that up to that date Geography itself 
was but little taught from a scientific standpoint, the details of topography 
occupying the pupils' time almost to the exclusion of the study of the physics 
of our globe. In the year 1889-90 the number of school departments in 
which English Grammar was taken amounted to no less than 20,304, 
while Elementary Science was taught in only 32. Since that year a free 
choice of subjects has been allowed, and the wide discrepancy between 
these figui'es has been regularly reduced year by year ; in 1890-91 
English dropped to 19,825, while Elementary Science rose to 173 ; and 
the table below will show the change that has been going forward since 
that date. It will be observed that Object Lessons were introduced in 
1895, and these were made obligatory in the three lower standards on 
and after September 1, 1896. In the report presented by this Committee 
last year it was pointed out that the distinction between Object Lessons 
and Elementary Science was one of nomenclature rather than anything 
else, and now in the Government return for 1898-99 the distinction in 
name has been abolished, and all are included under the term Elementary 
Science. 



Class Subjects — De- 
partments 



English . 
Geography . 
Elementarj'- Science 
Object Lessons 



1891-92' 1892-931 1893-94 1894-95 



18,175 \ 
13,485 

788 



17,894 

14,256 

],073 



17,032 ! 
15,250 j 
1,215: 1,715 



16,280 
15,702 



1895-9611896-97 



15,327 14,286 

16,171 ! 16,646 

2,237 ; 2,617 

1,079, 8,321 



1897-98 1898-99 



13,456 1 13,194 
17,049 ' 17,872 
2 143 
2l',8S2,|^''^°^ 



The number of departments in ' schools for older scholars ' for the year 
1898-99 was 23,191, all but two of which took one or more class subjects. 
But Histoi-y was taken in 5,879 departments, and needlework (as a class 
subject for girls) in 6,952 departments, and sundry minor subjects in 
1,034, making, with the other three subjects of the table, a total of 66,232. 
This shows an average of nearly three class subjects to each department ; 
but it must be borne in mind that the same subject is not always taken 
in all the standards, in which case three or more class subjects will appear 
in the return for a single department. That there has been less splitting up 
of the subjects between the upper and lower standards is apparent ; and 
also that such a subject as Geography must, in some cases, have been 
taught by means of object lessons, as otherwise it would have been found 
by this time that the figure for object lessons had equalled the number of 
departments, whereas the 21,301 is actually considerably less than that 
for the previous year. It can hardly be assumed that under the regula- 
tions of the Code there was any actual diminution of such teaching. 

It has been previously remarked that 'the increased teaching of 
scientific specific subjects in the higher standards is the natural conse- 
quence of the greater attention paid to natural science in the lower part 
of the schools,' The following table sho-\YS that such is the actual 
result : — 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 189 



Specifi'^ Subjects : 
ChildreQ 


1891-92 
28,542 


1892-93 


1893-94 
33,612 


1894-95 


1895-96 


1896-97 


1897-98 


1898-99 


Algebra . 


31,487 


38,237 


41,846 


47,225 


53,081 


111,486 


Euclid . 


927 


1,279 


1,399 


1,468 


1,584 


2,059 


2,471 


5,932 


Mensuration . 


2,802 


3,762 


4,018 


5,614 


6,859 


8,619 


10,828 


24,848 


Mechanics 


18,000 


20,023 


21.532 


23,806 


24,956 


26,110 


27,009 


50,324 


Animal Physio- 


13,622 


14,060 


15,271 


17,003 


18,284 


19,989 


22,877 


41.244 


logy 


















Botany . 


1,845 


1,968 


2,052 


2 483 


2,996 


3,377 


4.031 


8,833 


Principles of 


1.085 


009 


1,231 


1,196 


1,059 


825 


870 


1,163 


Agriculture 


















Chemistry 


1,935 


2,387 


3,043 


3,850 


4,822 


5.545 


6,978 


14,737 


Sound, Light, 


1,163 


1,168 


1,175 


914 


937 


1,040 


1,155 


1,943 


and Heat 


















Magnetism Sc 


2,338 


2,181 


3,040 


3,198 


3,168 


3,431 


3,905 


7,697 


Electricity 


















Domestic Eco- 


26,447 


29,210 


32,922 


36,239 


89,794 


45,869 


51,259 


95,171 


nomy 

Total . 












164,089 






98,706 


108,434 


119,295 


134,008 


146,305 


184,464 


363,378 



It will be observed, however, that there is a very remarkable increase 
ill the figures for 1898-99, and that this applies to every one of the 
specific subjects. Strictly speaking, the return for this year is not 
comparable with those for the previous years, as they represented the 
number of children who were presented for examination in these several 
subjects, whereas the return for this last year represents the number of 
scholars qualified for grants. In order to be so qualified in each subject, 
not less than twenty hours' instruction must have been received by each 
scholar, but calculating from the standard unit for estimating the grant, 
it would appear that the amount of time given during the year to such 
instruction was actually about fifty-two hours. The mean number of 
scholars in Standard V. and upwards was 710,157, which would give 
50' 7 per cent, as the proportion of scholars qualified for grant as compared 
with the possible number of students ; but it must be remembered that 
nearly one-third of them take two subjects, and are therefore counted 
twice over. Though, as indicated above, too much stress must not be 
laid upon these increased figures, it is quite evident that the abolition of 
individual examination in the specific subjects has been received with 
favour by school managers and teachers, with the result that much more 
attention is devoted to this branch of instruction, and, it is to be hoped, 
with much less cramming. 

The Code which has been introduced this year will further carry out 
this principle by substituting one block grant for all the elementary, class, 
and specific subjects, so as to avoid the temptation to study wliat would 
liring in the most grant rather than what is most adapted to the circum- 
stances of the individual school. At the same time, the Code requires 
that ' lessons, including object lessons, on Geography, History, and Common 
Things be taken as a rule in all schools,' and that one or more of the 
subjects of instruction hitherto known as ' specific subjects ' is to be taken 
' when the circumstances of the school, in the opinion of the Inspector, 
make it desirable.' 

For the guidance of teachers in preparing their course of study, the 
Board of Education (which now takes the place of the Education 
Department) ha^-e issued a number of specimen schemes adapted for 



190 REPORT— 1900. 

schools of different sizes and circumstances ; and in the explanatory 
memorandum one of their objects is declared to be ' to make the course 
of instruction in all schools more comprehensive, so as to give all scholars 
the rudiments of general information, while enabling the details of the 
instruction to be adapted to the special needs of various kinds of schools.' 
It is added that in all schools both boys and girls ' should learn something 
of their own country, and be taught to observe and to acquire for them- 
selves some knowledge of the facts of nature. ... In country schools 
lessons on the objects and work of country life are valuable that would 
be inappropriate in town schools, while in the latter the instruction given 
in lessons on Common Things and in Elementary Science should be varied 
with reference to the probable future occupations of the children. . . . The 
introduction of a wider and more generally interesting course of instruc- 
tion will, it is hoped, be a welcome relief from the continued repetition 
of the restricted course of lessons, which has a tendency to become lifeless 
and wearisome.' As an illustration may be quoted Scheme 5, for a boys' 
school in a seaside town, in which the course for ' Elementally Science and 
Common Things ' is thus set out : — ' Class V. to III. : A course of lessons 
on marine animals and plants, on local rocks, pebbles, «fec. ; various sorts 
of boats, ships, &c. ; lighthouses and lightships ; the local tides ; flags of 
different nations, &c. Class II. : The magnet and compass ; practical 
methods of finding the cardinal points ; apparent movements of sun and 
moon ; measurement of sun's altitude by shadows. Class I. : Practical 
measurements of areas and volumes ; lever ; pulley ; inclined plane ; 
practical examples of parallelogram of forces and parallelogram of velo- 
cities ; the chief constellations and the apparent movements of heavenly 
bodies.' 

Since the issue of the Code for this year the Board of Education have 
issued a minute establishing Higher Elementary schools. Higher-grade 
schools, as they have usually been called, have grown up in all the large 
industrial centres during the last twenty years or so, with the approval of 
the Education Department, though questions have been raised as to the 
right of School Boards to carry them on. All such doubts would Ije set 
aside by working under the minute, which provides for a four-year course, 
connnencing at a point equivalent to Standard V., and contemplating a 
continuance of study up to fifteen yeai's of age. No definite scheme of 
instruction is laid down in the minute, as that is to be regulated by ' the 
circumstances of the scholars and the neighbourhood,' and the grants will 
be assessed at the higher or lower scale according to ' the thoroughness 
and intelligence with which the instruction is given, the sufficiency and 
suitability of the staff, the discipline and organisation.' Though there are 
some inconvenient restrictions which it may be found necessary to modify, 
the effect of this minute should be in the direction advocated by your 
Committee. 

This, however, will depend absolutely upon the will of the Managers 
and the consent of the Board of Education, as the minute only provides 
that ' the Managers of any school who desire such school to be recognised 
as a Higher Elementary School must submit for the approval of the 
Board before July 1 in any year proposals for a curriculum and time table, 
and supply such other information as may be required by the Board.' In 
contrast to this may be quoted the provisions of the Scotch Code for 
Higher Grade Schools, which include the following : — ' Such schools or 
departments may give an education which is either predominantly 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 191 

scientific and technical — Higher Grade (Science) Schools — or predominantly 
commercial — Higher Grade (Commercial) Schools, or they may give a course 
which is recognised by the Department as specially suited to girls or to 
special classes of pupils. In all cases the Department must be satisfied 
that the school possesses the proper provision of class rooms, laboratories, 
and workshops necessary for the pai'ticular type of education to be given 
therein. . . . Pupils following the Higher Grade Science course must 
take in addition the following subjects : Mathematics, Experimental 
Science, and as a rule some form of Manual Work. . . . In the second year 
of the Higher Grade Science course not less than eight, and in the third 
year not less than ten, hours a week must, as a rule, be allotted to Science, 
and at least half of this time must be spent by the pupils in individual 
experimental work. For the purjDose of this article three hours of 
Drawing or of Manual Instruction, or of both conjointly, will be reckoned 
as equivalent to two hours of Science. In the third and following years 
Manual Instruction may be dropped, and the pupil should devote himself 
to the study of some special branch of Science.' In Appendix V. it is 
further stated : ' The course in Science should proceed from elementary 
exercises in measuring and weighing, and calculations based thereon, to 
the experimental investigation of elementary notions of Physics and 
Chemistry. In rural schools, and in summer, some investigation of plant 
life and of the elements of Botany should be added. At least half the 
time devoted to this subject should be spent by each pupil in practical 
work. . . . The Department must be satisfied that the teachers have a 
competent knowledge of the subjects which they are to teach in each 
subject individually, and in the case of Science that they have had 
experience in treating the subject experimentally.' 

In the Reports for 1897 and 1898 your Committee referred to the 
improvements which were being effected in the teaching of Science in the 
London Board Schools, and to Professor Fitzgerald's advocacy of the 
extension of the same system to Ireland. The Commission on Practical 
and Manual Instruction, of which he was a membei', reported strongly in 
favour of such work, and decided that similar instruction should be given 
in schools under the National Board of Education. To this end Mr. Heller 
(whose transference from London to Birmingham has been already noted) 
has been appointed Organiser of Science Instruction in Irish Schools, and 
will take up his new duties as soon as he can be released from the Head- 
mastership of the Municipal Technical School of Birmingham. The 
syllabuses of specific subjects in the Irish Code are similar to those in the 
English Code of regulations. For the present a scheme corresponding to 
Course H of the English Code has been introduced in a slightly modified 
form, and notes have been added indicating the spirit in which the 
instruction should be given. A training laboratory is being equipped in 
Dublin at which selected teachers will be taken through a course of 
instruction in heuristic methods, and where they will receive the benefit 
of the experience gained in the London schools. The training colleges 
not under the control of the National Board are also understood to be 
sympathetic, so that there is very good prospect that the Science teaching 
in National Schools in Ireland will be energetically developed. 

The advance which was noted last year in the work of the Evening 
Continuation Schools does not seem to have been maintained, as will be 
evident from the following table. Nearly all the subjects show a falling 
off", except Elementary Physics and Chemistry, Domestic Science and 



192 



REPORT — 1900. 



Navigation, which give an increase ; and Horticulture and Ambulance, 
which are practically stationary. 





Number of Scholars 


Science Subjects 
















1896-97 


1897-98 


1898-99 


Euclid .... ... 


1,036 


1,525 


1,216 


Algebra 




7,467 


9,996 


7,432 


Mensuration ..... 




; 27,388 


29,966 


24,369 


Elementary Physiography 




3,712 


4,807 


4,213 


Elementary Physics and Chemistry 




3,135 


2,903 


3,116 


Domestic Science .... 




— 


117 


142 


Science of Common Things . 




10,910 


l.S,874 


11,499 


Chemistry ..... 




i 5,658 


6,590 


5,963 


Mechanics 




1 1,365 


1,129 


987 


Sound, Light, and Heat . 




726 


813 


437 


Magnetism and Electricity . 




1 3,834 


3,967 


3,005 


Human Physiology 




5,865 


6,237 


4,296 


Hygiene 




3,179 


4,062 


3,276 


Botany 




692 


763 


597 


Agriculture 




2,355 


2,300 


1,826 


Horticulture ..... 




1,001 


1,354 


1,350 


Navigation 




68 


37 


46 


Ambulance 




9,086 


13,030 


12,980 


Domestic Economy 




19,565 
107,042 


23,271 


19,915 


Totals 




126,740 


106,665 



In the last Report 



which was being given by the School 



reference was made to the increased attention 
Board for London to the teaching 
of ExjDerimental Science in their schools, and to the preparation of a 
properly qualified staff of teachers for that work. In this they have had 
the advantage of the advice of Dr. C. W. Kiramins. The supply of suitable 
accommodation and apj^liances for cai'rying this out has also been seen to, 
so that the Board have at the present time more or less complete provision 
for the experimental teaching of science in 79 of their schools : of these 
11 are pupil-teacher centres, 37 are classed as higher-gi'ade schools, and 
31 as ordinai'y schools. In some cases there are both chemical and 
physical laboratories, with lecture rooms furnished with demonstration 
tables, with gas and water laid on ; in others there is only one laboratory 
specially fitted for Chemistry, but which can also be made available for 
the teaching of Physics. 

In the Act of Parliament creating the Board of Education it was 
provided that a Consultative Committee should be established, two-thirds 
of the members of wliich should consist of ' persons qualified to repi'esent 
the views of Universities and other bodies interested in Education ; ' and 
it will be noted with satisfaction that one of the members of your 
Committee — Professor Henry E. Armstrong — has been nominated to that 
office. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 19o 



On Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compomids. 
— Report of the Committee^ consisting o/Sir H. E. ROSCOE (Chair- 
man), Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Pro- 
fessor J. Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schustek, 
Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott GiBiiS, and Captain 
Abney. 



Index to the Tables of Wave-lengths in the Reports of the 
British Association from 1884 to 1900. 

Abbreviations : Sp. = Spark Spectrum ; A. = Arc Spectrum ; Ab. ~ Absorption Spec- 
trum ; Fl. = Flame Spectrum ; Bd. = Band Spectrum ; L. - Line Spectrum ; CI. = 
Compound-line Spectrum; Y. = Vacuum-lube Spectrum; P. = Phosphorescent 
Spectrum. 



Air, Sp., 1884. p. 352 ; 1893, p. 387. 

Ab., 1886, p. 171. 
Alumina, Sp., 1885, p. 310 ; 1892, p. 237. 
Aluminium, Fl., 1895, p. 334. 
Sp., 1884, p. 35G. 
A., 1884, p. 356; 1893. p. 401. 
Ammonia, FL, 1885, p. 310 ; 1893, p. 408. 
Antimon}', FL, 1895, p. 324. 
Sp., 1884, p. 357. 
A., 1884, p. 357; 1894, p. 265. 
Argon, v., 1896, p. 273. 
Arsenic, Fl., 1895, p. 322. 
Sp., 1884, p. 360. 
A., 1894, p. 264. 



Barium, Sp., 1884, p. 362. 

A., 1884, p. 362 ; 1892, p. 206. 
Barium Chloride, FL, 1885, p. 311 ; 1894, 
p. 259. 
Bromide, FL, 1885, p. 311. 
Iodide, F'L, 1885, p. 311. 
Oxide, FL, 1885, p. 312; 1894, 
p. 259; 1895, p. 321. 
Beryllium, Sp.. 1883, p. 129; 1884, p. 364. 

A., 1884, p. 364. 
Bismuth, Fl., 1895, p. 325. 
Sp., 1884, p. 364. 
A., 1894, p. 266. 
Bismuth Chloride, Sp., 1885, p. 312. 

O.^ide, Sp., 1885, p. 312. 
Boron, Sp., 1880, p. 274; 1884, p. 367; 

1894. p. 260. 
Boron Oxide, Fl., 1885, p. 313. 
Bromine. L., 1880, p. 270 ; 1884, p. 367 ; 
1900, p. 195. 
Ab., 1886, p. 180 ; 1892, p. 211. 



Cadmium, Sp., 1884, p. 368 ; 1895, p. 297. 

A., 1892, p. 201. 
CEesium, Fl., 1884, p. 371. 
Sp., 1884, p. 371. 
A., 1884, p, 371 ; 1892, p. 196. 
1900. 



Calcium, Sp., 1884, p. 371. 

A., 1884, p. 371; 1892, p. 198. 
Calcium Chloride, FL, 1885, p. 313 ; 1894, 
p. 257. 
Bromide, FL, 1885, p. 313. 
Fluoride, FL, 1885, p. 813 ; 1895, 

p. 320. 
Iodide. I'L, 1885, p. 314. 
Oxide, F'l., 1885, p. 314 ; 1894, 
p. 257; 1895, p. 322. 
Carbon, Bd., 1880, p. 265 ; 1883, p. 129 ; 
1884, p. 374 ; 1893, p. 412. 
L., 1880, p. 265; 1884, p. 374; 
1893, p. 406. 
Carbon Hydride, FL, 1885, p. 316 ; 1895, 
p. 317. 
Oxide, 1880, p. 269 ; 1895, p. 314 ; 

1895, p. 319. 
Nitride, FL, 1880, p. 268; 1885, 
p. 316. 

A., 1893, p. 418. 
Cerium, Sp., 1884, p. 378. 
Chlorine, Sp., 1880, p. 269 ; 1884, p. 378. 

Y., 1899, p. 257. 
Chromium, FL, 1895, p. 3.34. 
Sp., 1884, p. 380. 
A., 1894, p. 248. 
Chromium Chloride, Sp., 1885, p. .US. 
Cobalt, FL, 1895, p. 333. 

Sp.. 1884, p. 382; 1890, p. 225 ; 

1897, p. 75. 
A., 1884. p. 382; 1890, p. 225; 
1897, p. 75. 
Copper, FL, 1895, p. 335. 

Sp., 1884, p. 384 ; 1896, p. 308. 
A., 1884, p. 384 ; 1893, p. 392. 
Copper Chloride, FL. 1885, p. 318. 
Bromide, ¥U 1885, p. 319. 
Iodide, FL, 1885, p. 319. 
Oxide. FL, 1885, p. 319; 1885 
p. 334. 

DiDYMIUM. Sp.. 1884, p. oHij. 

Didymium Chloride. Ab., 1880, p. 181. 





194 



liEPORT— 1900. 



Erbium, Sp., 1884, p. 388. 
Erbium Oxide, FI., 1885, 319. 

P., 1886, p. 186. 
Chloride, Ab., 1886, p. 181. 

Fluorine, FI., lS80,p.272; 1884, p. 388. 
Sp., 1884, p. 388. 

Gallium, Sp., 1884, p. 388. 
A., 1884, p. 388. 
Gold, Sp., 1884, p. 389; 1896, p. 328, 

A., 1893, p. 400. 
Gold Chloride, FI., 1885, p. 320. 



HYDROGIiN, L., 1884, p. 389. 

CI., 1881, p. 890; 1886, p. 
187. 



Indium, Sp., 1884, p. 392. 

A., 1884, p. 392 ; 189:!, p. 402. 
Iodine, Sp., 1880, p. 271 ; 1884, p. 393. 
Ab., 1886, p. 182 ; 1890, p. 234. 
Iodine Chloride, Ab., 1886, p. 183. 
Iridium, Sp., 1.SS4, p. 394. 
A., 1884, p. 394. 
Iron, FL, 1895, p. 330. 

Sp., 1884, p. 395; 1898, p. 313. 
A., 1884, p. 395; 1891, p. 161. 
Iron Cxide, Sp., 1885, p. 320. 



Lanthanum, Sp., 1884, p. 415. 
Lead, FL, 1895, p. 326. 
Sp., 1884, p. 417. 
A., 1884, p. 417; 1894, p. 262. 
Lead Oxide, Sp., 1885, p. 321. 
Lithium, FL, 1894, p. 256; 1895, p. 319. 
Sp., 1884, p. 420. 
A., 1884, p. 420 ; 1892, p. 193. 



Magnesium, FL, 1884, p. 420. 
Sp., 1884, p. 420. 

A.,1884,p.420;1892,p.l97. 
Magnesium Hydride, 1885, p. 321. 

O.xide, 1885, p. 321 ; 1895, p. 
821. 
Manganese, FL, 1895, p. 335. 
Sp., 1884, p. 422. 
A., 1884, p. 422. 
Manganese Oxide, 1885, p. 322 ; 1895, p. 

337 
Mercury, Sp., 1884, p. 424 ; 1895, p. 300. 
A., 1892, p. 209; 1895, p. 300. 
Bd., 1895, p. 312. 
Molybdenum, Sp., 1884, p. 426. 

A., 1884, p. 426; 1899. p. 261. 



Nickel, FL, 1895, p. 33± 

Sp., 1884, p. 427; 1890, p. 230 

1897, p. 108. 
A.. 1884, p. 427; 1890, p. 230 
1897, p. 108. 
Nitrogen, L., 1880, p. 259 ; 1884, p. 428 
1893, p. 405. 
Bd., 1880, p. 260; 1884, p. 430 
1886, p. 188. 
Nitrogen Oxide, Ab., 1886, p. 183. 

Osmium, Sp., 18.s4, p. 431. 

Cxygen, L., 1880, p. 262 ; 1884, p. 132. 

CL, 1880, p. 263 ; 1884, p. 432. 

Ab., 1891, p. 245. 



Palladium, Sp., 188J, p. 434. 
PhosjDhorus, L., 1884, p. 434. 

Bd., 1880, p. 274; 1884, p. 431. 
Phosphorus Oxide, FL, 1895, p. 322. 
Platinum, Sp., 1884, p. 436 ; 1898, p. 411. 

A., 1898. p. 411. 
Pota.ssium, FL, 1884, p. 436 ; 1894, p. 256; 
1895, p. 320. 
Sp., 1884, p. 436 ; 1895, p. 295. 
A., 1884, p. 436; 1892, p. 194. 
Potassium Permanganate, Ab., 1886, 
p. 186. 



Rowland's Standard Wave-lengths, 1895, 

p. 273. 
Rubidium, FL, 1884, p. 438. 
Sp., 1884, p. 438 
A., 1884, p. 438 ; 1892, p. 195, 
Ruthenium, Sp., 1884, p. 438. 
A., 1884, p. 438. 



Samarium, Sp., 1884, p. 438. 
Samarium Oxide, P., 1886, p. 186. 
Scandium, Sp., 1884, p. 439.' 
Selenium, FL, 1880, p. 272 : 1895, p. 323. 
L., 1884, p. 440. 
Bd., 1880, p. 272 ; 1884, p. 440. 
Silicon, Sp., 1880, p. 274 ; 1883. p. 129 ; 
1884. p. 441 ; 1893, p. 407. 
A., 1884, p. 441. 
Silicon Chloride, V., 1886, p. 167. 
Bromide, V., 1886, p. 167. 
Fluoride, V., 1886, p. 167. 
Hydride, V., 1886, p. 167. 
Iodide, v., 1886, p. 168. 
Silver, FL, 1895, p. 328. 

Sp., 1884, p. 442 ; 1896, p. 318. 
A., 1884, p. 442 ; 1893, p. 398. 
Sodium, FL, 1894, p. 256; 1895, p. 320. 
Sp., 1884, p. 443 ; 1895. p. 295. 
A., 1884, p. 443 ; 1892, p. 193. 
Strontium, Bp., 1884, p. 444. 

A.. 1884, p. 444: 1892, p. 202. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE! SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 195 



Strontium Chloride, 1S6G, p. 168; 1894, 
p. 258. 
Bromide, 18G6,p. 168. 
Fluoride, ISGG, p. 168. 
Iodide, 186G, p. 168. 
Oxide, VL, 1866, p. 169 ; 1891, 
p. 258; 1895, p. 321. 
Sulphur, L., 1880, p. 272 ; 1885, p. 290. 
Ed., 1880, p. 272 ; 1885, p. 290. 



Tantalum, A., 1885, p. 292. 
Tellurium, L., 1880, p. 273 ; 1S8.J, p. 292. 
Bd., 1885, p. 292. 
FL, 1895, p. 323. 
I'urbium, Sp., 1885, p. 29G. 
Thallium, FL, 1885, p. 297. 
Sp., 1885, p. 297. 
A., 1883, p. 297; 1893, p. 103. 
Thorium, Sp. 1885, p. 298. 
Thulium, Sp., 1885, p. 298. 
Tin, FL, 1895, p. 327. 
Sp., 1885, p. 299. 
A., 1885, p. 299. 
Tin Oxide, 186G, p. 169. 



Titanium, Sp., 1885, p. 301. 

A,, 188.5, p. 301; 1896, p. 293. 
Tungsten, Sp., 1885, p. 301 ; 1898, p. 355. 



Ueanium Sp., 1885, p. 301 ; 1900, p. 201. 

Vanadium, Sp., 1885, p. 301. 

Water, A., 1866, p. 169. 

Ab., 1886, p. 171 ; 1891, p 245. 

Ytterbium, Sp., 1885. p. 305. 
Yttrium, Sp., 1885, p. 306. 
A., 1885, p. 306. 
Yttrium Oxide, P., 1886, p. 186. 



Zinc, Sp., 1885, p. 307. 

A., 1885, p. 307 ; 1892, p. 207. 
Zirconium, Sp., 1885, p. 309, 
A., 1885, p. 309. 



275. 



The Solar Spectrum, 1878, p. 37; 1895, p. 273. 

Telluric Lines of the Solar Spectrum, 1886, p. 171 ; 1891, p. 215. 

Bibliography of Spectroscopy, 1881, p. 328; 1884, p. 295; 1894, p. 161; 1898, 

p. 139. 
Spectra of Metalloids, 1880, p. 258. 

On the Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Spectra, 1880, p. 
Absorption Spectra of Pays of High Ilefrangibility, 1880, p. 30;i. 
General Methods of Observing and Mapping Spectra, 1881, p. 317. 
Genesis of Spectra. 1882, p. 120. 
Ultra Violet .Spark Spectra, 1882, p. 143; 1883, p. 127 ; 1885, p. 276. 

Bromine (Vacuum-tube). 

Eder and Valenta, ' Denkschr. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' Bd. Ixviii. 1899. 



Wave-length 

(Rowland) 



6682-83 
3202 

6582-52 
60-17 
4500 

635307 
51-02 

6204 36 

6178-72 
70-09 
59-60 
49-95 
42-02 
23-49 
18-89 

609705 



1 


Previous Measurements 


Reduction to 




Intensity 

and 
Character 


(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Salet 


Pliicker and 
Hittorf 


A + 


1 
X~ 

4-0 


2 


6990 


6862 


1-81 


14959-7 


5 


6631 


G622 


1-80 


4-1 


15074-3 


1 


6581 


6577 


1-79 


)l 


187-6 


4 


6556 


6556 


1-78 


J) 


239-4 


1 

3 






., 


)» 


274-7 


1 






1-73 


4-3 


736-1 


10 


6357 


6358 


)» 


»» 


741-2 


i. 






1-69 


4-4 


16113-3 


2 






1-68 


31 


180-2 


2 






if 


}} 


202-8 


.") 






»> 


)» 


2304 


10 


6166 


6159 


1-67 


}) 


255-9 


4 




6152 


U 


it 


276-9 


3 




6132 


31 


)) 


326-2 


4 




6129 


tJ 


J> 


338-4 


1 






1-66 


») 


397-0 



02 



196 



REPORT — 1900. 
Beomine (Vacuum-tube) — continued. 







Previous Measurements 


Reduction 




Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


(Rowland) 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Salet 


Pliicker and 
Hittorf 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


5954-3 


i 

2 






1-62 


4-6 


16790 


50-7 


1 
3 






i> 




800 


40-83 


4 






)t 




828-1 


5871-97 


3 


5881 




1-60 




17025-5 


68-40 


2 




5869 


»1 




032-3 


64-55 


3 






J> 




047-0 


52-40 


5 






1-59 




082-4 


33-71 


3 






j» 


4-7 


17137 2 


31-04 


7 


5841 


5828 


)» 


?» 


144-9 


21-40 


3 




5825 


I. 1 '1! 


173-3 


5794-50 


2 




5793 

5740 


1-58 


?) 


17253-0 


19-17 


4 


5721 


5723 


1-56 


4-8 


17480-3 


16-5 


i 






»» 


tt 


488 


11-25 


4 




5713 


)» 


1J 


17504-5 









5697 








— 


5657-83 


4 




5663 


1-54 


1) 


17669-8 


43-40 








)» 


»» 


17715-0 


30-3 


1 






t» 


Jl 


756 


275 


lb 




5627 


1-53 


»l 


765 


22-38 \ 
21-95 / 


1 




5623 


)t 


>» 


781-3 


1 






»» 


1» 


782-6 


5600-90 


4 


5601 


5599 


11 


4-9 


17849-4 


5590-15 


8 






1-52 


»* 


883-7 


88-40 


2 






»> 


») 


889-3 


■ 84-98 


1 






)» 


If 


900-3 


60-10 


1 




5567 


1> 


» 


980-4 


45-91 


1 




5553 


1-51 


>» 


18026-4 


39-21 


1 






»I 


>• 


048-2 


36-52 


4 






J» 


If 


057-0 


32-38 


X 






5» 


»f 


070-5 


2919 


2 






)> 


J» 


080-9 


16-87 


1 


5516 


5516 


>» 


»> 


18121-3 


11-04 


2 






1-50 


., 


140-5 


08-49 








!> 


»» 


148-n 


0697 


8 






» 


1» 


153-n 


5495-24 


7 


5501 


5503 


„ 


5-0 


192-6 


8900 


6 


5496 


5493 


J» 


>» 


18213-2 


83-20 


2 






)) 


)» 


232-5 


81-41 


o 






9) 


JJ 


238-5 


80-20 


3b 






)f 


• f 


242-5 


66-43 


5 






1-49 


)> 


288-5 


50-28 


3 


5451 


5447 


>» 


M 


18342-7 


42-5.5 


4 






n 


J» 


368-7 


35-30 


5 




5437 


1-48 


*> 


393-2 


33-49 


1 






J> 


)1 


399-4 


25-21 


5 


3426 


5429 


»» 


5) 


18427-5 


2301 


7 




5433 


1) 


„ 


434-9 


5395-69 


5 




5392 


1-47 


6-1 


18528-2 




— 




5384 


9% 


:> 


1 


70-51 


2b' 






T) 


)' 


18615-1 


64 38 


3b' 






)• 1* 


636-4 


60-99 


2 






1-46 


648-2 


45-53 


4b' 






*» ?» 


18702-1 


35-30 


5 


5336 


5327 


t» 


.. 


738-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 197 



Bromine (Vacuum-tube) — continued. 







Previous Measurements 


Reduction 




Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


(Rowland) 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Salet 


Pliicker and 
Hittorf 


A 1- 


1 


5333'49 


1 






1-46 


51 


18744-4 


32-18 


10 






fl 


ti 


749-0 


30-76 


2 






>» 


»» 


754-0 


04-31 


7 




5300 


1-45 


)» 


18847-5 


— 


— 


5311 


5293 


t) 


)) 


. 


5372-89 


4 


5276 


5264 


1-44 


5-2 


18963-3 


63-68 


4 


5267 


; 5251 


l» 


91 


992-9 


49-219 


3 






1-43 


7) 


19045-26 


39-994 


2 


6241 


5226 


}) 


11 


078-79 


38-472 


8 






IJ 


)J 


084-34 


3365 


2 




5221 


f> 


It 


102-9 


27-911 


3 




5217 


1» 


»l 


129-4 


5199-50 


3 








• » 

5-3 


227-3 


94-075 


4b 






1-42 


If 


1 247-4 


84-074 


4 




5188 


ff 


It 


1 284-5 


82-573 


7 






1» 


11 


290-1 


80-19 


2 


5186 


5181 


9* 


11 


299-0 


74-09 


1 






1-41 


It 


321-8 


64-560 


5 


6166 


5169 


ft 


1) 


361-2 


43-626 


2 




5151 


>» 


11 


436-3 


— 


— 




5123 


1-40 


11 


. 


— 


— 




5107 


♦ » 


11 


, 


— 


— . 




5093 


1-39 







5054-853 


4 


5061 


5065 


>» 


5-4 


777-6 


38-962 


3b 




5036 


1-38 


1* 


8400 


20-756 


1» 
• > 






1-37 


5-5 


911-8 


11000 


1 




5011 


)> 


11 


950-6 


02-96 


1 






»> 


fl 


982-7 


4987-234 


1 




4991 


1-36 


If 


20045-7 


79-950 


4s 




4983 


}| 


If 


075-0 


59-51 


4b 




4961 


)» 


If 


157-8 


45-768 


3n 




4956 


1-35 


1} 


213-8 


4221 


In 






I» 


5-6 


228-3 


30-816 


5s 


4931 


4933 


}| 




275-0 


28-966 


6s 




4925 


ty 




282-6 


26-758 


2n 






11 


If 


291-8 


21-386 


3n 






}) 


f 1 


313-9 


21-20 


In 






»l 


If 


314-6 


4867-935 


3b 




4869 


1-33 




637-0 


66-851 


3b 






?> 


f 1 


541-5 


48-988 


6s 




4853 


9r 


5-7 


617-2 


45-196 


3b 




4848 


»• 


If 


633-3 


38-823 


3 






1-32 


If 


660-5 


34699 ' 


2n 






I* 


11 


678-1 


16-900 


Ss 


4816 


4819 


tf 


yf 


754-5 


02-544 


4s 




4808 


1-31 




816-G 


4799-794 


3n 






i1 


11 


828-6 


98-415 ! 


3n 






ft 




834-5 


91-989 , 


2n 






J1 




862-5 


85-644 ■ 


10s 


4786 1 


4788 






890-1 


80-524 


6s 


j 


4779 


if 


5-8 


912-4 


77-30 \ 


3s 






9t 




926-5 


76-605 


7s 


1 


1 


■1 




929-6 


75-41 


3s [ 






» ! 


?» 


934-8 



198 



REPORT — 1900, 



Bromine (Yacvum-tubb)— continued. 







Previous Measurements 


Reduction to 




Wave-lengtli 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


j 

Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Salet 


Pliicker and 
Hittorf 


A.+ 


1_ 

A 


4774.01 


4s 






1-31 


5-8 




20945-3 


72-91 


3b 




4772 






945-8 


67-282 


8s 






1-30 




970-5 


66-27 

53-05 


5b' 

1 










975-0 
21033-3 


52-47 


3b 










035-9 1 


50-l() 


2b 










04G-4 


44-53 


3b 




4747 






071-1 


42-87 


8s 




4737 


,, 




078-5 


3567 


5b- 




4731 






110-5 


28-90 


2 






1-29 




140-8 


28-49 
20-56 


4 
lb- 


4721 


4721 






142-6 
1781 


19-95 


8 










180-9 


17-57 
14-66 


3b 
In. 






., 




191-5 
205-0 


11-32 


1 










219-7 


08-16 


1 






" 




233-9 


05-00 


10b 


4706 


4707 




5-9 


248-1 


01-93 

4698-77 


2n 
2n 




4696 






2620 
276-3 


96-59 
93-48 


2ii 

8s 






" 


,, 


286-1 
300-3 


92-51 


3h 






1-28 




304-7 


91-42 


3b 










309-6 


78-88 


8b 


4676 


4681 






366-7 


75-82 


2s 




4677 






380-7 


73-56 


2s 










391 1 


72-750 


6s 










394-8 


66-42 


9 










423-8 


52-18 


6s 






1-27 




489-4 1 


44-17 


2n 




4645 






626-5 


43-74 


4s 










528-4 


42-35 


3b « 










534-7 
593-9 1 


29-66 


3b 








6-0 


22-99 


8s 


4621 


4626 






630-4 ! 


14-86 


6s 






1-26 




662-6 


05-90 
01-63 


2b 
5u 










705-3 
72')-4 


4597-14 


3n 










746-7 


75-95 


6b- 






1-25 




847-4 


58-21 


4n 








6-1 


932-3 


43-12^ 
42-67/ 


8s 
2n 


4543 


4544 


„ 




22005-2 
007-4 


38-95 


5b 






" 




025-4 


30-21 


1 










067-9 


3000 
29-7S 


5s 










069-0 


2s 






J, 




070-0 


25-82 
13-99 


8b- 

1 






1-24 




089-3 ! 
147-2 


13-67 


5s 










148-8 


08-29 


2n 










175-3 
325-4 


4477-96 


obv 


44S6 




1-23 


6'2 


72-88 


8 


1 






351-0 


71-99 


1 


1 
1 








355-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 199 



Bbomine (Vacuum-tube) — continued. 







Previous Measurements 


Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Salet 


Pliicker and 
Hittorf 


A + 
1-23 


1_ 

A 


4470-22 


1 






6-2 


22364-1 


6G-42 


In 






1-22 


11 


383-1 


65-1)1) 


In 






)» 


11 


385-2 


GO-92 


1 






)» 


»J 


410-7 


60-39 


1 






1» 


9) 


413-4 


53-75 


1 






»1 


11 


446-8 


41-1)4 


8b'- 






)l 


11 


506-5 


31-13 


2 






M 


6-3 


561-3 


3007 


2 






1-21 


11 


566-7 


25-32 


5s 






)» 


11 


590-9 


23-22 


2 






»» 


)l 


601-7 


12-66 


1 






*I 


)l 


655-8 


07-80 


4 






» 


>1 


680-8 


05-18 


1 






JJ 


11 


694-3 


4399-87 


3 






)> 




721-6 


93-55 


5 






I) 


1) 


738-8 


95-10 


4 






)» 


11 


746-3 


91-76 


3 






1-20 


1» 


763-6 


86-83 


2n 






)» 


11 


789-2 


78-11 


4b 






J> 


11 


834-6 


77-40 


2s 






»» 


)1 


838-3 


72-20 


3n 






it 


11 


865-5 


65-76 


8s 


4368 


4366 


it 


6-4 


899-2 


65-31 


4s 






it 


11 


901-5 


4297-27 


3s 






» 


6-5 


23264-1 


91-54 


6 


4287 


4288 


1-18 


11 


300-6 


36-998 


6s 






»» 


6-6 


595-0 


30-101 


4 


4231 


4242 


1-17 


11 


633-4 


23-996 


8 




4229 


1-16 


11 


667-7 


02-64 


4s 




4199 


1-15 


11 


788-0 


4193-62 1 


(i 






)l 


6-7 


839-0 


93-34 1 


2 






)J 


11 


840-6 


79-76 


8 


4181 


4182 


)» 


1» 


918-1 


75-92 


5s 






tt 


11 


940-1 


75-77 


1 






^, 


11 


941-0 


60-14 


2s 






1-14 


>• 


24031-0 


,57-54 


2 






tt 


11 


0460 


57-23 


3s 






11 


J1 


047-8 


51-52 


3s 






»> 


11 


080-9 


44-12 


2s 






tt 


6-8 


123-8 


40-37 


6s 




4143 


)» 


11 


145-6 


38-78 


3b 






?) 


»J 


155-9 


35-79 


5s 






J) 


11 


172-4 


17-58 


3b 






113 


>» 


279-3 


10-12 


4 






11 


1) 


323-4 


09-96 


1 






tt 


)1 


324-3 


06-52 \ 


3s 






J) 


)» 


344-7 


05-56 J 


2s 






11 


11 


350-4 


02-62 


4 






11 


If 


368-3 


4096-27 


3b 






1} 


6-9 


405-6 


90-74 


3s 






1-12 


11 


438-5 


89-29 


3b 


3981 




1) 


11 


447-2 


75-66 


4b 






11 


11 


529-0 


37-486 


2s 






1-11 


7-0 


760-9 


1 36-538 


4s 






11 


y* 


766-7 



200 



REPOKT— 1900, 



Bromine (Vacuum-tube)— coM/m?«e<f. 







Previous Measurements 


Reduction to 




Wave-leiigth 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Salet 


Pliicker and 
Hittorf 


A + 
1-11 


1_ 

A 

7-0 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


4024-19 


Sb" 




24842-7 


22-04 \ 


1 2 


1 - 




t> 


t 


S56-0 


21-95 1 


1 




! „ 




856-6 


12-70 


3s 






1-10 




913-9 


08-93 


6b'- 








!)37-;> 


07-45 


5s 






) 11 


11 


946-5 


05-69 


2s 




' 11 




957-5 


01-60 


3b 






If 


7-1 


982-9 


3999-77 


1 4b 






»l 


ti 


994-3 


97-27 


4b 






»» 


t« 


250100 


92-51 


4s 






}f 


it 


039-8 


91-485 


3s 






tj 


t) 


044-2 


86-666 


8s 






If 




076-5 


80-585 1 


lOn 






tj 




114-8 


80151 1 


5s 






f> 


tf 


117-6 


68-804 


5s 






1-09 




189-4 


55-504 


Sb" 






») 


7-2 


274-6 


50-745 


7b' 






»9 




304-5 


39-862 


5b» 






)l 


yf 


374-4 


38-801 


5b' ■ 






ij 




381-2 


35-310 


6b' 


' 




1-08 




403-8 


29-726 


6b 






}| 




440-9 


24-239 


8b' 


1 


Jt 


if 


475-4 


23-50(; 


6 


' 


»> 


If 


480-2 


20-838 


6b' 


»t 




497-5 


19-770 


6s 


if ' 11 


504-5 


17-960 


3s 




5163 


14-419 


'■> 




539-4 


14-270 








540-3 
624-4 


01-418 


4 






)f 


7-3 


3891-790 , 


8s 










687-9 


88-665 


4b' 






1-07 


it 


709-5 


71-377 


6s 






1) 




823-3 


57-363 ■ 


6s 










917-1 


40-775 


3b' 






1-06 


>» 


26029-1 


34-861 


6b' 






It 




069-3 


29-920 
28-640 


3n 
3 






»1 


It 

it 


102-9 
111-5 


15-771 


4s 






1-05 


7-4 


199-6 


11-55 


•> 
O 






,, 




228-6 


01-09 
3794-153 


Is 
4s 










300-8 
349-0 


72-727 


4b 






i'-b4 


7-5 ! 


498-5 


70-410 ' 


2b . 










514-S 


53-87 


4b 










631-7 


40-66 
37-82 


5b 
2b 






I'bs 


If I 


725-7 
746-1 


35-91 


1 






' 1 

» 1 


759-7 1 


25-54 '■ 


1 i 






7-6 '' 


834-1 


14-45 

3699-595 

84-84 


4 

^ i 






1-02 


1> i 

" 1 


914-3 
27022-4 ( 
130-6 i 



ON WAVE-LEXCiTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 201 

Uranium. 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' evil., 1898. 



. 


1 


Reduction to 






Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 




4699-95 


In 


1-29 


5-9 


21270-9 




99 -3 


In 


it 


)i 


274 




99-02 


In 


)t 


■f 


275-1 




97-55 


In 


11 


jj 


281-8 




96-77 


1 


ty 


ti 


285-3 




96-30 


1 


If 


»> 


287-5 




95-4 


lb 


>] 




292 




93-95 


In 


)f 




298-1 




92-6 


lb 


1-28 


J) 


304 




92-32 


In 


jj 


If 


305-5 




92-15 


In 


j» 


)% 


3063 




01-45 


In 


It 


it 


309-5 




90-95 


In 


ff 




311-7 




90-1 


lb 


)t 


ff 


312 




89-27 


3 


1) 


f ) 


319-4 




88-0 


In 






322 




87-1 


In 


tt 


tt 


329 




85-9 


2n 






335 




84-87 


In 






339-4 




84-20 


1 


1} 


f 1 


342-5 




83-85 


1 


If 




3440 




83-29 


1 


H 


ff 


347-0 




82-90 


1 




jf 


348-4 




82-77 


1 


1} 


jf 


3490 




82-33 


In 


fj 




351-0 




81-40 


In 


ft 


)f 


355-1 




80 85 


In 


If 


If 


358-6 




80-4 


In 


)) 


„ 


360 




78-8 


lb 


„ 


„ 


367 




78-1 


lb 


9f 


}f 


370 




75-6 


In 


n 


f) 


. 382-5 




74-45 


m 


J) 


fj 


386-9 




740 


In 


1) 


j» 


389 




71-66 


2 


>i 


}) 


399-7 




69-55 


1 


jj 


J} 


409-4 




69-22 


1 


ft 




4110 




6905 


1 


9t 




411-7 




68-67 


1 


tt 


ff 


4135 




67-45 


1 


)) 


)f 


419-] 




67-07 


2 


»» 


)j 


420-8 




66-23 


1 


11 


f 1 


424-7 




65-42 


. 1 


ft 




428-4 




64-98 


1 


jj 




430-4 




64-30 


1 


• f 


f f 


433-5 




63-97 


1 


j» 


)f 


435-1 


1 


63-2 


lb 


ff 




439 




62-78 


i 


}f 


)f 


440-6 




62-40 


1 


)} 


ff 


442-3 




61-87 


In 


*» 


f f 


444-7 




61-0 


In 






449 




60-1 


In 


11 




453 




.'■.9-52 


In 






455-.'"> 


1 


58-92 


in 


" 1 


!! 1 


458-2 





202 



REPORT — 1900. 
Uranium — continued. 



Recluction to 



Wave-lengtli 

Spark 

Spectrum 



4658-4 
57-0 
50-7 
55-40 
55-03 
54-43 

5:-?-65 

53-25 

53-05 

52-09 

51-75 

50-7 

50-24 

49-37 

48-15 

46-85 

46-30 

45-80 

45-13 

44-30 

43-86 

42-72 

41-91 

40-57 

39-3 

3816 

35-73 

35-2 

34-2 

31-92 

31-81 

31-1 

30-4 

29-94 

29-37 

28-6 

27-30 

26-14 

25-26 

24-91 

24-27 

23-68 

22-23 

22-13 

20-42 

19-4 

18-60 

17-80 

17-33 

16-7 

15-85 

15-32 

15-18 

14-90 

14-50 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



lb 
lb 
In 
In 
2 

In 

1 

1 

1 

1 

In 

In 

1 

2n 

1 

4 

1 

In 

In 

1 

1 

In 

2 

1 

lb 

In 

In 

In 

In 

1 

1 

lb 

lb 

1 

In 

lb 

5 

1 

In 

In 

In 

1 

1 

1 

3r 

In 

2d 

In 

In 

In 

In 

In 

In 

1 

In 



Vact 


lum 


Oscillation 






Frequency 




1 


in Vacuo 


A + 


a" 

i 




1-28 


5-J) i 


21461 


J) 


»» 


464 


3? 


i» 


468-5 


)) 


)» 


474-5 


») 


»> 


475-7 


1-27 


»» 


478-9 


)> 


)» 


482-6 


)i 


)» 


484-4 


») 


n 


485-4 


)» 


)> 


489-7 


)» 


» 


491-4 


j» 


)1 


496 


» 


)» 


498-2 


>> 


»? 


502-2 


»i 


J> 


508-0 


jj 


)J 


514-0 


5» 


>J 


516-6 


)» 


)) 


518-9 


)» 


?> 


522-1 


I) 


., • 


525-9 


)» 


>t 


527-9 


J1 


J» 


533-2 


!1 


)» 


536-9 


S) 


9f 


543-0 


T> 


)» 


549-5 


91 


») 


554-7 


)» 


)» 


565-7 


)» 


»» 


568 


5> 


»» 


573 


>» 


ji 


583-4 


J) 


)> 


583-9 


)i 


,, 


587 


)> 


)t 


590 


*j 


6-0 


592-6 


)» 


)» 


595-2 


1» 


it 


599 


)J 


») 


6050 


)j 


)T 


610-4 




)1 


614-5 


)) 


>» 


6161 


)) 


?) 


619-1 


JT 


)? 


620-8 


)) 


)» 


627-5 


»> 


»» 


628-0 


J) 


1» 


636-9 


9» 


)» 


642 


J) 


)1 


645-7 


J) 


»» 


649-3 


J» 


») 


651-5 


1-26 


T» 


054-5 


}f 


•» 


658-5 


)} 


IV 


061-0 


>) 


)» 


061-6 


11 




0029 
0040 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES 0F THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 203 

Uranium — continued. 



1 




Reduction to | 




Wave-length j 
Spark 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


and 






Spectnim 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 
\ 


in Vacuo 


4612'8 


In 


1-2G 


6-0 


21673 


12-47 


In 






674-3 


11-70 


2 




)) 


678-0 


10-07 


2n 






G85-7 


09-0 


lb 




)j 


691 


06-4 


In 






703 


05-38 


3 




9) 


707-7 


03-88 


4 




)y 


714-8 


02-04 


1 




}) 


723-5 


01-38 


2 






726-G 


0090 


1 




)1 


728-6 


00-13 


1 




it 


732-5 


4599-73 


In 






734-4 


99-03 


1 






737-7 


98-51 


1 






740-2 


98-05 


1 




)) 


742-4 


97-77 


1 




jl 


743-7 


90-95 


In 




)t 


747-6 


95-91 


In 






752-5 


95-73 


la 






753-3 


95-30 


1 






755-4 


94-49 


1 






759-3 


92-75 


In 






767-4 


91-9G 


1 




i1 


771-2 


91-0 


In 






776 


90-40 


In 




J) 


7782 


90-21 


In 




}) 


779-4 


89-55 


In 






782-5 


88-6 


In 






787 


88-1 


In 




)f 


789-5 


87-45 


In 






792-5 


87-1 


In 






794 


80-5 


In 




Si 


797 


85-75 


In 




Si 


800-6 


85-03 


2 




1} 


804-0 


84-5 


In 






807 


83-52 


1 




)) 


811-2 


83-00 


1 




Si 


813-8 


82-65 


In 




J) 


815-5 


81-98 


2 




)S 


818-7 


81-33 


In 




)J 


821-7 


81-02 


In 






823-2 


79-87 


1 


i-25 


)) 


823-9 


79-20 


1 




)J 


831-9 


78-5 


lb 






835 


77-40 


1 




)) 


840-5 


76-85 


1 




}f 


843-1 


76-25 


In 




)} 


846-0 


75-3 


lb 




yS 


850-5 


7500 


1 




Sy 


851-9 


74-G 


In 






854 


73-90 


3d 






857-2 


73-50 


1 






859-1 


73-2 


In 






8G0-5 


72-47 


In 




1» 


804-0 



204 



REPORT — 1900. 



Uranium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 






Frequency 


Spectnun 


Character 


A + 


1 

a" 


in Vacuo" 


4571-8 


In 


1-25 


C-0 


21867 


71-50 


1 


It 




868-6 


71-10 


1 


}> 




870-2 


70-87 


1 


?1 




871-6 


70-11 


3 


jj 




875-2 


69-40 


1 


IJ 




878-7 


6ri-41 


1 


}t 




883-4 


67-89 


3 


1* 




885-9 


671 


lb 


1) 




890 


65-8 


lb 


>f 




896 


6450 


In 


It 


CI 


902-1 


64-26 


In 


tt 




S03-3 


63-56 


In 


*1 




906-7 


6210 


1 


>t 




913-6 


61-0 


In 


91 




916 


61-45 


In 


jt 




916-7 


60-50 


1 


It 




921-8 


600 


lb 


It 




924 


58-60 


1 


1> 




930-5 


68-32 


1 


>t 




931-8 


58-07 


1 


}9 


,1 


9330 


57-99 


1 


tt 




9334 


56-50 


1 


It 




940-5 


56-18 


1 


jj 




942-1 


55-30 


4 


tt 




946-3 


54-03 


2 


1 J 




952-5 


531 


In 


M 


ft 


957 


52-63 


In 


tf 




959-2 


52-24 


In 


It 




961-1 


51-87 


In 






962-9 


51-31 


In 






965-6 


oOOS 


In 


ll 




968-0 


50-55 


In 


•i 




969-2 


60-05 


2 


)t 




971-7 


49-4 


In 






975 


48-75 


In 


1) 




977-9 


48-4 


In 






980 


48-2 


In 


jf 




980-5 


47-65 


In 


tf 




983-3 


46-43 


1 


)t 




989-2 


45-76 


4 






992-4 


45-16 


1 


ff 




995-3 


46-01 


1 


tt 




9961 


44-57 


1 


It 




998-2 


43-83 


7 






22001-8 


43-21 


In 


It 




004-8 


42-75 


In 


1-24 




007-0 


42-25 


In 






009-4 


41-90 


1 


II 




011-1 


40-70 


1 


It 




016-9 


40-41 


1 


ft 




018-3 


39-4 


In 


II 




023 


38-37 


4 


If 




028-2 


37-35 


1 


if 




033 2 


37-0 


In 


M 


1, 


03 :> 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 205 

Uranium — continued. 







Seduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Spark 


Character 




1_ 


Spectrum 




A + 










\ 




4536-80 


1 


1-24 


6-1 


22035-9 


3G-24 


1 






»» 


038-6 


35-45 


In 






)» 


042-4 


35-32 


In 






)! 


043-4 


:U-73 


In 






» 


045-9 


33-91 


1 






)» 


049-9 


33-25 


In 






11 


053-1 


32-7 


lb 






J» 


056 


31-95 


In 






)) 


059-5 


31-50 


In 






J) 


061-6 


30-93 


In 






»» 


064-3 


29-92 


1 






>» 


069-3 


39-3 


lb 




5 


9» 


072 


28-74 


Id 






l» 


075-1 


28-20 


1 






») 


077-7 


27-85 


1 






»» 


079-4 


26-85 


1 






11 


084-2 


26-20 


In 






11 


087-4 


25-98 


1 






?> 


088-6 


25-87 


1 






J» 


0S9-1 


25-57 


1 






11 


090-6 


25-14 


1 






" 


092-7 


24-3 


lb 






11 


097 


23-43 


1 






11 


101-0 


23-1 


lb 






»» 


103 


21-81 


2n 






11 


108-9 


20-7 


Ind 






11 


114 


19-97 


In 






11 


117-9 


19-4 


In 






11 


121 


18-80 


In 






)> 


123-6 


18-30 


In 






)> 


126-1 


17-45 


1 






»» 


130-2 


16-95 


\ 






11 


132-7 


15-8 


2b 






»> 


138 


15-o0 


4 






11 


139-8 


14-49 


\ 






11 


144-8 


14-30 


1 






11 


145-7 


13-89 


1 




, 


11 


147-7 


13-55 


1 






11 


149-3 


13-04 


1 






M 


151-S 


12-62 


1 






11 


154 


12-37 


1 






11 


155-2 


11-98 


1 






11 


157-1 


11-88 


1 






11 


157-6 


11-46 


1 






11 


159-C 


10-53 


3 






11 


164-2 


10-08 


1 








166-4 


09-55 


In 






11 


168-9 


09-1 


lb 






11 


171 


06-4 


lb 






19 


172 


07-96 


1 






11 


174-9 


07-67 


1 






11 


176-7 


06-85 


In 






11 


881 -S 


06-42 


2 






11 


184-5 


06-31 


2 






>» 


185-0 



206 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ueanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oticillation 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


4501 <)5 


1 


1-23 


Gl 


22191-7 


04:-47 


In 


t1 


)» 


193-1 


03-97 


1 


)» 


IT 


196-5 


0:VSG 


1 


»» 


H 


197-0 


02-5t) 


In 


)> 


1) 


203-5 


02ai 


1 


)) 


)> 


205-7 


Ol-Cu 


In 


)) 


}1 


208-0 


00-Si 


In 


H 


JT 


212 


uo-oo 


In 


J1 




216-1 


4i99-87 


In 


)> 


)J 


216-7 


U!)-40 


I 


1» 


)} 


219-1 


OS 47 


Ind 


)» 


f] 


223-7 


'.)7-7 


lb 


)J 


J) 


227-5 


!t6-8:! 


In 


)» 


)} 


231-8 


i)(j:]5 


In 


51 


)» 


234-2 


<)r.-s5 


In 


1» 


Tl 


236-6 


95-5 


111 


)J 


6-2 


238 


95-:i 


In 


)» 


*> 


239 


94-90 


1 . 


J* 


1} 


241-2 


94-09 


In 


9} 


f) 


245-2 


9;!-28 


1 


)> 


)) 


249-3 


92-60 


1 


)» 


)) 


252-6 


92-20 


1 


J) 


9} 


254-7 


91-71 


1 


)1 


H 


257-1 


91-53 


1 


>» 


11 


257-9 


91-02 


3 


ST 


J) 


260-4 


90-4 


lb 


>> 


1j 


263 


89-29 


1 


»» 


11 


269-9 


89-1 


In 


»l 


1> 


270 


88-40 


1 


Jl 


1) 


273-6 


87-90 


In 


>) 


)> 


276-0 


87-27 


1 


>* 


)* 


279-2 


87-15 


1 


») 




280-0 


86-52 


1 


)} 


)) 


282-9 


8{;-i2 


1 


1» 


7) 


284-8 


85-40 


1 


»» 


)) 


288-3 


84-7 


lb 


)» 


J) 


291 


83-99 


1 


11 


]1 


294-3 


83-67 


1 


J» 


)} 


295-8 


82-91 


1 


7) 


Jl 


300-8 


82-4 


lb 


» 


1» 


303 


81-25* 


In 


l» 


jj 


3090 


80-83 


In 


1) 




311-0 


80-55 


In 


J) 


)) 


312-4 


79-63 


In 


}1 


)) 


316-7 


79-15 


In 


J) 




318-9 


77-93 


2 


)> 


J) 


325 9 


77-67 


In 


» 


)) 


327-1 


76-70 


1 


)» 


ij 


331-7 


75-91 


1 


)> 


»» 


335-8 


75-50 


In 


)} 




337-7 


75-04 


In 


)J 


^, 


339-8 


74-73 


1 In 


J> 


)> 


341-3 



Mg? 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 2 (J 7 

Ueanium — continued. 







Eeduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 


iu Vacuo 


4474-5 


In 


1-23 


6-2 


22342-5 


74-4 


In 


>1 


17 


343 


74-0 


lb 


91 


»J 


345 


73-G 


lb 


1» 


)) 


347 


72-55 


6 


)) 


5) 


352-4 


71-83 


1. 


11 


)» 


357-7 


70-65 


In 


» 


)1 


363-3 


70-50 


1 


it 


ff 


362-6 


70-0 


In 


91 


)» 


365 


69-52 


1 


>) 


>» 


367-6 


69-42 


1 


)) 


»» 


368-1 


69-05 


1 


)» 


»> 


369-9 


68-57 


1 


1-22 


)J 


372-3 


68-49 


1 


1) 


») 


372-7 


68-34 


1 


JJ 


1) 


373-5 


68-16 


1 


J> 


1) 


374-4 


68-03 


1 


» 


»> 


375-0 


67-55 


1 


ii 


'/» 


377-5 


67-27 


1 


It 


>) 


378-8 


66-5 


lb 


» 


)) 


383 


65-92 


1 


»J 


5» 


385-7 


65-35 


3 


»» 


)» 


' 388-5 


64-50 


1 


tf 


)> 


392-7 


64-38 


1 


ft 


>» 


393-3 


63-98 


1 


*i 


)J 


395-4 


63-19 


3 


>J 


»J 


399-7 


62-99 


1 


)> 


!) 


400-8 


62-59 


1 


») 


If 


402-3 


62-45 


1 


IS 


» 


403-0 


62-04 


1 


]) 


)» 


405-1 


61-62 


1 


»j 


It 


407-2 


61-13 


1 


iJ 


1 ?» 


409-7 


60-77 


1 


)) 


J) 


411-5 


59-97 


In 


jj 


}) 


415-5 


58-85 


Ind 


J) 


n 


421-1 


5815 


In 


)> 


1] 


424-6 


5803 


1 


)) 


»i 


425-2 


57-67 


1 


»j 


»> 


427-0 


57-33 


1 


»? 


»> 


428-7 


57-0 


In 


)j 


jy 


430 


56-44 


1 


)) 


»i 


433-2 


56-08 


1 


»» 


}f 


435-1 


55-3 


In 


») 


*) 


439 


64-1 


In 


»> 


1) 


445 


53-95 


In 


j» 


i> 


445-7 


53-68 


1 


1) 


)) 


447-1 


53-46 


1 


}j 


J» 


448-2 


52-48 


1 


)> 


)> 


453-1 


52-19 


1 


J> 


J) 


454-6 


51-72 


1 


)» 


») 


456-9 


51-18 


In 


j» 


)» 


459-G 


30-75 


O 


i> 


It 


461-9 


50-59 


2 


>) 


If 


462-7 


49-74 


1 


if 


)? 


467-0 


49-2 


lb 


IJ 


1) 


470 



208 



REPORT — 1900. 



Uranium — continued. 





1 


Beduction to 




Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


1 "- 


4448-5 


lb 


1-22 


6-2 


22473 


4S-2 


lb 




n 


475 


47-30 


2 


)1 


j» 


479-2 


46-18 


1 




»> 


484 8 


45-70 


Id 




)9 


487-4 


45-38 


1 




9> 


489-1 


44-90 


1 




t» 


491-5 


43-80 


1 




)f 


497-1 


43-60 


1 




1> 


498-1 


43-47 


1 




)* 


498-8 


42-95 


In 




1) 


501-4 


42-80 


In 




J» 


502-1 ^ 


42-20 


In 




*J 


505-2 


41-75 


In 




J» 


507-5 


41-29 


1 




11 


609-8 


41-20 


1 




)T 


510-3 


40-94 


1 




If 


511-6 


40-54 


1 




„ 


513-0 


40-22 


In 




,, 


515-3 


39-32 


I 




1> 


519-8 


38-90 


1 




)> 


521-9 


38-61 


1 




?» 


523-3 


38-42 


In 




>» 


524-3 


38-16 


In 




1) 


525-7 


37-12 


In 




)T 


530-9 


36-97 


1 




)> 


531-7 


36-5 


In 




»» 


534 


35-72 


In 




*f 


538-0 


34-81 


2 




J> 


542-7 


34-08 


3 




;) 


546-4 


33-58 . 


In 




1) 


548-9 


33-35 


In 




»} 


550-1 


32-90 


1 




1) 


552-4 


32-60 


1 




» 


553-9 


i!2-2 


lb 




If 


556 


31-8 


lb 




6-3 


558 


30-27 


1 


1-21 


?i 


565-7 


29-79 


1 




n 


568-1 


3905 


1 


■ 


9) 


571-9 


28-53 


1 


» 


ft 


574-5 


27-81 
27-14 


3 
1 






578-2 
581-G 


26-85 


2 




it 


583-1 


26-25 


1 




)» 


586-2 


26-03 


1 




tt 


587-3 


25-6* 


In 




ft 


589-5 


25-35 


In 




•» 


590-8 


34-73 


In 






593-9 


23-96 


2 




j« 


597-8 


23-49 


1 


" 


)» 


600-3 


23-15 


1 




J* 


602-0 


32-78 


1 




r» 


603-9 


ot>.o 


In 


1 


»» 


607 ; 



Ca? 



0\ WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 200 

Ubamum — eontinued. 







Eeduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Spark 


and 




I 


Spectrum 


Character 


X + 


in Vacuo 








6-3 




4420-89 


2n 


1-21 


22613-6 


20-37 




M 


11 


615-2 


19-8 


In 


)) 


>f 


620 


19-3 


In 


» 


•• 


620 


18-68 




1> 


»» 


624-9 


18-22 




>J 


>» 


627-2 


17-94 




>f 


91 


628-7 


17-61 




?» 


19 


630-3 


17 00 




») 


»9 


033-5 


16 -7?. 




1» 


)• 


634-9 


16-05 




»> 


J> 


638-3 


15-46 




)l 


?t 


041-4 


14-97 




»» 


l» 


643-9 


14-85 




»t 


»f 


644-5 


14-50 




f* 


I» 


646 3 


13-33 




!• 


1> 


652-3 


13-07 




»» 


II 


053-7 


12-7 


In 


M 


>> 


656 


12-5 


In 


i» 


)> 


657 


12-0 


In 


)) 


J> 


659 


11-65 




M 


>1 


661-0 


11-50 




Jl 


JJ 


661-7 


11-31 




*> 


» 


662-7 


11-10 




l» 


It 


063-8 


10-6 


In 


»> 


»• 


666 


10-3 


In 


»» 


II 


668 


09-90 




19 


II 


669-9 


091 


In 


>f 


11 


674 


08-92 




>t 


11 


675-0 


08-73 




H 


II 


6760 


08-15 




)1 


II 


6790 


07-4 


In 


»» 


II 


683 


06-74 




>» 


l> 


686-2 


06-13 




t> 


II 


689-4 


060 


In 


if 


II 


690 


05-47 




S) 


II 


692-7 


0509 




}T 


11 


694-7 


■04-99* 




J» 


II 


695-7 


04-53 




f J 


11 


697-6 


04-22 




» 


II 


699-2 


03-52 




19 


11 


702-8 


02-70 




»» 


II 


707-1 


02-57 




f» 


II 


707-7 


02-06 




ii 


91 


710-4 


01-1 


In 


)> 


>t 


715 


00-65 


In 


ti 


11 


717-6 


4399-81 




J) 


11 


721-8 


98-0 


In 


9> 


II 


731 


97-50 




f> 


II 


733-9 


95-96 


In 


It 


If 


741-8 


95-46 


In 


1) 


19 


744-5 


1 95-1 


In 


»• 


91 


746 


94-83 




1-20 


11 


747-7 



Fef 



1900 



210 



REPORT — 1900. 



Uhaxiuji —conti lived. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 




Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


- : I 


in Vacuo 


4393-80 


2 


1-20 


6-3 


227530 


92-73 


1 


«1 




758-6 


92-40 


1 


»i 




760-3 


92-04 


1 


»» 




762-1 


91-69 


1 


11 




763-9 


91-46 


1 


)) 




765-1 


91-30 


1 


» 




766-0 


91-1 


In 


») 




767 


90-74 


1 


»> 




768-8 


90-50 


1 


5) 




770-1 


90-36 


1 


Ji 




770-8 


90-20 


1 


ji ! )» 


771-6 


88-9 


In 


»f j « 


778 


88-4 


In 


»i M 


781 


87-95 


In 


1 


783-3 


87-8 


In 


»» »» 


784 


87-45 


In 


>» 




7859 


86-9* 


In 


)» 




789 


86-35 


In 


It 




791-6 


86-21 


In 


»> 




792-4 


85-76 


In 


»» 




794-8 


84-95 


1 


>» 




7990 


84-82 


1 


II 




799-7 


83-77 


2 


If 




8052 


83-50 


2 


u 




806-5 


82-60 


1 


II 




811-2 


82-32 


1 


II 




812-7 


82-04 


1 


II 




814-1 


81-60 


1 


»i 




816-4 


81-35 


1 


i» 




817-7 


80-95 


1 


II 




819-8 


80-49 


1 


i» 




822-2 


79-9 


In 


)i 




825 


79-41 


1 


II 




827-9 


78-75 


In 


«i 




831-3 


78-50 


In 


11 




832-6 


78-0 


In 


« 




835 


77-48 


In 


II 




837-9 


77-00 


1 


II 




840-4 


76-37 


In 


IT 




843-7 


75-95 


1 


U 




845-9 


75-79 


In 


Jl 




846-7 


74-22 


1 


)» '» 


854-9 


73-61 


2 


»1 11 


858-1 


72-95 


In 


)t u 


861-6 


72-78 


2 


11 u 


862-5 


71-99 


2 


I» JJ 


866-6 


71-26 


1 


»» i V 


870-3 


70-21 


1 


T» ?» 


875-9 


69-75 


In 


?» I? 


878-3 


69-5 


In 


J» ?? 


880 


69-0 


In 


J» 11 


882 


68-42 


1 


11 


6-4 


885-2 



Pb ? 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 211 

Uranium — onntinued. 







Beduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A-1- 


1 


in Vacuo 


43G8-33 


1 


1-20 


6-4 


22885-7 


G7-95 


1 


»» 


j» 


887-7 


(>7-6 


In 


)» 


i» 


889-5 


65-77 


1 


)> 


1* 


899-2 


65-28 


1 


J) 


)» 


901-7 


65-18 


■ 1 


)» 


»» 


902-3 


65-00 


1 


)t 


»» 


903-1 


64-61 


1 


)» 


»» 


905-2 


64-50 


1 


)» 


i» 


905-7 


64-03 


1 


1) 


)) 


908-1 


63-15 


2 


)1 


1) 


912-8 


63-00 


1 


» 


») 


913-6 


62-48 


3 


»» 


i» 


916-3 


62-23 


2 


)) 


j» 


917-6 


61-36 


1 


J) 


jj 


922-2 


61-2 


In 


)* 


»» 


923 


60-45 


In 


}) 


»» 


927-1 


59-92 


In 


»> 


>) 


929-8 


59-68 


In 


)* 


)i 


931-1 


59-10 


1 


)} 


It 


934-2 


58-83 


1 


11 


t* 


935-6 


58-60 


1 


)) 


n 


936-8 


58-36 


1 


It 


)? 


9380 


580 


In 


;i 


)^ 


940 


57-8 


In 


}« 


i» 


941 


57-06 


1 


If 


)» 


944-9 


56-75 


1 


1-19 


»> 


946-5 


55-89 


4 


J) 


1) 


951-1 


54-77 


2 




T» 


957-0 


54-53 


2 




)) 


958-3 


54-25 


1 


J) 


1» 


959-7 


53-95 


1 




)» 


961-4 


53-3 


In 




K 


965 


52-98 


1 




11 


966-5 


52-62 


1 




Jl 


968-4 


52-30 


1 




)» 


970-1 


51-98 


1 


)) 


)» 


971-7 


51-84 


1 


J) 


»» 


972-4 


50-5 


In 


1* 


)> 


979 


50-3 


In 


)) 


>» 


980 


501 


In 


)} 


1 '» 


982 


49-8 


In 


)} 


1 „ 


983 


48-8 


In 


)) 


1 " 


988 


4S-32 


1 




1} 


989-6 


47-36 


3 




»» 


996-1 


46 95 


1 




998-2 


46-48 


1 


•>* " 


23000-7 


46-20 


1 


1 )) J) 


002 2 


44-88 


1 




009-2 


! 44-45 


1 




n 


011-4 


44-15 


I 




») 


013-1 


43-5 


In 






016-5 


42-tiO 


1 


1 


021-3 


41-81) 


4 


>> ** 


025-0 


1 -lO-KU 


In 


»» 


»» 


030-5 



p2 



212 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ueanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Spark 






Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


4340-63 




1-19 


6-1 


23031-8 


39-94 




„ 


11 


035-4 


39-55 




>, 


>l 


037-4 


39-16 


Id 




II 


039-5 


38-93 




,, . 


H 


040-7 


38-80 






l» 


041-4 


38-48 






1) 


043-1 


38-1 


lb 




>■ 


045 


, 37-61 






1) 


047-7 


36-93 


In 




l> 


051-3 


36-60 


2n 




)> 


0530 


35-92 


2n 




11 


056-8 


35-44 






II 


059-3 


3513 




„ 


It 


060-9 


34-66 






>l 


063-4 


33-71 




„ 


91 


068-5 


33-15 






J> 


071-5 


32-47 






II 


075-1 


32-05 






11 


077-4 


31-63 




„ 


11 


079-6 


30-9 


lb 


f> 


II 


083-5 


30-20 


In 




11 


087-2 


29-7 


lb 




11 


090 


29-40 






1* 


091-5 


28-92 






Iff 


094-0 


28-35 






II 


097-1 1 


28-0 


lb 




l» 


099 


27-18 






11 


103-4 


36-06 






II 


109-3 


25-32 






II 


113-2 


24-90 






1) 


115-5 


34-75 




„ 


II 


116-3 


23-92 






6-5 


220-8 


22-55 


In 




91 


128-2 


22-2 


lb 




tl 


120 ' 


21-51 






» 


133-8 


21-2 


lb 




»J 


135 


20-6 


lb 


'* 


If 


138-5 


I 19-97 






tl 


141-8 


19-67 






1) 


143-4 


1 19-22 




., 


f1 


145-9 


18-5 


lb 


1-18 


)t 


150 


18-2 


lb 




91 


151 


17-78 






91 


153-6 


17-46 






» 


155-4 


17-27 






it 


156-4 


16-70 






»» 


159-4 


16-20 


In 




• 1 


1621 


16-08 


In 


)> 


)> 


162-7 ^ 


15-7 


In 




t» 


165 


15-4 


In 




;) 


166 


14-08 


-5 




*1 


173-4 


13-39 


2n 




»• 


177-1 


12-87 






») 


179-9 


12-51 






II 


181-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 213 

Uranium — continued. 





1 


Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity ' 
and i 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 •• 


Spectrum 


Character '■ 


A+ 1- I 


in Vacuo 


4311-95 


■ 1 
In 


1-18 


6-5 


231850 


11-66 




ri 


,, 


186-6 


11-3 




)» ' 


11 


187 


10 62 




1 


9) 


191-1 


09-95 




'1 1 


II 


195-8 


09-40 




„ 


11 


198-7 


08-8 




91 


II 


202 


08-13 




5» 


II 


205-5 


07-50 




J? 


11 


208-8 


07-06 




if 


11 


211-1 


06-!>;» 




If 


11 


211-5 


06-71 




1) 


11 


213-0 


06-48 




J» 


1} 


214-3 


06-1 




fl> 


H 


216 


05-4 




T, ' 


)l 


220 


04-.I 




It 


II 


22:! 


04-67 




11 


u 


224-0 


04-25 




}1 


11 


226-3 


03-58 




If 


11 


230-3 


03-43 




)» 


)) 


230-8 


03-00 




It 


11 


233-1 


02-60 


■*• 


)> 


11 


335-2 


02-51 




Jf 


• 1 


235-7 


02-30 




It 


11 


236-8 


01-9 




>J 


11 


239 


01-70 




St 


11 


240-1 


01-60 




}t 


)1 


240-7 


01-05 


In 




11 


243-7 


00-95 


In 


II 


11 


244-2 


00-53 




tl 


11 


246-5 


00-26 




91 


It 


247-9 


00-08 




1) 


II 


248-9 


4299-61 






11 


251-4 


99-26 


In 


91 


11 


253-3 


99-05 


la 


?? 


11 


254-3 


98-6 


In 


j» 


11 


257 


98-3 


In 


11 


1» 


260 


97-78 




»J 


11 


261-4 


97-31 


3 


J) 


• 1 


263-9 


96-77 




IT 


11 


266-8 


96-49 




• » 


11 


268-3 


95-93 




)l 


f> 


271-3 


95-47 




II 


II 


273-8 


i 95-32 




1 11 


f* 


274-6 


94-85 




It 


1 

i *> 


277-2 


94-40 


In 


1) 


1 


279-6 


94-13 




It 


9« 


281-1 


93-95 


In 


II 


» 


282-1 


93-53 




If 


it 


284-4 


92-87 


In 


II 


If 


287-9 


91-81 






J) 


293-7 


91-08 


2 


II 


fi 


297-6 


90-05 


2 


II 


II 


2991 


89-72 


1 


•t 


• 1 


3051 


8905 


2 


II 


( 11 


308-7 



214 



REPORT— 1900. 



Uranium — continued. 







Eeduotion to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


j Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 


Spectrum 


Character 


A-h 


1_ 
A. 


in Vacuo 


4288-56 


1 


1-18 


6-5 


23311-4 


88-05 


3 


)> 


)> 


314-2 


87-10 


3 


)J 


i» 


319-3 


86-5 


In 


» 


!) 


322-5 


85-9G 


1 


») 


:» 


i 325-4 


85-63 


1 


)) 


)» 


327-2 


85-45 


I 


1) 


»? 


328-2 


85-20 


1 


)) 


?» 


329-6 


85-03 


1 


»» 


)» 


330-5 


84-73 


1 


,, 




332-2 


84-16 


In 


»5 


T» 


335-3 


83-65 


In 


»> 


J> 


338-1 


83-3 


In 


)> 


?» 


340 


82-67 


3 


1 


J7 


343-5 


82-25 


3 


it 


]) 


345-8 


82-00 


1 


1* 


»» 


347-1 


81-5 


In 


)} 


)> 


350 


80-86 


In 


1-17 


»> 


354-7 


80-4 


In 


)) 


;» 


356 


79-53 


In 


JJ 


)> 


360-6 


78-37 


2 


91 


n 


367-0 


77-76 


1 


)» 


»» 


370-3 


77-43 


In 


» 


)1 


372-1 


77-08 


1 


) ) 


It 


374-1 


76-69 


2 


)> 


)) 


376-2 


76-2 


In 


11 




379 


75-94 


1 


»1 


)» 


380-1 


75-46 


1 


» 


1J 


382-8 


75-2 


In 


}» 


• ^ 


384 


74-20 


3 


>f 


}} 


389-7 


73-64 


1 


•> 


)7 


392-8 


7316 


In 


)) 


Jl 


395-4 


72-52 


1 


)) 


}j 


398-9 


72-03 


In 


»} 


?» 


401-6 


71-46 


1 


9) 


JJ 1 


404-8 


7112 


1 


Tl 


)} 1 


406-6 


70-88 


1 




J) 


407-9 


70-50 


Id 


>» 


?j 


410-0 


69-84 


4 


Jl 


H 1 


413-6 


(59-05 


2 


Jf 


)j 


418-0 


68-67 


1 


J) 


1) 


420-1 


68-22 


1 


rt 


J) 


422-5 


68-12 


1 


)i 


J} 


423-0 


67-76 


1 


)> 


}} 


4250 


67-50 


2 


»* 


)} 


426-4 


66-89 


I 


jj 


)) 


429-8 


66-53 


In 


» 


>) 


431-8 


65-8 


In 


)» 


f ) 


436 


65-45 


1 


I) 1 


tf 


437-7 


64-95 I 


I 1 


J) 




440-5 


64-49 1 


1 


)? >» 


443-1 


64-05 


1 


t 


445-4 


63-97 


1 


9) )f 


445-8 


63-66 


1 


f T If 


447-5 


63-38 


1 


J» 


., 1 


449-0 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 215 

Uranium — continued. 







Eeduction 




Wave-lengtli 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 


A + 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








A 




426312 


1 


1-17 


6-5 


23450-5 


62-75 


1 


)) 




452-6 


62-40 


In 






454-5 


61-73 


1 






458-2 


61-25 


In 


») 




460-8 


61-1 


In 


99 




462 


611-65 


1 


ii 




469-6 


59-43 


2 


)» 




470-8 


59-10 


1 


5> 




472-6 


58-7 


In 






475 


58-45 


In 


■>f 


ft )' 


476-2 


583 


In 


>» 




477 


57-9 


In 


>) 5» 


479 


57-21 


1 


n 


)1 


483-1 


56-75 


In 


)> 


»1 


485-7 


55-95 


1 


T> 


* „ 


490-0 


55-65 


1 


» 


Ji 


491-7 


55-50 


I 




)» 


492-5 


55-0 


In 


)) 


?) 


495 


54-6 


In 




!» 


497 


54-45 


In 




f J 


498-3 


54-10 


1 




!> 


500-2 


53-9 


In 




J» 


501 


52-65 


2 




6-6 


508-2 


52-30 


In 




ir 


510-2 


51-9 


In 




it 


512 


51-60 


In 


„ 


it 


514-1 


51-1 


lb 


„ 


»i 


517 


50-42 


In 




tt 


520-5 


50-2 


In 


1» 


it 


522 


49-73 


1 


„ 




524-3 


49-3 


lb 




tt 


527 


48-8 


lb 




• ) 


529 


48-13 


1 


„ 


tt 


5331 


47-57 


1 




tt 


536-2 


47-33 


1 


ti 


J» 


537-6 


46-45 


2 




tt 


542-5 


46-18 


1 


„ 


)j 


544-0 


45-96 


1 




tt 


545-2 


45-60 


1 




)» 


547-2 


45-10 


1 


„ 


•) 


550 


44-53 


3 


„ 


»J 


553-2 


43-53 


1 


1-16 


tt 


558-7 


43-25 


1 




tt 


560-2 


42-70 


1 


„ 


1) 


563-3 


42-52 


1 




If 


564-3 


41-88 


4 1 




>» 


567-8 


40-80 


2 i 




)} 


573-8 


40-35 


In 




)» 


576-3 


39-9 


In 




tt 


579 


39-33 


1 




tt 


582-1 


38-8 


lb 




}f 


585 


37-93 


In 




)) 


589-8 


36-62 


1 




M 


597- 1 


36-21 


3 




J» 


599'4 



210 



REPORT— 1900. 
Ukanium — continued. 



! 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum j 


Oscillation 


Spark 
Spectrum 


and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


K + 


1 






i 


A." 

i 




4235-60 


1 


1-17 


6 6 


23602-8 


34-90 


1 


y» 




606-7 


34-77 


1 


n 




607-4 


34-25 


1 


»» 




610-3 


33-92 


1 


It 




612-2 


33-70 


1 


)i 




613-4 


33-32 


I 


»» 




615-5 


32-58 


1 


i» 




619-7 


32-23 


2 


»» 




621-() 


31-86 


2 


>» 




623-7 


31-40 


In ^ 


J) 




626-2 


30-5 


In 


• t 




631 


:'.o-o 


In 


11 




634 


29-9 


In 


,, 




635 


29-45 


1 


»» 




637-1 


28-95 


2 


>j 




639-9 


28-57 


1 


i» 




642-1 


27-50 


2 






648-0 


26-90* 


2n 


J* 




651-4 


26-25 


1 


)» 




655-0 


25-97 


1 


?i 




656-6 


25-55 


2n 


f) 




659-0 


24-5 


lb 


f> 




666 


23-8 


In 


f> 




669 


23-50 


In 


ti 




670-4 


23-13 


I 


fi 




672-5 


22-90 


I 


»» 




673-8 


22-57 


1 


>» 




675-6 


22-32 


1 


ft 




677-0 


21-99 


1 


19 




678-8 


21-4 


In 


ft 




682 


20-87 


1 


f> 




685-2 


20-30 


1 


If 




C88-4 


20-20 


1 


19 




689-0 


19-89 


1 


tf 




690-7 


19-70 


1 


»? 




691-7 


19-5 


In 


7» 




693 


18-55 


In 


11 




698-2 


18-3 


In 


11 J» 


700 


17-93 


1 


11 


>> 


701-7 


17-65 


1 


if 


ji 


7033 


17-3 


In 


It 


II 


704 


17-0 


In 


}j 


I* 


707 


16-75 


1 


If 


II 


708-3 


16-47 


1 


11 


II 


709-9 


16-17 


1 


If 


II 


711-6 


15-69 


1 


11 


II 


714-3 


15-44 


1 


11 


»» 


715-7 


15-20 


1 


11 


II 


717-1 


14-61 


1 


ff 


II 


720-4 


14-51 


1 


11 


11 


721-0 


14 10 


2 


i» 


II 


723-3 


13-9 


In 


If 


11 


724 



Ca? 



OM WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMEIS'TS. 217 



Uranium — continued. 



Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 



4213-50 
13-19 
12-94 
12-67 
12-47 
12-35 
11-87 
11-52 
11-05 
10-64 
09-7 
07-4 ■ 
OG 54 
Otill 
05-2 
04-63 
04-51 
03-27 
02-9 
02-60 
02-45 
01-80 
01-59 
01-30 
01-13 
00-30 
4199-8 
98-9 
98-39 
97 69 
97-35 
96-9 
96-70 
960 
95-7 
95-4 
95-22 
94-55 
94-15 
93-95 
93-60 
93-15 
92-35 
92-15 
91-70 
90-5 
89-40 
89 
88-33 
88-02 
87-67 
87-15 
86-95 
86-63 
86-23 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 

1 

Id 

2 

lb 

lb 

Id 

1 

In 

1 

i> 

1 

In 

In 

In 

In 

1 

1 

1 

2 

In 

lu 

1 

2d? 

In 

In 

1 

In 

In 

In 

In 

1 

In 

In 

In 

In 

In 

1 

1 

lb 

2 

In 

2 

1 
1 
1 
I 
L 
L 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 


. 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 


1 


! 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


1-17 


6-6 


23726-6 


>1 


»s 


728-3 


)» 


it 


729-7 


)1 


>» 


731-3 


n 


u 


732-4 


»» 


f» 


733-1 


7J 


J1 


735-8 


11 


?T 


737-7 


n 


1» 


740-4 


,y 


?> 


742-7 


1 M 


JJ 


748 


• ) 


1» 


761 


1' 


♦ > 


765-8 




It 


768-2 


1-15 


„ 


773-5 
776-7 


U 


»> 


»» 


)> 


777-4 


)» 


9» 


784-4 


»> 


19 


786-5 


» 


»» 


788-2 


9» 


»1 


789-0 


$9 


19 


792-7 


»1 


it 


793-8 


1» 


if 


795-5 


l» 


it 


796-4 


»1 


6-7 


801-1 


)♦ 


») 


804 


i " 


1) 


809 


I 


?T 


812-0 


" 


tl 


8160 


»> 


9* 


817-9 


f» 


f* 


820 


tt 


tt 


821-5 


>» 


tt 


825-5 


» 


It 


827 


»» 


1> 


S29 


Jl 


>» 


829-9 


J) 


I» 


833-7 


»» 


T» 


836-0 


1 


)» 


837-2 


»» 


)» 


839-1 


If 


It 


841-6 


11 


If 


8463 


»» 


M 


847-4 


11 


n 


849-6 


;» 


ft 


857 


i» 


tt 


863-1 


11 


tt 


865 


»t 


tt 


869-1 


ti 


tt 


8709 


** 


tt 


873-5 


j» 


»i 


875-9 


It 


>i 


877-0 




tt 
t> 


878-9 
881-3 



218 



REPORT — 1900. 
Uranium -continved. 



1 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 

A." 


in Vacuo 


4185-97 




1-15 


6-7 


23882-7 


85-85 






)) 


883 4 


85-04 






ji 


887-9 


84-67 


In 




»» 


890-0 


84-27 


In 




») 


892-3 


83-79 






)» 


895-0 


83-47 






?) 


896-9 


83-15 






») 


898-7 


82-88 






)» 


900-2 


81-75 






)) 


906-8 


80-90 






5) 


911-6 


80-53 


In 


jj 


>l 


913-7 


80-3 


In 




)» 


915 


79-20 






« 


921-3 


78-69 




" 


)) 


924-2 


78-00 






>l 


928-2 


77-56 






») 


930-7 


77-1 


In 




)) 


933 


76-75 


In 




» 


935-4 


76-11 






)J 


939-1 


75-63 






J) 


941-8 


74-40 






)» 


948-7 


74-01 






)» 


950-9 


73-90 






)J 


951-7 


73-19 






)) 


955-8 


72-8 


In 




>» 


958 


72-40 






)l 


960-3 


71-80 






>J 


963-8 


71-00 






»J 


968-4 


70-60 


In 


„ 


I) 


970-7 


70-17 






it 


973-1 


69-7 


In 




t> 


976 


69-25 






>1 


978-4 


68-3 


lb 


1-14 


f) 


984 


67-87 


In 




» 


986-4 


67-25 


In 




>» 


989-9 


66-8 


In 




J» 


992-5 


65-87 






)» 


997-9 


65-35 


In 




)» 


24000-9 


64-97 






J» 


003-1 


C4-G 


In 




JI 


005 


63-90 






J> 


009-2 


63-44 






l» 


■ 011-8 


63-22 






J» 


013-1 


62-88 






)> 


015-1 


62-62 




,, 


»J 


016-6 


62-00 


■^ 


„ 


J) 


020-2 


61-14 


1 




If 


025-1 


60-5 


lb 




19 


029 


60-05 






H 


031-5 


59-59 






» 


034-2 


59-30 






91 


035-9 


59-15 






9t 


036-8 


58-8 


In 




)> 


039 


58-48 


2 


1 ',', 


}> 


040-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 219 

Ueanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 




1 


Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


4156-81 


2 


1-14 


6-7 


24050-2 


55-58 


3 


>» 


jj 


051-3 


54-16 


2 


)j 


)} 


064-5 


53-75 


2 


)I 


it 


066-8 


51-83 




)» 


it 


079-0 


51-48 




)> 


It 


081-1 


51-00 




»» 


)) 


083-9 


50-61 




)) 


)j 


086-1 


50-25 


In 


)» 


?» 


088-2 


49-57 


lu 


)» 


ij 


092-2 


40-38 


In 


)> 


99 


0933 


48-97 




»» 


)» 


095-7 


48-76 




|> 


>) 


096-9 


48-33 


In 


1) 


)j 


099-3 


47-62 




)» 




103-4 


47-30 




it 


6-8 


105-3 


47-20 




J) 


)j 


105-9 


46-83 




)> 


»» 


108-1 


46-45 




»» 


)j 


110-4 


45-58 






11 


115-5 


44-92 




») 


1) 


119-1 


44-15 


In 




j» 


123-6 


43-76 




it 


}) 


125-9 


43-19 




a 


1) 


129-2 


42-59 




It 


)i 


133-2 


42-42 






11 


133-7 


42-32 






It 


134-3 


42-09 






19 


135-6 


41-45 




)) 


11 


139-3 


40-80 


In 


>> 


11 


143-1 


40-58 


In 


}) 


11 


144-7 


39-34 




it 


11 


151-7 


38-84 






11 


154-6 


38-15 






11 


158-6 


37-00 




I) 


11 


165-3 


36-68 




)> 


11 


167-2 


36-32 




») 


11 


169-3 


35-97 




i> 




171-3 


35-39 




)) 


11 


174-7 


35-03 






11 


176-8 


34-23 


In 


,, 


n 


181-5 


33-71 




»» 


it 


184-5 


33-40 




)) 


11 


186-3 


32-30 




11 1 


11 


192-8 


31-98 




1-13 1 


tj 


194-7 


31-55 




1 


11 


197-2 


30-89 




1 




201-1 


29-9 


In 


)» 


It 


207 


29-65 


In 


ji 


11 


208-3 


29-18 




ft 


11 


2110 


28-52 








215-0 


28-13 








217-2 


27-65 


id 




11 


220-1 


27-05 


In 




11 


223-6 


26-6 1 


lb 


J) 


11 


226 



220 



KEPORT— 190U. 
llRASiVU—cantiuved. 



Wave-lnugth 
Spark 


Intenuity 




and 




Spectrum 


Character 




41253 


In 




24-92 


3 




24 1 ;» 


1 




2383 


1 




23 5 


In 




23-3 


In 




22'58 


In 




22-39 


In 




21-45 


In 




21-0 


In 




20-;! 


In 




lil-!)0 


In 




19-1 


In 




18-59 


2 




17-75 


In 




17-10 


1 




](l-6 


In 




16-30 


3 




15-10 


] 




14-82 


1 




14-42 


1 




1418 


1 




14-10 


1 




13-77 


I 




13-27 


1 




12-95 


1 




12-70 


1 




11-8 


lb 




11-05 


1 




10-7 


In 




10-20 


1 




08-9 


In 




08-60 


1 




07-11 


1 




06-52 


2 




06-08 


1 




05-9 


In 




05-48 


In 




04-95 


In 




04-58 


In 




04-22 


In 




03-73 


1 




03-29 


1 




02-98 


1 




02-41 


1 




02-10 


1 




01-5 


In 




00-67 


1 




00-10 


1 




4099-45 


In 




99-2 


lb 




98-30 


1 




98-20 


1 




97-9 


In 




97-55 


In 





Keduction to 
Vacuum 



\+ 


1 

A 


1-13 


6-8 


)) 


11 


S) 


11 


)1 


?i 


1i 


1) 


»» 


11 


J» 


11 


>) 


J) 


)» 


'» 


>? 


11 


'» 


11 


9> 


11 


»» 


11 


n 


11 


» 


It 


i» 


1' 


11 


»» 


»♦ 


)i 


i» 


11 


n 


M 


« 


11 


)) 


)• 


)• 


»l 


»» 


»» 


)» 


11 


»» 


91 


l> 


11 


»» 


1» 


»J 


>1 


9> 


HI 


»» 


11 


«l 


1> 


)l 


11 


»> 


11 


1> 


11 


11 


11 


1» 


1) 


T1 


11 


11 


1) 


If 


11 


4> 


»l 


H 


11 


If 


" 


l» 


11 


1» 


»» 


fl 


» 


»» 


1» 




6-9 




11 
>1 


11 


9) 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



24234 
236-1 
240-4 
242-5 
244 
246 
249 9 
251-0 
256-5 
259 
263 
265-6 
270 
273-4 
278-3 
282-1 
285 
286-9 
293-9 
295-6 
398-0 
299-3 
299-9 
301-8 
304-8 
306-6 
308-1 
313 
317-9 
320 
322-9 
331 
332-4 
341-2 
344-7 
347-4 
348 
350-8 
354-0 
356-2 
358-3 
361-3 
363-9 
3670 
369-0 
371-0 
374-5 
379-4 
382-8 
386-7 
388 
393-4 
394-1 
396 
397-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OK THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 221 

VnAsiVM—contimted. 







Keduction to 




Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


\ + 


1 .1_ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


4097-23 


1 


i 1-13 


6-9 


' 24399-7 


96-93 






1} 


401-5 


96-83 






») 


402-2 


96-56 






»i 


403-9 


95-90 






IT 


407-8 


95-8 


In 




)f 


408 


95-03 




1 


T) 


412-9 


94-75 






It 


414-6 


94-2 


lb 




it 


418 


93-80 


In 


1-12 




420-3 


93-43 


In 




II 


422-5 


92-97 


In 




It 


4252 


92-47 


In 




t9 


428-1 


9205 


In 




tt 


430-8 


91-66 


2d 




It 


432-2 


90-28 






1) 


440-3 


88-98 








449-1 


88-40 






ti 


452-5 


87-87 






tl 


455-1= 


87-51 






;• 


457-7 


86-92 






)} 


461-2 


86-83 






1» 


461-8 


86-63 






tt 


463-4 


86-28 






tt 


465-4 


85-1 


2n 




,, 


472 


84-69 






t) 


474-7 


84-31 






91 


476-4 


83-85 


In 




f > 


479-6 


83-15 


In 




1, 


484-0 


82-80 






)f 


4861 


82-20 






It 


489-7 


81-45 




if 


ti 


494-1 


80-79 






It 


498-2 


80-05 


In 




It 


502-6 


79'51 






» 


605-8 


79-00 




)> 


If 


508-9 


78-35 


In 




ft 


502-8 


77-95 






}t 


505-4 


76-86 






91 


521-9 


76-3 


lb 






525 


75-83 


In 




It 


528-0 


74-68 


Id 




ti 


534-9 


73-93 






It 


539-4 


73-80 






If 


540-2 


73-3 
73-00 


In 




It 

ft 


543 
545-0 


72-20 






II 


549-9 


71-63 






9> 


553-4 


71-30 






J» 


555-3 


70-9 
70-6 


In 
In 






558 
559-5 


70-20 






ft 


561-9 


G9-90 






ff 


563-7 


(i9-23 1 






ji 


567-8 


69-15 1 




» 


II 


568-2 



222 



REPORT — 1900. 



UraniUxM — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length ] 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 1 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum i 


Character j 


A + 


1 

a" 


in Vacuo 


4068-75 


1 


1-12 


6-9 


24570-7 


67-90 


2 




»» 


575-8 


67-33 


1 




)» 


579-2 


66-97 


1 


„ 


j» 


581-4 


66-65 


1 




1) 


583-4 


66-4 


In 




)j 


585 


66-2 


In 




1» 


586 


66-0 


In 




1) 


587 


64-32 


2 




n 


597-4 


63-78 


1 




J» 


600-7 


63 26 


1 




jl 


603-8 


62-72 


2 ■ 




}t 


607-2 


61-90 


1 




1) 


6121 


61-51 


1 




)1 


614-5 


6110 


In 




»1 


617-0 


60-38 


1 




If 


621-3 


60-28 


1 




») 


622-0 


59-8 


lb 




It 


625 


59-3 


lb 




»> 


628 


59-0 


lb 




)} 


630 


58-35 


2 




J) 


633-4 


58-05* 


In 




;) 


635-5 


57-5 


lb 




)» 


639 


56-55 


1 




It 


644-4 


56-20 


1 




»» 


646-7 


55-86 


1 




1) 


648-8 


55-3 


lb 




)1 


652 


54-99 


1 


1-11 


}* 


654-1 


54-87 


1 




11 


654-8 


54-46 


1 




}f 


657-3 


53-8 


In 




J) 


661 


53-20 


1 




»J 


665-0 


52-65 


In 




;f 


668-3 


52-2 


In 




»» 


671 


52-07 


2 




j» 


671-8 


51-3 


In 




7-0 


676 


511 


In 




1) 


678 


50-21 


3 




T» 


683-1 


49-95 


1 




Jl 


684-7 


49-70 


1 




)» 


686-2 


49-40 


In 




ff 


688-0 


48-70 


1 




9) 


692-3 


48-25 


1 




11 


695 


47-78 


1 




11 


697-9 


47-26 


1 




11 


701-2 


46-2 


lb 




11 


708 


45-99t 


2 




11 


708-8 


45-40 


1 




11 


712-4 


45-10 


1 




»J 


714-3 


44-63 


2 




11 


717-1 


44-2 


lb 




11 


720 


43-4 


lb 




11 


725 


42-i)6 


1 




11 


727-4 



* Pll 



t Fc 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 223 

TJRiNiUM — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave -length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


X + 


1_ 

"a. 


in Vacuo 


4042-63 


1 


1-11 


7-0 


24729-4 


42-15 


In 


»» 


»i 


732-3 


41-78 


In 


)) 


)) 


734-6 


41-23 


In 


1* 


)) 


738-0 


40-6 


In 


7» 


)) 


742 


39-9 


In 


»» 


)» 


746 


38-8 


lb 


1) 


») 


753 


38-36 


In 


It 


» 


755-5 


38-10 


1 


J1 


11 


757-1 


37-2 


lb 


)l 


>% 


763 


36-75 


2n 


)» 


It 


765-8 


36-3 


In 


)i 


)> 


768 


35-8 


In 


)» 


ii 


771 


35-45 


In 


1? 


i» 


773-4 


34-G7 


1 


»» 


»> 


778-2 


34-50 


1 


)i 


)» 


779-2 


34-15 


In 


)t 


j» 


781-3 


33-93 


1 


>) 


>) 


782-7 


33-58 


1 


)» 


j» 


784-S 


32-6 


lb 


)» 


)» 


791 


32-00 


1 


jj 


»» 


794-6 


31-50 


In 


n 


)> 


797-7 


30-93 


1 


»» 


j» 


801-2 


3057 


1 


)» 


)» 


803-4 


30-05 


In 


j» 


>» 


806-6 


29-90 


In 


)> 


)> 


807-5 


29-27 


In 


»» 


)» 


811-4 


28-55 


In 


J) 


»» 


815-8 


28-37 


1 


it 


»» 


816.9 


27-97 


1 


») 


>* 


819-7 


27-58 


1 


»» 


J) 


8221 


27-18 


1 


»» 


If 


824-5 


26-19 


2 


>» 


j» 


830-8 


25-60 


1 


J» 


T» 


834-0 


25-22 


1 


ti 


>) 


836-4 


24-9 


In 


?» 


J» 


838 


24-45 


1 


77 


)) 


841-1 


24-33 


In 


11 


»» 


841-8 


23-76 


In 


17 


J» 


845-4 


23-40 


1 


11 


)» 


847 6 


23-05 


In 


11 


>) 


849-8 


22-95 


In 


11 


Jl 


850-4 


22-2 


In 


J« 


Jt 


855 


22-0 


In 


11 


J> 


856 


21-65 


In 


11 


J? 


858-4 


:!l-35 


In 


11 


»» 


860-3 


21-17 


1 


11 


»» 


861-4 


20.35 


Id 


11 


1 >» 


866-5 


19-39 


1 


»1 


»» 


872-4 


19-13 


1 


71 


)» ■ 


874-0 


18-65 


1 


17 


>» 


877-0 


18-43 


1 


)1 


n 


878-S 


17-88 


O 


»» 


n 


881-7 


17-(!r) 


1 1 


'J 


fi 


883-2 


17-40 


1 1 


1 


ti 


884-7 



224 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ue4.NI VTA— continued. 





1 Reduction to 




Wave-len^'th j Intensity- 


j Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 1 and 


, 


Frequency 


Spectrum Character 


1 1 


in Vacuo 


4017-02 ' Id 


1-11 


70 


24887-0 


16-52 




»l 


M 


890-1 


16-22 




)1 


1* 


892-0 


15-5;-. 




110 


»» 


896-1 


15-1;; 

1 




)» »» 


896-9 


1 14-!>il 




»» »» 


899-8 


14-72 




»» »1 


901-4 ! 


14-35 






903-7 


13-G 


In 


i 


908 


13-30 




1» 


)l 


910-1 


1293 




If 


f» 


912-4 


12-60 




)> 


»» 


914-5 


12-3S 




1* 


|» 


915-9 


12-03 




*» 


If 


918-0 


11-93 




»» 


1* 


918-7 


11-64 


Id 


1 } 


11 


920-5 


11-20 




»l 


ft 


923-2 


11-00 


■'■ 


)) 


ff 


924-4 


10-88 


1 


11 


11 


925-1 


10-53 1 


If 


ff 


927-3 


09-73 1 


Jl 


ff 


932-3 


09 60 




Ij 




933-1 


09-37 




f f 


f f 


934-5 


09-25 




tl 


If 


935-3 


03-89 




t> 


)J 


937-0 


08-59 




It 


1} 


939-4 


08-22 


In 


t) 




941-7 


08-10 




yt 


]f 


942-5 


07-86 




it 


ff 


9440 


07-60 




If 


ff 


943-6 


07-28 




II 


ff 


945-6 


07-13 




1} 


ff 


946-6 


05-5 


lb 


f 1 




952 


05-92 


I 


)t 


jf 


956-0 


05-83 




)} 


ff 


956-6 


05-40 




11 


ff 


959-3 


05-00 




f9 


f ) 


961-8 


04-80 




jl 


ff 


963-0 


04-70 




It 


ff 


963-7 


04-30 




)} 


ff 


966-1 


04-20 




It 




966-8 


03-95 




tl 


f f 


968-3 


03-58 




tl 




970-6 


03-32 




tt 




972-2 


02-51 




■ t 


ff 


977-3 


02-14 




)j 


f) 


979-7 


01-82 




If 


;f 


981-5 


01-40 




)1 


}) 


984-1 


01-08 




11 


ff 


986-2 


00-87 




11 




987-5 


00-47 




It 


ff I 


990-0 


00-13 




tl 


ff 


992-2 


3999-70 




tt 


f) 


994-8 


99-33 


In 


tj ! 




9976 


98-95 


In 


»» 1 


t) 1 


999-7 



6N WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECtRA OP THE ELEMENTS. 225 

Ueanium — continued. 



1 

1 


1 


Reduction to 


1 


Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 

i 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3998-36 


2 


1-10 


7-0 


24993-4 


97-49 




»> 


i» 


998-8 


97-20 




J» 


>» 


25000-2 


96-90 




Jl 


11 


012-3 


96-1 


lb 


») 


»» 


017-5 


95-67 




»» 


»i 


020-2 


95-17 




J» 


n 


023-3 


94-42 




»» 


1» 


028-0 


94-0 


In 


n 


If 


030-5 


93-2 


In 


»» 


11 


035-5 


92-70 




») 


11 


038-6 


92-35 


In 


»> 


11 


040-8 


91-9 


In 


j» 


11 


044 


91-75 


In 


)* 


J) 


044-6 


90-61 




j» 


11 


051-7 


90-24 




It 


Jl 


054-0 


9010 




)> 


>1 


055-5 


89-47 


In 


»t 


J* 


059-2 


89-02 




») 


f 1 


061-2 


88-78 




i» 


>1 


063-8 


88-50 




a 


11 


065-0 


88-18 




)* 


)I 


067-0 


86-87 




j» 


Jl 


069-0 


87-19 




>» 


11 


073-2 


87-03 




)» 


11 


074-2 


86-60 


In 


n 


>l 


076-9 


85-95 




)) 


»» 


0810 


85-19 




ti 


If 


085-8 


84-90 




9> 


If 


087-6 


84-70 




Jl 


11 


088-9 


84-33 




)1 


}f 


091-2 


84-03 




)f 


Jf 


093-1 


83-45 


In 


f* 


If 


096-7 


83-1 


In 


>* 


If 


099 


82-69 




J» 


1) 


092-6 


82-27 




)l 


11 


095-1 


81-93 




>> 


11 


097-3 


81-71 




jj 


)f 


098-7 


81-06 




J» 


If 


111-8 


80-95 




f f 


fl 


112-5 


79-92 




1 J 


7-1 


1190 


79-67 




(T 


It 


120-6 


79-27 




1 ) 




123-1 


78-95 




}) 


tl 


125-1 


78-4 


lb 


11 


It 


129 


77-50 




I) 


It 


134-3 


77-22 




11 


tf 


136-1 


76-6 


lb 


1» 


If 


140 


75-4 


In 


1-09 


If 


148 


75-13 




)1 


It 


1490 


74-70 




11 


ft 


152-0 


74-50 




If 


)} 


153-3 


74-15 




)I 


f f 


155-5 


73-40 




11 


It 


160-3 


72-51 




11 


J» 


165-9 



1900. 



nna 



REPOET — 1900. 



Ueanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 

Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Cliaraoter 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3971-58 




1-09 


7-1 


25171-8 


71-3 


In 


9f 


»» 


174 


70-75 




»> 


n 


177-0 


70-60 




n 


)> 


178-0 


70-30 




1) 


»? 


179-9 


69-55 




jj 


») 


184-6 


69-23 




n 


») 


189-2 


68-63 


2Ca 


1} 


») 


190-5 


68-16 




ff 


»» 


193-5 


67-8 


In 


jj 


») 


196 


67-6 


In 


»» 


)» 


197 


67-25 


In 


)» 


)) 


199-3 


66-73 




>T 


11 


202-5 


66-5 


In 


)» 


)t 


204 


66-10 




)) 


11 


206-6 


66-00 




' I) 


»i 


207-2 


65-43 




11 


i; 


210-8 


G5-15 




It 


»i 


212-6 


64-85 




)» 


1) 


214-5 


64-32 




M 


>* 


217-9 


63-13 




»7 


jt 


225-6 


G2-95 




)J 


») 


226-7 


62-60 




»» 


7J 


228-9 


62-43 




)» 


»J 


230-0 


62-18 




1J 


If 


231-6 


61-88 


In 


If 


»• 


235-7 


61-70 


In 


9f 


J> 


284-6 


61-29 




») 


?» 


237-2 


61-00 




)» 


11 


239-0 


60-70 




fi 


9» 


241-0 


60-4 


In 


)» 


)1 


243 


59-9 


lb 


)» 


If 


246 


59-5 


lb 


tf 


}} 


249 


58-3 


lb 


)J 


tf 


256 


57-97 




1) 


9( 


258-4 


57-65 




J) 


J) 


260-4 


57-50 




n 


1) 


261-4 


57-08 




)) 


)) 


264-1 


56-72 




f ) 


)1 


266-3 


56-45 


In 


»» 


>j 


268-0 


56-2 


In 


jj 


7-2 


270 


55-91 




)t 




271-5 


55-55 




)) 


f) 


273-7 


54-87 




n 


3* 


278-1 


54-40 




It 


)> 


281-1 


53-75 




>f 


It 


285-2 


53-13 




»9 


If 


285-9 


52-67 


In 


t) 


)j 


289-0 


52-45 




>> 


}} 


293-6 


52-03 


In 


1 


If 


296-2 


51-75 


]n 


yf 


9» 


298-8 


50-90 




»j 


)» 


303-5 


50-27 




1» 


»» 


307-5 


49-69 




1> 


IJ 


311-2 


49 44 




n 


l» 


312-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 227 

Ubanium — continued. 



1 




Reduction to 1 




Wave-lengtli 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 


Spark 


and 




1 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


394920 




1-09 


7-2 


25314-4 


48-54 




I) 


tf 


318-5 


48-13 




»» 


ft 


321-2 


47-05 


111 


91 


It 


328-2 


4G-8S 




J) 


ft 


329-3 


4G-40 




ff 


ff 


382-3 


45-8i8 


In 


t* 


ft 


335*1 


45-45 




}t 


ft 


338-5 


45-10 




tt 


tt 


340-8 


44-77 




I) 


ft 


342-9 


44-32 




») 


ft 


345-8 


43-97 




a 


ff 


348-1 


43-68 




» 


It 


350-0 


4300 




i» 


ft 


354-2 


42-71 




i> 


t) 


356-1 


42-43 




f) 


tt 


357-9 


42-22 




)i 


tt 


359-2 


41-60 




If 


it 


363-2 


41-26 




»j 


tt 


365-4 


40-80 




>i 


tt 


367-4 


40-64 




f) 


tf 


368-4 


40-45 




fi 


tt 


369-6 


39-93 




If 


tt 


3780 


39-56 




ff 


tf 


380-4 


39-27 


In 


11 


It 


382-2 


38-57 


In 


jf 


tt 


382-7 


38-00 


In 


ff 


>) 


386-4 


37-23 




ft 


tf 


391-3 


36-88 




1-08 


tt 


393-6 


36-55 


Id 


tt 


It 


395-7 


36-18 




jt 


tf 


398-1 


35-52 




! *) 


ft 


402-4 


34-9 


In 


f> 


tt 


406 


33-92 




>t 


)J 


412-8 


33-81 


4Ca 


ft 


tt 


413-5 


33-18 




}} 


tf 


417-6 


32-20 




ft 


tt 


4240 


31-65 




tt 


tf 


427-6 


31-37 


In 


tt 


ft 


429-2 


31-15 




tf 


tf 


430-6 


310 


In 


9* 


ff 


432 


30-58 




Jt 


tt 


434-3 


30-22 




tt 


t» 


436-6 


29-90 




>t 


tt 


438-7 


29-38 




ft 


Jt 


4421 


29-22 




ft 


tt 


443-2 


28-95 




ft 


tt 


444-9 


28-60 




ff 


It 


447-2 


28-45 




ft 


tt 


448-5 


28-20 




)t 


ft 


449-8 


27-92 




It 


•t 


451-6 


27-10 




ft 


tt 


456-9 


26-90 




tt 


tt 


458-1 


26-45 


In 


tf 


»t 


461-1 


1 25-7 


In 


ff 


ft 


466 



228 



hEPdRt— 1900. 

Vrajhivu— continued. 







Eeduction to 






Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


find 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Spark 


Character 




1 


Spectrum 




X + 


a" 




3925-45 


In 


108 


7-2 


25467-6 


25-17 


In 


»> 


1) 


469-4 


25-0 


In 


»> 


>» 


470-5 


24-67 




l» 


11 


472-7 


24-45 




»» 


») 


474-1 


24-11 




»» 


11 


476-3 


23-8 


In 


»» 


tl 


478 


23-5 


In 


II 


*i 


480 


23-25 




11 


It 


481-8 


22-60 




T» 


It 


486-1 


22-35 




l» 


91 


487-7 


22-18 




It 


it 


488-8 


21-74 




1> 


tl 


491-7 


21-40 




l» 


11 


493-9 


21-2 


In 


»» 


»» 


495 


2007 


In 


»» 


It 


498-4 


2005 


In 


»» 


It 


499-7 


19-95 


In 


»» 


tt 


503-3 


19-49 




)» 


11 


506-3 


19-22 




»» 


»» 


608-0 


18-57 




n 


i» 


512-3 


18-27 




>> 


II 


514-3 


17-96 




»i 


It 


516-3 


17-78 




1* 


1) 


517-5 


17-55 




n 


tl 


618-9 


17-45 




»» 


11 


619-6 


17-18 




1) 


It 


521-4 


16-75 


In 


tf 


11 


524-2 


16-60 


In 


M 


It 


525-1 


16-05 




It 


tl 


528-8 


15-5 


In 


»» 


tl 


632 


15-20 




II 


11 


534-3 


14-94 




>J 


It 


536-0 


14-45 




11 


)i 


639-2 


14-0 


In 


»» 


11 


642 


13-63 




II 


»i 


544-5 


13-48 




l» 


II 


545-5 


12-95 


In 


>l 


It 


549-0 


12-60 




tl 


7-3 


551-1 


11-90 




11 


i» 


555-7 


11-45 


In 


11 


>> 


558-8 


11-15 


In 


> i 


f* 


560-7 


10-67 




11 


»» 


563-9 


1037 




II 


>i 


566-8 


09-88 




it 


)» 


568-9 


09-22 




11 


»i 


673-2 


09-10 




11 


f* 


674-0 


08-60 


In 


11 


»» 


577-3 


0801 




19 


i> 


681-2 


07-72 




II 


If 


683-1 


07-42 




■ t 


IT 


685-1 


07-17 




)1 


)1 


586-8 


06-7 


2b 


11 


U 


690 


06-1 


lb 


11 


1) 


594 


05 00 




»> 


11 


600-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 229 

Ueanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 




Frequency 




Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


3904-73 




1-08 


7-3 


25602-8 


04-44 




11 


)) 


604-6 


04-06 






11 


607-2 


03-47 




If 


i> 


611-0 


03-13 




11 


11 


613-2 


02-70 




11 


11 


618-6 


01-75 


In 




11 


622-3 


00-48 






11 


630-6 


3899-98 






11 


633-9 


99-64 




}l 


1* 


636-1 


99-24 


In 


)f 


11 


638-7 


98-97 


In 


1) 


11 


640-5 


98-1 


In 




If 


646 


97-87 






11 


648-7 


97-44 




)} 


11 


650-6 


97-22 




tt 


11 


652-0 


96-92 




1-07 


11 


654-0 


96-27 




It 


11 


658-3 


96-07 


1 


11 


11 


659-6 


95-82* 




») 


If 


661-2 


95-41 




»» 


11 


663-9 


95-20 




Jl 


It 


665-3 


94-89 




»t 


11 


667-4 


94-26 




11 


11 


671-5 


93-96 




I» 


11 


673-5 


93-48 




)* 


11 


676-7 


92-85 




I» 


11 


680-8 


92-56 




11 


11 


682-7 


92-22* 




11 


11 


685 


91-93 




IJ 


11 


686-9 


91-22 




J 


f* 


691-6 


90-51 




>> 


11 


696-3 


89-54 




)> 


11 


702-7 


88-72 




}} 


11 


708-1 


88-32 




»l 


11 


710-8 


87-85 




11 


1) 


713-8 


87-36 




)» 


11 


717-2 


86-6 


lb 


J» 


11 


722 


85-83 




it 


11 


727-3 


85-12 




11 


If 


731-9 


84-83 




11 


11 


733-8 


84-47 




T* 


11 


736-2 


84-09 




11 


11 


738-7 


8a-4 


In 


If 


11 


743 


83-20 




11 


11 


744-6 


82-79 




1» 


11 


746-8 


82 62 




»» 


11 


747-8 


8205 




It 


11 


750-9 


81-61 




tt 


11 


755-6 


80-8 


In 


1j 


11 


761 


79-88 




>. 1 


11 


766-9 


79-73 




11 


11 


767-9 


79-12 




It 


11 


761-9 1 



Mg? 



230 


REPORT — 1900. 






Uba xium — continued. 








Reduction to 




"Wave-lengtli 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


3878-23 


2 


1-07 


7-3 


25777-7 


77-60 




)} 


»i 


781-9 


77-50 




11 


If 


782-5 


77-1 




H 


11 


785 


76-75 




1* 


11 


787-4 


76-48 




J» 


11 


784-2 


76-28 




»» 


>» 


790-5 


75-66 




») 


»> 


794-8 


75-15 




J1 


?> 


798-1 


74-68 




J» 


i» 


801-3 


74-20 




M 


i» 


804-5 


73-28 




»1 


i> 


810-5 


73-22 




)? 


11 


811-0 


73-03 




)> 


»i 


812-2 


72-70 




J» 


11 


814-4 


72-50 




» 


i> 


815-8 


72-06 




»1 


)i 


818-8 


71-69 




M 


)» 


821-3 


71-52 




Tl 


»» 


822-4 


71-18 




)) 


*i 


824-6 


70-73 




11 


»» 


827-7 


70-22 




1) 


j» 


831-0 


6990 




)) 


>> 


833-2 


69-05 




n 


)j 


838-8 


68-95 




j> 


11 


839-0 


68-57 




)* 


»f 


842-0 


67-32 




11 


11 


851-2 


67-17 




11 


»» 


852-1 


66-89 




11 


11 


853-9 


66-62 




It 


j» 


855-7 


6608 




»> 


i» 


859-3 


65-65 


1 (Fe) 


*» 


11 


862-2 


65-26 




J» 


i» 


864-7 


64-85 




1? 


!» 


866-9 


64-65 




1* 


» 


868-4 


64-48 




)» 


1» 


869-5 


64-24 




11 


)) 


8711 


63-90 




n 


)» 


873-3 


63-57 




)i 


U 


875-5 


63-25 




1) 


11 


877-6 


62-45 




11 


11 


882-9 


61-9 






11 


887 


61-30 




11 


IJ 


890-8 


60-75 




)) 


11 


894-4 


59-75 




11 


)I 


901-1 


5916 




)i 


11 


905-0 


58-8 


In 


11 


>) 


907-5 


58-35 


In 


)) 


51 


911-2 


57-8 


In 


11 


11 


914 


57-35 


In 


11 


11 


917-2 


56-94 




1-06 


11 


919-9 


56-74 




11 


>> 


921-3 


56-5 


In(Fe) 


11 


>1 


923 


55-96 






»1 


926-5 


55-60 




1) 


i 


029-0 



ON WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 231 

Ubanium — continued. 







Keduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 1 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum ; 


Character 

1 


A.+ 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 

1 


3855-00 


1 


1-06 


7-3 


25933-0 


54-80 


2 




1) 


934-4 


54-42* 






)j 


937-0 


53-03 






)» 


940-1 


53-53 


Id 




H 


942-9 


5316 






}1 


945-5 


52-86 


In 




t1 


947-4 


52-28 


In 




>? 


951-3 


52-0 


In 




)» 


953 


51-43 


1 




JJ 


956-9 


51-10 






)) 


959-3 


50-95 


In 




?» 


960-3 


50-5 






)1 


963 


49-87 






H 


967-6 


49-G* 


In 




ii 


969 


48-9 


In 




n 


974 


48-77 






5) 


975-6 


48-24 






51 


978-6 


47-95 


In 




») 


980-6 


47-25 


In 




>1 


985-3 


46-70 






1> 


989-0 


46-38 






;> 


991-2 


45-98 




jj 


n 


993-9 


45-50 






it 


26997-1 


45-27 






ii 


998-6 


44-85 






1) 


991-5 


44-33 


In 




s» 


995-0 


44-13 






J) 


996-4 


43-92 






»i 


997-8 


43-61 






)) 


999-9 


42-86 






Jt 


015-0 


42-36 






J) 


018-4 


42-00 






Jl 


020-8 


41-20 


Id (Fe) 




>» 


026-2 


40-50 






J) 


031-0 


40 05 






M 


034-0 


39-77 






)> 


035-9 


39-63 






»» 


036-9 


3915 






J) 


040-2 


38-28 






H 


046-1 


37-95 






1» 


048-3 


37-63 






i» 


050-4 


37-40 






)» 


052-0 


37-0 


In 




i> 


055 


36-6 


In 




i» 


057 


36-45 


In 




i» 


058-3 


3605 






n 


061-2 


35-25 






») 


0G6-6 


34-94 




1 If 


)j 


068-7 


34-72 






1) 


070-2 


33-90 






■ » 


075-8 


33-16 






11 


080-8 


! 32-75 




»» 


»» 


083-6 



Mg? 



232 


REPORT — 1900. 




VRAmvn—continved. 






Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


bpark 




Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


J- in Vacuo 


3832-07 




1-06 


7-3 


26088-2 


31-60 




,, 




091-4 


30-77 




„ 




097-0 


30-36 








099-8 


29-95 








002-7 


29-50* 








105-8 


29-20 








107-8 


28-92 








109-3 


28-22 








114-5 


27-93* 








116-5 


27-56 








119-0 


27-02 








122-7 


26-65 








1252 


25-61 








132-3 


25-29 








134-5 


24-85 




^^ 




137-5 


24-1 


In 






143 


23-62 








146-0 


23-26 








148-4 


23-10 








149-5 


22-71 








152-2 


22-56 








153-2 


22-14 








1561 


21-38 


1 






161-2 


21-15 








162-8 


19-46 








174-4 


19-19 




*' 




176-3 


18-86 


Id 






178-5 


18-62 








180-1 


18-28 








182-5 


1780 








185-7 


17-30 






7-4 


189-1 


16-75 




1-05 




192-9 


16-22 








196-5 


15-50 








201-5 


]5-30 








202-9 


14-06 








205-2 


14-25 








210-1 


13-94 








212-2 


13-40 








215-9 


12-86 








219-6 


12-72 








220-6 


12-42 






,, 


222-7 


12-16 








224-4 


11-81 








226-8 


11-67 








227-8 


11-20 








231-1 


11-05 








232-1 


10-33 








237-0 


09-73 


In 






241-2 


09-36 








243-7 


09-12 








245-4 


08-35 


li 


!! 




250-7 



*Mg? 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 233 

Ura N I UM — oontimted. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 




Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 
\ 


in Vacuo 


3807-75 




105 


7-4 


26254-8 


07-4: 


lb 




fi 


257 


06-5 


In 




f» 


263 


06-40 






19 


264-1 


05-99 






)> 


267-0 


05-83 






)» 


275-0 


05-20 


In 




)1 


272-4 


05-00 






)l 


273-8 


04-52 


In 




J» 


277-1 


04-1 


lb 




1} 


280 


03-50 






>> 


284-2 


03-25 






1} 


285-9 


03-00 






» 


287-6 


02-43 






)l 


291-6 


02-10 






)f 


293-9 


01-90 


In 




)> 


295-2 


01-45 






19 


298-4 


01-35 






1> 


299-0 


00-9 


In 




t» 


303 


00-43 


In 




)» 


305-4 


00-30 


In 




11 


306-3 


3799-75 






1} 


310-1 


99-36 






)) 


312-8 


98-99 






)i 


324-9 


98-40 






J* 


319-4 


97-93 


Id 




)» 


322-8 


97-70 






f) 


324-3 


97-2 


lb 




>» 


328 


96-98 






It 


329-4 


96-70 






1) 


331-3 


96-62 






>f 


331-8 


96-38 






1» 


333-5 


96-20 


■m 




») 


334-7 


95-76 






»> 


337-8 


95-29 






}) 


341-1 


94-50 






»l 


346-5 


94-15 






}« 


349-0 


93-74 






)» 


351-8 


93-45 






11 


353-8 


93-24 






11 


355-2 


92-69 






11 


359-1 


92-50 


Id 




t> 


360-4 


92-03 






11 


363-7 


91-50 






11 


367-4 


91-25 






11 


3691 


90-94 






11 


371-3 


90-50 






11 


374-3 


90-36 






11 


375-3 


9003 






11 


377-6 


89-76 






• 1 


379-5 


89-36 






If 


382-2 


8902 






11 


384-5 


88-77 






11 


386-3 


88-37 






11 


389-1 


88-15 






)l 


390-6 



234 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ueanium — continued. 







Keduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A-f 


1 


in Vacuo 


3787-40 




1-05 


7-4 


26395-9 


86-99 




>» 


)) 


398-8 


86-74 




») 




400-5 


86-30 


In 


H 


)) 


403-6 


85-5 


In 


)» 


t) 


409 


85-30 




)) 


i) 


410-6 


84-90 




>» 


)f 


413-4 


84-02 




)) 


)» 


419-5 


83-80 


In 


1* 




421-1 


83-99 




11 


)« 


426-7 


82-5 


lb 


)» 


11 


430 


82-1 


lb 


>» 


)l 


433 


81-60 




J? 


ft 


436-4 


81-33 




J) 




438-3 


81-23 




Tl 




443-6 


80-90 




}I 


11 


441-3 


80-44 




)t 




444-5 


79-3 


In 


)) 




453 


7918 




)1 


11 


453-4 


78-75 


In 


)» 


jl 


456-4 


78-5 


In 


)> 


)} 


459 


78-15 




t) 




460-6 


77-83 




It 


)) 


462-9 


77-61 




f 1 




464-5 


77-50 


In 


)» 


fl' 


465-1 


77-17 




11 




467-2 


76-87 




1-04 




469-3 


76-63 




)j 


}) 


471-0 


76-15 




jj 




474-3 


75-74 




)I 


tf 


476-9 


75-65 




1) 


11 


477-9 


75-42 








479-5 


75-02 




)( 




482-3 


74-57 








485-5 


74-22 








488-0 


73-82 




;; 




4910 


73-72 








493-7 


73-57 




)t 




492-7 


72-97 








496-9 


72-50 






7-5 


500-1 


71-55 








506-8 


70-60 








513-5 


70-30 








515-6 


69-68 








519-8 


68-95 




1} 


jt 


525-0 


68-67 






jt 


527-0 


68-57 




}f 


)} 


527-8 


68-22 


In 


I) 


i> 


530-1 


68-02 


In 






531-5 


67-62 








534-3 


1 67-33* 




1} 


J) 


5364 


67-05 








538-5 


66-6 


lb 


»» 


If 


543 



Fe? 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELExMENTS. 235 

'ORANiUM—oo?itiniied. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum . 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 


A 


376600 


1 


1-04 


7-5 


26545-9 


65-47 


In 


» 


9} 


5496 


64-95 


In 


>l 


J) 


553-2 


64-71 


1 




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555-0 


64-30 


I 




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567-9 


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1 


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63-43 


1 


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3j 


564-0 


6313 


1 


>J 


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666-1 


62-89 


1 


>) 


19 


567-8 


62-27 
62-11 


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1 


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572-2 
573-3 


61-74 


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575-9 


61-23 


1 




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579-5 


61-02 


1 


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t> 


581-1 


60-5 


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585 


60-00 
59-38 


1 
2 


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688-2 
592-6 


58-2 
57-09 


In 
1 


it 


)» 


601 
608-9 


56-82 


In 


J» 


}} 


610-8 


55-7 


lb 






618 


55-2 
54-46 


lb 
1 


)t 


J» 


622 
627-5 


5412 


1 


19 


)f 


629-8 


53-85 


In 


»» 


ft 


631-9 


53-7 
53-22 
53-02 
52-84 


In 

1 

1 

1 


1* 
1» 

9t 


fl 

» 


633 
636-2 
637-7 
639-0 


52-49 


1 


)» 


)9 


644-4 


52-30 


1 


)J 


J) 


642-9 


51-92 


1 


»» 


fl 


645-fi 


51-46 


1 


t> 


ff 


648-8 


51-3 


In 


it 




650 


50-51 
50-14 
50-02 
49-35 
48-90 
47-34 
46-82 
46-60 
46-10 
45-75 
45-53 
46-15 
44-95 


1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

In 

2 

In 

1 

1 

1 

1 


)» 
1) 
J* 


)» 
)f 
ff 
>f 
)1 
fj 
f> 
fl 
II 
l» 
II 
•» 
fl 


655-5 
668-2 
6590 
663-8 
6670 
668-7 
678-2 
683-3 
686-9 
689-3 
690-8 
693-7 
696-1 


44-65 
44-89 
43-97 
43-55 
4307 
42-96 
42-67 
42-50 


I I 

1 

Id 

1 

In 

1 

In 

1 


91 


If 
ff 
91 
II 
II 
If 
II 
19 


697-2 
6990 
7021 
704-9 
708-6 
709-3 
711-5 
712-6 



236 



KEPORT — 1900. 
Ueanium— co«<mM«<?. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


3741-87 


1 


1-04 


7-5 


26717-0 


41-66 


1 




ji 


719-3 


41-43 


] 




tt 


7202 


41-12 


1 




>* 


722-4 


40-85 


In 




)) 


724-3 


40-4 


lb 




91 


728 


39-50 


1 




}f 


734-0 


39-18 


1 




ty 


735-3 


38-80 


1 






738-0 


38-48 


1 




f f 


740-2 


38-23 


2 




11 


742-0 


37-45 


2n 


1-03 


J) 


747-5 


36-75 


In 






753-7 


36-2 


In 






758 


35-7 


In 




)1 


761 


35-05* 


1 




ft 


766-6 


34-83 


1 




it 


767-4 


33-95 


1 






773-7 


33-75 


1 




It 


775-2 


33-25 


2 




f ) 


778-7 


32-77 


2 




11 


782-2 


32-43 


1 




11 


784-6 


31-9 


In 




11 


788-5 


31-64 


1 




1> 


790-4 


31-10 


1 




11 


794-3 


30-98 


1 




11 


795-1 


30-37 


1 




11 


799-5 


30-00 


2 




11 


802-1 


29-49 


1 




)t 


805-6 


2900 


1 




1] 


80S-3 


28-60 


1 




1) 


812-2 


28-01 


1 




7-6 


8165 


27-91 


1 






817-1 


27-30 


1 




fi 


821-5 


27-02 


1 




}t 


823-5 


26-72 


1 




}) 


828-7 


26-49 


1 




y) 


827-3 


26-22 


1 




jf 


829-2 


25-93 


In 




jt 


831-3 


25-80 


1 






832-2 


25-55 


1 




jl 


8340 


• 25-26 


1 






8361 


25-18 


1 




»» 


836-6 


24-60 


1 




}} 


841-6 


24-35 


1 




}} 


842-5 


23-85 


2n 




;i 


846-2 


22-92 


1 




ft 


853-0 


22-6 


In 




tl 


855 


21-95 


In 




)> 


866-0 


21-55 


In 




1» 


862-9 


20-54 


1 




ff 


870-1 


20-13* 


1 




tt 


873-2 


1975 


1 


I 


It 


875-9 1 



Fe? 



ON WAVE-LEUGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 237 

Uranium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spaik 
Spectium 


and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 




i_ 






A + 


A~ 




3719-50 




1-03 


7'6 


26877-7 


18-98 


In 


n 


It 


881-5 


18-78 




11 


f» 


882-9 


18-25 




»» 


»i 


886-8 


17-60 




») 


»» 


891-5 


17-23 




»» 


1) 


893-2 


16-95 




ij 


i» 


895-2 


16-72 




11 


ft 


896-9 


16-32 




It 


tt 


899-8 


15-85 




»» 


»y 


904-1 


15-63 




11 


ft 


905-7 


1515 




11 


j» 


909-2 


14-93 




11 


ft 


910-8 


14-60 




n 


ft 


913-2 


14-40 




11 


tt 


914-6 


13-95 






ft 


917-9 


13-82 






>» 


918-7 


12-4 


lb 


M 


tt 


929 


11-98 




11 


tt 


932-2 


11-10 




tl 


tt 


938-6 


11-00 




n 


ft 


939-3 


10-73 




,, 


tt 


9412 


10-36 




11 


tt 


948-4 


1005 




11 


ft 


946-2 


09-65 


In 


ji 


ft 


949-1 


09-45 


In 


11 


ft 


950-5 


09-2 


In 


i» 


ft 


952 


08-75 


In 


71 


tt 


955-7 


08-10 




11 


tt 


960-4 


07-80 




11 


tt 


962-5 


07-45 


In 


1» 


tt 


965-0 


06-86 




11 


tt 


969-4 


06-10 




11 


It 


974-9 


05-72 




11 


tt 


977-7 


05-20 




11 


tt 


981-5 


04-50 




1» 


ft 


986-6 


04-25 




,, 


ft 


988-4 


03-80 




11 


It 


991-7 


03-45 




,, 


ft 


994-2 


02-80 




11 


tt 


999-0 


02-38 


In 


1» 


tt 


27002-1 


01-9 


In 


»> 


t> 


006 


01-68 




II 


tt 


007-3 


00-74 




)1 


ft 


014-1 


00-00 




11 


tt 


019-4 


3699-83 




11 


ft 


020-6 


99-60 




11 


ft 


022-3 


98-63 


Id 


11 


tt 


029-4 


£8-10 




„ 


tt 


033-3 


97-69 




102 


ft 


036-4 


97-32 




11 


ft 


039-1 


96-98 




„ 


tt 


041-5 


96-48 




11 


tt 


045-2 


96-25 




1) 


ft 


046-9 


95-98 


1 


11 


t) 


048 8 



238 


REPORT— 1900 


• 






Ueanium — continued. 










Reduction to 




) 


Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 

1 


Oscillation 








Frequency 




Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 




3695-35 


In 


102 


7G 


27053-4 




94-95 




" 1 


11 


056-3 




94-4C 


1 1 


" 1 


11 


0600 




93-89 




" 1 


11 


0641 




93-46 




ji ; 


11 


067-3 




93-08 


In i 


" ! 


11 


070-1 




92-48 




11 


ti 


074-4 




92-15 




n 


11 


079-6 




92-07 




)j 


It 


077-5 




91-65 




•>•> 


11 


080-5 




91-15 




»i 


j» 


081-6 




91-00 




11 


It 


085-3 




90-43 




11 


11 


084-2 




90-18 


1 


11 


>» 


091-3 




89-80 




,, 


11 


0941 




89-37 




11 


»» 


097-2 




89-19 




11 


»» 


098-6 




88-93 




11 


T> 


100-5 




88-53 




11 


11 


103-5 




88-02 




1) 


II 


107-2 




87-88 




11 


11 


108-2 




87-55 




11 


11 


110-6 




87-27 




If 


11 


112-7 




87-12 




)J 


1) 


113-8 




86-93 




f> 


11 


115-7 




86-63 


1 


)» 


11 


117-4 




85-94 


1 


11 


)> 


122-5 




85-71 




11 


)> 


124-2 




85-45 




11 


11 


1261 




84-77 


In 


11 


11 


131-1 




84-45 




11 


99 


133-4 




84-30 




11 


11 


134-6 




83-75 




11 


7-7 


138-6 




83-00 




11 


)) 


144-1 




82-63 




11 


1* 


146-8 




82-25 




>» 


j> 


1496 




81-85 




11 


f> 


152-6 




81-07 


Id 


11 


>» 


158-3 




80-68 




>i 


J) 


161-2 




80-45 




11 


)j 


162-9 




80-10 




11 


»» 


165-5 




79-99 




11 


>j 


166-3 




79-54 




11 


»> 


169-6 




78-93 




11 


J) 


174-1 




78-3 


In 


f) 


» 


179 




77-82 




11 


1) 


182-3 




77-60 




11 


»> 


1840 




77-2 


In 


11 


j» 


187 




76-75 


2d 


11 


1} 


190-2 




75-75 


Id 


11 


If 


197-6 




75-26 




11 


n 


201-3 




75-19 




1) 


») 


201-8 




74-90 




11 


If 


203-9 




74-25 




11 


I) 


208-7 




7356 


1 


» 


» 


213-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 239 

Uranium —continued. 



! 




Eeduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 






Spectrum 

1 
1 


Character 

1 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3G73-22 




1-02 


7-7 


27216-3 


72-75 




» 


11 


219-8 


71-98 


In 


>i 


11 


225-5 


71-75* 


In 


>j 


11 


227-2 


70-7 


In 


If 


II 


235 


70-'10 




»» 


11 


237 3 


70-26 




n 


II 


238-3 


69-50 




1) 


11 


244-0 


69-33 




II 


11 


245-2 


68-90 




>i 


11 


248-4 


68-25 


In 


II 


If 


253-2 


68-13 




II 


If 


254-1 


67-9 


In 


II 


1? 


256 


07-30 




II 


11 


260-3 


66-95 


Id 


II 


11 


206-3 


66-35 




II 


11 


207-5 


66-28 




1) 


11 


268-0 


63-6 


In 


II 


If 


273 


65-3 


In 


II 


II 


275 


64-92 




II 


II 


278-0 


6i-69 




II 


II 


279-7 


61-40 


1 
1 


II 


If 


283-9 


64-0 


In 


II 


fi 


285 


63-5 


In 


11 


ij 


289 


63-2 


In 


11 


II 


291 


62-8 


In 


11 


SI 


294 


62-50 




II 


11 


296-1 


62-10 




II 


II 


299-0 


61-60 




II 


11 


302-8 


61-47 




II 


11 


304-4 


60-90 


In 


11 


11 


3080 


60-5 


In 


11 


If 


311 


60-27 




II 


11 


313-3 


59-76 




II 


11 


317-1 


59-28 




11 


11 


320-7 


59-19 




11 


11 


321-3 


58-8 


In 


11 


11 


324 


58-30 




11 


II 


327-4 


58-01 






If 


329-6 


57-50 




1-01 


11 


333-3 


57-09 




l] 


11 


336-4 


56-80 




1) 


l> 


338-6 


56-40 




)) 


II 


341-6 


56-30 




)> 


11 


342-4 


5609 




99 


>l 


344-0 


55-61 




5> 


1! 


347-5 


55-35 




)» 


11 


349-5 


55-05 




»1 


If 


351-7 


! 54-80 




1) 


II 


353-6 


i 54-43 




)> 


11 


356-3 


54-25 




)? 


If 


357-7 


53-65 




1) 


If 


362-2 


53-34 




?» 


)l 


364-5 



* Pb: 



240 



Report — 1900. 

tlEANiUM — continued. 







Eeduction to 




Wave-lengtli 
Sp ark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 

A 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


in Vacuo 


3652-21 




1-01 


7-7 


27373-0 


51-6 


lb 


)J 


Jt 


378 


50-8 


lb 


)» 


l> 


384 


50-55 


111 


») 


l> 


385-4 


50-l« 




»> 


)| 


388-4 


49-83 




)» 


11 


390-8 


49-53 




11 


II 


393-1 


49-02 




)» 


91 


396-9 


48-65 




)J 


II 


399-7 


48-27 




1) 


11 


402-6 


47-9 


In 


|} 


II 


405 


47-7 


In 


)) 


II 


407 


47-00 




»» 


11 


412-1 


46-63 




)» 


11 


414-9 


46-13 




J» 


11 


418-6 


45-82 




»> 


91 


421-0 


45-60 




II 


11 


422-6 


45-19 




»> 


11 


425-7 


44-93 




Jl 


11 


427-7 


44-38 




Jl 


11 


431-8 


43-75 




11 


l» 


436-6 


43-2 


lb 


If 


*i 


441 


42-95 




• » 


>l 


442-6 


42-59 




1) 


11 


445-3 


42-20 




11 


II 


448-2 


41-37 




)l 


11 


454-5 


41-09 




1» 


It 


456-6 


40-84 




1* 


11 


458-5 


40-17 




11 


»i 


463-5 


39-75* 


In 


JJ 


11 


466-7 


39-31 




)> 


7-8 


469-9 


38-79 




1) 


5) 


4739 


38-33 




)» 


ij 


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38-03 




11 


}) 


479-6 


37-63 




)> 


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482-6 


36-7 


lb 


»} 


)f 


490 


36-3 


lb 


) J 


1} 


493 


35-74 


In 


9» 


)) 


496-9 


35-45 




II 


Jt 


499-1 


35-17 




J) 


)T 


501-2 


34-70 




J9 


It 


504-8 


34-40 


]n 


If 


1} 


507-1 


33-42 




)l 


)» 


514-5 


33-05 




yj 


)l 


517-3 


32-9 


In 


it 


M 


518 


32-33 




H 


>> 


522-7 


32-0 


In 


II 


J» 


525 


30-84 




ff 


It 


534-0 


30-40 




11 


l> 


537-4 


3017 




n 


I> 


5391 


29-70 




11 


JI 


542-7 


29-25 




11 


)} 


546-1 


28-96 




11 


*l 


548-3 



* Pb7 



ON WAVE-LElfGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTPRA OP THE ELEMENTS. ^41 

Ueanium — continued. 







Beduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 




1_ 

A 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ ■ 


3628-51 




1-01 


7-8 


27551-7 


28-23 




Tl 


J) 


553-9 


27-86 




$i 


)» 


5567 


27-130 




)) 


»> 


558-6 


27-2 


In 


»i 


j» 


562 


26-95 


In 


»j 


jj 


563-6 


26-60 


2r 


11 


n 


566-2 


25-65 




11 


)» 


573-5 


25-25 




11 


)I 


576-5 


25 00 




It 


)» 


578-4 


24-75 




ii 


>» 


580-3 


24-42 




11 


1} 


582-8 


24-00 


In 


11 


»» 


586-0 


23-6 


In 


»» 


?) 


589 


23-21 




)> 


n 


592-0 


22-83 




,, 


)> 


594-9 


22-45 




11 


)» 


597-8 


22-25 




11 


)) 


599-4 


2200 




11 


)) 


601-3 


21-72 




11 


1) 


603-4 


21-65 




)» 


11 


603-9 


21-20 




11 


)J 


607-3 


21-03 




ii 


)» 


608-7 


20-68 




11 


»» 


611-3 


2031 




11 


)) 


614-1 


19-95 




ji 


11 


616-9 


19-56 




It 


11 


619-9 


19-32 




11 


11 


621-7 


18-94* 




11 


11 


624-6 


18-65 




11 


11 


626-8 


18-2 


lb 


11 


11 


630 


17-72 


Id 


1-00 


11 


633-9 


' 17-28 




11 


11 


637-3 


16-90 




It 


11 


640-2 


16-49 




11 


11 


643-3 


15-98 




11 


11 


647-2 


15-6 


In 


11 


11 


650 


15-42 




11 


11 


651-5 


15-15 




iy 


11 


653-6 


14-85 




It 


11 


655-9 


14-4 


In 


)1 


11 


659 


14-16 


In 


11 


11 


661-1 


13-95 




91 


11 


662-8 


13-55 


In 


11 


11 


665-8 


13-30 




>j 


11 


667-7 


12-88 




)» 


11 


670-9 


12-7 




11 


1> 


672 


12-05 




11 


11 


677-3 


11-85 




11 


11 


678-8 


11-44 




tt 


11 


682-0 


11-20 




tl 


It 


683-8 


10-87 


2 


11 


11 


686-4 


10-65 


2 


ii 


>> 


688-0 



♦ Fe? 



1900, 



R 



242 


REPORT — 190C 


). 






Urasivu— continued. 








Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




i_ 


Spectrum 


Character 


X + 


in Vacuo 








A 




3G09-86 


2 


1-00 ! 


78 


27694-1 


09-o3 




1 


t) 


696-6 


09-13 




", 1 


11 


699-7 


08-84 






)J 


701-9 


08-55 






)) 


704-2 


08-20 






»» 


706-9 


07-97 






)» 


708-6 


07-18 


In 




)• 


713-9 


07-52 






If 


712-0 


0715 






Jt 


714-9 


06-51 






»» 


719-8 


06-26 






>J 


721-8 


0600 






»» 


723-8 


05-90 






»» 


724-5 


05-65 






If 


726-5 


05-35 






1» 


728-8 


0480 






»» 


733-1 


04-58 






tf 


734-7 


04-35 






P 


736-5 


03-95 






»» 


739-5 


03-65 






»» 


741-8 


03-28 






»» 


744-7 


02-67 






f» 


749-4 


02-45 


In 




Jl 


751-1 


01-6 


In 




n 


758 


01-3 


lb 




1* 


760 


00-9 


In 




»» 


763 


00-7 


In 




»» 


765 


00-02 






ti 


769-8 


3599-50 






)J 


773-8 


99-13 






»» 


776-8 


98-72 






If 


779-9 


98-4 


In 




f» 


782 


98-25 


In 




1* 


783-4 


97-95 






*J 


785-8 


97-78 






i» 


786-2 


97-40 






f> 


789-1 


97-31 






ft 


789-8 


9701 






>l 


793-1 


96-2 


In 




)) 


799 


95-69 






ft 


803-4 


95-14 






)f 


807-6 ■ 


94-25 


Id 




f» 


814-3 


93-88 






7-9 


817-1 


93-68 






M 


818-1 


93-40 






ti 


820-9 


9292 


Id 




»» 


824-7 


92-50 






»» 


827-9 


92-03 




»» 


)i 


831-4 


91-74 






») 


833-6 


91-4 


In 


»t 


)) 


836 


90-71 




1» 


n 


841-9 


90-48 




if 


n 


843-6 


901 


lb 


yj 


11 


846-5 


89-9 


lb 


11 


)f 


848 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 243 

Uranium — contimied. 



Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectium 



3589-3 
88-5 

88 or, 

87-70 

87-2 

86-5 

86-02 

85-5-1 

85-33 

85-05 

8i-13 

83-6 

83-4 

83-00 

82-23 

82-02 

81-41 

80-45 

80-30 

79-96 

79-56 

79-12 

78-97 

78-53 

781 

77-26 

77-05 

76-78 

76-41 

75-97 

75-64 

74-98 

74-55 

74-25 

73-40 

7310 

72-75 

72-55 

72-27 

71-85 

71-42 

71-19 

70-80 

70-34 

70-05 

69-85 

69-72 

69-25 

68-97 

68-83 

6845 

6819 

67-97 

67-65 

67-18 





Eeduction to 






Vacuum 




Intensity 




Oscillation 


r.nd 




i_ 


Frequency 


Character 


A + 


in Vacuo 






\ 




lb 


1-00 


7-9 


27853 


lb 


») 


»i 


859 


In 


1» 


»» 


8G2-4 




)» 


11 


8G5-1 


lb 


1> 


>» 


869 


lb 


)J 


)) 


874-5 


In 


J» 


11 


878-3 




■>■) 


i» 


881-9 




IJ 


)» 


883-5 




>) 


ij 


885-6 




t) 


» 


892-5 


In 


»» 


fj 


897 


In 


it 


n 


899 




J» 


» 


901-7 




n 


i» 


907-8 






II 


909-4 
9140 


In 


n 


II 


921-2 


In 


1) 


II 


922-7 




ti 


11 


925-6 




I) 


II 


928-6 




»i 


II 


931-9 


In 


n 


II 


933-0 




it 


II 


936-3 


lb 


j» 


II 


940 




o-y9 


II 


946-7 




n 


II 


948-3 




«» 


11 


950-3 




1* 


i» 


9531 




»» 


iJ 


956-4 




J) 


II 


958-9 


In 


9> 


II 


965-3 




JJ 


i> 


968-5 




1) 


II 


970-7 




)) 


11 


976-7 




>» 


II 


979-1 


Id 


)* 


11 


982-0 




Ji 


II 


983-6 




»> 


II 


985-7 




)» 


>i 


988-8 




»> 


II 


992-0 




J» 


i» 


993-S 




)J 


11 


997-0 




)> 


11 


28000-4 




»i 


II 


002-5 




j» 


1) 


004-4 




)) 


i> 


008-4 


cy ' 


)> 


II 


009-2 




>) 


11 


011-4 




J> 


II 


012-5 




)) 


11 


015-5 




)» 


11 


017-6 




*i 


II 


019-3 




11 


»9 

II 


021-8 
025-6 



244 


REPOKT — 1900, 






Uranium — co7itimied. 








Reduction 




Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 
Spectrum 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1 






\ + 


x~ 




35G6-78 


2 


0-99 


7-9 


28029-6 


66-55 


1 


It 


fj 


030 2 


65-93 


2 


)> 


)) 


035-1 


65-56* 






)} 


038-1 


65-20 


In 


*> 


1) 


040-9 


6507 








041-9 


64-78 






J) 


044-2 


64-40 




*1 


}) 


047-3 


64-1 


In 


}I 


J) 


050 


63-85 




jl 


}} 


051-7 


63-60 




jy 




053-6 


63-50 




)) 


)} 


054-4 


63-23 




ii 


It 


056-4 


62-25 


In 


IT 


]j 


064-2 


61-95 




11 


tf 


066-6 


61-62 






7) 


069-2 


61-24 






)) 


072-2 


6065 


In 


*} 


)1 


076-9 


60-5 


In 


11 


)) 


078 


60-10 




J) 


}* 


081-2 


59-21 






)) 


088-2 


58-71 






1) 


092-2 


58-22 




}) 


IJ 


096-0 


58-00 




)) 


J) 


097-8 


57-75 






;j 


099-8 


57-49 








101-8 


57-15 






JJ 


104-5 


56-75 




,, 


>1 


107-6 


56-43 




}) 


7J 


110-1 


&6-05 








118-7 


55-70 






)J 


115-9 


65-52 




)) 


f; 


117-3 


5500 


In 






121-5 


54-70 


In 


1) 




123-9 


54-43 




]} 


)j 


126-0 


54-00 


In 






129-4 


53-62 


In 






132-4 


53-1 


lb 




j; 


136 


52-84 








148-5 


62-36 






)T 


142-2 


51-95 


In 




8-0 


145-5 


51-49 








149-2 


51-24 








151-2 


51-02 








152-9 


50-77 






IT 


154-9 


60-68 








155-6 


50-43 




)1 


)) 


157-6 


49-88 


In 


J) 


11 


161-9 


4936 








166-1 


48-95 


In 




11 


1693 


48-4 


IV 






174 


47-96 








177-2 


47-70 




IJ 


11 


179-3 



Fe? 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 245 

IJUAliHUM— continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


in Vacuo 


3547-36 


2 


0-99 


S-0 


281820 


46-90 


2 


Jl 


)f 


185-6 


46-55 


2 


)1 


11 


188-4 


46-31 


1 


11 


J» 


190-3 


45-86 


2 


11 


11 


193-9 


44-86 




)» 


It 


201-8 


44-40 




»» 


»1 


205-5 


44-11 




11 


11 


207-8 


43-90 




)» 


9f 


209-5 


43-58 




11 


11 


212-1 


43-35 




1) 


19 


213-9 


42-9 


In 


11 


If 


217-5 


42-5 


In 


11 


11 


221 


42-06 




11 


>1 


224-0 


41-45 




11 


11 


228-9 


41-15 




11 


)« 


231-4 


40-82 




11 


vt 


234-0 


40-64 




11 


t7 


235-5 


39-81 




ii 


11 


242-1 


39-60 




11 


11 


243-8 


39-40 




)» 


11 


245-4 


39-10 




»» 


11 


247-8 


38-81 




i» 


11 


250-1 


38-57 




11 


11 


252-0 


38-35 




It 


11 


253-8 


38-00 




0-98 


11 


256-6 


87-60 




11 


11 


259-8 


37-23 




11 


»1 


262-8 


36-95 




)) 


11 


265-1 


36-52 




it 


11 


268-3 


36-25 


la 


11 


11 


270-5 


36-0 


lb 


1» 


11 


272 


35-8 


lb 


)» 


11 


274 


35-3 


lb 


11 


11 


278 


35-1 


lb 


It 


11 


280 


34-50 




U 


11 


284-5 


34-23 




11 


11 


286-8 


33-75 




»• 


11 


290-5 


33-18 




11 


11 


295-1 


32 97 




»» 


11 


296-8 


32-80 




»i 


11 


298-2 


32-3 


la 


11 


11 


302 


31-85 




1) 


11 


305-7 


31-29 




11 


11 


310-3 


31-1 


In 


1) 


11 


312 


30-30 




11 


11 


318-2 


29-95 


In 


f> 


11 


320-9 


29-75 




n 


11 


322-5 


29-35 




1* 


11 


325-7 


29-20 




11 


If 


326-6 


28-87 




fi 


11 


329-6 


28-50 




i» 


If 


332-6 


28-20 


Id 


t» 


ff 


335-1 


27-78 




11 




338-5 


27-00 




» 


1) 


344-7 



246 


REPORT — 190 


0. 






'URAKiVM~eo7iti7iited. 








Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A-t- 


1 
A 


in Vacuo 


3526-7i 




0-98 8-0 1 


28346-8 


2625 




?» 


i» 


350-7 


25-98 




)) 


• ) 


352-9 


25-88 




)» 


91 


353-7 


25-35 




>» 


•» 


358-0 


21-93 




1 
)* 1 


I> 


361-4 


2i-62 




1} 


Jl 


363-8 


23-77 




1 


» 


370-7 


23-52 




„ 


»l 


372-7 


22-9 


lb 


., 


11 


378 


22-72 


In 


11 


SI 


379-2 


2222 




»» 


)i 


383-2 


21-G7 




)» 


J» 


387-6 


2098 




11 


>» 


393-2 


20 15 




J» 


>I 


399-8 


19-91 




)« 


M 


401-7 


19-55 


In 


l> 


n 


404-6 


19-16 




it 


)) 


407-8 


18-92 




J» 


»> 


409-8 


18-69 




t) 


)> 


411-6 


17-84 




»' 


1) 


418-4 


17-62 




i» 


»1 


420-3 


17-40 




>) 


)) 


422-1 


17-23 




»i 


»» 


423-5 


17-03 




»i 


H 


425-1 


16-65 




)i 


11 


428-2 


15-56 




iJ 


»» 


437-0 


16-43 




J» 


11 


438-1 


15-10 




}i 


)1 


440-7 


14-83 




)» 


1» 


442-9 


14-65 


In 


>) 


it 


444-3 


13-85 


Id 


1* 


1) 


450-8 


13-56 




»» 


11 


453-2 


13-25 




») 


11 


455-7 


1286 




»i 




458-9 


12-64 




>» 


j^ 


460-7 


12-40 




t* 


n 


462-6 


12-06 




»» 


»J 


465-3 


11-80 




»» 


» 


467-7 


11-65 




1* 


)i 


468-8 


11-20 


In 


»j 


ji 


472-3 


11-03 




J) 


11 


473-7 


10-65 


Ind 


11 


11 


476-7 


10-25 




»» 


»» 


480-0 


09.85 




)» 


1» 


483-2 


09-52 




)i 


11 


485-8 


09-25 


JL 


11 


8-1 


488-0 


09-21 




It 


i> 


488-3 


08-49 


In 


11 


»i 


494-1 


07-9 


In 


»i 


19 


499 


07-47 




») 


)» 


402-5 


07-22 




i> 


»> 


404-5 


06-95 




»» 


Jl 


406-7 


06-75 




: 

»> 


>» 


608-3 


06-50 


1 




II 


510-4 



ON WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 247 

Uranium —continued. 



1 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


3505-65 


In 


0-98 


8-1 


28517-3 


05-28 


1 


J» 


If 


520-3 


05-20 


1 


ii 


■1 


5209 


04-85 


1 


11 


)t 


523-7 


04-62 


1 


yf 




525-6 


04-17 


In 


)t 


Si 


529-2 


03-97 


In 


)j 


91 


531-0 


03-50 


In 


j> 


II 


534-8 


03-16 


In 


t* 


If 


537-5 


02-79 


1 


»J 


If 


540-4 


02-48 


In 


*) ' 


fl 


543-0 


01-9 


lb 


It 


II 


548 


01-47 


1 


)9 


II 


551-4 


01-15 


Ind 


)> 


II 


554-0 


00-65 


1 


ty 


If 


558-2 


00-55 


1 


ti 


Jf 


659-8 


00-27 


1 


tf 




661-3 


3499-98 


1 


t» 


• 1 


563-5 


99-53 


1 


f) 


II 


567-2 


99-25 


1 


»» 


If 


569-5 


98-90 


1 


0-97 




572-3 


98-78 


1 


»l 




573-4 


98-57 


1 


ft 


II 


575-1 


98-37 


1 


it 


If 


576-8 


97-81 


1 


)) 




581-1 


97-45 


1 


)J 


II 


584-1 


97-23 


1 


»> 


II 


685-9 


97-05 


1 


» 


tl 


587-4 


96-7 


In 


)* 


II 


590 


96-57 


1 


ff 


if 


591-4 


9613 


1 


it 


II 


595-0 


95-87 


1 


J) 


II 


597-2 


95-04 


2 


it 


II 


604-1 


94-19 


1 


19 


f 1 


610-6 


93-87 


1 


u 


II 


613-3 


93-52 


2 


tf 


11 


616-2 


92-97 


1 


tt 


If 


620-8 


92-4 


lb 


)» 


11 


625-5 


92-0 


lb 


ti 


If 


629 


91-55 


1 


tt 


fl 


632-5 


90-97 


1 


yi 


11 


637-3 


90-77 


1 


tt 


11 


639-0 


90-43 


2 


;* 


f 1 


641-6 


89-75 


2 


)f ' 


II 


647-2 


89-53 


1 


>) 




649-0 


89-00 


1 


It 




653-4 


88-35 


In 


Tl 




658-8 


87-75 


In 


1} 


11 


663-7 


87-25 


In 


It 


ff 


667-9 


87-07 


In 


it 




669-2 


86-47 
86-16 


1 
1 


1) 

ft 


• 1 
fl 


674-1 
676-7 


85-45 
85-10 


1 


tt 


)l 


682-6 


1 


tt 




685-5 


84 71 


1 


)l 


II 


688-7 



248 



REPORT — 1900. 

Uranium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 

C* 1 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Ch aracter 


\ + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3484-48 




0-97 


8-1 


28690-1 


83-98 


1 






If 


694-7 


83-73 


In 






»l 


696-8 


83-30 








)> 


700-3 


82-67 


2 






»> 


705-5 


82-40 








1» 


707-7 


81-9 


lb 


, 




»1 


712 


81-3 


lb 






JI 


717 


80-49 








»» 


723-4 


79-99 








1» 


727-6 


79-40 








»l 


732-5 


78-47 








Jl 


740-1 


78-01 








1» 


744-0 


77-68 








)} 


746-6 


77-26 








)| 


750-1 


76-65 








»» 


755-2 


76-30 








)l 


758-1 


76-08 




I 




»> 


769-9 


75-88 








»5 


761-6 


75-18 








*} 


767-4 


74-75 








*) 


770-0 


74-35 








»t 


774-3 


73-90 


In 






1) 


778-0 


73-57 


In 


i 




)l 


780-7 


73-19 








f» 


783-9 


73-00 








11 


785-5 


72-73 








J) 


787-7 


72-67 








n 


788-2 


72-25 








I) 


791-7 


71-90 








>l 


794-6 


71-26 








f » 


799-9 


70-8 


In 






8-2 


804 


70-47 








)» 


808-8 


69-96 








11 


810-5 


69-7 


lb 






>» 


813 


69-38 








i> 


815-4 


69-28 








)) 


816-2 


68-70 


In 






t) 


821-0 


68-26 


In 






t> 


824-7 


67-85 


In 






yt 


828-1 


67-3 


lb 






M 


833 


66-80 








)) 


837-8 


66-50 








>) 


839-3 


66-05 


In 






»» 


843-2 


65-6 


Ind 






)1 


847 


65-12 








»» 


850-8 


64-82 








»» 


853-3 


64-41 








n 


856-7 


63-82 








)» 


861-6 


63-50 








t* 


864-3 


62-87 


In 






)i 


869-5 


62-40 








») 


873-5 


62-17 








It 


875-4 


61-65 


In 






u 


879-8 


61-19 








)» 


883-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 249 

Ubanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3461-00 




0-97 


8-2 


28885-2 


60-64 




» 


It 


888-2 


60 55 




n 


11 


8889 


60-10 




»» 


11 


892-7 


59-88 




>» 


If 


894-6 


59-5 


In 


»» 


11 


898 


593 


In 


i» 


11 


899 


59-1 


lb 


)» 


K 


901 


58-85 




0-96 


1} 


903-3 


58-37 




n 


1} 


907-4 


57-89 






11 


911-6 


57-24 




)> 


11 


916-4 


56-74 




n 


11 


920-7 


56-50 




)i 


11 


922-8 


561 


In 


>> 


11 


926 


55-91 




Tl 


11 


927-9 


55-57 




11 


11 


930-9 


55-00 




>» 


11 


935-4 


54-80 


In 


»l 


11 


937-0 


54-40 


In 


)» 


11 


940-4 


54-26 




»» 


11 


941-2 


53-98 




»» 


11 


943-8 


53-72 




,, 


11 


915-9 


53-1 


In 


M 


11 


951 


52-92 


In 


11 


11 


952-8 


52-63 


In 


tt 


11 


955-4 


52-52 


In 


99 


11 


956-3 


52-1 


lb 


n 


11 


960 


61-8 


In 


11 


11 


962 


51-41 




It 


11 


965-5 


5015 


In 


11 


11 


976-8 


49-40 




It 


11 


982-3 


48-94 




11 


11 


986-3 


48-57 




11 


11 


989-5 


48-36 




91 


11 


991-3 


47-95 


In 


11 


11 


994-5 


47-47 


In 


11 


11 


998-7 


46-S8 




I! 


Jl 


29003-3 


46-73 




11 


11 


004-6 


46-47 




11 


11 


006-7 


46-23 




11 


11 


008-9 


46-00 




It 


11 


010-9 


45-83 




J) 


11 


012-4 


45-45 


In 


)» 


11 


015-7 


45-15 


In 


)» 


11 


018-3 


44-90 




)t 


ff 


020-2 


44-85 




J» 


11 


020-6 


44-53 




11 


11 


023-4 


43-97 


In 


11 


11 


028-6 


43-66 




11 


11 


031-0 


43-10 




11 


11 


035-4 


42-80 




i1 


11 


038-0 


42-55 




19 


11 


040-5 


42-45 




It 


11 


041-3 


41-95 




t) 


11 


045-1 



o.f^ 



50 



REPORT — 1900. 
JjRXNiVM—contin iied. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuvun 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3441-65 


In 


0-96 


8-2 


29047-7 


4115 




)» 


)i 


051-9 


40-74 




)» 


jj 


055-3 


40-37 




)) 


11 


058-5 


40-20 




»» 


»» 


059-9 


40-07 




J» 


it 


061-0 


39-58 




)) 


tt 


065-1 


39-25 




1» 


11 


068-0 


38-84 




M 


11 


071-5 


38-5G 




)) 


yt 


073-9 


38-08 




J1 


Ji 


077-8 


37-31 




n 


11 


084-2 


37-18 




»> 


)» 


085-3 


36-93 




») 


11 


087-5 


36-20 




)» 


■1 


093-7 


35-65 




i» 


u 


098-4 


35-32 




)» 


11 


101-2 


34-92 




)> 


»» 


104-4 


34-70 




7» 


it 


106-3 


34-42 




)» 


1? 


109-2 


33-85 




•>■> 


11 


113-6 


33-6 


lb 


J» 


11 


116 


332 


lb 


IJ 


11 


119-5 


32-67 




1) 


8-3 


123-5 


32-15 




)J 


») 


127-9 


31-65 




)) 


)» 


132-2 


31-23 




)) 


») 


135-8 


30-87 


In 


»» 


)) 


138-8 


30-60 




J» 


it 


141-2 


30-35 




)} 


)» 


143-2 


29-47 


In 


1) 


T) 


150-7 


29-05 


In 


11 


)» 


154-3 


28-30 


lb 


11 


») 


160.7 


28-06 




»» 


H 


162-7 


27-90 




11 


»» 


164-1 


27-58 




11 


}) 


166-7 


27 20 




11 


n 


170-0 


26-72 




1) 


»» 


174-1 


26-52 




11 


»j 


175-8 


25-97 




11 


n 


180-5 


25-66 


In 


11 


»» 


183-4 


25-48 


In 


11 


»» 


184-7 


25-25 


In 


)1 


)» 


186-6 


24-96 




11 


)) 


189-1 


24-69 




1) 


»j 


191-4 


24-45 




») 


» 


193-5 


24-25 




51 


)J 


195-2 


23-9 


In 


1* 


)) 


198 


23-16 




1J 


») 


204-5 


22-63 




11 


» 


209-0 


22-45 




J) 


11 


210-5 


21-85 




11 


t} 


215-7 


21-52 




11 


n 


218-5 


21-30 




j> 


TI 


217-3 


21-17 




11 


i> 


221-5 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTIU OV THE ELEMENTS. 251 

JjB.Xi'ilXJU— -continued. 



i 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1 

a" 
8-3 


in Vacuo 


3420-67 


Ind 


0-96 


29225-7 


20-22 




>) 




229-6 


20-02 




39 




231-3 


19-72 


In 


I» 




233-9 


19-55 


In 


)» 




285-3 


19-20 


In 


1> 




232-9 


18-73 


In 


it 




242-3 


18-55 


In 


„ 




243-9 


18-30 




»i 




246-0 


17-62 




0-95 




251-8 


17-50 




» 




252-8 


17-00 




>j 




257-1 


16-70 




>> 




259-7 


16-46 




)i 




261-8 


16-28 




f) 




263-3 


16-04 




)i 




265-4 


15-75 




n 




267-8 


15-53 


In 


3) 




269-7 


14-80 


In 


JT 




276-0 


14-50 




)) 




278-6 


14-00 




)) 




282-8 


13-50 


In 


II 




287-1 


13-22 


In 


)) 




289-5 


12-90 


In 


« 




292-3 


12-50 




JJ 




295-7 


12-26 




J) 




297-8 


11-70 




l> 




302-6 


■ 11-40 




)J 




305-2 


11-25 




)I 




305-5 


10-75 




)) 




310-8 


10-55 




» 




312-5 


10-31 




>» 




320-1 


09-96 




tJ 


8-3 


317-6 


09-85 




n 




318-5 


09-52 




)> 




320-3 


09-36 




ty 




322-7 


09-11 




»» 




324-9 


08 96 




») 




326-2 


08-74 




11 




328-0 


08-17 


In 


l> 




3330 


0803 




11 




334-2 


07-50 




11 




338-7 


07-05 




11 




342-6 


i 06-76 




11 




345-1 


06-44 




11 




347-9 


05-88 




11 




352-7 


05-73 




11 




354-1 


05-32 


In 


It 




357-5 


0508 




»» 




359-6 


1 04-40 




)l 




365-4 


04-02 




11 




368-7 


03-72 




If 




371-3 


03-37 


In 


>» 




374-4 


02-90 




It 




378-3 


' 02-60 


Id 


11 




3810 



252 



REPORT — 1900. 





Uranium — continued. 








Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


340303 




0-95 


8-3 


29385-9 


01-37 




i> 


»» 


391-6 


01-15 




»» 


II 


393-5 


00-90 




i» 


»> 


395-5 


00-66 




j» 


>t 


397-8 


00-45 




»> 


)) 


399-5 


00-35 




yt 


)» 


400-4 


00-06 




»> 


tr 


402-9 


3399-83 




») 


)) 


404-9 


99-64 




J) 


)» 


406-6 


99-40 




1» 


»» 


408-6 


98-75 




)» 


» 


414-3 


98-40 




»» 


fi 


417-2 


98-10 




») 


11 


419-9 


97-75 




)> 


1} 


422-9 


07-30 


lb 


)j 


)> 


426-8 


97-10 


lb 


)) 


»» 


428-6 


96-71 




J) 


8-4 


432-0 


96-58 




l» 


»» 


433-0 


96-20 




J» 


»» 


436-2 


95-73 


2 


>l 


j» 


440-3 


95-48 


2 


») 


)» 


442-4 


94-92 


2 


J» 


IT 


447-4 


94-45 


1 


)) 


»» 


451-5 


94-05 


2 


») 


)» 


459-9 


93-33 


1 


>t 


J1 


461-2 


93-12 


1 


)) 


») 


463-0 


92-81 


1 


|> 


»» 


465-7 


92-50 


lb 


)» 


J» 


4663- 


91-37 


1 


u 


51 


478-2 


91-19 


1 


»» 


If 


479-8 


90-98 


1 


)» 


1> 


481-6 


90-45 


2 


» 


>» 


486-2 


90-10 


In 


)I 


}| 


489-2 


89-88 


1 


91 


»} 


491-2 


89-50 


In 


»> 


1» 


594-5 


89-21 


Id 


>I 


»I 


597-0 


88-65 


In 


9f 


)J 


500-9 


88-50 


In 


»» 


it 


503-2 


88-17 


In 


)» 


ff 


506-1 


87-30 


lb 


1) 


1* 


513-6 


86-65 


In 


») 


»l 


519-3 


86-26 


2 


)) 


l» 


522-7 


85-79 


1 


l» 


}f 


526-8 


85-50 


1 


»> 


1» 


529-3 


84-7 


In 


)» 


>J 


536 


84-58 


1 


}| 


l> 


537-4 


84-37 


1 


»I 


»» 


539-2 


84-15 


1 


IJ 


>} 


541-1 


83-94 


1 


11 


19 


542-9 


83-55 


1 


)1 


1» 


546-3 


82-80 


1 


)> 


" ^ . 


552-9 


82-45 ■ 


1 


)» 


11 


556-0 


82-11 


2 


1» 


it 


565-0 


81-00 


1 


J) 


II 


568-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 2bS 

Ukanium — conUnued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 

Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


\ + 


1_ 








A 




3380-83 


2 


0-95 


8-4 


29570-1 


80-37 


In 


)» 


J» 


574-2 


79-95 




)* 


») 


577-8 


79-80 




jj 


)» 


579-1 


79-52 




)> 


») 


581-6 


79-00 


In 


)> 


J) 


586-1 


78-87 


In 


»» 


)• 


587-3 


78-40 


In 


)l 


)? 


591-5 


78-15 


In 


»» 


J) 


593-G 


77-55 




0-94 


)f 


598-9 


77-20 


lb 


)» 


)> 


601-9 


76-G8 




1» 


» 


606-5 


75-95 




J) 


)5 


612-9 


75-05 




J> 


») 


620-8 


74-6 


In 


»» 


») 


623 


74-32 




>» 


)} 


627-2 


74-22 




>> 


IT 


628-1 


73-84 




1» 


>1 


631-4 


73-57 


In 


)» 


)) 


633-8 


73-20 


In 


J» 


}| 


637-0 


72-74 


Ind 


»> 


)» 


640-1 


72-18 




») 


JJ 


646-0 


71-45 




)J 


)) 


652-4 


71-15 






H 


655-1 


71-06 




11 


)) 


656-1 


70-83 




)) 


IJ 


657-9 


70-60 




J» 


n 


659-8 


70-28 




»» 


)1 


662-7 


70-11 




J» 


u 


666-2 


69-82 




?» 


»> 


666-8 


69-4 


lb 


i» 


11 


669-5 


69-00 




)» 


») 


674-0 


68-90 




»> 


)» 


674-9 


68-44 




») 


yy 


678-9 


68-02 




i» 


n 


682-6 


67-85 




)» 


)) 


684-1 


67-68 




)» 


)) 


685-6 


07-50 




)t 


n 


687-2 


66-99 




)t 


»» 


692-5 


66-70 




)) 


J) 


694-3 


66-50 




J) 


»» 


6960 


65-77 


In 


1) 


91 


702-5 


65-30 


In 


J) 


)» 


70G-6 


64-78 


In 


)} 


11 


711-2 


64-05 


In 


)i 


99 


717-7 


63-60 




5» 


Jl 


721-5 


63-40 




>> 


M 


723-5 


62-87 


In 


)> 


1» 


728-5 


62-15 


In 


I* 


Jl 


734-4 


61-86 




J» 


1* 


737-0 


61-37 




)) 


8-5 


741-3 


60-97 




J> 


M 


744-8 


60-80 




)1 


}f 


746-3 


60-50 




)) 


)} 


749-0 


60-27 




^ 


)l 


751-0 



254 



REPORT— 1900. 
U UAXIUJI — contimted. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Spark 
Spectrum 


\ + 


1 


3359-73 




0-94 


85 


29755-8 


59-2 


In 


»> 


99 


760-5 


59-05 


In 


n 


99 


761-8 


58-75 




19 


99 


764-5 


o8-fiO 




»» 


t» 


765-7 


58-06 




>) 


99 


770-6 


57-70 


In 


)» 


99 


773-8 


57-32 


In 


IT 


9» 


777-3 


56-65 


m 


1» 


9) 


783-1 


56-35 




5J 


19 


785-8 


56-15 




)I 


11 


787-6 


56-00 




»1 


99 


788-9 


55-56 


In 


ff 


91 


792-8 


55-24 




»1 


)» 


778-0 


54-94 




11 


f9 


798-3 


54-65 




»» 


99 


799-9 


54-22 


In 


*1 


99 


805-7 


5375 




11 


99 


808-9 


53-40 




If 


19 


812-0 


53-20 




»> 


99 


812-9 


52-81 




>» 


91 


817-2 


51-98 




}» 


99 


824-6 


51-83 




1* 


91 


825-9 


51-40 




ft 


•J 


829-8 


51-05 




*)» 


99 


832-9 


50-80 


Id 


1> 


19 


835-7 


50-45 


In 


l» 


99 


838-2 


50-20 


In 


1) 


11 


840-5 


49-56 




»J 


It 


845-6 


49-19 




» 


99 


849-4 


48-85 


In 


)> 


99 


852-5 


48-45 


In 


f} 


91 


856-0 


48-00 




*» 


99 


860-1 


47-72 




}T 


It 


862-5 


47-17 




}} 


91 


867-5 


46-87 




9) 


99 


870-1 


46-56 




)T 


99 


872-9 


46-35 




1) 


If 


874-8 


46-13 




|> 


1* 


876-8 


46-00 




)1 


J« 


877-9 


45-67 




)1 


91 


880-9 


4500 




f] 


;9 


886-9 


44-45 


In 


•f 


„ 


891-8 


44-2 


lb 


91 


)> 


894 


43-60 




«} 


It 


899-4 


43-1 


In 


99 


If 


904 


42-83 




1) 


«i 


906-3 


42-5 


In 


99 


It 


909 


41-83 




99 


It 


915-2 


41-1 


In 


19 


II 


922 


40-80 


In 


99 


91 


924-5 


40-47 




99 


II 


927-4 


40-23 




19 


II 


929-6 


39-56 




99 


If 


935-6 


39-37 




l» 


» 


937-3 i 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 255 

Ckasiuji — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 

A. 


in Vacuo 


333915 




0-94 


8-5 


29939-2 


3900 




!■ 


)» 


940-C 


38-62 




0-93 


1» 


9430 


38-10 








H 


948-7 


37-93 








„ 950-2 i 


37-50 








)l 


954-0 


36-84 








!> 


9600 


36-42 








)) 


963-7 


36-12 


In 






)) 


966-3 


35-78 






* 


JJ 


969-5 


35-4 


lb 






t1 


973 


34-99 








» 


976-6 


34-60 








)J 


980-1 


34-40 








1) 


981-9 


34-10 








}1 


984-6 


33-40 






* 


11 


990-9 


32-60 


Id 






]} 


998-1 


32-12 








1} 


30001-3 


31-93 








Jt 


004-1 


31-45 


1 






J» 


008-5 


31-12 






1 


n 


011-4 


30-93 








J) 


013-2 


30-65 








tj 


0155 


30-50 






} 


ji 


017-0 


30-08 


2d (Mg) 


> 




n 


0222 


29-65 








II 


021-7 


29-47 








)» 


026-3 


29-15 








11 


029-2 


28-70 








?» 


033-3 


28-40 








n 


036-0 


27-66 








)> 


042 7 


27-42 








}i 


044-8 


27-20 








i> 


046-3 


26-88 








)> 


050-5 


26-52 








f) 


053-4 


26-32 








f) 


055-2 


25-84 








11 


0591 


25-36 


In 






11 


063-4 


24-77 


In 






»» 


068-5 


23-50 


In 






80 


080 


23-25 








?* 


082-1 


23-13 








11 


083-5 


22-83 








11 


086-1 


22-55 








11 


088 7 


22-26 


-, 






„ 


091-4 


21-9 


In 






»» 


095 


21-51 








>f 


098-3 


21-37 








tf 


099-5 


21-07 








ft 


002 2 


20-46 








tf 


007-7 


19-46 








It 


0169 


19-00 








tt 


121-0 


18-43 








tt 


126-2 


18-35 








tt 


126-9 


17-99 


* 






>» 


130-1 



256 



REPORT— 1900. 

Uranium — continued. 







Eecluction to 




Wave-leugth 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3317-62 




0-93 


8-6 


80133-5 


17-37 








135-7 


16-90 








140-0 


16-7 


lb 






142 


16'1 


lb 






147 


15-23 








155-2 


14-73 








159-8 


14-22 








164-4 


1413 








165-2 


13-91 




" 




167-2 


13-25 


In 






173-2 


12-64 








178-8 


12-0 


In 






185 


11-87 








185-8 


11-55 


In 






188-8 


11-1 


Ind 






193 


10-65 








197-1 


09-82 








204-5 


09-45 




" 




207-9 


0937 








208-7 


09-08 








211-3 


08-60 


In 






215-7 


08-40 


In 






217-5 


08-1 


In 






220 


07-72 








223-7 


07-4 


lb 






227 


06-7 








233 


06-39 








235-8 


06-06 








238-8 


05-3 


lb 






246 


04-85 


In 






250-0 


03-73 








262-0 


03-46 








262-7 


03-17 








265-3 


03-02 








266-7 


02-67 








269-8 


02-43 








2721 


01-97 








276-4 


01-75 








278-4 


01-47 








280-9 


01-32 








282-3 


00-95 








285-7 


00-87 








286-4 


00-6 








289 


00-33 








291-4 


3299-99 




0-92 




294-5 


99-86 








295-7 


99-25 








301-1 


98-61 








307-0 


98-06 








312-3 


97-72 








315-4 


97-3 








319 


96-95 








322-5 


96-67 








325-0 


96-42 




n 




327-3 J 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 257 

Ubanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 


1 




Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


329596 




0-92 


8-6 


30331-7 


9569 




»» 


)) 


334-1 


95-37 




»l 


u 


337-0 


95-00 




}* 


n 


340-4 


94-28 


In 


fl 


11 


347-0 


94-13 




1> 


1» 


348-2 


93-77 




1» 


)I 


351-7 


93-15 




J» 


11 


357-5 


92-51 




It 


11 


363-4 


91-51 




M 


II 


372-6 


91-23 




»» 


II 


375-5 


91-10 




>J 


11 


376-4 


90-63 




»» 


»l 


380-7 


90-27 




»J 


11 


384-0 


89-60 




Jl 


II 


390-3 


89-50 




f) 


»» 


891-2 


88-75 




>> 


8-7 


398-0 


88-38 




»» 


t* 


401-4 


88-06 




»» 


If 


404-4 


87-63 




»t 


)i 


408-3 


86-8 


In 


>» 


»» 


416 


86-63 




1» 


f> 


417-6 


86-42 




»» 


It 


419-6 


86-09 




1» 


j> 


422-6 


85-76 




»» 


»» 


425-6 


85-44 




n 


)> 


428-6 


85-20 




»i 


f» 


430-8 


84-80 




)» 


1* 


434-5 


84-53 




n 


»» 


437-1 


84-17 




j» 


11 


440-4 


83-92 




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1) 


442-7 


83-30 


In 


»» 


)» 


448-5 


82-8 


In 


)> 


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453 


82-68 




»i 


»7 


454-2 


82-3 


In 


5» 


n 


459 


81-83 




»J 


>» 


462-1 


81-70 




t) 


»> 


464-3 


81-26 




»» 


11 


468-4 


80-95 




IT 


5» 


470-3 


80-80 




n 


)> 


471-7 


80-63 




11 


?» 


474-1 


80-20 




i» 


>> 


477-2 


79-75 




1) 


>1 


481-4 


79-38 




)» 


)l 


484-9 


79-25 




)» 


»» 


4860 


78-6 


lb 


»» 


1) 


4921 


77-7 


2b 


)i 


1* 


500-5 


77-27 




»» 


»» 


504-5 


76-80 




;» 


IJ 


508-9 


76-32 




j» 


)» 


513-3 


75-6 


lb 


»» 


1> 


520 


74-70 




)9 


11 


528-5 


74-40 




II 


I» 


531-3 


74-12 




11 


»> 


533-9 


73-65 


In 


» 


>l 


538-3 



1900. 



2 


58 


REPORT — 1900 








TJnATSivm— continued. 










Rpduct 


ion to 






Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum ' 


Oscillation 




Spark 


and 






Frequency 




Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


in Vacuo 




3273-45 




0-92 


8-7 


30540-1 




73-25 




»t 


11 


542-0 




72-75 




11 ' 


11 


546-6 




72-33 




" 


11 


550-6 




71-65 




»1 1 


11 


556-9 




71-3 






)) 


560 




70-73 




)1 


11 


565-5 




70-32 




)» 


11 


669-3 




69-95 




n 


11 


572-8 




69-65 




}) 


t» 


575-6 




69-20 




)» 


11 


579-8 




68-95 




» 


11 


582-2 




68-8 




It 


ii 


584 




68-35 




J) 


11 


587-8 




67-93 




t) 


11 


591-7 




67-80 




)) 


It 


592-9 




67-40 




)) 


yt 


596-7 




67-17 




yi 


i» 


699-8 




66-68 




»j 


i» 


603-4 




66-35 




»i 


fi 


606-5 




66-07 




j» 


11 


609-1 




65-99 




)) 


11 


609-9 




64-83 




)» 


11 


620-8 




64-55 




J) 


11 


623-4 




63-93 




)) 


11 


639-2 




63-67 




i,i 


11 


631-6 




63-28 




)) 




635-3 




63-00 




») 


11 


637-9 




62-80 




)i 


11 


639-8 




61-89 




)1 


11 


648-4 




61-27 




)) 


11 


654-2 




61-15 




)i 


11 


655-3 




61-05 




jj 


11 


656-3 




60-70 




11 


11 


659-6 




59-99 




0-91 


11 


666-2 




59-65 




1) 


11 


669-4 




59-08 




?» 


)t 


674-3 




58-55 




» 


11 


679-8 




58-23 




f* 


>» 


682-8 




57-95 




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685-4 




57-50 




}} 


ij 


689-7 




57-40 




!» 


11 


690-6 




56-88 




;> 


It 


695-5 




66-60 




» 


It 


6JI8-2 




56-18 




f » 


11 


602-1 




55-50 




»» 


)» 


708-5 




55-20 




)J 


1 11 


711-4 




55-00 




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1 3* 


713-3 




54-73 


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)t 


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715-S 




54-44 


i X 


>) 


1 


718 5 




53-50 




i» 


)» 


1 727-4 




52-95 


In 


Si 


>» 


732-6 




52-80 






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733-9 




62-50 




)> 




736-8 




52-3 


In 


}] 


1 ») 


739 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 259 

. Ueanium — continued. 







Keduction to 




Wave-lengtli 

C* 1 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3251-15 


In 


0-91 


8-7 


30749-6 


51-00 




1» 


n 


751-0 


50-50 




J> 


IT 


755-7 


5007 




)» 


)> 


759-8 


49-62 




»J 


?) 


7640 


49-37 




}) 


>f 


766-4 


49-12 




>1 


?» 


768-8 


48-52 




tf 


Tl 


774-5 


48-17 




J» 


»I 


777-8 


47-96 




>l 


»1 


779-8 


47-75 




»l 


li 


781-8 


47-43 




)» 


J» 


784-8 


46-55 




)» 


JJ 


793-1 


46-33 




1» 


I» 


795-2 


45-95 


In 


)J 


JJ 


798-8 


44-98 




)> 


Jl 


808-0 


44-69 




• 


n 


810-7 


44-39 




If 


?» 


813-6 


43-85 




»1 


IT 


818-8 


42-90 


Id 


}> 


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8278 


42-17 




)» 


»J 


834-7 


41-77 




Ji 


»f 


838-5 


41-30 




19 


)J 


843-0 


4100 




1» 


J) 


845-9 


40-55 




9t 


t> 


850-2 


40-30 




)) 


TV 


851-6 


39-80 




1» 


1} 


857-3 


39-65 




)) 


») 


858-7 


38-62 




>» 


T» 


868-6 


38-10 


In 


)J 


)* 


873-5 


37-4 


lb 


Jt 


„ 


880 


36-93 




1 


JJ 


884-7 


36-4 


In 


J> 


)i 


890 


35-44 




»» 


J) 


898-9 


35-20 


In 


»» 


JJ 


901-2 


34-70 


In 


ft 


)» 


9060 


34-14 


In 


It 


JJ 


911-3 


33-53 




it 


JT 


917-1 


32-83 


In 


If 


)» 


923-8 


32-33 




»» 


>» 


928-6 


32-13 




tf 


»» 


930-5 


31-2 


lb 


if 


>» 


939-5 


30-3 


lb 


n 


11 


948 


29-65 


" 


ft 


1} 


954-3 


28-7 


lb 


ft 


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963 


27-6 


lb 


ft 


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974 


27-33 




j» 


}f 


976-5 


26-97 




ft 


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980-0 


26-33 




fi 


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986-2 


25-9 


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)) 


990 


24-45 




ff 


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31004-2 


23-88 




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23-65 




if 


J) 


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23-2 


lb 


it 


1) 


016 


22-66 


1 


J» ' 


» 


021-6 1 



S2 



260 



REPORT — 1900, 



Uranium — continued. 







Reduction t° 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3222'46 


1 


0-91 


8-7 


31023-4 


22-16 


1 


)t 


u 


026-3 


21-55 


In 


ij 


*» 


032-1 


19-9 


In 


0-90 


)i 


048 


19-36 


1 


)} 


)i 


053-3 


18-50 


2 


M 


)) 


061-6 


18-29 


1 


)> 


f> 


063-6 


17-89 


1 


1) 


j» 


067-5 


17-18 


1 


J} 


)j 


074-3 


16-75 


1 


» 


»» 


078-5 


16-13 


1 


)) 


j» 


084-5 


15-29 


1 


j» 


)* 


092-6 


14-96 


1 


Tf 


»i 


095-8 


14-87 


1 


»T 


)» 


096-7 


14-42 


1 


)» 


)f 


100-9 


14-05 


1 


•)> 


11 


104-5 


13-80 


1 


It 


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106-9 


13-52 


1 


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109-7 


13-25 


1 


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112-3 


12-77 


1 


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11 


116-9 


12-00 


I 


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11 


124-3 


11-45 


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129-7 


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lb 


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11 


136 


10-10 


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11 


142-8 


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11 


146 


09-32 


1 


n 


11 


150-3 


08-7 


lb 


1) 


11 


156 


08-27 


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11 


160-5 


07-4 


lb 




11 


169 


06-37 


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n 


11 


179-0 


06-18 


1 






180-9 


05-9 


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1 




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189-9 


04-79 


1 


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11 


194-4 


04-45 


1 


JT 


11 


197-7 


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11 


223 


03-55 


1 


j» 


ti 


206-5 


03-38 


1 


V; 


11 


208-1 


02-95 


In 


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11 


212-3 


02-65 


In 


)» 


11 


215-2 


01-75 


1 


li 


11 


203-1 


01-4 


lb 


)) 


11 


227-5 


00-80 


1 


i» 


11 


233-3 


00-30 


2 


If 


11 


238-2 


3199-75 


1 


jf 


11 


243-5 


99-38 


1 


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11 


247-2 


990 


Ind 


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11 


251 


98-45 


In 


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11 


256-2 


98-30 


1 


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11 


257-7 


96-90 


1 


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If 


271-4 


96-2 


lb 


J) 


11 


278 


95-7 


lb 


I« 


11 


283 


95-0 


lb 


)> 


11 


290 


1 94-1 


lb 


>» 




299 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 261 

Ueanium — continued. 







Reduction 




Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Character 


\ + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


3193-45 




0-90 


8-7 


31304-9 


93-36 




)» 


)1 


305-8 


92-82 




)» 


11 


311-2 


92-30 




J) 


11 


316-4 


91-90 




11 


„ 


320-4 


9102 




)* 


»t 


329-2 


90-86 




)1 


)i 


330-8 


90-6 


In 


jy 


1} 


333 


89-65 




it 


fi 


342-7 


89-17 




11 


1) 


347-2 


88-50 


In 


i» 


)> 


353-8 


87-65 


In 


J> 


11 


362-2 


86-35 


In 


1} 


J) 


3750 


85-85 




If 


n 


379-9 


85-33 


In 


]} 


)} 


385-0 


84-9 


lb 


)) 




389 


84-60 


lb 


11 


1) 


392-3 


8415 


In 


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)} 


396-7 


83-63 




n 


1) 


401-8 


83 00 




)i 


Ji 


408-0 


82-72 




lj 




410-8 


81-5 


In 


n 


11 


423 


81-2 


lb 


n 


1) 


426 


80-75 


In 


)} 


)J 


430-1 


80-48 


In 


1) 




432-8 


80-33 




)) 


}J 


434-3 


79-98 




1) 


11 


437-7 


79-50 




it 


)) 


442-4 


79-18 




ii 


fl 


445-6 


79-03 






ff 


447-1 


78-45 




jt 




452-9 


77-79 




ii 


yt 


459-4 


77-48 




u 


11 


462-5 


76-78 




JJ 


t) 


469-4 


76-34 




1) 


11 


474-8 


75-50 




11 


11 


482-1 


74-96 




)) 


11 


487-5 


74-15 




)J 


11 


4955 


73-82 






11 


498-8 


72-8 


lb 


Jf 


11 


509 


72-24 


In 


1* 


11 


514-5 


71-95 








517-3 


71-63 




J t 




521-6 


71-22 




1) 


11 


524-6 


70-96 






11 


527-2 


70-69 




)» 


11 


529-9 


70-48 






11 


5320 


70-2 


lb 


1) 


11 


635 


69-2 


lb 






545 


68-55 


In 






651-2 


68-33 


In 


It 


1> 


553-4 


67-9 


lb 


11 


11 


558 


67-22 




11 


11 


564-5 


66-64 








670-3 

580-5 / 


65-62 




11 


11 



262 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ubanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Spark 






Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1_ 
\ 


in Vacuo 


3165-41 




0-90 


8-7 


31582-6 


05-20 












584-6 


64-29 












593-7 


63-90 












597-6 


63-10 












605-6 


62-95 












607-0 


62-4 


lb 










612-6 


61-95 












617 


61-66 












620-0 


60-90 












627-6 


60-48 












631-8 


60 06 












636-0 


59-94 












637-2 


59-41 












642-5 


59-06 












646-0 


58-7 


In 










650 


58-3 


In 










654 


67-97 












656-9 


57-57 












660-9 


56-70 












669-6 


56-22 












674-4 


55-98 












676-9 


55-53 












681-4 


55-40 












682-7 


55-02 












686-5 


54-55 


Id 










691-2 


64 30 


In 










693-8 


53-62 












700-5 


53-36 












703-2 


52-57 












711-1 


52-45 












712-3 


51-81 












718-8 


51-2 


lb 










725 


50-90 












728-0 


50-62 












730-8 


60-50 












732-0 


50-10 


In 










736-0 


49-76 












739 4 


49-34 












743-6 


49-17 












745-3 


48-85 












748-6 


48-73 












749-8 


48-40 












753-2 


48-28 












754-4 


47-93 












757-9 


47-19 












765-4 


46-85 








9- 


i 


768-8 


4643 












7730 


46-2 


In 










775 


45-67 












780-7 


45-47 












782-7 


45-09 












786-5 


44-84 












789-1 


43-45 


In 










803-1 


42-74 












810-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMEMTS. 263 





Uranium — continued. 








R uction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Frequency 


Spectriun 


Character 


K + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3142-46 


1 


0'90 


9-1 


31813-2 


42-03 


1 


)> ! 


If 


817-5 


41-75 


1 


0-88 


IT 


820-4 


39-69 


2 


1 


)j 


841-3 


39-29 


1 


)> 


It 


845-3 


38-99 


1 


»J 


11 


848-3 


38-6 


In 


fl 


>i 


852 


38-4 


In 


)> 


n 


854 


37-85* 


1 


») 


f) 


859-9 


37-01 


1 


)i 


)t 


868-4 


36-30 


In 


») 


)» 


875-6 


35-92 


1 


*i 


It 


879-5 


34-9 


lb 


]) 


)t 


890 


33-99 


1 


)j 


It 


899-1 


33-69 


1 


J) 


)» 


902-2 


33-50 


In 


1) 


It 


904-1 


32-75 


1 


)j 


tt 


1111-7 


32-32 


In 


ij 


It 


916-1 


32-07 


1 


I) 


)t 


918-7 


31-72 


In 


i; 


)i 


922-2 


31-42 


In 


}] 


)t 


925-3 


30-67 


2n 


j» 


tt 


933-0 


29-86 


2 


It 


It 


949-2 


28-88 


In 


1^ 


J) 


951-2 


28-20 


In 


)j 


tt 


958-2 


27-75 


In 


)t 


It 


962-8 


27-35 


1 


)t 


19 


966-9 


26-78 


1 


}l 


tt 


972-7 


26-28 


2 


)j 


tt 


977-8 


2503 


2 


tl 


t) 


990-6 


24-53 


1 


11 


It 


995-7 


24-28 


1 


f » 


tt 


998-3 


23-82 


1 


a 


It 


320030 


23-70 


1 


}> 


It 


004-2 


22-8 


In 


}* 


tt 


013-5 


22-43 


In 


)} 


11 


017-2 


21-97 


In 


}) 


tt 


0220 


21-49 


1 


>f 


19 


026-9 


21-15 


1 


If 


tt 


030-4 


20-97 


1 


1) 


11 


032-1 


20-77 


In 


j» 


tl 


034-4 


20-25 


In 


}i 


tt 


039-6 


19-99 


In 


11 


91 


042-3 


19-42 


2 


11 


tt 


048-2 


19-13 


In 


11 


iy 


051-1 


18-88 


In 


11 


tt 


053-7 


18-51 


In 


i> 


^} 


057-5 


18-13 


1 


)» 


91 


061-3 


17-75 


1 


11 


11 


065-8 


17-14 


1 


11 


If 


071-6 


16-83 


1 


11 


1j 


074-8 


16-53 


1 






077-9 


' ie-02 


2 


1* 


It 


083-0 



* Pb? 



264 



UEport— 1900. 
Uranium — continued. 







Eeduction to 


' 


Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


OsciUatiou 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


3115-12 


1 


0-88 


91 


32092-4 


14-75 


1 


)» 


9-2 


0961 


14-42 


In 


11 


11 


099-5 


13-75 


1 


l> 


It 


106-4 


13-16 


1 


>• 


11 


112-5 


12-50 


In 


jy 


,5 


119-3 


12-35 


In 


»1 


11 


120-9 


11-76 


1 


n 


11 


1270 


11-52 


1 


)» 


11 


129-5 


10-96 


1 


If 


11 


135-2 


10-65 


1 


n 


11 


138-4 


10-3 


In 


i» 


11 


142 


09-9 


In 


n 


11 


146 


09-4 


In 


»» 


11 


151 


08-79 


In 


)» 


11 


157-6 


08-43 


In 


SI 


11 


161-4 


08-07 


In 


)» 


11 


165-1 


07-79 


In 


}i 


11 


16S-0 


07-65 


In 


j> 


11 


169-5 


07-47 


In 


IT 


11 


171-3 


06-9 


lb 


It 


11 


177 


06-42 


1 


tl 


11 


180-2 


06-29 


1 


>) 


1) 


183-6 


05-73 


1 


)f 


11 


189-4 


05-50 


1 


)> 


11 


191-7 


05-20 


1 


»T 


1) 


194-8 


04-8 


lb 


»> 


»» 


199 


04-27 


2 


)l 


11 


204-5 


03-87 


1 


}1 


11 


208-7 


0310 


1 


»> 


11 


216-7 


02-70 


In 


11 


11 


220-8 


02-55 


1 


f» 


11 


222-4 


01-85 


In 


0-87 




229-7 


01-05 


In 


)> 


11 


237-9 


00-97 


In 


It 


it 


239-8 


00-23 


In 


1} 


11 


246-5 


3099-9 


In 


») 


11 


250 


99-4 


In 


)f 


11 


255 


99-2 


In 


j» 


11 


257 


98-88 


1 


)> 


If 


260-5 


98-77 


1 


)) 


11 


261-7 


98-15 


1 






2681 


97-00 


1 


)) 


n 


280-1 


96-70 


1 


)j 


ji 


283-2 


95-97 


1 


}} 


)i 


290-9 


95-85 


1 


it 


)i 


292-1 


95-33 


1 


J> 


11 


297-5 


95-15 


1 


iJ 


11 


299-3 


94-92 


1 


j» 


11 


301-8 


94-57 


1 


1) 


11 


305-4 


93-97 


1 


fl 


11 


311-7 


93-51 


1 


tl 


11 


316-5 


93-15 


2 


|j 


11 


320-3 


91-7 


lb 


>» 


yt 


335-5 


91-4 


• lb 


1* 


)» 


339 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 265 

Ueanium — contimced. 







Keduction to 




Wave-length 

C* 1 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


bpark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A-t- 


1_ 
A. 


iu Vacuo 


3090-70 


In 


0-87 


92 


323460 


90-45 


In 






)1 


348-5 


89-98 


In 






J) 


353-5 


89-10 


1 






»» 


362-7 


88-68 


In 






1) 


367-1 


88-05 


1 






11 


373-7 


87-80 


1 






»> 


376-3 


87-23 


1 






T) 


381-3 


86-90 


1 






») 


385-8 


86-13 


In 






11 


393-8 


85-60 


In 






J> 


399-3 


84-8 


lb 






1) 


408 


84-37 


1 






)1 


412-3 


83-75 


In 






9-3 


418-8 


83-2 


lb 






)i 


424-5 


82-7 


lb 






)j 


430 


82-14 


1 






) J 


435-7 


81-18 


1 






11 


445-8 


80-88 


1 






i» 


449-5 


80-10 


1 






»» 


457-2 


79-40 


In 






)? 


464-5 


79-05 


In 






1) 


468-1 


78-55 


In 






11 


473-5 


77-95 


In 






11 


479-9 


77-7 


In 






11 


482-5 


77-50 


In 






)i 


484-6 


76-7 


lb 






1^ 


4931 


76-2 


lb 






11 


498 


75-93 


1 






1^ 


512 


75-60 


1 






11 


505-7 


75-15 


1 






ii 


509-4 


74-62 


In 






11 


515-1 


74-47 


In 






11 


516-7 


73-93 


1 






11 


522-3 


73-60 


1 






11 


526-8 


73-3 


lb 






ii 


529 


72-91 


2 






11 


533-2 


72-47 


1 






11 


537-8 


71-87 


1 






If 


549-3 


71-6 


lb 






11 


548 


71-17 


1 






11 


551-6 


70-80 


1 






11 


565-5 


70-40 


1 






11 


558-8 


69-6 


lb 






11 


569 


69-3 


lb 






11 


571 


68-74 


1 






11 


677-4 


67-85 


In 






11 


586-8 


67-37 


1 






fi 


591-9 


67-00 


1 






11 


595-8 


66-43 


1 






11 


601-9 


65-8 


lb 








609 


65-4 


lb 








612 


65-02 


1 






If 


616-9 


64-70 


1 






fi 


620-3 


64-30 


1 






11 


624-6 



26G 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ubanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


3063-98 


1 


0-87 


0-3 


32628-0 


63-62 


1 


„ 


II 


631-8 


63-25 


In 


ij 


?j 


635-8 


62-97 


1 


0-86 


,1 


638-7 


62-62 


1 


ff 


11 


G42-5 


62-23 


Id 


>j 


II 


646-6 


61-74 


1 


)f 


11 


519-3 


61-30 


In 


)} 


II 


656-9 


60-80 


1 


1) 


II 


661-9 


60-15 


1 


)t 


11 


668 8 


59-68 


1 


J} 


J) 


673-9 


59-3 


In 


t) 


i> 


678 


59-1 


In 


jf 


ji 


680 


58-05 


2r 


If 


II 


691-3 


57-35 


In 


yy 


I) 


698-8 


56-83 


1 


1) 


»i 


703-3 


55-99 


1 


») 


*i 


713-3 


65-71 


1 


1) 


)i 


716-3 


55-18 


1 


)9 


II 


722-0 


54-86 


1 


>» 


II 


725-3 


54-5 


lb 


11 


II 


729 


53-42 


1 


)l 


9-4 


740-4 


52-96 


1 


)t 


)T 


745-7 


52-56 


1 


)) 


)» 


750-0 


52-00 


1 


F) 


)t 


7560 


51-43 


1 


11 


1) 


761-9 


51-20 


1 


)> 


}) 


764-6 


50-61 


• Id 


If 


1} 


771-0 


50-30 


1 


j» 


)} 


774-3 


49-9 


lb 


1) 


}} 


778-5 


49-05 


In 


II 


») 


787-7 


48-75 


1 


)} 


}) 


791-0 


48-45 


1 


H 


}T 


794-2 


47-98 


1 


iy 


)i 


799-2 


47-66 


1 


If 


)1 


802-8 


46-96 


1 


It 


)) 


810-2 


46-6 


1 


11 


J) 


814 


45-55 


1 


II 


1) 


825-4 


45-1 


In 




]) 


830 


44-26 


2 


II 


)J 


839-3 


44-1 


In 


II 


tl 


841 


43-3 


lb 




1) 


850 


42-85 


In 


It 


)f 


854-5 


42-0 


lb 


II 


JJ 


864 


41-3 


lb 


II 


}9 


871 


40-6 


lb 


II 


)) 


881 


40-00 


1 


91 


}J 


885-3 


39-3 


In 


11 


» 


893 


38-58 


In 


II 


t1 


900-7 


38-01 


2 


11 


)l 


906-9 


37-63 


In 


II 


T> 


910-9 


37-38 


In 


II 


If 


913-7 


36-7 


In 


s; 


11 


921 


36-53 


In 


II 


>* 


923-0 


86-05 


1 


1) 


J» 


928-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 267 

Ubanium — co7itiiiued. 







Redu'^tion to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 
Spectrum 


and 




Frequency 






Character 


A + 


i_ 


in Vacuo 


3035-60 




0-86 


9-4 


32933-0 


34-50 




)» 


ir 


945-5 


34-15 




»» 


11 


948-8 


33-86 




)» 


11 


952-0 


33-52 




11 


1) 


955-6 


33-27 




)1 


»J 


958-3 


32-52 




11 


11 


966-4 


32-09 




11 


i> 


971-1 


31-65 


In 


11 


11 


9754 


30-9 


lb 


^^ 


11 


984 


30-45 




11 


i» 


989-0 


29-52 




n 


11 


999-2 


29-23 




)» 


ji 


33003-4 


28-7 


In 


i> 


a 


008 


28-48 




11 


If 


010-5 


28-33 




)j 


If 


012-1 


27-77 




1) 


91 


018-2 


26-99 


In 


11 


f> 


026-7 


26-77 




11 


t) 


029-1 


26-56 


In 


J, 


19 


031-5 


26-25 




i^ 


9-5 


045-6 


25-16 




11 


i> 


046-6 


24-57 




11 


J) 


053-1 


23-9 


In 


*i 


9) 


060 


23-4 


In 


11 


J» 


066 


22-94 




0-85 


J» 


070-9 


22-58 




11 


J1 


074-9 


22-31 




1> 


)J 


077-8 


21-68 




1* 


1) 


084-7 


21-30 




11 


J» 


087-8 


21-02 




>> 


J> 


091-9 


20-71 




» 


}} 


095-3 


20-35 




1» 


)J 


099-3 


19-9 


lb 


1) 


JJ 


104 


19-40 




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}) 


109-6 


18-95 




n 


J) 


114-6 


18-68 




11 


J} 


117-6 


18-2 


lb 


11 


)J 


123 


17-50 


In 


11 


)J 


133-5 


17-05 




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JJ 


135-5 


16-50 




11 


JJ 


141-5 


16-16 




11 


)) 


145-2 


15-78 




11 


JJ 


149-4 


1503 




11 


JJ 


157-7 


14-35 


In 


11 


)J 


165-1 


13-96 




)1 


J) 


169-4 


13-60 




i^ 


JJ 


173-4 


13-49 




)» 


JJ 


174-6 


1308 




11 


JJ 


179-1 


12-83 




>1 


JJ 


179-9 


12-22 




JJ 


JJ 


188-6 


12-04 




11 


JJ 


190-6 


11-66 




11 


J* 


194-7 


11-30 




1» 


JJ 


198-7 


10-87 




n 


JJ 


203-4 



268 


REPORT— 1900. 








Uranium — continued. 






Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
fmd 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 
Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


3010-49 




0-85 


9-5 


33207-6 


09-80 




1) 






215-8 


09-51 




»> 






218-6 


09-00 




)) 






224-1 


08-29 




)» 






232-0 


08-02 




»> 






235-0 


06-95 




n 






246-7 


06-2 


lb 


J) 






255 


05-65 




»j 






261-2 


05-23 




)» 






265-8 


04-9 


In 


».' 






269-5 


04-70 




i» 






271-6 


04-30 




)) 






276-1 


04-1 


In 


n 






278 


03-45 




>) 






285-5 


03-17 




>) 






288-6 


02-80 




)» 






292-7 


02-50 




f) 






296-1 


02-15 




»» 






300-0 


01-76 




)i 






304-3 


01-32 




)i 






309-2 


00-90 


In 


?i 






313-8 


00-26 




j» 






329-5 


2999-28 




)) 






331-8 


99-15 




j» 






333-3 


98-50 


In 


)) 






340-5 


98-2 


In 


ji 






344 


97-70 


In 


»i 






349-4 


97-48 


In 


)i 




•6 


351-5 


97-15 


In 


j» 






355-5 


96-90 


In 


>» 






358-2 


96-50 




n 






362-7 


96-2 


In 


») 






366 


95-9 


In 


11 






369 


95-6 


In 


t) 






373 


95-00 


Id 


>» 






379-4 


94-57 




>) 






384-3 


93-80 




ti 






392-8 


93-46 




11 






396-6 


92-85 




TI 






403-4 


91-8 


lb 


)» 






415 


91-10 


In 


}} 






422-9 


90-65 


In 


)f 






428-6 


90-1 


lb 


IT 






434 


89-85 




f) 






437-0 


89-51 




tT 






440-7 


88-05 


In 


)» 






457-0 


87-93 




»J 






458-5 


86-35 


In 


J) 






476-1 


85-90 




>1 






481-1 


85-24 




)» 






488-6 


84-74 




»J 






494-1 


84-19 




)* 






490-3 


83-85 




l» 






504-1 


83-60 




»> 






507-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 260 

Uranium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark- 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 
\ 


in Vacuo 


2982-89 


1 


0-84 


9-6 


33514-7 


82-40 


In 


)f 




520-4 


81-95 


In 


») 




525-5 


81-3 


In 


»» 




533 


81-18 


1 


11 




534-2 


80-80 


In 


11 




538-4 


80-46 


1 


M 




542-3 


79-31 


1 


)* 




555-2 


78-30 


1 


>I 




566-6 


77-95 


In 


)> 




570-5 


77-41 


1 


1» 




576-7 


76-46 


In 


») 




687-3 


75-97 


1 


Jl 




592-9 


76-73 


1 


11 




595-6 


75-25 


1 


J! 




601-1 


75-0 


lb 


11 




60i 


74-2 


lb 


11 




613 


73-40 


1 


11 




621-9 


73-20 


1 


Jl 




624-2 


72-75 


In 


11 




628-3 


72-3 


lb 


11 




634 


71-72 


In 


u 




641-0 


71-17 


2 


Jl 




647-2 


70-90 


1 


11 


9-7 


650-1 


70-56 


1 


11 




654-0 


69-85 


In 


If 




662-1 


69-6 


In 


)t 




665 


69-35 


In 


1* 




66-77 


68-68 


In 


1) 




675-3 


68-45 


In 


11 




677-9 


68-02 


1 


91 




682-9 


66-77 


1 


f 1 




697-1 


66-26 


1 


J) 




702-8 


65-8 


In 


j9 




708 


65-5 


In 


11 




713-4 


65-17 


1 


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64-76 


1 


}} 




719-9 


64-35 


1 


If 




724-5 


63-70 


1 


11 




731-9 


63-30 


1 


1) 




736-5 


62-87 


1 


11 




741-4 


61-28 


1 


11 




759-6 


61-02 


1 


11 




762-4 


60-38 


In 


11 




769-8 


59-96 


1 






774-4 


69-20 


In 


11 




783-2 


58-25 


In 


If 




7941 


57-85 


In 


11 




798-7 


57-3 


In 


1) 




805 


56-85 


1 


)t 




810-1 


56-46 


1 


1} 




814-6 


56-15 


2 


If 




818-1 


55-73 


1 


)1 




822-9 


56-20 


1 


It 




829-0 


54-92 


2 


11 




832-2 



270 



REPORT— 1900. 

Urajhivm— continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave->-,ngth 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 _ 

A 


in Vacuo 


2954-46 


1 


0-84 


9-7 


33837-4 


53-9 


lb 




1) 


844 


53-45 


In 




>J 


849-0 


53-0 


In 




t9 


854 


52-85 


In 




)* 


856-1 


52-46 


1 




if 


860-1 


52-00 


1 




i» 


865-6 


51-67 


1 




»l 


869-4 


51-45 


1 




J» 


871-9 


51-16 


1 




i» 


875-3 


5093 


1 




it 


877-9 


50-62 


1 




n 


881-5 


50-37 


1 




J» 


884-4 


50-04 


] 




») 


888-2 


49-64 


In 




fi 


892-8 


49-03 


1 




») 


899-8 


48-56 


1 




n 


905-2 


48-12 


In 




»i 


9102 


47-52 


1 




»» 


9171 


46-8 


lb 




»» 


925 


46-38 


In 




11 


930-3 


45-92 


1 




»» 


935-6 


44-73 


In 




9-8 


949-2 


44-62 


1 




)J 


950-5 


44-22 


1 




?1 


955-1 


4393 


2 




J» 


958-8 


43-50 


1 




»» 


963-9 


43-25 


1 




)J 


966-3 


4290 


Id 


0-83 


li 


970-3 


42-13 


1 




)» 


978-8 


41-95 


2 




)» 


981-2 


41-35 


In 




J) 


988-2 


40-80 


1 




)) 


994-5 


40-39 


2 




}1 


999-3 


40-02 


1 




„ 


003-6 


39-50 


1 




11 


34009-6 


38-95 


1 




)) 


015-9 


38 60 


In 




j> 


020-0 


38-1 


lb 




j» 


026 


37-40 


1 




)» 


033-9 


37-23 


In 




11 


035-9 


37-00 


In 




11 


038-5 


36-85* 


In 


„ 


)» 


040-4 


36-46 


1 




11 


044-9 


35-60 


In 




11 


054'8 


35-0 


lb 




11 


062 


34-5 


lb 




)» 


068 


33-86 


1 




11 


075-0 


33-65 


1 




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33-33 


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11 


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33-03 


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084-6 


32-65 


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32-23 


1 




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093-9 



Mg? 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 271 

Uranium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


X + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


2931-90 


1 


0-83 


9-8 


34097-8 


31-60 






ii 


101-3 


31-45 






ji 


1030 


30-87 






If 


109-8 


30-68 






1) 


112-0 


30-47 






)» 


114-4 


29-85 






fi 


121-7 


29-70 






9t 


123-3 


29-16 






»j 


129-7 


28-61 




,, 


n 


136-2 


28-16 




„ 


IT 


141-3 


27-77 






*l 


145-9 


27-45 






>) 


149-6 


27-30 






T1 


151-4 


26-64 






IJ 


159-1 


26-42 






>» 


161-7 


2618 






)l 


164-5 


2600 






>» 


166-5 


25-61 






1» 


182-8 


25-25 






»» 


175-3 


24-62 






»» 


182-7 


23-52 


In 




)» 


195-6 


23-20 






»» 


199-3 


22-90 






*» 


202-8 


22-71 






yy 


2050 


22-23 






u 


2106 


2310 






»> 


212.2 


21-76 






n 


216-2 


21-15 




,, 


9-9 


223-2 


20-77 






»» 


227-6 


20-46 






)i 


231-3 


20-23 






f) 


234-0 


20-00 






f* 


236-7 


19-50 


In 




91 


242-5 


1908 






If 


247-5 


18-98 






Tt 


248-6 


18-73 






)) 


251-6 


1848 


In 




Jl 


254-6 


17-8 


lb 




9) 


262-5 


17-2 


lb 




19 


269-5 


16-90 


In 


„ 


»J 


273-1 


16-54 




„ 


99 


277-3 


15-80 


In 




99 


286-0 


15-57* 






99 


288.7 


15-32 






)9 


291-7 


14-83 






99 


297-6 


14-69 






11 


298-1 


14-30 






19 


303-7 


14-03 






99 


306-8 


13-50 






99 


313-1 


12-83 






99 


320-0 


12-65 






99 


323-1 


11-90 




„ 


99 


331-9 



* Mff? 



272 


REPORT — 1900. 
Uranium — continued. 






Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


K + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


2911-60 




0-83 


9-9 


34335-5 


11-22 






)7 


340-0 


10-88 






it 


344-0 


10-75 






)» 


345-5 


10-3 






>1 


351 


09 78 






it 


357-0 


09-30 






)» 


362-6 


08-8 






)1 


368-5 


08-31 






u 


374-3 


07-65 


Ind 




)» 


382-1 


0700 






)) 


389-8 


06-85 






»t 


391-6 


05-8 


lb 




1» 


404 


05-32 






1) 


409-7 


04-52 


2ii 




»> 


419-2 


04-07 






1» 


424-6 


03-63 




0-82 


1) 


429-7 


03-08 






)) 


436-3 


02-50 






M 


443-2 


02-1 


lb 




1> 


448 


01-70 






it 


451-7 


01-27 






i1 


457-9 


00-22 


In 




»> 


470-2 


2899-65 


In 




J» 


477-1 


98-80 






91 


487-1 


98-12 


In 




1) 


491-2 


97-70 






iJ 


499-2 


97-45 






1> 


503-2 


9700 


In 




100 


508-5 


96-77 






)» 


511-2 


96-52 






11 


514-2 


96-15 


In 




7» 


517-4 


95-96 






»» 


520-9 


95 60 


In 




>» 


525-1 


95-30 






)J 


528-7 


94-98 






n 


532-5 


94-60 






11 


537-1 


94-20 






11 


541-9 


93-80 


In 




11 


546-6 


93-5 


lb 




11 


550 


92-70 






11 


559-8 


9225 






11 


565-1 


91-80 


In 






570-5 


91-10 






> 


578-9 


90-82 






11 


582-3 


90-50 






11 


586-1 


90-15 






11 


590-3 


89-65 






11 


596-8 


89-32 






11 


600-2 


89-12 






11 


602-7 


88-76 






11 


606-9 


88-42 






11 


611-0 


88-28 






11 


612-7 


87-97 






11 


616-4 


87-65 




1 


11 


620-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 273 

Uran I um — oontinued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-letngth 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Specti'um 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 
\ 


in Vacuo 


3287-31 


1 


0-92 


8-6 


30624-3 


87-00 


1 


1» 




628-0 


86-87 


1 


IJ 




6296 


86-50 


1 


)» 




6340 


86-10 


1 


ff 




638-8 


35-70 


1 


)1 




643-6 


85-49 


1 


rt 




646-2 


85-28 


1 


)j 




649-9 


85-05 


1 


' 


651-4 


84-70 


In 


1> 51 


655-6 


84-43 


In 


)» 


)j 


658-9 


83-87 


In 


J» 


)) 


665-7 


83-50 


In 


5J 


}1 


670-1 


8300 


1 


)) 


)) 


676-1 


82-82 


1 


J« 


)) 


678-3 


82-00 


In 


)» 


1) 


688-1 


8167 


1 


1) 




692-2 


81-1 


In 


1} 




699 


80-50 


1 


)) 




706-2 


80-28 


1 


J» 


1) 


708-7 


80-00 


1 


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I) 


712-2 


79-70 


1 


)» 


7) 


715-8 


78-95 


In 


)1 


)) 


724-9 


78-3 


lb 


}) 




723 


77-86 


1 


>l 




738-0 


77-65 


In 




)) 


740-6 


77-10 


1 


)) 


)) 


747-2 


76-55 


In 


Jl 


}I 


753-9 


75-9 


lb 


)I 


J) 


762 


75-24 


1 


)1 


); 


769-7 


74-81 


In 


1} 


}T 


774-9 


74-16 


1 


)) 


)) 


782-8 


73-75 


In 


»l 


Jl 


787-7 


73-60 


In 


)» 


n 


789-6 


73-35 


In 


)» 


J) 


792-6 


73-1 


lb 


11 


10-1 


796 


72-53 


1 


)} 


J) 


802-4 


72-15 


1 


fy 


>f 


807-0 


71-30 


1 


}t 




817-3 


71-04 


1 


)) 


Jl 


820-5 


70-80 


In 


1) 


JJ 


823-4 


70-4 


lb 


*» 


)T 


828 


69-49 


1 


)» 




839-3 


69-00 


1 


}} 




845-2 


68-87 


1 


It 


11 


846-8 


68-51 


1 


1» 


11 


851-2 


68-20 


In 






855-0 


67-89 


In 


1* 


11 


858-7 


67.45 


1 


1) 


11 


867-7 


67-15 


In 


ti 


11 


864-1 


66-90 


In 


li 


11 


870-8 


66-47 


1 






876-0 


66-22 


In 


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879-1 


65-73 


2 


>1 4* 


884-0 


G5-40 


1 


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» 


889-0 



1900, 



274 


REPORT — 1900. 






Uranium — continued. 




1 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 
\ 


in Vacuo 


3265-20 




0-92 


10-1 


30891-5 


64-95 




0-81 


J) 


894-5 


64-70 






n 


897-6 


64-35 






n 


901-8 


64-18 






n 


903-4 


63-65 


In 




»» 


910-4 


63-28 






>» 


914-9 


62-90 


In 




ji 


919-5 


62-72 


In 




)» 


921-7 


62-45 


In 




»» 


925-0 


61-8 


lb 




•>•> 


934 


61-31 






yi 


938-9 


60-86 






j» 


944-4 


60-53 






>» 


948-5 


59-85 






)» 


956-8 


59-36 






»» 


962-8 


58-95 






>T 


967-8 


58-40 


In 




»1 


974-5 


58-25 


In 




)» 


976-4 


57-53 


In 




J) 


985-2 


57-15 


In 




»1 


987-8 


56-63 






)9 


996-2 


56-30 


In 




!» 


35000-2 


56-05 






)J 


003-3 


55-67 






)» 


008-0 


55-00 






ft 


0161 


54-55 






)J 


021-7 


54-30 




„ 


)> 


024-8 


63-90 


Id 




)1 


030-7 


63-60 






)) 


033-3 


53-50 


1 




)> 


034-6 


5307 






)) 


034-9 


52-83 






}> 


042-8 


52-50 






1» 


046-9 


52-20* 






»t 


050-5 


51-90 






»» 


054-2 


51-35 


In 




J» 


061-0 


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065-9 


50-57 






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070-6 


500 


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49-26 






11 


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48-75 


In 




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093-0 


48-35 






10-2 


097-8 


48-12 






)» 


100-7 


47-83 






)» 


104-3 


47-50 


In 




)) 


108-3 


46-95 






)» 


114-8 


46-70 






'» 


118-2 


46-44 






?» 


121-4 


46-21 






»> 


124-2 



M^? 



0.\ WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENT^. 27o 

Uranium — continved. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Litensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


3246-00 




081 


10-2 


35126-8 


45-70 


In 


»» 




1305 


45-43 


In 


Jl 




133-9 


45-10 




»» 




1380 


44-78 




»» 




141-9 


44-60 


In 


i» 




1441 


4395 


In 


)) 




152-2 


42-98 




)» 




164-2 


42-60 




51 




168-8 


42-30 




»l 




172-6 


42-20 




11 




173-8 


41-48 




St 




182-8 


41-25 




»» 




185-6 


40-78 




J» 




191-4 


40-60 




)> 




193-7 


40-00 




)» 




201-1 


39-2 


lb 


>» 




211-0 


38-73 




» 




216-8 


38-40 


In 


»> 




220-9 


38-10 




J» 




224-6 


37-86 




)> 




227-7 


37-40 




)» 




233-3 


37-31 




)» 




234-5 


37-00 




)J 




238-3 


36-1 


Ind 


)T 




248-5 


35-88 




)l 




252-3 


35-68 




♦ 5 




2548 


34-82 




)> 




265-5 


34-70 




»' 




2669 


34-2 


lb 


»» 




273 


33-90 




t> 




276-9 


33-35 


In 


)) 




283-7 


32-75 




1* 




291-2 


32-53 




»1 




293-9 


32-16 




t» 




298-5 


31-7 


lb 


»1 




304 


31-05 


In 


)) 




312-4 


30-5 


In 


)f 




319 


29-96 


In 


)l 


)» 


3260 


29-4 


lb 


J» 




333 


29-00 




»» 




338-0 


28-1 


lb 


)l 




349 


27-90 


In 


)1 




351-7 


27-47 




T» 




357-1 


, 27-05 




»» 




3G2-4 


26-77 




}) 




365-9 


26-60 




•1 




368-0 


26-28 




»t 




372-0 


25-90 




It 




376-7 


25-65 




1) 




379-9 


25-5 


In 


») 




382 


24-95 




0-80 




388-7 


L'4-70 




1 tt 




391-8 


24-45 




tl 




394-9 


23-65 




)t 


10-3 


404-9 



T 2 



276 



REPORT — 1900. 



Ubanidm — contirmed. 







Reduction to 




Wave-lengtli 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Spark 


and 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3223-24 


1 


0-80 


10-3 


354100 


22-80 


1 


fl 


») 


415-5 


22-63 


1 


l» 


)» 


417-7 


22-27 


1 


>J 


)j 


422-2 


22-08 


1 


»> 


Tf 


426-6 


21-48 


1 


H 


H 


432-1 


21-20 


2 


J» 


)) 


435-6 


20-75 


In 


»» 


)1 


441-3 


20-57 


1 


1) 


»» 


443-5 


20-34 


1 


I» 


»» 


446-4 


19-89 


1 


1) 


»» 


452-1 


19-26 


In 


I) 


JJ 


460-0 


19-06 


1 


)> 


)* 


461-5 


18-85 


1 


J» 


n 


465-2 


18-70 


1 


)> 


»> 


467-0 


18-43 


1 


)» 


»» 


470-5 


18-05 


2 


l» 


it 


475-2 


17-75 


1 


>» 


»> 


479-0 


17-3 


lb 


*> 


u 


485 


17-00 


1 


»» 


») 


488-5 


16-88 


1 


n 


)i 


490-0 


16-52 


1 


J» 


»j 


494-5 


1615 


In 


)f 


)> 


499-2 


16-05 


In 


j» 


J) 


500-4 


15-85 


1 


>» 


IT 


503-0 


15-30 


1 


J» 


J> 


509-9 


1518 


1 


)» 


)» 


511-4 


14-90 


1 


» 


)» 


514-9 


14-73 


In 


»j 


)» 


517-1 


14-12 


In 


)j 


H 


524-S 


13-9 


In 


)» 


J) 


527-5 


13-7 


In 


)> 


)» 


529 


13-4 


In 


>» 


)) 


534 


13-10 


1 


i» 


7) 


537-6 


12-8 


lb 


)) 


)1 


543 


12-32 


In 


)* 


)» 


547-5 


11-8 


In 


ii 


)) 


554 


11-49 


1 


i> 


)> 


558-0 


11-3 


In 


>t 


)) 


562 


10-87 


In 


)> 


J» 


565-9 


1050 


1 


»> 


») 


570-6 


10-05 


1 


a 


J) 


576-3 


09-70 


1 


)> 


]l 


580-7 


09-08 


1 


)i 


»» 


588-5 


08-66 


1 


»» 


H 


593-9 


08-50 


1 


>» 


>) 


595-9 


07-20 


1 


)) 


11 


612-4 


06-80 


1 


)» 


n 


617-5 


06-4 


Ind 


)i 


)> 


622-5 


05-79 


1 


)» 


)J 


630-3 


05-33 


1 


)> 


») 


636-1 


04-10 


1 


If 


)f 


651-7 


03-90 


1 


»i 


)1 


654-3 


03-07 


1 


}} 


]) 


664-9 


02-65 


2 


)} 


I) 


670-3 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 277 

'UuAsiVM—conii)iiied. 







Reduction to 




Wave-lengtli 
Spark 


Intensity 
aud 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Frequency 


Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3202-30 


1 


0-80 


10-3 


35674-2 


01-75 


1 


)? 


)7 


681-7 


01-43 


1 


J) 




G85-8 


00-93 


1 


H 




692-1 


00-42 


In 


n 




698-6 


00-22 


In 


n 


71 


701-2 


2799-8 


lb 


7) 


»7 


706-5 


99-2 


lb 


)» 


10-4 


714 


98-28 


1 




,, 


725-8 


97-87 


1 


i» 


„ 


731-1 


97-45 


In 


)» 


„ 


736-4 


97-25 


In 


T) 


J) 


739-0 


9680 


1 


J) 


J) 


744-7 


9G-1 


lb 


jj 




754 


95-65* 


1 




5» 


759-5 


95-30 


2 






763-9 


95-00 


1 


»» 




767-8 


94-50 


In 


J) 




774-1 


94-05 


2 


J1 


J) 


779-9 


93-54 


1 




J» 


786-5 


92-15 


In 






804-3 


91-4 


In 


f) 


„ 


814 


9I-1G 


1 


M 


)1 


8170 


90-78 


In 


tt 


») 


821-9 


90-4 


lb 


n 


)» 


827 


89-9 


lb 


1) 


)) 


833 


89-2 


lb 


7J 


J) 


842 


88-7 


lb 






849 


88-24 


1 




TJ 


854-5 


87-45 


1 


17 


)) 


864-7 


86-9 


lb 


») 


») 


872 


86-27 


In 


)» 




879-9 


86-0 


In 


J7 




883 


85-76 


In 




JJ 


886-5 


85-50 


1 


,, 


}) 


889-7 


85-30 


1 


ft 


5» 


892-4 


85-02 


1 


J» 


»» 


896-0 


84-77 


1 


)) 


)1 


899-2 


84-57 


1 


If 


») 


901-8 


84-12 


1 


tf 


)) 


907-8 


83-99 


1 


079 


)J 


909-4 


83-55 


In 


;, 


)} 


915-0 


83-33 


In 


,, 




9178 


82-52 


la 




)I 


928-3 


82-23 


1 


77 


J) 


932-1 


81-90 


1 


ft 


}} 


936-2 


81-67 


1 


>t 


}| 


939-2 


81-52 


1 


11 


J) 


941-2 


81-16 


i 


77 


»» 


945-8 


80-89 


In 


)» 


u 


949-3 


80-13 


1 






959-1 


79-53 


In 






966-9 


79-05 


In 


1» 


1» 


1 973-1 



Mg; 



278 


KEPORT — 1900 






Ueanium — continued. 


- 






Eeduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


OscUlation 

Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


2778-35 




0-79 


10-4 


35982-2 


77-27 




»> 


)i 


998-1 


76-66 




17 


11 


36004-1 


76-45 


In 


l> 


11 


006-8 


75-95 


In 


M 


i» 


013-3 


75-60 




»» 


10-5 


017-8 


75-50 




»> 


»i 


019-1 


75-37 




J» 


M 


020-9 


75-16 




)I 


)» 


023-5 


74-88 




t) 


)J 


027-1 


74-54 




»> 


f> 


031-5 


74-25 




1» 


)» 


035-3 


73-90 




»l 


Jl 


039-8 


73-74 




»» 


J? 


042-0 


73-20 




»» 


»» 


048-9 


72-75 




}» 


») 


054-8 


72-45 




)» 


)» 


058-7 


72-33 




i» 


U 


060-3 


72-02 




1) 


)7 


064-3 


71-69 




H 


») 


068-6 


71-35 


In 


)» 


„ 


072-9 


70-85 




)» 


J1 


079-5 


70-41 




J» 


>) 


085-3 


70-15 




») 


») 


088-6 


(!9-5(; 




)> 


M 


096-3 


69-40 




)> 


»J 


098-4 


69-17 




») 


n 


101-4 


68-95 




n 


)» 


104-3 


68-53 




i» 


J) 


109-8 


68-30 




») 


»j 


113-9 


67-85 




J) 


J) 


118-7 


67-52 


In 


7» 


»» 


122-9 


66-97 




>J 


)i 


130-1 


66-26 


A 


Jl 


i» 


139-4 


• 60-00 


1 


»J 


i» 


142-8 


i 65-78 




J) 


t> 


145-7 


65-50 




>1 


j> 


1491 


65-3 


Ibr 


J* 


)» 


153 


64-80 




I) 


»• 


158-5 


64-35 




)J 


)> 


164-4 


63-82 


In 


J) 


)» 


171-4 


63-57 




)» 


>» 


174-6 


62-98 




)1 


}l 


182-3 


62-50 


In 


)J 


)j 


188-6 


61-90 


Id 


)» 


!» 


196-4 


61-55 




11 


)) 


201-1 


61-33 




J> 


»» 


203-9 


60-46 




)» 


)> 


215-4 


59-90 




?» 


» 


222-7 


59-05 




»1 


If 


233-9 


58-62 




)» 


?» 


239-5 


58-53 




)i n 


240-7 


58-26 




J) »' 


244-3 


58-03 




i» ij 


246-3 


57-93 




11 


)> 


248-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 279 

Ubiiiium — continued. 







Keduction to 




Wave-length 
Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1 

a" 
10*5 


in Vacuo 


2757-65 




0-79 


36252-3 


57-40 




«• 


»> 


255-5 


57-25 






>> 


257-5 


56-40 




)J 


)) 


268-7 


55.26 




)) 


)» 


283-7 


55-06 




it 


i» 


286-3 


64-70 


Id 


») 


n 


2910 


54-27 




»» 


»> 


296-8 


53-87 




1* 


>» 


301-8 


53-52 




tf 


M 


306-7 


53-42 




ii 


J» 


308-0 


53-09 




>l 


») 


312-3 


52-57 




)J 


5) 


319-2 


52-03 




}> 


?» 


326-3 


51-32 




)» 


10-6 


335-6 


50-95 




>) 


5) 


340-5 


50-69 




)i 


»J 


343-9 


50-50 




)> 


)» 


346-5 


50-23 




»> 


)» 


350-0 


50-05 




J) 


)» 


352-4 


48-98 




)» 


;» 


366-5 


48-60 




)j 


JJ 


371-6 


48-03 




)» 


)> 


379-1 


47-47 




j» 


J) 


386-5 


47-26 




)» 


)J 


389-3 


46-82 






)j 


395-1 


46-27 




}} 


J) 


402-4 


45-99 




jj 


J5 


406-1 


45-22 






»» 


416-3 


44-95 






1» 


419-9 


44-50 




j» 


JJ 


425-9 


44-38 




J) 


J» 


427-5 


43-79 




f! 


J) 


435-4 


43-50 






)) 


439-2 


43-32 






n 


441-6 


42-70 






)» 


449-8 


42-18 






IJ 


456-7 


41-88 




0-78 


J» 


460-8 


41-70 




1* 


1) 


463-1 


41-34 




It 


*) 


467-9 


41-19 




>1 


)> 


469-9 


40-94 




»» 


)» 


473-2 


40-63 




)* 


>y 


477-4 


40-40 




IJ 


1) 


480-4 


39-50 




»» 


»> 


492-4 


39-08 






IJ 


498-0 


38-65 






j> 


503-8 


38-50 




)» 


TJ 


505-8 


38-23 




1» 


)1 


509-3 


37-93 




?) 


it 


513-3 


37-75 




)) 


»> 


515-7 


37-19 




1} 


1) 


523-2 


3G-45 




J1 


n 


533-1 


36-10 




tt 


tf 


537-8 


35-86 




)) 




541-0 



280 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ura^ivm— continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-lengtli 

Spark 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Spectrum 


Character 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


2735-65 




0-78 


10-6 


36543-8 


35-42 




J) 


i> 


546-9 


35-05 




)» 


« 


551-8 


34-80 




)» 


11 


555-1 


34-34 




IT 


11 


561-3 


34-04 




)> 


)i 


565-3 


33-85 




J» 


11 


567-8 


33-41 




11 


ri 


573-8 


33-06 




)» 


11 


578-4 


32-60 


Ibr 


}1 


11 


584-6 


32-15 




tt 


11 


590-6 


31-52 






)i 


599-1 


31-38 




ti 


11 


600-9 


30-90 






11 


606-2 


30-43 




It 


11 


613-7 


30-20 




11 


11 


616-7 


29-75 




>» 


11 


622-8 


29-35 




It 


)) 


628-2 


29-15 




ij 


11 


630-9 


28-8 




11 


11 


635-5 


28-65 


In 


j» 


») 


G37-6 


28-3 


Ibr 


)> 


1) 


642 


27-65 






11 


651-0 


27-40 






75 


654-3 


26-75 


In 


n 


10-7 


663-1 


26-61 




ti 


*) 


664-9 


26-01 




}j 


») 


673-0 


25-78 


1 


It 


»» 


676-1 


25-66 




»» 


»» 


679-0 


25-14 




11 


)» 


684-7 


24-55 


In 




11 


692-6 


24-2 


Ibr 




)» 


697 


23-90 




)» 


ij 


701-4 


23-80 




TJ 


»j 


702-7 


23-43 






)> 


707-7 


23-25 






j» 


710-1 


22-90 




11 


»» 


714-8 


21-95 


In 


U 


)» 


727-7 


21-53 




it 


») 


734-3 


21-25 




11 


» 


737-1 


20-99 




» 


11 


740-6 


20-78 




If 


)> 


743-5 


20-50 




11 


51 


747-2 


20-33 




JI 


>> 


749-6 


20-00 




11 


J> 


7540 


19-63 




1) 


l» 


759-1 


19-43 






)t 


761-7 


19-15 






»» 


765-5 


19-00 




11 


91 


767-5 


18-72 




)1 


» 


771-3 


18-18 




Jl 


)) 


778-6 


17-65 




)J 


)» 


785-8 


17-25 


In 


11 


» 


791-2 


17-10 


In 


>1 


n 


793-2 


16-63 




fl 


II 


799-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 281 

VvlA'Nixj'Ml— continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectriim 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1_ 








A 




271G-48 




0-78 


10-7 


36801-6 


16-20 




•) 


11 


805-4 


16-09 




») 


11 


806-9 


15-66 




11 


11 


812-8 


15-40 


In 


«1 


)» 


816-3 


15-10 




5) 


11 


820-3 


14-68 




)t 


11 


826-1 


14-40 




J» 


11 


829-8 


1404 




>» 


1) 


835-7 


13-57 




)J 


1> 


841-1 


13-33 


In 


)» 


11 


844-4 


12-68 


In 


»» 


n 


853-2 


12-20 




>) 


11 


859-8 


11-86 




If 


11 


864-4 


11-64 




)» 


11 


867-4 


11-23 




)J 


11 


872-7 


10-70 


In 


)» 


11 


880-1 


10-20 


In 


n 


11 


886-9 


09-63 




)? 


11 


894-7 


09-12 




j» 


11 


901-7 


08-60 




1) 


11 


908-7 


08-45 




)» 


11 


910-8 


0805 




jj 


11 


916-2 


07-79 




It 


11 


9198 


07-59 




}} 


11 


922-5 


07-09 


— ' 


j» 


11 


929-3 


06-85 




J) 


11 


932-5 


06-6 


Ibr 


)» 


11 


936 


06-3 


Ibr 


)» 


11 


940 


05-87 




}) 


11 


946-0 


05-33 




jj 


11 


953-4 


04-90 


2n 


jj 


11 


959-2 


04-2 


Ibr 


]} 


11 


969 


03-83 


In 


• ) 


10-8 


973-9 


029 


Ibr 


)» 


»» 


985 


01-95 




)) 


1) 


999-5 


01-68 




1* 


11 


37003-2 


01-50 




)» 


ij 


005-6 


01-08 




)j 


)j 


011-4 


00-38 




)i 


)) 


021-0 


2699-75 




11 


n 


029-7 


99-46 




0-77 


1) 


033-7 


98-57 




11 


19 


045-9 


98-15 




11 


f) 


051-6 


97-52 




11 


II 


060-2 


9715 




11 


)J 


065-3 


96-68 




}) 


1) 


071-9 


96-40 




}) 


IT 


075-8 


96-00 




1) 


)l 


081-2 


95-60 


2 


11 


II 


096-7 


94.35 


1 


11 


II 


101-2 


93-88 


2 


11 


II 


110-5 


93-41 


2 


11 


)l 


116-9 


92-49 


2 


f 1 


)l 


129-5 


91-93 


In 


11 


It 


137-3 



282 



Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 



REPORT — 1900. 
Ueanium — continued. 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2G91-17 


2 


90-65 


1 


90-15 


1 


89-23 


1 


88-76 


1 


88-07 


1 


87-55 


In 


86-9 


Ibr 


86-06 


2 


85-7 


In 


84-70 


1 


84-40 


1 


84-17 


1 


83-40 


2 


82-40 


2n 


81-80 


1 


81-23 


In 


80-75 


1 


80-3 


In 


80-0 


In 


791 


In 


78-96 


1 


78-53 


1 


78-14 


1 


77-68 


1 


77-25 


1 


76-75 


1 


76-50 


2 


76-00 


1 


76-18 


2di 


74-63 


In 


74-10 


In 


73-73 


1 


73-51 


1 


73-25 


1 


72-80 


1 


72-38 


1 


72-08 


1 


71-40 


1 


70-99 


1 


70-65 


In 


70-50 


la 


69-9 


In 


69-31 


2 


6902 


1 


68-28 


1 


68-11 


1 


67-25 


In 


66-6 


2br 


65-96 


1 


63-76 


1 


64-24 


2 


63-95 


1 


63-5 


Ibr 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



0-78 



1 
K 



10-8 



10-9 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



37147-8 
1550 
161-9 
174-6 
181-1 
191-3 
197-8 
207 
218-5 
223 
237-2 
241-6 
244-6 
255-4 
269-2 
277-6 
285-5 
292-2 
298-5 
303 
316 
317-1 
323-0 
328-5 
33^-0 
340-9 
347-8 
351-3 
358-3 
369-8 
377-5 
384 9 
390-1 
393-1 
396-8 
403-0 
408-9 
4131 
423-7 
428 4 
433-2 
438-2 
444 
452-0 
456-0 
466-5 
468-8 
480-9 
490 
499-0 
501-9 
513-6 
527-3 
534' 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 283 

Ubanium — continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Character 




1_ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 






A + 








A. 




2663-3* 


Ibr 


0-78 


10-9 


37536-5 


62-90 


1 




1) 


542-1 


C2-2 


Ibr 




)» 


552 


61-27 


1 




11 


565-2 


60-23 


1 




^y 


579-8 


60-00 


2 




)1 


583-1 


59-60 


1 




11 


588-7 


59-19 


In 




)* 


594-7 


58-85 


1 




If 


600-2 


58-49 


1 




11 


604-9 


58-20 


1 




)1 


G08-5 


57-96 


1 




») 


611-9 


57-45 


In 




11 


619-2 


57-25 


In 




11 


622-0 


56-6 


lb 




11 


631 


55-5 


lb 




11 


647 


5505 


In 




11-0 


653-1 


54-70 


1 


0-76 


fj 


658-0 


54-3 


lb 




It 


664 


54-00 


1 




Ij 


6680 


53-50 


1 




IJ 


675-1 


53-20 


1 




f » 


679-3 


52-95 


2 




If 


682-9 


52-8 


In 




tl 


685 


52-27 


1 




11 


692-6 


51-96 


1 




91 


697-0 


51-40 


1 




19 


704-9 


50-95 


In 




Jl 


711-3 


50-25 


In 




11 


721-3 


49-65 


1 




1) 


729-8 


49-15 


o 




11 


737-0 


48-84 


In 




}} 


741-4 


48-3 


lb 




yy 


749 


48-00 


In 




if 


753-3 


47-65 


In 




yt 


758-3 


47-47 


In 




IS 


760-9 


471 


lb 




1) 


766 


46-6 


lb 






773 


45-54 


2 




J* 


788-5 


44-50 


1 




If 1 


803-3 


44-22 


1 




1 

» i 


8073 


43 62 


1 




1 
1) 


815-9 


43-38 


1 




}) 


819-4 


42-9 


In 






826 


42-00 


1 




jt 


839-1 


41-66 


1 




)) 


844-0 


41-2 


In 






851 


40-43 


1 






861-6 


40-00 


1 




)) 


867-8 


39-70 


1 




}f 


872-1 


39-45 
39-10 


1 
1 




11 


875-8 
880-7 


38-7 


lb 


" \ 


)j 


886 



Pb? 



284 



EEPORT — 1900. 



Vhahivm.— continued. 







Reduction to 




Wave-lengtli 

Spark 

Spectrum 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








A 




26384 


lb 


0-76 


11-0 


37891 


87-82 






)» 


8991 


37-48 






)» 


904-0 


37-3 


lb 




n 


907 


36-33 


In 




J) 


920-5 


35-91 






it 


926-6 


35-59 






!» 


931-2 


35-3 


lb 




»» 


935 


34-6 


lb 




») 


945 


34-2 


lb 




»» 


951 


33-35 


Ir 




») 


963-4 


32-74 






») 


972-2 


32-50 






5» 


975-7 


32-08 






Tl 


981-8 


31-74 






111 


986-7 


31-42