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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"



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REPORT 



OP THE 



SEVENTY-FIEST MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR TEE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



GLASGOW IN SEPTEMBER 1901. 



•'* '*? ^'\ a>^ /• 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1901. 

Office of the Association : Btirlington Hoicse, London, TF, 



rRlXTKP BY 

sroTTiswoons and ft>. i.ri)., nkw-sthket square 

I.ONIIUX 



'ill 



/ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxix 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement ...= xl 

Trustees and General Officers, from 1831 liii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 ... , liv 

List of Evening Discourses Ixxii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Glasgow Meeting Ixxvii 

Committee of Recommendations at the Glasgow Meeting Ixxix 

Treasurer's Account Ixxx 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxxii 

Officers and Council, 1901-1902 Ixxxiv 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxv 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Glasgow Meet- 
ing in September 1901 xc 

Resolution relating to the Committee on Traction of Vehicles xcix 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso , xcix 

Synopsis of Grants of Money c 

Places of Meeting in 1902 and 1903 ci 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes cii 

General Meetings „ cxi 

Address by the President, Professor A. W. Rtjckee, D.Sc, Sec. F.R.S. ... 3 

A2 



iv REPOUT— 1901. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



[^1 n asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. The mark f indicates the same, 
but tvith a reference to the Journal or Nenspaper inwhich it is jniblished in extenso.] 



Page 

The Dtiterniinatioii of the Components of Magnetic Force on Board Ship. — 
Report of the Committee, eonsistinj^ of Professor A. W. KvcKER (Chair- 
man), Dr. ('. H. Lees (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor A. Schuster, 
Captain K. W. Crkak, Professor W. Stroid, Mr. C. ^'ernon Boys, and 
Mr. \V . Watson 09 

Un a New Form of Instrument ibr otserving the Magnetic Dip and Intensity 
on Board Ship at Sen. By Captain E. W. Creak, C.B., R.N., F.R.S 29 

E.x^eriments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Llectrical Measurements — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Rayleigu (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretarv), Lord Kelvin, 
Professors W. E. Ayiiton, G. Carey Foster, J. Perry, "NV. G. Adams, and 
Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. J. A. Muirheab, Sir W. [I. Preece, Professors J. D. 
Everett, A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming and J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. x! 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. .Iohnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. IJennie, Mr. E. H. Griffiths, 
Professors A. W. Rucker. H. L. Callendar, and Sir Wm. C. Roiierts- 
Au-STEN, and Mr. George Matthev 3^ 

Appendix. — Xote on a Comparison of the Silver deposited in Volta- 
meters containing different Solvents. By S. Skinner... 32 

Note on the Variation of the Specific Heat of Water. By Professor H. L. 
Callendar, F.R.S ' ' ' «^ 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field.— Report of the Committee, consistino- of 
the late Profesoor G. 1". FitzGerald (Chairman), Professor W. E. Thrift 
(Secretary), Professor A. Schuster, Principal O. J. Lodge, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, Dr. Gerald Molloy, and Dr. W. E. Adeney 39 

Interference and Polarisation of ]';iectric Waves. By Professor Dr. G 
(Quincke ' ' ' pj, 



Seismological Investigations.— Si.^lli Report of the Committee, consistin"' of 
Professor J. ^V . JcDit (Chairman), Mr. .T. Milne (Secretarv), Lord Kelvin 
Profes.sor T. (J. lioNNEY, ^Ir. C. V. IIoys, Professor G. "ll D\rwin Mr' 
Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewino Professor 
<;. G. Knott Professor R. Meldola, Mr. R. 1). Oldham, Professor J. 
Perry, -Mr. \\ . E. Plummer, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Ci ement 
Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, and Professor H. II. Turner 



40 

I. On Seismological Stations abroad and in Great Britnin 40 

Analyses of Records for the Year 1000 41 

On the Aj.pro.'iimate Frequency of Earthquakes at 'ciifferent Sta- 
tions, J5y J. Milne .. 

Experiments upon Piers .„ 



CONTENTS. V 

rage 
II. On tlie Cumparisor. of Eartliquake Registers from Kew, Shide, 

Bidston, and Edinburgh. By J. Milne 44 

III. On the liecords obtained from two similar Seismographs at Kew. 

By I)r. Chakles Cheek 51 

IV. Movements of Horizontal Pendulums in relation to Barometric 

Pressure. By J. Milne 53 

V. An Attempt to Measure Earth Movements at Ilidgeway Fault. 

By HOEACE LtAKWIN 52 

Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions. — Report of tlie Committee, con- 
sisting' of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Lieutenant-Colonel Allan Cunnixg- 
HAM, R.E. (Secretary), Dr. J. W. L. Ulaishle, Professor A. G. Geeenhill, 
Professor W. M. HiCK'i!, Professor A. Lodgr, and Major P. A. MacMahon, 
R.A., appointed for calculating Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions, 
and, if necessary, for taldng steps to carry out the calculations, and to 
puhliwh the Jesuits in an accessible form 54 

Meter/Dlogical Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord M'Laren, Professor A. CErJi Broavn (Secretary), Sir John 
MuRBAY, Professor R. CorELAifD, and Dr. Alexander Buchan. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Btjciian.) 54 

The Clearing of Turbid Solutions, and the Movement of Small Suspended 
Particles by the Influence of Light. By Professor G. Quincke GO 

I'nderground Temperature. — Twenty-second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor J. D. Eveeeti' (Chairman and Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Sir Aechibald Geikie, Mr. Jajies Glaishek. Professor Edwaed Hull, 
Dr. C. Le Neve Fostee, Professor A. S. IIer*chel, Professor G. A. 
Lebovr, Mr. A. B. Wynne. Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Siraiian, Professor Michib 
Smith, and Professor H. L. Callenbae, appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards 
in various Localities of Dry Land and Under Water. (Drawn up by Pro- 
fessor EvEEETT, Secretary) 64 

Note sur r Unite de Pressiou. Par le Dr. C. E. Guillaujie 71 

Alloys. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. II. Neville (Chair- 
man and Secretary), xMr. C. T. Heycock, and Mr. E. II. Geiefixhs, ap- 
pointed to investigate the Nature of Alloys 75 

Isomorphous Derivatives of Benzene. — Second Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor H. A. Miees (Chairman), Dr. W. P. Wynnf, and 
Dr H. E. Aemsteong (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 78 

On Wave-lengthTablesof the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyee, Professor J. Dewar, Pro- 
fessor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, Professor W. N. H.4.rtley, 
Professor AVolcott Gibbs, and Captain Sir W. de W. Abney 79 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor W. A. Tilden (Chairman) and Dr. H. E. Aemsteong (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 152 

Bibliography of Spectroscopy. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor H. McLeod (Chairman), Sir W. C. Robeets-Austen (Secretary), 
Mr. H. G. Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel 15.t 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — Third 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Noel Hartley 
(Chairman and Secretary), Professor F. R. Japp, Professor J. J. Dobbie, 
and Mr. Alexander Lauder, appointed to investigate the Relation between 
the Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances 208 



Vi REPORT — 1901. 

Page 
List of Substances the Absorption Spectra of which have been studied in 
connection with the Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds ... 225 
The Methods for the Determination of Hydrolytic Dissociation of Salt-Solu- 
tions. By R. C. Faemee, Ph.D., M.Sc 240 

The Relative Progress of the Coal-tar Industry in England and Germany 
during the past Fifteen Years. By Aexhue G. Geesn, F.I.C., F.O.S, ... 252 

The Application of the Equilibrium Law to the Separation of Crystals from 
Complex Solutions and to the Formation of Oceanic Salt Deposits. By 
Dr. E. Feankland Aemsxeong 262 

Keish Caves, co. Sligo. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
R. F. ScHAEFF (Chairman), Mr. K. Ll. Praeger (Secretary), Mr. G. 
CoFFET, Professor A. G. Cole, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. A. 
McHeney, and Mr. R. J. Usshee, appointed to explore Irish Caves 282 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. J. E. Mare (Chairman), Mr. P. F. Kendall (Secretary), Professor 
T. G. Bonnet, Mr. C. E. De Range, Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H, 
TiDDEMAN, Rev. S. N. Haeeison, Mr. J. Hoene, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. 
J. LoMAS, Mr. A. R. Dwerethousb, Mr. J. W. Stathee, and Mr. W. T. 
TucKEE, appointed to investigate the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles, 
and tro take measures for their preservation. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 283 

Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Maer (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hind (Secretary),. 
Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Cetck, Dr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
J. W. KiEKBY, Mr. R. KiDSTON, Mr. G. W. Lamtlugh, Professor G. A. 
Leboue, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Steahan, and Dr. 11. Woodward. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 288 

The Structure of Crystals. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
N. Stoet Maskeltne (Chairman), Professor H. A. Miees (Secretary), Mr. 
L. Fletchee, Professor W, J. Sollas, Mr. W. Barlow, Mr. G. F. Her- 
bert Smith, and the Earl of Berkeley, appointed to report on the Present 
State of our Knowledge concerning the Structure of Crystals. (Drawn up 
by Mr. Barlow and Professor Miers, assisted by Mr. Herbert Smith.) 

Part I. — Report on the Development of the Geometrical Theories of 

Crystal Structure, 1666-1901 297 

The Movements of Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire. — Second 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chair- 
man), Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Secretary), Professor A. Smithells, Rev. 
E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, Mr. G. Bray, Rev. W. Lower Caetbb, 
Mr. W. Faieley, Mr. P. F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. Maer 337 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Twelfth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), Dr. 
T. G. BoNNEY, Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. Tempest Anderson, Mr. 
Godfrey Bingley, Mr. H. Coates, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. J. G. Good- 
child, Mr. William Geat, Mr. Robeet Kidston, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. 
J. J. H. Teall, Mr. R. Welch, Mr. H. B. Woodwaed, Mr. F. Woolnough, 
and Professor W. W. Watts (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.)... 339 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
C. Lloyd Moegan (Chairman), Mr. H. Bolton (Secretary), Professor W. 
Boyd Dawkins, Mr. W. R. Baekee, Mr. S. H. Reynolds, and Mr. E. T. 
Newton, appointed for the purpose of excavating the Ossiferous Caves at 
Uphill, near Weston-super-Mare 352 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Eleventh Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Dr. AV. T. Blanford, 



CONTENTS. Vii 

Page 
Professor S. J. Higkson, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
Mr. E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary) 3o2 

Plankton and Physical Conditions of the English Channel, 1809-1900.— 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Rat Lan- 
KESTER (Chairman), Mr. W. Garstang (Secretary), Professor W. A. Herd- 
man, and Mr. H. N. Dickson. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 3.5o 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Xaples. — Report of the 
Comniittee, consisting of Professor W. A. Heedman (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor E. Ray Lankester, Professor W. F. R. Weldon, Professor S. J. 
HiCKsoN, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Professor G. B. 
Howes (Secretary) 354: 

Appendix I. — a. Report on the Occupation of the Table. By Dr. R. 
Hamlyn-Haeris, F.R.M.S., F.Z.S., ' On the 

Statocysts of Cephalopoda ' 355 

b. Report on the Occupation of the Table. By Dr. 
A. H. Reginald Bullee, B.Sc, 'The Fertilisa- 
tion Process in Echinoidea ' 356 

„ n. — A List of Naturalists who have worked at the Zoo- 
logical Station from the end of June 1900 till the end 

of June 1901 358 

„ ni. — A List of Papers which were published in the Year 
1900 by the Naturalists who have occupied Tables in 

the Zoological Station 360 

„ IV. — A List of the Publications of the Zoological Station 

during the Year ending June 30, 1901 361 

Index Animalium. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Henry Wood- 
AVARD (Chairman), Mr. AV. E. Hoylb, Mr. R. McLachlan, Dr. P. L. 
Sclater, Rev, T. R. R. Steering, and Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretary) 362 

Coral Reefs of the Indian Regions. — Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. A. Sedgwick (Chairman), Mr. J. Graham Keek (Secretary), 
Professor J. W. Jttdd, Mr. J. J. Listee, and Dr. S. F. Haemee, ap- 
pointed to investigate the Structure, Formation, and Growth of the Coral 
Reefs of the Indian Region 363 

Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland. — Fourth Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Rev. E. P. 
Knublet (Secretary), Mr. John A. Haevie-Beown, Mr. R. M. Baering- 
TON, and Mr. A. H. Evans, appointed to work out the details of the Obser- 
vations of Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, 1880-87 364 

Migrations of the Skylark (Alauda arvensiif). By Wm. Eagle Clarke 365 

Migrations of the Swallow (Zf»7m<Zo n«s<jc«). By Wm. Eagle Clarke 372 

Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. C. Bouene (Chairman), Mr. W. 
Garstang (Secretary), Professor E. Ray Lankestee, Professor Sydney II. 
Vines, Mr. A . Sedgwick, and Professor "VV. F. R. Weldon. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 370 

Some Notes on the Behaviour of Young Gulls artificially hatched. By Pro- 
fessor J. Arthur Thomson, M.A 378 

Changes of the Land Level of the Phlegrsean Fields. — Report of a Committee 
consisting of Dr. H. R. Mill (Chairman), Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary), 
Dr. Scott Keltie, and Mr. R. T. Gunther, (Drawn up by Mr. R. T. 
GiJNTHER,) . 382 



Viii REPORT — 1901. 

Page 
Tlie Climatology of Africa. — Tenth and Final Report of a Committee con- 
sisting of Mr. E. G. Ravenstein (Chairman), Dr. H. R. Mill, and Mr. 
H. N. Dickson (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Chairman.) 383 

The Survey of British Protectorates.— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir T. H. HoLDiCH (Chairman), ('ol. G. E. Church, Mr. E. G. Ravex- 
STEIN, and Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary), appointed to draw up a Scheme 
for the Survey of British Protectoratps 396 

Terrestrial Surface Waves. — First Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. J. Scott Keltie (Chairman), Lieut.-Col. Bailey, late R.E. (Secretary), 
Dr. Vaughan Coenish, Mr. A. Roope Hunt, F.G.S., Mr. W. H. 
Wheeler, M.Inst.C.E., and Mr. E. A. Floyer. (Drawn up by Dr. 
Yaughan Corsish.) 308 

Women's Labour. — First Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. W. 
Brabeook (Chairman), Mr. A. L. Bowlet (Secretary), Miss A. M. Andek- 
soN. Mr. C. Booth, Professor S. J. Chatman, Miss C. E. Collet, Professor 
F. Y. Edgeworth, Professor A. W. Flux, Mrs. J. E. MacDonald, Mr. 
L. L. Price, Professor \V. Smart, and Mrs. H. J. Tennant, appointed 
to investigate the Economic ElFect of Legislation regulating Women's 
Labour 399 

The Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction.— Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir Alexander Binnie (Chairman), Professor Hele-Shaw 
(Secretary), Mr. Aitken, Mr. T. C. Aveling, Mr. J. Brown, Professor 
Hudson Beaee, Mr. W. W. Beaumont, Colonel Ckohpton, Mr. A. Mal- 
lock. Sir David Salomons, Mr. A. R. Sennett, Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith, 
and Mr. J. I. Thoentceoft. (Drawn up by the Secretary.; 402 

Appendix. — Abstract of Suggestions 404 

Small Screw Gauge. — Rejiort of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. 
Preece (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Sir H. Trueman 
Wood, Major-Gen. Webbek, Col. AVatkin, Lieut.-Col. Crompton, A. 
Stroh, a. Le Neve Foster, C. J. Hewiit, G. K. B. Elphinstone, E. 
RiGG, C. Y. Boys, J. Marshall Goeham, O. ]'. Cli'Mbnts, W. Taylor, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, and W. A. Price (Secretary), appointed to consider 
means by which Practical Eflect can be given to the introduction of the 
Screw Gauge proposed by the Association in 1884 407 

Ethnological Survey of Canada. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor D. P. Penhallow (Chairman), the late Dr. George M. Dawson 
(Secretary), Mr. E. W. Brabeook, Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. 
ILvrtland, Sir J. G. Eourinot, Mr. B. Sulte, Mr. C. Hill-Tout, 
Mr. David Boyle. Mr. C. N. Bell, Professor E. B. Tylor, Professor J. 
Mavoe, Mr. C. F. Hunter, and Dr. W. F. GJanong 409 

Natural History and Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula. — Second Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. W. 
Ceooee (Secretary), Professor A. Macalistee, and Professor W. Ridge- 
way 411 

Second Report on Cambridge Exploring E.xpedition to the Malay Pro- 
vinces of Lower Siam, drawn up by \V. W. Skeat 411 

Silchester E.xcavation. — Iteport of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Arthur 
J. Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myees (Secretary), and Mr. E. W. Bra- 
beook, appointed to co-operate with the Silchester Excavation Fund 
Committee in their Excavations 425 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. G. 
Gaeson (Chairman), Mr. II. Balfour (Secretary), Sir .Toun Evans, 
Mr. C. II. Read, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 



CONTEXTS. 12 

Page 
Professor Boyd Dawkix?, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, appointed to conduct 
Exj)lorations -with the object of xVscertaJninj^- the Age of Stone Circles. 

(Drawn up by the Chairman.) 427 

On the Excavations at Arbor Low. By 11. St. George Gray 427 

The Stone Implements excavated at Arbor Low. By Henry Balfour 437 

Eeport on the Human Skeleton found in the Stone Circle of Arbor Low. 
By J. G. Garson, M.D 433 

Explorations in Crete. — Report of the Committee, consistin<? of Sir Jonir 
Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S. (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. 
A. J. Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Professor A. Macalisxer, and Pro- 
fessor \V. KlDGEWAY 440 

The Micro-cliemistry of Cells. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
cessor E. a. Scu'vfer (Chairman), Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
W. 1). Halliburton, Mr. G. C. Bourne, Professor J. J. Mackenzie, and 
Professor A. B. Macallum (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) ... 445 

The Chemistry of Bone Marrow.— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor E. A. Schafer (Chairman), Dr. R. HuxcnisoN (Secretary), 
Dr. Leonard Hill, and Professor F. GoicH 447 

Tlie Morphology, Ecology, and Taxonomy of the Podostemacese. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of I'rofessor Marshall Ward (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor J. B. Farmer (Secretary), and Professor F. O. Bower 447 

Fertilisation in tlie Phaeophycea}.— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. B. Farmer (Chairman), Professor R. AV. Phillips (Secretary), 
Professor F. 0. Bower, and Professor Hauvey Gibson 448 

The Influence of the Universities on School Education. By the Right Rev. 
John Peecival, D.D., Lord Bishop of Hereford 448 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. .1. II. Gladstone (Chairmau), Professor II. E. Armstrong 
(Secretary), Lord Avebury, Professor "NV. R. Dunstan, Mr. Georgp 
Gladstone, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir II. E. Roscoe, Professor A. Smithells, 
and Prolessor S. P. Thompson 458 

Appendix. — Irish National Schools : Object Lessons and Elementary 

Science ." 464 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary), Professor 
R. Meldola, Mr. Francis Galton, Sir John Ev.\ns, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Mr. J. HoPKiNsoN, Professor T. G. Bonney, the late Sir Cuthbert Peek, 
Dr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Professor W. W. Watts, 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. C. H. Read, and Mr. F. AV. Rudler 405 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Correspondhig Societies held at 
Glasgow, September 1001 406 



REPORT — 1901. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Page 

Address by Major P. A. MacMauon, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section 51St 

1. *0n Elastic Fatigue, as shown by Metals and AVoods. By Professor A. 
Gray, F.R.S., J. S. Dunlop, and A. Wood 529 

2. The Clearing of Turhid Solutions, and the Movement of Small Suspended 
Particles, by the Influence of Light. By Professor G. Quincke (p. 60) 529 

3. *0n the Relation between Temperature and Internal Viscosities of Solids. 

By Professor A. Gray, F.R.S 529 

4. Note on Hydrostatic Pressure. By W. Ramsay, F.R.S., and G. 

Seoter, B.Sc 529 

5. "The Freezing Points of certain Dilute Solutions. By E. H. Grif- 

fiths, F.R.S 530 

6. *The Buildings of the National Physical Laboratory. By Dr. R. T. 

Glazebrook, F.R.S '. ." 530 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 
Department I.— Physics. 
L Report on Electrical Standards (p. 31) 531 

2. Note on a Comparison of the Deposits in Silver Voltameters with 

different Solvents. By S. Skinner, M.A. (p. 32) 531 

3. The Discharge of Electricity through Mercury A'apour. By Arthur 

Schuster, F.R.S 531 

4. *Sur les Effets magnetique de la Convection electrique. Par Dr. V. 
Crkmieu 531 

5. Photoelectric Cells. By Professor G. M. Minchin, M.A., F.R.S 531 

G. On the Necessity for Postulating an Ether. By B. Hopkinson 534 

7. On the Change of Conductivity of Metallic Particles under Cyclic Electro- 
motive Variation. By Professor Jagadis Ohunder Bose, M.A., D.Sc... 534 

Department II. — Astronomy 
Address by Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, F.R.S., Chairman 536 

1. On the Possibility of Systematic Error in Photographs of a Moving 
Object. By A. R. HiNKS, M.A. 540 



CONTENTS. Xi 

Page 

2. The Essentials of a Machine for the Accurate Measurement of Celestial 
Photographs. By A. R. Hinks, M.A 541 

3. Note on the Singkep Commutator. By David P. Todd 641 

4. The Drift in Longitude of Groups of Faculae on the Sun's Sui-face. By 

the Rev. A. L. Cortie, S.J., F.R.A.S 542 

5. On an Exceptional Case in the determination of the Constants of a Photo- 

graphic Plate from known Stars. By Professor H, H. Tttrner, F.R.S. 543 

6. "On the Position of a Planet beyond Neptune. By G. Forbes, F.R.S. ... 543 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 
Department I. — Mathematics. 

*A joint Discussion with Section L on the Teaching of Mathematics, opened 
by Professor John Perry, F.R.S 543 

Department II. — Physics. 

1. Report on Radiation in a Magnetic Field (p. 39) 544 

2. Note on a Method of determining Specific Heats of Metals at Low Tem- 
peratures. By T. G. Bedford, M. A., and C. F. Green, M. A 544 

3. A New Gauge for Small Pressures. By Professor Edward W. Morley 
and Charles F. Brush 544 

4. The Transmission of Heat through Water Vapour. By Charles F. 

Brush and Professor Edward W. Morley 546 

5. Comparison of the Constant Volume and Constant Pressure Scales for 
Hydrogen between 0° C. and —190° 0. By Morris W. Travers, D.Sc, 
and George Senier, B.Sc 546 

6. Note on the Variation of the Specific Heat of Water. By Professor 

H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. (p. 34) 547 

7. The Laws of Electrolysis of Alkali Salt Vapours. By Harold A. 

Wilson, D.Sc, M.Sc, kA '. 547 

8. Preliminary Note on the Theory of the Lippmann Electrometer and 

related Phenomena. By F. G. Cottrell 548 

9. *Effect of Non-Electrolytes on the Lippmann Electrometer Curve. By 

J. A. Craw 549 

10. ^Determination of the Surface Tension of Mercury by the Method of 

Ripples. By J. A. Craw 549 

11, *The Potential Differences of AUotropic Silver. By J. A. Craw 549 



MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 16. 
Department I. — Mathematics. 

1. Report on Tables of certain Mathematical Functions (p. 64) 549 

2. A Criterion for the Recognition of the Irregular Points of Analytic 
Functions. By Professor Mittag-Lefeler, Foreign Member R.S 549 

3. Poincar^'s Pear-shaped Figure of Equilibrium of Rotating Liquids By 

G. H. Daewin, F.R.S 550 



±n REPORT — 1001. 



Page 



4. *The Simple Peudiilum ■without Approximation. By Piofessor A. G. 

Geeenhill, F.R.S 551 

•J. *Sphericiil Trigonometry. By Trofessor A. G. Gkeenhill, P.R.S., and 

0. Veenox Boys, F.R.S 551 

6. *0n tlie Partition of Series each Term of -\vhich is a Product of Quantics. 

By Major P. A. xMacMauox, F.R.S 551 

7. On Idoneal Numhers. By Lt.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E., and the 

Rev. J. CcjLLEN, S.J 552 

8. Determination of Succe.ssive Ilig-h Primes. (Second Paper.) By Lieut.- 
Golonel Allan Cdnningham, R.E., and II. J. Woodall, A R.C.Sc 553 

9. The E(iuation of Secular Inequalities. By T. J. I'A. Bromwicii 553 

10. The Piiiseux Diagram and DitTerential Equations. By R. W. H, T. 
Hudson, B.A 555 

11. The Fourier Problem of the Steady Temperatures in a thin Rod. By 
James W. Peck '. 555 

12. Note on the Potential of a Surface Distribution. By T. J. I'A. Bromwich 556 

1.3. The Applications of Fourier's Series to Matheraalical Phvsics. By 
H. S. Caeslaw, D.Sc 567 



DErAETMENT II. — PhTSICS. 

1. Report on Underground Temperature (p. Gl) 558 

2. Report on Seismological Investigation (p. 40) 658 

3. On the Seasonal Variation of the Atmospheric Tempei-ature of the 

British Isles and its Relation to Wind-direction. By W. N. Shaav, 
M.A., F.R.S., and R. Waley Cohen, B.A 558 

4. On the Effect of Sea Temperature upon the Seasonal Variation of Air 

Temperature of the British Isles. By W. N. Shaw, M, A., F.R.S 500 

5. A New Point of View about Gravitation, and a proposed Experiment. 

By Dr. V. Crkmieu 561 

6. A Discussion on the proposed New Unit of Pressure, opened bv a Paper 

by Dr. C. E. Guillaume (p. 71) ."^ 563 

7. The Michelson-Morley Effect. By W. M. Hicks, F.R.S 562 

8. ■■Tlie Law of Radiation. By Dr. J. Laejiok, F.R.S 562 

). Radiation of Ilent and Light from a Heated Solid Body. By Dr. J. T. 
BOTTOMLEY, F.R.S \ 562 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

DErARTMENT I. — PhYSICS. 

1. On the Clu.stering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe. 

By Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S 563 

2. *A Discussion on Glass used for Scientific Purposes. Opened by a Paper 

by Dr. R. T. Glazeukooe, F.R.S 568 

3. The Brush Grating and the Law of its Optical Action. By John 
Kere, LL.D., F.il.S ". 668 

4. The Effect of Errors in Ruling on the Appearance of a Diffraction 

Grating. By IL S. Allen, M.A., B.Sc 568 



CONTEXTS. Xlii 

Page 

5. *0n a new Electromagnet and an Echelon Spectroscope for INIagneto-optic 
Observations. By Professor A. Gray, F.R.S., and Dr. W. Stewaet ... 5G9 

6. On Resolving' Power in the Microscope and Telescope, By Professor 

J, D. Eyereit, F.R.S 569 

7. On the Interference of Light from Independent Sources, By G, John- 

stone Stoney, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S .- 570 

8. A Long Period Solar Variation. By William J. S, Lockyek 570 

Department II. — Meteobology, 

1. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 54) 577 

2. The Seismograph as a Sensitive Barometer, By F. Napier Denisox ... 577 

3. *0n Meteorological Phenomena in Relation to Changes in the Vertical. 

By Professor J. Milne, F.R.S 578 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Report on the Determination of Magnetic Force on Board Ship (p. 29)... 578 

2. On a New Form of Instrument for Observing the Magnetic Dip and In- 
tensity on Board Ship at Sea. By Captain E. W. Creak, C.B., F.R.S. 

(p. 29) 579 

3. *Noto on some Results obtained with the Self-recording Instruments for 

the Antarctic Expedition. By Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S 579 

4. On a Determination by a Thermal Method of the Variation of the Critical 

Velocity of Water with Temperature. By H. T. Barnes, M.A.Sc, D.Sc , 
and E. G. Cokee, M,A., D.Sc 579 

5. The Interference and Polarisation of Electric Waves. By Professor 

G. Quincke (p. 39) 581 

6. On the Effects of Magnetisation on the Electrical Conductivity of Iron 
and Nickel. By Guy Barlow, B.Sc 581 

7. *The Influence of a Magnetic Field on the Viscosity of Magnetisable 
Liquids. By Professor A. Gray, F.R.S -582 

8. ■'The Influence of a Magnetic Field on the Viscosity of Magnetisable 
Solids. By Professor A, Gray, F.R.S 582 

9. Magnetisation of Electrolytic Nickel. By James W, Peck and Robert 

A. HousTOUN 582 

10. A New Form of Permeameter. By Professor F. G, Baily, M, A 582 

11. Note on the Coherer. By Professor James Blyth, M.A., LL.D 583 



Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor Percy F. Frankl.and, Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 584 

1. Duty-free Alcohol for Chemical Research. By W. T. Laavrence 597 

2. The Coal Tar Industry. By Dr. A. G. Green (p. 252) 600 

3. Report on a New Series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 

Elements (p, 79) 6C0 



xir REPORT — 1901. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBEB. 13. 

Page 

1. Enzyme Action. By Adeian J. Brown 600 

2. ^Radium. By Professor W. Ma eckwald 601 

Department I. 

1. Report on the Relation between the Absorption Spectra and Chemical 
Constitution of Organic Substances (p. 208) 601 

2. On the Chemical and Biological Changes occurring during the Treatment 

of Sewage by the so-called Bacteria Beds. By Professor E. A. Lexis, 
D.Sc, Ph.D., and R. F. Blake, F.C.S., F.I.C. .' 601 

3. '^Humus and the Irreducible Residue in the Bacterial Treatment of 

Sewage. By Dr. S. Rideal 003 

4. *Sulphuric Acid as a Typhoid Disinfectant. By Dr. S. Rideal 603 

6. On the Inverse Relation of Chlorine to Rainfall. By William Ackbotd, 
F.I.C 603 

6. On the Distribution of Chlorine in Yorkshire. Part II. By William 
ACKROTD, F.I.C 603 

Department II. 

1. Hydration of Tin, including the Action of Light. By Dr. J. H. Gl4D- 
STONE, F.R.S., and Geoegb Gladstone 603 

2. Transitional Forms between Colloids and Crystalloids. By Dr. J. H. 

Gladstone, F.R.S., and Walter Hibbeet, F.I.C 604 

3. Report on the Nature of Alloys (p. 75) 604 

4. The Minute Structure of Metals. By G. T. Beilbx 604 

5. On the Action of Ammonia on Metals at High Temperatures. By G. G. 

Henderson, D.Sc, and G. T. Beilbt 605 

6. Aluminium-Tin Alloys. By W. Careick Anderson, M.A., D.Sc., and 
Geoegk Lean, B.Sc 606 

7. *Aluminium-Antimony Alloys. By W. Campbell 606 

8. *Aluminium-Copper Alloys. By W. Campbell 606 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. *0n the Three Stereomeric Cinnamic Acids. By Professor A. Michael 607 

2. *0n the Genesis of Matter. By Professor A. Michael 607 

3. *0n the Process of Substitution. By Professor A . Michael 607 

4. *0n the Synthetical Formation of Bridged-rings. By Professor W. H. 
Perkin, F.R.S 607 

5. The Condensation of Benzil with Dibenzyl Ketone. By G. G. Hendee- 

SON, D.Sc, and R. H. Coestorphine, B.Sc 607 

6. Some Relations between Physical Constants and Constitution in Ben- 
zenoid Amines. Part IH. By W. R. Hodgkinson and L. Limpach ... 

7. The Existence of Certain Semicarbazides in more than one Modification. 

By George Young, Ph.D 609 

8. Report on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives (p. 152) 611 

9. Report on Isomorphous Derivatives of Benzene (p. 78) 611 



CONTENTS. XV 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Page 

1. Some Points in Chemical Education. By Professor Joji Sakttrai, LL.D. 612 

2. *0n the Detection and Estimation of Arsenic in Beer and Articles of 

Food. By W. Thomson, F.R.S.E 613 

3. *0n the Nomenclature of the Ions. By Professor James Walkee, F.R.S. 613 

4. On the Equilibrium Law as applied to Salt Separation and to the Forma- 
tion of Oceanic Salt Deposits. By Dr. E. Fkankland Aemsteong 

(p. 262) 613 

T). Report on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy (p. 155) 613 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. *The Electrolytic Conductivity of Halogen Acid Solutions. By Dr. J. 
Gibson 613 

2. On the Flame Coloration and Spectrum of Nickel Compounds. By P. J, 

Haetog 613 

3. The Methods of Determining the Hydrolytic Dissociation of Salts. By 

Dr. R. C. Faejier (p. 240) 614 

4. *The Influence of Solvents on the Rotation of Optically Active Com- 
pounds. By Dr. T. S. Patteeson 614 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by John IJorne, F.RS., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., President of the 
Section 615 

1. Recent Discoveries in Arran Geology. By William Gtthn 631 

2. On Variation in the Strata in the Eastern Highlands. By George 

Barrow 633 

3. On the Crystalline Schists of the Southern Highlands. Their Physical 

Structure and its Probable Manner of Development. By Peter 

M acnaie 633 

4. The Granite of TuUoch Burn. Ayrshire. By Professor James Geikib, 

F.R.S., and John S. Flett, M.A., D.Sc 634 

5. *0n Crystals dredged from the Clyde near Helensburgh, with Analyses 

by Dr. W. Pollard, By J. S. Fleit, M.A., D.Sc 635 

6. Note on a Phosphatic Layer at the Base of the Inferior Oolite in Skye. 

By HoEACE B. Woodward, F.R.S \ 635 

7. Further Note on the Westleton Beds. By Horace B. Woodward 

F.R.S : 635 

8. Report on the Collection and Preservation of Photographs of Geological 

Interest (p. 339) 635 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. *Time Intervals in the Volcanic History of the Inner Hebrides. By Sir 

Archibald Gbie;ie, D.C.L., F.R.S 636 

2. The Sequence of the Tertiary Igneous Eruptions in Skve. Bv Alpepd 

Barker, M.A., F.G.S „ 



xvi REPORT — 1901. 

Page 

3. On the Relations of tlie Old Red Sandstone of Nortli-west Ireland to the 
adjacent jMetaraovpliic Rocks, and its similarity to theTorridon Rocks of 
Sutherland. P.y Alex. McHexey and Jas. R. Kileoe 030 

4. On the Relation of the Silurian and Ordovician Rocks of North-west 
Ireland to the Great Metamorphic Series. By Jas. R. Kileoe and Alex. 
McIIexet G30 

5. Notes on the Irish Primary Rocks, with tJieir associated CTranitio and 
Metamorphic Rocka. By G. II. Kinakax, M.R.I. A 637 

6. Some Irish Laccolithic Hills. By G. 11. Kixahah-, M.R.I.A 640 

7. "'^'The Geological Distribution of Fishes in the Carboniferous Rocks of 

Scotland. By Dr. R. II. Tkaqtjaie, F.R.S 640 

8. ■••'The Geological Distribution of Fishes in the Old Red Sandstone of 

Scotland. By Dr. R. XL Traqitaik, F.R.S 040 

9. Perim Island and its Relations to the Area of the Red Sea. By Cathe- 

EiNE A. Raisin, D.Sc 640 

10. Artesian Water in the State of Queensland, Australia. By R. Logan 
Jack, LL.D., F.G.S 641 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Cambrian Fossils of the North-west Highlands. Bv B. N. Peach, 

F.R.S ■ 642 

2. The Investigation of Fos.sil Romains by Serial Sections. By Professor 

W.J. SoLLAS, D.Sc, F.R.S ■ 643 

3. *Notes on some Fossil Plants from Berwickshire. By R. Kidston 643 

4. Report on Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks (p. 288) 643 

5. Geology regarded in its Economic Application to Agriculture by Means 
ofSoil'Maps. By J. R. Kileoe 643 

0. Plants and Coleoptera from a Deposit of Pleistocene Age at Wolvercote, 
Oxfordshire. By A. M. Bell, M.A., F.G.S 645 

7. Report on the Terrestrial Surface Waves and Wave-like Surfaces (p. 398) 640 

8. Report on the Exploration of Keish Caves, Co. Sligo (p. 282) 640 

9. Evidences of Ancient Glacier-dammed l^alves in the Cheviots. By Percy 

F. Kendall, F.G.S., and IIeebert B. Muff, B.A., F.G.S ' 040 

10. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles (p. 283) 647 

11. *Interini Report on the best Methods for the Registration of all Type 
Specimens of Fossils in the British Isles 647 

12. Report upon the Present State of our Knowledge of the Structure of 

Crystals (p. 297) 647 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER IT. 

1. The Scottish Ores of Copper in their Geological Relations. By J. G. 
GooDCHiLD, F.G.S 647 

2. A Revised List of the Minerals known to occur in Scotland. By J. G. 
GooDCHiLD, F.G.S 6J8 

3. The Occurrence of Barium Sulphate and Calcium Fluoride as Cementing 
.Substances in the Elgin Trias. By Wm. Maokie, MA., M.D 649 



CONTENTS. Svil 

Page 

4. The Pebble-band of the Elgin Trias and its Wind-worn Pebbles. By 
Wm. Mackie, M.A., M.D 650 

5. The Occurrence of Oovellite in Association with Malachite in the Sand- 
stone of Kingsteps, Nairn. By Wm. Mackie, M.A., M.D 651 

6. The Source of the Alluvial Gold of the Kildonan Field, Sutherland. By 

J. Malcolm Maclaeen, B.Sc 651 

7. Field Notes on the Influence of Organic Matter on the Deposition of Gold 

in Veins. By J. Malcolm Maclaben, B.Sc 652 

8. The Source of Warp in the Ilumber. By W. II. Wheelee, M.Inst.C.E. 652 

9. On the Alterations of the Lias Shale by the Whin Dyke of Great Ayton, 

in Yorlishne. By Geoege Baeeow 654 

10. On Cairngorms. By E. II. Cunningham Ckaig, B. A 654 

11. On the Circulation of Salt and its Geological Bearings. By William 
AcKEOTD, F.I.C , ' 654 

12. Notes on the Occurrence of Phosphatic Nodules and Phosphate-bearing 
liock in the Upper Carboniferous Limestone (Yoredale) Series of the 
West Riding of Yorkshire and W'estmorland Border. By John Rhodes 655 

13. Note on the Discovery of a Silicified Plant Seam beneath the Millstone 

Grit of Swarth Fell, West Riding of Yorkshire. By John Rhodes 656 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. On the Bone-beds of Pikermi, Attica, and on Similar Deposits in Northern 
Eubcea. By A. Smith Woodwaed, LL.D., F.R.S 656 

2. The Fayum Depression : A Preliminary Notice of the Geology of a Dis- 
trict in Egypt containing a New Pakeogene Vertebrate Fauna, By Hugh 

J. L. Beadnell, F.G.S., F.R.G.S 659 

3. Report on the Movements of Underground Waters of N.W. Yorkshire 

(p. 337) 660 

4. On the Physical History of the Norwegian Fjords. By Professor Edwaed 
Hull, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.,F.Q.S 660 

5. On the Origin of the Gravel-flats of Surrey and Berkshire. By Hoeace 

AV. MoNCKTON, F.L.S., V.P.G.S 662 

6. On the Occurrence of Diorite associated with Granite at Assouan, Upper 
Egypt. By Alexandee Someevail 663 

7. Note on some Hornblende Porphyrites of Victoria (Australia). By James 
Stieling , 663 

8. "Note on some Anthropods from the Upper Silurian. By Malcolm 
Laueie 665 

9. The Copper-bearing Rocks of South Australia. By F. P. Mennell 665 

10. Report on the Excavation of the Ossiferous Caves at Uphill, near Weston- 
super-Mare (p. 352) 665 

Section D. -ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor J. Cossae Ewaet, M.D., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 666 

1. The Pelvic Cavity of the Porpoise {Phocoena cmnmunis) as a guide to the 
determination of a Sacral Region iu Cetacea. By David Hepbuen, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., and David Watbeston, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.E 680 

1901. a 



xviii REPORT — 1901. 

Page 

2. The Relationships of the Premaxilla in Bears. By Professor RiCSAED J. 

Andekson, M.D 681 

3. Report on the Migration of Birds in Great Britain and Ireland (p. 364). 682 

4. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 

(p. 354) 682 

5. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Plymouth (p. 376) 682 

6. Report on the ' Index Animalium ' (p. 362) 682 

7. Report on the Plankton and Physical Conditions of the English Channel 

(p. 353) 683 

8. Eleventh Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 352) 683 

9. Report on the Coral Reefs of the Indian Region (p. 363) , 683 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. The Coral Islands of the Maldives. By J. Stanley GAfeniNEfi, M.A. ... G83 

2. On a Method for Recording Local Faunas. By Edwaed J. Bles, B.A., 
B.Sc 683 

3. Some Notes on the Behaviour of young Gulls artificially and naturally 
hatched. By Professor J. Arthttk Thomson, M.A. (p. 378) 685 

4. The Theory of ' Germinal Selection ' in Relation to the Facts of Inherit- 

ance. By Professor J. Arthur Thomson, M.A 685 

5. The Heteiotypical Division in the Maturation Phases of the Sexual Cells. 

By Thomas II. Betce, M.A., M.D 685 

6. The Fishes of the Coats Arctic Expedition. By W. S. Bruce, F.R.S.G.S. 687 

7. The Fauna of Frauz Josef Land. By W. S. Bruce, F.R.S.G.S 687 

8. *0n the Mechanism of the Frog's Tongue. By Professor Marcus Hartog 
and Nevil Maseeltne .' G88 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. ^Dimorphism in Foraminifera. By J. J. Lister, F.R.S 688 

2. The Relation of Binary Fission and Conjugation to Variation. By J. Y. 

Simpson, D.Sc ' 688 

3. "On a new Form of Lummous Organ. By William E. Hoylb, M.A. ... G89 

4. Notes on Some Bornean Insects. By R. SnELroRD, M.A 689 

5. *Zebras and Zebra Hybrids. By Professor J. Cossar Ewart, M.D., 

F.R.S ; .'691 

6. On Echinonevm (jrmji, a large Nematode from the Perivisceral Cavitv of 

the Sea-urchin. By James F. Gemmill, M.A., M.D 691 

7. *Exhibition of Abnormal Specimens of Nephrops. By F. II. Marshall 692 

8. *Exhibition of Microscopic Prei)arationa of Mammalian Hairs. By F. II. 

Marshall 692 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. The Fauna of au Atoll. By C. Fokster Cooper 692 

2. The Land Crustaceans of a Coral Ibland. By L. A. Boeeadailb, M.A.... 693 
8. On the Anatomy of the Larval Polypterus. By J. S. Budgett, M.A. ... 693 



CONTENTS. 



xi.^ 



Page 
4. The Origin of the Paired Limbs of Vertebrates. By J. Gkaham Keek 693 
H: The Story of Malaria. By KoifALD Ross, F.R.C.S., F.R.S 695 

6. ^Exhibition of Photographs of Fossils in the La Plata Museum. By Dr. 

Feancisco p. Moeeno "^° 

7. A New Sounding and Ground-collecting Apparatus. By Professor G. 

GiLSoy..' ^^^ 

8. '-Exbibition of a IS'ew Ovienting Apparatus for the Cambridge Microtome. 



By James Rankin. 



69 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Htoh Robeet Mill, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., Presi- 

dent of the Section ^^^ 

1. Martin Behaim of Niirnberg, 1459-1507. By E. G. Ravenstein 714 

2. Final Report on the Climatology of Tropical Africa (p. 383) 715 

3. ''Morphological Map of Europe. By Dr. A. J. Heebertson 715 

4. Geographical Conditions affecting British Trade. By Geo. G. Chisholm, _ _ 
M.A., B.Sc '^-^ 

5. The Influence of Geographical Environment on Political Evolution. By 

Alletne Ieeland '^" 

6. Itineraries in Portuguese Congo. By Rev. Thomas Lewis 717 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1 The Effects of Vegetation in the Valley and Plains of the Clyde. By 
G. F. Scott-Elliot, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.G.S 718 

2. The Scottish Natural History Society's Scheme for the Investigation of ^ 
the Forth Valley. By Makion Newbigin, D.Sc ^19 

3. Methods and Objects of a Botanical Survey of Scotland. By W. G. ^ 

Smith, B.Sc, Ph.D '20 

4. Notes on Argentine Anthropo-geography. By F. P. Mokeno, Director ^ 

of the La Plata Museum '^^ 

5. Some Explorations of Andean Lakes. By Hesketh Pkichaed 721 

6. *M. Elisee Reclus' Map on Natural Curvature. By M. Reclus-Gttton ... 721 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Belgian Scientific Expedition of Ka-Tanga. By Captain Lemaiee... 722 

2. Report on Terrestrial Surface Waves (p. 398) 722 

3. The Mean Temperature of tlie Atmosphere and the Causes of Glacial 
Periods. By H. N. Dickson, B.Sc 722 

4. Report on a Survey of British Protectorates (p. 396). 723 

5. Northern Ontario: Its Geographv and Resources. By Robeet Bell, ^ ^ 
M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S '-^ 

6. On the Systematic Exploration of the Atmosphere at Sea by means of ^^ 
Kites. By A. Laaveence Rotch '-* 

7. Report on Changes of the Land-level of the Phlegrsean Fields (p. 382) ... 725 

a 2 



XX REPORt — 1901. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Page 

1. Weather Maps. By W. N. Shaw, F.E.S 725 

2. *rhe National Antarctic Expedition. By I)r. J. Scott Keliik 725 

3. *With the ' Discovery ' to Madeira. By Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.S.E 725 

4. *The Methods and Plans of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. 

By W. S. Bruce 725 

5. *The Experimental Demonstration of the Curvature of the Earth's Surface. 

By H. Yule Oldham, M.A 725 

G. Travels in China. By R. Logan Jack, LL D., F.R.G.S 726 

7. ^The Crux of the Upper Yangtse. By Archibald Little 727 

8. •The Representation of the Heavens in the Study of Cosmography. By 

A. Galeron 727 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address hy Sir Robert Gii'fex, K.C.B., F.R.S., President of the Section ... 728 

1. The Postulates of the Standard. By "William Waerand Carlile, M.A. 741 

2. Some Notes on the Output of Coal from the Scottish Coalfields. By 
Robert W. Dron, A.M.Inst.C.E 741 

3. I'he Growth and Geographical Distribution of Lunacy in Scotland. By 

J. F. Sutherland, M.D 742 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Shipping Subsidies. By Benedict William Ginsburg, M. A., LL.D. ... 743 

2. Thirty Years' Export Trade, British and Irish Produce, 1870-99. By 
Barnard Ellinger 744 

3. The Theory of Progressive Taxation. By G. Cassel 745 

4. British Agriculture. By Professor Robert Wallace 747 

5. *Food and Land Tenure. By E. Atkinson 748 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER IG. 

1 . A Business Man on Supply and Demand. By T. S. Cree 748 

2. The Decline of Natality in Great Britain. By Edwin Cannan, M.A., 
LL.D 749 

8. The Significance of the Decline in the English Birth-rate. By Charles 
S. Devas 750 

4. Correlation of the Marriage-rate and Trade. By R, H. Hooker, M.A. ... 760 

6. Economics and Commercial Education. By L; L. Price 751 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. *A Discussion on Housing was opened by Pl'ofessor W. Smart 753 

2. The Economic Efi"ect of the Tramways Act/ 1870. By E, F. Veset Knox, 
M.A , 753 



CONTENTS. XXI 

I'age 

3. Notes on (rlasgow Wages in the Nineteenth Centnrv. By A. L. Bowlet, 

M.A '. 7o4 

4. The Poor Law and the Eeonomic Order. By T, Mackat , 755 

5. British Colonial Policy iu its Economic Aspect. By Aecuihaid B. Ci-ark, 
MA 755 

G. The Present Position of Woman as a Worker. By Miss M. H. Iravin... 756 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. The Real Incidence of Local Rates. By Cameron Corbett, M.P 757 

3. Recent Results of Farm Labour Colonies. By Harold E. Mooee, F.S.I. 757 

3. Feebleness of Mind, Pauperism, and Crime. By Miss Mary Dendt 758 

4. Report on the Economic Eflfect of Legislation regulating Women's Labour 

(p. 399) 760 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Colonel R. E. CROMrioN, M.Inst.C.E., President of the Section... 701 

1. •■The Mechanical Exhibits in the Glasgow Exhibition. By D. II. 
Morton 768 

2. "Long continuous burning Petroleum Lamps for Buoys and Beacons. By 
John R. Wighaji " 768 

3. ■■New Scintillating Lighthouse Light. By John R, Wigham 768 

4. A Recording Manometer for High-pressure Explosions. By J. E. 
PETAVEt 768 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Report on the Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction (p. 402) 769 

2. Railway Rolling Stock, Present and Future. By Norman D. Mac- 
DONALD 769 

3. *The Panama Canal. By P. Bfnau Varilla 769 

4. On a Leaf-arrestor, or Apparatus for removing Leaves, &c., from a Water 
Supply. By The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 769 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1 . The Protection of Buildings from Lightning. By Killingworth Hedges, 
M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E 770 

2. The Commercial Importance of Aluminium. By Professor Ernest Wil- 

son, M.I.E.E 771 

3. Recent Observations on Bridges in Western China. By R. Lockhart 
Jack, B.E 772 

4. *0n Recording Soundings by Photography. By J. Dillon 773 

5. On the Size of Waves as observed at Sea. By Vaughan Cornish, P.Sc. 773 



xsii REPORT — 1901. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Page 

1. Report on the Small Screw Gauge (p. 407) 774 

2. '-A Portable foldiug Eange-Finder, for Use with Infantry. By G. Foebes, 
F.R.S : '. 774 

3. "Machinery for Engraving. By Maee Bare 774 

4. '-'Recent Developments of Cham Driving. By C. R. Gaeeaeb 774 

0. *Measurement of the Hardness of Materials by Indentation by a Steel 
Sphere. By T. A. Heaeson 774 

6. On the Critical Point in Rolled Steel Joists. By E. J. Edavaebs 774 

7. On Alternating Air Currents in Churches and Public Buildings. By J. W. 
Thomas, F.I.C, F.C.S 775 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Addj-ess by Professor D. J. CuNifiNGHAM, M.D., D.Sc.,LL.D.,D.C.L., F.R.S., 

President of the Section 776 

1. *The Cartilage of the External Ear in the IMonotremata in relation to the 
Human Ear. By Professor J. Cleland, F.R.S 788 

2. On the Origin of the Cartilage of the Stapes and on its Continuity with 

the Hyoid Arch. By J. F. Gejimill, M.D 788 

8. The President's Address was delivered (p. 776) 789 

4. Some Notes on the Morphology of Transverse Vertebral Processes. By 
Professor A. Macalistee, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 789 

5. A Note on the Third Occipital Condyle. By Professor A. Macalistee, 

M.D., LL.D , F.R.S 789 

6. Notes on a Human Skull found in Peat in Bed of the River Orwell, 
Ipswich. By Miss Nina F. Lataed 789 

7. ''Interim Report of the Committee on Anthropological Teaching 789 

8. ^Interim Report of the Committee on the Preservation and Registration 

iif Photographs of Anthropological Interest 789 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Notes on the Excavation of an ancient Kitchen Midden recently dis- 
covered on the St. Ford Links, near Elie, Fifeshire. By Robeet 
Mtjneo, M.D 790 

2. Report on the Excavations of the Roman City at Silchester (p. 425) 790 

'.J. Excavations at Ardoch. By J. H. Cunnixgham, Sec.S.A.Scot 790 

4. Excavations at the Roman Camp at Inchtuthill, in Perthshire. By 
Thomas Ross, M.D., F.S.A.Scot.. 791 

5. External Circumstances bearing on the Age of Ogham Writing in Ireland, 

By R. A. S. Macalistee 792 

C. Report on Explorations in Crete (p. 440) 792 

7. The Neolithic Settlement atKnossos and its Place in the History of Early 

-Egeau Culture. By Aethue J. Evans, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S 792 

8. Explorations at Zakro in Eastern Crete. By D. G. Hogaeth, M.A 793 

p. Some Results of Recent Excavations in Palestine. By R. A. S. 
Macalistee.. 794 



CONTENTS. ZXIU 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

Page 

1. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 427) 794 

2. tOn the Chronology of the Stone Age of jMan, with especial reference to 

his Co-existence with an Ice Age. By W. Allen Stttrse, M.D 794 

3. Naturally Chipped Flints for Comparison with certain Forms of alleged 
Artificial Chipping. By G. Coffey 795 

4. Prehistoric Man in the Island of Arran. By Eben. Duncan, M.D., and 
Thomas H. Bbtce, M.A., M.D 795 

6. The Bones of Hen Nekht. By Charles S. Mteks, M.A 797 

6, Palaeolithic Implement with alleged Thong-marks. By Miss Nina F. 

Layaed 798 

7. On a Piece of Yew from the Forest Bed on the East Coast of England, 
apparently cut by Man. By F. D. Longe 798 

8, *Exhibition of Manufactured Objects from Irish Caves. ByG. Coffey... 798 

9. On the Temporary Fissures of the Human Cerebral Hemispheres, with 
Observations on the Development of the Hippocampal Fissure and 
Hippocampal Formation. By Professor J. Symington, M.D 798 

10. *0n Supra-sternal Bones in the Human Subject. By Principal Mackay, 
M.D., LL.D \ 799 

11. The Frequency and Pigmentation Value of Surnames of School Children 

in East Aberdeenshire. By J. F. Tochee, F.I.C, and J. Geay, B.Sc. ... 799 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. On the Functions of the Maternal Uncle in Torres Straits. By W. H. R. 

Rivers, M.D 800 

2. On the Functions of the Son-in-Law and Brother-in-Law in Torres Straits. 

By W. H. R. RivEES, M.D 800 

3. Some Emotions in the Mun-ay Islander. By Charles S. Myers 801 

4. Notes on Some Customs of the Fellahin of West Palestine. By R. A, S. 
Macalister 802 

6. Report on the Ethnological Survey of Canada (p. 409) 802 

6. Dekanawideh, the Law-giver of the Caniengahakas. By John Ojija- 

tekha Beani Seed : 802 

7. The Tehuelche Indians of Patagonia. By Hesketh Prichakd 802 

8. The Lengua Indians of the Gran Chaco. By Seymour Hawtrey 803 

9. Report on the Skeat Expedition to the Malay Peninsula (p. 411) 803 

10. The WUd Tribes of the Malay Peninsula. By W. W. Skeat, M.A 803 

11. * Anthropological Notes on Sai Kau, a Siamo-Malayan Village in the State 
of Nawnchik (Tojan). Qj Nelson Annandale, B.A., and Herbert C. 
Robinson 804 

12. A Provisional Classification of the Swords of the Sarawak Tribes, By 

R. Shelford, M.A .'. 804 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1, Personal Identification: A Description of Dr. Alphonse Bertillon's System 

of Identifying Fugitive OfiFenders, called by him ' Le Portrait Parl(5.' By 
William M. Douglas 805 

2, *Notes on the Proposed Ethnographic Survey of India. By W, Ceooke... 806 



xxtv 



REPORT — 1901. 



Page 

3. Horn and Bone Implements found in Ipswich. By Miss Nina F. Layaeb 806 

4. Hints of Evolution in Tradition. By David MaoRitcbie 806 

5. *Magic, Religion, and Science . By J. S , Stuart Glennie 807 

Address from the Section of Anthropology to Professor Rudolf Viechow ... 807 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Expeeimentai, Patboi,oqx wd 

EXPEEIMENTAL PsTCHOLOGT), 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor John G. McKendeick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., President 

of the Section 808 

1. *0n the Use of the Telephone for investigating the Rhythmic Phenomena 

in Muscle, By Sir John Bukdon Sanderson, Bart., F.R.S 816 

2. "An Experiment on the * Motor ' Cortex of the Monkey. By Professor 

C. S. Sheeeington, F.R.S 816 

3. Arsenical Pigmentation. By Professor J. A. Wanklyn, M.R.C.S 816 

4. *The Physical Properties of Caseinogen Salts in Solution. By W. A. 
OSBOENE, D.Sc 817 

5. Colour Vision. By F. AV. Edeidge-Geeen, M.D,. F.R.C.S 817 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. fA Demonstration of Apparatus employed in Researches on the Subject 

of Phonetics. By Professor J. G. McKendeick, F.R.S 817 

2. Restoration of Voluntary Movement after Alteration of the Nerve-supply 

by Nerve-crossing, or Anastomosis. By R. Kennedy, M.D ,..'. 817 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. *Note on the Action of Oxalates upon the Relationship of Calcium Salts 

to Muscle. By W. Beodie Brodie, M.B 818 

2. *Can Solutions of Native Proteids exert Osmotic Pressure ? By Professor 

E. Waymouth Reid, F.R.S 818 

3. 'An Ionic Effect in the Small Intestine. By Professor E, Waymouth 
Reid, F.R.S 818 

4. *Has the Spleen a Hsemopoietic Function ? By D. Noel Paton, Lovell 

GuxLAND, and L. J. S. Fowler 818 

5. *The Measurement of Visual Illusion. By Dr. W. H. R. Rivers 818 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. 'Observations with Galton's Whistle. By 0. S. :Myees 818 

2. "Demonstration of a Model showing the Mechanism of the Frog's Tongue. 

By Professor Marcus Haetoq 818 

Reports received by the Committee : — 

1. Report on the Micro-Chemistry of Cells (p. 44.5) 818 

2. '"Interim Report on the Physiological Effects of Peptone 818 

3. The Chemistry of Bone Marrow (p. 447) 818 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THirRSDAY, SEPTEMBER \2. 

Page 
Address by Professor I. Batlet BALrouE, D.Rc, F.K.S,, President of the 

Section 819 

1. *The International Association of Botanists. By Dr. J. P. Lotbt 830 

2. Cytology of the Cyanophj ceae . By Harold Wager 830 

3. *Some Botanical Photographs from the Malay Peninsula. By R. H. Yapp 831 

4. The Diameter Increment of Trees. By A. W. Boethwick, B.Sc 831 

6. On the Absorption of Ammonia from Polluted Sea-water by the Ulva 
latissima. By Professor E. A. Letts, D.Sc, Ph.D., and John Haw- 
thorne, B.A 831 

6. Notes on Stellaria holostea and Allied Species. By John Pateeson 833 

7. Tlie Morphology of the ' Flowers ' of Cephalotaxus. By W. 0. Woesdell 83i 

8. The Morphology of the Ovule. An Historical Sketch. By W. C. Woes- 
dell 834 

9. The Histology of the Sieve Tubes of Pinus. By A. W. Hill 83.5 

10. Report on Fertilisation in Phreophycepe (p. 448) 836 

11. Report on the Morphology, Ecology, and Taxonomy of the Podostemacete 

(p. 447) : , 830 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. On Correlation in the Growth of Roots and Shoots. By Professor L. Knt 830 

2. TheBromes and their Brown Rust. By Professor Maeshall Ward, F.R.S. 83C 

3. The Past Historv of the Y''ew in Great Britain and Ireland. By Professor 

H. Conwentz .'. 839 

4. On the Distribution of Certain Forest Trees in Scotland, as shown by the 
Investigation of Post-Glacial Deposits. By W. N. NivEN 839 

6. *A Lecture on Flesh-eating Plants. By Professor J. Reynolds Geeen, 
M.A., F.R.S 841 

6. Contributions to our Knowledge of the Gametophyte in the Ophiogloesales 

and Lycopodiales. By William H, Lang, M.B., D.Sc 841 

7. Note on an Ophioglossum collected by Mr. Ridley. By Professor F. 0. 
BowEB, F.R.S.- 843 

8. Abnormal Secondary Thickening in KendricMa Walheri, Hook. f. By 
Miss A. M. Clark 842 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER IG. 

A joint Discussion with Section L on 'The Teaching of Botany,' opened by 
the reading of the following Papers : — 

i. The Teaching of Botany in Schools. By Haeolb Wagee 843 

ii. The Teaching of Botany in Universities. Notes by Professor F. 0. 

Bower, F.R.S 843 

1. Notes on Preserving and Preparing Plants for Museum Purposes. Bv 

H. F. Tags '.. 844 

2. The Anatomy of Ceratopterh thalictroides (Brongniart). By Sibille 0. 
FoED , 845 



XXvi REPORT — 1901. 

Page 

3. An Apparatus for Studying the Rate of Flow of Solutions in Plant Stems. 

By RiCHAKD J. ANDERSON, M.A., M.D 846 

4, On the Anatomy of Todea, with an Account of the Geological History 
of the Osmundaceae. By A. C. Sewaed, F.R.S., and Miss Sybille 0. 
FoED '. 847 

6. The Glossopteris Flora of Australia. By E. A. N. Aebek, B.A 847 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 
1. Heterogenesis in Conifers. By Dr. T. P. Lotst 848 

y. On a Primitive Type of Structure in Calamites. By D. II. Scott, M.A., 
Ph.D., F.R.S 849 

3. Remarks upon the Nature of the Stele of Equisetum. By D. T. Gwynne- 
Vattghan 860 

4. *Die Silur- and Culm-Flora des Harzes. Von Professor H. Potonie ... 851 

5. On two Malayan ' Myrmecophilous ' Ferns. By R. H. Yapp 851 

6. *The Vegetation of Mount Ophir. By A. G. Tanslet 851 

7. On Certain Points in the Structure of the Seeds of JEthiotesta, Brongn., 

and >Sf e/jAawospen/iMm, Brongn. By Professor F. W. Oliver 851 

8. 'Natural Surgery in Leaves. By Dr. F. F. Blackman and Miss Matth^i 851 

9. *0n the Relation between COj Production and Vitality. By Dr. F. F. 
Blackjian and Miss MATTHiei 851 

10. On the Strength and Resistance to Pressure of Certain Seeds and Fruits. 
By G. F. Scott Elliot, M.A., B.Sc, F.C.S., F.R.G.S 352 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Cuticular Structure of Euphorbia Abdelkuri. By Professor I. Batley 
Balfour, F.R.S ." 854 

2. Some Observations upon the Vascular Anatomy of the Cyatheacese. By 

D. T. Gwtnne-Vaughan 854 

3. On the Anatomy of Banaa and other Marattiaceas. By George Brebner 855 

4. A Chapter of Plant-evolution : Jurassic Floras. By A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 856 
6, On the Structure and Origin of Jet. By A. C. Seward, F.R.S 856 

6. On Government Planting in the Isle of Man. By G. P. Hughes, F.R.G.S. 857 

7. ■*0n Spore-formation in Yeasts. By T. Barker 857 

8. *0n a Diplodia parasitic on Cacao and on the Sugar Cane. By A. 
Howard 857 

9. *0n Abnormal Catkins of the Hazel. By Professor F. E. Weiss, B.Sc. 857 

Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by the Right Hon. Sir John E. Gorst, K.O., M.P., F.R.S., President 

of the Section 868 

1. *The Organisation of Secondary Education. By Sir Henry E. Roscoe, 
F.R.S .•; 863 

2. The Mechanism for Education in Scotland. By John Adams 863 

3. *Organisation of Education in Glasgow. By Dr. W. Jacks 865 

4. The Training of the Practical Man. By Dr. John G. Kerr 865 



CONTENTS. XXVll 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

Page 

1. "The Future Work of the Section. By Professor Henry E. Arm- 

strong, F.E.S 866 

2. *The Experimental Method of Teaching. By Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 866 
8. On the Scope of the Science of Education. By Professor H. L. Withers, 

M.A , 866 

4. *Some Considerations bearing on the Practical Study of Educational 
Science. By P. A. Barnett, M.A 869 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. tA joint Discussion on the Teaching of MathematicSj, opened by Pro- 
fessor John Peeri', F.R.S 



869 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1(5. 

1. Joint Discussion with Section K on the Teaching of Botany (p. 843) 869 

2. Joint Discussion with Section F on Commercial Education, opened by 
Mr. L. L. Price (p. 751) 869 

3. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools (p. 458) 869 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. The Influence of Universities and Examining Bodies upon the Work of 

Elementary Schools. By the Right Reverend John Percival, D.D., 
Lord Bishop of Hereford (p. 448) 869 

2. Liberal Education for Boys leaving School at Sixteen or Seventeen. By 

H. W. Eve, M.A 869 

Index , 871 



PLATE 

Illustrating Dr. Percy Frankland's Address to the Chemical Section 

to face 593. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference witli the ground occupied 
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course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

Admieslon of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
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in like manner, to become Membei-s of the Association. 

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Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
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published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXX REPORT — 1901. 

gratidtoushj the Reports of tlie Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
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The Association consists of the following classes : — 

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' A few complete sets, 1S31 to 1871, are on sale, at ;£10 the set. 



KDLBS OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 



Meetiiigs. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. Tho 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
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1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
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2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
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of the Association to he placed on the list of the General Committee to he fined. 

Class B. Tempoeakt Members. ^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Ride to he sent to the 
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2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
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Meeting. Claims under this Rule to he approved by the Local Secretaries 
hefore the opening of the Meeting. 

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4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
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General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
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Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections, ' and of preparing Reports 

' Kevised hy tlie General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 
- Kevised, Montreal, 188i. 

' Passed, Edinburgh, 187], revised, Dover, 1899. 

* Notice to Contributors of Mevioirs.^Anihois. are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 



XxXii REPORT — 1901. 

thereon, and on the order in wliicli it is desirable that they eliould be 
read. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex offi.cio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees. • 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee tbinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
2 r.M., to appoint members of the Sectional Committee.^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.' 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
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General Committee at 4 p.m., and those previous Presidents and Vice- 
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selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. Any 
Member who has intimated the intention of attending the Meeting, and 
who has already served upon a Committee of a Section, is eligible for 
election as a Member of the Committee of that Section at its first 
meeting.'' The Sectional Committees thus constituted shall have power 
to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 



-'&'- 



Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,-^ Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
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and the Sectional Committee except for Saturday.'' 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

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tlicy arc to be read, arc now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections l/nfore the heginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
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several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
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MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
■will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Rejjorts and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant Geheral 
Secretary before the conclusion of the Meetinq. 

' Sheffield, 1879. « Swansea, 1880, revised, Dover, 1899. 

» Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. ■• Glasgow, 1901. 

'^ The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. * Nottingham, 1893. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIU 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 

ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.^ 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, andthe general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed.2 At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished hy Authors, are to he fnrivarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxxi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should he named, and 

' Plymouth, 1877. ' Edinburgh, 1S71. 

1901. b 



XXxiV REPORT — 1901. 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, ivho shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his loillingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and, further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient working. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement ichether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, hit that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. ^ 

1 . No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of pai'ticular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed tor one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Kevised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

6. In each Committee the Chairman is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of any description are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Council. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken, ^ and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours 
of meeting of the Section and of the yectional Committee, except for Saturday. 

b3 



XXXvi REPORT — 1901 . 

A Keport presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Official Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they ai"C apj^oiuted dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed cu 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advaucemeut of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Committee of Recommendations are the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General and Assistant- 
General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents 
of the Association in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

' Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
* Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1880, 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXvii 



Corresponding Societies.^ 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. _ 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, _ a 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Eeport of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of tho Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transtnit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



xxxviii REPORT — 1901. 

the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into efiPect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations cleai'ly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 



Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



xl 



REPORT — 1901. 



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TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFEICEES, 1831— ] 902. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MUECHISON (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq.. F.R.S, 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-5S Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



,1872 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

Avebury), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoodb, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (now Lord) Playfaie, 

F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. A. W. RuCKEB, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



] 831 Jonathan Ghay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. "Williamson, F.R.S. 
1891-98 Prof. A. W. RiJCKEE, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1835- 



36 



1836-37 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Veenon Harcouet, 

Veenon Harcouet, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



Veenon Haecouet, 
F.R.S., and R. I. Muechison, 
Esc. F.R.S. 
1837-39 R. I. 'Muechison, E!;q., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1839-45 Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 
and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine,F.R.S. 
General E. SABINE, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLE, E^q., F.R.S. 
J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 



1845- 
1850. 



-50 
-52 



2-53 



1852 

1853-59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S 

1859 

1861 

1862 



-61 
-62 
-63 



Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
\V. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
1863-65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
1865-66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 



1866-68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. HiEST. F.R.S. 
1868-71 Dr. T. A. Hiest, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.RS.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capr. D. Galton, F R.S.. and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, F R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. ScLATER, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfoue, F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G. Veenon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schapee. F.R.S. 
1897- Prof. SCHAFER, F.R.S., and Sir 
1900 W.C.Roberts-Austen,F.R.S. 

1900 Sir W. C. Robeets-Austen, 

F.R S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Foebes, Actin// 

Secretary/. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. GOEDON, Esq., B.A., 

Assistant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A. Acting 

Secretary. 
1890 G, Geiffith, Esq.^ M.A. 



ilV 



T^EPORT — 190], 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.K.S 

Kev. W. "WTiewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Kev. Dr. Eobinson 

Eev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

Rev! Prof . Waewell, F.R.S... . 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Ciilloch, M.R.I. A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.E.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.E.S., 

Sec. E.S.E. 
Eev. W. Who well, D.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Eev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.E.S., F.E.S.E. 
Eev. R. Walker, M.A., F.E.S. 

Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D., 
F.E.S., M.E.I.A. 



Prof. Sir W. E. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch,Prof. Stevelly, Eev. 

W. Scorcsby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevellj-, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevellj', G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
I kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle. Prof. 

Stevellv, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Eev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Eev. J. C. Turnbull, 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 
Prof. Stevelly. 



PEESIDBNTS AND SECEETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1858. Leeds 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
186.?. 
186i. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869, 
1870, 



Aberdeen... 
Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 



Birmingham 



Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1883. 
1883. 
1884. 



Brighton . 
Bradford . 
Belfast.... 
Bristol.... 
Glasgow . 

Plymouth. 
Dublin.. , 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal . 



Kev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.E.S. 

The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Eev. B. Price, M.A., F.E.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Tfl T> Q 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.E.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.E.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.E.S.E. . 



W. De La Eue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S, 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 

M.R.I.A. 
Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Eev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

"\I ^A F R S 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Et. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F.E.S. 

jProf. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
I Lli.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. 



Eev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, rrof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. E. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Re V. N. Ferrers,Prof . Fuller, F. Jenkiu , 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Wliitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Eev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Eev. R. Harley, 

E. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, E. B. Hayward, 

W. K. ClifEord. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Cliflord, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Eev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. ClifEord, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. ClifEord, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J.W.L.Glaisher,Prof. Herschel, Ran- 
dal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley. 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayi-ton. Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. E. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



Ivi 



BBPORT — 1901. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1885. 

1886. 
18S7. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1893. 
1896. 

1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



Aberdeen. . . 
Birmingham 
Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

CardiflE 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 

Toronto . . . 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford . . . 



1901. Glasgow 



Prof. Cf. Chrystal, M.A., 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. «. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.B., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Riicker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. H. Poyntuig, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. . 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baj'nes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, \V. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge. 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H. S. Carslaw, C H. Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 



1832. 
1833. 
183i. 

1835. 
18.36. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845, 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



•lohn Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 



Cambridge 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S , Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnstor. 

Rev. Prof. Gumming Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W, Hera- 
path. 

Michael Faraday, F.R.S .Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

! Reynolds. 
Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. ; Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 
Dr. Goldinar Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. "Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, R. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Plaj'f air, R. Hunt, J. Graham, 
R. Hmit, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

Prof. Gumming 'R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

I E. S0II7. 



Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

Jolm Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S. 
E.3 " ' 



PBESIDENTS AND SECRETARIKS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 
18.51. Ipswich ... 
1853. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 
1863. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

18G4. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 
1873. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



Presidents 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.E.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., E'.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.E.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof . W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

W. bdli'ng, M.B., F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.E.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H, Gladstone, F.R.S,... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

W. KP'erkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S .. 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 
F.R.S, 



Secretaries 



Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 
B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry. R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

K. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Plunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 

' Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof, 
AVanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Alherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Robert.?, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1901. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1879. 

1880. 

1881. 
1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

ISS.'^. 

1886, 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 



Sheffield ...iProf. Dewar, M.A., F.E.S. 
Swansea ... 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



1895. Ipswich 



1896. 
1897 

1808. 
1899. 

1900. 

1901. 



Liverpool. 
Toronto . 



Bristol . 
Dover , 



Bradford . 
Glassrow . 



Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof . A. W. Williamson, F.K.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.E.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.E.S., V.P.C.S. 

Dr. E. Schunck, F.E.S 

Prof. W. A. Tildon, D.Sc, 

F.E.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Eoberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.E.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.E.S.. 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.E.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Eoberts, 

J. M, Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. E. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterJlorley, Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 
ley ,W.W. J.Nicol, C. J.Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

E. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H, Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

\V. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. E. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. I'isher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Jlorley. 



SECTION B (continued). — chemistry 
Prof. E. Meldola, F.E.S 



Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.E.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.E.S 

Prof. F. E. Japp, F.E.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.E.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.E.S. 



E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, J. W. Rodger. 
Artliur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. E. F. Euttan. 
C.A.Kohn,F. W. Stoddart, T. K. Eose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Eose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1861, GEOGEAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. L Murchison, F.E.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J.Tates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

1835. Dublifl ! R. J. Griffith Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

1836. Bristol : Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.E.S.— ' William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 

I 6'ew/.,E.I.Murchison,F.E.S. T. J. Torrie. 

1837. Liverpool... I Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S.— Captain Portlock, E. Hunter.- 6^eo- 

I <?ao-7.,G.B.Greenough,F.E.S. ffraphtj, Ca.pt. B.. M.Denham,E.N. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1838. Newcastle., 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1-847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh' 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1851. 

1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861, 

1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool . . 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen,.. 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Bii-mingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geof/raphy, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

<?f oi7.,G .B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— (yeo-/., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. ... 

R. L Murchison, F.E.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, Jl.A. 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Sir Roderick L Murchison, 
F.R.S. 

SECTION C (^continued) . 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof, Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir E. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S,... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M. A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D.^ 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Waringtcn W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S, 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Miu-chison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



W. C, Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.- 
Geor/raj^hy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton,D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. E. Strickland, J. Secular. 

W. J. Hamilton,Ed ward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Eamsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
8. Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. Eamsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Eamsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 

— GEOLOGT. 

C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. E. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scoua:all, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, E. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W.Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Eev. J. Longmuir 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Eupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T, Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F, Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Peng'eHy. 
E. Etheridgc, W. Pengelly, T.'wil- 

scn, G. H. AVright. 
E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. 0. Fisher, Eev. J. Gunn, W, 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 



Geography was constitiTted a separate Section, see page Ixv. 



Ix 



REPORT — 1901. 



Date and Place 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

187.3. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 
188G. Birmingh.im 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardie 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich .. 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 



Presidents 



Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
SirPhilipde M.Grey Egertou, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.it.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S 

Sir Arch. Geikie, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 



John Horn9, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd Dawkins. G. H. Morton. 

R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 
HiTghes, L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L.C.Miall,R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney,W. Topley. 

J.Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. ToiDley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
lev, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. B. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 
Capt. McDa'kin, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

H. L. Bowman, Rev. AV. Lower 
Carter, G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. 
Monckton. 

H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



1x1 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV.— ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford lEev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...iRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

I833! Cambridge ' 1 Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, E'.L.S.'C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
1834. Edinburgli.iProf. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol, 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 
Prof. Owen, F.K.S. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. AUman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Kev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 

Eootsey. 
W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, 

Dr. Eichardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson, 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D jProf. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 

I terson. 
John Eichardson, M.D.,F.E.S. ' J. Couch,Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, 
Hon. and Very Eev, "W. Her- Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. ! Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S....'G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. 

I Patterson. 
Very Eev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. ' Dr. Lankester. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S. ...Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

F.E.S. ! Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.E.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T, V, 

Wollaston, 



SECTION D (^continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixiv.] 

1848, Swansea ...,L. W. Dillwyn, F.E.S ' 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857, Dublin. 



William Spence, F.E.S 

ProL Goodsir, F.E.S. L. & E. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S.... 
Eev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.E.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 
F,E,S, 



Dr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen-^ 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Eussell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr, 
Edwin Lankester. 

Eobert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. E. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Eobert Patterson, Dr. W, E, Steele. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p, Isiv. 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1901. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 



Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Batli 

ir r 
ham ' 



Bir miug' 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S. 

Sir "W. Jardine, Bart., F.E.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.E.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S.... 

1 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.E.S. ... 

I 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S. ... 



Secretaries 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. B. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Ecv. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Eev. C. Clarke. Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology. 



1866. Nottingham! Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.—De}). 
of Physiul.,Yxoi. Humphry, 
F.E.S. — DejJ.of Anthrojwl., 
A. E. Wallace. 

1867. Dundee ... Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. E.S. 
— JJej). of Zool. and Bat., 
George Busk, M.D., F.E.S. 

1868. Norwich ... Eev. M. J. Berkclej^ F.L.S. 
— Dvi). of Pliijsiology, W. 
H. Flower, F.E.S. 



1869. Excler George Busk, F.E.S., F.L.S. 

— Dcp. of £ot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.E.S.— 
Brj). ofJSt/uw., E. B. Tylor. 

1870. LiveriDOol... Prof.G. Eolleston,M.A., M.D., 
F.E.S., F.Jj.a. — Drj). of 
Anat. and J'%«toZ.,Prof.M. 
Foster, M.D., ¥.l,.ii.—I)e2>. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.E.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i>(7A of Bot. and 
ifotfZ.,Prof.AVyville Thomson, 
F.E.S. — Dep.of Antliro])ol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.E.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
¥.^..^.—002). of Anthrojwl, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.E.S.— -D(;/A of 
Anat.ai/dPhysiol.j'Pwt.'Ru- 
therf ord, 5I.I). — Bej). ofAii- 
throj)ol.. Dr. Beddoe, F.E.S. 



1871. Edinburgh, 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Eev. H, 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold. Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T . 

Stainton, Eev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wricht. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Eay Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Eev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Eay Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T . !^ Fraser, Dr. Arthm- Gamgce, 
E. SBt Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. Tretaihton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Eay 
Lankester, Dr. Pyc-Smith. 

Prof. Tliisclloh-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
E. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Eay Lankester, F. W. Eudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECEETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plvmouth.., 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. 



Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Redfern, M.D.—Dci}. of 
Zool. and Bat., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— i>^iA ofAn- 
throp., Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, ¥.U.^.—Dep.of 

Anat. and Phi/siol., Prof. 

Cleland, F.n.S.—Bep. of 

.4»!;7t.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S. 

A, Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Jfej). of Zool. and But., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. GwjTi Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
Anthropol^Y.Galton,^.^.^^. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Be2}, of Authropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bep. 
of Anat. and Phijsiol., E. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Bep.of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Hmith. 

A.C.L.Giinther.F.R.S.— Z»<;/;. 
of Anat. .f Physiol., F. M. 
Balfour, ¥.B..ii.—Bep. of 
AntkropoL, F. W. Rudler.' 

R. Owen, F.ll.S.-Bep. of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgec. M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep>. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M. A., 
F.R.^.—Bcp. of Anthrojwl., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 



W. T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye- Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morri.son Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Pui-ser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 
I F.R.S. 

Prof. W. G. M'Intosh, M.D., 
j LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

W. Carruthcrs, Pres. L.S., 
i F.R.S., F.G.S. 

I Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
I F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
! Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxi. 



Ix: 



XIV 



RfePOKT — 1901. 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath.. 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinbumli 



1891. Oxford 2 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 



F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

M.A., M.D., F.E.S. 1 mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 

j shall Ward. 
Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, ' S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
M.A., M.D, D.Sc, F.R.S. S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, PI. 

i Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 
Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B.,|F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
F.R.S., F.L.S. Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 

; ^V. N. Parker, H. AVager. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D.,|G. Brook, Prof . W. A. Herdman, G. 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. I Murray, W. Stirling. H. Wager. 

1893. Nottingham' Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, :G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 
I M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. i W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

! W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A.,| W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 
F.R.S. Prof. W. A. Plerdman, Prof. S. J. 

I Hickson , G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 

SECTION D (coniinued). — zoology. 

. Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. I G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

1 I Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
. I Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S HO. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

I Hoyle. 

. Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 



1895. Ipswich 

1896. Liverpool 

1897. Toronto 

1898. Bristol. , 



1899. Dover ... 

1900. Bradford 



, ■ Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 

. i Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S 

. iDr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. R. Bo3-ce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 
W. Garstang, .1. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 



1901. Glasgow ...[Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 

ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge iDr. J. Haviland B....|Dr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh |Dr. Abercrombie |Dr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847).— ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, IM.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. S3Tnonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J.Brown, Prof . Couper,Proff Rcid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... IP. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

1842. Manchester 'Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork ,Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

1844. York J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

1845. Cambridge Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 



J. Butter, J. Fuge, R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. IasIi. 
" The title of Sectioa D was changed to Zoology. 



PKESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1846. Southamp- Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. . 



Secretaries 



C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D, 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasa;ow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham - 



Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sliarpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smitii. 
Dr. AV. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smitli. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop. 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Iviii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 



Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 



Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chcsney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. 
Sir R.L Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

lime. Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 



> Sections D and E were incorporated under the name of ' Section D— Zoology 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Ixi.). Section E, being then vacant, 
was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

* Vide note on page Ixii, 
1901. <J 



Ixvi 



EEPOET 1901. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866, 

1867. 
1868. 



Aberdeen... 
Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchisoii, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

Jolm Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Miu-chison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicliolson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Sliaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. AVright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wrie'ht. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baiues, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E [continued'). — geography. 



1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 


Belfast 


1875. 


Bristol 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


1877. 


riymouth... 


1878. 


Dublin 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881. 


York 


1882. 


Southamp- 




toti. 


1883. 


Southport 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885 


Aberdeen... 


1886 


Birmingham 


1887 


Manchester 



LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 

LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. - General Strachey, 
R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lietit.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 

i C.B., F.R.S. 

1 Sir B. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 

1 F.R.G.S. 

[Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 

j Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

I KC.M.G..F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 

'Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

j LL.D., F.R.S. 

j Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

I G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. JMarkham. 
A. Buciian, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. J.Iarkham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

TiTckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Eye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C, 

Rye. 
Rev. Abb6 Laflamme, J. S. 'HaUoran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie. 
B. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. CasartelH, J. S. Keltie, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1888. Bath |Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E, 

1 K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

1889. Newcastle- iCol. Sir F. de Winton, 

upon-Tyne, K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 

1890. Leeds Lieut.-Col. Sir E. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

1891. Cardiff E. G. Ravensteiu, F.E.G.S., 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L.,F.R.S., 
V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 

H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 
F.Z.S. 



Secretaries 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford... 

1895. Ipswich 
189B. Liverpool 

1897. Toronto 

1898. Bristol... 

1899. Dover ... 

1900. Bradford 

1901. Glasgow 



J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 
Eavenstein. 

J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. 
Sulivan, A. Silva ^Vhite. 

A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 
A. Silva White. 

John Cole.s, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 

J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 
Keltie, A. Silva White. 

Col F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 
Forbes, Dr.'H. E. Mill. 



.. Capt. W.J. L.Wharton, R.N., John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

F.R.S. Dickson, Dr. H. E. Mill. 

..'H. J. Mackinder, M.A., John Coles, li. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

F.R.G.S. , E. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 

.. Major L. Darwin, Sec. E.G.S. Col. F. Bailey. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill,E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. E. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. E. Mill, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. E. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. E. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 
Saudeman, A. C. Turner. 



J. Scott-Keltie, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Clrarch, F.E.G.S. 

Sir John Murray, F.E.S. 

Sir George S. Eobertson, 

K.C.S.L 
Dr. H. E. Mill. F.E.G.S. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, TI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.E.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart 1 Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. STATISTICS. 

1835. Dublin Charles Babbage, F.E.S W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 



1836. Bristol.... 

1837. Liverpool. 



1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.E.S. 
Et. Hon. Lord Sandon 



Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. . 



1843. Cork j Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 

1844. York iLieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S., 

F.L.S. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 
1849 Birmingham 



Et. Hon. tlie Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. E. Porter, F.E.S 

Travels Twiss, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Et. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, E. W. 

Eawson. 
Eev. Dr. Bjrrth, Eev. E. Luney, E, 

W. Eawson. 
Eev. E. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Nelson. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. E. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P, G. 

Neison. 

d2 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 1901. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1850. 


Edinburgh 


Very Kev. Dr. John Lee, 


Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 






V.P.R.S.E. 


.Sta.rk. 


1S51. 


Ipswich . . . 


Sir John P. P>oileau, Bart. . . . 


J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 


1852. 


Belfast 


His Grace the Archbishop of 


Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 






Dublin. 


Mac Adam, jiin. 


1853. 


Hull 


James Heywood, M.P.,F.K.S. 


Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 


E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 


J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. Xew- 
march. Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1S61. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich .... 
Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines , 



CoL Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

■William Newmarch, F.R.S.... ' 

I 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rosrers 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. 



Samuel Brown 

Rt. Hon. Sir StaflEordH. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Haffan 



James Hevwood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M.^E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund JIacrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory, 
T. Doubledaj^ Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J, 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Piu-dy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neei Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden- Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, J. N, Keynes, C. Molloy. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixis. 



Date and Place 



1884. 

1885. 
1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Presidents 



Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., C.I.E., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Secretaries 



Bath Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

i LL.D., F.R.S. 
Newcastle- Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

upon-Tyne F.S.S. 
Leeds Prof . A. MarsbaU, M.A.,F.S.S. 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D.. 
D.Sc, F.S.S. 

I Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
I K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 
F.S.S. 



1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 
1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 



Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 



Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P... 



Toronto ... [Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
Bristol jj. Bonar, M.A., LL.D. 

Dover H. Higgs, LL.B 

Bradford... Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 

Glasgow ... Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Prof. H. S. Foswell, J. S. McLennan, ' 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. EUiott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro. G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott. 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R, Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigs', Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbios, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Goimer, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

VV. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Ch-^pman, F. Hooper. 
W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Bristol ' Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Liverpool... j Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Newcastle ' Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Birmingham Prof. "Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

1 Stephenson. 
Glasgow ....Sir .John Robinson 



Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
South'mpt'n 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.E.LA.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.E.S. 
Rev. R. Robinson ..,...,,,,,.... 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster, 
R. Hawthorn, C.Vignoles, T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. ' 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 



Ixx 



REPORT — 1901. 



Date and Place 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867, 
1868, 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 

1886. 



Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenharn 
Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge . 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 



Presidents 



William Cubitt,F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.E.S. 
John Scott Eussell, F.E.S. ... 
W. J. M. Eankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Remiie, F.E.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof . AVillis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. JIacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, G.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



Belfast ! Prof. .Tames Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.E.S. 



Bristol 

Glasgow . . . 
Pl3Tnouth... 
Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 



. Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport . 
Montreal .., 



C. W. Merrifield, F.E.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J.Robinson, Pres.Inst. Mech. 

Bng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S. E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 



J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Su: F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 
! V.P.Inst.C.E. 
Aberdeen... I B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 



Birmingham Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 
I C.E. 



John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J.Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeflery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. DojTie, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
E. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M, 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urqidiart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
! H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 
I King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.Bavlow,H. Bauerman. B.H.Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw. J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atcliison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Sm3'th, juu. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 
1 Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
|W. Bottomley, jun., W. o. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
I A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, B. Rigg. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxi 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Osborne Eeynolds,M.A., I C. F, Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 1 E. Rigg. 

1888. Bath ]W. H. Preece, F.RS.,'C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

M.Inst.C.E. Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 

1889. Newcastle- ' W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ...IC. W. Cooke, W. B. Mar.shall, Hon. 
upon-Tyne | C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 



1890. Leeds 

1891. CardifiE 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford... 

1895. Ipswich 

1896. Liverpool 

1897. Toronto 

1898. Bristol... 

1899. Dover ... 

1900. Bradford 

1901. Glasgow 



Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S.,'E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. VV. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popple well, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 

dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stilgoe. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 

Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 



F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Pox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

. G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 

Sir ivi'white, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Sir Ales. R. Binnie, M.Inst. 
C.B. 



R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. I H.Bamford.W.E.Dalby, W.A.Price, 
SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1881. Montreal 
1885. Aberdeen 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 
Harris Stone. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 
Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 

1886. Birmingham Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.L.iG. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. { Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 

1887. Manchester Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 

1888. Bath i Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1889. Newcastle- Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

upon-Tyne LL.D., F.R.S. I R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 

1890. Leeds Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S.,'g. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. Dr. J. G. Garson. 

1891. Cardiff Prof. F. Max MiiUer, M.A. ... G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

I Ling Roth, E. Seward. 

1892. Edinburgh i Prof. A. Macalister, M.A.,|G.W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

' M.D., F.R.S. \ R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 

1893. Nottingham ; Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

j Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

I J. L. Myres. 

1894. Oxford .Sir W. H. Flower, E.C.B., H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

• F.R.S. Roth. 

1895. Ipswich ... Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

D.C.L. ' Ling Roth. 

1896. Liverpool... Arthur J. Evans, F.S. A IProf. A. C. Haddon, J. L. MjTes, 

; < Prof. A. M. Paterson. 

1897. Toronto .... 'Sir W. Turner, F.R.S 'a. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 



i 



Isxii 



EEPORT— 1901. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1898. Bristol E. \V. Brabrook, C.B 

1899. Dover C. H. Read, F.S.A. 

1900. Bradford 



Prof. John Rhys, M.A., 



1901. Glasgow ... 



Prof. D. J. Cunningham, 
F.R.S. 



H. Balfour, .J. L. l\Ivres, G. Parker. 
H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experi.mental Psychology). 



1894. Oxford. 



1896. Livci-pool. 

1897. Toronto . 

1899. Dover .... 
1901. Glasgow ., 



Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Hr.ldane, 

M.R.C.S. M. S. Pembrey. 

Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C.S.Sherrington. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. ' Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 

j ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 
J. N. Langley, F.R.S. j Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 

H. Starling. 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick ,W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

1 W. H. Thompson. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. Ipswich . 

1896. Liverpool. 

1897. Toronto . 



1898. BristoL... 

1899. Dover .... 

1900. Bradford, 

1901. Glasgow . 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S, 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ... 

Sir George King, F.R.S 

Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S 

Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. ... 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 
G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager, 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 
G. F. Scott Elliot, D. T. Gwynne- 

Vaughan, A. C.Seward, H. Wager. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. Glasgow ... Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 
Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 
H. L. Withers. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOUESES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1842. Manchester 


Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. L Brunei 


The Principles and Cojistruction ot 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel 




R. I. Murchison 


The Geology of Russia. 

Thp Dinorni^ of Npwr Zpnlnn/I 


1843. Cork 


Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E.Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 




The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the .aSgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 
Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 


1844. York 


Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B,Airy,F.R.S.,Astrou.Royal 


lS45. Cambridge 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOUESES. 



Isxiii 



Bate and Place 



1845. 
1846. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich ... 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull, 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


18G1. 


Manchester 



Lecturer 



R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F. R. S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



G.B.Airy,P.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J.Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Col. Sir H, Rawlinson 



1862, Cambridge 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S, 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. "Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn. R.N. 
Prof.W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

PropertiesoftheExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bhliis uiejjtus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights witli 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through tlie 
minu.te vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and 
Animals, and their changes of 
Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyri.a and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analj'sis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun, 

The Forms and Action of Water. 
Organic Chemistry. 



Ixxiv 



EEPOET 1901. 



Date and Place 



1863. Newcastle 



1864. 
1865. 

1866, 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1870. 
1877. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich .. 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . 

Edinburgh 

Brighton .. 

Bradford ... 
Belfast , 



Lecturer 



Prof. Williamson, F.E.S., 



James Glaisher, F.E.S... 

Prof. Roscoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Living.stone, F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.E.S. ... 



William Huggins,F.E.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.E.S....... 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

Alexander Herschel,F.E.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.E.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.E.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.E.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall.LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof . W. J. jMacquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.E.S 

B. B. Tylor, F.E.S. 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B,., 

Prof". W.' K. Clifford ... 



Subject of Discourse 



Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 
1880. 
1881, 



Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.E.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.E.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.E.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.E.S 

Prof. Tait, F.E.S.E 

Sir Wyville Thomson, F.R.S. 

W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
j F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

, G. J. Eomanes, F.L.S 

I Prof. Dewar, F.E.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

i Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
i Prof. W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

I Francis Galton, F.E.S 

. ! Prof. Huxley, Sec. E.S 

j W. Spottiswoode, Pres. E.S.... 



The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddliist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Phj'sical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagina- 
tion. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of ExxDlosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Commoji Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hy|3othesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 
i Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
j Chemical Action. 
I Eadiant flatter, 
i Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 
! Mental Imagery. 

The Eise and Progress of Palreon- 

tologj-. 
I The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
' and its Functions. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Lecturer 



1889. Newcastle- 
upou-Tyne 



1890. Leeds .. 

1891. Cardiff.. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 



1894. Oxford. 



1899. Dover 



Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.E.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moselev, F.K.S. 
Prof. K. S. Ball, F.K.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendriok 

Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. DaUinger, F.E.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.E.S. .. 

John Mun-ay, F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. .. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.E.S. .. 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. .. 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.E.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof. A.W. Riicker, M.A.,F.R.S 
Prof. A. M Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. A.E\vini?,M.A., F.R.S 
Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. Roberts Austen, F.R.S. 

J. Milne, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. .. 

Herbert Jackson 

Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming, F.R.S 



1900. Bradford... 



Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. Stroud. ., 

1901. Glasgow ... j Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S. 

If. Darwin, F.R.S 



Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and xVtmosi^heric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of 
Power. 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crnst. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 

Some Diijrculties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 
Magnetic Induction. 

' Flame. 

' The Discovery of the Physiology of 

i the Nervous System.. 

j Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

! Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

I Magnetism in Rotation. 
The Work of Pasteur and its various 

j Developments. 
Safety in Ships. 

■ Man before Writing. 

I Canada's Metals. 
Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 
Funafuti : the Study of a Coral 

' Island. 

I Phosphorescence. 
La vibration nerveuse. 
The Centenary of the Electric 

, Current. 

Animal Electricity. 

Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
I The Movements of Plants. 



Ixxvi 



REPORT — 1901. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. 
1868. 
1869, 



1870. 
1873. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1S76. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 



1900. 
1901. 



Dundee.. 

Norwich 
Exeter .. 



Liverpool . . . 
Brigliton ... 
Bradford .., 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth.., 
Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southp ir 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

CardifE 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 
Bristol 



Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley. LL.D., P.R.S. 
Prof. Miller," M.D., F.R.S. ... 



SirJolinLubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode.LL.D., F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. AyrtoQ 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C,L.,Treas. R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S., 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.E,.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart., F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C. B 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 



Subject of Discourse 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their enemies and Signal to their 

friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 



Ixxvii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE GLASGOW MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Froi. A. Gray, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. A. G. Greenhill, 

F.R.S. ; E. H. Griffiths, M.A., F.R.S. ; Prof. W. Jack, LL.D. ; 

Lord Kelvin, F.R.S. ; Joseph Larmor, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. G. 

Mittag-Leffler, For. Mem. R.S. ; Prof. G. Quincke, For. Mem. R.S. ; 

Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — H. S. Carslaw, M.A., D.Sc. ; C. H. Lees, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; 

W. Stewart, M.A., D.Sc. ; Prof. L. R. Wilberforce, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Vvoi. Percy F, Frankland, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. E. Divers, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Fei'gusson, LL.D., 

F.R.S.E. / Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ; Prof. James Walker, F.R.S. ; 

Dr. T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S. ; Dr. AV. A. Tilden, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. 

Michael ; Prof. E. W. Morley. 
Secretaries. — Dr. W. C. Anderson, M.A. ; Dr. G. G. Henderson, M.A. ; 

Prof. AV. J. Pope ; Dr. T. K. Rose {Recorder). 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— :iohii Home, F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Lapworth, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. F. Renard, LL.D. ; 

B. N. Peach, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. J. Sollas, M.A., F.R.S. ; Prof. John 

Young, M.D. 
Secretaries. — Herbert L. Bowman, M.A, ; H. W. Monckton {Recorder), 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vrot T. W. Bridge ; Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. ; 

Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, F.R.S. ; Prof. 

M. Laurie, D.Sc. ; Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. ; R. H. Traquair, 

LL.D., F.R.S. ; Canon Tristram, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — J. Graham Kerr, M.A. {Recorder) ; James Rankin, M.B., 
B.Sc. ; J. Y. Simpson, D.Sc. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— T)v. H. R. Mill, F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— 3 . Scott Keltie, LL.D. ; H. J. Mackinder, M.A. ; E. G. 

Ravenstein ; Rev. Prof. George Adam Smith, D.D. 
Secretaries.— IL. N. Dickson, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S. {Recorder) ; 

Edward Heawood, M.A., F.R.G.S.; G. Sandeman ; A. Crosby 

Turner. 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1001. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— ^ir Robert Gifien, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Preddents.S . Bonar, LL.D. ; Rev. W. Cimningham, D.D., LL.D. ; 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. ; L. L. Price, M.A. ; Prof. AV. Smart, 

LL.D. 
Secretaries.— W. W. Blackie, B.Sc. ; A. L. Bowley, M.A. ; E. Cannan, 

LL.D. {Recorder) ; Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Co\onB\ R. E. Crompton, M.Inst. C.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vroi. Archibald Barr, D.Sc, M.Inst.C.E. ; Prof. T. 

Hudson Beare, E.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E. ; Sir Alexander R. Binnie, 

M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S. : Robert Caird, LL.D. ; H. Graham Harris, 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Secretaries.— 'Ks.vvY Bamford, M.Sc. ; Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A. ; W. A. 

Price, M.A. {Recorder). 

SECTION II. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Vroi. D. J. Cunningham, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— n. Balfour, M.A. ; Prof. J. Cleland, M.D., F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— W. Crooke ; J. F. Gemmill, M.A., M.D. ; Prof. A. F. 
Dixon, Sc.D. ; J. L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A. {Recorder). 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Pvoi. J. G. M'Kendrick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. E. Schafer, F.R.S. ; Prof. C. S. Sherrington, 
M.D.", F.R.S.; Sir M. Foster, K.C.B., M.P., Sec.R.S. ; Sir J. 
Burdon Sanderson, Bart., F.R.S. ; Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S. 
; Secretaries.— \N . B. Brodie, M.B. ; W. A. Osborne, D.Sc. ; Prof. W. H. 
Thompson, M.D. [Recorder). 

SECTION K.^BOTANY. 

President. — Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vvot Y. O. Bower, F.R.S.; F. Darwin, F.R.S.; Dr. 

D. H. Scott, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. ; Prof. Marshall 

Ward, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — A. C. Seward, F.R.S. (Recorder) ; Prof. G. F. Scott Elliot ; 

D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan ; Harold Wager. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President.— T\\Q Right Hon. Sir John E. Gorst, K.C., M.P., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Pvoi. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 

F.R.S. ; Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. ; Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. ; 

The Very Rev. Principal Story, D.D. ; Sir John Neilson Cuthbertson, 

LL.D., D.L. ; Sir Philip Magnus. 
Secretaries. — Prof. R. A. Gregory ; W. M. Heller, B.Sc. ; Robert Y. 

Howie, M.A. ; Dr. C. W. Kimmins ; Prof. H. L. Withers, M.A. 

{Recorder). 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. Ixxix 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President ; the Vice-Presidents of the Meeting ; the Presidents of 
former years ; the Trustees ; the General and Assista,nt General 
Secretaries ; the General Treasurer. 

The Presidents of the Sections. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth ; Prof. Schuster ; Prof. H. H. Turner; Dr. Thorpe ; 
Prof. Harold Dixon ; W. Whitaker ; G. W. Lamplugh ; Prof. Miall ; 
W E Hoyle ; Dr. J. Scott Keltie ; E. W. Brabrook : E. Cannan ; 
Sir W. H. Preece ; Prof. T. H. Beare ; H. Balfour ; J. L. Myres ; 
Prof. F. Gotch ; Prof. Waymouth Reid ; Prof. F. O. Bower ; Prof. 
Marshall Ward ; Prof. H. E. Armstrong ; Dr. C. W. Kimmins ; 
F. W. Rudler. 



IXXS KEPOKT — 1901. 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1900-1901. EECEIPTS. 

Balance brought forward 713 G 5 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 267 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 110 

Annual Subscriptions 557 

Sale of Associates'Tickets 794 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 481 

Sale of Publications 147 2 5 

Sale of Consols 999 8 6 

Dividend on Consols 190 3 2 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 102 12 

Interest on Deposit at Bradford District r.ank 37 6 11 

Unexpended Balance of Grant returned by Coiumittee on 

Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis ..., ,.... 3 8 4 



£920 17 9 

Investment/i. 

£ s. cl. 

Consols 6501 10 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 

£10,101 10 5 

G. Gakey Foster, General Treasurer. ' 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxxi 



from July 2, 1900, to June 29, 1901. Cr. 

1900-1901. EXPENDITURE. 

Z s. (/. 
Expenses of Bradford Meeting, including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, &c, &c 131 1 4 

Rent and OiBce Expenses nc 7 8 

Salaries 515 

Printing, Binding, &c 109G 7 

Payment of Grants made at Bradford : 

& s. d. 

Electrical Staudards 45 d 

Seismological Obsei-vatious 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 11 

Isomorphous Sulphoulc Derivatives of Benzene 35 

Life-zones in British Carhoniferoiis Rocks 20 (I il 

TJndergronnd Water of North-west Yorkshire fli) U u 

Exploration of Irish Caves 15 U 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Speoierum Animalium 75 

^Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves 5 

Changes of Land-level in the Phlegra;an Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Women's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Sm-vey of Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching 5 

Exploration in Crete 1(5 

Physiological Effects of Peptone 30 C 

Chemistry of Boue Man-ow 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Pha;ophycefe 15 

^lorphology, Ecology, and Taxonomy of Podostemaceie 20 o o 

Corresponding Societies Committee 15 



920 9 11 



In hands of General Treasurer : 
At Bank of England, Western Branch £.^57 5 8 

Zcfs Cheques not presented 211 11 4 

145 14 4 

On Deposit at Bradford District Bank 1532 3 1 

Cash G 13 8 



1GS4 11 



:e4403 17 9 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the b.alance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

Approved — W. B. Keen, ChaTtered Accountant, 

E. W. Brabeook, ] . ,. 3 Church Court, Old Jewrj', E.C 

Horace T. Brown, J" ^ «'*»^''»"«- j^iy 26, 1901. 

1901, e 



Ixxxii 



REPORT — 1901, 



Table shoioiiig the Attendance and Eeceipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27... 

1832, June 19... 

1833, June 25... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10... 

1836, Aug. 22... 

1837, Sept. 11... 

1838, Aug. 10., , 

1839, Aug. 26... 
1810, Sept. 17... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 .. 

1843, Aug. 17... 

1844, Sept. 26 .. 

1845, June 19.. 

1846, Sept. 10 

1847, June 23.. 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sejit. 12.. 

1850, July 21 .. 

1851, .luly 2 

1852, Sep"t. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20.. 

1855, Sept. 12.. 

1856, Aug. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22.. 

1859, Sept. 14.. 

1860, June 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14.. 

1873, Sept. 17.. 

1874, Aug. 19 .. 

1875, Aug. 25 .. 

1876, Sept. G .. 

1877, Aug. 15.. 

1878, Aug. 14.. 

1879, Aug. 20.. 

1880, Aug. 25 .. 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23.. 

1883, Sept. 19 .. 

1884, lug. 27.. 

1885, Sept. 9 .. 
188U, Sept. 1 .. 
18S7, Aug. 31 .. 

1888, Sept. 5 ., 

1889, Seijt. 11.. 

1890, Sept. 3 .. 

1891, Aug. 19 .. 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13 , 

1894, Aug. 8 . 
18£i5, Sept. 11 . 

1896, Sept. 16. 

1897, Aug. 18. 

1898, Sept. 7 . 

1899, Sept. 13. 

1900, Sept. 5 . 

1901, Sept. 11., 



Where held 



Pre-sidents 



York The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

O.xford ' The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

Cambridge .' The Bev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Edinburgh i Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

DubUu '..[ I TheRev.Provo,st Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 

Bristol I The Marquis of Lausdowne, F.R.S... . 

Liverpool '"..! 1 The Earl of Burlin.gton, F.R.S 

Newcastle-on-Tyue. . . The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 

Birmingham TheRev.W. VerunuHarcourt, F.R.S. 

Glasgow ' Tlie Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 



Old Life 
Members 



Plymouth . 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

IpsAvich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Ty ne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingh.am 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

PljTuouth 

DiibUn 

Sheftield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Sonthport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford 

Glasgow 



The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S ... I 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheSIarquis of Northampton, Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D.. F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

(;. B. Air}', Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkin,s, F,R,S. 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.. , , 

The Rev, H. Lloyd, D.D.. F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. Tlie Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

WUli.am B,. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Tliomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall. LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D.. F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir .Jolm Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavlcy, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.O.B., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Br.amwell, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. G eikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Bunion Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbuvv.K.G., F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B.. Sec.E.S.... 
Sir William Turner, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Rucker, D.Sc, SecR.S. ... 



- I 

169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
330 
120 
281 
296 
267 
310 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. + Tickets of Admission to Sections only 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. Ixxxiii 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Okl 
Annual 
Members 



4G 
75 
71 
45 
04 
65 
197 
54 
93 
l28 
01 
63 
56 
121 
142 
104 
15B 
111 
125 
177 
184 
150 
154 
182 
215 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 
311 
280 
237 
232 
307 
331 
238 
290 
239 
171 
313 
253 
330 
317 
332 
428 
510 
399 
412 
3GS 
341 
413 
328 
435 
290 
383 
286 
327 
324 
297 
374 



New 

Annual 
Members 



Asso- 
ciates 



Ladies 



317 


— 


60> 


376 


33t 


331" 


185 


. — 


160 


190 


9t 


260 


22 


407 


172 


39 


270 


196 


40 


495 


203 


25 


376 


197 


33 


447 


237 


42 


510 


273 


47 


244 


141 


60 


510 


292 


57 


367 


236 


121 


765 


524 


101 


1094 


543 


48 


412 


346 


120 


900 


569 


91 


710 


509 


179 


1206 


821 


59 


636 


463 


125 


1589 


791 


57 


433 


242 


209 


1704 


1004 


103 


1119 


1058 


149 


766 


508 


105 


960 


771 


118 


1163 


771 


117 


720 


682 


107 


678 


600 


195 


1103 


910 


127 


976 


754 


80 


937 


912 


99 


796 


601 


85 


817 


630 


93 


884 


672 


185 


1265 


712 


59 


446 


283 


93 


1285 


674 


74 


529 


349 


41 


389 


147 


176 


1230 


514 


79 


516 


189 


323 


952 


841 


219 


826 


74 


122 


1053 


447 


179 


1067 


429 


244 


1985 


493 


100 


639 


509 


113 


1024 


579 


92 


680 


334 


152 


672 


107 


141 


733 


439 


57 


773 


208 


69 


941 


451 


31 


493 


201 


139 


1384 


873 


125 


682 


100 


90 


1051 


639 


68 


548 


120 


45 


801 


482 


131 


794 


240 



1100» 



Foreigners 



34 
40 



35 
36 
53 
IS 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45J 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
20&00H.§ 

6 
11 
92 
12 
21 
12 
35 
60 
17 
77 
22 



41 
41 
33 



20 



Total 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

870 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1061 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1362 
2446 
1403 
1915 
1912 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1776 
1664 
2U07 
1653 
2175 
1236 
3228 
1398 
2399 
1328 
1801 
2046 

















































































































Grants I 
for Scientific 
Purposes 



Year 



— 




1831 
1832 







1833 


£20 





1834 


167 





1835 


435 





1830 


922 12 


6 


1837 


932 2 


2 


1838 


1595 11 





1839 


1546 16 


4 


1840 


1235 10 11 


1841 


1449 17 


8 


1842 


1565 10 


2 


1843 


981 12 


8 


1844 


831 9 


9 


1845 


685 16 





1840 


208 5 


4 


1847 


275 1 


8 


1848 


159 19 


6 


1849 


345 18 





1850 


391 9 


7 


1851 


304 


7 


1852 


205 





1853 


380 19 


7 


1854 


480 16 


4 


1855 


734 13 


9 


1850 


507 15 


4 


1857 


618 18 


2 


1858 


084 U 


1 


1859 


706 19 


6 


1800 


1111 5 


10 


1801 


1293 16 


6 


1802 


1608 3 


10 


1863 


1289 15 


8 


1864 


1591 7 


10 


1865 


1750 13 


4 


1800 


1739 4 





1867 


1940 





1808 


1622 





1809 


1572 





1870 


1472 2 


6 


1871 


1285 





1872 


1685 





1873 


1151 16 





1874 


960 





1875 


1092 4 


2 


1870 


1128 9 


7 


1877 


725 16 


6 


1878 


1080 11 11 


1879 


731 7 


7 


1880 


476 8 


1 


1881 


1120 1 


11 


1882 


1083 3 


3 


1883 


1173 4 





1884 


1385 





1885 


995 


6 


1880 


1186 18 





1887 


1511 


5 


1888 


1417 11 


1889 


789 10 


8 


1890 


1029 10 





1891 


801 10 





1892 


907 15 


6 


1893 


583 15 


6 


1894 


977 15 


5 


1895 


not 6 


1 


1896 


1059 10 


8 


1897 


1212 0- 





1898 


1430 14 


2 


1899 


1072 10 





1900 


945 





1901 



: Including Ladies. § Fellowsof the Ameriqan Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 

e2 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1901-1902. 



PRESIDENT. 
Promssor ARTHUR W. EUCKER, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, Sec.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the Earl of GLASiiow, G.C.M.G. 
The Right Hon. tlie Lord Blythswood., LL.D., 

D.L. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Kfxvin, G.C.V.O., 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Samuel Chisholm, Esq., the Hon. the Lord 

Provost of Glasprow. 
Tery Rev. R. Hekjiert Story, D.D., LL D., the 
"Principal of the University of Gla?gow. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor Jambs Dewar, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S, 
VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT 



Sir John Maxwell RriRLixQ-MixwEix. Eart., 

M.P„ D.L. 
Sir Andrew Noble, K.C.B., D.O.L,, F.R.S. 
Sir Archirald Gkikte, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir W. T. THIf.ELTOx-DTER, K.C.M.G.. C.I.E., F.R.S. 
James Parker Smith, Esq., M.P., D.L. 
JoHX Inglis, Esq., LL.D. 
Professor John Clbland, M.D., LL.D,, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 



Tlie Right ITon. the Earl of Shaftesbury, 
The Bight Hon. tlie Barl op Eossk, E.P., 
The Riaht Hon. Thomas Sinclair, D.Lit. 
Sir William Quartus Ewart, Bart., M,A. 
The Lor.D Mayor of Belfast. 
The President of Queen's College, Belfast. 
Professor B. Ra? Lankksti:r, M.A., F.R.S. 
Professor Pktbe Heupei'.x, JLD. 



.D.L. 
F.R.S. 



His Grace the Duke op Abercorn, K.G., H.M. 
Lieutenant of the Oouuty of Donegal. 

The MARQ0ESS OF DUFH-.RIX AND Av.l, K.P., 

F.R.S., H.M. Lieutenant of the County of 

Down. 
The Maiiqubss of Londonderry, K.G., H.M. 

Lieutenant of the Citv of BeUiist. 
Sir Francis Macnaghten, Bart., H.M. Lieu- 

ttuant of the County of Antrim. 1 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Professor Sir W. C. RoRERXS-ArsiEN, K.C.B,, D.O,L., F.R.S. 

Dr. D. H. SCOIT, M.A., F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Harrow, MidJlescx. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor G. Carey Foster, B.A., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BELFAST. 
John Brown, Esq. | Professor Maurice FitzGerald, B.A. | Godfrey W. Ferguson, Esc. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT BELFAST. 
R. Kyle Knox, LL.D. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 

Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
BONAli, J., Esq., LL.D. 
Bower, Professor F. 0,, F.R.S, 
Callendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 
Oreak, Captain E. W,, R.N., C.B.. F.R.S. 
Darwin. Major L., Sec.R.G.S. 
Fremaktle, Hon. Sir C. W., K.C.B. 
GoTCH, Professor F., F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
Kbltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
Lankesier, Professor E. Ray, F.R.S. 
LocKYER. Sir J. Norman. K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Lodge, Principal 0. J., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Macalistef., Professor A., P.R.S. 
MacMahon, Major P, A., F.R.S. 
Marr, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Pkhkin, Prolessor W. H., F.R.S. 
Perry, Pi-ofessor John, F.R.S. 
Preecb, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
Seward, A. O., Esq., F.R.S. 
SoLLAS, Professor W. J., F.R.S. 
TiLDEN, Professor W. A.. F.R.S. 
Tylok, Professor E, B.. F.R.S. 
Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMAKENT). 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebdry, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigii, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., r.R.A.S. 
Professor A. W. RtJCKER, M.A., D.Sc, Sec.R.S. 

PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. | Sir H. E. Eoscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. I The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 



Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Bart., Sir F. J. Braniwell, Bart., F.R.S. 



F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Bayleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Sir P. A. Abel.Bart.,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
SirWin.Huggin3,K.C.B.,Pres.R.S. 
Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 

Bart., F.R.S. 



"F R, S 
Loril Lister, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. 
Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., 

M.P.. F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.E., F.R.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., 

M.P., Sec.R.S. 

G. GrifEth, Esq., M.A. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. Prof. A. W. RUcker, SejC.E.S. 



Prof. T. G. Bonuev, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., F.R.S. 



Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S. 



3. W. Brabrook, Esq. C.B. 



AUDITORS. 



L. L. Price, Esq , M,A. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. IxsXV 



lieport of the Council fvr the Year 1900-1901, presented to the General 
Committee at Glasgoiv on Wednesday, September 11, 1901. 

In presenting their Annual Report the Council have, in the first place, 
to inform the General Committee that they resolved that an Address 
should be presented to the King on his accession to the Throne, and that 
the following Address was presented by the President on behalf of the 
Council : — 

To THE King's Most Excellent Majesty. 
May it please Your Majesty, 

We, the President and Council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, most respectfully desire to be permitted to 
express to Your Majesty our deepest sympathy in the great loss which 
Your Majesty and the Empire have sustained by the death of Her 
Gracious Majesty Qvieen Victoria. 

The British Association will always bear in grateful remembrance 
the fact that your illustrious Father, His Boyal Highness the Prince 
Consort, to whose scientific knowledge and guidance the Nation owes so 
much, was pleased to accept the office of President for the Meeting held 
at Aberdeen in 1859. His Royal Highness then, as in so many other 
ways, revealed his appreciation of the importance of the advancement of 
science wliich has exerted so beneficial an influence throughout Her 
Majesty's glorious reign. 

We confidently and fervently hope that the progress of science will 
continue during the reign of Your Majesty to promote the prosperity of 
your people throughout the Empire. 

We beg leave to be permitted to offer to Your Majesty the humble 
expression of our sincere congratulation and loyal homage and devotion 
on your succession to the throne of your Ancestors. 

Signed on behalf of the Council, 

W"m. Turner, President. 

To this Address the following gracious reply has been received : — 

Home Office, WhiteLiall, 
March 11, 1901. 

Sir, — I am commanded by the King to convey to you His thanks 
for the Loyal expressions of sympathy and devotion which have been 
addressed to him by the President and Council of the British Associa- 
tion. 

His Majesty is further deeply gratified by the tribute paid to the 
memory and the influence of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort ; 



Ixxxvi REPORT — 1901. 

and he fully shares in the hope that the advancement of science, which 
has been so great a glory of Her INIajesty's reign, may be continued 
throughout His own. 

I am, 8ir, your obedient Servant, 

Chas. T. Ritchie. 

The President of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, Burlington House, W. 

The Council have heard with much regret of the death of Dr. Andrew 
Stewart, one of th":^ Vice-Presidents-elect for the Glasgow meeting, and 
the founder of the Adam Smith Chair in the University. 

The following reply from the India Office regarding the suggestion 
made by the Council, that opportunity should be taken to collect Ethno- 
graphical information by means of the Indian Census of 1901, has been 
received : — 

India Office, Whitehall, London, S.W., 
December 1900. 

Sir, — With reference to your letter of December 1899 and my reply No. E. and S. 
3539, of the 16th Januar}^ 1900, I am directed to inform you that the Secretary of 
State for India in Council has now received the remarks of the Government of 
India on the suggestion of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
that opportunity should be taken to collect ethnographical information by means of 
the Indian Census of 1001. 

2. The Government of India entirely agree with the Secretary of State's recogni- 
tion of the importance of the investii^ations which the Association suggested, but 
find themselves constrained to say that it is impossible (except to the limited extent 
indicated in paragraph 4 of this letter) to make these investigations by means of, or 
in connection with, the Census. They consider that the addition to the Census 
Schedule of Columns relating to even a small number of ethnographic facts would 
expand it to unwieldy dimensions ; the enumerating agency is wholly unfitted to 
conduct such an inquiry, and the facts recorded by it would he worthless ; and they 
apprehend that there would be grave risk, not only that the accuracy of the entries 
in the essential columns would be impaired b}' the additional burden imposed on 
the enumerators, but also that the unusual nature of the questions asked would give 
rise to rumours and excite apprehensions which would seriously interfere with the 
ordinary operations of the Census. 

3. The Government of India also deem it impracticable to carry out the sug- 
gestion that photographers should be placed at the disposal of the Census officers, 
as this, besides being very expensive, would hinder the officers' proper duties, and 
would delay the submission of the reports, which it is desired to complete as soon 
as possible. 

4. With the view, however, of taking action, as far as may be practicable, in the 
direction of collecting ethnographical information, the Census Commissioner has 
instructed the Census Superintendents to endeavour, in the districts which they visit, 
to obtain, from the mosD trustworthy sources, particulars under uniform headings 
regarding the history, structure, traditions, and religious and social usages of the 
various tribes and castes. The Commissioner considers that nothing beyond this 
can be undertaken in connection with the Census operations, and the Government of 
India accept his opinion ; but they have considered the question how far it is pos- 
sible and advisable apart from the Census to encourage and assist ethnographic in- 
vestigations in India, and have submitted a scheme by which it is hoped that in the 
course of a few years a fairly complete account of the ethnography of the larger 
provinces may be obtained. 

This scheme has received Lord George Hamilton's approval. 

I am. Sir, your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) A. Goni/ET. 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., F.E.S., Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxvii 

The Council have nominated Professor John Cleland, F.R.S., Vice- 
President for the Meeting at Glasgow. 

The Council have elected the following men of science, who have 
attended Meetings of the Association, to be Corresponding Members :^ 

Professor Philipp Lenarcl, Kiel, 
Professor A. Penck, Vienna. 
Gen.-Mpjor Rykatchew, St. Petersburg. 



Professor T. C. Cliamberlin, Chicago. 
Dr. Yves Delage, Paris. 
Professor W. G. Farlow, Harvard. 
Professor A. P. N. Franchimont, Leiden. 



The Council, having received an invitation to appoint Delegates to 
attend the Ninth Jubilee Celebrations of the University of Glasgow on 
June 12, 13, and 14, i-equested the President and the General Secretaries 
to represent the Association at the Celebrations, and to present the 
following Address to the University : — 

We, the President and Council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, offer our cordial congratulations to the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow on the occasion of the celebration of the four hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the University. 

The British Association has since its birth in 1831 been brought from 
time to time into close relations with the University of Glasgow. It has 
on three occasions held highly successful meetings within your City, and 
is looking forward with pleasurable anticipation to a fourth meeting in 
the autumn of the present year. The success of these gatherings has 
been largely due to the earnest co-operation of the able men of science 
who have filled and adorned the Chairs in the Uni^'ersity, three of whom 
at meetings in other Cities have occupied the Presidential Chair of the 
Association itself. 

In presenting our congratulations we would at the same time express 
the hope that the University may continue to prosper and to extend in 
influence and usefulness. The efforts which you are making to add to 
the Prof essoriate, to obtain new buildings and appliances for the continued 
development of your teaching and for the encouragement of research, 
show that you mean to retain a foremost place amidst the Universities of 
the United Kingdom. 

Signed on behalf of the Council, 

William Turner, President. 

The Council were invited to appoint Delegates to attend the British 
Congress on Tuberculosis, which was held on July 22-26, in London. 

The Council requested Lord Lister and Sir Michael Foster to represent 
the Association at the Congress. 

The following resolutions referred to the Council by the General 
Committee have been considered and acted upon : — 

(1) That in connection with the Resolution relating to the admission of women 
to Committees, as well as on general grounds, the Council is requested to reconsider 
the present mode of electing members of Sectional Committees, 

The Council appointed a Committee, consisting of Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. E. H. Griffiths, Mr. A. V. Harcourt 



kxxviii SEPORT — 1901. 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor W. A. Tilden, and the General Officers, 
to report on this Resolution. 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Committee, the. Council 
recommend that the present practice of electing members of Sectional 
Committees be continued subject to the following modification : — 

' That any Member of the Association who has intimated the inten- 
tion of attending a particular Meeting of the Association, and who has 
already served upon a Committee of a Section, shall be eligible for 
election as a Member of the Committee of that Section at its first 
meeting.' 

(2) That the Council be requested to consider the appointment of a separate 

Section for education. 

The Council considered this proposal, and resolved that a Section of 
Educational Science be established, to be entitled Section L, but that the 
Section shall not necessarily meet each year. 

The following resolution, which waa passed at the Conference of 
Delegates at Bradford, and accidentally not forwarded to the Committee 
of Recommendations, was brought before the Council antl considered : — 

That the proposed Copyright Bill, so far as it affects the copyright of Scientific 
Societies in their transactions, and the publication of abstracts of Scientific papers, 
be referred to the General Committee ; and that they be requested to take such 
action as will protect Scientific Societies. 

The Council authorised the General Officers to co-operate with other 
Societies in regard to the question of copyright if a Bill is again brought 
before Parliament. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, consisting of the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, and especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those Societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1901, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Mr. W. Whitaker {Chair 77ian), Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. T. V. 
Holmes, Mr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, Professor W. W. 
Watts, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. C. H. Read, and Mr. F. W. Rudler, 
is hereby nominated for reappointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate Mr. F. W. Rudler, Chairman, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
F.R.S., Vice-Chairman, and Dr. J. G. Garson and Mi". Alexander Somer- 
ville. Secretaries, to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 
to be held during the Meeting at Glasgow. 

The Council have received Reports from the General Treasurer during 
the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1900, to June 30, 1901, 
which have been audited, are presented to the General Committee. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 

Mr. Francis Darwin. I Professor E. B. Poulton. 

Dr. W. H. Uaskell. Professor J. M. Thomson. 

Professor L. F. Vernon Harcourt. I 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixsxix 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen Avhose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Bonar, J., Esq., LL.D. 
Bower, Professor F. 0., F.R.S. 
Oallendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 
Creak, Captain E. W., R.N., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Major L., Sec. K.G.S. 
Fremantle, The Hon. Sir C. W., K.C.B. 
*Gotcb, Professor F., F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Profe.ssor W. D., F.R.S. 
Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
Lankester, Professor E, Ray, F.R.S. 
Lockyer, Sir J. Norman, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Lodge, Professor Oliver, F.R.S. 
*Macalister, Professor A., F.R.S. 
MacMahon, Major P. A., F.R.S. 
Marr, J. B., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Perkin, Professor W. H.. F.R.S. 
* Perry, Professor John, F.R.S. 
Preece, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
*Seward, A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 
SoUas, Professor W. J., F.R.S. 
Tilden, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



xc 



REPORT — 1901. 



Committees appointed by the GeneRxVL Committee at the 
Glasgow Meeting in September 1901. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making ExiDcriments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[And balance in hand.] 



Seismological Observations. 



To co-operate with the Royal 
Meteorological Society in ini- 
tiating an Investigation of the 
Upper Atmosphere by means 
of Kites. 

To co-operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatory 
in their M agnetic Observations. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairma n. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrron, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
Oliver J. Lodge, and G. 
Carey Foster, Dr. A. Bluirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Profe.s- 
sors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley. Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Mr. E. H. Griffiths, 
Professors A. W. Riicker, H. L. 
Callendar, and Sir W. C. 
Roberts-Austen, and Mr. G. 
Matthey. 

ClLairman. — Prof. J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. 
Bouney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Blajor L. Dar- 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. 
Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, 
Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. 

Cliairman. — Mr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. K. Dines. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Ver- 
non Bi>ys, Dr. A. Buchan, and 
Dr. H. R. Mill. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary .— Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, and Principal 
Riicker. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
40 



'5 



75 



80 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCJ 



1. Receiving Grants of Moneij — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The relation between the Absorp- 
tion Spectra and Chemical Con- 
stitution of Organic Substances. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The action of Gases dissolved in 
Metals and Alloys on their 
Properties. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological In- 
terest. 



To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. 



The movements of Underground 
Waters of North-west York- 
shire. 

[Balance in hand.] 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman and Secretary. — Pro- 
fessor W. Noel Hartley. 

Professor F. R. Japp, Prof essor J. J. 
Dobbie, and Mr. Alexander 
Lauder. 

Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Dr. Jlarshall Watts. 

Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 
Dewar, G. D. Li vein g, A. Schus- 
ter, W. N, Hartley, and Wol- 
cott Gibbs, and Sir W. de W. 
Abney. 

C/(«M7«fl?(.— Sir Wm. C. Roberts- 
Austen. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. K. Rose. 

Mr. AV. Carrick-Andersou, Pro- 
fessor H. B. Dison, Mr. C. T. I 
Heycock, Mr. F. H. Neville, ! 
and Professor W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

/SepT-eter?/.— Prof essorW.W. Watts. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. An- 
derson, Professor E. J. Gar- 
wood, and Blessrs. A. S. Reid, ! 
W. Gra)', H. B. Woodward, R. i 
Kidston, J. J. H. Teall, J. G. 
Goodchild, H. Coates, C. V. ' 
Crook, G. Bingley, and R.Welch, i 



Chairman.— llx. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr, A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. 
G. J. Hinde, Professor Percy F. 
Kendall, Mr. Robert Kid- 
ston, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. 
B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Dr. H. Woodward. 



Chairman. — Prof essorW.W. Watts. 

Secretary. — Captain A. R. Dwerry- 
house. 

Professor A. Smithells, Rev. E. 
Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mr. G. Bray, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Mr. W. Fairley, Pro- 
fessor P. V. Kendall, and Mr. 
J. E. Man-. 



Grants 



20 



s. d. 








40 



5 



10 



xcii 



REPORT — 1901. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To explore Irish Caves. 

[Collections to be placed in the 
Science and Art Museum, Dub- 
lin.] 



To consider the best Methods for 
the Registration of all Type 
Specimens of Fossils in the 
British Isles, and to report on 
the same. 

[Balance in hand.] 

To enable Mr. R. Gurney to work 
at Excretion in Crustacea, Mr. 
Wallace to investigate Vivi- 
parous Fishes, and to aid other 
competent investigator, to carry 
on definite pieces of work at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. 

To enable Mr. R. C. Punnctt to 
continue his inrestigations on 
the pelvic plexus of Elasmo- 
branch fishes, and to enable 
other competent naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work 
at the Marine Laboratory, 
Plymouth. 

[Balance, 8^. 5*., in hand.] 

CoKpilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To work out the details of the 
Observations on the Migration 
of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-87. 

To investigate the structure, for- 
mation, and growth of the Coral 
Reefs of the Indian Region, 
with special observations on the 
inter-relationship of the reef 
organisms, the depths at which 
they grow, the food of corals, 
effects of currents and character 
of the ocean bottom, &c. The 
land flora and fauna will be 
collected, and it is intended 
that observations shall be made 
on the manners, k.c., of the 
natives in the different parts 
of the Maldive group. 




Chairman. — Dr. R. F. Scharff. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. 
Mr. G. Coffey, Professor Grenville 

Cole, Dr. Cunningham, Mr. G. 

W. Lamplugh, Mr. A. McHenry, 

and Mr R. J. Ussher. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward. 

Rev.G. F. Whidborne, Mr. R. Kid- 
ston, Professor H. G. Seeley, IMr. 
H. Woods, and Rev. J. F. Blake. 



W. 



A. 



Chairman. — Professor 
Herdman. 

Secretary. — ProfessorG.B. Howes. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
fessor S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh. 

Chairman. — Sir. W. Garstang. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. Garstang. 
Professor E. Ray Lankester, 

Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. 

A. Sedgwick, and Professor W. 

F. K. Weldon. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretari/. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 

Stebbing, Mr. R. McLachlan, 

and Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Rev. E. P. Knubley. 
Mr. John A. Harvie- Brown, JMr. 

R. M. Barrington, Mr. A. H. 

Evans, and Dr. H. 0. Forbes. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. Sedgwick. 
Secretary. — J. Graham Kerr. 
Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. 

Lister, Mr. Francis Darwin. Dr. 

S. F. Harmer, Professors A. 

Macalister, W. A. Herdman, and 

S. J. Hickson. 



Grants 



£ f. (/. 
45 



100 



100 



15 



50 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



?:cui 



1. Reeeiring Grants of Moneij — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To enable Mr. James Rankin to in- 
vestigate Compound Ascidians 
of tlie Clyde area, and to en- 
able other competent natural- 
ists to perform definite re- 
searches in the Laboratory of 
the Marine Biological Asso- 
ciation of the West of Scotland 
at Millport. 



Terrestrial Surface-waves and 
Wave-lilie Surfaces. 



The Economic Effect of Legisla- 
tion regulating Women's Labour. 



To consider means by which better 
practical effect can be given to 
the Introduction of the Screw 
Gauge proposed by the Associa- 
tion m 1884. 



To investigate the resistance of 
Road Vehicles to Traction. 



To co-operate with the Silchester 
Excavation Fund Committee in 
their explorations. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. F. Gemmill. 
Professor V. O. Bower, Professor 

Cossar Ewart, Professor W. A. 

Herdman, Professor M. Laurie, 

Mr. Alex. SomerviHe, and Mr. 

J. A. Todd. 



Chairman. — Dr. Scott Keltic. 
Seoretarij. — Colonel F. Bailey. 
Mr. Vaughan Cornish, Mr. A. E. 
Hunt, and Mr. W. H. Wheeler. 



Chairman. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. L. Bowley. 

Miss A.M. Anderson, Mr. C. Booth, 
Mr. S. J. Chapman, Miss C. 
E. Collet, Professor Edgeworth, 
Professor Flux, Mrs. J. R. Mac- 
Donald, Mr. L. L. Price, Pro- 
fessor Smart, and Mrs. H. J. 
Tennant. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Price. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwcll, 
Sir H. Trueman Wood, Maj.- 
Gen. Webber, Mr. E. E. Cromp- 
ton, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 
Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Col. 
Watkin, Mr. E. Rigg, Mr. Vernon 
Boys, Mr. J. Marshall Gorham, 
Mr. O. P. Clements, Mr. AV. 
Taylor, and Dr. K. T. Glaze- 
brook. 



Chairman. — Sir Alexander Binnie. 
Secretary. — Professor H. S. Hele 

Shaw. 
Mr. Aitken, Mr. T. C. Aveling, 

Professor T. Hudson Beare, 

Mr. VV. W. Beaumont, Mr. J. 

Brown, Col. R. E. CromptoD,Mr. 

A. Mallock,SirD. Salomans,Mr. 

A. Sennett,Mr. Shrapnell Smith, 

and Mr. J. I. Thornycroft. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. John L. Myres. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 



Grants 



£ 



s. d. 





15 



30 



20 



50 



XCIV 



REPORT — 1901. 



1. Receiving CI rants of Money— contvaw^A. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To organise an Ethnological Sur- 
vey of Canada. 



\ To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the age of 
Stone Circles. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Pho- 
tographs of Anthropological 
Interest. 

[Balance in hand.] 



The Present State of Anthropo- 
logical Teaching in the United 
Kingdom and Elsewhere. 



To conduct Explorations at 
Knossos in Crete. 



To conduct Anthropometric In- 
vestigations among the Native 
Troops of the Egyptian Army. 



To co-operate with the Cardiff 
Naturalists' Society in its Ex- 
cavations on the Roman Site 
at Gelligaer. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor D. P. PeU' 
hallow. 

Secretary.— Ilx. C. Hill-Tout. 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, Sir J. G. Bourinot, Mr. B. 
Suite, Mr. David Boyle, Mr. 
C. N. Bell, Professor E. B. 
Tylor, Professor J. Mavor, Mr. 
C. F. Hunter, and Dr. W. F. 
Ganono'. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Sir Johii Evans, Mr. C. H. Read. 
Professor Meldola, Mr. A. J. 
Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Pro- 
fessor Boyd-Dawkins, and Mr. 
A. L. Lewis. 



Chairman.— Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Dr. J. G.Garson, Mr. H. Lin? Roth, 
Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, and Professor Flinders 
Petrie. 



Chairman. — Professor E. B. T-ylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Ling Rotli. 

Professor A. Macalister, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. C. H. Read, 
Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. R. Munro, and Pro- 
fessor Flinders Petrie. 



Chairinan. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. A. j. Evans, Mr. D. G. Ho- 
garth, Professor A. Macalister, 
and Professor W. Ridgeway. 



Chairman. — Professor A. IMac- 

alister. 
Secretary. — Mr. C. S. Myers. 
Sir John Evans and Professor 

D. J. Cunningham. 



Chairman. — Professor .J. Rhys. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Jlvres. 
Mr. A. J. Evans and Mr. E. W. 
Brabrook. 




30 







100 



1.5 







COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



XCV 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


To study the power of the Mam- 


Chairvian. — Professor J. G. 


£ s. (1. 
20 


malian Heart for performing 


McKendrick. 




work under varying external 


SecTetary. — Mr. T. Grigor Brodie. 




conditions and under the in- 


Professor W. H. Thompson. 




fluence of Drugs. 






The changes occurring in Hemo- 


Chairman. — Professor J. G. 


15 1 


globin and the supposed de- 


McKendrick. 


1 

1 


struction of Ked Corpuscles in 


Secretary. — Mr. W. Brodie Brodie. 




the Spleen. 


Professor Ealph Stockman, 




Investigation of the Cyano- 


Chairman. — Professor J. B. 


-10 


phycefe. 


Farmer. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. F. Blackman. 
Professor Marshall "Ward and Mr. 
W. Gardiner. 




Investigation on the Eespiration 


CJiairman. — Professor Marshall 


15 


of Plants. 


Ward. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Wager. 
Mr. Francis Darwin and Professor 

J. B. Farmer. 




To cnnsider and report upon tlie 


CJiairman. — Dr. H. E.Armstrong. 


5 


inliuence exercised bj' Univer- 


Secretary. — Mr. W. H. D. Rouse. 




sities and Examining Bodies on 


The Bishop of Hereford, Sir 




secondary school curricula, and 


Michael Foster, Sir P. Magnus, 


, 


also of the schools on university 


Principal Eiicker, Principal 




requirements. 


Lodge, Mr. H. W. Eve, Mr. 
W. A. Shenstone, Mr. Eggar, 
Professor ]\Iarshall Ward. Mr. 
F. H. Neville, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, 
Professor H. L. Withers, and 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 




The conditions of Health essen- 


Chairman. — 


2 


tial to the carrying on of the 


Secretary. — Mr. E. White Wallis. 




work of instruction in schools. 


Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Professor 
L. C. Miall, Professor H. L. 
Withers, and Professor Sher- 
rington; and that the Council 
be authorised to appoint a 
Chairman. 


1 


Corresponding Societies Com- 


Chairman. — Jlr. W. Whitaker. 


15 


mittee for the preparation of 


Secretary. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 




their Report. 


Mr. Francis Galton, Professor E. 
Meldola, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Sir 
John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 
Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. 0. 
Bevan, Professor W. W. Watts, 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. C. 






H. Read, and Mr. F. W. Eudler. 


• 



XCVl 



KEPORT — 1901. 
2. Not receiving Gh'ants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Kadiation from a Source of Light in a 
Magnetic Field. 



To establisla a Meteorological Ob- 
servatory on Mount Koval, Montreal. 



Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under 
Water. 



Considering the best Methods of Re- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation, 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
draw lip a Report on the present 
state of the Theory of Point-Groups. 



The Nature of Alloys. 



Members of the Committee. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Schuster. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. E. Thrift. 
Professor O. J. Lodge, Professor S. P. 

Thompson, Dr. Gerald Molloy, Dr. 

W. E. Adeney, and Mr. E. P. Calver- 

well. 

Chairman. — Professor H. L. Callendar. 
Secretary. — Professor C. H. McLeod. 
Professor F. Adams and Mr. E. F. 
Stupart. 

Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Sir John Murray, Dr. A. Buchau, and 
Professor R. Copeland. 

Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 

Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. 

Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, the 

Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, 

and Professor A. W. Riicker. 



CJutirman. — Professor .J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Mr. 
James Glaisher, Professor Edward 
Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor 
A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, 
Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. 
Strahan, Professor Michie Smith, Pro 
fessor H. L. Callendar, and Mr. B. 11. 
Brough. 

Chairman.— Tix. G, Johnstone Stoney. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Sir G. G. Stokes, Professor A. Schuster, 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Sir W. de 
W. Abney, Dr. C. Chree, Professor 
H. L. Callendar, Mr. W. E. Wilson, 
and Professor A. A. Rambaut. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. F. H. 

Neville. 
Mr. C. T. Heycock and Mr. E. H. 

Griffiths. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCVll 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Isomeric Naplithalene Derivatives. 



Members of the Committee 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic j Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 

Derivatives of Benzene. I Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

j Dr. W. P. Wynne and Mr. W. J. Pope. 

To collect Statistics concerning the \ Chairvian. — Professor "\V. H. Perkin. 

trained chemists employed in Eng- j Secretary. — Dr. G. G. Henderson, 

lish Chemical Industries. j Professor H. E. Armstrong and Mr. G. T. 

i Beilby. 



To approach the Inland Revenue Com- 
missioners to urge the desirability 
of securing the use of pure alcohol 
duty free for the purposes of scien- 
tific research. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks of the 
British Isles, and to take measures 
for their preservation. 



To report upon the Present State of 
our Knowledge of the Structure of 
Crystals. 



The Periodic Investigation of the 
Plankton and Physic.'il Conditions of 
the English Channel. 



To continue the investigation of tlie 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To promote the Systematic Collection 
of Photographic and other Kecords 
of Pedigree Stock. 



Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Professor H. B. Dixon. 

Sir Micliael Foster, Principal Riicker, 
Dr. T. E. Thorpe, Professor W. H. 
Perkin, and Professor W. D. Halli- 
burton. 

Chairman. — Mr. J. E. Marr. 
Secreto/rii. — Prof, P. F. Kendall. 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr C. E. De 

Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H. 

Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Mr. 

John Home, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. 

J. Lomas, Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. E. D. Tucker, 

and Mr. F. W. Harmer. 

Chairman. — Professor N. Story Maske- 

lyne. 
Secretary. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Mr. L. Fletcher, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. W. Barlow, Mr. G. F. H. Smith, 

and the Earl of Berkeley. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Ray Lanke.ster. 
Secretary. — Mr. Walter Garstang. 
Professor W. A. Herdman and Mr. H. N. 
Dickson. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. VV. ' T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 

Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. F. 

Du Cane Godman, and BIr. Edgar 

A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Mr. Francis Gallon. 
Secretary. — Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 
Professor J. C. Ewart, Professor J. A. 
Thomson, and Professor E. WalJacc. 



1901. 



XCVlll 



REPORT — 1901. 

2. Kot receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Iiiyestigation or Purpose. 



Members of the Committee 



Tlie Lake Village at Glastonbury. 



To organise a Pigmentation Survey of 
the school children of Scotland. 



The Physiological Effects of Peptone 
and its Precursors when introduced 
into the circulation. 



The Micro-chemistiy of Cells. 



To examine the Natural History and Cfiairman.—Mr. C. H. Eead. 
Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula. Seer etanj.— Mi. W. Crooke, 

Professor A. Macalister, Professor W. 
Eidgeway, and Dr. H. O. Forbes. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Bulleid. "* 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, bir John 

Evans, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, and Mr. 

C. H. Read. 

Chairman, — Mr. E. W. Eraybrook. > 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 

Dr. A. C, Haddon, Professor A. Macalister, 

Professor D. J. Cunninnham, Mr. J. F. 

Tocher, and Dr. W. H.^R. Rivers. 

Chairman. — Professor E. A. Schafer. 
Secretary. — Professor W. H. Thompson. 
Professor R. Boyce and Professor C. S. 
Sherrington. 

Chairman — Professor E. A. Schiifer. 

Secretary — Professor A. 1!. Macallum. 

Professor S. Ray Lankester, Professor 
W. D. Halliburton, Mr. G. C. Bourne, 
and Professor J. J. Mackenzie. 

Chairman. — Professor J. B. Farmer. 
Secretary. — Professor R. W. Phillips. 
Professor F. O. Bov?er and Professor 
Harvey Gibson. 



Fertilisation in Phceophyceae. 



To consider and report upon a scheme 
for the registration of negatives of 
Botanical Photographs. 



The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



To report upon improvements that 
might be effected in the teaching of 
Matbematics, in the first instance in 
the teaching of Elementary Mathe- 
matics, and upon such means as they 
think likely to effect such improve- 
ments. 



Chairman. — Professor L. C. Miall. 
Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Mr. Francis Darwin and Professor 
Scott Elliot. 



G. F. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Lord Avebury, Mr. George Gladstone, 
Professor \V. R. Dunstan, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Dr. Sil- 
vanus P. Thompson, and Professor A. 
Smithells. 

Chairman. — Professor A. R. Forsyth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Principal A. W. Riicker, Principal O. J. 
Lodge, Major P. MacMahon, Professor 
W. H. H. Hudson, Dr. J. Larmor, Pro- 
fessor S. P Thompson, Professors G. 
Chrystal, O. Henrici, A. Lodge, A. G. 
Greenhill, G. M. Minchin, Mr. W. D. 
Eggar, Mr. H. W, Eve, Dr.. Glad- 
stone, Professor G. Gibson, Professor 
Robert Russell, and Mr. K. A. Gregory. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCiX 

Resolution relating to Committee on Ti-mction of Vehicles. 

That in accordance with the Rules of the Association the Committee on the 
Eesistance of Eoacl Vehicles to Traction be authorised to obtain further subscriptions 
in aid of its work. 

Communications ordered to be 2)rinted in extenso. 

The Clearing of Turbid Solutions, by Professor Georg Quincke. 

The Polarisation of Electric Waves, by Professor Georg Quincke. 

Note sur I'unite de pression, par M. C. E. Guillaume. 

Note on the Variation of the Specific Heat of Water, by Professor H. L. 
Callendar, F.R.S. 

On the Behaviour of young Gulls artificially and naturally hatched, by Professor 
J. Arthur Thomson. 



£2 



e REPORT — 1901. 

Syjiopsis of Grants of Money app'oirriated to Scientific Purposes hy the 
General Committee at the Glasgoiu Meeting, September, 1901. The 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Gra7its are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

*RayIeigh, Lord— Electrical Standards 40 

*Judd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 35 

Shaw, Mr. W. X. — Investigation of the Ui^per Atmosphere 

by means of Kites 75 

Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 80 

Chemistry. 

*Hartley, Professor W. N. — Relation bet\yeen Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of Organic Substances 20 

*Eo£coe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables 5 

Roberts- Austen, Sir Wm. C. — Properties of Metals and 

Alloys affected by dissolved Gases 40 

Geology. 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest ... 5 
*Marr, Mr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carljoniferous Rocks 10 
*Watts, Professor W. W. — Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire (Balance in hand) — 

*Scharff, Dr. — Exploration of Irish Caves 15 

■*Woodward, Dr. H. — Type Specimens (Balance in hand) — 

Zoology. 

*Herdman, Professor W. A.— Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

•'■Garstang, Mr. W. — Table at the Biological Laboratory, 

Plymouth (Balance £8 bs. Od. in hand) — 

^Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Generum et Specierum Ani- 

malium 100 

^ Newton, Professor A. — Migration of Birds 15 

*Sedgwick, Mr. A. — Structure of Coral Reefs of Indian Pv-egion 50 
Murray, Sir John — Compound Ascidians of the Clyde Area l'5 

Geogra2jhy. 
*Keltie, Dr. J. Scott — Terrestrial Surface Waves 15 

Economic Science and Statistics. 
*Brabrook, E. AV. — Legislation regulating Women's Labour 30 

Engineering. ■ 

*Preece, Sir W. H.— Small Screw Gauge 20 

*Binnie, Sir A. — Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction ... 50 

Carried forward £760 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONE\'. ci 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward TGO 

Anth7'02}oIogy. 

*Evans, Mr. A. J. — Silchester Excavation 5 

*Peiihallow, Professor D. P. — Ethnological Survey of Canada IH 

*GarsoD, Dr. J. G.— Age of Stone Circles 30 

*Reacl, Mr. C. H. — Photographs of Anthropological Interest 

(Balance in hand) — 

*Tylor, Professor E. B. — Anthropological Teaching .T 

*Evans, Sir John — Exploration in Crete 100 

Macalister, Professor A. — Anthropometric Investigations on 

Native Egyptian Soldiers IT) 

Rhys, Professor J. — Excavations on the Roman Site at 

Gelligaer .5 

Physiology. 

McKendrick, Professor J. G. — Work of Mammalian Heart 

under influence of Drugs 15 

McKendrick, Professor J. G. — Changes in Haemoglobin 20 



, Botany. 

Farmer, Professor J. B. — Investigations of the Cyanophyceaa 10 
Marshall Ward, Professor — The Respiration of Plants 1-5 

Educational Science. 

Armstrong, Dr. H. E. — Reciprocal Influence of Universities 

and Schools .5 

Sherrington, Professor 0. S.t — Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on work in Schools 2 

Corresponding Sozieties. 
*W hitaker, Mr. W. — Preparation of Report 15 

il,'015~0^ 
* Reappointed. f Appointed by the Council. * 



The Annual Meeting in 1902. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1902 will be held at 
Belfast, commencing on September 10. 

Tlie Annual Meeting in 1903. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1903 v/ill lie held at 
Southport. 



Cll 



REPORT — 1901. 



General Statement of Sums which have been "paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. (I. 
20 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Comrnittee ... 31 

£932 






1 
12 


6 

3 
8 

9 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology . . . 105 

±167 U 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Rain-ganges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 

£435" 





















1 





3 

















6 












1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and SubterrE,- 

nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

£922 12 6 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



1839. 

£ s. d. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plj^mouth, &c 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Jleteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification ExjDeriments ... 9 4 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 7 

Railway Constants 28 7 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 2 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 4 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 

Stars in Lacaillo 11 6 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ...166 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 6 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourl}^ Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

FossilReptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Si^bterra- 

nean Temperature S 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

:\rud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology Ifi 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers G 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 G 

Stars (Catalogne of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections ;18 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 110 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals . 2 

£1285 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 

Anoplura Britannia 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Rail-way Sections 161 

British Belemnitcs 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels ISO 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 























8 


6 















Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



f^ 


a. 




















1 


11 


1) 






£1419 i; 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hoiu'ly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 S 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth .".. 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks .30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 3G 5 8 



CIV 



REPORT — 1901. 



£ s. (1. 

Additioual Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator r,n 14 10 

Experiments on the Stren2:th 

of Materials .'; . . ._60_0__0 

£1665 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ...100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory ..., 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

oftheLowerTertiaryStrata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Blarine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corf u 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Compjleting Experiments on 

the Forms of Shii3s 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinbtirgh IS 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Obsers'ations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Fiu'naces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structm-e of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

A^itality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplui-a 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CV 



1847. 

£ 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves (> 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining- the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 1 07 

i?2U8~ 



d. 










1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 n 

Atmospheric Waves ii 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 1.3 9 

£159 19~~6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£345l8~0 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 I 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 G 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation .30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391~9~7 



1852. 

£ s. (l. 

Maintaining tlie Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Condiic- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological MajD of Ireland ... 15 () 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 (i 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wroirghtlron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380~19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£4S0^6~'4 



1856, 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 0\ .„. . ,, 

1855 £500 or'"' " 



CVl 



REPORT — 1901. 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



13 


















1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

llesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Tiiermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin .5 o 

Vitality of Seed .5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£018 18 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 



£ s. d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidse 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents ■ 39 11 

£684 11 1 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituent s 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



500 



Dredging near Dublin 11 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 T ,., 

1861 £22 0/'^ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts .' 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 1 50 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Tran.i- 

actions 100 

Dredging in t lie Mersey .and 

Dee ..'. 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£111 r 



















































































5 


10 








5 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



evil 



1862. 

£ s. (1. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 fi 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland G 9 fi 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 




































































3 10 






























































£ .?. d. 

Thermo-elcctricily 15 

Analj'sis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 



18G4. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Obser\'atory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luro.inous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida..., 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic ComjDounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

EuryiDterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredghig Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£r591 7^10 



CVIU 



REPORT — 1901, 



1866. 

£ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatoiy. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkennj' Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exiolorati on 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 
Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands CO 

Tj^jDical Crania Researches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£l750 









13 


4 


















































































































































13 


4 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 60 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws , 30 

i;i789 












































































u 


























4 





























4 






1868. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory. . GOO 

Lunar Committee ] 20 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations .. 150 
Steamship Performances . ., 100 

British Rainfall .50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals ."^O 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, i^c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 
Fauna 100 

^1940 



£ s. d. 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. , 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufactirre 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals .50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 































































































































































































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CIX 



£ s. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Moimtain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



£ 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 




























£1472 2 6 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 80 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Moimtain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Hee.t 50 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal' Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 


























































































































£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... ISO 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants .. 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 



£16S5 



ex 



EEPORT — 1901. 



1874. 

£ s. 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Bleteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's PjTometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£116J^16 

1875. " 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

'Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids.,. 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kenfs Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters -10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 0~ 

1876. — — — 

Printing Mathematical Tables 150 i 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Carlculating Machine . . . 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ 

Isomeric Cresols iO 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Steam-vessels 6 

£1092 



s. d. 












































10 



































15 












0_f) 
4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

El.asticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeje, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, ifec , 15 

. £1128 















11 


7 



























































































8 






















7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Eecorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

AVaters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 
Illustrations for a Jlonograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 100 
Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 
Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 

Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Natural History of Socotra ... 100 
Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 
Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
. Equivalent of Heat 12 

















































































15 


6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraflines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

' £731 7 7 



CXll 



REPORT — 1901. 



1881. 

£ s. d. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Undergi-ound Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 2.5 

High Insulation Key ^> 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 .3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 7.5 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£17(J 3 1 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 70 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

VV^ave-leugth Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Wa t er s ... 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-la\it 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£11 2r. 









1 


11 






































































i 

1 











'■ 



































; 





! 









1883. 

£ 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives , 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polj'zoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaio- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 
Scottish Zoological Station... 25 
Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 
Screw Gauges 5 

£T()83~ 



s. 


d. 
























































































3 



























3 .S 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra V^iolet Spark Spectra ... 8 4- 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Ma]i 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... SO 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East &.frica 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Antliropometric Committee... 10 



1 11 



£1173 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXIU 



1885. 

£ 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 
Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &;c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Kaygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paljeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 
Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 1 00 

£1385~ 
1 



s. 


d. 









































































































1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation lo 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observaxions on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... £0 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record .100 

Granton Biological Station.., 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 
1901. 



£ K d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis .30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of -lapan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesej' 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Beds of the Isle of Wight. . . 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museum^ Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 73 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 q 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186^8^0 



CXIV 



REPORT — 19U1. 



1888. 

£ 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 

Electrolysis 30 

Uaiform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try ..; 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on H3'dracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palseontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradenij^a Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 



s. d. 



6 4 



2 3 







11 


10 































































































































































































5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 80 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaaozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Phvsiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural Historj' of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Paleozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 

niva 25 



GENERAL STATExMENT. 



CXV 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Experiments with a Tow- 










4 

100 


■A 



9 


Naples Zoological Station ... 





Zoology and Lotany of the 








West India Islands 


100 








Marine Biological Association 


:!0 








Action of Waves and Currents 








in Estuaries 


150 








Graphic Methods in Mechani- 








cal Science 


11 








Anthropometric Calculations 


5 








Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 


2b 








Corresponding Societies 


20 








£799 


16 


8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 30 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Pays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029T{) 



1S92. 

£ g. ,/. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 O 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pelli an Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan ^. 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Sohitions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climat ology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10~ 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava. Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

Indialslands 50 



CXVl 



REPORT — 1901. 



£ s. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

ofAnimals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 



d. 

















1S91. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Plienomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensitj' of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, itc 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stoneslield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Eartli-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Aby.ssini a ... 30 

Economic Trahiing 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnograpliical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical ]\Ieasure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1895. 

£ g. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 
Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 G 1 

Formation of Haloids from 

Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Fhnt-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

ofAnimals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£^n 15 5 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXVU 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena Ifl 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 

Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 2 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 

Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Kelation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palieozoic Phyllopoda 6 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

HiUs 2 

Investigation of a Coral Eeef 

by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palseolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 

near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoologj', Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1404 6 1 



1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain In- 
tegials 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plj'mouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botanj' of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatoloarj' of Tropical 

Africa.': 20 

Ethnographical Sun'ey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Ph^ophycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations .. . 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



CXVUl 



REPORT 1901. 



£ 
Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 
Action of Light upon Djed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 
Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 
State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of 

Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 

Silchester Excavation 7 

EthnologicalSurvey of Canada 75 
Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits .. . 125 
Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 
Fertilisation in Phseophycefe 15 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,212 



s. d. 































10 

10 


















1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations ... 65 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 
in Canada 30 









14 


8 





















£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 

Section at Moel Try faen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
ticOrganisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

EthnologicalSurveyof Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phyaaophyceae 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1.430 14 2 







19 6 















1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal' 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies .30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXIX 



£ s. d. 

Isomorpbous Sulpbonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

rhotographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Kemains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Reefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 

Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 
Cerebral Cortex. 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supplv of Secreting 

Glands '. 10 



£ t. d. 

Fertilisation in Phasophycese 20 

Corresp. Societies Committee 20 

£1,072 10 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorpbous Sulpbonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 35 

Life-zones in British Carbo- 
niferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yoi'kshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrajan Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in PhseoiJliycere 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
maceae 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 



CXX REPORT — 1901. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, t^eptember 11, at 8.30 p.m., in St. Andrew's Hall, 
Glasgow, Sir AVilliam Turner, K.C.B., F.R.S., resigned the office of 
President to Professor A. W. Rucker, D.Sc, Sec. R.S., F.R.S., who took 
the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 12, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
<Jity Chambers. 

On Friday, September 13, at 8.30 p.m., in St. Andrew's Hall, Pro- 
fessor W. Ramsay, F.R.'S., delivered a Discourse on 'The Inert Con- 
stituents of the Atmosphere.' 

On Monday, September 16, at 8.30 p.m., in St. Andrew's Hall, 
IVIr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' The Movements of 
Plants.' 

On Tuesday, September 17, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in 
the Exhibition Buildings. 

On Wednesday, September 18, at 2.30 p.m., in the University, the con- 
cluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the General 
Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were explained 
to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Belfast. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, September 10, 1902.] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1901. 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Professor ARTHUR W. RUCKER, M.A, LL.I), 
D.Sc, Sec.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



The first thought in the minds of all of us to-night is that since we met 
last year the great Queen, in whose reign nearly all the meetings of the 
British Association have been held, has passed to her i est. 

To Sovereigns most honours and dignities come as of right ; but for 
some of them is reserved the supreme honour of an old age softened by 
the love and benedictions of millions ; of a path to the grave, not only 
magnificent, but watered by the tears both of their nearest and dearest, 
and of those who, at the most, have only seen them from afar. 

This honour Queen Victoria won. All the world knows by what 
great abilities, by what patient labour, by what infinite tact and kindli- 
ness, the late Queen gained both the respect of the rulers of nations and 
the affection of her own subjects. 

Her reit'n, florious in many respects, was remarkable, uutside these 
islands, for the growth of the Empire ; within and without them, for 
the drawing nearer of the Crown and the people in mutual trust ; while, 
durin" her lifetime, the developments of science and of scientific industry 
have altered the habits and the thoughts of the whole civilised world. 

The representatives of science have already expressed in more formal 
ways their sorrow at the death of Queen Victoria, and the loyalty and 
confident hope for the future with which they welcome the accession of 
King Edward. But none the less, I feel sure that at this, the first 
meeting of the Britis^h Association held in his reign, I am only expressing 
the universal opinion of all our members when I say that no group of the 
King's subjects trusts more implicitly than we do in the ability, skill, 
and judgment which His Majesty has already shown in the exercise of 
the powers and duties of his august otBce ; that none sympathise more 
deeply with the sorrows which two great nations have shared with their 
Sovereigns ; and that none cry with more fervour, ' Long live the King ! ' 

But this Meeting of the British Association is not only remarkable 
as being the first in a new reign. It is also the first in a new century. 

B 2 



4 REPORT — 1901. 

It is held in Glasgow at a time when your International Exhibition has 
in a special sense attracted the attention of the world to your city, and 
when the recent celebration of the ninth jubilee of your University has 
shown how deeply the prosperity of the present is rooted in the past. 
What wonder, then, if I take the Chair to which you have called me with 
some misgivings 1 Born and bred in the South, I am to preside over a 
Meeting held in the largest city of Scotland. As your chosen mouth- 
piece I am to speak to you of science when we stand at the parting of 
the centuries, and when the achievements of the past and present, and 
the promise of the future, demand an interpreter with gifts of knowledge 
and divination to which I cannot pretend. Lastly, I am President of the 
British Association as a disciple in the home of the master, as a physicist 
in a city which a physicist has made for ever famous. Whatever the 
future may have in store for Glasgow, whether your enterprise is still to 
add wharf to wharf, factory to factory, and street to street, or whether 
some unforeseen ' tide in the affairs of men ' is to sweep energy and 
success elsewhere, fifty-three years in the history of your city will never 
be forsfotten while civilisation lasts. 

More than half a century ago, a mere lad was the first to compel the 
British Association to listen to the teaching of Joule, and to accept the 
law of the conservation of energy. Now, alike in the most difficult 
mathematics and in the conception of the most ingenious apparatus, in 
the daring of his speculations and in the soundness of his engineering, 
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, is regarded as a leader by the science 
and industry of the whole world. 

It is the less necessary to dwell at length upon all that he has done, 
for Lord Kelvin has not been without honour in his own country. Many 
of us, who meet here to night, met last in Glasgow when the University 
and City had invited representatives of all nations to celebrate the Jubilee 
of his professorship. For those two or three days learning was sur- 
rounded with a pomp seldom to be seen outside a palace. The strange 
middle-age costumes of all the chief Universities of the world were 
jostling here, the outward signs that those who were themselves distin- 
guished in the study of Nature had gathered to do honour to one of the 
most distinguished of them all. 

Lord Kelvin's achievements were then described in addresses in every 
tongue, and therefore I will only remind you that we, assembled here 
to-night, owe him a heavy debt of gratitude ; for the fact that the British 
Association enters on the twentieth century conscious of a work to do 
and of the vigour to do it is largely due to his constant presence at its 
Meetings and to the support he has so ungrudgingly given. We have 
learned to know not only the work of our great leader, but the man 
himself ; and I count myself happy because in his life-long home, under 
the walls of the University he served so v/ell, and at a Meeting of the 
Association which his genius has so often illuminated, I -am allowed, as 
your President, to assure him in your name of the admiration, respect, 
nay, of the affection, in which we all hold him. 



ADDRESS. O 

I have already mentioned a number of circumstances which make our 
Meeting this year noteworthy ; to these I must add that for the first time 
we have a Section for Education, and the importance of this new de- 
parture, due largely to the energy of Professor Armstrong, is emphasised 
by the fact that the Chair of that Section will be occupied by the 
Vice-President of the Board of Education— Sir John Gorst. I will not 
attempt to forecast the proceedings of the new Section. Education is 
passing through a transitional stage. The recent debates in Parliament ; 
the great gifts of Mr. Carnegie ; the discussion as to University organisa- 
tion in the North of England ; the reconstitution of the University of 
London ; the increasing importance attached to the application of know- 
ledge both to the investigation of Nature and to the purposes of industry, 
are all evidence of the growing conviction tliat without advance in educa- 
tion we cannot retain our position among the nations of the world. If 
the British Association can provide a platform on which these matters 
may be discussed in a scientific but practical spirit, free from the mis- 
representations of the hustings and the exaggerations of the partisan, it 
will contribute in no slight measure to the national welfare. 

But amid the old and new activities of our meeting the undertone 
of sadness, which is never absent from such gatherings, will be painfully 
apparent to many of us at Glasgow. Our sympathy goes out to the sister 
nation across the sea, which is watching by the sick-bed on which the 
President of the United States has been stretched by a coward hand. 
You will, I am sure, be glad to hear that the General Committee has 
already telegraphed, in the name of the Association, to President McKinley 
assuring him of their earnest hopes for his speedy and complete recovery. 
Nearer home the life-work of Professor Tait has ended amid the gloom of 
the war-cloud. A bullet, fired thousands of miles away, struck him to 
the heart, so that in their deaths the father and the brave son, whom he 
loved so well, were not long divided. Within the last year, too, America 
has lost Rowland ; Viriamu Jones, who did yeoman's service for educa- 
tion and for science, has succumbed to a long and painful illness ; and one 
who last year at Bradford seconded the proposal that I should be your 
President at Glasgow, and who would unquestionably have occupied this 
Chair before long had he been spared to do so, has unexpectedly been called 
away. A few months ago we had no reason to doubt that George 
Francis FitzGerald had many years of health and work before him. He 
had gained in a remarkable way not only the admiration of the scientific 
world, but the affection of his friends, and we shall miss sadly one whom 
we all cared for, and who, we hoped, might yet add largely to the 
achievements which had made him famous. 

The Science of the Nineteenth Century. 

Turning from these sad thoughts to the retrospect of the centujy 
which has so lately ended, I have found it to be impossible to free myself 



6 REPORT— 1901. 

from the influence of the moment and to avoid, even if it were desirable to 
avoid, the inclination to look backward from the standpoint of to-day. 

Two years ago Sir Michael Foster dealt with the work of the century 
as a whole. Last year Sir William Turner discussed in greater detail 
the "Towth of a single branch of science. A third and humbler task 
remains, viz.. to fix our attention on some of the hypotheses and assump- 
tions on which the fabric of modern theoretical science has been built, and 
to inquire whether the foundations have been so ' well and truly ' laid 
that they may be trusted to sustain the mighty superstructure which is 
being raised upon them. 

The moment is opportune. The three chief conceptions which for many 
years have dominated physical as distinct from biological science have 
been the theories of the existence of atoms, of the mechanical nature of 
heat, and of the existence of the ether. 

Dalton's atomic theory was first given to the world by a Glasgow pro- 
fessor—Thomas Thomson— in the year 1807, Dalton having rommunicated 
it to liini in 1804. Rumford's and Davy's experiments on the nature 
of heat were published in 1798 and 1799 respectively; and the cele- 
brated Bakerian Lecture, in which Thomas Young established the 
undulatory theory by explaining the interference of light, appeared in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions ' in 1801. The keynotes of the physical 
science of the nineteenth century were thus struck, as the century began, 
by four of our fellow-countrymen, one of whom — Sir Benjamin Thompson, 
Count Ilumford — preferred exile from the land of his birth to the loss of 
his birthright as a British citizen. 



*&' 



Douhts as to Scientific Theories. 

It is well known that of late doubts have arisen as to whether the 
atomic theory, with which the mechanical theory of heat is closely bound 
up, and the theory of the existence of an ether have not served their 
purpose, and whether the time has not come to reconsider them. 

The facts that Professor Poincare, addressini; a congress of physicists 
n Paris, and Professor Poynting, addressing the Physical Section of the 
Association, have recently discussed the true meaning of our scientific 
methods of interpretation ; that Dr. James Ward has lately delixered an 
attack of great power on many positions which eminent scientific men 
have occupied ; and that the approaching end of the nineteenth century 
led Professor Hseckel to define in a more popular manner his own very 
definite views as to the solution of the ' Riddle of the Universe,' are 
perhaps a sufficient justification of an attempt to lay before you the diffi- 
culties which surround some of these questions. 

To keep the discussion within reasonable limits I shall illustrate the 
principles under review by means of the atomic theory, with compara- 
tively little reference to the ether, and we may also at first confine our 
a,ttention to inanima,te objects. 



ADDRESS. 7 

Tlie Coii></riicfioii of a Model of Kaluvc. 

A natural philosopher, to use the old phrase, even if only possessed of 
the most superficial knowledge, would attempt to bring some order into 
the results of his observation of Nature by grouping together statements 
with regard to phenomena which are obviously related. The aim of 
modern science goes far beyond this. It not only shows that many 
phenomena are related which at first sight have little or nothing in 
common, but, in so doing, also attempts to explain the relationship. 

Without spending time on a discussion of the meaning of the word 
' explanation,' it is sufficient to .say that our efforts to establish relation- 
ships between phenomena often take the form of attempting to prove 
that, if a limited number of assumptions are granted as to the constitu- 
tion of matter, or as to tlie existence of quasi-material entities, such as 
caloric, electricity, and the ether, a wide range of observed facts falls into 
order as a necessary consequence of the assumptions. The question at 
issue is whether the hypotheses which are at the base of the scientific 
theories now most generally accepted are to be regarded as accurate 
descriptions of the constitution of the univei'se around us, or merely as 
convenient fictions. 

Convenient fictions be it observed, for even if they are fictions they 
are not useless. From the practical point of view it is a matter of 
secondary importance whether our theories and assumptions are correct, 
if only they guide us to results which are in accord with facts. The 
whole fabric of scientific theory may be regarded merely as a gigantic 
' aid to memory ' ; as a means for producing apparent order out of dis- 
order by codifying the observed facts and laws in accordance with an 
artificial system, and thus arranging our knowledge under a comparatively 
small number of heads. The simplification introduced by a scheme which, 
however imperfect it may be, enables us to argue from a few first principles, 
makes theories of practical use. By means of them we can foresee the 
results of combinations of causes which would otherwise elude us. We 
can predict future events, and can even attempt to argue back from the 
present to the unknown past. 

But it is possible that these advantages might be attained by means 
of axioms, assumptions, and theories based on very false ideas. A 
person who thought that a river was really a streak of blue paint 
might learn as much about its direction from a map as one who knew 
it as it is. It is thus conceivable that we might be able, not indeed 
to construct, but to imagine, something more than a mere map or 
diagram, something which might even be called a working model of 
inanimate objects, which was nevertheless very unlike the realities of 
nature. Of coui'se, the agreement between the action of the model and 
the behaviour of the things it was designed to represent would probably 
be imperfect, unless the one were a facsimile of the other ; but it is con- 
ceivable that the correlation of natural phenomena could be imitated. 



8 REPORT — 1901. 

with a large measure of success, by means of an imaginary machine, 
which shared with a map or diagram the characteristic that it was in 
many ways unlike the things it represented, but might be compared to a 
model in that the behaviour of the things represented could be predicted 
from that of the corresponding parts of the machine. 

We might even go a step further. If the laws of the working of the 
model could be expressed by abstractions, as, for example, by mathe- 
matical formulae, then, when the formulae were obtained, the model 
might be discarded, as probably unlike that which it was made to imitate, 
as a mere aid in the construction of equations, to be thi'own aside when 
the perfect structure of mathematical symbols was erected. 

If this course were adopted we sliould have given up the attempt to 
know more of the nature of the objects which surround us than can be 
gained by direct observation, but might nevertheless have learned how 
these objects would behave under given circumstances. 

We should have abandoned the hope of a physical explanation of the 
properties of inanimate Nature, but should have secured a mathematical 
description of her operations. 

There is no doubt that this is the easiest path to follow. Criticism is 
avoided if we admit from the first that we cannot go below the surface ; 
cannot know anything about the constitution of material bodies ; but 
must be content with formulating a description of their behaviour by 
means of laws of Nature expressed by equations. 

But if this is to be the end of the study of Nature, it is evident that 
the construction of the model is not an essential part of the process. 
The model is used merely as an aid to thinking ; and if the relation of 
phenomena can be investigated without it, so much the better. The 
highest form of theory — it may be said— the widest kind of generalisa- 
tion, is that which has given up the attempt to form clear mental pic- 
tures of the constitution of matter, which expresses the facts and the 
laws by language and symbols which lead to i-esults that are true, what- 
ever be our view as to the real nature of the objects with which we deal. 
From this point of view the atomic theory becomes not so much false as 
unnecessary ; it may be regarded as an attempt to give an unnatural 
precision to ideas which are and must be vague. 

Thus, when Rumford found that the mere friction of metals produced 
heat in unlimited quantity, and argued that heat was therefore a mode of 
motion, he formed a clear mental picture of what he believed to be occur- 
ring. But his experiments may be quoted as proving only that energy 
can be supplied to a body in indefinite quantity, and that when .supplied 
by doing work against friction it appears in tlie form of heat. 

By using this phraseology we exchange a vivid conception of moving 
atoms for a colourless statement as to heat energy, the real nature of 
which we do not attempt to define ; and methods which thus evade the 
problem of the nature of the things which the symbols in our equations 
represent have been prosecuted with striking success, at all events 



ADDRESS. 9 

within the range of a limited class of phenomena. A great school of 
chemists, building upon the thermodynamics of Willard Gibbs and the 
intuition of Van 't Hoff, have shown with wonderful skill that, if a 
sufficient number of the data of experiment are assumed, it is possible, 
by the aid of thermodynamics, to trace the form of the relations between 
many physical and chemical phenomena without the help of the atomic 
theory. 

But this method deals only with matter as our coarse senses know it ; 
it does not pretend to penetrate beneath the surface. 

It is therefore with the greatest respect for its authors, and with a 
full recognition of the enormous power of the weapons employed, that I 
venture to assert that the exposition of such a system of tactics cannot be 
regarded as the last word of science in the struggle for the truth. 

Whether we grapple with them, or whether we shirk them ; however 
much or however little we can accomplish without answering them, the 
questions still force themselves upon us : Is matter what it seems to be ■? 
Is interplanetary space full or empty ? Can we argue back from the 
direct impressions of our senses to things which we cannot directly per- 
ceive ; from the phenomena displayed by matter to the constitution of 
matter itself ? 

It is these questions which we are discussing to-night, and we may 
therefore, as far as the present address is concerned, put aside, once for 
all, methods of scientific exposition in which an attempt to form a mental 
picture of the constitution of matter is practically abandoned, and devote 
ourselves to the inquiries whether the effort to form such a picture is 
legitimate, and whether we have any reason to believe that the sketch 
which science has already drawn is to some extent a copy, and not a mere 
diagram, of the truth. 

Successive Stej^s in the Analysis of Hatter. 

In dealing, then, with the question of the constitution of matter and 
the possibility of representing it accurately, we may grant at once that 
the ultimate nature of things is, and must remain, unknown ; but it does 
not follow that immediately below the complexities of the superficial 
phenomena which affect our senses there may not be a simpler machinery 
of the existence of which we can obtain evidence, indirect indeed but 
conclusive. 

The fact that the appai^ent unity which we call the atmosphere can be 
resolved into a number of different gases is admitted ; though the ultimate 
nature of oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbonic acid, and water vapour is as 
unintelligible as that of air as a whole, so that the analysis of air, taken 
by itself, may be said to have substituted many incomprehensibles for one. 

Nobody, however, looks at the question from this point of view. It 
is recognised that an investigation into the proximate constitution of 
things may be useful and successful, even if their i;ltimate nature is 
beyond our ken, 



10 REPORT— 1901. 

, Nor need the analysis stop at tlio first step. Water vapour and car- 
bonic acid, themselves constituents of the atmosphere, are in turn resolved 
into their elements hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, which, without a 
formal discussion of the criteria of reality, we may safely say are as real 
as air itself. 

Now, at what point must this analy.sis stop if we are to avoid crossing 
the boundary between fact and fiction ? Is there any fundamental differ- 
ence between resohing air into a mixture of gases and resolving an 
elementary gas into a mixture of atoms and ether 1 

There are those who cry halt ! at the point at which wo divide a gas 
into molecules, and their first objection seems to be that molecules and 
atoms cannot be directly perceived, cannot l^e seen or handled, and are 
mere conceptions, which have their uses, but cannot be regarded as 
realities. 

It is easiest to reply to this objection by an illustration. 
The rings of Saturn appear to be continuous masses separated by 
circular rifts. This is the phenomenon which is observed through a tele- 
scope. By no known means can we ever approach or handle the rings ; 
yet everybody who understands the evidence now believes that they are 
not what they appear to be, but consist of minute moonlets, closely packed 
indeed, but separate the one from the other. 

In the first plaoe Maxwell proved mathematically that if a Saturnian 
ring were a continuous solid or fluid mass it would be unstable and would 
necessarily break into fragments. In the next place, if it were possible for 
the ring to revolve like a solid body, the inmost parts woidd move slowest, 
while a satellite moves faster the nearer it is to a planet. Now spectro- 
scopic observation, based on the beautiful method of Sir W. Huggins, 
shows not only that the inner portions of the ring move the more 
rapidly, but that the actual velocities of the outer and inner edges are 
in close accord with the theoi'etical velocities of satellites at like distances 
from the planet. 

This and a hundred similar cases prove that it is possible to obtain 
convincing evidence of the constitution of bodies between whose separate 
parts we cannot directly distinguish, and I take it that a physicist who 
believes in the reality of atoms thinks that he has as good reason for 
dividing an apparently continuous gas into molecules as he has for dividing 
the apparently continuous Saturnian rings into satellites. If he is wrong 
it is not the fact that molecules and satellites alike cannot be handled 
and cannot be seen as individuals, that constitutes the difference between 
the two cases. 

It may, however, be urged that atoms and the ether are alleged to have 
properties different from those of matter in bulk, of which alone our senses 
take direct cognisance, and that therefore it is impossible to prove their 
existence by evidence of the same cogency as that which may prove the 
existence of a newly discovered variety of matter or of a portion of matter 
too small or too distant to be seen. 



ADDT^ESS. 11 

This point is so important tliat it requires full discussion, l).ut in 
dealing with it, it is necessary to distinguish carefully between the validity 
of the arguments which support the earlier and more fundamental pro- 
positions of the theory, and the evidence brought forward to justify mere 
speculative applications of its doctrines which might be abandoned 
without discarding the theory itself. The proof of the theory must be 
carried out step by step. 

The fii-st step is concerned wholly with some of the most general 
properties of matter, and consists in the proof that those properties are 
either absolutely unintelligible, or that, in the case of matter of all kinds, 
we are subject to an illusion similar to that the results of which we 
admit in the case of Saturn's rings, clouds, smoke, and a number of 
similar instances. The believer in the atomic theory asserts that matter 
exists in a particular state , that it consists of parts which are separate 
and distinct the one from the other, and as such are capable of indepen- 
dent movements. 

Up to this point no question arises as to whether the separate parts 
are, like grains of sand, mere fragments of matter ; or whether, though 
they are the bricks of which matter is built, they have, as individuals, 
properties difiPerent from those of masses of matter large enough to be 
directly perceived. If they are mere fragments of ordinary matter, they 
cannot be used as aids in explaining those qualities of matter which they 
themselves share. 

We cannot explain things by the things themselves. If it be true 
that the properties of matter are the product of an underlying machinery, 
that machinery cannot itself have the properties which it produces, and 
must, to that extent at all events, differ from matter in bulk as it is 
directly presented to the senses. 

If, however, we can succeed in showing that if the separate parts have 
a limited number of properties (different, it may be, from those of matter 
in bulk), the many and complicated properties of matter can be explained, 
to a considerable extent, as consequences of the constitution of these 
separate parts ; we shall have succeeded in establishing, with regard to 
quantitative properties, a simplification similar to that which the chemist 
has established with regard to varieties of matter. The many will have 
been reduced to the few. 

The proofs of the physical reality of the entities discovered by means 
of the two analyses must necessarily be different. The chemist can 
actually produce the elementary constituents into which he has resolved 
a compound mass. No physicist or chemist can produce a single atom 
separated from all its fellows, and show that it possesses the elementary 
qualities he assigns to it. The cogency of the evidence for any 
suggested constitution of atoms must vary with the number of facts 
which the hypothesis that they possess that constitution explains. 

Let us take, then, two steps in their proper order, and inquire, firat, 



12 REPORT — 1901. 

whether there is valid ground for believinof that all matter is made up of 
discrete parts ; and secondly, whether we can have any knowledge of the 
constitution or properties which those parts possess. 

The Coarse-grainedness of Matter. 

Matter in bulk appears to be continuous. Such substances as water 
or air appear to the ordinary observer to be perfectly uniform in all their 
properties and qualities, in all their parts. 

The hasty conclusion that these bodies are really uniform is, never- 
theless, unthinkable. 

In the first place the phenomena of diffusion afford conclusive proof 
that matter when apparently quiescent is in fact in a state of internal 
commotion. I need not recapitulate the familiar evidence to prove that 
gases and many liquids when placed in communication interpenetrate or 
diffuse into each other ; or that air, in contact with a surface of water, 
gradually becomes laden with water vapour, while the atmospheric gases 
in turn mingle with the water. Such phenomena are not exhibited by 
liquids and gases alone, nor by solids at high temperatures only. Sir W. 
Roberts Austen has placed pieces of gold and lead in contact at a tem- 
perature of 18° C. After four years the gold had travelled into the lead 
to such an extent that not only were the two metals united, but, on 
analysis, appreciable quantities of the gold were detected even at a dis- 
tance of more than 5 millimetres from the common surface, while within a 
distance of three-quarters of a millimetre from the surface gold had 
penetrated into the lead to the extent of 1 oz. 6 dwts. per ton, an amount 
which could have been pi'ofitably extracted. 

Whether it is or is not possible to devise any other intelligible account 
of the cause of such phenomena, it is certain that a simple and adequate 
explanation is found in the hypothesis that matter consists of discrete 
parts in a state of motion, which can penetrate into the spaces between 
the corresponding parts of surrounding bodies. 

The hypothesis thus framed is also the only one which affords a rational 
explanation of other simple and well known facts. If matter is regarded 
as a continuous medium the phenomena of expansion are unintelligible. 
There is, apparently, no limit to the expansion of matter, or, to fix our 
attention on one kind of matter, let us say to the expansion of a gas ; but 
it is inconceivable that a continuous material which fills or is present in 
every part of a given space could also be present in every part of a space 
a million times as great. Such a statement might be made of a mathe- 
matical abstraction ; it cannot be true of any real substance or thing. 
If, however, matter consists of discrete particles, separated from each 
other either by empty space or by something different from themselves, 
we can at once understand that expansion and contraction may be nothing 
more than the mutual separation or approach of these particles. 

Again, no clear mental picture can be formed of the phenomena of 



ADDRESS. 13 

heat unless we suppose that heat is a mode of motion. In the words of 
Rumford, it is ' extremely dilhcult, if not quite impossible, to form any 
distinct idea of anythuig capable of being excited and connnunicated in 
the manner the heat was excited and communicated in [his] experiment 
[on friction] except it be motion.' ^ And if heat be motion there can be 
no doubt that it is tlie fundamental particles of matter which are moving. 
For the motion is not visible, is not motion of the body as a whole, wliilc 
diffusion, which is a movement of matter, goes on more quickly as the 
temperature rises, thereby proving that the internal motions have become 
more rapid, which is exactly the result which would follow if these were 
the movements which constitute sensible heat. 

Combining, then, the phenomena of diffusion, expansion, and beat, it is 
not too much to say that no hypotheses which make them intelligible have 
ever been framed other than those which are at the basis of the atomic 
theory. 

Other considerations also point to the same conclusion. Many years 
ago Lord Kelvin gave independent arguments, based on the proper- 
ties of gases, on the constitution of the surfaces of liquids, and on the 
electric properties of metals, all of which indicate that matter is, to use 
his own phrase, coarse-grained — that it is not identical in constitution 
throughout, but that adjacent minute parts are distinguishable from each 
other by being either of different natures or in different states. 

And here it is necessary to insist that all these fundamental proofs 
are independent of the nature of the particles or granules into which 
matter must be divided. 

The particles, for instance, need not be different in kind from the 
medium which surrounds and separates them. It would suffice if they 
were what may be called singular parts of the medium itself, differing 
from the rest only in some peculiar state of internal motion or of distor- 
tion, or by being in some other way earmarked as distinct individuals. 
The view that the constitution of matter is atomic may and does receive 
support from theories in which definite assumptions are made as to the 
constitution of the atoms ; but when, as is often the case, these assump- 
tions introduce new and more recondite difficulties, it must be remem- 
bered that the fundamental hypothesis — that matter consists of discrete 
parts, capable of independent motions — is forced upon us by facts and 
arguments which are altogether independent of what the nature and 
properties of these separate parts may be. 

As a matter of history the two theories, which are not by any means 
mutually exclusive, that atoms are particles which can be treated as dis- 
tinct in kind from the medium which surrounds them, and that they are 
parts of that medium existing in a special state, have both played a largo 
part in the theoretical development of the atomic hypothesis. The atoms 
of Waterston, Clausius, and Maxwell were particles. The vortex- atoms 

' Phil. Trans., 17DS, p. 99. 



14 REPORT — 1901. 

of Lord Kelvin, and the strain-atoms (if I may call them so) suggested 
by Mr. Larmor, are states of a primary medium which constitutes a 
physical connection between them, and through which their mutual 
actions arise and are transmitted. 

Properties of tho Basin of Matter. 

It is easy to show that, whichever alternative be adopted, we are 
dealing with something, whether we consider it under the guise of sepa- 
rate particles or of differentiated portions of the medium, which has 
properties different from those of matter in bulk. 

For if the basis of matter had the same constitution as matter, the 
irregular heat movements could hardly be maintained either against the 
viscosity of the medium or the frittering away of energy of motion which 
would occur during the collisions between the particles. Thus, even in 
the case in which a hot body is prevented from losing heat to surrounding 
oV)jects, its sensible heat should spontaneously decay by a process of self- 
cooling. No such phenomenon is known, and though on this, as on all other 
points, the limits of our knowledge are fixed by the uncertainty of experi- 
ment, we are compelled to admit that, to all appearance, the fundamental 
medium, if it exists, is unlike a material medium, in that it is non- viscous ; 
and that the particles, if they exist, are so constituted that energy is not 
frittered away when they collide. In either case, we are dealing with 
something different from matter itself in the sense that, though it is the 
basis of matter, it is not identical in all its properties with matter. 

The idea, therefore, that entities exist possessing properties different 
from those of matter in bulk is not introduced at the end of a long and 
rec(mdite investigation to explain facts with which none but experts are 
acquainted. It is forced upon us at the very threshold of our study of 
Nature. Either the properties of matter in bulk cannot be referred to 
any simpler structure, or that simpler structure must have properties 
different from those of matter in bulk as we directly knew it— properties 
which can only be inferred from the results which they produce. 

No a priori argument against the possibility of our discovering the 
existence of quasi-material substances, which are nevertheless different 
from matter, can prove the negative proposition that such substances 
cannot exist. It is not a self-evident truth that no substance other than 
ordinary matter can have an existence as real as that of matter itself. 
It is not axiomatic that matter cannot be composed of parts whose pro- 
perties are different from those of the whole. To assert that even if 
such substances and such parts exist no evidence however cogent could 
convince us of their existence is to beg the whole question at issue ; to 
decide the cause before it has been heard. 

We must therefore adhere to the standpoint adopted by most scientific 
men, viz., that the question of the existence of ultra-physical entities, 
such as atoms and the ether, is to be settled by the evidence, arid must not 
be ruled out as inadmissible on a priori grounds. 



ADDRESS. 15 

On the other hand, it is impossible to deny that, if the mere entry on 
the search for the concealed causes of physical phenomena is not a tres- 
pass on ground we have no right to explore, it is at all events the 
beginning of a dangerous journey. 

The wraiths of phlogiston, caloi'ic, luminiferous corpuscles, and a 
crowd of other phantoms haunt the investigator, and as the grim host 
vanishes into nothingness he cannot but wonder if his own conceptions of 
atoms and of the ether 

' shall dissolve, 

And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, 

Leave not a wrack behind.' 

But though science, like Bunyan's hero, has sometimes had to pass 
through the 'Valley of Humiliation,' the spectres which meet it there 
are not formidable if they are boldly faced. The facts that mistakes 
have been made, that theories have been propounded, and for a time 
accepted, which later investigations have disproved, do not necessarily 
discredit the method adopted. In scientific theories, as in the world 
around us, there is a survival of the fittest, and Dr. James Ward's 
unsympathetic account of the blundei's of those whose work has shed 
glory on the nineteenth century, might mutatis mutandis stand for a 
description of the history of the advance of civilisation. ' The story of 
the progress so far,' he tells us, ' is briefly this : Divergence between 
theory and fact one part of the way, the wreckage of abandoned fictions 
for the rest, with an unattainable goal of phenomenal nihilism and ultra- 
physical mechanism beyond.' ' 

' The path of progress,' says Professor Karl Pearson, ' is strewn with 
the wreck of nations. Traces are everywhere to be seen of the hecatombs 
of inferior races, and of victims who found not the narrow way to the 
greater perfection. Yet these dead peoples are, in very truth, the step- 
ping-stones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual and 
deeper emotional life of to-day.' - 

It is only necessai-y to add that the progress of society is directed 
towards an unattainable goal of universal contentment, to make the 
parallel complete. 

And so, in the one case as in the other, we may leave ' the dead to 
bury their dead.' The question before us is not whether we too may not 
be trusting to false ideas, erroneous experiments, evanescent theories. 
No doubt we are ; but, without making an insolent claim to be better 
than our fathers, we may fairly contend that, amid much that is uncertain 
and temporary, some of the fundamental conceptions, some of the root- 
ideas of sciencej are so grounded on reason and fact that we cannot 
but regai'd them as an aspect of the very truth. 

Enough has, perhaps, now been said on this point for my immediate 

> James Ward, Ilatiwalism atid Agnosticism, vol. i. p. 153. 

2 Karl Pearson National Life from the Standpoint of Science, p. 62. 



16 REPORT— 1901. 

purpose. The argument as to the constitution of matter could be de- 
veloped further in the manner I have hitherto adopted, viz., by a series of 
propositions, the proof of each of which is based upon a few crucial 
phenomena. In particular, if matter is divided into moving granules or 
particles, the phenomenon of cohesion proves that there must be mutual 
actions between them analogous to those which take place between large 
masses of matter, and which we ascribe to force, thereby indicating the 
regular, unvarying operation of active machinery which we have not yet 
the means of adequately understanding. For the moment, I do not wish 
to extend the line of reasoning that has been folloAved. My main object 
is to show that the notion of the existence of ultra-physical entities 
and the leading outlines of the atomic theory are forced upon us at the 
beginning of our study of Nature, not only by a priori considerations, 
but in the attempt to comprehend the results of even the simplest 
observation. These outlines cannot be effaced by the difficulties 
which undoubtedly arise in filling up the picture. The cogency of 
the proof that matter is coarse-grained is in no way affected by the 
fact that we may have grave doubts as to the nature of the granules. 
Nay, it is of the first importance to recognise that, though the funda- 
mental assumptions of the atomic theory receive overwhelming support 
from a number of more detailed arguments, they are themselves almost of 
the nature of axioms, in that the simplest phenomena are unintelligible if 
they are abandoned. 

The Range of the Atomic Theory. 

It would be most unfair, however, to the atomic theory to represent 
it as depending on one line of reasoning only, or to treat its evidence 
as bounded by the very general propositions I have discussed. 

It is true that as the range of the theory is extended the fundamental 
conception that matter is granular must be expanded and filled in by 
supplementary hypotheses as to the constitution of the granules. It may 
also be admitted that no complete or wholly satisfactory description of 
that constitution can as yet be given ; that perfection has not yet been 
attained here or in any other branch of science ; but the number of facts 
which can be accounted for by the theory is very large compared with the 
number of additional hypotheses which are introduced ; and the cumula- 
tive weight of the additional evidence obtained by the study of details 
is such as to add greatly to the strength of the conviction that, in its 
leading outlines, the theory is true. 

It was originally suggested by the facts of chemistry, and though, as 
we have seen, a school of chemists now thrusts it into the background, it 
is none the less true, in the words of Dr. Thorpe, that ' every great 
advance in chemical knowledge during the last ninety years finds its 
interpretation in [Dalton's] theory. ' ^ 

The principal mechanical and thermal properties of gases have been 

' Thorpe, Essays on Historical Chemistry, 1894, p. 368. 



ADDRESS. 17 

explained, and in large part discovered, by the aid of the atomic theory ; 
and, though there are outstanding difficulties, they are, for the most part, 
related to the nature of the atoms and molecules, and do not affect the 
question as to whether they exist. 

The fact that different kinds of light all travel at the same speed in 
interplanetary space, while they move at different rates in matter, is 
explained if matter is coarse-grained. But to attempt to sum up all 
this evidence would be to recite a text-book on physics. It must suffice 
to say that it is enormous in extent and varied in character, and that the 
atomic theory imparts a unity to all the physical sciences which has been 
attained in no other way. 

I must, however, give a couple of instances of the wonderful success 
which has been achieved in the explanation of physical phenomena by the 
theory we are considering, and I select them because they are in harmony 
with the line of argument I have been pursuing. 

When a piece of iron is magnetised its behaviour is different according 
as the magnetic force applied to it is weak, moderate, or strong. When 
a certain limit is passed the iron behaves as a non-magnetic substance to 
all further additions of magnetic force. With strong forces it does and 
with very weak forces it does not remain magnetised when the force 
ceases to act. Professor Ewing has imitated all the minute details of 
these complicated properties by an arrangement of small isolated compass 
needles to represent the molecules. It may fairly be said that as far as 
this particular set of phenomena is concerned a most instructive working 
model based on the molecular theory has not only been imagined but 
constructed. 

The next illustration is no less striking. We may liken a crowd of 
molecules to a fog ; but while the fog is admitted by everybody to be 
made up of separate globules of water, the critics of scientific method are 
sometimes apt to regard the molecules as mere fictions of the imagination. 
If, however, we could throw the molecules of a highly rarefied gas into 
such a state that vapour condensed on them, so that each became the 
centre of a water-drop, till the host of invisible molecules was, as it 
were, magnified by accretion into a visible mist, surely no stronger proof 
of their reality could be desired. Yet there is every reason to believe 
that something very like this has been accomplished by Mr. C. T. R. 
Wilson and Professor J. J. Thomson. 

It is known that it is comparatively difficult to produce a fog in damp 
air if the mixture consists of air and water-vapour alone. The presence 
of particles of very fine dust facilitates the process. It is evident that the 
vapour condenses on the dust particles and that a nucleus of some kind is 
necessary on which each drop may form. But electriBed particles also 
act as nuclei ; for if a highly charged body from which electricity is 
escaping be placed near a steam jet, the steam condenses ; and a cloud is 
also formed in dust free air more easily than would otherwise be the case 
if electricity is discharged into it. 

1901. c 



18 REPORT — 1901. 

Again, according to accepted theory, when a current of electricity 
flows through a gas some of the atoms are divided into parts which 
carry positive and negative charges as they move in opposite directions, 
and unless this breaking-up occurs a gas does not conduct electricity. 
But a gas can be made a conductor merely by allowing the Rontgen rays 
or the radiation given ofi" by uranium to fall upon it. A careful study of 
the facts shows that it is probable that some of the atoms have been 
broken up by the radiation, and that their oppositely electrified parts are 
scattered among their unaltered fellows. Such a gas is said to be 
ionised. 

Thus by these two distinct lines of argument we come to the conclu- 
sions : — 1st, that the presence of electrified particles promotes the forma- 
tion of mist, and 2nd, that in an ionised gas such electrified particles are 
provided by the breaking-up of atoms. 

The two conclusions will mutually support each other if it can be 
shown that a mist is easily formed in ionised air. This was tested by 
Mr. Wilson, who showed that in such air mist is formed as though nuclei 
were present, and thus in the cloud we have visible evidence of the 
presence of the divided atoms. If then we cannot handle the indi- 
vidual molecules we have at least some reason to believe that a method 
is known of seizing individuals, or parts of individuals, which are in a 
special state, and of wrapping other matter round them till each one is 
the centre of a discrete particle of a visible fog. 

I have purposely chosen this illustration, because the explanation is 
based on a theory — that of ionisation — which is at present subjected to 
hostile criticism. It assumes that an electrical current is nothing more 
than the movement of charges of electricity. But magnets placed near 
to an electric current tend to set themselves at right angles to its direc- 
tion ; a fact on which the construction of telegraphic instruments is based. 
Hence if the theoi'y be true, a similar effect ought to be produced by a 
moving charge of electricity. This experiment was tried many years ago 
in the laboratory of Helmholtz by Rowland, who caused a charged disc 
to spin rapidly near a magnet. The result was in accord with the theory ; 
the magnet moved as though acted upon by an electric current. Of late, 
however, M. Cremieu has investigated the matter afresh, and has obtained 
results which, according to his interpretation, were inconsistent with that 
of Rowland. 

M. Cremieu's results are already the subject of controversy,' and are, 
I believe, likely to be discussed in the Section of Physics. This is not the 
occasion to enter upon a critical discussion of the question at issue, and I 
refer to it only to point out that though, if M. Cremieu's result were 
upheld, our views as to electricity would have to be modified, the founda- 
tions of the atomic theory would not be shaken. 

' See Phil. Mat/., July 1901, p. Hi; and Joh>is Hopkins University Circulars, 
XX. No. 162, May- June 1901, p. 78. 



ADDRESS. 19 

It is, however, from the theory of ions that the most far-reaching 
speculations of science have recently received unexpected support. The 
dream that matter of all kinds will some day be proved to be funda- 
mentally the same has survived many shocks. The opinion is consistent 
with the great generalisation that the properties of elements are a 
periodic function of their atomic weights. Sir Norman Lockyer has 
long been a prominent exponent of the view that the spectra of the 
stars indicate the reduction of our so-called elements to simpler forms, 
and now Professor J. J. Thomson believes that we can break off from an 
atom a part, the mass of which is not more than one thousandth of the 
whole, and that these corpuscles, as he has named them, are the carriers 
of the negative charge in an electric current. If atoms are thus 
complex, not only is the a priori probability increased that the different 
structures which we call elements may all be built of similar bricks, but 
the discovery by Lenard that the ease with which the corpuscles 
penetrate different bodies depends only on the density of the obstacles, 
and not on their chemical constitution, is held by Professor Thomson to 
be ' a strong confirmation of the view that the atoms of the elementary 
substances are made up of simpler parts, all of which are alike.' ' On 
the present occasion, however, we are occupied rather with the foundations 
than with these ultimate ramifications of the atomic theory ; and having 
shown how wide its range is, I must, to a certain extent, retrace my steps 
and return to the main line of my argument. 



Tlie Properties of Atoms and Molecules. 

For if it be granted that the evidence that matter is coarse-grained 
and is formed of separate atoms and molecules is too strong to be resisted, 
it may still be contended that we can know little or nothing of the sizes 
and properties of the molecules. 

It must be admitted that though the fundamental postulates are 
always the same, different aspects of the theory, which have not in all 
cases been successfully combined, have to be developed when it is applied 
to different problems ; but in spite of this there is little doubt that we 
have some fairly accurate knowledge of molecular motions and magni- 
tudes. 

If a liquid is stretched into a very thin film, such as a soap bubble, 
we should expect indications of a change in its properties when the 
thickness of the film is not a very large multiple of the average distance 
between two neighbouring molecules. In 1890 Sohncke - detected evi- 
dence of such a change in films of the average thickness of 106 million ths 

' For the most recent account of this subject see an article on ' Bodies smaller 
than Atoms,' by Professor J. J. Thomson in the Popular Scirnir Montldij (Tlie 
Science Press), August 1901. 

• Wied. Ann., 189U, xl. pp. 345-355. 

C2 



20 REPORT — 1901. 

of a millimetre (/xju), and quite recently Rudolph Weber found it in an 
oil-film when the thickness was 115 ^i/j.* 

Taking the mean of these numbers and combining the results of 
different variants of the theory we may conclude that a film should 
become unstable and tend to rupture spontaneously somewhere between 
the thicknesses of 110 and 55 fifi, and Professor Reinold and I found 
by experiment that this instability is actually exhibited between the 
thicknesses of 96 and 45 ^^..^ There can therefore be little doubt that 
the first approach to molecular magnitudes is signalled when the thick- 
ness of a film is somewhat less than 100 /.i/.!, or 4 millionths of an inch. 

Thirteen years ago I had the honour of laying before the Chemical 
Society a resum^ of what was then known on these subjects,^ and I must 
refer to that lecture or to the most recent edition of 0. E. Meyer's work 
on the kinetic theory of gases "* for the evidence that various independent 
lines of argument enable vis to estimate quantities very much less than 
4 millionths of an inch, which is perhaps from 500 to 1,000 times greater 
than the magnitude which, in the present state of our knowledge, we can 
best desci'ibe as the diameter of a molecule. 

Confining our attention, however, to the larger quantities, I will 
give one example to show how strong is the cumulative force of the 
evidence as to our knowledge of the magnitudes of molecular quantities. 

We have every reason to believe that though the molecules in a gas 
frequently collide with each other, yet in the case of the more perfect 
gases the time occupied in collisions is small compared with that in which 
each molecule travels undisturbed by its fellows. The average distance 
travelled between two successive encounters is called the mean free path, 
and, for the reason just given, the question of the magnitude of this 
distance can be attacked without any precise knowledge of what a mole- 
cule is, or of what happens during an encounter. 

Thus the mean free path can be determined, by the aid of the theory, 
either from the viscosity of the gas or from the thermal conductivity. 
Using figures given in the latest work on the subject,'^ and dealing with 
one gas only, as a fair sample of the rest, the lengths of the mean free 
path of hydrogen as determined by these two independent methods differ 
only by about 3 per cent. Further, the mean of the values which I 
gave in the lecture already referred to diflfered only by about 6 per 
cent, from the best modern result, so that no great change has been intro- 
duced during the last thirteen years. 

It may, however, be argued that these concordant values are all 
obtained by means of the same theory, and that a common error may 
affect them all. In particular, some critics have of late been inclined to 

' Annalen der Physili, 1901, iv. pp. "06-721. 
- Phil. Trans., 189.3, 184, pp. 505-529. 

* Cliem. Soc. Travis., liii., March 1888, pp. 222-2G2. 

* Kinetic Theory of Gases, O. E. Meyer, 1899. Translated by R. E. Baynes. 
5 Meyer's Kinetic Theori/ of Gases (see above). 



ADDRESS. 21 

discredit the atomic theory by pointing out that the strong statements 
which have sometimes been made as to the equality, among themselves, 
of atoms or molecules of the same kind may not be justified, as the 
equality may be that of averages only, and be consistent with a consider- 
able variation in the sizes of individuals. 

Allowing this argument more weight than it perhaps deserves, it is 
easy to show that it cannot affect seriously our knowledge of the length 
of the mean free path. 

Professor George Darwin ^ has handled the problem of a mixture of 
unequal spherical bodies in the particular case in which the sizes are 
distributed according to the law of errors, which would involve far 
greater inequalities than can occur among atoms. Without discussing 
the precise details of his problem it is suificient to say that in the case 
considered by him the length of the mean free path is -^^ of what it 
would be if the particles were equal. Hence were the inequalities of 
atoms as great as in this extreme case, the reduction of the mean free 
path in hydrogen could only be from 185 to 119 /j/x ; but they must be 
far less, and therefore the error, if any, due to this cause could not 
approach this amount. It is probably inappreciable. 

Such examples might be multiplied, but the one I have selected is 
perhaps sufficient to illustrate my point, viz., that considerable and fairly 
accurate knowledge can be obtained as to molecular quantities by the aid 
of theories the details of which are provisional, and are admittedly 
capable of improvement. 

Is the Model Unique ? 

But the argument that a correct result may sometimes be obtained by 

reasoning on imperfect hypotheses raises the question as to whether 

another danger may not be imminent. To be satisfactory our model 

of Nature must be unique, and it must be impossible to imagine any other 

which agrees equally well with the facts of experiment. If a large 

number of hypotheses could be framed with equal claims to validity, that 

fact would alone raise grave doubts as to whether it were possible to 

distinguish between the true and the false. Thus Professor Poincare has 

shown that an infinite number of dynamical explanations can be found 

for any phenomenon which satisfies certain conditions. But though this 

consideration warns us against the too ready acceptance of explanations 

of isolated phenomena, it has no weight against a theory which embraces 

so vast a number of facts as those included by the atomic theory. It does 

not follow that, because a number of solutions are all formally dynamical, 

they are therefore all equally admissible. The pressure of a gas may be 

explained as the result of a shower of blows delivered by molecules, or by 

a repulsion between the various parts of a continuous medium. Both 

solutions are expressed in dynamical language ; but one is, and the other 

' Phil. Trans., 180. 



22 REPORT — 1901. 

is not, compatible with the observed phenomena of expansion. The 
atomic theory must hold the field until another can be found which is not 
inferior as an explanation of the fundamental difficulties as to the consti- 
tution of matter, and is, at the same time, not less comprehensive. 

On the whole, then, the question as to whether we are attempting to 
solve a problem which has an infinite number of solutions may be put 
aside until one solution has been found which is satisfactory in all its 
details. We are in a sufficient difficulty about that to make the rivalry 
of a second of the same type very improbable. 

The Phenomena of Life. 

But it may be asked — nay, it has been asked^ — may not the type of 
our theories be radically changed ? If this question does not merely imply 
a certain distrust in our own powers of reasoning, it should be supported 
by some indication of the kind of change which is conceivable. 

Perhaps the chief objection which can be brought against physical 
theories is that they deal only with the inanimate side of Nature, and 
largely ignore the phenomena of life. It is therefore in this direction, if 
in any, that a change of type may be expected. I do not propose to enter 
at length upon so difficult a question, but, however we may explain or 
explain away the iliaracteristics of life, the argument for the truth of the 
atomic theory would only be aflfected if it could be shown that living 
matter does not possess the thermal and mechanical properties, to account 
for which the atomic theory has been framed. This is so notoriously not 
the case that there is the gravest doubt whether life can in any way inter- 
fere with the action within the organism of the laws of matter in bulk 
belonging to the domain of mechanics, physics, and chemistry. 

Probably the most cautious opinion that could now be expressed on 
this question is that, in spite of some outstanding difficulties which have 
recently given rise to what is called Neovitalism, there is no conclusive 
evidence that living matter can suspend or modify any of the natural laws 
which would affect it if it were to cease to live. It is possible that though 
subject to these laws the organism while living may be able to employ, or 
even to direct, their action within itself for its own benefit, just as it un- 
questionably does make use of the [irocesses of external nature for its 
own purposes ; but if this be so, the seat of the controlling influence is so 
withdrawn from view that on the one hand its very existence may be 
denied, while, on the other hand. Professor Hseckel, following Vogt, has 
recently asserted that ' matter and ether are not dead, and only moved by 
extrinsic force ; but they are endowed with sensation and will ; they 
experience an inclination for condensation, a dislike for strain ; they 
strive after the one and struggle against the other.' ' 

But neither unproved assertions of this kind nor the more refined 
attempts that have been made by others to bring the phenomena of life 

' Riddle of tlw Universe (English translation), 1900, p. 380. 



ADDRESS. 28 

and of dead matter under a common formula touch the evidence for the 
atomic theory. The question as to whether matter consists of elements 
capable of independent motion is prior to and independent of the 
further questions as to what these elements are, and whether they are 
alive or dead. 

The physicist, if he keeps to his business, asserts, as the bases of 
the atomic theory, nothing more than that he who declines to admit 
that matter consists of separate moving parts must regard many of the 
simplest phenomena as irreconcilable and unintelligible, in spite of the 
fact that means of reconciling them are known to everybody, in spite 
of the fact that the reconciling theoiy gives a general correlation of an 
enormous number of phenomena in every branch of science, and that the 
outstanding difficulties are connected, not so much with the fundamental 
hypotheses that matter is composed of distinguishable entities which are 
capable of separate motions as with the much more difficult problem of 
what these entities are. 

On these grounds the physicist may believe that, though he cannot 
handle or see them, the atoms and molecules are as real as the ice 
crystals in a cirrus cloud which he cannot reach ; as real as the unseen 
members of a meteoric swarm whose death-glow is lost in the sunshine, or 
which sweep past us, unentangled, in the night. 

If the confidence that his methods are weapons with which he can 
light his way to the truth were taken from the scientific explorer, the 
paralysis which overcomes those who believe that they are engaged in a 
hopeless task would fall upon him. 

Physiology has specially flourished since physiologists have believed 
that it is possible to master the physics and chemistry of the framework 
of living things, and since they have abandoned the attitude of those who 
placed in the foreground the doctrine of the vital force. To supporters of 
that doctrine the principle of life was not a hidden directing power which 
could perhaps whisper an order that the flood-gates of reservoirs of energy 
should now be opened and now closed, and could, at the most, work only 
under immutable conditions to which the living and the dead must alike 
submit. On the contrary, their vital force pervaded the organism in all 
its parts. It was an active and energetic opponent of the laws of physics 
and chemistry. It maintained its own existence not by obeying but by 
defying them ; and though destined to be finally overcome in the separate 
campaigns of which each individual living creature is the scene, yet like 
some guerilla chieftain it was defeated here only to reappear there with 
unabated confidence and apparently undiminished force. 

This attitude of mind checked the advance of knowledge. Difficulty 
could be evaded by a verbal formula of explanation which in fact ex- 
plained nothing. If the mechanical, or physical, or chemical causes of a 
phenomenon did not lie obviously upon the surface, the investigator was 
tempted to forego the toil of searching for them below ; it was easier to 
say that the vital force was the cause of the discrepancy, and that it was 



24 REPORT— 1901. 

hopeless to attempt to account for the action of a principle which was 
incomprehensible in its nature. 

For the physicist the danger is no less serious though it lies in a some- 
what different direction. At present he is checked in his theories by the 
necessity of making them agree with a comparatively small number of 
fundamental hypotheses. If this check were removed his fancy might run 
riot in the wildest speculations, which would be held to be legitimate if 
only they led to formulae in harmony with facts. But the very habit of 
regarding the end as everything, and the means by which it was attained 
as unimportant, would prevent the discovery of those fragments of truth 
which can only be uncovered by the painful process of trying to make 
inconsistent theories agree, and using all facts, however remote, as the 
tests of our central generalisation. 

' Science,' said Helmholtz, ' Science, whose very object it is to compre- 
hend Nature, must start with the assumption that Nature is comprehen- 
sible.' And again : ' The first principle of the investigator of Natui^e is to 
assume that Nature is intelligible to us, since otherwise it would be foolish 
to attempt the investigation at all.' These axioms do not assume that all 
the secrets of the universe will ultimately be laid bare, but that a search 
for them is hopeless if we undertake the quest with the conviction that it 
will be in vain. As applied to life they do not deny that in living matter 
something may be hidden which neither physics nor chemistry can explain, 
but they assert that the action of physical and chemical forces in living bodies 
can never be understood, if at every difficulty and at every check in our 
investigations we desist from further attempts in the belief that the laws 
of physics and chemistry have been interfered with by an incomprehensible 
vital force. As applied to physics and chemistry they do not mean that 
all the phenomena of life and death will ultimately be included in some 
simple and self-sufficing mechanical theory ; they do mean that we are not 
to sit down contented with paradoxes such as that the same thing can 
fill both a large space and a little one ; that matter can act where it is 
not, and the like, if by some reasonable hypothesis, capable of being 
tested by experiment, we can avoid the acceptance of these absurdities. 
Something will have been gained if the more obvious difficulties are 
removed, even if we have to admit that in the background there is much 
that we cannot grasp. 

The Limits of Physical Theories. 

And this brings me to my last point. It is a mistake to treat physical 
theories in general, and the atomic theory in particular, as though they 
were parts of a scheme which has failed if it leaves anything unexplained, 
which must be carried on indefinitely on exactly the same principles, 
whether the ultimate results are, or are not, repugnant to common sense. 

Physical theories begin at the surface with phenomena which directly 



ADDRESS. 25 

aflfect our senses. When they are used in the attempt to penetrate deeper 
into the secrets of Nature it is more than probable that they will meet 
with insuperable barriers, but this fact does not demonstrate that the 
fundamental assumptions are false, and the question as to whether any 
particular obstacle will be for ever insupei'able can rarely be answered 
with certainty. 

Those who belittle the ideas which have of late governed the advance 
of scientific theory too often assume that there is no alternative between 
the opposing assertions that atoms and the ether are mere figments of the 
scientific imagination, or that, on the other hand, a mechanical theory of 
the atoms and of the ether, which is now confessedly imperfect, would, if 
it could be perfected, give us a full and adequate representation of the 
underlying realities. 

For my own part I believe that there is a via media. 

A man peering into a darkened room, and describing what he thinks 
he sees, may be right as to the general outline of the objects he discerns, 
wrong as to their nature and their precise forms. In his description fact 
and fancy may be blended, and it may be difficult to say where the one 
ends and the other begins ; but even the fancies will not be worthless if 
they are based on a fragment of truth, which will prevent the explorer 
from walking into a looking-glass or stumbling over the furniture. He 
who saw ' men as trees walking ' had at least a perception of the funda- 
mental fact that something was in motion around him. 

And so, at the beginning of the twentieth century, we are neither 
forced to abandon the claim to have penetrated below the surface of 
Nature, nor have we, with all our searching, torn the veil of mystery 
from the world around us. 

The range of our speculations is limited both in space and time : in 
space, for we have no right to claim, as is sometimes done, a knowledge 
of the ' infinite universe ' ; in time, for the cumulative efiiects of actions 
which might pass undetected in the short span of years of which we have 
knowledge, may, if continued long enough, modify our most profound 
generalisations. If some such theory as the vortex-atom theory were 
true, the faintest trace of viscosity in the primordial medium would ulti- 
mately destroy matter of every kind. It is thus a duty to state what 
we believe we know in the most cautious terms, but it is equally a duty 
not to yield to mere vague doubts as to whether we can know anything. 

If no other conception of matter is possible than that it consists 
of distinct physical units — and no other conception has been formu- 
lated which does not blur what are otherwise clear and definite out- 
lines —if it is certain, as it is, that vibrations which cannot be propagated 
by ordinary matter travel through space, the two foundations of physical 
theory are well and truly laid. It may be granted that we have not yet 
framed a consistent image either of the nature of the atoms or of the 
ether in which they exist ; but I have tried to show that in spite of the 



26 REPOKT — 1901. 

tentative nature of some of our theories, in spite of many outstanding 
difficulties, the atomic theory unifies so many facts, simplifies so much 
that is complicated, that we have a right to insist— at all events till an 
equally intelligible rival hypothesis is produced— that the main structure 
of our theory is true ; that atoms are not merely helps to puzzled mathe- 
maticians, but physical realities. 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPOETS 

ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The Determination of the Components of Magnetic Force on Board 
Ship. — Repoi't of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. W. 
RiJCKER (Chairman), Dr. C. H. Lees (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Professor A. Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, Professor W. 
Stroud, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, and Mr. W. Watson. 

The two instruments constructed a year ago, according to Captain 
Creak's design, and described below were tested at Kew and found 
satisfactory. They are now on board the ' Discovery.' A third instru- 
ment was ordered for use on board the German Antarctic ship ' Gauss,' and 
a fourth has since been constructed and was exhibited at the Glasgow 
Meeting of the Association. 



On a New Form of Instrument for observing the Magnetic Dip and 
Intensity on Board Ship at Sea. By Captain E. W. Creak, CB., 
R.N., F.R.S. 

One of the principal objects of the Antarctic expedition which sailed 
last month in the 'Discovery' is to make as complete a magnetic survey 
of the regions south of the fortieth parallel of south latitude as possible. 

As the greater portion of that region is open sea, it is obvious that, 
with few chances of landing, the major portion of the survey must be 
conducted on board ship. 

Previous experience in H.M.S. ships 'Erebus' and 'Terror' in 1839-43 
(both wooden sailing ships) showed the serious effects of the iron in 
those ships in disturbing the magnetic instruments established on board. 
In the case of the ' Discovery,' with engines, boilers, and numerous other 
iron bodies on board, magnetic observations would have been almost 
impossible but for the precautions of first choosing a place for the 
magnetic observatory in the ship and then ensuring that no iron of any 
kind should be allowed to be placed within a 30-foot radius from that 
position. 

The ship having thus been prepared, the important question of a 
reliable instrument for observing the magnetic dip and total force on 



30 REPORT — 1901. 

board of her arose. The only instrument hitherto used for this purpose 
has been Mr. R. W. Fox's dip and intensity apparatus invented in 1835, 
and little or no advance made in its construction since then. It certainly 
did valuable work in the Antarctic Magnetic Survey carried out in the 
' Erebus ' and ' Terror ' under Sir James Ross, and also in the ' Challenger ' 
expedition of 1872-76. An examination of the work done in the 
' Challenger ' under most favourable circumstances disclosed certain 
defects of a character which are quite inconsistent with the precision now 
required. 

For example the needles could not be reversed, and hence there was 
constant necessity for frequent comparisons with an absolute instrument 
on land to obtain index errors. The magnetic moments of the needles 
were liable to change with no accurate means of knowing when the 
change took place, thus vitiating the sea observations of total force 
made by the method of a constant deflecting weight. Again the deflect- 
ing magnets used for a second method of obtaining the total force were 
liable to changes with no means for ascertaining the period of such 
change at sea. The Fox instrument was therefore not suited for the 
purposes in view. 

Previous experience having shown me the excellent values of the 
absolute horizontal force to be obtained with the Barrow's Dip Circle 
fitted with Lloyd's needles, especially in high latitudes, I arranged for a 
series of experiments to ascertain the best methods of applying the 
principles of Lloyd's method to an instrument which could be used on a 
gimbal table on board ship. The use of needles with cylindrical axles 
resting on agate planes, either for dip or force, was impossible, and trials 
with various forms of needles and jewels resulted in my adopting the 
forms for both in the instrument exhibited. All the needles have axles 
terminating in a cone with the sharp point rounded off and highly 
polished. The jewels are highly polished sapphires fixed to the cross 
bars of the circle in which conical cavities, slightly larger than the axles 
of the needles, have been drilled and polished. The upper half of the 
jewel is removed, thus leaving a cup into which the axles of the needle 
can be lowered by the lifter provided. By this arrangement the needles 
can be retained in place even when the gimbal table, upon which the 
instrument is placed, is subject to irregular motions, due to those of the 
ship. 

With the circle thus fitted the absolute dip and total force can be 
observed agreeably with the usual methods described in the Admiralty 
Manual of Scientific Enquiry. 

As there might be a slight oscillation of the needle at times when the 
ship is unsteady in a seaway, I have arranged that the ends of the 
needles shall come so near the graduated arc that the readings may be 
made directly by the microscopes without the use of verniers, as in the 
land instruments. 

To obviate friction between the axles of the needles and the jewels I 
have fitted a knob on the top of the circle, which should be gently rubbed 
with a circular motion of the ivory rubber provided. 

The readings of the circle may be accurately made at night by placing 
a candle at the back of the circle when the light will be reflected by the 
ivory faces of the microscopes to the graduated arc. 

The zero of the graduations on the base plate is so placed tliat when- 
ever the magnetic direction' of the ship's head is known by a compass 



ON THE DETERMINATION OF MAGNETIC FORCE ON BOARD SHIP. 81 

adjacent the plane of the circle can be immediately placed in the 
magnetic meridian without the trouble of finding the meridian by the 
usual method with the circle. 

Two instruments of the kind described are now in use in the Antarctic 
ship ' Discovery,' and the German expedition in the Antai'ctic ship ' Gauss ' 
have also one with two sets of needles. 



Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measuremeyits. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
o/Lord Rayleigh (Ghcdrman),'M.r. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, G. Carey Foster, 
J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. J. A. 
Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. Everett, A. 
Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Mr. W N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, Professors A. W. Rucker, H. L. Callendar, and 
Sir Wm. C. Roberts Austen, and Mr. George Matthey. 

Appendix. — Note on a Comparison of the Silver deposited in Voltameters 
containing drferent Solvents, By S. Skinner page 32 

During the year a number of comparisons have been made at the Kew 
Observatory among the standard coils of the Association. The temperature 
conditions, however, in the temporary laboratory are not sufficiently 
satisfactory to make it desirable to report fully on the results ; it is perhaps 
sufficient to say that no evidence of any very marked change in the 
relative values has shown itself. It is hoped that the coils and other 
apparatus will be moved to Bushey during the autumn. 

In the room which has been planned for their reception an'ano-ements 
will be at hand for controlling the temperature, and the work of inter- 
comparison and control of the standards can go on as in former years at 
Cambridge. 

Meanwhile some progress has been made in the preparations for the 
construction of mercury standards. A number of tubes of ' verre dur ' 
have been examined, and some of these have been calibrated ; when the 
apparatus is set up at Bushey his work will go forward rapidly. There 
has also been during the year some demand for the issue of standards of 
capacity : this it has not been possible to comply with, but the air con- 
densers will be set up again as soon as possible, and then capacity tests 
can be made. 

With regard to platinum thermometry, Mr. Matthey supplied the 
Committee with a further specimen of wire, for which he had made a 
large stock. This was tested carefully, both at Kew and under Mr. Griffiths' 
directions, by Mr. Green at Cambridge, and the values found for the 
constants were as under : 

Riqq/Ro:^ 1*3892 

8=l-495±005 

The wire has proved in every way satisfactory, and the money voted 
to this Committee last year (45?.) has been spent in purchasing it. 



32 REPORT — 1901. 

Mr. Matthey, however, is retaining for the present, for the use of the 
Committee, some more of the wire, and it is, in their opinion, desirable 
that they should purchase it also. It is essential for the success of the 
scheme approved by the Committee at their last meeting that they should 
have a sufficient stock of the wire for a very long period, and they are 
anxious not to lose the present opportunity of acquiring such a stock. 

Expense will also be incurred in the preparation of the mercury 
standards. 

The illness and death dux-ing the year of Professor Viriamu Jones 
have prevented any great progress being made with the ampere balance. 
Some part of the apparatus, however, has been constructed, and is in 
Professor Ayrton's hands, and the Committee have good hopes that 
further progress may be reported shortly. 

The Committee desire to put on record their sense of the loss which 
Physical Science has suffered by the deaths of Professors J. V. Jones and 
G. F. FitzGerald, who for many years had been members of the Committee, 
and had contributed in a marked degree to its work ; and by that of 
Professor Rowland, whose redetermination of the absolute value of the 
B.A. unit was practically the starting-point of the work of the present 
Committee. Professor Rowland had on more than one occasion been a 
valued visitor at meetings of the Committee. 

A paper by Mr. Skinner on a pyridine voltameter is printed as an 
appendix. Professor Callendar's paper on the variation of the specific 
heat of water is closely coiinected with the work of the Committee. 

In conclusion, the Committee recommend that they be reappointed, 
with a grant of 501. ; that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman, and Mr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook Secretary. 



APPENDIX. 

I^ote on a Comparison of the Silver deposited in Voltameters containing 
different Solvents. By S. Skinner, M.A., D>^.monstrator of Experi- 
mental Physics, Cambridge. 

In 1892 Schuster and Crossley ' showed that when the same current 
is passed through two silver voltameters containing silver nitrate in 
aqueous solution, one voltameter in a vacuum and the other in air, about 
0*1 per cent, more silver was deposited in the vacuum than in air. 
This result was confirmed by Myers.^ These results clearly prove that 
there is an uncertainty in the action of the silver voltameter depending 
on the presence of air or oxygen, and consequently on the freshness of 
the solution. Werner ^ found that a silver nitrate solution in pyridine 
gives by the rise in the boiling-point of the solvent a nearly normal mole- 
cular weight for the salt ; and Kahlenberg"* found that the solution was 
an electrolyte, and could be used in the silver voltameter ; but that, 
contrary to what follows, more silver was deposited from aqueous solution 
than from pyridine solution by the same current. In the following 
experiments a comparison has been made of the deposits produced by the 

> Prno. R.S., 50, p. 344. = Annalen, 55, p. 288. 

» Zeits. Anorg. Chevi., 1897, 15, p. 23. ■• Jo%irn. Phyaioal Chem., 1900, p. 349. 



PKACTlCAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASURExMENTS. 



33 



same current in silver voltameters containing aqueous and pyridine solu- 
tions of silver nitrate. 

The platinum bowls used are those numbered I. and V. in the paper 
on the Measurement of the Electromotive Force of the Clark Cell ' by 
Mr. Glazebrook and myself. The anode for bowl I. was a silver disc, 
5 cm. in diameter, hung by a silver rod, and a silver cylinder was used 
for bowl V. The dimensions of the bowls are given in the paper men- 
tioned above. 100 c.c. of solution was used in each case, and the pyridine 
solution contained 10 per cent, of silver nitrate, whilst the aqueous 
solution contained, as usual, 15 per cent, of the salt. 

The areas of the exposed surfaces were approximately as follows : —■ 

Bowl I. Bowl V. 

Cathode surface . . 75 sq. cm. G7 sq. cm. 
Anode surface . . 19-6 sq. cm. 18 sq. cm. 

The conditions of current density in the two bowls may be regarded 
as practically identical. 

The deposit of silver from the aqueous solution was crystalline, and 
the character of the crystals appeared to vary with the current density. 
The deposit was washed by standing in distilled water for several hours 
and dried over an alcohol flame. The deposit from the pyridine solution 
is continuous, and forms a hard coating : it is washed with water in which 
both pyridine and -silver nitrate are soluble. It is sometimes slightly 
coloured, but on drying becomes white. On further heating over the alcohol 
flame it develops a pearly lustre, and in this condition it has been weighed. 

A Western ampere meter was included in the same circuit, and 
served to indicate the constancy of the current. The reading of the 
ampere meter is given in the second column of the table. The variations 
of the current were very small. In the table the result of every experi- 
ment which I have made is given. 





Current by 


Weight deposited 


Weight deposited 


Difference 


Percentage 
Difference 




Date 


Weston 


from 


from 


in 


Notes 




Meter 


Pyridine Solution 


Aqueous Solution 


Milligrammes 




Aug.] 5 


0-07 


•8115 


•8105 


1-0 


•124 




„ 16 


0075 


•8695 


•8685 


10 


•115 






, 14 


013 


1-2665 


1-2625 


40 


•318 


dc) 




, 8 


0-253 


•7865 


•7820 


4-5 


•575 






, 21 


0-255 


2-2795 


2-2730 


6-5 


•30 






, 6 


0-368 


1-1390 


1-1340 


6-0 


•44 






, 12 


0375 


•9630 


-9600 


3-0 


•41 


da) 




. 10 


0-415 


1-4225 


1-4200 


25 


•276 


(P) 




, 19 


0-52 


20010 


1-9982 


2-8 


•14. 






, 20 


100 


2-0180 


20155 


2-5 


•12 




Total deposits . 


13-6570 


13-5242 


32-8 


•24 





(a) and {I)). — In these two experiments the aqueous solution was in a partial 
vacuum (8 cm. pressure), and -l per cent, has been added to the percentage difference 
to make them comparable with the other experiments. 

(c). — Fresh solutions were used in this experiment, and the same solutions were 
used on all subsequent dates. A few particles of silver were lost from the aqueous 
voltameter in this experiment, August 14. 

The first result of these experiments is clearly that all the deposits 

' rial. Trans., 1892, A. 

D 



1901. 



34 REPORT— 1901. 

from the pyridine solutions weigh more than those from the aqueous 
solutions. 

In the measurements of the E.M.F. of the Clark cell by Mr. Glaze- 
brook and myself the same current was sent through two systems of 
silver voltameters in series, and 15-5123 grammes were deposited in the 
bowls which received the greater deposits, as against 15".505.5 grammes in 
those which gained the smaller deposits. This gives a mean percentage 
difference of "044, which may be compared with the mean percentage 
difference of '24 in the present experiments. It is obvious that this 
difference is of a much higher order, but this difference is a mean of 
experiments which differ much more between themselves. On that 
account I think it is better to discuss the experiments in groups. The 
experiments divide themselves roughly into two groups. There is, first, 
a group consisting of those in which the current was about "07 ampere and 
from "5 to 1 ampere. This contains the extremes as regards current, and 
in it the mean percentage difference would be just over •! per cent. So 
that for these values of current the deposit from pyridine would weigh 
almost the same as Schuster and Orossley found for a vacuum, which, it 
will be remembei'tid, was •! per cent, higher than in air. 

The second group consists of those experiments in which the current 
value lies between -13 and "41 ampere, and here the mean percentage 
difference is much larger, i.e., '3S. Over this range one of the deposits 
seems to be uncertain, and I think these experiments may be considered 
to indicate that between these values of current in the given bowls one 
of the two voltameters is irregular in its action. The character of the 
silver crystals appeared to be variable, whilst the hard film of silver from 
the pyridine solution had always the same texture. The aqueous volta- 
meter seemed to work best with the large currents '5 to 1 ampere when 
the crystals were small, hard, and closely packed. At the lower values of 
current the silver crystals were thin, long, and friable. At the lowest 
value they were again small and hard. One explanation of the variation 
may be that particles of silver are more easily lost during the washing, 
when the crystals are of the second character. 

Conclusions : — 

(1) That Faraday's law holds to within "24 per cent, in the mean for 
silver nitrate when dissolved in two different solvents. 

(2) That for current values of "07 and "5 to 1 ampere in the given 
bowls the amount of silver deposited from a pyridine solution of silver 
nitrate is neai'ly the same as that deposited from an aqueous solution in a 
vacuum. 

(3) That for current values between •! and "5 ampfere more silver ia 
obtained in the pyridine voltameter than in the aqueous voltameter. 



Note on the Variation of tJie Specific Heat of Water, 
By Professor H. L. Callendar, F.B.S. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.1 

The method adopted for determining the variation of the specific heat of 
water was described and the apparatus exhibited at the Toronto Meeting 
of the British Association,^ and the results up to a temperature of 60° C. 

' B.A. Eej}., 1897, 



ON THE VARIATION OF THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF WATER. 



35 



were given in a preliminary note communicated to Section A at the 
Dover Meeting. 1 The final results were communicated to the Royal 
Society in June 1900,^ and are now in course of publication in the ' Phil. 
Trans.' The object of the following note is to discuss one or two minor 
corrections and reductions which have been suggested. 

Values below 20°. , 

At the Dover Meeting of the British Association it was stated that 
the observations agreed very perfectly on the average with Rowland's 
from 5° to 35°, but indicated a slightly more rapid change near the 
freezing-point. This change required further verification, and was not 
included in the formultB then suggested. Subsequent observations have 
confirmed this effect, which may be represented within the limits of 
probable error by the addition of another term to the formula below 
20° C. The formula given in 1899 for the specific heat s at any tempera- 
ture t between 0° and 60° was as follows : — 

s=-9982 + -0000045 («-40)2 . . . (1) 

Below 20° the formula should read : 

s=-9982 + -0000045 (<-40)'-- -0000005 (f- 20)3 . (2) 

This formula agrees with the curve and with the correction to the total 
heat h of the liquid given in the note in the ' British Association Report,' 
1899. Values calculated by these formulae are given in Table II. in the 
column headed B.A. 1899. 

The quantity actually observed by Rowland was the total heat of 
the liquid from the starting-point of each experiment. The following 
table shows the close agreement of his results with this formula : — 

Table I.— Values of Total Heat of Water, 5°-35°. 



Temperature. 


FormulDa (1) and (2). 


Eowland. 


o 

5 


5'a37 


5-037 


10 


10056 


10058 


15 


15-065 


15-068 


20 


20068 


20071 


25 


25-065 


25-067 


30 


30060 


80-057 


35 


35 052 


35-053 



Results above 60°. 

In the 'British Association Report,' 1899, Regnault's formula was 
adopted for the variation above 60°, modified by subtracting a constant 
quantity -0056, to make it fit with formula (1) at 60°, and to reconcile 
liis results with those of Reynolds and Moorby. We thus obtain 

5=0-9944 -f0-00004< + -0000009<'^ ... (3) 
Subsequently to the Dover Meeting Dr. Barnes succeeded in obtaining 



B.A. Be])., 1899. 



» Proc. U.S., 1900. 



D2 



36 EEPOUT— 1901, 

five or six results at points between 66° and 92°, -NV'liich ar6 represented 
within one part in 10,000 by the linear formula 

s=l + -00014 (<- 60) . . . . (4) 

This formula gives a value nearly 1 in 1,000 lower than (3) at 90°, 
but it cannot be reconciled with Regnault's observations between 110° 
and 190° C, and it would therefore probably be better to retain (3), 
since it is likely that the specific heat would increase more rapidly at 
high temperatures. 

Although the actual observations at these higher jjoints agree with 
formula (4) much more closely than 1 in 1,000 it is conceivable that they 
might contain a constant error of this order at 90^. 

More complicated formulse are given by Dr. Barnes,^ but since the 
whole variation of the specific heat is so small it does not seem worth 
while to change the simpler formulje already published in the ' British 
Association Beport,' 1899, which represent the observations equally well. 

Comparison tvith Liidin. 

» 5 » 

The results of the observations of Liidin by the method of mixtures 
are given in Table II. for comparison. They agree very well below 20°, but 
show a minimum at 25° C. Above this point they increase rapidly to a 
maximum at 8.5° C, which is 1 per cent, greater than the value found by 
Barnes when expressed in terms of the same unit. This rapid increase 
may possibly be explained by radiation error from the hot-water supply. 
The subsequent diminution between 85° and 100° may be due to 
evaporation of the boiling water on its way to the calorimeter. These 
errors ai-e peculiar to the method of mixtures, and are completely 
eliminated in the electrical method. Moreover, the quantity measured 
in the method of mixtures is not the actual specific heat at the higher 
limit t, but the mean specific heat between t and the temperature of the 
calorimeter. Tlie values of the actual specific heat at t, which depend on 
difierentiating the curve of mean specific heat, are thus rendered 
extremely uncertain near the extremities of the range. The electrical 
method avoids this uncertainty, since it directly measures the rise of 
temperature produced by the same quantity of energy at difierent points 
of the scale. 

Correction for Variation of Temperature Gradient in the Flow-tube. 

If E is the difference of electric potential in volts between the ends 

of the conductor ; 
C, the current in amperes through it ; 
J, the number of joules required to raise 1 gramme of water 1° C. 

at the mean temperature of the experiment \ 
Q, the water-flow in grammes per second ; 
/ 6, the rise of temperature ; 

/t9, the loss of heat by radiation, tfec, in joules per second, 
we have the simple equation 

EC==JQ9-H/i^ .... (5) 

If we assume that the heat-loss hQ is the same for two difierent flows, 
provided that the electrical current is regulated so as to secure the same 

' Froc. R S, 1900. 



ON THE VARIATIOX OF TDE SPECIFIC HEAT OF WATER. 37 

final rise of temperature 0, we can easily eliminate h and Unci J. When 
the flow is large, the heat loss 7irf is a small fraction, 1 or 2 per cent., of 
the whole. The gradient of temperature in the flow-tube is then nearly 
constant, but diminishes slightly as tlie temperature rises, owing to 
increased rate of loss of heat. With smaller flows this efl"ect increases, 
as the magnitude of the loss hQ becomes greater in proportion to the 
whole. There is therefore a small systematic variation in the tempera- 
ture distribution when the flow is changed, which may be calculated from 
the differential equation representing the conditions of heat-loss and 
supply. The efiect can be represented by adding to equation (5) a term 
ll/i'-y/25 JQ, in which the numerical factor 11/25 depends on the relative 
dimensions of the tubes of the calorimeter employed. At a temperature 
of 30° C. h is 2 per cent, of JQ for the larger flows, and the correction 
amounts to only 2 or 3 parts in 10,000. Dr. Barnes observed that the 
results deduced from the smaller flows diff'ered systematically from those 
given by the larger flows, but the differences were so small that he 
thought they might be due to accidental errors of observation or some 
defect of the method. I find, however, that these small systematic differ- 
ences are almost exactly accounted for by the correction in question. This 
is an excellent verification of the accuracy of the work. The importance 
of the correction arises from the fact that the heat-loss increases nearly 
as the fourth power of the absolute temperature, and the correction itself 
increases as the square of the heat-loss. Although practically negligible 
at ordinary temperatures, it reaches one part in 1,000 at the higher 
points. The results published in the ' Proc. R.S.,' 1900, must be corrected 
for this source of error. The corrected values are given in column (1) of 
Table II. 

Reduction to the Hydrogen Scale. 

The observations were all taken directly with standard platinum ther- 
mometers, and the temperatures were reduced by means of the difference - 
formula 

t-pt=\-5Qt{t-\Q0) 1 10,000 ... (6) 

This gives a perfectly definite scale of temperature, which agrees very 
closel)"-, according to the observations of Callendar and Griffiths,' with 
that of the constant-pressure air-thei'mometer. It is really preferable 
and express the results in terms of this scale, which has the advantage 
that it can be reproduced with much greater accuracy than is attainable 
in gas-thermometry. If, however, we assume that it coincides with the 
scale of the air-thermometer, it would be desirable to reduce the results 
to the hydrogen scale, as being a closer approach to the absolute thermo- 
dynamic scale. 

In making this reduction it would be most natural to assume the well- 
known formula for the diff"erence between the nitrogen and hydi'ogen 
scales given by Chappuis, and quoted by Guillaume and other authorities : 

«„-i,=<(<-100)(-)-6-318 + 0-00889<-0-001323<2)xl0-« . . (7) 

This has been done by Griffiths,'^ who gives a table of our results so 
reduced. There are, however, one or two objections to be considered. 
(1) The formula of Chappuis makes the differences t^ — t,^ negative be- 
tween 80° and 100°, so that the correction to the specific heat changes 
from -2 in 10,000 at 80° to -|-6 in 10,000 at 100°. Chappuis himself 

' Phil, 1rans.,\%^<d, " Thervtal Measurement of Merffi/, Cambxidge, 1901. 



38 



REPORT — 1901. 



considers this impossible, and has recently ^ proposed an emended curve, 
which would alter the correction by nearly one part in 1,000 at 100°. 
(2) The experiments of Chappuis refer to the constant-volume nitrogen- 
thermometer at one metre of mercury initial pressure, whereas the 
difference-formula is assumed to refer to the constant-pressure air-ther- 
mometer at 76 cm. pressure. The correction in the latter case is quite 
different, so that we should not assume Chappuis' results for the reduction. 
On the whole we shall probably be nearest the truth if we calculate the 
correction for the scale of the constant-pressure air-thermometer from 
the observations of Joule and Thomson ^ by the method which I have 
explained in ' Proc. Phys. Soc.,' March 1901. It happens that the 
correction to the results, when calculated in this manner, is very nearly 
equal and opposite to that already given for the variation of the 
temperature-gradient in the flow-tube, so that if both corrections are 
applied the results are practically unchanged. It must be remembered, 
however, that one of these corrections is certain and obligatory, whereas 
the other is to a great extent a matter of taste. It would really be 
more scientific to omit the uncertain reduction to the hydrogen scale. 

The value of the difference coefficient 1-50 in formulaj 6 is calculated, 
assuming the boiling-point of sulphur to be 444°-.'), on the scale of the con- 
stant-pressure air-thermometer. If we took the boiling-point of sulphur 
to be 445° -2 (as determined by Harker and Chappuis with a constant- 
volume nitrogen-thermometer at 560 mm. initial pressure), we should 
find c?=l-54. This would make a difference of 4 in 10,000 in the values 
of the specific heat at 0° and 100°. But the correction from the constant- 
volume nitrogen scale would be much smaller, so that, by a curious 
coincidence, the final results reduced to the hydrogen scale would be 
almost identical with those already given. 

Table II. — Variation of Sjjecijic Heat of Water in terms of a Unit at 20° C. 



Tempera- 


R.S. 1900 


Reduced to 


B.A. Report, 


Liidin, 1895 


ture 


Corrected 


H Scale 


1899 









10080 


1-0084 


1-0094 


1-0084 


5 


1-0052 


1-0055 


1-0054 


10051 


10 


1-0029 


1-0031 


1-0027 


1-0026 


15 


1-OOU 


10012 


1-0011 


1-0009 


20 


1-0000 


1-0000 


i-0000 


1^0000 


25 


-9991 


•9991 


-9992 


-9998 


30 


•9987 


•9986 


•9987 


•9999 


.S5 


■9986 


•9984 


•9983 


1-0006 


40 


•9986 


•9984 


•9982 


1-0017 


45 


•9988 


•9986 


•9983 


1-0030 


.^0 


•9993 


•9989 


•9987 


1-0046 


55 


•9998 


■9994 


•9992 


1-0063 


60 


1-0005 


1-0000 


l-OOOO 


1-0079 


65 


1-OOU 


1-0006 


10008 


1-0094 


70 


1-0018 


1-0013 


1-0016 


1-0109 


75 


1-0024 


10020 


1-0024 


1-0123 


80 


1-0033 


1-0027 


1-00.33 


10131 


85 


1-0040 


1-0034 


10043 


1-0137 


90 


1-0048 


1-0041 


1-0053 


1-0136 


95 


1-0055 


1-0048 


1-0063 


1-0129 


100 


1-0062 


1-0055 


1-0074 


10117 



' Fhil.Mag.,\'^W 



Phil. Tram., 1862. 



ON RADIATION IN A MAGNETIC FIELD, 39 

Badiation in a Magnetic Field. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
the late Professor G. F. FitzGerald (Chairman), Professor W. E. 
Thrift (Secretary), Professor A. Schuster, Principal 0. J. 
Lodge, Professor S. P. Thompson, Dr. Gerald Molloy, and Dr. 
"W. E. Adeney. 

The Committee have to refer with feelings of the deepest regret to the 
death of their Chairman, Professor G. F. FitzGerald, and acknowledge 
that their work has been much impaired by the loss they have sustained. 

That work seemed twofold : in the first place, to obtain specimen 
prints and enlargements of the negatives left by Preston, in order to 
consider the advisability of publishing them ; in the second place, to 
study the negatives and measure the separations of the various lines. 

Nineteen of these negatives are interesting, viz., ten of iron, five of 
cadmium and zinc, two of magnesium, one of strontium, and one of nickel, 
but their value is much lessened because no information is obtainable 
concerning the corresponding strength of the magnetic field. However, 
from their examination of the specimen prints and enlargements which 
they have obtained, the Committee conclude that it would be desirable 
to publish prints of some, at least, of the negatives. They are interesting 
on account of their priority as photographic records of the effect of a 
magnetic field upon the spectral lines, and on account of the clearness with 
whfch they exhibit the effect, both in its normal and in many anomalous 
forms ; and the information derivable from them would thus become 
a.vailable to all. The Committee, therefore, recommend their publication, 
and ask for reappointment, with a grant of 15^., in order to carry this 
recommendation into effect. 

The work of measuring the negatives has been confined to preliminary 
investigations on the degree of accuracy attainable, and to some observa- 
tions on the iron spectrum. With the instrument used by Sir Robert 
Ball and Dr. Rambaut for measuring star photographs it was possible by 
special arrangements to measure, in general, to 0'006 tenth metre. This 

\ 2 

would imply that the resulting values of -—, for example, 25-8 X 10^ are 

accurate to 0-2 or 0-3. But the calculated values of ~— for the lines, 

A\ 

observed so far, show such variety that the verification for iron of the 

law demonstrated by Preston for cadmium, zinc, and magnesium seems 

most improbable at present. 

Several anomalous lines have been observed, particularly the quintet 
at 3743-51. 

No unaffected lines have been met with ; those which are not split 
up into separate components are much broadened. 



Interference ami Polarisation of 'Electric Waves. 
By Professor Dr. G. Quincke. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.'] 
In the Physical Laboratory of the University of Heidelberg Dr. August 
Becker has measured the wave-lengths of electric vibrations in inter- 
ference-tubes with two bi-anches or in T-shaped tubes of the form which 
Professor Quincke used for acoustical researches. 

The maxima and minima of the waves have been observed by means 



40 



REPORT — 1901. 



of a coherer in air, and in different fluid or solid dielectrics. Thi'ough 
interference- tubes with two branches only those vibrations are transmitted 
which are parallel to the plane of the branches, and of a wave-length 
equal to 1'6 the diameter of the tube. Such an interference-tube repre- 
sents for electric waves a Nicol prism or a coloured glass plate for optical 
waves. Wave-length or velocity inside the interference-tubes is about 
-J of the wave-length or velocity outside in the free air. The ratio of the 
wave-length in air and in fluids gives \/k, k being the specific inductive 
capacity of the fluid. 



Seismological Investir/aUons. — Sixth Report of the Gommittee, consistinr/ 
of Professor J. W. Judd {Chairman), Mr. J. MiLNE (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor 
G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. EwiNG, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. 
R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Pro- 
fessor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richard- 
son, and Professor H. H. Turner. 



Contents. 



TAGS 

. 40 
. 41 



II. 



I. On, Seismological Stations aJ/road and in Great Uritain 

Aiialyses of Recoo-ds for the Year I'^OO 

On the Approximate Frequency of Earthqualtes at different Stations. 

By J. Milne 41 

Experiments upon Piers 43* 

On the Comparison of Earth qualte Begisters from Kew, Skide, Bidston, and 
Edinburgh. By J. Milne 44 

III. Oil the Records obtained from two similar Seismographs at Kew. By 

Dr. Chables Cheee 51 

IV. Movements of Horizontal Pendulums in relation, to Barometric Pressure. 

By J. MiLNB 52 

V. An Attempt to Measure Earth Movements at Ridgcway Fault. By Horace 

Dahwin 52 

I. On Seismological Stations abroad and in Great Britain. 

Seismographs of the type recommended by the Seismological Investiga- 
tion Committee of the British Association have been constructed for and 
in most instances are already established at the following stations : — 
*I. 

*2 



Africa. 
Australia 



4. 

.•5. 
*6. 
*7. 



Canada 



8. 


Ceylon 


*9. 


England 


*I0. 




*U. 


)' 


12. 


Germany. 


i;-!. 


Honolulu 


»14. 


India 


*15. 


jj 


1(5. 


5» 


*17. 


JJ 


*18. 


Java 


*I9. 


Japan 



Cape Town. 
Cairo. 
Melbourne. 
Sydney. 

Western Australia. 
Toronto. 
Victoria, B.C. 
Colombo. 

Shide, Isle of Wight. 
Kew. 
Bidston. 
Strassburg. 
Hawaii. 
Calcutta. 

Madras, Kodaikanal. 
,, Jugga Row. 
Bombay. 
Batavia. 
Tokio. 



*20. Mauritius . 


Royal Alfred Ob 




servatory. 


21. Mexico 


Mexico. 


22. "1 New Zealand (2 

23. J instruments) 


Wellington (2 in 


struments). 


24. Portugal . 


Coimbra. 


25. Russia 


Irkutsk. 


26. „ . . 


Tiflis. 


27 


Taschkent. 


*28. Scotland . 


Edinburgh. 


29. „ . . 


Paisley. 


*30. S. America 


Cordova. 


31. 


Arequipa. 


*32. Spain 


San Fernando. 


33. Syria 


Beyrut. 


34. Trinidad. 




35. U.S. of America 


Philadelphia. 


36. 


Baltimore. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 41 

The last instrument constructed is in charge of Mr. L. Bernacchi, of 
the ss. ' Discovery.' If possible it is to be used in the Antarctic Regions. 
Continuous records have been received from stations marked with an 
asterisk, whilst Mexico, New Zealand, Trinidad, Philadelphia, and Balti- 
more have sent occasional records. 

The last registers issued by the British Association Committee are 
Circulars Nos. 2 and 3. These refer to Shide, Kew, Toronto, Victoria, B.C., 
San Fernando, Cairo, Cape Town, Mauritius, Calcutta, Bombay, Kodai- 
kanal, Batavia, and Cordova. These are complete up to the end of 
December 1900, excepting for Cordova (Circular No. 2), the entries for 
which end on June 21, 1900. 

The instruments now in use at the Shide station are : — 

1. A photographic recording horizontal pendulum oriented North and 
South, This is the type of instrument similar to those at other stations. 

2. A pair of pendulums similar to the above oriented North-South 
and East- West. This instrument was kindly presented to your Secretary 
by Mr. A. F. Yarrow. 

3. A pair of horizontal pendulums writing On smoked paper. These 
have arms 14 inches in length, and each carries a 10 lb. weight. 

4. A pair of horizontal pendulums also writing on smoked paper 
The arms are 9 feet in length, and each weighs about 100 lb. This and 
instrument No. 3 give open diagrams. 

5. A simple spiral spring seismograph for vertical motion. Record 
photographic. 

6. A large balance arranged to show tilting. 



Analyses of Records for 1900. 

An analysis of the earthquakes recorded during the year 1900, similar 
in character to that given in the Fifth Report issued by your Committee 
for the records of the previous year, is in progress. Its length precludes 
it from appearing in these reports. 



On the Approximate Frequency of EarthquaUes at different Stations. 

In the following table the large numerals to the right of or beneath 
the name of a given station indicate the actual number of disturbances 
recorded at that station during given intervals of time. For all stations, 
excepting three, these intervals are the years 1899 and 1900. The three 
exceptions are Cairo, for which the interval is the year 1900 ; Calcutta, 
from July to December 1900 ; and Cordova, from January to June 1900. 
Inasmuch as at all stations, for a variety of reasons, there have been 
interruptions in the continuity of observations, these time intervals must 
only be regarded as approximations. As it is difficult in the case of 
certain minute disturbances to determine whether these have a seismic 
origin or are due to some other cause, the large numerals are only approxi- 
mations. 

The small numerals to the right or left of a large numeral give 
the percentage of the earthquakes recorded at the station to which it refers, 
which are common to the registers of the other stations. For example, out 
of 210 records at Shide, 58 per cent, of them were also noted at Kew, and 



42 



EEPORT — 1901. 



40 per cent, at one or more stations in Europe.^ These latter refer to 
Strassburg, Hamburg, Laibach, Trieste, or observatories in Italy. 









o 




d 












« 


^ 


^ c3 


r* 








^ 


o 


pq 




zn 


0, 


c3 


c5 


p 


& 


d d 


s s 








5 

a 

02 


O 

O 

H 


■§ 

O 

> 
49 


p 

'S 
o 




i 


"3 

Is 

o 




s 


o 

o 


11 


WW 


Shide . 


210 


58 


32 


47 


5 


12 


23 


7 


34 


19 


25 


19 


40 


Kew 


54 


220 


29 


35 


35 


3 


9 


19 


8 


24 


14 


19 


20 


33 


San Fernando 


87 


84 


75 


79 


75 


11 


23 


48 


15 


63 


36 


59 


53 


69 


Toronto 


40 


34 


24 


241 


56 


3 


7 


16 


5 


21 


14 


19 


15 


29 


Victoria, B.C. 


40 


33 


23 


55 


246 


3 


9 


17 


4 


25 


17 


19 


17 


28 


Cairo . 


18 


12 


14 


15 


12 


45 


2 


14 


2 


20 


18 


15 


12 


14 


Madras . 


22 


19 


15 


18 


19 


3 


115 


19 


4 


17 


9 


15 





18 


Bombay 


90 


76 


62 


69 


71 


14 


36 


58 


14 


65 


45 


52 


23 


62 


Calcutta 


14 


13 


13 


14 


14 


2 


7 


9 


67 


18 


14 


14 


— 


18 


Batavia 


29 


24 


21 


26 


29 


4 


9 


14 


9 


237 


19 


18 


17 


21 


Mauritius 


46 


42 


39 


47 


53 


9 


13 


31 


13 


54 


81 


41 


14 


38 


Cape Town . 


53 


47 


45 


48 


50 


8 


17 


32 


10 


47 


35 


98 


21 


45 


Cordova 


IG 


16 


16 


16 


16 


7 


2 


7 




23 


9 


12 


43 


5 


(Argentina) 































From what has been said it is clear that results indicated by the 
above table are, when we have at our disposal materials more definite in 
character, open to modification. 

Numerous records, as at Shide (210) and Kew (220), may indicate 
that in the examination of the record-receiving films, in certain instances, 
minute disturbances have been wrongly accepted as having a seismic origin. 
The high number of records accredited to Batavia may partly be accounted 
for by the fact that at that place there are many local shocks the effects 
of which have not been appreciable at distant stations. That the per- 
centage of the Shide records noted at other stations is, in all instances but 
one, greater than the percentage of the Kew recoi*ds at corresponding 
stations (see the first two horizontal lines in the table) indicates that 
either the Kew instrument or the ground on which it rests is less sensi- 
tive to seismic influences than the instrument or the ground at Shide. 
A similar conclusion is arrived at if we inspect the two vertical sets of 
entries beneath the names of these two stations. 

The fewness of the San Fernando and Bombay records, and the large 
percentage of these which are found at other stations, may indicate that 
at these stations disturbing influences non-recognisable as seismic but 
rarely occur. For Cairo and Calcutta not only are the records few in 
number, but the percentages of these common to other stations are also 
low. The explanation of this probably rests on the fact that these two 
stations are installed upon alluvium. At San Fernando and Bombay, 
where the installations are upon hard materials, although the records are 
not numerous, the percentages of these recognised at other stations are 
high. If this is correct we have here the reverse of what occurs in the 
case of earthquake motion that can be felt, the motion being greatest 
upon the alluvium, and least upon the harder strata. 

The low percentages corresponding to the Cordova records may be 
accounted for by the supposition that many of its entries refer to shocks 

' See footnote to p, 47. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 43 

which do not reach distant stations. Although a list might be made of 
earthquakes recorded at the European stations here considered, but not 
at the thirteen widely separated stations indicated in the above table, 
an inspection of this table shows the converse to be equally true, there 
having been many earthquakes recorded in the south of South America, 
on the east and west of North America, in South Spain, and in Great 
Britain which have apparently escaped record in Central Europe. 

In connection with this subject attention may be drawn to the list of 
earthquakes on pp. 44-46. As this list has been drawn up with great care, 
it may be taken for granted that all entries which refer to approximately 
the same times represent seismic disturbances. The larger of these will 
have been recorded at distant stations. To determine whether this is 
true for the smaller records observers are asked to make a close inspection 
of their photographic traces. 

Experiments upon Piers. — At the end of March Professor H. H. Turner, 
F.R.S., visited Shide, where, in conjunction with your Secretary, he 
measured the stiflfness of various piers employed to carry seismographs. 
To make a measure of this desci'iption a rope was tied round the column 
to be tested about 2 inches from its top. A spi'ing balance was attached 
to this, and a pull of from 5 to 30 lb. was exerted, with the result that the 
column was deflected. These deflections were measured by an astro- 
nomical level standing on the column, and in certain instances also by 
the deflection of the boom of horizontal pendulums. The stifFest column 
tested was a 12-inch earthenware drain pipe, 3 feet in length. The appa- 
rent deflection was 0''-09 per one-pound pull. A brick column 6 feet in 
height, and in ci'oss-section 3 feet by 1 foot 6 inches, had per lb. pull a 
deflection angle in directions parallel to its sides of 0"*192 and 0''-05, the 
latter referring to its greatest width. 

II. On Earthquake Records obtained at Stations on different Geological 
Formations. — The records referred to in this note were obtained at Kew, 
Shide, Bidston, and Edinburgh. The instruments used were Milne 
horizontal pendulums with photographic recording apparatus. They were 
similarly installed, and, so far as it has been practical, were kept with 
similar adjustments. The geological formations at these four stations may 
be briefly described as follows : — 

Kew. — Thick alluvial deposits of the Thames Valley, which in their 
upper parts at least are saturated with water. 

Shide. —Here the pier carrying the instrument rests upon the dis- 
integrated outcrop of bedr. of chalk which form the east and west backbone 
of the Isle of Wight. These beds plunge at a steep angle, to rise again a8 
a series of chalk downs to the north of the Solent beyond Portsmouth. 

Bidston. — The Observatory at Bidston is situated on New Red sand- 
stone. 

Edinburgh.—'Rla.ckiovd. Hill, on which the Royal Observatory is 
situated, is a great sheet of ' f elstone ' or porphyrite of Paljeozoic age. 

The records obtained from these stations are as follows : — 



44 



REPORT — 1901. 



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h) 







ON SEISMOLOGIC^L INVESTIGATIONS. 



45 



















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46 



HEPORT— rlOOL 









f- 3 
"Com 

1— < >-■ " • 




"A 


M 

IM 
CI 

II 
O 

ia 


r^ 1— t T— t 

S66 
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6 
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6 












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p 


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S<! 

















ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



47 



Earthquake Frequency. — As it is possible that an entry which only 
refers to one station and does not appear to have been noticed in Europe 
may not have had a seismic origin, in the summation of the above lists 
such entries have been omitted. Adopting this precaution, the number 
of earthquake records obtained at the different stations are as follows : — 

Bidston, 33 or 36 ; Shide, 31 or 33 ; Kew, 26 ; Edinburgh, 21.' 

Earthquake Duration. — In summing up the total number of minutes 
during wlaich the pendulums have been moved, only the fourteen earth- 
quakes are considered which were recorded or might have been recorded 
at the four stations. The results in minutes are as follows : — Bidston, 919 ; 
Shide, 887 ; Edinburgh, 825 ; Kew, 761. 

Accuracy in the Observation of Times of Commencements. — The greatest 
possible difference in time we should consider likely to exist between the 
commencement of movement for a given eai'thquake fit two stations would 
be for disturbances travelling in a northerly or southerly direction between 
Shide or Kew and Edinburgh, and this could not be expected to exceed 
five minutes. Between Shide and Kew there might be a difference of 
one minute, whilst between Bidston and the remaining stations the 
differences should not exceed two and a half minutes. In the columns 
relating to these differences the zero indicates the station at which motion 
was first recorded. The minutes which elapsed before the same dis- 
turbance was noted at the remaining stations are iiidicated by numerals 
to the right or left of the zero. 

A minus sign following one of these numerals indicates that the time 
interval exceeds the expected interval, whilst a plus sign indicates that 
the numeral is a possible quantity. For the second entry the four minus 
signs indicate that there are not even two entries which are comparable. 
In the third entry for February 15, Edinburgh and Bidston, like 
Edinburgh and Kew, are possible figures, and therefore these three 
stations are credited with a plus. 



Date 


DuratiOE 


in Mius. 


Amplitudes 


Duratiou of P.T.'s 


Differences in time of 
Commeucements 








6c 










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1901 
























JIM. 


/■ 


JIM. " 


MM. " 


MM. " 


Min. 


Min. 


Min. 


Min. 


Min. 


Jtin. 


Min. 


Min 


Jan. 18 


83 


70 


72 


40 


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2'3 


3-5 1-6 


1-U 0-5 


2-9 1-3 


25 


23 


19 


IS 





y 





1 


22 


24 


25 


30 































r, 30 


8 


25 


27 


55 




















41- 


0- 


18- 


9- 


Feb. 14 





7 


8 


3 




























15 


27 


60 


31 


50 


0-3 


0'2 


0-5 0-2 


1-3 0-4 


0-5 0-2 


7? 


18 


15 


10 


14 + 


0- 


10 + 


9 + 


March 3 


25 


10 


21 


50 




























5 


104V 


100 


91 


106 


1-0 


0-8 


1-3 0-6 


1-3 0-5 


1-7 0-8 


30 


30 


26 


29 


6 + 


8 + 


0- 


12 + 


16 


95 


100 


81 


103 


2-0 


1-7 


2-5 1-2 


1-8 0-6 


1-7 0-8 


24 


22 


27 


25 


7 + 


9 + 


0- 


9 + 


19 


60 


65 


70 


49 


0-4 


0-3 


0-5 0-2 


0-6 0-3 


0-5 0-2 


29? 


41 


30 


0? 


8 + 


0- 


4- 


9 + 


„ 23 


35 


65 


65 


56 


0-5 


0-4 


5 0-2 


0-5 0-2 


0-5 0-2 


5? 


V 


23 


2 


21 + 


7- 


0- 


18 + 


28 





10 


60 


10 




























April 5 


210 


215 


220 
or 
248 


223 


4-8 


3-9 


8-5 4'0 


7-6 2-6 


5-0 2-2 


00 


73 


80 


74 


46 + 


54 + 


0- 


51 + 


6 


82 


105 


D4 


77 




















+ 


1 + 


2 + 


23- 


7 




























1 + 


+ 


8 + 


8+ 


„ . 


8 


30 


11 


3 




















12- 


5 + 


+ 


0+ 



' 74 per cent, of the Shide records are corQmoii to Kew, and 88 per cent, of the 
Kew records are common to Shide. See pp. 42, 4 d. 



48 



REPORT — 190L 



Proceeding in this manner, we find that out of the eleven earthquakes 
considered, the number of commencements which may approximate to 
correctness are as follows : — Kew, 8 ; Edinburgh, 8 ; Shide, 6 ; Bidston, 4. 

In considering these results it must be remembered that the earth- 
quakes considered are for the most part small, and the difficulty of accu- 
rately analysing a small seismogram is greater than when analysing one 
tiiat is large. 

Amplitudes. — For seven earthquakes the sum of the amplitudes of 
motion reckoned in millimetres at the four stations are as follows : — 
Shide, 17-3 ; Bidston, 14'7 ; Edinburgh, 12-8; Kew, 12-1. Assuming 
that these displacements represent tiltings, which is improbable, the 
results are as follows : — Kew, 9"'8 ; Shide, S"-0 ; Edinburgh, 5"-7 ; 
Bidston, 5"-l. 

The following four figures are sketches made from seismograms 
obtained on the specified dates at Kew, Shide, Bidston, and Edinburgh. 
The figures following the letter S indicate the number of millimetres 
equivalent to one hour : — 



4>35? 



Fig. 1. January 18, 1901. 

A 



g[^'au-w;B> iii( ij>j ^ 



Shide. S=58-5. 



4.S6.8 

J. 



6.21.6 



A 



— ... — H9<»'.'iii|«aji!j!i5j4iiiv^w>,t^ 



Kew. S=GC-25. 



4.5G.G 



-*'"0''"'*'"i}»<y**-"-~^ 



Eiastou S =58-25. 



4.57.2 



5.15.5 



Ediubui-gb. S=59. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



4 9 



Frc. 2. March 5, 1901. 



11.3.5 



►«r»<ainitw»"-t »" *■■ — « — ""^ 



11.1.5 



11.36.5 



Sliide. S = 58-25. 



12.22.0 
i 



Kew. S = 60-25. 



11.30 



11.; 
4- 



11.36 

V 



Fig. 3. March 16, 1001. 



Bidston. S =58-25. 



Edinburgh. S=59-J. 



12.11. 



t 



12.17.2 



w»wa 



^><MTWnifl|y' * O -Ow i f ii wn W n 



Shide. S=5S-5. 



^V-WpiP»«»>«»»--ill'*i'llll«""'- 



Kew. S = 6U-25. 




Ediuburgli. S = 5',i. 



1901. 



50 



REPORT — 1901. 



II 
m 



"3 
la 

02 



o 

(35 



CO 
I 



a* 
< 



II 

03 

a 
S 



4 
i 






a 



M 



= -» ^ 



^ 

i 

? 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 51 



HI. On the Jiecords /ro7n two similar Seismographs at Kew. 
From the National FJtysical Laboratory. By Charles Ciiree. 

A Milne seismograph, No. 31, intended for Coimbra, was set up for 
examination at the National Physical Laboratory on October 30, 1900, 
its pendulum being at the same level and having the same orientation as 
that of the seismograph No. 9 belonging to the Laboratory. The points 
of suspension of the two pendulums were about 1 1 feet apart. At first 
the supports of No. 31 rested simply on the stone floor, while those of 
No. 9 passed through the floor down to a cement bed. After a month's 
trial, however, the seismographs were interchanged, with a view to elimi- 
nating the difference, if any, between the supports. The instruments 
were adjusted to nearly the same sensitiveness (assuming identity of gauge) ; 
they had very approximately the same period and the same rate of 
subsidence of artificially produced vibrations. 

Seven considerable earth tremors were recorded by both instruments. 
In the four largest the times of commencement of the ' preliminary 
tremors' shown by the two traces were in excellent agreement, no difier- 
ence exceeding 0'2 minute. In the other three cases the apparent times 
differed by from 1-7 to 4-6 minutes, the diflPerence being greatest for the 
smallest tremors. The times of commencement of the large movements 
agreed better than those of the preliminary tremors. 

As will be seen by a comparison of figs. .5 and 6, there were conspicuous 
differences in details in the records from the two instruments. This, 
presumably, is mainly due to the supports. The instrument standing on the 
floor had, as a rule, a lessened amplitude of vibration, the reduction ave- 
raging some 30 per cent. There were, however, not infrequent exceptions 

Fig. 5. December 25, 1900. ' 



/ 5.27.4 5.55.1 

5.16.4 , ^ 



^0^^^=^-^==^^ 






Seismo. No. 31 ou Kew table. 



5.16.6 



5.'-".5 5.55.1 



-^^--''=-<^<>— ^^i:':^^ 



.*"■ 'I IlillllU'ifHllli HI — 

Seismo. No. 9 ou Coimbra table. 
Fig. 6. January 7, 1901. 



0.38.3 

^^ 



Seism. No. 9 ou Coimbra table. 




Seismo. No. 31 ou Kew table. 
E 2 



52 REPORT — 1901. 

to the general rule. After allowing for the supports, a small difference still 
remained between the instruments, the mean apparent amplitude of dis- 
turbed mo%'ements being some 10 per cent, greater for No. 31 than for No. 9. 
During the comparison the observer, Mr. Constable, noticed that on 
certain days of high wind the trace from the seismograph standing on the 
floor showed numerous small movements, many possessing distinct 
asymmetry. Further investigation showed that these undoubtedly arose 
from vibrations set up in the building by tlie gusts of wind. Minuter 
examination showed that the phenomenon also occurred, though to a 
much smader extent, in the traces from the seismograph on the cement 
bed. Wind is thus clearly a cause of not infrequent tiny movements, 
whose source had hitherto escaped detection. 



IV. Movements of Horizontal Pendulums in relation to Barometric Pressure. 

For many years it has been recognised that there is a relationship 
between the movements of horizontal pendulums and fluctuations in 
barometric pressure.^ 

An important and apparently practical addition to our knowledge on 
this subject has recently been made by Mr. F. Napier Denison, of 
Victoria, B.C., in a contribution to the Royal Meteorological Society, 
entitled 'The Seismograph as a Sensitive Barometer.' The instrument 
referred to is the one adopted by the British Association. Briefly stated, 
Mr. Denison's conclusion is that the pendulum swings towards the area 
of greatest barometric pressure. For example, it has been found that 
when a storm area is approaching from the westward the boom of the 
pendulum moves steadily to the eastward, and this often occurs eighteen 
to twenty-four hours before the local barometer begins to fall. On the 
contrary, should there be an important high area to the West, the 
pendulum will swing in that direction before it is possible to ascertain 
the position of such an area on the current weather charts. 

As partial confirmation of Mr. Denison's observation, it may be men- 
tioned that a gradual but decided movement of the Shide pendulum 
towards the West precedes stormy weather, whilst in the Report for 1895 
referred to above there are tables showing a close relationship between 
displacements of pendulums in Tokio and the barometric gradients at that 
place. 



V. An Attempt to Detect and Measure any Relative Movement of tlie 
Ujnvay, that may noio be taking place at the Ridgeway Fault, near 
Strata Dorsetshire. Second Report by Horace Darwin, June 1901. 

Many of the early readings have been found to be of no value, because 
water had got into the vessels containing the oil and had blocked its free 
passage through the pipe ; this difficulty has, we hope, been overcome by 
making the covei's of the vessels more completely watertight. 

' See Reports on ' Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena,' issued by the British 
Associarion in 1883, 1885, 1887, 1888, 1892, 1893, 1895, 1896. 

For a theoretical discussion of this subject see ' Applications o£ Physics and 
Mathematics to Seismology,' by Dr. C. Chree, Phil. Mag., March 1897, p. 185. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 53 

No slip of the Fault has been detected at present ; but we should 
hardly expect a definite result during the short time in whicli the appa- 
ratus has been in working order. 

The results obtaiued so far have been of use in pointing out the 
difficulties to be overcome and the various defects of the instrument. 
The movement of the ground caused by slight earthquakes and earth- 
tilts is one of these difficulties, and our experiment on April 24 brought 
this to light in a very striking manner. The instrument was placed at 
the station SS. at the south end of the pipe/ and readings were taken 
every few minutes from 1 to 3 P.M. These readings give the relative 
movement of a tixed point in the strata and the surface of the oil. The 
movement was most irregular, and during that time the maximum 
displacement was about 0-3 mm. This can only mean that a line passing 
through tixed points in the rock was constantly changing its angle with 
the horizon ; and that the oil was always flowing backwards and for- 
wards in its attempt to remain level. At about 1.40 p.m. the value of 
the readings reached a minimum, and then began to increase, showing 
that the angular movement of the strata changed its direction at this 
time. If we assume that the oil was level when the two readings were 
taken which differed by about 0-3 mm., it shows that the rock tilted through 
an angle of about six and a half seconds. 

No doubt there vvas an exceptionally large movement due to slight 
earthquakes and earth-tilts during the time that these observations were 
being taken, as Mr. J. Milne tells me that his large pendulum at Shide, 
Isle of Wight, was swinging regularly, and that this is supposed to be 
due to earth pulsations. 

A telegram from Rome appeared in the daily papers reporting a slight 
earthquake on April 24 at 3.30 p.m. at Lisbon, and a severe shock at 
4.30 p.m. in Algarve, near Lisbon. (4.30 p.m. at Lisbon is 5.7 Greenwich 
time.) 

A note appeared in ' Nature 'of July 18, 1901, saying that an account 
of the earthquake of April 24 in the neighbourhood of Palombara Sabina 
is given by Dr. Luigi Palazzo in the ' Atti dei Lincei,' x. 9. He thinks it 
probable that the epicentre was at a sulphur spring about a kilometre 
distant from Cretone, and that the origin of the shock was in the strata 
from which the spring arises, at a comparatively small depth. Consider- 
able damage was done at Cretone. The shock was registered at the 
Central Meteorological Office at about 15h. 20m. 25s. Italian time : this is 
2h. 20m. 25s. p.m. Greenwich time. 

Mr. Rollo Russell noticed an unusual agitation of the sea at 
Bournemouth on April 24 at 7.50 a.m., and between 12 and 1 p.m. There 
was also an exceptionally large wave soon after 3 o'clock.^ 

Mr. C. Davison '■ thinks that the disturbances may have been due to 
the tiring of heavy guns. The disturbances were noticed in South Devon 
and Guernsey as well as at Bournemouth, 

The movement of the earth on April 24 was no doubt exceptionally 
large, but observations at other times lead me to think that such move- 
ments, due to slight earthquakes and earth tilts, take place very frequently, 

' A lead pipe connects four vessels which contain oil ; they are in a straight line 
at right angles to the Fault ; two of them are on each side of it at four and a half 
and nine metres from it. 

■ See Aature, May 2, 1901. » Nature, June 6, 1901. 



54 REPORT 1901. 

and these are sufficiently large to make the last two figures in the delicate 
micrometer measurements almost useless. 

I hope to reduce this motion of the oil by making the holes through 
which it enters and leaves the vessels sufficiently small to damp the oscil- 
latory movement without preventing the oil finding its own level. 

A similar instrument fixed to the rock at a place where there is no 
Fault would give a delicate and accurate method of measuring these slow 
earth-tilts. 

Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions. — Report of tite Committee, 
consisting of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Lieutenant-Colonel 
Allan Cunningham, R.E. (Secretary), Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. M. Hicks, Professor A. 
Lodge, and Major P. A. MacMahon, B.A., appointed for calculating 
Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary , for 
taking steps to carry out the calculations, and to publish the results in 
an accessible form. 

The printing of the ' Binary Canon ' was finished at end of last year. 
The work, as printed ofl', has been read again with the MS. ; a list of the 
few misprints discovered has been issued with the volume. The edition 
is 250 copies, of which 100 have been bound. Arrangements have been 
made with Messrs. Taylor & Francis, of Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, for 
publication on the usual terms : the sale price will be 15s. About thirty- 
six presentation copies have been given away to various public bodies, to 
reviewers, and to those concerned in the work itself. The whole of the 
grants received (751. from the British Association and 601. from the 
Royal Society of London), total 135^., has been expended. 

The Committee wish now to recommend that a large set of new tables 
of Quadratic Partitions, prepared by Colonel A. Cunningham (for the 
checking of which a grant of 30/. has already been made by the Royal 
Society of London), should be published by the British Association, and 
hereby apply for a grant of 80Z. for the same. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — tieport tf the Committee, 
consisting of Lord M'Laren, Professor A. Crum Brown (Secretary), 
Sir John Murray, Professor R, Copeland, and Dr. Alexander 
BuCHAN. (Brawn vp by Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee are appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the 
Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteoi'ological observations at 
the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

The hourly eye observations, made by night as well as by day, have 
been T-egularly made by Mr. Angus Rankin, the superintendent and his 
assistants. 

The health of the observers has continued good since last report, with 
the exception of Mr. Rankin, who has not yet quite recovered from the 
two severe attacks of influenza he has had. The directors desire to ex- 
press their cordial thanks to Messrs. W. Gentle, R. C. Marshall, and 
T. Affleck for the invaluable services they rendered last summer as volun- 
teer observers, thus rendering it possible to give the members of the staff 
the rest they need from their arduous work. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



65 



The principal results of the observations made at the two observa- 
tories during 1900 are detailed in Table I. 

Table I. 



1900 



Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year 



Mean Pressure in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences 



26-160 



29-765 
4-606 



24-918 



29-545 
4-627 



25-417 



30-087 
4-670 



25-268 



29-843 
4-675 



25-349 



29-907 
4-658 



25-386 



29-859 
4-473 



26-450 



29925 
4-475 



25-460 



29-948 
4-488 



25-4751 25-2471 25-123 



30-004 
4-529 



29-816 
4-569] 



29-685 
4-562 



25-041 



29-592 
4-551 



Mean Temperatures. 



2h 


18'?9 


o 
2-4 


29°0 


o 
32-5 


4i;8 


o 
42-3 


40°8 


39°7 


30°4 


28°-8 


o 
28-4 


40-1 
16-8 


33-3 
14-4 


•9 
-5 


44-9 
15-9 


49-4 
16-9 


56-6 
14-8 


67-4 
15-1 


56-4 
16-6 


53-4 

13-7 


46-8 
15-4 


42-4 
13-6 


43-4 

15-0 



Extremes of Temperature, Maxima. 



36-8 


31-4 


37-0 


45-2 


47-0 


56-2 


54-0 


61-0 


59-4 


44-0 


41-6 


40-0 


62-4 
16-6 


49-5 
17-9 


52-0 
16-0 


67-5 
22-3 


68-6 
216 


79-0 
23-8 


71-3 
17-3 


76-1 
15-1 


70-0 
10-6 


63-9 
19-9 


58-0 
16-5 


68-1 
18-1 



Extremes of Temperature, Minima. 



16-0 


6-0 


9-3 


16-2 


19-8 


32-8 


30-3 


28-7 


24-8 


19-4 


18-6 


18-5 


29-4 
14-4 


10-0 
4-0 


23-0 
13-7 


30-2 
14-0 


34-7 
14-9 


41-7 
8-9 


37-8 
7-5 


41-0 
12-3 


34-0 
9-2 


27-6 
8-2 


28-1 
9-6 


28-9 
10-4 











Bainfall, in 


Inches. 






BenNevisOb- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Difference? . 


36-32 

9-99 
25-33 


7-75 

3-26 
4-49 


3-84 

0-64 
3-20 


20-22 

6-87 
14-35 


14-76 

fi-04 
8-72 


6-97 

4-40 
2-57 


13-12 

4-61 
8-61 


11-85 

6-06 
5-79 


16-96 20-93 

7-40 8-80 
9-56 12-13 


10-28 48-34 

4-37 20-86 
5-91 27-49 



Number of Days 1 in. or more fell. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



13 


2 


1 


9 


5 





1 


6 


6 


7 


2 


18 


2 
11 




2 



1 



9 


2 
3 








1 


2 
3 


2 
4 


1 
6 



2 


6 
12 









Numter of Days 


0-01 


in. 01 


more 


fell. 








BenNevisOb- 


30 


20 


15 


21 20. 


21 


28 


18 


23 


26 


24 


30 


servatorv 


























Fort WilUam 


28 


17 


10 


22 


18 


17 


24 


16 


19 


24 


20 


31 


Differences . 


2 


3 


6 


-1-1 


2 


4 


4 


2 


4 


2 


4 


-1-1 



Mean Rainhand {scale 0-8). 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



— 


1-1 


1-6 


- 




3-1 


2-9 


3-2 


2-6 


— 


1-6 


1-9 


3-7 


3-0 


2-7 


3-1 


3-6 


4-0 


4-8 


il 


4-0 


3-8 


3-6 


4-0 



25-275 



29-831 
4-656 



31-6 

46-8 
16-2 



61-0 

79-0 
23-8 



6-0 



10-0 
4-0 



210-34 

82-19 
128-15 



69 



15 
64 



276 



246 
30 



3-7 







Numher of Hours of Bright 


Sunshine. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


4 


34 103 


80 


98 


139 


48 92 


75 


24 


17 


4 


servatory 
























Fort William 


15 


52 119 


121 


145 


182 


97 


139 


86 


59 


24 


1 


Differences . 


11 


18 16 


41 


47 


43 


49 


47 


11 


35 


7 


+ 3 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 



BenNevis Ob- 
servatory 
Forr William 
Differences . 



Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind, in Miles. 

18 I 19 I 9 I 10 I 14 I 11 I 11 I 11 j 12 I 

Percentage of Cloud. 



12 



16 



96 


80 


70 


70 


82 


79 


93 


84 


78 


90 


89 


97 


84 


72 


64 


68 


75 


72 


88 


72 


70 


63 


66 


86 


12 


8 


6 


2 


7 


7 


6 


12 


8 


27 


23 


11 



718 

1,040 
322 



12 



84 



73 
11 



This table shows for 1900 the mean monthly and extreme temperature 



56 



REPORT — 1901. 



and pressure ; the amounts of rainfall, the number of days of rainfall, and 
days on which it equalled or exceeded one inch ; the hours of sunshine ; 
the mean percentage of cloud ; the mean rainband ; and the mean velocity 
in miles per hour of the wind at the top of the mountain. The mean 
barometric pressures at Fort William are reduced to 32° and sea level, but 
those at Ben Nevis Observatory to 32° only. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure was 29-831 inches, 
or 0-026 inch under the average. The mean at the top was 25-275 inches, 
or 0031 under the average. The mean difference for the two observa- 
tories was 4-556 inches. At the top the absolutely highest pressure for 
the year was 25-974 inches in March, this being the highest hitherto 
recorded in March, and the lowest 23 972 inches in December ; and at 
Fort William the highest was 30-687 inches, and the lowest 28-411 inches 
in the same months, the differences being respectively 2002 inches and 
2-276 inches. 

The deviations of the mean temperatures of the months from their 
respective averages are shown in Table II. : — 





Table II. 


Fort 
William. 


Top of 
Ben Nevis. 




o 

. +1-0 




+ 0-3 


July. . 


. -.50 
. -20 
. -0-2 


-50 
-1-2 
+ 1-0 


August 
September 
October . 


. -0-7 


-0-5 


November 


. +12 


+ 2-5 


December 



Fort 
William. 


Top of 
Ben Nevis 


o 
. +0-7 


o 
+ 1-6 


. GO 


+ 0-4 


. +0-4 


+ 1-8 


. -0-8 


-1-2 


. -0-4 


0-0 


. +3-8 


+ 32 



January . 

February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

February was the coldest month, the temperature at both observa- 
tories being 5°-0 under the average. In this month south westerly winds 
were six days short of their average prevalence, and northerly winds four 
days in excess. Hence the unusually low temperature which was equally 
felt both at the foot and top of Ben Nevis. On the other hand, temper- 
ature was above the average in the four months from June to September, 
the excess l°-6 at the top of Ben Nevis, but only 0°-6 at Fort William, 
the difference being due to the frequent occurrence of the anticyclonic 
type of weather during the summer of 1900. The absolutely highest 
temperature for the year at Fort AVilliam was 79°-0 on June 13, and at 
the top 61°-0 on August 13 ; and the lowest at Fort William 10° -0 on 
February 10 and 12, and at the top 6°-0 on February 7. 

In Table III. are given for each month the lowest observed hygro- 
nietric readings at the top of Ben Nevis : — 



Table III. 



1900 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


AprU 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 

o 

58-1 


Oct. 


Not. 


• 
Deo. 


Dry Bulb 


o 

24-0 


o 
12-9 


2G^5 




29^2 


36-8 


50-5 


o 
49^8 


53^0 


o 
25^2 


27-0 


^4^7 


Wet Bulb 


20-1 


9-2 


19^7 


25-1 


30-2 


40-2 


39-9 


41^0 


41^2 


22-0 


21-1 


22-1 


Dew-point 


-30 


-19-7 


-12-9 


10^8 


20-8 


29-9 


29^4 


29^0 


26-0 


4-7 


-6-0 


7^4 


Elastic Force . 


•038 


•018 


•023 


•070 


•112 


•166 


•162 


•160 


•141 


•054 


•032 


•060 


Relative Humidity 


29 


23 


16 


44 


51 


4S 


46 


39 


29 


40 


22 


45 


[Sat. = 100] 


























Day of Month 


10 


11 


4 


27 


16 




10 


15 


13 


16 


18 


4 


Hour of Day . 


23 


23 


1 


20 


8 


17 


20 


8 


10 


6 


2 


7 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OX BEN NEVIS. 57 

Of these relative humidities the lowest, 16, occurred on March 4 with 
a dew-point of — 12°'9. The lowest dew point, — 19°-7, occurred on 
February 11, the dry bulb being 12°'9 and the wet bulb 9°'2. A marked 
feature of the table is the singularly high minimum humidities in April, 
May, June, July, and December. 

The rainfall for the year at the top was 210-34 inches, being 
52-61 inches, or 33 per cent., above the average. This large rainfall has 
been exceeded only by that of 1898, which amounted to 240-05 inches. 
The December amount, 48-34 inches, is the largest monthly fall yet 
recorded at the Ben Nevis Observatory. The following are the four 
wettest months of the yeai- : — 

Inches 

December 4834 

January . . . . . . . 35 32 

October 20 93 

AprU 20-22 

Total . . 124-81 in four months. 

Taking Scotland as a whole, the year 1900 was one of the wettest yet 
recorded, and has been only exceeded by the rainfall of 1872. Excep- 
tionally heavy daily rainfalls were of frequent occurrence, the two 
heaviest being 6 81 inches on January 22, and 5-41 inches on December 8. 
At Fort William the annual rainfall was 8219 inches, being 5-28 inches, 
or 7 per cent., above the average. The largest monthly amount was 
2085 inches in December, accompanying the extraordinary prevalence of 
south-westerly winds during the month. 

At the top of Ben Nevis the number of rainy days was 276, and at 
Fort William 246. At the top the maximum monthly was 30 days in 
January and December, and at Fort William 31 days in December and 

28 days in January. In March there were only 15 rainy days at the top 
and 10 days at Fort William. During the year the number of days on 
which 1 inch of rain or more fell at the top was 69, whereas at Fort 
William the number of days was only 15. 

The sunshine recorder on Ben Nevis showed 718 hours out of a 
possible of 4,470 hours, or 16 per cent, of the possible sunshine. The 
average of the past 17 years being 747 hours, the sunshine of 1900 was 

29 hours under the average. The two maximum months are June, 139 
hours, and March, 103 hours, and the two minimum months January and 
December, with 4 hours each. At Fort William the number of hours 
was 1,040. This is lower than any recorded since these observations 
began to be made, except in 1896, when the number was 1,036 hours. 
The maximum, 182, was recorded in June, and the minimum, 1 hour 
only, in December. This is the lowest minimum yet recorded, but the 
same low minimum, 1 hour, was also recorded at the top for December 
1883. In the three summer months, June, July, and August, of 1899 
the hours of sunshine at the top were 425, and at Fort William 488 ; but 
in the same months of 1900 these were respectively only 279 and 418. 

At the Ben Nevis Observatory the mean percentage of cloud was 84, 
and at Fort William 73, both being very nearly the average. At the top 
the high mean percentages of 97 in December and 96 in January were 
observed ; and at Fort William 88 per cent, in July and 86 in December. 

Auroras were observed only once, viz., March 2. This is in accord- 
ance with the number of sunspots being near the minimum at this time. 



58 REPORT— 1901. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on January 19, 20 ; February 18 ; June 30 ; 
and July 24. 

Zodiacal Light : — Not observed during the year. 

Thunder and Lightning :— June 11, 12, 13, 20, 21. 

Lightning only : — December 13. 

Solar Halos : — March 23 ; April 1 ; June 21 ; September 26. 

Lunar Halos : — February 7, 9 ; March 17, 18, 19 ; July 13 ; October 
3, 30 ; November 8 ; December 3, 4. 

During the past year much of Dr. Buchan's time has been occupied in 
a larger investigation than has hitherto been attempted of the fogs and 
of the storms of winds round the Scottish coasts. These two distinct 
inquiries are based on the observations made at the sixty-five Scottish 
lighthouses night and day down to December 1900. 

As regards the fogs, the results show the mean monthly and annual 
number which have occurred at each of the sixty-five lighthouses from 
1880 to 1900, the number of hours fog has prevailed during these 
twenty years, and the mean number of hours the fog on its occurrence 
lasts at each place. As regards storms of wind, similar results have been 
worked out for the twenty years ending 1900. 

Now as regards weather forecasting, fogs are among the more pro- 
minent of the phenomena attending on the anticyclone ; and storms of 
wind, rain, and snow are the most prominent features of the weather 
phenomena attending the cyclone. Diagrams giving these results show 
that, as regards storms, the number which occur in each month strictly 
follow the sun, the maximum number being in December and the 
minimum in June. This is the relation observed for the storms occurring 
in Scotland taken as a whole. 

On the other hand fogs also follow the sun in the number of the 
monthly occurrences, but in a reverse order, the maximum number 
occurring in June and the minimum in December. It is to be observed 
that the maximum pei'iod includes the two months June and July, and 
the minimum the three months November, December, and January. 

These elaborate papers on storms and fogs are merely introductory to 
the wider discussion of weather phenomena which has been undertaken 
touching the relations of the Ben Nevis observations to storms of winds, 
widespread clouded skies, severe storms of rain and snow, and fogs to 
the changing positions day by day of the cyclones and anticyclones of 
North-western Europe. This research involves an analysis of the daily 
weather maps for Scotland, showing for each day from July 17, 1890, to 
this date the geographical distribution of storms of wind, the rainfall, 
thunderstorm, aurora, and other weather phenomena appended as sup- 
plements to the bi- daily weather maps issued by the Meteorological 
Council. It will be at once evident that this research necessitates heavy 
labour, stretching over a long period — from two to three years at least. 

Mr. Omond's time during the past year has been largely directed to 
the utilisation of the observations made at the High Level observatories 
of Europe viewed in connection with the Ben Nevis observations and 
their bearings on weather changes. In connection with this work the 
observations at the following High Level observatories are being utilised : 

In France — Barcelonette, 3,714 feet ; Servance, 3,990 feet ; Gavarnie, 
4,452 feet; Puy-de-Dome, 4,813 feet; Aigoual, 5,099 feet; Mont 
Ventoux, 6,234 feet ; and Pic de Midi, 9,380 feet. In Germany— 
Brocken, 3,766 feet ; and Schneekoppe, 5,259 feet. In Austria — 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 59 

Semmering, 3,297 feet ; Crkvice, 3,599 feet ; St. Anton, 4,285 feet ; 
Marienberg, 4,341 feet ; Schneeberg, 4,810 feet ; Schafberg, 5,827 feet ; 
Rathhausberg, 6,283 feet ; Schnittenhoe, 6,349 feet ; Obirgipfel, 6,706 feet ; 
and Sonnblick, 10,154 feet. In Italy— Monte Cave, 3,166 feet; and 
Monteversine, 4,518 feet. /« Switzerland — Chaumont, 3,701 feet ; Rigi 
Kulm, 5,873 feet ; Santis, 8,094 feet ; and Great St. Bernard, 8,130 feet. 
In Algeria— T:eniet-e\-B.a.a\, 3,738 feet ; and Aflou, 4,679 feet. 

Along -with these twenty seven stations several Low Level stations 
are utilised in determining the vertical gradients of pressure, tempera- 
ture, and moisture. Particular attention is given to the difierent direc- 
tions of the winds at different heights, differences which so often point 
clearly to very different distributions of barometric pressure at the higher 
levels of the atmosphere than what prevails at sea-levels at the same 
time. It is just these different distributions of pressure in the higher 
layers of the atmosphere from what prevails at sea- level at the same 
time which is most likely to aid the forecaster of weather in seeing the 
most probable distribution of the sea level pressure one day, two days, or 
even three days in advance. 

Now it was pointed out in our report for last jear that if the 
forecaster can guess what the distribution of the barometric pressure will 
be at some future time, he can state what the weather will be at that 
time. Hence the whole problem of forecasting resolves it!>elf foreseeing 
the arrangement of barometric pressure in the future. The distribution 
of pressure does not shift arbitrarily, but the areas of high and low 
pressures existing on any one day change into those of the next day by 
movement over the earth and by increase or diminution in intensity, in 
accordance with physical laws. 

The scientific study of the causes of the movements of these areas of 
high and low pressures, called respectively anticyclones and cyclones, can 
only be said to be just beginning ; and until this great inquiry has made 
some substantial progress we cannot have a science of forecasting, as we 
have now a science of climatological meteorology. 

This is the inquiry which Mr. Omond, aided by the staff of the 
Scottish Meteorological Society, has entered on, and like the inquiry 
previously referred to will take from two to three years for the prepara- 
tion of a report showing the general relations of the observations made 
at the two Ben Nevis Observatories to the coming changes in the imme- 
diate future in the distribution of the sea-level pressures, which rule the 
weather one day, two days, or three days in advance. 

It is evident that in carrying on this large work Dr. Buchan and 
Mr. Omond require the help of well qualified assistants, and your 
Committee have much pleasure in intimating that this has been provided. 
As intimated in our last report a generous donor in July 1 900 sent a 
handsome donation of 300?. to the Directors of the observatories for this 
purpose, and as the result Mr. Andrew Watt, M.A., has been on the 
staff during the past year. We have the further pleasure of intimating 
that another genfleman, who desires to be unknown, has fowarded a 
cheque for 500^. to provide additional help in carrying on these large and 
expensive inquiries. There is thus every reason to hope that the examina- 
tion and discussion of the work of the two observatories will be thorough, 
and will have scientific utility in the general study of the phenomena of 
weather, and a practical utility in its bearing on weather forecasting. 

It was intimated last year that provision had been made for the 



60 REPORT— 1901. 

luaintenauce of the observatories to the end of 1901. AVe have the 
further pleasure of adding that Mr. Bernard has most generously given 
a fourth donation of 500^., in addition to the 1,-500/. previously given by 
him ; and the Meteorological Council have agreed to continue their grant 
of 250/. to the Low Level Observatory for another year. Provision is 
thus made for the maintenance of the two observatories to the clo.se 
of 1902. 

In the meantime the printing of the observations made at the two 
observatories since 1888 proceeds, and already the first of the three 
quarto volumes has been printed, and will be issued in the course of 
next winter. In addition to the observations, this volume will also con- 
tain several papers and discussion, many of which have been laid before 
the British Association in our reports from year to year. The publi- 
cation of these volumes has been undertaken by the Roy.-?! Societies 
of London and Edinburgh, and the cost is estimated at 1,000/. 



The Clearing of Turbid Solutions, a-iul the Movement of Small Sus- 
pended Particles hy the Influence of Light. By Professor G. 
Quincke, of Heidelberg. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso-l 

By ' turbid solutions ' or ' suspensions ' (triibe Losungen, Triibungen) I 
mean water in which many small solid or fluid particles are suspended for 
a long time. The small particles are visible with the microscope. 
Colloidal solutions with doubtful character will be discussed later. 

Sedimentation, or the formation of flocks, flocking, is observed if small 
quantities of acid or salt solutions are brought into contact or are mixed 
with the turbid solution. 

For instance, the sandbank at the mouth of a river is the efiect of the 
clearing power of the sea water on the particles of clay suspended in the 
fresh water of the river. 

Turbid solutions of clay, kaoline, silica, gum mastic, are flocked by 
quantities of acid or salt so small that the increase of weight by the 
clearing substance cannot explain the augmented velocity, or the flocking 
of the falling particles, or the sedimentation of the turbid solution. 

Franz Schulze ' and Schloesing '^ found xj)W(So *o itfoWo of calcium or 
magnesium salts sufficient to clear suspensions of clay. Bodlander ^ has 
measured the clearing or coagulating power of different salts for suspen- 
sions of kaoline ; Hardy * for suspension of gum mastic ; Spring ^ for sus- 
pensions of gum mastic, kaoline, silica. Bodlander found suspensions of 
kaoline flocked if the quantity of the added salt is greater than a distinct, 
.very small quantity, the ' Schwellenwerth ' of the clearing substance. 
Electrolytes promote, insulators retard, the clearing of the suspensions, 
(Barus,^ Bodlander). The clearing power of a salt depends on the valance 
of the salt and the kation of the electrolyte (Hardy, Spring). 

According to Hardy, the particles of gum mastic, or heat-modified 

' Franz Schulze, Poggendorff' s Annalen, 1866, vol. csxix. p. .366. 
2 Ch Schloesing, Coinpt. Itend., 1870, vol. Isx. p. 1345. 
' O. Bodlander, Gott. Nachr., 1893, p. 267. 

* W. B. Hardy, Proc. Rcry. Soc, 1900, vol. Ixvi. pp. 111-119. 

* W. Spring, Rec. Trar. CJiim. des Pays-Bas, 1900, vol. x. (2 ser. 4), no. 3, pp. 
222, 294. 

« C. Earns, Pliys. Beihl, 1888, vol. xii. p. 563. 



ON THE CLEARING OF TURBID SOLUTIONS. Gl 

proteid move in a contrary direction to an electric current. In presence 
of a minute amount of barium chloride or free acid the particles of 
gum mastic, or heat-modified proteid, move with the electric current. At 
the isoelectric point, for a distinct small quantity of barium chloride or 
acid, the electric movement vanishes and coagulation or precipitation 
occurs. An explanation of the clearing power of the acids or salts is not 
given. 

In the coagulated solutions I found flocks adhering to the walls of the 
glass vessels and many air bubbles distributed among the flocks. Both 
phenomena prove that on the surface of the flocks at least, a short time 
after formation of the flocks, an oily viscous fluid exists. At the surface 
of separation of this oily fluid and the surrounding aqueous fluid, a 
surface tension acts and air bubbles are separated, as at the limit of two 
heterogeneous fluids. Probably changes of the surface tension of the 
boundary of oily and aqueous fluid and the periodical spreading of hetero- 
geneous liquid will excite vortices and unite the small suspended particles 
and form the flocks. The surface forces are the same as the forces which 
form foam-cells by the contact of alkaline oleates with water, which I 
demonstrated at the meeting of the British Association at Oxford, 1894. 
The flocking influence of quantities of clearing matter so very small is 
now intelligible. 

I shall prove that this explanation is the right one. 

Alcoholic solution of gum mastic gives in a large mass of water many 
unseen threads and foam- walls, in which are distributed a great many 
small visible spheres. If copper sulphate is added to the water with the 
mastic foam the foam-walls move against the copper sulphate, become 
clearer, and are dissolved. The spheres and the foam-walls prove tlie 
formation of an oily viscous fluid by the action of water and gum mastic, 
which I will call mastic hydrate, and which possesses a surface tension at 
the surface of separation from water. The copper sulphate is soluble in 
water and in mastic hydrate, has the surface tension zero at the boundary 
with water, and in the boundary with mastic hydrate, and must be spread 
out on the common surface of mastic hydi-ate and surrounding water. 
The spreading excites vortices and draws the surrounding matter towards 
the spreading centre ; the surrounding fluid is stirred up, a new portion 
of copper sulphate is brought into contact with the mastic surface, spreads 
out, and so, in short periods, the spreading of the added salt and the 
formation of vortices are repeated, and the mastic particles are attracted 
by the copper solution. 

The solution of copper sulphate, which is placed by means of a long 
thin funnel under a turbid solution of mastic in a test tube, will difi'use 
in the mastic solution, spread out on the surface of the suspended par- 
ticles, excite vortices, and draw the mastic particles together or against 
the walls of the test tube, where they will adhere. The connected viscous 
matter will flow together and form drops, bubbles, or coherent foam- 
cells, flocks. On the surface of the mastic hydrate, as in all newly formed 
boundaries of two hetei'ogeneous fluids, the absorbed air is separated in 
small bubbles. One part of the flocks will rise with the adhering air, the 
other part with the larger flocks will sink to the surface of the salt 
solution. 

The spreading or vortices of sufficient energy and the connection or 
flocking of the suspended particles demand a certain concentration of the 
copper sulphate, corresponding to the ' Schwellenwerth ' of Bodlander. 

Solutions of NaCl, HCl, K2Cr207, FeCl^, spread out on the surface of 



62 REPOKT — 1901. 

mastic hydrate, as CuSo^, and have the surface tension zero. The coagula- 
tion, or clearing of mastic solution by this salt solution, is explained in the 
same way as with CuSOj. 

Turbid solutions of kaoline in glass cylinders of 100 X 10 cm. form a 
series of horizontal layers separated by equal intervals. After two 
months a great many flocks adhere on the shaded side of the glass. Under 
the microscope the flocks show threads or tubes of a downward flowing 
liquid, with spheroidal enlargements or contractions (Anschwellungen und 
Eiuschniirungen). The sediment at the bottom of the glass cylinder has 
the appearan.te of solidified liquid, containing deformed bubbles and 
coherent foam-cells, smooth spheres of diameter 0-002 to 0-0004 mm., with 
greater refraction than the surrounding substance. 

The particles of kaoline are covered by the action of the water with 
an oily viscous fluid, probably silica hydrate, on the surface of which 
another fluid is spread out. The periodical spreading combines the sus- 
pended kaoline particles in larger flocks, which slowly sink to the ground 
or are drawn by the vortices against the glass walls, where the particles 
covered with oily fluid adhere. The oily silica hydrate forms spheres, 
bubbles, or coherent foam-cells, and afterwards becomes solidified. 

Turbid solutions of tottit kaoline in test-tube solutions over CUSO4, 
FeCl;,, CaCl.,, or Ca(H0)2 give foam flocks with thin walls in which 
many little grains are distributed, or with thick foam-walls in which, 
again, small chambers or cells with thin walls are enclosed. The flocks 
of kaoline formed in the beginning by the viscous fluid adhere to the 
glass wall. 

Also over solutions of sugar, solutions of kaoline form two thick 
flock-layers. 

Turbid solutions of potash soap have shown flocks over chloroform, 
sulphide of carbon, aqueous solution of sugar, CuSO^, HCl. 

Turbid solution of oleic acid has been flocked by solutions of HCl, 
CUSO4, chloroform, sulphide of carbon, and sugar ; turbid solution of 
China ink by solution of OUSO4 and HCl. 

The order of the flocking solution, determined by the velocity of the 
clearing, changes with the concentration of the suspended particles. 

Electrolytes and insulators may be clearing substances. 

The flocks of mastic and kaoline, formed by artificial clearing by means 
of the light, adhere to the shaded side of the glass-wall. 

The views of Barus, Hardy, and Spring on the clearing power of 
diflFerent liquids, especially of the electrolytes, are not confirmed by my 
experiments. It is not proved that the kation of the clearing electrolyte 
is the clearing substance. 

The flocks of gum mastic in the turbid solution are formed by a thin 
layer of mastic salt solution (mastixhaltiger Salzlosung), which is con- 
nected to the surface of the mastic particles by molecular force. This 
thin layer of mastic salt solution will develop no sensible electromotive 
foi'ce in contact with the pure salt solution outside, and no movement of 
the suspended particles with the thin layer by an electric current will be 
possible. My theory explains the formation of the flocks and of the iso- 
electric flocks of Hardy, which are not moved by the electric current. 
The process of clearing is the same in all turbid solutions. All flocked 
particles, or suspended particles united in flocks, are covered with a thin 
. layer of solution, nearly isoelectric with the surrounding pure salt solu- 
tion, and cannot be moved by electric forces. 



ON THE CLEARING OF TURBID SOLUTIONS. 63 

If by the influence of light more spreading fluid is formed on the 
light side than on the shaded side of the suspended particles the sus- 
pended particles will go towards the light. I call this phenomenon posi- 
tive photodromy. 

If the influence of light stops the formation of the spreading solution 
or the spreading fllm, the flocks would go to the shaded side, or will show 
negative photodromy. 

A retarding influence of the light is not probable, but many physicists 
suppose with E. Becquerel a retarding or stopping influence of red light 
in the case of the fluorescence of Sidot-Blende. I think that the negative 
photodromy may also be explained by the heating efiect of the light and 
the formation of air bubbles on the light side of the suspended particles. 
The air bubbles will hinder the spreading of the newly formed solution on 
the surface of the suspended particles, and the vortices of suflicient 
energy will only exist on the shaded side, and the flocks will go away from 
the light or show negative photodromy. 

Turbid solutions of gum mastic, silica, sodium or potassium silicate, 
kaoline, gummi gutti, shellac, soap, proteid, can remain apparently 
unchanged for months or years, but after some weeks or months we can 
always And flocks at the bottom of the solution. Moreover horizontal 
layers are formed with more or less suspended particles. 

What is the reason of the stability of the turbid solution 1 Hardy ' and 
J. J. Thomson see the reason for the stability in the electromotive force 
at the boundary of the suspended particles and the surrounding fluid, 
which hinders the movement of the solid particles, while, according to 
Dorn,^ electric work is done by the displacement of the particles. The 
action is the same as if the viscosity of the fluid had been increased. 

That electric work is done by the displacement of suspended particles, 
or by the displacement of fluids over the solid walls of porous bodies, and 
that electromotive force exists at this boundary was known before the 
researches of Dorn, and is a consequence of my old researches on capillary 
electric currents.^ If the explanation of Hardy and J. J. Thomson should 
be right, the turbid solutions must have the greatest stability if the sus- 
pended particles show the greatest electromotive force in contact with the 
surrounding fluid — i.e., sulphur, silica, shellac, suspended in water. But 
shellac gives turbid solutions of little stability. It may be that the 
electromotive force at the boundary of liquid and suspended particles may 
increase the stability of the suspension, but the principal reason of the 
stability may be that the velocity of the falling particles is not constant, 
but variable or periodic. The impulses of the periodic velocity are 
propagated with the velocity of sound, and will be reflected inside or at 
the bottom of the turbid solution. The direct impulse will interfere with 
the reflected impulses, and the particles will be collected in horizontal 
layers at distances of half a wave length. 

The air also separated at the common surface of the suspended 
particles and the surrounding liquid has in many cases an important 
influence, and will be attached to it or will cover it. The diameter of the 
air bubbles or thickness of the thin air cover may be so small that it is 
not possible to see it with the best microscope, but it forms the condensa- 
tion nuclei for masses of absorbed air previously separated. 

' Hardy, Proc. Roy. Soc, 1900, vol. Ixvi. p. 123. 

* Dorn, Wiedemann's Anrialen, 1880, vol. x. p. 70. 

' G. Quincke, Poggevdorff's Annalen, 1860, vol. ex. p. 56; 1861, vol. cxiii. p. 546. 



64 REPORT — 1901. 

In turbid solutions of gum mastic, soap, or oleic acid one may see 
these air bubbles. In turbid solutions of kaoline or silica they act as a 
Cartesian diver ; the suspended particles and the layers of particles rise 
if they are lighted up by sunshine and sink again in shadow by a change 
of density or volume of the air. 



V ndergrotmd Temperature. — Tiventif-second Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. D. EvERETT (Chairmmi and Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Mr. James Glaisher, Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, Dr. 0. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. 
Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. 
Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. 
Wethered, Mr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie Smith, and 
Professor H. L. Callendar, appointed for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downivards 
in various Localities of Brij Land and Under Water. (JDrau-n ^ip 
Inj Professor Everett, Secretarg.) 

Attention having been called to the copper-mining region on the south 
coast of Lake Superior as exhibiting an exceedingly slow increase of 
temperature downwards, the Secretary has availed himself of the kind 
offices of Professor William Hallock, of Columbia University, to obtain 
authentic information on the subject. Previous reports contain valuable 
material furnished by Professor Hallock respecting a deep well at Wheeling, 
in Virginia. 

The region in question is the most northerly portion of the State of 
Michigan, and includes a tongue of land jutting out some sixty miles into 
the middle of the lake, terminating in Keweenaw Point, which is marked 
on all maps. The mine of the Calumet and Hecla Co^jpany, which is very 
extensive, and has upwards of twelve shafts, is nearly in the middle of 
this tongue ; and immediately adjoining it to the west is the Tamarack 
mine, with live shafts. These two mines are about four miles from the 
nearest coast (which is the north-west side of the tongue) and about eleven 
miles from the south-east coast, the tongue being about fifteen miles wide 
in this part. The ground is high, being 650 feet above the lake, which is 
itself 600 feet above sea-level. The mineral veins dip to the north-west 
under the lake, the dip ranging from 22° at the end of the tongue to 56° 
at its root. The beds consist of a series of compact granular and amygda- 
loidal traps, sandstones, and conglomerates. 

The latitude is 47°, and the mean annual temperature, according to 
isothermal charts, is 39° or 40° F. The average depth of the lake is about 
900 feet, and all the water below the depth of 240 feet was found, by 
surveys conducted in the months of August and September, to be at about 
39° F. As this is the temperature at which water has its maximum 
density, it probably remains unchanged all the year round. The ground 
beneath the lake is accordingly at a permanent temperature, practically 
identical with the mean annual temperature of the air above, and the 
boundai-y conditions for regulating underground temperature are practi- 
cally the same as if all the water of the lake were removed and the air had 
free access to the bottom. The slope of the bottom in the neighbourhood 
of the mines in question is about 1 in 54 until a depth of 300 feet has 
bhcn attained, and becomes gradually less steep to the depth of 700 feet. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 65 

which begins at nineteen miles from the shore and continues for fifteen 
miles further. The slope of the land from the mines down to the shore is 
about 1 in 40. The contour of the ground and the surface conditions in 
the neighbourhood may therefore be regarded as normal. 

The leading authority on temperature gradient in this part of the 
United States is Mr. Alfred C. Lane, the Michigan State Geologist. He 
writes in 'Mineral Industry' (vol. iv. 1895, p. 767) : — 

' It is certain that, in the Lake Superior region, the rate of increase of 
rock temperature is not far from 1° in 100 feet from a surface temperature 
near 40°. For example, at 4,450 feet, the bottom of the North Tamerack 
shaft, the rock is at 84° F.' 

Alluding to the preliminary announcement by Professor Alexander 
Agassiz, president of the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company; of the 
temperatures 59° F. at 105 feet, 79° F. at 4,580 feet, he says :— 

' Since at 105 feet the rock temperature should be near the mean 
annual temperature of the locality, and since the mean annual temperature 
of Calumet is, according to all isothermal maps, near 39°, and a mean 
annual temperature of 59° is found somewhere near Tennessee, I do not 
think we can safely assume a gradient very much less than 1° in 100 feet 
after all.' 

President Agassiz's announcement appeared in the ' American Journal 
of Science' for December 1895, p. 503, in the form of a preliminary 
communication to the editors, with the statement : — 

' We propose when we reach our final depth, 4,900 feet, to take an 
additional rock temperature, and then publish the full details of our 
observations.' 

This depth was reached not long afterwards, the fact being recorded 
in the ' Mining Journal ' for September 1896; but the promised details 
have never been given to the public ; and a letter addressed by the 
Secretary to Professor Agassiz in 1896 elicited the infoimation that the 
rate of increase had turned out to be different from what it was believed 
to be when the preliminary announcement was made. 

The evidence tendered in favour of the abnormally slow increase of 
20° F. in 4,475 feet, or 1° in 224 feet, has thus been practically withdrawn. 
Professor Hallock, writing in January last, says : — 

' The observation of temperature in the Calumet and Hecla mine, to 
which you refer, is thoroughly discredited in this country.' 

With the view of probing the matter to the bottom. Professor Hallock 
(on the suggestion of the Secretary) made arrangements for personally 
exploring, in the spring and early summer, the temperature conditions of 
the mines ; but in June he wrote : — 

' The Mining Company [the Tamarack Company], after having 
promised me permission to make temperature observations, withdrew the 
permission, and declined to permit me to enter the shaft.' 

The proposed trip was accordingly abandoned. Professor Hallock 
has, however, sent large-scale maps and sections, and Mr. Lane has, at his 
request, furnished information respecting underground temperature in 

1901. F 



66 REPORT — 1901. 

various parts of Michigan. It includes temperatures of deep wells 
spouting above ground and of shallow springs. Mr. Lane's general result 
is that — 

' in the flat, undisturbed sedimentaries of the Lower Peninsula [between 
Lake Michigan and the lower lakes] the geothermal gradient is not far 
from 1° in 67 feet ; while in the Upper Peninsula, near Lake Superior, 
tlie gradient is perhaps a little lower than 1° in 100 feet. This difference 
may be ascribed to the difierence in conductivity, to which the geothermal 
gradient should be inversely proportional. The Upper Peninsula rocks 
are probably more conductive (trap -007) when dry, and certainly are 
less porous and contain less water than those of the Lower Peninsula 
(limestone "005, sandstone '002. There has been no volcanic or very 
extensive orogenic disturbance since early Cambrian times, and but little 
Palseozoic faulting and folding. You will notice that the temperatures 
of shallow flows are higher than the mean annual temperatures as derived 
from the Weather Service ; which is not surprising when we consider 
that in the winter the surface of the ground is often blanketed with snow 
and not freezing, when the air temperatures are very low.' 

Mr. Lane estimates the ' mean annual temperature ' for the Calumet 
district at 38°"6, and the ' mean temperature at the depth of no variation ' 
at 40°. If we take this latter as the temperature at 50 feet, and compare 
it with the temperature 84° at 4,450 feet in the Tamarack mine, we have 
an increase of 44° F. in 4,400 feet, or 1° in 100 feet. Mr. Lane's 
estimate for the Calumet district is 1° F. in 107 feet. He states that 
numerous corroborative data indicate a gradient lying between 1° in 
lOOfeet and l-- in 115 feet. 

No authorities are cited for the conductivities which Mr. Lane assigns 
to the rocks, and fuller information on this point is desirable ; but, in 
view of the fact that the President of Section C last year characterised 
the variation in the British Isles ' from 1° in 34 feet to 1° in 92 feet' as 
' a surprising divergence of extremes from the mean,' it is well to 
emphasise the connection between gradient and conductivity. If there is 
anything like uniformity in the annual escape of he<at from the earth at 
different places, there must necessarily be large differences in geothermic 
gradients, since the rate of escape is jointly proportional to the gradient 
and the conductivity. 

The investigation of underground temperature is being energetically 
taken up by the United States Geological Survey. Mr. N. H. Darton 
has for some years been engaged in collecting data with a view to the 
preparation of an isogeothermal map of the United States. 

Brief allusions have appeared to observations taken in 1893 in a bore 
at Paruschowitz, near Rybnik, in Upper Silesia, reputed to be the deepest 
in the world. The details, strange to say, have never yet been published, 
but they have been kindly furnished for the purposes of this report by 
the Prussian mining authorities. 

The bore is one out of a large number (400 or more) which have been 
sunk by the Prussian Government for the purpose of exploring the mineral 
resources of the country. A full account of the mode of sinking it and 
the difliculties which were encountered was given by Bergrath Kobrich 
at the ninth ' Wanderversammlung ' of boring engineers, and is printed 
in the mining journal ' Gliickauf ' for 1895, pp. 1273-1277. 

The boring was begun in January 1892, and finally discontinued in 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 67 

August 1893. In May 1893 the operations were suspended for the 
purpose of making changes in the machinery ; and it was during this 
interruption, which lasted three months, that the observations were 
taken. The bore had attained a depth of 2,002 meti-es, exceeding by 
255 metres that of the Schladebach bore, which was previously the 
deepest in the world. When boring was resumed after the interruption, 
and had added about a meti'e to the depth above mentioned, the boring 
tool broke, owing to caving in, which proved to be of so serious a character 
as to render further progress hopeless. The total depth attained is given 
as 2,003-34 metres. 

The first 200 metres bored through consisted mainly of a greenish 
grey clay or marl (Tegel), which was liable to swell and crumble after a 
time if exposed to water. It also held the tubing with a grip which was 
inconveniently tight. At about 250 metres a seam of coal was passed 
through ; and in all eighty-three coal seams were found, with a total 
thickness of about 90 metres. No mention is made of any springs being 
tapped, but 14 metres of quicksand were passed through at the depth of 
200 metres, immediately above the Coal-measures. The seams of coal 
alternated with beds of sandstone and shale. 

The lower half of the bore, from 1,014 metres downwards, was not 
tubed, but the upper half contained eight different sizes of tubing. The 
first and largest extended from the top to 70 metres. Inside of this was 
the second, reaching from the top to 107 metres. Within this was the 
third, reaching from the top to 189 metres, and it was during the sinking 
of the third that the diamond borer was substituted for the percussive 
drill. The fourth size extended from the top to 260 metres ; the fifth 
from the top to 319 metres ; the sixth from the top to 571 metres; the 
seventh from the top to 1,014 metres ; and the eighth from 540 metres 
to 1,014 metres, the necessity for this eighth tube having arisen from 
accidental injury to the seventh. An accident which subsequently 
occurred broke away a large portion of the eighth tube also, and as 
repair was found to be impossible, a considerable length of the bore (from 
the depth 571 metres to the depth 754 metres) was left without tubing, 
constituting a standing source of danger and trouble. 

In place of the solid rods employed for supporting and working the 
old percussive drills, hollow rods are employed in diamond boring, and 
water forced down the interior of the hollow rods washes up the debris 
through the surrounding space. The hollow rods are usually of wrought 
iron, and this was the case at Paruschowitz till the depth of 1,450 metres 
was reached, when, in order to diminish the enormous weight, it was 
decided to replace the wrought iron by Mannesmann steel tubes ; a change 
which was attended with great advantage during the remainder of the 
boring. 

As regards the diameter of the bore, the tubing which lined the first 450 
metres had an internal diameter of 92 millimetres. From this depth to 571 
metres the diameter was 72 millimetres. Then occurred an untubed interval 
of 183 meti'es of considerably larger diameter, the tubing of 72 millimetres 
diameter commencing again at 754 metres, and continuing to 1,014 metres, 
from which depth to the bottom at 2,002 metres thei-e was an untubed 
portion of uniform diameter which had been bored with a diamond crown 
of 69 millimetres. 

The method of plugging to prevent convection currents, which 
was employed at Sperenberg and Schladebach, was not repeated at 

p2 



68 



REPORT — 1901. 



Paruschowitz, possibly on account of the danger of caving in ; but in 
order to fulfil the same purpose as completely as the circumstances 
permitted, mud was pumped into the bore, and left undisturbed for 
some time, that it might acquire the permanent temperature of the 
strata. When observations were commenced, the last 40 metres of mud 
were found to have become so consolidated that the hollow rod employed 
for lowering the thermometers could not be forced into it, and the lowest 
observation that could be obtained was at 1,9.59 metres, about 200 metres 
deeper than the deepest obtained at Schladebach. The following is the 
record of the observations : — 



Reference 


Depth, 


Temp. 


Reference 


Depth, 


Temp. 


Number. 


Metres. 


Cent. 


Number. 


Metres. 


Cent. 


1 


6 


o 

121 


33 


998 




39-3 


2 


37 


131 


34 


1,029 


400 


3 


68 


14-3 


35 


1,060 


414 


4 


99 


14-6 


36 


1,091 


42-4 


6 


130 


15-6 


37 


1122 


43-4 


6 


161 


160 


38 


1,153 


45 1 


7 


lii2 


165 


39 


1,184 


460 


8 


223 


17 3 


40 


1,215 


46-4 


9 


254 


181 


41 


1,246 


47 


10 


285 


18-9 


42 


1,277 


48-4 


11 


316 


201 


43 


1,308 


48 5 


12 


347 


20-4 


44 


1,339 


490 


13 


378 


21 1 


45 


1,370 


496 


li 


40!) 


21-8 


46 


1,401 


500 


15 


440 


225 


47 


1.432 


601 


16 


471 


23-5 


48 


1,403 


52 8 


17 


.'502 


24-6 


49 


1,494 


53-4 


18 


533 


25-4 


50 


1,525 


53-8 


19 


.564 


26-8 


51 


1,556 


550 


20 


595 


28-8 


52 


1,587 


55-8 


21 


626 


291 


63 


1,618 


56-2 


22 


657 


30-4 


54 


1,649 


58-6 


23 


688 


30-8 


55 


1,680 


60-3 


24 


719 


31-3 


56 


1,711 


61-4 


25 


750 


31-5 


57 


1,742 


621 


26 


781 


31-6 


58 


1,773 


63-6 


27 


812 


32-8 


59 


1,804 


64 8 


28 


843 


34-1 


60 


1,835 


65-6 


29 


874 


35-4 


61 


1,866 


65-5 


30 


905 


35-8 


62 


1,897 


669 


31 


936 


37-0 


63 


1,928 


67-5 


32 


967 


37-3 


64 


1,959 


69-3 



Each temperature recorded in the list is the mean of the indications 
of six thermometers, which were enclosed together in a steel case, 
supported inside the hollow rod near its lower end. The case had been 
tested and found watertight under a pressure of 250 atmospheres. The 
thermometers M'ere similar to those described in our account of the 
Schladebach observations— mercury thermometers of the ' overflow ' kind, 
open at the top, their indications being interpreted by placing them in 
water which is gradually warmed up till the mercury is on the point of 
overflowing. 

As the operation of lowering a thermometer to any point in a bore 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 69 

and hauling it up again disturbs the contents of the bore at all parts 
above this point, the general rule is to take the shallowest observation 
first and work downwards. On the other hand, when there is danger 
of caving in, it may be desirable to begin Vjy securing the most valuable 
observation — that is, the deepest — and to work upwards This latter 
was the order of observation adopted at Paruschowitz, the points of 
observation being at the uniform distance of 31 metres, the lowest at 
1,959 metres, and the highest at 6 metres. This makes sixty-four determi- 
nations, each being the mean of six readings. 

Though the observations were taken under less favourable conditions 
than those at Schladebach, they are of very unusual interest, and the 
withholding of them from publication till the present time is a notable 
instance of excessive modesty. When they are plotted the curve obtained 
exhibits a sarisfactnry amount of regularity, and does not depart very far 
from a straight line joining its two ends. Of the two most conspicuous 
irregularities one extends over the portion where 183 metres of tubing 
were broken away the temperature here being a degree or two higher 
than one would have expected — and the other at the point where the 
change was made from wrought-iron rods to Mannesmann steel, the in- 
terval between the two consecutive temperatures on opposite sides of this 
point being about three times the average interval. Several other points 
can be selected which show an excess or defect of temperature amounting 
to 1°, but this is only what was to be expected from the alternations of 
different rocks. In some condensed reports of Bergrath Kobrich's com- 
munication (but not in the full paper as given in ' Gliickauf ') the irregu- 
larities are attributed to chemical action in the coal seams, causing in 
some cases a heating and in others a cooling ; but in the absence of more 
direct evidence this explanation seems rather forced. 

The curve for the shallower portion from 6 metres to 533 metres is 
approximately a straight line of gradient 1° C. in 39 '6 metres ; while the 
curve for the deepest portion — 1,680 metres to 1,959 metres — shows an 
average gradient of 1° C. in 31 "0 metres. The intermediate portion — 
533 metres to 1,680 metres (which is rather more wavy)— has an average 
gradient of 1° C. in 32-9 metres. 

Comparing the shallowest observation, 12°'l at 6 metres, with the 
deepest, 69°-3 at 1,959 metres, we have an increase of 57°'2 in 1,953 metres, 
which is at the rate of 1° C. in 34-1 metres, or 1° F. in 62-2 feet. This 
general average is the only result that has hitherto been published. 

No doubt seems possible as to the correctness of the determination 
69°-3 at 1,959 metres. The firmness of the clay, being sufficient to pre- 
vent a hollow rod weighing several tons from going deeper, must have 
been sufficient to prevent convection. 

As regards the determination 12°'l C. at 6 metres, one naturally 
compares it with the temperature found at precisely the same depth in 
the Schladebach bore, which was 8°-3 R., or 10°*4 C. Paruschowitz is a 
degree or degree and a half further south than Schladebach, but is 152 
metres higher, which about compensates the difference of latitude, so that 
one would expect their temperatures to be the same. Further light is 
thrown upon the question of the temperature of Paruschowitz by com- 
parison with the known temperatures of places lying around it. 

The following particulars respecting neighbouring places and their 
mean annual temperatures are taken from Hann's ' Klimatologie ' 
(Stutgart, 1897), vol. iii. p. 147 :— 



^0 



REPORT — 1^01. 



— 


Lat. N. 


Long. E. 


Height 


Temp. C. 


Ratibor 


' 

50 6 


o < 
18 13 


M. 

198 


8-1 


Cracow 








50 4 


19 59 


220 


7-8 


Prague 








50 5 


14 26 


202 


8-8 


Eger . 








50 5 


12 22 


455 


7-1 


Datschitz 








49 5 


15 26 


465 


6-4 


Briina 








49 12 


16 37 


210 


8-4 


Oppeln 








50 40 


17 55 


175 


8-2 


Eichberg 








50 55 


15 48 


349 


6-8 


Breslau 








51 7 


17 2 


147 


8-3 


Gorlitz 








51 10 


15 


210 


80 


To compare with 






Paruschowitz . . | 50 7 


17 33 


254 


— 



the latitude and longitude of Paruschowitz (in absence of more exact 
information) being identified with those of the nearest town, Rybnik. 

The nearest of these places is Ratibor, which is only twenty English 
miles distant, and has the same latitude. Its temperature is 8'1, and 
Paruschowitz, being 54 metres higher, should have a temperature of about 
7"8. The mean of the temperatures of the ten places is also 7 "8, their 



mean latitude being 50° 31' and mean 



height 235 metres. It appears 



certain that the temperature of Paruschowitz cannot differ by more than 
a few tenths of a degree from 8'0 ; and it is not usual for the mean 
annual temperature at the depth of 6 metres in the soil to differ by more 
than a few tenths from the mean temperature of the air. The observed 
temperature 12"1 at 6 metres appears then to be about 4*^ too high. 

This was apparently the latest of the sixty-four observations ; and the 
sixty-three lowerings and raisings again of the thermometers with their 
supporting rods through the mud which filled the bore would carry down 
colder mud from the top and replace it by warmer mud brought up from 
below. 

Another cause tending to make the temperature at 6 metres too high 
is suggested by comparing the temperature 10°'4 observed at this depth 
at Schladebach with 8°'4, which is given by Hann ' as the mean tempera- 
ture of Leipzig, the nearest large town. The isolation by plugging in the 
Sohladebach bore was very effective while it lasted ; but it probably did 
not last long enough to restore the normal temperatures of the layers of 
rock surrounding the upper portion of the bore, after their prolonged 
exposure to warm water brought up from below during the progress of 
the boring. 

The highest temperature that seems at all possible for the depth of 
6 metres at Paruschowitz is 9° C. If we adopt 8"3, which is more prob- 
able, we have an increase of exactly 61° C. in 1,953 metres, or 1° 0. in 
32 metres, or 1° F. in 58-3 feet. 

Treating the Schladebach observations in the same way, if we adopt 
8"6 as the temperature at 6 metres, we have an increase of 48° C. in 1,710 
metres, or 1° C. in 35-6 metres, or 1° F. in 65 feet. This exactly agrees 
with Herr Dunker's deduction as given in our report for 1889. 

It is very desirable that direct observations of the mean annual tem- 
perature of the soil at a small depth (say 1 metre or 2 metres) should be 



Loc. cit. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 71 

taken at both Schladebach and Paruschowitz for the purpose of removing 
all doubt. 

Since the presentation of their last report in 1895 the Committee have 
to deplore the loss of two valuable members, Professor Prestwich, who 
compiled the most complete account of underground temperature observa- 
tions yet published, and Mr. G. J. Symons, who, ever since the formation 
of the Committee in 1867, has been one of its most active )uembers. 

They have pleasure in announcing that Mr. Benitett H. Brough, 
Secretary of the Iron and Steel Institute, who has rendered large 
assistance in obtaining the material for the present report, has consented 
to serve on the Committee. 



Note siir V Unite de Pression. Par le Dr. C. E. GrUiLLAUME. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in eietenso.'] 

L'utilite de I'emploi d'une unite de pression derivee du systeme CCS. 
n'est pas contestable. De plus, une experience d6ja longue et souvent 
r^petee nous a enseigne qu'une unite n'est vraiment admise en pratique 
que lorsque sa valeur normale en fonction d'un etalon a et^ fixee, de 
mani^re a ce que la realisation precise de cette unite ainsi que sa 
representation materielle soit parfaitement assuree. L'adoption d'une 
valeur normale de I'unite de pression, ou, si Ton veut, d'un etalon de 
pression derive du systeme C.G.S., constituerait done une utile addition 
au systeme generalement employe dans toutes les branches de la science. 

Les seules questions se rappoi'tant h I'unite de pression au sujet 
desquelles il soit n^cessaire de discuter encore avant l'adoption definitive 
d'un etalon sont les suivantes : — 

Quel sera le multiple de I'unite C.G.S. qui sera considere comme unite 
de pression pour la pratique 1 

Quelle sera sa repre'sentation ? Eventuellement sera-t-il avantageux 
de se I'allier a un etalon definissable par un nombre simple, et quel sera ce 
nombre 1 

Quels sont les domaines auxquels I'unite de pression devra etre 
appliqiiee 1 En particulier conviendra-t-il d'abandonner la pression 
normale definie par Laplace, et adoptee par les meteorologistes et les 
physiciens 1 

Multiple. — Le choix du multiple est indique par l'utilite qu'il peut y 
avoir a se rapprocher, pour la nouvelle unite, des grandeurs des unites les 
plus usuelles. Ces dernieres sont I'atmosphcro ot le kilogramme par centi- 
metre carre, qui enserrent, a moins de 2 pour 100 pres, et par un heureux 
hasard le produit par 10^ de I'unite C.G.S. 

On pourrait faire a ce multiple une seule objection, c'est de se trouver 
en dehors du systeme coherent auquel le watt et \e joule ont ete rattaches, 
de telle sorte que le produit de la nouvelle unite de pression par le 
centimetre cube serait egale au dixieme de I'unitd pratique d'^nergie, et 
non a I'unite pratique elle-meme. Cependant il ne semble pas que ce 
d^faut soit assez grave pour faire renoncer a I'avantage de se trouver si 
pres des deux principales unites usuelles que, pour beaucoup d'applications, 
le changement serait insensible. 

Kepresentation et Valeur. — L'etalon de pression serait convenablement 
represente par une colonne de mercure, ainsi qu'il a 6te fait jusqu'ici pour 



72 REPORT— 1901. 

la plupart des unites de pression employees. L'atmosphere metrique et 
I'atmosphere britannique sont dans ce cas, et ne different que par la 
temperature a laquelle le mercure est consid^re, la hauteur de la colonne 
et le lieu de son exposition a I'attraction de la terre. En physique les 
pressions qui ne sont pas exprimees dans le systeme C.G.S. sont rapportt^es 
a l'atmosphere, et par la meme a une colonne de mercure, ou sont directe- 
ment exprimees en fonction du millimetre de mercure. L'adoption generale 
de la reduction a 0°, meme par les meteorologistes qui, suivant le systeme 
britannique, ramenent la longueur inesuree sur I'echelle en pouces a 
62° F., ne laisse aucun doute sur la temperature de la colonue mercurielle, 
qui devra etre celle de la glace fondante. 

Le dernier element qui reste a fixer, en dehors de la hauteur elle-meme 
de la colonne mercurielle, qui sera donnee par le calcul, est la valeur de 
I'acceleration de la pesanteur, a laquelle la pression sera due. Aussi 
longtemps que les geodesiens ont pu croire a I'existence d'une valeur 
normale de I'acceleration, d^finissable par une latitude et une altitude, 
par exemple par la latitude de 45° et le niveau de la mer, il ne 
semblait pas possible d'admettre une autre valeur de I'acceleration que 
cette derniere. Mais les recherches de ces dernieres annees ont fait 
decouvrir les anomalies locales qui rendent un peu incertaine et variable 
la valeur de I'acceleration que Ton avait consideree comme normale. 

La valeur do I'acceleration donnee par la reduction des stations du 
littoral mediterraneen est de 980,714, en leger exces sur la valeur de 
Greenwich et sur la plupart des stations coutinentales ; ce n'est pas 
cependanfc unf valeur exceptionnelle, et la reduction de certaines stations 
donne des nombres encore sensiblement plus eleves. 

La masse specifique du mercure, c'est-a-dire le quotient de la masse 
d'une certaine quantite de mercure par son volume a 0°, est, dans le 
systeme C.G.S., egale a 13,5950 a .3 ou 4 unites pres du quatrieme chiffre 
decimal. En combinant les deux nombres qui precedent, on trouve, pour 
la pression exercee par une colonne de mercure de 1 metre, a 0°, et dans 
les conditions susdites de la pesanteur : 

1,33328 megadyne par centimetre carre. 

La pression qui devrait etre adoptee comme unite pratique serait done 
representee par une colonne de mercure de 75,003 cm. a 0' et dans les 
conditions indiquees ci-dessus. 

Les incertitudes de ce nombre portent encore : 

1° Sur la masse du decimetre cube d'eau ; 

2° Sur la densite relative du mercu e et de I'eau ; 

3° Sur la valeur normale de la pesanteur. 

Les deux premieres sont encore de I'ordre de deux unites du troisifeme 
chiffre decimal, et diminueront avec le temps ; la troisieme fait intervenir 
un doute plus grand, si Ton considere I'ensemble du Globe, et ce doute ne 
fera probablement que s'accentuer a mesure que les anomalies seront mieux 
etudiees. 

On peut conclure de ce qui precede que I'unite pratique de pression 
pourrait etre representee par une colonne de mercure de 75,000 cm. de 
hauteur a 0° sans que Ton sorte des incertitudes resultant encore des 
mesures, et yurtout de celles qui sont inh^rentes au problome lui-meme 
et a la constitution de notre globe. 

On pourrait, pour diminuer cette incertitude, renverser le problome. 



NOTE SUR L'UMTfi DE PRESSION. 73 

et, apres avoir serre de plus pres la valeur de la masse sp^cifique du mercure, 
adopter une valeur normale de I'acc^l^ratioii de la pesanteur telle que 
Vunite de pression soil representee rigoureusement par une colonne mer- 
curielle de 75 cm. de hauteur. Cette adoption n'aurait rien d'absurde 
puisque les g^odesiens sont des maintenant impuissants a definir une 
intensite normale de la pesanteur sans s'engager dans une voie arbitraire, 
et puisque, par surcroit, la valeur resultant de la definition ci-dessus 
serait comprise entre les valeurs parmi lesquelles les geod^siens pourraient 
choisir. 

Mais on pent se demander si une telle definit'on est devenue ne^cessaire 
pour les besoins de l'unit(5 de pression. II faut distinguer, en effet, deux 
cas de I'emploi de cette unite. Toutes les fois qu'une precision de I'ordre 
de 1/25 000 ne devra pas etre depassee, c'est-a-dire dans I'immense majo- 
rity des applications, la difference entre la valeur actuellement la plus 
probable de I'unite de pression et la valeur ronde fournie par une colonne 
de mercure de 75 cm. est entierement negligeable. Dans les cas, en petit 
nombre, ou une haute precision est exigee, les reductions a des conditions 
normales ne pourront pas etre faites sans que I'on connaisse, au lieu meme 
de I'observation, la valeur de I'acceleration ; celle-ci devra, dans ce cas, 
etre ddterminee par des experiences directes et tres precises. 

Le probl^me actuel est tres analogue a tous ceux, en nombre bien plus 
grand, dans lesquels inter vient la masse specifique des corps, deduite de 
leur densite, et de la masse specifique de I'eau. Dans toutes les applica- 
tions ordinaires, cette derniere est admise comme ^tant egale a I'unite, 
tandis que, dans les calculs tres precis, il est necessaire, en principe, de 
tenir compte de la tres petite erreur commise dans la construction du 
kilogramme. 

Extension. — II reste a fixer les domaines dans lesquels il sera utile 
d'employer I'unite rationnelle de pression, et c'est la un point assez ddlicat. 
On peut s'attendre, d'ailleurs, a ce que cette unitd n'arrive pas, des le debut, 
a toute I'extension dont elle est susceptible, et qu'elle ne gagne que de proche 
en proche les domaines auxquels elle devra s'appliquer ; c'est pourquoi, 
tout en recommandant son adoption aussi universelle que possible, il 
faudra s'attendre a ne la voir penetrer que peu a peu dans I'usage. 

Les cas bien indiques de son application sont tous ceux ou n'inter- 
viennent que des considerations d'elasticite, dans les solides, les liquides 
et les gaz. Par une extension naturelle on y comprendra les phenomenes 
osmotiques, et ceux qui en derivent. Mais on peut se demander legitime- 
ment s'il serait praticable d'adopter I'unite rationnelle comme pression 
normale en mete'orologie, et dans la determination de la temperature nor- 
male d'ebullition de I'eau pour la fixation du point superieur de I'echelle 
thermometrique. 

Sur ce point les avis peuvent etre tres partages. D'une part on peut 
craindre a juste titre le changement dans toutes les constantes thermiques 
que I'adoption de la nouvelle unite, comme pression normale, entrainerait 
avec elle. D'autre part, on peut se demander s'il existe un lien logique 
entre les deux unites. 

Le voisinage de I'atmosphere normale et de I'unite pratique C.G.S. 
aurait rendu, il y a un certain nombre d'annees, le changement facile, et 
meme on peut dire que, si le systeme C.G.S. avait ete developpe des 
les debuts de I'extension du systeme mefcrique, la megadyne par centi- 
metre carre aurait eu bien des chances d'etre adoptee comme pression 
normale. Mais la definition du point 100 des thermometres repose sur 



74 REPORT — 1901. 

des considerations pratiques, et sur une convention tout a fait ai'bitraire. 
Si la nouvelle unite de pression etait tres eloignee de I'atmosphere, 
la question ne se posevait meme pas, et on consid^rerait comme absurde 
de definir comme temperature normale d'ebullition de I'eau celle qui 
correspond, par exemple, a une demi-atmosphere ou a deux atmospheres. 

Done, bien que par des raisons de simple unification, ou des raisons 
d'elegance scientilique, on ne puisse nier qu'il doive etre plus satisfaisant 
de ne posseder qu'une seule unite de pression, il ne faut pas perdre de vue 
le fait que. aussi longtenips qu'il s'agit simplement de la thermometrie, et 
des mcsures qui en derivent immediatement, il n'y a aucune raisou 
logique qui oblige a partir d'uae unite de pression reliee au systeme C.G.S. 
et aucune necessite a rattacher le point de depart de la thermometrie a 
des considerations dependant de I'elasticte. 

On peut, cependant, envisager le probleme par un autre c6td particu- 
lier, qui militerait en faveur d'une seule unite pour les deux domaines. 
Nous admettons comme evident que les constantes elastiques des liquides 
et des gaz doivent etre exprimees en fonction de I'unite rationnelle de 
pression. Les diverses constantes definissant I'etat d'un liquide et de sa 
vapeur en fonction de la temperature et de la pression devrout done 
dependre de I'unit^ employee pour mesurer cette derni^re. Ainsi, la 
temperature normale d'ebullition devra logiquement etre doiinee sous la 
pression que nous considerons comme normale ; et, si nous rapportons les 
temperatures a celles que Ton obtient en ddsignant par 100 celle qui 
resulte de I'ebuUition de I'eau sous cette meme pression, la loi des etats 
correspondants se presente sous une forme numeriquement simple, tandis 
que, en conservant la definition ordinaire du point 100 de la thermo- 
metrie, cette loi se presente sous une forme compliquee. 

II resterait seulement a examiner si la simplification resultant de 
I'adoption de la meme unite dans les deux cas, adoption qui certainement 
serait logique, compense la pei'turbation qui resulterait d'un changement 
de toutes les donnees thermiques accuniul^es depuis un si^cle. 

II n'est pas inutile de rappeler en effet que le changement de 76 a 75 
cm. de mercure moditierait I'intervalle fondamental de 0,4 degre environ, 
et les temperatures met^orologiques ordinaires d'une quantite de Tordre 
du dixieme de degre. II est vrai que ce changement serait pen sensible, 
puisque la reduction au thermometre a hydrogene, encore tres incomplete- 
ment faite en meteorologie, entraine deja une modification du meme ordre. 
D'autre part les donnees I'elatives a la dilatation, aux chaleurs spdcifiques, 
aux chaleurs de combustion et de combinaison, les points de fusion, etc., 
seraient deplaces ou modifies de 4/1000 environ. Seules, les temperatures 
d'ebullition seraient modifiees dans une moindre proportion, puisque la 
nouvelle pression leur serait appliquee. 

La question est, comme on le voit, extremement complexe. EUe peut 
se resumer en ces termes : 

II est utile et meme urgent d'adopter une unite de pression basee sur 
le systeme C.G.S. Cette unite doit etre egale a 1 million de fois I'unite 
fondamentale. Pour tous les besoins de la pratique courante, et meme 
des mesures scientifiques, a I'exception des mesures de haute precision, 
cette unite peut etre representee par une colonne de mercui'e de 75 cm. 
de hauteur a 0° et dans les conditions de la pesanteur encore envisagees 
comme normales par les physicieus. Pour les mesures tres precises, il est 
necessaire de connaitre I'intensite de la pesanteur au lieu de I'observation, 
afln de pouvoir exprimer reellement la pression en unites C.G.S. 



NOTE suR l'unit6 de pression. 75 

La nouvelle unite doit s'appliquer a tous les cas de I'elasticite. II 
convient de ne prendre aucune decision pour la thermometi'ie avant d'avoir 
approfondi d'une part les simplifications qui r^sulteraient pour la pbys-ique 
des fluides et notamment la loi des ^tats correspondants de I'emploi d'une 
seule unite, et, d'autre part, la perturbation qu'introduirait dans la 
thermometrie et les sciences derivees un changement des bases de I'echelle 
des temperatures. 

Alloys. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. H. Neville 
{Chairman and Secretary), Mr. C. T. Heycock. and Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, appointed to investigate the Nature of Alloys. 

The Committee on alloys beg leave to report that Messrs. Heycock and 
Neville have been continuing their study of the copper-tin alloys. 

A preliminary statement of the results obtained has been published 
in the ' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' vol. Ixviii. 1901, pp. 171-178. 
A fuller account will be presented to the Royal Society shortly ; in the 
meantime the following summarises their conclusions. 

The work has been directed towards a verification of Roozeboom's 
theory of solid solutions in its application to the copper-tin alloys. 
Pyrometric observations have shown that when one of these alloys cools 
from a high temperature at which it is completely liquid there is often 
an evolution of heat, not only at the freezing point, but also at one or 
more temperatures far below that of solidification. This is well seen in 
the cooling curves published by Sir William Roberts-Austen and Dr. 
Stansfield some years ago in their reports on alloys. We have found it 
convenient to repeat some of these cooling curves, which show very well 
the remarkable nature of these lower halts and the large amount of heat 
evolved at them. Roberts-Austen and Stansfield have shown in their 
fourth report on alloys, and more recently in their paper on alloys pub- 
lished in the ' Proceedings of the Congr^s International de Physique,' that 
if a continuous line in the concentration temperature diagram be drawn 
through these lower halts a curve is obtained very similar to a freezing- 
point curve. We have reproduced this curve so far as our cooling curves 
enable us to do so, and in the figure the line C'XD'YE' is a copy of this 
curve. Our cooling curves and the C'E' curve have a certain value as 
confirming the original ones of Roberts- Austen and Stansfield, but we are 
not prepared to say that they contain anything new ; in fact our C'E' 
curve is incomplete. We traced these curves because they were needed 
for our later work. 

In our figure the upper curve ABCDE is the freezing-point curve — the 
' liquidus ' curve, as Roozeboom calls it. The dotted line Ablcde is a 
rough drawing of the ' solid us ' curve of Roozeboom so far as our experi- 
ments determine it. This curve is defined by the statement that when 
the temperature of an alloy falls below the ' solidus ' it sets to a solid 
mass ; the ' solidus ' might in fact be called the melting point curve. The 
dotted line IC is a continuation of Roberts- Austen and Stansfield's curve. 
The numbers at the base of the figure give the atomic percentages of tin 
contained in the alloys, so that Dl3' on the 20 line corresponds to Cu4Sn, 
and EE' to CusSn. As will be seen, the figure does not deal with alloys 
much richer in tin than the latter formula. 

As a microscopic study of the alloys, made in conjunction with a study 
of the freezing-point curve, has proved that in many cases the structure 
of the alloys could not possibly have arisen during solidification, but 



1Q 



REPORT — 1901. 



must have had its origin at lower temperatures, we have attempted to 
obtain a permanent record of the structure of the alloys atditf^rent stages 
of temperature by cooling them slowly from a molten state to selected 
temperatures, and then chilling them. When an alloy had solidified 
before the moment of chilling, the subsequent changes in structure are 
generally very minute, often sub-microscopic, even if they take place at 
all. It may be doubted whether the chilling does absolutely prevent the 
later changes, but it enables us to distinguish the large scale structures 
already existing before the chill from the necessarily much more minute 




structure formed during and after the chilling. We are thus by chilling, 
polishing, and etching able to form very trustworthy conclusions as to 
the structure of an alloy immediately before it was chilled. 

Numerous experiments of this kind show that an alloy chilled in the 
region of temperature between the solidus and liquidus contains large 
primary combs which, from their size, must have been formed before the 
chilling ] and that between them one often sees a crop of minute 
primaries similar to the large ones, but formed during the chilling. 
When the polished surface of a section of alloy is heated in the air the 
combs oxidise more rapidly than the mother substance in which they are 
imbedded. They are also softer than the ground, for by prolonged 
polishing they are eaten out into a pattern. These peculiarities, as well 



ON ALLOYS. 77 

as the behaviour of the alloys to etching reagents, make it certain that 
the combs are richer in copper than the average of each alloy or than the 
mother substance round them. The alloys chilled between the liquidus 
and the solidus were partially liquid at the moment of chilling, and as 
the chill was effected by dropping the alloy into water, the result was 
often to granulate the alloy ; one always finds in these chills more or 
less of a tin- rich mother substance. Alloys which had been cooled below 
the solidus before chilling are never granulated, and never show the 
second crop of primaries ; they must have been solid before the chill. 
Moreover, in the case of the AB alloys, when chilled below the solidus, 
the primaries fill the alloy ; a sure proof, as it seems to us, that an alloy 
becomes solid when its temperature falls below the solidus. This is still 
more marked in the case of the LCDE alloys, for if these are chilled below 
the solidus, but above Roberts-Austen and Stansfield's curve, they 
appear to be homogeneous, though sometimes lines can be seen dividing 
the area of the etched surfaces into irregular polygons. Below the 
solidus the primaries are lost, not because they cease to exist, but 
because they have completely filled the alloy and assimilated the mother 
substance in which they grew. It appears, therefore, that each of these 
alloys is an approximately uniform mixed crystal phase when its tem- 
perature lies between the solidus and Roberts-Austen and Stansfield's 
curve. On the other hand, alloys whose percentages lie between B and L 
do not solidify homogeneously. If chilled below the bIC line they are solid, 
but they contain copper-rich primary combs imbedded in tin-rich mother 
substance ; near B the combs preponderate, but with more tin the 
mother substance grows until at the percentage of L it forms the bulk, 
and in certain chills the whole of the alloy. Moreover, if chilled above 
C the mother substance appears uniform, while below C it breaks up 
into a minute eutectic of two bodies. Successive chills of one of these 
alloys at a series of temperatures from blC to C show a remarkable 
growth of the primaries. For example, in the chills of Snjg taken close 
to blC the combs of copper-rich primary are scanty and the lobes are 
rounded, but as the chilling temperature is lowered the combs grow and 
become more angular and fantastic. Alloys between L and C show 
copper-rich primaries if chilled above Ic, but these vanish in the chills 
between Ic and IC, while when the temperature falls below the curve 
IC a new copper-rich crystallisation appears. Photographs of the alloy 
Cu8B.5Sn,3.5 are enclosed which illusti'ate these features. 

In the same way, the CD alloys which show copper-rich primaries if 
chilled above cd, and are uniform solid solutions between cd and CD', 
are found to contain a tin-rich crystallisation of bands and rosettes if 
chilled below the latter curve. The photographs 4, 5, and 6 of the paper 
published in the ' Royal Society Proceedings,' plate 3, vol. Ixviii., reproduce 
these facts. The alloys of the branch DE, and beyond, present very 
similar phenomena. They solidify in the narrow range of temperature 
between DE and de, but the solid solutions of the region below de are 
very unstable, and the habit of crystallisation of the solid phase that 
separates out along D'E' differs from that of the branch XD', a minor 
change showing itself near Y. 

Thus we see that Roberts- Austen and Stansfield's curve, in its relation 
to the physical or chemical changes it indicates, closely resembles a freezing- 
point curve, except that above it there is an unsaturated solid solution, 
instead of the region of unsaturated liquids that lies above a freezing-point 
curve. The points on the curve correspond to saturated solids, while 



78 REPORT— 1901. 

below the curve the saturation has broken down, and the solid solution 
has separated into two solid phases. Just as would be the case with a 
freezing-point curve, the phase which first crystallises on the descending 
branch IC' is copper-rich, while that of the ascending branch X E' is tin- 
rich. Moreover, when the temperature falls to the eutectic angle C or X, 
the residual matter breaks up into the solid eutectic, apparently common 
to all the alloys from B to D. 

The solid at D' is practically homogeneous even after the transforma- 
tion of the lower curve has taken place ; that is, the slowly cooled alloy 
here contains one phase : this may be the compound Cu4Sn. The slow 
cooled alloy at E is also homogeneous, although when barely solid it is far 
from being so. There can be hardly any doubt that this alloy when 
slowly cooled or chilled below E' is the pure compound CujSn ; but be- 
tween the temperatures E' and e this body may possibly not exist, and 
above e it certainly does not. This decomposition of the CujSn at or 
even before melting explains why the freezing-point curve has no summit 
corresponding to a body which almost certainly exists in the slowly 
cooled alloys. It would be worth while to examine the changes in the 
electrical resistance of these alloys when chilled. 

Alloys containing somewhat more tin than CugSn go through similar 
changes as they cool. They solidify completely at temperatures that are 
not more than 30 or 40 degrees below their freezing point, the first 
matter solidifying being richer in copper than the alloy as a whole. When 
just solid the alloys appear to be uniform, and they remain so until their 
temperature falls to Roberts- Austen and Stansfield's curve, at which point 
a solid, that may be Cu3Sn, crystallises out of the solid solution in long bars. 
These bars do not entirely fill the alloy, but are surrounded by mother 
substance which grows in bulk with increasing percentage of tin. 

The structure of the chilled alloys shows many other interesting 
features which the authors hope to discuss at a future time. 



Isomorplious Derivatives of Benzene. — Second Reiwrt of the Committee, 
consisting o/ Professor H. A, Miers (Chairman), Dr. W. P. Wynne, 
and Dr. H. E. Armstrong (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secre- 
tary.) 

The investigation of the 1:3:5 series of sulphonic chlorides and bromides 
derived from 1 : 3 dichloro-, dibromo- and chlorobromo-benzene has been 
continued during the past year and is almost completed. The results 
confirm and extend those previously arrived at, but also show that it will 
be necessary to study very carefully the dependence of the crystalline 
form on temperature and solvent. Progress has been made in preparing 
material for the examination of the 1:2:3 series, the third set to which 
the 1 : 3 di-derivatives can give rise ; and the sulphonic derivatives of the 
1 : 2 dichloro-, dibromo- and bromochloro-benzenes are also under inves- 
tigation. 

The crystallographical relationship of corresponding methyl-, ethyl-, 
propyl- and butyl-benzene sulphonic derivatives is also being made the 
subject of study, with a view to determine the alteration in crystalline 
form produced on introducing homologous hydrocarbon radicles into 
benzenesulphonic acid. The results thus far obtained show that a very 
thorough examination of the series will be required to bring to light the 



ISOMORPHOUS DERIVATIVES OF BENZENE 



79 



real character of the relationship, which is appareutly of a less simple 
character than that met with in the case of corresponding halogen deri- 
vatives. 



On Wave-length Tables of the Sj^ectra of the Elements and Compounds. 
— Report of the Committee^ consisting o/Sir H. E. ROSCOE (Chair- 
man), Dr. 'Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Pro- 
fessor J. Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, 
Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, and Captaiu 
Sir W. DE W. Abney. 



Gold, Spark Spectrum, p, 79. 
Manganese, Arc Spectrum, p. 89. 
Silicon, Spark Spectrum, p. 96. 



Argon, Vacuum-tube Spectrum, p. 97. 
Vanadium, Arc Spectrum, p. 100. 



Gold. 

Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum. 

Eder and Valenta, ' Denkschr. kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' Ixviii. 1899. 
Bxner and Haschek, ' Sitzber, kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' evil. 1898. 

* Observed in the Arc-spectrum by Kayser and Range. 

t Wave-lengths enclosed within brackets are from Eder and Valenta's previous 
list of 1896. 







Reduction 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

K~ 


in Vacuo 




4803-4 


lb 


1-31 


5-7 


20813 


t (4792-79) 


* 4792-79 


4r 


»t 


)* 


858-9 


( 6034) 


60-37 


In 


1-30 


6-8 


21005-4 


— 


00-4 


In 


1-29 


5-9 


275 


(4683-84) 


4683-77 


1 


1-28 


1) 


344-4 


( 07-80) 


07-72 


3 


12-6 


60 


G96-7 


(4587-91) 


45880 


lb 


»» 


9J 


789 


( 5905) 


59-1 


lb 


1-25 


6-1 


960 


( 49-64) 


49-7 


lb 


)J 


}) 


986 


— 


4499-1 


In 


123 


it 


22221 


(4488-43) 


* 88-45 


4r 


)) 


6-2 


273-2 


— 


75-7 


In 


J» 


}j 


350 


( 37-37) 


* 37-50 


2r 


1-22 


f> 


529-0 


— 


31-3 


In 


»> 


It 


547 


( 20-69) 


20-80 


2r 


1-21 


6-3 


623-2 


( 10-55) 


105 


In 


3» 


)j 


667 


— 


00-5 


In 


J» 


91 


718-7 


(4395-72) 


4395-6 


lb 


»> 


it 


721 


( 15-34) 


15-37 


8r 


1-18 


6-4 


23171-9 


— 


4278-0 


In 


117 


6-5 


369 


(4260-01) 


60-06 


2 


J» 


>1 


477-3 


( 41-95) 


* 42-00 


2 


116 


66 


567-1 


— 


26-89 


2ca 


)} 


}} 


651-4 


( 2187) 


22 00 


In 


» 


jy 


678-8 


(4172-90) 


4173-02 


2 


1-15 


6-7 


956-7 


(4089-95) 


4089-9 


lb 


112 


6-9 


24449 


( 84-31) 


* 84-30 


2 


)? 


» 


460-9 



4792-79, 4488-46, 37-44, 4241-99, 4084-26. 



80 



REPORT — 1901. 



Gold — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Reduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Character 




1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 




A + 


A~ 





4083-49 


2 


1-12 


6-9 


24481-9 


— 


77-83 


1 




»J ' 


521-5 


(4076-60) 


76-52 


1 




1) 


523-8 


( 65-20) 


* 65-25 


15 




If 


591-8 


— 


61-2 


lb 




»» 


606 


— 


570 


lb 




tt 


642 


( 53-0 ) 


5301 


7 


i-'ii 


»» 


666-1 


( 4107) 


» 41-06 


3s 




7-0 


738-9 




30-1 


2b 




» 


801 


( 28-66) 


28-63 


1 




t* 


815-3 


( 20-86) 


20-87 


1 




it 


863-0 


( 16-27) 


16-28 


or 




}> 


891-7 


( 12-87) 


12-8 


In 


1-10 


If 


913 


— 


12-35 


In 




»l 


916-3 


— 


02-6 


lb 




7-1 


999 


( 01-60) 


01-7 


lb 




)> 


998 


(3986 48) 


3986 48 


1 




») 


25077-8 


( 86-04) 


86-1 


In 




»> 


075 


( 7972) 


79-74 


2n 




»» 


1201 


( 76-80) 


76-77 


2n 




»» 


138-9 


( 59-35) 


59-31 


2 


1-09 


ft 


249-8 


( 4519) 


45-2 


In 




7-2 


328 


— 


33-80 


4Ca 


1-08 


It 


425-0 


( 33-16) 


331 


lb 




»» 


412 


( 27-82) 


27-84 


3 




71 


452-1 


( 16-15) 


16-2 


2b 




tt 


516 


( 1503) 


14-93 


In 




»» 


536-0 


( 09-60) 


* 09-54 


Is 




1J 


571-2 


(389803) 


♦3898-1 


lOr 




7-3 


641 


— 


90-56 


In 


107 


If 


695-9 


( 8958) 


89-61 


In 




»> 


702-2 


— 


83-47 


1 




» 


742-9 


( 80-34) 


80-45 


2 




»» 


762-9 


( 77-45) 


77-42 


2 




it 


783-0 


( 74-96) 


74-90 


3 




It 


799-8 


( 65-70) 


65-70 


In 




tt 


861-2 


— 


60-8 


In 




It 


894 


( 59-53) 


59-50 


In 




n 


902-8 


( 55-60) 


55-52 


In 


1-06 


u 


929-5 


( 53-76) 


53-72 


2n 




tt 


941-6 


— 


49-1 


In 




tt 


973 


— 


47-62 


In 




tt 


982-8 


( 45-02) 


45-02 


2n 




tt 


26000-4 


-- 


44-42 


In 




tt 


O04-4 


— 


42-8 


In 




it 


015 


( 37-70) 


37-7 


lb 




tt 


050 


— 


36-62 


In 




tt 


057-3 


— 


35-40 


In 




tt 


065-6 


— 


32-50 


In 




tt 


085-3 


( 31-31) 


31-27 


In 




tt 


093-7 


( 29-52) 


29-60 


In 




tt 


104-8 


( 28-56) 


28-4 


lb 




tt 


114 


( 25-87) 


25-87 


3n 




tt 


130-5 




24-5 


In 




tt 


140 


( 23-20) 


23-12 


2n 




t> 


149-3 



* 4065-22, 41-07, 3909-54, 3898-04. 



ON Wave-length tables of the spectra of the elements, 8l 



Gold — cont'm ued. 



Wave-length 




Kuduction to 
Vftfuum 








Intensity 
and 


T Ul> U UXIX 


Oscillation 










Frequency 


Eder and Valeuta 


Exner and Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


(3822-11) 


3822-05 


3n 


1-06 


7-3 


26156-7 


( 20-45) 


20-40 


In 


) J 


JJ 


168-0 


( 16-50) 


16-42 


2n 


1-05 


7-4 


195-1 




10-07 


In 


»> 


>» 


238-8 





08-1 


lb 


>» 


J> 


246 


( 06-95) 


07-1 


lb 


I) 


}| 


253 





06-5 


lb 


>» 


)* 


263 


C 04-22) 


04-20 


5 


)» 


J» 


267-0 


( 00-75) 


00-50 


In 


1» 


»» 


304-9 


(3799-44) 


3799-4 


In 


>1 


Jl 


312 





98-15 


In 


J» 


»» 


321-2 


( 96-15) 


96-10 


2n 


IJ 


t) 


335-4 





95-4 


lb 


») 


}* 


340 





94-4 


lb 


>> 


)> 


347-2 


, 


03-0 


In 


»> 


•>} 


357 


^ 


91-93 


1 


f 1 


l» 


864-4 





88-8 


In 


JI 


)l 


390 


( 87-37) 


87-4 


In 


>> 


)» 


396 





85-4 


In 


IJ 


>» 


410 


( 80-13) 


80-14 


2n 


)» 


)* 


448-6 





73-35 


2 


1-04 


»J 


494-0 


( 71-12) 


71-1 


In 


)» 


7-5 


504 


( 70-14) 


70-1 


lb 


)> 


)» 


511 


( 65-76) 


65-73 


2 


)» 


JJ 


542-7 


( 6510) 


65-0 


In 


)J 


3) 


553 


( 63-10) 


63-1 


In 


]> 


1) 


560 


( 6903) 


691 


lb 


)» 


I> 


595 


( 54-85) 


54-8 


lb 


JJ 


»» 


625 


( 6290) 


52-8 


lb 


»> 


»» 


639 


( 46-6 ) 


46-1 


In 


»l 


>» 


687 


( 32-68) 


32-6 


In 


103 


)» 


783 





31-8 


In 


1> 


*f 


789 


( 30-92) 


31-0 


In 


1» 


1> 


797 


( 18-02) 


18-0 


In 


?» 


)) 


887 





14-2 


In 


n 


7-6 


916 





09-8 


In 


»J 


?» 


948 


( 08-30) 


08-3 


In 


>> 


» 


959 


( 06-99) 


06-96 


3n 


J» 


» 


968-7 


( 02-49) 


02-50 


In 


>» 


7) 


27001-2 


(3698-65) 


3698-6 


lb 


n 


>J 


030 


( 95-68) 


95-6 


lb 


1-02 


)» 


052 


( 94-14) 


94-1 


lb 


>) 


J> 


063 


( 90-18) 


90-2 


lb 


>» 


»> 


091 


( 87-60) 


87-6 


lb 


»» 


f> 


110 





8300 


In 


» 


7-7 


144-1 


( 81-39) 


81-60 


In 


J) 


» 


154-4 





80-9 


lb 


» 


j» 


160 


( 77-62) 


77-7 


lb 


l> 


» 


183 


( 76-62) 


76-6 


lb 


»J 


n 


191 


( 75-11) 


75-0 


lb 


>» 


l» 


203 


( 7293) 


72-9 


lb 


it 


»> 


219 


( 71-34) 


71-3 


lb 


)> 


»» 


231 


( 58 05) 


58-2 


lb 


)> 


91 


328 


( 67-33) 


57-2 


lb 


1-01 


>» 


335 


( 54-56) 


54-8 


In 


1 


J> 


334 



1901. 



G 



82 



REPORT — 1901. 



Gold — continued. 



Wave-length 



Eder and Valenta 



3654-22) 
53-93) \ 
53-66); 

49-25) 

42-66) 
37-57) 
35-21) 



33-40) 
32-81) 

3102) 

23-73) 
22-93) 

14-17) 

07-59) 
04-94) 
01-17) 
3598-28") 
94-20) 
91-90) 

86-66) 
55-58) 
53-72) 

49-26) 
48-26) 
28-25) 
23-42) 
3492-99) 
87-34) 



70-47) 
52-27) 



(3383-05) 



82-26) 
58-61) 
55-35) 
08-36) 



Exner and Haschek 



(32S0'72) 



3654-4 
53-70 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



In 



50-95 


1 


4925 


2n 


45-1 


lb 


42-6 


lb 


37-6 


lb 


35-35 


2n 


34-84 


2 


34-40 


1 


33-40 


5s 


32-8 


In 


31-6 


In 


310 


In 


23-9 


In 


23-6 


In 


22-9 


In 


20-5 


lb 


14-20 


3n' 


09-74 


o 


07-70 


2n 


05-0 


In 


01-22 


2n 


3598-20 


In 


94-31 


In 


92-03 


In 


90-52 


In 


86 84 


5n-' 


555 


2n 


53-70 


3n 


5165 


1 


49-2 


lb 


48-20 


1 


281 


2n' 


23-50 


1 


3493-02 


In 


87-33 


In 


87-1 


In 


81-35 


In 


70-5 


In 


60-8 


In 


5705 


In 


52-4 


lb 


41-5 


In 


21-37 


1 


04-73 


1 


04-05 


In 


3383-06 


2 


82-6 


In 


82-1 


In 


68-5 


lb 


55-29 


1 


08-43 


1 


3280-85 


2Jl3 


* 3553-72 


3308-42 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


A.+ 


1_ 

A 


1-01 


7-7 



1-00 



0-99 

0-98 
0-97 

»» 
)» 

0-96 

0-95 

» 

0-94 

0-93 
0-92 , 



7-8 



7-9 



8-0 



8-2 



8-3 



8-4 



8-5 

8-6 
8-7 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



27357 

361-8 

382-4 

395-2 

426 

445 

483 

499-9 

503-7 

507-1 

514-6 

519 

628 

533 

587 

589 

594 

613 

660-8 

695-0 

710-7 

731 

760-6 

783-9 

813-9 

831-5 

843-2 

871-8 

28117-5 
131-S 
147-9 
167 
175-3 
336 
372-9 
620-4 
667-1 
669 
716-4 
806 
887 
918-2 
957 

29049 
219-8 
362-6 
368-5 
550-6 
555 
559 
767 
795-2 

30217-2 
471-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE 


SPECTRA 


OF THE ELEMENTS. 88 


Gold — contimied. 






Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Reduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eder and Valenla 


Exnor and Haschek 


A f 


1 

A. 


(3273-84) 


3274-1 


ICu 


0-92 


8-7 


30534 


( 65-18) 


* 65-20 


1 


»» 


»» 


617-3 


_ 


47-65 


1 


0-91 


8-8 


782-7 


— 


42-8 


In 


J> 


5» 


829 


( 30-73) 


* 30-76 


2ii 


>» 


<J 


943-7 


( 28-0 ) 


28-15 


In 


)» 


J) 


968-7 


( 21-94) 


22-0 


lb 


)) 


»7 


31028 


( 04-75) 


* 04-8 


lb 


0-90 


8-9 


194 


(3194-90) 


*3194-9 


lb 


»» 


»» 


291 


( 56-73) 


56-78 


1 


0-89 


9-0 


668-8 


( 22-88) 


* 22-97 


6 


0-88 


9-1 


32011-7 


— 


22-63 


5s 


»» 


IJ 


015-2 


(3033-35) 


*3033-3 


lb 


0-86 


9-4 


958 


( 29-32) 


* 29-31 


2 


)» 


71 


33001-4 


( 15-93) 


15-97 


1 


0-85 


9-5 


147-3 


— 


2995-09 


3 


tl 


9-6 


378-4 


— 


90-42 


4s 


)» 


»J 


430-5 


— 


82-25 


1 


0-84 


»» 


522-1 


(2954-64) 


54-61 


3 


»t 


9-7 


836-9 


( 32-33) 


* 32-32 


2 


0-83 


9-8 


34092-9 


( 18-48) 


18-52 


In 


»I 


9-9 


254-0 


13-63* 


13-68 


96 


t) 


17 


311-3 


07-18 


07-19 


4s 


T» 


17 


387-6 


OS-07* 


06-05 


2n 


H 


^, 


400-9 


2893-51 


2893-55 


3n 


0-82 


100 


649-9 


9205* 


92-07 


2n 


)5 


)) 


567-4 


85-68 


85-72 


2 


H 


»» 


643-6 


83-59» 


83-57 


3 


«t 


1) 


669-1 


64-63 


64-6 


lb 


0-81 


101 


889 


«0-80 


— 


In 


)» 


7t 


945-2 


57-04 


5700 


2n 


M 


»» 


991-4 


62-65 


— 


2b 


»l 


)» 


35045-0 


62-30 


. — 


In 


It 


1* 


049-3 


47-23 


47-20 


3n 


»t 


10-2 


111-8 


38-16 


38-13 


5s 


l> 


71 


224-1 


35-55 


35-5 


2s 


H 


77 


257 


33-16 


33-17 


2s 


)» 


77 


286-0 


25-56 


25-58 


6s 


,, 


77 


380-9 


22-87 


22-85 


5 


0-80 


10-3 


414-9 


20-11 


20-11 


9n 


)7 


77 


449-4 


05-44 


05-40 


2 


»» 


77 


635-1 


02-35 


02-30 


10s 


)» 


71 


674-5 


2795-63 


2795-73 


2 


17 


10-4 


769-1 


80-93 


80-96 


3s 


0-79 


17 


948-6 


— 


49-0 


In 


It 


10-6 


36366 


48-35* 


48-35 


5s 


n 


77 


374-9 


45-80 


— 


Is 


»j 


71 


408-7 


43-27 


— 


Is 


n 1 )» 


442-2 


32-14 


3210 


2s 


0-78 1 „ 


591-0 


21-96 


21-94 


2s 


„ 1 10-7 


727-7 


— 


06-13 


1 


»» 1 »» 


942-4 


03-44 


03-51 


2s 


1 


978-7 


— 


02-54 


— 


»^ 


10-8 


991-4 



* 3265-18, 30-73, 04-81, 3194-82, 2288, 3033-38, 29-32, 2932-33, 2913'63, 2905-98, 
2802-07, 28S3-55, 274S-35r. 



G 2 



84 



REPORT — 1901. 



Gold — continued. 





1 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1 


Edci- and Valeuta j 


Exnor and Hasohek 


Character \ 


A-1- 


1 

A~ 


in Vacuo 


2701-01* 


2701-03 


1 
3s 


0-7S 


10-8 


37012-2 


26!)9-4 


— 1 


In 


„ ^ ,. 1 


034-5 


y7-8 


— 


Is i 


5) 


)» 


056 1 


94-40* 


— 


2s 


., 


»» 


103-2 


90-!) 


— 


In 




)l 


157 


88-80* 


2688-82 1 


4s 


0-'77 


1> 


180-3 


88-2li 


88-26 1 


3s 


») 


• » 


188-0 


87-7o 


87-73 1 


4s 


)» 


>» 


195-3 


86-0 


— 


In 


" 1 


)» 


219 


82-3 


— 


In 


1 


>» 


271 


76-08* 


76-10 


13s 


^, 


10-9 


357-1 


72-3 


— 


1 


t) 


»» 


410 


70-7 


— 


1 


., 


»J 


432-5 


67-09 


67-09 


2s 


O 


»» 


483-1 


65-28 


65-25 


2s 


»• 


»t 


509-0 


— 


59-57 


Is 


ti 


l» 


589-2 


51-3 


— 


' Is 


0-76 


11-0 


708 


45-5 


— 


2b 


)» 


>» 


789 


41-65 


41-56 


6s 


»» 


5J 


845-4 


35-4 


— 


In 


)' 


)» 


934 


34-4 


— 


In 


^H 


)) 


948 


31-7 


— 


In 




IM 


987 


2714 


27-09 


3s 


»1 


)T 


38053-8 


25-00 


25-60 


2s 


»1 


J) 


075-4 


24-2 


— 


2b 


11 


)1 


096 


22-0 


— 


2n 


)) 


» 


128 


17-58 


17-48 


2s 


5 » 


9) 


193-6 


lC-69 


16-63 


3n 


)) 


1> 


206-1 


12-8 


— 


In 


H 


ti 


263 


11-9 


— 


In 




)) 


275 


10-36 


10-1 


In 


1» 


f) 


297 


09-61 


09-60 


2b 


0-75 


»» 


309-0 


071 


— 


In 


•> 


11-2 


341 


050 


— 


In 


t> 


9) 


377 


3599-5 


2599-5 , 


2s 


11 


11 


458 


92-18 


92-20 


2s 


}} 


11 


566-1 


90-18* 


90-18 


4 s 


Tl 


1 

11 


696-2 


83-5 


— 


2n 


11 


11-3 


696 


80-1 


— . 


In 


It 


11 


747 


79-4 


— 


In 






757 


77-7 


— 


In 


1> 


1» 


783 


75-3 


— 


In 




1} 


819 


71-4 


— 


2n 


1) 


1 )1 


878 


65-80 


65-80 


4s 


*) 


: 11-4 


962-8 


62-7 


— 


2s 


0-74 


)) 


39010 


(!l-9 


— 


In 


)} 


1 " 


023 


58-0 


— 


2n 






082 


52-92 


52-9 


2s 


}} 


91 


159-6 


50-28 


60-3 


2s 






199-8 


44-20* 


44-3 


4s 




ii-'s 


293-2 


3807 


3809 


3d 




1 


i 388-4 


37-0 


— 


2s 


Z i " 


405 


35-92 


— 


3s 




1 )i 


1 421-9 



2701-03, 2694-40, 268S-S6, 2676-05r, 2590-19, 2544-30. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



85 



Gold — cmitinved. 



Wave-lengtli 


Intensity 
and 


Eeductiou to 
Vacuum 








1 

K 


Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 


Character 


A + 


2533-70 


2533-74 


4s 


0-74 


11-5 


28-2 


28-15 


2s 


)» 


11-6 


22-8 


— 


2ii 


?J 


)» 


20-7 


— . 


2s 


)) 


)) 


17-2 


— 


2n 


0-73 ; „ 


15-15 


1517 


2s 


1 " 


Jl 


11-7 


— 


In 


1 


11-7 


10-59-^ 


10-59 


4s 


» 


ij 


06-35 


06-38 


2s 


1 


)) 


— 


06-07 


In 


»» 


)» 


03-37 


03-33 


7s 


M 


11 


2495-3 


— 


Is 


tl 


M 1 


92-74 


2492-68 


2b 


»» 


11-8 j 


91-58 


91-5 


Is 


)> 


1) 


90-49 


90-5 


2s 


11 


>9 


88-3 


88-98 


2s 


» 


» 


83-4 


— 


2n 


»> 


J1 


80-35 


80-35 


3s 


»» 


»5 


78-69 


78-68 


Is 


)> 


1) 


7776 


77-80 


Is 


>i 


1» 


76-2 


76-10 


3n 


)» 


11-9 


73-84 


73-90 


In 


»» 


J» 


68-06 


68-05 


2b 


0-72 


)l 


58-15 


58-25 


2s 


if 


12-0 


56-55 


— 


2b 


») 


)5 


55-34 


— 


2b 


») 


»> 


52-79 


— 


2b 


n 


>9 


47-94 


48-06 


2s Ag 


)> 


>» 


46-61 


— 


In 


j> 


)> 


— 


46-20 


In 


9) 


1) 


45-6 


45-67 


3b 


») 


»J 


44-3 


— 


lb 


)» 


)* 


42-47 


42-48 


2b 


>) 


12-1 


37-83 


37-89 


3s Ag 


)f 


»» 


34-5 


— 


In 


1) 


)» 


33-67 


33-7 


2 


») 


J> 


33-3 


— 


2s 


)) 


)? 


28-06* 


28-10 


15r 


J» 


12*2 


— 


25-05 


In 


») 


j> 


23-8 


— 


2 


•) 


J) 


19-41 


19-4 


In 


0-71 


j» 


191 


— 


1 


»i 


ji 


17-4 


— 


2 


)) 


)9 


16-68 


16-7 


2b 


t» 


)» 


14-36 


— 


In 


)» 


)» 


13-27 


13-31 


3s 


j» 


»> 


11-40 


11-50 


2s 


J* 


12-3 


10-7 


— 


Is 


)» 


»» 


08-89 


— 


2n 


») 


)) 


07-42 


— 


2n 


)» 


n 


05-20 


05-24 


3s 


») 


i» 


04-97 


04-95 


2s 


)» 


1) 


02-80 


02-83 


3s 


)» 


M 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



39455-9 
543-0 
627 
660 
715 
747-1 
802 
819-6 
886-5 
891-4 
934-8 
40064 
105-7 
123-4 
140-9 
165-3 
255 
305-1 
332-3 
346-6 
374-2 
410-0 
505-9 
667-3 
695-5 
715-6 
757-9 
836-7 
860-9 
867-7 
876-6 
90O 
929-9 
410070 
064 
078-2 
084 
172-3 
224-1 
246 
3201 
327 
355 
367-9 
406-6 
424-7 
455-7 
470 
500-6 
525-9 
563-6 
568-G 
605-3 



3510-56, 2428-06r. 



86 



REPORT — 1901. 



Gold — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 

Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 








1 


Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 




A + 


12-3 


2401-63 


2401-68 


2s 


0-71 


41625-2 


— 


01-3 


In 




»j 


632 


00-2 


— 


1 Cu 




)1 


651 


2399-3 


— 


1 


,, 


») 


666 


95-7 


— 


1 




12-4 


729 


93-62 


2393-66 


2s 




f! 


764-6 


91-7 


— 


In 




J) 


799 


88-26 


88-35 


3s 




»J 


857-5 


87-82* 


87-84 


4s 




]» 


866-5 


84-29 


— 


2s 




>1 


928-8 


82-50 


82-51 


3b 




12-5 


960-0 


80-5 


— 


In 




tt 


42095 


79-3 




Is 




»» 


017 


— 


78-0 


In 




)) 


040 


77-2 


77-3 


1 




»> 


053 


76-35 


76-31 


4s 




>1 


069-6 


73-20 


■ — 


2n 


0-70 


J) 


124-7 


71-69 


71-67 


4s 




IT 


151-9 


69-40 


69-46 


4n 




)J 


174-0 


— 


68-10 


1 




12-6 


2153 


65-01 1 


64-99 \ 


6r 




a 


270-9 


64-68 J * 


64-64 J 


3s 




)» 


277-1 


59-1 


— 


In 




)j 


376 


57-9 


58-02 


In 




)) 


395-9 


55-53 


55-57 


2s 




it 


440-3 


52-67* 


52-81 


6s 




12-7 


490-9 


51-59 


51-61 


2s 






511-4 


48-2 


— 


Is 




}} 


573 


47-10 


47-23 


2s 




J) 


5920 


44-25 


— 


2s 




»» 


644-9 


43-6 


— 


2s 






656 


42-81 




1 






671-1 


41-5 


— 


1 




1 J 


695 


40-27 


40-30 


7b 




12-8 


716-8 


34-20 


34-15 


2b 




)* 


829-3 


— 


32-00 


2n 






868-9 


31-45 


31-46 


2s 






878-8 


31-20 


— 


4s 




tf 


883-6 


30-7 


— 


Is 






893 


26-7 


26-8 


In 




12-9 


964-6 


25-77 


25-80 


2s 


0-69 




983-1 


25-34 


25-32 


2 






991-9 


24-7 


24-73 


Is 




}^ 


43002-8 


22-34 


22-39 


7s 






046-2 


21-4 

20-35 

18-28 


20-37 
18-39 


Is 

2s 
2 






064 

083-7 

120-5 


17-5 


1710 


IsAg 






144-5 


15-94 
14-73 


15-96 
14-77 


6s 
6s 






165-7 
187-9 


12-2 


12-3 


2 




13-0 


234 


09-54 


11-06 
09-50 


1 

6s 




)t 


267-2 
286-4 


08-2 
0489 


08-26 
04-90 


1 
9b 






309-7 
372-8 



2387-85, 236>l-69, 2352-75. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



87 



G OLD — contimifid. 



Wave- 


length 


Intensity 
and 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


2301-1 


230115 


In 


0-69 


13-1 


43443-4 


00-1 


— 


Is 


i1 


11 


458 


2298-3 


— 


In 






497 


96-9 


2296-92 


2s 




11 


523-5 


— 


96-62 


1 


yt 


II 


529-2 


95-18 


95-20 


3s 


f 1 


11 


556-1 


94-08 


94-1 


2b 


II 


11 


577 


91-591 


91-60 


6b 


t> 


1) 


624-5 


88-70 


88-66 


2s 


)i 


11 


680-6 


87-79 


87-85 


3n 


If 


13-2 


696-0 


86-7 


86-80 


In 




II 


716-0 


83-37 • 


83-38 


5s 




11 


779-5 


82-95 


82-94 


3n 


j» 


11 


890-0 


— 


80-05 


InAg 


») 


If 


845-5 


79-42 


79-40 


2n 


1) 


)1 


858-0 


— 


78-10 


1 


i> 


]} 


883-0 


77-62 


77-65 


4n 


0-68 


n 


889-7 


73-2 


73-25 


Is 




13-3 


976-6 


70-3 


70-27 


2s 


,j 


ll 


44034-3 


67-03 


67-07 


2s 




II 


096-5 


66-20 


66-01 


3b 


i» 


11 


117-1 


65-3 


65-10 


In 


)» 


11 


134-9 


63-75 


63-77 


3n 


)» 


11 


160-8 


62-68 


62-70 


3n 


i> 


13-4 


181-6 


61-32 


61-35 


2n 


tt 


91 


208-0 


60-36 


— 


2n 


jy 


II 


227-3 


55-90 


55-95 


2n 


)} 


11 


313-8 


55-00 


55-1 


In 


11 


11 


331 


53-44 


53-48 


3s 


11 


91 


362-4 


— 


49-13 


1 


tl 


13-5 


448-1 


48-70 


48-77 


2n 


tJ 


ll 


455-3 


46-76 


46-70 


3n 


J$ 


91 


596-2 


— 


46-50 


1 


It 


11 


500-2 


— 


45-53 


1 


1* 


II 


519-4 


43-6 


44-01 


In 




11 


549-6 


42-71 


42-78 


5s 




11 


'5740 


— 


42-00 


— 




II 


589-5 


40-36 


40 35 


3 




ll 


622-4 


37-56 


37-55 


2n 


11 


13-6 


678-1 


33-75 


33-75 


2n 


11 


11 


754-2 


31-37 


31-40 


4n 


If 


II 


801-3 


29-09 


29-07 


6n 


1» 


11 


848-2 


— 


24-7 


In 


0-67 


13-7 


936 


22-64 


22-70 


2n 


1} 


II 


976-6 


20-64 


20-62 


3s 


11 


II 


45018-8 


19-4 


19-25 


2 


11 


11 


046-6 


15-85 


15-80 


3n 


11 


ll 


116-7 


13-20 


13-25 


4s 


11 


13-8 


168-6 


10-64 


10-73 


3s 


11 


11 


220-1 


10-30 


10-27 


Is 


»> 


11 


229-5 


05-92 


05-97 


2s 


II 


11 


317-7 


•01-35 


01-42 


5s 


II 


II 


45411-3 


2193-7 


2193-55 


1 


tl 


11 


574-3 


92-7 


— 


Is 


1> 


» ' 


5920 


90-7 


90-67 

* 228 


Is 

3-42. 


U 1 


14-0 


636-2 



88 



BEPORT — 1901. 
Gold — continued. 









Reduction t o 




Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 


A + 


1 
A 


2188-97 


2189-03 


4s 


0-67 


14-0 


45668-3 


86-9 


86-80 


2 


»> 


)l 


714-9 


85-7 


85-65 


2s 


)> 


II 


739-0 


84-15 


84-21 


2s 


»» 


II 


769-1 


72-26 


72-28 


2s 


0-66 


14-1 


46020-5 


67-5 


67-40 


2s 


5» 


14-2 


124-0 


— 


6127 


In 


ff 


II 


254-9 


60-7 


60-55 


2ii 


J» 


II 


270-3 


59-2 


59-13 


2n 


)» 


14-3 


300-7 


57-18 


57-21 


2n 


U 


J> 


341-9 


54-4 


54-30 


2n 


tt 


II 


404-5 


_- 


44-27 


1 


II 


14-4 


621-5 


40-5 


40-5 


In 


11 


11 


704 


S7-95 


37-95 


2b 


7* 


II 


759-4 


33-4 


33-3 


lb 


» 


14-5 


860 


— 


29-57 


1 


0-65 


13 


943-3 


2903 


— 


Is 


)) 


II 


955-2 


26-8 


26-73 


23 


tt 


14-6 


47003-9 


25-28 


25-32 


4s 


91 


>• 


037-1 


13-7 


13-69 


Is 


99 


14-7 


295-9 


10-74 


10-78 


6s 


If 


11 


361-1 


2098-8 


— 


In 


11 


14-8 


631 


98-2 


2098-18 


Is 


)) 


II 


645-6 


950 


— 


In 


»> 


14-9 


718 


85-4 


— 


1 


)» 


15-0 


937 


83-1 


83-16 


Is 


tl 


II 


48989-0 


82-10 


82-16 


5s 


»» 


11 


012-7 


71-7 


— 


1 


0-64 


151 


255 


640 


— 


1 


J» 


15-2 


434 


59-9 


— 


1 


11 


11 


531 


56-6 


— 


1 


II 


11 


609 


55-4 


— 


1 


1) 


15-3 


637 


44-65 


44-70 


6s 


1) 


15-4 


891-5 


12-10 


— 


In 


0-G3 


15-7 


49683-6 


00-77 


00-9 


3s 


1* 


15-8 


965-0 


1988-99 


— 


Is 


J» 


16-0 


50260-8 


77-59 


1977-6 


1 


)l 


161 


550 


72-66 


— 


1 


0-62 


II 


676-9 


55-64 


— 


1 


II 


16-3 


51117-9 


51-59 


— 


3 


II 


16-4 


223-9 


48-48 


— 


1 


JI 


11 


305-7 


46-41 


— 


1 


IJ 


II 


360-2 


44-35 


— 


1 


J? 


16-5 


4146 


35-13 


— 


lb 


II 


16-6 


659-5 


31-74 


— 


3 


II 


Jl 


750-2 


25-19 


— 


2 


0-61 


16-7 


926-2 


21-38 


— 


8 


II 


II 


52029-2 


19-39 


— 


6 


It 


16-8 


083-1 


18-04 


— 


1 


>» 


11 


119-8 


04-41 


— 


1 


f) 


16-9 


492-8 


1890-25 


— 


2 


T) 


17-2 


885-9 


86-85 


— 


2 


11 


11 


• 981-2 


79-72 


— 


1 


11 


17-3 


53182-1 


61-08 


" 


2 


0-60 


17-5 


697-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



89 



Manganese (Arc Spectrum). 
Hasselberg : ' Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akadem. Handl.,' Bd. ssx., No. 2. 



1897. 



* Coincident with Fraunhofer lines. 
J These lines seem not to occur in Exner and Haschek's list of manganese spark 
lines, Kitzber, ' Kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien.' civ. (1895), cv. (1896). This list in- 
cludes 1,550 lines, extending from 4824 to 2112. Within these limits all the lines 
of the arc spectrum not marked J seem to occur. 











Reduction to 


a >. . 


Wave-length 
(Kowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuo 


A-t- 


1 


*o849-33 


2 






1-59 


4-6 


17091-4 


17-15 


2 






J» 


4-7 


185-8 


*5780-42 


3 






1-58 


)» 


295-1 


* 38-49 


4 




5737-910 Rowland 


1-56 


1) 


421-5 


5573-94 


5 






1-52 


4-9 


935-7 


♦ 73-27 


4 






>» 


J) 


937-9 


56-09 


2 






?> 


»» 


993-4 


52-76 


2 






1-61 


»> 


18004-2 


52-24 


5 




5652-193 


)> 


?» 


005-8 


* 38-07 


7 




r 38-025 
\ 37-928 


>» 


» 


051-9 


* 35-77 


4 






)» 


1> 


054-4 


* 17-05 


7 


5517-03 Thalgn, j J^i^gJ „ 


)» 


)i 


120-7 


15-06 


2 




V 


»» 


»» 


127-3 


* 06-15 


5 




06-095 


1-50 


5-0 


164-5 


04-53 


3 






f) 


1) 


166-8 


5497-67 


2 






»> 


1) 


184-6 


96-23 


2 






)» 


)1 


189-3 


81-67 


6 






>» 


)> 


237-6 


* 70-86 


7 




f 5470883 
70-802 


1-49 


)J 


273-7 


* 57-71 


4 




57-701 


J» 


J> 


317-7 


. 33-67 


4n 






1-48 


1> 


398-8 


* 3275 


5 




32-753 


^i 


)> 


401-9 


* 20-58 


4 


5420-50 


r 20-613 
{ 20-510 


n 


JJ 


443-2 


* 13-94 


5 


13-70 


13-889 


»» 


9) 


465-8 


* 07-63 


7 


07-80 


f 07-688 
107-587 


»» 


J> 


487-4 


06-32 


2 






>> 


1) 


4953 


*6399-72 


6 


00-85 


5399-675 


1-47 


5-1 


514-4 


* 94-88 


6 


5394-75 


f 94-913 
\94-839 


)> 


I> 


531-0 


* 88-76 


3 






y> 




552-0 


* 77-83 


6 


77-85 


77-800 


)) 


)» 


589-8 


77-46 


3 






j» 


9} 


591-0 


* 50-08 


4 




50-059 


1-46 


31 


686-2 


48-31 


2 






1* 


)> 


712-4 


* 44-66 


3n 




44-646 


T» 


»J 


705-2 


* 41-22 


9 


41-45 


41-337 


»> 


)» 


717-2 


24-53 


3 






1-45 


)> 


775-9 


17-33 


2 






J7 


» 


801-3 


09-16 


3n 






») 


)} 


880-3 


5299-09 


2 






1) 


5-2 


866-0 


98-13 


2 






»» 


)j 


869-4 



90 



REPORT — 1901. 



MANGfANESE (ABC SPECTRUM) — continued. 











Reduction to 
Vacuum 


§§§ 


Wave-lengtli 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 




;illat 
Vac 




1_ 

A. 




Character 






A + 


as a 


5261-00 


2 






1-44 


5-2 


19002-6 


* 55-51 


5s 


5255-51 Thal6n, 5255-492 Rowland 


1» 


>» 


022-4 


*5197-44 


2s 


519701 


5197-332 


1-42 


5-3 


235-0 


* 96-77 


6s 




96-741 


)l 


J» 


237-4 


* 51-14 


6s 




51-112 


1-41 


»» 


407-9 


* 49-40 


3 




18-112 


»» 


J> 


414-4 


* 1815 


4 






1-40 


t* 


632-9 


*5087-02 


2 






1-39 


5-4 


652-5 


* 74-97 


4 




— 


»» 


)l 


699-1 


42-86 


2 






1-38 


JJ 


824-6 


30-86 


2 






)) 


>) 


871-9 


* 30-02 


3 






J» 


>I 


875-2 


22-26 


2n 






1-37 


5-5 


905-8 


» 10-58 


3 






>I 


>) 


952-2 


* 05-10 


4s 




5005-347 


1> 


1? 


974-1 


4985-98 


3 






1-36 


» 


20050-7 


74-60 


3n 






J> 


») 


096-6 


* 66-02 


5s 




4966-036 


}> 


)> 


131-3 


* 34-25 


53 






1-36 


6-6 


260-9 


0100 


2 






1-34 


J> 


3984 


4889-12 


2 






7» 


J» 


447-0 


* 81-87 


2 






It 


)> 


478-3 


62-28 


4 






1-33 


tf 


560-9 


* 5501 


2 






l> 


5-7 


591-6 


* 54-76 


3 






»» 


J» 


692 6 


* 44-47 


4 




4844-408 


»» 


1) 


636-4 


* 3840 


2 






1-32 


>» 


662-3 


* 27-10 


2 






>» 


>» 


710-7 


* 25-80 


2 






»> 


)J 


716-2 


* 23-71 


lOnr 


4823-60 


23-715 


»» 




725-2 


*4783-60 


lOnr 


4783-34 


4783-607 


1-31 


5-8 


898-9 


* 6658 


7 


66-14 


66-621 


1-30 


1» 


973-6 


* 6602 


7 


65-64 


66050 „ 


)> 




9760 


* 62-54 


8 


62-14 


62-567 „ 


yy 


tl 


991-4 


* 61-68 


7 


61-34 


61-718 „ 


l> 


1> 


21995-2 


* 54-23 


lOnr 


54-04 


54-225 „ 


)7 


n 


028-1 


* 39-27 


6s 


39-14 


39-291 


)» 


)j 


094-5 


* 27-63 


7 


27-64 


27-676 „ 


1-29 


If 


1464 


* 09-87 


7 


09-94 


09-896 


Ji 


>j 


226-2 


* 01-30 


4 


01-14 


01-345 „ 


IJ 


5-9 


2620 


*4671-86 


4s 


4671-58 


4671-858 


1-28 


>l 


398-8 


* 43-01 


2 






1-27 


*) 


631-8 


27-99 


2 






)f 


6-0 


601-6 


* 26-74 


4s 


26-48 


26-718 


}) 


*t 


607-6 


07-80 


3u 


07-48 


If 


1-26 


;» 


696-9 


* 05-5r. 


5n 


05-68 


05-536 


it 


»t 


706-9 


4595-51 


3 








jt 


754-4 


86-30 


2 






ty 


1* 


798-1 


48-75 


4 


4549-05 


it 


1-25 


6-1 


978-0 


44-61 


3 






It 


)f 


9980 


* 42-62 


4 






1-24 


)J 


22007-6 


34-72 


2 






jy 


)) 


046-0 


30-01 


2 






)t 


If 


068-9 


* 23-58 


3 




4523-572 


ji 


t* 


100-3 


04-03 


4 


03-95 


04-042 


1-28 


(1 


196-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



91 





Ma> 


fGANESE 


(Arc 


^P^CfRVU)— continued. 


















Keduction to 


s >= - 


Wave-length 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


atio 
lenc 
icuc 


(Rowland) 


and 




(Kowland) 








3 £<I> 




Character 










A + 


1 


O 0) 

t" >-l fl 


*4502-38 


7 


4502-45 Thalgn, 


4502-388 


Rowland 


1-23 


6-1 


22204-4 


*4499-06 


7 


449905 


)f 


4499070 


5 J 






220-8 


* 96-82 


3 


96-05 


»j 


96-676 


jj 




6-2 


231-7 


* 91-86 


4 


91-85 


T» 


91-823 


)t 


;« 




258-3 


* 9028 


7 


90-25 


?» 


90253 


l» 


n 




264-1 


* 79-59 


4 


79-75 


)» 


79-553 


)) 


i» 


JJ 


317-3 


* 72-92 


6 


73-15 


)» 


72-967 


») 


j> 


)J 


350-6 


* 70-31 


C 


r 71-35 
\ 70-25 




70-300 


>J 




»J 


363-6 


* 64-86 


7 


6505 


»» 


64-844 


J» 


1-22 




390-9 


* 62-17 


8n 


62-25 


IJ 


62-165 


»t 


f 1 


J) 


404-4 


* 61-25 


7 


61-41 


)) 


61-242 


M 






409-0 


60-55 


5 


60-55 


T) 


60-462 


}) 


)} 




412-6 


* 68-43 


7 


58-45 


)» 


58-409 


It 


It 




423-2 


* 57-71 


fi 


57-65 


>t 


57-712 


»» 


JJ 




426-8 


* 57-22 


6 


57-45 


I» 


57-207 


JJ 


)9 




429-1 


* 5605 


6 


56-15 


JJ 


55-980 


i) 


} J 


JJ 


435-2 


* 55-50 


6 


55-55 


IJ 


55-485 


)> 






438-0 


* 55-19 


6 


55-25 


J» 


55-193 


JJ 


JJ 




440-0 


* 53-16 


6 


53-25 


)) 


53-171 








450-3 


52-73f 


3 










JJ 




452-4 


* 51-75 


7 


51-95 


)» 


51-752 


*t 


J J 




456-9 


* 47-32 


3 


47-45 


1* 


47-302 


)» 


JJ 




479-2 


* 36-52 


6 


36-45 


J) 


36-516 


)} 






534-0 


36-24 












JJ 




535-4 


* 19-96 


4s 


20 05 


»» 


19-944 


)l 


1-21 


6-3 


618-3 


* 15-06 


6 


15-05 


)5 


15-047 


)t 


JJ 




638-6 


* 12-06 


4 


12-15 


1) 


12-043 


)) 






658-8 


* 08-28 


3 


08-35 


» 






»t 




678-3 


4389-95 


3 






4389-930 


)» 


1-20 




773-0 


88-27 


? 






88-260 


1} 


jl 


JJ 


781-7 


82-80 


3n 


4383-10 


»» 


82-847 


ff 


JJ 




810-2 


81-87 


4 


82-30 


»J 


82-045 


)) 






815-0 


* 7510 


4 


75-30 


J» 


75-103 


f» 


J) 




850-3 


37-57 


2 






37-569 


)i 


1-19 


6-4 


23048-0 


26-35 


— 


26-10 


t1 










107-8 


23 59 


— 










JJ 




122-5 


21-36 


— 


23-50 


n 






JJ 




134-5 


* 12-70 


5 


21-40 


J1 


12-723 


)) 


1-18 




180-9 


05-84 


2 










JJ 


6-5 


217-8 


00-35 


3 


00-23 


») 


00-376 


IT 


J) 




247-4 


4290-29 


2 










)t 




301-9 


* 84-22 


5 


4284-53 


}* 


4284-223 








3350 


* 81-27 


6 


81-33 


)» 


81-257 


)» 


n 




351-0 


78-85 


3 










I'll 




364-2 


* 6608 


6 


66-33 


j» 


66-081 








434-2 


* 61-45 


3 


61-63 


)l 


61-496 


ff 






459-7 


* 58-48$ 


2 










JJ 




476-0 


* 57-80 


6 


58-03 


If 


57-815 


It 






479-8 


* 39-88 


6 


40-03 


»» 


39-890 


)f 


1-16 


e-'e 


579-0 


* 35-46J 


6 


35-43 


)l 


35-450 


n 


jf 




603-6 


* 35-28 


6 






35-298 


Jf 






604-6 


30-47t 


2 














6314 


30-31 


2 














632-8 


» ?0-79 


5 


21-13 


.. 


20-738 


»» 


»» 


j» 


685-fi 



92 



REPORT — 1901. 



Manganese (Arc Spectrum) — confhived. 



Wave-length 


(Rowland) 


*4212-64t 


* 


11-90 


* 


01-88 


*4190-15 1 


* 


76-73 


* 


57-21 




55-68$ 


* 


51-16 


* 


48-94 


* 


47-65 


* 


41-18 


* 


40-35 


* 


37-40t 


* 


35-13 




34-77 




32-45 




31-60$ 


* 


31-26 


* 


23-68 


* 


23-41 




22-92 




14-53 


* 


14 02 


* 


13-39 


* 


10-98 


* 


08-01 


* 


05-51 


* 


03-62 


* 


03-07 


409957 1 


* 


9681$ 


* 


95-42 




95-17 




90-73 




90-10 


* 


83-75 


* 


8309 


* 


79-56$ 


* 


79-35 


♦ 


75-39 


* 


70-41 


* 


68-13 




66-38 


* 


65-22 


* 


63-38 


* 


61-88 


* 


59-53 


* 


59-08 


* 


58-10 


* 


55-68 




55-35$ 


* 


52-62 




51-90 


* 


49-161 


* 


48-88' 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



4 

4 

4 

5 

3 

3 

3 

6 

4 

5 

2 

4 

5 

4 

2 

2 

5 

3 

3 

3 

4 

3s 

4 

6 

3 



4 
2 
3 
4 
2 
2 

4 

9 

9 

9 

9 

3 

6 
4s also Fe 

3 

4 
7 also Fe 

6 

6 

7 

5 

9 

4 

4 

4 

4 

8 



Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 



4211-899 Rowland 
4202-23 Thal§n, 01-869 
4190-147 

76-739 

57-167 



48-948 
47-645 
41-208 



4135-26 



4083-83 
83-13 
79-43 



63-63 



56-43 



48-83 



37-428 
35-191 



31-271 
23-664 



14-461 

13-381 
11-021 

05-514 

03-097 

4095-423 



90-113 

83-783 
83-095 
79570 
79-393 
70-431 
68-137 

65-239 

63-573 
61-881 
59-535 
59-081 
58-115 
4055-701 
55-365 
52-603 



404S-910 



Reduction to 


IS f^- 


Vacuum 


illatio 
quenc 
Vacuc 








1 


o » _ 


X+ 


A." 


m ti C 


1-16 


6-6 


23731-5 


)J 


It 


735-6 


1-15 


91 


792-3 


?» 


6-7 


858-8 


J> 


11 


935-5 


1-14 


11 


24048-6 


)> 


?» 


056-7 


}9 


)» 


082-9 


11 


6-8 


095-7 


it 


l» 


103-2 


it 


tt 


140-9 


n 


It 


145-7 


j> 


1) 


163-0 


>» 


»> 


175-2 


»> 


tr 


178-3 


>» 


99 


188-7 


It 


»» 


201-9 


»» 


)> 


203-9 


1-13 


37 


243-4 


9f 


1) 


2450 


it 


99 


247-8 


)> 


t9 


297-3 


)> 


)» 


300 3 


)? 


)J 


304-0 


»l 


>» 


318-3 


)> 


99 


335-9 


It 

11 


99 

19 


350-7 
361-9 


>» 


19 


365-2 


)) 


6-9 


386-0 


J» 


;> 


402-2 


)> 


i? 


407-2 


19 


jt 


412-0 


112 


)} 


438-6 


J» 


») 


442-3 


)) 


)S 


480-4 


>) 


)» 


484-4 


•1 


)) 


605-5 


)) 


J» 


506-5 


)) 


»» 


530-6 


» 


tt 


560-6 


)» 


91 


574-4 


)» 


1) 


585-0 


J» 


>S 


5933 


)> 


J> 


603-2 


tt 


tt 


612-2 


it 


It 


626-5 


3t 


9t 


629-2 


)» 


tt 


635-2 


tt 


It 


649-9 


9t 


)> 


651-9 


rii 


11 


668-5 


3} 


7-0 


672-8 


J) 


ij 


689-6 


• • 


i» 


691-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 93 



Manganese (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 









Reduction to 


a >^ _ 


Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


scillatio 
requeue 
u Vacuc 




1 








A.+ 


\ 


OPu- 


*10i526 


6 


4045-266 Rowland 


1-11 


7-0 


24713-3 


* 11-4!) 


On also Fu 


1011-23 Thalen, 41-525 


?) 


1» 


736-3 


38-89J 


4 


38-771 


H 


») 


752-3 


* 35-88 


6 


4035-883 „ ! 


,, 


i> 


770-7 


* 34-60 


20n r 


34-63 „ 34-644 


iJ 


>» 


778-6 


* 33-18 


20nr 


33-53 „ 33-230 „ 


>> 


)» 


787-3 


* 30-87 


20n r 


30-13 „ 30-919t „ 


»> 


it 


801-5 


* 26-57 


6 


26-583 


1» 


it 


838-0 


* 20-18 


3 


20-226 


)» 


)> 


867-5 


* 18-25 


7 


18-25 t ,. 


»5 


)5 


879-4 


12-09 


2 




1-10 


»» 


917-6 


11-69 


3 


11-693 


»» 


»» 


920-1 


08-19 


3 


08-215 


»l 


ft 


941-9 


03-42 


2 




}) 


7-1 


971-5 


02-31$ 


2 


02-308 


)1 


J» 


978-5 


02-05 


2 


03-086 


)» 


J» 


9801 


3997-34 


2 


3997-365 


)» 


1» 


25009-5 


92-65 


3 


3992-5 Lockyer 


J» 


)i 


038-9 


* 90-10 


2 


90-0 „ 90-129 




11 


054-9 


87-61 


2 


87-625 




75 


070-6 


* 87-23 


4 


3987-244 


*1 


1) 


073-0 


* 86-94 


4 


86-979 


)) 


») 


074-8 


* 85-36 


4 


85-463 


,, 


)) 


084-7 


84-31 


2 


3984-294 


»l 


J» 


091-3 


83-07$ 


2 


83-053 


?» 


J» 


099-2 


* 82-72 


4 


82-630 


,, 


IJ 


101-4 


82-31 


2 




■ ) 


)» 


103-0 


77-24 


3 


77-2 „ 77-223 


)» 


7) 


136-1 


* 76-03 


3 


75-6 „ 75-985 




1» 


143-5 


5300 


4 


52-7 „ 53-043 


1-09 


7-2 


290-0 


43-01 


3n 


43-0 „ 42-984 


»> 


)7 


354-1 


36-91 




36-913 




5» 


393-4 


29-82 


o 


29-6 „ 29-864 


1-08 


)7 


439-3 


29-41 


— 




1> 


)» 


441-9 


* 29-30J 


3 


29-363 


»» 


1) 


442-6 


* 26-61 


5 


26-5 „ 36-597 


1> 


)> 


459-1 


* 24-24 


4 


21-2 „ 24-206 


,, 


7» 


480-4 


* 23-45 


3 


23-5 „ 23-375 


,, 


77 


480-6 


* 22-82J 


5n 


22-8 „ 23-815 


»» 


It 


484-7 


* 22-20 


2 


33-223 


n 


77 


488-7 


* 21-85$ 


4n 


21-8 „ 21-855 


71 


7) 


491-0 


* 18-43 


4 


18-3 „ 18-396 




77 


513-2 


16-75 


2 


16-6ril 




)) 


524-2 


11-57 


3 


11-5 „ 11-554 


>i 


17 


5580 


11-27 


an 


11-2 „ 


i» 


7» 


559-9 


08-34 


2s 




i» 


7-3 


5790 


05-12 


2 




J) 


»» 


600-1 


04-47 


2 




)) 


)) 


604-9 


03-68 


2 




»i 


)> 


616-1 


3899-81$ 


4s 


3899-701 




11 


635-0 


99-46 


3s 


99530 


,, 




637-2 


* 98-50 


4 


98-531 


ji 


i ») 


643-5 



t double 



f 4030-497 , r401S-269 
\ 30-878 T -J^ ig,234 



94 



REPORT — 1901. 



Manganese (Akc SvEcvBVM)—no>i,ti}iucd. 









Reduction to 


a >, . 


Wave-lengtli 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


lillatio 
quenc 
Vacuo 








Character 




A.+ 


1 


S 2 s 

OPq- = 


3897-47 


2 




1-08 


7-3 


35650-4 


96-48 


3s 


3896-385 Ro-wland 


1-07 


J) 


656-9 


* 94-85 


3s 


94-850 


J» 


»j 


667-6 


* 93-72 


2 


92-698 


U 


11 


681-7 


* 91-92 


3 




)t 


11 


687-0 


89-62 


2 


89-498 


1» 


11 


699-9 


* 86-42 


5s also Fe 




It 


11 


727-3 


79-32 


2 




11 




770-4 


72-36 


3 




11 


11 


817-4 


65-83 


2 




»l 


91 


860-4 


* 61-88t 


3 




11 


11 


886-8 


56-68 


4 




?1 


11 


921-7 


* 53-60 


3 




1-06 


It 


942-5 


* 44-10 


7 


44-135 


11 




26006-6 


* 41-17 


8 also Fe 


41195 


JJ 


11 


026-4 


* 39-93 


7 


39-922 


t1 


It 


034-9 


37-68 


3 




It 


J» 


050-1 


* 34-48 


9 


34-506 „ 


11 


It 


071-8 


* 33 96 


7 


34-006 


It 


JJ 


075-4 


30-13J 


2 




11 


11 


ioi-5 


* 29-81 


5 




») )t 


103-6 


* 24-01 


7 


24-028 


M 


*1 


143-3 


* 33-64 


S 


23-653 




l» 


145-8 


* 16-87 


5 


16-887 


1-05 


7-4 


1931 


10-85 


4 




»» 


1> 


333-5 


09-70 


6 


09-73?.t „ 


O 


11 


239-5 


* 06-84 


9 also Fe 


06-865 


19 


11 


2611 


03-04 


4 


02-051 


11 


»» 


294-3 


* 00-68 


4 


00-683 


11 


11 


303-7 


*3799-38 


4 


3799-386 


U 


19 


312-7 


* 90-86 


6 


90-362 


11 


99 


375-3 


* 85-57 


3 




11 


11 


408-7 


* 76-70 


3s 


76-698 „ 


1-04 


11 


470-7 


* 74-81 


2 




• 1 


u 


484-0 


* 74-02 


2 




It 


11 


489-5 


71-62 


2 




It 


7-5 


506-3 


68-33 


2 




)) 


ij 


529-4 


* 67-84 


4 


67-787 


)) 


)» 


532-9 


63-51 


4 




11 


i» 


563-4 


* 56-80 


3 


56-705 


11 


JJ 


610-9 



+ r.«„w» S 3809-834 

t Double I og.ggg 

the following: lines (not 

5457 640, 12-997, 5321976, 4884-242, 4233328, 4171-854,' 4092-547, 83-376, 
33-814, 33-732, 31943, 07 185, 3954-680, 52-103, 37-973, 3895-583, 88971, 
3696-800, 95658, 91-453, 84680, 58-689, 58-044, 17575, 15 531, 3590109, 
3488 437, 87095, 74-287, 74-197, 60-174, 55-204, 65-121, 51609, 42-118, 
3386-085, 82-825, 82-129, 79005, 70-770, 69352, 68-319, 55661, 45-495, 43-804. 
20 783, 17 393, 16-698, 16561, 14 995. 14-574, 14-334, 13-562, 13-301, 12-063, 
07-114, 05-001, 03-398. 3299 652, 98-361, 97014, 95-951, 80 900, 78-687, 73 175, 70-473 
68-847, 64 833, 60-386, 68 543, 56-364, .^5-617, 54-180. 53090. 51-273, 48637, 43-883, 
40 726, 40-533, 36-905, 30-8t3, 38-219, 26 143, 24 882, 17-040, 13 004, 3178-620, 67-289, 
61 146, 48-283, 43846, 40-430, 3079-724, 73-232. 70-372, 66 101, 63-333, 54-429, 48999, 
47-156, 45-695, 44-671, 40-712, 22-861, 2801-183, 3798-369, g4-911, 2593-810, 76'19S. 



Rowland's Table of Solar Spectrum Wave-lengths gives 

mentioned in the above list) as due to Manganese : 

45-371, 
40-340, 
11-763, 
20-940, 
30-802, 
08-888, 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 95 



Manganese (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 









Reduction to ci >> _ 








Vacuum 


O tJ u; 


Wave-length 
(Kowland) 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Bowland) 




cillat 
Bque 
Vac 


1 




Character 




A.+ 


\ 


w ti d 

Ofe- 


3750-92 


4 


3750-916 Rowland 


1-04 


7-5 


26652-6 


49-54 


3 




1» 


>> 


662-4 


46-78 


4 


46-717 


** 


i» 


682-1 


* 37-03 


3 


37-059 


1-03 


751-7 1 


3205 


5 


32-072 


}» 


1> 


787-4 


* 2905 


4 


29-004 


»» 


11 


809 


27-21J 


2 


27-061 


,, 


7-6 


8221 


* 19-04 


5 


19-070 


M 


»l 


881-1 


* 06-16 


5 


06-175 


i» 


)i 


974-5 


* 01-85 


3s 


01-866 


i» 


)» 


27005-9 


* 00-47 


2 




)» 


11 


016-0 


*3696-69 


5 


3696-707 


1-02 


1» 


044-6 


94-28 


3ii 




1» 


,, 


061-3 


* 93-81 


5 


93-804 


») 


Jl 


064-7 


* 92-98 


3 


92-954 


>» 


Tl 


070-8 


* 85-69t 


2 


85-665 


It 


■»» 


124-4 


85 04 


2 




1» 


'» 


129-1 


* 82-24 


4 


82-161 


iy 


7-7 


149-7 


80-32 


2 




i» 


11 


163-8 


* 77-12 


4 




)> 


1> 


187-5 


* 70-67 


3 


70-678 


.) 


11 


235-3 


* 70-00 


2 


69-976 


»» 


• 1 


240-3 


* 69-54 


2 




»t 


51 


243-7 


* 60-52 


4 


60-549 


»* 


„ 


310-8 


* 41-60 


2 


41-597 


1-01 


7-8 


452-6 


35-89 


2 




•> 


11 


495-8 


* 29-87 


4 


29-877 


1) 


)1 


541-4 


* 23-92 


5 


23-925 


»» 


t) 


586-6 


* 19-42 


6 


19-412 


*i 


)l 


620-9 


* 10-44 


6 


10-435 


100 


11 


689-6 


* 08 62 


6 


08-630 


1» 


IT 


703-6 


* 07-66 


6 


07-672 


J1 


11 


711-0 


01-96 


2 




If 


11 


754-9 


01-45 


2 




It 


11 


758-8 


*3595-25 


5 


3595-256 


)t 


J» 


806-7 


* 86-65 


6 


86-684 


11 


11 


873-3 


* 77-99 


7 


78-014 


0-99 


7-9 


940-7 


* 70-18 


5n 


70-183 


)> 


1» 


28001-9 


* 69-91 


6n 


69958 „ 


1» 


1) 


004-0 


* 69-66 


8n 


69-649 


>> 


11 


006-0 


* 48-35t 


5n 


48 332 


51 


1» 


174-1 


* 48-17 


5n 


48-175 


t) 


80 


175-5 


* 47-94 


5n 


47-941 


11 


11 


177-4 


* 32-27 


5n 


32-262 „ 


0-98 


11 


302-4 


* 32-14 


5n 


32-143 


»» 


11 


303-4 


* 31-97 


5n 


31-982 


11 


11 


304-8 


*3497-67 


3 


97-668 


0-97 


8-1 


582-3 


* 96-96 


3 


96-962 


1> 


19 


588-2 


* 95-99 


4 


95-974 


;j 


11 


596-1 


* 88-80 


4 


88-817 


)> 


11 


655-0 


* 83-01 


4 


83-047 


" 




702-7 


' * 60-47 


5 


60-460 


»> 


8-2 


889-6 



96 



REPORT — 1901. 



Silicon (Spark Spectrum). 

Eder and Valouta, ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cvii. (2), 1898. 
Exner and Haschek, ihid., cviii. (2), 1899. 
Lockyer, ' Proc. Eoyal Soc.,' Ixv. p. 449. 1900. 

t Observed also by Count de Gramont, who gives also lines at 6969'7, 6342'2, 
5978-9, 5960-3, 5948-0 ?, 50600, 5045-5. 

* Observed also by Rowland, whose values are 4103-101, 3905-666, 2987-766, 
2881-695, 2631-392, 2528-599, 2524-206, 2519-297, 2516-210, 2514-417, 2506-994, 
2443-460, 2438-864, 2435-247, 2216-760, 2211-759, 2210-939, 2208060. Rowland gives 
also lines at 5948-761, 5771-360, 5708-620, 5645-835, and 2218-146. 

t 3807 Lunt, 'Astroph. J.' si. p. 269 (1900). 



Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 


Lockyer 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 
















Oscillation 
Pi-equency 




Intensitj 




Intensity 


Wave- 
length 




J 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


A + 






jCharactei 




iCharactei 




A 










4764-20 


1 


_ 


1-31 


5-8 


20984-0 


— 


— 


t4574-9 


In 


4575-3 


1-25 


60 


21852 


— 


— 


■f 67-95 


In 


68-0 


n 


»t 


885-4 


— 


— 


t 52-75 


3n 


52-8 


11 


6-1 


957-5 


t4131-0 


4b 


— 


— 


4131-4 


113 


6-8 


24200 


t 28-2 


4b 


4128-1 


5b 


28-3 


)» 


»J 


217 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16-4 


J) 


» 


292 


— 


— 


* 03-2 


In 


— 


1> 


»» 


364 


— 


— 


4096-8 


lb 


— 


ti 


6-9 


402 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4089-1 ? 


1-12 


1» 


447? 


— 


— 


30-1 


2b 


— 


1-11 


7-0 


743 


— 


— 


21-0 


lb 


— 


» 


H 


862 


3905-80 


3b 


*3905-71 


5r 


— 


1-08 


7-3 


25694-5 


— 


— 


3883-46 


1 


— 


1-07 


1> 


739-7 


— 


— 


71-60 


1(CN) 


— 


n 


it 


819-4 


3862-75 


3b 


62-80 


4n 


3862-7 


}* 


7-5 


880-7 


56-20 


3b 


56-19 


5n 


56-1 


1-06 


?f 


924-7 


5400 


lb 


54-02 


In 





jt 


it 


939-5 


— 


— 


.53-62 


In 





)) 


11 


942-1 


84-4 


1 


— 


— 





Ji 


If 


26072 


26-7 


1 


— 


— 


— 


tJ 


11 


125 


— 


— 


t06-90 


3n 





1-05 


7-4 


260-6 


3795-9 


2 


3796-50 


2n 





)) 


11 


332-6 


911 


1 


91-8 


lb 





]) 


)> 


366 


— 


— 


910 


In 





)) 


11 


371 


3191-1 


1 




— 





0-90 


8-9 


31328 


— 


— 


3093-6 


lb 





0-87 


9-2 


32315-8 


3086-8 


1 


86-6 


lb 


, 






389 


2987-77 


4 


*2987-77 


1 





0-84 


9-6 


33450-8 


2881-70 


10 


♦2881-73 


15 





0-82 


100 


34688-4 


2689-8 


1 


— 








0-77 


10-8 j 


37181 


77-4 


1 


— 










10-9 


338 


59-0 


1 


— 





__ 


91 


11 


597 


31-39 


8 


♦2631-38 


3 





0-76 


11-0 


983-6 


2568-8 


2 


2568-8 


In 





0-75 


11-3 , 


38917 


41-89 


8 


41-90 


2 





0-74 


11-5 ! 


39330 


34-7 


1 


— 








)f 


fl 


440-9 


33-2 


4 


32-45 


1 







11 


452-6 


28-60 


8 


* 28-60 


8 





y% 


11-6 


530 


24-21 


8 


* 24-21 


6 







,, 


593-6 


19-30 


8 ! 


* 19-30 


5 





',, 1 


,, 


666 


16-21 


10 1 


* 16-26 


10 





0-78 , 




719-4 


14-42 


7 ! 


* 14-41 


5 


1 


.. 1 


»» 


750-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES bP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



97 



Silicon (Spakk Spectrum) — continued. 



Eder and Valenta 


Exner and Haschek 


Lockyer 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


















Oscillation 
Frequency 




Intensity 




Intensity 






1 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave length 


and 




\ + 








Character 




Character 






A 




2o0(;-99 


8 


*2507-01 


G 


_ 


0-73 


11-7 


39861-0 


2479-8 


1 


2478-68 


1 (CN) 


— . 


1» 


11-8 


40317-6 


52-22 


3 


52 23 


In 


— 


»1 


12-0 


752-9 


46-0 


3 


45-63 


1 


— 


0-72 


1» 


871-7 


— 


— 


* 43-91 


In 


— 




If 


904-7 


43-46 


2 


* 43-47 


In 


— 


t) 


• 1 


905-4 


38-86 


2 


* 38-87 


In 


— 


I) 


121 


988-5 


35-25 


8 


35-22 


3 


— 


It 


H 


41040-1 


2356-9 


1 


— 


— 


— 


0-70 


12-6 


42416 


03-3 


1 


— 


— 


— 


0-69 


13-0 


43403 


— 


— 


2296-96 


1(C) 


— 


»t 


tt 


522-1 


2219-5 


1 


— 




— 


67 


13-7 


45041 


18-15 


1 


— 


— 


— 


ff 


II 


053-4 


16-76 


4 


* 16-75 


In 


— 




II 


092-8 


118 


3 


* 11-87 


In 


— 


If 


13-8 


194-4 


10-9 


3 


* 10-97 


1 


— 


»» 


II 


217-3 


08-1 


3 


* 08-1 


1 


— 




II 


274 


2122-8 


2 


— 


— 


— 


0-65 


14-6 


47092 


1929-0 


1 


— 


— 


— 


0-62 


16-6 


51823 



Argon (Vacuum Tube). 
The red end of the red spectrum of Argon. 

Runge, ' Astroph. J.,' ix. p. 281. 1899. 
Eunge and Paschen, ' Astroph. J.,' viii. 99. 1898. 

* These lines belong also to the ' blue spectrum.' 







Previous Measurements 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave- 
length 
(Runge) 


Intensity 










Oscillation 
Frequency 


Runge and 
Paschen 


Kayser 


Crookea 


\ + 


1 
K~ 


8014-73 


1 





« 


^_ 


217 


34 


1247.3-6 


06-00 


1 


— 


— 





2-16 


II 


487-2 


7948-32 


1 


7952 


— 


— 


2-15 


II 


577-9 


7724-15 


2 


7725 


7723-4 


— 


2-09 


3-5 


942-9 


7635-19 


3 


76362 


7635-6 


7646 


2-07 


It 


13093-7 


7514-77 


3* 


7515-4 


7515-1 


— 


2-04 


36 


303-5 


0404 


7 


04-5 


03-4 


7506 


2-03 


11 


322-6 


7435-77 


1 


— 


— 


— 


2-01 


II 


444-9 


7384-18 


5* 


7384-22 


7383-9 


7377 


2-00 


3-7 


538-8 


72-28 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


560-6 


53-42 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1-99 


— 


597-3 


16-15 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1-98 


— 


664-7 


1180 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


672-8 


727313 


5* 


7273-04 


7271-6 


7263 


1-97 


— 


745-5 


07-20 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1-95 


— 


871-3 



Nasini, Anderlini, and Salvadori [Accad. Lincei Attv, viii. 269 (1899)] give infra 
red lines at 7980, 8030, 8140, 8320, 8450, and 8575. 

1901. H 



98 



HEPORT— 1901. 



Aegon (Vacuum-tube)— co»<in?/e^. 
t These lines belong only to the ' blue spectrum.* 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


Previous Measurements 


Reduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Eunge and 
Paschea 


and 

Character 


Kayger 


Crookes 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


7147-30 


1 


7146-8 


_ 


194 


3-8 


13987-5 


7068-83 


1 


— 


— 


1-92 


)} 


14142-8 


67-54 


5* 


7066-6 


7056-4 


»» 


tt 


155-4 


30-54 


2* 


29-2 


— 


1-91 


)t 


219-9 


6965-81 


6* 


6964-8 


6965-6 


1-89 


3-9 


351-9 


37-99 


2* 


37-3 


— 


1-88 


It 


409-5 


6888-83 


1 


. — . 





1-87 


ff 


512-3 


80-26 


1 


— 





»» 


tt 


30-4 


71-56 


4* 


6870-6 


__ 


1-86 


ii 


48-8 


27-85 


<1 


— 


— 


t* 


4-0 


641-9 


6766-97 


1 


. — . 


— . 


1-83 




773-7 


56-58 


1 


. — 


— . 


)j 




96-4 


53-15 


5* 


6752-7 


6754 


1» 


tl 


803-9 


19-33 


2 


— 





1-82 




78-4 


669906 


3 


— 


. 


)t 




923-5 


84-95 


<It 


6684-2 


. 


1) 




55-0 


82-7 


2 


— . 





1-81 




60 


79-01 


<1 


— 


. 


t9 


)) 


68-3 


77-61 


6* 


7G-5 


GG64 


it 


ft 


71-4 


64-27 


3 


— 


— 


f I 


41 


15001-3 


60-92 


3 


_ 


— 


it 


a 


08-8 


44-3 


3t 


44-2 





1-80 




46 


40-5 


It 












55 


38-7 


2t 


38-6 






i1 


59 


32-07 


1 


— 





}1 




74-1 


15-2 


<lt 


— 


— 


1» 


^t 


113 


05-05 


4 


— . 





1-79 




35-9 


6538-43 


3* 


— 




1-78 




290-1 


18-87 


1 


— 





1-77 




347-8 


6494-10 


O 


. — . 





1-76 


4-2 


94-4 


83-6 


^t 


6482-8 









419 


81-17 
66-65 
31-77 


2 
3 
3 


= 


— 


1-75 


ii 


25-1 

59-8 

543-6 


1654 


8* 


15-2 


6407 


1-74 




80-5 


02-21 


1 


. 






" 


615-4 


6384-89 


5* 


6384-5 


6377 


it 


it 


57-8 


69-74 
65-02 


4 
3 


68-0 




»» 

1-73 


»t 


95-0 
706-7 


34-24 


<1 


— . 


. 


1-72 


4-3 


82-9 


09-36 


1 


. — 





yi 




845-2 


07-91 


5 


07-8 









48-8 


6299-01 


<1 


— 





1-71 


j> 


71-2 


97-15 

78-80 


5 
2 


6296-8 


6302 


11 


n 


75-9 
922-3 


66-70 


1 


— 





1-70 


»j 


63-1 


59-58 
48-65 


<1 
4 


— 





ji 


ft 


71-2 
99 2 


43-45 


3t 


43-7 


^__ 


>t 


tt 


16012-5 


40 5 


<lt 


, 




' 


" 


20 


38-58 


<1 


— 


— 


ft 
It 


tt 


25-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OK THE SPECTRA OP THE ELEMENTS. 99 
Argon (YACVVU-TVhE.)—con(imied. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


Previous Measurement 


Reduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Runge and 
Paschen 


and 
character 


Kayser 


Crookea 


\ + 


1_ 


6235-99 


1 


43-7 


„_„ 


1-70 


4-3 


16031-6 


30-96 


2 


— 


— 


1-69 


11 


40-6 


24-85 


1 


— 


— 


J» 




60-3 


— 


. — 


17-5 





n 


4-4 


79-2 


16-14 


6 


— 





i> 


It 


82-7 


— 


— 


15-6t 


— 


It 


It 


84-2 


12-73 


6 


12-5 


6210 


i> 


tf 


91-6 


6199-44 


<1 


— 


— 


t» 


19 


126-1 


97-30 


<1 


— 





11 


19 


31-7 


94-25 


<1 


— 


— 


ti 


9t 


39-6 


89-5 


<lt 


— 


— 


1-68 


11 


52 


86-52 


<1 


— 


— 


l> 


t> 


69-8 


83-12 


<1 


— 


— 


»» 


It 


68-7 


79-50 


2 


— 


— 


l» 


tt 


78-1 


73-32 


6* 


6172-9 


6173 


*} 


9t 


94-3 


72-7 


5t 


72-3 


— 


If 


tl 


96 


70-39 


5 


70-3 


— 


If 


II 


202-0 


65-30 


3 


— 


— 


»t 


tt 


15-4 


61-68 


2 


— 


. — 


If 


tt 


24-9 


59-60 


1 


— 


— 


II 


11 


30-4 


55-46 


5 


55-2 


— 


1-67 


11 


41-3 


45-64 


6 


45-6 


6143 


11 


tl 


673 


43-16 


1 


— 


— 


51 


)l 


73-9 


39-1 


1+ 


40-9 


— 


11 


1> 


85 


35-63 


1 


— 


— 


t) 


It 


93-8 


3412 


<1 


— 


_ 


It 


11 


97-9 


2902 


3 


— 


— 


11 


tt 


311-4 


27-57 


4 


— 


— 


11 


It 


15-3 


25-96 


1 


— 


— 


11 


It 


19-6 


23-8 


<lt 


— 


_ 


11 


11 


25 


21-93 


2 


— 


— 


i» 


It 


30-3 


19-74 


3 


— 


— 


11 


II 


36-2 


1505 


2t 


14-1 


— 


1-66 


tl 


48-7 


13-55 


3 


— 


— 


)f 


It 


52-7 


05-87 


6 


06-1 


— 


It 


fl 


73-3 


04-71 


3 


— 


— . 


11 


11 


76-4 


01-33 


3 


— 


— 


11 


tl 


85-5 


609903 


6 


6098-8 


6099 


It 


tl 


91-6 


9609 


1 


— 


— 


It 


11 


99-6 


93-44 


1 


— 


— 


tt 


II 


406-7 


90-97 


4 


— 


— 


• l 


It 


13-3 


85-90 


1 


— 


— 


11 


4-5 


26-9 


81-50 


2 


— 


— 


11 


If 


38-8 


75-20 


<1 


— 


— 


1-65 


f] 


65-9 


67-48 


<1 


— 


— - 


11 


It 


77-8 


64-93 


3 


— 


— 


51 


*, 


83-7 


69-62 


7 


59-5 


6056 


It 


,1 


98-2 


62-96 


6 


62-7 


— 


It 


ft 


516-3 


43-48 


8 


43-011 


6045 


)) 


1) 


42-2 


40-46 


<1 




— 


1-64 


tt 


50-5 


35-49 


<1 


— 


— 


„ 


tt 


64-2 


32-39 


9 
11 60J 


31-511 
13-68, 6032-69, 


6038 
Eder and Val 


>» 

enta. 


tt 


72-7 



H 



100 



BfePOM— 1901. 
ARGON (Vacuum-tube) — continved. 



Wave-length 




Previous Measurement 


Eecluction 
to Vacuum 






In tensity 








Oscillation ' 
Frequency 


Eunge and 
Paschen 


and 
Character 


Kayser 


Crookes 


\ + 


1_ 

X 


6025-40 


4 


6025-8 


_ 


1-64 


4-5 


16591-9 


17-66 


1 


— 


— 




?» 


613-3 


15-40 


<1 


— 


— 




»l 


195 


13-94 


4 


136 


— 




l» 


23-5 


11-59 


1 


— 


— 




%1 


30-0 


05-95 


3 


— 


— 




t* 


45-7 


6999-29 


4 


5999-5 





1-63 


l» 


64-2 


94-99 


2 


— 


— 


*» 


»» 


76-1 


87-61 


5 


87-5 


— 




ft 


91-7 


82-22 


2 





-i— 




** 


716-7 


71-91 


4 


— 


— 




»» 


40 6 


68-58 


3 


— 


— 




>» 


49-9 


64-70 


3 








1-62 


tt 


60-8 


60-78 


<1 


— 


— 




4-6 


71-8 


49-47 


3 


— 


— 




»» 


803-7 


42-92 


5 


43-5 


— 




i» 


22-1 


41-08 


3 


— 


— 




»» 


27-3 


29-06 


6 


28-511 


5926 


1-61 


M 


61-5 


27-34 


3 




— 




t» 


66-4 


80-33 


<1 


— 


— 




11 


86-3 


20-04 


<1 


— 


— 




11 


87-1 


16-84 


3 


— 


— 




»» 


96-3 


12-31 


7 


12-22 11 


5909 




»» 


909-3 


04-09 


<1 


— 


— 




11 


32-8 


00-70 


<1 


— 


— 




11 


42-5 


5897-75 


<1 


— 


— 




11 


51-0 


88-79 


6 


5888-93 11 


5887 


1-60 


It 


76-8 


82-88 


4 


82-78 11 


. — . 




11 


93-9 


80-41 


<l 




— 




11 


17001-0 


70-52 


1 


— 


— 




11 


29-7 


64-29 


<1 


— 


— 




11 


47-8 


60-54 


4 


60-61 II 


6858 




>» 


58-7 



II 5928-61, 5912 48, 5889-02, 5883-03, 5860-69, Eder and Valenta. 

Vanadium. 

Hasselberg : ' Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akadem. Handl.,' Bd. xxxii., No. 2. 1899. 
Rowland and Harrison : • Astrophys. Jour.' April 1898. 

Exner and Haschek: 'Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' Bd. cvii. (2). 1898. 
Lockyer and Baxandall : ' Proc. Roy. Soc.,' vol. Ixviii. p. 189. 1901. 

t Coincident with Fraunhofer lines. 



Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 




X + 


1 

A." 


5850-60 
46-56 
39-34 
30-97 


— 


2 

4n 
2 
4u 


1-59 
11 
It 


4-6 

47 
t» 


17087-7 
099-5 
120-5 
1451 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 101 



Vana diu m — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Eeduction to 








Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 








Eowland and 


and 






Frequency 


Hasselberg 


Harrison 


Character 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


5817-80 


„ 


3 


1-59 


4-7 


17183-9 


17-33 


— 


3 


»» 


It 


1853 


07-40 





4 


1-58 


11 


214-7 


0017 


— 


3 


>» 


tl 


2362 


5788-85 


— 


3 


II 


11 


269-9 


86-42 


5786-413 


4 


>» 


tt 


277-2 


84 64 


84-646 


4 


»> 


ft 


282-5 


83-76 


83-764 


2 


»» 


tf 


285-1 


83-14 


— 


2 


II 


It 


2869 


82-85 


82-848 


2 


t* 


tt 


287-8 


76-95 


76-930 


4n 


1-57 


It 


305-5 


72-66 


72-657 


4s 


1* 


ft 


318-3 


61-70 


61-h74 


3 


91 


tf 


351-3 


62-99 


52-985 


3 


*« 


1) 


377-6 


60-90 





3 


II 


tf 


383-9 


49-13 


— 


4s 


II 




389-2 


47-98 


— 


2s 


11 


tt 


392-7 


43-67 


43-675 


5 


II 




405-8 


37-28 


37-310 


6 


1-56 




425-1 


34-26 


34-254 


4 


Jl 


It 


434-3 


33-63 


— 


2 


M 


If 


4353 


33-34 


33-336 


3 


II 




437-1 


31-48 


— 


7 


1* 


It 


442-8 


27-90 


27-900 


5 


II 


ft 


453-7 


27-25 


27-289t 


8 


II 


tt 


455-6 


25-90 


25-881 


4s 


II 


9t 


459 8 


1649 


16-461 


3 


II 


4-8 


488-6 


09-25 


09-198 


3 


II 


tl 


510-7 


07-26 


07236t 


7 


11 


ft 


516-8 


03-83 


03-825t 


7 


1-55 




527-3 


5698-74 


5698-765 


8 


1} 




542-9 


88-02 


87-993 


2 


ti 


If 


5760 


83-47 


83-451 


3 


it 


ft 


5901 


71-10 


71-091 


7 


II 


tf 


628-5 


68-61 


68-608 


5 


II 


tl 


636-2 


57-67 


67-689 


6 


If 


It 


6703 


5711 


57-119 


2 


1-54 




672-1 


46-36 


46-352 


5 


)t 


11 


705-7 


35-76 


35-742 


3 


II 


ft 


739-1 


— 


34-145 


2 


It 


tl 


744-1 


32-73 


32-702 


2 


It 


f f 


748-6 


27-86 


27-886t 


7 


1-53 


ft 


763-9 


26-27 


26-267 


5 


It 


ft 


7690 


25-16 


25-121 


4 


It 


ft 


772-5 


24-80 


24-853 


5 


11 


11 


773'5 


— 


24-446 


9 


)t 


tl 


774-7 


22-34 


22-319 


3 


It 


11 


781-4 


05-20 


05-187 


6 


If 


4-9 


835-7 


04-91 


04-875 


2 


)1 


}) 


836-7 


04-44 


04-443 


5 






838-1 


01-63 


01-627 


2 


It 


11 


847-0 


— 


5698-047 


2 


tt 


ft 


858-5 


5593-22 
92-67 


94-731 

93-208 
92-670 


2 
3 
6 


It 

11 


If 
»» 
fi 


869-1 
873-9 
876-6 



102 



REPOKT — 1901. 



VAiJATtiVii— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Reduction to 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Hasselberg 


Kowland and 
Harrison 


A + 


1_ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


6588 71 


5588-713 


3 


1-52 


4-9 


17888-3 


86 26 


86-232 


4 


» 


tt 


896-2 


85'00 


84-979t 


3? V 


»» 


It 


900-2 


84-75 


84-745 


5 


»» 


»> 


9010 




84-602 


4 


M 


»> 


901-5 


. 


76-752 


4 


»» 


)) 


926-7 





67-702 


4 


ti 


tt 


955-8 


. 


66-156 


4 


»» 


» 


960-8 


61-92 


61-897 


4 


»» 


II 


974-5 


59-00 


58-995 


4 


It 


II 


983-9 


57-71 





2 


»» 


tt 


988-1 


48-41 


48-401 


2 


1-51 


II 


18018-3 


47-31 


47-306 


5 


it 


II 


021-9 


4618 


46165 


4 


» 


II 


025-6 





45101 


4 


1* 


II 


0290 





42-954 


4 


»i 


11 


0360 


. 


35-659 


4 


i» 


11 


059-8 


_- 


35'082 


4 


tj 


11 


061-7 





34056 


4 


»» 


11 


065-0 





17-437 


4 


»» 


11 


119-4 





15-301 


4 


ti 


II 


126-5 


11-41 


11-413 


3 


1-50 


1* 


139-3 




08-865 


4 


M 


II 


147-6 


07-97 


07-744 


5 


»» 


If 


1510 





06-097 


4 


f» 


II 


156-8 


05-13 


05-097 


3 


U 


11 


1600 


5490-22 


5490181 


3 


It 


50 


209-3 


88-18 


88-312 


4 


tt 


II 


215-7 


87-48 


87-455 


3 


It 


IT 


218-3 


71-56 


71-563 


2 


1-49 


11 


271-3 


6805 


68-032 


2 


»f 


>1 


283-1 


64-30 


— 


2 


»i 


II 


295-6 


58-39 


— 


4 


>f 


11 


315-4 


— 


55-031t 


4 


i» 


• 1 


326-7 


43-50 


43-466 


2 


fi 


II 


365-6 


37-93 


37-885 


3 


1-48 


II 


384-4 


34-43 


34-410 


4 


»» 


11 


396-2 


— 


24-281t 


2 


)l 


II 


430-6 


21-96 


— 


2 


»» 


11 


438-5 


20-32 


— 


2 


»» 


1) 


444-1 


18-33 


18-318 


5 


»» 


11 


450-9 


15-51 


15-479^ 


5 


f* 


11 


460-5 


02-17 


02-148 


5 


11 


11 


606-1 


5398-13 


— 


3 


1-47 


5-1 


519-8 


88-56 


5388-5341 


3 


tt 


II 


552-8 


85-39 


— 


4 


»» 


11 


663-7 


83-68 


83-651 


4 


n 


II 


569-6 


— 


53-619 


4 


1-46 


11 


673-8 


— 


38-812 


2 


*) 


II 


725-7 


30-65 


30-616 


2 


»» 


II 


754-4 


2905 


— 


2 


tj 


II 


7600 


02-40 


— 


2 


1-45 


5-2 


854-2 


5287-88 


— 


1 2 


1-44 


»i 


906-0 



J 5455-02 Ruthenium. 



X 5424-274, 5415-43 iron. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 103 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Reduction to 








Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Hasselberg 


Bowland and 
Hairison 


and 
Character 


\ + 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5282-75 


__ 


2 


1-44 


5-2 


18924-3 


72-92 


— 


2 




M 


959-7 


71-28 


5271-119 


2 




»» 


965-8 


66-33 


— 


2 




»l 


983-4 


61-20 


6.V149 


2 




:t 


19002-0 


60-56 


60-527 


2 




>) 


004-3 


— 


58-308 


2 




II 


012-3 


41-06 


41-055 


4s 


1-43 


n 


074-9 


40-40 


40-364 


2 




)» 


077-4 


34-31 


34-249 


4s 




» 


099-6 


33-91 


33-895 


2 




II 


101-0 


25-97 


25-920 


3 




II 


131-7 


16-80 


16-772 


3 




»» 


163-7 


13-87 


13-837 


2 




)i 


174-5 


12-47 


12-399 


2 


1-42 


II 


179-7 


07-89 


07-844 


2 




6-3 


196-4 


06-82 


06-790 


2 




11 


200-3 


— 


00-520 


4 




11 


223-5 


— 


5197-215 


4 




II 


235-8 


5195-58 


95-564t 


4 




II 


241-9 


95-01 


95-021 


4 




11 


243-9 


93-82 


93-795 


4 




11 


248-3 


93-18 


93184t ? V 


4 




II 


250-7 


92-22 


92193 


2 




H 


254-3 


83-07 


83-033 


2 




l» 


288-4 


81-01 


80-926 


2 




II 


296-1 


79-35 


79-275 


2 




IJ 


302-2 


78-75 


78-733 


2 




11 


304-4 


77-03 


76-956 


4 




II 


310-9 


— 


76-683 


2 




11 


312-1 


— 


74-714 


2 


1-41 


II 


319-4 


72-35 


72-284 


2 




II 


328-4 


70-15 


70-114 


2 




>» 


336-6 


— 


69-126 


2 




11 


340-3 


67-04 


66-961 


2 




11 


348-3 


6514 


65-072 


2 




Jl 


355-3 


69-56 


59-520 


4 




II 


376-3 


— 


59-438 


2 




II 


376-6 


57-27 


. — 


2 




11 


384-8 


48-95 


48-893 


4 




11 


416-3 


39-74 


39-704 


4 




II 


451-0 


38-58 


38-597 


4 




II 


455-3 


— 


37-772 


2 


1-40 


II 


458-4 


28-71 


28-705 


5 




1» 


492-8 


05-37 


05-324 


3 




5-4 


581-9 


5064-32 


5064-296 


3 


1-39 


II 


740-6 


60-91 


60-831 


2 


1-38 


1) 


754-0 


— 


61-781 


2 


f> 


11 


789-6 


— 


47-484 


2 


»» 


II 


806-5 


14-83 


14-811 




1-37 


5-5 


935-4 


02-54 


02-505 


4 


)) 


11 


984-4 


494304 


— 


3 


1-35 


5-6 


20224-9 


33-82 


4933-786 


2 


>j 


It 


262-8 



104 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — cmitinued. 



Are Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 




X + 


1 


*4932-24 


4932-212t 


4 


1-35 


5-6 


20269-2 


* 25-83 


25-837 


5 


11 


11 


295-9 


* 22-60 


22-543 


3 


M 


11 


3090 





19-171 


2 


»» 


91 


323-0 


* 6-48 


16-436 


3 


1-34 


It 


334-2 





13-277 


2 


11 


l» 


347-4 


08-92 


08-882 


2 


«l 


II 


365-6 


, 


07-046 


2 


If 


f> 


373-2 


* 0B06 


— 


2 


ft 


II 


376-4 


♦ 0510 


05-050 


3 


If 


II 


381-3 


• 04-59 


04-575+ 


6 


l> 


II 


383-5 


* 00-84 


00-820 


5 


)l 


II 


399-1 


*4894-43 


4894-396 


4 


tl 


1* 


425-9 


* 91-81 


91-767 


4 


»» 


II 


436-8 


* 91-43 


91-414 


3 


J» 


»l 


438-4 


* 90-32 


90-265 


3 


» 


If 


443-1 


* 87-02 


86-990 


4 


*1 


II 


456-8 


* 85-36 


85-827 


4 


)» 


II 


401-7 





*82-359 


4 


ft 


11 


476-3 


* 81-75 


81-745f 


5 


t* 


If 


478-9 


* 80-77 


80-746 


5 


»• 


>l 


4830 


* 75-66 


75-674t 


8 


1-33 


>l 


504-4 


— - 


73-170 


2 


t» 


If 


514-9 


* 71-46 


71-453 


4 


1» 


11 


5221 


— 


70-334 


2 


t» 


11 


526-9 


* 64-93 


64-943 


8 


»» 


ff 


549-7 


* 62-83 


62-801t 


4 


tl 


11 


658-6 


* 59-34t 


— 


4 


11 


5-7 


573-2 


— 


•58-809 


4 


tl 


9t 


575-5 


— 


*57-241 


2 


fl 


ft 


682-1 


— 


64-114 


2 


ft 


11 


695-3 


— 


52-155 


2 


tf 


91 


603-7 


* 51-65 


51-686t 


8 


tl 


>t 


605-8 


— 


49-458 


2 


»• 


fl 


615-2 


. — 


49-262 


2 


11 


If 


61C-0 


* 48-98 


49-004 


3 


II 


Jl 


617-1 


— 


•46-799 


2 


f 1 


ff 


626-6 


• 43-lG 


43-195 


3 


II 


ff 


641-9 


— 


35040 


2 


1-32 


If 


676-6 


— 


34-264 


2 


91 


If 


679-9 


— 


*34-005 


2 


11 


ff 


681-1 


* 33-17 


33-213 


4 


1) 


ff 


684-5 


* 32-59 


32-617t 


6 


II 


ff 


687-1 


* 31-80 


31-836t 


7 


)l 


ft 


690-4 


* 30-86 


30-879 


3 


11 


ff 


694-5 


— 


29-427 


2 


)) 


f 1 


700-7 


* 29-00 


29-008 


3 


11 


ff 


702-5 


* 27-62 


27-638t 


7 


11 


fl 


708-4 


— 


23-031 


o 


11 


Jf 


728-1 



* Observed also by Lockyer and Baxandall, whose numbers are : 4932-23, 25-87, 
22-60, 16-46, 08-90, 06-05, 05-05, 0460, 00-82. 4894-42, 94-74. 91-40, 9030, 8703, 85-89, 
82-36, 81-75, 4880-82, 75-71, 71-50, 64-92, 62-83. 69-38, 58-80, 57-20, 51-69, 49 05, 46-80, 
43-20, 34-00, 33-24, 3261, 31-85, 3090, 2900, 2763. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 105 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Keduction to 








Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




T?nwlftTifl fijTid 






Hasselberg 


Harrison 


Character 


A + 


1 _ 

"a 


in Vacuo 


*481922 


4819-225 


3 


1-32 


5-7 


20744-5 


— 


*08-842 


2 


1» 




789-3 


* 07-70 


07-736t 


7 


»» 




794-2 


— 


*03-240 


2 


1-31 




8136 


— 


02-373 


2 


»» 




817-3 


*4799-94 


4799-972t 


4 


*» 




827-8 


* 99-20 


99-210 


2 


11 




831-0 


* 98-12 


98-151 


3 


)) 




835-7 


* 97-07 


97-119t 


6 


»> 




840-2 


* 95-27 


95-293 


4 


tt 




848-1 


— 


94-730 


2 


>» 




850 5 


* 93-10 


93-135 


4 


f> 




857-6 


— 


89-103 


2 


11 




875-0 


* 86-70 


86-706t 


6 


»i 




885-5 


• 84-65 


84-663 


4 


i> 




894-4 


— 


81-514 


2 


)) 


6-8 


908-2 


* 76-70t 


76-644 


4 


1) 




929-3 


* 76-54t 


— 


6 


f* 




929-8 


* 73-25 


73-263 


3 


Tf 




944-2 


* 72-74 


72-781 


2 


>» 




946-4 


— 


69-208 


2 


)t 




9620 


* 66-80 


66-838t 


5 


1-30 




971-6 


* 65-84 


65-859 


3 


fl 




976-8 


— 


*64-224 


2 


»» 




984 


— 


*59-210 


2 


)t 




21006-1 


* 57-68 


57-686 


5 


»f 




012-8 


* 57-55 


• — 


4 


If 




013-4 


* 54-13 


— 


5 


I» 




028-5 


— 


*52-036 


2 


t» 




037-8 


* 51-75 


51-759 


4 


II 




039-1 


* 51-45 


51-463 


2 


t* 




040-4 


* 51-16 


51-211 


4 


f} 




041-6 


» 48-70 


48-723 


4 


»> 




052-5 


• 47-30 


47-313 


3 


»» 




058-8 


* 46-81 


46-827 


4 


ft 




060-9 


* 42-79 


42-819 


4 


tl 




078-8 


• 39-79 


39-849 


2 


»» 


?* 


092-1 



* Lockyer and Baxandall, 4819-23, 08-84, 0773, 03-24, 4799-98. 99-20, 98-19, 97-08, 
95-35, 93-15, 86-71, 84-72, 76-63, 73 29. 7276, 6682, 65 91, 64 22, 59-20, 58-95, 5762, 
64-13, 52-05, 61-79, 51-45, 51-18, 4870, 47-30, 4687, 42-86, 39-80. 



106 



REPORT — 1901. 



V AS ABivu— continued. 

" Signifies that the line is double; b^ that the line is sharply defined on the 
violet side and nebulous towards the red ; and b' means that it is sharp on the less 
refracted side and nebulous towards the violet. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


* 4738-51 


4738-505 




3 




1-30 


5-8 


21097-9 


* 37-91 


87-924 




2 




jl 




100-5 


* 32-12 


32-108 




3 




1} 




126-4 


* 31-74 


31-745 




3 




If 




128-1 


* 31-42 


31-443 




3 




tt 




129-5 


^ 30-57 


30-574 




4 








133-3 


* 29-73 


29-724 




4 




1*29 




1371 


* 28-85 


28-840 




2 




»» 




141-0 




* 24-075 




2 








162-3 


* 23-65 


23-626 




2 








164-3 


• 2306 


23-055 




5 








166-9 


* 21-70 


21-704 




5 








173-0 


* 21-42 


21-444 




3 








174-2 


* 17-85 


17-874 




5 








190-3 


* 16-36 


16-377 




3 








197-0 


* 16-08 


16-079 




4 








198-3 


* 15-61 


15-650 




3 








200-3 




* 15-488 Ti 




2 








200-9 


* 14-28t 






5 








206-4 


* 13-61 


13-639 




3 








209-3 


* 10-74 


10746 
09-130 
08-397 




5 
2 
2 








222-3 
229-5 
232-8 


* 07-62t 


07-629 




4 






5-9 


236-3 


* 06-75t 


06-761 




5 








240-2 


* 06-34 


06-357 




5 








2420 


* 05-26 


06-278 




4 








246-8 




* 02-689 




2 








258-5 


4699-52t 


4699-505 




4 








272-9 


* 90-45 


90-438 




2 




1-28 




314-0 


* 88-24 






2 








324-1 


* 87-10 


87-100 




5 








329-3 


* 84-64 


84-634 




4 








340-5 


t82-09 ? V 






o 








3521 


* 81-07|- 


81-073 




3 








356-7 


* 79-95 


79-961 




3 








361-8 


* 79-65 






2 








363-2 


* 73-83 


73-836 




2 








389-8 


* 72-48t?V 






2 








3960 


* 70 06 


70-666 


4670-65 


8 


8 






404-3 


* 69-50t 


69-487 




2 








409-7 


* 66-33 ^ 




66-32 


4 


2 






424-2 




63-314 1 
* 62-605 J 


6307 


6 


2 






439-2 


62-02 






2 








444-0 


* 61-01 






2 








448-7 


* 57-17t 


57-138 


57-15 


2 


2n 






466-5 


* Lockyer 


and Baxanc 


lall, 4738-60, 


37-90, 31 


J-17, 3] 


-80, 3 


L-40, 3{ 


)-58, 29-77, 



28-85, 24-07, 23-65, 23-06, 21 71, 21-40, 17-89, 1639, 16 11, 1562, 15-50, 1429, 13-65, 
10-75, 07-64, 06-76, 0638, 05-23, 02-70, 4690-45, 8824, 87-11, 84-57. 81-12, 8003, 79-68, 
73-83, 72-48, 7066, 69-50, 66-34, 62-60, 62-00, 61-00, 57-17, also lines at 470993 and 
4682-93. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OP THE ELEMENTS. 107 







Vanadium 


— continued. 








Arc Sp'*'*^**^'"^^ 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Eeduction to 








Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


















Rowland and 


Exner and 








1 


in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Harrison 


Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


"a" 








4656-65 




2a 


1-28 


5-9 


21468-8 


» 465547 


4655-410 


55-43 


2 


2 






474-3 


* 54-84 






3 




1*27 


J) 


477-1 


* 53-15 


53106 


53-15 


2 


2a 




ff 


485-0 


* 49-08t 


49-068 


4905 


3 


2 






603-8 


* 48-08 


48-046 




2 








508-4 


* 46-59 


46-571 


46-58 


5 


6 






515-7 


* 46-17 


45-156 




2 








517-2 


» 44-64 


44-624 


44-67 


4 


2 






524-3 




* 44-239 


44-25 




2 






5261 


♦ 40-92 


40-916 


40-91 


4 


4 






641-6 


* 40-25 


40-232 


40-23 


4 


4 




yj 


644-7 


* 36-34 


36-343 


26-33 


3 


2 




II 


562-8 


* 3535 


35-346 


35-34 


5 


4 




It 


567-5 






34-4 




2 




60 


572 


* 30-24 


30-236 




2 








591-2 


* 26-67t 


26-666 


26-67 


4 


4 






607-9 


* 24-62 


24-581 


24-60 


4 


4 






617-5 


* 21-43 


21-426 




2 






y) 


632-3 


19-97-1 
* 19-85/ 


19-896 


19-93 


5 
4 


10 






639-3 
639-7 






*19-0 




2n 




»» 


644 






18-7 




2a 




)} 


645 


* 18-00 




18-03 


2 


2 




It 


648-3 






17-48 




2 


1-26 


9) 


650-8 


* 17-03 




17-02 


2 


2 






653-0 


» 16-18 


16-190 


16-20 


2 


2 






656-9 


* 14-08t?V 


14-094 




2 








666-8 




13076 












667-3 


* 11-92 




11-94 


4 


2 






676-9 


* 11-10 


11-103 


11-13 


3 


2 






680-7 


* 09-84 


09-821 


09-82 


4 


4 






686-8 




08-635 










)l 


692-4 


* 07-40 


07-390 


07-47 


3 


2 






698-2 


* 06-33 


06-321 


06 34 


5 


6 




11 


701-2 






05-53 




2 




IT 


707-0 


* 00-34 




00-40 


3 


10b' 






731-4 


* 4594-27t 


4594-216 


4594-31 


9 


12 




)S 


760-2 


* 91-39 


91-406 


91-41 


5 


8 




}) 


773-3 






90-63 




2 




19 


777-5 






89-05 




2 




1) 


785-0 


* 88-94 




88-88 


2 


2 




11 


785-7 


* 86-54t 


86-554 


86-55 


9 


12 






796-9 


* 86-15 




86-10 


3 


2 






798-9 


* 83-96 


83-967 


83-41 


4 


4 






809-2 




* 81-409 


81-36 




2 






821-5 


* 80-57t 


80-562 


80-60 


8 


10b' 


1-25 




825-3 


* 79-38 


79-373 


79-32 


5 


4 






831-1 


* 78-92 


78-908 


78-90 


6 


6 






833-3 


* 77-36t 


77-348 


77-35 


8 


10 




11 


840-7 


* 71-96 


71-959 


72-00 


6 


10b' 




1} 


866-4 



* Lockyer aod Baxandall, 4655-50, 54-80, 53-13, 49-07, 48-08, 46-52, 4620, 44-66, 
44-24, 40-92, 40-27, 3636, 35-38, 30-25, 26-66, 2461, 21-42, 19-92, 19-00, 18-00, 17-00, 
16-20, 14-10, 11-95, 11-11, 09-84, 0742, 0633, 00-41, 4594-27, 91-41, 88'97, 86-51, 86-20, 
83-96, 81-40, 80-57, 7938, 78-89, 77-33, 71-97. 



108 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 





Arc Spectrum 


Spark 
Spectrum 






Kowland and 


Exner and 


Hasseioerg 


Harrison 


Haschek 


* , 


1570-60 




4570-57 
69-4 
67-40 


* 


64-76 


4564-756 


64-80 
6a-.)5 
63-55 


* 


60-90 


60-893 


6090 
58-60 
56-95 
55-53 


* 


53-25 




53-22 






62-735 


62-67 


♦ 


62-05 


52-016 


51-99 


♦ 


49-81t 


49-824 


49-85 
47-97 


* 


45-57 


45-566 


4560 


* 


41-57 




41-5 


♦ 


40-18 


40-179 


40 18 


♦ 


37-84t 


37834 


37-80 
36 1 
35 73 
35-4 
34 94 






* 34-107 


34-]l 


* 


30-97 


30-972 


30-95 


* 


29-76 




29-73 


* 


29*47 


29-476 


29-45 


♦ 


28-66 




28-69 


♦ 


28-16 


28168 


2812 


» 


25-31t 


25-337 


25-31 


* 


24-38 


24-378 


24-41 
23-97 
22-32 
20-70 


* 


20-67 


20-686 


20-63 


» 


20-31 


20-331 


20-32 


* 


17-77t 


17-738 


17-70 
16-85 
16-21 


* 


15-74 


15-729 


15-71 


si' 


14-36t 


14-357 


14-37 




13-79 


13-792 


13-78 
12-92 


* 


11-64 


11-605 


11-60 


* 


09-49t 


09-463 


09-46 
08-44 


* 


08-11 




08-05 


* 


06-77t 


06-744 


06-75 



Intensity and 


Eeduction to 


Character 


Vacuum 


Arc 


Spark 


A.+ 


1 


4 


4 


1-25 


60 




2 


»> 


»» 




2 


ft 


»» 


2 


12 


n 


t» 




2 


fi 


6-1 




2 


»» 


If 


6 


12 


ft 


>1 




2n 


>f 


1> 




2n 


>i 


)» 




2 


tj 


11 


5 


8b' 


»» 


n 




2 


*> 


II 


4 


2 


»* 


i> 


6 


12 


i» 


1) 




2 


J> 


II 


7 


14 




II 


2 


2b 


1-24 


If 


4 


4 




n 


4 


4 




II 


6 


2b 




11 




2 




»t 




2n 




II 




9 








Ml 




11 


6 


4 




»» 


4 


2 




i» 


5 


4 




II 


4 


2 




II 


4 


8 




II 


5 


4 




» 


4s also 


4 




11 


Fe 








6 


6 




»> 




2n 




n 




2 




II 




2 












II 


3n 


2 




>l 


4n 


2" 




II 


4 


4 




tl 




2n 




II 




2n 




l» 


3 


2 




>» 


5 also 


4 




)• 


Fe.Co 








4 


2 




II 




6n 




II 


4 


2 




)l 


4 


2 




IJ 




2n 




»l 


2 


2 




)• 


4 


2 




Jl 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



21873-0 
879 
888-3 
900-9 
904-7 
906-7 
919-4 
930-5 
938-6 
945-2 
956-3 
958-9 
962-1 
972-8 
981-8 
993-3 

22012-9 
019-5 
020-9 
039-3 
041-1 
042-7 
044-9 
049-0 
064-3 
070-2 
071-6 
075-4 
078-0 
091-7 

096-3 
098-4 
106-5 
114-4 
114-7 
1162 
128-9 
133-3 
136-3 
138-7 
145-4 

148-2 
152-5 
158-9 
169-5 
174-5 
176-4 
182-9 



* Lockyer and Baxandall, 4570 62, 64-79, 60-89, 5325, 5203, 4979, 45-56, 41-60, 
40-18, 37-83, 34-08, 30-9S, 29-78, 29-50, 28-64, 2819, 4525-33, 24 39, 2071, 20-35, 
17-75, 15-73, 14-36, 13-83, 11-63, 0946, 08-10, 0673, 06-40, also lines at 4603-15, 
4555-59. 



ON WAVE-LENGtH TABLES 0? THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 109 

"Vanadium — continued. 





1 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum | 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
















Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 

A 


* 4506-41 




450G-40 


3 


2 


1-24 


6-0 


22184-6 


* 06-30 




06-27 


4 


2 




»J 


185-0 


* 02-12 


4502-121 


0219 


6 


6b' 


l"23 


11 


205-6 






* 01-44 




2 




t9 


209-0 


* 01-01 


01001 


0100 


4a 


2 




)» 


211-2 






4499-97 




2 




»» 


216-3 






98-28 




2 




»t 


224-6 






97-88 




2 




»» 


22«-6 


* 4497-57 


4497-574 


97-57 


4 


4 




62 


228-0 


* 97-03t 




9703 


4 


4 




K 


230-7 


♦ 96-26 


96-233 


96-30 


6 


6b' 




*f 


234-6 


* 95-16 




9518 


3 


2n 




»t 


239-8 






92-47 




2 




>t 


253-3 


* 91-66 


91-648 


91-66 


2 


2 




f» 


2573 


* 91-35 


91-343 


91-35 


3s 


2 




»» 


268-8 


* 90-95t 


90-981 


9099 


OS 


4 




7» 


260-r 






90-3 




2n 




It 


264-0 


* 89-06t 


89-096 


8911 


7 


16b' 




tf 


270-0 






88-46 




2 




>1 


273-1 


* 6-44 




86-43 


2 


2 




It 


283-2 






85-9 




2n 




11 


285-9 






83-76 


5s 


2n 




It 


296-5 


* 80-20 


80-206 


80-26 




4b' 




t1 


313-9 






* 77-46 




2 




It 


327-9 






7606 


4 


2 




It 


334-9 


76-06 




75-85 




2 




t» 


335-9 


* 74-89 


74-890 


74-93 


7 


10 




tt 


340-7 


* 74-21 


74-207 


74-28 


6 


10 




»t 


344-1 






* 73-43 




2 




It 


348-0 






72-53 




2 




II 


352-5 






* 71-94 




2 


.| 


II 


355-5 






* 71-50 




2 




It 


357-7 




70-827 1 


7100 1 
70-60 J 




2 




tt 


360-2 




2 


2n 




tl 


362-2 


* 69-88 


69-871 


69-92 


7 


12b' 




» 


365-8 


* 68-94 


68-931 


68-94 


4 


4 


1-22 


It 


370-5 


* 68-19 


68-174 


68-20 


5 


6b' 




It 


374-2 






* 67-78 




2 


»» 


tl 


376-3 


* 67-04 




6705 


4 


2 




11 


379-9 




* 65 675 


65 67 


6 


4 




tt 


386-8 






* 64-95 




4 


»» 


It 


390-5 






* 64-49 




6b' 


It 


It 


392-8 






63-30 




2 


)> 


II 


398-7 


* 62-56 


62-533 


62-60 


7seeNi 


14 


ir 


tt 


402-3 




60-849 


61-20 


8 


4 b' 


i> 


tl 


411-1 


* 60-46t 


60-4fi2 


60-52 


9 


12b' 


)» 


tl 


4130 


* 59-&3t 


69-918 


59-98 


8 


14 


»» 


It 


415-6 




58-915 




2 




u 


11 


420-8 






* 58-57 


2 


2 


)» 


It 


422-5 


* 57-97t 




57-98 


5 


6b' 


n 


It 


425-5 



* Lockverand Baxandall, 4>Cfi-30, 0212. 01-43,01-00. 4497-55. 97-00, 96-24, 05-I7, 
■91-65,91-36, 90-99. 89-08, 86-39, 80-21,77-48, 74-91, 74-22, 73-45, 7196, 71-51, 69 87, 
'68-95, 68-23, 67-87, 67-09, 65-69, 61-95, 64-46, 62-52, 60-52, 59-96 5857, 58 00, and 
also 4434-24,61-18. 



110 



HEPORT — 1901. 
Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
















Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


X + 


_1 

A." 


in Vacuo 


* 4457-65t 


4457-632 


4457-65 


7 


6 


1-22 


6-2 


22427-1 


* 56-68 


66-668 


66-72 


4 


4n 


u 


J) 


432-0 




56-073 


56-07 Ca 


2 


2 


»> 


f) 


435-1 






55-52 




2 


*1 


11 


437-9 




64-939 


64-96 Ca 


2 


4 


)y 


a 


440-7 






* 54-32 




2 


i> 


If 


443-9 






53-53 




4 


»» 


>> 


447-9 






* 53-37 




2ii 


)} 


ft 


448-7 


* 52-91 




52-90 


4 


4 


1) 


)} 


451-1 


* 52-19 


52-180 


52-23 


8 


14 


11 


1) 


454-6 


* 51-09t 


61-070 


61-11 


4 


6b' 


J) 


fy 


460-2 


* 49-77 


49-741 


49-76 


5 


4 


it 


)f 


466-9 






* 45-99 




2 


ji 


f ) 


4860 


* 44-40t 


44-380 


44-42 


7 also 

Ti 
4 


10 


)f 


)> 


494-0 


* 43-52 


43-508 


43-50 


8 


ji 


)» 


498-5 






42-53 




2 


}j 


jf 


503-5 


* 41-88t 


41-847 


41-90 


7 also 
Ti 


14 


l> 


M 


506-7 






40-65 




2n 


u 


if 


513-0 






*3916 




2 


tt 


ft 


520-6 


* 38-02t 


38-004 


38-08 


7 


12bT 


)> 


1} 


526-2 






37'50 




2 


}V 


»J 


529-0 






3700 




2 


7) 


}t 


531-6 


♦ 36-31t 


36-309 


3634 


7 


10 


If 


]( 


635-2 






35-84 




2 


1) 


)» 


637-4 






* 35'53 




2 


)1 


J) 


5390 






35-0 




2b 


)1 


)) 


641-7 


* 34-80 




34-74 


4 


4 


ft 


)» 


542-9 






*3307 




2 


** 


6-3 


551-5 


* 30-68 




30-72 


4 


4 


1-21 


If 


663-5 


* 29-95 




29-99 


(i 


8b 


)} 


9f 


567-2 


* 28-681- 


28-676 


28-71 


6 


8 


}) 


ff 


573-7 






* 27-50 




8 


}} 


ff 


579-8 


* 26-171- 




26-23 


6 


8 




ff 


586-4 


* 25-86t 




25-88 


4 


4 




)f 


588-1 




25-594 Ca 


25-60 


2 


2 


ff 


ff 


689-5 


* 24-74t 


24-743 


24-75 


3 


4 






594-9 


* 24-10 


24-082 


24-11 


3 


4 




f f 


597-2 


* 23-41 1 
23-22 J 


23-375 


23-40 


3 
3 


6 


1> 


t» 


600-7 
601-7 


* 22-401- 




22-43 


3 


2 




f f 


605-8 


* 21-73t 


21739 


21-82 


6 


8 






609-1 


* 20-08 




20-19 


5 


4b' 


}f 


ff 


617-4 






16-9 




4ii 




ff 


634-0 


* 16-63t 


16-626 


16-63 


6 


4 


)t 


ff 


635-4 






* 14-74 




2 


11 


ff 


645-1 






* 13-87 




2 




ff 


649-6 


* 12-30 


12-299 


12-38 


4s 


4 b' 


}f 


ff 


657-4 






11-83 




2 




f f 


660-0 


* 08-67t 


08-655 


08-68 


9 


14rb' 


t} 


ff 


676-3 



* Lockyer and Baxacdall, 4457-67, 56-68, 54 34, 53-30, 52-91, 62-19, 51-13, 4978, 
46-04,44-39,43-56,41-90, 39-19, 3802, 36-33, 3560, 34-80,33-09, 30-71, 30-02, 28-72, 
27-49, 26-22, 25-95, 24-77, 24-11, 2340, 22-42, 21-77, 20-14, 16-71, 14-74, 12-33, 08-67.- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OP THE ELEMENTS. Ill 

Vanadium — continued. 







Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Specijruia 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haachek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


* 4408-36t 


4408-368 


4408 40 


8 


10 


1-21 


6-3 


22677-8 


* 07•^5t 


07-801 


07-89 


9 


12 






680-5 


* O6•80•^ 


06-805 


06-90 


9 


12 






685-8 




* 06-277 


06-35 


8 


6 






688-4 


• 05-20t 




05-19 


53 


4 






694-2 






04-45 




2 






698-0 


* 03-86 


03-831 


03-83 


3 


4 




" 


701-2 






01-95 




2 






710-9 


* 00-741' 


00-738 


00-80 


8 


18 






717-1 






*4399-60 




2 






723-0 






98-70 




2n 






727-7 






* 98-05 




2 






731-0 




4397-392 


97-55 


2 


2 






734-0 






* 97-00 




2n 






736-5 


* 439r>-40t 


95-382 


95-49 


9 


20 






744-6 


* 94-98t 




94-99 


3 


4 






746-9 


* 94-Olt 


94-000 


94-03 


4 


4 






751-9 


* 93-26 


93 258 


93-30 


4 


4 


1-20 




755-8 


* 92-24t 


92-234 


92-27 


4 


4 




1) 


761-1 


* 91-84 




91-86 


3 


2 






763-2 


* 90-79 




90-81 


2 


2 






768-6 


* 9013t 


90-142 


90-23 


9r 


30 






771-9 






89-27 




2 






776-5 


* 87-40 




87-37 


3 


4 






786-3 


* 84-87t 


84-875 


84-88 


9 


40r 






799-4 


* 84-37 




84-35 


2 


2 






802-0 


* 8407 






2 








803-3 






82-96 




2 






809-3 






* 81-94 




2 






814-6 




* 81-187 


81-20 


2 


2n 






818-5 


* 80-69 


80-719 


80-72 


4 


4 






821-1 


* 79-38t 


79-392 


79-40 


9r 


40i- 






827-9 


* 78-06 




78-02 


4n 


2 






835-0 






* 76-9 




2b 






840-9 


* 76-25 




76-19 


2 


2 






844-5 


* 75-47t 




75-47 


4 


4 






848-4 






* 75-21 




2 




„ 


849-7 


* 73-99t 


73-984 


73-99 


4 


4 






856-1 


* 73-40t 


73-383 


73-42 


4 


6b' 






859-2 






70-45 




2n 






874-6 


* 69-25 




69-22 


2 


2 






881-1 


* 68-76t 


68-756 


68-73 


3 


4 






883-6 


* 68-25t 




68-19 


4 


6 




6-4 


886-2 






67-74 




2 






888-7 


* 67-24 




67-07 


2 


4n 






891-8 


* 65-92 




65-89 


3 


2 






898-4 


* 64-37t 


64-377 


64-36 


4 


4b' 






906-4 


* 63-69 


63-690 


63-69 


4 


4 






910-0 


* 63-48t 




63-49 


2 


2 






911-1 



* Lockyer and Baxandall, 440835, 07-83, 0680, 0633, 06-20, 03-87, 0074, 439963, 
98-09, 96-93,95-42, 95-05, 94-03, 9328, 92-28, 9188, 90-80, 9013, 87-42, 84-92, 84-42 
84-13, 81-93, 81-21, 80-75, 79-44, 78-13, 77-05, 76-25, 75-51, 7528, 74-01, 73-40, 69-24, 
68-78, 68-23, 6726, 6594, 64-40, 63-75, 63-54, also 4432-28, 3191, 31-36, 22-71, 1888, 
17-83, 15-25, 13-90 13-60, 02-79, 01-91, 01-34, 4397-56, 9661, 95-77. 



i 



112 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 





1 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Seduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Ha3selberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Hasohek 


Ai-c 


Spark 


X + 


i_ 

A 


* 4361-57 




4361-55 


3 


4 


1-20 


6-4 


22921-2 


* 61-18 




61-17 


2 


2 




i> 


923-2 


* 60-75 




60-76 


3 


4 




IT 


925-4 






60-30 




2 




l» 


927-8 


» 57-82 




57-75 


2 


2n 




If 


941-0 


* 5760 




57-61 


3 


2 




»» 


942-0 






* 56-97 




2 


119 


»t 


945-3 


* 56-101- 


4356104 


5616 


5 


4b' 




l» 


949-8 


* 5509 


55138 


55-18 


4 


4b» 




f» 


955-0 






* 53-52 




2 




II 


963-5 


* 53-02t 


53-040 


53-10 


7 


13 




11 


966-0 






* 52-60 




2 




II 


968-4 






* 5099 




2 




It 


976-9 






* 50-85 




2 




II 


977-6 






50-15 




2 




II 


981-3 






* 4707 




2n 




>• 


997-6 






46-60 




2n 




II 


23000-1 


* 43-00 




43-01 


4 


4 




»l 


019-1 


* 42-36 




42-37 


3 


2 




II 


022-5 


* 41-15t 


41162 


41-21 


6 


14b' 




11 


028-9 






* 39-30 




2n 




II 


038-8 






38-12 




2 




II 


0451 


• 36-29 




3G-29 


3 


4 




»l 


054-8 






* 35-64 




2 




II 


058-2 






* 3503 




2 




II 


061-5 


* 34 23 




34-26 


3 


4 




II 


065-6 


* 32 98t 


32-985 


33-05 


G 


12 




11 


072-4 


* 32-56 




32-46 


3 


2 




Jl 


077-7 






31-73 




2 




II 


079-1 


* 30-18t . 




30-28 


3 


12b'' 




11 


084-4 






27-26 




2 




II 


102-9 






25-40 




2 




H 


112-8 






24-80 




2 




II 


116-2 






23-68 




2 




II 


122-0 


* 22-51 




22-52 


2 


2 




II 


128-3 






22-20 




2 




II 


130-0 


* 20-46 




20-45 


2 


2 




11 


139-3 






* 20-13 




2 




II 


141-1 




18-803 


18-81 




2 


i-i's 


11 


148-1 






1G4 




2n 




11 


161-1 


♦ 1G02 




15-98 


2 


2 




II 


163-2 






* 15-00 




2 




11 


168-6 


* 14-06 




14-07 


3 


4 




11 


173-6 






13-50 




2n 




11 


176-6 






13-06 




2 






179-0 


* 12-56 




1256 


2 


2 




11 


181-7 






* 11-85 




2n 




11 


185-5 






* ll-fi2 




2 




11 


186-7 


* 09-95 


09-949 


10 00 


6 


8 




11 


195-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 113 



Vanadium — continued. 



I 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


i_ 

A," 


in Vacuo 


* 4309-69 




4309-68 


3 


2 


1-18 


6-4 


22197-2 






* 08-60 




2 


J» 


65 


202-9 


* 07-33 




07-37 


6 


6 


}1 


,, 


209-6 


♦ 06-35 




06-39 


5 


4 


It 


»» 


2149 






06-07 




2 


»l 


11 


216-5 






* 05-61 




4 


1» 


11 


219-0 






04-98 




2 


11 


11 


222-4 






04-3 




2ii 


11 


19 


226-1 


* 03-70 


4303-697 




4 




11 


11 


229-3 






02-69 Ca? 




4 




11 


234-8 






* 02-31 




2 


II 


11 


236-8 






01-33 




4b- 


»1 


11 


242-1 






00-73 




2 




11 


245-4 






00-25 




2n 




11 


247-9 




* 4299-240 


4299-13 


2 


2 




11 


253-7 






* 98-80 




2 


f> 


1, 


255-8 


*4298-17t 




98-23 


5 


8 




If 


259-0 


* 97-86 


97-840 


97-87 


6 


8 




11 


260-9 






* 97-26 




2 




>l 


264-1 


* 96-28 


96-266 


96-31 


5 


10 




11 


269-4 


* 91-97 


91-978 


92-01 


6 


10b' 




11 


292-8 


* 91-46 




91-46 


4 


4 




11 


295-6 






91-13 




2n 




11 


297-3 






90-45 




2n 




It 


301-1 






89-87 Cr? 




2 




•1 


304-2 






89-51 




2 




II 


306-2 






* 88-96 




2 




11 


309-2 


* 87-97 




87-98 


4 


4b' 




11 


314-5 


♦ 86-57 




86-57 


4 


4 




11 


322-2 






86-24 




2n 




11 


323-9 






85-60 




2 




11 


327-4 


^ 84-19 


84-208 


84-25 


6 


12 




11 


. 335-0 


♦ 83-06 




83-10 


4 


6 




It 


341-2 


* 79-12 




79-10 


3 


10 


i-h 


It 


362-9 


* 77-12t 


77-101 


77-14 


6~ 


12 




>!' 


, 373-7 : 






* 76-47 
74-96'Cr? 




2 

2 




i " . . 


11. 

tl 


. 377-3 
385-5 • 






* 73-54-. 


~ ■ 


2 






It' 


. 393-3 






* 72-90"' 




2n 






11 


• 396-8 


* 71-71 


71-706 


71-68 


6 


4 






ti 


403-4 


* 70-49 




70-5 


4 


4bv 




It 


410-0 


* 69-92+ 




69-91 


4 


4 




11 


413-2 


^ 68-78+ 


68-787 


. 68-83 


6 


14 


„ 


>1 


. 419-3 






68-CO 




2 




It 


423-7 


* 67-50+ 




67-55 


3 


4n 




It 1 


426-3 


* 65-28 




65-31 


4b 


4 




11 


438-5 






64-65 




2a 




II 


442-1 






64-OC 




2 




11 


445-7 


* 62-32 


62-311 


62-32 


4 


6b' 






454-9 


• 61-37+ 




61-4 


4 


2n 


" ;, 1 


460-0 


* Lockyer and Baxandall, 4309-75, 086 


1, 07-32, 06-40. 05-64, 0370, 0232, 429927. 


98-79,98-17,97-85, 97-29, 96-30, 9196, 914 


5, 89-00. 87-93, 8657, 84-19, 8308, 79-12. 


77-10, 76-50, 73-50, 7293, 71-75, 7051, 6 


1-89 68-78, 67-48 6525, 62-30, and also 


4318-04, 06-76, 
mm 


4278-63, ^6607 


',61-32. ■ 


_ ,'-., .. ••.^■. 



lU 



REPORT — 1901. 



yXTSATilVMi—oontimied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 
Character 


Redact 


inn tft 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Bowlsmd and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\+ 


i_ 






4200-90 




2 


1-17 


6-5 


22462-7 






* 60-47 




2n 


»» 


11 


465-1 






♦ 60-31 




2n 


n 


II 


4660 


* 4259-46+ 


4259-454 


59-46 


4s 


4 


»» 


If 


470-7 


» 57-53t 


57-517 


57-54 


4s 


4 


•) 


fl 


481-9 




5717 




2 


II 


f> 


483-3 


* 55-60 




55-63 


3 


2 


11 


fl 


491-8 






54-51 Cr? 




4b» 


• 1 


If 


498-0 


• 53-02 




6300 


3 


2 


II 


11 


506-3 


• 51-45 




51-45 


2 


2 


If 


6-6 


614-8 






49-49 




2 


fi 


II 


625-6 






48-96 




2 


f» 


»i 


528-6 


♦ 47-46 




47-5 
* 46-83 


2 


2b 
2 


II 
1* 


•> 

n 


536-7 
640-4 






43-98 




2 


116 


II 


556-2 






4302 




4 


l» 


II 


561-5 


* 41-48 




41-45 


4 


4 


11 


II 


670-3 


* 40-53t 




40-51 


4 


2 


J» 


II 


575-5 


• 40-25t 




40-23 


4 


2 


II 


II 


577 


* 3912 






3 




»l 


II 


583-2 






36-99 




2 


II 


11 


595-1 






* 36-78 




2 


I* 


II 


596-2 


* 35-90t 


35 909 




5 




»l 


11 


601-1 






35-47 




4 


H 


fl 


603-5 


• 34-70t 


34-671 


34-71 


6 


4 


l» 


11 


607-9 






34-3 




2n 


II 


II 


610-1 


* 34-12 


34-149 


3417 


6 


4 


II 


l» 


610-9 


• 3309t 


33-007 


33-12 


6 


4 


fl 


II 


616-9 


» 32-621- 


32-604 


32-66 


6 


6 


l> 


11 


619-4 






32-20 




6 


fl 


11 


621-8 






31-30 




2 


II 


II 


626-8 


* 29-87 




29-82 


4 


6 


fl 


• 1 


6351 


* 27-90t 




27-90 


4 


4 


If 


II 


645-8 




26-871 


S6-85 Ca? 


8 


10 


11 


11 


651-7 


26-78 






4 




II 


11 


652-1 


* 25-40t 


25-369 


25-40 


2 


8q 


1» 


II 


659-9 






24-70 




2 


If 


11 


663-7 


* 24-30 




24-32 


4 


4 


II 


II 


665-9 






22-77 




2 


11 


l> 


675-5 


* 22-49 




22-50 


2 


2 


91 


II 


6761 


* 21-17 




21-20 


2n 


2n 


)» 


11 


683-3 






20-21 




4 


yf- 


11 


686-9 


* 19-65 




19-70 


3 


2 


II 


11 


691-9 


♦ 18-86t 




18-87 


4s 


4 


• 1 


11 


696-8 






18-65 




2 


ft 


11 


697-7 






18-20 




2 


It 


It 


700-2 


» 16-52 




1653 


2 


2 


II 


II 


709-7 






15-77 Sr? 




2 


)) 


11 


713-9 






1-1-12 




2n 


)> 


11 


723-1 






13-8 




2a 


}> 


11 


724-9 






13-17 




. Sq 


i> 


11 


728-5 



* Lockyar and Baxandall, 426046, 60-28, 5947, 57-60, 55-59, 5300, 61-42, 4743, 
46-91, 41-52, 40-54. 4029. 39-15. 36-78, 35-92, 34-71, 34-18, 33-09, 3S-68. 2U-92, 27'92, 
35-41. 24-30, 22-54, 21-S2, 19'6B. 18'89, 16-5'0. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 115 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Bowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


42 11 '02 




4211-02 


2 


2n 


116 


66 


23740-6 


10-55 






2 




tt 


II 


7433 


* 09-98t 


4210-002 


10-02 


5 


12 




It 


746-4 


* 05-23+ 


05-201 


05-30 


2 


16 


1-15 


If 


773-4 


* 04-67 










it 


11 


776-5 






* 04-39 


2 


4 


>9 


11 


778-1 


* 02-52 


02-506 


02-52 


2 


8 


** 


It 


788-7 






♦ 01-08 




2 


n 


It 


796-8 


* 00-35 




00-38 


4 


2 


11 


11 


800-9 






00-00 




2ii 


It 


6-7 


802-8 


*4198-78t 




4198-80 


4s 


4 


n 


It 


809-6 


♦ 97-77t 




97-79 


4s 


4 


11 


11 


815-4 


* 97-45t 




97-47 


2 


2 


11 


It 


817-3 






* 95-8 




2n 


11 


II 


826-7 


* 94-17 




94-21 


2 


2 


ft 


1) 


835-7 


* 91-70 




91-80 


5 


eb" 


It 


11 


S49-4 






91-11 




4 


fi 


11 


853-3 






90-59 




4 


It 


1} 


856-3 


* 89-99 


4190-011 


90-03 


5 


6 


t} 




859-6 


* 87-82 






2 




tt 


It 


872-1 


* 86-95 




86-93 


2 


2 


11 


II 


877-1 


* 83-59t 




83-67 


2 


16 


u 




896-0 


• 83-43 


83-07 




2 




It 




898-1 


* 82-74 


82-733 


82-77 


5 


4 


tt 


II 


9010 


* 82-23 




82-26 


3 


4 


t) 


„ 


902-9 


* 80-99t 




81-03 


2 


2ii 


)f 




909-9 


* 79-53 




79-60 


5 


6 


tt 


11 


919-2 






79-22 




2 


It 


11 


921-2 






* 78-55 




6 


If 


II 


9250 






* 77-75 




2 


ft 


tl 


928-6 


* 77-25t 




77-22 


4 


4 


It 


ft 


932-5 


* 77-02 






2 




tt 


1) 


933-8 


* 76-83 






2 




9' 


11 


934-9 






76-00 




2n 


tt 


It 


939-7 


♦ 75-30t 




75-30 


2 


2 


II 


It 


943-7 






7515 




2 


II 


)1 


944-5 


* 74-1 8t 


74-155 


74-19 


4 


4 


t» 


If 


949-1 


* 71-45 




71-46 


4 


4 


y§ 




9658 


♦ 69-40t 




* 69-41 


3 


4 


tt 


tl 


967-5 






* 69-06 




2 


t> 


11 


979-6 






67-1 




2b 


114 


tl 


990-8 






66-32 




2 


»» 


11 


995-3 






64-60 




4 


♦ t 1 


11 


24005-2 






63-82 




2a 


It 


It 


009-7 






62-52 


2 


2 


It 


tt 


017-2 


* 62-51 




62-2 




2n 


It 


11 


019-0 


* 60-57 




60-57 


2 


2 


t1 


n 


028-5 


* 59-84t 


59-822 


69-87 


5 


6 


tt 


" 


032-7 


* 68-14 














042-5 



I 



* Lockyer and Baxandall, 4210-00, 05-28, 04-67, 0434, 0250, 01 05, 0030, 
4198-74, 97-74, 97-43. 95-73, 94-13, 91-69, 89-95, 87-74, 86-91, 8360, 83-45, 8274, 
82-21, 80-95, 79-54, 78-53, 77-67, 77-19, 77-00, 7685, 75-24, 7413, 7142, 6937. 
69-08, 67-15, 62-48, 60-48, 5982, 58-11, aod also 4260-00, 39-80, 2315, 06-73, 4199-97. 
99-75. 

I2 



116 



EEPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium —continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Eowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 
\ 


* 4156-00 




4156-00 


3 


2" 


1-14 


6-7 


24054-9 


* 55-39 






2 








058-4 


=• 53-49 




53-49 


3 


2 






069-4 


* 52-81 




52-80 


4 


4 






073-4 






52-3 




2n 






076-3 


* 51-52 




51-50 


2 


2 




'* 


079-9 


* 50-84 




50-83 


4 


4 




6-8 


084-8 


* 49-02 




49-00 


3 


4 






095-3 






* 47-85 




2b' 






102-1 


* 43-02 




43-07 


2 


2 






130-0 


* 42-75t 




42-77 


3 


2 






131-7 


* 41-96 




42-00 


3 


2 






136-2 






* 41-51 




2n 






139-0 






40-22 




2n 






146-5 


* 39-39 




39-40 


4 


6 






151-3 






* 38-27 




4 






157-9 






* 37-14 




2b-- 






164-5 


• 36-52 




36-53 


4 


4 






168-1 


* 36-25 




36-21 


4 


4 






169-8 






* 35-40 




2 






174-7 


* 34-61t 


4134-617 


34-62 


7 


14 






179-2 


* 33-92 




33-91 


4 


4 






183-3 


* 32-13t 


32123 


32-15 


7 


16 






193-8 


* 31-32 


31-297 


31-32 


2 


2 






198-6 






* 30-3 




2b 


1-13 




204-5 


* 29-00 




28-99 


4 


6 






212-2 


» 28-25t 


28-152? 


28-25 


7 


16 






216-5 






26-07 




2 






229-3 


* 24-23 


24-196 


24-26 


4 


4 






240-1 


* 23-65t 




23-70 


6 


8 






243-4 






* 23-30 




4 






245-6 


* 31-13 




21-15 


2 


2 






258-3 


* 20-69 


20-655 


20-69 


4 


6 






261-0 


* 19-58t 


19-575 


19-60 


4 


6 






267-5 






* 19-25 




2 






269-5 


* 18-73 






4 








272-5 


* 18-34 


18-320 


18-38 


5 


10 






274-8 


16-85t 
* 16-64t 


16-631 


1 16-70 


3 
6 


14 






283-6 
. 284-9 


* 15-32t 


15-311 


15-38 


7 


16 






292-5 


* 14-69 




14-68 


3 


4 


)» 




296-4 


* 13-65 


13-637 


13-66 


5 


8 






302-5 


* l2-47t 




12-50 


3 


6 


)» 




309-4 


11-921- 


11-916 


^ r 12-10 

\ll-8 


8 


r8ii 

I8n 






311-7 
312-7 






* 10-93 




2 


)J 




318-6 


* 09-94t 


09-906 


09-98 


7 


14 


>I 




324-5 






* 0919 




2 


)> 




328-9 



* Lockyer and Baxandall, 415595, 55-34, 5347, 5280, 51-46, 50-80, 5022, 49-01, 
47-90, 43-02, 4280, 41-91, 41-50, 39-34, 38 17, 3736, 37-06, 36 55, 36-27, 35-40, 34-61, 
33-86, 32-08, 31-26. 30-28, 28-94, 28-20, 24-15, 2359, 23-30, 21-08, 20-65,19-56, 19 23, 
18-76, 18-34, 16-64, 15-33,14-69, 13-62, 12-50, 13-00, 11-23, 10-86, 09-89, 09-20, also 
4184-55, 80-12, 6686, 58'58, 56-65, 5416, 46-15, 45-63, 43'4^7, 32-83, 31.:07,' 80'44, 
27-56, 27-15, 22-94, 22-45, 21-75. -^ • - ^ 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 117 



Vjjs'ADIUM — continued. 







Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Speocrnm 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
















Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 

A 


*4108-3G 




4108-38 


4 


6 


1-13 


6-8 


24333-8 


* 07-64t 


4107-599 


07G4 


3 


2 


31 


11 


338-1 


* 05-32t 




05-38 


6 


8b' 


)) 


»1 


351-6 


* 04-92t 




04-92 


4 


6 


11 


>» 


354-2 


* 04-55 


04-516 


04-59 


4 


6 


»» 


11 


356-4 






* 03-57 




2 


1* 


11 


362-2 


* 02-311- 


02-285 


02-31 


6 


10 


Jj 


1) 


369-9 






01-15 




4 


)l 


1» 


376-6 


* 4099-931 


4099-921 


0000 


7 


16 


»l 


6-9 


383-7 






*4099-03 




2 


J* 


>) 


3891 


* 98-541- 


98-510 


98-55 


4 


4 


u 


}i 


392-1 


* 97091- 




97-08 


3 


2 


)? 


»» 


400-7 


* 95-641- 


95-607 


95-66 


6 


12 


17 


»» 


409-4 


* 94-42 




94-41 


4 


4 


ii 


»» 


416-6 


* 93-65 




93-66 


4 


4 


1-12 


)j 


421-1 


* 92-83t 




92-86 


6 


8ii 


J) 


i» 


426-0 


* 92-54t 


92-532 


92-53 


4 


4 


)» 


)) 


427-9 


* 92-09 




92-10 


3 


4 


>» 


)j 


430-4 


* 90-70t 


90-703 


90-79 


6 


16 


J» 


)» 


438-6 






85-81 




4 


J» 


)» 


468-0 






* 84-90 




2 


1» 


)j 


473-5 






* 83-07 




6 


Jl 


j» 


484-5 






80-6 




26 


}» 


It 


487-3 




77-849 Sr 


77-86 




2 


JJ 


fi 


515-8 


* 7230 




72-32 


4 


2 


>} 


?» 


549-2 


* 71-67t 


71-664 


71-65 


5 


4 


»» 


>» 


553-1 






* 70-92 




2 


)f 


j> 


557-6 






* 68-13 




4 


)) 


)j 


574-4 


* 67-90 




67-87 


3 


4 


>J 


t9 


575-9 






67-13 




2 


)* 


J» 


580-4 






* 65-21 




12 


»» 


»l 


5920 


* 64-09 


64-061 


64-12 


5 


6 


)» 


»> 


598-9 






* 62-86 




2 


)» 


J» 


606-3 






* 61-75 




2 


J» 


»f 


613-0 


* 60-97 




61-00 


2 


2 


>» 


If 


617-7 






58-95 




2 


)) 


I> 


630-0 


* 57-21 


57-206 


57-22 


6 


8 


»l 


» 


640-5 






56-41 




4 


1» 


1} 


645-4 






* 53-76 




8 


111 


)» 


661-6 






* 53-40 




2 


)» 


»» 


663-7 


* 52-60 




52-60 


2 


2 


1? 


** 


668-6 


* 5i-48t 


51-485 


51-52 


5 


10 


11 


»» 


675-4 


* 51-11 




51-13 


5 


10 


1) 


Jl 


677-6 






49-20 




4 


)) 


>) 


689-3 


* 48-77 




48-78 


4 


4 


)» 


»» 


692-9 






47-60 




2 


)» 


>) 


699-1 


* 47-05 




47-08 


2 


2 


11 


>» 


702-4 






46-50 




6 


»1 


l» 


705-8 


* 42-78 


42-759 


42-81 


4 


4 


)» 


11 


729-6 


* 41-72 






4 




11 


»> 


735-0 



» Lockyer and Baxandall, 4108-32, 0760, 05-33, 04-93, 04-52, 03-54, 02-25, 4099-94, 
98-99, 98-50, 9705, 95-60, 94-38, 9361, 92-81, 92-55, 92-08, 90-74, 84-92, 83-07, 72-28, 
71-67, 70-94, 68-16, 6796, 6554, 6411, 6292, 6176, 61-00, 57-21, 53-81, 53-41, 62-60, 
51-52, 51-10, 48-77, 4699, 42-80, 41-66. 



118 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oecillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 

A 


* 4040-46 




4040-50 


2 


2 


1-11 


6-9 


24742-7 






* 39-76 




4 


fl 


7-0 


746-9 






38-72 




2 


l» 


It 


753-3 


* 36-93t 




36-95 


2 


8 


n 


>l 


764-2 


* 85-77t 




35-82 


4 


16 


1* 


l> 


770-3 






34-91 




2 


t» 


l» 


776-7 


* 3301 




3304 


2 


2 


11 


II 


788-2 


* 32-62t 




32-67 


3 


2 


»» 


11 


790-6 


* 31-98 


4031-961 


32-05 


4 


6 


n 


tt 


794-6 


* 31-37t 




31-43 


3 


4 


»» 


It 


798-3 






30-32 




2 


i» 


11 


804-9 


* 30-04t 




30-07 


3 


2 


It 


tt 


806-5 






29-2 




2n 


tf 


• » 


811-8 






28-27 




2 


»» 


It 


817-5 






27-52 




2n 


i> 


»1 


822-2 






26-65 




2 


»> 


tt 


827-5 


* 25-46 




25-50 


2 


2 


1* 


• t 


834-8 






* 24-60 




2 


ti 


tl 


840-2 


♦ 23-50t 


23-61 


23-53 


4 


20 


If 


tt 


8469 




* 22-038 


2205 


2 


2 


fi 


II 


856-0 






21-61 




2 


»> 


It 


858-7 






♦ 20-70 




2 


»» 


11 


864-3 






* 19-6 




2b 


>f 


tt 


871-1 






• 19-20 




6 


»i 


II 


873-6 






17-44 




6 


tt 


It 


884-5 






♦ 16-98 




6 


»t 


»l 


887-3 






15-81 




2 


110 


It 


894-6 






15-51 




2 


»» 


It 


896-4 


* 15-20 




15-23 


2 


2 


>t 


tl 


898-2 






14-46 




2 


II 


II 


903-0 






* 13-68 




2n 


l» 


11 


907-8 






13-55 




2n 


II 


It 


908-6 






12-70 




2n 


l> 


M 


913-9 






11-74 




2n 


»» 


It 


919-8 


* 11-45 




11-47 


2 


2 


>l 


It 


921-5 


• 09-94 




09-95 


2 


2n 


l> 


It 


931-0 






* 08 36 




6 


•f 


11 


940-9 


* 05-86t 


05-838 


05-90 


4 


16 


fl 


It 


956-4 


* 03-70 




0366 


3 


2 


II 


7-1 


969-9 


♦ 03-lOt 




03-12 


3 


10 


II 


If 


973-5 






01-83 




2 


*l 


t» 


981-5 






01-29 




2 


II 


tt 


984-8 


♦ 00-24 




00-25 


2 


2 


II 


tl 


991-4 






3999-40 




G 


II 


It 


996-7 


* 3998-87 


3998-847 


98-90 


6 


8 


II 


II 


25000-0 


• 97-30t 




97-28 


3 


10 


tl 


tl 


009-8 


* 92-95t 


92-916 


92-96 


6 


12 


•I 


It 


037-1 






92-14 




2 


«l 


tl 


042-1 






91-65 




2 


II 


tl 


045-2 






» 91-30 




2n 


It 


i> 


047-4 



* Lockyer and Baxandall, 4040-43, 4039-76, 36-93, 35-77, 3300, 32-fi4, 31-99, 31-36, 
30-05,25-47,24-63,23 48. 2207. 20 73, 19-58, 19 18, 16-86, 15 26,13-69, 11-50. 0999. 
08-33, 05-90, 03-70, 0312, 03-24. 3998-91, 9731, 9295, 9122, and also 410608, 01-65, 
10-99, 4090 05, 8800, 83-44, 78-10. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 119 



Vanadium — eontimied. 







Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 


•C"" 


Arc Spectrum 


Spectriun 


Character 


Vuouum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


* 3990-71t 


3990-693 


3990-72 


6 


12 


1-10 


M 


25051-1 






* 8993 




6 


}» 


It 


056-0 


♦ 88-97 




88-96 


4 


6 


f 1 


II 


062-1 






* 88-22 




2 


tl 


II 


066-7 






87-82 




2 


It 


II 


0G9-2 






85-40 




8 


It 


tl 


084-5 


* 84-75t 




84-73 


4 


6 


tt 


ft 


087-6 






* 84-45 




6 


If 


It 


090-5 






84-08 




2 


tt 


II 


092-8 






* 81-92 




2 




It 


106-4 


* 8066 




80-69 


4 


6b' 




If 


114-3 


* 79-59 


79-540 


79-56 


4 


6 




tl 


1213 


* 79-30 




79-23 


4 


G 


)t 


11 


1230 






* 77-88 




10 


It 


tl 


131-9 






* 75-47 




2 


1-09 


II 


147-2 


* 73-79 




73-80 


4 


16 


Jt 


}t 


157-7 


* 73-49t 




— 


2 




II 


11 


159-7 


* 72-10 




72-08 


2 


2n 


It 


1 


168-5 






70-27 


4 


2 


It 


tt 


180-1 




68-588 Ca 


68-60 Ca? 


2 


2 


It 


tt 


190-8 


♦ 68-24 




68-19 


4 


8 


tt 


ft 


193-1 






*64-65 


4 


2a 


tt 


tl 


215-8 


* 63-77t 




63-77 




6 


*y 


»» 


221-4 




61-652 Al 


61-65 Al? 


10 


4 


tl 


7-2 


234-8 






60-49 




2n 


It 


ft 


242-4 






68-33 






tt 


i» 


256-0 


• 52-09t 


52073 


52-11 


4s 


18 


It 


It 


295-8 


• 50-37 




50-37 


4 


4 


It 


ft 


306-9 






*48-74 




4 


It 


II 


317-3 






47-93 




2 


tt 


It 


322-5 






*46-04 




2 


it 


i> 


334-7 






44-68 




2 


II 


tt 


343-4 




44-133 Al 


44-20 Al? 


6 


2 


It 


It 


346-7 


* 43-77 




43-79 


5 


6 


)t 


tt 


349-2 


• 42-16 




42-16 


4 


4 


It 


It 


359-6 


* 41-40f 




41-43 


3 


4 


11 


tt 


364-4 


* 40-75 




40-74 


2 


2 


J9 


It 


3687 


• 39-48 




39-48 


4 


4 


11 


If 


376-9 






*39-00 




2 


19 


II 


380-0 


* 38-35 




38-34 


4 


4 


t) 


It 


384-2 


» 37-68 




37-69 


4 


4 


tt 


It 


388-4 






36-61 




2n 


1-08 


II 


395-4 


* 36-42 




36-43 


4 


4 


11 


tl 


396-6 


* 35-28 




35-30 


5 


6 


It 


II 


403-9 


* 34-16 




34-20 


7 


6 


?1 


It 


411-1 




33-775 Ca 


33-81 Ca? 


6 


6 


1* 


It 


413-6 


* 31-50 




31-49 


4 


8 


n 


It 


428-4 


* 3019 




30-21 


2 


i 


tt 


It 


436-8 






*29-89 




6 


It 


tt 


438-8 






28-73 




2 


>* 


It 


446-3 



* Lockver and Baxandall, 399072, 89-95, 88-98, 88-21, 84-78, 84-51, 81-78, 80-66, 

79-61, 79-31, 77-88, 75-48, 73-79, 73-53, 7212, 6829, 64-64, 63-78, 52-12, 50-38, 48-79, 

46-04, 43-81, 42-18, 41-40, 4075, 39-49, 3904, 38-37, 37-65, 36-43, 35-28, 3418, 31-16, 
80-19, 29-93, 28-64, and also 399005. 8800, 8344, 7810, 23-28, 399508. 



120 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 







Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




\ Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















\ Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 

Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 

A 

7-2 


in Vacuo 


I -~ 




*3926-68 




4n 


1-08 


25459-6 






26-45 




4 






461-1 


*3925-3G 


3925-350 


25-40 


4 


6 






468-2 


* 2i-U 


24-768 


24-86 


5 


8 






470-7 


* 22-58t 


22-548 


22-61 


6 


8 






486-2 


* 2205 


22-023 


22-08 


4 


6 


J> 




489-7 


* 20-65 




20-68 


3 


4 






498-7 


* 20-15 




20-16 


2 


2 






502-0 




19-600 


— 


2 








505-6 


* 16-55t 




16-59 


3 


14 






625-3 






*15-55 




2 






532-0 






*15-28 




2 






533-8 




*14-437 


14-51 


2 


14 






539-0 






*13-67 




2n 






544-3 


* 13-03 




13-07 


4 


4 






548-3 


* 12-36 




12-37 


5s 


6 






552-8 


* 10-95 




10-95 


4s 


4 






562-0 


* lOOlt 


09-995 


10-05 


U 


6 






568-0 






09-85 




4 






569-2 


; 




*08-5 




2b^ 




7-3 


578 






*07-35 




2n 


}) 




585-5 


* 06-89t 




06-93 


4s 


4 






588-4 


* 04-63 




04-65 


2 


4 






603-3 






04-27 




2 






605-7 


* 03-42t 


, 


03-50 


3 


8n 






611-0 


02-71 




02-70 


2 


4n 






616-0 


: * 02-40-I- 


02-371 


02-41 


7 


6n 






618-0 






* 01-86 




2 






621-5 


* 01-30 




01-30 


5n 


4n 






625-2 






00-72 


5ii 


2 






629-0 


* 00-33 




00-32 


2 


4 






631-6 


*3899-30t 




3899-32 


2 


8 






638-6 


* 98-15t 


3898-082 


98-2 


6 


6b 






645-9 


* 97-22 




97-22 


4 


4 






6520 






*96-80 




2 


1-07 




654-8 


* 96-29 


96-259 


96-32 


4s 


6 






658-1 


*■ 94-19t 




94-18 


4s 


4n 






672-0 


* ^-03 




93-03 


6s 


6 






679-6 




* 92-471 


92-63 




2n 






682-8 


i * 91-27 




91-4 


4b 


4b 






690-8 


, * 90-331 


90-298 


90-35 


6s 


6 






697-4 






*89-37 




2 






703-8 


* 88-50 




— 


4n 








709-6 


* 88-23 




88-20 


2 


2 






711-4 


86-72 


86-691 


86-73 


4s 


4 






721-4 


85-91t 




85-95 


2 


2 






726-6 






85-83 




2 






727-2 


85-00 t 




85-03 ■ 


2 


6 






732-6 


84.GO 




84-60 


3 


2 






735-4 



* Lockyer and Baxandall, 3925-36, 24-85, 22-57, 22-11, 20-67, 20-10, 16-57, 15-57, 
15-30, 14-49, 13-71, 1304, 12-35, 10-92, 0996, 0846, 07-33, 06-92, 04-51, 03-32, 02-45, 
01-81, 01-28, 00-29, 3899-23, 98-17, 97-20, 96-83, 96-29, 94-16, 92-95, 92-53, 91-25, 90-30, 
89-36, 88-47, 88-20, and also 3945-36, 28-07, 26-86, 26-64, 14-08, 11-90, 10-57, 09-58, 
03-86, 3898-44, 95-86, 93-88, 91-88, 89-91, 87-69. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 121 

Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


i_ 


3881-04 




3884-05 


3 


2 


1-07 


7-3 


25739-0 






83-53 




2 


J» 


If 


742-5 






83-37 




2 


J» 


f f 


743-5 






81-78 




2 


J» 


n 


754-1 






81-20 




2 


)) 


ff 


757-9 


79-82 




80-47 
79-79 


3 


2 

o 


»1 
>1 




762-8 
767-2 






78-85 




lb 


}} 


11 


773-5 


76-21t 




76-90 
76-25 


5 


2n 
4 


)» 


f> 


786-5 
791-0 


76-Oo-f 




76-03 


4 


4 




f ) 


792-2 






75-78 




2 




f 1 


794-0 






75-52 




2 






795-7 


75-22t 


3875-195 


75-21 


6 


6 


IJ 


'J 
1} 


797-8 


73-80 




74-50 
73-79 


2 


2 
4 


1* 




802-5 
807-2 






73-38 




2 


)l 


}} 


809-5 






72-90 




2 






8131 


71-23 




71-21 


4 


6 


It 




824-3 


70-72 




70-73 


2 


4 


}1 


ft 


827-7 






70-14 




2 


}) 




831-5 


67-77t 
67-50 




68-20 
67-75 
67-49 


5 

2 


2n 

6 

2 


1» 


J) 


844-5 
847-4 
849-2 






66-90 




6 


J) 


It 


853-2 






66-52 




2 


If 


tf 


855-7 






65-9 




4b 






860 


65-02t 
64-02 


64-980 


65-02 
64-00 


L 


8 
8 




J) 


865-8 
872-6 


62-37 




62-35 


4s 


4 


)T 


ff 


883-6 






60-88 




2n 


If 


}9 


893-5 


59-51 




59-49 


3 


4 






902-8 


58-83t 




58-81 


3 


4 


)» 


9} 


907-4 






58-0 




2n 


I> 


)t 


913 


56-OOt 


55965 


57-31 
56-00 


8 


2n 
6n 


1-06 


>l 


917-5 
926-4 


55-50t 


55-486 


55-49 


6 


6 




IJ 


929-7 






53-60 




2 






942-5 


52-27 




52-21 


2 


4 


9) 




951-6 


61-32 




51-30 


3 


4 


)» 


tl 


957-9 






50-57 




2 


If 




962-9 


49-48 


49-433 


50-30 
49-44 


4 


2n 
6 


»» 


>> 


964-7 
970-4 


47-46 


47-453 


47-50 


5s 


10 






983-8 


45-03 




45-03 


2 


2 






26000-3 


44-58t 


44-565 


44-60 


5s 


8 


)l 




003-3 






43-65 




4 




}t 


009-6 






42-88 




4 


)) 




014-9 


42-03 




— 


4 


4 






020-6 


40-88t 


40-866 


40-92 


6 


8 






028-3 


40-56 
40-27 




40-56 
40-26 


5 
4 


6 

4 


ir 


It 


030-6 
032-5 


39-53 




39-53 


4 


6 






037-6 


39-12t 




39-13 


4 


6 




I) 

„ 


040-3 






37-90 




2ii , 


i> 


1 


048-2 . 



122 



REPORT — 1901. 



Van A Di UM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A-f 


1 
A 






3836-58 




2a 


1-06 


7-3 


26057-6 


3836-20 




3619 


4 


4 


19 


II 


060-2 


35-70 




35-69 


4 


4 


)t 


II 


063-6 






34 97 




o 


»» 


11 


068-5 


33-36t 




33-38 


2 


2 


11 


It 


079-4 


32-97 




33-00 


2 


2 


If 


11 


081-9 






32-50 




2 


>» 


11 


085-3 






31-98 




2 


»» 


19 


088-9 






31-19 




2 


11 


II 


094-2 






30-42 




2n 


11 


11 


099-5 






29-77 




4n 


11 


11 


103-9 






28-9 




6a 


tt 


II 


110 


28-67t 


3828-680 


28-72 


7 


6a 


»l 


11 


111-3 






2713 




6 


11 


91 


121-9 






26-95 




2a 


11 


11 


123-2 






25-47 




2 


»1 


11 


133-3 






25-17 




2 


11 


11 


135-3 


24-12 




24-14 


4 


4 


II 


99 


142-4 






23-90 




2 


• 1 


11 


1440 






23-5 




4b 


t> 


11 


147 


23-35 t 




23-37 


4 


4 


II 


11 


147-7 


23-00 1 


23-008 


2305 


4 


4 


II 


II 


149-9 






22-86 




2 


If 


1* 


151-1 


22-14t 




22-21 


5 


6b'' 


»> 


11 


155-8 


21-63t 


21-607 


21-66 


4 


4 


11 


II 


159-6 




20-589 


— 


4 




19 


19 


166-7 


20-41 




— 


2 




91 


II 


167-9 


20-10 


20087 


20-14 


4 


4 


11 


19 


170-0 






18-94 




2 


1» 


11 


178-0 






18-48 




4 


11 


II 


181-1 


18-37t 


18-370 


18-39 


6 


4 


11 


»» 


181-8 


18-12 




1810 


3 


4 


II 


7-4 


183-6 


17-98t 




17-99 


4 


4 


l» 


t* 


184-4 


15-65 




15-55 


4 


10 


105 


It 


200-8 


13-63 


13-612 


13 63 


6 


8 


II 


II 


214-4 






09-80 




6 


91 


II 


240-7 


08-64t 




08-70 


6s 


G 


11 


II 


248-5 




08-136 


— 


8 




19 


II 


252-1 


07-64 


07-626 


07-69 


4 


6 


II 


II 


257-5 




07-425 


— 


4 




11 


It 


257-1 


06-93 




07-00 


4 


4 


11 


11 


253-3 






06-(i5 




2 


11 


11 


262-4 






06-37 




2 


99 


11 


264-3 






05-12 




2 


l> 


i» 


273-0 






04-80 




2 


99 


11 


275-2 






04-6 




2a 


11 


II 


277 


04-05 




04-07 


3 


4 


11 


II 


280-3 


03-92 




03-97 


3 


4 


91 


II 


281-1 


03-62t 


03-613 


0364 


5 


G 


|l 


11 


283-3 






0306 




2 


11 


11 


287-2 






01-4 




2a 


II 


II 


299 


00-05 


3799-992 


00-07 


5 


8 


If 


II 


308-1 






3799-43 




2 


11 


11 


312-3 






98-82 




4 


91 


II 


316-6 






98-41 




2 


tl 


11 


319-4 



ON WAVK-LENGTS TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 123 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Hftschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


1 
A 






3796 66 




4 


1-05 


7-4 


26331-5 






96 37 




2 


fl 


11 


333-5 


379512 




9508 


7 


10 


ft 


tt 


342-3 






94-49 




8 


jy 


tl 


346-6 


93-76t 




93-76 


4 


4 


Jl 


11 


351-7 






93-53 




2 


)l 


If 


353-3 






91-47 




2 


K 


tt 


367-6 


90-62tt 


3790593 


90-64 


3 


6 


tf 


11 


373-5 


90-46 


90-448 


90-48 


5 


6 


II 


ft 


374-6 






88-93 




2 


If 


ff 


385-5 


87-68 




87-39 


2 


16 


If 


If 


395-0 






84-98 




2 


f f 


tf 


412-8 


84-84 




84-88 


2 


2 


It 


)t 


413-7 






83-6 




2b 


91 


tl 


422-5 






8308 




2ii 


It 


tt 


4261 


82-70 




82-70 


2 


2 


ft 


)l 


428-8 






82-27 




2n 


II 


ft 


431-8 






81-90 




2 


II 


tl 


434-3 


81-54 




81-55 


3 


4 


91 


ft 


436-8 






80-85 




2 


)f 


tt 


441-7 


79-80 




79-86 


3 


6 


ft 


It 


448-8 


78-83t 


78-808 


78-82 


5s 


10 






455-9 


78-48t 




78-50 


2 


12 




ft 


458-2 


77-68t 




77-63 


2 


4 


1, 


tf 


464-2 


77-31 




77-30 


2 


4 


ft 


ff 


466-5 






77-00 




2 


If 


tl 


468-6 


76-31 




76-29 


3 


4 


1-04 


tf 


473-5 


76-85 




75-80 


3 


4 


If 


It 


476-9 


75-34t 




75-32 


3 


4 


tf 


ft 


480-3 






74-82 




6 


tf 


tt 


483-9 


74-27 




74-29 


2 


4n 


tf 


tf 


487-7 






73-92 




2 


t> 


tf 


490-3 






73-14 




10 


tf 


9t 


495-7 






72-30 




2n 


f 1 


7-5 


601-6 


71-87 






3n 




ft 


ff 


504-5 


71-31t 






2 




ft 


ff 


508-5 


71-llt 




71-13 


4 


20 






609-8 


70-68 




70-67 


2 


2 


ft 


ff 


512-9 






70-10 




2n 


ft 


ff 


5170 






69-97 




2n 


■ 1 


ff 


517-9 


69-23 




69-18 


2 


6 


It 


ff 


623-3 






67-84 




8 


$9 


it 


532-9 






66-53 




2 


fl 


ff 


642-1 


64-96 




64-94 


2 


4 


It 




653-3 


63-30 




63-26 


4 


4 


11 


ff 


566-5 






61-55 




4 


It 


ft 


577-3 






61-43 




4 


fl 


ff 


678-1 


60-96 




60-95 


2 


4 


ft 


f f 


681-5 


60-40t 




60-40 


2 


10 


ft 




585-4 






59-41 




6 


tf 


tf 


692-4 






68-90 




2 


f9 


tf 


596-0 






57-82 




2 


ft 


ft 


603-7 






57-51 




2 


If 


ft 


605-9 



t Ru 3790-65, Cr 3790 61. 



124 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 



Ai-rt Qti 




Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc opuuiirum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 












Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


1 


3766-18 




3756-15 


2 


2 


1-04 


7-5 


26615-4 


55-85 




55-77 


2 


4n 


»l 


»» 


617-9 






55-23 




2ii 


»> 


*i 


622-0 






54-65 




2n 


»» 


11 


626-1 


53-44 




53-38 


2 


4n 


1) 


11 


634-9 






5300 




2 


>» 


)i 


037-8 


51-94t 




51-94 


2 


2 


»» 


»» 


647-4 


51-021- 






4s 




M 


11 


651-9 






50-43 




8n 


»» 


11 


6561 






5010 




12n 


1> 


11 


658-4 


48-14 




48-10 


2 


2 


»> 


11 


672-5 






47-28 




2 


)J 


11 


678-5 


46-02 




46-00 


4s 


14 


)1 


1* 


687-5 






43-77 




Sb' 


»» 


11 


703-6 


4l-66t 


3741-630 


41-63 


3 


6n 


ff 


11 


718-8 






41-20 




2 


)» 


)) 


721-9 


40-38-I- 


40-374 


40-39 


3 


4 


*) 


11 


726-7 


38-93 


38-901 


38-92 


4 


4d 


11 


11 


738-2 


38-15 


38-129 


38-15 


3 


4 


?» 


11 


743-7 






37-60 




2 


103 


11 


747-6 






36-16 




10 


l> 


11 


757-9 


34-59 




34-62 


3 


4n 


1J 


11 


769-1 






33-75 




4ii 


)» 


11 


775-2 


32-88t 




32-98 


4s 


14 


>» 


11 


781-1 






32-15 




8 


»» 


11 


786-6 






31-20 




2n 


It 


»» : 


793-4 






30-36 




2 


»» 


1) 


799-5 






29-99 




2 


)» 


>i 


802-2 


29-22 




29-21 


3 


6 


>» 


i» 


807-7 






28-51 




10 


1i 


7-6 


812-9 


27-49t 




27-53 


4 


16b'- 


»» 


tt 


820-0 






25-83 




2 


11 


») 


832-1 






25-1 




2n 


)> 


it 


837 






24-6 




2n 


l> 


It 


839 






23-75 




2 


it 


ti 


847-1 


23-52 




23-49 


3 


2 


11 


It 


848-8 


22-76 






4 




jy 


ti 


855-2 


22-27t 


22-334 


22-39 


2 


Gn 


tl 


IT 


857-3 


22-15 


22-136 


22-18 


O 


4n 


*) 


)9 


858-5 






21-55 




2n 


11 


tt 


862-9 






21-1 




211 


1) 


tt 


866 




19-1241 
19-051/ 


19-07 




6 


If 


tt 


880-9 






18-35 




10 


fl 


»> 


886-0 


15-62t 




15-70 


4s 


20 


1» 


1} 


905-2 


14-12 




14-12 


2 


4 


11 


it 


916-7 






13-72 




2 


11 


)» 


919-6 






12-69 




4 


11 


)) 


9270 






11-90 




4 


)1 


)} 


932-8 






11-28 




8 


)* 


tt 


937-3 


08-88 


08-852 


08-86 


3s 


6 


)1 


tl 


954-9 




06-167 


06-20 




6 


11 


tt 


974-3 


0519t 


05-167 


05-22 


5 


6 


11 


1> 


981-5 



i Ni 3715-61. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
















Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 

K 


3704-85t 


3704-831 


3704-90 


6 


6b' 


1-03 


7-6 


26984-0 




04-664 




2 






)| 


985-4 


03-71t 




03-80 


7 


12b' 




1» 


992-0 






01-13 




6 




}t 


27011-1 






00-50 




12 




}» 


015-8 






00-35 




en 




ji 


017-0 






3699-63 




2 




)» 


022-1 


3696 001 


3695-995 


96-02 


6 


8 


1-02 


11 


048-7 


95-48t 


95-449 


95-50 


6 


6n 




»} 


052-5 






94-74 




2n 




)) 


057-9 


92-36t 


92-357 


92-38 


6 


10 




» 


075-3 


90-41t 


90-407 


90-43 


5 


8 




It 


090-3 


88-22t 


88-207 


88-21 


5 


8 




)» 


105-8 


87-61t 




87-60 


5 


en 




If 


110-8 






86-83 




2 




ti 


116-0 


8G-40t 


86-392 


84-40 


4 


6 




II 


119-2 






85-31 




6 




11 


127-2 


84-83 






3 






7-7 


130-7 






84-47 




2 




II 


133-2 


83-26 


83-243 


83-25 


6 


6 




11 


142-2 






81-5 




2b 




11 


155 


80-26 


80-214 


8015 


6 


8n 




II 


164-7 




80-055 




2 






11 


165-8 






77-47 




2n 




11 


184-9 






77-17 




2ii 




1) 


187-1 


76-86t 


76-807 


76-80 


6n 


6n 




1» 


189-7 


76-85t 


75-835 


75-83 


5s 


6 




11 


197-0 






75-58 




2 




11 


198-9 






74-83 




6 




11 


204-4 


73-55t 




73-50 


6n 


6ii 




11 


214-3 


72-53J 


72-519 


72-51 


4n 


4n 




11 


221-6 




71-840 




2 






11 


226-6 


. 71-37t 




71-33 


4 


6 




11 


230-2 


69-57t 




69-53 


3 


16 


„ 


• I 


243-6 


67-87 


67-841 


67-84 


5n 


6n 


„ 


11 


256-2 






65-9 




2n 


jj 


11 


271 


'. 65-30 


65-256 


65-22 


4 


4n 




1) 


275-5 


, 6373 


63-694 


63-68 


5 


6n 




11 


287-1 






61-53 




■2 






303-3 


.\ 




58-38 




4 




11 


326-8 






57-92 




o 


1-01 


11 


330-2 






57-60 




2 




11 


332-6 






56-80 




4b 




II 


338-6 






54-8 




2b 




II 


354 






53-Gl 




2 




H 


362-5 






52-51 




2n 




1) 


370-7 


.. 49-13t 


49-057 


49-10 


4 


4 




11 


396-3 






47-45 




2n 




11 


408-7 






46-08 




4 




11 


412-3 






4602 




6 




11 


419-4 


■ 45-77 




45-7 


3 


2b 






421 


44-88t 




44-83 


3 


4 




11 


428-2 


44-05 


44-038 


43 99 


3 


4 

1 


-„~ > 


"i 


.. 434-7 



X Ru 3676-82, 72-53. 



126 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vakadium — continued. 



Arr> PtT^'^nf«*itw> 


Spark 


Intensi 


y and 


Reduction to 




AJ.O ij^ 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland and 


Exner and 








1 


Hasselberg 


Harrison 


Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


A 








3643-27 




2 


1-01 


77 


27440-1 






42-82 




2 




ft 


443-5 


3641-28 




41-25 


3 


2b 






455-2 


40-25 




40-20 




2n 






462-6 


39-21t 


3639-160 


3914 


3 


4 




7-8 


471-0 


38-57 






2 






11 


475-5 


37-95t 




37-89 


2 


4 




»} 


480-4 


3609 




36-03 


4 


2n 




It 


494-5 






35-57 




2 




11 


498-3 






34-06 




2 






509-6 






33-02 




2 




>« 


517-5 






29-45 




2n 




11 


544-6 






27-83 




8 




J» 


556-9 






25-71 




8 




f) 


573-0 






24-98 




2 




fl 


578-6 


22-82t 




22-82 


2 


2n 




if 


595-0 






22-43 




2 




» 


698-1 






21-35 




8 




» 


606-3 






20-62 




6 




1> 


6118 


19-10 




19-09 


2s 


12 




(t 


623-4 






18-6 




2 




19 


627 


16-91 




16-83 


2 


4 


1-bo 


>l 


640-4 






15-4 




2b 




9> 


652 






12-4 




2b 




91 


675 






11-71 




4 




f ) 


679-9 


09-45t 




09-40 


3s 


2 






697-4 






08-07 


. 


2 




99 


707-8 


05-75 




05-73 


3 


4 






725-8 






05-46 




2 






727-9 






Oo-O 




2n 






731 






04-25 




2n 






737-2 






0310 




2 






746-0 


00-20 


00-166 


00-16 


2 


2 






768-6 






3597-1 




2a" 




7-9 


792 






95-77 




2 






802-6 


3593-481 


3593-519 


93-53 


4 


16 






820-0 


92-71 




92-70 


2 


2 






826-2 


92-15t 


92-159 


92-19 


4 


18 






830-5 


89-91t 


89-889 


89-90 


4 


18 






848-0 






88-25 




6 






860-8 






84-56 




2 






889-5 


83-84t 


83-840 


83-85 


2 


2 






895-1 


8S-00 


82-953 


82-97 


2 


2 






901-9 


81-00 




80-94 


2 


2 






917-7 






79-49 




2 






929-0 






78-78 




4 






934-6 


7801t 


78007 


78 00 


2 


4 






940-6 






77-80 




2a 


0-99 




942-2 






77-35 


1 


4 






945-7 


75-26t 




75 -25 


2 


2 






9591 


74-92t 


74-915 


74-94 


2 


2 






964-7 






74-51 




8 






9680 


73-69 


73-653 




2 








974-3 






73-21 




8 






977-8 






72-82 




2a 






OSl-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 127 

yA^AViVii— continued. 







Spark 


Intensity and 


Eeduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 














Frequency 
in Vacuo 


HaBselberg 


Eowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


X + 


1 
\ 






3572-50 





2 


0-99 


7-9 


27983-8 


3571 ■82t 




71-81 


3 


4 




1» 


989-1 






71-38 




2 




II 


992-4 


7M8 




71-18 


3 


2 




II 


994-0 






69-46 




2 




II 


26007-5 


69-llt 




69-09 


3 


2 




11 


010-3 






68-45 




2 




II 


015-4 


66-33t 




66-32 


3 


12 




II 


0321 






63-90 




2b 




tl 


051-2 


63-59 




63-53 


2 


2n 




.. 


053-9 


62-31 




62-31 


2 


2 




tl 


063-7 






61-54 




2 




II 


069-8 


60-75t 




60-78 


2 


8 




tl 


075-9 






59-43 




2 




II 


086-4 


56-97 




56-93 


5s 


20 




If 


1061 


66-42 




56-40 


3 


4n 




II 


110-3 






55-90 




2 




II 


114-4 


65-32 




55-30 


3 


2 




II 


1190 


53-43 


3553-412 


53-44 


6 


4 




tl 


1340 




61-669 


51-69 


2 


2 




80 


147-7 






49-10 




2n 




If 


168-1 






48-82 




2n 




11 


170-4 






47-22 




2 




1* 


183-0 






46-96 




2 




II 


185-1 


45-52 


45-419 




3 






II 


197-0 


45-34t 


45-330 


45-36 


4 


20r 




II 


198-0 


43-68 


43-631 


43-63 


3 


4 




ij 


211-5 






42-63 




2ii 




II 


219-6 






41-50 




10 




11 


228-6 






40-66 




2 




11 


235-3 






38-88 




8 




11 


249-5 






35-54 




2 


0-98 


II 


276-2 






34-83 




2 




11 


281-9 


33-86t 


33-820 


33-86 


6 


8 




II 


296-2 






32-45 




6 




II 


300-9 






31-63 




4 




II 


307-5 


30-91t 




30-96 


4 


20 




II 


313-3 






30-6 




2n 




II 


316 


29-90t 


29-876 


29-89 


4 


6 




II 


321-6 






28-4 




2b 




II 


333 






28 00 




6 




11 


336-7 






27-4 




2b 




II 


341 






25-96 




2 




11 


363-1 


24-89 




24-89 


3 


16 




11 


361-7 


24-38t 






4 




„ 


11 


365-8 






23-8 




2b 




11 


370 






23-35 




2n 




11 


3740 






22-75 




2 




II 


378-9 






22-02 




12 




11 


384-7 






20-72 




6b' 




11 


39£-8 


20-18t 




20-19 


4 


14 




II 


399-5 






19-33 




2 




11 


406-4 


17-44t 


17-436 


17-46 


4 


20r 




11 


421-7 






16-16 




2 




II 


4320 


, 




14-CO 




U 




» 


444-7 



128 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


l_ 






351402 




6 


0-98 


8-0 


28449-4 






12-33 




2 


1» 


Jl 


463-0 






11-57 




2 


)» 


11 


469-2 






1102 




2 


M 


It 


473-7 






09-18 




6 


J) 


8-1 


496-7 






07-69 




6 


)» 


>t 


500-6 






07-00 




2 


»» 


»» 


506-3 






06-70 




4 


)» 


t) 


508-7 


3505-83t 




05-84 


2 


4 


)t 


11 


515-8 


04-57t 




04-58 


3 


16 


l» 


1» 


526-0 






03-35 




2 


ft 


>T 


535-9 


01-65 


3501-614 


01-65 


2 


2 


)» 


M 


550-9 






01-03 




2 


J> 


»» 


554-8 






00-50 




2 


)» 


t» 


559-2 






00 00 




4 


)» 


)) 


563-3 


3498-23 




3498-34 


2 


2 


0-97 


»> 


677-2 


97-13 


3497-081 


97-23 


2 


14 


»I 


»» 


686-5 


93-34 




93-27 


2 


12 


)) 


1) 


618-1 






90-11 




4 


»» 


11 


644-3 


89-64 


89-648 


89-59 


2n 


2 


» 


11 


648-1 






87-13 




2 


»» 


11 


6708 


86-05t 




8609 


2 


12 


)» 


>* 


677-5 






84-82 




2 


)» 


11 


687-8 






84-48 




2 


J» 


U 


690-5 






80-01 




8 


It 


»» 


727-4 






79-10 




2 


*9 


»l 


735-0 






77-67 




6 


J» 


If 


746-0 






77-5 




4b 


M 


19 


748 






76-38 




4 


»» 


1* 


757-4 






70-44 




4 


»» 


8-2 


806-6 






69-69 




6 


»» 


f 1 


812-8 






66-75 




4 


»l 


l» 


837-3 






65-39 




2 


» 


1> 


848-6 






64-34 




2 


»» 


f» 


857-3 






6400 




2 


»» 


)» 


860-2 






63-50 




2 


»t 


» 


864-3 






63-22 




2 


J» 


91 


866-6 






61-71 




2 


1» 


11 


879-2 






67-30 




14 


0-96 


)l 


916-1 




67048 




2n 




») 


}} 


918-1 






65-02 




2 


)» 


)> 


935-1 






53-23 




8 


J» 


»> 


960-2 






51-20 




2 


)) 


11 


967-2 






47-7 




2b 


)1 


It 


- 997 






45-95 




2 


j; 


J» 


29011-4 






44-46 




2ii 


»» 


9) 


023-9 






42-48 




2 


)» 


J» 


040-6 






42-17 




2 


»» 


»> 


043-2 






37-90 




2b 


j» 


fl 


059-3 






38-52 




2n 


>i 


>f 


091-0 






35-52 




2a 


11 


Jt 


099-4 






34-15 




2ii 


JJ 


>J 


111-0 






33-96 




2n 


.)» . 


»» 


112-7 




1 . 33-1 




2b 


)» 


8-3 


128 i 


. _ - . 




30-30 




2n 


JJ 


1) 


143-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 129 



Vanadium —oontinued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 


















Rowland and 


Exner and 








1 


in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Harrison 


Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


A~ 








3425-35 




2n 


0-98 


8-3 


29184-8 




3425-204 


25-22 


2n 


4 


n 


If 


186-9 






24-00 




2 


>t 


If 


197-3 






22-40 




2 


»» 


II 


210-9 






20-86 




2 


n 


»» 


223-8 






20-35 




2n 


IT 


i> 


228-4 




18-676 




2n 




»1 


If 


242-7 






17-22 




2 


0-95 


If 


255-2 






15-00 




2n 


»» 


»t 


274-8 




14-370 


14-35 


2n 


4 


J» 


If 


279-8 






09-10 




4b» 


)1 


11 


324-9 






08-15 




2 


1} 


11 


333-2 




06-989 


0700 


2ii 


2 


)» 


If 


343-0 






06-36 




2 


n 


If 


348-5 






0619 




2 


»» 


ff 


350-0 




06-012 




2n 




If 


If 


351-5 






05-31 




2 


II 


If 


357-6 






06-12 




2 


II 


If 


359-2 






04-60 




8 


11 


tf 


363-7 






03-50 




2 


It 


ff 


373-2 






03-32 




2 


II 


ff 


374-7 






02-73 




2 


II 


11 


379-9 






02-15 




2n 


i» 


11 


384-9 






01-50 




2 


II 


11 


390-5 






00-54 




4 


II 


11 


398-8 






3398-40 




2 


11 


1* 


417-3 






97-97 




2 


II 


11 


421-0 






97-69 




2 


II 


»f 


424-2 






96 68 




2 


11 


11 


432-2 






95-7 




2n 


11 


8-4 


441 






94-73 




2 


11 


)i 


4490 






92-81 




6 


If 


It 


465-7 






90-90 




2 


11 


i» 


482-3 






89-0 




2b 


ij 


M 


499 






87-95 




2 


II 


If 


508-0 






87-52 




2 


11 


it 


611-7 






85-9 




2b 


11 


)9 


525-8 






84-73 




2 


If 


)> 


636 






83-87 




4 


ti 


11 


643-6 






82-67 




4 


II 


)l 


6540 






80-42 




2 


» 


}> 


673-7 






79-5 




2a 


i» 


11 


682 






77-74 




4 


0-94 


It 


597-2 






77-49 




2 


)l 


>» 


599-4 






76-16 




2 


Jf 


11 


6110 






7413 




2 


11 


11 


628-8 






72-91 




6 


11 


11 


639-6 






71-60 




2 


11 


11 


651-4 






71-25 




2 


If 


J1 


654-2 






70-tiO 




2 


11 


11 


659-9 






67-80 




2 


»l 


11 


684-6 






6698 




2 


l> 


11 


691-8 




3365-670 


65-68 


6 


O 


If 


11 


703-3 






63-70 




2 


• f 


11 


720-8 






61-67 




6 


»» 


if 


738 7 



1901. 



K 



I 



130 



BEPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continved. 





Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




1 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


1 










Frequency 
in Vacuo 


i 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


1_ 

A. 








3361-37 




6 


0-94 


8-5 


29741-4 






3356-471 


56-51 

65-51 

54-85 

53-92 

49-56 

49-19 

48-57 

46-08 

42-04 

41-4 

4053 

38-00 

35-65 

35-37 

33-88 


4 


2 
2 
2 
6 
6 
4 
2 
6 
4 

2n 
2 
12 
2 

2 

2 


)» 
)» 
)» 
J» 
») 
>» 
91 

'» 

»» 

0-93 

)) 

»» 

n 


„ 


784-5 

793-2 

799-1 

807-4 

846-2 

849-5 

8550 

877-2 

913-3 

919 

926-9 

949-6 

970-7 

973-1 

986-6 






83-693 


32-30 


2 


2 


it 




988-3 
30000-8 






29-983 


3002 
29-63 
29-10 
28-60 


6 


4 
2 

2n 
2n 






021-5 
024-9 
029-6 
034-2 








28-13 




2 


») 


8-6 


038-4 






24-514 


24-57 
23-88 
23-12 


2 


2 
2 

2 


ff 


" 


070-9 
076-7 
083-6 






22-084 


21-72 
20-95 
20-33 
1905 
1804 
17-02 
15-65 
15-35 


2 


10 
2 

2 
4 
4 
4 
2 
6 


19 

»» 
»> 

)» 




0930 
096-3 
103-3 
110-9 
120-5 
129-7 
138-9 
151-4 
154-1 






14-980 


15-00 


2 


6 


}} 




157-4 






14-143 




2 




}) 




165-1 






13-141 




2 




)t 




174-3 






09-305 


09-32 
08-62 
04-62 


4 


2 

4 
6 


5J 




209-2 
215-5 
252-1 




■ 


3299-223 
98-276 


01-82 
0105 

3298-89 
98-26 
97-66 
96-19 
93-30 


4 


2 
2 

8 
2 

6 


0-92 




277-8 
284-8 
301-5 
304-6 
310-3 
3159 
329-5 
356-1 






91-805 


91-80 
91-18 


6 


2 
2 


»♦ 




369-9 
375-6 






90-362 


90-40 


4 i 6 


>» 




383-0 






89-515 


89-52 
8911 


4 1 Sb" 






391-0 

3947 






88437 


88-47 


2 


6 


n 


87 


400-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 131 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Eeduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










- Ti'rpnnpnpv 


Hasselberg 


Eowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A.+ 


1_ 
\ 


in Vacuo 






3287-78 




2 


092 


8-7 


30407-0 






87-3 




2b 


t> 


»> 


411 






85-80 




2 


»> 


i» 


425 




3285-133 


85-29 


2 


6 


11 


i> 


430-7 




84-489 


84-50 


2 


2 


11 


»» 


4373 






83-46 




2 


»» 


i» 


446-9 




82-659 


82-69 


o 


10 


11 


11 


454-2 






81-92 




4 


1> 


M 


461-3 




81-238 


81-26 


2 


6 


11 


11 


467-4 




79-976 


80-02 


2 


16 


*> 


1) 


479-1 




78-053 




2n 




11 


11 


497-1 




77-881 


77-88 


2n 


6 


>1 


** 


497-8 






77-55 




6 


tf 


11 


601-9 






77-21 




4 


11 


»l 


505-0 




76-252 


76-25 


16 


20r 


1) 


»1 


513-9 






74-65 




4 


»» 


11 


528-9 






74-35 




2 


*1 


It 


531-6 




73-137 


7317 


2 


2 


)* 


it 


542-8 




71-769 




4 




11 


11 


5559 




71-243 


71-27 


16 


20r 


11 


1» 


560-6 






7025 




10 


»l 


>1 


569-9 






6907 




2 


1» 


l» 


581-9 




67-823 


67-84 


16 


20r 


)» 


11 


592-6 




66-027 


66-06 


2 


10 


»> 


11 


609-3 






64-5 




2b 


1> 


*> 


624 






63-45 




8 


S* 


11 


633-7 




62-422 


62-45 


2 


2 


n 


»» 


643-2 






61-90 




2 


» 


11 


648-3 






61-73 




2 


»» 


i> 


649-9 




61-198 


61-20 


2 


2 


»i 


>l 


654-9 






59-80 




2 


0-91 


it 


668-0 




59-658 


69-63 


2 


2 


>» 


tt 


669-5 






58-02 




8 


l> 


M 


684-8 




56-892 




2 




yi 


If 


695-4 




55-769 


55-72 


2 


2 


i> 


1» 


706-2 




54-836 


54-90 


4 


10 


11 


11 


714-5 






53-00 




2 


11 


»> 


732-1 




51-886 


52-01 


2 


10 


i» 


Jl 


732-6 




50-894 


50-90 


2 


10 


ij 


8-8 


751-9 




49-690 


49-71 


2 


8 


I* 


)» 


763-3 






48-74 




2 


1) 


»1 


772-3 






48-00 




2 


5» 


»1 


779-4 






47-69 




2 


11 


1) 


782-3 






47-5 




3n 


H 


U 


784 






43-14 




2 


IT 


II 


835-0 






41-30 




2 


If 


1* 


843-0 






40-90 




2 


11 


11 


846-8 






4000 




2 


1) 


11 


855-4 






3917 




2 


H 


1) 


863-3 




37-990 


38-08 


4 


12 


» 


)) 


874-2 






36-72 




2 


1» 


11 


886-7 






34-64 




4 


tt 


If ' 


906-6 




33-878 «[ 


33-98 
33-67 


}^ { 


8 
6 


1) 
1> 


If 
II 


912-9 
915-8 




33-300 


33-36 


4 


2 


Jl 


., 1 


918-9 

«7> O 



132 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 
A. 




3232064 


3232-10 


2 


6 


0-91 


8-8 


30931-0 






31-09 




2 


)» 


It 


940-5 




30-765 


30-80 


2 


2 


11 


ft 


943-5 




29-724 


29-75 


2 


2 


II 


f> 


953-5 






29-30 




2n 


»l 


II 


957-7 






28-7 




2b 


1» 


1» 


963 






28-3 




2b 


tl 


II 


965 




27-520 


27 54 


2 


2 


»» 


If 


974-7 






27-05 




6b' 


»» 


II 


979-3 




26-223 


2622 


2 


2 


ft 


f> 


987-2 






24-20 




2 


tt 


ft 


31006-6 






22 97 




2 


it 


11 


018-4 






21-52 




2 


»t 


II 


032-4 




18-985 


18-98 


2 


2 


0-90 


II 


056-9 




17-340 


17-23 


2 


12 


1> 


II 


073-8 




15-487 








>» 


If 


090-7 






14-86 




8 


)» 


tl 


096-8 






1410 




2 


)» 


II 


104-1 




12-550 


1255 


2 


4 


»» 


II 


1191 






11-70 




2 


1» 


}t 


127-3 




10-546 




2 




Jt 


If 


138-5 




10-253 


10-21 


2 


2 


»» 


tl 


141-6 




08-464 


08-46 


2 


Sb" 


»» 


tl 


158-8 




07-521 


07-52 


8 


2 


»» 


It 


167-9 






06-4 




2b 


11 


*t 


179 




05-689 


05-70 


6 


2 


ft 


8-9 


185-5 




05-378 


05-45 


2 


2 


1» 


I* 


1880 






04-30 




2 


tf 


)l 


1991 






02-80 




2 


ff 


If 


213-8 




02-495 


02-50 


12 


2 


»» 


If 


216-7 






01-8 




4b 


ft 


If 


223-5 




3199934 


3199-95 


2 


2 


f» 


ft 


241-7 




98-121 


9809 


2 


2 


If 


ft 


259-6 






97-65 




2 


»1 


ff 


264-1 






96-66 




4 


»» 


11 


273-7 






95-7 




2b 


If 


ff 


283 




94030 


94-06 


2 


2 


f> 


tl 


299-4 






93 29 




4 


»f 


If 


306-8 






92-78 




4 


11 


9* 


311-8 




90-798 


90-80 


10 


16r 


ft 


11 


331-2 






89-87 




2 


f» 


ff 


340-3 




88-624 


88-60 


2 


lOr 


»* 


If 


352-7 






8S-18 




4 


ft 


>l 


356-9 




87-820 


87-78 


8 


lOr 


ft 


11 


3610 






86-93 




4 


t» 


It 


369-3 




85-507 


85-46 


20 


4r 


)» 


11 


383-5 




84-097 


84-04 


20 


4r 


1> 


11 


397-4 




83-525 


83-48 


18 


4r 


»» 


If 


403-1 






82-71 




8 


»' 


ft 


410-9 






79-50 




2 


0-89 


9-0 


442-5 






77-75 




2 


»» 


fi 


459-8 






76 2 




2b 


»» 


i» 


475 






74-61 




8 


»» 


»» 


490-9 






7417 




6 


*> 


n 


495-3 


. 




72-34 




2 


tl 


II ' 


613-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 138 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Eowlaiid ano 


Exner and 








1 


in Vacuo 


Harrison 


Haschek 


A 


Spark 


\ + 


a" 








8171-82 




2 


0-89 


9-0 


31518-6 






70-35 




2 


»» 


>i 


633-3 






68-62 




2 


11 


11 


550-5 




3168-244 


68-24 


2 


6 


)1 


19 


564-4 






67-55 




10 


>1 


11 


561-1 






66-48 




2 


»> 


11 


571-8 






65-96 




4 


J> 


11 


677-0 




64-945 


64-91 


2 


4 


%y 


»1 


587-5 






63-85 




2 


11 


11 


6981 






63-13 




6 


11 


11 


605-2 






62-81 




6 


11 


It 


608-5 






62-46 




2 


i> 


Jt 


6120 






61-42 




6 


11 


It 


622-4 






60-87 




4 


It 


11 


628-9 






59-45 




4 


11 


tl 


6421 






58-01 




4 


>i 


91 


656-5 






56-35 




2 


1) 


It 


673-1 






55-51 




6 


It 


11 


681-7 






54-9 




2n 


»i 


11 


688 






51-42 




8 


»i 


1) 


722-7 






48-86 




4 


11 


11 


748-5 






46-95 




4 


11 


9-1 


767-7 






46-40 




6 


11 


n 


773-2 




46-086 


46-10 


2 


4 


11 


tl 


776-4 






45-48 




4 


11 


it 


782-5 






44-85 




4 


n 


tl 


787-9 






43-61 




4 


II 


It 


801-5 




42-596 


42-67 


4 


8b' 


11 


It 


8100 






42-33 




4 


11 


It 


813-4 






41-63 




4 


0-88 


It 


821-5 






41-23 




2 


tl 


II 


825-6 




39-862 


39-88 


2 


10 


II 


1* 


839-3 






38-17 




4 


II 


tl 


856-6 




37-304 




2 




>l 


It 


865-4 






36-64 




12 


11 


19 


872-1 




35-060 


35-08 


2 


12 


11 


tl 


888-1 




33-455 


33-48 


10 


10 


H 


tl 


904-4 






32-90 




2 


11 


II 


910-2 






32-72 




2 


11 


It 


912-0 




30-408 


30-40 


10 


12 


11 


}t 


935-7 






28-81 




4 


11 


tl 


951-9 






28-40 




4 


11 


It 


956-1 




26-338 


26-31 


10 


8 


11 


Jl 


977-3 






25-52 




8 


11 


It 


985-6 




25-402 




10 




11 


It 


986-8 






25-20 




8n 


11 


II 


988-8 






23-49 




2 


11 


tl 


32006-3 




23-020 


2301 


2 


10 


11 


It 


011-2 




21-261 


21-27 


2 


8 


It 


It 


029-2 




20849 




2 




11 


It 


033-4 






20-36 




8 


II 


11 


038-5 






1944 




2 


11 


11 


047-9 




18-406 


18-51 


16 


12r 


It 


11 


058 






16-90 




6 


II 


II 


074 1 






16-18 


, 


2 


11 


tl . 


081-5 



134 



REPORT — 1901. 



Van ADi UM — continu ed. 





Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A.+ 


1 




3113038 


3113-19 


2 


8 


0-88 


9-2 


32113-0 




10-826 


10-82 


2 


12r 


)) 


f> 


136-7 






09-51 




4 


)) 


»» 


150-2 




09-381 




2 




» 


1* 


151-5 




09-283 




2 




tf 


11 


152-5 






08-81 




4 


f) 


)t 


157-4 






07-85 




2ii 


*} 


11 


167-4 






06-9 




2n 


1* 


i> 


177 






06-08 




2n 


yi 


11 


185-7 






05-67 




2n 


)) 


11 


189-9 






05-03 




4 


)* 


ti 


196-5 




02-415 


02-39 


20 


12r 


»» 


If 


224-9 




01038 


01-09 


2 


10 


0-87 


>T 


237-6 




3094-793 




2n 




)I 


n 


313-6 






3094-33 




12 


») 


It 


307-9 






93-23 




16r 


)) 


11 


319-2 






89-78 




2 


)» 


1* 


355-6 






88-1 




2b» 


M 


11 


373 






86-61 




4 


If 


11 


388-8 






86-33 




2 


») 


11 


391-8 






83-31 




6 


)} 


11 


423-5 






82-65 




6 


)) 


1) 


430-4 






82-20 




2 


1) 


11 


435-1 






81-39 




2 


f 1 


}i 


443-7 






81-13 




4 


11 


11 


446-4 






80-4 




2n 


»f 


11 


454-0 






79-0 




2n 


tf 


ji 


469 






78-75 




2n 


)» 


1) 


471-5 






76-12 




2 


)} 


9-3 


499-2 






75-7 




2b 


)J 


11 


504 






75-3 




2b 


}) 


11 


508 






74-77 




2 


» 


11 


513-6 






72-96 




2 


)) 


11 


532-6 






7031 




2 


)} 


11 


560-0 






69-82 




2 


1} 


11 


565 9 






67-20 




10 


1) 


11 


593-7 






66-5 




2b 




11 


601 






65-71 




4 


jt 


1» 


609-6 






63-80 




10 


11 


1* 


629-9 






62-80 




4 


0-86 


11 


640-5 






62-31 




2 


)1 


11 


645-8 






60-60 




2n 


11 


11 


664-0 






59-3 




2b 


19 


11 


678 






57-55 




2 


)) 


11 


696-6 






56-46 




2 


yi 


11 


708-3 






56-03 




2 


jl 


11 


712-9 






54-00 




8 


jj 


9-4 


734-5 






53-48 




10 


}t 


ll 


740-1 






52-3 




2b 


)t 


11 


753 






51-44 




2n 


»• 


11 


762-0 






50-85 




6 


}f 


1> 


768-4 






49 00 




6 


f } 


„ 


788-2 


• 




48-76 




10' 


}} 


)i 


790-8 






45-10 




2 


t* 


jT 


830-6 






43-62 




4 


If 


i> 


846-2 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 135 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland and 


Exner and 








1 — 


Hasselberg 


Harrison 


Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


A 








3043-27 




2 


0-86 


9-4 


32850-0 






42-39 




8 


)» 


?» 


859-9 






41-52 




6 


>J 


5) 


868-9 






39-9 




2n 


»t 


Jl 


886 






38-63 




4 


If 


1) 


900-1 






35-28 




2 


}| 


1» 


936-5 






34-55 




2 


»> 


»» 


944-4 






33-99 




8' 


1) 


)» 


950-5 






33-55 




8>- 


>» 


>» 


955-3 






32-30 




2 


I» 


}9 


968-9 






31-15 




2ii 


)J 


*} 


981-5 






29-65 




2 


»» 


»> 


997-7 






28-15 




6 


It 


f I 


33014-1 






27-70 




4 


fl 


»* 


019-0 






25-08 




6 


)) 


J» 


037-6 






23.99 




6 


»» 


9-5 


059-4 






22-70 




6 


0-85 


f) 


073-5 






22-29 




2 


»» 


)9 


078-0 






20-4 




2b 


1) 


») 


099 






191 




2b 


>} 


)> 


113 






16-81 




6 


>) 


1) 


136-2 






16-20 




4 


)> 


)» 


144-8 






16-03 




4 


>l 


)» 


146-8 






14-87 




8 


»> 


5» 


159-4 






13-12 




6 


)) 


?J 


178-7 






12-09 




6 


»» 


J» 


189-9 






09-60 




2 


I> 


J* 


217-5 






08-61 




8 


It 


3> 


228-4 






07-37 




4 


)» 


)) 


2421 






06-57 




4 


»J 


?» 


250-9 






05-87 




4 


)) 


»» 


258-7 






03-50 




8 


J» 


«1 


285-0 






02-72 




2 


»> 


If 


293-6 






01-82 




4" 


>» 


ft 


303-6 






01-28 




lOr 


)1 


ft 


309-7 






2999-57 




2 


)• 


ft 


328-6 






99-30 




2 


U 


tt 


331-6 






98-00 




2 


»» 


t» 


346-1 






96-7 




2b 


)l 


9-6 


360 






96-05 




8 


J» 


)) 


367-7 






94-59 




8 


I* 


n 


384-0 






89-72 




2n 


Jt 


1} 


438-3 






89-67 




6 


)) 


It 


438-9 






89-35 




4 


)» 


}} 


442-5 






88-07 




8 


)» 


99 


456-6 






85-25 




6 


J» 


»J 


487-3 






83-62 




8 


)» 


)* 


506-7 






83-10 




2 


J» 


If 


512-6 






82-82 




4 


0-84 


If 


515-7 






82-00 




4 


)l 


If 


524-9 






81-27 




8 


») 


jt 


533-1 






79-6 




2b 


>» 


1) 


552 






79-16 




2 


»l 


}) 


556-9 






78-25 




4 


»» 


tf 


567-1 






77-60 




p 


» 


)f 


574-5 



136 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1 






Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 






2976-55 




lOr 


0-84 


9-6 


33586-4 






76-20 




8 






590-3 






75-70 




8 






595-9 






74-06 




6 






614-4 






72-31 




10 






634-2 






71-65 




2 






641-7 






70-53 




2 




g'V 


654-3 






69-93 




2 






661-1 






68-40 




12r 






678-4 






68-15 




4n 






681-2 






67-65 




2 






687-0 






64-1 




2b 






728 






63-34 




2 






735-9 






62-87 




2 






741-3 






62-10 




2 






7500 






60-87 




2 






764-1 






58-68 




6 






789-1 






57-74 




10 






799-9 






56-70 




2 






811-8 






55-65 




6 






823-8 






54-45 




2 






837-5 






54-02 




2 






843-0 






53-85 




2 






843-4 






5212 




lOr 






864-2 






51-65 




4 






869-7 






50-40 




8 






8840 






49-70 




2 






892-1 






49-24 




8 






897-4 






4815 




8 






909-9 






46-60 




2 






927-7 






45-9 




2b 






936 






44-68 




lOr 




9-8 


949-7 






43-70 




2 






9610 






43-25 




2 






966-2 






42-48 




4 


0-83 




975-1 






41-51 




lOr 






988-3 






38-35 




4 






34022-3 






37-82 




2 






029-0 






37-13 




4 






037-0 






35-99 




2 






050-3 






34-48 




8 






067-7 






33-95 




4 






073-9 






32-42 




8 






091-7 






32-00 




4 






096-5 






31-73 




4 






099-8 






30-96 




8r 






108-7 ■ 






30-25 




6 






1170 






29-12 




2 






130-1 






26-50 




10 






160-7 






25-40 




6 






173-5 






24-79 




lOr 






180-7 






24-14 




lOr 






188-2 






23-47 




6 






196-1 






22-75 




2n 






204-6 






20-50 




10 






230-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 187 



Vanadium — continued. 



I 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland and 


Exner and 








1 


Hasselberg 


Harrison 


Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A + 


A 








2920-11 




8 


0-83 


9-8 


34235-4 






1832 




6 


»» 


» 


256-4 






17-41 




8 


11 


)i 


2671 






16-00 




6 


»» 


1) 


283-6 






15-46 




6 


1» 


11 


2900 






14-97 




4 


11 


1) 


295-8 






14-40 




6 


1» 


19 


302-5 






13-85 




2 


H 


11 


309-0 






13-17 




2n 


11 


11 


316-9 






12-7 




2b 


» 


11 


322-5 






11-78 




4 


1) 


If 


3333 






1117 




8r 


11 


11 


340-6 






10-50 




8r 


11 




348-5 






10-15 




8r 


11 


11 


352-6 






08-96 




8r 


11 


If 


366-6 






08-56 




6 


f) 


11 


371-3 






07-60 




8 


1) 


11 


382-7 






06-60 




8r 


1} 




394-5 






05-75 




6 


J) 


11 


404-6 






0513 




6 


)} 


11 


4119 






04-23 




2 


)} 


11 


422-6 






03-70 




2" 


0-82 


11 


428-9 






03-20 




8r 


II 


11 


434-8 






00-06 




2 


}> 




4721 






2899-5 




2b 


It 




479 






98-02 




4 


11 


11 


496-4 






96-98 




2 


11 


100 


508-8 






96-31 




8 


11 


jt 


516-7 






95-74 




2 


11 


II 


523-5 






94-96 




2 


11 


fi 


532-8 






94-78 




2 


11 


II 


534-9 






93-47 




lOr 


11 


II 


550-5 






92-82 




lOr 


11 


II 


558-3 






92-51 




6 


11 


II 


562-0 






91-78 




lOr 


11 


II 


570-8 






90-69 




4 


11 


II 


583-8 






90-28 




4 


»1 


11 


588-7 






89-71 




lOr 


11 


11 


595-6 






88-36 




10 


11 


II 


611-6 






87-30 




4 


11 


II 


624-4 






87-08 




4 


11 


II 


627-1 






84-91 




12r 


11 


11 


6531 






84-20 




4 


11 


11 


661-7 






82-60 




10 


11 


II 


680-9 






80-92 




6 


11 


II 


701-1 






80-14 




10 


11 


II 


710-5 






79-26 




6 


11 


11 


721-1 






78-40 




2 


11 


II 


731-5 






78-13 




2 


11 


11 


734-8 






77-80 




8 


11 


11 


738-8 






77-05 




4 


11 


11 


747-8 






75-78 




6 


11 


II 


763-2 






74-34 




2 


11 


11 


780-6 






73-30 




6 


11 


II 


793 2 






71-61 




2 


II 


II 


813-5 



138 



EEPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spsctrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Eowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 

A 






2870-66 




2 


0-82 


10-1 


34825-1 






70-27 




4 


f , 




829-3 






70-08 




4 






832-1 






69-22 




12 






842-6 






68-24 




2 






854-4 






66-75 




2n 






872-6 






66-57 




2a 






874-8 






64-60 




8 


0-81 




898-7 






64-0 




2b 


)i 




906 






63-1 




2b 






917 






62-41 




4 






923-5 






61-53 




2 






935-2 






60-11 




2 






953-0 






58-1 




2n 


i» 




968 






55-39 




6 






35011-3 






54-41 




12 






023-4 






53-85 




2 






040-3 






53-01 




2n 






040-5 






52-63 




6 






045-2 






51-36 




4 






060-8 






50-33 




10 






073-5 






49-19 




8 






087-5 






47-65 




10 




10-2 


106-4 






46-70 




2 






118-1 






46-40 




2 






121-8 






45-37 




8 






134-6 






44-95 




2 




" 


139-8 






44-4 




2n 






147 






43-97 




4n 


" 




151-9 






43-35 




2 






159-5 






42-83 




2 


„ 




166-0 






42-50 




2n 






170-1 






42-2 




2n 






174 






41-20 




8 


„ 




186-1 






40-72 




4 






192-1 






40 24 




4 






198-0 






39-52 




2 






207-0 






38-64 




2 






217-9 






38-16 




4 






223-8 






36-62 




8 






243-0 






35-7 




2n 






254 






35-55 




4n 






256-3 






34-75 




en 






266-2 






32-55 




2 






293-6 






31-8 




4b' 






303 






3115 




2n 






311-1 






30-9 




2b 






314 






30-52 




6 


„ 




3190 






28-75 




2 






341-1 






271 




2n 






362 






26-02 




8n 






375-2 






25-20 




2n 






385-5 






24-59 




2 


0-80 




3931 






22-6 




8b' 




10-3 


419 






21-26 




6 




»» 


434-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 139 



Vanadium —continued. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Eeduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Eowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 






2819-56 




6 


0-80 


10-3 


35456-2 






18-70 




2n 






467-0 






17-61 




8 






481-7 






16-30 




2n 






497-2 






15-70 




2 






504-8 






15-10 




2 






512-3 






15-03 




4 






513-1 






14-40 




2 






521-3 






13-41 




2 






533-8 






12-9 




2n 






540 






12-32 




2 






547-5 






12-12 




2 






560-1 






11-74 




2 






554-9 






10-39 




12 






571-9 






09-66 




6 






581-2 






08-85 




2 






591-5 






08-39 




6 






597-3 






08-2 




2n 






600 






07-05 




2n 






614-4 






06-95 




2 






615-6 






06-67 




2 






619-1 






06-2 




2b 






626 






05-69 




6 






631-6 






04-68 




2 






645-6 






03-60 




10 






668-4 






02-93 




8 






666-6 






01-15 




6n 






689-3 






00-23 




2 






701-0 






2799-59 




10 






709-0 






98-88 




8 




10-4 


718-2 






98-40 




2 






724-3 






97-93 




8 






730-4 






97-60 




2ii 






734-5 






97-12 




8 






740-6 






95-61 




4 






7600 






9502 




4b 






767-5 






94-50 




2n 






774-2 






94-02 




2 






780-3 






92-6 




2b- 






798-5 






91-7 




4b' 






810 






90-2 




2b 






829 






88-8 




2b 






847 






88-11 




6n 






856-2 






87-2 




4b 






868 






87-18 




4 






868-1 






860 




4b 






883 






84-40 




8b 






904-0 






84-1 




2b 






907 






83-12 




2 


0-79 




920-5 






82-70 




2 






925-9 






81-69 




12n 






939-0 






80-25 




2b 






957-6 






78-75 




Sb" 






977-0 






78-23 




2 






983-7 






77-86 




10 






988-5 



140 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










- Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 






2776-4 




2n 


0-79 


10-4 


36007 






75-69 




8 


J» 


It 


016-6 






75-11 




4 


t» 


10-5 


026-0 






74-81 




6 


t* 


II 


028-0 






74-40 




8 


J) 


»l 


033-3 






73-82 




2 




It 


040-9 






72-2 




10b' 




»l 


062 






7160 




8n 


}1 


It 


069-7 






7112 




2 




It 


075-9 






69-84 




6 




It 


092-7 






68-69 




10 


n 


tt 


107-7 






68-24 




6 


*i 


t> 


113-4 






67-25 




6n 


*i 


tt 


126-4 






66-59 




10 


It 


tt 


135-1 






65-81 




14b' 


i> 


»t 


146-2 






64-45 




2n 


tt 


tt 


166-0 






63-8 




2n 




II 


171-5 






62-7 




4n" 




tt 


186 






61-53 




2n 


■> 


tt 


201-3 






60-62 




lOr 


II 


»l 


213-3 






60-26 




8 


1* 


It 


2180 






6925 




6n 


11 


It 


231-3 






68-95 




4 


>» 


11 


235-2 






68-67 




4n 


tf 


II 


238-9 






56-7 




4n 


It 


ft 


265 






66-5 




4n 


)t 


It 


267 






65-20 




4n 


ft 


It 


284-5 






53-64 




16b» 




It 


306-4 






52-27 




4n 


It 


It 


323-1 






61-93 




4n 




tt 


3360 






50-2 




4b 




10-6 


350 






48-6 




2n 


If 


i» 


371-5 






47-55 




10 


If 


tt 


385-5 






4600 




2 


It 


tt 


406-0 






44-63 




2 


»t 


tt 


424-2 






43-85 




4 


tt 


tt 


434-5 






42-80 




6 


tt 


yt 


448-5 






42-53 




6 


tt 


tt 


452-1 






41-69 




2 


0-78 


ft 


463-2 






41-1 




4b 


tt 


tt 


471 






39-80 




8 


tt 


ft 


488-4 






39-30 




4n 


tt 


tt 


4951 






37-42 




2 


tt 


tt 


519-7 






36-78 




2 


It 


tt 


528-7 






36-28 




2q 




tt 


536-4 






35-55 




2a 




tt 


5461 






34-43 




4n 


tt 


)t 


660-1 






34-05 




4 


tt 


tt 


665-2 






33-8 




2n 




tt 


568-5 






3315 




4n 


It 


tt 


677-2 






32-35 




4a 


It 


tt 


588-0 






31-50 




2 


It 


tt 


599-3 






3130 




2 


11 


If 


602-0 






29-81 




10 




ft 


622-0 






28-06 1 




2 , 


tt 


It ' 


645-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 141 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 
A. 


in Vacuo 






2726-67 




6 


0-78 


10-6 


36664-1 






24-80 




2 


»I 


)1 


689-2 






24-52 




2 


t> 


»» 


693-0 






23-C9 




6 


19 


11 


705-5 






23-34 




6 


>f 


»» 


708 9 






2273 




2 


If 


If 


717-1 






22-40 




2 


*l 


11 


721-6 






21-9 




2n 


»» 


91 


728 






21-30 




2 


tt 


11 


736-4 






20-35 




2n 


»» 


fl 


749-3 






18-55 




2n 


1* 


If 


773-6 






181 




2n 


»» 


91 


780 






17-56 




2 


»l 


ti 


787-0 






15-80 




16 


)l 


iJ 


810-9 






15-20 




2n 


It 


ff 


819-0 






14-31 




6 


l> 


»» 


8311 






13-20 




6 


tt 


i» 


886-1 






130 




4n 


1* 


** 


849 






12-4 




8a 


» 


ft 


857 






11-88 




10 


» 


if 


864-1 






10-30 




4 


»J 


If 


885-6 






09-2 




2b 


it 


11 


900-5 






08-68 




2 


tt 


If 


907-7 






08-00 




10 


tt 


» 


916-9 






06-87 




10 


t> 


*9 


932-3 






06-34 




8 


)l 


If 


939-6 






06-24 




8 


»i 


10-7 


940-0 






05-34 




6 


»J 


•1 


953-2 






03-26 




2 


)» 


II 


981-6 






02-31 




14 


11 


11 


994-7 






01-66 




2 


11 


10-8 


37003-5 






01-16 




10 


11 


M 


010-3 






0101 




6 


»» 


J» 


012-3 






2699-82 




2a 


>» 


1» 


027-7 






9927 




2 


» 


f» 


036-3 






98-83 




2 


077 


J» 


042-3 






97-86 




2 


i> 


>> 


055-6 






97-31 




4 


i> 


)> 


063-2 






9716 




2a 


1) 


9> 


065-3 






96-65 




4a 


T» 


»» 


0723 






94-85 




6n 


»» 


»» 


097-0 






94-6 




2a 


t» 


»» 


100-5 






93-1 




2a 


f» 


»» 


121-3 






90-91 




12 


)♦ 


»» 


151-4 






90-41 




10 


11 


J» 


158-3 






89-99 




10 


11 


>» 


164-1 






88-82 




10 


11 


>» 


180-2 






88-12 




10 


11 


1) 


189-9 






87-90 




8 


») 


»> 


193-0 






87-7 




6b 


f> 


>> 


196 






86-60 




3 


11 


f» 


211-0 






85-77 




6 


11 


»> 


222-5 






85-23 




6 


»» 


»» 


230-1 






8491 


i 


6 


19 


II 


234-4 






83-5 


1 


2b 


11 


11 


254 



142 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Hasohek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 






2683-21 




10 


0-77 


10-8 


37258-0 






82-98 




10 


1} 


)» 


261-2 






82-60 




2 


)» 


)» 


266-5 






80-54 




4 


»1 


l» 


295-1 






79-39 




14 


»J 


If 


311-1 






78-66 




12 


»» 


10-9 


321-2 






77-91 




12 


»l 


»> 


331-7 






77-25 




2 


»1 


9) 


340-8 






76-3 




4b 


n 


99 


354 






74-27 




2nr 


)) 


91 


382-5 






73-40 




8n 


)) 


99 


394-6 






72-11 




14 


)» 


99 


412-7 






70-38 




10 


)) 


99 


436-9 






69-08 




2 


i> 


99 


455-1 






68-70 




2 


n 


99 


460-5 






68-18 




4ii 


f> 


99 


467-8 






67-65 




2 


»» 


99 


475-3 






66-9 




4b 


»» 


»9 


486 






66-10 




2 


5» 


9) 


497-0 






65-5 




2q" 


)» 


99 


505-5 






63-42 




18 


*t 


9» 


534-8 






62-45 




2 


)* 


99 


548-5 






61-67 




10 


» 


99 


559-5 






59-74 




8 


ii 


J9 


586-7 






59-10 




8 


»» 


99 


597-7 






58-62 




4 


»» 


9» 


602-6 






57-40 




6 


»» 


»> 


619-9 






55-82 




16 


t» 


J» 


642-3 






54-50 




2a 


0-76 


99 


661-0 






53-94 




2 


J9 


110 


668-8 






52-90 




10 


1* 


)» 


683-6 






52-03 




2n 


>» 


1) 


695-9 






51-70 




2n 


»» 


»» 


700-6 






51-1 




2n 


)} 


If 


709 






50-55 




2q 


>> 


It 


717-0 






49-50 




16 


)» 


9> 


732-0 






48-04 




12 


9) 


If 


752-8 






47-82 




4 


») 


ft 


755-9 






47-37 




2n 


)» 


9f 


762-3 






46-3 




2n 


«} 


f f 


778 






45-90 




14 


It 


«f 


783-3 






45-38 




2n 


)) 


ff 


750-7 






44-50 




16 


91 


ff 


803-3 






43-8 




4b 


)) 


ft 


813 






43-23 




4 


If 


ft 


821-5 






42-82 




4 


») 


ft 


827-4 






42-32 




14 


)t 


ft 


834-5 






41-05 




16 


)) 


ft 


852-7 






40-40 




2 


91 


ft 


861-0 






38-65 




4b 


)» 




8872 






38-02 




f- 


99 


ft 


896-2 






37-81 




^ 


)) 


ft 


899-2 






37-30 




2n 


1} 


ti 


906-6 




, 


36-13 


■ 


2n 


tl 


» 


9231 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 143 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Eeduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 




1 




Frequency 














Hasselberg 


Kowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A.+ 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 






2635-73 




6 


0-76 


ll'O 


37929-1 






35-52 




4n 


)» 


)• 


932-2 






34-64 




2n 


»J 


11 


944-8 






34-02 




2n 


J» 


If 


953-7 






33-31 




2n 


)» 


fi 


964-0 






32-50 




2n 


Jl 


11 


975-7 






30-72 




12 


)» 


11-1 


38001-3 






29-88 




lOn 


»> 


1) 


013-4 






28-88 




8n 


»» 


11 


027-9 






28-35 




2n 


)> 


If 


035-6 






28-2 




2n 


«) 


It 


038 






25-73 




2 


J» 


11 


073-5 






25-00 




8a 


M 


11 


084-1 






23-S6 




8n 


)) 


11 


100-7 






22-85 




8n 


)» 


*i 


115-4 






21-9 




8b 


11 


ft 


129 






20-4 




2b 


11 


If 


151 






20-2 




2b 


11 


ft 


154 






19-55 




2n 


>» 


If 


163-7 






18-5 




2b 


J> 


t> 


178 






17-28 




6n 


f> 


jf 


196-5 






16-75 




6n 


)• 


11 


204-2 






16-31 




8 


»> 


11 


210-6 






15-50 




Sn 


» 


]t 


222-5 






14-49 




6 


11 


11 


237-3 






13-9 




4b 


11 


ft 


246 






12-4 




4b 


)» 


ti 


268 






11-6 




4n 


1) 


ti 


280 






11-35 




6n 


»» 


i> 


283-3 






10-8 




8b 


»l 


1? 


291 






2609-91 




2 


0-75 


11 


304-4 






09-68 




2 


» 


11-2 


307-8 






08-11 


, 


en 


1» 


>» 


330-7 






07*5 




2n 


11 


j» 


340 






06-60 




2d 


1» 


J) 


353-0 






05-8 




4b 


>» 


)) 


365 






03-52 




6n 


1» 


)j 


398-3 






0305 




6n 


1* 


)» 


405-3 






02-40 




4n 


11 


j» 


414-8 






01-20 




8n 


J) 


}» 


432-5 






00-65 




2a 


11 


j> 


440-7 






00-15 




2 


11 


19 


448-1 






98-9 




2a 


)1 


)) 


467 






97-33 




4 


1* 


»» 


489-8 






96-55 




2u 


>» 


?1 


501-5 






95-20 




16 


J> 


y> 


621-4 






94-0 




2n 


»1 


*1 


C39 






938 




2a 


11 


)> 


542 






93-18 




16 


11 


Jt 


549-9 






9232 




2 


51 


1) 


664-3 






91-68 




2 


1» 


)t 


573-8 






91-3 




2b 


11 


J) 


579 






90-7 




2b 


1 


1* 


h^9> 






90-3 


( 


2b 


1 
11 


it 


594 






88-89 


1 


2 


)> 


» 


614-4 



144 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo" 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 

A 






2588-55 




2 


0-75 


11-2 


38620-5 






88-23 




2 


l» 


11-3 


625-3 






87-5 




4b 


»» 


>» 


636 






85-02 




10 


Jt 


j» 


673-1 






83-7 




2b 


»» 


11 


693 






83-12 




6 


l» 


i» 


701-5 






81-95 




2 


M 


If 


719-1 






78-53 




4 


tt 


ti 


770-4 






77-78 




10 


it 


11 


781-7 






77-39 




2 


11 


11 


787-5 






76-56 




6 


It 


»» 


800-1 






76-20 




2 


»» 


»» 


805-5 






74-61 




10 


H 


11 


829-5 






74-14 




4 


»1 


11 


836-6 






73-3 




4b 


i» 


i» 


849 






72-85 




4n 


11 


I* 


856-1 






72-0 




6b 


11 


tt 


869 






71-14 




10 


1> 


•1 


881-9 






68-47 




4n 


11 


11-4 


922-3 






68-18 




2 


»I 


»» 


926-6 






67-6 




4b 


It 


>» 


935-5 






66-70 




6n 


1» 


»i 


949-3 






6613 




4 


11 


»» 


957-9 






65-8 




2n 


11 


»» 


963 






65-65 




4 


1» 


»» 


965-1 






65-33 




2 


)» 


)» 


970-2 






64-90 




4 


0-74 


» 


976-5 






64-25 




6n 


11 


>i 


986-4 






63-45 




6b 


11 


i» 


998-6 






62-87 




6 


»1 


»» 


89007-4 






62-3 




4b 


11 


11 


016 






61-3 




2b 


11 


II 


031 






60-25 






t» 


II 


047-4 






69-20 




2n 


»» 


II 


063-4 






58-99 




2 


11 


II 


066-5 






56-87 




2 


1» 


II 


098-9 






56 00 




10 


»1 


II 


112-2 






55-6 




2b 


J» 


II 


118 






54-93 




2 


If 


It 


128-6 






54-30 




14 


11 


II 


138-3 






53-76 




8 


it 


II 


146-6 






53-11 




12 


11 


»i 


156-6 






52-75 




2n 


11 


II 


162-1 






52-35 




2a 




II 


168-2 






51-83 




6 


11 


II 


176-6 






50-7 




2n 


If 


II 


194 






49-76 




4 


i> 


II 


208-0 






49-36 




14 


• } 


)i 


214-2 






48-80 




12 


„ i 11-5 


222-7 






48-28 




14 


11 




230-7 






46-40 




2 


f> 




259-6 






46-00 




2 


It 




265-8 






45-79 




2 


jl 




269-1 






45-54 




4 


11 




272-9 






44-40 




4n 


11 




290-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 115 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 










Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1 






254375 




2 


0-74 


11-5 


39300-5 






4305 




2 


It 


11 


311-4 






42-6 




10b 


11 


It 


318 






41-90 




2 


»f 


tl 


329-2 






41-1 




2b 


>> 


Jl 


341-5 






393 




8b 


1) 


tl 


369 






37-67 




6 


tl 


ft 


394-7 






35-20 




2 


)) 


II 


433-1 






34-60 




8 


M 


11 


442-5 






34-34 




2 


n 


11 


446-5 






3404 




4 


If 


It 


451-2 






33-93 




4 


M 


11 


452-9 






3207 




4br 


*i 


tt 


481-9 






31-71 




2 


•f 


11 


487-5 






31-33 




2 


1) 


11 


4934 






30-22 




4 


1* 


11-6 


510-7 






28-97 




14 


f} 


It 


5302 






28-59 




14 


)f 


11 


536 1 






2800 




18 


f> 


11 


545-4 






26-80 




16 


i> 


11 


664-2 






25-63 




2 


11 


1) 


582-5 






25-44 




2 


If 


11 


686-4 






2507 




10 


., 


tl 


591-2 






23-76 




4 


It 


11 


611-8 






23-50 




2 


(1 


11 


615-9 






22-95 




2 


ti 


II 


624-5 






22-60 




6 


It 


tt 


630-1 






22-50 




4 


»i 


tl 


631-7 






21-62 




12 


It 


II 


645-6 






21-30 




10 


II 


If 


650-5 






20-85 




2n 


It 


It 


657-6 






20-40 




2n 


9) 


11 


664-6 






19-77 




en 


ft 


11 


674-9 






19-2 




2b 


■ 1 


11 


683-5 






18-7 




2b 


tt 


tt 


691 






18-07 




2ii 


i» 


11 


701-3 






17-54 




2 


0-73 


11 


709-7 






17-20 




4 


It 


11 


715-1 






16-19 




14 


tt 


11 


731-0 






15-76 




2 


tl 


11 


737-8 






15-20 




2 


11 


11 


746-6 






14-70 




12 


It 


11 


754-6 






13-7 




2b 


Jl 


It 


770 






1343 




2n 


11 


It 


774-6 






12-95 




2n 


It 


11 


782-3 






12-5 




2b 


11 


1» 


789 






1205 




4 


»» 


11-7 


79G-5 






11-74 




4 


11 


If 


801-3 






11-3 




2b 


n 


i» 


808 






10-90 




2 


11 


>» 


814-6 






10-37 




2 


11 


»> 


823-0 






09-91 




2 


It 


)> 


8304 






08-93 




2 


11 


>» 


8458 






07-87 




4 


II 


)> 


862-8 






07-70 




S 


It 


tl 


865-5 



1901. 



I 



146 



HfiPORT — 1961. 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


ia Vacuo 






2506-97 




4 


0-73 


11-7 


39877-1 






06-27 




10 


l> 


1» 


888-2 






05-63 




2 


l> 


»» 


898-4 






05-32 




2 


It 


I) 


903-9 






05-02 




2 


1» 


1* 


908-1 






04-34 




4 


1> 


II 


918-9 






03-98 




2 


)» 


f) 


924-7 






03-33 




2n 


}) 


If 


9351 






03-08 




10 


»» 


9> 


939-0 






02-44 




2 


l» 


II 


949-3 






01-67 




4 


»> 


II 


961-6 






01-20 




2 


>» 


11 


969-1 






00-10 




2n 


t* 


>t 


986-7 






2499-30 




2 


J» 


If 


999-4 






99-12 




2 


>l 


>» 


40002-3 






98-3 




2b 


») 


• f 


015 






97-08 




2 


»l 


I* 


035-0 






95-85 




2 


IJ 


11 


054-7 






94-20 




2n 


t» 


If 


081-2 






93-G6 




4 


>» 


11 


089-9 






92-4 




2b 


»1 


I» 


110-3 






91-24 




2 


ff 


11-8 


128-9 






90-74 




2 


19 


11 


136-9 






89-86 




2 


f* 


11 


151-1 






88-66 




4 


fl 


If 


170-5 






88-20 




4 


}) 


91 


177-9 






87-6 




2b 


>» 


t1 


188 






85-55 




2 


n 


It 


220-7 






84-27 




2 


»» 


It 


241-5 






83-40 




2 


»» 


tf 


255-5 






83-11 




10 


)» 


It 


260-3 






82-39 




10 


»» 


It 


272-0 






80-68 




2n 


11 


9f 


299-7 






79-60 




12 


n 


tt 


317-3 






79-09 




12 


}i 


It 


325-5 






78-64 




8 


II 


11 


332-9 






76-33 




4 


II 


11-9 


370-4 






75-92 




6 


II 


11 


377-1 






75-49 




6 


II 


9* 


384-1 






74-8 




2b 


J» 


tt 


395 






72-94 




2 


11 


f I 


425-8 






71-18 




6 


11 


fl 


454-6 






69-85 




2n 


0-72 


11 


476-4 






69-46 




2 


II 


11 


482-8 






68-69 




2 


)l 


11 


495-4 






65 34 




10 


II 


ft 


550-5 






64-14 




6 


)l 


11 


570-2 






62-99 




8 


II 


It 


589-2 






61-57 




8 


Tl 


fl 


6125 






60-65 




2n 


II 


tt 


627-7 






59-40 




4 


II 


12-0 


648-3 






59-31 




2 


*l 


)» 


649-8 






58-35 




8 


I) 


91 


665-7 






57-85 




2 


II 


}l 


6740 






57-50 




8 


»» 


V 


679-7 



ON WAVfi-LEI^GTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 147 



Vanadium — continved. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Eeduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 














Hasaelberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


in Vacuo 






2456-56 




2 


0-72 


12-0 


40695-6 






53-90 




2 




»» 


739-5 






53-41 




10 • 




II 


747-5 






62-83 




2 




ft 


757-2 






521 




2b 




>» 


769 






51-6 




2b 




ir 


778 






50-80 




2 




i» 


791-0 






50-69 




2 




» 


792-8 






6029 




4 




fi 


799-5 






48-50 




2 




») 


829-3 






47-70 




10 




ij 


842-7 






46-75 




8 




»> 


858-5 






45-61 




2 




)> 


877-6 






45-38 




2 




» 


881-4 






4500 




10b' 




») 


887-8 


• 




42-65 




2n 




12-1 


927-0 






41-96 




2 




II 


938-8 






41-71 




3 




l> 


942-8 






41-40 




3 




l> 


948-0 






39-81 




2 




11 


974-7 






39-35 Fe 




6 




11 


982-4 






3917 




2 




11 


985-4 






39-09 




4 




1) 


41003-5 






36-62 




2 




»1 


028-4 






35-56 




4 




II 


046-2 






33-05 




6 




11 


088-5 






32-06 




2 




11 


105-3 






31-65 




2 




11 


112-3 






3010 




10 




11 


138-5 






28-35 




4 




1» 


168-1 






27-80 




4 




12-2 


177-4 






27-37 




6 




f> 


184-7 






26-18 




2 




II 


205-0 






24-83 




2n 




11 


227-8 






24-23 




2 




91 


248-1 






23-47 




2 




II 


251-0 






23-27 Fe 




2 




II 


254-4 






23-11 




2 




)l 


257-1 






2206 




4 




11 


275-0 






21-15 




4 


0-71 


n 


290-6 






20-20 




4 




It 


306-7 






18-80 




2 




11 


330-6 






17-60 




lObr 




ji 


361-2 






16-84 




4 




11 


366-4 






15-40 




2 




11 


388-8 






15-23 




4 




11 


391-8 






1400 




14 




11 


412-8 






13-15 




2 




t» 


427-4 






12-80 




4 




12-3 


433-3 






08-53 




4 




J, 


506-8 






0801 




2 




If 


515-8 






07-70 




2 




11 


521-1 






07-25 




12 




»» 


528-9 






05-96 




2 




n 


551-2 






05-30 




16 




»> 


662-7 
L2 



148 



REPORT— 1901. 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 














Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 






2403-35 




4 


0-71 


12-3 


41596-4 






0201 




4 


)f 


91 


619-6 






00-99 




4 


1» 


II 


637-5 






2399-77 




12 


)) 


11 


658-4 


, 




98-22 




2n 


II 


II 


685-3 


, 




97-74 




2 


II 


l> 


693-7 






97-2 




2n 


II 


19 


703 






971 




2ii 


II 


11 


705 






96-62 




2 


11 


12-4 


713-1 






95-1 




2n 


It 


It 


740 






93-70 




18 


II 


l» 


763-9 






92-8 




2ii 


11 


91 


780 






91-33 




2 


II 


l» 


805-4 






90-56 




4 


11 


II 


818-8 


. 




89-79 




8 


II 


II 


832-3 






8901 




2 


11 


II 


845-9 






88-35 




2 


II 


91 


857-1 






88-0 




2b 


tl 


11 


864 






87-04 




2 


II 


II 


880-5 






86-51 




2 


II 


II 


889-9 






85-92 




6 


11 


II 


900-2 






85-70 




4 


11 


II 


904-0 






85-05 




2b 


11 


II 


915-4 






84-09 




8 


11 


l> 


932-5 






83-55 




2n 


II 


It 


941-9 






82-59 




16 


11 


11 


958-8 






81-00 




10 


If 


12-6 


986-7 






80-3 




2n 


11 


II 


999 






79-24 




10 


11 


11 


42017-8 






77-0 




2b 


If 


11 


057 






75-9 




2a 


11 


11 


077 






74-75 




2 


II 


11 


097-2 






74-2 




2n 


11 


11 


108 






73-15 




10 


0-70 


II 


125-6 






72-67 




2 


11 


11 


132-4 






72-25 




6 


11 


It 


159-5 






71-19 




18 


11 


It 


160-6 






67-71 




6 


If 


91 


222-4 






66-96 




2 


It 


1) 


235-7 






66-53 




4 


11 


11 


213-5 






66-40 




16 


II 


II 


245-8 






65-73 




2 


II 


It 


257-3 






62-71 




4 


11 


It 


311-7 






60-42 




6 


11 


11 


352-8 






58-82 




14 


11 


12-6 


381-6 






57-89 




6 


19 


11 


398-2 






57-60 




2b 


1> 


II 


403-4 






56-3 




2n 


l» 


11 


427 






55-3 




2 


II 


It 


445 






54-74 




4 


II 


II 


455-0 






52-25 




10 


It 


11 


600-0 






51-64 




G 


91 


12-7 


510-9 






61-33 




4 


l> 


ti 


516-5 






49-87 




8 


It 


It 


542-9 






49-37 




2n 


II 


tl 


643-8 / 



ON VVAVE-LENGTa TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 149 



Vanadium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Rowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


A.+ 


1 






2348-30 




8 


0-70 


12-7 


42571-5 






47-67 




2 


ft 


t> 


684-8 






47-20 




8 


t) 


II 


591-3 






46-92 




6 


n 


II 


596-4 






46-41 




10 


)t 


It 


605-8 






43-91 




6 


II 


II 


661-0 






43-20 




10 


•9 


l> 


664-2 






42-26 




10 


., 


1* 


681-2 






41-49 




2 


ft 


If 


695-3 






40-6 




2b 


ti 


ffl 


711 






39-9 




2n 


It 


11 


724 






3902 




2 


II 


12-8 


740-3 






87-46 




6 


II 


II 


768-8 






37-28 




8 


II 


II 


772-1 






36-20 




6 


II 


ft 


791-8 






35-59 




6 


II 


fi 


803-0 






35-44 




2 


II 


II 


805-8 






34-30 




10 


tl 


If 


826-8 






33-70 




6 


11 


ft 


833-6 






31-86 




10 


II 


It 


871-4 






31-38 




6 


n 


f 1 


880-4 






30-53 




12 


II 


fi 


8960 






30-3 




6ii 


• 1 


■f 


900 






2903 




8 


11 


ff 


923-8 






28-2 




2b 


If 


ff 


939-0 






26-13 




4 


11 


12-9 


977-1 






25-22 




10 


0-69 


11 


993-9 






23-92 




12 


II 


ff 


43017-8 






19-91 




4 


II 


II 


092-2 






19-07 




8 


II 


II 


107-8 






18-10 




10 


It 


f* 


125-9 






17-61 




6 


11 


If 


135-0 






16-8 




2b 


It 


• I 


150 






15-8 




2b 


It 


ff 


169 






1507 




2 


II 


91 


182-3 






14-25 




8 


11 


II 


197-8 






12-5 




2b 


II 


»l 


230 






11-40 




8 


II 


13-0 


251-0 






09-91 




8 


11 


ff 


278-7 






09-14 




2 


11 


If 


293-3 






08-87 




2 


It 


If 


298-2 






08-35 




2b 


11 


11 


3081 






06-45 




2n 


11 


II 


343-8 






04-82 




2 


11 


If 


374-3 






03-29 




2 


II 


ft 


403-2 






02-30 




2 


11 


fl 


421-8 






2297-91 




8 


11 


If 


504-8 






96-93 C? 




4 


11 


11 


523-3 






96-39 




2 


11 


13-1 


533-6 






95-91 




2 


11 


91 


642-6 






95-65 




4 


11 


II 


547-6 






95-55 




4 


ll 


II 


649-5 






9503 




6 


11 


1} 


559-4 






92-91 




8 


11 


tl 


599-6 






92 64 




6 


It 


«> 


604-8 



150 



REPORT — 1901. 



Vanadium — eontimied. 





Spark 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Hasselberg 


Eowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 

A 






2291-5 




2n 


0-69 


131 


43626 






90-62 




6 


»t 


H 


636-7 






89-27 




4 


») 


1> 


656-4 






88-69 




4 


»» 


»» 


674-7 






88-12 




4 


11 


• t 


6911 






87-99 




4 


l» 


13-2 


693-3 






85-50 




6 


1» 


i» 


740-9 






84-98 




2 


M 


»i 


750-9 






84-80 




2 


»l 


tl 


754-4 






84-6 




2n 


)l 


it 


758 






83-85 




4 


t» 


jt 


772-5 






83-42 




4 


t» 


tl 


780-8 






82-92 




2 


tl 


It 


790-3 






81-66 




4 


»» 


II 


814-6 






81-27 




4 


11 


It 


822-0 






80-38 




4 


11 


It 


847-1 






79-78 




4 


tl 


tt 


850-7 






79-40 




2 


11 


1* 


858-0 






78-99 




4 


11 


tl 


865-9 






78-16 




2 


11 


i> 


882-1 






75-97 




2 


0-68 


II 


924-1 






75-62 




2 


1» 


It 


930-9 






75-28 




4 


»> 


11 


937-5 






73-69 




2 


11 


13-3 


968-1 






73-09 




4 


tl 


It 


978-2 






71-92 




2 


11 


ft 


44002-3 






71-22 




2 


») 


II 


015-8 






69-2 




2n . 


»» 


11 


055 






68-35 




4 


11 


II 


069-0 






67-7 




2n 


H 


11 


084 






64-43 




2 


»» 


It 


147-9 






68-7 




2ii 


It 


It 


162 






62-44 




2 


11 


13-4 


186-8 






61-9 




2 


11 


II 


197 






61-44 




2 


It 


11 


212-3 






60-90 




2 


11 


1» 


216-8 






58-83 




4 


11 


11 


257-3 






57-04 




2 


11 


II 


292-5 






53-00 




2 


It 


II 


371-9 






51-60 




2 


It 


II 


399-5 






51-20 




2 


)> 


11 


407-4 






50-8 




2a 


tl 


It 


415 






50-50 




2n 


11 


13-5 


421-1 






49-13 




6 


11 


It 


448-1 






43-50 




2 


>t 


tl 


543-8 






41-57 




8 


tt 


11 


598-2 






40-66 




4 


)» 


11 


616-1 






37-25 




2 


tl 


13-6 


684-2 






32-97 




10 


11 


11 


769-8 






30-05 




4 


It 


tl 


828-4 






29-81 




4 


0-67 


It 


833-3 






28-33 




4 


It 


1* 


863-2 






22-79 




4 


f) 


13-7 


974-8 






21-58 




2 


»» 


If 


999-2 






20-29 




2 


1> 


»» 


45025-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMKNTS. 151 



Vanadium— (?oTO<i«w«<?. 





Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity and 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
















Hasselberg 


Eowland and 
Harrison 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Arc 


Spark 


\ + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 






2218-51 




6 


0-67 


13-7 


45061-5 






18-07 




4 


•t 


If 


070-5 






17-48 




6 


l> 


fl 


082-3 






1611 




6 


It 


l> 


110-6 






15-92 




2n 


it 


It 


114-3 






14-11 




6 


}t 


13-8 


151-3 






10-40 




2 


)i 


If 


226-8 






10-10 




2 


11 


ff 


233-0 






09-31 




4 


»» 


11 


249-3 






09-02 




4 


» 


ff 


255-3 






07-83 




2 


i» 


11 


279-6 






04-60 




2 


1* 


)» 


345-9 






02 62 




4 


)i 


13-9 


386-3 






01-77 




4 


»» 


11 


446-1 






2199-72 




2 


»i 


t) 


446-4 






99-57 




2 


11 


fl 


449-5 






98-66 




2 


It 


11 


468-8 






9813 




2 


»» 


ft 


479-3 






95-82 




2n" 


i» 


It 


527-1 






94-98 




2 


>» 


9f 


544-6 






93-03 




2 


»> 


)f 


585-2 






91-20 




2 


)i 


fl 


608-0 






90-60 




2 


»i 


14-0 


639-6 






90-30 




2 


11 


fl 


641-8 






87-00 




2 


11 


11 


710-7 






86-02 




2 


11 


ft 


731-1 






85-45 




2 


11 


11 


743-2 






84-25 




2 


fi 


fl 


768-3 






82 30 




2ii 


11 


)» 


809-1 






81-95 




2 


i» 


ft 


816-6 






77-3 




2n 


0-66 


t» 


915 






77-0 




2n 


11 


14-1 


921 






75-9 




2 


11 


11 


944 






73-2 




2 


11 


It 


46001 






71-9 




2 


If 


ft 


047-5 






66-2 




2n 


11 


>» 


134 






63-7 




2n 


11 


14-2 


207 






61-6 




2n 


11 


Jl 


248 






51-9 




2 


11 


It 


456 






51-1 




2 


)1 


14-3 


474 






50-9 




2 


1» 


ff 


478 






48-4 




2 


11 


)) 


532 






47-5 




2 


11 


14-4 


551 






46-0 




2 


If 


If 


584 






43-1 




2 


>1 


U 


627 






42-0 




2 


If 


ft 


671 






40-1 




2 


11 


11 


712-5 






39-8 




2 


11 


14-5 


719 






38-1 




2 


)1 


It 


756 






37-3 




4 


If 


1) 


774 






341 




4 


11 


*) 


844 






330 




2 


11 


II 


868 






31-8 




2 


11 


» 


894 



152 



REPORT — 1901. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. A. Tilden (Chairman) and Dr. H. E. ARM- 
STRONG {Secretary). (Brawn up by the Secretary .) 

The investigation of the bromo derivatives of )8-naphthol, referred to in 
several previouB reports, has been continued during the year with the 
assistance of Mr. W. A. Davis, and practically completed. The results 
are embodied in the following tables : — 







Isomeric Bromo-fi-NapMhols. 




Bromo-derivative 


Properties 


Convertible by HNO, 
into 


Bemarks 




No. 1. 










Br 


slender needles, easily 


1 - Nitro - 2 - naphthol. 


Headlly dissolves in iod- 




/\^0H 


soluble in acetic acid, 


m.p. 103°. 


hydrio acid, yielding 




X /x > 


m.p. 82°. 




/3-naphthol. 




Ex B-naphthoI and 








§ 


Br,. 








t 


No. 2. 


From benzene in long 


1 - Nitro - 2 - naphthol, 




2 


/V^OH 


needles, m.p. 127° ; 


m.p. 103°. 




•g 


from glacial acetic 






o 

a 


•Rr 


acid in massive crys- 






o 


^'\/\/ 


tals, m.p. 84°, which 






Ex dibromo No. 1 and 


effloresce in air. 








iodhydrio acid at 


Acetate, m.p. 103°, 








ordinary tempera- 










. ture. 










No. 1. 










Br 


From glacial acetic 


(1) l-Nitro-6-bromo-2- 


Both the naphthol and 




/^/\0H 


acid in lustrous nee- 


naphthol ; from al- 


the dibromoquinone. 






dles + 1 mol. C,H.O„ 


cohol in slender 


m.p. 171°, yield 4- 




Br V „ - 


m.p. 84° ; from light 


yellow needles, m.p. 


bromophthalic acid 




\/\/ 


petroleum in slender 


122°. 


on oxidation with di- 




Ex j3-naphthol in 
glacial acetic acid 


needles, m.p. 106°. 


(2) 1-Bromo - ^ - naph- 


lute nitric acid. Both 




Acetate, lustrous plates, 


thaquinone (m.p. de- 


the mono- and dibro- 




and 2Bra. 


m.p. 125°. 


pendent on rate of 


moquinone yield with 








heating), and 4 : 6- 
dibromo- ^ - naphtha- 


aniline a mixture of 









quinone, m.p. 171° ; 








both quinonescrystal- 


f^\/\0H 








lise from ethylio ace- 










tate in magnificent 


NPh 








red prisms. 


^ 








m.p. 273-275°. 


% 



















|^/\ NHPh 


i- 








^'\./v^ 


i 

g 








^NPh 


o 








m.p. 206°. 


3 


No. 2. 










/V^\0H 


From toluene iu silky 
needles, m.p. 137-5°. 




When heated with 
alcohol and H^SO^ 




^' \/\) ^' 


Acetate, ex acetone in 
transparent rhombs, 




6-5 hours at 100° 
yields 65 per cent, of 




Ex tribromo-naphthol 


m.p. 127°. 




ether, C.,H,Br,0Et, 




No. 1, and iodhydrio 






m.p. 98°. 




acid at 100°. 









ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 
Isomeric Bromo-0-Napht7tols—continned. 



153 



I 



Bromo-derlvative 


Properties 


Convertible by HNOj 
into 


Bemarks 




JVo. 3. 










Er(?) 


From benzene and light 




With alcohol and 




petroleum in long 




H,SO. 6 hours at 




needles, m.p. 134-5''. 




100° yields 61'0 per 






Acetate, crystallises in 




cent, of ether, which 




^■^X/N^ 


small colourless 




crystallises from alco- 




needles, m.p. 87-88°. 




hol in silky tufts of 




Ex tribromo-/3-naph- 






needles, m.p. 68°. 




thol No. 2 and iod- 










. hydrio acid. 










r No. 1. 










Br 


From acetic acid in 


(1) l-Nitro-3 :6-di- 


On oxidation with di- 




/\/N0H 


non-effloresceut, lus- 


bromo - j3 - naphthol. 


lute HNO, the dibro- 






trous needles, m.p. 


slender golden ntedles 


moquinoue yields 4- 




•Rr 


155°. 


from alcohol ; melts 


bromophthaiic acid ; 




^■^X/X/ Br 


Acetate, from ethylic 


and decomposes at 


anhydride, m.p. 106°. 




Ex j3-naphthol in 
acetic solution and 


acetate in long. 


about 156°. 


With aniline the qui- 




slender, lustrous 


(2) 3 : 6-Dibromo-l : 2- 


none yields a mixture 




3Br,. 


needles, m.p. 184°. 


rraphthaquinone. 


of 




Benzoate, m.p. 187°. 


from ethyl acetate in 











deep - red rhombs. 


/\/\0H 








or orange-red needles. 








m.p. 160° ; changes in 


^■^k^ 








ail into 











NPh 








/V^OH 


m.p. 273-275°. 






* 


Br ^j^ J Br 

m.p. 213°. 
With aniline the latter 


and 



/\/\0H 








yields an additive com- 








pound, 0,„H.O,Br, + 


m.p. 206°. 








O.H.NH^ crystallising 










from benzene in red 










prisms and decompos- 










ing at 195°. 






A'o. 2. 










Br(?)Br 


From acetic acid in 


(1) 1 -Nitre -6 :8(?)- 


On oxidation both the 


eS 


A/\0H 


small efflorescent nee- 


dibromo-2 - naphthol. 


naphthol and the de- 


«.■ 




dles + 1 mol. 0,H.0„ 


compact, canary-yel- 


rived quinone yield a 


O 


Br I X . 


m.p. 159°. 


low needles from 


new dibromophthalic 


a 


\/\y 


Acetate, from ethyl ace- 


benzene ; on heating 


acid, m.p. 195-196° ; 


1 

•c 


By action of bromine 
(excess) on dru /3- 
uaphthol at 100°. 

No. 3. 


tate or acetone in 
brilliant, slender 
needles, m.p. 149°. 
Bemoate, ex ethyl ace- 
tate in silky needles, 
m.p. 164°. 


becomes orange at 
155-160°, and melts 
and decomposes at 
163°. 
(2) 6 : 8-Dibromo-l : 2- 
naphthaquinone, 
orange-red, efflores- 
cent needles from 
benzene. large prisms 
from ethyl acetate, 
m.p. 186°. 


anAydride, m.p. 147'6°. 




/\^0H 


From glacial acetic 
acid in flat, efflores- 




Does not etherify when 
heated with alcohol 




^■^x/O^' 


cent needles (with 
1 mol. CjH.OJ; melts 




and HjSO, at 100°. 




Br 


at 134°. 








Ex tetrabromo ^-naph- 
thol No. 1 and 


Acetate, from ethylic 








acetate in slender 








boiling iodhydric 
acid. 


lustrous needles, m.p. 
147°. 







154 



EEPORT — 1901. 

Isomeric Bromo-^-Naphthols — continued. 



Bromo-derivative 



^'o. i. 




Br(?) 



Ex tetrabromo-/3-naph - 
thol No. 2 and boil- 
l. iug iodbydric acid. 



No. 1. 
Br 

Br 

Ex /3-napbtliol in 
glacial acetic acid 
and excess of Br^ in 
presence of iron. 



No. 2. 
Br(?)Br 



Brl^/I^Br(?) 

By excess of Br^ on 
dry ^-naphtbol at 
100° in presence of 
iron. 



No.Z. 

Formed along with 1 
and 2 in small quan- 
tity. 



No.\. 

By action of bromine 
in excess on dry /3- 
naphthol in pre- 
sence of Al or Fe ; 
also by bromine ou 
tetrabromo, No. 2. 

iVo. 2. 

Ex tetrabromo-^-naph- 

thol, No. 1, by 

dropping into bro- 

\ mine coutainiug Al. 



Properties 



From acetic acid in flat, 

ejfiorescent needles 

(with 1 mol. C.H.O,) ; 

melts at 135-136°. 

Acetate, small leaflets 

ex ethyl acetate, m.p. 

147°. 



From acetic acid in 
small balls of 
needles {efflorescent), 
m.p. 172°. 

Acetate, from ethylic 
acetate in long, lus- 
treless prisms, or 
small six-sidtd plates, 
m.p. 192-193°. 



From acetic acid or 
chloroform in long 
slender needles {non- 
efflorescent), m.p. 
184°. 

Acetate, from ethylic 
acetate or acetone in 
small dumbbell-like 
aggregates of needles, 
m.p. 155°. 



Small, colourless 
needles from acetic 
acid, m.p. 191°. 

Acetate, from acetic 
acid (very sparingly 
soluble) in felted 
mass of needles, m.p. 
210°. 



Tiny colourless needles 
from nitrobenzene, 
m.p. 241°. 

Acetate, ex ethylic ace- 
tate, small needles, 
m.p. 209°. 



Acetate, m.p. 203°, 
white granules. 



Convertible by HNO3 
into 



(1) 1 - Nitro -3:4:6- 
tribromo-j3-naphthol, 
dark yellow needles, 
m.p. between 135- 
143°, depending on 
rate of heating. 

(2) 3 : 4 : 6-tribromo- 
1:2- naphthaqui- 
none, from ethylic 
acetate in large, deep- 
red nearly black 
rhombs, m.p. 190°. 



(1) Nitro - tribromo - (3- 

naphthol, yellow tufts 
from alcohol, m.p. 
156° (decomposes). 

(2) Tribromo-jS-naph- 
thaquinone from 
etliylic acetate in 
large red prisms, 
m.p. 183°. 



Does not yield a keto- 
compound initially 
with HNO,, but gives 
immediately a tetra- 
bromo - fi • naphtha - 
quinone, m.p. 241° 
(small red needles). 



A tetrabromo-jS-naph- 
thaquinone, m.p.l64°. 



Bemarks 



Does not etherify. 

Note close resemblance 
of naphthols 3 and 4 
and acetates S, 3, 
and 4. 



Oxidation by dilute 
HNOj converts the 
naphthol and the 
derived quinone into 
4-bromophthalic acid; 
anhydride, m.p. 106°. 



Oxidation of either 
naphthol or quinone 
gives a new dibromo- 
phthalio acid, m.p. 
195-196° ; anhydride, 
m.p. 147-5°. 



Attempts at oxidation 
hitherto unsuccessful. 



On oxidation yields 
a tribromopbthalio 
BCld.' 



' Flessa, Ber., 17, 1479. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



loo 



Bibliography of Spectroscopy. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. McLeod {Chairman), Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen 
{Secretary), Mr. H. G. Madan, and Mr. D, H. Nagel. 

The Committee beg to present herewith the last instalment of the list of 
spectroscopic papers, continued until the end of the year 1900 ; it is 
unnecessary to continue it farther, as the work will now come into the 
hands of the compilers of the International Catalogue of Scientific Papers. 
In the first report, presented in 1881, will be found a list of periodicals 
from which titles have been taken, but as in recent years the work has been 
entirely in the hands of only two members of the Committee, it was found 
impossible to look through all the periodicals mentioned in that list. The 
serials that have been recently examined are the following : — ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' ' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' ' Journal of 
the Chemical Society,' ' Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft,' 
' Chemisches Centralblatt,' ' Proceedings of the Physical Society,' ' Science 
Abstracts,' ' Beiblatter,' ' Nature,' and ' Chemical News.' The abstracts 
and notices contained in these periodicals have been verified by reference 
to the original papers, and it is hoped that all the most important con- 
tributions to the knowledge of spectroscopy have been included in the 
list. 



PAPERS ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH SPECTROSCOPY. 

The previous instalments of this catalogue will be found in the Reports of the 
Association for 1881, pp. 328-422 ; 1884, pp. 295-350 ; 1889, pp. 344-422 j 1894, pp. 
161-236 ; 1898, pp. 439-519. 

[In cases where it has not been found possible to verify a reference, the latter is 
placed in brackets, in the same column as the title of the paper. A list of the 
chief abbreviations used will be found at the end of the catalogue.] 

I. 

INSTRUMENTAL, 



J. Melander 



\ 



M. Hamy . 



J, Melander . 



H. Kriiss 



1897. 

Sur un prisme k angle variable. 
(Read Dec. 13.) 



Sur un appareil permettant de 
separer des radiations simples 
tris voisines. (Read Dec. 20.) 

Ein Spectrometer zur directen 
Unterscheidung der tellurischen 
Linien im Sonnenspectrum (' Fin- 
ska Vet. Soc. Forh.' xxxis. 247- 
255). 

1898. 

Spectro-photometer mit Lummer- 
Brodhun'schen Prismenpaar.(Jan.) 



' Oefvers. af Finska Vet, 
Soc. Forhandl.' xl. 33- 
35 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxii, 
555 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxv, 1092-1094. 



' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 178-179 
(Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xviii.12-18 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxii. 839 (Abs.) 



156 



REPORT — 1901. 



C. Fabry and A, 
Perot. 



L. M. Dennis , 



H. C. Vogel . 
A. A. Michelson 

W. Hemmelmann 

C. Zeiss . 

C. Pulfrich . 

A. Jobin 

A. A. Michelson 

C. Zeiss . 

F. Pf ahl 

C. R. Mann . 
H. Olsen 



\V. A. Adeney and 
J. Carson. 



Instrumental, 1898. 

Sur un spectroscope interf^ren- 
tiel. (Read Jan. 24.) 



Eine nene Form des Entladers fiir 
Funkenspectren in Losungen. 
(Jan.) 



Einige Bemerkungen iiber den 
Kirchhoff'schen Spectralai^parat. 
(Read Feb. 17.) 

A Spectroscope without Prisms or 
Gratings. (March.) 



VerbessertesAbsorptionsfliischchen 
fiir Spectralanalyse. (April.) 



Neue Construction des symmetri- 
schen Doppelspaltes nach v. Vier- 
ordt. (April.) 

Ueber einige Neueinrichtangen an 
dem Doppleprisma des Abbe'schen 
Refractometers, und iiber die von 
der Firma Zeiss hergestellten 
Refractometer dieser Art. (April.) 

Spectroscope interferentiel de MM. 
A. Perot et Ch. Fabry. (Read 
May 20.) 

The 'Echelon' Spectroscope. (June.) 



Spectralapparat nach E. A. Wiilfing 
zur Beleuchtung mit Licht ver- 
schiedener Wellenlange. (July.) 

Eiu einfacher Apparat zur Demon- 
stration des BrechuDggesetzes der 
Lichtstrahlen. (July.) 

The Echelon Spectroscope. (Aug.) 

Ueber einen Gitterspectralapparat. 
(Sept.) 



On the Mounting of the large Row- 
land Spectrometer in the Royal 
University of Ireland. (Sept.) 



'C. R.' cxxvi. 331-333; 
' Nature,' Ivii. 325 
(Abs.); 'Science Abstr.' 
i. 247; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxvii. 82-83 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . anorg. Chem.' 
xvi. 19-21 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxii. 218 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
Centr.' 1898, I. 428 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxiv. II. 185 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1898,141-147; 'Nature," 
Iviii. 19-20 (Abs.) 

' Amer. J. Sci.' [4], v. 215- 
217; 'Beiblatter,' xxiii. 
555-557 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' i. 386; 'Nature," 
Ivii. 500 (Abs.) 

' Chem. Zeitung,' xxii. 
297-298 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1H'J8. I. 1063 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xviii. 116-117. 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde.' xviii. 107-116 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxii. 661 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' i. 
536. 

' Seances de la Soc. Fran(;. 
de Phys.' 1898, 46*-49'*. 

' Astrophys. J.' viii. 37- 
47; 'Nature,' Iviii. 280 
(Abs.) ; • Science Abstr.' 
1. 589-592. 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xviii. 209-213. 



' Zeitschr. f . phys. u. chem. 
Unterr.'xi., 159-161. 



' Science,' viii. 208-210. 

' Zeitschr. f. Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xviii. 280-283; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 557 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc. Dublin ' 
[N.S.], viii. 711-716 ; 
'Phil. Mag.' [5], xlvi. 
223-227 : ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 98 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



157 



W. W. Campbell 
R. Straubel . 

C. Zeiss . 

»0, Pulfrich . 
C. Zeiss . 



V. Schumann. 
E. A. Wulfing 

J.H.White . 
Sir J. N. Lockyer 

C Zeiss . 
H. Starke 



C. P. Butler . 
C. S. Hasticars 



Instrumental, 1898, 1899. 

The Mills Spectrograph of the Lick 
Observatory. (Oct.) 

Ein BeleuchtuDgs apparat fiir mo- 
nochromatisches Licht mit festen 
Spalten. (Oct.) 

Ueber Quarzspectrographen und 
neuere spectrographische Hiilfs- 
apparate. (Nov.) 



Ueber ein Vergleichspectroscop fur 
Laboratoriumszwecke. (Dec.) 



Totalrefractometer (Krystalrefrac- 
tometer) nach E. Abbe. 

Verbindung eines Dichroscopes mit 
ein em Spectroscop. 

Von den brechbarsten Strahlen 
und ihrer photographischen Auf- 
nahme. 

Ueber einen Spectralapparat zur 
Herstellung von intensivem mono- 
chromatischem Licht. 

1899. 
Simplified Apparatus for Spectro- 
scopic Photography. (Jan.) 

A simple Spectroscope and its 
Teachings. (Lecture, Feb. 16.) 



Neues Refractometer mit Erhltz- 
ungseinrichtung nach Eykman. 
(March.) 

Ein Refractometer zurBestimmung 
des Brechungsexponenten von 
Fliissigkeit en mit dem Microscop. 
(Read April 7.) 

On the Use of Photographic Films 
in Astronomical Photography. 
(April.) 

The Michelson Echelon Spectro- 
scope. (April.) 

A new Type of Telescopic Objective 
specially adapted for Spectro- 
scopic Use. (April.) 



' Astrophys. J.' viii. 123- 
158 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
91 (Abs.) 

' Ann.' Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.]. Ixvi. .350-352 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 97 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xviii. 325-331 ; 
'Beiblatter' xxiii. 249 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr. 
ii. 316. 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrnmenten- 
kunde,' xviii. 381-383 ; 
'Beiblatter,' xxiii. 2i9- 
250 (Abs.) 

' Neues Jahrb. f. Min. 
Geol. u. Paliiont.' 1898, 
IL 6.5-67. 

'Neues Jahrb. f. Min. 
Geol. u. Paliiont.' 1898, 
II. 68-69. 

'Jahrb. f. Photog.' xii. 
20-22 ; • Beiblatter,' xxii. 
841 (Abs.) 

' Neues Jahrb f . Mineral.' 
Beilage-Band xii. 343- 
404 ; ' Beiblatter ' xxiii. 
355-356 (Abs.) 

' Scientific American,' lixx. 
43 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
739. 

' Nature,' lix. 371-373, 
391-393 ; ' Zeitschr. f , 
phys. u. chem. Unterr.' 
xii. 157-158; 'Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 554-555 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. lustrumenten"! 
kunde,' xix. 65-74 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiii. 767 (Abs.)] 

' Verb. Deutsch. phys. 
Gesellsch,' i. 117-122; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 596 ; 
'Beiblatter,' xxiv. 27-29 
(Abs.) 

'Nature,' lix. 614. 



' Nature,' lis. 607-609. 

'Amer. J. Sci.' vii. [4], 
267-270; 'Nature,' lix. 
621 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 660. 



158 



REPORT — 1901. 



A. A. Miclielson 
A. cle Gramont 

S. A. Mitchell 



Ph. Pellin and A. 
Broca. 



A. A, Michelson 

D. P. Brace . 

G. E. Hale . 

C. Pulfrich . 

F. F. Martens 

W. H. Perkin . 

E. Beokmann 

L. Levy . . 
A. A. Michelson 

F. Wallerant . 

D. P. Brace . 



Instrumental, 1899, 1900. 

On the Echelon Spectroscope. (Read 
June 5.) 

Sur un spectroscope de laboratoire 
■^ dispersion et k echelle reglables. 
(Read June 26.) 



The direct Concave Grating Spec- 
troscope. (June.) 



Spectroscope ^ d6viation fixe. 
(June.) 



The Echelon Spectroscope. (Oct.) 



On a new Spectrophotometer and 
an Optical Method of Calibration. 
(Nov.) 

Some new Forms of Spectrohelio- 
graphs. (Nov.) 

Ueber ein neues Refractometer 
mit veriinderlichen brechenden 
Winkel. (Nov.) 

Ueber eine NeuconstructioO des 
Konig'schea Spectralphotometer. 
(Read Dec. 15.) 

An improved Spectrometer Scale 
Reader. (Read Dec. 21.) 

Ueber die Erzeugung leuchtonder 
Flammen zu speotroscopischen 
Zwecken mit Hilfe der Electro- 
lyse. (Zeitschr. f. Electrochem. 
V. 327.) 

Das Interferenispectrometer Von 
Ch. Fabry und A. Perot ('Der 
Mechaniker,' vii. 111-113.) 

Sur le spectroscope k echelons. 



Perfectlonnement an r&hactomHre 
pour les cristaux microsccipjque», 

1900. 

On a new System for Spectral 
Photometric Work. (Jai.) 



'Trans. Phil. Soc. Cam- 
bridge,' xviii. 316-323. 

'C.R.'cxxviii. 15G4-1568; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 178 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 739. 

'Astrophys. J.' x. 29-39 j 
' Nature,' Ix. 302 (Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 824. 

'J. dePhys.'[31,viii.314- 
319; 'Astrophys. J.' x. 
337-342 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiv. 462 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 663. 

' Proc. Amer. Acad.' xxxv, 
111-119; 'J. de Phys.' 
[3], viii. 305-314; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiv. 457-458 
(Abs.) ' 

' Phil. Mag.' [5] xl viii. 420- 
430 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
458-459 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' iii. 14-15. 

' Astrophys. J." x. 288-290, 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xix. 335-339. 

' Verhandl. Deutsch. Phys. 
Gesellsch.' i. 280-284; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv, 466 
(Abs.) 

•J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvii. 
267-294 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiv. 929-930 (Abs.) 

' Beibliitter,' sxiii. 778 
(Abs.) . 



' Beiblatter,' sxiii. 773 
(Abs.) 

' J. de Phys.' [3], viii. 305- 
314 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
740. 

' Bull. Soc. Min. de Paris,' 
xxii. 67-69. 



•Astrophys. J.' xi, 0-24 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv, 779- 
780 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



159 



E. V. Capps 



F. F. Martens 



C. Fabry and A. 
Perot 



J. Hartmann . 



C. J, Abbot and 
F. E. Fowle 



W. S, Adams 



W.W.Campbell . 



G. B. Rizzo . 



E. Beckmann 



H. C. Vogel 



C. Fabry and A. 
Perot 



J. Hartmann , 



H. Lehmann 



INSTEUMENTAL, 1900. 

Calibration of the Slit in Spectral 
Photometric Measurements. (Jan.) 



Ein Colorimeter als Zusetzapparat 
ftir Spectroscope mit Wellen- 
langescala. (Jan.) 



Nouvelle source de lumifere pour la 
spectrometrie de precision , (Read 
Feb. 12.) 

Bemerkungen iiber den Bau und 
die Justirung von Spectrographen. 
(Feb.) 



A Prism of Universal Dispersion, 
(March.) 



The Curvature of the Spectral Lines 
in the Spectroheliograph. (May.) 

The Temperature Control of the 
Mills Spectrograph. (May.) 



Una vantaggiosa disposizione speri- 
mentale per lo studio degli spettri 
di diffrazione dei reticoli concavi. 
(Read June 18.) 



Ueber Spectrallampen, I. (June.) 



Description of the Spectrographs 
for the great Refractor at Pots- 
dam, (June.) 

Sur les sources de lumi^re mono- 
chromatique. (July.) 

Remarks on the Construction and 
Adjustment of Spectrographs. II. 
(July.) 

Ceber Spectralapparate mIt dreh- 
barem Gitter. (July,) 



' Astrophys. J.' xi. 25-35 ; 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 302 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 777 
(Abs.) . 

'Phys. Zeitschr,' i. 182- 
183 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
465 (Abs); 'Science 
Abstr.' iii. 627. 

' C.R.' cxxx. 406-409 ; 
' Beiblatter.' xxiv. 256 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 376. 

' Zeitschr. f .Instrumenten- 
kunde.'xx. 17-27, 47-58 ; 
'Beibliitter,' xxiv. 459- 
461 (Abs.) ; ' Astrophys. 
J.' xi. 400-413. 

' Astrophys. J.' xi. 135- 
139; 'Nature,' Ixi. 597 
(Abs.); 'Beiblatter,' xxiv. 
993 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' xi. 309- 
311 ; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
688. 

'Astrophys. J.' xi. 259- 
261 ; ' Nature,' Ixii. 137 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 6S7. 

•Atti R. Accad. Torino, 
xxiv. 794-7'J9 ; ' Mem. 
See. Spettr. Ital.' xxviii. 
241-244 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiv. 462-463 (Abs.); 
' Nature,' Ixi. 561-562 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' xxxiv. 593-611; 
'Uhem. Centr.' 1900. 11. 
801 (Abs.); 'Beiblatter,' 
xxiv. 1282 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. IL 
701-702 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' xi. 393- 
399 ; ' Nature,' Ixii. 459 
(Abs.) 

' J. de Phys.' [3], ix. 369- 
382; 'Nature,' Ixii. 350 
(Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' xii. 30-47 



' Zeitschr. f.InstrumenteL- 
kunde,' xx. 193-204 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 1115- 
1116 (Abs.) 



100 



REPORT — 1901. 



Instrumental, 1900— Emission Spectra, 1897. 



F. Pasohen . 
C. Fiitsch . 

C. Fulfrich . 

E. Beckmann 

W. H. Wright 
'E, Beckmann 

0. Lummer . 



M. \V. Travers 



O. Lohse 



• • 



W. N. Hartley 



F. Exner and E. 
Haschek, 

G. B. Rizzo . 



Lecoq de BoisLau* 
dran. 



P. Exner and E. 
Haschek. 



Ein Geisslersche Rohre mlt Queck- 
Bilber Electroden zum Studium 
des Zeemaneffectes. (Aug.) 

Eine neue Spaltvorrichtung an 
Spectralapparaten. (Sept.) 



Vergleichsspectroscope 
bentechniker. (Oct.) 



fiir Far- 



Ueber Spectrallampen. II. (Not.) 



The Auxiliary Apparatus of the 
Mills Spectrograph for Photo- 
graphing the Comparison Spec- 
trum. (Nov.) 

Ueber Spectrallampen. III. (Dec.) 



Ueber neuere Interferenzrefrac- 
tometer. (' Der Mechaniker,' viii. 
25-28, 37-40.) 

II. 

EMISSION SPECTRA. 
1897. 

Helium. 



Some Experiments 
(Read Feb. 4.) 



on 



Untersuchnng des violetten Thelles 
einiger linienreicher Metallspec- 
tren. (Read March 4.) 

Experiments on the Flame Spec- 
trum of Carbonic Oxide. (Read 
Mar. 18.) 

Ueber die ultravioletten Funken- 
spectra der Elemente. VIII. 
(Read May 13.) 

Ricerche spettroscopiche 
argon. (Read May 23.) 



suir 



Examen de quelques 
(Read June 8 and 21.) 



spectres. 



Ueber die ultravioletten Funken- 
spectra der Elemente. IX. 
(Read July 8.) 



' Phys. 
480. 



Zeitschr.' i. 478- 



'Phys. Zeitschr.' i. 543- 
544; 'Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
1117-1118 (Abs.); 

' Science Abstr.' iv. 26. 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xx. 299-301 ; 
' Beibliitter, • xxiv. 1277 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' XXXV. 443-458; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1901, I. 
1 (Abs.); 'Beibliitter,' 
XXV. 37 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' xii. 274- 
278 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxv. 
39-40 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' XXXV. G52-H60 ; 
'Beibliitter,' xxv. 129- 
130 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxx. II. 81 (Abs.) 

' Beibliitter,' xxiv. [371 
(title). 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' be. 449- 
453 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxiv. II. 375-376 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1897, 179-197. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' 1x1. 217- 
219 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxiv. II. 361-362 (Abs.) 

♦ Sitzung.sb. Akad. Wien,' 
cvi. II.a, 337-356; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 195. 

'Atti R. Accad. Torino,' 
xxxii. 570-579 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xxii. 666 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxiv. 1288-1290, 
1419-1421 ; ' Chem. 

News,' Ixxvi. 46-47 
(Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
cvi. II.a, 494-520; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 248, 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHV OP SPECTROSCOPY, 



161 



A. de Gramont . 



H. L. Callendar and 
N. N. Evans. 

A. L. Foley . 
H. Konen 

B. Hasselberg 

J. K. Eydberg 
S. Forsling . 

F. Exner and E. 
Haschek. 

H. Wilde 

E. Rancken . 



Emission Spectea, 1897, 1898. 

Sur le spectre du carbone. (Eead 
July 19.) 



Sur le spectre des lignes du car- 
bone dans les sels fondus. (Read 
July 26.) 

The Behaviour of Argon in X-ray 
Tubes. (Aug.) 

Arc Spectra. (Sept.) 



Ueber die Speotren des Jod. (Bonn 
Dissertation, Oct. 1897.) 



Untersuchungcn iiber die Spectra 
der Metalle im electrischen Flam- 
menbogen. IV. Spectrum des 
Mangans. (Eead Nov. 10.) 

The New Series in the Eed Spec- 
trum of Hydrogen. (Nov.) 

OmPraseodidy mens spectra. (Read 
Dec. 8.) 



Ueber die ultra violetf en Funken- 
spectra der Elemente. X. (Read 
Dec. 16.) 

On New Spectral Lines of Oxygen. 
(Dec.) 

Untersuchung iiber das Linien- 
spectrum des Schwefels. (Dis- 
sert. Helsingfors, 52 pp,) 



C. E.' cxsv. 172-175. 



' C. R.' cxxv. 238-240. 



' Nature,' Ivi, G24-625 ; 
' Brit. Assoc, Eep.' 1897, 
553 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Eeview,' v. 129- 
151 ; ' Science Abstr.' 
i. 55. 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixv. 257-286; 'J. 
Chem. See' Ixxiv. II. 
493 (Ab*); 'Nature,' 
Iviii. 335 (Abs.) 

'Handl. k. Svensk, Vet. 
Akad.' XXX. 20 pp. 



'Astrophys. J.' vi. 233- 
238; 'Nature,' Ivii. 157 
(Abs.) 

' Bihang till K. Vet. Akad. 
Handl.' xxiii. Afd. i. 
No. b, 20 pp. ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiii. 484 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
cvi. Il.a, 1127-1152. 

' Chem. News,' Ixxvi, 288. 

' Zeitschr. f. anorg, Chem.' 
xviii. 86 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
Centr.' 1898, II. 1004 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' 

xxiii, 96-97 (Abs.) 



J. M. Eder and 
E. Valenta. 



Birkeland 
M. Hamy 



1901. 



1898. 

Das Linien-speotrum des Siliclum, 
(Eead Jan. 13.) 



Sur le spectre des rayons catho- 
diques. (Read Jan. 17.) 



Sur le spectre du cadmium dans 
un tube a, vide. (Read Jan. 17.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
cvii. Il.a, 41-43; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xxii. 774 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1898, I. 
1095 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxvii. 206. 

'C. R.' cxxvi. 228-231; 
' Beiblatter,' xxii. 174- 
175 (Abs.) 

'C- R.' cxxvi. 231-234; 
' Beiblatter,' xxii. 153 
(Ab.s.) ; ' Chem. News.' 
Ixxvii. 71 (Abs.; ; ' J. 
Chem. See' Ixxiv. II, 
321 (Abs.) 

M 



162 



BEPORT— 1901. 



A. Perot and C. 
Fabry. 



F. Exner and E. 
Haschek. 



A. Schuster . 



H. Kayser 



H. Rubens and E. 
Aschkinasa. 



B. Deiiiar9ay 



G. C. Schmidt 



H. A. Rowland and 
C. N. Harrison. 



» >» 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 



H. Moissan and 
H. Deslandres, 



C). Fabry and A. 
Perot. 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 



T. N. Thiele 



Emission Spectra, 1898, 

Etude de quelques radiations par 
la spectroscopie interferentielle. 
(Read Jan. 31.) 



Ueber die ultravioletten Funken- 
spectra der Elemente. XI., XII., 
XIIL.XIV.Mitth. (Read Feb. 10, 
July 7, Dec. 15.) 



Profs. C. Runge and F. Paschen's 
Researches on the Spectra of 
Oxygen, Sulphur, and Selenium. 
(Feb.) 

On the Arc Spectra of the Plati- 
num Group. I., II. (Feb.) 

Beobachtungen iiber Absorption 
Tind Emission von WasserstofE 
und Kohlensiiure im ultraroten 
Spectrum. (March.) 

Sur le spectre et la nature du 
ngodyme. (Read April 4.) 



Sur les radiations 6mises 
thorium et ses composes. 
April 23.) 



par le 
(Read 



The Arc-spectrum of Vanadium. 
(April.) 



Arc-spectra of Zirconium and Lan- 
thanum. (May.) 

On a new Constituent of Atmo- 
spheric Air. (Read June 9,) 



Recherches spectrales sur I'air 
atmospherique. (Sealed packet 
deposited May 11, 1896; opened 
and read June 13, 1898.) 

Sur I'etude des radiations du 
mercure, ct la mcsurc de lours 
longueurs d'onde. ( Read June 13.) 

On the Companions of Argon 
(Read June 16.) 



Resolution into Series of the Third 
Band of the Carbon Band Spec- 
tram. 



'C. R.' cxxvi. 407-410 
' Nature,' Ivii. 359 (Abs.) 
' Science Abstr.' i. 247 
' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 29-30 
(Abs.) 

'Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
cvii. 102-206, 792-812, 
813-837, 1335-1380; 

'Wien. Anz.' 1898, 182 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' Ivii. 320-321. 



'Astrophys. J.' vii. 93- 
113, 173-197. 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.] Ixiv. 584-601. 



C. R.' cxxvi. 1039-1041 j 
'Chem. Centr.' 1898, I. 
101 (Abs.) 

C. R.' cxxvi. 1264. 



'Astrophys. J.' vii. 273- 
294 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxii. 
841-842 (Abs.) 



'Astrophys. J.' vii. 
389. 



373- 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 
405-408 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxvii. 287 ; ' Nature,' 
Iviii. 127-128. 

' C, R.' cxxvi. 1689-1691 ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
82 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxvii. 288. 

' C. R.' cxxvi. 1706-1708 ; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 640 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 781 
(Abs.) 

" Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 437, 
440 ; * Chem. News,' 
Ixxviii. 1-2; 'Nature,' 
Iviii. 182-183. 

' Astrophys. J.' viii. 1-27 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 357 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



163 



L. E. Jewell 



J. M. Eder 
E. Yalenta. 



A. Schuster . 



W. Ramsay, M. W. 
Travers, and E. 
C. C. Baly. 

K. Nasini, F. Ander- 
lini, and K. Sal- 
vador!. 

A. Kalahne . 



J. Dewar 
R. S. Hutton 



H. Erdmann . 

E. C. C. Baly 

Sir W. Crookes 



J. M. Eder and 
E. Valenta. 



»i n 



G. D. Liveing 



W. Ramsay 



Emission Spectra, 1808. 

The structure of the shading of 
the H and K and some other lines 
in the spectrum of the sun and 
arc. 



and I Spectralanalyse der Leuchtgas- 
tlamme. (Head July 7.) 



Ueber das Funkenspectrum des 
Calciums und des Lithiums, und 
seine Verbreiterungs und Um- 
kehrungserscheinungen. (Read 
July 7.) 

The Spectrum of Metargon. (July.) 



The Spectrum of Metargon. (July.) 



Terrestrial Coronium. (July.) 



Ueber die Spectra einiger Elemeute 
bei der stetigen Glimment- 
ladung in Geissler'schen Rohren, 
und die Abhangigkeit der Licht- 
strahlung von Stromstiirke und 
Druck. (July.) 

Metargon. (Aug.) 

The Compound Line Spectrum of 
Hydrogen. (Sept.) 



Ueber die farbige Abbildung der 
Emissionsspectra. (Sept.) 

Helium in the Atmosphere. (Sept.) 

Helium in the Atmosphere. (Oct.) 



Ueber das rothe Spectrum des 
Argons. (Read Oct. 24.) 

Vorliiufige Mittheilung iiber das 
Spectrum des Chlors. (Read 
Nov. 17.) 

On the Flame-spectrum of Mercury, 
and its bearing on the Distribu- 
tion of Energy in Gasea. (Read 
Nov. 28.) 

The Spectrum of Krypt 



' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ.'xvii. 62-63; 'Astro- 
phys. J.' viii. 51-53 ; 
' Beibliltter,' xxiii. 359- 
360 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
Iviii. 280 (Abs.) 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
Ixvii. 12pp. ; 'Beibliltter,' 
xxiii. 251-252 (Abs.) 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
Ixvii. 11 pp. ; ' Chem. 
Centr.' 1898, II. 1118 
(Abs.); ' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
250-251 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' Iviii. 199, 269- 
270; 'Beibliltter,' xxii. 
513-514, 772-773 (Abs.) 

'Nature,' Iviii. 245-246; 
' Beibliltter,' xxii. 772-773 
(Abs.) 

' Chem. News,' Ixxviii. 43 
(from the ' Times ' of 
July 20); 'Beibliltter,' 
xxii. 842 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixv. 815-848 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 
549 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. ] 4. 

' Nature,' Iviii. 319. 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xlvi. 338- 
343; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. II. 3 (Abs.); 
'Chem. Centr.' 1899, I 
12 (Abs.) 

' Naturw. Rundschau,' siii. 
465-467. 

' Nature,' Iviii. 545. 

' Nature, Iviii. 570 ; 
'CheiD. News,' Ixxviii. 
198-199. 

' Monatsh. f. Chem.' xvi. 
893-895; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxiv. II. 2-4 (Abs.) 

'Wien. Anz.' 1898, 252- 
255. 

'Proc. Phil. Soc Cam- 
bridge,' X. 38-48; 'Bei- 
bliltter,' xxiii. 781 (Abs.) ; 
' Nature,' lix. 142 (Abs.) 

Nature,' lix. 53. 

M 2 



164 

J. Trowbridge 
E. Demar^ay . 



P. Curie, Mme. 
Curie, and G. 
BSmont 



E. S. Ferry 



J. M. Eder 
E. Valenta. 



and 



REPORT — 1901. 
Emission Spectra, 1898, 1899. 



Some Eesults obtained with a 
Storage Battery of Twenty Thou- 
sand Cells. (Address at a meeting 
of the Amer. Acad. Dec. 14.) 

Sur le spectre d'une substance radio- 
active. (Read Dec. 2G.) 



Sur une nouvelle substance forte- 
ment radio-active contenue dans 
la pechblende. (Read Dec. 2G.) 



A Photometric Study of the Spectra 
of Mixtures of Gases at Low Pres- 
sures. (Dec.) 

Die Spectren des Schwefels. 
(' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' Ixvii. 
97-151.) 



' Proc. Phys. See' xvii. 
6.51-663 ; ' Nature,' Ixii. 
325-327. 



'C. R.' cx.xvii. 1218; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1900, I. 4 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc." 
Ixxviii. II. 83 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixxix. 13. 

' C. R.' cxxvii. 1215-1217 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixxix. 1-2 ; 
' Nature,' lix. 232 (Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 280. 

' Phys. Review,' vii. 296- 
306; ' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 
251 (Abs.) 

' Beiblatter,'xxii 773(Abs.) 



Mme. S. Curie 



A. Schuster and G. 
Hemsalech. 



J. W. Richards 



Les rayons 
Polonium. 



J. M. Eder 
E. Valenta. 

L. E. Jewell . 



and 



C. Fabry and A. 
Perot. 



A. Perot and C. 
Fabry. 

C. Runge 



W. W. Campbell . 



1899. 

de Becquerel 
(Jan.) 



et le 'Rev. gen. des Sciences, 
X. 11-50; 'Chem. News 
Ixxix. 77-78 (Abs.) 



The Constitution of the Electric 
Spark. (Read Feb. 2.) 



Note on the Spectra of Hydrogen. 
(Feb.) 



Das Spectrum des Chlors. (Read 
April 13.) 

Notes on the Papers of Hartley and 
Ramage concerning the Spectrum 
of Gallium and the Spectra of 
Meteorites. (April.) 

Sur une source intense de lumi&re 
monochromatique. (Read May 8.) 



Sur Talimentation des tubes de 
M. Michelson par diverses sources 
electriques. (Read May 15.) 

On the Red End of the Red Argon 
Spectrum. (May.) 



A Comparison of the Visual Hydro- 
gen Spectra of the Orion Nebula 
and of a Geissler Tube. (May.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixii 
331-336; 'Nature,' lix 
350-352 ; ' Chem. News, 
Ixxix. 62-64. 

' Amer. Cliem. J.' xxi. 
172-174 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1899, I. 65?» t,Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
266 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxix. 159-lCO. 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
Ixviii. 437-447. 

'Astrophys. J.' ix. 229- 
230; ' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
789 (Abs ) 

'C. R.' cxxviii. 115G- 
1158; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. II. 2(51 (Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 659. 

'C. R.' cxxviii. 1221- 
1223 ; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 508. 

'Astrophys. J.' ix. 281- 
283 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
823; ''Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
780 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' ix. 312- 
316; 'Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
793-794 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OK SPECTROSCOPY. 



165 



Exner and E. 
Haschek. 



J. M. Eder and E. 
Valenta. 



G. A. Hemsalech 



C. Eunge 



E. P. Lewis . 



B. Nasini, F. An- 
derlini and K. 
Salvador!. 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 



A. Wiillner 



B. Hasselberg 



U, Lehmann . 



Emission Spectra, 1899. 

Ueber die ultravioletten Funken- 
spectra der Elemente. XV. (Read 
June 15.) 



Ueber die ultravioletten Funken- 
spectra der Elemente. XVI. 
XVII. (Read June 15.) 



Das Spectrum des Broms. (Read 
July G.) 



Sur les spectres des d^charges 
oscillantes. (Read July 31.) 



The Spectra of Krypton. (Aug.) . 



The Spectral Sensitiveness of Mer- 
cury in an Atmosphere of Hydro- 
gen, and its influence on the 
spectrum of the latter. (Sept.) 

Ueber den Einfluss kleiner Beimen- 
gungen zu einem Gase auf dessen 
Spectrum. (Oct.) 



Sopra alcune righe non mai osser- 
vate nella regione ultrarossa dello 
spettro deir argo. (Read Nov. 19.) 



Note on the Spectrum of Silicium. 
(Read Nov. 23.) 



Ueber die Spectra der Canalstrahlen 
und der Cathodenstrahlen. (Dec.) 

Untersuchungen iiber die Spectra 
der Metalle im electrischen Flam- 
menbogen. V. Spectrum des 
Vanads. (' Handl. Svensk. Vet. 
Akad.' sxxii. No. 2, 32 pp.) 



Die ultraroten Spectren der 
Alkalien. (' Arch. f. Wiss. 
Photogr.' ii. 210^222.) 



'Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien.' 
cviii. Il.a, 825-859 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 109- 
110 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien, 
cviii. Il.a, 1071-1121, 
1123-1151, 1252-1266; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 782- 
783. 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
Ixviii. 623-530 ; ' Bei- 
bljitter,' xxiv. 260-262 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxviii. II. 330 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxix. 285-288; 
'J. de Phys.' [3], viii. 
652-660 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 1050-1051 (Abs.) 
' Nature,' Ix. 360 (Abs.) 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 853. 

' Astrophys. J.' x. 73-79 ; 
' Beiblatter,'xxiv.l 08-10!) 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 20. 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1899, 
660-661. 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N. F.], Ixix. 398-425; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. 
II. 1-2 (Abs.); 'Nature,' 
Ixi. 93 (Abs.) 

' Rend. R. Accad.d.Lincei' 
[5], viii. II. 269-271; 
' Gazz. chim. Ital.' xxx. I. 
189-191; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxviii. II. 181 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,'xxiv.259-260 
(Abs.) 

•Proc. Roy. Soc.'lxv. 449- 
461 ; ' Nature,' 1x1. 262- 
263 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
262 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Zeit'scbr.' i. 132- 
134 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
531. 

'Beibliitter,' xxiii. 684 
(Abs.) ; ' Astrophys. J.' x. 
343-361 ; ' ScienceAbstr,' 
iii. 308. 



■ Beibliitter,' 
(Abs.) 



XXV 



-28 



166 



EEPORT 1901. 



L. Rummel 



Emission Spectra, 1899, 1900. 

The Spectra of Oxj'gen, Sulphur, ' Beiblatter,' 
and Selenium. (' Trans. Koy. Soc. (Abs.) 
Victoria [2], xii. 14^17.) 



XXIV. 



180 



K. Pribram . 



F. Exner and E. 
Haschek, 



C. Fabry and A. 
Perot. 



A. Ladenberg and 
C. Kriigel. 



R. Hasselberg 



E. Goldstein 



V. Schumann 



W. Muthmaun and 
E. Bauer. 



C. C. Schenk 



W. B. Huff 



G. A. Hemsalech . 



1000. 
Deber das Austrium. (Read Jan. 4.) 



Ueber die ultravioletten Funken- 
spectra der Elemente. XVIII. 

Mittheilung.[Skandium, Samarium, 
und Gadolinium.] (Read Feb. 1.) 

Sur la constitution des raies jaunes 
du sodium. (Read March 5.) 



Ueber das Krypton. (Read 
March 22.) 



Note .'iur les spectres des d6charges 
oscillantes. (March.) 

Ueber Spectra von Gasgemengen 
und von Entladungshiilleu. (Read 
May 11.) 

A second Spectrum of Hydrogen 
beyond A = 185 yU;u. (May.) 

Einige Beobachtungen iiber Lumin- 
escenzspectren. (Read June 5.) 



Some Properties of the Electric 
Spark and its Sp)ectrum. (June.) 

The Spectra of Mercury. (June.) 



Deber das Bandenspectrum des 
Aluminiums. June.) 



' SitzuDgsb. Akad. Wlen,' 
c i s. 1 1, a, 16-23; 
' Monatsh.' f. Chem. xxi. 
148-155 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1900, I. 346 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' ixsviii. II. 
347-348 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
cix. Il.a, 103-169. 



'C. R.' cxxx. 653-655; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 674 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' Ixi. 483 
(Ab.<.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 376. . 

' Sitzungsb. Akad, Berlin.* 
1900, 212-217; 'Chem. 
Centr.' 1900, I. 945-946 
(Abs.); 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxxi. 205-207. 

' J. de Phys.' [3], ix. 153 
155 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
472 (Abs.) 

' Verb. Deutsch. Phys, 
Gesellsch.' ii. 110-112. 

' Astrophys. J.' xi. 312- 
313 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
910 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxxiii. 1748-1763 ; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1900, II. 
233-234 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiv. 1126-1127 
(Abs.) 



' Johns Hopkins 
Circ' xix. 63-64. 



Univ. 



' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ' xix. 62 ; ' Astro- 
phys. J.' xii. 103-119; 
'Beibliitter,' xxiv. 1293 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 950-951. 

' Ann. der Phys.' [4], ii. 
331-334; 'Science Abstr.' 
iii. 690; 'Nature,' Ixii. 
335 (Abs.); 'Chem.Centr.' 
1900, II. 86 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



167 



E. Demargay , 



F. Exner and E. 
Haschek. 

E. Deraar9ay . 



C. J. Eollefson 



C. Kunge 



J. Trowbridge 



H. Crew 

H. Kayser 

Sir J. N. Lockyer 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 

E. Demar^ay . 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



G. Berndt 



Emission Spectra, 1900. 
Sur le spectre du radium. (Read 
July 23.) 



Sur le gadolinium. (Read July 30.) 



Note on the Spectrum of Silicon. 
(.July.) 

Sur quelques nouveaux spectres 
des terres rares. (Read Aug. 6.) 



Spectra of Mixtures. (Aug.) 



Ueber das Spectrum des Radiums. 



The Spectrum of Hydrogen and 
the Spectrum of Aqueous Vajiour. 
(Sept.) 



On the Arc Spectra of some Metals 
as influenced by an Atmosphere of 
Hydrogen. (Oct.) 



Normalen aus dem Bogenspectrum 
des Eisens. (Oct.) 

Note on the Spectrum of Silicium. 
(Read Nov. 2.) 

Argon and its Companions. (Read 
Nov. 15.) 

Sur les spectres du samarium et 
du gadolinium. (Read Dec. 10.) 



On the Spectrum of the more Vola- 
tile Gases of Atmospheric Air, 
which are not condensed at the 
Temperature of Liquid Hydrogen. 
Preliminary Notice, (Read Dec. 13.) 



Ueber die S^Dectra von 
und Polonium. (Dec.) 



Radium 



' 0. R.' cxxxi. 258-259 ; 
' BeibUitter,' xxiv. 1121 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc. 
Ixxviii. II. 586 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxxi. 34.'^_345; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1900, II. 
557 (Abs.); 'Chem. News,* 
Ixxxii. 97-98. 

' Astrophys. J.' xii. 48-49; 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 950, 

•C. R.' cxxxi. 387-389; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii, 
II. 656 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' iii. 854; 'Chem, 
News,' Ixxxii. 127. 

'Phys. Review,' xi. 101- 

104. 

'Ann. der Phys.' [4], iii. 
742-745 ; ' Nature,' Ixii. 
568 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' iii. 853-854. 

' Amer. J. Sci.' [4], x. 222- 
230 ; ' Nature,' Ixii. 568 
(Abs.) ; ' Phil. Mag.' [5], 
1. 338-347; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxviii. II. 701 
(Abs.) 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], 1. 497- 
505 ; ' Astrophys. J.' xii. 
167-175 ; ' Nature,' Ixiii. 
114 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' iv. 24. 

'Ann. der Phys.' [4], ii, 
195-203. 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvii. 
402-409 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1901, L 436 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Eoy. Soc' Ixvii. 
329-333 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxxi. 995-998; 
' Beiblatter,' xxv.193-194 

(Abs.) ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxxiii. 11 (Abs.) 

'Prcc. Roy. Soc' Ixvii. 
467-4 r4; ' Chem. News,' 
1-2, 13-15 ; 
Ixiii. 189-190 



Ixxxiii 
' Nature,' 
(Abs.) 

' Physikal. 
180-181 ; 



Zeitschr.' ii. 

' BeibUitter,' 
XXV. 38-39 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' Ixxxiii. 77-78 ; 
' Science Abstr.' iv. 225. 



168 



REPORT — 1901. 



W. N. Hartley 
H. Lehmann . 



Emission Spectra, 1900— Absorption Spectra, 1898 
Spectrum of Cyanogen. 



G. Kriiss and E. 
Thiele. 



Die ultraroten Spectren. (Frei- 
burg i. B. Univ. Buchdr. Chr. 
Lebmann Nachf,, 13 pp.) 

III. 

ABSORPTION SPECTRA. 

1894. 

Ueber die Losungzustand des Jod, 
und die wahrscheinliche Ursache 
der Farbenunterschiede seiner 
Losungen. (Jan.) 



' Proc. Roy. See. Dublin,' 
ix. 289-297. 

' Beiblatter,' sxiv, 1119- 
1120 (notice.) 



' Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem,' 
vii. 52-81 ; ' J. Chem. 
See' Ixvi. II. 445-416 
(Abs.) 



G-. Dimmer 



D. F. Harris 



W. N. Hartley and 
J, J. Dobbie 



G, Urbain 



0. Boudouard 



C. A. Schunoli 



H. Rubens and E. 
Aschkinass 



V. Arnold 



1897. 

Ueber die Absorptionsspectren 
von Didymsulfat und Neodym- 
ammonnitrat. (Read Dec. 16.) 

1898. 

Some Contributions to the Spectro- 
scopy of Hfemoglobin and its 
Derivatives. (Read Feb. 7.) 

The Ultra-violet Absorption Spectra 
of some Closed-chain Carbon Com- 
pounds. (Read Feb. 17.) 

Notes on the Absorption Bands in 
the Spectrum of Benzene. (Read 
Feb. 17.) 



Sur une nouvelle m^thode de frac- 
tionnement des terres yttriques. 
(Read Mar. 14.) 



Sur le ndodyme. (Read Mar. 21.) 



A Photographic Investigation of 
the Absorption Spectra of Chloro- 
phyll and its Derivatives in the 
Violet and Ultra-violet Region of 
the Spectrum. (Read Mar. 24.) 

Beobachtungen iiber Absorption 
und Emission von Wasserdampf 
iind Kohlensiiure im ultrarothen 
Spectrum. (March.) 

Ueber die Heller'sche Probe zum 
Nachweis des BlutfarbstofEes im 
Ham. (March.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien.' 
cvi. Il.a, 1087-1102, 



'Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin.' 
xxii. 187-208, 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiii. I., 
G98-fi06 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxvii. 10.3 (Abs.) ; ' Na- 
ture,' Ivii. 430 (Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiii. I, 
695-697 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1899,1. 198-199; 'Chem. 
News,' Ixxvii. 103 (Abs.) ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 739. 

'C. R.' cxxvi. 835-838; 
'Cliem. Centr.' 1898, I. 
879 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxvii. 147-148 
(Abs.) 

' C R.' cxxvi. 900-901 ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1898,1. 
983 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' Ixxvii. 193. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 
389-396; '.T. Chem. 
Soc.'lxxvi. II. .540(Abs.) 



' Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 
[N.F.], Ixiv. 584-601; 
' Nature,' Iviii. 93 (Abs.) 

'Berl. Klin. Wochensch. 
XXXV. 283-285; 'Chem. 
Centr.' 1898, I. 1002. 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



169 



Absoeption Spectra, 1898, 1899. 



E, Demar^ay , 



E. Zsigmondy 



K. Angstrom , 



A. Etard and 
Bouilhac . 

R. von Zeynek 



G, D. Liveing 



E. Deussen . 

S. Forsling . 

K. Ibsen 

G. J. Katz , 

C. von Scheele 



H. Kreusler 



P. Baccei 



Sur le spectre et la nature du 
neodyme. (Read April 4.) 



Ueber wasserige Losungen metal- 
lischen Goldes, (April.) 



Om absorptions fermogen hos en 
sotad yta. (Read May 11.) 



Presence des chlorophylles dans un 
Nostoc cultiv6 d, I'abri de la 
lumiere. (Read Jaly 11.) 

Ueber das Hiimochromogen. (July.) 



On the Variation of Intensity of 
the Absorption- Bands of different 
Didymium Salts dissolved in water, 
and its bearing on the lonisation 
Theory of the Colour of Solutions 
of Salts. (Read Nov. 28.) 

Ueber die Absorption des Uranyl- 
salze. (Dec.) 



Om praseodidyms spectra. 



Ein Beitrag zum Blutnachweis. 
(Vierteljahrschrift fiir gericht. 
Med. 1898, 111.) 

Verschiebung der Absorptions- 
streifen in verschiedenen Losungs- 
mitteln. (lua/Ug. Diss. Erlangen, 
33 pp.) 

Ueber Praseodidym und dessen 
wichtigste Verbindungen. 



1899. 

Eine einfache Methode fur die 
Umkehrung des Natrium spectrum. 
(Jan.) 

Sullo spettro di assorbimento dei 
gas. (Jan.) 



'C. R.' csxvi. 1037-lOil; 
' Reibliitter,' xxiii. 401 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxiv. II. 518-519 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixxvii, 
219-220. 

'Ann. Chem. u. Pharm.' 
ccci. 29-54; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' ksxiv. II. 522-523 
(Abs.) 

'Oefvers. af K. Vet. 

Akad. Forh.' Iv. 283- 

295; ' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
97-98 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxvii. 119-121; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
493-494 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physiol. 
Chem.' XXV. 492-506 ; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
122-123 (Abs.) ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. I. 
720 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Phil. Soc. Camb.' 
X. 40-44 ; ' Science 
Abstr.'ii. 379-380 (Abs.); 
' Nature,' lix. 142 (Abs.) 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixvi. 1128-1148; 
' Nature,' lix. 347 (Abs.) ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 78. 

'Bihang till K. Vet. 
Svensk. Akad. Handl.' 
xxii. I. No. 5, 20 pp. 

'Chem. Centr.' 1898, I. 
417-418 (Abs.) 

' Beiblatter,' xxii. 774-775 
(Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f. anorg. 
Chem.' xvii. 310-326 ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. 
II. 519-520 (Abs.) 



' Chem. Zeitung,' xxiii. 
37; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. II. 717 (Abs.) 

' U Nuovo Cimento ' [4], 
ix. 177-191; 'Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 635-636 (Abs.) ; 
'Science Abstr.'ii. 603. 



170 



REPORT — 1901. 



A. Dastre and N. 
rioresco 



W. N. Hartley and 
J. J. Dobbie 



W. N. Hartley 



A. Etard 



C. A. Schunck 



G. D. Liveing 



A. Wynter Blyth. 



W. N. Hartley, 
F. R. Japp, and 
J. J. Dobbie. 



W. Muthmann and 
L. Stutzel. 



L. Puccianti 



G. D. Liveing 



Absorption Spectra, 1890. 

Contributions lY Fetude des cbloro- 
phylles animales. Chlorophylle 
du foie des invertebres. (Read 
Feb. 13.) 

A Study of the Absorption Spectrum 
of Isatin, Carbostyril, and their 
Alkyl Derivatives, in relation to 
Tavitomerism. (Read Feb. ] 6.) 



On the Absorption Spectrum and 
Constitution attributed to Cyan- 
uric Acid. (Read Feb. 16.) 



Les chlorophylles. (April.) 



Yellow Colouring Matters accom- 
panying Chlorophyll, and their 
Sjjectroscopic Relations. (Read 
May ] 8.) 

On the Influence of Dilution, Tem- 
perature, and other circumstances, 
on the Absorption Spectra of 
Didymium and Erbium Salts. 
(Read June 5.) (' Trans. Phil. Soc. 
Cambridge,' xviii. 298-315.) 

The Ultra-violet Absorption Spectra 
of Albuminoids in relation to that 
of Tyrosin. (Read June 15.) 



Report on the Relation between 
the Absorption Spectra and 
Chemical Constitution of Organic 
Substances. (Interim Report.) 
(Sept.) 

Beitriige zur Spectralanalyse von 
Neodvm und Praseodym. (Read 
Oct. 4.) 



Ueber die Absorptionsspectren der 
Kohlenstofi'verbindungen im 
Ultrarot. (Vorlaufige Mitthei- 
lung.) (Oct.) 

On the Influence of Temperature 
and of Various Solvents on the 
Absorption Spectra of Didymium 
and Erbium Salts. (Read Nov. 
27.) 



■ C. R.' cxxviii. 398-400 ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. 
II. 374 (Abs.) 



'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxv. I. 
640-661; ' Proc Chem. 
Soc' XV. 47-48 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixxix. 
101. (Abs.); 'Chem. 
Centr.' 1899, I. 788- 
789 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Chem. Soc' xv. 
46-47 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxix. 101 (Abs.) ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1899, I. 
784 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Chim. et Phys.' [7], 
xiii. 556-574. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixv. 177- 
186; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixsxviii. II. 36-37 (Abs.) 



' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. 
II. 517 (Abs.) 



■ J. Chem. Soc' Ixxv. 
1162-1166; 'Proc Chem. 
Soc' XV. 175-176 (Abs.); 
' Chem. Centr.' 1899, II. 
257 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxx. 32 (Abs.) 



' Brit. Assoc. 
1899, 316-358. 



Eeport,' 



'Ber.' xxxii. 2653-2677; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1899, II. 
931-933 (Abs.) ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. II. 
18-19 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxiv. 478 (Abs.) 

' Phys. Zeitschr.' i. 49-52 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. 
II. 585 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Phil. Soc. Cam- 
bridge,' X. 213-214 ; 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 530- 
531 : ' Nature,' 1x1. 214- 
215 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRArHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



171 



Absorption Spectra, 1899, 1900. 



S. Forsling 



G. Bode . 



P. Baccei 



V, Arnold 



Cm Absorptionsspectra hos Erbium, 
Holmium och Thulium. 



Uebcr Phylloxanthin. (' Bot. 
Centralbl.' xx. 227-239.) 

Sullo spetfcro di assorbimento delle 

mescolanze gassose. 



Ein Beitrag zur Spectroscopie des 
Blutes. ('Centr. med. Wiss.' 
xxxvii. 465-168.) 



' Bihang till K. Vet. Akad. 
Handl.' xxiv. I. No. 7, 
35 pp. ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
477-478 (Abs.) 

'Chem. Centr.' 1899, II. 
529 (Abs.) 

' II Nuovo Cimento ' [4], 
ix. 241-253; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 636-637 (Abs.) 

'Chem. Centr.' 1899, II. 
344 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxviij. 1. 127 (Abs.) 



V. Arnold 



W. N. Hartley and 
J. J. Debbie. 



E. Marchlewski 



W. N. Hartley 



W N. Hartley and 
J. J. Dobbie. 



M. Radais 



B. Glatzel 



L. Puccianti 



W. N. Hartley and 
J. J. Dobbie. 



1900. 

Ueber das neutrale Hiimatin- 
spectrum. ('Centrabl. f. med. 
Wiss.' xxxvii. 833-836, 849-851.) 

The Absorption Spectra of Am- 
monia, Methylamine, Hydroxyl- 
amine, Aldoxime, and Acetoxime. 
(Read Feb. 1.) 



Phvllorubin, ein neues Derivat des 
Chlorophylls. (Read Feb. 5.) 



The Action of Heat on the Absorp- 
tion Spectra and Chemical Con- 
stitution of Saline Solutions 
(Read Feb. 21.) 



Spectrographic Studies in Tauto- 
merism. The Absorption Curves 
of the Ethyl Esters of Dibenzoyl- 
succinic Acid. (Read March 1.) 

Sur la culture pure d'une algue 
verte ; formation de chlorophylle 
tt I'obscurite. (Read March 19.) 

Bestimmung von Absorptions- 
coeificienten im ultravioletten 
Spectralgebiete. (May.) 

Spettri di assorbimento di liquidi 
neir ultrarosso. (May.) 



The Ultra-violet Absorption Spectra 
of some Closed-chain Carbon 
Compounds. II. Dimethylpyra- 
zine, Hexamethylene, and Tetra- 
hydrobenzene. (Read June 7.) 



'Chem. Centr.' 1900, I, 
209 (Abs.) 



' J. Chem. Soc' Lxxvii. I. 
318-327; ' Prcc. Chem. 
Soc' xvi. 14-15 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixxxi. 81 
(Abs.); 'Chem. Centr.' 
1900, I. 581 (Abs.) 

' Bull. Akad. Cracow,' 
1900, 63-64; 'Nature,' 
Ixiii. G6 (Abs.) 

' Trans. Roy. Soc. Dublin ' 
[2], vii. 25.3-312; 'Na- 
ture.' Ixiii. 313 (Abs.) ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxx. II. 
53 (Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' lxxvii. I, 
498-509; ' Proc Chem. 
Soc' xvi. 57-58; 'Chem. 
Centr.' 1900, 1. 750 (Abs.) 

C. E.' cxxx. 793-796; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. 
II. 362 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
Ixi. 532 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Zeitschr.' i. 285- 
287; 'Beiblatter,' xxiv. 
476-477 (Abs.) ; 'Science 
Abstr.' iii. 688. 

' II Nuovo Cimento ' [4], 
xi. 241-278 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiv. 1122-1123 (Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 783. 

'J. Chem. Soc' lxxvii. I. 
846-850; 'Proc. Chem. 
Soc' xvi. 129-130 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixxxi. 
307 (Abs.) 



172 



REPORT — 1901. 



W. N. Hartley, J. 
J. Dobbie, and 
P. G. Palliatseas. 



L. Marchlewski and 
C. A. Schunck. 



J. Form^nek , 
P. Lemoult 

Sir J. N. Lockyer . 
A. Miethe 

C. Camichel . 



J. Formdnek , 



B. Glatzel 



R. Robert 



H. J. Mollcr 



Absoeption Spectea, 1900. 

A Study of the Absorption Spectra 
of o-Oxycarbonil and its Alkyl- 
derivatives, in Relation to Tauto- 
merism. (Read June 7.) 



Notes on the Chemistry of Chloro- 
phyll. (Read June 21.) 

Der Farbstoff der roten Eeihe und 
sein Absorptionsspectrum. (Oct.) 



Relation entre la constitution 
chimique des colorants du tri- 
ph6nylmethane et les spectres 
d'absorption de leurs solutions 
aqueuses. (Read Nov. 19.) 

Further Note on the Spectrum of 
Silicium. (Read Nov. 22.) 

Photographische Platten zur Auf- 
nahme von Absorptionsspectrum. 
(Nov.) 



Remarques sur le Note de ]\I. 
Lemoult intitulee : Relation entre 
la constitution chimique des 
colorants du triphenylmethane et 
les spectres d'absorption de leurs 
solutions aqueuses. (Read Dec. 10.) 

Nachweis der Metallsalze mittels 
der Absorptionsspectralanalyse 
unter Verwendung von Alkanna. 
I., II. 



Quantitative Untersuchungen iiber 
Absorption und Reflexion im 
Ultraviolett. 



Beitrixge zur Kenntniss des Metha- 
moglobine. 



Ueber gefitrbte Glaser. II. Die 
spectralanalytische Untersuch- 
ung der Glaser (' Ber. Deutsch. 
pharm. Gesellsch.' x. 234-264.) 



'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvii. I. 
8.S9-845; ' Proc. Chem. 
Soc' xvi. 130-131 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixxxi. 307 
(Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvii. 
1080-1094 ; ' Proc. Chem. 
Soc' xvi. J48-149 (Abs.) 

' J. prakt. Chem.' [2] Ixii. 
310-314; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxx. 35 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxxi. 839-842; 
' Beiblatter,' xxv. 36 
(Abs.); 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxxii. 290-291; 'Nature,' 
Ixiii. 124 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvii. 
403-409. 

' Zeitschr. f . angew. Chem.' 
1900, 1199-2000; 'Chem. 
Centr.' 1901, I. 12-13 
(Abs.) 

' C. R: cxxxi. 1001-1002 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixxxiij. 
11 (Abs.); 'Beiblatter,' 
xxv. 36 (Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. anal. Chem.' 
xxxix. 409-434, 673-693 ; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1900, II. 
741 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxviii. II. 687 
(Abs), Ixxx. II. 128- 
129 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Zeitschr.' ii. 173- 
178 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxv. 
35 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' iv. 223-224. 

' Arch. f. d. gesammte 
Physiol.' ' Ixxxii. 603- 
630; 'Chem. Centr.' 1901, 
I. 51-52 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' ixxx. I. 242- 
243 (Abs.) 



■ Chem. Centr.' 1900, 
1286-1287 (Abs.) 



II. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF srECTEOSCOPY, 



173 



H, Th. Simon 



IV. 

PHYSICAL EELATIONS. 

1896. 

Ueber ein neues photographisclies 
Photometrirverfahren, und seine 
Anwendung auf die Pliotometrie 
des ultravioletten Spectralge- 
bietes. 



'Ann. Phys. u. Cliem.' 
[N.F.], lix. 90-115; 'As- 
tropliys. J.' V. 69-70 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
i. 55. 



J. Widmark . 

A. Konig 

D. Dijken 

W. Konig 
H. Becqiierel . 

T. Preston . 



H. Becquerel. 
P, Carnazzi . 

T. W. Engelmann 



1897. 

Cm gransen for det synliga spec- 
trum. (Read iVIay 12.) 



Die Abhangigkeit der Farben- und 
Helligkeitsgiiihungen von der ab- 
soluten Intensitiit. (Read July 
29.) 

Die Molecularrefraction und Dis- 
persion iiusserst verdiinnter Salz- 
losungen unter Beriicksiclitigung 
der Dissociation. 

Einfaclie Demonstration des Zee- 
man"schen Pliiinomens. 

Sur une interpretation applicable 
au phenomiine de Faraday et au 
phenomena de Zeeman. (Read 
Nov. 5.) 

Radiation Phenomena in a strong 
Magnetic Field. I. (Read Dec. 22.) 



The Zeeman Effect photographed. 
(Dec.) 

Explication de quelques experi- 
ences de M. G. le Bon. 



Influenzadella pressione sull'indice 
di rifrazione dei gas. 



Tafeln und Tabellen zur Darstel- 
lung der Ergebnisse spectroscop- 
ischen u. spectrophotometrischen 
Beobachtungen. (Book, Leipzig.) 



' Oefvers. af K. Vet. Akad. 
Forh.' liv. 287-307 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxii. 573 
(Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1S97, 871-882 ; ' Bei- 
bljltter,' xxii. 575-576 
(Abs.) 

'Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.'xxiv. 81-113; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 1 
(Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixiii. 268-272; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 131. 

' C. R.' cxxv, 679-685 ; ' J. 
de Phys.' [3], vi. 681- 
688 ; ' Science Abstr.' i. 
56-58 ; ' Nature,' Ivii. 72 
(Abs.) 

'Trans. Roy. Soc. Dubl.' 
[2] vi. 38.5-392; 'Nature,' 
Ivii. 239 (Abs.); 'Science' 
Abstr.' i. 538. 

' Nature,' Ivii. 173. 

'J. dePhys.' [3], vi. 525- 
528; 'Nature,' Ivi. 619 
(Abs.) 

' II Nuovo Cimento ' [4], 
vi. 386-400; 'Beibliitter,' 
xxii. 661 (Abs.); 'Science 
Abstr.' i. 883-384. 



' Beiblatter,' xxii. 
(notice). 



62-63 



A Perot and C. 
Fabry. 



1898. 

Sur une nouvelle methode de spec- 
troscopic interferentiellc. (Read 
Jan. 3.) 



■ C. E.' cxxvi. 34-36 ; ' Na- 
ture,' Ivii. 263 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxii. 567 
(Abs.) 



174 



REPORT — 1901. 



A. Cornu 



T. Preston , 



A. Cornu 



P. Daude 



G. J. Burch 



H. A. Lorentz 



P. Zeeman 
G. Abati 

J. Stscheglayew . 

A. Cotton . 

A. A. Michelson . 

E. Carvallo . 

R. A. Lelifeldt 

W. N. Hartley and 
H. Ramage. 



Physical Relations, 1898. 

Sur quelques resultats nouveaux 
relatifs au phenomene decouvert 
par M. le Dr. Zeeman. (Read 
Jan. 17.) 

On the Modifications of the Spectra 
of Iron and other Substances 
radiating in a Magnetic Field. 
(Read Jan. 20.) 

Additions a ma note lorecedente 
sur le phenomfene de Zeeman. 
(Read Jan. 24.) 

Die optisclie Constanten des Na- 
triums. (Jan.) 



On Artificial Temporary Colour- 
blindness, with an Examination of 
the Colour Sensations of 109 Per- 
sons. (Read Feb. 17.) 

Optische Verschijnselen die met de 
Lading en de Massa der lonen in 
Verband stand. (Read Feb. 26.) 



Measurements concerning Radia- 
tion Phenomena in a Magnetic 
Field. (Feb.) 

Ueber des Refractions- und Disper- 
sionsvermogen des Siliciums in 
seinen Verbindungen. (Feb.) 



Ueber das Brechungsvermogen des 
mit Fliissigkeiten getrankten Hy- 
drophans. (Feb.) 

Sur les experiences d'Egoroff et 
Georgiewsky, et I'esplication de 
Lorenz. (Feb.) 



Radiation 
(Feb.) 



in a Magnetic Field. 



Recherches de precision sur la dis- 
persion infra-rouge du quartz. 
(Read March 7.) 

On the Properties of Liquid Mix- 
tures. Part II. (Read March 11.) 

A Determination of the Wave- 
lengths of the Principal Lines in 
the Spectrum of Gallium, showing 
their Identity with two Lines in 
the Solar Spectrum. (Read March 
IG.) 



' C. R.' csxvi. 181-186 ; 
' Nature,' lvii.310(Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' i. 59. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 26- 
.31 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 
299-300 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' i. 386. 

'C. R.' cxxvi. 300-301; 
' Nature, Ivii. 335 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixiv. 159-162 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 
273-274 (Abs.) ; 'Science 
Abstr.' i. 382. 

' Phil. Trans.' cxci. 1-34 ; 
' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 
35-38 (Abs.) 

' Zittingsversl. d. K. Vet, 
Akad. Amsterdam,' vi. 
506-529, 555-565; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xxiii. 51-53 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' Mii. 48 
(Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xlv. 197- 
201; 'Science Abstr.' i. 
250. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' XXV. 353-364 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxii. 397- 
398 (Abs.) ; < Chem. 
News,' Ixxvii. 271 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixiv. 325-332; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 382. 

' L'E'clairage 61ectrique,' 
xiv. 299-300; 'Science 
Abstr.' i. 390. 

' Astrophys. J.' vii. 131- 
138; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xlv. 348-356; • Science 
Abstr.' i. 537-538. 

' C. R.' cxxvi. 728-731 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 31- 
32; (Abs.); 'Nature,' 
Mi. 472 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Phys. Soc' xvi. 
83-102. 

' Trans. Roy. Soc. Dublin ' 
[2], vii. 1-6 ; 'Astrophys. 
J.' ix. 214-220 ; ' Beibliit- 
ter,'xxiv.l07, 108 (Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 81G- 
817. 



ON THE BlBLlOGRAPSY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



175 



A. Cotton 



H. Becquerel and 
H. Deslandres 



E. S. Ferry . 



H. G. Madan 



H. Dufet 



T. Preston , 



T. C. Porter . 



D. Edser and C. P. 
Butler. 



C. Klein 

P. Zeeman , 

P 
H. A. Lorentz 



C. E. Mcndenhall 
and F. A. Saun- 
ders. 



A. Trowbridge 



Physical Relations, 1898. 

Radiations dans un champ mag- 
netique. II. Renversement des 
raie.? de sodium, et application. 
(March.) 

Contribution il I'etude du pheno- 
mena de Zeeman. (Read April 4.) 



Ueber das VerhiiUniss der Span- 
nung des electrischen Stromes 
und der Starke der Strahlung der 
Spectra reiner Gase in Vakuum- 
rohren. (Read April 13.) 

On some Organic Substances of 
High Refractivity, available for 
Mounting Specimens for Exami- 
nation under the Microscope. 
(Read April 20.) 



Sur les propriet^s optiques 
calomel (protochlorure de n 
cure). (Read April 21.) 



du 



Radiation Plienomena in the Mag- 
netic Field. (April.) 



Contributions to the Study of 
Flicker. (Read May 2G.) 



A Simple Method of Reducing Pris- 
matic Spectra. (Read May 27.) 



Die Anwendung der Methode der 
Total-reflexion in derPetrograj)hie. 
(Read May 26.) 

Over eene Asymmetric in de 
Verandering der Spectraallijnen 
van Ijsen bij Straliug in een mag- 
netisch Veld. (Read June 25.) 

Beschoningen over dem Invloed 
van een magnetisch Veld op de 
Uitstraling van Licht. (Read 
June 25.) 

The Energy Spectrum of an abso- 
lutely Black Body. (June.) 



Ueber die Dispersion des Sylvius, 
uiid das Reflexionsvermiigcn der 
Metalle. (June.) 



' L'Eclairage electrique,' 
xiv. 540-547; 'Beibliittei,' 
xxii. 890-891 (Abs.) 



'C. R.' cxxvi. 997-1001; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. 
II. 49,3-494 (Abs.) ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 12. 

' Oefvers. af K. Vet. Akad. 
Forh.' Iv. 189-198 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xxii. 900-901 
(Abs.) 



■ J. Roy. Micro. Soc' 1898, 
273-281, 380-38G; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxii. 7G9-770 
(Abs.) 



'Bull. Soc. Fran?. Min.' 
xxi. 90-94 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 32-33 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5]. xlv. 325- 
339; ' Beibliitter,' xxii. 
888-889 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 
347-356 ; ' ScienceAbstr.' 
i. 691-692; 'Beibliitter,' 
xxii. 855-856 (Abs.) ; 
' Nature,' Iviii. 188 (Ats.) 

' Proc. Phys. Soc.'xvi.207- 
218 ; ' Phil Mag.' [5] xlvi. 
207-216 ; ' Nature,' Iviii. 
119(Abs.); 'Chem News,' 
Ixxvii. 260 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1898, 317-331. 

' Zittingsversl. d. K. Vet. 
Akad. Amsterdam,' vii. 
122-124 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xxii. 890 (Abs.) 

'Zittingsversl. d. K. Vet. 
Akad. Amsterdam,' vii. 
113-122; 'Beibliitter,' 
xxiii. 49-61 (Abs.) 

'Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ ' xvii. 55 ; ' Katurw. 
Rund.schau,' xiii. 457 ; 
' Beibliltter,'xxii. 770-771 
(Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixy. 595-620; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 690. 



176 



REPORT — 1901. 



C. L. Poor & S. A. 
Mitchell. 



L. E. Jewell 



J. S. Ames, K. F. 
Carhart, and 

H. M. Reese. 

O. M. Coibino 



H. Becquerel and 
H. Deslandres. 



E. Aschkinass 
A. Konig 
A. Eighi 



E. S. Ferry . 



J. A. Reed 



J. Stscheglayew . 



F. F. Martens 



Physical Relations, 1898. 

The Concave Grating for Stellar 
Photography. (June.) 



The Structure of the Shading of 
the H- and K- and some other 
Lines in the Spectrum of the Sun 
and Arc. (June.) 

Some Notes on the Zeeman Effect. 
(June.) 



A propos de I'interpr^tation du 
phenomene de Zeeman donnee 
par M. Cornu. (June.) 

Observations nouvelles sur le phe- 
nomene de Zeeman. (Read July 4.) 



Ueber die Emission des Quarzea in 
dem Spectralbereiche .seiner metal- 
lischen Absorption. (Read July 8.) 

Ueber ' Blaublindheit.' (Read 
July 8.) 

Di un nuovo metodo sperimentale 
per lo studio dell' assorbimento 
della luce nel campo magnetico. 
I. (Read July 17.) 



Sur I'absorption de la lumifere pro- 
duite par un corps place dans un 
champ magnetique. (Read July 
25.) 



On the Relation between Pressure, 
Current, and Luminosity of the 
Spectra of Pure Gases in Vacuum 
Tubes. (July.) 

Ueber den Einfluss derTemperatur 
auf die Brechung und Dispersion 
einiger Krystalle und Glaser. 
(July.) 

Nachtrag zu der Abhandlung 
' Ueber das Brechungsvermogen 
des mit Fliissigkeiten getriinkten 
Hydrophans.' (July.) 

Streifen gleicher Helligkeit beim 
Durchgang des Lichtes durch 
zwei grob getheilte Gitter. (Aug.) 



' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ' cxxxv. 61-62 ; 
'Astrophys. J.' vii. 157- 
162; 'Nature,' Ivii. 520 
(Abs.) 



' Johns Hopkins 
Circ' xvii. G2. 



Univ. 



' Astrophys. J.' viii. 43-50 ; 
' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ.'xvii.53; 'Beibliitter,' 
xxii. 892 (Abs.) 

' L'Eclairage 61ectrique,' 
XV. 548-550; 'Beiblatter,' 
xxii. 891 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxvii. 18-24 ; 
' Beiblatter, 'xxii. 891-892 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' Iviii. 
264 (Ab?.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 12-13. 

' Yerh. phys. Ges. Berlin,' 
xvii.l01-105;'Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 3.^7-858 (Abs.) 

' SitzuDgsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1898, 718-731; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xxii. 575 (Abs.) 

' Rend. R. Accad. d. 
Lincei' [5], vii. IL 41- 
46 ; 'II Nuovo Cimento,' 
[4], viii. 102-109 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxiii. 300-302 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 661. 

'C. R.' cxxvii. 216-219; 
' Sitzungsb.Akad. Berlin,' 
xxviii. 600-604 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiii. 300-302 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' lix. 263 
(Abs.) 

' Phys. Review,' vii. 1-9 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 15 ; 
'Nature,' Iviii. 463 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixv. 707-744 ; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 690. 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixv. 745. 



' Zeitschr. f. Instrumenten- 
kunde ' (' Beiblatter'), 
1898, 121; 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 168-164, 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



177 



T. E. Doubt . 



D. Macaluso and 
O. M. Corbino. 



S, P. Thompson 



D. Macaluso and 
0. M. Corbino . 



W. Voigt 



H. Becquerel . 



B. W. Wood . 



C. Pulfrich 



J. Hartmann . 



W. Voigt 



A. Cotton 



H. Becquerel . 



1901. 



Physical Relations, 1898. 
Colour Measurement. (Aug.) 



Sopra una nuova azione che la luce 
subisce attraversando alcuni vapori 
metallici in un campo magnetico. 
(Read Sept. 22.) 



On the Discovery by Righi of the 
Absorption of Light in a Magnetic 
Field. (Sept.) 

Sur une nouvelle action subie par 
la lumiere traversant certaines 
vapeurs metalliques dans un 
champ magnetique. (Read Oct. 
30.) 

Ueber d. Zusammenhang zwischen 
dem Zeeman'schen und dem 
Faraday'schen Phanomen. (Read 
Oct. 29.) 

Eemarques sur la polari sation ro 
tatoire magnetique et la disper- 
sion anomale :\ roccasion d'une 
experience nouvelle de MM. 
Macaluso et 0. M. Corbino. (Read 
Oct. 3L) 

On the anomalous Dispersion of 
Cyanin. (Oct.) 



Ueber die Anwendbarkeit der 
Methode der Totalrellexion auf 
kleine und mangelhafte Krystal- 
fliichen. (Oct.) 

Ueber die Scale des Kirchhoff- 
'schen Sonnenspectrum. (Read 
Nov. 17.) 

Doppelbrechung von im Magnet- 
felde befindlichem Natrium- 
dampf in der Richtung normal zu 
den Kraftlinien. (Read Nov. 26.) 

Absorption dans un champ mag- 
netique. (Read Dec. 5.) 



Sur la dispersion anomale et le 
pouvoir rotatoire magnetique de 
certaines vapeurs incandescentes. 
(Read Dec. 5.) 



Phil. Mag.' [5], xlvi. 216- 
222 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
93-94. 



' Rend.R.Accad.d.Lincei,' 
[6], vii. II. 292-301 ; viii. 
I. 38-41 ; ' II Nuovo Ci- 
mento' [4], viii. 257- 
259; ' Beiblatter,' xsiii. 
672-673 (Abs.) 



' Brit. Assoc. 
789-790. 



Kep.' 1898, 



'C. R.' cxxvii. 548-551 ; 
'Beiblatter,' xxiii. 298- 
299 (Abs ) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 167-169; 'Na- 
ture,' Iviii. 635 (Abs.) 

'Gott. Nachr.' 1898, iv. 
329-344: ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 601-602. 



' C. R.' cxxvii. 647-651. 
' Nature,' lix. 47 (Abs.) 



'Phil. Mag.' [5], xlvi. 380- 
386 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
279 (Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xsiii. 983 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . Krystallogr.' 
xsx. 568-586; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xxiii. 354-355 
(Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1898,742-7.56; 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 347. 

'Gott. Nachr.' 1898, iv. 
356-360; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 602. 



'C. R.' cxxvii. 953-955; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 164- 
165. 

' C. R.' cxxvii. 899-904 ; 
' Beiblattpr,' sxiii. 509 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' lix. 167 
(Abs.); 'Science Abstr.' 
ii. 169. 

N 



178 



REPORT — 1901. 



J. Dewar 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers . 



E. Hagen and H. 
Rubens 



A. Riglii 

E. S. Ferry . 
E. van Aubel . 

E. Dongier . 
I. Kanonnikoff 
E. S. King . 
E. Blatthiessen 

A. E.Schiota 
E. S. Shepherd] 
E. E. Simdwik 



Physical Relations, 1898. 

Application of Liquid Hydrogen to 
the Production of High Vacua, 
together with their Spectroscopic 
Examination. (Read Dec. 15.) 



The Preparation and some of the 
Properties of Pure Argon. (Read 
Dec. 15.) 



Ueber das Reflexionsvermogen von 
Metallen. (Read Dec. 16.) 



Di un nuovo metodo sperimentale 
per lo studio dell' assorbimento 
della luce nel campo magnetico. 
II. (Read Dec. 18.) 

A Photometric Study of the Spectra 
of Mixtures of Gases at Low 
Pressures. (Dec.) 

Action de magn^tisme sur les spec- 
tres des gaz. 



M^thode de controle de I'orientation 
des faces polies d'un quartz 6pai3 
normal ^ I'axe. 

Ueber Liclitbrechungsvermogen der 
Korper in fliissigem und gasformi- 
gem Zustande. 

Conversion of Prismatic into Normal 
Spectra. (Harvard Astronomical 
Conference.) 

Ueber den Einfluss des Prozent- 
gehaltes und der Temperatur auf 
das Brechungsvermogen von eini- 
gen Zuckerlosungen. (Inaug. Diss. 
Rostock, 1898, 34 pp.) 

Ueber das Spectrum der Kathoden- 
strahlen (' Christiania Vidensk. 
Selsk. Forh.' 1898, C pp.) 

Photographic plates and the spec- 
trum. (' Journ. Camera Club,' xii. 
No. 1.50.) 

Ueber die Refraction von Losungen 
und eine einfache Methode den 
Gehalt der Losungen vermittelst 
der Refraction zu Bestimmen. 
(Chem. Centr. Halle, xxxix. 681- 
685.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiv. 
231-238 ; 'Science Abstr." 
ii. 247 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
lix. 280-281 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxix. 73-75 ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1899, I. 
819-820 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
741-742 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiv. 
183-192; 'Nature,' lix. 
308-309 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxix. 37-39. 49- 
50; 'Chem. Centralbl.' 
1899, I. 469-470 (Abs.) 

' Verh. Deutsch. phys. 
Gesellsch.' xvii. 143-147 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 439- 
440. 

' Rend.R. Accad. d.Lincei ' 
[.5], vii. II. 333-338 ; ' II 
Nuovo Cimento ' [4], is. 
295-302 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 670-671 (Abs.) 

' Phys. Review,' vii. 296- 
306. 



' J. de Phys.' [3] vii. 408- 
409; 'Chem. Centr.' 1898, 
II. 1160 (Abs.); 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 170. 

' J. de Phys.' [3], vii. 643- 
648 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 

277. 

' J. Russ. phys.-chem.Ges.' 

XXX. 965-975; 'Chem. 

Centr.' 1899, 1. 581 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' lix. 330 (Abs.) 



'Beibliitter,' xxii. 557-558 
(Abs.) 



' Beibliitter,' xxiii. [9], 
(title). 

' Nature,' lix. 83-84 (Abs.) 



■■ Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
M7 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



179 



Physical Relatio.xs, 1898, 1899. 



E. Thalen 



P. Zeeman 



Ueber der absolute Bestimmung 
der Wellenlangen einiger Strahlea 
des Sonneuspectrums. (' Roy. Soc. 
Upsala ' [3] (1898.) 

Sur les doublets et les triplets pro- 
duits dans le spectre par des forces 
magnetiques exterieures. 



' Beiblatter.'xxiv. 472-473 
(Abs.) 



' Arch, neerland." [2], i, 
383-392. 



A. Righi 



D. Macaluso and 
O. M. Corbiuo . 



H. Becquerel 



T. Preston 



Sir J. Conroy 



H. A. Lorentz 



A. Cotton 



G. Johnstone 
Stoney. 

T. Preston . 
C. E. Guillaume 



C. Fabry 
Perot. 



and A. 



A. Schuster and G. 
Hemsalecb. 



1899. 

Sur I'absorption de la lumifere par 
un corps place dans un champ 
magn^tique. (Read Jan. 2.) 

Sulle modificazioni che la luce 
subisce attraversando alcuni va- 
pori metallici in un campo mag- 
netico. (Read Jan. 8.) 

Sur la dispersion anomale de la 
vapeur de sodium incandescente, 
et sur quelques consequences de ce 
phenomene. (Read Jan. 16.) 



Radiating Phenomena in a Strong 
Magnetic Field. Part II. Magnetic 
Perturbations of the Spectral Lines. 
(Read Jan. 18.) 

On the Refractive Indices and 
Densities of Normal Solutions and 
Semi-normal Aqueous Solutions 
of Hydrogen Chloride and the 
Chlorides of the Alkalis. (Read 
Jan. 19.) 

Trillingen van electrisch geladen 
Stelsels in een magnetisch Veld. 
(Read Jan. 26.) 

Birefringence produite parle champ 
magnetique, li^e au phenomene 
de Zeeman, (Read Jan. 30.) 



Illusorj' Resolution of the Lines of 
a Spectrum. (Jan.) 

Radiation Phenomena in the Mag- 
netic Field. (Jan.) 

L'6chello du spectre. (Jan.) 



Theorie et applications d'une nou- 
velle mithode de spectroscopic 
interferentielle. (Jan.) 

On the Constitution of the Electric 
Spark. (Read Feb. 2.) 



'C. R.' cxxviii. 47-48; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 510 
(Abs.); 'Science Abstr.' 
ii. 167. 

' Rend. R.Accad. d. Lincei' 
[5] viii.I.38-41;' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 346. 

' C. R.' cxxviii. 14.5-151 ; 
'Beiblatter,' xxiii. 352- 
353 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Lxxvi. II. 266 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 442-443; 'Nature,' 
lix. 311 (Abs.) 

'Trans. Roy. Soc. Dublin' 

[2], vii. 7-22; 'Nature,' 
Ivii. 431 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc.'lxiv. 308- 
318 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
505-506 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Lxxvi. II. 717 (Abs.) 



' Zittingsversl. d. K. Vet. 
Akad. Amsterdam,' vii. 
320-340. 

' C. R.' cxxviii. 294-297 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 509- 
510 (Abs.); 'Nature,' 
li.x. 359 (Abs.); 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 220-221, 

' Nature,' lix. 294-295, 



' Nature,' lix. 224-229, 

' Rev. g6n6rale des 
Sciences,' x. 5-8 ; ' Bei- 
bliltter,' xxiv. 259 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Chim. et Phys.' [7], 
xvi. 115-144. 

' Phil. Trans.' cxciii. A, 
189-213; 'Beiblatter,' 
xxiv. 552-554 (Abs.) 
n2 



180 



EEPORT — 1901. 



0. Lummer and E. 
PriDgsheim. 



D. Macaluso and 
0. M. Corbino. 



0. M. Corbino 



T. Preston 



0. M Corbino 

Lord Kayleigh 
D. A. Goldhammer 

T. Preston 

A. A. Michelson . 

A. Righi , 

F. Paschen . 

Lord Kayleigh 
H. C. Lord . 

Sir J. N. Lockyer . 



HYSICAL Eelations, 1899. 

Die Vertheiluug der Energie im 
Spectrum der schwarzen Korper. 
(Read Feb. 3.) 

Sulla relazione tra il fenomeno di 
Zeeman e la rotazione magnetica 
anomala del piano di polariza- 
zione della luce. (Read Feb. 5.) 



Sui battimenti luminosi e sull' 
impossibility di produrli ricor- 
rendo al fenomeno di Zeeman. 
(Read Feb. 19.) 

Magnetic Perturbations of the 
SpectralLines. Further Resolution 
of the Quartet. (Feb.) 

Radiation Phenomena in the Mag- 
netic Field. Magnetic Perturba- 
tions of the SpectralLines. (Feb.) 

Sulla dipendenza tra il fenomeno 
di Zeeman e le altre modifica- 
zioni che la luce subisce dai 
vapori metallici in un campo 
magnetico. (Read March 5.) 

Transsparency and Opacity. (Read 
March 24.) 

Das Zeeman'sche Phiinomen, die 
magnetische Circularpolarisation, 
und die magnetische Doppelbre- 
chung. (March.) 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field. 
(March.) 

Radiation in 
(March.) 



Magnetic 



Field. 



Intorno alia questione della pro- 
duzione di un campo magnetico, 
per opera di un raggio luminoso 
polarizzato circolamente. (Read 
April 9.) 

Ueber die Vertheilung der Energie 
im Spectium des schwarzen 
Korpers bei niederen Tempera- 
turen. (Read April 27.) 

The Interferometer. (April.) 

On a Graphic Method of Comparing 
the Relative EflSciencies of Differ- 
ent Spectroscopes (April.) 

A Chapter in the History of Spec- 
trum Analysis. (April.) 



'Verb. Deutsch. phys- 
Gesellsch.' i. 23-41 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 664. 

' Rend. R. Accad. d. Lincei ' 
[5], viii. I. 116-121; 'II 
Nuovo Cimento ' [4], ix. 
384-389 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 673-674 (Abs.) 

' Rend. R. Accad. d. Lincei ' 
[5], viii. I. 171-175 j 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 346. 



' Nature,' lix. 367. 



' Phil. Mag.' [5] xlvii. 16.5- 
178; 'Science Abstr.' ii, 
443-444. 

' Rend R. Accad. d. Lincei' 
[6], viii. I. 250-255, 



' Proc. Roy. Inst.' xvi. 116- 
119; 'Nature,' Ix. 64-65 
(Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixvii. 696-701 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 278- 
279. 

' Nature,' lix. 485 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxiv. 835 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' lix. 440-441 ; 
< Beiblatter,' xxiv. 835 
(Abs.) 

' Atti R. Accad. d. Lincei ' 
[.5], viii. I. 825-326; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 601, 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1899, 405-420; ' Bei- 
bliltter,' xxiv. 31-32 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 604. 

'Nature,' lix. 533; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiv. 835 (Abs.) 

' Astropbys. J.' ix. 191- 
202 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
824 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 
776-777 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' lis. 535-539. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



181 



Lord Kayleigh 
R. W. Wood . 
L. E. Jewell . 

A. Cotton 
J. W. Briihl . 

Sir J. N. Lockyer 
T. Preston , 

A. Righi 

H. Wanner . 

M. Hamy 



A. Haller and P. T. 
Miiller. 



W. de W. Abney 



C. Bender 



W. W. Campbell 



Physical Relations, 1899. 

Transmission of Light through an 
Atmosphere containing Small 
Particles in Suspension. (April.) 

An Application of the Diffraction 
Grating to Colour Photography. 
(April.) 

The Wave-length of H«, and the 
Appearance of the Solar Spectrum 
near the Hydrogen Lines. (April.) 



The Present Status of Kirchhoff's 
Law. (April.) 

Physikalische Eigenschaften einiger 
Campherarten und verwandter 
Korper. 

On Spectrum Series. (Lecture to 
Working Men. May 1.) 

Magnetic Perturbations of the 
Spectral Lines. (Read May 12.) 



Sail' as.eorbimento della luce per 
parte Hi un gaz posto nel campo 
magnetico. (Read May 28.) 

Notiz iiber die Verbreiterung der 
D Linien. (May.) 



Sur la determination de points de 
repfere dans le spectre. (Read 
June 5.) 

Sur les refractions mol6culaires, la 
dispersion moleculaire, et le pou- 
voir specifique des combinaisons 
du camphre avec quelques alde- 
hydes aromatiques. (Read June 5. ) 



The Colour Sensations in Terms of 
Luminosity. (Read June 15.) 



Brechungsexponenten reinen Was- 
sers und normalen Salzlosungen. 
(June.) 



The Influence of the Purkinje 
Phenomenon on Observations of 
Faint Spectra. (June.) 



' Phil. Mag.' [5] xlvii. 375- 
384 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
731. 

'Phil. Mag.'[5]xlvii.3G8- 
372. 



' Astrophys. J.' ix. 211- 
213; 'Science Abstr.' ii. 
823 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
780 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' ix. 237- 
268. 

'Ber.' xxxii. 1222-1236; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1899, I. 
1265-1267 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' Ix. 368-370, 392 - 
396. 

' Proc. Roy. Inst.' xvi. 151- 
163; 'Nature,' Ix. 175- 
180 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
662-663. 

'II Nuovo Cimento' [4], 
X. 20-42 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xxiii. 666-670 (Abs.); 
'Nature,' Ix. 276 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixviii. 143-144 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 603- 
604. 

'C.R.'cxxviii. 1380-1.382; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 727 
(Abs.): 'Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
777-778 (Abs.) 

'C.R.'cxxviii. 1370-1 373; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1899, II. 
116-117 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' Ixxx. 11 (Abs.); 
'Nature,' Ix. 167 (Abs.); 
' J. Cliem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
622 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Trans.' cxciii. 259- 
287; 'Proc. Roy. Soc' 
282-283 (Abs.); 'Nature,' 
Ix. 237-238 ; ' Science 
Abstr.' iii. 303. 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 
[N.F.] Ixviji. 343-349; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
621 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 659. 



' Astrophys. J.' 
' Beiblatter,' 
(Abs.) 



X. 22-24 ; 
xxiii. 776 



182 



H. M. Reese 



F. A. Saunders 



J. M. Eder and 
E. Valenta. 



J. Wilsing , 

J. C. Shedd . 

\V. Sedgwick. 

W. W. EandaU . 

W. Konig , 

J. W. Gifford . 
G. J. Burch . 

T. Preston . 



Fiirst B. Galitzin 
and J. Wilip. 



0. N. Rood . 



E. B. Frost 



REPORT — 1901. 
Physical Relations, 1899, 
Notes on the Zeeman Effect. (June.) 



Notes on the Energy Spectrum of a 
Black Body, and on the Absorp- 
tion of Ice in the Ultra-red. 
(June.) 

Normalspectren einiger Elemente 
zur Wellenlangebestimmung im 
aussersten Ultraviolett. (Read 
July 13.) 

Ueber den Einfluss des Drucks auf 
die Wellenlangen der Linien des 
Wasserstoffsspectrums. (Read 
July 27.) 



An Interferometer Study of Radia- 
tion in a Magnetic Field. I., II. 
(July.) 

Spectrum Series. (Aug.) 

On the Permeation of Hot Plati- 
num by Gases. (Aug.) 



Dispersionsmessungen am Gyps. 
(Sept.) 



Temperature and the Dispersion in 
Quartz and Calcite. (Sept.) 

On the Spectroscopical Examina- 
tion of Contrast Phenomena. 
(Sept.) 



Preliminary Report of the Com- 
mittee on Radiation from a Source 
of Light in a Magnetic Field. 
(Sept.) 

Untersuchungen uber das Bre- 
chungsverhaltniss des Aethyl- 
iithers in der Nahe des kritischen 
Punktes. (Read Oct. 6.) 

Colour Vision and the Flicker 
Photometer. (Oct.) 

On Titanium for a Comparison 
Spectrum. (Oct.) 



' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ' xviii. 59; 'Phil. 
Mag.' [5] slviii. 317-319; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 130- 
131 (Abs.) 

' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ' xviii. 58-59. 



' Denkschr. Akad. Wien ' 
Ixviii. 531-554 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxiv. 474-475 
(Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1899, 750-752; ' Astro- 
phys. J.' X. 269-271 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 475 
(Abs.) 

'Phys. Review,' ix. 1-19, 
86-115. 



' Nature,' Ix. 412. 

' Amer. Chem. J.' xix. 682- 
691 ; 'Chem. News,' Ixxvi. 
168-170. 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixix. 1 - 11 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 819- 
820 (Abs.) 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1899, 
661-662 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiv. 791 (Abs.) 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1899, 
624 ; ' Electrician,' xliii. 
811-812; 'Nature,' Ix. 
585 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 
272 (Abs.) 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1899, 
63-64 ; ' Nature,' Ix. 586 
(Abs.) 

' Bull. Akad. St. Petersb.' 
[5], xi. 117-196; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xxiv. 448-450 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxviii. II. 461-462 (Abs.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [4], viii. 
254-260; 'Nature,' Ix. 
611 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' x. 207- 
208 ; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
20-21. 



ON THE BIBLIOGBAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



183 



0. Lummer and 
E. Pringsheim. 



F. Gand 



• 



A. Chilesotti 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 



C. Bender , 



E. B. Frost . 



T. Preston 



F. Paschen , 



A. Haller and P. T. 
Muller. 



A. Eighi 



VV. H. Perkin 



P. Zeeman 



A. Wiillner . 



Physical Eelations, 1899. 

I. Die Vertheilung der Energie im 
Spectrum des schwarzen Korpers 
und des blanken Platins. II. 
Temperaturbestimmung fester 
gliihender Korper. (Read Nov. 3.) 

Sur la spectrophotometrie des 
lumieres electriques. (Read Nov. 
13.) 

Sul potere rifrangente di alcuni 
idrocarburi a nuclei benzolici con- 
densati. (Read Nov. 19.) 



Preliminary Table of Wave-lengths 
of Enhanced Lines. (Read Nov. 23.) 



Brechungsexponenten reinen Was- 
sers und normaler Salzlosungen. 
II. Abth. (Nov.) 

Corrections to Determinations of 
absolute Wave-length. (Nov.) 



Some Remarks on Radiation Phe- 
nomena in a Magnetic Field. 
(Nov.) 

Ueber die Vertheilung der Energie 
im Spectrum des schwarzen 
Korpers bei hoheren Tempera- 
turen. (Read Dec. 7.) 

Sur les refractions mol6culaires, 
la dispersion moleculaire, et le 
pouvoir rotatoire specifique de 
quelques alcoylcamphres. (Read 
Dec. n.) 

Sul fenomeno di Zeeman nel caso 
generale d'un raggio luminoso 
comunque inclinato sulla dire- 
zione della forza magnetica. 
(Read Dec. 17.) (Mem. Accad. 
Bologna [5], viii. 263-294.) 

The Refractive and Magnetic Rotary 
Power of some Benzenoid Hydro- 
carbons. The Refractive Power of 
Mixtures. An Improved Spectro- 
meter Scale-reader. (ReadDec.21.) 

Waaruemingen over eene asym- 
metrische verandering van ijzer- 
lijnen bij straling in een magnet- 
isch veld. (Read Dec. 30.) 

Ueber die Spectra der Canalstrahlen 
und Cathodenstrahlen. (Dec.) 



'Verb. Deutsch. pbys 
Gesellsch.' [2], 215-235. 



'C. R.' cxxix. 759-760; 
' Nature,' Ixi, 95 - 96 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 15. 

' Gazz. chim. Ital.' xsx. I. 
149-169; 'II Nuovo Ci- 
mento' [4], sii. 290-293 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xxv. 
283 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' L^v. 452- 
461 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 
262-263 (Abs.); 'Nature,' 
Ixi. 263 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.] , Ixix. 676-679 ; 
' Science Abslr.' iii. 13 
(Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' x. 283- 
285 ; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
176. 

'Nature,' Ixi. 11-13. 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1899, 959-976. 



' C. R.' cxxix. 1005-1008 ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1900, I. 
297 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
Ixi. 192 (Abs.) 

'II Nuovo Cimento,' xi. 
177-200 ; ' Beiblattei,' 
xxiv. 541-544 (Abs.) ; 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 689. 



'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvii. 
267-294 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xxiv. 929-930 (Abs.) ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1900, I. 
797-798 (Abs.) 

• Zittingsversl. R. Akad. 
Amsterdam,' 1899-1900, 
Deel viii. 828-331 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxiv. 835 (Abs.); 
'Nature,' Ixi. 408 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Zeitschr.' i. 132- 
134 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
314-315 (Abs.) 



184 



REPORT — 1901. 



Sir W. de W. Abney 



E. van Aubel . 



W. Hallwachs 
G. A. Hemsalech 



Physical Relations, 1899, 1900. 

Ueber die Zerlegung des Spectrums 
des electrischen Licbtes in Leucht- 
kraftmengen von drei Farben. 
(Jabrb. f. Pbotogr. 1899, 338-350.) 

Ueber die Brechungsexponenten 
der Metalle. 



Refractive Indices of Solutions. 
(Sitzungsb. Isis.) 

Sur le spectre des decbarges oscil- 
lantes. 



' Zeitechr. f. physikal. 
Cbem.' XXX. 565-5G7 ; 
'Cbem. Centr.' 1900, I. 
161 (Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxviii. II. 125 
(Abs.) 

'Nature,'Ix.328-329(Abs.) 

' J. de Phys.' [3], viii. 652- 
660; 'Nature,' M. 258- 
259 (Abs.) 



J. J. Manley . 
H. Rubens 

D. P. Brace . 

E. Aschkinass 



S. Young and E. 
Fortey. 



C. Fabry and 
Perot. 



A. Perot and 
Fabry. 



M. Hamy 



W. Voi»t 



E. Hagen and 
Rubens. 

C. Viola 



1900. 

An Optical Metbod of determining 
tbe Density of Sea-water. (Read 
Jan. 8.) 

Rechercbcs sur le spectre infra- 
rouge. La resonance electrique 
des rayons de chaleur. (Jan.) 



On a New System 
Photometric Work. 



for Spectral 
(Jan.) 



Ueber anomale Dispersion im ultra- 
roten Spectralgebietc. (Jan.) 



C. Note on the Refraction and Mag- 
netic Rotation of Hexamethylene, 
Chlorohexamethylene, and Dichlo- 
rohexamethylene. (Read Feb. 13.) 

A.I Nouvelle source de la lumiere 
pour le spectrometrie de pre- 
cision. (Read Feb. 12.) 

Determination de nouveaux points 
de repere dans le spectre. (Read 
Feb. 19.) 

Sur la determination de points de 
repere dans le spectre. (Read 
Feb. 19, March 12.) 



Ueber eine Dissymmetrie der Zee- 
man'schen normalen Triplets. 
(Feb.) 

H. Das Reflexionsvermogen von Me- 
tallen und belegten Glasspiegeln. 
(Feb.) 

Ueber die Minima der Lichtablen- 
kung durch Prismen anisotroper 
MecUen. (March.) 



'Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 
xxiii. 35-43 ; ' Nature,' 
Ixi. 286 (Abs.) 

' Rev. g^nerale des 
Sciences,' xi. 7-13. 

' Astrophys. J.' xi. 6-24 ; 
' Nature,' Ixi. 521 (Abs.) 

'Ann. der Phys.' [4], i. 
42-68; 'Phys. Zeitschr.' 
i. 53-54; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 237-238. 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvii. 
372-374 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xxiv. 928-929 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxx. 406-409; 
'Nature,' Ixi. 407 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxx. 492-495 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 473- 
474 (Abs.); ' Nature,' Ixi. 
435 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxx. 489-492, 700- 
701 ; ' Nature,' Ixi. 435 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 377, 464; 'Beibliit- 
ter,' xxiv. 472 (Abs.) 

'Ann. der Phys.' [4], i. 
376-388. 

' Ann. der Phys.' [4], i. 
353-375 ; ' Nature,' Ixi. 
555 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. Kryst. u. 
Min.' xxxii. 545-550 ; 
'Beibliitter,' xxiv. 1292- 
1293 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



185 



E. H. J Cunseus 



Lord Blythswood 
and E. W. Mar- 
chant. 



L. E. Jewell 



D. W. Murphy 



T. Preston 



A. Eighi 



E. Goldstein . 



W. S. Adams . 



C. Bender 



A. Laur . 



G. J. Burch . 



A. Partheil and J. 
von Velsen. 

A. Schmaus . 



V. Schumann 

G. Pelliui and A. 
Menin. 



Physical Relations, 1900. 

Die Bestimmung des Brechungs- 
vermogen als Methode fiir die 
Untersuchung der Zusammen- 
setzungder coexistirenden Phasen 
bei Mischungen von Aceton und 
Aether. (April.) 

The Echelon Spectroscope and its 
Application to investigate the Be- 
haviour of the Chief Lines of the 
Mercury Spectrum under the Influ- 
ence of a Magnetic Field. (April.) 

The Use of the Lines of Titanium 
for Comparison Spectra and their 
Prominence in the Chromosphere. 
(April.) 

A Method of Determining the 
Luminosity Curve of the Solar 
Spectrum. (April.) 

The Interferometer. (April) 



TJeber das Zeeman'sche Phanomen 
in dem allgemeinen Falle eines 
beliebig gegen die Richtung der 
magnetischen Kraft geneigten 
Lichtstrahles. (April.) 

Ueber Spectra von Gasgemengen 
und vonEntladungshiillen. (Read 
May 11.) 

The Curvature of the Spectral Lines 
in the SpectroheUograph. (May.) 

Brechungsexponenten normaler 
Salzlosungen. III. (May.) 

Ueber den normalen refractome- 
trischen Werth von Butter. (May.) 

On the Spectroscopic Examination 
of Colour produced by Simultane- 
ous Contrast. (Read June 21.) 

Die Grundlagen der refractome- 
trischen Butteruntersucliung. 

(June.) 

Ueber anomale electromagnetische 
Rotationsdispersion. (June.) 

The Transparency of Thin Films of 
Glycerin. (June.) 

Sul potere rifrangente del tellurio 
in alcuni suoi compositi. (Read 
July .30.) 



' Phys. 
317; 
730. 



Zeitschr.' i. 316- 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 



' Phil. Mag.' [5], xlix. 384- 
403 ; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
375-37G. 



'Astrophys. J.' xi. 243- 
244 ; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
691. 

'Astrophys. J.' xi. 220- 
225; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
910-911 (Abs.); 'Science 
Abstr.' iii. G91. 

•Nature,' lix. 605; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiv. 835-836 
(Abs.) 

'Phys. Zeitschr.' i. 329- 
334. 



' Verb. Deutsch. phys. 
Gesellsch.' [2], ii. 110- 
112; ' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 
1191-1193 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' xi. 309- 
311; 'Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
908 (Abs.) 

' Ann. der. Phys.' [4], ii. 
186-196; 'J. Chem.Soc' 
Ixxviii. IL 461 (Abs.) 

' Chem. Zeitun?,' xxiv. 
394-395; ' J.Cliem. Soc' 
Ixxviii. II. 034 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvii. 
224-228 ; "' Nature,' Ixii. 
615-616 (Abs.); 'Science 
Abstr.' iii. 181. 

'Arch. Pharm.' ccxxxviii. 
261 -'279; 'Chem. Centr.' 
1900, II. 215-216 (Abs.) 

'Ann. d. Phys.' [4], ii. 
280-294 ; ' Nature,' Ixii. 
335 (Abs.) 

' Chem. News,' Ixxxi. 267- 
268. 

'Gazz. chim. Ital.' xxx. 
II. 465-475 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxx. II. 94 (Abs.) 



186 



REPORT — 1901. 



G. A. Hemsalech . 



E. Hoppe 



C. Runge and F. 
Paschen. 



E. Carvallo . 

W. Marshall Watts 

N. E. Dorsey . 
S. P. Langley 
H. M. Reese . 



C. Riviere 



A. Perot and C. 
Fabry. 

J. Meyer 

O. Lummer and E. 
Jahnke. 

S. P. Langley 



H. B. Dixon . 



R. W. Wood . 



Physical Relations, 1900. 

Sur les spectres des decharges 
oscillantes. (Aug.) 



Spectroscopische Beobachtungen 
am Wehneltunterbrecher. (Aug.; 



Studium des Zeemaneffectes im 
Queoksilberspectrum. (Aug.) 



Sur la dispersion exceptionnelle du 
spath d'Islande. 



On Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements and Com- 
pounds [containing Index toTables 
in the Reports from 1884 to 1900.] 

Prism and Grating Spectroscopes. 
(Sept.) 

On the Infra-red of the Solar' Spec- 
trum. (Sept.) 

An Investigation of the Zeeman 
Effect with Reference to Zinc, Cad- 
mium, Magnesium, Iron, Nickel, 
Titanium, Carbon, Calcium, Alu- 
minium, Silicon, Mercury, &c. 
(Sept.) 

Indies de refraction et dispersion 
du brome. (Read Oct. 22.) 



Methode interf6rentielle pour la 
mesure des longueurs d'onde dans 
le spectre solaire. (Read Oct. 29.) 

Die Photographic der ultraroten 
Strahlen. (Oct.) 

Ueber die Spectralgleichung des 
schwarzen Korpers und des 
blanken Platins. I. (Oct.) 

Sur les derniers resultats obtenus 
dans I'etude de la partie infra- 
rouge du spectre solaire. (Read 
Nov. 5.) 

Reversal of Lines of the Spectrum 
of an Explosion Wave. (Read 
Nov. 13.) 

The Anomalous Dispersion of Car- 
bon. (Read Nov. 23.) 



' J. de Phys.' ix. 437-444 ; 
' Beibliitter,' sxiv. 1283- 
1284 (Abs.) 

' Eltctrotechn. Zeitschr. 
xxi. 507-508; 'Beiblatter, 
xxlv. 1026-1027 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Zeitschr.' i. 480- 
481 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 
1329-1330 (Abs.) ; 

' Science Abstr.' iii. 949- 
950. 

'J. de Phys.' [3], 465- 
479; 'Science Abstr.' iv. 
17-18. 

' Brit.Assoc. Report,' 1900, 
193-297. 



'Astrophys. J.' xii. 164- 
165 ; ' Science Abstr.' iv. 
25-26. 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1900, 
659 (title only); 'Nature,' 
Ixii. 562 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' xii. 120- 
135; 'Beiblatter,' xxiv. 
1329 (Abs.) 



'C. R.' cxxxi. 671-672; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 1275 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxx. II. 1 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxxi. 700-702 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 1291- 
1292 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Zeitschr.' ii. 67 
' Science Abstr.' iv. 24. 

' Ann. der Phys.' [4], ii. 
283-297. 

'C. R.' cxxxi. 734-736; 
' Nature,' Ixiii. 75 (Abs.) ; 
• Science Abstr.' iv. 24- 
25. 

' Mem. and Proc. Man- 
chester Phil. Soc' 1900- 
1901, 4-5. 

' Proc. Phys. Soc' xvii, 
651-663 ; ' Nature,' Ixiii. 
122 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' Ixxxii. 267 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



187 



G. J. VV. Bremer 



C. E. McCIung 



C. E. Magnnsson . 

E. A. Partridge . 
W. Eamsay , 

H. M. Beese . 

F. Eiegler 

J. E. Eydberg 
K. Stockl 



R. W. Wood and 
C. E. Magnusson 

P. Zeeman 



Indices de refraction de solutions 
du chlorure du calcium. 



Physical Relations, 1900. — Fluoeescence, 1899, 1900. 

Arch, n^erland.' [2], v. 
202-213; ' J. Cbem. fSoc' 
Ixxx. II. 141 (Abs.) 

Chem. News,' Isxxii. 88 
(Abs.) 



Refractive Index and Alcohol-sol- 
vent Pov^ers of a Number of Clear- 
ing and Mounting Media. ('Kansas 
Univ. Quarterly,' vii. No. 4.) 

The Abnormal Dispersion of Cyanin. 
('Bull. Univ. Wisconsin,' ii. 247- 
296.) 

Series in Spectra (' J. Franklin 
Inst.' cxlix. 193-206.) 

Notes on the Refractivities of the 
Inactive Gases. 

The Zeeman Phenomenon. (' Elec- 
trical World and Engineer,' xxxvi. 
248-249.) 

The Refractometry of Mineral 
Waters. ('Buletinul Societatiide 
le Sciinte d. Bucuresci, Romania,' 
ix. 251.) 

Distribution of Spectrum Lines. 
(' Eeport of the International 
Physical Congress at Paris,' ii. 
141-174.) 

Messungen iiber die Dispersion und 
Absorption von Losungen anomal 
brechender Substanzen bis zu 
grossen Verdtinnungen. (' Inaug. 
Dissert. Munchen,' 1900, 34 pp.) 

The Anomalous Dispersion of 
Cyanin. 

Weiteres zur unsymmetrischen 
Aenderung der Spectrallinien in 
einem Magnetfelde. 



' Beibliitter,' xxv. 36 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' Ixiii. 
210 (Abs.) 

' Science Abstr.' iii. 465. 

' Arch, neerland.' [2], v. 
356-359 ; ' J. Chem. Soc.' 
Ixxx. II. 141 (Abs.) 

' Science Abstr.' iii. 853. 



' Chem. News,' Ixxxii. 78. 



Beibliitter,' xxiv. 1276. 
(Abs.) 



' Proc. Phys. Soc' xvii. 
542-552. 

'Arch, neerland.' [2], v. 
237-241. 



Sir W. Crookes 



F. E. Kester , 



P. Lewis . 



V. 

FLUORESCENCE. 

1899. 

Photographic Researches on Phos- 
phorescent Spectra. OnVictorium, 
a New Element Associated with 
Yttrium. (Read May 4.) 



A Method for the Study of Phos- 
phorescenc Sulphides. 



1900. 

Ueber Fluorescenz nnd Nachleucht- 
en bei der clectrischen Entladung 
in Stickstoff. (July.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixv. 237- 
243; 'Nature,' Ix. 317- 
319; 'Chem. News,' Jxxx. 
49-51; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. IL 751 (Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 767. 

'Phys. Rev.' ix. 164-175; 
' Beibliitter,' sxiii. 988- 
989 (Abs.) 



'Ann. der Phys.' [4], i. 
4,59-468; 'Nature,' Ixii. 
381 (Abs.) 



188 



REPORT — 1901. 



VI. 

ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS. 

1882. 

S. J. Perry . . I The Solar Eclipse, 1882, May IG. i ' Monthly Not. E. A. S. 
I (June.) I xlii. 408-410. 

1885. 
„ . I The chromosphere In 1884 (Feb.) | ' Observatory,' viii. 53. 



S J. Perry and 
A. L. Cortie 



A, L. Cortie . 



J. N. Lockyer 

W. Sidgreaves 
A. L. Cortie . 

W. Sidgreaves 
A. L. Cortie . 

W. Sidgreaves 



A. L. Cortie 



1889. 

Comparison of the Spectrum, be- 
tween C and D, of a Sun-spot 
observed 1884, May 27, with 
another of 1889, May 7. (June.) 

1890. 

Observation of the Spectra of Sun- 
spots, in the region B-D, made at 
Ston3diurst College Observatory, 
1882-1889. (Read Dec. 12.) 

1891. 

On the Causes which produce the 
Phenomena of New Stars. (Read 
April IG.) 

1892. 

The bright Solar Prominence of 
1891, Sept. 10. (Jan.) 

The large Sun-spot Group of Aug. 
28-Oct. 4, 1891. (Feb.) 

The Spectrum of Nova Auriga?. 
(Read May 13.) 

Some Recent Studies in the Solar 
Spectrum. (May.) 

Notes on the Spectra of Sun-spots. 
(Aug.) 

Nova AurigEe (Aug.) 

Report of the Solar Spectroscopic 
Section of the British Astronomi- 
cal Association. (Read Oct. 26.) 

The Nova of 1892. (Oct.) 



189.3. 

Errata to ' Note on the Revival of 
Nova AurigEe' in 'Astron. and 
Astrophys.' xi. 883 (note). (July.) 

The Temporary Star in Auriga. 
(June.) 



'Monthly Not. E. A. S.' 
slis. 410-418. 



'Monthly Not. R. A. S. 
li. 76-78. 



Phil. Trans.' clxxxii. A. 
397-448 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xvii. 1067-1068 (Abs.) 



'Astron. and Astrophys.' 
xi. 66-67. 

' Observatory,' xiv. 363- 
36G ; ' Astron. and Astro- 
phys.' xi. 130-133. 

' Mem. R. Astr. Soc. 
29-43. 

' Astron. and Astrophys.' 
xi. 393-407. 

'Astron. and Astrophys.' 
xi. 587-593. 

' Astron, and Astrophys.' 
xi. 604-607. 

'Jour. Brit. Astron. Assoc' 
iii. 31-35. 

' Jour. Brit. Astron. 
Assoc' iii. 22-24; 'Obser- 
vatory,' XV. 361-365. 



'Astron. and Astrophys.' 
xii. 560. 

'Astron. and Astrophys.' 
xii. 521-539. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY, 



189 



ASTBONOMICAL APPLICATIONS, 1893, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898. 



W. Sidgreaves 



F. McClean . 

W. Sidgreaves 

A. Belopolsky 

C. G. Abbott . 
H. Deslandres 
A. C. Maury . 



A. J. Cannon . 

E. C. Pickering 

F. McClean . 



The Variable Spectrum of fi Lyrpe 
in the region F — h. (Dec.) 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Sun. (Nov.) 

1894. 

Notes on Solar Observations at 
Stonyhurst College Observatory. 
(Nov.) 

1896. 

Stellar Spectrum Photography at 1 ' Jour. Brit. Astr. Assoc' 
Stonyhurst. (Lecture Jan. 15.) vi. 196-197 (Abs.) 



'Month. Not. R.A, S.' liv. 
94-99. 

'Astron. and Astrophys.' 
xii. 826-834. 



' Month. Not. R. A. S.' Iv, 
6-12. 



H. Deslandres 



1897. 

Comparative Photograpliic Spectra 
of Stars to the 3^ Magnitude. 
(Read April 8.) 

The Spectrum of $ Lyrsd as observed 
at Stonyhurst College Observatory 
in 1895. (May.) 

New Researches into the Spectra 
of /3 Lyrfe and v Aquilsi (in Rus- 
sian). (Nov.) 

Report of the Work of the Astro- 
physical Observatory for the year 
ending June 30, 1897. 

Observation de I'eclipse du soleil 
du 16 Avril, 1893. 

Spectra of Bright Stars. 



1898. 

A Variable Bright Hydrogen Line. 
(Jan.) 

A New Spectroscopic Binary. (Jan.) 



Comparison of Oxygen with the 
Extra Lines in the Spectra of the 
Helium Stars Crucis, &c. Also 
Summary of the Spectra of South- 
ern Stars to the 3^ Magnitude, and 
their Distribution. (Read Feb. 3.) 

The Total Eclipse of the Sun. 

Nouvelle serie de photographies de 
la chromosphere entiere du soleil. 
(TRead March 21.) 



' Phil. Trans.'cxci. A. 127- 
138 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
435-436 (Abs.) 

' Month. Not. R. A. S.' Ivii. 
515-531. 



'Bull. Acad. St. Peters- 
burg ' [5], vii. 355-374 ; 
' Nature,' Ixii. 70 (Abs.) 

' Smithsonian Inst. Rep.' 
1897, 66-68. 

' Ann. du Bureau des 
Longitudes,' 1897, c. 1- 
74. 

'Annals of Harvard Coll. 
Obs.' 1897, xxviii. L ; 
'Nature,' Ivi. '?06-208 ; 
' Naturw. Rundschau, 
xii. 581-583. 



'Harvard Coll. Obs. Circ' 
No. 21; 'Nature,' Ivii. 
284 (Abs.) 

' Harvard Coll. Obs. Circ' 
No. 21; 'Nature,' Ivii, 
284 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixii. 417- 
423 ; ' Astrophys. J.' vii. 
367-372; 'Nature,' Ivii, 
405 (Abs); 'Science 
Abstr.' i. 635-636. 

' Nature,' Ivii. 265-267. 

•C. R.' cxxvi. 879-882; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 470- 
471. 



190 



REPORT — 1901. 



ASTEONOMICAL APPLICATIONS, 1898. 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 



J. Scheiner . 

"W. Sidgreaves 

A. L. Cortie . 
E. Copeland . 



E. H. Hills and H. 
F. Newall 



A. L. Cortie . 
W. H. S. Monck 
E. C. Pickering 

C. Eunge 



C. L. Poor and S. 
A. Mitcliell 

A. J. Cannon. 



L. E. Jewell . 
J. R. Rydbcrg 
A. Belopolsky 

J. E. Keeler .■ 



Total Eclipse of the Sun, January 
22, 1898. Preliminary Account 
of the Observations made by the 
Eclipse Expedition and the 
Officers and Men of H.M.S. 
' Melpomene,' at Viziadrug. (Read 
March 28.) 

On the Spectrum of Hydrogen in the 
Nebulce. (April.) 



The Spectrum 
graphed at 
Observatory. 



of o Ceti as photo- 
Stonyhurst College 
(April.) 



On the Level of Sun-spots and the 
Cause of their Darkness. (April.) 

Total Solar Eclipse of January 22, 
1898. Preliminary Report on 
Observations made at Glioglee, 
Central Provinces. (Read May 
10.) 

Total Solar Eclipse of 1898, Jan- 
uary 22. Preliminary Report on 
the Observations made at Pulgaon, 
India, (Read May 25.) 

Vanadium in the Spectrum (C — D) 
of Sun-spots. (May.) 

The Spectra and Proper Motions of 
Stars. (June.) 



Stars having 
(June.) 



Peculiar Spectra. 



On the Relative Intensities of the 
Lines in the Spectrum of tlie 
Orion Nebula. (June.) 

The Concave Grating for Stellar 
Photography. (June.) 

Additional Hydrogen Lines in Stars 
resembling ( Puppis. (June.) 

The Concave Grating for Stellar 
Photography. (June.) 

Metargon and the Interplanetary 
Medium. (July.) 

Ueber ein Versuch die Geschwin- 
digheit im Visionsradius der Com- 
ponenten von y Virginis und 
7 Leonis zu bestimmen. (Aug.) 

The Hydrogen Atmosphere sur- 
rounding the Wolf-Rayet Star 
D.M. + 30°3639. (Aug.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Isiv. 27- 
42. 



' Astrophys. J.' vii. 231- 
238; ' Beiblatter,' sxii. 
841 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' i. 583 ; ' Nature,' 
Iviii. 41 (Abs.) 

'Month. Not. E. A. S.' 
Iviii. 344-353. 



' Astrophys. 
248. 



J.' vii. 239- 



■ Proc. 
26. 



Roy. Soc' Ixiv. 21- 



'Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiv. 43- 
61. 



'Month. Not. R. A. S.' 
Iviii. 370-373. 

' Astrophys. J.' viii. 28-31. 



' Harvard Coll. Obs. Circ' 
No. 32; 'Nature,' Iviii. 
258 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' viii. 32- 
36 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 
362-363 (Abs.) 

' Astrophj's. J.' viii. 157- 
162 ; ' Science Abstr.' i. 
316. 

' Harvard Coll. Obs. Circ* 
No. 32; 'Nature,' Iviii. 
258 (Abs.) 

' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ' xvii. 61-62. 

'Nature,' Iviii. 319; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xxiii. 395 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nach.' cl. (No. 3510), 
90-94 ; ' Nature,* Iviii. 
400-401 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' viii. 113- 
114; 'Nature,' Iviii. 463 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGrRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



191 



H. C. Lord . 

K. D. Nargamvala 

H. Deslandres 

Sir J. N. Lockyer . 

W. W. Campbell . 

A. C. Maury . 
H. C. Vogel . 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 



Mrs. Fleming 



G. E. Hale . 



W. W. Campbell . 



H. Deslandres 



Astronomical Applications, 1898, 

Some Observations on Stellar Mo- 
tions in the Line of Sight made at 
the Emerson McMillin Observa- 
tory. (Aug.) 

Photograph of the Spectrum of the 
' Flash' at the Eclipse of Jan. 21, 
1898. (Aug.) 

The Nebula of Andromeda. (Sept.) 

Photographic de la vitesse radiale 
des etoiles. (Sept.) 

The Chemistry of the Stars. (In- 
augural Address, Birmingham 
and Midland Institute. Oct. 26.) 

Some Stars with Great Velocities in 
the Line of Sight. The Variable 
Velocity of ij Pegasi in the Line of 
Sight. (Oct.) 

The K-lines of /3 Aurigfe. (Oct.) 



W. W. Campbell 



Ueber das Spectrum von a Aquilre, 
und liber die Bewegung des 
Sternes im Visionsradius. (Read 
Nov. 17.) 



Preliminary Note on the Spectrum 
of the Corona. (Read Nov. 24.) 



Stars of the Vth Type in the 
Magellanic Clouds. (Nov.) 

Classification of Spectra of Variable 
Stars of Long Period. (Nov.) 

On the Spectra of Stars of Secchi's 
Fourth Type. (Nov.) 

The Variable Velocities of o Leonis 
and of X Draconis in the Line of 
Sight. (Dec.) 

Remarques sur les methodes em- 
ployees dans la recherche des 
vitesses radiales des astres. (Dec.) 

SauerstofE auf der Sonne. Zu- 
sammenfassung der Resultate 
von Runge und Paschen, Janssen, 
Duner, Schuster, und Jewell. 
(' Himmel und Erde,' x. 425.) 

1899. 
The Variable Radial Velocity of 
C Geminorum in the Line of Sight. 
(Jan.) 



1899. 

' Astrophys. J.' viii, 65-69 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 180 
(Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' viii. 120- 
121; 'Nature,' Iviii. 526 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' Iviii. 515. 

' Bull. Soc. Astron. de 
France,' xii. 387-390 ; 
' Nature,' Iviii. 490 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' lix. 32-36 ; 
' Chem News,' Ixxviii, 
233-235 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' viii. 157- 
160 ; ' Beibliltter,' xxxiii. 

180 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' lix. 
43 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' viii. 173- 
175 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 

181 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin.' 
1898, 721-734 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xxiii. 181 (Abs.); 
' Astrophys. J.' ix. 1-15 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 43^.- 
437. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiv. 168- 
170; 'Nature,' lix. 279- 
280; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. II. 717-718 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' viii. 232 ; 
' Nature,' lix. 330 (Abs.) 

' .4strophys. J.' viii. 233 ; 
' Nature,' lix. 330 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' viii. 237- 
238; 'Nature,' lix. 330 
(Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' viii. 291- 
292 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxiii. 
362 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxlviii. 23- 
28 ; ' Astrophys. J.' i 3 
167-172; 'Science Abstr. 
ii. 728. 

' Beiblatter,' xxii. 561-562 
(Abs.) 



' Astrophys. J.' ix. SC ; 
' Nature,' Ix. 114 (Abs.) 



192 



REPORT — 1901. 



Astronomical Applications, 1899. 



J. E. Keeler 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 



A.. Mulle 
A. Cornu 

H. C. Duner . 

a. E. Hale . 

Mrs. Fleming 

Sir J. N. Lockyer 
»> >> 

i» >> 

D. Gill . 



G. E. Hale . 



G. E. Hale 



J. VVilsing 



Variation of Spectrum of Orion 
Nebula. (Jan.) 



Note on the Enhanced Lines in the 
Spectrum of a Cygni. (Read 
Feb. 2.) 



On tlie Order of Appearance of 
Ciiemical Substances at Different 
Stellar Temperatures. (Read Feb. 
23.) 

Les trois types spectrales des 
6toiles. (Feb.) 

La photographic des spectres 
d'etoiles. (Read Marcli 1.) 

Spectra of Stars of Class III. b, 
(March.) 

The Spectrum of Saturn's Rings. 
(March. ) 



A New Star in 
(March.) 



Sagittarius. 



The Cliemistry of the Stars in Re- 
lation to Temperature. (March.) 

On the Distribution of the various 
Chemical Groups of Stars. (Lec- 
ture to Working Slen. April 10.) 

On some Recent Advances in 
Spectrum Analysis relating to 
Inorganic and Organic Evolution. 
(Lecture to Working Men. April 
21.) 

On the Presence of Osj'gen in the 
Atmospheres of certain Fixed 
Stars. (Read April 27.) 



Comparison of Stellar Spoctraof the 
Third and Fourth Types. (April.) 

Photographs of the New Star in 
Sagittarius. (April.) 

Spectra of Stars of Secchi's Fourth 
Type. (April.) 

Ueber die Deutung des typischen 
Spectrams der neuen Sterne. 
(Read May 4.) 



' Astr. Nachr.' cxlviii. (No. 
3541)207; 'Nature,' lix. 
379 (Abs.) 

• Proc. Roy. Soc.'lxiv. 320- 
322; ' Beiblatter.' xxiii. 
361 (Abs.); 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 435. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc.' Ixiv. 396- 
401 ; 'Chem,News,'lxxix. 
145 - 147 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxiii. 792 (Abs.) 

' Rev. Scientifique,' xi. 
238-242. 

' Bull. Soc. Astron. de 
France,' Sept. 1899, 379- 

382. 

'Astrophys. J.' ix. 119- 
132; 'Nature,' Ix. IS 
(Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' ix. 185- 
186; 'Nature,' lix. 595 
(Abs.) 

' Harvard Coll. Obs. Circ' 
No. 42; 'Nature,' lix. 561 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' lix. 463-466. 

' Nature,' Is. 617-620, Ixi. 
8-11. 

' Nature,' Ix. 103-108. 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixv. 196- 
206; 'Nature,' Ix. 190 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. IL 718 (Abs.); 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 729 
(Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' x. 273-274. 

'Astrophvs. J.' ix. 269; 
' Nature",' Ix. 88 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' ix. 271- 
272; 'Nature,' Ix. 186- 
187 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1899, 426-436 ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 728-729 ; 
'Astrt)phys. J.' x. 113- 
125. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPriY OF SPECTROSCOPY, 



193 



Sir J. N. Lockj'er 
A. Belopolsky 



G. E. Hale and 
F. Ellerman. 



W. W. Campbell 
J, Scheiner . 

W. W. Campbell 

W. H. Wright 

E. B. Frost . 
W. W. Campbell 



ASTEONOMICAL APPLICATIONS, 1899. 

On the Chemical Classification of ' Proc. Roy. Soc.'lsv. 186- 
the Stars. (Read May 4.) 



A. Belopolsky 

G. E. Hale . 
Sir J. N. Lockyer 

J. Lunt 

A. Belopolsky 
J. Fecyi 

1901. 



Ueber die Bewegung von f Gemi- 
norum in den Gesichtslinie. 
(May.) 

The Spectra of Stars of Secchi's 
Fourth Type. (July.) 



New Spectroscopic Multiple Star 
(Polaris). (Sept.) 

Ueber die photographisch-photo- 
metrischen Untersuchungen des 
Herrn Keeler am Orionnebel. 
(Oct.) (Reply of J. Keeler, ' Astr. 
Nachr.' cli. (No. 3601) 3-4.) 

The Variable Velocities in the Line 
of Sight of € Librse, \ Draconis, 
\ Andromedfe, € Ursee Minoris, S 
Ursae Minoris, and e» Draconis. 
(Oct.) 

Observations of Comet Spectra. 
(Oct.) 

The Variable Velocity of Polaris. 
(Oct.) 

The Spectroscopic Binary Capella. 
(Oct.) 



The Wave-length of the Green 
Coronal Line, and other Data re- 
sulting from an Attempt to Deter- 
mine the Law of Rotation of the 
Solar Corona. (Oct.) 

Ueber das Spectrum von P Cygni. 
(Nov.) 

Carbon in the Chromosphere. (Nov.) 
The Piscian Stars. (Read Dec. 14.) 



On the Origin of certain Unknown 
Lines in the Spectra of Stars of 
the Crucis Type, and on the 
Spectrum of Silicon. (Read 
Dec. 14.) 

Notes on the Spectrum of P Cygni. 
(Dec.) 

The Great Sun-spot, September 
1898. (Dec.) 



191. 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxlix. (No. 
3565) 239 ; ' Nature,' Ix. 
114 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' x. 87-112 ; 
' Reibliltter,' xxiv. 110- 
111 (Abs.); ' Nature," Ix. 
429 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' Ix. 513 (Abs.) 



•Astr. Nachr.' cl. (No. 
3593) 299-302 ; ' Astro- 
phys. J.' X. 164-168. 



' Astrophys. J.' x. 175- 
183; 'Nature,' Ixi. 114 
(Abs.) 



' Astrophys J.' s. 173-176; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 481- 
482 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' x. 184-185 ; 
' Nature,' Ixi. 114 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' x. 177; 
'Nature; Ixi. 114 (Abs.); 
' Beiblittter,' xxiv. 482 
(Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' x. 186- 
192, 306-307; ' Bei- 
bliltter,' xxiv. 183 (Abs.) ; 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 176. 

' Astr. Nachr.' cli. (No. 
3603) 37-40; 'Nature,' 
Ixi. 137 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.'x. 287-288. 

'Proc.Roy.Soc.'lxvi. ]26_ 
140; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
789_790(Abs.); 'Nature,' 
Ixi. 213 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvi. 44- 
50; ' Astropbj-s. J.' xi. 
262-269 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xxiv. 912-913 (Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' x. 319-321. 

'Astrophys. J." x. 333- 
336 ; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
300. 

O 



194 

C. A, Young . 

W. Sidgreaves 

H. C. Vogel and 
J. Wilsing . 



C. A. Schultz-Sfcein- 
heil. 

A. Elvins 



C. Dufour 



C. G. Abbot 



REPORT — 1901. 

Astronomical Applications, 1899, 

The Wave-length of the Corona 
Line. (Dec.) 



Notes on the Spectra of 7 Cassio- 
peiie and Ceti, 

Untersuchungen iibcr die Spectra 
von 528 Sternen. (' Publ. d. 
Astrophys. Observat. zu Potsdam,' 
xii. I. 73 pp.) 

The Rotation of the Sun. (Lund 
Observatory.) 

Sun-spot of September and October, 
1898. (Proc. Canadian Instit. ii. 
35-38.) 

C'omparaison entre la lumiere du 
soleil et celle de quelques 6toiles. 

Report of the Work of the Astro- 
pliysical Observatory for the year 
ending June 30, 1899. 



1900. 

'Astrophys. J.' x. 306- 
307 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
480 (Abs.) ; • Science 
Abstr.' iii. 299-300. 

' Month. Not. R. A. S.' lix. 
502-512. 



' Nature,' Ix. 577 (Abs.) 

' Science Abstr.' iii. 176- 
■ 177. 

'Arch, de Geneve,' viii. 
209-217. 

' Smithson. Inst. Report,' 
1899; 'Nature,' Ixi. 546 
(Abs.) 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 
and A. Fowler. 



A. Bclopolsky 

H. Deslandres 

Sir J. N. Lockyer . 

II. C. Vogel . 



W. H. Wright 



K. Schwartzchild . 
W. W. Campbell . 
Sir J. N. Lockyer . 



1900. 

The Spectrum of a Aquilaa. 
Feb. 8.) 



(Read 



Ueber eino Methode zur Verstiirk- 
ung schwacher Linier in Stern- 
spectrogrammen (in Russian.) 
(Read Feb. 9.) 

Variations rapides de la vitessc 
radiale de I'etoile 8 Orionis. 
(Read Feb. 12.) 

Preliminary Note on the Spectrum 
of the Corona. (Read Feb. 22.) 

Ueber die im letzten Decennium in 
der Bestimmung der Sternbewe- 
gung in der Gesichtshnie erreich- 
tenFortschritte. (Read March 29.) 

The Orbit of the Spectroscopic 
Binary x Draconis. (March.) 

Ein Verfahren der Bahnbestim- 
mung der spectroscopischen Dop- 
pelsternen (March.) 

The Variable Velocity of /3 Herculis 
in the Line of Sight. (March.) 

A Short Account of the Physical 
Problems now being investigated 
at the Solar Physics Observatory 
and their Astronomical Applica- 
tions. (Pbys. Soc. April 27.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvi. 232- 
238 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
995 (Ahs.) 

' Bull. Acad. St. Pctersb.' 
[5], xii. 20.5-210 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' XXV. 131-132 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxx. 379-382 ; 
' Nature,' Ixi. 407 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvi. 189- 
192; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
524-525. 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1900, 373-390. 



' Astrophys. J.' xi. 131- 
134 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
990 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' clii. (No. 
3620) 66-74; 'Nature,' 
Ixi. 521-522 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' xi. 140; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 790 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' Ixii. 23 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixxxi. 214 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



195 



L. E. Jewell . 



W. W, Campbell . 



A. Belopolsky 



H. Deslandres 



W. H. M. Christie 
and F. M. Dyson. 



J. Evershed 



ASTKONOMICAL APPLICATIONS, 1900. 

Spectroscopic Determinations of 
Motion in the Line of Sight, &c. 
(ApriL) 



Sir J. N. Lockyer . 



H. H. Turner and 
H. F. NewaU. 



G. Meslin 



H. Deslandres 



W. II. Julius 



r. de lleen 



Some Spectrographic Results ob- 
tained at the Indian Eclipse by 
the Lick Observatory Crocker 
Expedition. (April.) 

EinVersuch die Rotationsgeschwin- 
digkeit des VenusiBquator auf 
spectrographischem Wege zu be- 
stimmen. (May.) 

Observations de I'Sclipse totale du 
soleil le 28 Mai 1 900 d, Argamasilla 
(Espagne). (Read June 18.) 



Total Eclipse of the Sun, 1900, 
May 28. Preliminary Account of 
the Observations made at Ovar, 
Portugal. (Read June 28.) 

Solar Eclipse of May 28, 1900. 
Preliminary Report of the Expe- 
dition to the South Limit of 
Totality to obtain Photographs of 
the Flash Spectrum in High Solar 
Latitudes. (Read June 28.) 

Total Eclipse of the Sun, May 28, 
1900. Preliminary Account of the 
Observations made by the Solar 
Physics Observatory Eclipse Expe- 
dition and the officers and men of 
H.M.S. ' Theseus' at Santa Pola. 
(Read June 28.) 

Total Solar Eclipse of 1900, May 28. 
Preliminary Report on the Obser- 
vations made at Bouzareah (in the 
grounds of the Algiers Observa- 
tory). (Read June 28.) 

Sur les images spectrales de la 
chromosphere et des protube- 
rances, obtenues ;\ I'aide de 
la chambre prismatique. (Read 
July 30.) 

Premier.^ resultats des recherches 
faites sur la reconnaissance de la 
couronue solaire avec I'aide des 
rayons calorifiques. (Read Oct. 15.) 

Solar Phenomena and Anomalous 
Dispersion. (Oct.) 

Constatation de quelques faits re- 
latifsanx stratilications des tubes 
;\ vide et au spectre qu'ils pre- 
sentent. Conjecture sur lo me- 
chanisme de ce phenomene. (Read 
Nov. 3.) 



' Astrophys. J.'xi.234_240 ; 
' Science Abstr.' iii. 691. 



' Astrophys. J.' xi. 226- 
233. 



' Astr. Nachr.' clii. (No. 
3641)263-276; 'Nature,' 
Ixii. 160-161 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxx. 1691-1695; 
' Nature,' Ixii. 233 (Abs.) ; 
'Astrophys. J.' xii. 287- 
290 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxv. 
40. (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy, Soc' Ixvii. 
392-402. 



■ Proc. Roy. Soc' Isvii. 
370-385. 



■ Proc. Roy Soc' Ixvii. 
337-346. 



• Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvi 
346-369. 



'C. R.' exxxi. 328-330; 
' Beibliltter,' xxiv. 1124- 
1125 (Abs.) 



• C. R.' cxxxi. 658-661 ; 
' Nature,' Lxiii. 67 (Abs.) 



'Astrophys. J.' xii. 185- 
200; ' Science Abstr.' iv. 
14. 

'Bull. Acad. Belg.' 1900, 
803-811; 'Beibliltter 'xsv. 
154 (Abs.) 



196 



REPORT — 1901. 



ASTEONOMICAL APPLICATIONS, 1900.— METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, 1898, 1899. 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 



W. W. Campbell 



E. B. Frost 



W. J. Knight 



J. F. Mohler 
F. C. Daniel. 

J. Wilsing 



A. Berberich . 
J. Hartmann . 



and 



On Solar Changes of Temperature 
and Variations in Rainfall in tlie 
Regions surrounding the Indian 
Ocean. (Read Nov. 22.) 

The Visible Spectrum of Nova 
Aquilffi. (Nov.) 



Spectroscopic Results obtained at 
the Solar Eclipse of May 28, 1900. 
(Dec.) 

Can Spectroscopic Analysis furnish 
us witli precise Information as to 
the Petrographv of the Moon ? 
(Dec.) 

The Reversing Layer photographed 
with a Concave Rowland Grating. 
(Dec.) 

Untersuchungen iiber das Spec- 
trum des Nova Auriga;. ('Publ. 
d. Astrophys. Observat. zu Pots- 
dam,' xii. 77-102.) 

Die Sonnencorona. (' Naturw. 
Rundschau,' xv. 29-30.) 

Anwendung der Photographie zur 
spectralphotometrischen Messnng 
der Helligkeit von Himmelskcir- 
pern. ('Jahrb. f. Photogr.' 1900, 
240-244.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvii. 409- 
431. 



' Astrophys. J.' xii. 258 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxv. 41 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' Ixiii. 
260 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' xii. SOT- 
SSI ; ' Beiblatter,' xxv. 
267-268 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' Ixiii. 180. 



'Astrophys. J.' xii. 361- 
■S65 ; ' Beibliitter,' xxv. 
268-269 (Abs.) 

' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 995-996 
(Abs.) 



• Beibliitter,' xxiv. 480 
(Abs.) 



E. C. Pickering 

A. Schuster , 
Sir W. Crookes 

T. W. Backhouse 
C. Runge 



A. de la Baume 
Pluvinel. 



VII. 

METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS. 

1898. 

Harvard Coll. Obs. Circ' 



The Photographic Spectrum of the 
Aurora, (May.) 



No. 28 ; ' Astrophys. J.' 
vii. 392; 'Beibliitter,' xxii. 
843 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
Ivii. 591 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' Iviii. 151. 



The Origin of the Aurora Spectrum. 
(June.) 

Helium in the Atmosphere. (Oct.) ' Chem. News,' Ixxviii. 98 ; 

j ' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 317 
{ (Abs.) 

The Origin of the Aurora Spectrum. ] ' Nature,' lix. 127. 
(Nov.) I 

The Origin of the Aurora Spectrum. ' Nature,' lix. 29. 
(Nov.) ' 



1899. 

Observation du groupe des raies B 
du spectre solaire faite au sommet 
du Mont Blanc. (Read Jan. 30.) 



'C. R.' cxxviii. 269-272; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiii. 359 
(Abs.) ; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 437-438 ; ' Nature,' 
lix. 859 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



197 



Meteorological Applications, 1899.— Chemical Relations, 1896, 1897. 



B. Hasselberg 



Paulsen 



B. Hasselberg 



A. Wroblewski 



B. Hasselberg 



G. Abati 



B. Hasselberg 



A. de Gramont 



Note sur la diffusion cosmique de 
vanadium. 

Sur le spectre des aurores polaires. 
(Read March 5.) 



VIII. 

CHEMICAL RELATIONS. 
1896. 

Ueber das Vorkommen des Vanads 
in den Scandinavischen Rutilarten. 
(Read Dec. 9.) 



W. N. Hartley and 
H. Ramage, 



1897. 

Anwendungdes Glan'schen Spektro- 
photometers auf die Thierchemie. 
I. Quantitative Bestimmung des 
GxyhEemoglobin im Blute. II. 
Quantitative Bestimmung der 
Rhodansaize im Speichel. 

Zur chemischen Constitution des 
Rutils, (Read March 10.) 



Sul potere rifrangente e dispersive 
del silicio nei suoi composti. 
(Read June 12.) 



Note on the Chemical Composition 
of the Mineral Rutile. (June.) 

Observations sur les spectres des 
composes. (Read July 23.) 



Spectres de dissociation des sels 
fondus. Metaux alcalins, sodium, 
lithium, potassium. (Read July 
23.) 

Spectres de dissociation des sels 
fondus ; m6talloides,chlore,brome, 
iode. (July.) 

The Spectrographic Analysis of 
Minerals and Meteorites. (Aug.) 



' Mem. Soc. Spettr. Ital.' 
xxviii. 113 -119; 'Nature,' 
Ix. 487 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cx.xx. 655-656; 
' Boibliittex; x^iv. 479- 
480 (Abs.); ' Nature,' Ixi. 
621 (Abs.) 



• Bihang till K. Vet. Akad. 
Handl.' xxii. Afd. i. No. 
7, 7 pp. ; ' Zeitschr. f. 
anorg. Chem.' xviii. 85 
(Abs.) ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1898, II, 1068 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News, 'Ixxvi. 112- 
113. 



'C. R. de I'Acad. des 
Sci. de Cracovie,' 1896, 
386-390 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 

1897, II. 532 (Abs.) ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 
415 (Abs.) 

' Bihang till K. Vet. Akad. 
Handl.' xxiii. Afd. i. No. 
3, 8 pp. ; ' Zeitschr. f . 
anorg. Chem.' xviii. 85 
(Abs.); 'Chem. Centr.' 

1898, IL 1068 (Abs.) 

'Gazz. chim. Ital.' xxvii 
II. 437-455 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxii. 557 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 274 
(Abs.) 

' Astrophys. J.' vi. 22-26 ; 
' Chem. News, 'Ixxvi. 102- 
104. 

' Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3] xvii. 
774-778; 'Chem. News,' 
lx.xvi. 277 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
197-198 (Abs.) 

'Bull. Soc Chim.' [3] xvii. 
778-782; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxvi. 244-240 ; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxvi. II. 198 (Abs.) 

' Bull. Soc Chim.' [3] xvii. 
897-901; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxviii. 28-29 ; ' Science 
Abstr.' i. 247-248. 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1897 
610 (Abs ); 'Chem. News, 
Ixxvi. 231 (Abs.) 



198 



REPORT — 1901. 



C. Runge and 
Paschen. 



F. Kehrmann 

A. de Gramont 
H. Kayser 

A. de Gramont 



F. 



Chemical Relations, 1897, 1898 

Ueber die Serienspectra der Ele- 
mente, Sauerstoff, Schwefel und 
Selen. (Aug.) 



Ueber die Constitution der Oxazin- 
Farbstoflfe und den viervverthigen 
Sauerstoff. (Read Oct. 9,) 

Dissociation Spectra of some Fused 
Salts. (Oct.) 

Ueber die Spectren der Elemente 
der Platingruppe. (Read Dec. 2.) 

Spectres de dissociation des sels 
fondus ; soufre, phosphore, com- 
poses phosphoreux solides. (Read 
Dec. 24.) 



Ann. Plijs. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixi. 641-686 ; 
' Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1897, 
555; 'Chem. News,' Ixxvi. 
255-256. 

Ber.'xxxii. 2601-26]!. 



' Chem. News,' Isxvi. 201- 
204. 

' Abhandl. Akad. Berl.' 
1897,44pp.;'Beiblatter,' 
xxii. 667 (Abs.) 

' Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3], xix. 
54-59 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. II. 345 (Abs.) 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 



J. Werder 



J. J. Dobbie and 
F. Marsden. 

P. Schutzenberger 
and 0. Boudouard. 

J. Thomsen , 



B. Brauner . 



A. Boudouard 



G. Urbain 



1898. 

The Companions of Argon. 
Jan. 29.) 



(Read 



The Homogeneity 
(Read Jan. 29.) 



of Helium. 



Das Refractometer in der Wachs- 
untersuchung. (Jan.) 

Preparation and Properties of 
Orthochlorobromobenzene. (Read 
Feb. 17.) 

Sur les terres yttriques contenues 
dans les sables monazites. (Read 
Feb. 25.) 

Deber Abtrennung von Helium aus 
einer natiirlichen Verbindung 
unter starkes Licht und Wiirm- 
entwickelung. (Feb.) 

On Praseodidymium and Neodidy- 
mium. (Read March 17.) 

Sur la neodyme. (Read March 21.) 



Sur la nature du didyme qui ac- 
compagne I'yttria provenant des 
sables monazites. (Read March 
25.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 
437-440; 'Science Abstr.' 
i.7]8(Abs.);'Beiblatter,' 
xxii. 513-514 (Abs.) ; 
' Zeitschr. f . phj'sikal. 
Chem.' xxvi. 564-567 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixii. 
316-324 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxvii. 61-64 ; ' Chem. 
Centr.' 1898, I. 707 
(Abs.) 

'Chem. Zeitung,' xxii, 38, 
59 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 1898, 
I. 477, 531-532 (Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiii. 
254-255; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1898, 1. 1103 (Abs.) 

'Bull. Soc Chim.' [3], 
xix. 227-244. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' XXV. 112-114 ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1898, I. 
656-657. 

' Proc. Chem. Soc' xiv. 
70-72 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1898,1. 919-920. 

'C. R.' cxxvi. 900-901; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixsiv. II. 
518 (Abs.> 

'Bull. Soc Chim.' [3], 
xix. 381-382 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxviii. 74 ; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
424-425 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



199 



A. de Gramont 



J. W. Bruhl . 



A. de Gramont 



J. W. Briihl 



F. Kriiger 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 



A. Boudouard 



Sir \V. Crookes 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 



A. de Gramont 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 



Chemical Relations, 1898. 

Analyse spectrale des composes 
non conducteurs par les sels 
fondus. (Read April 18.) 



Spectrochemie des Stickstoffs. 
VI. (Read May 12.) 



Analyse spectrale de quelques 
min6raux non conducteurs par 
les sels fondus et reactions des 
elements. (Read May 23.) 

Spectrochemie des Stickstoffs ; 
VII. Sauerstoffverbindungen des 
Stickstoffs im gelostem Zustande. 
(Read May 23.) 



Die Bestimmung des Hamoglobin 
im Katzenblute. (May.) 



Sur un nouvel element, consti- 
tuant de I'air atmospherique. 
(Read June 6.) 



Sur les terres yttriques contenues 
dans les sables monazit^s. (Read 
June 6.) 

On the Position of Helium, Argon, 
and Krypton in the System of 
Elements. (Read June 9.) 

On a Nevsr Constituent of Atmo- 
spheric Air. [Krypton.] (Read 
June 9.) 



Spectres de dissociation des sels 
fondus ; metalloides, carbone. 
(Read June 10.) 

Spectres de dissociation des sels 
fondus ; metalloTides, silicium. 
(Read June 10.) 

Nouveaux gaz de I'air atmo- 
spherique. [Neon.] (Read June 
20.) 



'C. R.'cxxvi. 1155-lie7; 
' Nature,' Ivii. 624 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Isxvii. 
118-119. 

' Zettschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' XXV. 577-650 ; 
'Ber.' xxxi. 1350-1370; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 
362-363 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxix. 202 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxvi. 1618-1515; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 
635-636 (Abs.) ; 'Chem. 
News,' Isxviii. 2-3. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' xxvi. 47-76; 
'Ber.' xxxi. 1465-1477; 
' Beiblatter,' xxii. 661- 
662 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxiv. II. 417-418 
(Abs.); 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxix. 215 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physiol, 
Chem.' XXV. 256-257 ; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
494 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxvi. ] 610-1613 ; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
81 (Abs.); ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxvii. 270 (Abs.) ; ' Na- 
ture,' Iviii. 167 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxvi. 1648-1651; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxiv. II. 
687(Abs.); 'Chem.News,' 
Ixxviii. 28. 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 
408-411 ; ' Zeitschr. f 
anorg. Chem.'xviii. 72-76. 

* Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 
405-408 ; ' C. R.' cxxvi. 
1610-1613 ; ' J. de Phys.' 
[3], vii. 393-396; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xxii. 513-514 
(Abs.) 

• Bull. Soc Chim.' [3] xix. 
548-550 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxviii. 270-271. 

' Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3], xix. 
551 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixxviii. 258 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxvi. 1762-1768 ; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
81 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxiv. II. 574 (Abs.) 



200 



Report— 1901, 



G. Urbain 



A. die Gramont 



R. Nasini, F. Ari- 
el erlini, and R. 
Salvador!. 



J. Dewar , 
0. Neovius . 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers. 



A. de Gramont 



H. R. Procter . 



W. Ramsr.y and M. 
W. Travers. 



W. Ramsay 



E. Riegler 



A. J. Swaving 



Chemical Relations, 1898. 

Sur les terras yttriques provenant 
des sables monazitSs. (Read 
July 11.) 



Analyse spectrale des corps non- 
conducteurs par les sels fondus. 
(Read July 22.) 

Sulla probabile presenza del 
coronio e di nuovi element! 
nei gas della Solfatara di Pos- 
suoli e del Vesuvio. (Read 
Aug. 7.) 

Metargon, (Aug.) 

Ueber das vermuthliclie "Vorkom- 
men eines bis jetzt unbekannten 
Stoffes in der Atmosphare. 
(Sept.) 



On the Extraction from Air of the 
Companions of Argon, and on 
Neon. (Sept.) 



Observations sur quelques spectres; 
aluminium, tellure, selenium. 
(Read Nov. 28.) 



The Refractive Constant in Oil and 
fat analysis. (Nov.) 



The Preparation and some of the 
Properties of Pure Argon. (Read 
Dec. 15.) 



Ueber die neuerdings entdeckten 
Gase und der Beziehung zum 
periodischen Gesetz. (Read Dec. 
19.) 



Eine neue Methode zur Bestim- 
mung der Phospborsixure auf re- 
fractometrischem Wege. (' Bule- 
tinul Soc. Sci. Bucarest,' vii. 172- 
171.) 

Ueber die practische Verwendiing 
des Refractometers fiir die Buttet- 
untersuchung. (' Landw. Ver. 
Stat.' xlix.341-347.) 



•C. R.' cxxvii. 107-108; 
' Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
408 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixxviii. 61. 

' Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3], xix. 
742-746 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1898, II. 788 (Abs.) 

' Atti R. Accad. d. Lincei ' 
[5], vii. 73-74 ; ' Chem. 
Centr.' 1898, II. 617 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxvi. II. 482-483 (Abs.) 

'Nature,' Iviii. 319; 'Bei- 
bltitter,' xxiii. 395 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixvi. 162-169; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1898, II. 
252 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' ii. 52; 'Nature,' 
lix. 46 (Abs.) 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1898, 
828-830; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxvii. 154-155 ; ' Chem. 
Centr.' 1898, II. 852-853 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxvii. 866-868 
'Chem. Centr.' 1899, I 
14(Abs.);' J.Chem. Soc. 
Ixxvi. II. 199 (Abs.): 
' Chem. News,' Ixxix. 35 
(Abs.) 

'J. Soc. Chem. Ind.' xvii. 
1021-1025; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxvi. II. 258 (Abs.) ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1899, I. 
233-234 (Abs.) 

' Proc Roy. Soc' Ixiv. 
183-192; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxix. 49-50; ' Zeitschr. 
f. physikal. Chem.' 241- 
250. 

'Ber.' xxxi. 3111-3121; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1899, I. 
323-324 (Abs.) ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
211-212 (Abs.); 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 370-371. 



'Chem. Centr.' 1898, 
313-314 (Abs.) 



II. 



■ Chem. Centr. 
352 (Abs.) 



1898, I. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



201 



H. Zikes 



Chemical Relations, 1898, 1899. 

Refractometrische Bieranalyse 'Chem. Centr.' 
nach Herkules Tornoe. ('Oesterr. 1311 (Abs.) 
Chem. Zeitung,' i. 7-9.) I 



1898, I 



Sir J. Conroy 

A. Nabl . 

r>. Hasselberg 

M. AVager 

W. N. Hartley and 
H. Ramage. 

Sir J. N. Lockyer . 

W. Hallwachs 



R. T. Gunther and 
J. J. Man ley. 

M. Berthelot . 

P. Lewis 



C. Benedicks 



J. B. Frankforter 
and E. P. Hard- 
ing. 

A Chilesotti . 



Sir J. N. Lockyer . 



1899. 

On the Refractive Indices and 
Densities of Normal and Semi- 
normal Solutions of Hydrogen 
Chloride and the Chlorides of the 
Alkalis. (Read Jan. 19.) 

Ueber farbende Bestandtheile des 
Amethysten, Citrins, undgebrann- 
ten Amethysten. (Read Feb. 3.) 

Note sur la diffusion cosmique de 
vanadium. (Read March 8.) 



Gel- und Firnisanalyse mittels Re- 
fractometers. (March.) 



A Spectrographic Analysis of Iron 
Meteorites, Siderolites, and Me- 
teoric Stones. (April.) 

The Present Standpoint in Spec- 
trum Analysis. (April.) 

Ueber ein Doppelrefractometer 
und Untersuchungen mit dem- 
selben an Losungen von Brom- 
cadmium, Zucker, Di- und Tri- 
chloressigsiiure, sowie deren 
Kaliumsalze. (May.) 

On the Waters of the Salt Lake of 
Urmi. (Read June 15.) 

Nouvelles recherches sur I'argon et 
ses combinaisons. (Read July 10.) 

Ueberden Einfluss kleiner Beimen- 
gungen zu einem Gase auf dessen 
Spectrum, (July.) 



Beitriige zur Kenntnis des Gado- 
liniums. (Sept.) 



A Chemical Study of Wheat. (Sept.) 



Sul potere rifrangente di alcuni 
idrocarburi a nuclei benzolici con- 
densati. (Read Nov. 14.) 

The Methods of Inorganic Evolu- 
tion. (Nov.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc.'lxiv. SOS- 
SIS. 



'Monatsh. f. Chem.' xx. 
272-281; ' J. Chem. Soc.' 
Ixxvi. 11. 661 (Abs.) 

' Oefvers. K. Svenska Vet. 
Akad. FGrhandl.' Ivi. 131- 
140; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixxx. II. 251. (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. angew.Chem.' 
1899, 297-300 ; ' Chem. 
Centr.' 1899, I. 1004- 
1005 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' ix. 221- 

228. 

' Nature,' lix. 585-588. 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Lxviii. 1-4 ; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxvi. II. 
461-462 (Abs.) ; 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 597. 

'Proc Eoy. Soc' Ixv. 
312-318: 'Nature,' Ix. 
359-360 (Abe.) 

'C. R.' cxxix. 71-84; 
' Nature,' Ix. 288 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixix. 398-425 ; 
' Astrophys. J.' x. 137- 
163 ; ' Science Abstr.' iii. 
181. 

' Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
xxii. 393-421; 'Chem. 
News,' Ixxxi. 51-53, 62- 

63, 77-78. 

' J. Amer. Chem. Soc' 
xxi. 758-769 ; • J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxviii. II. 37 (Abs.) 

' Gazz. claim. Ital.' xxx. I. 
149-169 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1900, I. 797 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' Ixi. 129-131. 



202 



REPORT — 1901. 



A. Haller and P. M. 
Miiller. 



F. Stolle 



J. Formiinek 



V. Arnold 



Chemical Relations, 1899, 1900. 

Sur les refractions moleculaires, la 
dispersion moleculaire, et le pou- 
voir rotatoire de quelques alcoyi- 
camphres. (Read Dec. 11.) 

Untersuchungen iiber Karamel- 
korper. II. Quantitative Bestim- 
mung des Karamels in wasserigen 
Losungen mittels des Spectro- 
scops. 



Ueber den spectroscopischen Nach- 
weis der organischien FarbstofEe 
(' Z. Unters. Nahr.-Genus.' ii. 260- 
273.) 

Ein Beitrag zur Spectroscopie des 
Blutes (' Centralbl. f. med. Wiss.' 
xsxvii. 465-468.) 



C. R.' cxxix. 1005-lOOS ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 448 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixsviii. I. 182 (Abs.) 

Zeitschr. ver. Riiben- 
zucker-Industr.' xlix. 
839-842 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1899, II. 1099 (Abs.); 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. 
II. 249-250 (Abs.) 



' Chem. Centr.' 
947 (Abs.) 



1899, I. 



' Chem. Centr.' 
344 (Abs.) 



1899, II. 



S. Young and 
Emily C. Fortey. 



W. N. Hartley and 
J. J. Dobbie. 



A, Ladenberg and 
C. Kriigel. 



E. Demar^ay. 



J. Formanek . 



Sir J. N. Lockyer 



E. Demarcay . 



G. V. Georgievics 
and E. Valenta . 



E. Demar9ay . 



1900. 

Note on the Refraction and Mag- 
netic Rotation of Hexamethylene. 
(Read Feb. 15.) 

Spectrographic Studies in Tauto- 
merism. The Absorption Curves 
of the Ethyl Esters of Dibenzoyl- 
succinic Acid. (Read March 1.) 

Ueber das Krypton. (March.) 



Sur le Samarium. (Read April 30.) 



Ueber Acetophenon Azobilirubin. 
(April.) 



On the Chemical Classification of 
the Stars. (Read May 4.) 



Sur les terres inconnues contenues 
dans la samarine brute. (Read 
May 28.) 

Ueber die Azofarbstoffe aus ;8- 
naphtol und den Monosulfosiiuren 
des o - naphtylamins. (Read 
June 15.) 

Sur le gadolinium, (Read July 30.) 



'J. Chem. Soc' IxxviL 
372-374; ' Proc. Chem. 
Soc' xvi. 44 (Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxvii. 
498-512; 'Proc Chem. 
Soc' xvi. 57-58 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixxxi. 141 
(Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1900,212-217; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxviii. II. 540 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxx. 1185-1186 ; 
'Chem. Centr.' 1900, I. 
]199-1200(Abs.);'Chem. 
News,' Ixxxi. 251 (Abs.) ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. 
II. 459 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr.f.physiol.Chem.' 
xxix. 411-415; 'Chem. 
Centr.' 1900, II. 129 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixv. 186- 
191; ' Nature,' Ix. 52-54 ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixsvi. II. 
718 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxxx. 1469-1472 : 
' Chem. Centr.' 1900, II. 
19-20 (Abs.); 'Chem, 
News,' Ixxxi. 311 (Abs.) 

'Monatsh. f. Chem.' xxi. 
831-844 ; ' Chem. Centr.' 
1901, 1. 222 (Abs.); 'Bei- 
bliitter,' XXV. 194 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxxi. 343-345; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. 
II. 597-598 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



203 



Chemical Relations, 1900. — Theoeetical Papers, 1897, 1898. 



P. Lewis 



C. Riviere 



W. Ramsay and 
M. W. Travers , 



W. N. Hartley and 
H. Ramage . 



W. Muthmann and 
L. Stiitzel . 

P. Emich 

K. Ibsen . 

G. Hiifner , 
J. A. Grober , 



Ueber den Einfluss kleiner Bei- 
raengungen zu einem Gase auf 
dessen Spectrum. II. Abth. (July). 



Indice de refraction et dispersion 
du brome. (Read Oct. 22.) 

Argon and its Companions. (Read 
Nov. 15.) 



On a Simplified Method for the 
Spectrographic Analysis of Mine- 
rals. (Read Nov. 15.) 

Beitriige zu Spectralanalyse von 
Praseodym. (Nov.) 

Zur Empfindlichkeit der Spectral- 
reactionen.('Wien.Anz.' 1900,78.) 

Ein weiterer Beitrag zum spec- 
tralen Blutnachweis. (' Viertel- 
jahrb. f . ges. Med.' xix. 1-9.) 

Ueber die gleichseitige Bestira- 
mung zweier Farbstolfe im Blute 
mit Hiilfe des Spectrophotometer. 
(•Arch. f. Physiol.' 1900, 39-48.) 

Quantitativen Zuckerbestimmun- 
gen mit dem Eintauschrefracto- 
meter. (' Centralbl. f. inn. Med.' 
xsi. 201-247.) 



' Ann. der Phys.'[4] i. 447- 
458 ; ' Nature,' Ixii. 381 
(Abs.) ; ' Astrophys. J.' 
xii. 16-28; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixxviii. I. 701 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxxxi. 671-672; 
' Nature,' Ixiii. 24 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixvii. 
329-333 ; ' Nature,' Ixiii. 
165; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixxxii. 257-^58. 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixxix. 61- 
71; 'Proc Chem. Soc' 
xvi. 191 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' Ixxxii. 277 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxxii. 2653-2674; 
' Chem. News,' Ixxxii. 
282 (Abs.) 

« Beiblatter,' xxiv. 471 
(Abs.) 

'Chem. Centr.' 1900, i. 
688-689. 

'Chem. Centr,' 1900, i. 
512-513 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixxviii. II. 
459 (Abs.) 

'Chem. Centr.' 1900, i. 
626-627 (Abs.) 



G. r. FitzGerald 
A. Cornu 



H. A. Lorentz 



IX. 

THEORETICAL PAPERS. 

1897. 

Zeeman's Phenomenon. (Sept.) 

Sur I'observation et I'interprctation 
cin6matique des ph6nomenes de- 
couvertes par M, le Dr. Zeeman. 
(Read Nov. 5.) 

Ueber den Einfluss magnetischer 
Krafte auf die Emission des 
Lichtes. (Dec.) 



' Nature,' Ivi. 468. 

' Seances de la Soc. Frang. 
de Phys.' 1897, 138-143. 



■ Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixiii. 278-284; 
'Science Abstr.' i. 387- 
388 



r. Drude 



A. Schuster . 



1898. 

Die optische Constanten des 
triums. (Feb.) 



Na- 



Prof. C. Runge and F. Paschen's 
Researches on the Spectra of Oxy- 
gen, Sulphur,and Selenium. (Feb.) 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixiv. 159-162; 
'Nature,' Ivii. 500 (Abs.) 

'Nature,' Ivii. 320-321;' 
' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixi. 641 ; 'Bei- 
blatter ' xxii. 400 (Abs.) 



•204 



REPORT — 1901. 



G. F. FitzGerald 



A. Pfliia'er 



i» • 



J. G. Leathern 



J. Wilsinar 



A. Righi 

H. A. Lorentz 

S. A Mitchell 

Lord Kelvin . 
C. A. Mebius . 

W. Voigt 
A. Bovida 



Theoretical Papers, 1898. 

Note on the Connection between 
the Faraday Rotation of Plane of 
Polarisation and the Zeeman 
Change of Frequency of Light Vi- 
brations in a Magnetic Field. 
(Read March 10.) 

Priifung der Ketteler-Helmholtz- 
'schen Dispersionsformeln an den 
optischen Constanten anomal- 
dispergirender fester Farbstoile. 
(April.) 

Nachtrag zu der Abhandlung 
' Priifung der Ketteler-Helm- 
holtz"schen Dispersionsformeln 
an den optischen Constanten 
anomal - dispergirender fester 
Farbstoffe.' (April.) 

Priifung der Cauchy'schen Formeln 
der Metal Ireflexion und den opti- 
schen Constanten des fasten Cya- 
nins. (April.) 

On the Possibility of Deducing 
Magneto-optic Phenomena from a 
Direct Modification of an Electro- 
dynamic Energy Function. (Read 
May 16.) 

Theoretical Considerations respect- 
ing the Dependence of Wave- 
length on Pressure which Messrs. 
Humphreys and Mohler have 
observed in the Arc Spectra of 
certain Elements. (May.) 

Sulla interpretazione cinematica 
del fenomeno di Zeeman. (Read 
June 11.) 

Beschouwingen over den Invloed 
van een magnetisch Veld op de 
Uitstraling van Licht. (Read 
June 2.5.) 



Notes oa the 
(June.) 



Concave Grating. 



TheDynamical Theory of Refraction 
and Anomalous Dispersion, (Sept.) 

Om B. Galitzin's teorie for spectral- 
liniernas utbredning. (Read Oct. 
12.) 

Zur Theorie der von den Herren 
Macaluso und Corbino entdeckten 
Erscheinungen. (Read Nov. 26.) 

La luce monocromatica come 
vibrazione ammortita. (Nov.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Ixiii. 3U 
35 ; ' Science Abstr.' i. 
.386-387 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xxii. 869-870 (Abs.) 



' Ann. Phys. n. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixv. 173-213 ; 
'Science Abstr.' i. 637- 
638. 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixv. 225-228. 



' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.]. Ixv. 214-224; 
' Science Abstr.' i. 639 
(Abs.) 

'Trans. Phil. Soc. Camb.' 
xvii. 16-40 ;, ' Proc. PhiL 
Soc. Camb.' ix. 530-531 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xxiii. 257-258 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' vii. 317- 
329 ; ' Beiblatter,' xxii. 
558-559 (Abs.) ; ' Science 
Abstr.' i. 639-640. 



' Rend. R. Accad. d. Li cei' 
[5], vii. I. 295-301 ; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 165- 
167. 

' Zittingsversl. R. Akad. 
Amsterdam,' 1898-9, 

Dee], vii. 113-122 ; 
' Nature,' Iviii. 360 (Abs.) 

' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ.'xvii. 50-58 ; ' Astro- 
phys. J." viii. 102-112. 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1898, 
782-783. 

' Oefvers.af. K. Vet. Acad. 
Forh.' Iv. 485-495 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' sxiii. 419-420 
(Abs.) 

'Gott. Nachr.' 1898, IV. 
849-354. 

' Rivista scientitica,' xxx. 
225-230; ' Science Abstr.' 
ii. 599-600. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



205 



R, V. Kovesligethy 



J. Hartmann . 



Ch. Fabry and A. 
Perot. " 



D. Macaluso and 
O. M. Corbino. 



A. Cotton 
Lord Kelvin . 

O. M. Corbino 

J. Larmor 
F. Schlesinger 
H. Poincare . 
H. Veillon . 

W. Voigt 



Lord Rayleigh 
W. Voigt 



Theoretical Papeks, 1898. 

Der beiden Parametergleicliungen 
der Spectralanalyse. 



Ueber ein einfache Interpolations- 
formel fiir das prismatische Spec- 
trum. (' Publ. d. Astrophys. 
Observat. zu Potsdam,' xii. 25 pp.) 

Theorie et applications d'une 
nouvelle m6thode de spectroscopie 
interferentielle. (Jan.) 

Sulla relazione tra il fenomeno di 
Zeeman e la rotazione magnetica 
anomala del piano de polarizza- 
zione della luce. (Read Feb. 5.) 

L'aspect actuel de la loi de Kirch- 
hotf. (Feb.) 

Application of Sellmeier's Dynami- 
cal Theory to the Dark Lines, D,, 
D„, produced by Sodium Vapour. 
(Feb.) 

Sulla dipendenzatra il fenomeno di 
Zeeman e le altri modificazioni 
che la luce subisce dai vapori 
metallici in un campo magnetico. 
(Read March 5.) 

On the Origin of Magneto-optic 
Rotation. (Read March 6.) 

Reduction to the Sun of Observa- 
tions for Motion in the Line of 
Sight. (Feb.) 

La theorie de Lorentz et le pheno- 
m&ne de Zeeman. (April.) 

Elementarc geometrische Behand- 
lungdes Minimumsder Ablenkung 
beim Prisma. (May.) 

Weiteres zur Theorie des Zeeman- 
effectes. (June.) 

Zur Erklarung der unter gewissen 
Umstiindeu eintretenden Yer- 
breiterung und Umkehrung der 
Spcctrallinien. (Jul}'.) 

The Theory of Anomalous Disper- 
sion, (-luly.) 

Bemerkung iiber die bei dem 
Zeeman'schcn Phanomen statt- 
findenden Intensitatsverhalt- 

nisse. (Sept.) 



' Math. u. naturwiss. Ber. 
aus Ungarn,' xvi. 1-50 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 1280- 
1281 (Abs.) 

' Astronhys. J.' viii. 218- 
222. 



'Ann. Chim. etPhys.' [7], 
xvi. 115-144; 'Beibliitter,' 
xxiv. 178-180 (Abs.) 

' Rend. R. Accad. d. Lincei ' 
[5], viii. I.. 116-121; 'II 
Nuovo Cimento ' [4], ix. 
384-389. 

' Rev. gen. des Sciences, ' 
X. 102-115. 

'Phil.Mag.'[5],xlvii.302- 
308 ; ' Science Abstr.' ii. 
638 ; 'Astrophys. J.' ix. 
231-236. 

' Atti R. Accad. d. Lincei ' 
[5], viii. I. 250-254; 
'Science Abstr.' ii. 661- 
662. 



'Proc. Phil, Soc. Gamb.' 
5.181-182; ' Nature,' lix. 
527 (Abs.) 

'Astrophys. J.' ix. 159- 
161;' Science Abstr.' ii. 
728. 

' L'6clairage electrique,' 
xix. 5-16 ; 'Science 
Abstr.' ii. 737. 

' Zeitschr. f. phys. u. 
chem. Unterr.' xii. 150- 
152; 'Beibliitter,' xxii. 
552 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixviii. 352-364; 
' Science Abstr.' ii. 662. 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[n.F.], Ixviii. 604-606; 
■ Science Abstr.' ii. 737 - 
738. 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], xlviii. 
151-152; 'Beibliitter,' 
xxiii. 983 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phvs. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], Ixix. 290-296; 
'Science Abstr.' ii. 822 
(Abs.) 



206 



REPORT — 1901. 



Theoretical Papees, 1898, 1900. 



H. A. Lorentz 



W. A. Micliclson 



A. de Gramont 
E. Riecke 

W. W. CampbeU 

H. Lehmann . 
E. V. Capps . 

M. Planck 
»» • 

G. J. W. Bremer 
C. Viola 



Zur Theorie ties Zeemaneffectes. 
(Oct.) 

Zur Frage ilber die rich tig c An- 
wendung des Doppler'schen Prin- 
zips. (In Russian.) 



1900. 

Sur quelques consequences des 
formulas du prisme. (Read Feb. 
12.) 

Zur kinetik der Serienschwingungen 
eines Linienspectrums. (Feb.) 



The Determination of the Moon's 
Theoretical Spectrographic Velo- 
city. (March.) 

Ueber Spectralapparate mit dreh- 
barem Gitter. (July.) 

Bestimmung des Spaltwerthes fiir 
spectrophotometrischeMessungen. 
(Sept.) 

Ueber eine Verbesserung der Wien '- 
schen Spectralgleichung. (Read 
Oct. 19.) 

Zur Theorie des Gesetzes der 
Energievertheilung im Normal- 
spectrum. (Read Dec. 14.) 

Indices de refraction des solutions 
du chlorure de calcium. 

Le deviazioni minime della luce 
mediante prismi di sostanze 
anisotrope. 



' Phys. Zeitschr.' i. 39-41 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 930- 
931 (Abs.) 

'J. Russ. Phys. Chem. 
Soc' xxxi. 119-125 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. iiSl- 
253 (Abs.) 



'C. R.' cxxx. 403-406; 
' Beiblatter,' xxiv. 450 
(Abs.) 

' Ann. der Phys.' [4] i. 399- 
413 ; ' Science Abstr.' 
iii. 308 ; ' Physikal. 
Zeitschr.' ii. 107-108. 

'Astrophys. J.' xi. 141- 
142; ' Beibliitter,' xxiv. 
784, 785 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde,' xx. 193-204. 

'Physikal. Zeitschr.' i. 
558-560. 

' Verh. Deutsch. phys. 
Gesellsch.' [2], ii. 202- 
204. 

' Verh. Deutscb. phys. 
Gesellsch.' [2], ii. 237- 
245 ; ' Science Abstr.' iv. 
230. 

' Arch, n^erland.' [2], v. 
208-213; 'Science Abstr.' 
iv. 363. 

' Rend. R. Accad.d. Lincei ' 
[5], Lx. I. 196-204. 



List of the Chief Abbreviations tised in the above Catalogue. 



Abbreviated Title. 
Amer. J. Sci. 
Ann. Agron. 
Ann. Chem. u. Pharm. 
Ann. Chim. et Phys. 
Ann. de Chim. . 
Ann. Obs. Bruxelles 
Ann. Phys. u. Chem. [N.F.] 

Arch, de Genlve 

Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol. 



Arch. f. d. 
Physiol. 



gesammte 



Full Title. 
American Journal of Science (Silliman's). 
Annales Agronomiques. 

Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie (Liebig). 
Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 
Annales de Chimie. 

Annuaire de I'Observatoire de Bruxelles. 
Annalen der Physik und Chemie [Neue Folge] 

(Wiedemann). 
Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (Geneve). 
Archiv fiir pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie 

und fiir klinische Medicin (Virchow). 
Archiv fiir die gesammte Physiologie (Pfliiger). 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



207 



Abbreviated Title. 
Arch. f. exper. Pathol, u. 

Pharmakol. 
Arch, neerland . . . 

Astr. Nacbr. 
Astrophys. J. . 
Atti d. R. Accad. d. Lincei 
Beibliitter .... 

Ber 

Bied. Centr. 

Bot. Zeitung 

Bull. Astron. 

Bull. Soc. Chim. 

Bull. Soc. Min. de France 

Bull. Acad. Belg. 

Chem. Centr. 

C. R 

Denkschr. Akad. Wien. 



Dingl. J 

Gazz. chim. ital. 
Gott. Nachr. 

Handl. Svensk. Vet. Aiad. 

Jahrb. f . Photogr. 

J. Chem. Soc. 

J. de Phys. 

J. Physiol. . 

J. prakt. Chem. . 

J. Euss. Phys.-Chem. Soc. 

J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 
J. Soc. franQ. de Phys. 
Math. u. naturvviss. Ber. 

aus Ungarn. 
Mem. spettr. ital. 
Monatsb. Akad. Berl. 

Monatsh. f. Chem. 
Month. Not. K.A.S. . 

Oefvers. af K. Vet. Akad. 
Forh. 

Phil. Mag 

Phil. Trans. 

Phot. Mittheil. . 

Phys. Review 

Phys. Revue 

Proc. Phys. Soc. . 

Proc. Roy. Inst. . 

Proc. Roy. Soc. . 

Eec. des trav. chim. des 

Pays-Bas. 
Rend. E. Accad. d. Lincei 
Eev. gen. des Sci. 

Eiv. sci. industr. . . 



Full Title. 
Archiv fiir experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmako- 

logie. 
Archives neerlandaises des Sciences exactes et natu- 

relles (Haarlem). 
Astronomische Nacbrichten. 
The Astrophysical Journal (Chicago). 
Atti della Reale Accadomia del Lincei. 
Beibliitter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie 

(Wiedemann). 
Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 
Biedermann's Centralblatt fiir Agriculturchemie. 
Botanische Zeitung. 

Bulletin Astronomique (Observatoire de Paris). 
Bulletin de la Society Cbimique de Paris. 
Bulletin de la Soci6te Mineralogique de France. 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale des Sciences, des Lettres 

et des Beaux- Arts de Belgique. 
Chemisehes Centralblatt. 

Comfites Rendus de I'Academie des Sciences (Paris). 
Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften in 
Wien (Mathematisch - naturwissenschaftliche 
Classe). 
Dingler's polytechnisches Journal. 
Gazzetta chimicaitaliana. 

Nachrichten von der Georg-August-TJniversitiit und der 
konigl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (Gottingen). 
Handlingar K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens (Stock- 
holm). 
Jahrbuch fiir Photographie (Eder). 
Journal of the Chemical Society of London. 
Journal de Physique. 
Journal of Physiology. 
Journal fiir praktische Chemie. 
Journal of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society (in 

Russian). 
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. 
Journal de la Societe frangaise de Physique. 
Mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Berichte 

aus Ungarn. 
Memorie della Society, degli Spettroscopisti italiani. 
Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

Berlin. 
Monatshefte fiir Chemie (Wien). 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society of 

London. 
Oef versigt af K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens For- 

handlingar. 
London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Societj' of 

London. 
Photographische Mittheilungen (Vogel). 
Physical Review. 
Physikalisclie Revue. 

Proceedings of the Physical Society of London. 
Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 
Recueil des travaux chimiques des Pays-Bas. 

Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. 

Revue generalo des Scienc'es pures et appliquees 

(Paris). 
Rivista scientifico-iadustriale. 



208 REPORT~1901. 

Abbreviated Title. Full Title. 

Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl. . Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

Berlin. 

Sitzungsb. Akad. Miincheu Sitzungsberichte der koniglich baierischcn Akademie 

zu Miinchen. 

Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien. . Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

Wien. 

Sitzungsb. phys.-med. Soc. Sitzungsberichte der phys.-medicinischen Societat zu 

Erlangen. Erlangen. 

Skand. Arch. f. Physiol. . Skandinavisches Archiv fiir Physiologie (Leipzig). 

Yerh. phys. Gesellsch. Verhandlungen der physikalischen Gesellschaft zu 

Berlin. Berlin. 

Versl. d. K. Akad. Wet. Verslagen van de Koninklijke Akademie van Weten- 

Amsterdam. schappen te Amsterdam. 

Wien. Anz. . . . Anzeiger der k. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien. 

Zeitschr. f. anal. Chem. . Zeitschrift fiir analytische Chemie. 

Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem. . Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie. 

Zeitschr. f. Kryst. u. Min. . Zeitschrift fiir Krystallographie und Mineralogie. 

Zeitschr. f . phyi-ikal. Chem. Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie. 

Zeitschr. f. phys. u. chem. Zeitschrift fiir physikalischen und chemischen Unter- 

Unterr. richt. 

Zeitschr. f. physiol. Chem. Zeitschrift fiir physiologische Chemie. 

Zeitschr. f. wiss. Micro- Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Microscopie. 

scopie. 



Absorption Spectra mid Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — 
Third Interim Repjort of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. 
Noel Hartley (Chairman and Secretary'), Professor P. R. Japp, 
Professor J. J. Dobbie, and Mr. Alexander Lauder, appointed 
to investigate the Relation between the Absorption Spectra and 
Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. 

Appendix. — List of Ahsorption Spectra investigated page 225 

The Committee decided to report this year upon the examination of 
i.someric cyanogen compounds. The preparation of some of these sub- 
stances in a state of purity had proved to be an exceedingly tedious piece 
of work, but the labour bestowed has been fully justified by the results 
obtained. 

A further contribution to studies in tautomerism has been completed 
by an examination of the absorption spectra of dibenzoylmethane and 
c(-oxybenzalacetophenone (a-hydroxybenzylidene acetophenone). 

Some work on the subject of dyes and the examination of phloro- 
glucinol and its derivatives has also occupied much -attention ; this work 
is, however, not yet quite so complete as to admit of it being embodied 
in this report. The Committee desire to be reappointed for the purpose 
of completing the work now in progress. 

The Absorption Spectra of Cyanogen Compounds. By Walter Noel 
Hartley, F.R.S., James J. Dobbie, D.Sc, M.A.,'and Alexander 
Lauder, £.Sc.^ 

The following investigation was undertaken with the view of ascer- 
t£iining whether by an examination of the absorption spectra of the 
cyanogen compounds it might be possible to throw some light upon the 

' Trans. Chem. Soc., 1901, 79, p. 848. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION, 209 

vexed question of the constitution of these substances. Some of the 
substances of a simple constitution belonging to this group had been 
previously examined. 

W. A. Miller and also L. Soret proved the transparency of hydrocyanic 
acid and the cyanides,^ and Hartley, independently, found that hydrocyanic 
acid is a remarkably diactinic substance which exhibits no trace of 
selective absorption.'-^ Cyanuric acid, owing to difficulties in its exami- 
nation, arising out of its sparing solubility and the necessity for examining 
warm solutions, at first appeared to give evidence of selective absorption. 
It was subsequently proved, however, that there was no absorption band 
even in layers of liquid 200 mm. thick, but that the rays between wave- 
lengths 3330 and 2572 — that is, to where the spectrum was sharply cut 
off — were only feebly transmitted.^ 

In the present research some derivatives of cyanic acid have been 
included, but attention has been directed chiefly to cyanuric acid, melam- 
ine, and their respective alkyl derivatives. 

The derivatives of cyanic acid which were examined are highly 
diactinic and show only general absorption. 

Cyanuric acid is commonly represented as a closed chain compound 
in which the chain is formed of alternate atoms of carbon and nitrogen 
united by alternate double and single bonds (Formula I. ), and a similar 
structure is assigned to the methyl ester (methyl cyanurate ; m.p. 135°), 
which is obtained from cyanuric chloride by the action of sodium 
methylate. The methyl ester (methyl iso-cyanurate, methyl tricarbimide ; 
m.p. 175°), on the other hand, which is prepared by the distillation of 
potassium cyanate with potassium methyl sulphate, is represented as a 
derivative of iso-cyanuric acid (Formula II.), which contains three keto- 
groups and has the carbon and nitrogen atoms united by single bonds 
only. In this ester the alkyl radicals are directly united to the nitrogen 
atoms. 

Formula I. Formula IT. 

HO.C : N.C.OH OC.NH.CO 

I II 11 

N : C.N HN.CO.NH 

I 
OH 

Cyanuric acid. Iso-cyanurio acid or 

tricarbimide. 

Pyridine and dimethylpyrazine, in which there are carbon and nitrogen 
atoms united by alternate double and single bonds, exhibit strong and 
persistent absorption bands, the selective absorption being more pro- 
nounced in dimethylpyrazine,^ which contains two nitrogen atoms, than 
in pyridine, which contains only one. It was therefore to be expected 
that substances possessing the constitution assigned to normal cyanuric 
acid and its esters would likewise exhibit marked selective absorption, 
and that even to a greater extent than dimethylpyrazine. 

On the other hand it was to be anticipated that the alkyl derivatives 

' Pkil. Tram., 1862, pp. 861-887 ; J. Chcm. Soc, vol. ii. p. 68 ; Arcli. des Sciences 
Fhys., Geneva, 61, 1878. 
. ^ Trans. Chem. Soc, 1882, 41, p. 45. = Proc. Clem. Soc, 1899, 15, p. 46. 

* Trans. Chzm. Soc, 1900, 77, 846. 
1901, P 



210 REPORT — 1901. 

of iso-cyanuric acid (Formula II.) would behave like piperidine and other 
bodies composed of a closed chain of singly linked carbon atoms or of 
carbon and nitrogen, where one or more carbons are replaced by nitrogen 
atoms, and which exhibit general absorption only. All the cyanuric 
compounds, however, which we have examined show only general absorp- 
tion, and give no indication of the presence of absorption bands. 

This result is what was anticipated in the case of derivatives of iso- 
cyanuric acid ; but so tar as cyanuric acid and its esters are concerned it 
is remarkable — especially when considered in connection with the fact 
that no strict experimental evidence has yet been advanced in support of 
the commonly received structural formula for cyanuric acid. Methyl cyan- 
urate (ra.p. 135°) yields on saponification with alkalies cyanuric acid and 
methyl alcohol. It is therefore regarded as the ester of normal cyanuric acid 
(Formula I.), a conclusion which is supported by its method of formation 
from sodium methylate and cyanuric chloride. Trimethylcarbimide 
(m.p. 175°), on the other hand, yields methylamine on treatment with 
alkalies, and is therefore regarded as a derivative of iso-cyanuric acid 
(Formula II.). It is generally admitted, however, that chemical evidence 
of this kind and in such cases is frequently unreliable. ^ 

In this instance the spectrographic examination confirms tlie result 
arrived at on purely chemical grounds. The spectra of methyl cyanurate 
(m.p. ISS'^^) bear a close resemblance to those of cyanuric acid, the 
absorption being somewhat greater owing to the replacement of three 
hydrogen atoms by three methyl groups. On the other hand the spectra 
of trimethylcarbimide (m.p. 175°), notwithstanding a similar replacement 
of hydrogen by methyl groups, show considerably less absorption of the 
more refrangible rays. 

Melamine and its esters show only general absorption, the amount 
being somewhat greater than in the case of cyanuric acid. Melamine is 
regarded as the triamide of normal cyanuric acid (Formula I.). 

NHa NH 

I II 

N.C : N HN.C.NH 

II I II 

H2N.C.N : C.NHa HN=C.N.C=NH 

H 

Melamine or Iso-melamine or 

cyanurtriamide. Iso-cyanurtriimide. 

The triethyl ester (m.p. 74°), which is obtained by the action of 
ethylamine on cyanuric chloride, is, from its method of formation, con- 
sidered to be a derivative of melamine ; the ethyl derivative (m.p. 92°), on 
the other hand, which is prepared by the desulphurisation of thiourea, is 
regarded as a derivative of iso-melamine. Here again the results of the 
spectrographic investigation are in accord with the conclusions arrived at 
on chemical evidence. The spectra of melamine and the triethyl ester 
(m.p. 74°) are almost identical, while the general absorption exhibited 
bv the spectra of the isomeric ester is considerably less. 

The general result of the examination of these bodies is in complete 

» Goldschmidt and Meissler, Ber., 1«90, 23, 253 ; A. Michael, J. j;r. Chem. [ii.], 
1S85, 3?, 513 ; Hartley and Dobbie, Trails. Chem. Soc, 1899, 75, 640. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION, 211 

agreement with the views now generally held as to their relationship with 
one another. But, as already observed, the absence of selective absorp- 
tion is not in harmony with the constitution of cyanuric acid when it is 
represented by a formula so closely analogous to that of pyridine and 
still more closely to that of dimethylpyrazine. On this account it may 
fairly be considered as very doubtful whether the constitution of cyanuric 
acid is rightly understood. 

The Absorption S-pectraqf Dihenzoyl Methane and a-Oxyhenzalacetophenone. 

These two substances are related to each other in the same manner 
as Knorr's dibenzoyl succinicesters examined by Hartley and Dobbie.' 
Their constitution is represented by the following formulae : — 



CeH^.CO CeHj.CO 

I I 

CHo CH 



CgHj.CO CgHg.COH 

Dibenzoylmethane a-Oxybenzalacetophenone 

m.p. 77-78° m.p. 77-78° 

(o-Hydroxybec zy lidene acetophenone) 

The enolic form is, in this case, the more stable of the two, the keto 
form in solution passing rapidly into the enolic form on the addition of an 
acid. It is the reverse with the dibenzoylsuccinic esters ; the enolic ester 
passes into the keto form spontaneously. 

As the study of cases of this kind is of particular interest, and but 
few liave been examined, Miss Alice E. Smith, B.Sc, of the University 
College of North Wales, Bangor, kindly undertook, at the request of the 
committee, to investigate the absorption spectra of these substances. 
Mr. R. D. Abell, B.Sc, 1851 Exhibition Scholar of the University 
College of North Wales, Bangor, was good enough to supply pure 
specimens of these substances for examination. 

Dibenzoylmethane (CuH5.CO.CH2.CO.CgHg). — The preparation of 
dibenzoylmethane may be divided into the following stages : — 

(1) The preparation of benzalacetophenone from benzaldehyde and 
acetophenone.^ 

(2) Preparation of dibrombenzalacetophenone from benzalaceto- 
phenone.^ 

(3) Preparation of monobrombenzalacetophenone from dibrombenzal- 
acetophenone."* 

(4) Preparation of dibenzoylmethane from monobrombenzalaceto- 
phenone. 

a-oxyhenzalacelophenone (C^Hg.CO.CH :C(0H).CgH5) (or a-Hydroxy- 
benzylidene acetophenone). — This substance was prepared by Baeyer and 
Perkin by heating dibenzoylacetic ester with water.^ The method of 
acting with sodium ethoxide or metallic sodium on a mixture of ethyl 
benzoate and acetophenone employed in the present case has been de- 
scribed by Claisen.^ 

' Trans. Chem. Soc, 1900, 77, 498^ 
* Ber., 20, GG5 ; 14, 2iC4: ; 29, 1492. =^mw., 308, ,^23. 

' Ann., 308, 22(j. ^ Ber., 16, 2134 ; Chem. Soc. Trans., 47, 250. 

" Ber., 20, 655 ; Ann., 291, 52. 

p2 



212 



REPORT— 1901. 



The method employed in photographing the spectra has already been 
described.^ 

It will be seen from the accompanying curves that the relation 
existing between the two bodies is similar to that which exists between 
Knorr's a- and /3-dibenzoylsuccinic esters. Both the substances show 



ScaZe^ of Osa'McUiorh- freq^ 


ue/uzes. 




















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Curves of Molecular Vibrations. — Dibenzoylmethane, Ketonic, 
o-Oxybenzalacetophenone (o-Hydroxybenzylidene aceto- 
phenone), Enolic. 



well marked absorption bands, and the amount of general absorption 
caused by the enolic form is, as in the case of Knorr's esters, considerably 
greater than that caused by the keto form. In this case the gradual 
change of the less stable into the more stable form has been traced by 
photographing the acidified solution at intervals. 

» Trans. Chem. Sac, 1885, 47, 685. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CfiEMlCAL CONSTItuTtON. 

CeHa.CO 

Diben^oyl Methane CH, 

I 
The Ketonic Form CgHj.CO 



218 



Thickness 








of Layer 




1 




of Liquid 


Description of Spectrum 




\ 


in Milli- 




A 




metres 










1 Milligramme 3Iol. in 100 c.o. Alcolwl. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2624 


3810 


4 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2624 


3810 


3 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2701 


3702 


2 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2760 


3623 




1 Mllligravime Mol. in 5C 


)0 ex. Alcohol. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2786 


3589 


4 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2871 


3483 




Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2965 


3372 


2 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


3057 


3271 




1 Milligramme Mol. in 2, 


500 c.c. Alcolwl. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


3057 


3271 


4 


Spectrum continuous to . 


3057 


.3271 




AhsorjMon band .... 


3057 to 3555 


szyi to 2S12 




Strong: rays transmitted from 








3555 to 


3873 


2581 




Ahsorjrtion band .... 


38~3 to 4300 


25Sl to 2322 




Weak spectrum from 4306 to 


4400 


2272 




Complete absorption beyond. 






3 


Spectrum continuous to 


3141 


3183 




Absor2)tio)i band .... 


3141 to 3465 


31 S3 to 2SS0 




Spectrum continuous to 


3911 


2556 




Absorj}tio?i band .... 


39'! 1 to 43O6 


2556 to 2322 




Spectrum continuous from 430G to 


4400 


2272 




Complete absorption beyond. 






2 


Spectrum continuous to 

Strong rays partially transmitted 


3175 


3149 




from 3175 to . 


3381 


2957 




Spectrum continuous from 3381 to 


3911 


2556 




Strong rays partially transmitted 








from 3911 to . 


4306 


2322 




Spectrum continuous from 4306 to 


4400 


2272 




Weak spectrum from 4400. 






1 


Spectrum continuous . 


— 


— 



214 



llfiPOKT— 1901. 



C«H,.CO 



a- Oxyhenzalacetophenone CH 

{a-Hydroxyhenzylidene aceiojjhenone) \\ 

The Enolic Form CeH5.C(0II^ 



Thickness 






1 


of Layer 




J 




of Liquid 


Description of Spectrum 




\ 


in Milli- 




A. 




metres 










1 Milligramme Mol. in 100 c.c. A Icolwl. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to . . 
Complete absorption beyond. 


2545 


3929 


4 


Same as 5 mm 


- - 


— 


3 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2552 


3918 


2 


Same as 3 mm 


— 


— 




1 Milligramvie Mol. in 50( 


) c.c. Alcohol. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2591 


3859 


4 


Same as 5 mm 


— 


— 


3 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond. 


2G24 


3810 


2 


Spectrum continuous to 

Complete absorption beyond, 
except for the feeble trans- 


2624 


3810 




mission of strong lines at 


3555 


2812 




And at 


3625 


2758 




1 Milligramme Mol. in 2,1 


500 c.c. Alcohol. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to 


2624 


3810 




Absorption band .... 


26'JJ, to 346i 


SSVO to 2SS9 




Strong rays partially transmitted 








from 3461 to . 


3677 


2719 




Absorption band .... 


3b77 to 4306 


2~19 to 2322 




Weak spectrum from 4306 to 


4400 


2272 




Complete absorption beyond. 






4 


Spectrum continuous to 


2624 


3810 




Absorption band .... 


2624 to 32S0 


SSlO to 304S 




Spectrum continuous from 3280 to 


3805 


2628 




Absorption band .... 


3S05 to 4306 


262S to 2322 




Spectrum continuous from 4306 to 


4400 


221-2 




Complete absorption beyond. 






3 


Spectrum continuous to 


2701 


3702 




Absorption hand .... 


2yOi to 3260 


3~02 to 3067 




Spectrum continuous from 3260 to 


3866 


258G 




Absorption band .... 


3566 to 4^358 


25S6 to 234s 




Spectrum continuous from 4258 to 


4400 


2272 




Complete absorption beyond, 








except for the feeble transmis- 








sion of lines at • . . 


4539 


2203 




And 


4645 


2153 


2 


Spectrum continuous to 


2760 


3623 




Absorption band .... 


2;60 to 3139 


3623 to 31§S 




Spectrum continuous from 3139 to 


3905 


2500 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



215 





a-Oxybenzalaoetophenone {The 


Enolio Form')— nont. 


Thickness 








of Layer 




1 




of Liquid 


Description of Spectrum 




A- 


in Milli- 




A 


metres 










Absorption hand .... 


3903 to 4100 


2560 to 2439 




Spectrum continuous from 4 100 to 


4400 


2i{72 




Strong rays feebly transmitted 








beyond. 






1 


Spectrum continuous to . '. 
Strong lines transmitted from 


2871 


3483 




2871 to 


3130 


3194 




Spectrum continuous from 3130 to 


3905 


2560 




Strong lines transmitted from 








3905 to 


4100 


2439 




Spectrum continuous beyond. 








Transmission of a continuous 








spectrum on further dilution of 








the solution. 







The Absorption Spectra of Indophenols and Dyes derived from Triphenylmeihane. 

As much work has recently been published on the relationship between 
the constitution of dyes and their absorption spectra, abstracts of the 
more important of these memoirs are given, accompanied by remarks on 
the conclusions drawn from previous examinations of triphenylmethane 
derivatives. 



Relation entre la constitution chimiqioe des colorants du triphenylmethane 
et les spectres d'absorjition de leurs solutions aqueuses. Note de M. P. 
Lemoult.' 

The examination of the absorption spectra of a large number of 
artificial colouring matters was made in the hope of finding some cha- 
racteristic belonging to each of the principal groups which enter into their 
constitution, but up to the present the study of such colours as are 
derived from triphenylmethane has led to nothing more than a demon- 
stration of some connection between the position of the luminous bands 
of these spectra and the constitution of the products examined. All the 
solutions were so made that a gramme-molecule of the dye was contained in 
1,000 litres of water, the thickness of liquid being variable. The follow- 



ing were the substances investigated 



1. 


Malachite green. 


10. 


2. 


Brilliant green. 




3. 


Sulpho-green J. 


11. 


4. 


Sulpho-green B. 


12. 


5. 


Green o-nitro. 


13. 


6. 


Green m-nitro. 


14. 


7. 


Solid green with alkali. 


15. 


8. 


Carmine blue. 


16. 


9. 


Victoria blue. 


17. 



Phenyl blue, or phenylated 
blue. 

Methyl green. 
Hexamethylated violet. 
Hexethylated violet. 
Formyl violet. 
Acid violet 10 B. 
Benzyldiphenylamine violet, 
Benzylated violet. 



• Comptes Rendus, vol. cxxxi. 1900, p. 839 



216 REPORT— 1901. 

The nature of the substitutions in the three benzene nuclei is explained 
by the author. Observed in thickness of 6 mm. some of the substances 
show simply a band of transmitted rays in the red, others are also in the 
violet of much larger extent. The red band is much more persistent, 
and appareatly is characteristic of the triphenylmethane group of sub- 
stances and not of the individual members of this group. The band in 
the red belonging to the greens and blues, Nos. 1 to 1 1 , is narrower than 
in the remaining colours, which are violet — namely, Nos. 12 to 17. 

Note. — The formulfe given by Nietzki for some of the dye-stuffs 
examined are the following : — 

1. Malachite green, 
CoH5C=[C6H4N(CH3).,], 

OH 

2. Urilliant green, 

CeH,C=[CeH,N(C,H,),]2 

I 
OH 

9. Victoria blue B, 
(CH3)2N-C,H, /CoHc-NHCcHa 

(CH3),N-CoH/ \ 1 CI 

11. Methyl green. 

/C6H,N(CH3)2CH3C1 
(CH3),N-C,H,-C/ 

\C6H,N(CH3) 

l\ci 



12. Hexamethylated violet, 

I ^/•'' 

[(0H,),N.C5H.],=C-C.HjN(0H,), 

13, Hexethylated violet, 

A similar formula with C2H5 substituted for CH3. 

The author's summary is as follows : — The colours derived from tri- 
phenylmethane, which have in general at least two atoms of tertiary 
nitrogen in the ^jwrci-position relative to the central carbon atom, yield 
aqueous solutions in which the absorption spectrum transmits a band of 
rays in the red. The middle of this band is always situated at approxi- 
mately the wave-length 686 in those compounds which have no more 
than two tertiary nitrogen groups. The position is invariable, but 
different for those which include a third tertiary nitrogen group, and lies 
about wave-length 666. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 217 

Sur I'absorpiion de la lumiire par les indophenols By P. Bayrac and 

C. Camichel.^ 

The indophenols with tertiary nitrogen, prepared by one of the 
authors, were studied, and it was found that when dissolved in the 
same solvent, as, for instance, alcohol, they presented an analogous 
spectrum in every case. They are characterised by a band in the red. 
Lemoult studied a series of indophenols obtained by the oxidation of 
mixtures of ^j- phenylenediamine and phenol or o-cresol, which have in 
the joarrt-position the nitrogen atom which unites the two benzene nuclei. 
The nitrogen in this case is primary and not tertiary. The substances 
are said to have a band in the red which is shifted from the position 
characteristic of indophenols containing tertiary nitrogen. The authors 
state that there may be displacement of the band, but it has no definite 
direction ; and the experiments of Lemoult do not show that it has. The 
method of measuring adopted by Lemoult is to take the mean of the 
micrometer readings between either edge of the band. It is remarked 
that the extreme reading at the extremity of least refrangible rays is not 
the end of the band, but merely the limit of visible rays, and that this is 
variable according to the brilliancy of the spectrum. They give reasons 
for this statement which are capable of verification, and also for the 
explanation that there ap^jears to be a displacement, but the band really 
terminates in the infra-red. 

Sur les spectres d'absorption des indophenols et des colorants du 
triph^nyhne'thane. By C. Camichel and P. Bayrac. ^ 

The indophenols with the tertiary nitrogen are much more absorbent 
than those with the primary nitrogen when the two are compared in 
solutions containing molecular proportions ; but the fact is that as the 
less refrangible end. of the band visible in the red lies in the infra-red 
there can be no increased width visible in this direction, and the rays on 
the other side being more freely transmitted it appears as if the band 
had been shifted towards the more refrangible rays. This having been 
demonstrated with the two kinds of indophenols, it was thought desirable 
to study the triphenylmethane derivatives — malachite green, sulpho- 
green J, hexamethylene violet crystals, and methyl green. The result 
was just the same; only one extremity of the band of red rays lies within 
the region of visibility. The conclusion is that the law of auxochromes 
has not been demonstrated in the case of triphenylmethane dei'ivatives 
nor of indophenols. The number of tertiary nitrogens in the molecule 
is the factor which increases the absorbent power of the substance, just 
as the substitution of (0113)3 for H3 in indophenols, or vice versa, renders 
the substance more or less powerfully absorbent. The authors state that 
they have studied the influence of concentration upon alcoholic solutions 
of indophenols and on aqueous solutions of those colouring matters derived 
from triphenylmethane. They have found that the coefficient of absorp- 
tion is proportional to the concentration of the solution . 

Note. — The nature of the indophenols is indicated by the following 
formulae and reactions, the notes being taken from Bernthsen's ' Organic 
Chemistry ' and Witt's original papers.^ 

' Comptes Eendus, vol. cxxxii. 1901, p. 338. * lUd., cxxxii. 1901, p. 485. 
^ Berichte, 16, 2843, and 18, 2912. 



218 REPORT— 1901. 

Indophenols. By Otto Witt. 
Phenol blue (indo-aniline) — 

/C6H,.N(CH3)2 



is produced by the oxidation of amidodimethylaniline with phenol. 
Its analogue, o-naphthol blue, 

/C6H4.N(CH8)2 



\ 



CioHigO 



is prepared by means of naphthol. Such compounds exchange N(CH3)2 
for OH when boiled with a solution of NaOH ; thus, from phenol blue 
there results indophenol (quinonephenolimide) 



/CeH^.OH 



a phenolic dye which dissolves in alcohol to a red and in alkali to a blue 
solution. 

It may be obtained also by the action of phenol upon quinone chlori- 
mide. 

/O /O 

^NCl \N-0,H,OH 

/CgH,.OH 
_N/ +HC1 

^ ^CH^.O 



It may be obtained also by the oxidation of ;)-amidopheno] with 
phenol. Its leuco-compound is^j-dihydroxydiphenylamine, NH(C|;Hi.0H)2, 
a substance which unites in itself the properties of diphenylamine and 
a diatomic phenol. 

Sur la hi des auxochromes. By M, P. Lemoult.^ 

In a recent note MM. Camichel and Bayrac having expressed the 
opinion that the law of auxochromes has no further application to the 
compounds of triphenylmethanethantothe indophenols, the author believes 
that this statement is not sufficiently justified, having regard to hia 
observations on four different colouring matters, namely : — 

First group (with 2 "I No. 1. Oxalate of tetramethyldiamidotriphenyl carbinol. 

tertiary nitrogens) J No. 2. Sulphate of tetrethyldiamidotriphenyl carbiaol. 

„ , /- -fi Q 1 No. 3. Chlorhydrate of hexethyltriamidotriphenyl carbinol. 

becona group (.witiid \-^q^^^ Dimethyldiethyldibenzyltriamidotriphenyl carbinol 

tertiary nitrogens; J sodium disulphonate. 

• Comptes Rendus, cxxxii. p. 784, March 25, 1901. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 219 

Solutions were made of such a strength that 1 gramme-molecule was 
contained in 1,000 litres of water. Photographs of the transmitted rays 
were taken through a constant thickness with a constant exposure and 
exactly the same development. The photographs reproduced in the paper 
are explained in the text. They exhibit a luminous band in the red 
which in respect to substances 1 and 2 is the same in intensity and posi- 
tion. In substances 3 and 4 it is more luminous and slightly broader, 
and the luminous band of No. 3 lies rather more towards the less re- 
frangible rays than No. 4. Wave-length measurements are not given, 
but numbers on an arbitrary scale are recorded. On diluting these 
solutions, the change in the spectrum is seen to be a decrease of the 
intensity of the absorption bands more on the side of the rays of greater 
refrangibility than on the other. The author proposes to enunciate 
definitely the law of auxochromes in a future paper. 

Note. — That there is apparently a decrease in the intensity of the 
absorption bands more in the direction of the rays of shorter wave-length 
is due undoubtedly in the first instance to the property of the prism, there 
being greater dispersion of the more refrangible rays. 

Nouvelle methode permettant de cliaracteriser les matieres colorantes, 
By MM. Camichel and Bayrac.'^ 

The absorption of light by solutions of indophenols in alcohol, ether 
carbon disulphide, and chloroform has been studied by taking as abscissje 
the wave-lengths and as ordinates the coefficients of transmission. 
Curves have been obtained of parabolic form, of which the convexity is 
turned from the side of the axis of the abscissse. That portion of the 
curve corresponding to the transmitted red rays ascends much more 
rapidly than that which corresponds to the green or the blue. The 
minimum position of the ordinate lies between the wave-lengths 610 and 
535 according to the nature of the indophenol and its solvent. In order 
to characterise each of the substances studied, the lowest point of the 
curve was determined — that is to say, its minimum of transmission or of 
greatest absorption. This is determined with precision by cutting the 
curve with a series of lines or chords lying parallel to the axis of the 
abscissfe. The conjugate diameter of these chords, obtained by joining 
points at the middle of each line, is rectilinear in a sufficiently large 
interval lying between wave-lengths 670 and 510 ; in such a case, for 
example, as that of an alcoholic solution of indophenol and of orthocresol 
with two tertiary nitrogens. The minimum of transparency (maximum 
of absorption) is independent of the concentration of the solution for all 
substances of which the absorption coefficient is proportional to the degree 
of concentration, according to the law of Beer. It varies with the solvent 
according to a law which is not that indicated by Kundt. 

Two series of indophenols have been studied ; those of Series A have 
two tertiary nitrogens, the simplest of which is indophenol of ordinary 
phenol. 

0=/ \=N-CeH,-N(CH3),,. 

The others (Series B) have the second tertiary nitrogen replaced by 
' Covij)tes Rendus, cxsxii. p. 882, April 9, 1901. 



220 



EEPORT — 1901. 



a primary nitrogen, the simplest of which is the indophenol of ordinary 
phenol. 



0=/ \=N-C,H,-NHo. 



Table of the indophenols studied. 







Scries A. 






Series B. 


1. 


Indophenol 


of phenol. 


1'. 


Indophenol 


of phenol. 


2. 


11 


orthocresol. 


2'. 


»i 


orthocresol. 


3. 




metacresol. 


3'. 




metacresol. 


4. 




paraxylenol. 


4'. 


)i 


paraxylenol. 


5. 




orthoethylphenol. 


5'. 


5 J 


orthoethylphenol . 


6. 




metaisopropylphenol. 


6'. 


)» 


metaethylphenol. 


7. 




thymol. 


r. 


)J 


thymol. 


8. 




carvacrol. 


8'. 


, 


carvacrol. 


9. 




cymophcnol. 


9'. 


U 


cymophenol a. 


0. 




Ijhenol a of the para- 
ethyltoluene. 


10'. 


JJ 


phenol a of the para- 
ethyltoluene. 








11'. 


fr 


orthoxylenol (1, 2, .S) 








12'. 


J> 


metaxylenol (1, 2, 3) 



«. The displacement of the minimum of transparency (maximum of 
absorption) under the effect of a solvent is shown by the following 
numbers representing divisions of the micrometer eyepiece. The substance 
was No. 1. 

Alcohol. Ether. Carbon disulphide. Chloroform. 

120 169 147 128 



The rays observed with the spectrophotometer gave the following 
measurements : — 



Solar A. 7'0 

B. 49-5 

Li 60-5 

Solar C. 72-5 



Ca 



(^ 



Ist 104 

2nd 104 

Solar i) 1 138 

D2 139 



Tl 220 

Solar E 235 



h. "When the tertiary nitrogen had been replaced by a primary nitro- 



gen the following numbers were obtained 



Solvent, alcolwl. 

1. 120 1'. 142 displacement + 22 

2. 136 2'. 162 +26 

3. 122 3'. 142 + 20 



c. By the introduction of the following alkyl radicals into the ortho- 
position, the displacements shown below were measured : — 



CH 



3> 



^aHg, 



CH< 



CH3 
CH3' 



Cxio — CH.) — CHi 



1. 120 2. 136 
3. 122 4. 134 
7. 117 9. 136 



Solvent, alcolwl. 

displacement +16 
+ 12 
+ 19 



Subsiitation of CH3 
CH3 
CH, 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



221 



A similar series of experiments was made on substitution in the ineta- 
position, the results being as follows : — 



1. 120 3. 122 

2, 136 4. 131 



displacement + 2 
- 2 



substitution of CH3 
CH, 



Conclusions. — a. When a tertiary nitrogen is replaced by a primary 
nitrogen, the minimum of transparency (maximum of absorption) is dis- 
placed towards the more refrangible end of the spectrum, whatever the 
solvent may be — alcohol, ether, carbon disulpliide, or chloroform. 

It is remarked that this law differs entirely from that indicated by 
M. Lemoult, who studied the apparent displacement of the band of red 
rays transmitted by indophenols. 

b. Substitution in the or</io-position in the phenol from which the 
indophenol is derived causes a considerable displacement of the minimum 
of transparency (maximum of absorption), whatever the solvent may be. 
This displacement may even exceed the foregoing in degree. The im- 
portance of substitution is thus evident ; the auxochromic groups are not 
the only ones to modify the nature of the dye. 

c. A substitution in the meto-position in the phenol from which the 
indophenol is derived causes a -yery slight displacement of the minimum 
of transparency towards the red or towards the blue ; the shifting is 
often so slight as not to exceed experimental errors in measurement. 

The preceding two laws, the authors remark, enable the formula of a 
phenol to be determined ; it is converted into the indophenol with a 
primary or a tertiary nitrogen, and the alcoholic solution is then examined. 
Only an extremely small quantity of the substance is required. 

Note. — Hartley has shown ^ the relationship of the absorption spectra 
of benzene and triphenylmethane to the colouring matters derived there- 
from by means of curves of molecular vibrations. 

No matter what their colour may be, a band of red rays is transmitted 
with greater persistency than the rays in any other part of the spectrum, 
and that these red rays are materially modified by the introduction of 
alkyl radicals into the NH.2 groups of the rosaniline molecule, as in 
methyl- violet^ and they are more modified by the presence of iodine, as in 
iodine green. 

To illustrate this the following measurements of the transmitted red 
rays in solutions at different dilutions and of different thicknesses are 
stated both in wave-lengths and oscillation frequencies. The fiducial 
lines in the solar spectrum are also given as useful for reference. 





1 

A. 


A 




1 

A, 


A 


A 


1314 


7604 


E 


1S97 


5269 


B 


1455 


G867 


F 


2056 


4860 


C 


1523 


6562 


G 


2321 


4307 


D 


1696 


5892 


H 


2519 


3967 



' Chevi. Soc, Trans., vol. li. 1887, p. 152 ; see also the report of this Committee, 
1899, p. 31. 



222 



REPORT — 1901. 



Hosaniline Base, 





Rays transmitted 




Thick- 
aiess 




Mean 


1 

\ 


\ 




0-301 ffr. or 1 Mllligramme-molecvle in 100 c.c. of Aloolwl. 


MJI. 








20 


139 to 153 


719 to 650 


684-5 


4 


to 166 


to 600 


— 


1 


to 166 


to 600 


— 




1 Milligramme-molecule in 500 c.c. 


4 


to 166 


to 600 


659-5 




1 Milligramme molecule in 12,500 c.c. 


4 


139 to 137 719 to 562 640-5 



Hosaniline Hydrochloride. 







Kays transmitted 




TWftk- 
ness 






Mean 


1 


\ 




0-3375 jrr. 


or 1 Milligramme-molecule in 100 c. 


c. of Water. 


MM. 

20 


139 to 


149 


719 to 669 


694 


5 


to 


157 


to 636 


677-3 






1 Milligravime-m'oleovle in 500 c.c. 




4 


to 


166 


to 600 


659-5 


3 


to 


16G 


to 600 


659-5 






1 Milligramme-molecule in 12,500 c. 


c. 


4 


to 


174 


to 572 





3 


to 


177 


to 562 


— 


2 


139 to 


177 


719 to 562 


640-5 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



223 



Methyl Violet. 



Thick- 
ness 


Kays transmitted 






1 

A 


\ 




Mean 




416 gr. orl Milligramme-molecule in 100 c.c. of Alcohol. 


MM. 








25 


139 


719 




— 


20 


li}9 to 145 


719 to 686 




702-5 


5 


to 149 


to 670 




H94-5 


1 


139 to 153 


719 to 650 




679 5 




1 Milligramine-molecule in 500 c.c. 


■ 


5 


139 to 153 


719 to 650 




__ 


4 


to 156 


to 639 




. — . 


2 


to 158 


to 632 




— 


1 


139 to 160 


719 to 624 




659-5 




1 Milligramme-molecule in 12,500 of Alcohol. 




5 


139 to 166 


719 to 600 




^_ 


4 


to 166 


to 600 




— 


3 


139 to 168 


719 to 598 




668-5 



Iodine Green. 



Thick- 
ness 


Rays transmitted 


Mean 


1 
\ 


\ 


MM. 

20 

10 

5 

4 

2 


0-672 gr. or 1 Millit, 

133 to 139 

to 139 

133 to 139 


jravime-molecule in 100 c. 

749 to 719 

to 719 

749 to 719 


0. of Water. 




1 MilUgramme-molecule in 500 c.c. 




5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


133 to 144 

to 147 

to 148 

to 149 

133 to 151 


749 to 694 
to 680 
to 675 
to 669 

749 to 660 


721-5 

704-5 

i 




1 MilligraMme-molecule in 2,500 c.r 




5 

4 


133 to 151 
133 to 151 


749 to 660 
7i9 to 650 


699-5 


3 




1 



224 



KEPORT — 1901. 
Aurine. 



Thick- 
ness 



Bays transmitted 



A 



Mean 



MM. 

60 

30 

15 

10 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 



5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



0'29 ffT. or 1 Milligramme-molecxde in 100 c.c. of Water. 



139 to 153 


719 


to 650 


to 166 




to 600 


to 166 




to 600 


to 166 




to 600 


to 177 




to 562 


to 177 




to 562 


to 181 




to CSO 


to 183 




to 545 


139 to 188 


719 


to 530 



659-5 



624-5 



1 Milligramme-molecule in 500 ex. 



139 to 188 
to 192 
to 193 
to 195 

139 to 198 



719 to 530 
to 520 
to 516 
to 511 

719 to 504 



611-5 



1 MiUigramvie-molecule in 2,500 c.c. 



6 


139 


to 


198 


719 to 


504 


4 




to 


202 




to 


494 


3 


139 


to 


206 


719 


to 


484 



601-5 



It may here be remarked that in the diagram given in the ' Trans. 
Chem. Soc' vol. li. 1887, pp. 152-202, of benzene and its derivatives (ij 
the relationship of the absorption curves to the chemical constitution of 
these substances is fully described ; (2) the band in the red is indicated 
on the less refrangible side as not being the termination of the transmitted 
rays, but as the 'extreme limit of the visible spectrum,' and on p. 20 L 
it is pointed out that ' instances -where the light is almost entirely absorbed 
are indicated by the curve being continued by a dotted line, as in 
rosaniline hydrochloride,' and also that ' iodine green appeared to transmit 
more of the least refrangible red rays than the other rosaniline derivatives. 
This may have been due to the colour being favourable to viewing this 
end of the spectrum, the more brilliant rays being absorbed, and those 
that are feeble thus rendered visible.' This observation has been verified 
by MM. Bayrac and Camichel's examination of other substances of a similar 
character. 

It should, however, be distinctly understood that it is the absorption 
bands which are of prime importance in the study of spectra. 

It is the position and width of these which determine those of the 
transmittent rays, and therefore greater attention should be paid to 
measurements of the bands of absorption. Comparisons of spectra 
measured on an arbitrary scale are liable to be very misleadin"- when 
deductions are drawn from them. 

The apparent shifting of the band of transmitted rays in the red 
observed by Lemoult is satisfactorily shown by Bayrac and Camichel 
to be only apparent, and not a real alteration in .position. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



225 



The remark of Bayrac and Camichel that indophenols with tertiary 
nitrogen groups are much more absorbent than those with primary 
nitrogen is only what might be predicted from what we know of the 
ultra-violet spectra. The homologues of benzene, such as toluene, ethyl- 
benzene, and the xylenes, are more powerfully absorbent than benzene 
itself. The tertiary monamines trimethylamine and triethylamine are 
more absorbent than the corresponding primary bases. Moreover, it was 
proved in the case of dyes that in the triphenylmethane derivatives the 
replacement of 3H by (0113)3 rendered the substance much more power- 
fully absorbent, methyl violet and rosaniline hydrochloride being a case 
in point. This is best shown by the curves which illustrate the original 
paper ; but it also appears from the measurements which have already been 
quoted, if we consider that the red rays are freely transmitted by the 
rosanile salt when even stronger solutions than those containing a milli- 
gramme-molecule of substance in 100 c.c. The methyl derivative 
barely transmits any light through 25 mm. of such a solution. Then, 
again, the width of the band transmitted by the methyl violet is narrower. 
The same observation applies to iodine green. 

The mere position of a band of transmitted red rays cannot be 
considered as indicative of a constitution similar to that of the triphenyl 
methane derivatives or of the indophenols because many of the diazo- 
colours show such a band. The difference between them lies in the effect 
of dilution ; in fact it is the absorption curves which are of importance, 
or, better still, the curves of molecular vibrations. There is a particular 
curve for each class of derivatives, the particular members of each class 
showing variations of the curve characteristic of the class. This is more 
marked in the case of the azobenzene and azonaphthalene derivatives 
than it is even in the derivatives of triphenylmethane, because a larger 
number of individual substances belonging to the former class have been 
examined than of the latter. It is quite evident that the nitrogen groups 
are chiefly concerned in the development of the colours, and the hydro- 
carbon radicals appear to be of comparatively small importance provided 
they are of a benzenoid character. 



APPENDIX. 

List of Substances the Absorption Spectra of tvhich have been studied in 

connection ivith the Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds. 

Note. — The method of indexing adopted by the Chemical Society has been followed. 



j 

Substance ' Foi-mula 

1 


Nature of 
Absorption 


Reference 


Acetic Acid . 

Acetic Acid— Ba- 
rium salt of 

Acetic Acid— So- 
dium salt of 

1901. 


A 

CH^iCOOH 

(CH3.C00).,Ba . . 

CHjCOONa 


Continuous 
» 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. L 
(1879), 257 ; Schonn, 
Wied. Ann. 6 (New 
Series), 1879, 267. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879j, 2,j9. 

Q 



226 



REPORT — 1901. 
Appendix — cont. 



Substance 



Acetaldoxime 



Acetoxime . 
Acetylene . 

Acid Brown — So- 
dium salt of 

Aconitine (from 
Aconitum na- 
pellus) 

Aconitine (Jap- 
aconitine) 

Aconitine (pseud-) 
(from Aconitum 
ferox) 

Aconitine (foreign) 

Alanine 



Aldehyde Green 
(A rosaniline 
derivative) 

Alizarin 



Alizarin 

ester 

AUantoin 



ethyl 



Alloxan 

Allylic Alcohol . 

Amido - azo - ben- 
zene 

Amido - azo - a - 
naphthalene 

Ammonium Hy- 
droxide 



Amylene (B.P.) . 
Amylic Acetate . 



Formula 



CH,.CH:N.OH 



(CH3)2C:N.OH 
C2H2 . 



HSOs.CioHs.NiN.CioHeOH 
C33H49NO10 " ° . 

C'66H88'N202l 
C36H43NO,2 . . 



CH3.CH(NH2)COOH 



C6H4(CO)2C6H2(OH)., 
C6H4(CO)2C6H2(OC,H5)2 

C4H6N403 . . . 



CO 



C3H5OH .... 
See under Azo Compounds. 
See under Azo. 
NH4.OH .... 



Cs , . . . 
CH3COO.C5H10 . 



Amylic Alcohol . 

Amylic Butyrate CsHjCOOCsHir, . 



Amylic Formate . | HCOO.CjHjo . 
Amylic Propion- ; C2H5.COO.C5H,,, 
ate 



Nature of 
Absorption 



Continuous 



One band 
Selective 



Beferenoe 



Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. 80c. Trans. 
77 (1900), 318. 

)) 
Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 39 (1881), 153. 

Hartley, Chem. Soc. 

Tram. 51 (1887), 153. 
Hartley, Phil. Trans. 

II. (1885), 471. 



Continuous 



Selective 



Continuous 



Continuous 



J7 

J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
1893 (3rd Series), 429. 

Vogel, Ber. 11 (1878), 
1363. 

Vogel, Ber. 11 (1878), 
1363 ; Liebermann, 
Ber. 19 (1886), 2827 ; 
21 (1887), 2527. 

Liebermann, Ber. 21 
(18871,2527. 

J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
1893 (Srd Series), 
429. 



Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 39 (1881), 153. 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257 ; Hartley 
and Dobbie, Chem. 
Soc. Trans. 77 (1900), 
318; Schonn, Wied. 
Ann. 6 (1879), 267. 

Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 39 (1881), 153 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 

Schonn, Wied. Ann. 6 
(New Series) (1879), 
267. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 227 
Appendix — cont. 



Substance 



Aniline 

Aniline Blue 
Anthracene 



Apomorphine Hy- 
drochloride 

Atropine 

Anthraflavic Acid 
(2 : 6)— Dioxy- 
anthraquinone 

Anthraflavic Acid 



MO - Anthraflavic 
Acid (2:7) — 
D i o X y anthra- 
quinone 

Anthragallol 

Aurin . 

Anthrarufin 



Azo Compounds : 
Amido - azo - ben- 
zene 
Amido - azo - o - 
naphthalene 



Azo-benzene 

Azo-benzene di- 
amido toluene 

o-Azo-toluene- di- 
amido-benzene 

o- Azo-toluene- di- 
amido-toluene 

p-Azo-toluene-di- 
amido-benzene 

p-Azo-toluene-di- 
amido-toluene 

Benzene - azo - ^ - 
naphthol sul- 
phonicacid (So- 
dium Salt) 

Di - amido - azo - 
benzene (Chrys- 
oidin) 

Di - amido - azo - 
benzene sul- 
phonic acid 



Formula 



C6H5NH2 . . . 

C,oH,6(C6H5)3N3.HCl 



Ci7Hi7N02.HCl . 

CnHosNOj. . .. 
0H.C6H5(C0)3.C6H3.0H 



C6H50H(CO)2C6H5(OH) 



OH.C6H3(CO)2.C6H3.0H 



^«^*<Co)C-^^^OH^' [1:2:3] 
CigHuOs 



C6H4(C0)2C6H2(0H)o [1.5] 



^4$ 



;H.NH„ 



CioH7N:N.CioH6NH2. 



C6H5N:NCsH5 



N, 



(CsHj 
n,C6H2.CH3(NH,, 



N. 



fCe: 
ic^: 



H4.CH3 

H3(NH2)o 



^VC6H2.CH3(NHj)2 • 

P 
No I C6H4.CH3 
^nC6H3(NH2)2 • ■ 

p 

No J CJ6H4.CH3 

''MC6H2.CH3(NH2)o 

C6H5N:N.CioH4(HS03)20H 
/3 



N2fS«S5(^^2)2 



IC6H3 



N, 



fC6H3(NH2)2 

-IC6H4SO3H 



Nature of 
Absorption 



Selective 



Fourbands 

Selective 
Continuous i 

Selective 



Reference 



One band 



Selective 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans, I. 
(1879), 257; Pauer, 
Wied.Ann.der Phys. 
61 (1897), 363. 

Melde, Pogg. Ann. 126 
(1865), 264. 

Hartley, Chein. Sac. 
Trans. 39 (1881), 
153. 

Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 



Libermann and Kos- 
tanecki, Ber. 19 
(1886), 2327; Lieber- 
mann, Ber. 21 (1887), 
2527. 



Hartley, Chem. Sac. 

Trails. 51 (1887), 

153. 
Libermann and Kos- 

tanecki, Ber. 19 

(1886), 2327. 

Landauer, Ber. 14 

(1881), 391. 
Hartley, Chem. Soc. 

Trans. 51 (1887), 

153 ; Landauer, Ber. 

14 (1881), 391. 
Hartley, Chem. Soc. 

Trans. 51(1887),15S. 
Landauer, Ber. 14 

(1881), 391. 



Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 51 (1887), 
153. 

Hartley, Chem. Soc. 

Trans. 51 (1887), 

153 ; Landauer, Ber. 

14 (1881), 391. 
Landauer, Ber. 14 

(1881), 391. 

Q 2 



228 



REPORT — 1901. 
Appendix — cont. 



Substance 


Formula 


Nature of 
Absorption 


Reference 


Di-methyl-amido- 


„ f CfiH^NCCHj), 

^■'\C^s .... 


Splpptivp 


Landauer, Ber. 14 


azo-benzene 


OClCUbl vc 


(1881), 391. 


Di-methyl-amido- 


j^ fC6H,N(CH5)., 






azo-benzene 


)J 


» 


sulphonic acid 








Phenyl-azo- 


Ph.N:N.C6H4.N:N.CioH5(HS03)OH . 


One band 


Hartley, Chem. Sac. 


phenyl-/3-naph- 







Trans. 51 (1887), 


thol - sulphonic 






153. 


acid (Croceine 
Scarlet) 
Tri - amido - azo - 








j^^ f C6H5{NH2)., 


SplpnfJvP 


Landauer, Ber. 14 


benzene 


'^^ICfiHi.NHo . . . . 


V.J \./ ^\j\-t %J ^ \ \J 


(1881), 391. 


Benzene 


B 

CcH,; 


Six bands 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. II. 
(1879), 257 ; Hartley, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
47 (1885), 685; Hart- 
ley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
73(1898),695;Pauer, 
Wied.Ann.derPhys. 
61(1897), 363. 


Benzene - hexa - 


CcHbCI,; 


Highly di- 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 


chloride 




actinic 


Trans. 39 (1881), 
153. 


Benzene-methyl . 


See Toluene. 






Benzene - tetra - 


See under T. 






I hydro 








. Benzoic Acid 


CfiHs.COOH 


Selective 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 


j Benz - aldoxime 
: [anti-) 


CfiHs.CH 

II 


One band 


Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 


OH.N 




77 (1900), 509. 


iso - Benz - aldox- 


CHj.C.H 






ime {syn. aldox- 


11 


>) 


)j 


ime) 


N.OH 






Benzene - azo - /3 - 


See under Azo Compounds. 






naphthol- sul- 








phonic acid 








Benzyl diphenyl- 


— 


Selective 


Lemoult, Gompt.Bend. 


amine— Violet 






131 (1900), 839. 


Biebrich Scarlet 


HSO,.C,H,.N„.0„H^(HSOJ.N„.C,„H„.OH . 


One band 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 


(Sodium Salt) 


)3 




Trans. 51 (1887), 
153. 


Bismarck Brown 


C6H4.NHo.N:N.C6H3(NH„>2 . . 


» 


1) 


Triamidoazo- 








benzene 








Biuret . 


C2H5N3O, 


Continuous 


J. L. Soret, Archives 








des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
1893 (3rd Series), 
429. 


Brilliant Green . 


PhC:}CeH4N(Et)2}3 




Lemoult, Compt.Bend. 




• , t . . 


Selective 


131 (1900), 839. 




OH 






Brom-benzene . 


QHj.Br 


jj 


Pauer, Wied. Ann. der 
Phys. Gl (1897), 363. 


Brucine 


C^oHj^NoOi-f^H.O .... 


j; 


Hartley, Phil. Trans 








II. (1885), 471. 



ON ABSORrXION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 
Appendix— eo««. 



129 



Substance 



■iSO-Butylic Ace- 
tate 

sso-Butylic Buty- 
rate 

Jso-Butylic For- 
mate 

iso-Butylic Vale- 
ranate 

Butyric Acid 

Butyric Acid — 
Barium salt of 

Butyric Acid — 
Sodium salt of 

Jso-Butyric acid 



Caffeine 

Camphor 

Camphoric Acid . 

Carbohydrates : 

Cane Sugar 



Glucose 



o-Oxy-carbanil . 
Carbon disul- 

phide 
Carbon disul- 

phide vapour 

Carbon disnl- 
phide solution 
Carbostyril . 



Methyl Carbo- 
styril 

Methyl pseudo- 
Carbostyril 

Cevadine (Mark's 
Veratrin) 

Chlor-benzene . 

Chrysazin . 



Chrysoidine (Di- 
omido-azo-beu- 
Eone) 

Cinchonine sul- 
phate 

Chinconidine sul- 
phate 



Formula 



CH3COO.C4H9 . 

C5H7.COO.C4H,, . 
HCOO.C4H9 

CjHgOo.C^Hg 

CHj.CHa.CHi.COOH 
(C5H7COO)2Ba . 

CjH^COO.Na . 

(CH3)o;CH.C00H 

C.HjoN^Oo 
CioHifiO 
CaHi4(C00H)., . 



CgHioO^i 



See under O. 

CSo 

CaHjNO .... 

CioHgNO .... 

C10H9NO .... 

C55H49N09(?J . ... 

C^HjCl .... 
CuH7(CO).,C6H.,(OH), 

See Aso Compounds. 

(CigHaoNoOJa.HjSOi + 2HoO 
(Ci,jHo„N20)3H„S04-t- 6H.,0 



Nature of 
Absorption 



Continuous 



General 

Highly 
diactinic 
General 



Highly 
diactinio 
General 



Selective 



One band 



General 
Selective 



Eefercnce 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. II. 
(1879), 257. 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 

II. (1885), 471. 
Hartley, Chem. 80c. 

Trans. 89 (1881), 153 



J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
1898 {8rd Series), 
429. 

Hartley, Trans. Chem. 
80c. 51 (1887), 58. 

J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
1898 (3rd Series), 
429. Also Hartley. 

Paner, Wied. Ann. der 
Phys. 61 (1897), 863. 

Pauer, Wied. Ann. der 
Phys., 61 (1897), 
868. 



Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trails. 
75 (1899), 640. 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 

II. (1885), 471. 
Pauer, Wied. Ann. der 

Phys. 61 (1897), 863. 
Libermann and Kosta- 

necki,J3er.l9(1886), 

2827. 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 



230 



REPORT — 1901. 
Appendix— coni. 



Substance 


Formula 


Nature of 
Absorption 


Befereuce 


Codeine 


CigHaiNOj 


Selective 


Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 


Codeine di-acetyl 


Ci5Hi9(C3H30)2N05 .... 


11 


n 


Corallin 




ii 


Vogel, Ber. 11 (1878), 
1363. 


Cotarnine hydro- 


C,2Hi5N04.HBr-(-2H20 . 


)» 


Hartley, PAiZ. Trans. 


bromide 






II. (1885), 471. 


Crooeine Scarlet 


See under Azo Compounds. 






(Phenyl - azo- 








phenyl-/3-naph- 








thol - sulphonic 








acid) 








o-Cresol 


C6H4(CH3)OH 


» 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 53 (1888), 
641. 


m-Cresol 


C6H4(CH3)OH 


if 


J? 


p-Cresol 


C6H4(CH.,)OH 


»» 


»» 


Cnmeneazo - fi - 


C9Hi,.N:N.CioH4(HSO5)2OH0 . . 


One band 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 


naphthol-disul- 






Trans. 51 (1887), 


phonic acid 






153. 


(Sodium Salt) 








Cyanin 


_ 


Selective 


Vogel, Ber. 11 (1878), 








1363. 


Cyanogen — 








Hydrocyanic 


See under H. 






Acid 








Cyanuric Acid . 


C3N5(OH)5 


General 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 41 (1882), 45 ; 
Hartley, Dobbie and 
Lauder, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. (1901). 


iso-Cyanuric Acid 


See Methyl iso-cyanurate. 






— Methylic 








ester of 








Cyanuric Acid^ 


See Metlujl cyanurate. 






MetkyUc ester 
of 
Cyanuric Chlor- 








CSN5CI3 


)) 


Hartley, Dobbie and 


ide 


D 




Lauder, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. (1901). 


di- Acetyl Codeine 


See under Codeine. 






o-Ethylic di-ben- 


See under E. 






zoyl succinate 








j8-Ethylic di-ben- 


See under E. 






zoyl succinate 








7-Ethylic di-ben- 


See under E. 






zoyl succinate 








Di - amido - azo - 


See Azo Compounds. 






benzene 


, 






( Chrysoidene) 








Di-ethylamine 


NH(C.,H5)2 


Continuous 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. 
1. (1879), 257. 


Digitaline . 


C2oH4^0i2 ...... 


)i 


Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 


Diketo hexame- 


pj-j/CHj.CHjXpj-v .... 
^"XCHj.CHa/^" 


}j 


Hartley and Dobbie, 


thylene . 




Chem. Soc. Trans. 








(1898), 599. 


Di-methyl-amido- 


See Azo Compounds. 






azo-benzene 








Dimethylamine . 


NH(CH3)2 


» 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Ti-ans.l. 
(1879), 257. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTBA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 
Appendix — cont. 



231 



Substance 


Formula 


Nature of 
Absorption 


Reference 


Dimethyl pyra- 


CsHgNs 


One band 


Hartley and Dobbie, 


ziue 






Chem. Soc. Trans. 
77 (1900), 846. 


m - Dioxyanthra - 


— 


Selective 


Libermann and Kosta- 


quinone [1 : 2] 






necki, Ber. 19 (1886), 
2327. 


Dipyridine . 


CioHicN, 


One band 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 47 (1885), 


1 




685. 


£ 






Emodin 


CnHgOj 


Selective 


Libermann and Kosta- 
necki,£er. 19(1880), 
2327. 


Eosin . 


CjoH8Br405 


)] 


Vogel.JBer. 11 (1878), 
1363 ; E. Vogel, 
Wied. Ann. 48, New 
Series (1891), 449. 


Ethylamine 33 % 


NH2(C,H5) 


Continuous 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 


Ethyl-benzene . 


CgH5(C2H5) 


Selective 


Pauer, Wied. Ann. der 
Phys. 61 (1897), 336. 


Ethylene Gas 


C2H4 


Highly 


Hartley, Chetn. Soc. 






diactinic 


Trans. 39 (1881), 
153. 


Ethylic Alcohol . 


C2H5.0H 


)» 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257 ; Schonn, 
Wied. Ann. 6, New 
Series (1879), 267. 


Ethylic Acetate . 


CHvCOO.CjHa 


Continuous 


,1 


Ethylic Butyrate 


C5H7COO.C0H5 




II 


Ethylic Formate 


H.COO.C2H5 




I) 


Ethylic laocyan- 


CO.N.C2H5 


jj 


Hartley, Dobbie and 


ate 






Lauder, Chem. Soc. 
Trans (1901). 


Ethylic Propion- 


C2Hs.COO.C2H5 .... 


}] 


Hartley and Hunting- 


ate 






ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 


Ethylic Valerate 


C5Hc,02.C2H5 ..... 






Ethylic ether of 


See under 0. 






- oxycarbanil 








(enolic form, 








B.P. 225°-230°) 








Ethyhc ether of 


See under 0. 






o - oxycarbanil 








(ketonic form, 








M.P. 29°) 








o-Ethylic diben- 


C22H22O6 


One band 


Hartley and Dobbie, 


zoyl succinate 






Chem. Soc. Trans. 
77 (1900), 498. 


iS-Ethybc diben- 


O22H22O6 .... . . 






zoyl succinate 








7-Ethylic diben- 


C22H22O6 


J, 


1] 


zoyl succinate 








P 

o 






FastRed (Sodium HS05.CioH,;.N:N.Cn,Hc.OH . 


One band 


Hartley, Chevi. Soc. 


Salt) 


a a /3 




Tram. 51 (1887), 153. 



232 



EEPORT — 1901. 
Appexdix — cont. 



Substance 



Formula 



Flavo-puijiurin 



Fluorescein . 



Fluorescein — De- 
ri rati ves of 
Formic Acid 



C,H3(0H) <gg>CoH2(OH)o 

[1:2:6] 

C,oH,50, .... 



Formic Acifl — 
Barium Salt of 
Fuchsin 



p-Fuclisiu . 

Furfuraldeliyde 

Furfuramide 
Furfuran 

Glucose 



H.COOH . 

(HCOOJaBa 

\ C.,oHic,N3.HCl + 4HoO 

i C|3H5C = (C,H4NHo), . 

i CI 

I C4H5O.COH 



(c,n.ji.cn^)--is.,. 

CH:CH^ 



CH:CH 







G 



Helianthine (Tro- 
pceoline O) 

Heptane 



Hexane 
Hexamethjlene 



Hexam e t hylated 
Violet (Crys- 
tal Violet) 

Hippuric Acid 



Hofmann's Violet 

Hydrocyanic Acid 

Hydroquinone 
m-Hydroxyben- 
zoic Acid . 



See under Carhohijdi-ates. 



HS03.C6H4.N:N.C6H4N(CH3)., 
(1) (4) (1) 

CtHir 



C,;H,., 

CoH,;.H^| .... 

CI 

I I I 

(MeoNCoH4), = C.CoHi.N.Me, 

C^HoNOs .... 



CooHi6(CH3)5N.2HCl . 
HCN .... 



See imder Quinone 
C^H4(0H)C00H, 



Kature of 
Absorption 



Selective 



Continuous 



Selective 



Continuous 



Reference 



Libermann and Kos- 
tanecki, Bei: 19 
(1886), 2327 ; Lieber- 
mann, Ber. 21 (1887), 
2527. 

Kriiss, Ber. 18 (1885), 
2586 ; E. Vogel, 
Wied. Ann. 43, New- 
Series (1891), 449. 

Kriiss; E. Vogel, loc. 
cit. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 



Melde, Fogg. Ann. 126 
(1865), 264; Vogel, 
Ber. 11 (1878), 1863. 

Kruss, Ber. 15 (1882), 
1243. 

Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
(1898), 599. 



Selective 



Continuous 



Selective 
Continuous 



Three bands 
Continuous 

Selective 



Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 51 (1887), 
153. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, PJdl. Trans. 
I. (1879), 257. 

)} 
Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
77 (1900), 846. 



Lemoult, Compt. Bend, 
131 (1900), 839. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. 
I. (1879), 257 ; J. L. 
Soret, Archives des 
scieiicesphysiqu es et 
naturelles, 1893 (8rd 
Series), 429. 

Hartley, Trans. 51 
(1887), 153. 

Hartley, Trails. 41 
(1882), 45. 

Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans.5?, {1888),Gil. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTEA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 
Appendix — cont. 



233 



Substance 


Formula 


Kature of 
Absorption 


Kcferenec 


p-Hydroxyben- 


C6H4(OH)COOH .... 


Selective 


Hartley, Chevi. Soc. 


zoic Acid . 






Trans. 53 (1888),641. 


Hydroxyl amine 


NH2(0H).HC1 


Highly 


Hartley and Bobbie, 


hydrochloride 




diactinic 


Chevi. Soc. Trans. 
77 (1900), 318. 


Hyoscyamine 


Ci^HjsNO; 


Continuous 


Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 


Hypoxanthine 


C,HjN40 


Selective 


J. L. Soret, Archives 


(Sarcine) . 






des sciences physi- 
ques et naturelles, 
1893 (3rd Series), 




I 




429. 


Indigo . 


P „ /GOV p/COVw 


Selective 


Vogel, Bcr. 11 (1878), 
1363; Kriiss, Ber. 
18 (1885), 2586. 


Indigo — Deriva- 


— 


1) 


Kriiss, Ber. 18 (1885), 


vatives of 






2586. 


lodo-benzene 


CoH,I 


)j 


Pauer, Wied. Ann. der 
Phys. 61 (1897), S63. 


Iodine Green (Tri- 


CH;.HN.C6H4\/N.CH3 






methyl- rosanil- 


C 1 •2CH5I . 


Four bands 


Hartley, Chetn. Soc. 


ine di-methyl- 


CH3.HN.CoH4/\C«H3.CH- 




Tram. (1887), 153. 


di-iodide) 








Isatin . 


CsH.NO, 


Two bands 


Hartley and Dobbie, 
Cheni. Soc. Trans. 
75 (1899), 640. 


Methyl Isatin 


CcHtNO., 


One band 


n 


Methyl pseudo- 


CaH^NOo 


Two bands 


j» 


Isatin 








Iso Componnds . 


See under substance to which Iso is 
prefixed. 






lodobenze n e 


C.H5I 


Selective 




Vapour 








lodobenzene So- 








lution 


""" 


Continuous 




Jap-aconitine 


J 

See Aconitine. 

L 


I 1 


Leucine 


C0H13NO., 


Continuous 


J. L. Soret, Archives 








des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
1893 (3rd Series), 
429. 




M 


1 


Malachite Green . 


C,H-,.C={C,H,N(CH3)o}.,. . . 


Selective 


Lemoult, Compt. Bend. 






131 (1900), 839 ; 




OH 




Vogel, Ber. 11 (1878), 
1363. 


Melamine . 


CjNjINH.,)- 


Continuous 


Hartley, Dobbie, and 




< 




Lauder, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. (1901). 


^lelamine — Tri- 


See under Tri-etlnjl melamine. 






etliyl ester of 









234 



REPORT — 1901. 
Appendix— cont. 



Substance 



iso ■ Melamine — 
Tri-ethyl ester 
of 

Mesitylene . 

Methylamme33% 



Methylamine hy- 
drochloride 

Methylic Alcohol 



Methyl Carbo- 

styril 
Methyl pseudo- 

Carbostyril 



Methyl Green 



Methyl Isatin 
Methyl paeudo- 

Isatin 
Methyl Pyridine . 
MethyUc Acetate 



Methylic Alcohol 

Methylic Buty- 

rate 
Methylic Cyanu- 

rate(M.P.135°) 

Methylic Formate 



Methylic Isocy- 
anate 

Methyl Iso-cyanu- 
rate (M.P. 175°) 

Methylic Pro- 
pionate 

Methylic Salicy- 
late 

Methyhc Vale- 
rate 

Methyl Violet 
[Penta - methyl 
Violet ?] 

Morphine 

apo-Morphine 
Methyl Morphine 
Morphine - tetra- 

cetyl 
Murexide . 



Formula 



See under Tri-ethyl-iso-melamine. 



See Tri-methyl Benzene. 
NH,(CH3) . . . 



CH3.NH2.HCI . 
CHvOH . 



See under C. 



CeH^.N.Meo.MeCl 
/ 
Mej.N.CgH^.C— CgH^.N.Mej . 

I ^^\ 

CI 

See under I. 

11 1} 



See Picolhie. 
CH-.COO.CH3 

CH3.OH . 

C3H7.COO.CH3 

CsNslOCHsls 

H.COO.CH3 

CON.CH3 . 

C303N3(CH3)3 

C.,H5.COO.CH5 



C6H4(OH).COO.CH3 
C5H9O2.CH3 

C,9HioN3(CH3)5HCl 

CnH,9N03 . . 

See under A. 

See Codeine. 
CnHislCoHjOkNOs 

CgH.NHj.NjO, 
-hHaO 



Nature of 
Absorption 



Continuous 



Highly di- 
actinic 



Selective 



Continuous 



Highly di- 

actinic 
Continuous 



Selective 

Continuous 

Selective 



Reference 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 

Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
77 (1900), 318. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. 
(1879); Schonn, 
Wied.Ann.6,{1879}, 
267. 



Three bands 



Lemoult, Compt.Rend. 
131 (1900), 839. 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 



Hartley, Dobbie, and 
Lauder, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. (1901). 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 

Hartley, Dobbie, and 
Lauder, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. (1901). 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 



Vogel, Ser. 11 (1878), 
1363. 

Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 



Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trails. 51 (1887), 
153. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 
Appendix — cnnt. 



235 



SnbBtauce 



Fonnnla 



Naphthalene 



Naphthalene Red 
(Magdala Red) 

Naph thalene 
Red? 

Naphth al ene 
amido-azo-a- 

Narceine 

Narcotine . 

oxy-Narcotine 

Nicotine 

m-Nitraniline 



p-Nitraniline 
Nitro-benzene 

(vapour) 
Nitro-benzene 

(solution) 
o-Nitrophenol 



p-Nitrophenol 

Nitroso - diethyl 
aniline 

Nitroso- dimethyl 
aniline 

Nitroso-ethyl ani- 
line 

Nitroso-iso-but y 1 
aniline 

Nitroso - methyl 
aniline 

Nitroso - prophyl- 
aniline 

Ni t r o s o - d i - 
phenylamine 

Nitroso - di - me- 
thyl m-chlor- 
aniUne 

Nitroso - di - me- 
thyl - m - brom- 
aniUne 

Nitroso - di - me- 
thyl-m-iod- ani- 
line 

Nitroso -ethyl -o- 
n aphthylamine 

Nitroso - ethyl - o - 
toluidine 

Nitroso-methyl-o- 
toluidine 



N 



C50H21N3.HCl.HoO . 

C50H20N4 . 

See under Azo Componvds 

C23H.,7N08 . 



C20X125N07 . 

See under O. 

CioHhN., . 



C6H4(N02).NH2 



C6H4(NO,)NH„ 
CfiHsNO./ . 



C6H4(OH)NOo . 

CeH4(OH).N02 . 

C6H4(N0)N(C,H5)2 . 

CeH4(NO)N(CH3)2 . 

C6H5N(NO)C2H5 . 
C6H5N(NO)C4H9 

C6H5N(NO)CH5 . . 
C6H5N(NO)C3H, 

(C6H5)2N.NO . . 

CeH3Cl(NO)N{CH3)j . 

C,H5Br(NO)N(CH3)2. 

CoH3l(NO)N(CH3)2 . 

C,oH7N(NO)C2H5 . 
C6H4.CH5.N(NO)C2H5 
C6H4.CH3N(NO)CH3 . 



Nature of 
Absorption 



Four bands 
Selective 

Continuous 
Selective 
Continuous 
Selective 

I) 
Continuous 

Selective 



Beference 



Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 39 (1881), 
153 ; 47 (1885), 685. 

Vogel, Ber. 11 (1878), 
622. 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 

J) 
Pauer, Wied. Ann. der 
Phtjs. 61 (1897), 363. 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1897), 257. 

Kock, Wied. Ann. 82 
(1887), 167. 



230 



REPORT — 1901. 
Appendix — cont. 



Substance 


Formula 


Nature of 
Absorption 


Reference 




o 






Octane 


CdHis 


Continuous 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 


Octylic Alcohol . 


CsH„.OH 


jj 


)j 


Oxalic Acid (10 % 


COOH 


» 


31 


fiolution) 


1 
COOH 






Oxaluric Acid 


^^XNH.CO.COOH 


Selective 


J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques etnaturelles, 
3rd Series (189S), 
429. 


(T-Oxybenzoic 


Ci;H,(OH)COOH . . . . 


»> 


Hartley, Trans. Chem. 


Acid (see Sali- 






Soc. 53 (1888), 641. 


cylic Acid) 








m - Oxy - benzoic 


CoH4(OH)COOH .... 


)) 


Hartley and Hunting- 


Acid (1.3) 






ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 


p - Oxy - benzoic 

Acid 
o-Oxy-carbanil . 


C6H4(OH)COOH .... 


»j 


)i 


C7HiO.,N 


One band 


Hartley, Dobbie and 








Paliatseas, Chem. 








Soc.Trans.n {1900), 








839. 


o-Oxycarbanil — 


CnH.iO.A 


)} 


j> 


Ethylic ether 








of (enolic form, 








B.P.225°-230°) 


■ 






o-Oxycarbanil — 


C3H9O0N 


ft 


» 


Ethylic ether 








of (ketonicform, 








M.P. 29°) 








Oxy-narcotine 


CjoH.j-NO, 


Selective 


Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 


Ozone . 


0- 

P 


tj 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 39 (1881), 57. 


Papareriue . 


CooH.jiNO, 


Selective 


Hartlev, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885); 471. 


Penta - methyl- 
para-rosaniline 


(OMjiN UoH, ^\CgH4N(CH3)., 






Phenanthreiio 


CuHi,, 


Four bands 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans.39 {1881),153. 


Phenol 


Ci;HjOH 


Selective 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257 ; Schbnn, 
Wied. Ann. 6, New 
Series (1879), 267. 


Phenyl Blue 




n 


Lemoult, Compt. 
Bend. 131 (1900), 
839. 


Phlorizine . 


C^iHojOu 


J) 


Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Tram. I. 
(1879), 257. 


Phthalic Acid . 


C6H4(COOHl, . . . : . 


11 


IT 


Picoline (Methyl 


C,-,HiN(CH3) ' 


It 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 


Pyridine) 






Trans. 41 (1882), 45 ; 
45 (1885), 685. 


Picric Acid . 


I 


" 


Melde, Fogg. Ann. 
126 (1865), 264. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 
Appendix — cont. 



237 



Substance 



Picrotoxine 
Piperidine . 

Piperine 

Potassium Cyan- 
ate 



Propionic Acid 



Propionic Acid — 
Barium salt of 

Propionic Acid — • 
Sodium salt of 

Propylic Alcohol 

Propylic Foi-mate 

Propylic Propio- 
nate 

Propylic Valera- 
nate 

Purpurin 



Purpuro-xanthin 



Pyrazine - di 

methyl 
Pyridine 



Pyridine hydro- 
chloride 

Pyridine 2.5 di- 
carboxylic acid 
{iso - cinchome- 
ronic acid) 

Pyrocatechol 



Pyrogallol . 



Fonnula 



C50H34O,; .... 
C,HhN .... 

CnH„NO... . . . 

KCNO .... 

C.,H:,COOH 

(C2H5COO).jBa, . 

CoHjCOONa . 

C5H7OH .... 
HCOO.C3H7 
CoH^COO.CjH- . 

C5HC1O2.C5H7 

C«H4<^gg)CoH(OH)3 + H2O 
[(0H)3 1:2:4] 

CuH4(CO).XcH.,(OH)2 [1 : 3] 

See under D. 

C.,H,N .... 



C-,H-N.HC1 
C,H,N(COOH).,, . 

C,H.,(0H).2 . . 
CeHjfOH)^ . 



Pyromucic Acid . C.H-O.COOH . 
Pyrrole (Pyrro- \ CH:CH. 
line) I >NH 

' CH:CH 



Nature of 
Absorption 



Continuous 
I) 

Selective 
Continuous 



Selective 



One band 



Selective 



Continuous 



Reference 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 

Hartley, Chem. Soe. 
Trans. 47 (1885), 
685. 

Hartley, Phil. Tram. 
II. (1885), 471. 

J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences et natu- 
relles, 3rd Series 
(1893), 429; Hartley, 
Dobbie and Lauder, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
(1901). 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 



Vogel, £er. 11 (1878), 
1363 ; Libermann 
and Kostanecki, Ber. 
19 (1886), 2327. 

Libermann and Kosta- 
necki, Ber. 19 (1886), 
2827. 



Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
rmm. 47 (1885), 685; 
Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
77(1900),318;Pauer, 
Wied. Ann. der 
Phys. 63 (1897), 363. 

Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 47 (1885), 
C85. 

Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 41 (1882), 45. 



Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 53 (1888), 
041. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 

Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
(1898), 599. 



238 



REPORT — 1901. 
Appendix — cmt. 



Substance 


Formula 


Nature of 
Absorption 


Reference 




Q 






Quinidine sul- 


(C3oH,4N202)3H2S04 . 


Selective 


Hartley, Phil. Trans. 


phate 






II. (1885), 471. 


Quinine 


C3-30-^24N20.2 ..... 


»j 


M 


Quinine sulphate 


(C,oH24N202)H2S04 .... 


)> 


» 


Quinizarin . 


C6H4(CO)oC6H,(OH)o 


)i 


Libermann and Kosta- 




[1 : 4] 




necki, Ber. 19 (1886), 
2327 ; Liebermann, 
Ber. 21 (1887), 2527. 


Quiuone 


C6H4(OH)5 


n 


Hartlev, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 53 (1888), 
641 ; J. L. Soret, Ar- 
chives des sciences 
physiques et natu- 
relles, 3rd Series 
(1893), 429. 


Quinoline . 


C9H7N 


J) 


Hartley, Ghent. Soc. 
Trans. 41 (1882), 45 ; 
47 (1885), 685. 


Qninoline hydro- 


C9H7N.HC1 


)> 


»i 


chloride 








Tetra - hydro-qui- 


C9H11N 


One band 


If 


noline 








Tetra - hydro-qui- 


CgHiiN.HCl 


)) 


» 


noline hydro- 








chloride 


B 






Resorcinol . 


CeH4(OH)2 (1 : 3) . . . . 


Selective 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 53 (1888), 
641. 


Rosaniline (base) 


H,N.C6H4\„/C6H3(CH,).NH., 
H2N.C6H4/^\OH 


Three bands 


Hartley, Chem. Soc. 






Trans. 51 (1887), 








153. 


Roaaniline hydro- 


CaoHaoNsCl ..... 


Two bands 


n 


chloride 








Rosolic Acid 


C20H16OJ 


Selective 


Kruss, Ber. 18 (1885), 
2586. 


Rufigallic Acid . 


ChH20.j(0H)« .... 


•1 


Libermann, Ber. 21 




[1:2:3:5:6:7] 

s 

H^N-CeHj^ 1 >C«H4 . . . 




(1887), 2527. 


Saffranine . 


Selective 


Landauer, Ber. 11 






(1878), 1772. 




/\ 








CI CeH4.NH, 






Salicylic Acid 


C6H4(OH)(COOH) .... 


» 


Hartley and Hunting- 


(5 % solution) 






ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257 ; Hartley, 
Chem. Soc. Trans. 
53 (1888), 641. 


Salicine 


CisHisO; ...... 






Santalin 


C15H1405 


}) 


Vogel, Ber. 11 (1878), 


Sarcine 


See under Hijpoxyanthine 




1363. 


Serine . 


C3H7NO-, 


Continuous 


J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
3rd Series (1893), 
429. 


Sodium Carbo- 


Na.jCOj ...... 


1) 




nate 









ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 
Appendix — cont. 



239 



Substance 



Solanine 
Strychnine . 



Tetracetyl mor 

phine 
Tetrahydrobenzene 



ThebaVne 
Thiophene 

Thymol 
Toluene 



o-Toluidine Hy- 
drochloride 

p-Toluidine . 
Tri - amido - azo- 

benzene 
Tri-ethylamine . 



Formula 



Nature of 
Absorption 



CsjHgsNOigl?) 
C21H22N2O2 



See under Morphine. 
C6H5H4 



CgH^iNOg 

CH:CH 
CHiCH/ 



C6Hs(CH5)(C5H:)OH 
14 3 



CeHjCHs 



C7H7.NH2.HCI 



C7H7.NH2 . 

See Azo Compounds. 



NCCjHs); 



Tri-ethylmelamine C3N6H5(C2H5)3 
(M.P. 74°) 

Tri - ethyl - iso - C3N6H5(C2H5)3 

melamine (M.P. 

92°) 
Tri-methylamine . j N(CH3)5 



Tri-methyl ben- j CflHjCCHsJs 

zene (1:3:5) I 

(Mesitylene) ! 
Trimethyl-rosanil- ' See Iodine Green. 

ine di-methyl- 

di-iodide i 

Triphenylmethane! CH(C6H5)3 . 



Tropceoline O . ! See Relianthine. 



Tropoeoline 000 



Tyrosine 



No. 1. OH.CioH6.N:N.C6H4.S03Na 



No. 2. OH.Ci8H6.N:N.C6H4.S03Na 

CgHuNOj 



Continuous 
Selective 



Continuous 



Selective 



Strong 
continuous 



Selective 



Reference 



Continuous 



Selective 



One band 



Selective 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
n. (1885), 471. 



Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chem. Sac. Trans. 
77 (1900), 846. 

Hartley, Phil. Trans. 
II. (1885), 471. 

Hartley and Dobbie, 
Chein. Soc. Trans. 
(1898), 599; Pauer, 
Wied. Ann. der 
Phys. 61 (1897), 363. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. 
(1879), I. 257. 

Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. 
(1879), 1. 257; Pauer, 
Wied. Ann. der 
Phys. 61 (1897), 363. 

Hartley, Chein. Soc. 
Trans. 47 (1885), 
685. 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 

Hartley, Dobbie, and 
Lauder, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. (1901). 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. I. 
(1879), 257. 



Hartley, Chem. Soc 
Trans. 51 (1887), 153. 



Hartley and Hunting- 
ton, Phil. Trans. 
I. (1879), 257 ; J. L. 
Soret, Archives des 
sciences physiques 
et naturelles, 3rd 
Series (1893), 429. | 



240 



EEPORT — 1901. 
Appendix — cont. 



Substance 



Urea 



Uric Acid 



Veratrin 
Victoria Blue 



CO(NH.,)., . 



C5H,N,03 . 



CjoH^aNOu . 



Formula 



u 



V 



Nature of 
Absorption 



Reference 



Me,-N-CoH4 CioHe-NH.Ph 
\/ /\ 

/ CI 
/\„/ 

Meo-N-C^Hi 



Continuous 



Selective 



Selective 



J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
3rd Series (1893), 
429; Hartley, loc. cit. 

J. L. Soret, loc. cit. ; 
Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans' 51 (1887), 
153. 



Hartley, Phil. Trans. 

II. (1885), 47 
Lemoult, Gompt. Eencl. 

131 (1900), 839. 



w 



Distilled "Water . HoO 



Highly [ Hartley and Hunting- 
diactinic ton, Phil. Trans. I. 

(1879), 257. 



Xanthine hydro- 
chloride 



p-Xylene 



m-Xjlene . 
o-Xylene 



C5H4N402.HC1 



CoHj(CH3)3 



CoH,(CH3)., 
CuH4(CH5)., 



Selective 



Two bands 



One band 



J. L. Soret, Archives 
des sciences phy- 
siques et naturelles, 
3rd Series (1893), 
429. 

Hartley, Chem. Soc. 
Trans.il {1885),685; 
Pauer, Wied. Ann. 
der Phys. 61 (1897), 
363. 



The Methods /or the Determination of Hydrolytic Dissociation of Salt' 
Solutions. By R. C. Farmer, Ph.D., M.Sc. 

[Ordered by the Council to be printed in extenso.'] 

It is a matter of common experience that many salts, although containing 
equivalent quantities of acid and base, react acid or alkaline towards 
indicators in aqueous solution. If we take, for instance, a salt such as 
potassium cyanide and dissolve it in water, we find that, although it con- 
tains the amount of hydrocyanic acid theoretically necessary to neutralise 
the potassium hydrate, it reacts strongly alkaline, thus showing the pre- 
sence of free potassium hydrate in the solution. 

A very superficial observation shows that the solution also contains 
free hydrocyanic acid. Its presence is indeed rendered obvious by its 
characteristic smell. It is therefore evident that the potassium cyanide 



DETERMINATION OF HYDROLYTIC DISSOCIATION OF SALT-SOLUTIONS. 241 

has undergone a decomposition into free potassium hydrate and free 
hydrocyanic acid 

KCN + HOH=KOH + HCN. 

Similarly we find that other salts, as, for instance, ferric chloride, react 
acid in aqueous solution. 

Even Rose,' who was probably the first to notice these phenomena, 
recognised that this was the result of a secondary reaction, which was 
brought about by the water. An analogy was sought in the decomposition 
of acid chlorides and the breaking up of organic complexes such as saccha- 
rose, in which the elements of water are taken up, and for this reason 
the name ' hydrolysis ' was, rather unfortunately, applied indiscriminately 
to the two phenomena. 

The nature of the decomposition formed the subject of considerable 
discussion, but it was not until Arrhenius brought the theory of electro- 
lytic dissociation to bear on it that a satisfactory explanation was found. 
As this theory is almost universally accepted at the present time, it is not 
necessary to make more than a passing reference to a theory which at 
one time ofiered some opposition to that of Arrhenius. This was an 
assumption that the salts in question formed hydrates in aqueous solution, 
and that these hydrates possessed acid or basic properties. 

Thus Werner - attempted to explain the acid reaction of copper 

chloride in aqueous solution on the assumption that it formed a hydrate of 

Cl\ /H O 
the formula qj y Cu s' jj^q which was acid in character. In this way, of 

course, it would be possible to account for the acid or alkaline reaction of 
all hydrolysed salts. Potassium cyanide would form a hydrate of a basic 
nature and so on. 

It is an unsatisfactory feature of this theory that it makes the 
assumption of innumerable hydrates whose existence in aqueous solution 
is still to be proved ; but apart from this it is shown that the acid or basic 
reaction is the result of a dissociation and not of a formation of hydrates 
by the fact that the acid and basic components can be easily separated. 
This separation can be sometimes etiected by mere warming, as in the 
case of iron or aluminium acetate, in many other cases by dialysis. 

In the case of diphenylamine hydrochloride repeated washing suffices 
to completely remove the hydrochloric acid, and in the case of many 
organic salts, as, for instance, sodium phenolate, one of the components 
can be partially removed by extraction with ether. 

In 1890 Arrhenius^ brought forward a simple explanation of the 
hydrolysis of salts on the basis of the theory of electrolytic dissociation. 
AH that was necessary in order to bring the phenomenon of hydrolysis 
into complete harmony with the ionic theory was to consider water as an 
electrolyte, to suppose that it is to a slight extent dissociated into 
hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. Later investigations have completely justified 
this assumption. Compared with the weakest of acids, the ionisation of 
water is almost infinitesimal, but it has been determined with a consider- 
able amount of accuracy. "Water consists, then, of a solution of hydrogen 
aaid hydroxyl ions of such a strength that ten million litres of water 
contain approximately one gram equivalent of free ions. This means that 
water can act at the same time as a weak acid and a base. 



1901. 



' JaK^c'ilcr., 1852, 310. - Zeitschr.fUr anorg. Chem.i 9, 408. 

^ ^ ZeiiscJir. fur phy's. Chem., 5, 16 (1S90). 



242 REPORT — 1901. 

Thus, when an acid and a base are brought together, the neutralisation 
never takes place quite completely. There always remain as many free 
hydrogen and hydroxyl ions over as are usually present in pure water. 
The quantity of ionised water is, of course, so small as to be practically 
nefflisible in most cases, but its effect becomes very marked when the acid 
or base of a dissolved salt is very weak. 

If we take, for instance, a salt like potassium cyanide, its acid, hydro- 
cyanic acid, is very weak, and is still further enormously weakened by the 
presence of its neutral salt, or, to put it in ionic language, by the presence 
of excess of cyanogen ions. The water is therefore by virtue of its slight 
acid properties capable of setting free a considerable quantity of the acid 
from its salt. 

It might appear at first sight as if the solution should still react 
neutral, since the acid and base are set free in equivalent quantities. The 
theory of electrolytic dissociation shows us, however, that this is not the 
case. If we consider the equilibrium ; 

KCN + HOH^KCn + HCN 

the potassium hydrate exists practically completely in the ionised state, 
whereas the hydrocyanic acid is almost entirely unionised. Thus we have 
a large excess of hydroxyl ions in the solution, and it is these that give 
rise to the alkaline reaction. Expressed ionically the equilibrium will 
read 

CN' + HOH^^HCN + OH'. 

This theory of Arrhenius has now met with almost universal accept- 
ance, and has amply justified its adoption as a working basis for all 
quantitative problems dealing with hydrolysis. 

The conditions for the dissociation of a salt into free acid and base are 
therefore— 

1. That the acid or base of the salt, or both, be very weak. 

2. That the solvent itself be somewhat ionised. 

Hitherto the phenomenon appears only to have been studied in aqueous 
solution. If the slight conductivities found for pure alcohol are really 
due to an ionisation into hydrogen- and ethoxy-ions, then we should 
expect salts such as sodium phenolate to be also split up to some extent in 
alcoholic solution. 

For the qualitative detection of hydrolysis, indicators afford the most 
reliable test. From the results of Ley,^ litmus appears to bo the most 
sensitive of these. 

Still, the method of simply testing the solution with an indicator 
might at times give misleading results owing to the presence of traces of 
acid or alkali in the salt. Ley recommends a more satisfactory method. 
This is to titrate the solution. If the salt of a weak base, for instance, is 
really hydrolysed, it will not only react acid in the pure state, but will 
also continue to react acid even on addition of a considerable quantity of 
alkali. Thus, whei-eas the least trace of sodium hydrate sufficed to render 
a solution of magnesium sulphate or barium chloride alkaline, solutions of 
lead chloride and copper chloride continued to react acid until almost the 
whole of the hydrochloric acid had been removed by the sodium hydrate. 

As other qualitative methods any proc'e'sses may be used which bring 

> ZnUch: fiir phys. Ctiiim., 30, 203 (1899). 



DETERMINATION OF HYDKOLYTIC DISSOCIATION OV SALT-SOLUTIONS. 243 

about a separation of the components. Thus, the hydrocyanic acid may 
bo partially removed from a solution of sodium cyanide by a current of 
pure air, the phenol may be partially extracted from a solution of sodium 
phenolate by ether, and so on. 

Quantitative Jlethods. — When we attack the problem of ascertaining 
quantitatively to what extent this hydrolytic dissociation of salts occurs, 
it is at once evident that the hydrolysis cannot be determined by any 
direct measurement of the free acid or alkali in the system. If we attempt 
to titrate the solution of a salt like potassium cyanide, the equilibrium 
is at once disturbed, and as we neutralise the free potassium hydrate in 
the system by the addition of acid, more potassium hydrate is supplied 
from the potassium cyanide to take its place. As we have seen, the 
neutral point is in many cases only reached when enough acid has been 
added to completely split up the salt. We must therefore resort to some 
indirect means of estimating the free acid or alkali in the system without 
disturbing the equilibrium. 

We will pass over such methods as the determination of the heat of 
neutralisation, as these have led to very incorrect ideas as to the extent of 
the hydrolysis. For instance, determinations of the heat of neutralisa- 
tion of hydrocyanic acid led to the belief that a solution of sodium 
cyanide was split up to the extent of 80 per cent, into free hydrocyanic 
acid and sodium hydrate, whereas in reality its hydrolysis only amounts 
to about 1 per cent, in i\f normal solution. 

In fact, the hydrolysis proves in most cases to be much smaller than 
was formerly imagined. Even salts like sodium phenolate, which react 
strongly alkaline, are only hydrolysed to the extent of 2 or 3 per cent, in 
about ,'iy normal solution. 

The quantitative methods which have hitherto been used are mostly 
based on the measurement of the velocity of reactions, brought about by 
the free alkali or acid in the solution. Of these reactions the chief have 
been the saponification of esters and the inversion of cane sugar. 

S'aponijication of Esters. — If we take an ester such as ethyl acetate 
and dissolve it in pure water, it will remain for \ve(?ks practically 
unaffected. If, however, we add acid or alkali, saponification sets in, and 
proceeds with a velocity depending on the amount of acid or alkali added. 
The A-elocity can be measured by means of titrations. 

If we treat the ester with a hydrolysed salt, saponification will like- 
wise take place by virtue of the free acid or alkali which the solution 
contains. We must distinguish between the case in which the saponification 
is brought about by free acid and that in which it is brought about by 
alkali. The action of acids in saponifying esters is purely catalytic ; the 
amount of acid remains unchanged throughout the reaction ; this is, there- 
fore, the simplest case, and we will consider it first. 

For the measurement of the velocity, known quantities of ester and 
acid are brought together in aqueous solution and kept at constant 
temperature. At measured intervals of time a part of the solution is 
removed by means of a pipette and quickly titrated. This tells us how 
much of the ester has been converted to acetic acid and alcohol in a given 
time. From the results of these titrations the whole course of the i-eaction 
can be followed. 

By the law of mass action, the velocity of the reaction at any moment 
is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reacting sub- 
stanc'es (ilie ester and acid). Tha velocity diminishes, therefore, as the 



244 REPORT— 1901. 

ester is used up. If Cj and Cg be the two concentrations, and t be the 
time, 

dC 
Velocity = — , =KCiC2, where K is a constant. 

If we always take the same amount of ester, the velocity of the 
reaction is proportional to the amount of acid added. The general 
method is therefore to determine by a preliminary experiment the velocity 
(.'i saponification brought about by a known amount of pure acid, and 
afterwards to determine its velocity as brought about by the acid in the 
hydrolysed salt. If we have found the velocity of saponification brought 
about by a known quantity of acid, then we can conversely calculate 
from the velocity of saponification which the hydrolysed salt brings 
about, how much free acid it contains, that is, the extent of its hydrolysis, 
remembering always that the velocity of the reaction is proportional to 
the amount of free acid present. 

It should be mentioned that this proportionality does not hold quite 
strictly in the catalysis of esters by means of acids. There are deviations 
from it which are not fully understood. It differs in strong and weak 
solutions of acids, apart from the difference which one would expect from 
incomplete ionisation. The presence of neutral salts also has a consider- 
able influence on the velocity. Consequently the results obtained by this 
method are not to be taken as very accurate. 

Since the velocity varies throughout the whole course of the reaction, 
we cannot take a direct measurement of the initial velocity of saponi- 
fication, as the velocity changes so quickly that no trustworthy results 
cfiuld be obtained in this way. The calculation is carried out by means of 
the well known equation 

which holds for monomolecular reactions. 

A. is the initial concentration of the ester, x is the amount saponified 
in time t, and K is a constant. The titrations taken during the whole 
course of the reaction are used to determine K. By comparing the 
constant K obtained for the hydrolysed chloride of a weak base with that 
obtained for pure hydrochloric acid, the amount of free hydrochloric acid 
iu the solution of the salt can be easily calculated, and liencetlic degree of 
hydrolysis. 

The first exiicriments in this direction were carried out by AValker in 
1889.' He determined the velocities of saponification of methyl acetate by 
tlu' hydrochlorides of very weak bases, such as tliiazol, and thus deter- 
mined the degrees of hydrolysis. 

A similar method was worked out for the salts of very weak acids by 
Sliields, in 189.3.'- He determined th^. hydrolysis of the alkali sails of 
phenol, carbonic acid, boric acid, &c. Iu this case it is not fref acid that 
we have to determine, but free alkali, and the matter is complicated by 
the fact that the free alkali is removed from the system as the reaction 
proceeds, so that the equilibrium of the hydrolysis, as, for instance, 
KCN + HOH -t KOH -f- HON, is continually changing. It would lead 
us too far to go into the details of how this is taken into account. It is 

1 ZeiUclir.Juriihys. Cum., 4, 319 (ISSD). ■ Ibid., 12, 167 (1883). 



DETERMINATION OF IIYDROLYTIC DISSOCIATION OF SALT-SOLUTIONS. 



245 



sufficient to say that a formula can be deduced for the reaction, and thai 
Shields found it contirmed by experiment. 

In spite of the complicated nature of the reaction, very good results 
can be obtained by this method. The saponification proceeds very much 
more quickly under the influence of hydroxyl ions than of hydrogen ions, 
and so the measurement of even very small degrees of hydrolysis can be 
carried out at the ordinary temperature, which is not the case in the 
method mentioned previously. Shields was able to measure even such a 
small degree of hydrolysis as that of sodium acetate — rather less than 
0*01 per cent, in ^\, normal solution. This is a degree of precision which 
greatly surpasses that of any determinations of free acid by the catalysis 
of esters or of cane sugar. 

Shields showed that the velocity of saponification was not disturbed 
by the presence of ester and alcohol. He further showed by this method 
that trisodium phosphate, Na^PO.,, is quantitatively split up in aqueous 
solution into NagHPO^ and NaOH. 

According to Ley,^ the saponification of esters sometimes takes place 
even under the influence of neutral salts, such at KCl at 100°. It is 
doubtful whether this points to a slight hydrolysis of the salts at this 
temperature, which seems very improbable, or whether in certain cases 
otiier ions besides hydrogen and hydroxyl can act as catalysers in 
saponifying esters. In any case the velocity of the reaction is very small 
as compared with that brought about by salts which are ki^own to be 
hydrolysed. 

The following tables give the percentage of hydrolysis of a number of 
salts of weak acids and bases as determined by this method by Walker 
and others. For the sake of comparison the values have all been recal- 
culated, so that the figures give the hydrolysis in jiy normal solution. 



-Hydrolysis of the hydrochlorides of weak bases as measured by the 

catalysis of esters. 



Temperature = 25°. 



Name of base. 

Thiazol 
Glycocoll 
Asparagine . 
ThiohydantoiQ 
Asparaginic Acid 



Percentage hydro- 
lysis of Hydrochloride 

solution. 



10 



17 
19 
25 
30 
31 



Name of base. 

Acetoxime . 
Urea 

Acetamide . 
Propionitrile 
Thiourea 



Percentage hydro- 
lysis of Hydrochloride 

in — solution. 
10 

. 30 

. 90 

. 98 

. 99 

. 99 



II. — Hydrolysis of the alkali salts of weak acids as measured by the 
saponification of esters. 

Temperature = 2-5°. 





Percentage Hydro- 


Percen 


age Hydro 


Name of Acid. 


lysis 


of salts in 


Name of Acid. ^^^-^^ 


of salts in 




solution. 


solution. 




10 




■ 10 




Hydrocyanic acid 




112 


o-Chlorphenol 


1-18 


Acetic acid . 




008 


2:4. Dichlorphenol 


029 


Carbonic acid 




3-17 


2 : i : 6 Trichlorphenol 


021 


Phenol 




3-05 


^-Cyanphenol 


0-29 


/(-Ghlorphenol 




1-62 


^-Nitrophenol 


0-IG 



Zcittcltr. fiir 2>nys. Chcm., 30, 230 (1899). 



246 



REPORT — 1901. 



Inversion of Cane Sugar. — It is well known that the inversion of cane 
sugar is brought about by the addition of acid to its aqueous solution, and 
that the reaction can be followed by means of the polarimeter. The 
velocity of the inversion is proportional to the amount of acid added, and 
it is evident that this is a method which can be applied to the estimation 
of the acid which is hydrolytically set free from the salts of weak bases. 

The first application of this method appeal's to have been made by 
Bruner in 1893. He measured the hydrolysis of a number of inorganic 
chlorides, nitrates, and sulphates at 40°. His work was, however, very 
much overlooked, through having been only published in a Polish journal. 
In 1900 he republished it in the ' Zeitschrift fiir phys. Chem.' (32, 133). 

Meanwhile Walker and Aston > had determined the hydrolysis of a 
number of hydrochlorides of weak organic bases, and a few inorganic 
nitrates by the same method at 60°. Ley extended this work on 
inorganic salts at 100°.''^ It is impossible to directly compare these 
results with one another, as they were all obtained at different tem- 
peratures. The temperature has been shown to have a very great in- 
fluence on the hydi-olysis, as the dissociation constant of pure water rises 
aonormally rapidly with rise of temperature. 

The inversion is a monomolecular reaction, and the calculations are 
vei'y similar to those of the catalysis of esters. Ley points out that this 
method is somewhat limited in its applicability. Some salts which react 
acid to litmus act as neutral tov/ards cane sugar, and conversely some 
neutral salts bring about inversion of the sugar. Even potassium 
chloride brought about inversion of the sugar at 100°, but gave very 
irregular results. A disadvantage of working at such a high temperature 
is that the results may be vitiated by impurities dissolved from the glass, 
and it is probable that something of this sort occurred in the determina- 
tions on potassium chloride, &c., for Ley found similar irregularities on 
making experiments with extremely dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid. 
The inversion seems also to be considerably influenced by dissolved salts. 
Ley considered the limit of accuracy to be about 0-5 per cent, in y-J-^ 
normal solution. 

The following tables contain a number of results obtained by the 
abovcmentioned observers for the hydi'olysis of organic and inorganic 
chlorides : — 



III. — Hydrolysis of the hydrochlorides of organic bases as determined 
by the inversion of cane sugar. 

Ternj)erature = 60°. 





P 


ercentage Hydro- 




Percentage Hydro- 


Name of base. 


ly 


sis of Hydrochloride 
n solution. 


Name of base. 


lysis of Hydrochloride 










ill — solution. 






10 






lu 


Pyridine . 




1-2 


GlycocoU . 




18 


Monomethylaniline 




1-2 


Asparagine 




21 


Quinoline . 




1-2 


Acetamide . 




78 


p-Toluidine 




1-7 


Urea 




81 


Aniline 




2-G 


Thiourea 




92 


o-Toluidine 


1 


3-2 

J-.C.6'., 67, 576 (189 


Propionitrile 
5;. 




92 




s 


ZeiUchr.filrj'li'ys. < 


?liem., 30, 216 (1899). 







Metal. 


Temperature 


Zinc 


• 


100° 


Lead . 




)> 


Beryllium 




)» 


Aluminium 




)» 


») 




77° 


Cerium 




100° 


Lanthanum 




)' 


Iron (Fe'") 




40° 


Uranyl (UO,") 




>» 



DETERMINATION OF HYDROLYTIC DISSOCIATION OF SALT-SOLUTIONS. 247 

IV. — Hydrolysis of inorganic chlorides {inversion method). 

Hydrolysis of Chloride 

in— solution, 
10 

01 

0-3 

1-8 

61 

2-7 

0-3 

0-1 

10 

3 

The chlorides of the alkali metals and of the alkaline earths, as also 
those of yttrium, scandium, manganese, cobalt, and erbium, showed no 
appreciable hydrolysis. 

A method somewhat similar to the inversion method was recently 
suggested by Wood.^ He allowed diastase to act on starch in presence 
of a hydrolysed salt. Acids or alkalies retard the action of the diastase, 
and the retardation was taken as a basis of measurement of the amount 
of acid or alkali present. The action is very much affected by changes of 
temperature. So far only rough approximations have been obtained in 
this way. 

Electric Conductivity, — The electric conductivity has for a long time 
been looked on as a useful method for the determination of hydrolytic 
dissociation. Its capabilities in this direction have, in my opinion, been 
considerably overestimated. The method used for the determination is as 
follows : — It is well known that almost all salts are fairly completely 
ionised when dissolved in water at a moderate dilution. Their electric 
conductivities, which form a measure of their ionisations, do not differ 
from one another by a great deal in solutions of equivalent concentration. 

The free acids and bases, on the other hand, have all possible conduc- 
tivities, ranging from almost nothing in the case of the very weak acids 
and bases to values very much greater than those of the salts in the case 
of the strong acids. 

If, then, we take the solution of a salt such as aniline hydrochloride, 
which is considerably split up into free aniline and hydrochloric acid in 
aqueous solution, the observed conductivity will be partly due to the salt 
C5H5NH2HCI, and partly to the free HCl which is split off by hydro- 
lysis. The free aniline which is present in the system will not contribute 
appreciably towards the conductivity. 

Since the conductivity of hydrochloric acid is very much greater than 
that of aniline hydrochloride, we shall be able to draw some conclusion 
from the conductivity as to the amount of free hydrochloric acid which is 
present in the system. If a/; be the molecular conductivity which aniline 
hydrochloride would have if it were not hydrolysed, //hci bs that of hydro- 
chloric acid, and x the fraction of the salt which is hydrolysed, the 
observed molecular conductivity (M) will be 

M^(l — a;)fti, due to unsplit salt, 
+ '^/'hcd ^^^ to ^^^^ HCl. 



' Amer. Chem. Journ,, 16, 313. 



248 liEPOkT— 1901. 

From this we get 

Fhci-/'i 

From this the degree of hydrolysis can be calculated. 

The conductivity of the hydrolysed salt M can be directly measured 
with a certain amount of 'accuracy. The experimental error will amount 
to perhaps O'O per cent, under favourable circumstances, rising to 1 per 
cent, or more at tlie highest dilutions (about i^/fnr normal). 

Similarly //hoi can be ascertained by direct measurement. 

The problem is, therefore, to ascertain what the molecular conductivity 
would be if the salt were not hydrolysed, that is, //,. There are several 
ways of arriving at this, but none permitting of any great accuracy. 
Walker was the first to attempt to measure hydrolytic dissociation in this 
way.^ He determined the electric conductivities of the chlorides and 
sulphates of a number of very weak organic bases, including salts which 
were hydrolysed to the extent of nearly 100 per cent. 

He arrived at the approximate conductivity which the salts would 
have in the unhydrolysed state by analogy with similar salts which were 
known not to be much hydrolysed, and assumed that the molecular 
conductivities would be equal at the same dilution. As the degrees of 
hydrolysis were in all cases very large, this served his purpose tolerably 
well. For instance, for thiazolhydrochloride in --}^ normal solution he 
found M= ISO'S. He assumed the real value yu, to be 90. /(hci was known 
to be 375. 

189-8-90 „ „^ 
Hence x= r,^- — n7T~=0'3o, 

i.e., the salt is hydrolysed to the extent of 35 per cent. From the 
catalysis of methylacetate he found 34-6 per cent. The values that he 
found in this way corresponded pretty closeJy with those obtained by 
catalytic methods. 

This method of analogy gives, however, only a very rough approxi- 
mation of the conductivity of the unsplit salt. It was probably several 
units out in most cases, and for this reason tlie method is not adapted to 
the determination of small degrees of hydrolysis. Errors of several per 
cent, are unavoidable. In the case of the less hydrolysed salts no results 
could be obtained at all. Indeed, in the case of aniline hydrochloride he 
found the conductivity to be considerably smafler than that calculated 
from the velocities of migration of the ions which it contains. It is there- 
fore evident that some more satisfactory method is necessary for the 
determination of the true conductivity (m,) of the salt in absence of 
hydrolysi-s, if small percentages of hydrolysis are to be measured. 

Bredig ^ extended Walker's work in this direction. He determined 
the true conductivities of such salts as aniline hydrochloride by a very 
simple device. He added aniline to the solution, and in this way drove 
back the hydrolysis to such an extent that he could arrive at the true 
conductivity of the salt. In this way he determined the hydrolysis of 
aniline hydrochloride and a number of its derivatives. 

The converse method of reducing the hydrolysis to a minimum by 

' Zeitschr.fiirphijs. Cliem.,^, 333 (1889). 
* Jbid. 13,321 (1894). 



DETERMINATION OF HYDROLYTIC DISSOCIATION OF SALT-SOLUTIONS. 249 

excess of acid has deen tried, but, so far, without much success. The 
method is probably capable of much better development. 

The commonest method for the determination of this value /.t^ is a 
somewhat indirect one. It is a well-known fact that almost all salts 
are fairly completely ionised in aqueous solution. Thus the molecular 
conductivity is not very far removed from its limiting value, even at 
moderately high concentrations, and hence does not rise very much when 
we increase the dilution. It has been found empirically that the amount 
by which the molecular conductivity of binary electrolytes increases 
between any two given dilutions is nearly constant. The conductivity is 
generally measured at dilutions ranging from 32 litres to 1024 litres. It 
has been found that in the case of binary electrolytes which are not 
hydrolysed the molecular 'conductivity at these two dilutions differs by 
approximately 10 units at .25°. 

Thus the sodium salts of the fatty acids, being scarcely at all 
hydrolysed, gi\e ditferences which all approximate to 10 units. The 
sodium salts of dibasic acids give a difference of about 20 units and so on. 
In general, the difference. A, is given by 

^^ = ^^'1024— A'32 = 10"l'i2- 

where ?*, and n.2 are the valencies of the two ions. With hydrolysed 
salts we get a very different state of affairs. Here we find the differences 
to be abnormally large, for the following reason. At the highest con- 
centrations the hydrolysis will not come into play very much, and the 
values found will approximate more or less to the true values. As we 
increase the dilution, however, the hydrolysis inci-eases more and more, 
and at the highest dilution a considerable part of the conductivity found 
will be due to free acid or base, and this will, therefore, as we have seen, 
be greater than the true conductivity of the salt. Hence the difference A 
will be greater than 10 units. 

If, therefore, we find that the difference A is abnormally great, the 
excess may be attributed to hydrolysis, and the extent of the hydrolysis 
may be calculated by making use of the equation mentioned above : 

M = (l— .T)/Ji-fX/iHCl. 

The method cannot be said to be very satisfactory unless the extent of 
the hydrolysis is very large. First, the measurement of the electric 
conductivi';y at a dilution of 1021 litres does not permit of an accuracy 
of within about 1 per cent. ; and secondly, this value A is by no means so 
constant even for salts which are not hydrolysed as might be desired. It 
frequently shows deviations of 2 or 3 units, and so a hydrolysis of even 
1 per cent, or so might pass unnoticed. We saw that the hydrolysis of 
sodium acetate could be fairly accui-ately measured by the velocity of 
saponification of ethyl acetate. In jL normal solution it amounts to 0-008 
per cent. If we calculate what difference this would make to the conduc- 
tivity, we find that the abnormality of the A value should be about 0-15 
unit. It will be at once seen that anything approaching this accuracy is 
out of the question by the electric method. Indeed, if we compare the 
values actually found for sodium acetate bv two such eminent 



250 REPORT— 1901. 

investigators as Ostwald and Bredig, we find that Ostwald gives 
A'1024— A'32=10'lj whereas Bredig gives /ni(,24— ^'32=1^'9- 

When the hydrolysis is greater, however, an approximate idea of it 
can be gained in this way from the conductivity. 

V. — Hydrolysis of the hydrochlorides of organic bases as determined from 

their electric conductivity. 

Temperaiure=:25°. 

Hydrolysis of Hydrocbloricle 
x\ame of base. -^^ N ^^^^^.^^^^ 

Aniline 1'5 

o-Toluidine 1-8 

wi-Toluidine 1"3 

7;-Toluidine 9 

Beta'in 32'5 

VI. — Hydrolysis of inorganic salts (conductivity method). 
Tem2)erature =25°. 

Hydrolysis 
^^^^' in Yo solution. 

AICI3 0-5 

BeSO^ 0-5 

PbClo 0-4 

UO.,(NO,) 0-G 

Hg(C10|), 6-3 

Much more might be added on the subject of electric conductivity as 
applied to the determination of hydrolysis. Salts in which both the acid 
and base are weak present quite a different aspect, but a discussion as to 
their behaviour would lead us too far. 

To return to the other methods of estimation, a recent method should 
be mentioned which differs from those depending on catalysis. We 
have seen that when a salt such as aniline hydrochloride undergoes 
hydrolysis two products result, the hydrochloric acid, strongly ionised and 
.active, and the aniline, practically unionised and inactive. All the methods 
that have been mentioned so far have depended on the measurement of 
the strongly ionised component, either by its conductivity or by some 
catalytic action which it brings about. 

Under some conditions these determinations become difficult to 
carry out owing to the decomposition or precipitation of one of the 
reaction products or from other causes. In these cases it is better to 
measure the indifferent component. The method that suggests itself most 
readily is that of extraction with some solvent which is insoluble in 
water. The laws of distribution of a substance between two solvents are 
well known, and by making use of these the hydrolysis can be easily 
calculated from the amount of substance which is extracted. The 
method was tested recently by Farmer ' in the following way. The salt is 
dissolved in a known quantity of water and a known quantity of benzene 
added. The whole is brought to constant temperature and shaken. The 
amount of substance extracted by the benzene is then estimated, preferably 

' J.C.S.,19, 86 3(1901). 



DETERMINATION OF HYDROLYTIC DISSOCIATION OP SALT-SOLUTIONS. 251 

volumetrically, and from this the hydrolysis can be easily calculated if 
the distribution coefficient for the substance in question has been 
previously determined. 

The values found at different dilutions agreed very closely with those 
required by Arrhenius' ' dilution formula.' So far the method has not 
been applied much, but it seems to offer advantages over previous methods 
in several respects. Particularly for solutions which decompose on stand- 
ing, it seeuis almost the only available method. It remains to be seen 
whether this method is capable of the same sensitiveness as that of Shields. 
If so, it would have the advantage of greater simplicity and rapidity. 

The foregoing are, then, the chief methods which have been used up to 
the present for the determination of hydrolysis. 

It will be evident from the abovementioned theory of hydrolytic 
dissociation that the extent of the hydrolysis depends on the strength of 
the weak acid or base present in the salts. The relation between the 
strength of the acid or base and the hydrolysis of its salts can be 
expressed by a simple mathematical formula. 

The dissociation constant is, of course, determined by the elestric 
conductivity. It is only recently, however, that the electric conductivity 
of such weak acids has been determined with sufficient accuracy to confirm 
the validity of this formula This was the work of Walker and Cormack.^ 
The hydrolysis of the alkali salts calculated from the dissociation constants 
which they found for phenol and other weak acids agreed very closely 
with that experimentally found by the saponification method. This forms 
perhaps the most convincing proof of the soundness of Arrhenius' views 
as opposed to such theories as the one mentioned earlier, in which the 
acidity was attributed to the formation of hydrates. 

In this way, therefore, it would be possible to calculate the strengths 
of acids and bases whose electric conductivity is immeasurably small by 
determining the hydrolysis of their salts. 

This, of course, rests on the assumption that no intramolecular 
rearrangement takes place when salts are formed, which is not always the 
case. In the case of various dye stuffs, for instance, where the salt forma- 
tion is accompaniea by a change of constitution, we should find that the 
relation between the strength of the acid and the hydrolysis of its salts 
did not hold. If the measurements are experimentally possible, such 
intramolecular rearrangements may be detected in this way. This is a 
method which has been applied by Hantzsch to prove differences of consti- 
tution between certain acids and the salts that they form. 

In several cases he found that although the acids were very weak 
indeed, and should therefore give strongly hydrolysed sodium salts, yet 
the sodium salts showed only a slight hydrolysis. In the case of 
dinitroethane, for instance, he found that both the free dinitroethane and its 
sodium salt reacted neutral, and from this he concluded that the salt forma- 
tion was accompanied by a change of constitution from CH,.CH(N(^.>).) to 

/NO, /NO., 

CHg . C{ forming the salt CH, . C< 

^NOOH ^NOONa 

Fields of research like this offer inducements for the more accurate 
determination of hydrolysis on the one hand and of the affinity constants 
of very weak acids on the other. 

> J.C.S., 11, 5 (1900). 



252 REPORT— 1901. 

It has been long recognised that the study of hydrolysis affords the 
best means of estimating the strengths of very weak acids and bases. 
(Since the affinity constant of pure water is now known with considerable 
certainty, exact measurements can be made in this way, even when the 
free acids or bases are difficultly soluble in water. It would, for instance, 
be possible to make exact determinations of the effect of substituents on 
the strength of phenol and aniline. The influence of constitution on the 
affinity constants of these very weak electrolytes would form an interesting 
held for research. 



Tlie Relative Progress of the Goal-tar Industry in England and Ger- 
many dvrlnq the past Fifteen Years. Bij ARTHUR G. GreeN, 
F.I.'C., F.G.'S. 

[Ordered by the Council to be printed i>i extenso.'] 

The coal-tar colour manufacture has well been called the flower of 
the chemical industries. Although in absolute money value of its pro- 
ducts not equalling some other branches of industrial chemistry, it repre- 
sents the highest development of applied chemical research and chemical 
engineering, and may well be taken as the pulse of the whole chemical 
trade. Indeed a country which allows the most scientific branch of 
chemical industry to languish cannot expect to maintain pre-eminence 
for long in any simpler branch of chemical manufacture ; since the skill 
trained for attacking the difficult problems of organic chemistry is certain 
sooner or later to be brought to bear on the simpler questions presented 
in the manufacture of so-called ' heavy ' chemicals (acids, alkalies, bleach, 
salts, Ac), and processes hitherto often left to the supervision of foremen 
will be taken in hand by educated chemists, with consequent improvement 
in methods of manufacture, better yields, purer products, and cheaper 
production. The importance of the coal-tar industry cannot therefore 
be estimated alone by the value of its products, for it exerts a wide- 
spread effect upon all other branches of chemical manufacture, from 
many of which it draws its supplies of raAv material. As a pregnant 
example of this influence, especially noticeable during the last decade, 
I may mention the revolution which is taking place in the manufacture 
of sulphuric acid, that most important product of the ' heavj' ' chemical 
ti'ade. A strong demand had arisen in the colour industry for a large 
and cheap supply of sulphuric anhydride, chiefly in connection with the 
manufacture of alizarine colours and of artiflcial indigo. With the object 
of satisfying their own requirements in this respect, the Badische Aniline 
and Soda Works of Ludwigshafen devoted much time and research to the 
problem of improving the catalytic process usually known by the name 
of Winckler, a modification of which process had been worked in this 
country by Squire Chapman and Messel since 1876. This endeavour was 
attended with such success that by means of the process and plant which 
they finally evolved they were enabled to produce sulphuric anhydride 
so cheaply that not only could it be used as such for a large variety of 
purposes, but by combination with water afforded a profitable source of 
sulphuric acid. This new method of manufacturing sulphuric acid is, for 
concentrated acid at least, cheaper than the chamber process ; and since 
the product is absolutely free from arsenic, and can be produced at any 
desired concentration, it seems likely to supplant eventually the time- 
honoured method of manufacture. 



THE COAL-TAR INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND AND GERMANY. 253 

Besides exerting this influence upon the inorganic chemical manufac- 
tures, the coal-tar industry has given birth during recent years to several 
important daughter industries. The manufacture of synthetic medicinal 
agents, artificial perfumes, sweetening materials, antitoxines, nutritives, 
and photographic developers are all outgrowths of the coal-tar industry, 
and in great part still remain attached to the colour works where they 
originated. Of these subsidiary industries the most important is the 
manufacture of synthetic medicinal preparations, wliich has already 
attained to large proportions, and bids fair to revolutionise medical 
science. The requirements of the coal-tar industry have further led to 
great advances in the design and production of chemical plant, such as 
tilter-presses, autoclaves, fractionating columns, vacuum pumps and 
stills, suction filters, enamelled iron, aluminium, and stoneware vessels, ikc, 
for the supply of which extensive works have become necessary. 

It is a frequently quoted remark of the late Lord Beaconsfield that 
the chemical trade of a country is a barometer of its prosperity, and the 
chemical trade of this country has always been regarded as a most important 
branch of our manufactures. Even those who might be inclined to regard 
our declining position in the colour industry with more or less indifference 
would consider the loss of a material portion of our general chemical trade 
as nothing less than a national calamity. As already pointed out, how- 
ever, the two are indissolubly connected, the coal-tar industry being an 
essential and inseparable part of the chemical industry as a whole. It is 
with the object of ascertaining our present and future prospects in the 
chemical trade of the woi'ld that I propose to compare the relative 
development of the colour industry in England and Germany during the 
past fifteen years. It was at the commencement of this period, that is 
to say in the year 1886, that Professor Meldola, in a paper read befoi-e 
the Society of Arts, gave such a masterly account of the position of the 
industry of this country at that date, and sounded a warning note to our 
manufacturers and business men regarding its future progress. 

If an excuse is required for my venturing to refer again to a subject 
jpon which so much has been said and written already, it is supplied by 
the fact that the warnings I'epeatedly given by those who saw the future 
clearly (notably by Professor Meldola and Professor Armstrong) have 
remained largely unheeded by our business men. The conclusions which 
arc forced upon us arc unfortuiiately not of a reassuring nature for our 
national trade, but it is well to remember tliat nothing is gained by 
burying our heads in the sand, and that the cure of a disease can only be 
effected after an accurate diagnosis of its cause. 

The period which we have to consider ha; been one of extraordinary 
activity and remarkable development in the coal-tar industry, and Ijefore 
I pass to the economic aspect of the question I shall ask you to consider 
very superficially some of the main points in this advance. In no other 
industry than this have such exti-aordinarily rapid changes and gigantic 
developments taken place in so short a period, developments in which the 
scientific elucidation of abstract problems has gone hand in hand with 
inventive capacity, manufacturing skill, and commercial enterprise. In 
no other industry has the close and intimate interrelation of science and 
practice been more clearly demonstrated. 

Born in 1858 the colour industry had already attained to a consider- 
able state of development by the year i886. The period prior to this 
might well be called the 'rosaniline period,' since it is chiefly marked by 



b 



254 REPORT — 1901. 

the discovery and development of colouring matters of the rosaniline or 
triphenylmethane group, such as Magenta, Aniline Blue, Hofmann 
Violet, Methyl Violet, Acid Magenta, Acid Violets, Phosjahine, Victoria 
Blues, Auraniiue, Malachite Green, and Acid Greens. Individual 
members of other groups had already been discovered, but the latter had 
not yet attained to the importance which they were destined later to 
occupy. This is especially the case with the class of colouring matters 
containing the double nitrogen radical known as ' azo ' colours. This 
group of compounds has, during the fifteen years which we have to con- 
sider, attained to such enormous dimensions and importance that this 
interval may fairly be termed the ' azo period.' The number of individual 
compounds belonging to this class, which have either been prepared or are 
at present preparable, runs into many millions and far exceeds the 
members of all other groups of colouring matters put together. In com- 
mercial importance also they occupy a position at present far in advance 
of any other group, the employment of some of them (e.y., the ' azo ' blacks) 
amounting to many thousands of tons annually. A great stimulus to the 
investigation of the azo compounds was given by the discovery by 
Bottiger in 1884: of the first colour possessing a direct affinity for cotton 
(Congo Red), which was followed within a few years by a rapidly 
increasing series of colours of all shades having similar dyeing properties. 
The azo colours knowii prior to this time were either basic colours 
(Aniline Yellow, Chrysoidine, Bismarck Brown, &c.) or acid wool colours 
(Xylidine Scarlet, Crocoine Scarlet, etc.). The great simplification of 
cotton dyeing brought about by the introduction of the new group of azo 
colours — ' Benzo ' or 'Diamine' coloui's as they were called — led to a 
rapid increase of their number, and compounds containing two, three, 
four, or more double-nitrogen groups, linking together the residues of 
various paradiamines (benzidine, tolidine, dianisidine, azoxytoluidine, 
paraphenylenediamine, naphthylenediamine, Arc.) to various naphthol-, 
amidonajihtliol-, and naphthylamine sulphonic acids made their appear- 
ance in quick succession. Simultaneously therewith proceeded the dis- 
covery and investigation of the various isomeric derivatives of naphthalene 
required as raw products for the pi'eparation of these colours, an investiga- 
tion which was largely aided by the classical research on the isomerism 
of naphthalene compounds carried out in this country by Armstrong and 
Wynne. 

Another mctliod of applying azo colours to cotton, by which much faster 
shades ore obtained, was introduced by Messrs. Read Plolliday, of 
Huddersfield, in 1880, and consisted in producing unsulphonated azo 
compounds on the fibre by direct combination. Owing to the technical 
difficulties which were at first encountered in applying this process it has 
only reached its full development during the last few years and at other 
hands than those of its discoverers. The most important colour produced 
by this method is Paranitraniline Red, for which over two hundred tons 
of chemically pure paranitraniline are manufactured annually. 

The search for direct cotton colours led the author in 1887 to the 
discovery of Primuline. This compound, having a direct affinity for 
cotton and containing at the same time a diazotisable amido group, could 
be used for the synthesis of various azo colours on the fibre which were 
remarkable for great fastness to washing. It has had a large employment 
for the production of fast reds, and the n'&w pi"inciple of dyeing which it 
intr'o'duc'ed has been cbusiderably extended in other so-called ' diaz'o ' 



J 



THE COAL-TAR INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND AND GERMANY. 255 

colours. The closer investigation of the thiazol group, to which primuline 
belongs, further led to the discovery of many other cotton colours 
belonging to this family, amongst the most important of which are the 
brilliant greenish-yellow called ' Turmerine ' or ' Clayton Yellow,' the 
light-fast ' Chlorophenine ' or ' Chloramine Yellow,' the pure greenish 
basic yellow ' ThioHavine,' and the fast cotton pink ' Erica.' 

Passing over the stilbene azo colours and the basic azo ammonium or 
' Janus ' colours there remains a class of azo compounds to which I must 
shortly refer, namely, the mordant azo colours, which with the growing 
demand for faster shades have recently come into much prominence. In 
these compounds the presence of an ortho hydroxyl or carboxyl group 
gives to the colour the property (following Liebermann and v. Kosta- 
necki's rule) of combining with metallic mordants, especially chromium 
oxide, and producing therewith insoluble and fast lakes on the wool or 
cotton fibre. 

We now come to the consideration of three analogously constituted 
groups of colouring matters, namely, the azines, oxazines, and thiazines. 
The laborious scientific investigations of Fischer and Hepp, Bernthsen, 
Kehrmann, and others on the constitution of these groups of compounds, 
the tirst members of which (Methylene Blue, Saffranine, and Meldola's 
Blue) were discovered in a very early stage of the industry when little 
or nothing was known of their structure, combined with the theoretical 
views on the quinonoid structure of such colouring matters promulgated 
by Armstrong and adopted by Nietzki, led to the discovery of many 
valuable new members of these classes. Amongst the latter may be 
specially mentioned the Rosindulines, Indoine Blue, Induline Scarlet, 
Rhodulines, &c. 

Passing to the pyrone and acridine groups in which much investiga- 
tion has also been conducted, the most notable advances have been the 
discovery of the ' Rhodamines,' a class of pure basic reds, and of the basic 
yellows and oranges allied to Phosphine, namely Acridine Yellow, Benzo- 
flavine, and Acridine Orange. 

It is in the alizarine group next to the azo group that the greatest 
progress must be recorded. The demand for fast colours for calico 
printing and for dyeing chrome-mordanted wool to withstand severe 
' milling ' operations has led to a long series of investigations and patents 
for producing new derivatives of anthraquinone. These new products, 
known in commerce as ' Alizarine Bordeaux,' ' Alizarine Cyanines,' 
' Anthracene Blues,' ' Alizarine Viridine,' ' Alizarine Saphirol,' &c., are 
polyoxy- or amidooxy-anthraquinones, for the preparation of which 
either alizarine or nitroanthraquinones are the i;sual starting points. 

Passing over some smaller groups, we now come to a very peculiar 
class of dyestuffs containing sulphur, which, although discovered by 
Croissant and Brettoniere in 1873, remained confined to a single repre- 
sentative — ' Cachou de Laval ' — until Raymond Vidal in 1893 obtained a 
very fast black colouring matter, which dyed unmordanted cotton, by 
heating paraamidophenol with sulphur and sodium sulphide. The 
possibility of replacing Aniline Black in cotton dyeing by a direct 
colouring matter, and possibly also of obtaining other shades which, though 
dyed in a single bath, would resist subsequent ' cross dyeing ' of the 
wool in "mixed fabrics, lent an immense impulse to the study of this class 
oiE colouring matters ; and although their molecular structure still remains 
wrapped in obscurity, many new repre'sentiative's have followed ea'ch 



256 



REPORT — 1901. 



other in rapid succession, ranging in shade from blacks of various hues to 
browns, olives, greens, and blues. As the most important of these I 
may mention Vidal Black, Tmmedial Black, Katechine Black, Immedial 
Blues, Pyrogene Blues, Katechine Brown, Katechine Green, &c. 

It may fairly be claimed, however, that the greatest triumph of the 
coal-tar industry for the past fifteen yeai's has been the successful 
production of artificial indigo on a large manufacturing scale. 

Returning from the scientific to the economic aspect of the subject, 
I shall ask you now to consider what share we have obtained in the 
great expansion of trade resulting from all these new discoveries, many 
of which have originated in this country. The development of the 
industry in Germany is well illustrated by the following figures : — 

Exports from Germany to the World. 



1885. 



1895. 



Aniline Oil and Salt 

Coal-tar Colours (excl. alizarine) 

Alizarine Colours . 



Tons. 
1,713 

4,646 
4,284 



Tons. 

7,13.5 

15,789 

8,927 



1899. 



Tons. 
17,639 



Again, if we take values, we find that total exports of coal-tar 
colours from Germany amounted in 1894 to 2,600,000/., and in 1898 to 
3, .300,000/., an increase of nearly a million in four years. The latter 
figure is practically the same as that given by Perkin as an estimate of 
the ivorld's iotaX 'production in 1885, showing how great the increase has 
been since this date. 

The value of Germany's entire production is somewhat difficult to 
arrive at. Witt, in his report on the German chemical exhibit at the 
Paris Exhibition, gives as the value of the total chemical industry of 
Germany for the year 1897 the enormous sum of 4Gf; million pounds 
sterlin"'. Of this sum Lefevre estimates that at least one tenth may be 
put down to colouring matters, and another tenth to raw, intermediate, 
and synthetic products from coal tar other than colours, and he thus 
assif^ns for the total annual value of the coal- tar industry of Grermany the 
sum of nine to ten million pounds sterling. With the increase in the 
production of synthetic indigo, it may be taken to-day to considerably 
exceed this figure. 

One may well wonder what becomes of this enormous quantity of 
coal-tar products. According to the United States consular reports the 
?>\ million pounds' worth of coal-tar colours exported by Germany in 
1898 were consumed as follows : — 



The TTnited States took 
The United Kingdom took 
Austria and Hungary ., . 
Italy ,, . 

China ,, . 



7.5O,00nZ. worth. 
730,000?. „ 
350.000?. „ 
225,000?. „ 
270,000?. „ 



whilst the rest of the world took the remainder. 

The great increase in production in Germany is further shown by the 
"towth in the capital and number of workpeople employed. Thus 
according to a report of the Badiscbe Works, recently issued, the capital 



THE COAL-TAR INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND AND GERMANY. 



257 



of this company, which was increased in 1889 from 900,000^. to 1,050,000Z., 
will be further augmented this year by the issue of 750,000?. of 
debentures. The number of workpeople employed by this company in 
1900 was 6,485, as against 4,800 in 1896, an increase of over 33 per cent, 
in four years. The firm of Leopold Cassella & Co., of Mainkur, near 
Frankfurt, have increased the number of their workpeople from 545 in 
1890 to 1,800 in 1900. 

Passing now to England we iind that the imports of coal-tar colours 
into the country are steadily rising, as is shown by the following figures 
taken from the Board of Trade returns : — 

Imports of Coal-tar Dye-stuffs into England during the last Fifteen Years 

(excluding Indigo). 



188G . 


. £509,750 


1894 , 


. £599,000 


1887 . 


542,000 


1895 . 


710,000 


1888 . 


569,000 


189G , 


739,300 


1889 . 


609,200 


1897 . 


695.400 


1890 . 


594,400 


1898 . 


739,000 


1891 . 


586,300 


1899 . 


708,800 


1892 . 


542,200 


1900 . 


720,000 


1893 . 


504,000 







Contrasted with this the exports of coal-tar colours manufactured in 
England have fallen from 530,000Z. in 1890 to 366,500/. in 1899. Comparing 
these figures with the rapidly increasing export trade of Germany, it is 
seen that whereas formerly the English export trade in artificial colours 
was about one quarter that of Germany, it does not now amount to a 
tenth part. It is therefore only too apparent that we have had but little 
share in the great increase which this industry has experienced during 
the past fifteen years, and that we have not even been able to supply the 
expansion in our own requirements. In order to ascertain what propor- 
tion of our own needs we at present furnish, I am able to lay before you 
the following interesting figures, which have been kindly supplied me by 
the Bradford Dyers' Association and the British Cotton and Wool Dyers' 
Association, who together form a very large proportion of the entire 
dyeing trade : — 

C'olouritig Matters used bi/ Bradford Dyers' Association. 

English, 10 per cent. ; German, 80 per cent. ; Swiss, 6 per cent. ; 
French, 4 per cent. 

Colouring Matters used, by British Cotton and Wool Dyers'' Association. 

Aniline Colovrs,- — English, 22 per cent. ; foreign, 78 per cent. 
Alizarine Colours. — English, 1*65 per cent, j foreign, 98'35 per cent. 

The English Sewing Cotton Cotrvpany have also very kindly supplied 
me with a detailed analysis of their consumption, from which it appears 
that out of a total of sixty tons of colouring matters and other dyeing 
materials derived from coal tar only 9 per cent, were of English manufac- 
ture. 

The table of statistics, on the next page, of the six largest German 
firms gives a fair picture of the present dimensions of the industry in 
that country. 

The joint capital of these six firms amounts to at least 2?t millions. 

1901. ' s 



258 



REfOM— 1901. 



They employ together about 500 chemists, 350 engineers and othei' 
technologists, 1,360 business managers, clerks, travellers, &c., and over 
18,000 workpeople. Compared with such figures as these the English 
colour manufacture assumes insignificant proportions. The total capital 
invested in the coal-tar colour trade in England pi'obably does not exceed 
500,000/., the total number of chemists employed cannot be more than 
thirty or forty, and the number of workmen engaged in the manufacture 
does not amount to over a thousand. 



Position of the Six Largest Colour 


Works in 


Qermany in Year 1900. 





Badische 
Aniline 
Works 


Meister, 

Lucius, and 

Briiniug 


Farben- 

fabriken 

Bayer 


Berlin 

Aniline 

Co. 


Cassella 
and Co. 


Farbwerk 

MUhlheim, 

Leonhardt 


Total 
of six 
largest 








and Co. 






and Co. 


firms 


Capital . 


£1,050,000 


£833,000 


£882,000 


£441,000 


Private 
concern 


£157,000 


About 
£2,500,000 


Number of 


148 


120 


146 


55 


, 


\ • 


About 


Chemists 












500 


Number of 


75 


36 


175 


31 






About 


eugineers, 






, 








350 


ilyers, and 










60 






other 












- 450 




techno! o - 














gists 










1 






Co m m e r - 


305 


211 


500 


150 


170 




About 


cial staff 














1,360 


Work- 


6,485 


3,555 


4,200 


1,800 


1,800 


/ 


About 


people 












18,260 


Dividends 


24 per cent. 


2G per cent. 


18 per cent. 


12i per cent. 


Not known 9 per cent. 




in 1897 














Dividends 


)> » 


i> >» 


It )» 


15 


« »» 3 „ 


— 


in 1898 














Divide nd s 


»» » 


» 1) 


n »» 


" n 


)» )i 


5 „ 


— 


in 1899 
















Divide n d s 


)» )» 


20 per cent. 


}> }1 


? 


?) )> 


nil 


— 


in 1900 

















A similar relative proportion is maintained in the number of patents 
for new colouring matters and other coal-tar products taken by the English 
and German firms, as is shown by the following table : — 

Comparison of Number of Completed Eitf/Iish Patents for Coal-tar Products 
taken during IbSB-li/OO by Six Largest English and Six Largest German 
Firms. 

German Fimis 

Badische Aniline Works . . 179 

Meister, Lucius, &: Briining . . 231 

Farbfabriken Bayer & Co. . . 306 

Berlin Aniline Co 119 

L. Cassella & Co 75 

Farbwerk Miihlheim, Leonliardt 

&Co 38 

Total of six German firms . 948 



English Firms 
Brooke, Simpson, & Spiller 
Clayton Aniline Co. . 
Levinstein 

Read, Holliday, & Co, 
Claus &; Re6 
W. G. Thompson 



7 
21 
19 

28 
9 
2 



Total of six English firms . 



86 



Nor does the potential loss which we have sustained by our inability 
to take advantage of a growing industry represent the sum total of our 
losses. The new colouring matters, made almost exclusively in Germany, 
have in many cases been introduced as substitutes for natural products 
which were staple articles of English commerce. Madder and cochineal 
have been replaced by alizarine and azo scarlets, the employment of many 



TttE COAL-TAR INDUStRY IN ENGLAND AND GERMAFi'. 259 

dyewoods has greatly decreased, whilst at the present moment logwood 
and indigo are seriously threatened. Regarding the indigo question so 
much has been written that I do not propose to occupy space in its further 
discussion, but will only point out that tiie complete capture of the indigo 
market by the synthetic product, which would mean a loss to our Indian 
dependencies of 3,000,000^. a year, is regarded by the Badische Company as 
so absolutely certain that, having already invested nearly a million pounds 
in the enterprise, they are at present issuing 750,000/. of new debenture 
capital to provide funds to extend their plant for this purpose ! In the 
last annual report of the company they say : ' As regards plant indigo, 
the directors are prepared and determined to meet this competition in all 
its possible variations in value. Much strange matter has been published 
in India as to improvements in tlie cultivation and preparation of natural 
indigo, but the illusions of the planters and indigo dealers are destined to 
be dispelled before facts, which, although they are not known to them, 
will make themselves more felt the larger the production of artificial 
indigo becomes.' 

Besides the loss of material wealth which the neglect of the coal-tar 
trade has involved to the country, there is yet another aspect of the ques- 
tion which is even of more importance than the commercial one. There 
can be no question that the growth in Germany of a highly scientific 
industry of large and far-reaching proportions has had an enormous effect 
in encouraging and stimulating scientific culture and scientific research in 
all branches of knowledge. It has reacted with beneficial effect upon the 
universities, and has tended to promote scientific thought throughout the 
land. By its demonstration of the practical importance of purely theo- 
retical conceptions it has had a far-reaching effect on the intellectual life of 
the nation. How much such a scientific revival is wanted in our country 
the social and economic history of the past ten years abundantly testifies. 

The position with which we are confronted is in truth a lamentable 
one, and the way out is not so easy to find. In 1886 it could perhaps 
still be maintained that we held the key to the situation if we chose to 
make use of it, inasmuch as the principal raw products of the colour 
manufacture (tar oils, naphthalene, anthracene, soda, ammonia, iron, tkc.) 
were in great measure imported from England. In a speech to the 
Academy of Sciences of Munich in 1878 Professor von Baeyer had said : 
' Germany, which in comparison with England and France possesses such 
great disadvantages in reference to natural i-esources, has succeeded by 
means of her intellectual activity in wresting from both countries a source 
of national wealth. Germany has no longer to pay any tribute to foreign 
nations, but is now receiving such tribute from them, and the primary 
source from which this wealth originates has its home, not in Germany, 
but in England. It is one of the most singular phenomena in the domain 
of industrial chemistry that the chief industrial nation and the most 
practical people in the world has been beaten in the endeavour to turn to 
profitable account the coal tar which it possesses. We must not, how- 
ever, rest upon our oars, for we may be sure that England, v/hich at pre- 
sent looks on quietly while we purchase her tar and convert it into colours, 
selling them to foreign nations at high prices, will unhesitatingly cut off 
the source of supply as soon as all technical difficulties have been sur- 
mounted by the exertions of German manufacturers.' ' Professor von 

' Quoted by Mr. Levinstein, Jour. S^o. Chem. Tnd.. 1886, p. 350. 

S2 



260 HEPORT — 1901. 

Baeyer could not believe that the English manufacturer and capitalist 
would stand calmly by and see an important industry which had had its 
origin and early development in his own country taken from beneath his 
nose without an effort to retain it. Yet the initial advantages which our 
natural resources afforded us have been neglected, and now in 1901 the 
conditions are completely changed. The adaptation of condensing plant to 
the Westphalian coke ovens has rendered Germany, though still a large 
buyer from England, no longer dependent on English tar and ammonia ; by 
the development of the ammonia-soda process she lao longer requires English 
alkali ; whilst all other raw products of the colour industry can now be 
purchased in the commercial centres of Germany at least as cheaply as in 
England, and some even at lower prices. Through the shortsightedness, 
ignorance, and want of enterprise of those with whom the care of the 
colour industry in this country has rested the opportunity has been 
allowed to pass for ever. The English capitalist has passed over as not 
sufficiently profitable for his consideration an industry which at present 
amounts to nine or ten million sterling annually, and from which his 
German confrere reaps a dividend of nearly 20 per cent. The English 
manufacturer has considered that a knowledge of the benzol market 
was of greater importance than a knowledge of the benzol theory, and 
after the early but brilliant days in the infancy of the industry 
when guided by such eminent workers as Hofmann, Perkin, and 
Nicholson, commercial pi'ogress and scientific investigation went 
hand in hand, but little encouragement has been given here to 
chemical investigators and discoverers. The control of the in- 
dustry unfortunately soon passed into the hands of men who had no 
knowledge and absolutely no appreciation of the science upon which 
their business rested, and, concerned only with getting the ultimate 
amount of present profit, discouraged all scientific investigations as waste 
of time and money. The chemist who devoted himself to the elucidation 
of the chemical constitution of a colouring matter was regarded by them 
as an unpractical theorist of no value to a manfacturing business. Even 
when he discovered new colouring matters of commercial value they were 
so blind to their own interests, and so incapable of believing that any 
practical good could come out of such theoretical work, that in many cases 
they refused to patent or in any way take advantage of the discoveries 
made by him. Dui'ing recent years this attitude has certainly undergone 
considerable modification, and some attempt has been made to call in the 
aid of the science so long neglected. Certain firms indeed must be given 
the credit of endeavouring to pursue a more enlightened policy, but these 
attempts have been of a more or less sporadic nature and always directed 
too much in the expectation of realising immediate financial results. The 
difficulties which must be encountered in the attempt to regain the lost 
round are of necessity very great, and are quite unappreciated by our 
business men. It seems in fact to have been the opinion of the public 
and the average financial man that this industry ought to be easily won 
back by us by the establishment of a few technical schools, the engage- 
ment of a dozen chemists, and the investment of a few thousand pounds 
in new plant, forgetting that the supremacy of our German competitors 
has been gained by years of patient toil, by the work of hundreds of 
trained chemists, and by the outlay of millions of capital. Who can be 
surprised therefore if such expectations have not been realised, and if in 
spite of some notable successes the general position of the colour trade 



to 



THE COAL-TAE INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND AND GERMANY. 261 

in England at the present day, at a time when even the German trade is 
suffering from the general depression, looks worse than at any previous 
period ? During years of stagnation in this country the German manu- 
facturers have been realising large profits, which they have employed in 
consolidating their businesses, writing off the value of their buildings and 
plant, and accumulating enormous reserves (the reserve of the Badische 
Company is over a million pounds) : they have gathered round them 
perfectly working organisations, comprising enormous staffs of scientifically 
and practically trained research chemists, factory chemists with highly 
specialised knowledge, chemical engineers, dyers, and others ; their 
travellers and agents are in every part of the globe ; by long manufactur- 
ing experience and unremitting endeavour to improve their processes and 
plant they have brought the yields and quality o? their products to such 
a state of perfection that even when the manufacture of these products 
is no longer covered by patents they are able to produce them at a cost 
price which is impossible to anyone commencing their manufacture ; 
they have hedged themselves about with a perfect stockade of many 
hundreds of patents, have accumulated in their laboratories thousands 
of intermediate products ready at any time to be subjected to any new 
treatment or combination which research or theory may suggest as 
likely to yield new results. By the complete range of colours which 
they are able to offer in each group of dyestuffs, whether basic colours, 
acid colours for wool, fast colours dyeing on metallic mordants, diazotis- 
able colours, or direct colours for cotton, and by the invaluable aid and 
assistance which they can give the dyer in his daily work, they are 
enabled to retain