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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

1j juii. liiyci- 



REPORT 



OF THE 



SEVENTY-SECOND MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




BELFAST IN SEPTEMBER 1902. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1903. 

Office of the Association .- Bitrliyigton House, London, W. 



PRINTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO. LTD., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

LONDON 



^. I. A .'I I 



^ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxix 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement xl 

Trustees and General Officers, from 1831 liii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 ... liv 

List of Evening Discourses Ixxiii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Belfast Meeting Ixxvii 

Committee of Recommendations at the Belfast Meeting Ixxix 

Treasurer's Account Ixxx 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxxii 

Officers and Council, 1902-1903 Ixxxiv 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxv 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Belfast Meet- 
ing in September 1902 Ixxxviii 

Communications ordered to be printed in e.vtenso xcvii 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if desirable xcvii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xcviii 

Places of Meeting in 1903 and 1904 xcix 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes c 

General Meetings cxviii 

Address by the President, Professor James Dewar, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.... 3 

A2 



iv REPORT — 1902. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



[^An asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. Tlie mark f indicates the same, 
but with a reference to the Journal or Neivspa/per inwhich it is puhhshed in extenso.] 



Page 
Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consistinpr of Lord 
Ratleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord IvELViif, 
Professors W. E. Atrton, J. Peery, W. G. Adams, and G. Caret Foster, 
Sir Oliver J. Lodse, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. XL Preece, Professors 
J. D. Everett, A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming and J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomlet, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stonet, Professor S. P Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rijckbr, Professor H. L. Callendar, Sir W. C. 
RoBERTS-AirsTEN, and Mr. George Matthey 53 

Appendix. — On the Definition of the Unit of Heat 55 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. G. Adams (Chairman), Dr. C. Chree 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. Chrysi'al, Professor A. Schuster, 
Captain K. W. Creak, the Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, and 
Sir A. W. RiJCKER 58 

Seismological Investigations. — Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. W. Judd (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Mr. C. V. Bots, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perrt, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor 
J. H. Potnting, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 59 

I. On Seismological Stations abroad and in Great Britain 59 

II. The Instruments in use at Shide 60 

III. The Origins of the Earthquakes recorded in 1899, 1900, and 

1901 61 

IV. Duration of the First Preliminary Tremors 64 

V. Time Curves for Earthquakes recorded during the four years 

ending December 31, 1900 65 

VI. The Comparison of the Records obtained from three horizontal 

pendulums at Shide 68 

VII. Clinometric Experiments 70 

VIII. Vertical Spring Seismograph Experiments 71 

IX. On the Nature of Earthquake Movement 71 

X. Relationship between Rockfolding, Seismic, and Volcanic 

Activities 72 

XI. On the Comparison of Earthquake Registers from Shide, Kew, 

Bidston, and Edinburgh 73 

XII. Experiments at the Ridgeway Fault. By Horace Darwin ... 75 



CONTENTS. y 

Page 

Magnetic Observatious at Falmouth.— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir W. H. Peeece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebeook (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor W. G. Adams, Captain Ceeak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor A. 
ScHTiSTEE, and Sir A. W. Ruckee, appointed to co-operate with the Com- 
mittee of the Falmouth Observatory in their Magnetic Observations 75 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. W. H. Dines 
(Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Veenon Bots, Dr. A. Buchan, 
and Dr. H. R. Mill 77 

Report on the Theory of Point-groups.— Paet II. By Frances Hardcastle 81 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord M'Laren, Professor A. Cettm Beown (Secretary), Sir John 
Mtjreat, Professor Copeland, and Dr. Alexander Btjchan. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Bttchan.) 93 

Statistics concerning the Training of Chemists employed in English Chemical 
Industries. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. H. 
Peekin (Chairman), Professor G. G. Hendeeson (Secretary), Professor 
H. E. Aemsteong, and Mr. G. T. Bbilbx 97 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — 
Fourth Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Noel 
Hartley (Chairman and Secretary), Professor F. R. Japp, Professor J. J. 
DoBBiB, and Mr. Alexander Lauder, appointed to investigate the Rela- 
tion between the Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic 
Substances ; 99 

Part I. — The Absorption Spectra of Phloroglucinol and some of its 
Derivatives. By W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, F.R.S., James 
J. DoBBiE, D.Sc, M.A., and Alexandee Laudee, B.Sc. 99 

Paet II. — On the Curves of Molecular Vibrations of Quinone, 

p-Nitroso-phenol and similarly derived Substances 107 

Hvdro-aromatic Compounds with Single Nucleus. By Aethue W. Ceossley, 
D.Sc, Ph.D 120 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Dr. Mae- 
shall "Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professor J. Dewae, Pro- 
fessor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schustbe, Professor W. N. Hartley, 
Professor WoLCOTT GiBBS, and Captain Sir W. db W. Abney 137 

The Nature of Alloys. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. H. 
Neville (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. C. T. Heycock, and Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths. 175 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor \V. A. Tilden (Chairman) and Dr. H. E. Aemsteong (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 176 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — Third Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. A. Miees (Chairman), Dr. H. E. Aem- 
steong (Secretary), Dr. W. P. Wynne, and Mr. W. J. Pope. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 180 

Our Present Knowledge of Aromatic Diazo-compounds. By Gilbeet 
Thomas Morgan, D.Sc, F.I.C 181 

Registration of Type Specimens of British Fossils. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. H. Woodwaed (Chairman), Dr. A. Smith Woodwaed 
(Secretary), Rev. G. H. Whidboene, Mr. R. Kidston, Professor H. G. 
Seeley, Mr. H. W^oods, and Rev. J. F. Blake 210 



Vi REPORT 1902. 

Page 
Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Makr (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hind (Secretary); 
Mr. F. A.. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, Dr. A. H. Foord, Mr H. Fox, 
Professor E, J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
R. KiDSTON, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B. N. 
Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, and Dr. 11. Woodward. (Drawn up by the 

Secretary.) ^1^ 

A List of the Fish Fauna of the Pendleside Limestones, with Remarks on 
the Evidence which may be adduced from such List in support of the 
Systematic Position of the Rocks. By Edgar D. VVellburn, F.G.S. 222 

The Movements of Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire. — Third 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chair- 
man), Mr. A. R. DwERRTHOirsE (Secretary), Professor A. Smithells, Rev. 
E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, Mr. G. Bray, Rev. W. Lower Carter, 
Mr. T. Fairlet, Mr. P. F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. Mark 224 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Thirteenth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chair- 
man), Professor W. W. Watts (Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. Tempest Anderson, Mr. Godfrey Bingley, 
Mr. H. Coates, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. J. G. Goodchild, Mr. William 
Gray, Mr. Robert Kidston, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. 
R. Welch, Mr. H. B. Woodward, and Mr. F. Woolnough. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 229 

Kesh Caves, co. Sligo. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. R. F. 
ScHARFF (Chairman), Mr. R. Ll. Praeger (Secretary), Mr. G. Coffey, 
Professor G. A. J. Cole, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Mr. A McHeney, and Mr. R. J. Ussher, appointed to explore Irish 
Caves. (Dravni up by the Chairman.) 247 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. J. E. Mark (Chairman), Mr. P. F. Kendall (Secretary), Professor 
T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. De Range, Professor W. J Sollas, Mr. R. H. 
Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. F M. Bueton, Mr. 
J. LoMAs, Mr. A. R. Dwereyhouse, Mr. J. W. Stathee, Mr. W. T. 
Tucker, and Mr. F. W. Harmer, appointed to investigate the Erratic 
Blocks of the British Isles, and to take measures for their preservation. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 252 

Schedule To face page 258 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples.— Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Heedman (Chairman), 
Professor G. B. Howes (Secretary), Professor E. Ray Lankester, 
Professor W. F. R. Weldon, Professor S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
and Professor W. C. McIntosh 259 

Appendix I.— Report on the Occupation of the Table : a. On the 
Structure and Development of the Excretory Ap- 
paratus of Amphioxus. By E. S. Goodrich, M. A. 260 

b. On Trematodes and Cestodes parasitic on Fishes. 

By Norman Maclaeen 260 

c. On the Algae of the Bay of Naples. By Miss Anna 

Vickees 262 

d. On the Copepod Sub-family ^tidiinae, with a pro- 

posed Revision of the Classification. By R. 

NosRis WoLFENDEN, M.D. Cantab., F.Z.S 263 

)( 11- — A List of Naturalists who have worked at the Zoo- 
logical Station from the end of June 1901 till the end 
of June 1902 267 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 

Appenbix II J. — A List of Papers which were published in the Year 
1901 by the Naturalists who have occupied Tables in 

the Zoological Station 269 

,, IV. — A List of the Publications of the Zoological Station 

during the Year ending June 30, 1902 270 

Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Gaestang (Chairman and Secre- 
tary), Dr. E. Rat Lankestee, Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, and Professor W. F. R. Weldon. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) ... 271 

Investigations in the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the 
West of Scotland at MiUport. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
John Mtteeat (Chairman), Dr. J. F. Gemmill (Secretary), Professors 
Bowee, Cossak Eavart, W. A. Heedman, and M. Latteie, and Messrs. 
Alex. Someeville and J. A. Todd 272 

Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland.— Fifth Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Rev. E. P. 
Knubley (Secretary), Mr. John A. Haevie-Brown, Mr. R. M. Barring- 
ton, Mr. A. H. Evans, and Dr. H. 0. Forbes, appointed to work out the 
details of the Observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-1887 273 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. H. Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), 
Dr. P. L. ScLATER, Rev, T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. R. McLachlan, and 
Mr. W. E. HoYLE 283 

Coral Reefs of the Indian Region.— Third Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. A. Sedgwick (Chairman), Professor J. Graham Keee (Secre- 
tary), Professor J. W. Jttdd, Mr. J. J. Listee, Mr. Feancis Daewin, 
Dr. S. F. Harmer, and Professors A. Macalister, W. A. Herdman, and 
S. J. HiCKSON, appointed to investigate the Structure, Formation, and 
Growth of the Coral Reefs of the Indian Region 284 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands.— Twelfth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), Mr. David Sharp (Secre- 
tary), Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
Dr. F. Bv Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar A. Smith 284 

Terrestrial Surface-waves and Wave-like Surfaces.— Second Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. J. Scott Keltie (Chairman), Dr. Vaughan 
Cornish (Secretary), Lieut.-Col. Bailey, Mr. E. A. Floyer, and Mr. 
W.H.Wheeler. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 285 

Women's Labour. — Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. W. 
Brabrook (Chairman), Mr. A. L. Bowlet (Secretary), Dr. Charles 
Booth, Professor S. J. Chapman, Miss 0. E. Collet, Professor F. Y. 
Edgeavorth, Professor A. W. Flux, Mrs. J. R. MacDonald, Mr. L. L. 
Price, and Professor W. Smart, appointed to investigate the Economic 
Effect of Legislation regulating Women's Labour 286 

Appendix I. — Report on the Cotton Industry of Lancashire. By 

Professor S. J. Chapman 287 

„ II. — Report on the West Riding of Yorkshire. By Mr. 

A. L. BowLET 291 

HI.— Report on Birmingham. Ry Miss B. L. Hutchins. . . 296 
,. IV.— Report on the Boot and Shoe Trades of Bristol and 

Kingswood. By Mr. G. H. Wood 299 

„ V. — On Leicester and Northampton. Compiled from Report 

by Mr. R. Halstead 304 

„ VI, — On Canning Town and the Isle of Dogs. Abstract of 

Report by Miss Hadley 305 



'» 
» 



viii REPORT— 1902. 

Page 
Appendix VII. — Switzerland : Federal Legislation, Cantonal Legis- 
lation .. ;^06 

„ VIII.— Holland 308 

IX. — Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 309 

X.— Hungary 309 

XL— Finland 310 

XIL— Russia 310 

XIIL— Sweden 310 

XIV.— Norway 310 

„ XV.— Denmark 311 

The Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir Alexandbe Binnie (Chairman), Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw 
(Secretary), Mr. T. Aitken, Mr. T, C. Aveling (Treasurer), Professor T. 
Hudson Beaee, Mr. W. Woebt Beaumont, Mr. J. Beown, Colonel R. E. 
Crompton, Sir D. Salomons, Mr. A. R. Sennett, Sir J. I. Thoentceoft, 
and Mr. W. H. Whbelee. (Drawn up, at the request of the Committee, 
by the Secretary, assisted by Mr. J. F. Gill, B.Sc.j 314 

I. Preface 314 

II." The Works" of Corr^ze and Manes (1832) 314 

in. The Work of Coriolis (1835) 315 

IV. Experiments and Conclusions of General Morin (1837-42) 316 

V. The Researches of M. Dupuit 323 

VI. Theoretical Investigation by Edmund Leahy, C.E. (1847) 326 

VII. The Work of M. Charie-Marsaines 329 

VIIL Experiments by A. Michelin (1896) 330 

IX. Extract from the Report of Professor W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., on 
the Trials of Self-nioving Vehicles at Birmingham made before 

the Royal Agricultural Society (1897) 336 

X. Experiments by Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, F.R.S. (1897) 337 

XI. Investigations of Professor Ira 0. Baker (1902) 338 

XII. Summary of the Opinions of various Writers on the Relation 
between Tractive Effort and the various Independent Elements 

of Road Resistance 343 

XIIL Description and Drawings of the New Dynamometer made for 
the British Association Committee to carry on the Re- 
searches .345 

XIV. Nature and Scope of the Experiments by the Committee 346 

XV. The Work of the Committee presented at the Meeting 347 

Small Screw Gauge. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. 
Peeece (Chairman), Mr. W. A. Peice (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Sir 
F. J. Beamwell, Sir 11. Teueman Wood, Major-General Webbek, Colonel 
Watkin, Lieut.-Colonel Ceompton, Messrs. A. Steoh, A. Le Neve 
FosTEE, C. J. Hewitt, G. K. B. Elphtnstone, E. Rigg, C. V. Boys, J. 
Maeshall Goeham, O. P. Clements, and W. Tatloe, Dr. R. T. Glazb- 
BEOOK, and Mv. Maek Baee, appointed to consider means by which 
Practical Effect can be given to the introduction of the Screw Gauge pro- 
posed by the Association in 1884 ,350 

Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of the Egyptian 
Army.— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Mac- 
ALiSTEE (Chairman), Dr. C. S. Myees (Secretary), Sir John Evans, and 
Professor D. J. Cunningham 350 

Pigmentation Survey of the School Children of Scotland.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. E. W. Beabeooe (Chairman), Mr. J. Geay 
(Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, Professor A. Macalistee, Professor D. J. 
Cunningham, Mr. J. F. Tochee, and Dr. W. H. R. Rivees. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 052 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

Ethnological Survey of Canada. — Report of the Committee, consisting ot 
Professor D. P. Penhallow (Chairman), Mr. C. Hill-Tout (Secretary), 
Mr. E. W. Bkabkook, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hartland, Pro- 
fessor E. B. Tylor, Sir John Bottrinot, Mr. B. Sulte, Mr. David Boyle, 
Mr. C. N. Bell, Professor John Mayor, Mr. C. F. Hunter, Dr. W. F. 
Ganong, and Rev. John Campbell 353 

Anthropological Photographs. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. S. Hartland, and 
Professor Flinders Petrie, appointed for the Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropological Interest 449 

The Roman Fort at Gellygaer. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. Rhys (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. A. J. 
Evans, and Mr. E. W. Brabrook, appointed to co-operate with the 
Cardiff Naturalists' Society in its Excavations on the Site of a Roman Fort 
at G ellygaer 450 

Silchester Excavation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Arthur 
J. Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), and Mr. E. W. Bra- 
brook, appointed to co-operate with the Silchester Excavation Fund 
Committee in their Excavations 453 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. G. 
Garson (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Sir John Evans, 
Mr. C. H. Read, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, appointed to conduct 
Explorations with the object of Ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 455 

On the Excavations at Arbor Low, May-June 1902. By H. St. George 
Gray .' 455 

On Explorations atKnossos in Crete. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. A. J. 
Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Professor A. Macalister, and Professor 
W. RiDGEWAY, (Drawn up by Mr. A. J. Evans.) 466 

Work of the Mammalian Heart. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. G. McKendrick (Chairman), Dr. T. G. Bkodie (Secretary), 
and Professor W. H. Thompson, appointed to Study the Power of the 
Mammalian Heart for performing "Work under varying External Condi- 
tions and under the Influence of Drugs. (Drawn up by the Secretary) ... 470 

The Micro-chemistry of Cells. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor E. A. ScHAFBE (Chairman), Professor A. B. Macallum (Secretary), 
Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor W. D. Halliburton, Mr. G. C. 
Bourne, and Professor J. J. Mackenzie. (Drawn up by the Secretary.)... 470 

Botanical Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
L. C. Miall (Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss (Secretary), Mr. Francis 
Darwin, and Professor G. F. Scott-Elliot, appointed to consider and 
report upon a scheme for the registration of Negatives of Botanical Photo- 
graphs 471 

Appendix. — Arrangements in existence for the Preservation and 
Registration of Photographs of Anthropological and 
Geological Interest 472 

Investigation on the Respiration of Plants. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. Marshall Ward (Chairman), Mi-. Harold Wager 
(Secretary), Mr. Francis Daewin, and Professor J. B. Farmer 472 



X REPORT — 1902. 

Page 
Investigation of the Ovauopliyceae.— Report of the Committee, eonsistino: of 
Professor J. B. Faemer (Chairman), Dr. F. F. Blackman (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Marshall Ward, and Mr. W. Gardiner 473 

Teaching of Elementary Mathematics. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor Forstth (Chairman), Professor Perky (Secretary), Professor 
Chrtstal, Mr. W. D. Eggak, Mr. H. W. Eve, Professor Gibson, Dr. 
Gladstone, Professor Greenhill, Professor R. A. Gregory, Professor 
Heneici, Professor Hudson, Dr. Larmoe, Professor A. Lodge, Sir 0. 
Lodge, Professor Love, Major MacMahon, Professor Minchin, Sir A. W. 
RtJCKER, Mr. Robert Russell, and Professor S. P. Thompson, appointed to 
report upon improvements that might be effected in the teaching of Mathe- 
matics, in the first instance in the teaching of Elementary Mathematics, and 
upon such means as they think likely to effect such improvements. 
(Drawn up by the Chairman.) 473 

Appendix. — Two Suggested Schedules of Experimental Geometry ... 478 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor H. E. Aemstrong 
(Secretary), Lord Avebuey, Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. George 
Gladstone, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Professor A. Smithells. 
and Professor S. P. Thompson 481 

On the Conditions of Health essential to the Carrying-on of the Work of 
Instruction in Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Mr. E. White Wallis (Secretary), Mr. 
E. W. Brabrook, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Professor L. C. Miall, and Professor 
H. L. Withers 483 



CONTENTS. xi 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 
Address by Professor John Puksek, MA., LL.D., M.R.IA., President of the 
Section'. 499 

L *0n the Question as to the Accurate Conservation of Weight in Chemical 
Reactions. By Lord Ratleigh, F.R.S 511 

2. *Motion of a Detached Thread of Liquid in a Capillary Tube. By Pro- 

fessor W. B. Morton, M.A., and W. Hawthorn 511 

3. *0n the Vibrations of a Plucked String. By Professor W. B. Morton, 

M.A., and T. B. Vintcomb 511 

4. *0n Continuous Motion produced by Vibrations. By Professor W. B. 

Morton, M.A., and A. M. Kinsky ". 511 

5. *0n the Prevention of a Deposit of Dew on the Lenses of a Projecting 
Lantern. By Professor A. Schuster, F.R.S 511 

6. Further Experiments by the Thermal Method on the Variation of the 
Critical Velocity of Water witb Temperature. By Howard T. Barnes, 
M.A.Sc, D.Sc 512 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 
Department II. — Astronomy and Cosmical Physics. 

Address by Professor A. Schuster, Ph.D., F.R.S., Chairman 512 

•Discussion on the NeDula surrounding Nova Persei, opened by A. R. Hinks 
with an Exhibition of some I'hotographs from the Yerkes and Lick 
Observatories 521 

1. New Solar Radiation Recorder. By Dr. W. E. Wilson, F.R.S 521 

2. Search for ultra-Neptunian Planet. By Dr. W. E. Wilson, F.R.S 521 

3. Minimum Sim-spots and Terrestrial Magnetism. By the Rev. A. L. 
CoRTiE, S.J., F.R.A.S ■. 622 

MONDA.Y, SEPTEMBER 15. 
Department I. — Mathematics. 

1. Report on the Present State of the Theory of Pomt Groups (p. 81) 523 

2. On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics. By 

E. T. Whittaker, M.A 523 



xii REPORT — 1902. 

Page 

3. The Longitudinal Stability of Aerial Gliders. By Professor G. H. 
Beyan, Sc.D., F.R.S 624 

4. On Map-colouring. By Professor A. 0. Dixon, Sc.D 525 

6. On the Newtonian Potential. By Professor A. C. Dixon, Sc.D 526 

6. The Discriminant of a Family of Curves or Surfaces. Bv Professor 
Beomwich, M.A., and R. W. H. T. Hudson, M.A ' 526 

7. Matrix Notation in the Theory of Screws. By R. AV. H. T. Hudson, M.A. 528 

8. On Pluperfect Numbers. By Lieut.-Colouel Allan Cunningham, R.E. 528 

9. *0n a Practical Rule for finding the Perimeter of an Ellipse. Bv Thomas 
MuiE, C.M.G , F.R.S ." 629 

JO. The late J. Hamblin Smith's Rule for the Decimalisation of English 

Money. By J. D. Hamilton Diceson 529 

11. *A Theorem in Determinants. By A. A. Robb 530 

Depaetment II. — Physics. 

1. Note on the Variation of the Specific Heat of Mercury with Tempera- 
ture : Experiments by the Continuous-flow Method of Calorinietry. By 
HowAED T. Baenes, M.A.Sc, D.Sc, and H. Lestee Cooke, B.A 530 

2. Some Experiments on Radiation and Absorption : a Preliminary Study 

for a Staudard of Light. By J. E. Petatel 534 

3. Some Observations on Equations of State. By H. H. F. Hyndman 535 

4. *0n the Graphical Representation of Ramsay aud Young's Law for the 

Comparison of Vapours at Equal Pressures. By Professor J. D. 
Eteeett, F.R.S 537 

5. Dependence of Pitch of Minute Closed Pipes on Wind Pressure. By 

C. S. Myees, M.D 537 

6. A Lens for Ultra-violet Therapy. By J. William Giffokd 537 

7. Mr. Petavel's Recording Gauge applied to Ordnance and Small Anns, 

By Captain J. Beuce-Kingsmill, R.A 638 

8. On an Improvement upon Huygens' Construction. By G. Johnstone 

Stoney, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S....'. 539 

9. How to apply the Resolution of Light into Undulations of Flat Wavelets 
to the Investigation of Optical Phenomena. Bv G. Johnstone Stoney, 
M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S " 539 

Department III. — Asteonomy and Cosmical Physics, 

1. *Illustratious obtained by Photographv of the Evolution of Stellar 

Systems. By Isaac Roberts, D.Sc F.R.S 541 

2. Radiation in Meteorology. By W. N. Shaw, D.Sc, F.R.S 541 

3. On the Figure of the Earth. By Major S. G. Burraed, R.E 541 

4. Report on Seismological Investigations (p. 59) 542 

5. Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of 
Kites (p. 77) 542 

6. Report on Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory (p. 75) 542 

7. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 93) 543 

8. Report on the Comparison and Reduction of Magnetic Observations 

(P-68) 543 



CONTENTS. Xiii 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

Depaetment I. — Physics. 

Page 

1. Animal Thermostat. By Lord Kelvin 543 

2. On the Application of the Method of Eotropy to Radiant Energy By 

J. Laejior, D.Sc, Sec.R.S 546 

•3. On the Relation of Voltaic Potential Differences to Temperature, By 
J. Labjioe, D.Sc, Sec.R.S 546 

4. *Does Motion through the Ether cause Double Refraction P By Lord 

Ratleigh, F.R.S '. 546 

5. Report on Electrical Standards (p. 53) 546 

6. Magnetic Detectors in Space Telegraphy. By Professor Eenest Wilson 547 

7. A new Receiver for Hertzian Oscillations. By Professor G. M. Minchin, 

F.R.S 547 

8. A Graphical Method of Determining the Discharge Curve of a Condenser 
through a variable Self-induction. By E. W. Marchant, D.Sc .548 

9. On Luminosity and the Kinetic Theory. By J. Btttler Bueke, M.A.... 549 

10. The Physical Aspects of a Theory of Colour Vision. By F. W. 

Edeidge-Geeen, M.D., F.R.C.S ". 549 

11. Light Aluminium Tubes. By F. H. Nalder 551 

Department II. — Asteonomy and Cosmical Physics. 

1. *Exhibition of Celestial Photographs from the Yerkes Observatory. By 

A. R. HiNKS, M.A 551 

2. Possible Changes on the Lunar Surface. By S. A. Saundee, M.A 551 

.3. The Relative Apparent Motions of Bright and Faint Stars. By Professor 
H. H. TuENEE, F.R.S 552 

4. A Standard Scale for Telescopic Observations. By Peecival Lowell... 553 

5. Expedition for ascertaining the best Location of Observatories. By 
Peecival Lowell 554 

6. Spectrograms of Jupiter, Uranus, and Vesta. By Peecival Lowell ... 555 

7. The LTncertainty of our present Knowledge of the Distance of the Sun. 

By A. R. HiNKs, M.A 555 

8. *The Positions of Hydrogen and Helium in Relation to the Earth's Atmo- 
sphere. By Professor G. H. Bryan, F.R.S 556 



Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Address by Professor Edward Divers, M.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S., President of 

the Section 557 

]. *0n the Corrosion of Copper by Sea-water, and on the Detection of 
Traces of Impurity in the Commercial Metal. By Professor E. A. Letts, 
Ph.D 576 



xiv KEPORT— 1902. 

Page 

2. *0n Experiments to Ascertain the Amount of Oarbonic Anhydride 

absorbed from the Sea-water by Air. By Professor E. A. Letts, Ph.D., 
and W. Caldwell, B.A 576 

3. The Action of Distilled Water upon Lead. By Professor Fbank 

Clowes, D.Sc '. 576 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Hydro-aromatic Compounds with Single Nucleus. By A. W. Orosslet, 

D.Sc, Ph.D. (p. 120) 577 

2. The Undesirability of Establishing Standard Analytical Methods. By 

Bekteam Blottnt 577 

3. The Decomposition of Urea. By Chaeles E. Fawsitt, Pb.D 578 

4. Report on tbe Relation between the Absorption Spectra and Chemical 

Constitution of Organic Substances (p. 99) 578 

5. Recent Synthetical Researches in the Glucoside Group. By Dr. E. 
Fkankland Armstkong 578 

6. The Synthetical Action of Enzymes. By Dr. E. Feankland Aem- 
STEONG ■ ■ • 579 

7. The Telluric Distribution of the Elements in Relation to their Atomic 
Weights. By AVilliam AcKEOYD, F.LC 581 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Our Present Knowledge of Aromatic Diazo-compounds. By Gilbert 

Thomas Moegan, D.Sc, F.LC. (p. 181) 581 

2. The Colour of Iodine-containing Compounds. By Miss Ida Smedley ... 582 

3. On a Fourth Methylmorphimethine. By J. Hawthorne, B.A 582 

4. The Alkylation of Sugars. By Thomas Ptjrdie, F.R.S., and James C. 

Irvine, B.Sc, Ph.D 583 

5. Report on the Collection of Statistics concerning the Training of Chemists 

employed in English Chemical Industries (p. 97) 584 

6. Report on Isomeric Najihthalene Derivatives (p. 176) 584 

7. Report on Isomeric Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene (p. 180) 584 

8. The Reduction of some Metallic Chlorides by Calcium Carbide. By 

Major W. E. Edwards, R.A., Captain C H. Liveing, R.A., and Pro- 
fessor W. R. HoDQKiNsoN, Ph.D., F.LC, F.R.S.E 585 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Colloids of Zirconium, compared with those of other Metals of the 

Fourth Group. By Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., and Walter Hib- 
beet, F.LC 58.5 

2. On Fluorescent and Phosphorescent Diamonds. By Dr. J. H. Glad- 

stoke, F.R.S 586 

3. Acid Esters of Methyl Succinic Acids. By Professor J. J. Sitdboeough, 

Ph.D., D.Sc, and William A. Bone, Ph.D., D.Sc 586 

4. Compounds of Trinitrobenzene with Alkylated Arylamines. By H. 

HiBBEET, M.Sc, and Professor .1. J. Stjdboeotjgh, Ph.D., D.Sc 587 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

5. Action of Alkalis on Oinnamic Acid Dibromide and its Esters. By 
Professor J. J. Stjdbokough, Ph.D., D.Sc, and K. J. Thompson, B.Sc... 587 

6. *0n the Absorption of Ammonia from Water bv Algtp. By Professor 

E. A. Letts, Ph.D., and J. S. Totton ". 587 

7. *0n Determinations of Atmospheric Carbonic Anliydride made on board 
the ' Discovery ' on the Voyage to the Cape and thence to New Zealand. 

By Professor E. A. Letts, Ph.D 587 

8. *A New Method of causing Isomerisation. By Professor Raphael 

Meldola, F.R.S., V.P.C.S 587 

9. *Interim Report on the Action of Gases dissolved in Metals and Alloys 

on their Properties 588 

10. Report on the Nature of Alloys (p. 175) 688 

11. Report on Preparing a New Series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra 

of the Elements (p. 137) 588 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Address by Lieut.-Gen. C. A. MoMahon, F.R,S., V.P.G.S., President of the 

Section 589 

1. The Geology of the Country in the Neighbourhood of Belfast. By Pro- 
fessor Geenville a. J. Cole, F.G.S 596 

2. On the Marine Fauna of the Boulder Clay. By Joseph Weight, F.G.S. 598 

3. Report on the Exploration of Irish Caves (p. 247) 598 

4. *0n the Middle Cambrian Trilobites, &c., of Mount Stephen, British 
Columbia. By Dr. Henet Woodwabd, F.R.S 598 

5. Preliminary List of the Minerals occurring in Ireland. By Henry J. 

Seymoitr, B.A 598 

6. *0n the Tusks and Skull of Mastodon angustidens. By C. W. Andrews, 

D.Sc 599 

7. Report on the Registration of all Type Specimens of British Fossils (p. 210) 599 

8. Notes on the Fossils of the Silurian Area of N.E. Ireland. By R. Clark 599 

9. Note on the Occurrence of Bagshot Beds at Combe Pyne, near Lyme 

Regis. By Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S 601 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. On the Viscous Fusion of Rock-forming Minerals. By J. Jolt, F.R.S. ... 602 

2. *The Drift Map of the Dublin Area. By J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S 602 

3. Note on the Volcanic Rocks of Glencoe, and their Relation to the Granite 

of Ben Cruachan. By Herbert Ktnaston 602 

4. *Notes on the New Geological Map of Victoria. By James Stirling . . . 603 

5. On the Original Form of Sedimentary Deposits. By Rev. J. F. Blake, 
M.A., F.G.S 603 

6. Fossils from Cretaceous Strata in the Salt Range of India. By Professor 

H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., V.P.G.S 604 

7. *Investigations into the Glacial Drifts of the North-east of Ireland, con- 

ducted by the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. By Madame Christen... 604 



xvi REPORT — 1902. 

Page 

8. On the Brockrams of the Vale of Eden and the Evidence they afford 

of an inter- Permian Movement of the Pennine Faults. By Percy F. 
Kendall, F.G.S 604 

9. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British tales (p. 252) 606 

10, The Conditions under which Manganese Dioxide has been Deposited in 

Sedimentary Rocks, as illustrated by the Elgin Sandstones. By William 
Mackie, M.A., M.D ." 606 

11. The so-called 'Fossil' Water of Sedimentary Strata, as illustrated by 

the Sandstones of the Moray Firth Basin. By William Mackie, M.A., 
M.D 608 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 



1. On the Structure of Ireland. Bv Professor Geenville A. J. Cole, 
F.G.S ■ 609 

2. On the Fossil Fishes of the Lower Devonian Roofing-slate of Gemiinden 

in Germany. By R. H. Teaquair, M.D., F.R.S 610 

3. On the Prolongation of the Highland Border Rock into Co. Tyrone. By 

G. Barrow 610 

4. The Fossil Flora of the Cumberland Coalfield. By E. A. Newell Aebee, 

M.A.,F.G.S 611 

5. The Post-Glacial Deposits of the Belfast District. By R. Lloyd 

Peaeger 611 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Report on the Movements of Underground Waters of North-west York- 

shire (p. 224) 612 

2. Report on the Collection and Preservation of Photographs of Geological 
Interest (p. 229) 612 

3. On the Valleys at the Head of the Hardanger Fjord, Norway. By Horace 

WOOLLASTON MONCKTON, F.L.S., F.G.S ' " 612 

4. The Evidence of the Hydrothermal Metamorphism of the Schists of South 
Devon. By A. R. Hunt, F.G.S 613 

5. Note on the Scenery of Ceylon. By A. K. Coomaeaswamy, B.Sc, F.L.S., 
F.G.S ■ ." 613 

6. On some New Fossils from Penmorfa, and their Bearing on the Cambro- 
Ordovician Succession near Tremadoc. By W. G. Feaensides, B.A., 
F.G.S 614 

7. Preliminary Note on a Carboniferous Fish Fauna from Victoria, Australia. 

By A. Smith Woodwaed, LL.D., F.R.S 615 

8. A Summary of the Principal Changes in South-east England during 

Pliocene and more Recent Times. ByHoEACE Woollaston Monckton, 
F.L.S., F.G.S 616 

9 Report on Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks (p. 210) 617 



CONTENTS. xvii 



Section D. -ZOOLOGY. 
, THURSDAY, SEPTE3I£ER 11. 

Page 
Address by Professor G. B. Hoaves, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S,, President of the 

Section 618 

1. On Britiah Fisheries' Investigations and the International Scheme. By 
Professor W. C. McIntosh, F.Pi.S 633 

2. "The International Investigation of the North Sea. By Walter Gae- 

STANG, M.A 611 

3. Certain Objections to tlie Proposed Scheme of International Invest io-a- 
tions of the North Sea. By IJ. NoiiL Pato.v, M.D., B.Sc ?... 641 

4. The Scales of Fishes as an Index of Age. By J. Stuart Thomson 642 

5. Report on the Migration of Birds (p. 273) 642 

6. Report on the Occnpation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 

(p. -'59) 642 

7. Report on Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratorv, Ply- 

mouth (p. 271) ■ ;.. 642 

8. Report on the ' Index Animalium ' (p. 283) 642 

9. Twelfth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 284) 642 

10. Third Report on the Coral Reefs of the Indian Region (p. 284) 643 

11. Report on Investigations in the Laboratory of the Marine Biolo"-ical 
Association of the West of Scotland at Millport (p. 271) 643 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. ' 

1. *Account of his Recent Expedition to the Indian Ocean, includino- Work 

on the Pearl Oyster Banks of the Qiilf of Manaar. By Professor \V. 

A. Herdman, F.R.S.. 643 

2. On the Amphipods collected by Professor Herdman. By A. O. 
Walker, F. L.S .' 643 

3. On the Plankton of the Indian Ocean. By Isaac C. Thompson, F.L.S. 643 

4. *0n the Cuttlefishes collected by Profe.=sor Herdman. By W. E. 
HoTLE, M.A 644 

5. On Deposits dredged by Professor Herdman in the Indian Ocean 

By J. Lomas, A.R.C.S./F.G.S 644 

6. Notice of a hitherto unrecorded Element in the Occipital Bone of Seals. 

By Piofessor Oleland, F.R.S 646 

7. *0n the Habits of the Predaceons Flies of the Family of Asilidte. 

By Professor E. B. Poultox, F.R.S 647 

8. The Development of the Common Sea-urchin (Echinus esculentus). 

By Professor E. W. MacBeide, D.fcjc • 647 

9. *The Relationships of the Larva to the Adult in the Starfish. By Dr. 

A. T. Masteeman 647 

10. On the Cause of Salmon Disease. By J. Hume Patterson 647 



1302. 



xviii REPORT — 1902. 

MONDAY, SEPTE3IBER 15. 

Page 

1. *The Sef^mentatiou and Early Developmental Stages of the Australian 
Native Cat {Dasyw-us). By Professor G. B. Howes, F.R.S 649 

2. *Recent Intercrossing Experiments with Dogs. By Professor J. C. 
EwABT, F.R.S 649 

3. *Flower-like Insects from the Malay Peninsula. By Nelson Annandale 649 

4. ^On Protective Resemblance in the Malay Peninsula. By H. C. 
RoBiNSOif 650 

5. *Exhibition by Professor E. B. PouXTON, F.R.S., of (1) Lantern Illustra- 
tions of British Insects in their natural attitudes. (2) Three-colour 
Lantern Slides of Mimicry, Protective Resemblance, Seasonal Forms 
of Butterflies, &c., and Discussion on 'The Interpretation of such Pheno- 
mena by the Theory of Natural Selection,' opened by Professor Poulton 650 

6. Examples of Australian Fauna. By Thomas Steel, F.L.S 650 

7. Notes on a Specimen of the Pilot Whale {Globiocephalus melas). 

By Professor R. J. Andeeson, M.D 650 

8. The Connection of the Anterior Inferior Angle of the Parietal Bone in 
Primates. By Professor R. J. Anderson, M.D 651 

9. Notes on the Habits of the Onuphidldse (Polychoeta') and on the Internal 
Structures with which they Fortifv their Homes. By Arnold T. 
Watson, F.L.S " 652 

10. On an Accelous Turhellarian inhabiting the common Heart Urchin. 

By E. T. Leipek 652 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Some Remarks on tbe Atlantis Problem' By R. F. Schaeff, Ph.D 653 

2. Diagram of the Skull of Mastodon anyustidens. Bv Dr. C. W. 
Andrews, B.A., F.G.S., F.Z.S ". 654 

\ 3. The Breaking-up of Coral Rock by Organisms in the Tropics. By .T. 

Stanley Gardiner, M.A 654 

4. The Early Development of Muscles and Motor Nerves in Lepidosiren. 

By Professor J. Graham Kerr 655 

5. *The Development of Xenojms {Dactylethra). By E. J. Bles, B.Sc 657 

6. *Experiments on the Axolotl : Adaptations to Life in an Alkaline 

Medium. By E. J. Bles, B.Sc 657 

7. On the Insect Fauna of some Irish Caves. By George H. Car- 
penter, B.Sc 657 

8. *'0n the Significance of the Embryonic Cell. By Professor C. S. Minot... 658 

9. The Bird Fauna of Ireland as affected by its Geography. By R. J. 

USSHER 658 

10 On the Structure of the Scales in the Cod. By H. W. Marett Tims, 

B.A., M.D 660 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

*Dl?cussion upon Mimicrv and Natui'al Selection. Opened by Professor 
E. B. PouLTON, F.R.S. .'. ■. 661 

*Some Remarks on Early Development of the Head-kidney in Poly- 
gordius and Eupomatus. By C. Shearer 661 



CONTENTS. xix 



Section E.— GEOGEAPH Y. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 
Address by Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich, C.B., K.C.I.E., F.R.G.S., President 

of the Section 662 

1. The Geography of Southern Persia as affecting its History, together with 
a Brief Account of the Helmand Delta and the Great Pesert of Persia 
known as the Lut. By Major P. Moleswoeth Stkes, C.M.G..*. 677 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Yiinnan. By Captain C. H. D. Rtdek, R.E 678 

2. Colonisation aud Irrigation in Uganda and the British East Africa 
Protectorate. By R. B. Buckley, C.S.I 679 

3. Survey of the Fresh-water Lakes of the British Isles. By T. N. John- 
ston, M.B., CM 680 

4. The Jordan Valley. By Professor William Libbet, Sc.D 680 

■5. Petra. By Professor William Ltbbet, Sc.D 6S1 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. World-shaking Earthquakes in relation to Volcanic Eruptions in the 
West Indies. By John Milne, F.R.S 682 

2. ^Preliminary Note on the Windings of the Evenlode. By Dr. A. J. 
Heebeetson , 683 

3. Geographical Plant-groups in the Irish Flora. By R. Lloyd 
Peaegee, B.E 683 

4. On some Features of the Cork River-valleys. By J. Poetee 684 

5. The Peat-hogs of Ireland. By Professor T. Johnson, D.Sc 684 

6. The Island of Sakhalin aud its Inhabitants. By C. H. Hawes, B.A 684 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Motives of Antarctic Exploration. By Hugh Robeet Mill, 
D.Sc, LL.D 68.5 

2. The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. By W. S. Betjce 680 

3. The Islet of Rockall. By Rev. W. Spoxswood Geben, F.R.G.S 680 

4. ■'■Charnwood Forest, a Buried Triassic Landscape. By Professor W. W. 
Watts, F.G.S 687 

6. Second Report on Terrestrial Surface Waves and Wave-like Surfaces 
(p. 285) 687 

6. *Note on Captain Sverdrup's North Polar Expedition. By Sir Clements 
Maekham, K.C.B., F.R.S 687 

7. *With Lieutenant Peary in Greenland. By Professor William 

Libbet, Sc.D 687 

a 2 



XX 



REPORT 1902, 



Section R— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 
Addres3 by Edwin Cannan, M.A., LL.D., President of the Section 688 

1. The Localisation of Industry. By Rev. \V. Cunningham, D.D. G95 

2. The Influence of Economic History on Economic Theory. By Aeck. B. . ' 

Claek, M.A G0.5 

' 3. The Position of Economics and the Applied Sciences in a proposed 
University Training of Persons intended for a Commercial Life. 
By W. K. Scott. MA., D.PhiL, Litt.U Ol)G 

, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1 Trusts : from the Point of View of Economical Theory. By Professor 
W. Geahaai, ma. G07 

2. Shipping Combinations. By Benedict William Ginsbixrg,M.A., LL.D. 608 

3. Municipal Trading. By Hon. Robert P. Porter 690 

4. Municipal Policy and State Control. By Percy Ashley, B.A 700 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1.5. 

1. A Sketch of the Linen Industry of Ireland. By Sir R. Lloyd Patter- 

son, D.L., F.L.S 701 

2. A British Zollverein, or Preferential Tariffs within the British Empire. 

By His Honour Judge Shaw, K.O 702 

o. The Effects on Ireland of the Adoption of Free Trade by the United 
Kingdom. By Benjamin Allen, M.A ". 70.') 

4. Tlie Instability of Prices in India before 1861. By Professor T. 
MoRisoN, M.A ..". 704 

0. The Depopulation of Ireland : its Causes and Economic Results. By 

J. H. Edgar, M.A ; 705 

G. The Population of England and Wales during the Eighteenth Century. 
By Professor E. C. K. Conner, MA 70G 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Report on the Economic Effect of Legislation regulating Women's Labour 

(p. 286) 70G 

2. History of the Regulation of Home Work, 18G4-1901. By Miss B. L. 

HUTCHINS 700 

3. The Administration of the Factory and Workshops Acts by Local 

Sanitary Authorities. By Miss A. Harrison ". 707 

4. Nature's Economics. By Miss Helen Blackburn 708 

y. The Regulation of Wages in Developed Industries. By Professor S. J. 
Chapman, M.A ;.. 708 

6. Some Urgent Needs of a Great City. By Miss L. A. Waleington 70!) 

7. The Increase in Consumption iu Ireland. By Robert Brown 709 



. CONTENTS. XXI 

I 

Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 

Address by Professor JoHH' Peeby, D.Sc, F.E.S., President of the Sectiou . .. v'll 

1. IJecent Proo^ress in Large Gas Engines. By Herbert A. IlTiuPHKEr, 
A.M.Inst.U.E 72 J 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. .*3team Turbines. By Hon. 0. A.Paesons, F.R.S '. 730 

2. Report on the Resistance of Hoad Tehicles to Traction (p. 314) 730 

■3. Oil Eegular Undulations produced in a Koad by the Use of Sledges. 
'ByVATOHA^C6RXisH:,T).Sc., F.G;S., F.C.S., F.R.G.S 730 

4. -A New Elastic Vehicle Wheel. By J. Brown, F.R.S 731 

5. An All-stations Express Train. By J. Browx, F.R.S 732 

<3. The Rainfall of Ireland. By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.E. 732 

7. *Water Power in Ireland. By F. J. Dick 733 

8. A Direct Reducing Levelling Staff". By G. W. Herdmas-, B.Sc 733 

.-"''■ ■ MONDAY, SEPTEMUE12 15. 

1. *The Future of the Telephone in the United Kingdom. By J. E. 
Kingsbury 734 

"2. *A New Magnetic Testing Instrument. By F. Holden 734 

3. The Electrical Conductivity of certain Aluminium Alloys as affected by 
Exposure to London Atmosphere. By Professor Ernest Wilson 734 

'4. Some Electrical Instruments. By M. B. Field 734 

5. *The Science of the Workshop. By W. Taylor 735 

6. *The Importance of Minor Details iu Engineering Work. By M. HoL- 

EOYD Smith 7S5 

7. -^On the Specific Utilisation of Materials in Dynamo Construction. 

' "By Professor S. P. Thompson, F.R.S 735 

8. "A New Flashing Lighthouse Light without Intervals of Darkness. 

By J. R.AViGHAM 735 

9. *A Joint Discussion with Section L on the Training of Engineers 735 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER IG. 

1. Report on the Small Screw Gauge (p. 350) 735 

2. The Smokeless Combustion of Bituminous Fuel. By W. II. Booth, 
M.AmSoc.C.E •. V.^.G 

3. *The Prevention of Smoke. By J. S. Rayworth 736 

4. *the SolignacBoiler. By W. II.Booth im 

5. *The Making of a Dynamo. ..By H. A. Mavoe 73G 

6. ^Experiences with the Infantry Range-finder in the South African War. 

By Professor G.FoEBEs/F.R.S. 736 



xxii REPORT — 1902. 

Page 

7. A Preliminary Note on Gas-engine Explosions. By H. E. "VVimpeeis ... 7o6 

8. *A Note on Gas-engine Explosions. By Professor J. Perky, F.E.S 737 

9. The Direction and Velocity of Material-bearing Ocean Currents, with 
Description of an Apparatus recently designed for Estimating the same. 

By E. G. AiLANsoN-WiNN, B.A., M.Inst.C.E.1 737 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Address by A. C. IIaddon, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., M.R.I. A., President of the 

Section 738 

1. The Initiation Ceremonies of the Natives of the Papuan Gulf. By Rev. 

J. H. Holmes 752 

2. The Religious Ideas, Totems, Spirits, and Gods of Elema. By Rev. J. 

H. Holmes 752 

3. Human Souls and Ghosts among the Malays of Patani. By Nelsok 
Annandale 752 

4. *Cornelius Magrath, the Irish Giant. By Professor D. J. CmTNiNGHAM, 
M.D., F.R.S 75a 

5. *0n a Slvull modified by Acromegaly. By Professor A. F. Dixon, M.B. 753 

6. *Exhibition of Specimens illustrating Physical Anthropology. By Pro- 

fessor J. Symington, M.D., F.R.S.E " 753 

7. On some Ulster Souterrains. By William J, Fennell 753 

8. On some Ancient Subterranean Chambers recently discovered at 
Waddon, near Croydon. By George Clinch, F.G.S 754 

9. Underground Dwellings in the British Isles. By David MacRttchie, 
F.S.A.Scot 755 



FRIBA Y, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. The Oldest Bronze-Age Ceramic Type in Britain: its Close Analogies 

on the Rhine ; its Probable Origin in Central Europe. By the Hon. 
John Abeeceomby 755 

2. On Objects of the Plateau Kind from the Interglacial Gravels of Ireland. 

By AV. J. Knoavles 756 

3. On Stone Axe Factories near Oushondall, Co. Antrim. By W. J. 
Kno WLES 757 

4. The Manufacture of Arrow- and Spear-heads. By W. J. Knowles 758 

5. On a recent Discovery of PalDeolithic Implements in Plateau Gravels of 
Ipswich. By Miss Nina F. Layaed 759 

6. On a recent Find of Palaeolithic Flint Implements at Knowle, Wiltshire. 

By Wm. Cunnington, F.G.S., and Wm. A. Cunnington, Ph.D 759 



59 



7. Notes on the Excavation of a Primitive Site near Groomsport, Co. Down. 
By Robert M. Young 7 

8. On the Occurrence in Ireland of Objects of Hallstatt Types. By G. 
Coffey 7g() 

9. Report on Explorations in Crete (p. 466) 760 



CONTENTS. 2XU1 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

Page 

1. Report on Autliropometric luvestigations among the Native Troops of 

the Egyptian Army (p. 350) 760 

2. *]Srote on a Method of Radial Craniometry. By C. S. Myers, M.D 760 

3. Measurements of the Indian Coronation Contingent. By J. Geay, B.Sc. 760 

4. *Note on some Measurements of Eskimo of Southampton Island. 

By J. F. TocHEE, F.T.C 762 

5. Report on the Pigmentation Survey of the School Children of Scotland 

(p. 352) 762 

6. On the Mental and Moral Characteristics of the People of Ulster. 

By William Graham, M.D 762 

7. A Study in the Psychology of Primitive Man. By A. Amy Btjlley 764 

8. On the Lolos and other Tribes of Western China. By Augustine Henry 765 

9. On the Wild and Civilised Races of the Malay Peninsula. By Nelson 
Annandale and H. C. Robinson 766 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Lia Fail of Tara, and Election of Kings by Augury. By E. 
Sidney Hartland , 766 

2. On Perforated Stone Amulets. By F. T. Elworthy, F.S.A ;. 767 

3. Note on Two Japanese 'Bokii-to.' By E. S. Hartland 767 

4. On Tallies. By E. Lovett 767 

5. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 455) 768 

6. Preliminary Note on a Prehistoric Cemetery-cave in Palestine. By 

R. A. Stewart Macalister, M.A 768 

7. On a Survival of certain Pagan Sepulchral Symbols on Early Christian 
Monuments in Ireland. By P. J. O'Reilly 769 

8. Report on the Excavations in the Roman Fort at Gellygaer (p. 450) 769 

9. Report on the Excavations of the Roman City at Silchester (p. 453) 769 

10. On the Khami Ruins, near Bulawayo, Rhodesia. By F. P. Mennell, 
F.G.S., Curator of the Rhodesia Museum , 769 

11. *0n the Ethnography of the Nagas. -By W. H. Ftirness, M.D 770 

12. *Demonstration on the Specimens in the Anatomical Museum which 
illustrate points in Physical Anthropologv. By Professor J. Syming- 
ton, M.D ■. \ 770 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. *Exeavation8 at Palteokastro in Eastern Crete. By R. C. BosANauET, M.A. 770 

2. Report on the Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of 

Photographs of Anthropological Interest (p. 449) 770 

3. Report on the Organisation of an Ethnological Survey of Canada (p. 353) 770 

4. *0n the Classification and Arrangement of the Exhibits in an Anthropo- 
logical Museum. By W. H. Holmes 770 

5. *Suggestions for the Classification of the Subject-matter of Anthropology, 

By E. N. Fallaize, B.A 770 



SXIV 



REPORT 1902. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 
Address by Professor W. D. Hallibtjeton, M.D., F.E.S., President of 
• the Section 771 

1. *The Hydrolysi-s of Glycogen. By ^\. A.. Osborne, D.Sc, and S. Zobel 780 

2. *0n the Innervation and Movements of the Stomach. By W. Page 

Mat, MD .' 780 

3. "The Functions of the Rods and Cones of the Retina. By F. "W. 
Edeidge-Gkeen, M.D 780 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. '-'On the Diuretic Action of Pituitary Extracts. By Professor E. A. 

ScH.iFEE, F.R.S 780 

2. On the Relative Effects of Section of the Pyramidal Tracts and Anterior 

Columns in the Monkey. By Professor E. A. Sch.\fee, F.R.S 780 

3. *A Case of Paralysis of Convergence. By Cyeil Shaav, M.D. 781 

4. *Determination of the Least Perceptible Tone-diffln'ence among the People 

of the Torres Straits and of Scotland. By C. S. Mtee?;, yi.X., M.D. ... 781 

5. Some new Features in the Intimate Structure of the Human Cerebral 

Corte.x. By John Turner, M.B 781 

G. *The Nervous System of the Camel. By W. Page Mat, M.D 782 

7. Regeneration of Nerves. By AY. D. IIallibueton, M.D., F.R.S., and 
F. W. Mott, M.D., F.R.S 782 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. *The Estimation of Urea in Physiological Fluids. Bv J. Baeceoft, 
M.A,,B.Sc : 784 

2. 'Demonstration of Edinger's Apparatus for Higlier Magnifications and 
Stronger Light. By Professor Stmington, M.D., and Cecil Skaw, 
M.D 784 

3. *The Pigments of Ox Bile. By AY. A. Osboene, D.Sc 784 

4. *The Indefatigahilitv of Medullated Nerve. Bv Profesfor F. Gorcn, 
F.R.S ". " 784 

5. Report on the AYork of the Mammalian Heart (p. 470) 784 

6. Report on the Micro-Chemistry of Cells (p. 470) 784 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Address by Professor J. Retnolds Geeen, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., President of 

the Section 785 

1. 'Exhibition of Form of Erica tetrali.v from Connemara. By Professor 
I. Baylet Balfoue, F.R.S 799 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 

2. Notes on a Census of the Flora of tbe Australian Alps. (Part T.) By 
Jamfs Stirling 790 

3. On Luminous Bacteria. By J. E. Barnard and Professor Allan Mac- 
FADTEN, M.D 801 

4. Report on the Respiration of Plants (p. 472) 802 

5. Report on the Cyanophyceae (p. 473) £C2 

G. Report on tlie Collection and Preservation of Botanical Photographs 
(p. 471) 802 

7. ^Exhibition of some Characteristic Australian Plants. By Thomas 
Steel ' 802 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Electric Response of Ordinary Plants under Mechanical Stimulus, By 
Professor Jagabis Chundek Bosb, M.A., D.Sc 802 

2. The Movements of the Flower-buds of Sjmrmannia africana. By RiNA 
Scott 803 

3. *0n the Germination of Fatty Seeds. By Professor J. Reynolbs Green, 
F.R.S., and H. Jackson 804 

4. On the Suspension of Life at Low Temperatures. By Allan Mac- 
FABTEN, M.D., and Sydnet Rowland, M.A... 804 

5. Resistance of Seeds to Hiph Temperatures. By Henry H. Dixon, 
IJ.Sc " 805 

0. The Effect of Temperature on Carbon Dioxide Assimilation. By Miss 
Gabrielle L. C. Matthaei 805 

7. On the Dorsiventrality of the Podostemacese, with reference to current 
views on Evolution. By John C. Willis 80(5 

8. Foliar Periodicity in Ceylon. By Herbert Wright 807 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. *Fossil Nipa Fruits from Belgium. By A. C. Sewarb, M.A., F.R.S., 
and E. N. Arber, M.A :... 808 

2. The Seed-like Fructification of Miadesmia memhraymcfa (Bertrand), a 

Lycopodiaceous Plant from the Coal Measures. By Margaret Benson, 
D'Sc 808 

3. A possible Calymmatotheca Type of Fructification showing Structure. 

By Margaret Benson, D.Sc 808 

4. (^n some New Features in relation to Lyg'modendron oldhamium. By 

J. LoMAx 809 

5. Sporangiophores as a Clue to Affinities among Pteridophyta. By D. H. 
Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S 810 

G. Notes on the Morphology of the Araucarieie. By Sibille O. Forb 810 

7. On the Occurrence of the Nodular Concretions (Coal Balls) in the Lower 
Coal Measures. By James Lomax 811 

8. The Morphology of Sporangial Integuments. By W. C. Worsdell 812 

9. *0n Ancient and Modern Seeds. By Professor F. W. Oliver, D.Sc. ... 813 



XXvi REPORT — 1902. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

Page 

1. On the Morphology of the Seed and Seedling of Torreya. By Professor 

F, W. Olivee, D.Sc, and Miss Edith CniCK 814 

2. The Nature of the Vascular System of the Stem in certain Dicotyle- 
donous Orders. By W. C. WoESDELL 814 

3. The Composition of the Flora of the North-east of Ireland. By R. Lloyd 
Peaegee 815 

4. *The Nucleus of the Oyanophyceaj. By Harold Wager 816 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. A Disease of the Gooseberry, with Notes on Botrytis and Sclerotium. 

By Miss Annie Loeeain SiiiTH 816 

2. On the Morphology of the Flowers in certain species of Lonicera. By 

E. A. Newell Aebee, M.A., F.GS 816 

3. Some Inquiry into the Physics of the Flow of Fluids in Plant Stems. 

By Professor R. J. Anderson, M.D., F.L.S 817 

4. *The Function of the Nucleolus. By Harold Wager, F.L.S 818 

5. Samsii, a Fermented Drink of Eastern Asia, and its Characteristic 

Fungus. By B. T. P. Baekee 818 

6. *The Darnel Seed-fungus. By E. M. Feeemax 819 

7. Sex in Ceylon Species of ileos/jyro*. By Heebeet Wright 819 

8. Weisiarostellata,'L\ndih.,mlve\mA. By J. H. Davies 819 

9. *'i^^o Y&\itiKs oi Trifolium pratense perenne. By AV. Wilson 819 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Address by Professor Henet E. Aemsteong, LL.D., Ph.D., V.P.R.S , 

President of the Section 820 

1. Report on the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics (p. 473) 844 

2. -^On Recent Reforms in Irish Education. By Dr. W. J. M. Staekie ... 844 

3. The Subjects to be taught as Science in Schools, and the Order in which 
they should be taken. By Dr. C. W. Kimmins 844 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

^' ^^ Iptroduction of Practical Instruction into Irish National Schools. 
By \\. Maxhowe Heller 845 

2. *Intermediate Education in Ireland. By R. M. Jones, M.A 846 

3. *Intermediate Education in Ireland. By Rev. Father Mttrphy 846 

4. *The Relation of Technical Instruction to Industrial Development in 
Ireland. By T, P. Gill 847 



CONTENTS. XXVll 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

Page 

1. Report on the Conditions of Health Essential to the carrying-on of the 
Work of Instruction in Schools (p. 483) 847 

2. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools (p. 481) 847 

y. *Discussion on the Training of Teachers. Opened by Miss L. Edna 
Walter and Professor H. L. Withees 847 

4. *Joint Discussion with Section G on the Training of Engineers 847 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. *A Universal Language. By Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., E.R.S 847 

2. ^Discussion on the Teaching of English. Opened hy P. J. Haetog, B.Sc, 847 

.3. The Neglect of English Grammar. By Professor Minchin 847 

4. *Joint Discussion with Section A on the Teaching of Mathematics 848 

6. On the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics. By A. W. Siddons, M.A. 848 



APPENDIX. 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. Whitaeer (Chairman), Dr. J. G. Gaeson (Secretary), Professor 
Meldola, Mr. Feancis Galton, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor Bonnet, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Dr. Horace T. Beown, Rev. J. O. 
Bevan, Professor W. W. Watts, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. C. H. 
Read, and Mr. F. W. Rtjdler. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 851 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held at 

Belfast, September 1902 856 

Address by the Chairman, Professor W. W. Watts, M. A., M.Sc, Sec. G.S. 858 
A Plea for a Pigmentation Survey of School Children in Ireland. By 

J. F. Tochee 865 

A Plea for an Ordnance Map Index of Prehistoric Remains. By Charles 
H. Read, F.S.A 870 



EERATA. 

The Movements of Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire : 

Page 225, line 16, /or 1,225 read 825. 
., „ „ 17 „ 1,200 „ 800. 



XSViii REPORT— 1902. 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 

IlIustratiDg the Report on Seismological Investigation. 

Plate II. 

Illustrating the Eeport on the Movements of Underground Waters of 
North-west Yorkshire. 

Plates III.-YII. 
Illustrating the Report on the Resistance of Road "\'ehicle3 to Traction. 



I 



/ 



OBJECTS AND KULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

Thr Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

AllMembers of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Suescribees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXX REPORT — 1902. 

grahcitously tlie Reports of the Association for the year of theii- admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay witJiout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to inircliase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members lulio have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale at £10 the set. 



RULKS OF THE ASSOCIATION. xxxi 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or lono-er. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance ' ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Go'inmittee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meetino- or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of stih- 
mitting neiv claims und.er this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must be 
sent to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting 
of the Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to he placed on the list of the General Committee to he final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rtde to be sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year by 
the President and General Secretaries. ' 

4. Yice- Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to exercise the func- 
tions of Sectional Committees until their names are submitted to the 
General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,'' and of preparing Reports 

' Revised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 

• Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

' Passed, Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. 

* Notice to Contributors of Memoirs.— Authors are reminded that under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the day's on which 



Xxxii REPORT — 1902. 

thereon, and on the order in whicli it is desirable that they should be 
read. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold si^'j|j;^reliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expe^^t, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of^he Annual Meeting, at 
2 P.M., to appoint members of the Sectional Cornmittee.^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Seci-etaries of each Section, who will be appointed by the 
General Committee at 4 p.m., and those previous Presidents and Vice- 
Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., 
in their Committee Rooms, and appoint the Sectional Committees by 
selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. Any 
Member who has intimated the intention of attending the Meeting, and 
who has already served upon a Committee of a Section, is eligible for 
election as a Member of the Committee of that Section at its first 
meeting.'' The Sectional Committees thus constituted shall have power 
to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute. 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,-^ Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee except for Saturday.*^ 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 
the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections bffure the leginning of the Mueting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each author should ]:repare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book- post, on or 

before.... addressed to the' General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and' 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary hefore the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Sheffield, 1879. 2 Swansea, 1880, revised, Dover, 1899. 

' Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. « Glasgow, 1901. 

^ The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. " Nottingham, 1893. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlll 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 

ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the 6rst meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
[(ast year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
.and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
xead the Report of the Organising Committee. ^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed.^ At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
■to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal, It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional ]\Ieetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxxi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special cbjscts of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 

' Plymouth, 1877. * Edinburgh, 1871. 

1902. b 



XXXiv REPORT — 1902, 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman tO' 
have the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has 
been made) and securing the presentation of the report in due time ; and, 
further, it is expedient that one of the members should be appointed tO' 
act as Secretai-y, for ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on 
a Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient working. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommenda- 
tion of each Section shoald be sent each year to the Recorders of the 
several Sections, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the 
several Committees appointed on the recommendation of their respective 
Sections had presented their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee- 
for a special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, the number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, 
but that the Members to serve on such Committee be nominated and 
selected by the Sectional Committee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for pi'esentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this he 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can, 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. "^ 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

5. In each Committee the Chairman is the only person entitled to 

call on the Treasurer, Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of any description are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Council. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desii'able. 

■ The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours 
of meeting of the Section and of the Sectional Committee, except for Saturday. 

b2 



XXXvi REPORT — 1902. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Official Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they ai-e appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed en 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Committee of Recommendations are the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General and Assistant- 
General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents 
of the Association in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.' 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

' Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
» Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVU 



Corresponding Societies? 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of Jnne preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, a 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars ivith regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; rhose papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio membei's. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



xxxviii REPORT — 1902. 

the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into eSect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the sevei-al recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations cleai'ly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 



Local Comviittees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the OflBcers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Offi^cers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Conncil appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

6. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 
Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

■whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and CoTnmunications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. , 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



xl 



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Ijii 



TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831— 1903. 



TRUSTEES. 
MuECHisoN (Bart.), 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. 

r.R.s. 

1S32-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-3'.) C. BabbagE, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Bailt, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabixe, F.R S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1872 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

AVEBUBY), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Platfaie, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckeb, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Gbay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 \V. gfOTTiswooDE, Esq., F.R.S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
1891-98 Prof. A. W. RiJCKEE, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S* 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1833- 



36 



1836-37 



Ret. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.g. 

Rev. W. 



1837 

1839 

1843- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 



-39 
-45 

.50 

52 

53 
59 
61 
62 
63 



1863-65 



1865- 
1866- 



Veekon Harcouet, 

Veenon Harcouet, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 

Veenon Haecoubt, 
MuechisoN, 



F.R.S., and R. I. 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. 'Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Colonel E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., ahd 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. HiKST, F.R.S. 



1868-71 Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S., and Di"i 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T.THOMSON,E.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. D. Galton, E.R.S.. and 

Dr. Michael Fostbe, F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, E.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclatee, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfoue, F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
I 1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecoubt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G. Veenon Haecoubt, Esq,, 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFEE, F.R.S. 

Prof. SCHAPEE, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Robebts-Austen,F.R.S. 
02 Sir W. C. Robeets-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. ScotT, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott. F.R.S.. and 

Major P. A. MacMahon, 

F.R.S. 



1897- 
1900 
1900^ 



1902 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Foebes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. GoEDON, Esq., B.A., 

Assigtant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. ATCHISON, Esq,, M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A. Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A. 
1902 J. G. Gaeson, Esq., M.D. 



Hv 



RfiPORl — 1902. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Associationt 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies ailbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Wliewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Ooddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Piof . Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838^ 
1839. 
1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1862. 

1853. 

1854. 

1 S55. 

1856, 

1857. 



Dublin IRev. Dr. Robinson 

Bristol Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S 

Liverpool... Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S. ... 
Newcastle 
Birmingham 
Glasgow ... Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 



Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart.. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Wliewell, F.R.S.... 



Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'CulIoch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Ptof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Swansea ...Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

Birmingham William Hopkin.?, F.R.S 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Oiford 



Edinburgh .Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 
I Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

P.R.S., F.R.S.E. I 

Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 



Ipswich ... 
Belfast...... 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'CulIoch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly,. 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G.. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G.. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W.. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof. Smyth, • 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, . 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran-- 

kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt,. 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof.. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. • 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, . 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. . 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, . 
Prof. Stevelly. 



i 



PRESIDENTS AND SECilETAiliES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



Kev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., j 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S... .| 

I 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

-p T> O I 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 
I F.R.A.S. 

iProf. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

! F.R.S. 

I Prof. Sir W.Thomson, D.C.L., 

I F.R.S. 

'Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



1872. 


Brighton . 


1873. 


Bradford . 


1874. 


Belfast.... 


1875. 


Bristol.... 


1876. 


Glasgow . 


1877. 


Plymouth. 


1878. 


Dublin.. . 


1879. 


Sheffield . 


1880. 


Swansea . 


1881 


York 


1882. 
1883. 


Southamp 

ton. 
Southport 


1884. 


Montreal 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

I 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. .' 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 

M.R.I.A. 
Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G . C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 
Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 
Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 
S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 
J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 
Whit worth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 
Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L.Glaisher, 
Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 
W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J.W.L.Glaisher,Prof. Herschel, Ran- 
j dal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rodwell. 
•■ Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 
1 C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
I Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley. 
Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 
T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 
J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. AyrtX)n, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge 

D. JlacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, 0. J. Lodge, D, MacAlister. 



M 



EsroUT — lOU::!. 



Date and Place 



1885 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 



5. Aberdeen... 



Birmingham 
Manchester 



Bath. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff . 



Edinburgli 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswicli ... 
liiverpool... 



1897. Toronto . 

1898. Bristol.... 

1899. Dover .... 

1900. Bradford, 

1901. Glasgow , 

1902. Belfast... 



Presidents 



Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.8. 
R. T. Glazebrook-, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Tliomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, 5I.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S.— Z*^^. 

of Astronomy, Dr. A. A. 

Common, F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 

— Dcp. pf Aslronomy, Prof. 

H. H. Tm-ner, F.R.S. 
Prof.J.Piirser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 

— Dtp. of Antronomy, Prof. 

A. Schnster, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. K. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

TyOdge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Barnes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge,"Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker. W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J.C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L Howard, C. H. 

Lees. W. Watson, E. T. VVhittaker. 
J. L. Howard, 0. H. Lees, W. Wat- 

son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wapstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H. S. Carslaw, C H. Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 



1832. 
18.33. 
1834. 

1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1340. 

1841. 
1842. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MIKERALOGT. 



.John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Chrislison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 
Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. John.stoc. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 

path. 
Prof. Jolinston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

Reynolds. 
Prof ."Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 
Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. ""Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, R.Hunt,W.M. Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J, Graham. 



PltESlDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 



1843. Cork I Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 'r. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

1844. York iprof. T. Graham, F.U.S ; Dr. L.Pla)'fair,E.Solly,T.H.Barker. 

1845. Cambridge ,B.sv. Prof. Gumming JR. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. i-olly. 

Michael Faraiay, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A.,iB. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly 

1 F.R.S. 

1848. Swansea ...Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

1845). Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

18.50. Edinburgh j Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 

18.51. Ipswich ... j Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
1852. Belfast Thomas Andre ws,M.D.,F.R.S. 



1853. Hull Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

: F.R.S. 

1854. Liverpool Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 



T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 



1855. Glasgow ... Dr. L}'onPlayfair,C.B..F.R.S. 

1856. Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ...'J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

j I Voclcker. 

1857. Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

I M.R.I.A. livan. 

1858. Leeds Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, E. Eey- 

1 D.C.L. nolds. 

1859. Aberdeen... iDr.LyonPlayfair,C.B.,F.R.S. J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

j Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

1860. Oxford i Prof . B. C. Brodie, F.R.S A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

I I A. B. Northcote. 

1861. Manchester Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S.' A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

1862. Cambridge i Prof. W.H.]\iiller,M.A.,F.R.S. | H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

I Roscoe. 

1863. Newcastle IDr. Alex. W. Williamson, Prof. Liveing, H. L.Pattinson, J. C. 



F P S 

1864. Bath i W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S 

1865. Birmingham Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

H. Pence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter | Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

E. Roscoe, B.A., 

Prof. T. Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 
t 

1873. Bradford ... Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

1874. Belfast 'prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

I F.R.S.E. 

1875. Bristol A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 



1870. Liverpool... Prof. H. 

F.R.S. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 



1876. Glasgow ... 



Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R, 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
AVank]}'n, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J, 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrons:, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 



Iviii 



EEPOET — 1902. 



Date and Place 



1877. Pljmiouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

npon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Presidents 



F.A.Abel, F.K.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. A. W.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
i Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
|W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tildon, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



1895. Ipswich . 

1896. Liverpool. 
1897 Toronto . 



1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 



1900. Bradford , 

1901. Glasgow , 

1902. Belfast..., 



SKCTION B {continued).- 
jProf. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

I 

Prof. Percy F. Franklacd, 
I F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 



Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 
H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 

ley,W.W. J.Nicol, C. J.Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morlev, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Blorley. 

— CHEMISTEY. 

E. H. Fison. Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn.J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C.A.Kohn,F. W. Stoddart, T. K. Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGKAPHT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S : John Taylor. 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S jW. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof . Jameson J, Phillips,!. J. Torrie, Rev. J, Yates, 



^reSideKTs and secretaries of the sections. 



liJt 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1811. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849 



Dublin . 
Bristol , 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle, a 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge . 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



, Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh' 



E. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6'co<7.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

G'ef(7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geoqraphy, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

G'tv9.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— fi'eo^., 

G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. 
H. T. DelaBeche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

1 Richard E. Griffith, F.E.S. ... 
I Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 

Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 
F.E.S. 

Leonard Horner, F.E.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.E.S 

Sir Eoderick I. Murchison, 
F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, E. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M.Denham,R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. — 
Gcoqraphy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. E. Strickland, J. Scoular. 

W.J.Hamilton,Edward]\Ioore,M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, E. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldlmm, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Eiiskin. 
S.Benson,Prof. Oldham, Prof. Ram say 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast ! 


1853. 
1854. 


Hull 

Liverpool . . ' 


1855. 
1856. 


Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham : 


1857. 


Dublin 1 


1858. 
1859. 


Leeds 

Aberdeen,.. 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge i 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864 


Bath 







SECTION (continued). — geology. 
WilliamHopkins.M.A., F.R.S. 



Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.E.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins.M. A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bimbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W.Shaw, 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 



Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixv. 



Ix 



REPORT — 1902. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1865. 

1866. 

18o7. 
1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 



Birmingham Sir R. J. MiircliisoD, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Nottingham Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Dundee ... Archibald Geikie, F.R.S....... 

Norwich ... R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Exeter Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

I F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Seclretaries 



Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton... 



Bradford , 
Belfast..., 



Bristol... 
Glasaow 



R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T.AVright,F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



1877. Plymouth... I W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
1878. 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1881. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

189G. 
1897. 



Dublin ;john Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Sheffield ... Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
Swansea ... H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
York A. C.Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Southamp- R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

ton. 
Southport 



Montreal .., 
Aberdeen . . . 



Bath. 



Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S , Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 
I G.S. 
Birmingham I Prof. T. G. Bonnev, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Manchester Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L.. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool . . . 
Toronto ... 



W. "Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 
F.R.S. 



Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Penffelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W, Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. n. H. AVinwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Toplev, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall.R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E.B.Tawney.W.Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W, 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W, Top' 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, >V. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H, 
Teall, AV. Topley. 

W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W, 
Toplev, W. W. Watts. 

J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. AVatts. 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 
AV. AVatts, H. B. AVoodward." 

Prof. G. A. Lebour. J. E. Marr, W. 
AV. AVatts, H. B. AVoodward. 

J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 
E. Marr, AV. AV. AVatts. 

W. Gallowav, J. E. Marr, Clement 
Reid, AV. AV. AVatts. 

H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 
Reid, AV. W. AVatts. 

J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 
Reid, W. AV. AVatts. 

F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 
Reid, W. AV. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. AV. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers. C. Reid. 

Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. AV. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 



PHESIDENTS and SEOnETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 



1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford.. 

1901. Glasgow 



Presidents 



W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

John Home, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miors, 

H. Pentecost. 
J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDakin, Prof. H. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. Lower 

Carter, G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. 

Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 



1902. Belfast jLieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, i H. L. Bowman, H. \V. Monckton 

: F.R.S. ; J, St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. ' 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...iRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

Rev. W.L. P. Gainons, F.L.S.jC. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham |W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



18.33. Cambridge' 
1834. Edinburgh, 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

j Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay |C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenjms, W. 

i Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

j Dr. Richardson, 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S IE. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D ,Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 

! terson. 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. ; J. Couch.Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her-, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J A 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. I Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S....G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R, 

Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man-' Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. Kino-, 
Chester. I Dr. Lankester. "' 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S. ...Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 



Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). zoology and BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixiv.] 

Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, BI.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 



1848. Swansea ..,' L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S. 



1849, Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 



1851. Ipswich ...iRev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 
i F.R.S. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixiv. 



Ixii 



EEPORT — 1902. 



Date and Place 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 



Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



Bath. 



B i r m i n g- 
ham ' 



Presidents 



W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S... . 
Kev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof . Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D„ I'.R.S, ... 



Secretaries 



Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke. Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton 



Prof. Huxley, F.B..S.—I)t'j). 

of PlnjsiuL, Prof. Humphry, 

F.R.S. — Dc2). of Anthrojjol., 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpcy, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Di'j). of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— De2). of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.E.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Etlino., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M. A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F. !..•&.— Bep. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,'Brof.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Z'(>;;. 
ofEthno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i3«yA of Bot. and 
^ooZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
'F.'K.^.—Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

SirJ. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burden Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— i>ej9. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. E. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 



\ The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



p 



Date and Place 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast . 



187S. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Prof. Allman.F.E.S.— Z>e^. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,VicQi. Eu' 
therf ord, M.'D.—Bep. ofAn- 
thropol. Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S 

Prof. Kedfern, W.D.—Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.E.S.— 7>(77.oM;i- 
tkrop.,^\x W.E.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, Y.^.%.— Bep.of 

Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 

Cleland, Y.B,.^.~Bep. of 

^«^7t.,Prof.Eolleston,F.E.S. 

A.. Eussel Wallace, F.L.S. — 
Bej}. of Zool. and Bat., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.E.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
Anthropol.,¥.(jiA\ion,¥.'S..h. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.E.S.— 
Bej}. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. E.S. — Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., E. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.'R.S.—Bep. of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A.C. L. Giinther, F.R.S.— Bep. 
of Anat. Jj- Physiol, F. M. 
Balfour, F.H.S.—Bep. of 
Anthropol., F. W. Eudler. 

E. Owen, F.R.S.— Bep. of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S.—Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burden 
Sanderson, F.E.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins. F.E.S. 

Prof. E. Eay Lankester, M. A., 
F.R.S.—Bep. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.E.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

"P T> C 

Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.E.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 

E. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Eay Lankester, F. W. Eudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, E. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pj'e- Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Eudler. 

E. E. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. E. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Eudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. E. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Di. 
Knox, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. E. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Eowe, 

F. W. Eudler. 

Dr. E. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. E. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B. Eowe, F. W. Eudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
J. B. Eowe, F. W. Eudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Eev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. E. E. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGr^or-Eobertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 



' Anthropolog.y was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxi. 



Ixiv 



REPORT — 1902. 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford 2 ... 



Presidents 



Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.E.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bajdey Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailer, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. B. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 
1900. 


Dover 

Bradford... 


1901. 
1902. 


Glasgow ... 
Belfast 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology, 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Dr. K. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 



G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 
W. Garstang, .J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. Haviland... 
1 Dr. Abercrombie 



Dr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 
Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

183G. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly. M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J.Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxii. 
^ The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



phesidents and secretaries of the sections. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 




Secretaries 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 
184.3. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865, 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham - 



P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec. E.S. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

I Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S 



J. Butter, J. Fuge, E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormcrod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Eol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.E.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 



Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S, 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Strutl.ers, 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smitli, 
G, F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. \V. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Iviii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich ,.. 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesnej', R.A., D.C.L., 

R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.E.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Eev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Havtland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 



' Sections D and E were incorporated under the name of ' Section D— Zoology 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Isi). Section E, being then vacant, 
was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

- X'ida not€ on page Isii. 
190->. d 



Ixvi 



HBPORT — 1902, 



Date and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 
J864. Bdth 

1865. Bitmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Mnrchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S i 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.F., E.G. B., F.R.S. 
Sir Chatles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

C£lpt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
' F.R.S. 



Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Himt, Dr. C. 
Lempri&re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Not- 
ion Shaw, W. Spottiswoodfe. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev, E. T. Cusins, R. 

II. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



1869, 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875, 

1876. 
1877, 
1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

1882. 

1883, 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 



'section e {continued). — geogeaphy. 

Exeter Sir Bertie Frere, K.C.B., 

! LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Livelrpool... ' SirR.I.Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 

I LL.t).,D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Edinbutgh .Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 



Brighton ...Francis Galton, F.R.S 

i 

Bradford ... ! Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. 



Belfast. 
Bristol . 



Glasgow . 
Plymouth. 
Dublin..,. 



Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal .,, 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. - General Strachey, 
R.E., C.S.L, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R.S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

SirR. Temple, Bart., G,C.S,L, 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G.,F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.B., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 
K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir C. AVarren, R.E., 
G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R, Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J, 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham, 
E. G. Ravenstein, E, C, Rye, J, H, 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F, F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 
H. W, Bates, F, E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. 0. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E, G, Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.AbbeLaflamme, JiS. 0'Halloran> 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltic, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. RavensteiHi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF TflE SECTIONS 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


1890. 


upon-T3'ne 
Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto . . . 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 


Dover 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 



Presidents 



Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 
K.C.B., F.R.S., F.K.G.S. 

Col. Sir F. de Winton, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. -Col. Sir K. Lambert 
Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S 



Secretaries 



J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, K. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 



E. G. Eavenstein, r.E.G.S.,lJohn Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
F.S.S. I kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.K.S.. ! J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 



V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 
F.Z.S. 



Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 
Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
Capt. W.J. L.Wharton, R.N., John Coles, W. S. Dalsrleish, H. N. 

F.R.S. I Dickson, Dr. H. R. MUl. 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A.,'john Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

F.R.G.S. I R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 

Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. i Col. F. Bailev. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. E. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. E. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. E. Mill, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. E. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. E. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 
G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 
A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 



J. Scott-Keltie, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John MuiTay, F.E.S. 

Sir George S. Eobertson, 

K C S I 
Dr. if. E. Mill, F.E.G.S. 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 



1833, 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, TI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.E.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart 1 Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS, 

Dublin 'Charles Babbage, F.E.S ,W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. I Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 



Bristol 
Liverpool... 



Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon , 



Newcastle [Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Birmingham I Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Glasgow ...I Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Plymouth... Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S.... 

Manchester G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. 



W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 
I Tayler. 

W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.E.Wood. 
' F. Clarke, E. W. Eawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, E.W. 
< Eawson. 
Eev. Dr. Byrth, Eev. E. Luney, E. 

W. Eawson. 
Eev. E. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 



1843. Cork Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. 

1.844. York Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S., J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay 

F.L.S. I cock. 

1845. Cambridge Et.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 

1846. Southamp- G. E. Porter, F.R.S : J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W 

ton. i C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 

1847. Oxford Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.E.S. Eev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G, 

' P. Neison. 

1848. Swansea ... J. H. Vivian, M.P,, F.R.S. ,..!J. Fletcher, Capt, E. Shortrede, 

d2 



Ixvili 



REPORT — 1902. 



Date and Place 



1849 Birmingham 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Et. Hon. Lord Lyttelton Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

I I Neison. 

1850. Edinburgh jVery Eev. Dr. John Lee, j Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J,- 

V.P.R.S.E. ! Stark. 

1851. Ipswich ... 'sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... j J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

1852. Belfast [His Grace the Archbishop of Prof . Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James* 



Dublin. 

1853. Hull ' James Heywood, M.P,,F.R.S. 

1854. Liverpool... 'Thomas Tooke, F.E.S 

1855. Glasgow ...E. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 

I 



MacAdam, jun. 

Edward Cheshire, \V. Newmarch. 

E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, "W, New- 
march, Prof. E. H. Walsh. 

SECTION F (continued). — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

1856. Cheltenham Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P, jEev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W, 
I M. Tartt. 

1857. Dublin 'His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Button, W. 

I Dublin, M.R.I.A. I Newmarch. 

1858. Leeds | Edward Baines ,T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 

1859. Aberdeen.. . I CohSykes, M.P., F.E.S. - --- 



1860. Oxford j Nassau \V. Senior, M.A 

1861. Manchester William Newmarch, F.E.S., 



Edwin Cliadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.E.S. . 



1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle , 

1864. Bath W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.E.S 

1865. Birmingham Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee IM. E. Grant-DufE, M.P. 



1868. Norwich.... Samuel Brown 

1869. Exeter ' Et. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 



1870. Liverpool. 



I cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

i Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrorj-, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Eogers. 
David Chad wick. Prof. E. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Eogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
E. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J, 

Warden, 
Eev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 
E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D, 

Acland. 
Chas. E. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 



1871. Edinburgh |Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

1872. Brighton ... ' Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 

1873. Bradford ...jEt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 

1874. Belfast Lord O'Hagan 'Prof. Donuell, F. P. Fellows, Hans- 

I I MacMordic. 

1875. Bristol , James Heywood, M,A., F.E.S., 'F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 

Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 



1876. Glasgow 

1877. Plymouth... 



Pres. S.S 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Et. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 

1878. Dublin Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 

1879. Sheffield ...G.Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. I Prof . Adamson, R, E." Leader, C, 

I S.S. I Molloy. 

1880. Swansea ... G. W. Hastings, M.P N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 

1881. York lEt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff.iC. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

M.A., F.E.S. Moss. 

1882. Southamp- Et. Hon. G. ScIater.Booth.iG. Baden-Powell, Prof, H. S. Fox- 

tofa. M.P, F.E.S, ' well, A. Milnes. C, Molloy, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
X890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 
1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902, 



Southport I R. H. Ingiis Palgrave, F.B.S. 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen.,, 

Birmingham 



Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. MoUoy. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan. 

G.C.S.I,, CLE., F.B.G.S. I Prof. J. Watson. 
Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Litt.D. Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham 
I I Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 

Manchester;RobertGiffen, LL.D.,V,P.S.S. Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
I j worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

1 ! J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 

Bath Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott. 

LL.D., F.R.S. I H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 

Newcastle- Pi-of. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A.,iRev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 
upon-Tyne| F.S.S. I F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 

Leeds 'Prof. A. Marshall, M. A., F.S.S. 'W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro. 

L. L. F. R. Price. 

Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

I E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

I Prof. W. R. Sorley. 

Edinburgh Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle, i Prof . J. Brough, J. R. Findlav, Prof . 



Cardiff 'Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 

' D.Sc, F.S.S. 



K.C.B. 



Nottingham Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 



Oxford . , 
Ipswich 



Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 



Higgs, 



E. C. K. Gonner, H 
L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 
Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 
L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 
H. Higgs. 
Liverpool... I Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P....|E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 

Toronto ... Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A, ~ ' 

Bristol J, Bonar, M.A., LL.D. 



Dover ' H. Higgs, LL.B 

I 
Bradford ... Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 



E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Short*. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

VV. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 
I j Chapman, F. Hooper. 

Glasgow ...'Sir R.Giffen,K.C.B., F.R.S. W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

I Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
Belfast ... E. Cannan, M.A,, LL.D. ... A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 
i I Dr. A. Duffin. 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

J845, Cambridge 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A. 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C.ViRnoles. T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, AVilliam Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C, Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. y{. T, Kingslej^', 



Ixx 



REPORT — 1902. 



Date and Place 



1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingfham 
18.50. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge. 

1863. Newcastle . 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp. 

ton. 

1883. Southport . 



Presidents 



Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Pairbairn, F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. AV. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R. S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres.Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.CE. 



Secretaries 



William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struv6. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grant ham , J. Oldham, J . Thomson . 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery, 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright, 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright, 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquliart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. Barlo w,H. Bauerman. E.H. Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brimel, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T> 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg.H. T.Wood. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



ixxi 



Date and Place 



1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 
1886 Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1889. Newcastle. 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891, Cardiff 

1892, Edinburgh 
1898. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich .,, 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto .., 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S.. 

M.Inst.C.E, 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.8., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A„ M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. ¥. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B,, 

Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Alex. R. Binnle, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 



A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg. P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon, 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E, 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 
i S. Dunkevley, W. B. Marshall. 
J Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 
I dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Mmro, 
I H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 
i E. Stilgoe. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 

Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 
H. Bamf ord, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylle. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. 
1885. 


Montreal... 
Aberdeen... 


1886, Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1.888, 


Bath 


1889. 
1890. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


^8.93 


Npttinghapii 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell. K.C.S.I. 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B,, 

LL.D,, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
[Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... 
I 
Prof. A. Macalister, M.A. 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R, Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W, 

Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G.' W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 
' G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G, W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. My res. 



Ixxii 



REPORT — 1902. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich .. 

1896. Liverpool.. 

1897. Toronto .. 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., IH. Balfour, Dr. J. G.Garson, H. Ling 

F.R.S. ! Roth. 

. ' Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, J. L. M>Tes, Rev. J. J. Eaven, H. 

I Ling Both. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, J. L. Mvres, O. Parker. 
H. Balfour, W. H. JEast, Prof. A. C, 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
Rev. F. Armitage, H. Balfour, W, 
j i Crooke, J. L. Myres. 

.Prof. D. J. Cunningham, I W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 
; F.R.S. i Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 

. Dr. A, C. Haddon, F.R,S. ... R, Campbell, Prof, A. F. Dixon, 
i ' J, L. Myres. 



D.C.L. 
Ai-thur J. Evans, F.S.A. 

SirW. Turner, F.R.S. .. 

E. W, Brabrook, C.B. .. 
C. H. Read, F.S.A. 



1900. Bradford... Prof, John Rhys, M. A 

1901. Glasgow . 

1902. Belfast . 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimentai. 

Pathology and E.\perimental Psychology). 

1894. Oxford JProf. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S.,;Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S, Hr.ldane, 



M.R.C.S. 

1896. Liverpool... Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. 

1897. Toronto .,.'• Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S, 



1899. Dover .. 

1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast 



J J. N. Langley, F.R.S. 
1 Prof. J. G. McKendrick. 



SI. S- Pembre)'. 
Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 
Prof, R. Boyce, Prof. C, S. Sherring- 
ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 
Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 

H. Starling. 
W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 
I W. H. Thompson. 
Prof. W. D. Hallibnrton.'j. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 
F.R.S. i C.Shaw. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. Ipswich ... W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R S, 

1896. Liverpool... Dr. D. H. Scott, f!r.S 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

1898. Bristol Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ... 

1899. Dover i Sir George King, F.R S 

1900. Bradford ... Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S, 

1901. Glasgow ...;Prof. 1. B. B.ilfour, F.H.'s."."! 

1902. Belfast ... 'prof. J. R. Green, F.R S ' 



I A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 
j Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
A. C, Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 
G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W, West. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott. 

Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager, 
A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. WaddeU, 

H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

1901. Glasgow ... Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ...|R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. T. 

Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 



1902. Belfast 



Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 



H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 
B. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 
Prof. H. L. Withers. 



LIST OF EVENINO DISOOUBSES. 

LIST OF EVENING DISCOUKSES. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843, Cork , 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

top. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 

1850. 



Swansea ... 

Birmingham 

Edinbursrh 



1851, Ipswich ... 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull, 



1854, 
1855. 
1856, 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
pheltenham 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



Charles Vignoles, F.E.S 

Sir M.L Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.P.oyal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G, Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W, R. Grove, F.R.S 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Russia. 
The Dinornis of New Zealand. 
The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the ^gean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope, 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 
Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Geology of Russia. 
Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 
Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 
Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 

discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 

some Researches of his own on the 

Decomposition of Water by Heat. 
Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 
The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 
Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 

and its Neighbourhood. 
Recent Microscopical Discoveries, 
Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 
Transit of different Weights with 

varying Velocities on Railways. 
Passage of the Blood through the 

minute vessels of Animals in oon» 

nection with Nutrition. 
Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 
Distinction between Plants and 

Animals, and their changes of 

Form. 
Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 
Recent Discoveries in the properties 

of Light. 
Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 

Carrickf ergus, and geological and 

practical considerations connected 

with it. 
Some peculiar Phenomena in the 

Geology and Physical Geography 

of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the results of 

Cuneiform Research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 



Ixxiv 



REPORT — 1902. 



Date and Place 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

il859. Aberdeen... 



jl860. Oxford 

)1861. Manchester 

11862. Cambridge 

11863. Newcastle 



jl864. Bath 

11865. Birmingham 

11866. Nottingham 
jl867. Dundee 



■,1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

J870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 

1876, Glasgow .. 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn. R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller,M.A.,F.E.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.,.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. . 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Hugging, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.. 

Alexander Herschel,F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Froi.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F R S 
Prof. W.' K. Clifford 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.8. 



The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light, 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks Of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archfeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagina- 
tion. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hj'pothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances, 

Force. 

The 'Challenger' Expedition, 



LIST OP EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 



1877. Plymouth. 

1878. Dublin ... 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



Lecturer 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. E.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. BaU. F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. CardiflE 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

189C. Ipswich .,, 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 



Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Se 

Rev. W. H. DaUinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.E.S. ... 

John Murray, F.E.S.E 

A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof.W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.E.S. 
Prof. \V. C. Roberts- Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,r.G.S. 

Prof.A.W,Eucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smith ells, B.Sc. 
Prof, Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.E.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.E.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. W. C. Eoberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
J, Milne, F.R.S 



Physical Phenomena connected with 

the Mines of Cornwall and Devon, 
The New Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas ot 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Palason* 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms, 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance, 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 
Dust. 
The Modern Microscope in Re-. 

searches on the Least and Lowest. 

Forms of Life. 
The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorption. 
The Great Ocean Basins. 
Soap Bubbles. 
The Sense of Hearing. 
The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 
Explorations in Central Africa. 
The Electrical Transmission of 

Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some Difficulties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 
Flame. 
Th*e Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 
Experiences and Prospects of 

African Exploration. 
Historical Progress and Ideal So-. 

cialism. 
Magnetism in Rotation. 
The Work of Pasteur and its various, 

Developments. 
Safety in Ships. 
Man before Writing. 
Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 



Ixxvi 



EEPORT— 1902. 



Date and Place 


Lecti;rer 


Subject of Discourse 


1898. 


Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 

Belfast ... 


Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.E.S. :.. 


Funafuti : the Study of a Coral Island. 

Phosphorescence. 

La vibration nerveuse. 


1899. 


Prof. Charles Richet 


1900. 


Prof. J. Fleming, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.E.S 

Prof W. Stroud 


TheCentenary of the Electric Current 

Animal Electricity. 

Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 


1901. 
1902. 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

F. Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. 
1868. 
1869, 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 
188.5. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 
Exeter .. 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller" M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Liverpool . . . 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 
Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool. . . 
Toronto . 
Bristol.,.. 



1900. 
1901. 



Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. C.irpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

SirJohn Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



1902. Belfast 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H. J, Mackinder, M.A 

Trof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 



I 



Slatter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oirygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 
[ Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 
'The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their enemies and Signal to their 

friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Lan^ 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 



Ixxvii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE BELFAST MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Vroi. John Purser, M.A., LL.D., M.R.I.A. 
Vice-Presidents.— Vroi. A. C. Dixon ; Prof. J. D. Everett, F.R.S. ; Prof. 

A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S. ; Principal E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. ; Dr. Joseph 

Larmor, Sec.R.S. ; Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. ; Principal Sir A. W. 

Riicker, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. H. Turner, 

F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — H. S. Carslaw, D.Sc. ; A. R. Hinks, M.A. ; Alex. Larmor, 

M.A. ; C. H. Lees, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; Prof. W. B. Morton, M.A. ; 

A. W. Porter, B.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— '?voi. E. Divers, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— 'Pvol. P. F. Frankland, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. A. Letts, D.Sc. ; 

Prof. W. A. Shenstone, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — R. F. Blake ; M. O. Forster, D.Sc. ; Prof. G. G. Henderson, 

M.A. ; Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. {Recorder). 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

Prmc?e?i^— Lieut. -Gen. C. A. McMahon, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Grenville A. J, Cole ; Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 

F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Joly, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; G. W. Lamplugh ; J. J. H. 

Teall, F.R.S. ; H. Woodward, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Herbert L. Bowman, M.A. ; H. W. Monckton {Recorder) ; 

J. St. J. Phillips ; H. J. Seymour. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— Vvoi. G. B. Howes, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vvoi. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. ; Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ; R. F. 
Scharff, Ph.D., M.R.I.A. ; Prof. W. F. R. AVeldon, F.R.S. ; R. H. 
Traquair, M.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. J. Graham Kerr, M.A. ; J. Y. Simpson, D.Sc. {Re- 
corder) ; Robert Patterson, M.R.I.A. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— ^\x Thomas H. Holdich, K.C.B., K.C.LE., F.R.G.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— T>v. H. 0. Forbes; Dr. J. Scott Keltic ; Dr, H. R. Mill ; 

Prof. J. Milne, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — G. G. Chisholm, M.A. {Recorder) 3 Edward Heawood, M.A. ; 

Dr. A. J. Herbertson ; Dr. J, A. Lindsay. 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1902. 

^fcCTIOK p. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vroi. C. F. Bastable, M.A. ; E. W, Brabrook, C.B. ; 
Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D. ; Hon. Sir Charles W. Fremantle, 
K.C.B. ; Sir Robert Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Prof. E. C. K. Conner, 
M.A. ; Prof. W. Graham, M.A. 

Secretaries. — A. L. Bowley, M.A. [Recorder) ; Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ; 
Adam Duffin, LL.D. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President. — Prof. John Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — James Barton. M.Inst. C.E. ; Lieut.-Col. R. E. Cromp* 
ton, C.B., M.Inst. C.E. ; Prof. J. A. Ewing, F.R.S. ; Prof. M. Fitz- 
Gerald, B.A. ; Prof. Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. C. Unwin, 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Mark Barr ; W. A. Price, M.A. {Recorder) ; J. Wylie. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— A. C. Haddon, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 
Vice-Presidents. — W. Crooke ; Prof. D. J. Cunningham, M.D., F.R.S. ; 
Prof. J. Symington, M.D. 

Secretaries. — R. Campbell ; Prof. A. Francis Dixon, D.Sc. ; J. L. Myres, 
M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Vvoi. W. D. Halliburton, M.D., B.Sc, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. G. McKendrick, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. Waymouth 
Reid, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Lorrain Smith, M.D. ; Prof. W. H. Thomp- 
son, M.D. ; Prof. R. J. Anderson, M.D. ; Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S. : 
Prof. P. Redfern, M.D. ; Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S. ; Prof. Sher- 
rington, F.R.S. ; Prof. John Cleland, F.R.S. : Dr. Anthony Trail ; 
Sir Wm. Whitla, M.D. 

Secretaries.— J. Barcroft, M.A. ; W. A. Osborne, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; Cecil 
Shaw, M.D. ^ ^ 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— Froi. J. Reynolds Green, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Trot I. Bayley Balfour, F.R.S. ; Prof. F. 0. Bower, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. F. W. Oliver, D.Sc. ; A. C. Seward, F.R.S. 

■ Secretaries.— A. G. Tansley, M.A. ; Rev. C. H. Waddell ; Harold Wager 

(Recorder) ; R. H. Yapp. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

■ President.— Prol Henry E. Armstrong, LL.D., Ph.D., V.P.R.S. 

■ Vice-Presidents.— Wi\\ia.m Bousfiekl ; Prof. Samuel Dill; Right Hon. 

Sir John E. Gorst, K.C., F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Hon. 
and Rev. Canon Lyttelton ; Sir Philip Magnus ; Right Hon. Horace 
Plunkett ; C. M. Stuart. r o . & 

■ Secretaries.—Troi. R. A. Gregory ; W. M. Heller (Recorder) ; R. M. 

Jones ; Dr. C. W. Kimmins ; Prof. H. L. Withers. 



COMMITTEE OP EECOMMENDATIONS. Ixxi^f 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting ; the Presidents of 
former years ; the Trustees ; the General and Assistant General 
Secretaries ; the General Treasurer ; the Presidents of the Sections j 
Prof. A. R. Forsyth ; Prof. Schuster ; Prof. Pope ; Prof. Letts ;■ 
Prof. J. Joly ; J. Milne j Prof. Poulton ; W. E. Hoyle ; Dr. H. R. 
Mill ; Dr. J. Scott Keltie j Sir C. W. Fremantle ; E. W. Brabrook ; 
Colonel Crompton ; Prof, FitzGerald ; H. Balfour ; Prof. F. Gotch ; 
Prof. Symington ; Prof. W. H. Thompson ; A. C. Seward ; H. 
Wagei* J W. M. Heller • Prof. Miall ; Prof; W. W. Watts. 



IxxX 



REPORt— 1902; 



Dr. 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 



1901-1902. RECEIPTS. 

t ... rf. 

Balance brought forward 1684 11 ] 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 512 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 298 

Annual Subscriptions 675 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 783 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 244 

.Sale of Publications 146 8 H 

Dividend on Consols 1G8 7 4 

Dividend OK India 3 per Cents 101 14 

interest on Deposits : Bradford District Bank ...£'47 11 

Clydesdale Bank 7 18 2 

55 9 2 

Unexpended Balance of Grant returned by Committee on 

Anthropological Teaching 3 6 



£4571 15 10 



InvestmeuU. 

£ >. d. 

Consols G501 10 6 

India 3 per Cents , 3600 



£10,101 10 



G. Caeey Foster, General Trea»urer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. lxx:ri 



from July 1, 1901, to June 30, 1902. Or. 



1901-1902. EXPENDITURE. 



£ <. 



Expenses of Glasgow Meeting, including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, <kc., &c 176 17 3 

Rent and OflSce Expenses 58 13 7 

Salaries i 515 o 

Printing, Binding, &c 1058 5 1 

Contribution to Antarctic Expedition 250 

Pctyment of Grants made at Glasgow : 

£ s, d. 

Electi'ical Standards 40 o 

Seismological Observations 35 

InvestigationoftheUpper Atmosphere by means of Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Falmoutli 8U U U 

Relation between Absorption Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-lengtli Tables 6 o 

Life-zones in British Carboniferous Roclcs lu 

Exploration of Irish Caves 45 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum Auimalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Keefs of Indian Ocean 60 U 

Compound Ascidians of the Clyde Area 25 

Ten'estrial Surface Waves 15 o 

Legislation regulating Women's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Kesistance of Road Vehicles to Traction 50 

Kthuologlcal Survey of Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 U 

Anthropometric Investigation of Native Egyptian 

Soldiers 15 o 

Excavations on the Ilomau Site at Gelligaer 5 o U 

Changes in Hsemoglobiu 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart under Influeuce of Drugs . ■ 20 

Investigation of the Cyanophyceae 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Universities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essential to carrying on Work in 

Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Committee 15 

947 



In hands of General Treasurer : 

At Bank of England, Western Branch £1596 16 6 

Z(?«s Cheques not presented 33 

» 

1564 16 6 

Cash in hand 13 5 



3005 15 11 



1365 19 11 
^4571 15 10 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa* 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

Approved— W^ B. Keen, Chartered Accountant, 

L. L. PHICE. XAudihirk 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, B.C. • 

1902. * 



Ixxxii 



REPORT— 1902* 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, 
1832, 
1833, 
1834, 
1835, 
1836, 
1837, 
1838, 
1839, 
1840, 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 
1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 
1851, 
1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
185/, 
1858, 
1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
18G4, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884. 
1885, 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 
1897, 
1898, 
1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 



Sept. 27 . 
June 19 . 
June 25 , 
Sept. 8 . 
Aug. 10 . 
Aug. 22 . 
Sept. 11. 
Aug. 10 . 
Aug. 26 . 
Sept. 17. 
July 20 ., 
June 23., 
Aug. 17 ., 
Sept. 26, 
June 19 . 
Sept. 10 
June 23., 
Aug. 9 .. 
Sept. 12.. 
July 21 ., 

July 2 

Sept. 1 ., 
Sept. 3 ., 
Sept. 20., 
Sept. 12., 
Aug. 6 . , 
Aug. 26 . 
Sept. 22., 
Sept. 14., 
June 27 ., 
Sept. 4 ., 
Oct. 1 ., 
Aug. 26 ., 
Sept. 13., 
Sept. 6 .. 
Aug. 22.. 
Sept. 4 .. 
Aug. in.. 
Aug. 18 .. 
Sept. 14.. 
Aug. 2 ., 
Aug. 14 .. 
Sept. 17.. 
Aug. 19 .. 
Aug. 25 .. 
Sept. 6 .. 
Aug. 15 .. 
Aug. 14 .. 
Aug. 20.. 
Aug. 25 .. 
Aug. 31 .. 
Aug. 23 .. 
Sept. 19 .. 
Aug. 27.. 
Sept. 9 .. 
Sept. 1 .. 
Aug. 31., 
Sept. 5 .. 
Sept. 11 .. 
Sept. 3 .. 
Aug. 19 .. 
Aug. 3 .. 
Sept. 13.. 
Aug. 8 .. 
Sept. 11.. 
Sept. 16.. 
Aug. 18.. 
Sept. 7 .. 
Sept. 13 .. 
Sept. 5 .. 
Sept. 11.. 
Sept. 10.. 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newoastle-on-Tyne, 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newoastle-ou-Ty ne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brigliton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 



Presidents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L.. P.E.S, 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost LIoyd.LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S.... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernr.n Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir .lohn F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R..S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton.Pres.R.S. 
Tlie Rev. T. R. Robiuison. D.D.. F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

(r. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.RiS 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. ... 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.... 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D.. D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WiUis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Willi.am R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B.,F,R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. H. Huxlev, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., J'.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpencer, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Tvndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Jolin Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.,S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir .John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. ... 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.G.B., F.R.S.... . 
Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S.... . 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F.A.Abel, C.B.,.F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Sahsbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
Sir William Turner, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Rucker, D.Sc, Sec Jl.S. 
Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


is 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


IS 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


• 86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 



♦ Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. Ixxxiii 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



01(1 New 

Annual Auuual 
Members i Members 



elates 



Ladies 



Foreigners 



__ 





_ 





. 


1350 











— 





1840 








— 


1100» 


— 


2400 











— 


34 


1438 








— 


— 


40 


1353 


46 


317 


— 


60* 


— 


891 


75 


376 


33t 


331* 


28 


1316 


71 


185 


_ 


160 


— 


— 


45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


65 


39 


270 


196 


30 


857 


197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


g.s 


33 


447 


237 


23 


1071 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


61 


47 


2U 


141 


37 


710 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


56 


57 


367 


236 





870 


121 


121 


705 


524 


10 


1802 


142 


101 


1094 


543 


20 


2133 


104 


48 


412 


340 


9 


1115 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


150 


67 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


215 


149 


766 


608 


23 


1997 


218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45J 


2004 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1850 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2403 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


237 


99 


796 


601 


n 


1983 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


317 


219 


826 


74 


20&0OH.§ 


1777 


332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


399 


100 


639 


609 


12 


1984 


412 


113 


1024 


679 


21 


2437 


368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


41 S 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1001 


435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


383 


. 139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


314 .. 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 



Total 



363 



900 
1298 



Amount 

recelvefl 

clurin? tlie 

Meeting 



£707 

903 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2049 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1208 
2015 
1425 

899 
2089 
1286 
3309 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1770 
1664 
2007 
1653 
2175 
1236 
3228 
1398 
2399 
1328 
1801 
2046 
1644 

















































































































Grants 




for Scientific 


Purposes 


£20 





107 





435 





922 12 





933 2 


2 


1595 11 





1540 16 


4 


1235 10 


11 


1449 17 


8 


1605 10 


2 


981 12 


8 


831 9 





685 10 





208 5 


4 


275 1 


8 


159 19 


6 


345 18 





391 9 


7 


304 


7 


205 





380 19 


7 


480 10 


4 


734 13 


9 


507 15 


4 


018 18 


2 


684 11 


1 


760 19 





1111 6 


10 


1293 10 


6 


1608 3 


10 


1289 15 


8 


1591 7 


10 


1750 13 


4 


1739 4 





1940 





1622 





1572 





1472 2 


6 


1285 





1085 





1151 10 





960 





1093 4 


o 


1128 9 


7 


725 16 


6 


1080 11 


11 


731 7 


7 


476 8 


1 


1126 1 


11 


1083 3 


3 


1173 4 





1385 





995 





1186 18 





1511 


5 


1417 


11 


789 16 


8 


1029 10 





804 10 





907 16 


6 


583 15 





977 15 


5 


1104 6 


1 


1059 10 


8 


1212 





1430 14 


o 


1072 10 





945 





947 






Year 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1830 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1812 
1843 
1844 
1815 
1810 
1847 
1S49 
1849 
1850 
1S51 
1H52 
1853 
1851 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1800 
1801 
1862 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1800 
1867 
1868 
1809 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1880 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1S90 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 



X Including Ladies. § fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members f or tliis Meeting. 

e2 



Ot^FlCERS AND COUNCIL, 1902-1903. 



PRESIDENT. 
PkoFeSSOB JAMES DEWAB, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



rils Grace tl)e Duke of AsKnconx, K.G., H.M. 
Lieutenant of tlie County of Donegal. 

The Makqukss of LoxDONDKRRy, K.G., H.M. 
Lieutenant of the City of Belfast. 

Sir Francis Macnaghten, Bart., H.M. Lieu- 
tenant of the County of Antrim. 

The KigUt Hon. the Babl on Shaftesbury, 
D.L. 



The Right Hon. tlie Earl op Eossb, K.V., D.C L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Rii^ht Hon. TnoMAS Sinclair, D.Lit. 
Sir Wii,i,iAM QuARTUS EWART, Bart., M.A. 
The Loud Mavob of Belfast. 
The President of Queens College, Belfast. 
Professor E. Ray Lankkstkr, M.A., F.E.S. 
Professor Peter Redfern, M.D. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Sir NOKMAN LoCKYER, K.C.Ii., F.R.S., CorrespoMiIcut dc I'lnstitut do France. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, K.G., G.C.B. 
The Right Hon. the Baui, of Crawford and 

Balcarres, K.T., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Tliu Right Hon. the Eaui, Spkncei;, K.G., LL.D., 

Uliancellor of tlie Victoria University. 
Tlie Riglit Hon. the Eahl of Sefton. 
The Bight Hon. tlie Earl of La'iiiom. 
Sir HF.xiiY RoscoE, B.A., Ph.D., LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 



Sir George A. Pilkixgtox. 

Al.FRKi) Hoi'KiNsoN, Escj., LL.D., K.C, Tice- 

Cliancellor of the Victoria University. 
T. T. L. ScAiusBiiKK, Esq., Mayor of Soiithport. 
E. Marshall Hall, Esq., K.C, M.P. for South 

port. 
OlIAlU.ES H. B. Hesketh, Esq. 
Charles Scarisbrkk, Esq., J.P. 
Charles Wkld-Blundell, Esq. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor G. Carey Foster, LL.D., D.Sc, F.E.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. | Major P. A. MacMahon, R.A., D.Sc., r.K.S. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
J. G. Gauson, M.U., Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT SOUTHPORT. 

Harold Brodbick, M.A. | J. Ernest Jarratt. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT SOUTHPORT. 

CiiARLivS E. Austin-. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF 
Abset, Sir W., K.C.B., i-.U.S. 
Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
BoNAli, J., Esq., LL.D. 
Bower, Professor F. 0., F.R.S. 
Callkndae, Profes-or H. L., F.R.S. 
ilREAK, Captain E. W., C.B., R.K.. F.R.S. 
CUNNIXGHA.M, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Major L., Sec. R.G.S. 
FiiEMAKTLE, Hou. c-'ir C. W., K.O.B. 
Gotch, Pro e.-for F., F.R.S. 
Had don, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
Hawksley, C, Esq., M. Inst.C.E. 



THE COUNCIL. 
Howes, Professor G. B., F.B S. 
Keltik, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
Lodge, Sir Oliver, F.R.S. 
Macalisteu. Professor A., F.R.S. 
Pkbkin, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Perry, Professor John, F.B.S. 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
Seward, A. 0., Esq., F.R.S. 
SoLLAS, Professor W. J., F.R.S. 
Tilden, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Wat is. Professor W. W., F.G.S. 
Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R.f 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL, 
the Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for 
the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord R.aYleigu, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F,R.A.S. 
Sir Arthur W. Rijcker, M.A., D.Sc, F.B.S. 



8ir Joseph D. Hooker, G.C.S.I. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. WilUamson, F.R.S. 
iMid Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Bayleigh, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Koscoe, U.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S, 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER TEARS. 



F. Galton, Esq., 
Sir Michael 
Sec. R.S. 



SirWm.Huggius,K.C.B.,Pres,R.S. 
Sir Archibald Geikie, F.B.S. 
Prof. Sir J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 

F.R.S. 
Lord Lister, D.O.L., F.R.S. 

GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS, 



Sir John Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S. 

Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. 

Sir Michael Foster, K.O.B., 

Sec.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. EUoker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



D.C.L., F.R.S. I p. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Foster, K.C.B., Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
I Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R,S. 



A. Vernon Harcourt. Esq., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. Riicker, D.Sc, F.B.S. 
Pi of. E. A. Schiifer, F.B.S. 



E. W. Brabrook, Esq. C.B. 



AUDITORS. 
I 



L. L, Price, Esq., M,A« 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, \XXZ7 



Eeport of the Council for the Year 1901-1902, presented to the General 
Committee at Belfast on Wednesday, Sej)temher 10, 1902. 

The first paragraph in the Report of the Council must this year be a 
sad one. For many years the late Mr. George Griffith, Assistant General 
Secretary, had been one of the most prominent figures at the Meetings of 
the Association. He brought to his work as Secretary stores of wide 
learning, unwearying energy, and a power of personal attraction which won 
him many friends. His sudden death has deprived the Association of the 
services of a devoted ofiicer who will be long and sorely missed by many 
who knew his worth and can sympathise with his sorrowing family. At 
its first meeting after the death of Mr. Griffith the Council passed a reso- 
lution expressing their sorrow and their sympathy with Mrs. Griffith and 
her children. 

The Council have nominated Dr. J. G. Garson, who has had great 
experience in the work of the Association, for appointment as Assistant 
General Secretary in succession to Mr. Griffith. 

The Council have received Reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1901, to June 30, 
1902, duly audited, are presented to the General Committee. 

The Council heard with great regret of the death of the Marquess of 
Dufierin and Ava, one of the Vice-Presidents for the Belfast meeting. 
The Rev. Dr. Salmon, who was also nominated a Vice-President, was 
unable to accept the office, as he was not likely to attend the meeting. 
The Council have nominated the Duke of Abercorn a Vice-President for 
the Belfast meeting. 

The Council, having been informed by Sir William Roberts-Austen 
that he does not intend to ofier himself for re-election as General 
Secretary after the Belfast Meeting, desire to record their sense of the 
valuable services which he has rendered to the Association. He has 
twice accompanied the Association to Canada, and at the Toronto 
meeting acted for the first time as General Secretary. 

The Council recommend that Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, F.R.S., 
be appointed General Secretary in succession to Sir William Roberts- 
Austen. 

The Council have elected Professor H. Elster and Professor J. Geitel, 
who have attended meetings of the Association, Corresponding Members. 

The Council, having received an invitation to appoint a representative 
to attend the Jubilee of the Owens College, Manchester, on March 12, 



Ixxxvi . REPOKT — 1902. 

1902, requested the President, the Treasurer, and one of the General 
Secretaries to attend the celebration and to present the following 
Address : — 

* British Association for the Advanceaient of Science. 

' The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
desire to offer their hearty congratulations to the Owens College, Man- 
chester, on the Jubilee of the foundation of that Institution. The work 
which lias been done in Manchester in the last half- century has left 
a mark, not only on that city, but on the educational system of the entire 
kingdom. The British Association gladly unite themselves with those 
who honour the parent College of the Victoria University, and cannot 
forget that the energy and ability of Manchester caused the Meeting of 
the Association held in that city under the Presidency of Sir Henry 
Roscoe to be the largest of all the Meetings which the Association has 
held. It is their sincere desire that the success of the College may be as 
marked, and that the ties which bind it to the British Association may be 
as close in the future as they have been in the past. 



' March 1902.' 



' Arthur W. RtcKER, 

' President. 



Invitations for future meetings will be presented from Cambridge 
and Cape Town. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, especially those referring to Local Scientific 
Investigations, published by those Societies during the year ending 
May 31, 1902, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. W. 
Whitaker (Chairman), Dr. Francis Galton, Professor Meldola, Mr. T. V. 
Holmes, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Di-. H. R. Mill, Mr. Horace T. 
Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, Professor W. W. Watts, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Mr. C. H. Read, Mr. F. W. Rudler, and Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
is hereby nominated for reappointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate Professor W. W. Watts, Chairman ; Mr. J. H. 
Merivale, Vice-Chairman ; and Mr. Edward J. Bles, Secretary, to the 
Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to be held during the 
Meeting at Belfast. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 



Sir Norman Lockyer. 
Sir W. H. Preece. 
Professor E. B. Tvlor. 



Dr. E. Eay Lankester. 
Mr. J. E. Marr. 



The nomination of Major MacMahon as General Secretary creates 
another vacancy. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 



KEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixxxvii 



of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

*Howes, Professor G. B., F.E.S. 

Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 

Lodge, Sir Oliver, F.R.S. 

Macalister, Professor A., F.R.S. 

Perkin, Professor W. H.. F.R.S. 

Perry, Professor John, F.R.S. 

Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 

Seward, A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 

SoUas, Professor W. J., F.R.S. 

Tilden, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
*Watts, Professor W. W., F.G.S. 

Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



*Abney, Sir W., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 

Bonar, J., Esq., LL.D. 

Bower, Professor F. O., F.R.S. 

Callendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 

Oreak, Captain E. W., C.B., R.N., F.R.S. 
♦Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Major L., Sec. R.G.S. 

Fremantle.The Hon. Sir C. W., K.C.B. 

Gotch, Professor F., F.R.S. 
*Haddon, Professor A. C, F.R.S. 

Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
*Hawksley, C, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 



Ijcxxviii 



REPORT— 1902. 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
Belfast Meeting in September 1902. 



1. Beceiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[And balance in hand.] 



Seismological Observations, 



To co-operate with the Royal 
Meteorological Society in ini- 
tiating an Investigation of the 
Upper Atmosphere by means 
of 5^ites. 



To co-opprate v?ith the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatory 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Profes- 
sors J. D. Everett and A, 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley. Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Mr. E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir A. W. Riicker, Professors H. 
L. Callendar and Sir W. C. 
Roberts-Austen, and Mr. G. 
Matthey. 

Chairman. — Prof. J. W. Judd. 

Secrrtary. — Professor J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. 
Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Major L. Dar- 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. 
Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, 
Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
PJummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. H. Dines. • 
Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Ver- 
non B''Ts, Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. 
H. R. Mill, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, 
and Dr. A. Schuster. 

Chairman. — Sir AV. H. Preece. 

Secretary.— Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. F. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, and Sir A. W. 
Riickef 



£ s. d. 
35 



40 







40 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixsxix 
1. Receiving QranU of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Cliairvian.—^iv H. E. Eoscoe. 

Secretmij. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 
Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A.Schus- 
ter, W. N. Hartley, and Wol- 
cott Gibbs, and Sir W. de W. 
Abney. 

CJwirman. — Professor E. Divers. 
Secretary.— Dr. A. W. Crossley. 
Professor W. H. Perkin, jun., Dr. 
M. O. Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To explore Irish Caves. 

[Collections to be placed in the 
Science and Art Museum, Dub- 
lin.] 



The movements of Underground 
Waters of North-west York- 
shire. 



To si udy Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Bocks. 



Chairman.— M^T. J. E. Marr. 
Secretary.— Mr. P. F. Kendall. 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. 

De Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Mr. J. Home, Mr. 

F. M. Burton, Mr. J. Lomas, 

Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Mr. 

J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, 

and Mr. F. W. Harmer. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. F. Scharff. 
Seoretary.—Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. 
Mr. G. Coffey, Professor Grenville 

Cole, Dr. Cunningham, Mr. G. 

W, Lamplugh, Mr. A. McHenry, 

and Mr. R. J. Ussher. 

<7/ia<>»ian.— Professor W.W.W.itts. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. R. Dwerry- 
house. 

Professor A. Smithells, Rev. E. 
Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mr. G. Bray, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, Mr. 
P. F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. 
Marr. 

Chairman.— 'Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
ProfessorE. J. Garwood, Dr. G.J. 
Hinde, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lam- 
plugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Dr. H. Woodward. 



£ s. d. 
5 



20 



10 



40 



40 



5 



xo 



BEPORT — 1902. 
1. Beoeiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Eegistration of 
Photographs of Geological In- 
terest. 



Members of the Committee 



To report upon the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British 
Isles. 



Cliairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary. — Prof essorW.W. Watts. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. An- 
derson, Professors E. J. Gar- 
wood and S. H. Reynolds, and 
Messrs. A. S. Reid, W. Gray, 
H. B. Woodward, E. Kidston, 
J. J. H. Teall, J. G. Goodchild, 
H. Coates, C. V. Crook, G. Bing- 
ley, R. Welch, and A. K. Coo- 
murasw^my. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretarj/. — Mr. J. Lomas. 

Professor W. W. Watts and Messrs. 
P. F. Kendall. B. T. Newton, A, 
C. Seward, and W. A. E. Ussher. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To enable Mr. W. Wallace to in- 
vestigate Viviparous Fishes and 
Dr. F. W. Gamble to study the 
Physiology of the Pigments of 
the Higher Crustacea, and to 
aid other competent investiga- 
tors to carry on research at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. 

Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



Chairman. — Prof essor G. B. Howes. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. E. S. Moore. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
fessor S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Seoretarij. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 

Stebbing, Mr. R. McLachlan, 

and Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 
Beaches. 



The Geography of the Antarctic 
Regions in the Area to be ex- 
plored by the Scottish National 
Antarctic Expedition. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. Scott Keltic. 
Secretary. — Dr. Vaughan Cornish. 
l.ieut.-Col. F. Bailey, Mr. E. A. 

Floyer, Mr. John Milne, and 

Mr. W. H. Wheeler. 

Chiirman.—Six T. H. Holdich. 
Secretary. — Lieut. -Col. F. Bailey. 
Mr. W. S. Bruce. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
10 



5 



100 



100 



15 



50 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Economic Effect of Legisla- 
tion regulating Women's Labour. 
[And balance in hand.] 



Chairman. — Mr. B. W. Brabrook. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. L. Bowley. 

Miss A. M Anderson, Miss Black- 
burn, Mr. C. Booth, Mr. S. J. 
Chapman, Miss C. E. Collet, 
Professor Bdgeworth, Mrs. J. R. 
MacDonald.Mr. L. L. Price, Pro- 
fessor Smart, Dr. G. Adam Smith, 
and Mrs. H. J. Tennant. 



25 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Granti of Money — continued. 



XCl 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of tlie Committee 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To consider means by which better 
practical effect can be given to 
the Introduction of the Screw- 
Gauge proposed by the Associa- 
tion in 1884. 



To investigate the Resistance of 
Road Vehicles to Traction. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Price. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
Sir H. Trueman Wood, Maj.- 
Gen. Webber, Mr. R. E. Cromp- 
ton, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 
Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Col. 
Watkin, Mr. E. Rigg, Mr. Vernon 
Boys, Mr. J. Marshall Gorham, 
Mr. O. P. Clements, Mr. W. 
Taylor, and Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook. 

(?7irtir«i««.— Sir Alexander Binnie. 

Secretary. -^FioiessoT H. S. Hele- 
Shaw. 

Mr. Aitken, Mr. Aveling, Pro- 
fessor T. Hudson Beare, Mr. 
W. W. Beaumont, Mr. J. Brown, 
Col. R. E. Crompton, Mr. A. 
Mallock, Sir D. Salomons, Mr. A. 
Sennett, Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith, 
and Sir J. I. Thornycroft. 



Section H.— ANTHEOPOLOGY. 



To conduct Archaeological and 
Ethnological Researches in 
Crete. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age of 
Stone Circles. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Pho- 
tographs of Anthropological 
Interest. 

[Balance in hand.] 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigation in Great Britain and 
Ireland. 



Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. A. j. Evans, Mr. t). G. Ho- 
garth, Professor A. Macalister, 
and Professor W. Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Sir John Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Professor Meldola, Mr. A. J. 
Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Pro- 
fessor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. 
A. L. Lewis. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, 
Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A . C. Haddon, 
Mr. E. S. Hartland, and Pro- 
fessor Flinders Petrie. 

ClMirman. — Professor J. Cleland. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 
Professor D. J. Cunningham, Dr. 

T. H. Bryce, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 

Mr. J. L. Myres, Professor A. F. 

Dixon, Mr. B. N. Fallaize, and 

Dr. D. Hepburn. 



Grants 



£ s.d. 
5 



90 



100 



5 



XCIX 



REPORT — 1902. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



To investigate the Psychology and 
Sociology of the Todas and other 
Tribes of Southern India. 



CJuiirman. — Professor Ridgeway. 
Secretar)/. — Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon and Mr, W. 
Crooke. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The State of Solution of Proteids. 



Cltairman. — Professor W. D. Halli- 
burton. 

Secretary. — Professor E. Way- 
mouth Reid. 

Professor E. A. Schiifer. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To consider and report upon a 
scheme for the Registration of 
Negatives of Botanical Photo- 
graphs. 



Investigation of the Cyano- 
phyceiB. 



Investigation on the Respiration 
of Plants. 



Chairman. — Professor L. C. Miall. 
Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Mr. Francis Darwin, Professor 

G. F. Scott- Elliot, and Mr. A. K. 

Coomuraswamy. 

Chairman. — Professor J. B. 

Farmer. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. F. Blackman. 
Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. W. 

Gardiner, and Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Chairman. — Professor Marshall 

Ward. 
Secretary. — Mr. H, Wager. 
Mr, Francis Darwin and Professor 

J. B. Farmer. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



The conditions of Health essen- 
tial to the carrying on of the 
work of instruction in schools. 



Chairman. — Professor Sherrington. 

Secretary.— Mr. E. White Wallis. 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Professor 
L. C. Miall, Professor H. L. 
Withers, Miss Findlay, Miss 
Alice Ravenhill, Miss Maitland, 
Dr. Clement Dukes, Dr. Rivers, 
Mr. J. Russell, Dr. Sydney Ste- 
phenson, Dr. C. Childs, Dr. C. 
Shelley, and Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. Francis Gal ton. Professor R. 
Meldola, Mr. T. V. Holn(es, Sir 
John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. Horace T. 
Brown. Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Pro- 
fessor W. W. Watts, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Mr. C. H. Read, and 
Dr. Vaughan Cornish. 



Grants 



£ 

50 



s. d. 




20 



3 



25 



12 



10 



20 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xciii 

2* Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Radiation from a Source of Light in a 
Magnetic Field. 



To establish a Meteorological Ob- 
servatory on Mount Koyal, Montreal. 



Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under 
"Water. 



Considering the best Methods of Re- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation. 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
draw up a Report on the present 
state of the Theory of Point-groups. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Schuster. 

Secretar I/. —Mr. W. E. Thrift. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Dr. Gerald Molloy, Dr. 
W. E. Adeney, and Mr. E. P. Culver- 
well. 

Chairman. — Professor H. L. Callendar. 
Secretary. — Professor C. H. McLeod. 
Professor F, Adams and Mr. R. F. 
Stupart. 

CJiairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Sir John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, and 
Professor R. Copeland. 

Cliairman and Secretary. — Professor J. D. 
Everett. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Mr. 
James Glaisher, Professor Edwari 
Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor 
A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, 
Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. 
Strahan, Professor Michie Smith, Pro- 
fessor H. L. Callendar, and Mr. B. H. 
Brough. 

CluLirman. — Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Sir G. G. Stokes, Professor A. Schuster, 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Sir W. de 
W. Abney, Dr. C. Chree, Professor 
H. L. Callendar, Mr. W. E. Wilson, 
and Professor A . A. Rambaut. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Nature of Alloys. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



I 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. F. H. 

Neville 
Mr. C. T. Heycock and Mr. E. H. 

Griffiths. 

Chairman. — Professor AV. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic \ Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Derivativea of Benzene. i Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Dr. W. P. Wynne and Mr. W. J. Pope. 



XCIV 



REPORT — 1902. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To approach the Inland Revenue Com- 
missioners to urge the desirability 
of securing the use of pure alcohol 
duty free for the purposes of scien- 
tific research. 

The Relation between the Absorption 
Spectra and Chemical Constitution of 
Organic Substances. 

The action of Gases dissolved in Metals 
and Alloys on their Properties. 



To consider and report on the possibility 
of making special Reports more avail- 
able than at present by indexing and 
by the wider distribution of them. 




Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Professor H. B. Dixon. 

Sir Michael Foster, Sir A. W. Riicker, 
Dr. T. E. Thorpe, Professor W. H. 
Perkin, and Professor W. D. Halli- 
burton. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Professor W. 

Noel Hartley. 
Professor F. R. Japp, Professor J. J. 

Dobbie, and Mr. Alexander Lauder. 

Chairman. — Sir Wm. C. Roberts-Austen. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. K. Rose. 

Mr. W. Carrick Anderson, Professor H. B. 

Dixon, Mr C. T. Heycock, Mr. F. H. 

Neville, and Sir W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Sbenstone. 
Secretary. — Dr. M. O. Forster. 
Professor E. Divers, Professor W. J. Pope, 
and Dr. A. W, Crossley. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To report upon the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Structure of 
Crystals. 



To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens of 
Fossils in the British Isles, and to 
report on the same. 

To investigate the Estuarine Deposit at 
Kirmington, Lincolnshire, and to con- 
sider its position with regard to the 
Glacial Deposits. 



Chairman. — Professor N. Story Maske- 

lyne. 
Secretary.— VroiessoT H. A. Miers. 
Mr. L. Fletcher, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. VV. Barlow, Mr. G. F. H. Smith, 

and the Ear] of Berkeley. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. 'F. Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidston, 

Professor H. G. Seeley, Mr. H. Woods, 

and Rev. J. F. Blake. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Stather. 
Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. Clement 

Reid, Mr. F. W. Harmer, and Mr. T. 

Sheppard. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To investigate the structure, formation, 
and growth of the Coral Reefs of the 
Indian Region, with special observa- 
tions on the inter- relationship of the 
reef organisms, the depths at which 
they grow, the food of corals, effects 
of currents and character of the ocean 
bottom, &c. The land flora and fauna 
will be collected, and it is intended 
that observations shall be made on the 
manners, &c., of the natives in the 
different parts of the Blaldivfe group. 



Chairman. — Mr. A. Sedgwick. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. 
Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. Lister, 
I Mr. Francis Darwin. Dr. S. F. Harmer, 

and Professors A. Macalister, W. A. 

Herdman, and S. J. Hickson. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



xcv 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



To continue the investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To enable Mr. James Rankin to investi- 
gate Compound Ascidians of the Clyde 
area, and to enable other competent 
naturalists to perform definite re- 
searches in the Laboratory of the 
Marine Biological Association of the 
West of Scotland at Millport. 

To enable Mr. R. C. Punnett to con- 
tinue his investigations on the pelvic 
plexus of Elasmobranch fishes, and 
to enable other competent naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 

To work out the details of the Obser- 
vations on the Migration of Birds at 
Lighthouses and Lightships, 1880-87. 



The Periodic Investigation of the 
Plankton and Physical Conditions of 
the English Channel. 



Cliairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 

Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, BIr. F. 

Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar 

A. Smith. 



Cliairman. — Sir John Murray. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. F. Gemmill. 

Professor F. 0. Bower, Professor Cossar 
Ewart, Professor W. A. Herdman, 
Professor M. Laurie, Mr. Alex. Somer- 
ville, and Mr. J. A. Todd. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. W. Gar* 
stang. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
Sydney H. Vines, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
and Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 



Chairrna7i. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Rev. E. P. Enubley. 

Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. 

Barrington, Mr. A. H. Evans, and Dr. 

H. O. Forbes. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. Ray Lankester. 
Secretary. — Mr. Walter Garstang. 
Professor W. A. Herdman and Mr. H. N. 
Dickson. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



The present state of Anthropological 
Teaching in the United Kingdom and 
elsewhere. 



To organise an Ethnological Survey of 
Canada. 



Cliairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Professor A. Macalister, Dr. A. C. Had- 
don, Mr. C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. F. W. Rudler, Dr. R. Munro, Pro- 
fessor Flinders Petrie, Mr. H. Ling 
Roth, and Professor D. J. Cunningham. 

Chairman. — Professor D. P. Peuhallow. 

Secretary.— ^Ix. C. Hill-Tout. 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. E. S. Hartland, Sir J. G. Bourinot, 
Mr. B. Suite, Mr. David Boyle, Mr. 
C. N. Bell, Professor E. B. Tylor, Pro- 
fessor J. Mavor, Mr. A. F. Hunter, and 
Dr. W. F Ganong. 



SCVl 



REPORT — 1902. 

2. Not Teceiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To co-operate with the Cardiff Natu- 
ralists' Society in its Excavations on 
the Roman Site at Gelligaer. 

To organise a Pigmentation Survey of 
the school children of Scotland. 



To conduct Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions among the Native Troops of 
the Egyptian Army. 



To investigate the Lake Village at 
Glastonbury, and to report on the 
best method of publication of the 
result. 

To co-operate vnth the Silchester Exca- 
vation Fund Committee in their 
explorations. 

To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of the Ethnography, Folklore, 
and Languages of the Peoples of the 
Pacific. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman, — Professor J. Rhys. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. A. J. Evans and Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Chairman, — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Secretary. — llr. J. Gray. 

Dr. A.C. Haddon, Professor A. Macalister, 

Profeasor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. J. F. 

Tocher, and Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Macalister. 
Secretary. — Mr. C. S. Myers. 
Sir John Evans and Professor D. J. 
Cunningham. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 
Secretary. — Professor VV. Boyd Dawkins. 
Sir John Evans, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, 
Mr. C. H. Read, and Mr. A. Bulleid. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. John L. Myres. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

CJuiirman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Mr. H. Balfour and Mr. J. Stanley Gar- 
diner. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Physiological Effects of Peptone 
and its Precursors wlien introduced 
into the circulation. 



The Micro-chemistry of Cells. 



To investigate the Functions of the 
Rods and Cones in the Mammalian 
Retina witli reference to the Visual 
Purple. 



Chairman. — Professor E. A. Schafer. 
Secretary. — Professor \V. H. Thompson. 
Professor R. Boyce and Professor C. S. 
Sherrington. 

Chairman — Professor E. A. Schiifer. 

Secretary. — Professor A. B. Macallum. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
W. D. Halliburton, Mr. G. C. Bourne, 
and Professor J. J. Mackenzie. 

Chairman. — Professor J. G. McKendrick. 
Secretary.— Bi. F. W. Edridge Green. 
Professors E. H. Starling and A. D. 
Waller. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



Chairman.— T)t. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Lord Avebury, Mr. George Gladstone, 
Professor W. R. Dunstan, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Dr. Sil- 
vanus P. Thompson, and Professor A. 
Smithells. 



COMMITTEES APrOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCVll 
2. NotTeoeiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To report upon improvements that 
might be effected in the teaching of 
Mathematics, in the first instance in 
the teacliing of Elementary Mathe- 
matics, and upon such means as thej' 
think likely to effect such improve- 
ments. 



To consider and report upon the influ- 
ence exercised by Universities and 
Examining Bodies on secondary school 
curricula, and also of the schools on 
university requirements. 



The Teaching of Botany in Schools. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman.— VvoiessoT: A. R. Forsyth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Sir A. \V. Rilcker, Sir 0. J. Lodge, Major 
P. A. MacMahon, Professor W. H. H. 
Hudson, Dr. J. Jjarmor, Professors S. P. 
Thompson, G. Chrystal, O. Henrici, A. 
Lodge, A. G. Greenhill, and G. M. Min- 
chin, Mr. W. D. Eggar, Mr. H. W. Eve, 
Dr. Gladstone, Professor Gibson, 
Professor Robert Russell, Mr. R. A. 
Gregory, and Professor Love. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 

Si'creta.ry. — Mr. R. A. Gregory. 

The Bishop of Hereford, Sir Michael 
Foster, Sir P. Magnus, Sir A. W. 
Riicker, Sir 0. J. Lodge, Mr. H. W. Eve, 
Mr. W. A. Shenstone, Mr. Eggar, 
Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. F. H. 
Neville, Jlrs. W. N. Shaw, Professor 
H. L. Withers, and Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 

Cliairman. — Professor L. C. Miall. 

Secretary. — Mr. Harold Wager. 

Professor J. R. Green, Mr. A. C. Seward, 
Professors H. M. Ward, J. B. Farmer, 
and T. Johnson, Miss Lillian Cliirke, 
and Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 



Communications ordered to he jyrinted in extenso. 
Our Present Knowledge of Aromatic Diazo-compounds, by G. T. Morgan, D.Sc. 
Hydro-aromatic Compounds with Single Nucleus, by A. W. Crossley, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council be requested to impress upon His Majesty's Government the 
desirability of appointing an Inspector of Ancient Monuments under the Ancienn 
Monuments Act in the place of the late Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers. 

That the Council be requested to call the attention of His Majesty's Government 
to the destruction of Ancient Monuments, especially on Dartmoor, which is autho- 
rised under the terms of the Highway Act, 5 Ji 6 Wm. IV.. c .50, the provisions of 
which are unrepealed by later Acts; and to xirge the repeal of this section of 
the Act. 

That the attention of the Royal Irish Academy be drawn to the importance cl' 
organising and carrying out a Pigmentation Survey of School Children in Ireland. 



1909. 



xcviii REPOKT — 1902. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes hy the 
General Committee at the Belfast Meeting, September 1902. The 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

•Rayleigh, Lord — Electrical Standards 35 

*Judd, Professor J. W. — Heismological Observations 40 

*Shaw, Dr. W. IS". — Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere 

by means of Kites 75 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 40 

Chemistry. 

*Ro£coe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables 5 

Pivers, Dr. E. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 20 

Geology. 

*Marr, Mr. J. E,— Erratic Blocks 10 

*Scliarff, Dr.— Exploration of Irish Caves 40 

*Watts, Professor W. W. — Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 

*Mai'r, Mr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 5 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Geological Photographs 10 

Herdman, Professor W. A. — Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 5 

Zoology. 

*Howes, Professor G, B. — Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

*Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Generum at Specierum Ani- 

malium 100 

Geograi^hy. 

Keltie, Dr. J. Scott — Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and Beaches... 15 
Holdich, Sir T. H. — Scottish National Antarctic Expedition 50 

^Economic Science and Statistics. 
*Br!»brook, E. W. — Legislation regulating Women's Labour 25 

JSnginee7'ing. 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Small Screw Gauge 5 

*Binnie, Sir A. — Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction ... 90 

Carried forward , ^710 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEV. XCIX 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 710 

Anthropology. 

•Evans, Sir John — Researches in Crete 100 

*Read, Mr. C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 5 

*Read, Mr. C. H. — Anthropological Photographs (Balance in 

hand) — 

Cleland, Professor J. — Anthropometric Investigation 5 

Ridgeway, Professor — Anthropology of the Todas and other 

Tribes of Southern India 50 

Physiology. 

Halliburton, Professor W. D. — The State of Solution of 

Proteids 20 

Botany. 

*Miall, Professor L. C. — Registration of Botanical Photo- 
graphs 3 

*Farmer, Professor J. B. — Investigations of the Cyanophyceaa 23 

*Ward, Professor Marshall— The Respiration of Plants 12 

Educational Science, 

*Sherrington, Professor — Conditions of Health essential for 

School Instruction 10 

Corresponding Societies. 

*\"V hitaker, Mr. W.— Preparing Report, &c 20 

~€960 
* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1903. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1903 will be held at 
Southport, commencing on September 9. 

Tlie Annual Meeting in 1 904. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1904 will be held at 
Cambridge. 



f 2 



REPORT — 1902. 



General Statement of Sums which have heeyi paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes 



1834, 



Tide Discussions 



£, s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 

British Fossil Ichthyology 



. 62 
, . 105 

£\&1 



1836. 

Tide Discu.ssions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 





13 


6 








12 











3 











4 


6 








18 


6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron ( Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 60 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers ,S 

Education Committee 60 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 



1 


10 


12 


10 














6 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 



£932 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 

Mechanism of Waves 

Bristol Tides 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments ... 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam-vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 

Animal Secretions 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 
Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 



£ 


s. 


d. 


110 








63 


10 





144 


2 





35 


18 


6 


21 


11 





9 


4 





103 





7 


28 


7 





274 


1 


2 


100 





4 


171 


18 





11 





6 


166 


16 





10 


10 


6 


50 








16 


1 





40 








.S 








22 








49 


1 


R 


118 


2 


9 


50 









£1596 11 



1840. 



Bristol Tides 

Subterranean Temperature ... 

Heart Experiments 

Lungs Experiments 

Tide Discussions 

Land and Sea Level 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 

Stars (Lacaille) 

Stars (Catalogue) 

Atmospheric Air 

Water on Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Meteorological Observations . 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 

Working Population 

School Statistics 

Forms of Vessels 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 

Magnetical Observations 



100 

13 13 6 

18 19 

8 13 

50 

6 11 1 
242 10 

4 15 

264 

15 15 

10 

7 
52 17 6 

112 1 6 

100 

50 

184 7 

40 

80 

185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



GEXEIUL STATEMEM. 



CI 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 

Actinometers 

Earthquake Shocks 

Acrid Poisons 

Veins and Absorbent s 

Mud in Rivers 

Marine Zoology 

Skeleton Maps 

Mountain Barometers 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 

Stars ( Lacaille) 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 

Stars (Catalogue of) 

Water on Iron 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 

Meteorological Observations 
(reduction of) 

Fossil Reptiles 

Foreign Memoirs 

Railway Sections 

Forms of Vessels 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 

Magnetical Observations 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 

Tides at Leith 

Anemometer at Edinburgh . . . 

Tabulating Observations 

Races of Men 

Radiate Animals , 



69 
9 
5 
2 



1 10 
6 3 





£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gaseson Light .30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Stati sties of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 69 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 























8 


6 















£ s. a. 

30 

8 8 

10 

17 7 

6 

3 

5 
15 12 8 
20 

6 18 6 
185 

79 5 i 

17 19 6 I 

40 ' 

50 

20 

25 

50 

62 6 

38 1 

193 12 

55 

61 18 8 

100 

50 



£ 


i'. 


d. 


.. 10 








.. 8 








.. 50 








.. 8 


1 


11 


.. 7 


9 





£1449 


17 


8 



Force of Wind 

Light on Growth of Seeds 

Vital Statistics 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 
Questions on Human Race 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness ,. 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whe well's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osler'.s Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



Cll 



KEPOBT — 1902. 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Ee vision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 '0 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



1847. 

£ g. d. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1820 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 

• 20 

cines ^ A 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory _107 8_6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants • 15^ 

£275 



15 
10 
15 





_0 

"1 



11 
9 








1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores _25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Eadiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£39f"9 7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 ..- 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 ^ 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 ^0 

£205 

1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects" of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2_0 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast i„_0 

£480 16 4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 76 0\ .-- ^ ,, 

1855 foOO or ^^^ ^ ^ 



div 



REPORT— 1902. 



£ s. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 o 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 

Eeport on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

EeiX)rt on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imjx)rted into Scot- 
land 10 

'£618 18 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



9 ' 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Katural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

llesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Eeport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

5607^5~4 



£ j». d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels )24 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ..- 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Eesearches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Eesearches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts ] 13 6 

£766"! 9 ~6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

18C0 £.50 \ ^ 

1861 £22 0/'-' 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmaliagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey .and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions ■ 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£iTrr 



















































































5 


10 








5 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CV 



1862. 

£ s. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

PatentLaws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Kocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland G 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 



. £ s. d. 

d. Thermo-electricity 15 

I Analysis of Rocks 8 

, Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 




186.S. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 



























































































































3 10 







1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 

















































































15 


8 



























15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Lrish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurj^terus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£159r 



























8 























9 




























































































10 








7 


10 



CVl 



REPORT — 1902. 



1866. 



£ s. d. 
Maintaiuinp; the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polyc3'anidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

T)'pical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 13^ 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 60 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 76 o 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 



1868. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ,.. 150 

Steamship Performances .. .. 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals .'".0 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 b 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatorj-. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 








































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cvn 



£ g. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 

Physiological Action Eela- 

tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ,.. 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 60 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors .SO 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal" Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, .fcc , 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 
Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 


























































































































£1285 
















































































































£1685 



CVlll 



REPORT — 1902. 



1874. 

£ ». d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wcalden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 6 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. " 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Liiminous Meteors SO 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Crcsols 20 

Sub-Wealden Eirplorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 { 

Settle Cave Exploration 60 i 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 ! 

Underground Waters 10 ' 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 ! 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 ' 

Intestinal Secretions 20 j 

Palestine Exploration 100 1 

£960 ' 

1876. """""" 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 [ 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measm'ing Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Steam-vessels .... 



s. d. 












































10 



































15 












6 












£1092 


4 


2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 117 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeae, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New- 
Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 2C 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 118 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£lT28 9 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CIX 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Eartli works 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration . . . 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra .. . 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 160 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Bquivalefatof Heat ..i 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measimng 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 
Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 

Heat 8 

Elasticity of Wires 60 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraftines ,.. 4 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 76 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 60 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 















5 























5 





























17 


7 











































































7 7 



ex 



REPORT — 1902. 



1881 

£ s. d. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key .5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological llecord 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee ... 50 

£1126 







1 


11 






























































































1 


11 



1883. 

£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 
Bleteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 60 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palteo- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£1173 4 















4 
































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



1885. 

£ 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Ileduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solution s 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius '.... 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phj'llopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 
Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385" 



s. 


d. 









































































































1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius ,30 

Geological Record 100 

Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 



i. 


d. 

































6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation ig 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 o 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax , 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Beds of the Isle of Wight. . . 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record , 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 7,5 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



CXll 



REPORT — 1902, 



1888 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naohthalene Deriva- 
tives * 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palseontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development or Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Westem Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature. . . 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen ,,„,i,,,.,i.i 6 




























4 8 



£ s. d. 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palajozoic Pliyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System ...» 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Westem Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Mioor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 6 

Electro-optics 50 

]\Iathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard forthe 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palffiozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 

nij'a , <;....«... 25 b 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXUl 



£ i. d. 

Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Eays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 
Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 
Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 6 

Investigation of Blbolton Cave 25 
Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 
Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 
New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 
North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10~ 
1902; -«.=^= 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 60 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Dotany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada lOO 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864~io~0 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 q 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, iS,:c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 



CXIV 



REPORT — 1902. 



£ s. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 3 5 



d. 




1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 

"Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell -bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate l-l 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Marine Biological Association 5 
Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 





















5 


G 




























































































10 










































15 6 



1895, 

£ 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 

Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 
Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 

Formation of Haloids from 

Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks ,,... 10 

Palfflozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 
Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Fhnt-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 50 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 
Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 
Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 
Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 
Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 



«. 


d. 


















































B 


1 
















































































9 


4 






























































15 6 



(JENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXV 



1896. 

£, s. d. 

Photogi-apbs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of tlie Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on tlie 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Paleozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Earypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1404 6 1 































6 


1 




































































































































1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 
Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phfeophycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



cxn 



REPORT — 1902, 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light vipon Djed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks .T 

Investigation of a Coral Keef 40 

I'hotographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in I5ritish Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animaliurn 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters ■. 80 

Climatologj' of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 1.5 

Stnall Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of 

Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silch ester Excavation 7 10 

EthnologicalSurveyof Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Invest igation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in PhsBophycem 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations... Go 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 11) 6 

Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 o 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 



£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 

Section at Moel Tryfaen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Tabic at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animaliurn 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
ticOrganisms under Definite 
Physical Conrtitions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 189!) 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethno'oeicalSurvey of Canada 35 (i 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Hi-tology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phyicophycese 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£M30 14 2 



1000. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 
Radiation in a, Magnetic Field 25 
Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 

of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-lenpth Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 
Analysis 5 































GENERAL STATEME^T. 



cxvn 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 35 



£ s. d. \ 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Eemains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
lion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Peefs of the Indian 

Itegion 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Eavf 

Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Ph<eophyceae 20 

Corresp. Societies Committee 20 

£1,072 10 



£ 
Life-zones in British Carbc- 

niferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 
Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegiasan Fields CO 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnolosical Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 
Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceaj 15 
Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 

macesB 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 



t. 


d. 









































(t 






























































15 


11 



























9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 60 



CXVIU 



REPORT- 



£ s. d. 

Compound Ascidians of the 
Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 15 

Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 6 




















































-1902. 

£ . fL 

Changes in Haemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 
under Influence of Drugs... 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 
phycese 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£947 



General Meetings. 

On \Vedne.sday, September 10, at 8.30 p.m., in the Grosvenor Hall, 
Belfast, Principal Sir A. W. Riicker, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., resigned the 
office of President to Professor James Dewar, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc.,F.R.S., 
■who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 11, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Exhibition Hall. 

On Friday, September 12, at 8.30 p.m., in the Grosvenor Hall, Pro- 
fessor J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Becquerel Rays 
and Radio-activity,' 

On Monday, September 15, at 8.30 p.m., in the Grosvenor Hall, 
Professor W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S., delivei-ed a Discoui-se on 'In- 
heritance.' 

On Tuesday, September 16, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the 
Harbour Otfice. 

On Wednesday, September 17, at 2.30 p.m., in Queen's College, the con- 
cluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the General 
Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were explained 
to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Southport. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, September 9, 1903.] 



PBESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1902. 5 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Professor JAMES DEWAR, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



The members of an Association whose studies involve perpetual con- 
templation of settled law and ordered evolution, whose objects are to 
seek patiently for the truth of things and to extend the dominion of man 
over the forces of nature, are even more deeply pledged than other men 
to loyalty to the Crown and the Constitution which procure for them the. 
essential conditions of calm security and social stability. I am confident 
that I express the sentiments of all now before me when I say that to 
our loyal respect for his high office we add a warmer feeling of loyalty and 
attachment to the person of our Gracious Sovereign. It is the peculiar 
felicity of the British Association that, since its foundation seventy-one 
years ago, it has always been easy and natural to cherish both these senti- 
ments, which indeed can never be dissociated without peril. At this, our 
second meeting held under the present reign, these sentiments are realised 
all the more vividly, because, in common with the whole empire, we have 
recently passed through a period of acute apprehension, followed by the 
uplifting of a national deliverance. The splendid and imposing coronation 
ceremony which took place just a month ago was rendered doubly 
impressive both for the King and his people by the universal conscious- 
ness that it was also a service of thanksgiving for escape from imminent 
peril. In offering to His Majesty our most hearty congratulations upon 
his singularly rapid recovery from a dangerous illness, we rejoice to think 
that the nation has received gratifying evidence of the vigour of his 
constitution, and may, with confidence more assured than before, pray 
that he may have length of happy and prosperous days. No one in his 
wide dominions is more competent than the King to realise how much he 
owes, not only to the skill of his surgeons, but also to the equipment 
which has been placed in their hands as the combined result of scientific 
investigation in many and diverse directions. He has already displayed 
a profound and sagacious interest in the discovery of methods for dealing 
with some of the most intractable maladies that still baffle scientific 
penetration ; nor can we doubt that this interest extends to other forms 
of scientific investigation, more directly connected with the amelioration 

b2 



4 REPOKT — 1902. 

of the lot of the healthy than with the relief of the sick. Heredity 
imposes obligations and also confers aptitude for their discharge. If 
His Majesty's royal mother throughout her long and beneficent reign 
set him a splendid example of devotion to the burdensome labours of 
State which must necessarily absorb the chief part of his energies, 
his father no less clearly indicated the great part he may play in 
the encouragement of science. Intelligent appreciation of scientific 
work and needs is not less but more necessary in the highest quarters 
to-day than it was forty-three years ago, when His Royal Highness 
the Prince Consort brought the matter before this Association in 
the following memorable passage in his Presidential Address : 'We 
may be justified, however, in hoping that by the gradual diffusion of 
science and its increasing recognition as a principal part of our national 
education, the public in general, no less than the legislature and the 
State, will more and more recognise the claims of science to their atten- 
tion ; so that it may no longer require the begging box, but speak to the 
State like a favoured child to its parent, sure of his paternal solicitude 
for its welfare ; that the State will recognise in science one of its 
elements of strength and prosperity, to protect which the clearest dictates 
of self-interest demand.' Had this advice been seriously taken to heart 
and acted upon by the rulers of the nation at the time, what splendid 
results would have accrued to this country ! We should not now be 
painfully groping in the dark after a system of national education. We 
should not be wasting money, and time more valuable than money, in 
building imitations of foreign educational superstructures before having 
put in solid foundations. We should not be hurriedly and distractedly 
casting about for a system of tactics after confrontation with the dis- 
ciplined and co-ordinated forces of industry and science led and directed 
by the rulers of powerful States. Forty -three years ago we should have 
started fair had the Prince Consort's views prevailed. As it is, we have 
lost ground which it will tax even this nation's splendid reserves of 
individual initiative to recover. Although in this country the king 
rules, but does not govern, the Constitution and the structure of English 
society assure to him a very potent and far-reaching influence upon 
those who do govern. It is hardly possible to overrate the benefits that 
may accrue from his intelligent and continuous interest in the great 
problem of transforming his people into a scientifically educated nation. 
From this point of view we may congratulate ourselves that the heir to 
the Crown, following his family traditions, has already deduced from his 
own observations in different parts of the empire some very sound and 
valuable conclusions as to the national needs at the present day. 

Griffith — Gilbert — Cornu — Abel. 

The saddest yet the most sacred duty falling to us on such an occasion 
as the present is to pay our tribute to the memory of old comrades and 
fellow- workers whom we shall meet no more. We miss to-day a figure 



ADDRESS. 5 

that has been familiar, conspicuous, and always congenial at the meetings 
of the British Association during the last forty years. Throughout the 
greater part of that period Mr. George Griffith discharged the onerous 
and often delicate duties of the assistant general secretary, not only with 
conscientious thoroughness and great ability, but also with urbanity, tact, 
and courtesy that endeared him to all. His years sat lightly upon him, 
and his undiminished alertness and vigour caused his sudden death to 
come upon us all with a shock of surprise as well as of pain and grief. 
The British Association owes him a debt of gratitude which must be so 
fully realised by every regular attender of our meetings that no poor 
words of mine are needed to quicken your sense of loss, or to add to the 
poignancy of your regret. 

The British Association has to deplore the loss from among us of Sir 
Joseph Gilbert, a veteran who continued to the end of a long life to 
pursue his important and beneficent researches with untiring energy. 
The length of his services in the cause of science cannot be better indi- 
cated than by recalling the fact that he was one of the six past Presidents 
boasting fifty years' membership whose jubilee was celebrated by the 
Chemical Society in 1898. He was in fact an active member of that 
Society for over sixty years. Early in his career he devoted himself to a 
most important but at that time little cultivated field of research. He 
strove with conspicuous success to place the oldest of industries on a 
scientific basis, and to submit the complex conditions of agriculture to a 
systematic analysis. He studied the physiology of plant life in the open 
air, not with the object of penetrating the secrets of structure, but with 
the more directly utilitarian aim of establishing the conditions of success- 
ful and profitable cultivation. By a long series of experiments alike well 
conceived and laboriously carried out, he determined the effects of varia- 
tion in soil, and its chemical treatment — in short, in all the unknown 
factors with which the farmer previously had to deal according to 
empirical and local rules, roughly deduced from undigested experi- 
ence by uncritical and rudimentary processes of inference. Gilbert had 
the faith, the insight, and the courage to devote his life to an investi- 
gation so difficult, so unpromising, and so unlikely to bring the rich 
rewards attainable by equal diligence in other directions, as to offer no 
attraction to the majority of men. The tabulated results of the Rotham- 
sted experiments remain as a benefaction to mankind and a monument 
of indomitable and disinterested perseverance. 

It is impossible for me in this place to offer more than the barest 
indication of the great place in contemporary science that has been 
vacated by the lamented death of Professor Alfred Cornu, who so worthily 
upheld the best traditions of scientific France. He was gifted in a high 
•degree with the intellectual lucidity, the mastery of form, and the perspicuous 
method which characterise the best exponents of French thought in all 
departments of study. After a brilliant career as a student, he was 
chosen at the early age of twenty-six to fill one of the enviable positions 



6 REPORT— 1902. 

more numerous in Paris than in London, the Professorship of Physics at 
the Ecole Polytechnique. la that post, which he occupied to the end of 
his life, he found what is probably the ideal combination for a man of 
science — leisure and material equipment for original research, together 
with that close and stimulating contact with practical affairs afforded by 
his duties as teacher in a great school, almost ranking as a department of 
State. Cornu was admirable alike in the use he made of his opportuni- 
ties and in his manner of discharging his duties. He was at once a great 
investigator and a great teacher. I shall not even attempt a summary, 
which at the best must be very imperfect, of his brilliant achievements in 
optics, the study of his predilection, in electricity, in acoustics, and in the 
field of physics generally-. As a proof of the great estimation in which he 
was held, it is sufficient to remind you that he had tilled the highest presi- 
dential offices in French scientific societies, and that he was a foreign 
member of our Royal Society and a recipient of its Rumford medal. In 
this country he had many friends, attracted no less by his personal and 
social qualities than by his commanding abilities. Some of those here 
present may I'emember his appearance a few years ago at the Royal 
Institution, and more recently his delivery of the Rede Lecture at Cam- 
bridge, when the University conferred upon him the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Science. His death has inflicted a heavy blow upon our 
generation, upon France, and upon the world. 

[Since this address was written the Association has suffered a grievous 
loss through the sudden death of Sir Frederick Abel, a past President 
and one of the most representative and successful chemists of his genera- 
tion. A distinguished pupil of Hoffmann, his early work was directed 
to the study of organic chemistry. His appointment as Chemist to the 
War Office at an early stage in his career directed his attention almost 
exclusively to problems dealing with the application of chemistry tO' 
naval and military questions ; a department of knowledge with which his 
name will always be identified. His researches on nitro-cellulose, detona- 
tion, and the history of explosive agents, contain many new and startling 
observations on the stability and utility of such agents for the purposes 
of war. His investigation, in association with Sir Andrew Noble, of the 
products of the decomposition of fired gunpowder has long been regarded 
as a classic. He had the satisfaction of living through the age of gun- 
powder, and of seeing those nitro-compounds of his earlier studies 
employed as smokeless propulsive agents. In contributing to our know- 
ledge of the cause and prevention of colliery explosions and in devising a. 
reliable flash-test for the examination of petroleum he did great public 
service. Further he made valuable contributions to the study of metal- 
lurgy, especially as regards the condition of the carbon in steel. We also 
owe to him a debt of gratitude for services rendered to scientific societies 
and to the cause of scientific education. His loss makes a serious vacancy 
in the ranks of English chemists.] 



ADDRESS. 7 

The Progress of Belfast. 

A great man has observed that the ' intelligent anticipation of 
events before they occur ' is a factor of some importance in human affairs. 
One may suppose that intelligent anticipation had something to do with 
the choice of Belfast as the meeting-place of the British Association this 
year. Or, if it had not, then it must be admitted that circumstances have 
conspired, as they occasionally do, to render the actual selection peculiarly 
felicitous. Belfast has perennial claims, of a kind that cannot easily be 
surpassed, to be the scene of a great scientific gathering — claims founded 
upon its scientific traditions and upon the conspicuous energy and success 
•with -which its citizens have prosecuted in various directions the applica- 
tion of science to the purposes of life. It is but the other day that the 
whole nation deplored at the grave of Lord Dufferin the loss of one of 
the most distinguished and most versatile public servants of the age. 
That great statesman and near neighbour of Belfast was a typical 
expression of the qualities and the spirit which have made Belfast what it 
is, and have enabled Ireland, in spite of all drawbacks, to play a great part 
in the Empire. I look round on your thriving and progressive city 
giving evidence of an enormous aggregate of industrial efforts intelligently 
organised and directed for the building up of a sound social fabric, I find 
that your great industries are interlinked and interwoven with the whole 
economic framework of the Empire, and that you are silently and irre- 
sistibly compelled to harmonious co-operation by practical considerations 
acting upon the whole community. It is here that I look for the real 
Ireland, the Ireland of the future. We cannot trace with precision the 
laws that govern the appearance of eminent men, but we may at least 
learn from history that they do not spring from every soil. They do not 
appear among decadent races or in ages of retrogression. They are the 
fine flower of the practical intellect of the nation working studiously and 
patiently in accordance with the great laws of conduct. In the manifold 
activities of Belfast we have a splendid manifestation of individual energy 
working necessarily, even if not altogether consciously, for the national 
good. In great Irishmen like Lord Dufferin and Lord Roberts, giving 
their best energies for the defence of the nation by diplomacy or by war, 
we have complementary evidence enough to reassure the most timid con- 
cerning the real direction of Irish energies and the vital nature of Irish 
solidarity with the rest of the Empire. 

Belfast has played a prominent part in a transaction of a somewhat 
special and significant kind, which has proved not a little confusing and 
startling to the easy-going public. The significance of the shipping com- 
bination lies in the light it throws on the conditions and tendencies which 
make such things possible, if not even inevitable. It is an event forcibly 
illustrating the declaration of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, 
that the nation must ' wake up ' if it hopes to face its growing responsi- 
bilities. Belfast may plead with some justice that it, at least, has never 



8 REPORT — 1902. 

gone to sleep. In various directions an immense advance has been 
effected during the twenty-eight years that have elapsed since the last 
visit of the British Association. Belfast has become first a city and then 
a county, and now ranks as one of the eight largest cities in the United 
Kingdom. Its municipal area has been considerably extended, and its 
population has increased by something like 75 per cent. It has not only 
been extended, but improved and beautified in a manner which very 
few places can match, and which probably none can surpass. Fine new 
thoroughfares, adorned with admirable public institutions, have been run 
through areas once covered with crowded and squalid buildings. Com- 
pared with the early fifties, when iron shipbuilding was begun on a very 
modest scale, the customs collected at the port have increased tenfold. 
Since the introduction of the power-loom, about 1850, Belfast has dis- 
tanced all rivals in the linen industry, which continues to flourish not- 
withstanding the fact that most of the raw material is now imported, 
instead of being produced, as in former times, in Ulster. Extensive 
improvements have been carried out in the port at a cost of several 
millions, and have been fully justified by a very great expansion of trade. 
These few bare facts sufiice to indicate broadly the immense strides taken 
by Belfast in the last two decades. For an Association that exists for 
the advancement of science it is stimulating and encouraging to 6nd itself 
in the midst of a vigorous community, successfully applying knowledge to 
the ultimate purpose of all human effort, the amelioration of the common 
lot by an ever-increasing mastery of the powers and resources of Nature. 



Tyndall and Evolution. 

The Presidential Address delivered by Tyndall in this city twenty- 
eight years ago will always rank as an epoch-making deliverance. Of all 
the men of the time, Tyndall was one of the best equipped for the 
presentation of a vast and complicated scientific subject to the mass of 
his fellow-men. Gifted with the powers of a many-sided original investi- 
gator, he had at the same time devoted much of his time to an earnest 
study of philosophy, and his literary and oratorical powers, coupled with 
a fine poetic instinct, were qualifications which placed him in the front 
rank of the scientific representatives of the later Victorian epoch, and 
constituted him an exceptionally endowed exponent of scientific thought. 
In the Belfast discourse Tyndall dealt with the changing aspects of the 
long unsettled horizon of human thought, at last illuminated by the 
sunrise of the doctrine of evolution. The consummate art with which he 
marshalled his scientific forces for the purpose of effecting conviction of 
the general truth of the doctrine has rarely been surpassed. The courage, 
the lucidity, the grasp of principles, the moral enthusiasm with which he 
treated his great theme, have powerfully aided in effecting a great 
intellectual conquest, and the victory assuredly ought to engender no 
regrets. 



ADDRESa, ■ 9 

Tyndall's views as a strenuous supporter and believer in the theory of 
evolution were naturally essentially optimistic. He had no sympathy 
with the lugubrious pessimistic philosophy whose disciples are for ever 
intent on administering rebuke to scientific workers by reminding them 
that, however much knowledge man may have acquired, it is as nothing 
compared witli the immensity of his ignorance. That truth is indeed 
never adequately realised except by the man of science, to whom it is 
brought home by repeated experience of the fact that his most promising 
excursions into the unknown are invariably terminated by barriers which, 
for the time at least, are insurmountable. He who has never made such 
excursions with patient labour may indeed prattle about the vastness of 
the unknown, but he does so without real sincerity or intimate conviction. 
His tacit, if not his avowed, contention is, that since we can never know 
all it is not worth while to seek to know more ; and that in the profundity 
of his ignorance he has the right to people the unexplored spaces with the 
phantoms of his vain imagining. The man of science, on the contrary, 
finds in the extent of his ignorance a perpetual incentive to further 
exertion, and in the mysteries that surround him a continual invitation, 
nay, more, an inexorable mandate. Tyndall's writings abundantly prove 
that he had faced the great problems of man's existence with that calm 
intellectual courage, the lack of which goes very far to explain the nervous 
dogmatism of nescience. Just because he had done this, because he had, 
as it were, mapped out the boundaries between what is knowable though 
not yet known and what must remain for ever unknowable to man, he 
did not hesitate to place implicit reliance on the progress of which man is 
capable, through the exercise of patient and persistent research. In 
Tyndall's scheme of thought the chief dicta were the strict division of the 
world of knowledge from that of emotion, and the lifting of life by 
throwing overboard the malign residuum of dogmatism, fanaticism, and 
intolerance, thereby stimulating and nourishing a plastic vigour of intellect. 
His cry was ' Commotion before stagnation, the leap of the torrent before 
the stillness of the swamp.' 

His successors have no longer any need to repeat those significant 
words, ' We claim and we shall wrest from theology the entire domain of 
cosmological theory.' The claim has been practically, though often 
unconsciously, conceded. Tyndall's dictum, ' Every system must be plastic 
to the extent that the growth of knowledge demands,' struck a note that 
was too often absent from the heated discussions of days that now seem so 
.strangely remote. His honourable admission that, after all that had been 
achieved by the developmental theory, 'the whole process of evolution is 
the manifestation of a power absolutely inscrutable to the intellect of 
man,' shows how willingly he acknowledged the necessary limits of 
scientific inquiry. This reservation did not prevent him from expressing 
the conviction forced upon him by the pressure of intellectual necessity, 
after exhaustive consideration of the known relations of living things, 
that matter in itself must be regarded as containing the promise and 



10 REPORT— 1902. 

potency of all terrestrial life. Bacon in his day said very much the same 
thing : ' He that will know the properties and proceedings of matter 
should comprehend in his understanding the sum of all things, which 
have been, which are, and which shall be, although no knowledge can 
extend so far as to singular and individual beings.' Tyndall's conclusion 
was at the time thought to be based on a too insecure projection into the 
unknown, and some even regarded such an expansion of the crude 
properties of matter as totally unwarranted. Yet Tyndall was certainly 
no materialist in the ordinary acceptation of the term. It is true his 
arguments, like all arguments, wei-e capable of being distorted, especially 
when taken out of their context, and the address became in this way an 
easy prey for hostile criticism. The glowing rhetoric that gave charm to 
his discourse and the poetic similes that clothed the dry bones of his close- 
woven logic were attacked by a veritable broadside of critical artillery. 
At the present day these would be considered as only appropriate 
artistic embellishments, so great is the unconscious change wrought in our 
surroundings. It must be remembered that, while Tyndall discussed the 
evolutionary problem from many points of view, he took up the position 
of a practical disciple of Nature dealing with the known experimental and 
observational realities of physical inquiry. Thus he accepted as fundamental 
concepts the atomic theory, together with the capacity of the atom to 
be the vehicle or repository of energy, and the grand generalisation of the 
conservation of energy. Without the former, Tyndall doubted whether it 
would be possible to frame a theory of the material universe ; and as to 
the latter he recognised its radical significance in that the ultimate 
philosophical issues therein involved were as yet but dimly seen. That such 
generalisations are provisionally accepted does not mean that science is 
not alive to the possibility that what may now be regarded as fundamental 
may in future be superseded or absorbed by a wider generalisation. It is 
only the poverty of language and the necessity for compendious expression 
that oblige the man of science to resort to metaphor and to speak of the 
Laws of Nature. In reality, he does not pretend to formulate any laws 
for Nature, since to do so would be to assume a knowledge of the inscru- 
table cause from which alone such laws could emanate. When he speaks 
of a ' law of Nature ' he simply indicates a sequence of events which, so far 
as his experience goes, is invariable, and which therefore enables him to 
predict, to a certain extent, what will happen in given circumstances. 
But, however seemingly bold may be the speculation in which he permits 
himself to indulge, he does not claim for his best hypothesis more than 
provisional validity. He does not forget that to-morrow may bring a new 
experience compelling him to recast the hypothesis of to-day. This plas- 
ticity of scientific thought, depending upon reverent recognition of the 
vastness of the unknown, is oddly made a matter of reproach by the very 
people who harp upon the limitations of human knowledge. Yet the 
essential condition of progress is that we should generalise to the best of 
our ability from the experience at command, treat our theory as provi- 



ADDRESS. 11 

sionally true, endeavour to the best of our power to reconcile with it all 
the new facts we discover, and abandon or modify it when it ceases to 
afford a coherent explanation of new experience. That procedure is 
far as are the poles asunder from the presumptuous attempt to travel 
beyond the study of secondary causes. Any discussion as to whether 
matter or energy was the true reality would have appeared to Tyndall as 
a futile metaphysical disputation, which, being completely dissociated from 
verified experience, would lead to nothing. No explanation was attempted 
by him of the origin of the bodies yve call elements, nor how some of such 
bodies came to be compounded into complex groupings and built up into 
special structures with which, so far as we know, the phenomena charac- 
teristic of life are invariably associated. The evolutionary doctrine leads 
us to the conclusion that life, such as we know it, has only been possible 
during a short period of the world's history, and seems equally destined to 
disappear in the remote future ; but it postulates the existence of a 
material universe endowed with an infinity of powers and properties, the 
origin of which it does not pretend to account for. The enigma at both 
ends of the scale Tyndall admitted, and the futility of attempting to 
answer such questions he fully recognised. Nevertheless, Tyndall did not 
mean that the man of science should be debarred from speculating as to the 
possible nature of the simplest forms of matter or the mode in which life may 
have originated on this planet. Lord Kelvin, in his Presidential Address, 
put the position admirably when he said ' Science is bound by the ever- 
lasting law of honour to face fearlessly every problem that can fairly be 
presented to it. If a probable solution consistent with the ordinary course 
of Nature can be found, we must not invoke an abnormal act of Creative 
Power' ; and in illustration he forthwith proceeded to express his convic- 
tion that from time immemorial many worlds of life besides our own have 
existed, and that ' it is not an unscientific hypothesis that life originated 
on this earth through the moss-grown fragments from the ruins of another 
world.' In spite of the great progress made in science, it is curious to 
notice the occasional recrudescence of metaphysical dogma. For instance, 
there is a school which does not hesitate to revive ancient mystifications 
in order to show that matter and energy can be shattered by philosophical 
arguments, and have no objective reality. Science is at once more humble 
and more reverent. She confesses her ignorance of the ultimate nature 
of matter, of the ultimate nature of energy, and still more of the origin 
and ultimate synthesis of the two. She is content with her patient inves- 
tigation of secondary causes, and glad to know that since Tyndall spoke in 
Belfast she has made great additions to the knowledge of general mole- 
cular mechanism, and especially of synthetic artifice in the domain of 
organic chemistry, though the more exhaustive acquaintance gained only 
forces us the more to acquiesce in acknowledging the inscrutable mystery 
of matter. Our conception of the power and potency of matter has grown 
in little more than a quarter of a century to much more imposing dimen- 
sions, and the outlook for the future assuredly suggests the increasing 



12 REPORT — 1902. 

acceleration of our rate of progress. For the impetus he gave to scientific 
work and thought, and for his fine series of researches chiefly directed to 
what Newton called the more secret and noble works of Nature within 
the corpuscules, the world owes Tyndall a debt of gratitude. It is well 
that his memory should be held in perennial respect, especially in the land 
of his birth. 

The Endowment of Education. 

These are days of munificent benefactions to science and education, 
which however are greater and more numerous in other countries 
than in our own. Splendid as they are, it may be doubted, if we 
take into account the change in the value of money, the enormous 
increase of population, and the utility of science to the builders of colossal 
fortunes, whether they bear comparison with the efforts of earlier days. 
But the habit of endowing science was so long in practical abeyance that 
every evidence of its resumption is matter for sincere congratulation. 
Mr. Cecil Rhodes has dedicated a very large sum of money to the advance- 
ment of education, though the means he has chosen are perhaps not the 
most effective. It must be remembered that his aims were political as 
much as educational. He had the noble and worthy ambition to promote 
enduring friendship between the great English-speaking communities of 
the world, and knowing the strength of college ties he conceived that this 
end might be greatly furthered Vjy bringing together at an English univer- 
sity the men who would presumably have much to do in later life with 
the influencing of opinion, or even with the direction of policy. It has 
been held by some a striking tribute to Oxford that a man but little given 
to academic pursuits or modes of thought should think it a matter of 
high importance to bring men from our colonies or even from Germany, 
to submit to the formative influences of that ancient seat of learning. 
But this is perhaps reading Mr. Rhodes backwards. He showed his 
affectionate recollection of his college days by his gift to Oriel. But, apart 
from the main idea of fostering good relations between those who will 
presumably be influential in England, in the colonies, and in the United 
States, Mr Rhodes was probably influenced also by the hope that the 
influx of strangers would help to broaden Oxford notions and to procure 
revision of conventional arrangements. 

Dr. Andrew Carnegie's endowment of Scottish universities, as modi- 
fied by him in deference to expert advice, is a more direct benefit to the 
higher education. For while Mr. Rhodes has only enabled young men to 
get what Oxford has to give, Dr. Carnegie has also enabled his trustees 
powerfully to augment and improve the teaching equipment of the univer- 
sities themselves. At the same time he has provided as far as possible 
for the enduring usefulness of his money. His trustees form a permanent 
body external to the universities, which, while possessing no power of 
direct control, must always, as holder of the purse-strings, be in a position 
to offer independent and weighty criticisms. More recently Dr. Carnegie 



ADDRESS. 13 

has devoted an equal sum of ten million dollars to the foundation of a 
Carnegie Institution in "Washington. Here again he has been guided by 
the same ideas. He has neither founded a university nor handed over 
the money to any existing university. He has created a permanent trust 
charged with the duty of watching educational efforts and helping them 
from the outside according to the best judgment that can be formed in 
the circumstances of the moment. Its aims are to be— to promote original 
research ; to discover the exceptional man in every department of study, 
whether inside or outside of the schools, and to enable him to make his 
special study his life-work ; to increase facilities for higher education ; to 
aid and stimulate the universities and other educational institutions ; to 
assist students who may prefer to study at Washington ; and to ensure 
prompt publication of scientific discoveries. The general purpose of the 
founder is to secure, if possible, for the United States leadership in the 
domain of discovery and the utilisation of new forces for the benefit of 
man. Nothing will more powerfully further this end than attention to 
the injunction to lay hold of the exceptional man whenever and wherever 
he may be found, and, having got him, to enable him to carry on the work 
for which he seems specially designed. That means, I imagine, a scouring 
of the old world, as well as of the new, for the best men in every depart- 
ment of study— in fact, an assiduous collecting of brains similar to the col- 
lecting of rare books and works of art which Americans are now carrying 
on in so lavish a manner. As in diplomacy and war, so in science, we owe 
our reputation, and no small part of our prosperity, to exceptional men ; 
and that we do not enjoy these things in fuller measure we owe to our 
lack of an army of well-trained ordinary men capable of utilising their 
ideas. Our exceptional men have too often worked in obscurity, without 
recognition from a public too imperfectly instructed to guess at their 
greatness, without assistance from a State governed largely by dialec- 
ticians, and without help from academic authorities hidebound by the 
pedantries of medieval scholasticism. For such men we have to wait upon 
the will of Heaven. Even Dr. Carnegie will not always find them when 
they are wanted. . But what can be done in that direction will be done 
by institutions like Dr. Carnegie's, and for the benefit of the nation that 
possesses them in greatest abundance and uses them most intelligently. 
When contemplating these splendid endowments of learning, it occurred 
to me that it would be interesting to find out exactly what some definite 
quantity of scientific achievement has cost in hard cash. In an article 
by Carl Snyder in the January number of the ' North American Review,' 
entitled ' America's Inferior Place in the Scientific World,' I found the 
statement that 'it would be hardly too much to say that during 
the hundred years of its existence the Royal Institution alone has 
done more for English science than all of the English universities put 
together. This is certainly true with regard to British industry, for it 
was here that the discoveries of Faraday were made.' I was emboldened by 
this estimate from a distant and impartial observer to do, what otherwise 



14 REPORT — 1902, 

I' might have shrunk from doing, and to take the Royal Institution — ■ 
after all, the foundation of an American citizen. Count Rumford— as the 
basis of my inquiry. The work done at the Royal Institution during the 
past hundred years is a fairly definite quantity in the mind of every man 
really conversant with scientific affairs. I have obtained from the books 
accurate statistics of the total expenditure on experimental inquiry and 
public demonstrations for the whole of the nineteenth century. The 
items are : 

£ 
Professors' Salaries — Physics and Chemistry . 54,600 

Laboratory Expenditure 24,430 

Assistants' Salaries 21,590 



Total for one hundred years ... £100,620 

In addition, the members and friends of the Institution have contri- 
buted to a fund for exceptional expenditure for Experimental Research the 
sum of 9,580/. It should also be mentioned that a Civil List pension of 
300Z. was granted to Faraday in 1853, and Avas continued during twenty- 
seven years of active work and five years of retirement. Thirty-two 
years in all, at 300/. a year, make a sum of 9,600/., representing the national 
donation, which, added to the amount of expenditure just stated, brings up 
the total cost of a century of scientific work in the laboratories of the 
Royal Institution, togetiier with public demonstrations, to 119,800/., or 
an average of 1,200/. per annum. I think if you recall the names and 
achievements of Young, Davy, Faraday, and Tyndall, you will come to the 
conclusion that the exceptional man is about the cheapest of natural 
products. It is a popular fallacy that the Royal Institution is hand- 
somely endowed. On the contrary, it has often been in financial .straits ; 
and since its foundation by Count Rumfoixl its only considerable bequests 
have been one from Thomas G. Hodgkins, an American citizen, for 
Experimental Research, and that of John Fuller for endowing with 95/. a 
year the chairs of Chemistry and Physiology. In this connection the 
Davy-Faraday Laboratory, founded by the liberality of Dr. Ludwig 
Mond, will naturally occur to many minds. But though affiliated to the 
Royal Institution, with, I hope, reciprocal indirect advantages, that 
Laboratory is financially independent and its endowments are devoted to 
its own special purpose, which is to provide opportunity to prosecute 
independent research for worthy and approved applicants of all nationali- 
ties. The main reliance of the Royal Institution has always been, and 
still remains, upon the contributions of its members, and upon corre- 
sponding sacrifices in the form of time and labour by its professors. It 
may be doubted whether we can reasonably count upon a succession of 
scientific men able and willing to make sacrifices which the conditions of 
modern life tend to render increasingly burdensome. Modern science is 
in fact in something of a dilemma. Devotion to abstract research upon 
small means is becoming always harder to maintain, while at the same 



ADDRESS. 15 

time the number of wealthy independent searchers after truth and 
patrons of science of the style of Joule, Spottiswoode, and De la Rue is 
apparently becoming smaller. The installations required by the refine- 
ments of modern science are continually becoming more costly, so that 
upon all grounds it would appear that without endowments of the 
kind provided by Dr. Carnegie the outlook for disinterested research is 
rather dark. On the other hand, these endowments, unless carefully 
administered, might obviously tend to impair the single-minded devotion 
to the search after truth for its own sake, to which science has owed 
almost every memorable advance made in the past. The Carnegie 
Institute will dispose in a year of as much money as the members of the 
Royal Institution have expended in a century upon its purely scieutitic 
work. It will at least be interesting to note how far the output of high- 
class scientific work corresponds to the hundredfold application of money 
to its production. Nor will it be of less interest to the people of this 
country to observe the results obtained from that moiety of Dr. Carnegie's 
gift to Scotland which is to be applied to the promotion of scientific 
research. 

Apjdied Chemistry, English and Foreign. 

The Diplomatic and Consular reports published from time to time by 
the Foreign Office are usually too belated to be of much use to business 
men, but they sometimes contain information concerning what is done in 
foreign countries which affords food for reflection. One of these reports, 
issued a year ago, gives a very good account of the German arrangements 
and provisions for scientific training, and of the enormous commercial 
demand for the services of men who have passed successfully through the 
universities and Technical High Schools, as well as of the wealth that 
has accrued to Germany through the systematic application of scientific 
proficiency to the ordinary business of life. 

Taking these points in their order, I have thought it a matter of great 
interest to obtain a comparative view of chemical equipment in this 
country and in Germany, and I am indebted to Professor Henderson of 
Glasf'ow, who last year became the secretary of a committee of this 
Association of which Professor Armstrong is chairman, for statistics 
referring to this country, which enable a comparison to be broadly made. 
The author of the consular report estimates that in 1901 there wei"e 
4,500 trained chemists employed in German works, the number having risen 
to this point from 1,700 employed twenty-five years earlier. It is difficult 
to give perfectly accurate figures for this country, but a liberal estimate 
places the number of works chemists at 1,500, while at the very outside 
it cannot be put higher than somewhere between 1,500 and 2,000. In 
other words, we cannot show in the United Kingdom, notwithstanding 
the immense range of the chemical industries in which we once stood 
prominent, more than one-third of the professional staff employed in 
Germany. It may perhaps be thought or hoped that we make up in 



16 REPORT— 1902. 

quality for our defect in quantity, but unfortunately this is not the case. 
On the contrary, the German chemists are, on the average, as superior in 
technical training and acquirements as they are numerically. Details are 
given in the report of the training of 633 chemists employed in German 
works. Of these, 69 per cent, hold the degree of Ph.D., about 10 per cent, 
hold the diploma of a Technical High School, and about 5 per cent, hold both 
qualifications. That is to say 84 per cent, have received a thoroughly 
systematic and complete chemical training, and 74 per cent, of these add the 
advantages of a university career. Compare with this the information 
furnished by 500 chemists in British works. Of these only 21 per cent, are 
graduates, while about 10 per cent, hold the diploma of a college. Putting 
the case as high as we can, and ignoring the more practical and thorough 
training of the German universities, which give their degrees for work done, 
and not for questions asked and answered on paper, we have only 31 per cent, 
of systematically trained chemists against 84 per cent, in German works. 
It ought to be mentioned that about 21 per cent, of the 500 are Fellows 
or Associates of the Institute of Chemistry, whatever that may amount 
to in practice, but of these a very large number have already been 
accounted for under the heads of graduates and holders of diplomas. 
These figures, which I suspect are much too favourable on the British 
side, unmistakably point to the prevalence among employers in this 
country of the antiquated adherence to rule of thumb, which is at the 
root of much of the backwardness we have to deplore. It hardly needs 
to be pointed out to such an audience as the present that chemists who 
are neither graduates of a university, nor holders of a diploma from a 
technical college, may be competent to carry on existing processes 
according to traditional methods, but are very unlikely to effect sub- 
stantial improvements, or to invent new and more efficient processes. I 
am very far from denying that here and there an individual may be found 
whose exceptional ability enables him to triumph over all defects of 
training. But in all educational matters it is tlie average man whom we 
have to consider, and the average ability which we have to develop. 
Now, to take the second point — the actual money value of the indus- 
tries carried on in Germany by an army of workers both quantitatively 
and qualitatively so superior to our own. The Consular report estimates 
the whole value of German chemical industries at not less than fifty 
millions sterling per annum. These industries have sprung up within the 
last seventy years, and have received enormous expansion during the last 
thirty. They are, moreover, very largely founded upon basic discoveries 
made by English chemists, but never properly appreciated or scientifically 
developed in the land of their birth. I will place before you some figures 
showing the growth of a single firm engaged in a single one of these 
industries — the utilisation of coal tar for the production of drugs, per- 
fumes, and colouring-matters of every conceivable shade. The firm of 
Friedrich Bayer & Co. employed in 1875, 119 workmen. The number 
has more than doubled itself every five years, and in May of this year 



ADDRESS. 17 

that firm employed 5,000 workmen, 160 chemists, 260 engineers and 
mechanics, and 680 clerks. For many years past it has regularly paid 
18 per cent, on the ordinary shares, which this year has risen to 20 per 
cent. ; and in addition, in common with other and even larger concerns 
in the same industry, has paid out of profits for immense extensions 
usually charged to capital account. There is one of these factories, the 
works and plant of which stand in the books at 1,500,000^., while the 
money actually sunk in them approaches to 5,000,000^. In other words, 
the practical monopoly enjoyed by the German manufacturers enables 
them to exact huge profits from the rest of the world, and to establish a 
position which, financially as well as scientifically, is almost unassailable. 
I must repeat that the fundamental discoveries upon which this gigantic 
industry is built were made in this country, and were practically 
•developed to a certain extent by their authors. But in spite of the 
abundance and cheapness of the raw material, and in spite of the evi- 
dence that it could be most remuneratively worked up, these men founded 
no school and had practically no successors. The colours they made were 
driven out of the field by newer and better colours made from their stuff 
by the development of their ideas, but these improved colours were made 
in Germany and not in England. Now what is the explanation of this 
extraordinary and disastrous phenomenon 1 I give it in a word — want 
of education. We had the material in abundance when other nations 
had comparatively little. We had the capital, and we had the brains, for 
we originated the whole thing. But we did not possess the diff'used edu- 
cation without which the ideas of men of genius cannot fructify beyond 
the limited scope of an individual. I am aware that our patent laws are 
sometimes held responsible. Well, they are a contributory cause ; but it 
must be remembered that other nations with patent laws as protective as 
could be desired have not developed the colour industry. The patent laws 
have only contributed in a secondary degree, and if the patent laws have 
been bad the reason for their badness is again want of education. Make 
them as bad as you choose, and you only prove that the men who made 
them, and the public whom these men try to please, were misled by 
theories instead of being conversant with fact and logic. But the root of 
the mischief is not in the patent laws or in any legislation whatever. 
It is in the want of education among our so-called educated classes, and 
secondarily among the workmen on whom these depend. It is in the 
abundance of men of ordinary plodding ability, thoroughly ti-ained and 
methodically directed, that Germany at present has so commanding an 
advantage. It is the failure of our schools to turn out, and of our manu- 
facturers to demand, men of this kind, which explains our loss of some 
valuable industries and our precarious hold upon others. Let no one 
imagine for a moment that this deficiency can be remedied by any amount 
of that technical training which is now the fashionable nostrum. It is 
an excellent thing, no doubt, but it must rest upon a foundation of 
general training. Mental habits are formed for good or evil long l)efore 
1902. c 



18 REPORT — 1902. 

men go to the technical schools. We have to begin at the beginning : we 
have to train the population from the first to think correctly and logically, 
to deal at first hand with facts, and to evolve, each one for himself, the 
solution of a problem put before him, instead of learning by rote the solu- 
tion given by somebody else. There are plenty of chemists turned out, 
even by our Universities, who would be of no use to Bayer & Co. They 
are chockfull of formulae, they can recite theories, and they know text- 
books by heart ; but put them to solve a new problem, freshly arisen in 
the laboratory, and you will find that their learning is all dead. It has 
not become a vital part of their mental equipment, and they are floored 
by the first emergence of the unexpected. The men who escape this 
mental barrenness are men who were somehow or other taught to think 
long before they went to the university. To my mind, the really appalling 
thing is not that the Germans have seized this or the other industry, or 
even that they may have seized upon a dozen industries. It is that the 
German population has reached a point of general training and specialised 
equipment which it will take us two generations of hard and intelligently 
directed educational work to attain. It is that Germany possesses a 
national weapon of precision which must give her an enormous initial 
advantage in any and every contest depending upon disciplined and 
methodised intellect. 

History of Cold and the Absolute Zero. 

It was Tyndall's good fortune to appear before you at a moment when 
a fruitful and comprehensive idea was vivifying the whole domain of 
scientific thought. At the present time no such broad generalisation 
presents itself for discussion, while on the other hand the number of 
specialised studies has enormously increased. Science is advancing in so 
broad a front by the efibrts of so great an army of workers that it would 
be idle to attempt within the limits of an address to the most indulgent of 
audiences anything like a survey of chemistry alone. But I have thought 
it might be instructive, and perhaps not uninteresting, to trace briefly in 
broad outline the development of that branch of study with which my 
own labours have been recently more intimately connected — a study which 
I trust I am not too partial in thinking is as full of philosophical interest as 
of experimental difficulty. The nature of heat and cold must have en- 
gaged thinking men from the very earliest dawn of speculation upon the 
external world ; but it will suffice for the present purpose if, disregarding 
ancient philosophers and even medieval alchemists, we take up the subject 
where it stood after the great revival of learning, and as it was regarded 
by the father of the inductive method. That this was an especially 
attractive subject to Bacon is evident from the frequency with which 
he recurs to it in his different works, always with lamentation over the 
inadequacy of the means at disposal for obtaining a considerable degree 
of cold. Thus in the chapter in the Natural History, ' Sylva Sylvarum,' 
entitled ' Experiments in consort touching the production of cold,' he says. 



ADDRESS. 19 

' The production of cold is a thing very worthy of the inquisition both for 
the use and the disclosure of causes. For heat and cold are nature's two 
hands whereby she chiefly worketh, and heat we have in readiness in 
respect of the tire, but for cold we must stay till it cometh or seek it in 
deep caves or high mountains, and when all is done we cannot obtain it 
in any great degree, for furnaces of fire are far hotter than a summer sun, 
but vaults and hills are not much colder than a winter's frost.' The great 
Robert Boyle was the first experimentalist who followed up Bacon's sug- 
gestions. In 1682 Boyle read a paper to the Royal Society on 'New 
Experiments and Observations touching Cold, or an Experimental 
History of Cold,' published two years later in a separate work. This is 
really a most complete history of everything known about cold up to that 
date, but its great merit is the inclusion of numerous experiments made 
by Boyle himself on frigorific mixtures, and the general effects of such 
upon matter. The agency chiefly used by Boyle in the conduct of his 
experiments was the glaciating mixture of snow or ice and salt. In the 
course of his experiments he made many important observations. Thus 
he observed that the salts which did not help the snow or ice to dissolve 
faster gave no effective freezing. He showed that water in becoming ice 
expands by about one-ninth of its volume, and bursts gun-barrels. He 
attempted to counteract the expansion and prevent freezing by completely 
filling a strong iron ball with water before cooling ; anticipating that it 
might burst the bottle by the stupendous force of expansion, or that if it 
did not, then the ice produced might under the circumstances be heavier 
than water. He speculated in an ingenious way on the change of water 
into ice. Thus he says, ' If cold be but a privation of heat through the 
recess of that ethereal substance which agitated the little eel-like particles 
of the water and thereby made them compose a fluid body, it may easily 
be conceived that they should remain rigid in the postures in which the 
ethereal substance quitted them, and thereby compose an unfluid body like 
ice ; yet how these little eels should by that recess acquire as strong an en- 
deavour outwards as if they were so many little springs and expand them- 
selves with so stupendous a force, is that which does not so readily appear.' 
The greatest degree of adventitious cold Boyle was able to produce did 
not make air exposed to its action lose a full tenth of its own volume, so 
that, in his own words, the cold does not 'weaken the spring by 
anything near so considerable as one would expect.' After making 
this remarkable observation and commenting upon its unexpected nature, 
it is strange Boyle did not follow it up. He questions the existence of a 
body of its own nature supremely cold, by participating in which all other 
bodies obtain that quality, although the doctrine of a 'primum frigiduDi 
had been accepted by many sects of philosophers ; for, as he says, ' if a 
body being cold signify no more than its not having its sensible parts so 
much agitated as those of our sensorium, it suffices that the sun or the 
fire or some other agent, whatever it were, that agitated more vehemently 
its parts before, does either now cease to agitate them or agitates them 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1902. 

but very remissly, so that till it be determined whether cold be a positive 
quality or but a privative it will be needless to contend what particular 
body ought to be esteemed the jmmum frigidum.' The whole elaborate 
investigation cost Boyle immense labour, and he confesses that he ' never 
handled any part of natural philosophy that was so troublesome and full 
of hardships.' He looked upon his results but as a ' beginning ' in this 
field of inquiry, and for all the trouble and patience expended he consoled 
himself with the thought of ' men being oftentimes obliged to suffer as 
much wet and cold and dive as deep to fetch up sponges as to fetch up 
pearls.' After the masterly essay of Boyle, the attention of investigators 
was chiefly directed to improving thermometrical instruments. The old 
air thermometer of Galileo being inconvenient to use, the introduction 
of fluid thermometers greatly aided the inquiry into the action of heat and 
cold. For a time great difficulty was encountered in selecting proper 
fixed points on the scales of such instruments, and this stimulated men 
like Huygens, Newton, Hooke, and Amontons to suggest remedies and to 
conduct experiments. By the beginning of the eighteenth century the 
freezing-point and the boiling-point of water were agreed upon as fixed 
points, and the only apparent difficulties to be overcome were the selection 
of the fluid, accurate calibration of the capillary tube of the thermometer, 
and a general understanding as to scale divisions. It must be confessed 
that great confusion and inaccuracy in temperature observations arose 
from the variety and crudeness of the instruments. This led Amontons 
in 1702-3 to contribute two papers to the French Academy which reveal 
great originalit}' in the handling of the subject, and which, strange to say, 
are not generally known. The first discourse deals with some new 
properties of the air and the means of accurately ascertaining the 
temperature in any climate. He regarded heat as due to a movement of 
the particles of bodies, though he did not in any way specify the nature 
of the motion involved ; and as the general cause of all terrestrial motion, 
so that in its absence the earth would be without movement in its 
smallest parts. The new facts he records are observations on the spring 
or pressure of air brought about by the action of heat. He shows that 
different masses of air measured at the same initial spring or pressure, 
when heated to the boiling-point of water, acquire equal increments of 
spring or pressure, provided the volume of the gas be kept at its initial 
value. Further, he proves that if the pressure of the gas before heating 
be doubled or tripled, then the additional spring or pressure resulting 
from heating to the boiling-point of water is equally doubled or tripled. 
In other words, the ratio of the total spring of air at two definite 
and steady temperatures and at constant volume is a constant, inde- 
pendent of the mass or the initial pressure of the air in the thermometer. 
These results led to the increased perfection of the air thermometer as a 
standard instrument, Amontons' idea being to express the temperature at 
any locality in fractions of the degree of heat of boiling water. The great 
novelty of the instrument is that temperature is defined by the measure- 



ADDRESS. 21 

ment of the lengtli of a column of mercury. In passing, he remarks that 
we do not know the extreme of heat and cold, but that he has given the 
results of experiments which establish correspondences for those who wish 
to consider the subject. In the following year Amontons contributed to 
the Academy a further paper extending the scope of the inquiry. He 
there pointed out more explicitly that as the degi'ees of heat in his 
thermometer are registered by the height of a column of mercury, which 
the heat is able to sustain by the spring of the air, it follows that the 
extreme cold of the thermometer will be that which reduces the air to 
have no power of spring. This, he says, will be a much greater cold than 
what we call ' very cold,' because experiments have shown that if the 
spring of the air at boiling-point is 73 inches, the degree of heat 
which remains in the air when brought to the freezing-point of water is 
still very great, for it can still maintain the spring of 51^ inches. The 
greatest climatic cold on the scale of units adopted by Amontons is 
marked 50, and the greatest summer heat 58, the value for boiling water 
being 73, and the zero being 52 units below the freezing-point. Thus 
Amontons was the first to recognise that the use of air as a thermometric 
substance led to the inference of the existence of a zero of temperature, 
and his scale is nothing else than the absolute one we are now so familiar 
with. It results from Amontons' experiments that the air would have no 
spring left if it were cooled below the freezing-point of water to about 
2^ times the temperature range whicJi separates the boiling-point and the 
freezing-point. In other words, if we adopt the usual centessimal differ- 
ence between these two points of temperature as 100 degrees, then the 
zero of Amontons' air thermometer is minus 240 degrees. This is a 
remarkable approximation to our modern value for the same point of 
minus 273 degrees. It has to be confessed that Amontons' valuable con- 
tributions to knowledge met with that fate which has so often for a time 
overtaken the work of too-advanced discoverers ; in other words, it 
was simply ignored, or in any case not appreciated by the scientific 
world either of that time or half a century later. It was not till Lambert, 
in his work on 'Pyrometrie' published in 1779, repeated Amontons' 
experiments and endorsed his results that we find any further reference 
to the absolute scale or the zero of temperature. Lambert's observations 
were made with the greatest care and refinement, and resulted in 
correcting the value of the zero of the air scale to minus 270 degrees as 
compared with Amontons' minus 240 degrees. Lambert points out that 
the degree of temperature which is equal to zero is what one may call 
absolute cold, and that at this temperature the volume of the air would 
be practically nothing. In other words, the particles of the air would 
fall together and touch each other and become dense like water ; and from 
this it may be inferred that the gaseous condition is caused by heat. 
Lambert says that Amontons' discoveries had found few adherents 
because they were too beautiful and advanced for the time in which he 
lived. 



22 REPORT— 1902. 

About this time a remarkable observation was made by Professor 
Braun at Moscow, who, during the severe winter of 1759, succeeded in 
freezing mercury by the use of a mixture of snow and nitric acid. When 
we remember that mercury was regarded as quite a peculiar substance 
possessed of the essential quality of fluidity, we can easily understand the 
universal interest created by the experiment of Braun. This was accen- 
tuated by the observations he made on the temperature given by the 
mercury thermometer, which appeared to record a temperature as low as 
minus 200° C. The experiments were soon repeated by Hutchins 
at Hudson's Bay, who conducted his work with the aid of suggestions 
given him by Cavendish and Black. The result of the new observations 
Avas to show that the freezing-point of mercury is only minus 40° C, the 
errors in former experiments having been due to the great contraction of 
the mercury in the thermometer in passing into the solid state. From 
this it followed that the enormous natural and artificial colds which had 
generally been believed in had no proved existence. Still the possible 
existence of a zero of temperature very different from that deduced from 
gas thermometry had the support of such distinguished names as those of 
Laplace and Lavoisier. In their great memoir on ' Heat,' after making 
what they consider reasonable hypotheses as to the relation between 
specific heat and total heat, they calculate values for the zero which range 
from 1,500 to 3,000 degrees below melting ice. On the whole, they regard 
the absolute zero as being in any case 600 degrees below the freezing- 
point. Lavoisier, in his ' Elements of Chemistry ' published in 1792, goes 
further in the direction of indefinitely lowering the zero of temperature 
when he says, ' We are still very far from being able to produce the degree 
of absolute cold, or total deprivation of heat, being unacquainted with any 
degree of coldness which v;e cannot suppose capable of still further augmen- 
tation ; hence it follows we are incapable of causing the ultimate particles 
of bodies to approach each other as near as possible, and thus these particles 
do not touch each other in any state hitherto known.' Even as late as 
the beginning of the nineteenth century we find Dalton, in his new system 
of ' Chemical Philosophy,' giving ten calculations of this value, and adopt- 
ing finally as the natural zero of temperature minus 3,000° C. 

In Black's lectures we find that he takes a very cautious view with 
regard to the zero of temperature, but as usual is admirably clear with 
regard to its exposition. Thus he says, ' We are ignorant of the lowest 
possible degree or beginning of heat. Some ingenious attempts have been 
made to estimate what it may be, but they have not proved satisfactory. 
Our knowledge of the degrees of heat may be compared to what we should 
have of a chain, the two ends of which were hidden from us and the 
middle only exposed to our view. We might put distinct marks on some 
of the links, and number the rest according as they are nearest to or 
further removed from the principal links ; but not knowing the distance 
of any links from the end of the chain we could not compare them together 
with respect to their distance, or say that one link was twice as far from 



ADDRESS. 23 

the end of the chain as another.' It is interesting to observe, however, 
that Black was evidently well acquainted with the work of Amontons, 
and strongly supports his inference as to the nature of air. Thus, in dis- 
cussing the general cause of vaporisation, Black says that some philoso- 
phers have adopted the view • that every palpable elastic fluid in nature 
is produced and preserved in this form by the action of heat. Mr. 
Amontons, an ingenious member of the late Royal Academy of Sciences, 
at Paris, was the first who proposed this idea with respect to the atmo- 
sphere. He supposed that it might be deprived of the whole of its 
elasticity and condensed and even frozen into a solid matter were it in 
our power to apply to it a sufficient cold ; that it is a substance that 
differs from others by being incomparably more volatile, and which is 
therefore converted into vapour and preserved in that form by a weaker 
heat than any that ever happened or can obtain in this globe, and which 
therefore cannot appear under any other form than the one it now wears, 
so long as the constitution of the world remains the same as at present.' 
The views that Black attributes to Amontons have been generally asso- 
ciated with the name of Lavoisier, who practically admitted similar 
possibilities as to the nature of air ; but it is not likely that in such 
matters Black would commit any mistake as to the real author of a parti- 
cular idea, especially in his own department of knowledge. Black's own 
special contribution to low-temperature studies was his explanation of the 
interaction of mixtures of ice with salts and acids by applying the doctrine 
of the latent heat of fluidity of ice to account for the frigorific effect. In 
a similar way Black explained the origin of the cold produced in Cullen's 
remarkable experiment of the evaporation of ether under the receiver of 
an air-pump by pointing out that the latent heat of vaporisation in this 
case necessitated such a result. Thus, by applying his own discoveries to 
latent heat. Black gave an intelligent explanation of the cause of all the 
low-temperature phenomena known in his day. 

After the gaseous laws had been definitely formulated by Gay-Lussac 
and Dalton, the question of the absolute zero of temperature, as deduced 
from the properties of gases, was revived by Clement and Desormes. 
These distinguished investigators presented a paper on the subject to the 
French Academy in 1812, which, it appears, was rejected by that body. 
The authors subsequently elected to publish it in 1819. Relying on 
what we know now to have been a faulty hypothesis, they deduced from 
observations on the heating of air rushing into a vacuum the temperature 
of minus 267 degrees as that of the absolute zero. They further en- 
deavoured to show, by extending to lower temperatures the volume or the 
pressure coefficients of gases given by Gay-Lussac, that at the same 
temperature of minus 267 degrees the gases would contract so as to 
possess no appreciable volume, or, alternatively, if the pressure was under 
consideration, it would become so small as to be non-existent. Although 
full reference is given to previous work bearing on the same subject, yet, 
curiously enough, no mention is made of the name of Amontons. It 



24 REPORT— 1902. 

certainly gave remarkable support to Amontons' notion of the zero to 
find that simple gases like hydrogen and compound gases like ammonia, 
hydrochloric, carbonic, and sulphurous acids should all point to substan- 
tially the same value for this temperature. But the most curious fact 
about this research of Clement and Desormes is that Gay-Lussac was a 
bitter opponent of the validity of the inferences they drew either from 
his work or their own. The mode in which Gay-Lussac regarded the 
subject may be succinctly put as follows : A quick compression of air 
to one-fifth volume raises its temperature to 300 degrees, and if this could 
be made much greater and instantaneous the temperature might rise to. 
1,000 or 2,000 degrees. Conversely, if air under five atmospheres were 
suddenly dilated, it would absorb as much heat as it had evolved during 
compression, and its temperature would be lowered by 300 degrees. 
Therefore, if air were taken and compressed to fifty atmospheres or 
. more, the cold produced by its sudden expansion would have no limit. 
In order to meet this position Clement and Desormes adopted the 
following reasoning : They pointed out that it had not been proved that 
Gay-Lussac was correct in his hypothesis, but that in any case it tacitly 
involves the assumption that a limited quantity of matter possesses an 
unlimited supply of heat. If this were the case, then heat would be 
unlike any other measurable thing or quality. It is, therefore, more 
consistent with the course of nature to suppose that the amount of heat 
in a body is like the quantity of elastic fluid filling a vessel, which, while 
definite in original amount, one may make less and less by getting nearer 
to a complete exhaustion. Further, to realise the absolute zero in the 
one case is just as impossible as to realise the absolute vacuum in the 
other ; and as we do not doubt a zero of pressure, although it is unattain- 
able, for the same reason we ought to accept the reality of the absolute 
zero. We know now that Gay-Lussac was wrong in supposing the 
increment of temperature arising from a given gaseous compression would 
produce a corresponding decrement from an identical expansion. After 
this time the zero of temperature was generally recognised as a fixed 
ideal point, but in order to show that it was hypothetical a distinction 
was drawn between the use of the expressions, zero of absolute tempera- 
ture and the absolute zero. 

The whole question took an entirely new form when Lord Kelvin, in 
1848, after the mechanical equivalent of heat had been determined by 
Joule, drew attention to the great principles underlying Carnot's work 
on the ' Motive Power of Heat,' and applied them to an absolute method 
of temperature measurement, which is completely independent of the 
properties of any particular substance. The principle was that for a 
difierence of one degree on this scale, between the temperatures of the 
source and refrigerator, a perfect engine should give the same amount of 
work in every part of the scale. Taking the same fixed points as for the 
Centigrade scale, and making 100 of the new degrees cover that range, it 
was found that the degrees not oidy within that range, but as far beyond 



ADDRESS. 25 

as experimental data supplied the means of comparison, differed by only 
minute quantities from those of Regnault's air thermometer. The zero 
of the new scale had to be determined by the consideration that when 
the refrigerator was at the zero of temperature the perfect engine should 
give an amount of work equal to the full mechanical equivalent of the 
heat taken up. This led to a zero of 273 degrees below the temperature 
of freezing water, substantially the same as that deduced from a study 
of the gaseous state. It was a great advance to demonstrate by 
the application of the laws of thermodynamics not only that the zero of 
temperature is a reality, but that it must be located at 273 degrees below 
the freezing-point of water. As no one has attempted to impugn the 
solid foundation of theory and experiment on which Lord Kelvin based 
his thermodynamic scale, the existence of a definite zero of temperature 
must be acknowledged as a fundamental scientific fact. 

Liquefaction of Gases and Continuity of State. 

In these speculations, however, chemists were dealing theoretically 
with temperatures to which they could not make any but the most dis- 
tant experimental approach. Cullen, the teacher of Black, had indeed 
shown how to lower temperature by the evaporation of volatile bodies, 
such as ether, by the aid of the air-pump, and the later experiments of 
Leslie and WoUaston extended the same principle. Davy and Faraday 
made the most of the means at command in liquefying the more con- 
densable gases, while at the same time Davy pointed out that they in turn 
might be utilised to pi'ocure greater cold by their rapid reconversion into 
the aeriform state. Still the chemist was sorely hampered by the vf&ni 
of some powerful and accessible agent for the production of temperatures 
much lower than had ever been attained. That want was supplied by 
Thilorier, who in 1835 produced liquid carbonic acid in large quantities, 
and further made the fortunate discovery that the liquid could be frozen 
into a snow by its own evaporation. Faraday was prompt to take ad- 
vantage of this new and potent agent. Under exhaustion he lowered its- 
boiling-point from minus 78° C. to mimis 110° C, and by combining this 
low temperature with pressure all the gases were liquefied by the year 
1844, with the exception of the three elementary gases — hydrogen, nitro- 
gen, and oxygen, and three compound gases — carbonic oxide, marsh gas, 
and nitric oxide ; Andrews some twenty-five years after the work of 
Faraday attempted to induce change of state in the uncondensed gases, 
by using much higher pressures than Faraday employed. Combining the 
temperature of a solid carbonic acid bath with pressures of 300 atmospheres, 
Andrews found that none of these gases exhibited any appearance of 
liquefaction in such high states of condensation ; but so far as change of 
volume by high compression went, Andrews confirmed the earlier work 
of Natterer by showing that the gases become proportionately less 
compressible with growing pressure. While such investigations were 



26 REPORT— 1902. 

proceeding, Regnault and Magnus had completed their refined investiga- 
tions on the laws of Boyle and Gay-Lussac. A very important series of 
experiments was made by Joule and Kelvin ' On the Thermal Effects of 
Fluids in Motion' about 1862, in which the thermometrical effects of 
passing ga.ses under compression through porous plugs furnished important 
data for the study of the mutual action of the gas molecules. No one, 
however, had attempted to make a complete study of a liquefiable gas 
throughout wide ranges of temperature. This was accomplished by 
Andrews in 1869, and his Bakerian Lecture 'On the Continuity of the 
Gaseous and Liquid States of Matter' will always be regarded as an 
epoch-making investigation. During the course of this research Andrews 
observed that liquid carbonic acid raised to a temperature of 31° C. lost 
the sharp concave surface of demarcation between the liquid and the gas, 
the space being now occupied by a homogeneous fluid which exhibited, 
when the pressure was suddenly diminished or the temperature slightly 
lowered, a peculiar appearance of moving or flickering strife, due to great 
local alterations of density. At temperatures above 31° C. the separation 
into two distinct kinds of matter could not be effected even when the 
pressure reached 400 atmospheres. This limiting temperature of the 
change of state from gas to liquid Andrews called the critical tempera- 
ture. He showed that this temperature is constant, and differs with each 
substance, and that it is always associated with a definite pressure peculiar 
to each body. Thus the two constants, critical temperature and pressure, 
which have been of the greatest importance in subsequent investigations, 
came to be defined, and a complete experimental proof was given that 
* the gaseous and liquid states are only distinct stages of the same condi- 
tion of matter and are capable of passing into one another by a process 
of continuous change.' 

In 1873 an essay ' On the Continuity of the Gaseous and Liquid State,*^ 
full of new and suggestive ideas, was published by van der Waals, who, 
recognising the value of Clausius' new conception of the Virial in Dynamics, 
for a long-continued series of motions, either oscillatory or changing 
exceedingly slowly with time, applied it to the consideration of the mole- 
cular movements of the particles of the gaseous substance, and after much 
refined investigation, and the fullest experimental calculation available at 
the time, devised his well-known Equation of Continuity. Its paramount 
merit is that it is based entirely on a mechanical foundation, and is in 
uo sense empiric ; we may therefore look upon it as having a secure 
foundation in fact, but as being capable of extension and improvement. 
James Thomson, realising that the straight-line breach of continuous cur- 
vature in the Andrews isothermals was untenable to the physical mind, pro- 
pounded his emendation of the Andrews curves — namely, that they were 
continuous and of S form. We also owe to James Thomson the concep- 
tion and execution of a three-dimensional model of Andrews' results, which 
has been of the greatest service in exhibiting the three variables by means 
of a specific surface afterwards greatly extended and developed by Professor 



ADDRESS. 



27 



Willard Gibbs. The suggestive work of James Thomson undoubtedly 
was a valuable aid to van der Waals, for as soon as he reached the point 
where his equation had to show the continuity of the two states this was 
the first difficulty he had to encounter, and he succeeded in giving the 
explanation. He also gave a satisfactory reason for the existence of a 
minimum value of the product of volume and pressure in the Regnault 
isothermals. His isothermals, with James Thomson's completion of them, 
were now shown to be the results of the laws of dynamics. Van der Waals 
applied the new equation to the consideration of the coefficients of expan- 
sion with temperature and of pressure with temperature, showing that 
although they were nearly equal, nevertheless they were almost independent 
quantities. His investigation of the capillarity constant was masterly, and 
he added further to our knowledge of the magnitudes of the molecules of 
gases and of their mean free paths. Following up the experiments of Joule 
and Kelvin, he showed how their cooling coefficients could be deduced, 
and proved that they vanished at a temperature in each case which is a 
constant multiple of the specific critical temperature. The equation of 
continuity developed by van der "Waals involved the use of three constants 
instead of one, as in the old law of Boyle and Charles, the latter being 
only utilised to express the relation of temperature, pressure, and volume, 
when the gas is far removed from its point of liquefaction. Of the two 
new constants one represents the molecular pressure arising from the 
attraction between the molecules, the other four times the volume of the 
molecules. Given these constants of a gas, van der Waals showed that 
his equation not only fitted into the general characters of the isothermals, 
but also gave the values of the critical temperature, the critical pressure, 
and the critical volume. In the case of carbonic acid the theoretical 
results were found to be in remarkable agreement with the experimental 
values of Andrews. This gave chemists the means of ascertaining the 
critical constants, provided sufficiently accurate data derived from the 
study of a few properly distributed isothermals of the gaseous substance 
were available. Such important data came into the possession of chemists 
when Amagat published his valuable paper on 'The Isothermals of 
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Ethylene, &c.,' in the year 1880. It now 
became possible to calculate the critical data with comparative accuracy 
for the so-called permanent gases oxygen and nitrogen, and this 
was done by Sarrau in 1882. In the meantime a great impulse had 
been given to a further attack upon the so-called permanent gases 
by the suggestive experiments made by Pictet and Cailletet. The 
static liquefaction of oxygen was effected by Wroblewski in 1883, and 
thereby the theoretical conclusions derived from van der Waals' equation 
were substantially confirmed. The liquefaction of oxygen and air was 
achieved through the use of liquid ethylene as a cooling agent, which 
enabled a temperature of minus 140 degrees to be maintained by its steady 
evaporation in vacuo. From this time liquid oxygen and air came to be 
regarded as the potential cooling agents for future research, commanding 



28 REPORT— 1902. 

as they did a temperature of 200 degrees below melting ice. The theoretical 
side of the question received at the hands of van der Waals a second 
contribution, which was even more important than his original essay, and 
that was his novel and ingenious development of what he calls 'The 
Theory of Corresponding States.' He defined the corresponding states of 
two substances as those in which the ratios of the temperature, pressure, 
and volume to the critical temperature, pressure, and volume respectively 
were the same for the two substances, and in corresponding states he 
showed that the three pairs of ratios all coincided. From this a series of 
remarkable propositions were developed, some new, some proving previous 
laws that were hitherto only empiric, and some completing and correcting 
faulty though approximate laws. As examples, he succeeded in calculating 
the boiling-point of carbonic acid from observations on ether vapour, 
proved Kopp'slawof molecular volumes, and showed that at corresponding 
temperatures the molecular latent heats of vaporisation are proportional 
to the absolute critical temperature, and that under the same conditions 
the coefficients of liquid expansion are inversely proportional to the 
absolute critical temperature, and that the coefficients of liquid compres- 
sibility are inversely proportional to the critical pressure. All these 
propositions and deductions are in the main correct, though further 
experimental investigation has shown minor discrepancies requiring 
explanation. Various proposals have been made to supplement van der 
Waals' equation so as to bring it into line with experiments, some being 
entirely empiric, others theoretical. Clausius, Sari-au, AVroblewski, Batteli, 
and others attacked the question empirically, and in the main preserved 
the CO- volume (depending on the total volume of the molecules) unaltered 
while trying to modify the constant of molecular attraction. Their success 
depended entirely on the fact that, instead of limiting the number of 
constants to three, some of them have increased them to as many as ten. 
On the other hand, a series of very remarkable theoretical investigations 
has been made by van der Waals himself, by Kammerlingh Onnes, 
Korteweg, Jaeger, Boltzmann, Dieterici, and Rienganum, and others, all 
directed in the main towards an admitted A^ariation in the value of the 
co-volume while preserving the molecular attraction constant. The 
theoretical deductions of Tait lead to the conclusion that a substance 
below its critical point ought to have two different equations of the van 
der Waals type, one referring to the liquid and the other to the gaseous 
phase. One important fact was soon elicited — namely, that the law of 
correspondence demanded only that the equation should contain not more 
than three constants for each body. The simplest extension is that made 
by Reinganum, in which he increased the pressure for a given mean 
kinetic energy of the particles inversely in the ratio of the diminution of 
free volume, due to the molecules possessing linear extension. Berthelot 
has shown bow a ' reduced ' isothermal may be got by taking two other 
prominent points as units of measurement instead of the critical co- 
ordinates. The most suggestive advance in the improvement of the 



ADDRESS. 29 

van der Waals equation has been made by a lady, Mme. Christine 
Meyer. The idea at the base of this new development may be under- 
stood from the following general statement : van der "Waals brings 
the van der Waals surfaces for all substances into coincidence at the 
point where volume, pressure, and temperature are nothing, and then 
stretches or compresses all the surfaces parallel to the three axes of 
volume, pressure, and temperature, until their critical points coincide. 
But on this plan the surfaces do not quite coincide, because the points 
where the three variables are respectively nothing are not corresponding 
points. Mme. Meyer's plan is to bring all the critical points first 
into coincidence, and then to compress or extend all the representative 
surfaces parallel to the three axes of volume, pressure, and temperature, 
until the surfaces coincide. In this way, taking twenty-nine different 
substances, she completely verifies from experiment van der Waals' law 
of correspondence. The theory of van der Waals has been one of the 
greatest importance in directing experimental investigation, and in 
attacking the difficult problems of the liquefaction of the most permanent 
gases. One of its greatest triumphs has been the proof that the^ critical 
constants and the boiling-point of hydrogen theoretically deduced by 
Wroblewski from a study of the isothermals of the gas taken far above 
the temperature of liquefaction are remarkably near the experimental 
values. We may safely infer, therefore, that if hereafter a gas be 
discovered in small quantity even four times more volatile than liquid 
hydrogen, yet by a study of its isothermals at low temperature we shall 
succeed in finding its most important liquid constants, although the 
isolation of the real liquid may for the time be impossible. It is perhaps 
not too much to say that as a prolific source of knowledge in the depart- 
ment dealing with the continuity of state in matter, it -w^ould be necessary 
to go back to Carnot's cycle to find a proposition of greater importance 
than the theory of van der Waals and his development of the law of 
corresponding states. 

It will be apparent from what has just been said that, thanks to the 
labours of Andrews, van der Waals, and others, theory had again far 
outrun experiment. We could calculate the constants and predict some 
of the simple physical characteristics of liquid oxygen, hydrogen, or 
nitrogen with a high degree of confidence long before any one of the 
three had been obtained in the static liquid condition permitting of the 
experimental verification of the theory. This was the more tantalising, 
because, with whatever confidence the chemist may anticipate the sub- 
stantial corroboration of his theory, he also anticipates with almost 
equal conviction that as he approaches more and more nearly to the 
zero of absolute temperature, he will encounter phenomena compelling 
modification, revision, and refinement of formulas which fairly covered 
the facts previously known. Just as nearly seventy years ago chemists 
were waiting for some means of getting a temperature of 100 degrees 
below melting ice, so ten years ago they were casting about for 



30 REPORT— 1902. 

the means of going 100 degrees lower still. The difficulty, it need 
hardly be said, increases in a geometrical rather than in an arithmetical 
ratio. Its magnitude may be estimated from the fact that to produce 
liquid air in the atmosphere of an ordinary laboratory is a feat analogous 
to the production of liquid water starting from steam at a white heat, 
and working with all the implements and surroundings at the same high 
temperature. The problem was not so much how to produce intense 
cold as how to save it when produced from being immediately levelled up 
by the relatively superheated surroundings. Ordinary non-conducting 
packings were inadmissible because they are both cumbrous and opaque, 
while in working near the limits of our resources it is essential that the 
product should be visible and readily handled. It was while puzzling 
over this mechanical and manipulative difficulty in 1892 that it 
occurred to me that the principle of an arrangement used nearly 
twenty years before in some calorimetric experiments,^ which was based 
upon the work of Dulong and Petit on radiation, might be em- 
ployed with advantage as well to protect cold substances from heat as 
hot ones from rapid cooling. I therefore tried the effect of keeping 
liquefied gases in vessels having a double wall, the annular space between 
being very highly exhausted.'-^ Experiments showed that liquid air 
evaporated at only one-fifth of the rate prevailing when it was placed in 
a similar unexhausted vessel, owing to the convective transference of heat 
by the gas particles being enormously reduced by the high vacuum. But, 
in addition, these vessels lend themselves to an arrangement by which 
radiant heat can also be cut off. It was found that when the inner walls 
were coated with a bright deposit of silver the influx of heat was diminished 
to one-sixth the amount entering without the metallic coating. The total 
eflect of the high vacuum and the silvering is to reduce the ingoing heat 
to about 3 per cent. The efficiency of such vessels depends upon getting 
as high a vacuum as possible, and cold is one of the best means of effect- 
ing the desired exhaustion. All that is necessary is to fill completely the 
space that has to be exhausted with an easily condensable vapour, and then 
to freeze it out in a receptacle attached to the primary vessel that can be 
sealed off. The advantage of this method is that no air-pump is required, 
and that theoretically there is no limit to the degree of exhaustion that 
can be obtained. The action is rapid, provided liquid air is the cooling 
agent, and vapours like mercury, water, or benzol are employed. It is 
obvious that when we have to deal with such an exceptionally volatile 
liquid as hydrogen, the vapour filling may be omitted because air itself is 
now an easily condensable vapour. In other words, liquid hydrogen, col- 
lected in such vessels with the annular space full of air, immediately 
solidifies the air and thereby surrounds itself with a high vacuum. In the 
same way, when it shall be possible to collect a liquid boiling on the 

' ' On the Physical Constants of Hydrogenium,' Trans. Hoy. Soc, ed. 1873. 
^ It now appears that similar vessels were employed by Professor Violle in a 
research entitled ' Sur un Calorim^tre par Refroidissement,' Comptet Rendus, 1 882. 



ADDRESS, 31 

absolute scale at about 5 degrees, as compared with the 20 degrees 
of hydrogen, then you might have the annular space filled with the latter 
gas to begin with, and yet get directly a very high vacuum, owing to the 
solidification of the hydrogen. Many combinations of vacuum vessels can 
be arranged, and the lower the temperature at which we have to operate 
the more useful they become. Vessels of this kind are now in general 
use, and in them liquid air has crossed the American continent. Of the 
various forms, that variety is of special importance which has a spiral 
tube joining the bottom part of the walls, so that any liquid gas may be 
drawn otf from the interior of such a vessel. In the working of regenera- 
tive coils such a device becomes all -important, and such special vessels 
cannot be dispensed with for the liquefaction of hydrogen. 

In the early experiments of Pictet and Cailletet, cooling was produced 
by the sudden expansion of the highly compressed gas preferably at a low 
temperature, the former using a jet that lasted for some time, the latter 
an instantaneous adiabatic expansion in a strong glass tube. Neither 
process was practicable as a mode of producing liquid gases, but both gave 
valuable indications of partial change into the liquid state by the 
production of a temporary mist. Linde, however, saw that the continuous 
use of a jet of highly compressed gas, combined with regenerative cooling, 
must lead to liquefaction on account of what is called the Kelvin-Joule 
efiect ; and he succeeded in making a machine, based on this principle, 
capable of producing liquid air for industrial purposes. These experi- 
menters had proved that, owing to molecular attraction, compressed 
gases passing through a porous plug or small aperture were lowered in 
temperature by an amount depending on tlie difference of pressure 
and inversely as the square of the absolute temperature. This means 
that for a steady difference of pressure the cooling is greater the lower 
the temperature. The only gas that did not show cooling under such 
conditions was hydrogen. Instead of being cooled it became actually 
hotter. The reason for this apparent anomaly in the Kelvin-Joule 
effect is that every gas has a thermometric point of inversion above 
which it is heated and below which it is cooled. This inversion 
point, according to van der Waals, is six and three-quarter times the 
critical point. The efficiency of the Linde process depends on working 
with highly compressed gas well below the inversion temperature, and in 
this respect this point may be said to take the place of the critical one, 
when in the ordinary way direct liquefaction is being effected by the use 
of specific liquid cooling agents. The success of both processes depends 
upon working within a certain temperature range, only the Linde method 
gives us a much wider range of temperature within which liquefaction can 
be effected. This is not the case if, instead of depending on getting cool- 
ing by the internal work done by the attraction of the gas molecules, we 
force the compressed gas to do external Avork as in the well-known air 
machines of Kirk and Coleman. Both these inventors have pointed out 
that there is no limit of temperature, short of liquefaction of the gas ia 



32 REPORT— 1902. 

use in the circuit, that such machines are not capable of giving. While 
it is theoretically clear that such machines ought to be capable of main- 
taining the lowest temperatures, and that with the least expenditure of 
power, it is a very different matter to overcome the practical difficulties 
of working such machines under the conditions. Coleman kept a machine 
delivering air at minus 83 degrees for houi's, but he did not carry 
his experiments any further. Recently Monsieur Claude, of Paris, 
has, however, succeeded in working a machine of this type so efficiently 
that he has managed to produce one litre of liquid air per horse power 
expended per hour in the running of the engine. This output is twice as 
good as that given by the Linde machine, and there is no reason to doubt 
that the yield will be still further improved. It is clear, therefore, that in 
the immediate future the production of liquid air and hydrogen will be 
effected most economically by the use of machines producing cold by the 
expenditure of mechanical work. 

Liquid Hydrogen and Helium. 

To the physicist the copious production of liquid air by the methods 
described was of peculiar interest and value as affording the means of 
attacking the far more difficult problem of the liquefaction of hydrogen, 
and even as encouraging the hope that liquid hydrogen might in time be 
employed for the liquefaction of yet more volatile elements, apart from the 
importance which its liquefaction must hold in the process of the steady 
advance towards the absolute zero. Hydrogen is an element of especial 
interest, because the study of its properties and chemical relations led 
great chemists like Faraday, Dumas, Daniell, Graham, and Andrews to 
entertain the view that if it could ever be brought into the state of liquid 
or solid it would reveal metallic characters. Looking to the special 
chemical relations of the combined hydrogen in water, alkaline oxides, 
acids, and salts, together with the behaviour of these substances on electro- 
lysis, we are forced to conclude that hydrogen behaves as the analogue of 
a metal. After the beautiful discovery of Graham that palladium can 
absorb some hundreds of times its own volume of hydrogen, and still 
retain its lustre and general metallic character, the impression that 
hydrogen was probably a member of the metallic group became very 
general. The only chemist who adopted another view was my distinguished 
predecessor, Professor Odling. In his ' Manual of Chemistry,' published 
in 1861, he pointed out that hydrogen has chlorous as well as basic 
relations, and that they are as decided, important, and frequent as its 
other relations. From such considerations he arrived at the conclusion 
that hydrogen is essentially a neutral or intermediate body, and therefore 
we should not expect to find liquid or solid hydrogen possess the appear- 
ance of a metal. This extraordinary prevision, so characteristic of 
•Odling, was proved to be correct some thirty-seven years after it was 
made. Another curious anticipation was made by Dumas in a letter 
addressed to Pictet, in which he says that the metal most analogous to 



ADDRESS. 33 

hydrogen is magnesium, and that probably botli elements have the same 
atomic volume, so that the density of hydrogen, for this reason, would be 
about the value elicited by subsequent experiments. Later on, in 1872, 
when Newlands began to arrange the elements in periodic groups, he 
regarded hydrogen as the lowest member of the chlorine family ; but 
Mendeleef in his later classiBcation placed hydrogen in the group of the 
alkaline metals ; on the other hand. Dr. Johnstone Stoney classes hydrogen 
with the alkaline earth metals and magnesium. From this speculative 
divergency it is clear no definite conclusion could be reached regarding 
the physical properties of liquid or solid hydrogen, and the only way to 
arrive at the truth was to prosecute low-temperature research until 
success attended the efforts to produce its liquefaction. This result I 
definitively obtained in 189S. The case of liquid hydrogen is, in fact, an 
excellent illustration of the truth already referred to, that no theoretical 
forecast, however apparently justified by analogy, can be finally accepted 
as true until confirmed by actual experiment. Liquid hydrogen is a 
colourless transparent body of extraordinary intrinsic interest. It has a 
clearly defined surface, is easily seen, drops well, in spite of the fact that 
its surface tension is only the thirty-fifth part of that of water, or about 
one-fifth that of liquid air, and can be poured easily from vessel to vessel. 
The liquid does not conduct electricity, and, if anything, is slightly 
diamagnetic. Compared with an equal volume of liquid air, it requires 
only one-fifth the quantity of heat for vaporisation ; on the other hand, 
its specific heat is six times that of liquid air or three times that of 
water. The coefficient of expansion of the fluid is remarkable, being about 
ten times that of the gas ; it is by far the lightest liquid known to exist, 
its density being only one-fourteenth that of water ; the lightest liquid 
previously known was liquid marsh gas, which is six times heavier. 
The only solid which has so small density as to float upon its surface is a 
piece of pith wood. It is by far the coldest liquid known. At ordinary 
atmospheric pressure it boils at minus 252 '5 degrees or 20'5 degrees 
absolute. The critical point of the liquid is from 30 to 32 degrees 
absolute, and the critical pressure not more, but probably less, than ] 5 
atmospheres. The vapour of the hydrogen arising from the liquid has 
nearly the density of air — that is, it is fourteen times that of the gas at 
the ordinary temperature. Reduction of the pressure by an air-pump 
brings down the temperature to minus 258 degrees, when the liquid becomes 
a solid resembling frozen foam, and this by further exhaustion is cooled to 
minus 259'5 degrees, or 13^ degrees absolute, which is the lowest steady tem- 
perature that has been reached. The solid may also be got in the form of a 
clear transparent ice, melting at about 1 5 degrees absolute, under a pressure 
of 55 mm., possessing the unique density of one-tenth that of water. 
Such cold involves the solidification of every gaseous substance but one 
that is at present definitely known to the chemist, and so liquid hydrogen 
introduces the investigator to a world of solid bodies. The contrast 
between this refrigerating substance and liquid air is most remarkable. 
1902. D 



34 REPOKT— 1902. 

On the removal of the loose plug of cotton-wool used to cover the 
mouth of the vacuum vessel in which it is stored, the action is followed 
by a miniature snowstorm of solid air, formed by the freezing of the 
atmosphere at the point where it comes into contact with the cold vapour 
rising from the liquid. This solid air falls into the vessel and accumulates 
as a white snow at the bottom of the liquid hydrogen. When the 
outside of an ordinary test-tube is cooled by immersion in the liquid, 
it is soon observed to fill up with solid air, and if the tube be now lifted 
out a double efiect is visible, for liquid air is produced both in the inside 
and on the outside of the tube — in the one case by the melting of the 
solid, and in the other by condensation from the atmosphere. A tuft 
of cotton-wool soaked in the liquid and then held near the pole of a 
strong magnet is attracted, and it might be inferred therefrom that 
liquid hydrogen is a magnetic body. This, however, is not the case : 
the attraction is due neither to the cotton- wool nor to the hydrogen — 
which indeed evaporates almost as soon as the tuft is taken out of the 
liquid — but to the oxygen of the air, which is well known to be a magnetic 
body, frozen in the wool by the extreme cold. 

The strong condensing powers of liquid hydrogen afibrd a simple 
means of producing vacua of veiy high tenuity. When one end of a 
sealed tube containing ordinary air is placed for a short time in the liquid, 
the contained air accumulates as a solid at the bottom, while the higher 
part is almost entirely deprived of particles of gas. So perfect is the 
vacuum thus formed, that the electric discharge can be made to pass only 
with the greatest difficulty. Another important application of liquid air, 
liquid hydrogen, &c., is as analytic agents. Thus, if a gaseous mixture be 
cooled by means of liquid oxygen, only those constituents will be left in 
the gaseous state which are less condensable than oxygen. Similarly, if 
this gaseous residue be in its turn cooled in liquid hydrogen a still further 
separation will be effected, everything that is less volatile than hydrogen 
being condensed to a liquid or solid. By proceeding in this fashion 
it has been found possible to isolate helium from a mixture in which 
it is present to the extent of only one part in one thousand. By 
the evaporation of solid hydrogen under the air-pump we can reach 
within 13 or 14 degrees of the zero, but there or thereabouts our 
progress is barred. This gap of 13 degrees might seem at first 
sight insignificant in comparison with the hundreds that have already 
been conquered. But to win one degree low down the scale is quite 
a different matter from doing so at higher temperatures ; in fact, 
to annihilate these few remaining degrees would be a far greater 
achievement than any so far accomplished in low-temperature research. 
For the difficulty is twofold, having to do partly with process and partly 
with material. The application of the methods used in the liquefaction 
of gases becomes continually harder and more troublesome as the working 
temperature is reduced ; thus, to pass from liquid air to liquid hydrogen — 
a difference of 60 degrees — is, from a thermodynamic point of view, as 



ADDKESS. 36 

difficult as to bridge the gap of 150 degrees that separates liquid chlorine 
and liquid air. By the use of a new liquid gas exceeding hydrogen in 
volatility to the same extent as hydrogen does nitrogen, the investigator 
might get to within five degrees of the zero ; but even a second hypothe- 
tical substance, again exceeding the first one in volatility to an equal 
extent, would not suffice to bring him quite to the point of his ambition. 
That the zero will ever be reached by man is extremely improbable. A 
thermometer introduced into i-egions outside the uttermost confines 
■of the earth's atmosphere might approach the absolute zero, provided 
that its parts were highly transparent to all kinds of radiation, other- 
wise it would be affected by the radiation of the sun, and would there- 
fore become heated. But supposing all difficulties to be overcome, 
and the experimenter to be able to reach within a few degrees of the 
^ero, it is by no means certain that he would find the near approach 
of the death of matter sometimes pictured. Any forecast of the phe- 
nomena that would be seen must be based on the assumption that 
there is continuity between the processes studied at attainable tem- 
peratures and those which take place at still lower ones. Is such an 
assumption justified ? It is true that many changes in the properties of 
substances have been found to vary steadily with the degree of cold to 
which they are exposed. But it would be rash to take for granted that 
the changes which have been traced in explored regions continue to the 
same extent and in the same direction in those which are as yet unex- 
plored. Of such a breakdown low-temperature research has already 
yielded a direct proof at least in one case. A series of experiments with 
pure metals showed that their electrical resistance gradually decreases as 
they are cooled to lower and lower temperatures, in such ratio that it 
appeared probable that at the zero of absolute temperature they would 
have no resistance at all and would become perfect conductors of elec- 
tricity. This was the inference that seemed justifiable by observations 
taken at depths of cold which can be obtained by means of liquid air and 
less powerful refrigerants. But with the advent of the more powerful 
refrigerant liquid hydrogen it became necessary to revise that conclusion. 
A discrepancy was first observed when a platinum resistance thermometer 
was used to ascertain the temperature of that liquid boiling under atmo- 
spheric and reduced pressure. All known liquids, when forced to evaporate 
quickly by being placed in the exhausted receiver of an air-pump, undergo 
a reduction in temperature, but when hydrogen was treated in this way 
it appeared to be an exception. The resistance thermometer showed no 
such reduction as was expected, and it became a question whether it was 
the hydrogen or the thermometer that was behaving abnormally. Ulti- 
mately, by the adoption of other thermometrical appliances, the tempera- 
ture of the hydrogen was proved to be lowered by exhaustion as theory 
indicated. Hence it was the platinum thermometer which had broken 
down ; in other words, the electrical resistance of the metal employed in 
its construction was not, at temperatures about minus 250° C, decreased 

d2 



36 REPORT— 1902. 

by cold in the same proportion as at temperatures about minus 200 degrees. 
This being the case, there is no longer any reason to suppose that at the 
absolute zero platinum would become a perfect conductor of electricity ; 
and in view of the similarity between the behaviour of platinum and that 
of other pure metals in respect of temperature and conductivity, the pre- 
sumption is that the same is true of them also. At any rate, the know- 
ledge that in the case of at least one pi'operty of matter we have succeeded 
in attaining a depth of cold sufficient to bring about unexpected change 
in the law expressing the variation of that property with temperature, is 
sufficient to show the necessity for extreme caution in extending our infer- 
ences regarding the properties of matter near the zero of temperature. 
Lord Kelvin evidently anticipates the possibility of more remarkable elec- 
trical properties being met with in the metals near the zero. A theoretical 
investigation on the relation of 'electrions' and atoms has led him to sug- 
gest a hypothetical metal having the following remarkable properties : below 
1 degree absolute it is a perfect insulator of electricity, at 2 degrees it shows 
noticeable conductivity, and at 6 degrees it possesses high conductivity. It 
may safely be predicted that liquid hydrogen will be the means by which 
many obscure problems of physics and chemistry will ultimately be 
solved, so that the liquefaction of the last of the old permanent gases is 
as pregnant now with future consequences of great scienti6c moment as 
was the liquefaction of chlorine in the early years of the last century. 

The next step towards the absolute zero is to find another gas more 
volatile than hydrogen, and that we possess in the gas occurring in clevite, 
identified by Ramsay as lielium, a gas which is widely distributed, like 
hydrogen, in the sun, stars, and nebula\ A specimen of this gas was 
subjected by Olszewski to liquid air temperatures, combined with com- 
pression and subsequent expansion, following the Cailletet method, and 
resulted in his being unable to discover any appearance of liquefaction, 
even in the form of mist. His experiments led him to infer that the 
boiling-point of the substance is probably below 9 degrees absolute. 
After Lord Rayleigh had found a new source of helium in the gases which 
are derived from the Bath springs, and liquid hydrogen became available 
as a cooling agent, a specimen of helium cooled in liquid hydrogen showed 
the formation of fiuid, but this turned out to be owing to the presence of 
an unknown admixture of other gases. As a matter of fact, a year 
before the date of this experiment I had recorded indications of the 
presence of unknown gases in the spectrum of helium derived from this 
source. When subsequently such condensable constituents were removed, 
the purified helium showed no signs of liquefaction, even when com- 
pressed to 80 atmospheres, while the tube containing it was sur- 
rounded with solid hydrogen. Further, on suddenly expanding, no 
instantaneous mist appeai-ed. Thus helium was definitely proved to be a 
much more volatile substance than hydrogen in either the liquid or solid 
condition. The inference to be drawn from the adiabatic expansion 
efiected under the circumstances is that helium must have touched a tempe- 



ADDRESS. 37 

rature of from 9 to 10 degrees for a short time vvithout showing any signs of 
liquefaction, and consequently that the critical point must be still lower. 
This would force us to anticipate that the boiling-point of the liquid will 
be about 5 degrees absolute, or liquid helium will be four times more 
volatile than liquid hydrogen, just as liquid hydrogen is four times more 
volatile than liquid air. Although the liquefaction of the gas is a pro- 
blem for the future, this does not prevent us from anticipating some 
of the properties of the Huid body. Tt would be twice as dense as liquid 
hydrogen if the ratio of the critical constants has the same value as 
in the case of hydrogen — that is to say, the critical pressure will not 
exceed 4 or 5 atmospheres. The liquid would on this assumption possess 
a very feeble surface-tension, and its compressibility and expansibility 
would be about four times that of liquid hydrogen, while the heat required 
to vaporise the molecule would be about one-fourth that of liquid hydro- 
gen. If the critical pressure should turn out to be as high as that of 
nitrogen or oxygen, then the fluid density would exceed that of water 
and the surface-tension be increased, while the compressibility would be 
diminished. Heating the liquid 1 degree above its boiling-point would 
raise the pressure by 1 1 atmosphere, which is more than four times the 
increment for liquid hydrogen. The liquid would be only seventeen 
times denser than its vapour, whereas liquid hydrogen is sixty-tive times 
denser than the gas it gives off. Only some 3 or 4 degrees would 
separate the critical temperature from the boiling-point and the melting- 
point, whereas in liquid hydrogen the separation is respectively 10 and 
15 degrees. As the liquid refractivities for oxygen, nitrogen, and hydro- 
gen are closely proportional to the gaseous values, and as Lord Rayleigh 
has shown that helium has only one-fourth the refractivity of hydrogen, 
although it is twice as dense, we may infer that the refractivity of 
liquid helium would also be about one-fourth that of liquid hydrogen, 
unless the critical pressure is high, svhich would necessitate an increase 
in the value. Now hydrogen has the smallest refractivity of any 
known liquid, and yet liquid helium will have only about one-fourth 
of this value — comparable, in fact, with liquid hydrogen just below its 
critical point. This means that the liquid will be quite exceptional in 
its optical properties, and very difficult to see. This may be the ex- 
planation of why no mist has been seen on its adiabatic expansion from 
the lowest temperatures. Taking all these remarkable properties of the 
liquid into consideration, one is afraid to predict that we are at present 
able to cope with the difficulties involved in its production and collection. 
Provided the critical point is, however, not below 8 degrees absolute, 
then from the knowledge of the conditions that are successful in pro- 
ducing a change of state in hydrogen through the use of liquid air, we 
may safely predict that helium can be liquefied by following similar 
methods. If, however, the critical point is as low as 6 degrees absolute, 
then it would be almost hopeless to anticipate success by adopting the pro- 
cess that works so well with hydrogen. The present anticipation is that 



38 REPORT— 1902. 

the gas will succumb after being subjected to this process, only/instead of 
liquid air under exhaustion being used as the primary cooling agent, liquid 
hydrogen evaporating under similar circumstances must be employed. In 
this case the resulting liquid would require to be collected in a vacuum 
vessel, the outer walls of which are immersed in liquid hydrogen. The 
practical difficulties and the cost of the operation will be very great ; but 
on the other hand, the descent to a temperature within 5 degrees of the 
zero would open out new vistas of scientific inquiry, which would add 
immensely to our knowledge of the properties of matter. To command in 
our laboratories a temperature which would be equivalent to that which 
a comet might reach at an infinite distance from the sun would indeed 
be a great triumph for science. If the present Royal Institution attack 
on helium should fail, then we must ultimately succeed by adopting a 
process based on the mechanical production of cold through the perform- 
ance of external work. When a turbine can be worked by compressed 
helium, the whole of the mechanism and circuits being kept surrounded 
with liquid hydrogen, then we need hardly doubt that the liquefaction 
will be effected. In all probability gases other than helium will be dis- 
covered of greater volatility than hydrogen. It was at the British Asso- 
ciation Meeting in 1896 that I made the first suggestion of the probable 
existence of an unknown element which would be found to fill up the gap 
between argon and helium, and this anticipation was soon taken up by others 
and ultimately confirmed. Later, in the Bakerian Lecture for 1901, I was 
led to infer that another member of the helium group might exist having- 
the atomic weight about 2, and this would give us a gas still more volatile, 
with which the absolute zero might be still more nearly approached. It 
is to be hoped that some such element or elements may yet be isolated 
and identified as coronium or nebulium. If amongst the unknown gases 
possessing a very low critical point some have a high critical pressure, 
instead of a low one, which ordinary experieiice would lead us to antici- 
pate, then such difficultly liquefiable gases would produce fluids having 
different physical properties from any of those with which we are 
acquainted. Again, gases may exist having smaller atomic weights and 
densities than hydrogen, yet all such gases must, according to our present 
views of the gaseous state, be capable of liquefaction before the zero of 
temperature is reached. The chemists of the future will find ample scope 
for investigation within the apparently limited range of temperature 
which separates solid hydrogen from the zero. Indeed, great as is the 
sentimental interest attached to the liquefaction of these refractory gases, 
the importance of the achievement lies rather in the fact that it opens out 
new fields of research and enormously widens the horizon of physical 
science, enabling the natural philosoplier to study the properties and 
behaviour of matter under entirely novel conditions. This department 
of inquiry is as yet only in its infancy, but speedy and extensive develop- 
ments may be looked for, since within recent years several special cryo- 
genic laboratories have been established for the prosecution of such 



ADDRESS. 39 

researches, and a liquid-air plant is becoming a common adjunct to the 
equipment of the ordinary laboratory. 

The Upper Air and Auroras. 

The present liquid ocean, neglecting everything for the moment but 
the water, was at a previous period of the earth's history part of the 
atmosphere, and its condensation has been brought about by the gradual 
cooling of the earth's surface. This resulting ocean is subjected to the 
pressure of the remaining uncondensed gases, and as these are slightly 
soluble they dissolve to some extent in the fluid. The gases in solution 
can be taken out by distillation or by exhausting the water, and if we 
compare their volume with the volume of the water as steam, we should 
find about 1 volume of air in 60,000 volumes of steam. This would 
then be about the rough proportion of the relatively permanent gas to 
condensable gas which existed in the case of the vaporised ocean. Now let 
us assume the surface of the earth gradually cooled to some 200 degrees 
below the freezing-point ; then, after all the present ocean was frozen, 
and the climate became three times more intense than any arctic 
frost, a new ocean of liquid air would appear, covering the entire surface 
of the frozen globe about 35 feet deep. We may now apply the 
same reasoning to the liquid air ocean that we formerly did to the 
water one, and this would lead us to anticipate that it might contain in 
solution some gases that may be far less condensable than the chief 
constituents of the fluid. In order to separate them we must imitate 
the method of taking the gases out of water. Assume a sample of 
liquid air cooled to the low temperature that can be reached by its own 
evaporation, connected by a pipe to a condenser cooled in liquid hydrogen ; 
then any volatile gases present in solution will distil over with the 
first portions of the air, and can be pumped off', being uncondensable 
at the temperature of the condenser. In this way, a gas mixture, con- 
taining, of tlie known gases, free hydrogen, helium, and neon, has been 
separated from liquid air. It is interesting to note in passing that the 
relative volatilities of water and oxygen are in the same ratio as those of 
liquid air and hydrogen, so that the analogy between the ocean of water 
and that of liquid air has another suggestive parallel. The total uncon- 
densable gas separated in this way amounts to about one fifty -thousandth 
of the volume of the air, which is about the same proportion as the air 
dissolved in water. That free hydrogen exists in air in small amount 
is conclusively proved, but the actual proportion found by the process is 
very much smaller than Gautier has estimated by the combustion 
method. The recent experiments of Lord Rayleigh show that Gautier, 
who estimated the hydrogen present as one five-thousandth, has in some 
way produced more hydrogen than he can manage to extract from pure 
air by a repetition of the same process. The spectroscopic examination 
of these gases throws new light upon the question of the aurora and tlie 



40 REPORT— 1902. 

nature of the upper air. On passing electric discharges through the 
tubes containing the most volatile of the atmospheric gases, they glow 
with a bright orange light, which is especially marked at the negative 
pole. The spectroscope shows that this light consists, in the visible part 
of the spectrum, chiefly of a succession of strong rays ia the red, orange, 
and yellow, attributed to hydrogen, helium, and neon. Besides these, 
a vast number of rays, generally less brilliant, are distributed through 
the whole length of the visible spectrum. The greater part of these 
rays are of, as yet, unknown origin. The violet and ultra-violet part of 
the spectrum rivals in strength that of the red and yellow rays. As 
these gases probably include some of the gases that pervade inter- 
planetary space, search was made for the prominent nebular, coronal, and 
auroral lines. No definite lines agreeing with the nebular spectrum could 
be found, but many lines occurred closely coincident with the coronal 
and auroral spectrum. But before discussing the spectroscopic problem 
it will be xiecessary to consider the nature and condition of the upper 
air. 

According to the old law of Dalton, supported by the modern dynamical 
theory of gases, each constituent of the atmosphere while acted upon by 
the force of gravity forms a separate atmosphere, completely independent, 
except as to temperature, of the others, and the relations between the 
common temperature and the pressure and altitude for each specific 
atmosphere can be definitely expressed. If we assume the altitude and 
temperature known, then the pressure can be ascertained for the same 
height in the case of each of the gaseous constituents, and in this way 
the percentage composition of the atmosphere at that place may be 
deduced. Suppose we start with a surface atmosphere having the com- 
position of our air, only containing two ten-thousandths of hydrogen, then 
at thirty-seven miles, if a sample could be procured for analysis, we 
believe that it would be found to contain 1 2 per cent, of hydrogen and 
only 10 per cent, of oxygen. The carbonic acid practically disappears ; 
and by the time we reach forty-seven miles, where the temperature is 
minus 132 degrees, assuming a gradient of 3 2 degrees per mile, the 
nitrogen and oxygen have so thinned out that the only constituent of 
the upper air which is left is hydrogen. If the gradient of temperature 
were doubled, the elimination of the nitrogen and oxygen would take 
place by the time thirty-seven miles was reached, with a temperature of 
minus 220 degrees. The permanence of the composition of the air at the 
highest altitudes, as deduced from the basis of the dynamical theory of 
gases, has been discussed by Stoney, Bryan, and others. It would appear 
that there is a consensus of opinion that the rate at which gases like 
hydrogen and helium could escape from the earth's atmosphere would be 
excessively slow. Considering that to compensate any such loss the same 
gases are being supplied by actions taking place in the crust of the earth, 
we may safely regard them as necessarily permanent constituents of the 
upper air. The temperature at the elevations we have been discussing 



ADDRESS. 41 

would not be sufficient to cause any liquefaction of the nitrogen and oxy- 
gen, the pressure being so low. If we assume the mean temperature as 
about the boiling-point of oxygen at atmospheric pressure, then a con- 
siderable amount of the carbonic acid must .solidify as a mist, if the air 
from a lower level be cooled to this temperature ; and the same result 
might take place with other gases of relatively small volatility which occur 
in air. This would explain the clouds that have been seen at an elevation 
of fifty miles, without assuming the possibility of water vapour being 
carried up so high. The temperature of the upper air must be above that 
on the vapour pressure curve corresponding to the barometric pressure at 
the locality, otherwise liquid condensation must take place. In other 
words, the temperature must be above the dew-point of air at that place. 
At higher elevations, on any reasonable assumption of temperature distri- 
bution, we inevitably reach a temperature where the air would condense, 
just as Fourier and Poisson supposed it would, unless the temperature is 
arrested in some way from approaching the zero. Both ultra-violet 
absorption and the prevalence of electric storms may have something to 
do with the maintenance of a higher mean temperature. The whole mass 
of the air above forty miles is not more than one seven-hundredth part of 
the total mass of the atmosphere, so that any rain or snow of liquid or 
solid air, if it did occur, would necessarily be of a very tenuous descrip- 
tion. In any case, the dense gases tend to accumulate in the lower strata, 
and the lighter ones to predominate at the higher altitudes, always as- 
suming that a steady state of equilibrium has been reached. It must be 
observed, however, that a sample of air taken at an elevation of nine miles 
has shown no difference in composition from that at the ground, whereas, 
according to our hypothesis, the oxygen ought to have been diminished 
to 17 per cent., and the carbonic acid should also have become much 
less. This can only be explained by assuming that a large inter- 
mixture of different layers of the atmosphere is still taking place at this 
elevation. This is confirmed by a study of the motions of clouds about 
six miles high, which reveals an average velocity of the air currents of 
some seventy miles an hour ; such violent winds must be the means of 
causing the intermingling of different atmospheric strata. Some clouds, 
however, during hot and thundery weather, have been seen to reach an 
elevation of seventeen miles, so that we have direct proof that on occasion 
the lower layers of atmosphere are carried to a great elevation. The exist- 
ence of an atmosphere at more than a hundred miles above the surface of 
the earth is revealed to us by the appearance of meteors and fireballs, and 
when we can take photographs of the spectrum of such apparitions we 
shall learn a great deal about the composition of the upper air. In the 
meantime Pickering's solitary spectrum of a meteor reveals an atmosphere 
of hydrogen and helium, and so far this is corroborative of the doctrine 
we have been discussing. It has long been recognised that the aurora is 
the result of electric discharges within the limits of the earth's atmosphere, 
but it was difficult to understand why its spectrum should be so entirely 



42 REPORT— 1902. 

different from anything which could be produced artificially by electric 
discharges through rarefied air at the surface of the earth. Writing in 
1879, Rand Capron, after collecting all the recorded observations, was 
able to enumerate no more than nine auroral rays, of which but one could 
with any probability be identified with rays emitted by atmospheric air 
under an electric discharge. Vogel attributed this want of agreement 
between nature and experiment, in a vague way, to difference of tempera- 
ture and pressure ; and ZoUner thought the auroral spectrum to be one 
of a different order, in the sense in which the line and band spectra of 
nitrogen are said to be of different orders. Such statements were merely 
confessions of ignorance. But since that time observations of the spectra 
of auroras have been greatly multiplied, chiefly through the Swedish and 
Danish Polar Expeditions, and the length of spectrum recorded on the 
ultra-violet side has been greatly extended by the use of photography, so 
that, in a recent discussion of the results, M. Henri Stassano is able to 
enumerate upwards of one hundred auroral rays, of which the wave-length 
is more or less approximately known, some of them far in the ultra-violet. 
Of this large number of rays he is able to identify, within the probable 
limits of errors of observation, about two-thirds as rays, which Professor 
Liveing and myself have observed to be emitted by the most volatile 
gases of atmospheric air unliquefiable at the temperature of liquid 
hydrogen. Most of the remainder he ascribes to argon, and some he 
might, with more probability, have identified with krypton or xenon rays, 
if he had been aware of the publication of wave-lengths of the spectra of 
those gases, and the identification of one of the highest rays of krypton 
with that most characteristic of auroras. The rosy tint often seen in 
auroras, particularly in the streamers, appears to be due mainly to neon, 
of which the spectrum is remarkably rich in red and orange rays One 
or two neon rays are amongst those most frequently observed, while the 
red ray of hydrogen and one red ray of krypton have been noticed only 
once. The predominance of neon is not surprising, seeing that from its 
relatively greater proportion in air and its low density it must tend to 
concentrate at higher elevations. So large a number of probable identifi- 
cations warrants the belief that we may yet be able to reproduce in our 
laboratories the auroral spectrum in its entirety. It is true that we have 
still to account for the appearance of some, and the absence of other, rays 
of the newly discovered gases, which in the way in which we stimu- 
late them appear to be equally brilliant, and for the absence, with 
one doubtful exception, of all the rays of nitrogen. If we cannot give 
the reason of this, it is because we do not know the mechanism of lumi- 
nescence — nor even whether the particles which carry the electricity 
are themselves luminous, or whether they only produce stresses causing 
other particles which encounter them to vibrate ; yet we are certain 
that an electric discharge in a highly rarefied mixture of gases lights one 
element and not another, in a way which, to our ignorance, seems 
capricious. The Swedish North Polar Expedition concluded from a great 



ADDRESS. 43 

number of trigonometrical measurements that the average above the 
ground of the base of the aurora was fifty kilometres (thirty-four miles) 
at Cape Thorsden, Spitzbergen ; at this height the pressure of the nitrogen 
of the atmosphere would be only about one-tenth of a millimetre, and 
Moissan and Deslandres have found that in atmospheric air at pressures 
less than one millimetre the rays of nitrogen and oxygen fade and are 
replaced by those of argon and by live new rays which Stassano 
identifies with rays of the more volatile gases measured by us. Also 
Collie and Ilamsay's observations on the distance to which electrical 
discharges of equal potential traverse different gases explosively throw 
much light on the question ; for they find that, while for helium and neon 
this distance is from 250 to .300 mm., for argon it is 45^ mm., for 
hydrogen it is 39 mm., and for air and oxygen still less. This indicates 
that a good deal depends on the very constitution of the gases themselves, 
and certainly helps us to understand why neon and argon, which exist in 
the atmosphere in larger proportions than helium, krypton, or xenon, 
should make their appearance in the spectrum of auroras almost to the 
exclusion of nitrogen and oxygen. How much depends not only on the 
constitution and it may be temperature of the gases, but also on the 
character of the electric discharge, is evident from the difierence between 
the spectra at the C3.thode and anode in different gases, notably in 
nitrogen and argon, and not less remarkably in the more volatile 
compounds of the atmosphere. Paulsen thinks the auroral spectrum 
wholly due to cathodic rays. Without stopping to discuss that question, 
it is certain that changes in the character of the electric discharge 
produce definite changes in the spectra excited by them. It has long 
been known that in many spectra the rays which are inconspicuous 
with an uncondensed electric discharge become very pronounced when a 
Leyden jar is in the circuit. This used to be ascribed to a higher 
temperature in this condensed spark, though measurements of that 
temperature have not borne out the explanation. Schuster and Hem- 
salech have shown that these changes of spectra are in part due to the 
oscillatory character of the condenser discharge which may be enhanced 
by self-induction, and the corresponding change of spectrum thereby 
made more pronounced. Lightning we should expect to resemble 
condensed discharge much more than aurora, but this is not borne out by 
the spectrum. Pickering's recent analysis of the spectrum of a flash 
obtained by photography shows, out of nineteen lines measured by him, 
only two which can be assigned with probability to nitrogen and oxygen, 
while three hydrogen rays most likely due to water are very conspicuous, 
and eleven may be reasonably ascribed to argon, krypton, and xenon, one 
to more volatile gas of the neon class, and the brightest ray of all is but a 
very little less refrangible than the characteristic auroral ray, and coincides 
with a strong ray of calcium, but also lies between, and close to, an argon 
and a neon ray, neither of them weak rays. There may be .some doubt about 
the identification of the spectral rays of auroras because of the wide limits 



44 REPORT — 1902. 

of the probable errors in measuring wave-lengths so faint as most of them 
are, but there is no such doubt about the wave-lengths of the rays in solar 
protuberances measured by Deslandres and Hale. Stassano found that 
these rays, forty-four in number, lying between the Fraunhofer line F 
and 3148 in the ultra-violet agree very closely with rays which Professor 
Liveing and myself measured in the spectra of the most volatile atmo- 
spheric gases. It will be remembered that one of the earliest suggestions 
as to the nature of solar prominences was that they were solar auroras. 
This supposition helped to explain the marvellous rapidity of their 
changes, and the apparent suspension of brilliant self-luminous clouds at 
enormous heights above the sun's surface. Now the identification of the 
rays of their spectra with those of the most volatile gases, which also 
furnish many of the auroral rays, certainly supports that suggestion. A 
stronger support, however, seems to be given to it by the results obtained 
at the total eclipse of May 1901, by the American expedition to Sumatra. 
In the ' Astrophysical Journal ' for June last is a list of 339 lines in the 
spectrum of the corona photographed by Humphreys, during totality, 
with a very large concave grating. Of these no fewer than 209 do not 
differ from lines we have measured in the most volatile gases of the 
atmosphere, or in krypton or xenon, by more than one unit of wave- 
length on Armstrong's scale, a quantity within the limit of probable 
error. Of the remainder, a good many agree to a like degree with argon 
lines, a very few with oxygen lines, and still fewer with nitrogen lines ; 
the characteristic green auroral ray, which is not in the range of 
Humphreys' photographs, also agrees within a small fraction of a unit of 
wave-length with one of the rays emitted by the most volatile atmospheric 
gas. Taking into account the Fraunhofer lines H, K, and G, usually 
ascribed to calcium, there remain only fifty-five lines of the 339 un- 
accounted for to the degree of probability indicated. Of these consider- 
ably more than half are very weak lines which have not depicted 
themselves on more than one of the six films exposed, and extend but a 
very short distance into the sun's atmosphere. There are, however, seven 
which are stronger lines, and reach to a considerable height above the 
sun's rim, and all have depicted themselves on at least four of the six 
films. If there be no considerable error in the wave-lengths assigned (and 
such is not likely to be the case), these lines may perhaps be due to some 
volatile element which may yet be discovered in our atmosphere. How- 
ever that may be, the very great number of close coincidences between 
the auroral rays and those which are emitted under electric excitement 
by gases of our atmosphere almost constrains us to believe, what is indeed 
most probable on other grounds, that the sun's coronal atmosphere is 
composed of the same substances as the earth's, and that it is rendered 
luminous in the same way — namely, by electric discharges. This conclusion 
has plainly an important bearing on the explanation which should be 
given of the outburst of new stars and of the extraordina,ry and rapid 
changes in their spectra. Moreover, leaving on one side the question 



ADDRESS. 45 

wliether gases ever become luminous by the direct action of heat, apart 
from such transfers of energy as occur in chemical change and electric 
disturbance, it demands a revision of the theories which attribute more 
permanent differences between the spectra of diSerent stars to differences 
of temperature, and a fuller consideration of the question whether they 
cannot with better reason be explained by differences in the electric 
conditions which prevail in the stellar atmosphere. 

If we turn to the question what is the cause of the electric discharges 
which are generally believed to occasion auroras, but of which little more 
has hitherto been known than that they are connected with sun-spots and 
solar eruptions, recent studies of electric discharges in high vacua, with 
which the names of Crookes, Rontgen, Lenard, and J. J. Tliomson will 
always be associated, have opened the way for Arrhenius to suggest 
a definite and rational answer. He points out that the frequent dis- 
turbances which we know to occur in the sun must cause electi'ic dis 
charges in the sun's atmosphere far exceeding any that occur in that of 
the earth. These will be attended with an ionisation of the gases, and 
the negative ions will stream away through the outer atmosphere of the 
sun into the interplanetary space, becoming, as Wilson has shown, nuclei 
of aggregation of condensable vapours and cosmic dust. The liquid and 
solid particles thus formed will be of various sizes ; the larger will 
gravitate back to the sun, while those with diameters less than one and a 
half thousandths of a millimetre, but nevertheless greater than a wave- 
length of light, will, in accordance with Clerk-Maxwell's electromagnetic 
theory, be driven away from the sun by the incidence of the solar rays 
upon them, with velocities which may become enormous, until they meet 
other celestial bodies, or increase their dimensions by picking up more 
cosmic dust or diminish them by evaporation. The earth will catch its 
share of such particles on the side which is turned towards the sun, and 
its upper atmosphere will thereby become negatively electrified until the 
potential of the charge reaches such a point that a discharge occurs, which 
will be repeated as more charged particles reach the earth. This theory 
not only accounts for the auroral discharges, and the coincidence of their 
times of greatest frequency with those of the maxima of sunspots, but also 
for the minor maxima and minima. The vernal and autumnal maxima 
occur when the line through the earth and sun has its greatest inclination 
to the solar equator, so that the earth is more directly exposed to the 
region of maximum of sunspots, while the twenty-six days period corre- 
sponds closely with the period of rotation of that part of the solar 
surface where faculae are most abundant. J. J. Thomson has pointed out, 
as a consequence of the Richardson observations, that negative ions will 
be constantly streaming from the sun merely regarded as a hot body, but 
this is not inconsistent with the supposition that there will be an excess 
of this emission in eruptions, and from the regions of faculte. Arrhenius' 
theory accounts also, in a way which seems the most satisfactory hitherto 
enunciated, for the appearances presented by comets. The solid parts 



46 REPORT — 1902. 

of these objects absorb the sun's rays, and as they approach the sun 
become heated on the side turned towards him until the volatile substances 
frozen in or upon them are evaporated and diffused in the gaseous state in 
surrounding space, where they get cooled to the temperature of lique- 
faction and aggregated in drops about the negative ions. The larger of 
these drops gravitate towards the sun and form clouds of the coma about 
the head, while the smaller are driven by the incidence of the sun's light 
upon them away from the sun and form the tail. The curvature of the 
tail depends, as Bredichin has shown, on the rate at which the particles 
are driven, which in turn depends on the size and specific gravity of the 
particles, and these will vary with the density of the vapour from which 
they are formed and the frequency of the negative ions which collect 
them. In any case Arrhenius' theory is a most suggestive one, not only 
with reference to auroras and comets, and the solar corona and chromo- 
sphere, but also as to the constitution of the photosphere itself. 

Various Low-Temperature Researches. 

We may now summarise some of the results which have already been 
attained by low-temperature studies. In the first place, the great majority 
of chemical interactions are entirely suspended, but an element of such 
exceptional powers of combination as fluorine is still active at the tempe- 
rature of liquid air. Whether solid fluorine and liquid hydrogen would 
interact no one can at present say. Bodies naturally become denser, but 
«ven a highly expansive substance like ice does not appear to reach the 
density of water at the lowest temperature. This is confirmatory of the 
view that the particles of matter under such conditions are not packed in 
the closest possible way. The force of cohesion is greatly increased at 
low temperatures, as is shown by the additional stress required to rupture 
metallic wires. This fact is of interest in connection with two conflicting 
theories of matter. Lord Kelvin's view is that the forces that hold 
together the particles of bodies may be accounted for without assuming 
any other agency than gravitation or any other law than the Newtonian. 
An opposite view is that the phenomena of the aggregation of molecules 
•depend upon the molecular vibration as a physical cause. Hence, at the 
zero of absolute temperature, this vibrating energy being in complete 
abeyance, the phenomena of cohesion should cease to exist, and matter 
generally be reduced to an incoherent heap of cosmic dust. This second 
view receives no support from experiment. 

The photographic action of light is diminished at the temperature of 
liquid air to about 20 per cent, of its ordinary efficiency, and at the still 
lower temperature of liquid hydrogen only about 10 per cent, of the 
original sensitivity remains. At the temperature of liquid air or liquid 
hydrogen a large range of organic bodies and many inorganic ones acquire 
under exposure to violet light the property of phosphorescence. Such 
bodies glow faintly so long as they are kept cold, but become exceedingly 
xilliant during the period when the temperature is rising. Even solid 



ADDRESS. 47 

air is a phosphorescent body. All the alkaline earth sulphides which 
phosphoresce brilliantly at the ordinary temperature lose this property 
when cooled, to be revived on heating ; but such bodies in the first 
instance may be stimulated through the absorption of light at the lowest 
temperatures. Radio-active bodies, on the other hand, like radium, which 
are naturally self-luminous, maintain this luminosity unimpaired at the 
very lowest temperatures, and are still capable of inducing phospho- 
rescence in bodies like the platino-cyanides. Some crystals become for a 
time self-luminous when cooled in liquid air or hydrogen, owing to the 
induced electric stimulation causing discharges between the crystal mole- 
cules. This phenomenon is very pronounced with nitrate of uranium and 
some platino-cyanides. 

In conjunction with Professor Fleming a long series of experiments 
was made on the electric and magnetic properties of bodies at low tempera- 
tures. The subjects that have been under investigation may be classi- 
fied as follows : The Thermo -Electric Powers of Pure Metals ; The 
Magnetic Properties of Iron and Steel ; Dielectric Constants ; The 
Magnetic and Electric Constants of Liquid "Oxygen ; Magnetic Sus- 
ceptibility. 

The investigations have shown that electric conductivity in pure 
metals varies almost inversely as the absolute temperature down to minus 
200 degrees, but that this law is greatly affected by the presence of the 
most minute amount of impurity. Hence the results amount to a proof 
that electric resistance in pure metals is closely dependent upon the mole- 
cular or atomic motion which gives rise to temperature, and that the 
process by which the energy constituting what is called an electric current 
is dissipated essentially depends upon non-homogeneity of structure and 
upon the absolute temperature of the material. It might be inferred that 
at the zero of absolute temperature resistance would vanish altogether, 
and all pure metals become perfect conductors of electricity. This con- 
clusion, however, has been rendered very doubtful by subsequent obser- 
vations made at still lower temperatures, which appear to point to an 
tiltimate finite resistance. Thus the temperature at which copper was 
assumed to have no resistance was minus 223 degrees, but that metal has 
been cooled to minus 253 degrees without getting i-id of all resistance. 
The reduction in resistance of some of the metals at the boiling-point of 
bydrogen is very remarkable. Thus copper has only 1 per cent., gold and 
platinum 3 per cent., and silver 4 per cent, of the resistance they possessed 
at zero C, but iron still retains 12 per cent, of its initial resistance. 
In the case of alloys and impure metals, cold brings about a much smaller 
decrease in resistivity, and in the case of carbon and insulators like gutta- 
percha, glass, ebonite, ikc, their resistivity steadily increases. The enor- 
mous increase in resistance of bismuth when transvej-selv magnetised and 
cooled was also discovered in the course of these experiments. The study 
of dielectric constants at low temperatures has resulted in the discovery 
of some interesting facts. A fundamental deduction from Maxwell's 



48 REPORT— 1902. 

theory is that the square of the refractive index of a body should be the 
same number as its dielectric constant. So fai*, however, from this being 
the case generally, the exceptions are far more numerous than the coinci- 
dences. It has been shown in the case of many substances, such as ice 
and glass, that an increase in the frequency of the alternating electro- 
motive force results in a reduction of the dielectric constant to a value 
more consistent with Maxwell's law. By experiments upon many 
substances it is shown that even a moderate increase of frequency brings 
the large dielectric constant to values quite near to that required by 
Maxwell's law. It was thus shown that low temperature has the same 
effect as high frequency in annulling the abnormal dielectric values. 
The exact measurement of the dielectric constant of liquid oxygen as 
well as its magnetic permeability, combined with the optical determina- 
tion of the refractive index, showed that liquid oxygen strictly obeys 
Maxwell's electro-optic law even at very low electric frequencies. In 
magnetic work the result of greatest value is the proof that magnetic 
susceptibility varies inversely as the absolute temperature. This shows 
that the magnetisation of 'paramagnetic bodies is an affair of orientation 
of molecules, and it suggests that at the absolute zero all the feebly para- 
magnetic bodies will be strongly magnetic. The diamagnetism of bismuth 
was found to be increased at low temperatures. The magnetic moment 
of a steel magnet is temporarily increased by cooling in liquid air, but the 
increase seems to have reached a limit, because on further cooling to the 
temperature of liquid hydrogen hardly any further change was observed. 
The study of the thermo-electric relations of the metals at low tempera- 
tures resulted in a great extension of the well known Tait Thermo- Electric 
Diagram. Tait found that the thermo-electric power of the metals could 
be expressed by a linear function of the absolute temperature, but at the 
extreme range of temperature now under consideration this law was 
found not to hold generally ; and further, it appeared that many abrupt 
electric changes take place, which originate i)robably from specific mole- 
cular changes occurring in the metal. The thermo-electric neutral points 
of certain metals, such as lead and gold, which are located at or below 
the boiling-point of hydrogen, have been found to be a convenient means 
of defining specific temperatures in this exceptional part of the thermo- 
metric scale. 

The effect of cold upon the life of living organisms is a matter of great 
intrinsic interest, as well as of wide theoretical importance. Experiment 
indicates that moderately high temperatures are much more fatal, at least 
to the lower forms of life, than are exceedingly low ones. Professor 
McKendrick froze for an hour at a temperature of minus 182° C. samples 
of meat, milk, &c., in sealed tubes ; when these were opened after 
being kept at blood heat for a few days, their contents were found to be 
quite putrid. More recently some more elaborate tests were carried out 
at the Jenner Institute of Preventive Medicine on a series of typical 
bacteria. These were exposed to the temperature of liquid air for twenty 



ADDHESS. 49 

hours, buttlieir vitality was not affected, their functional activities re- 
mained unimpaired, and the cultures which they yielded were normal in 
every respect. The same result was obtained when liquid hydrogen was 
substituted for air. A similar persistence of life in seeds has been demon- 
strated even at the lowest temperatures ; they were frozen for over a 
hundred hours in liquid air, at the instance of Messrs. Brown and Escombe, 
with no other result than to affect their protoplasm with a certain inert- 
ness, from which it recovered with warmth. Subsequently commercial 
samples of barley, pea, vegetable- marrow, and mustard seeds were literally 
steeped for six hours in liquid hydrogen at the Royal Institution, yet 
when they were sown by Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer at Kew in the ordinary 
way, the proportion in which germinatioa occurred was no less than in 
the other batches of the same seeds which had suffered no abnormal treat- 
ment. Bacteria are minute vegetable cells, the standard of measurement 
for which is the 'mikron.' Yet it has been found possible to completely 
triturate these microscopic cells, when the operation is carried out at the 
temperature of liquid air, the cells then being frozen into hard break- 
able masses. The typhoid organism has been treated in this way, and 
the cell plasma obtained for the purpose of studying its toxic and immu- 
nising properties. It would hardly have been anticipated that liquid air 
should find such immediate application in biological research. A research 
by Professor Macfadyen, just concluded, has shown that many varieties of 
micro-organisms can be exposed to the temperature of liquid air for a 
period of six months without any appreciable loss of vitality, although at 
such a temperature the ordinary chemical processes of the cell must cease. 
At such a temperature the cells cannot be said to be either alive or dead, 
in the ordinary acceptation of these words. It is a new and hitherto un- 
obtained condition of living matter — a third state. A final instance of 
the application of the above methods may be given. Certain species of 
bacteria during the course of their vital processes are capable of emitting 
light. If, however, the cells be broken up at the temperature of liquid 
air, and the crushed contents brought to the ordinary temperature, the 
luminosity function is found to have disappeared. This points to the 
luminosity not being due to the action of a ferment — a ' Luciferase ' — but 
as being essentially bound up with the vital processes of the cells, and 
dependent for its production on the intact organisation of the cell. These 
attempts to study by frigorific methods the physiology of the cell have 
already yielded valuable and encouraging results, and it is to be hoped 
that this line of investigation will continue to be vigorously prosecuted at 
the Jenner Institute. 

And now, to conclude an address which must have sorely taxed your 
patience, I may remind you that I commenced by referring to the plaint 
of Elizabethan science, that cold was not a natural available product. In 
the course of a long struggle with nature, man, by the application of 
intelligent and steady industry, has acquired a control over this agency 
which enables him to produce it at will, and with almost any decree of 

1902. K 



50 REPOET — 1902. 

intensity, short of a limit defined by the very nature of things. But the 
success in working what appears, at first sight, to be a quarry of research 
that would soon suffer exhaustion, has only brought him to the threshold 
of new labyrinths, the entanglements of which frustrate, with a seemingly 
invulnerable complexity, the hopes of further progress. In a legitimate 
sense all genuine scientific workers feel that they are ' the inheritors of 
unfulfilled renown.' The battlefields of science are the centres of a per- 
petual warfare, in which there is no hope of final victory, although 
partial conquest is ever triumphantly encouraging the continuance of the 
disciplined and strenuous attack on the seemingly impregnable fortress of 
Nature. To serve in the scientific army, to have shown some initiative, 
and to be rewarded by the consciousness that in the eyes of his comrades 
he bears the accredited accolade of successful endeavour, is enough to 
satisfy the legitimate ambition of every earnest student of Nature. The 
real Avarranty that the march of progress in the future will be as glorious 
as in the past lies in the perpetual reinforcement of the scientific ranks by 
recruits animated by such a spirit, and proud to obtain such a reward. 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



I 



E2 



EEPOKTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Experhncids for improving the Gondrudion of Vractlcal Standardf; for 
Electrical Measuremont!^. — Report of the Committee, coihsistincj 
o/Lord Kayleigh (GhaiTinan), Dr. R. T. Glazerrook (Secretary), 
Lord KELvm, Professoi-s W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. 
Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver J. Lodge. Dr. A. 
MuiRHEAD, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. Everett, A. 
Schuster. J. A. Fleming, and -T. J. Thomson, Dr. W. X. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. RenniE; Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, 
Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, and Mr. George Matthey. 



Appendix. — OntheBefini-tionoftheV'iutoflleat 55 

DuRiXG the past year the apparatus belonging to the Association has been 
removed to and set up at the National Physical Laboratory at Bushy 
House. A room in the basement has been fitted for accurate resistance 
work. By means of a thermostat the temperature can be kept under very 
complete control, and the room has proved most suitable for its purpose. 
In it the resistance standards of the Association liave been set up, and a 
number of comparisons have been made by Mr. F. E Smith. Particulars 
as to the results of these comparisons can best be given at a later date, 
when the mercury standards now in course of construction have been 
set up. 

The work of setting up the mercury standards of resistance has been 
further advanced. A number of tubes, both of verre dur and of Jena 
glass, 16'", have been calibrated by Mr. Smith. When the final corrections 
to the weights used have been obtained from the Bureau International it 
will be possible to complete these and to determine the values of the 
platinum -silver and manganin standards in terms of the mercury unit. 

From the resistance-room a cellar — formerly the wine-cellar of Bushy 
House — opens, and in it work requiring an extreme constancy of tem- 
perature can be carried on. 

In this room Mr. Smith has set up a number both of Clark and also 
of Weston cells, and comparisons between these have been carried on 
systematically. 

Discrepancies of a considerable amount have been found between cells 



r 



i REPORT — 1902. 



set up in the same manner, but from materials supplied by various makers, 
and these have been traced to the mercurous sulphate. The observers at 
the Reiclisanstalt have come to a similar conclusion.' Dr. Carpenter and 
Mr. Smith are now engaged in experiments at the National Physical 
Laboratory, the results of which, it is hoped, will enable them to specify 
a method of preparing mercurous sulphate which will lead to consistent 
results for the E.M.F. of the cells. 

The air- condensers belonging to the Committee have been set up, and 
a number of determinations of their capacity have been made by ]\Ir. 
Campbell. The results of these, though at present they are only to be 
treated as provisional, show that the condensers are in good ordei", and 
have suffered no damage by their journeys Krst to Liverpool and then to 
Richmond. The capacity of one is nearly the same as when at Cam- 
bridge ; that of the other has altered very slightly. With a view of 
establishing a standard of capacity a number of other comparisons between 
the standards of the Association and those of Dr. Muirhead are in 
progress. 

In this comparison work some difficulty has arisen from the fact that 
all the i-esistance-boxes belonging to the Association are of platinum- 
silver. The small temperature coefficient of manganin gives that material 
a very distinct advantage, and the Secretary has been endeavouring to 
use it whenever possible. It would be of great service for this part of the 
work to have a subdivided megohm-box in manganin, and the Committee 
trust that funds for this may be forthcoming. They hope in their next 
report to give a detailed account of the condenser experiments. 

The construction of platinum thermometers as standards for high 
temperature thermometry has made some progress. The National Phy- 
.sical Laboratory was not opened until March, and the work of .setting up 
the apparatus, carrying out the necessary calibrations, &c., has occupied 
most of the time of the assistants since then. 

After some further experiments however, to test the purity of the wire 
it was proposed to u.se had been carried out, a stock of eight ounces of wire 
of the highest purity and of a thickness varying from six to eight 
mils has been bought from Messrs. Johnson & Matthey, while four 
ounces of the same wire, but of twenty-two mils in thickness, suitable 
for leads or for drawing down to special sizes, have also been secured ; and 
six thermometers are in course of construction in the workshops of the 
Laboratory under Dr. Harker's supervision. 

Of these six thermometers two of live ohms fundamental interval will 
be hermetically sealed in glass tubes, and will serve as standards for low- 
temperature work ; a second pair, having an interval of one ohm, in tubes 
of hard glass — probably Jena — 59'" — will serve for temperatures up to 
050° C, while the third pair, also of one ohm interval, in porcelain 
6ubes, will be employed up to 1100° or 1200° C. It is hoped by the use 
of quartz to extend the range of temperature considerably, and some ex- 
periments are in progress with this object. 

Two electrical resistance ovens have been built by Dr. Harker for 
high-temperature work, and these serve their purpose admirably. 

The grants voted during the past two years have been expended on 
the purchase of the materials for the platinum thermometers, and addi- 
tional sums are necessary to complete their manufacture. 

' T/idtigJieit dcr riiys.-Tcch.-Itcichsanstalt, 1001-1902. 



PKACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 55. 

With regard to tlie construction of the ampere balance the Committee 
are sorry that they cannot report progress ; they have learnt with extreme 
regret of Professor Ayrton's ill-health during part of the year, but are glad 
to know that he believes he will be able to continue his investigations 
into this important question, and they have therefore I'eason to hope 
the matter will be advanced. 

In this work the late Principal Viriamu Jones was closely associated 
with Professor Ayrton, and it is a source of great pleasure to the Com- 
mittee to know that, through the generosity of the Drapers' Company, 
his name and connection witli Electrical Measurements will be perpetuated 
at the National Physical Laboratory. The Company had promised to 
Principal Jones the funds for the construction of an improved Lorenz 
apparatus for the determination of the ohm, and they have intimated to 
the Committee of the Laboratory their intention to place TOO/, at the 
Executive Committee's disposal for the construction of such an apparatus 
in his memory under the superintendence of Professor Ayrton and the 
Director of the National Physical Laboratory. The Secretary states that 
steps have already been taken to obtain designs for the instrument. 

At the Meeting in Belfast Sir William Preece drew the attention of 
the Commitee to the work of the Standardisation Committee of the 
Engineering Societies, and expressed the hope that in his capacity as chair- 
man of the electrical branch of that committee he might have the assist- 
ance of the Electrical Standards Committee. The Secretary was instructed 
to afford all the assistance in his power. 

Reference was also made to the definition of the unit of heat, and the 
Secretary was requested, with the assistance of Mr. Griffiths, to draw up 
an Appendix to the Report dealing with this. The Committee expressed 
the strong hope that any unit of heat foi-mally accepted by engineers 
should be based on the C.G.S. system of units. 

In conclusion the Committee recommend that they be reappointed, 
with a grant of 151., to be used for the establishment of a standard 
of capacity and for the construction of standard platinum thermometers ; 
that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman and Mr. R. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 



APPENDIX. 

On the Definition of the Unit of Heat. 

The question of the definition of the unit of heat has been before the 
Committee on various occasions. 

In 1896, at the Liverpool Meeting, after an exhausti^•e discussion and 
the consideration of letters from scientific men in all parts of the world, 
the following propositions were provisionally approved : — 

Fropositio7i I. — For many purposes heat is most conveniently measured 
in units of energy, and the theoretical C.G.S. units of heat is one erg. The 
name 'joule' has been given by the Electrical Standards Committee to 
10^ ergs. 

For many practical purposes heat will continue to be measured in 
terms of the heat required to raise a measured mass of water through a 
definite range of temperature. 

If the mass of water be one gramme, and the range of temperature 1° C. 
of the hydrogen thermometer from 9°-5 C. to 10°-5 C. of the scale of that 



56 KEPORT— 1902. 

thermometer, then, according to the best of the existing determinations, 
the amount of heat required is -l:-2 joules. 

It will therefore be convenient to fix upon this number of joules as 
a secondary unit of heat. 

This secondary thermal unit may be called a ' calorie.' 

For the present a second proposition is — 

Proposition II. — The amount of heat required to raise the tempera- 
ture of one gramme of water 1° C. of the scale of the hydrogen thermometer 
at a mean temperature which may be taken as 10° C. of that thermo- 
meter is 4-2 joules. 

If further research should show that the statement in II. is not 
exact, the definition could be adjusted by a small alteration in the mean 
temperature at which the rise oi' 1° takes place. The definition in I. and 
the number (1-2) of joules in a calorie would remain unaltered. 

These propositions, it will be observed, while reaffirming the names 
'joule' as the equivalent of 10' ergs, and calorie, the equivalent of 4-2 joules, 
as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gramme of 
water one degree centigrade on the hydrogen scale, leave undetermined 
the mean temperature of the water so raised. Proposition II. states that 
this may be taken as 10° C, but it is pointed out that if the heat required 
to raise one gramme of water from 9°-5 to 10°-5C. should prove not to. 
be 4-2 joules, a readjustment in the mean temperature employed in the 
definition could easily be made. 

Accordingly in the Report, 1897, made at Toronto the Committee 
■wrote : — 

' At the Liverpool Meeting the committee agreed that the " calorie," 
defined as the heat equivalent of 4-2 x 10^ ergs, should be adopted as the 
unit for the measurement of quantities of heat, but the question as to 
the exact part of the absolute thermodynamic scale of temperature at 
v/hich this quantity of heat could be taken as equal to one water-gramme- 
degree was for the time being left open. 

' This resolution has made it incumbent on the Committee to consider 
carefully — 

' 1. The relation between the results of measurements of intervals of 
temperature by accepted methods and the absolute scale. 

' 2. The specific heat of water in terms of the erg and its variation with 
temperature. 

' With regard to the first point there appears to be no reason to doubt 
that the scale of a constant-volume hydrogen thermometer is very nearly 
identical with the absolute scale. The Committee have therefore decided 
to recognise the standard hydrogen thermometer of the Bureau Inter- 
national des Poids et Mesures as representing, nearly enough for present 
purposes, the absolute scale. This convention has at least the advantage 
of giving a definite meaning to statements of the numerical value of inter- 
vals of temperature within any range for which comparison with the 
hydrogen thermometer is practicable. If future investigation should 
show that it is inaccurate to any appreciable extent, corresponding cor- 
rections can be applied when necessary.' 

As regards the second point further research has shown that an 
alteration in the temperature of measurement is required. The present 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS I-OK KLECTKICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



57 



position has been summed up by Principal (Jriffiths in the 'Rapports 
presentcs au Congres International de Physique,' Paris, 1900, tome i., and 
in his Lectures on the Thermal Measurement of Energy.' They aro 
also summarised by Professor Everett in the latest edition of his work, 
' C.G.S. Units and Constants. ' 

The following table, taken from Professor Everett's work, gives the 
results adopted by Principal Griffiths. 

From this it follows that the heat required to raise a gramme of water 
1° on the hydrogen scale is 4-2 joules when the size of temperature is 
from 7°-2 C. to 8°-2 C. Thus according to this the 10° C. of Proposition II. 
should be l°-~ C, and a calorie would be the heat required to raise a 
gramme of water F of the hydrogen scale from 7°-2 to 8°"2 of that scale. 



Tables of Mechanical Equivalents in Joules. 

1 joule = 10" erg.«!. 
Eowland, reduced by Day. Hydrogen scale. 








o 




1 

O 




O 




5 


[4 '205] 


13 


4-191 


21 


4 180 


29 


4-174 


C 


4 203 


14 


4-189 


22 


4179 


30 


4-174 


7 


4-201 


15 


4-188 


23 


4-178 


31 


4-174 


8 


4-199 


16 


4-186 


' 34 


4177 


32 


4-174 


9 


4-198 


17 


4-185 


25 


4-176 


1 33 


4174 


10 


4-196 


18 


4-184 


26 


4176 


34 


4-174 


11 


4194 


19 


4-182 


27 


4-175 


35 


4175 


12 


4-192 


20 


4181 


28 

1 


4-175 


36 


4-175 . 





Day 


Barnes 


Barnes 


Griffiths j 




Hyd. 


Air 


Hyd. 


adopted I 


O 










[4-219] 


5 


[4-205] 


4-210 


4-213 


4-20G 


10 


4-196 


4-198 


4-200 


4195 


15 


4-188 


4-189 


4191 


4-187 


20 


4181 


4-184 


4-185 


4-181 


25 


4-176 


4-180 


4-180 


4-176 


.30 


4174 


4 178 


4-178 


4-174 


35 


4-175 


4177 


4-177 


4-173 


40 





4-177 


4-177 


4-173 


45 





4-178 


4-178 


4-173 


50 





4-180 


4-178 


4-174 


55 


. — 


4182 


4-181 


4176 


60 


— 


4-184 


4-183 


4-178 


65 





4-187 


4-185 


4-181 


70 





4- 190 


4-188 


4184 


75 


— 


4192 


4-191 


4-187 


80 


— 


4- 195 


4-195 


4-190 


85 


— 


419S 


4-198 


4-193 


90 


. — , 


4-201 


4-201 


4-197 


95 





4-201 


4-205 


4201 


100 


— 


— 




[4-205] 


Me 


m, giving half-wei 


ght to 0° and 100° 




4-1854 



' Cambridge TJniversit}'' Press, 1901. 



68 REPORT— 1902. 

The results of a series of observations on the heat required to raise a 
gramme of water from 0° C. to 100° C. were published by Reynolds and 
Moorby in 1897. The quantity necessary is proved to be 418-4 joules. 
Thus the mean heat required to raise a gramme 1° C. for temperatures 
between 0° and 100' is 4*184 joules. This number is not far from the 
4'2 joules adopted in 1896 as the number of heat units in a calorie. 
Accordingly the suggestion has been made that it would be convenient 
to change the definition of a calorie and take it to be one-hundredth part 
of the heat required to raise one gramme of water from 0^ C to 100° C. 
In this case, according to the mean number adopted by Griffiths (see 
table), one calorie would be equal to 4-1854 joules, while according to 
Reynolds and Moorby it would be 4-184 joules, while the degree centi- 
grade through which it would be necessary to raise one gramme of water 
in order to absorb an amount of heat equal to one calorie would be from 
17° to 18° C. 

If this view were taken, then instead of Proposition II. of 1896 we 
should read : — 

One calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 
a gramme of water from 17° C. to 18° C. on the scale of the hydrogen 
thermometer, and is equal to 4-184 joules. 

It should be noted, however, that the Committee have not as yet taken 
any resolution on the point, and that formally the propositions accepted 
in 1896 and reprinted above are those which they have approved. 

It should also be mentioned that in deference to international repre- 
sentations the use of the word ' therm ' was withdrawn in 1896, the name 
being replaced by the word ' calorie.' 



Compel rinr/ and Beducinrj Magnetic Observations. — Report of the 
Committee., conaisting of Professor W. G. Adams (Chnmnati), Dr., 
C. Chree (Secretarj/), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. Chrvstal, Pro- 
fessor A. Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, the Astronomer 
EoYAL, Mr. William Ellis, and Sir A. W. Rucker. 

The Committee have been in existence since 188.5, and have exerted a 
beneficial and important influence on terrestial magnetism. Questions 
connected with the comparison and reduction of magnetic observations do 
not now, however, seem naturally to come under the cognisance of the 
Committee. Of late years the reports have really been papers, for which 
individual members have been responsible, and which have called for no 
corporate action. The creation of an international committee naturally 
affords a more direct means of communication between the observers 
of different countries, whilst the existence of the journal ' Terrestrial 
Magnetism ' affords a means of reaching with greater certainty the 
limited class really interested in the subject. Under these circum- 
stances it seems best that the Committee should not ask for reappoint- 
ment. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



59 



Seismolurjical TnvesUrintions. — Seventh Beport of the Committee, consist- 
inq of Professor J. W. JuDD (Chairman), Mr. J. MiLNE (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor 
G. H. Dauwjn, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. EwiNG, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor C. G. Knott, 
Professor P. Meldola, Mr. P. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, 
Mr. W. E. PluMxMER, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement 
Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, and Professor H. H. Turner. 
(Bi-aicn vp hij the Secretaxi/.) 

Plate I. 



Contents. 



I. 

IT. 
III. 
IV. 

Y. 

VI. 

YIT. 

VlII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XIL 



PAGE 

59 
60 
61 

64 



On Sfisiiiu!oi/i<-al Staiions ahroad and in Great Britain .... 

Tlie TtistrvnifiitH in vse at Sliide ......... 

The Uriijins of the Earthqualtes recorded in 1S99, 190O, and J90L 

Buration of tlie FirU Prcliminarij Tremors 

Time Curves for E'lrthqiialu-s recorded during the four years ending 

December i\ . \900 65 

The Com pari son of the Ihcords ohtaitied from three horizontal pcndiihnns 

at SMde . ' 68 

Clivometrie Experiments .......... 70 

Vertical Spring Seismograph Experiments ....... 71 

On the Mature ot Earthquake Morement ....... 71 

Eelatioiiship hetn-een, Hochfilding, Seismic, and Volcanic Activities . . 72 
On the Comparison of Earthquake Registers from SMde, Kew, Bidston, and 

Edinhurgk . . . . ■ • •' • ■ ■ • .73 

Expenments at the Ridgen-ay Fault. By HOEACB Darwin . . .75 



I. On Seismological Staiions abroad and in Great Britain. 

Seismographs of the type recommended by the Seismological Investiga- 
tion Committee of the British Association have been constructed for and 
in most instances are already established at the following stations : — 



1. 


Africa. 


. Cape Town. 


22. 


Mexico 


Mexico. 


2 


„ 


. Cairo. 


23! 


New Zealand 


Wellicgton. 


3. 


Australia 


. Melbourne. 


24. 


)i 


Christchurch. 


4. 


)> 


. Sydney. 


25. 


Portugal . 


Coimbra. 


5. 




. Perth. 


26. 


Russia 


Irkutsk. 


6. 


Azores (2 


instruments). 


27. 


»» 


Titlis. 


7. 


Canada 


. 'J'oronto. 


28. 


., . . 


Taschkent. 


8. 


., 


. Yic'oriR, B.C. 


29. 


Scotland . 


Edinburgh. 


9. 


Ceylon 


. Colombo. 


30. 


»* 


Paisley. 


10. 


England 


Shide, Isle of Wight. 


31. 


S. Ameiica 


Cordova 


11. 


1* 


. Kpw. 






(.\rgentina) 


12. 




Ridston. 


.32. 


j» 


Arequipa. 


13. 


Germany 


. Scrasburg. 


33. 


Spain 


San Fernando. 


14. 


Hawaii 


Honolulu. 


34. 


Syria 


Beyrut. 


15. 


India 


Calcutta. 


S.-^. 


Tiinidad. 




16. 


*» 


Madra.s, Kodaikanal. 


36. 


U.S. of America 


Philadelphia. 


17. 


,, 


„ Vizagapatam, 


37. 


•» 


B.iltimoie. 


18. 


,1 


r.ombnT. 


38. 


Antatctic 




19 


Java 


Batavia. 




KegioDS 


ss. 'Discovery.' 


20. 


Japan 


Tokio. 








21. 


Mauritius 


Royal Alfred Observa- 
tory. 









The last registers issued by the British Association Committee are 
Circulars Nos. 4 and 5. These refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edinburgh, 



60 REPORT— 1902. 

Strasburg, Toronto, Victoria (B.C.), San Fernando (Spain), Cairo, Cape of 
Good Hope, Calcutta, Bombay, Ivodaikanal, Batavia, Trinidad, Balti- 
more, Mauritius, Perth, and Irkutsk. To these is added a list of local 
earthquakes observed in 1901 in Japan. A register of earthquakes 
observed by Mr. G. Hogben at Wellington, in New Zealand, commencing 
October 3, 1900, will appear in the next Circular. It is expected that 
these will be supplemented by a corresponding register drawn up by 
Mr. Coleridge Farr, of Christchurch, in New Zealand. Mr. Hogben is- 
inclined to the opinion that many of his records refer to disturbances 
originating in the Antarctic regions, and these he has arranged to 
exchange by means of the relief expedition with those which may have 
been obtained by the landing party from the ss. ' Discovery.' 

The last instruments despatched were those sent to Mr. F. A. Chaves, 
Director of the meteorological station at St. Michael, in the Azores. 
They left the maker, R. D. Munro, Granville Place, King's Cross Road, 
London, on May 16 of this year. 

II. 2'he Instruments regularly in use at Shide. 

1. A photographing recording horizontal pendulum oriented north 
and south. This is the type of instrument similar to those in use at tlie 
other stations. It is adjusted to have a period of seventeen seconds, and 
with this adjustment a 4° turn of the calibrating screw results in a 
deflection of the outer end of the boom of 14 mm. As in all instruments 
a 1° turn of the sci'ew causes a tilt of 1"'9, the above adjustment means 
that a deflection of 1 mm. at the outer end of the boom is equivalent to 
a tilt of 0"'54. This stands on a brick pier 18 inches square and 
4 feet high above its footings, which rest on a beds of concrete above 
the chalk formation. 

When a rope is placed round this column 2 inches below its upper 
edge, and this is pulled, the deflection of the upper surface of the column 
is equivalent to 0""095 per 1-lb. pull. 

For certain experimental purposes this adjustment of 14 mm. deflec- 
tion for 4° turn of the calibi'ating screw is the one now adopted at Kew, 
Bidston, and Edinburgh (see p. 75). If the instrument is regarded as 
a 'steady point' seismograph, and records horizontal motion, such motion 
is theoretically multiplied 6 '7 times. 

2. A pair of pendulums similar to the above oriented north-south and 
east-west. This instrument is referred to under the name of its donor, 
Mr. A. F. Yarrow. The booms of this instrument swing on the same 
vertical upright. The one recording north-south motion has the same 
dimensions as those of the type instruments. The other boom, recording 
east-west motion, is only 5^ inches in length ; but there is cranked to 
it at right angles a light recording pointer, the arrangement being 
similar to that shown in fig. 1. By thi?. device the records of two com- 
ponents of motion are obtained side by side upon the same band of 
paper. 

This instrument is installed in a building about -^0 yards distant 
from that in which the type instrument is placed. It stands upon a 
rectangular brick column, the east-west dimension of which is 18 inches, 
and the north-south dimension is 37 inches. This is 5 feet 3 inches 
in height above its footings. Its deflection constant, determined as 
above, is in an east-west direction, 1-lb. pull = 0"'14. In a north-south 



ox SEISMOLOaiCAL IXVESTItrATIOX. 



61 



direction, as inferred from experiments upon other similar columns, the 
deflection per lib. pull will probably be one quarter of the above, or 
0"-035. 

3. A pair of horizontal pendulums writing on smoked paper. The 
booms of these pendulums, which are made of bicycle tubing, are each 
1-030 ra. in length and carry at their outer ends 80-lb. weights. The 
vertical support for these pendulums is a lamp-post bedded in concrete. 
The vertical distance between the top of the ties which carry the weights 
at the ends of the booms and the points where the inner ends of the 
booms pivot against blocks attached to the lower part of the lamp-post is 
7 feet IH inches. As at present adjusted a motion of the outer end of 
the boom oriented north-south is by means of a light lever multiplied 
six times, whilst the movement of an arm cranked to the east-west boom 
is by a similar arrangement multiplied sixteen times. 

A plan of the arrangement is shown in fig. 1. The dimensions are in 
millimetres. 

Fig. 1. — Measurements ia Millimetres. 






L evers 



--/■* 



oo - 

K J030--- 

N.S.Boom 



IS 



/6 



40- 



ftl 






From these dimensions it follows that if each boom were tilted equally 
the diagram for th« north-south boom should be 3-1 times greater than 
that given by the east-west boom. 

If the weights carried by the boom be regarded as centres of oscilla- 
tion the multiplication of horizontal motion can be calculated from the 
dimensions given in fiof. 1. 

This instrument takes the place of a pair of horizontal pendulums 
which carried weights of 101b. This instrument, a spiral sprin" seismo- 
graph, and a large balance arranged to record tilting, v.hich are referred 
to in the Report for last year, are no longer in use. The oliaracter of 
the records obtained from the last two of these instiumeiUs is referred 
to on pp. 70 and 71. 



III. Tho Bc'cords of the Years 189!), 1900, and 1901. 

In the Report of the British Association for 1900, on p. 70, a map is 
given showing the origins from which the earthquakes recorded in Britain 
during the year 1S99 had radiated. These origins were determined by 
methods explained on pp. 79 and 80 of that report. The accompanying 
map, tig. 2 (Plate I.), gives a similar distribution — each carthtjuake being 



62 REPORT — 1902. 

referred to by its numbers in the Shide register — for the records obtained 
in the years 1900 and 1901. An attempt has been made to place these earth- 
quakes in groups, each group being enclosed by a dotted line. Altogether 
there are twelve such groups which on the map are indicated by the tirst 
twelve letters of the alphabet. A glance at this map shows that certain 
of these groups, like B and C, overlap, whilst there are many instances 
■where origins are placed outside the boundaries of any of the groups. 
It is therefore likely that whea the data on which these groupings are 
based become more complete the same will be subjected to modifications. 
The large numerals indicate the number of earthquakes which originated 
in the districts marked A, B, C, &c., in the years 1899, 1900, and 1901. 
The notched bands give the direction of prominent ridges on the face of 
the »lobe, whilst the dotted areas are the ' deeps ' or depressions in the 
beds of various oceans exceeding 3,000 fathoms in depth. 

That there is a relationship between the distribution of the origins of 
large earthquakes and the pronounced irregularities on the surface of the 
earth will be seen from the following notes. 

A. Alaskan Region (number of earthquakes 25). — The average depth 
of the water in this bight is about 2,000 fathoms, but in its northern 
part depths of 2,200 fathoms have been found within sixty miles of 
the shore. On this shore Mount St. Elias rises to a height of 18,000 
feet. An average slope from the land to the sea on a north south line 
can be found which exceeds 100 feet per mile. This is over a distance 
of 180 miles. 

On the face of this and neighbouring slopes during the last three years 
it is probable that molar displacements of great magnitude have taken 
place. On September 10, 1899, in the island of Kanak, opposite Yakuta, 
a graveyard sank so that on the next day a boat was able to row over 
the place where it had been, and the tops of the submerged trees could be 
seen. Many of the earthquakes from this region have yielded large 
seismograms at the Cape of Good Hope, which is antipodean to Alaska. 
We have here a district partly belonging to the Alutian ridge, off the 
southern shores of which within eighty miles of land depths of 4,000 
fathoms have been noted, where orogenic processes are now marked the 
extent of which will probably be gauged by future soundings. 

B. Cordillerean Region (number of earthquakes 14). — This region 
forms the western side of the Mexican plateau and the Cordilleras. Just 
south of the 20° parallel a depth of 2,800 fathoms has been found within 
forty miles of the shore, whilst depths exceeding 2.000 fathoms have been 
found a little over 100 miles from the land, somewhat farther to the south. 
Although thei-e are peaks in these regions rising to heights close upon 
18,000 feet, the average height of the ranges does not greatly exceed 
6,000 feet. There are, therefore, in this region slopes of 180 to 570 feet 
per mile, and the instability of these is testified by the frequency of 
their yieldings. 

C. Antillean Region (number of earthquakes 16). — Here we have at 
least two ridges to consider — that of Cuba, Haiti, and Puerto Rico 
running east and west, and that of Grenada, St. Yincent, Martinique, 
Dominica, and other islands running north and south. The east-west 
ridge slopes steeply to the north into water which north of Puerto Rico 
attains a depth of 4,000 fathoms, and to the south into water 2,500 fathoms 
in depth. These depths are respectively found at distances of sixty and 
forty miles off land and indicate slopes of 400 and 375 feet per mile. With 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 63 

the north-south ridge the slopes to the west over a short distance like 
twelve miles is 1,000 feet per mile, whilst to the eastwards it is compara- 
tively gentle. If these gradients be measured in lengths of 200 miles the 
slopes are about 70 feet per mile. 

D. Andean District (number of earthquakes 12). — At many points on 
the west coast of South America, within fifty miles of the shore, deptlis of 
from 2,000 to 4,000 fathoms occur, which correspond to gradients of from 
250 to 480 feet per mile. Within a distance of 150 miles from the shore 
the land rises to a height of 12,000 feet, so that the gradients from them 
to the bottom of the neighbouring ocean may be taken at 120 to 180 feet 
per mile. 

E. Japan District (number of earthquakes 29). — To the east of 
Northern Japan and the Kuriles, at a distance of about 180 miles off shore, 
depths of 4,000 and even 4,600 fathoms are found, indicating gradients of 
130 to 150 feet per mile, and from observations made in Japan it is known 
that many of the large earthquakes originate on the face or at the bottom 
of these slopes. 

F. Javan District (number of earthquakes 41). — Ofi' the south-west coast 
of Sumatra and the south coast of Java, at distances of from eighty to 100 
miles, depths of from 2,000 to 3,000 fathoms occur. The straits on the 
opposite shores of these islands are shallow, seldom exceeding thirty 
fathoms. Eastwards, from Java as far as Ceram, soundings between 
1,000 and 2,000 fathoms are frequent. At one point tifty miles south 
of the latter island there is a depth of 4,000 fathoms. From this 
particular 'deep' on September 29, 1899, a displacement took place the 
effects of which were partially visible by subsidences on the southern coast 
of Ceram. In this district the sub-oceanic irregularities in contour are 
as irregularly distributed as the islands which form their outcrops. 

G. Mauritian District (number of earthquakes 17). — The origins for this 
group of earthquakes are not well defined. They are probably related to 
the depression lying between the ridges represented by the Laccadi^'es 
and Maldives on the east, and the Seychelles and Mascarine Islands to 
the south-west. 

H. North-eastern Atlantic (number of earthquakes 22). 

I. North-western Atlantic (number of earthquakes 3). 

J. North Atlantic (number of earthquakes 3). 

The earthquakes originating in these districts have been few in number, 
comparatively small, and their origins are not well defined. Although a 
ridge is marked as extending up the Atlantic, it is compai'atively small, 
and even in the vicinity of the Azores it is difficult to find a gradient over 
a distance of 180 miles which exceeds 33 feet per mile. 

K. Alpine, Balkan, Caucasian, Himalayan Districts (number of earth- 
quakes 14). — Strictly speaking this region, which is the only one from 
which earthquakes originate on a land surface, might be divided into four 
or more sub- regions according to the direction of the strike of the ridges 
which each I'epresents. 

The most pronounced foldings are in the eastern part of these districts 
where in distances of 100 miles gradients of 120 feet per mile can be 
found, and it is from these steep slopes that the larger earthquakes have 
originated 



64 



REPORT — 1902. 



IV. Duration of the First rreliminary Tremors. 

In seismograms from the Milne horizontal pendulum the first 
preliminary tremors, which usually appear as a thickening of the normal 
trace, are only seen in connection with fairly large disturbances. The 
reason for this is at least twofold : first, as a recorder of elastic vibrations 
the multiplication of the instrument is low, with the result that when 
these vibrations are minute they may be lost in the thickness of the 
trace ; and second, because as the recording surface only moves at a rate of 
1 mm. per minute it is difficult to measure very small intervals of time. 
For ' near ' earthquakes, therefore, the seismograms usually show a dis- 
turbance commencing suddenly, and the duration of the preliminary 
tremors connected with the same can only be inferred by the continuation 
of the curve of the durations of the movements as recorded at distant 
stations backwards towards its origin. It is satisfactory to notice 
that these inferred durations closely agree with actual measurements 
of the same made by seismographs adapted to record ' near ' earthquakes. 

The following four tables give the durations of preliminary tremors 
in minutes for earthquakes originating near Japan, Mexico, Alaska, or in 
the East Indies as recorded at Shide, Kew, Toronto, Victoria (B.C.), 
Bombay, Batavia, Mauritius, Madras, and the Cape of Good Hope. 

The number following a duration and placed in parenthesis is the 
number of the earthquake as entered in the iShide register. For districts 
see map, fig. 2 (^ Plate I.). 

Origins West of Alasl:a (District A). 



Victoria, B.C. . 


Distant 20° . 


. Durations 3 (344), 2 (345), 7 (4.54). 


Toronto . 


" 


40°. 




n 


5 (282), 8 (309), (! (333), f, (337), 
7 (341). 5 (442), 10(454). 


Shide, I.W. . 


T» 


70° . 


• 


»* 


11 (282),5r333), 6(341),8(344), 
8 (442), 8 (454). 


Kew 


,, 


70° . 


. 


»T 


8 (333), 7 (337), 9 (338), 10 (442). 


San Fernando (Spaing 


1 


77°. 


. 


,, 


9 (309), 9 (337). 9 (442). 


Bombay . 


., 


100°. 


. 


,. 


10(309), 10(454). 


Uatavia . 


1' 


lOS". 


• 


•) 


9 (454). 


Or 


iffivs ill or near 


Mexico 


{iJi 


stricts B cmd 0). 


Victoria, l'..C. . 


Distant 30° . 


. Durations (J (381), 4 (445), 4 (447), 4 (472), 












7 (483). 


Toronto . 


)» 


31°. 


" 


'* 


r. (250). 3 (294), r. (381), 6 (407). 
5 (415), 3 (422), 5 (445), 4 (447), 
4 (455), 7 (472). 


Shide, I.W. . 


?» 


84°. 




Jf 


13 (157), 4 (189), 9 (215) 10(248), 
8(294), 10(407). 10(455) 


Kew 


'* 


84°. 




!5 


9 (250),10 (381), 11 (407). 9 (445), 
10 (455). 


San Fernando (Spain' 


) .. 


sr/ . 




)• 


10(294), 10(381), 7 415). 


Cape of Good Hope . 




1 38'= . 




»J 


S (445). 


Bombay . 


■f 


14S^. 


. 




10(483). 


Batavia . 


'• 


Io0°. 


■ 


1' 


8 (483). 




Or 


ii/itis neat 


• Japan 


[Bis 


■trirt E). 


Victoria, B.C. . 


Distal 


nt fiO° . 


. Dui 


-ationsS (3r,4), 8 (514), 8 (51C). 


Bombay . 


,, 


(;.-."- . 




»J 


9 (364). 


Shide, I.W. . 


,» 


87°. 






8 (317 ). 10 (3G6), 7 (405), 10 (4r;0), 
10(514), 10 (51G) 


Kew 


,, 


87°. 


, 




1(1(514). 


Toronto . 


1, 


ilO" . 






9 i:'.(;4) 



British Association, lUnd Report, Belfast, 1902.] 



Tk« Large Earthquakei of 1000 and 1901. 



diitrinU ^no IHflB ., cipreMod m l»r«i. numemU R.dc-^., a-rm ^^Seiplr™-? Eirthqn.ko dJ.tnpW iro indicawd A, B, 



[Plato 1. 

C, «o., tad tho nambar ot eaitbqakkM irhisb originated Irom theae 




I 



.5-«...i»rf»^<?'/«;if^/, 



Fig. 2. 7(IiM/ra(i»j (/« flejjori on Seiimologicai Investtgation. 



Batavia . . 


Distant 32° 


Bombay . 


„ G2° 


Mauritius 


„ 73° 


Cape of Good Hope 


„ 105° 


Victoria, B.C. . 


„ 105° 


Shide, I.W. . 


„ 121° 


Kew 


„ 121° 


Toronto . 


„ 13G° 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 65 

Origins in the East Indies {District F). 

. Durations 5 (441), 10 (505). 

8(3471, 10(435), 7(505). 
„ ; 10 (324). 
12 (377). 

10 (324), 9 (347), 8 (354) 9 (377), 
7 (133).4 (134), 10 (324), 5 (347), 

.10 (355), 12 (404), 13 (460). 
14 (505). 
10 (324). 

Average values for the above durations which represent the intervals 
in minutes by which the preliminary tremors have outraced tlie second 
phase of motion at distances of 20, 30, 40, 50, GO, 70, 80, 90, and 100 
degrees from their origins are, 4, 4 -5, G'o, 7*2, 8, 8-5, 9, 9 '5, and 9 '7 
minutes. The materials to continue plotting the curve represented by 
these figures, which is shown in fig. 3, indicate that ten minutes is 
approximately the limit by which the second phase of motion is 
outraced by the preliminary tremors, and this limit is reached at a 
distance of ninety to 100 degrees from an origin. 

V. Time Curves /or the Earthquakes recorded during /our years 

ending in 1900. 

In the British Association Report for 1900, p. G7, time curves for 
the large waves and preliminary tremors of earthquakes recorded at 
long distances from their origins are given. These curves are based 
upon records obtained from Milne horizontal pendulums prior to the 
year 1900. In fig. 3 similar curves, together with a curve for the 
second phase of earthquake motion, are gi\en for observations made 
in 1900. The curve for the second phase of motion, which corresponds to 
a curve given by Mr. R. T. Oldham,' was obtained by adding the time 
ordinates of the lowest curve in this figure, discussed in the previous 
section, to those of the time curve for the preliminai'y tremors. It is of 
interest to note that this curve would closely correspond with a curve 
representing the mean position of the signs x which are direct measure- 
ments of the time taken by the second phase of motion to traverse 
varying distances, and are not included in the materials upon which the 
lowest curve is based. 

The individual observations relating to large waves are indicated by 
small crosses ( + ), whilst those referring to the preliminary tremors are 
marked by small circles. It is clear that the concordance between these 
and their average position as represented by the curves is not so close as 
could be desired. They do not dispose of the indication based on prior 
observations that the apparent velocity of large waves is not unifoim, 
but may be at its maximum in quadrantal regions. Also, as has been 
shown in the time curves published in 1900, we see that the appaient 
velocity of preliminary tremois may also be increased in regions (i0° to 
90° from their origin. 

Dr. C. G. Knott writes about these observations as follows : — ' The 
other day I took another and more careful look at your curves, and I must 
confess that thej' bear out your old view of the large waves being surface 
■waves better than anything else. The large wave curve is a straight line, 

' rJdl. Trans. Boy. foe, p 1G3. 
1902 jp 



66 



REPORT — 1902. 



Fig. 3. — Time curves for earthquakes recorded between 189G and 1900 inclusive. 































' 
























































































/ 




































•*• 


/ 


/ 






























1 






/ 


/ 






































/ + 






































/ 






































■* / 




+ 


































/ 






+ 




























♦ 




/ 


/ ^ 




* 


































V 


♦ 


































+ 


/ 




+ 


































J 


,•' 


+ 
























Avar. 


*»efo 


■lOL 


pia 




^^ 


% 




+ 






























* 


*v 




♦ 






























■*■ 




* 


*/* 


A 


































+ 


/ 




+ 
































+ 




































♦ 




/ 


/''' 




































■••; 


/ 










X 




__, 


■""^ 3f 


-ysT 


¥a« 


r. 














+ ■ 


/ 


+ 


+ 


• 


^ t 




c^ 


X 


• 








K 














♦ / 






.^-^ 


^ 


^ J' 




• • 
• 




• 






, 


• 


. 




■ 


/« 


/'Aa 


le or 






/ 






'.^^ 


^ 






_>-- 


,i — -^ 




' 


• 




>0/- 


•Mmi 


tary . 


^*3W70i 


fj 




/ 


^ 


^ 




^ 


r^ 


^ 


• 












* 


. 












t 


9^ 


i»-^ 


^ 




— 












'Vw 


'3C/C 


^ O/ 


^^e 


'^tP 


"lase 






^ 


y^ 


■U'*'^ 





































10 20 20 40 SO 60 70 SO 90 ^m no 120 130 MO /SO J60 /70 /SO 190 200' 
Degrees 

First phase or preliminary tremors . SeconJ phase x Largo waves + 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION, 



67 



and though we could formulate a law which would make through-earth 
waves reach the different points of the surface in times proportional to 
the arcs, yet it would be a most complicated and improbable law. There 
is no doubt the surface run fits in admirably. I always had great diffi- 
culties about it, but " facts are chiels that winna ding," and the most 
obvious interpretation of your curve is your old view of surface waves. I 
never could bring myself to believe in the transition of such small oscilla- 
tions through the heterogeneous crust. It is conceivable, however, that 
what we observe may be the outcrop of waves running over the surface 
of the inner more homogeneous nucleus. This may not be necessary. 
Meanwhile I am compelled to withdraw my antagonism to the surface 
wave. 

' The preliminary tremor curve fits to within the errors of observation 
the formula time oc chord. 

' The chord is proportional to sine of half the angle. Tabulating we 
get:— 





Time observed 


• 


Time observed 


Arc 


Time to Antipodes 


Sin ^ Arc 


Time to Antipodes 


20 


•17 


•174 


•20 


30 


•26 


•259 


•30 


40 


•35 


•342 


•39 


50 


•44 


•423 


•487 


60 


•61 


•500 


•57 


70 


•58 


•574 


•65 


80 


•B4 


•643 


•72 


90 


•70 


•707 


•78 


100 


•76 


•766 


•83 


110 


•82 


•819 


•87 


120 


•87 


•866 


•91 


130 


•91 


•906 


•94 


140 


•95 


•940 


•96 


160 


•98 


•985 


•99 



' The fourth column gives the same comparison for the second curve, 
what you call the second phase. In calculating the ratios of the times 
I take 23 minutes to be the time to the antipodes in the case of the first 
phase and 33"5 minutes for the second phase. 

' You will see how admirable the agreement is for the first phase. 
But it is not so good for the second phase. The first phase runs at 
practically the same rate along the chords. The second phase seems to 
run a little more quickly the deeper they go.' 

Tables of apparent velocities based on observations prior to the end of 
1896 are given in the 'British Association Report' for 1897, p. 173. 
These are discussed in the Report for 1898, p. 221, where a table shows 
that the apparent arcual velocity for preliminary tremors varies with the 
square root of the average depth of the chord. In the report for the 
following year, p. 231, the preliminary tremors are referred to as passing 
through the earth with an average velocity which increases with the 
square root of the average depth of the chord along which they are 
assumed to travel. Whilst pointing out the inaccuracy of this reference, 
it must"^ also be observed that the variable velocity it implies is not 
sustained by observations here published. 



f2 



68 



REPORT — 1902. 



VI. On the Comj^arison of Records obtained from three Horizontal Pendu- 
lums at Shide, the Natural Periods of winch have from time to time 
been altered. 

Tlie instruments referred to are the photographic recording pendulums 
described on p. GO. Their records are compared in the following table. 
The type of pendulum which records east-west motion is referred to by 
the letter A. The pendulum with the short boom, also recording east- 
west motion, and forming part of the Yarrow instrument, is referred to as 
B, whilst the north-south boom of the same is called C. 

Pendulum A has been kept with a period of 17 seconds, whilst the 
periods of B and C have from time to time been changed. 

The numbers in the first column refer to different earthquakes re- 
corded between January 1 and June 30, 1902, as entered in the Shide 
Register (see Circular No. 6). In the next three columns are the differ- 
ences in minutes at which A, B, and C respectively commenced to move. 

The first entry for Earthquake No. 572 means that A and B show 
commencements of movement 4 minutes later than C, beneath which 
there is a zero. 

Amplitudes are also referred to under three columns marked A, B, 
and C. They indicate half the complete range of the maximum motion. 
Values less than one millimetre refer to the thickening of the line, and 
indicate half its width. 

Durations of the different earthquakes are given in the last three 
columns. They are expressed in minutes : — 





Differences in times 
of Commencement 


Amplitudes 


Durations 


A 


B 


C 


A 


B 


c 


A 


B 


C 




s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


Periods 


17 


17 

M. 


18 

M. 


17 


17 


18 


17 


17 


18 

M. 




M. 


MM. 


MM. 


MM. 


M. 


M. 


.572 


4 


4 





10 


2-U 


30 


115 


140 


180 


573 


5 


5 





0-25 


025 


— 





10 


— 


574 





8 


6 


0-5 


0-5 


10 


70 


60 


65 


575 


— 


not V 


isible 


025 


not V 


isible 


10 


— 


— 


576 


1 








0-5 


0-25 


0-25 


38 


10 


45 


577 





1 


1 


0-25 


0-25 


0-25 


8 


5 


5 


578 


97 








0'25 


0-5 


0-5 


45 


120 


120 


579 


— 


not wo 


rking 


0-25 


— 


— 


5 


— 


— 


580 





1 


1 


0-25 


05 


05 


25 


35 


i!5 


581 





3 


3 


Oo 


20 


20 


120 


230 


150 


582 





2 


13 


0-25 


0-5 


0-25 


45 


50 


20 


583 


y 


3 





0-5 

s. 


0-75 


10 


45 


45 


55 




s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


Periods . 


17 


10 


10 


17 


10 


10 


17 


10 


10 
GO 


584 





3 


3 


1-0 


0-5 


0-6 


80 


65 


585 





41 


1 


10 


0-25 


0-4 


60 


20 


60 


586 


— 


air tre 


mors 


0-5 


— 


— 


100 


— 


— 


587 


— 




11 


0-5 


— 


— 


90 


— 


— 


588 


2 








20 


10 


10 


70 


60 


60 


589 


— 


not wo 


rking 


1-0 


— 


— 


90 


— 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



60 





Differences in times 
of Commencement 


Amplitudes 


Durations 


A 


B 

s. 


C 


A 


B 1 C 


A 1 


B 


c i 




s. 


s. 


s. 


s. i s. 


s. 


t4. 


s. 1 


Periods 


17 

7 


12 



16 


17 


12 j 16 


17 
44 


12 
10 


16 
15 


590 


47 


0-25 


25 25 


591 





16 


58 


0-25 


2.T 0-25 


5 


5 


5 i 


592 


18 





9 


0-5 


0-25 i 1-0 


25 


30 


40 


59;! 


9 





15 


0-75 


0-5 10 


90 


120 


120 


594 


i:{? 








— 


0-25 ' 0-25 


— 


10 


10 


595 





11 


air 
trems. 


0-25 


0-25 





25 


u 


• 


sor, 


51 





46 


0-25 


0-25 


0-25 


30 


35 


120 


597 





3 





n-5 


0-25 j 0-25 


25 


5 


7 


598 





9 


air 
trems. 


025 


0-25 ' — 
1 


10 


5 


— 


599 


6 


10 





1-0 


075 2-5 


50 


35 


75 


(500 


9 


not 
visible 





C-25 


not i 0-25 
visible 


20 


— 


30 


(iOl 


37 





40 


1-0 


1-2 1-2 


140 


140 


165 


G02 


not 
visible 


— 


not 
visible 


— 


0-25 — 


. 


7 




603 




— 


faint 


— 


0-25 — 


— 


5 


— 


604 








J7 


0-25 


025 — 


5 


n 


— 


605 


3? 


faint 





0-5 


— : 0-75 


65 


— 


85 


606 











6 


2-5 80 


180 


90 


180 
s. 




s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. s. 


s. 


s. 


Periods . 


17 


17 


12 


17 


17 12 

1 


17 


17 


12 


607 





32 


not 


0-25 


1-0 


not 


5 


12 








visible 






visible 








COS 








faint 


10 


0-75 


025 


40 


40 





609 





1 


6 


1-7 


10 


0-25 

s. 


72to85 


28 


12 




s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


Periods 


17 


20 
3 


10 


17 
0-5 


20 


10 


17 


20 


10 


610 





not 


0-5 


_ 


20 


20 








visible 














611 


3 


air 
trems. 





0-75 


— 


0-5 


35 


— 


12 


612 


2 





2 


10 


1-5 


0-5 


40 


40 


25 



When examining the above table it must be remembered that pendu- 
lum C is oriented at right angles to A and B, that the stiffness of the 
column carrying A is slightly greater than that carrying B, and also that 
these two pendulums have not always been so adjusted as to have the 
same sensibility to the effects produced by tilting. It must also be borne 
in mind that preliminary tremors are but small movements, and their 
visibility will vary with the width of the photographic trace, whilst many 
of the entries referring to amplitudes of 25 millimetre are markings so 
slight that they might easily escape detection. 

When the periods of A and B were 17 seconds (572 to 583 and 607 to 
609) out of thirteen records, the differences in time at which these instru- 
ments commenced to record did not exceed 1 minute in seven cases, 



?0 REPORT— 1902. 

and there are two cases where the differences are 2 and 3 minutes. 
In the remaining four cases the diflferences are respectively 8, 97, 6, and 
32 minutes. When the period of B was changed to 10 and then to 
12 seconds, it seems to have been, out of eighteen cases, a matter of chance 
as to which of the two pendulums first responded to the movement of the 
ground. Twice they commenced simultaneously, and three times the 
difference in the commencements was from 2 to 3 minutes. In all other 
instances these differences are large. The times at which pronounced 
phases of movement have taken place — for which tables are not given — 
are practically identical for all the pendulums . 

In comparing amplitudes when the periods of A and B were equal 
(17 sec), the amplitudes were either equal to each other or that for B 
was larger by 0-25 mm. The only exceptions are for Earthquakes 608 
and 609. 

When B was reduced to 10 and then to 12 seconds the amplitudes 
■were for all the larger disturbances, excepting 601, distinctly smaller 
than those recorded by A. In other instances, relating to small earth- 
quakes, these displacements were equal. 

A similar relationship between amplitude and period is seen when 
comparing C and B. 

This result is one which does not accord with the result of a somewhat 
similar experiment made by Dr. F. Omori, whilst it does accord with the 
hypothesis that the large waves of earthquakes traverse the surface of 
the earth in undulations. 

With equal periods for A and B, generally the latter was caused to 
move for a longer time than the former, whilst when B was rendered 
more stable this result was usually reversed. This again suggests that 
the movements recorded are accompanied by tilting. 



VII. CUnometric Experiments. 

In 1891, whilst resident in Japan, I designed a clinometer to record 
the tiltings of the ground which take place with severe earthquakes within 
two or three hundred miles of their origin. The chief feature in this 
instrument was a balance beam loaded at its extremities, which when its 
frame was tilted in a direction at right angles to its length was assumed 
to retain its horizontality. A pointer like that of an ordinary balance 
attached to this beam acted as a steady fulcrum for the short arm of 
a lever, the outer end of which rested on a smoked-glass surface. 

This is described, and illustrations of its records are to be found in the 
' British Association Report for 1893,' and in the ' Seismological Journal,' 
ii. p. 103. 

In 1900 and 1901 at Shide, in the Isle of Wight, I set up a similar 
but much larger clinometer, with the expectation that it would give some 
definite information about the so-called large waves which are assumed to 
accompany large earthquakes when they have radiated to great distances. 
This 'experiment,' which is referred to in the 'British Association 
Report' for 1900, p. 83, consisted in observing the movements of a 
pointer attached to the earth relatively to a pointer, 4 feet in length, 
attached at right angles to the beam of a balance, the arms of which were 
5 feet in length, and each carried a load exceeding 30 lb. Any relative 
movement of these pointers was shown by the displacement of a spot of 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 71 

light reflected from a mirror liung by a bifilar attachment between the 
two pointers. Subsequently the record was made mechanically. 

With the first installation 1 mm. deflection = 0"u, and in the second 
6"-0. 

Although several large earthquakes took place, no record was 
obtained. 

About the same time Dr. Wilhelm Schliitter (see his 'Inaugural 
Dissertation,' Gottingen, 1901) experimented with a balance form of 
clinometer. The records were photographic, but his photograms failed to 
give any trace of twenty earthquakes recorded by seismographs. 

VIII. Exjjeriments with a Vertical S^yring Seismograph, 

With the object of at least detecting the vertical component of the 
large waves which accompany unfelt earthquakes, in March 1901 I 
suspended from the wall of my laboratory an ordinary spiral spring, 

1 inch in diameter, which, under the influence of a load of 1 lb. 8 ozi and 
its own weight, was 3 feet 5 inches in length. Its period was then 

2 seconds. By the rising or falling of the weight a small mirror was 
caused to rotate, which displaced a spot of light it reflected upon a 
moving photographic sui'face. 

'The earthquake of October 9, 1900, caused ripples on the photogram 
each about O'o mm. in range, which would correspond to a change that 
might have been produced by increasing and decreasing the load by 
-jlxo P^-rt of itself. The period of motion was approximately 6-5 minutes, 
which corresponded with the period of maxima in the large waves as in 
an ordinary seismogram. 

The Venezuela earthquake of October 29 gave deflections of half the 
above, and with periods of about 7 minutes. Other earthquakes caused 
somewhat similar movements, but usually nothing more than slight blurs 
upon the photographic traces were to be seen. 

The records from the clinometer indicate that earth tilting has not 
been measurable by the instrument employed, whilst the records from the 
spiral spring show that there is a possibility that vertical motion may 
exist, but if it does it is exceedingly minute.' 

IX. On the Nature of Earthquake Movement as recorded at a great 
distance from its origin. 

In an article in ' Nature,' January 2, 1902, p. 202, after epitomisihg 
the various observations which have been made in connection with the 
large waves of earthquakes, it is said that 

' The general inference is that the large waves due to earthquakes 
originating at a distance, whether they are surface waves or mass waves^ 
actuate horizontal pendulums by horizontal displacements of the ground, 
rather than by the tilting of the same,' 

Observations which support this view are as follows : — 

1. Clinometers have hitherto failed to detect any tilting efiects. 

2. If it is assumed that the records of horizontal pendulums give 
angular values for tilting, and from the period of the waves causing these 
tiltings and the velocity with which these waves are propagated on the 
assumption of simple harmonic motion we calculate their length, we have 



72 REPORT— 1902. 

all the elements which are required to calculate the heights of these waves. ^ 
Now these heights are frequently as much as 1 or 2 feet, and apparently 
represent accelerations j}^ of gravity. The magnitude of these quantities 
is certainly sufficient to create a suspicion that the angular values assigned 
to large waves has hitherto been exaggei'ated.^ 

3. The slight evidence of vertical displacements afforded by the 
experiments described on p. 70. 

4. Dr. F. Omori's observation that the amplitude of seisraograms is 
not dependent upon the sensibilities of the seismographs to tilting suggests 
that the movements represented by large waves are horizontal rather than 
undulatory. 

5. The smallness and paucity of records obtained from bifilar pen- 
dulums. 

On the contrary, observations which support a surface undulation 
hypothesis are the following : — 

1. Surface undulations exist in epifocal districts, and these by the 
movement of water in ponds and lakes, the movements of the bubbles 
of spirit levels, the apparent movement of stars in the fields of telescopes, 
and by other phenomena, have been detected in districts' many hundreds 
of miles beyond the epifocal area.'' 

2. The approximately constant velocity of propagation assigned to 
large waves (see pp. 65 and 67). 

3. Observations which show that the magnitude of a seismograra 
is dependent upon its sensibility to tilting, p. 70. This conclusion is 
apparently contrary to that arrived at by ])r. Oniori. 

4. The indications of a vertical component of motion, which have been 
recorded, p. 71. 

With these latter observations before us, it seems reasonable to 
conclude that the large waves of earthquakes have an undulatory 
character, but the tilting involved is not so great as generally supposed, 
and in this sense the above quotation from ' Nature' requires correction. 

In the seismograms of a large earthquake we have the records of at 
least two, and probably three, types of movement, and the manner in 
which they are presented to us depends upon the character of the instrument 
by which they were recorded. An ordiiaary long Tp^riod horizontal pendulum 
shows the preliminary tremors, which are regarded as compressional waves, 
which have passed through the earth to be recorded as ripples with a 
small amplitude ; whilst the large waves, which are assumed to be very 
flat undulations passing round the eartii in or beneath its ci'ust, are 
shown as large displacements, which are magnified effects due to very 
slight tilting. 

The same disturbance recorded by an apparatus, the natural period of 
which is short, but which is provided with indices having a high multipli- 
cation, gives records in which the preliminary tremors are large, whilst 
the large waves are small, if not entirely absent.^ 

X. Melationship between Rockfolding, Seismic, and Volcanic Activities. 

Lyell remarks in his ' Principles of Geology,* vol. ii. p. 177 (12th 
edition), that near the Bay of Naples there appears to be a connection 

' Brit. Assoc. Hep., 1898, p. 206. ^ Ihid., 1900, p. 83. 

» Ibid., 1898. p. 219 ; aliso 1900, p. 73. * Ibid., 189S, p. 263. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 73 

between movements of upheaval and a local development of volcanic 
heat, whilst periods of depression have been concurrent with periods of 
volcanic quiescence. A glance at the map, fig. 2 (Plate I.), shows that the 
districts from which large earthquakes originate, or earthquakes which 
are accompanied by molar displacements, are those in which geological 
observations indicate that the land surfaces exhibited as ridges have 
recently been elevated and where history indicates that elevation is yet 
in progress. 

When this elevation takes place in a ridge, it seems likely that its 
bounding furrow or furrows should be deepened, and direct evidence that 
this is the case is sometimes to be found in the records of soundings taken 
before and after great earthquakes. These records give some idea of the 
magnitude of the sudden changes in configuration which take place in 
ocean beds, whilst the dynamical efforts which accompany the same are 
Been in the disturbances caused in oceanic water and the propagation of 
vibrations from their origin to their antipodes. Another effect which may 
accompany these sudden adjustments is to relieve volcanic strain, and no 
better illustration of this can be found than in the volcanic history of the 
Antilles, which is briefly as follows : — 

1692. Port Royal, in Jamaica, destroyed by an earthquake and land sank beneath 
the sea. St. Kitts erupted. 

1718. Violent earthquake in St. Vincent, accompanied by an eruption. 
1766-67. Violent earthquakes in the N.E. of South America, Cuba, Jamaica, and 
many of the West Indian islands. An eruption in St. Lucia. 

1797. February 7.-40,000 lives were lost in Quito. There were also shocks in 
the Antilles. Eruption in Guadeloupe. 

1802. Severe shock in Antigua. Eruption in Guadeloupe. 

1812. Caraccas ruined by an earthquake. November II, 1811, violents shocks 
commenced in the Southern States of North America. Eruptions in St. 
Vincent and Guadeloupe. 
1835-36. Violent earthquakes in Chili and Central America. Eruption in Guade- 
loupe. 

1902. April 19. — Large earthquake in Central America, by which towns were de- 
stroyed. About this date Mt. Pelee, in Martinique, smoked and 
rumbled. May 3 it erupted. Cables were broken and the sea receded 
on this date, and was again disturbed on the 8th, 19th, and 20th. May 7, 
eruption in St. A'^inceut. Other cables were interrupted. May 8, violent 
eruption of Mt. Pelee. With these eruptions there were many small 
earthquakes. 

Practically, therefore, we see that every volcanic eruption in the West 
Antilles has been connected with some sudden geotectonic change in 
its own or in a neighbouring ridge. 

The small earthquakes, of which there may be 30,000 in the world 
per year, do not hold any appreciable relationship to the volcanic activity 
of the districts in which they occur. ^ 

XI. On the Comjoarison of Earthquake Registers from Shkle, Kew, 
Bidston, and Edinburgh. 

In the ' British Association Report,' 1901, pp. 44-50, reference is made 
to a series of earthquake records obtained in the eai-ly part of 1901 at 
Kew, Shide, Bidston, and Edinburgh. These registers and their con- 
tinuations to the end of that year will be found in the British Associa- 
tion Circulars Nos. 4 and 5. The following comparisons of the records 

' See Nature, May 29 and June 11, 1902. 



?4 iiEPORT — 1902. 

from the above four stations, which are respectively situated on alluvium, 
chalk, new red sandstone, and a Palseozoic felstone, with the exception of 
the month of July, when the instrument at Bidston was not working, 
relate to the remaining eleven months of the year 1901. 

Earthquake Frequency. 

At Kew 73 records were obtained, 63 of which were noted at other stations. 

AtShide 107 „ „ -„ 90 

At Bidston 133 „ „ „ 94 „ „ 

At Edinburgh 94 „ „ „ 85 

Earthquake Duration. — During the period under consideration fourteen 
large earthquakes were recorded at each of the four stations, and were 
also recorded at many other stations throughout the world. The total 
number of hours and minutes during which the instruments at the four 
British stations were caused to move by these disturbances were as 
follows :— Kew, 27 h. 40 m. ; Shide, 31 h. .^6 m. ; Bidston, 30 h. 25 m. ; 
Edinburgh, 31 h. 59 m. 

Amjjhtudes. — For the above fourteen earthquakes the sum of the 
amplitudes in millimetres recorded at the four stations were as follows : — 
Kew, 42-8 mm. ; Shide, > 58-4 mm. ; Bidston, 56"7 mm. ; Edinburgh, 
40'7 mm. 

The inferences to be drawn from the above three analyses are by no 
means clear. 

The Frequency Table apparently shows that at Shide and Bidston 
more earthquakes can be recorded than at Edinburgh and very many 
more than can be recorded at Kew. Reference to the registers of these 
four stations shows that the omissions in the Edinburgh and Kew lists 
relate to earthquakes which were comparatively feeble. 

Not only are the records at Kew few in numbei-, but the duration of 
a given set of earthquakes as recorded at that station is shorter than the 
duration of the same set of earthquakes as recorded at other stations. 

A much more marked difference between these four sets of records is 
to be seen in the Table of Amplitudes, which it must be noted have been 
entered as horizontal displacements. From these records the inference is 
that the extent of movement at Edinburgh and Kew is much less than 
it is at Shide and Bidston. Inasmuch as the foundations at the first two 
mentioned stations are respectively harder and very much softer than 
the foundations at the two second stations, it seems improbable that the 
differences in amplitude here recorded are to be altogether attributable 
to the geological character of the materials on which these four stations 
are situated. 

A more likely cause resulting in these apparent differences in ampli- 
tude, and we may add also the differences in durations of movement and 
number of records, is to be found in differences in the sensibilities of the 
instruments at the four stations. 

If as a measure of the sensibility of an instrument we take the angle 
through which the bedplate of the same has to be tilted to produce a 
deflection of one millimetre of the outer end of the boom which it carries, 
then the sensibilities of the instruments at the four stations under con- 
sideration have been as follows : — 

At Kew the sensibility has varied from 0"-7 to 0"-8, average 0"-75. ■ 

At Edinburgh „ ,, been 0"-71. I 

AtShide „ „ „ 0"-47. 1 

At Bidston „ „ „ 0"'4 up to June 30 and subsequently 0"'3. ^ 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 75 

Inasmuch as the instruments with the least sensibility might fail in 
recording certain very small earthquakes which might disturb an instru- 
ment with a higher sensibility, and that the instruments with the lower 
sensibility would not move so long or be displaced so far whether the 
motion was horizontal or angular, as would be the case with instruments 
the booms of which were more easily displaced, it appears that what has 
been recorded finds its best explanation in the assumption that the same 
is due to difl'erences in the sensibilities of the apparatus employed. 

If we assume that the amplitudes given in millimetres are quantities 
to be represented in angular measure, then the displacements at the four 
stations may be stated as follows : — 

Kew, 32"-l ; Edinburgh, 28"-4 ; Shide, 27"-4 ; Bidston, 19"-0. 

One inference from this is that the installations at which it was first 
supposed there was the feeblest seismic sensibility are those at which it 
is most marked. 

Observations are now being made at these four stations with the 
instruments so adjusted that a 4° turn of the calibrating screw results in 
a deflection at the outer end of the pendulum of 14 mm., which means 
that they have equal sensibilities to tilting although their periods may 
differ (see p. 60). 

XII. An Attempt to Detect and Measure any Relative Movement of the 
Strata that may now he taking j?lace at the Ridgeway Faidt, near 
Upway, Dorsetshire. Third Report by Horace Darwin, August 1902. 

In the last Report a hope was expressed that the alterations made in 
the apparatus had prevented the water getting into the oil vessels ; this 
has not been the case, water again having blocked the pipes connecting 
them. It is probable that water enters in the form of vapour and con- 
denses, and as we saw no way of preventing this we decided to replace 
the oil by a saturated solution of common salt ; an overflow was arranged, 
and it is hoped that there will be no more trouble from this cause. It 
was also discovered that the pipe connecting the vessels was not quite 
straight, and that slight undulations in it prevented the free flow of the 
liquid ; this is being rectified. 



Magnetic Observations at Falmouth. — Beport of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook 
(Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. 
Fox, Professor A. Schuster, and Sir A. W. Rucker, appointed 
to co-operate with the Committee of the Falmouth Observatory in 
their Magnetic Observations. 

The Committee report that the grant voted at the last meeting of the 
Association has been used in support of the ordinary magnetic work of 
the Falmouth Observatory, and that records of the horizontal force and 
declination have been kept during ten years. The curves up to the end 
of 1901 have been examined at Kew, and the results are of real value. 
The vertical force instrument has been a cause of some difficulty ; the 
examination of the 1901 curves led Dr. Chree to suspect the existence of 



76 REPORT— 1902. 

a very large and anomalous temperature coefficient. E.K;periments at 
Falmouth confirmed this and showed, moreover, the curious fact that the 
change following a rise of temperature reversed its sign as the heating 
continued. The instrument was dismounted and sent to Kew for ex- 
amination in April last. Experiments made by heating the room 
containing the apparatus confirmed those made at Falmouth as to the 
enormous size of the appai-ent temperature coefficient ; and finding it 
impossible to alter this appreciably, it was arranged to increase the weight 
on the compensation bar and make some other changes. 

Even when the instrument was returned the anomalous behaviour 
continued, and finally it was shown that by far the largest part of the 
effect was due in some way to the method in which the mirror was 
attached to the magnet. A change of temperature had the effect of 
binding or twisting the mirror, and most of the eff'ect was due to this. 
This difficulty was remedied, but the magnet has only just been returned ; 
hence it is impossible as yet to say whether it is completely satisfactory 
or not ; but there is every reason to suppose that this will be so. 

With regard to the special work of co-operating with the Antarctic 
Expedition, while it was not found possible to arrange for special quick 
views of the Falmouth instruments on the term day, Mr. Kitto under- 
took to take such share as was possible with the existing instruments, and 
the Secretary sent directions to him as to how this might be done. On 
this point Mr. Kitto reports : — 

1. Care has been taken to prevent as far as possible any local dis- 
turbance of the magnetic instruments during ' term days.' 

2. The curves for the term days have been run without interruption, 
and hourly measurements will be made of these. 

3. The temperature has been maintained as constant as possible. 

4. The scale values have been determined with care. 

5. Absolute determinations have been taken (as far as possible) on 
the second, fourteenth, sixteenth, and last days of each month. 

The Committee are of opinion that they should be reappointed and 
that a further grant should be made to them for the continuance of the 
magnetic work at Falmouth. 

The reasons for this are twofold : — (i.) It has not been found possible 
as yet to establish the new magnetic observatory and to remove the 
recording instruments from Kew ; at the same time the increase in 
electrical traction to the south-west of London has caused a distinct 
increase in the disturbances. Dr. Chree reports that the comparatively 
quiet interludes seem fewer and the mean width of the braces larger in 
all the elements ; thus the diurnal variation results for horizontal force 
and declination at Falmouth in view of the disturbances near London are 
of distinct importance until the new station has been established, (ii.) The 
special period of magnetic research for the Antarctic lasts until March 
1903 at least, and it is desirable to keep up the Falmouth records during 
the whole of this period. 

In conclusion, therefore, the Committee beg leave to recommend that 
they be reappointed, with a grant of 1001. 



IXVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE BY MEANS OF KITES. 77 



Investigation of the Zipper Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-opera- 
tion u'ith a Govimittee of the I^oi/al Meteorological Society. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. 
W. H. Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Ajjchibald, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, 
Dr. A. BucHAN, and Dr. H. R. Mill. 



The Committee submit the following notes, drawn up by the Secre- 
tary :— 

On the invitation of the Committee appointed by the Royal Meteoro- 
logical Society it was decided to hold joint committee meetings, and 
such meetings were held on October 25, 1901 ; January 14, April 8, and 
May 7, 1902. 

The sum of money at the disposal of the joint committee, viz., 751. 
granted by the British Association and 251. by the Royal Meteorological 
Society, not being sufficient to meet the necessary expenses, it was decided 
to apply to the Meteorological Council and to the Government Grant Com- 
mittee of the Royal Society for further assistance. The Meteorological 
Council kindly undertook to supply the necessary instruments for a base 
station, and the Government Grant Committee have made a grant of 751. 

Inasmuch as there is considerable risk of damage and also of injury 
to life should a long wire carrying one or more kites break loose in a 
thickly populated district, it was decided to make observations in some 
thinly inhabited part, and, if possible, over the sea, so as to reduce this 
risk to a minimum. Furthermore, as we have no information whatever as to 
the vertical temperature gradient over the great oceans, and this know- 
ledge is of supreme importance for theoretical meteorology, it seemed 
desirable to work on the west coast, since the prevailing westerly winds 
must make observations taken there equivalent, as a rule, to those taken 
over the open sea. It was also thought that if a fair number of observa- 
tions could be obtained at the height of Ben Nevis, but somewhere on the 
coast in the neighbourhood of Ben Nevis, some light would be thrown 
upon the question as to how far the temperatures taken on a mountain 
summit differ from the temperatures of the free air in the surrounding 
districts at the same level. 

With these objects in view I was commissioned to obtain the necessaiy 
apparatus and erect it at some convenient spot on the west coast of 
Scotland. 

The apparatus has been obtained and is now (June 17) erected on a 
small island at Crinan, a small village lying at the north end of the Crinan 
Canal, about thirty miles south of Oban, 

The apparatus consists of — 

I. Winding-in apparatus for the wii-e. 
II. Engine and boiler to drive the same, 

III. Set of kites. 

IV. Twelve miles of steel music-wire. 
V. Instruments. 

I. The winding-in apparatus carries two reels of 1 6 inches diameter 
and 4 inches broad, to hold the Avire, and two strain-pulleys to reduce 



78 REPORT — 1902. 

the tension of the wire before it is wound. The reels run loose on 
the same shaft that carries the strain-pulleys, but there is an arrange- 
ment by which they are pressed automatically against the strain-pulleys to 
increase their turning moment by friction against the outer rim of the 
pulley, or against the lixed frame of the apparatus to reduce the moment. 
By this means an adjustment of the tension is obtained, and the risk of 
the reel being crushed by the tension of the many turns of the wire is 
avoided. 

II. Steam-engine. — This was obtained from the Reading (U.S.) Road 
Car Company. It has four single-acting cylinders of 2^-inch bore and 
4-inch stroke. It weighs about 60 lb. and is nominally of 6 H.P. The 
cost was 25?. 

The choice lay between a steam-engine and a petrol motor. The 
steam-engine was chosen for the following reason. It is not desirable to 
draw in a kite wire, when the wire is near the breaking-point, at a uniform 
speed, because the speed of winding in is equivalent to an increase of the 
wind velocity, and greatly adds to the strain. Advantage should be taken 
of the intervals between the gusts to get in the wire, and this a steam- 
engine without a dead point does automatically. Winding in a kite 
during a gale on June 14 the engine acted perfectly, running fast when- 
ever the tension of the wire slackened, and slowing down or even stopping 
entirely when the tension was increased by a gust. Of course the precise 
tension at which the engine stops is adjustable within wide limits by 
adjusting the steam pressure in the boiler. 

The boiler was obtained from the Britannia Company, Colchester, at 
a cost of 25Z. It is fired by ordinary lamp oil (paraffin), of which it uses 
about a gallon an hour. 

III. The kites. — These are described in Symons' ' Meteorological Maga- 
zine' for April, where also the reasons for not using the Blue Hill kite 
are stated. 

Of these there are five ready for use and the materials for making six 
or eight more. There are also two kites designed by, and purchased of, 
Mr. F. S. Cody. 

Both kinds, so far as my present experience goes, seem entirely satis- 
factory. Mr. Cody's kite flies at a rather better angle, but does not seem 
to be quite as steady as the other. Indeed, the angle of the Cody kite 
when made of silk and light bamboos is remarkably good. 

IV. The luire. — This is of the usual kind, but I have been supplied 
with eight miles in one piece by Messrs. Brunton and Son, Mussel- 
burgh, N.B. 

V. In addition to the well-known Richard instruments which have 
been ordered, it seemed desirable to obtain, if possible, something cheaper, 
since the risk of losing the instruments is not small. I am experimenting 
with a cheaper form. I also hope to obtain correct determinations of the 
maximum height and the temperature at that height in the following 
manner. If a glass tube of uniform bore, sealed at the top, but with the 
other end under water or quicksilver, were sent up with a kite, it would, 
assuming constant temperature, give the maximum height, for the air in 
the tube, under the decreased pressure, would expand and bubble out, and 
on the descent water would rise in the tube, and the height of the water 
or quicksilver would give the minimum pressure, and hence the maximum 
height. This is assuming constant temperature. But if an exactly similar 
tube were also used containing saturated vapour of alcohol, two equations 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE BY MEANS OF KITES, 79 

would be obtained, from which the two unknown quantities, tempera- 
ture, and height can be determined. I hope to perfect this method, 
since there are many occasions on which a kite and a couple of glass 
tubes might be risked when one would hesitate to send up instruments 
costing 20^. 

The apparatus abo^^e described is now in use every day when the 
wind is suitable, but there seem to be very many days during the summer 
when a sufficiently strong wind does not occur. A velocity of about 
fifteen miles per hour is necessary, force i on the Beaufort scale ; but the 
upper limit at which the kites will fly has not yet been determined. 



II. — Addendum, August 22. 

Up to August 20 sixty-eight flights have been obtained, as shown in 
the following table : — - 









Tempera- 


Wind Direction 






Date 


Time 


Greatest 
Height 


ture Gra- 
dient per 




Length of 
Wire used 


No. of 
Kites 












1,000 feet 


Above 


Below 










Feet 


o F. 






Feet 




June 19 ... . 


11 50 A.M. 


2,840 


3-8 


S. 


E. 


5,000 


1 


„ 20 . 








11 A.M. 


3,300 


— 


S.E. 


S.E. 


5,000 


1 


„ 21 








11 A.M. 


3,3U0 


— 


S.E. 


S.E. 


4,515 


2 


- 21 








11 A.M. 


2,100 


5-7 


S.S.E. 


S.S.E. 




1 


„ 24 








7 P.M. 


2,300 


— 


S.S.E. 


S.S.E. 


5,000 


1 


„ 26 








11 a.m. 


4,600 


— 


S.S.E. 


S.E. 


7,500 


1 


July 1 








11 O A.M. 


1,850 


— 


N. by E. 


N.N.W. 


3,000 


1 


,, -^ 








12 45 P.M. 


2,500 


4-5 


N. by E. 


S.S.W. 


4,000 


1 


» 4 








7 P.M. 


2,250 


3-0 


N.N.W. 


N.N.W. 


3,560 


1» 


)» "* 








11 A.M. 


4,600 


2-2 


W. 


W. 


7,330 


1» 


„ 8 








11 A.M. 


2,000 


1-8 


— 


S.S.E. 




1* 


„ 9 . 








12 M. 


4,950 


3-3 


s.w. 


S.W. 


9,000 


2» 


„ 9 








6 10 P.M. 


2,300 


3-9 




w. 


4,000 


1 


„ 10 








4 P.M. 


4,040 


2-3 


N.N.W. 


N.W. 


7,000 


1 


„ 11 








12 30 P.M. 


1,800 


— 








1 


„ 11 








6 50 P.M. 


1,350 


0-8 


— 


AY. 


2,300 


1 


„ 12 








5 P.M. 


1,300 


1-5 


— 


S.W. 




1» 


„ 14 








6 P.M. 


1,950 


— 


S.W.byW. 


S.S.W. 





1 


„ 15 . 








11 A.M. 


6,400 


3-1 


3.W.b.yW. 


S.W. 


10,300 


2» 


„ 15 








5 P.M. 


4,300 


2-8 


S.W. 


S.W. 




1» 


„ IG 








12 5 P.M. 


6,000 


2-0 


W.S.W. 


S.W. 


10,300 


2» 


., 17 








11 45 A.M. 


3,160 


2-9 


— 


w. 




1» 


„ 17 . 








5 30 P.M. 


3,600 


3-3 


N.N.W. 


N.W. 





1* 


„ IS 








1 P.M. 


5,000 


3-6 


N.N.W. 


N.W. 





2» 


„ 19 








6 55 P..M. 


3,400 


2-6 


N.N.W. 


N.W. 


6,000 


1 


V 21 








11 A.M. 


1,170 


4-3 


N.N.W. 


N.N.W. 


1 


*>1 








7 55 P.M. 


3,000 


2-7 


N.W. 


W. 


6,200 


2* 


9'? 








4 45 P.M. 


1,330 


— 


N.N.W. 


W. 




1 










10 40 A.M. 


1,750 


3-4 


N.N.W. 


N.W. 




1 


„ 2.'5 








6 45 P.M. 


2,230 


— 


N.W. 


N.W. 


3,225 


1 


„ 24 








11 45 A.M. 


4,000 


4-2 


N. 


N.N.W. 


7,000 


2 


„ 24 








5 20 A.M. 


4,760 


3-G 


N.W. 


W.N.W. 


10,600 


2» 


„ 25 








11 A.M. 


2,450 


— 


— 


W. 


4,200 


1 


„ 25 








7 30 P.M. 


1.320 


— 


_ 


N.W. 


2,020 




„ 2G 








11 A.M. 


4,330 


3-5 


E. 


E.N.E. 


5,450 


1» 


„ 2« 








7 P.M. 


5.500 


2-3 


E.N.E. 


N.E. 


10,200 


2* 


„ 2S 








12 M. 


7,350 


3-3 


S.W. by W. 


W.S.W. 


12,000 


2 


„ 28 








7 30 P.M. 


5,000 


2-5 


S.S.W. 


S.S.W. 


8,100 


1* 


„ 29 








12 30 P.M. 


4,325 


2-7 


W. 


W. by S. 


8,200 


1» 


„ 29 








7 40 P.M. 


5,330 


3-1 


W. 


W.S.W. 


8,412 


1* 


„ 30 








12 10 P.M. 


8,950 


2-7 


N.X.W. 


N.W. 


17,300 


2* 


„ 31 








11 A.M. 


1,560 


3-G 


— 


N.N.W. 


1* 


„ 31 








6 20 P.M. 


1,550 


— 


. 


W. 





1 


Aug. 1 








11 A.M. 


2,400 


41 


W.S.W. 


S. by W. 





1 


„ 1 








7 30 P.M. 


8,550 


1-7 


W.S.W. 


S.S.W. 


16,000 


2» 


9 








11 30 A.M. 


8,370 


2-1 


S.W. byW. 


S.W. 


13,500 


2» 


o 

4 








5 10 P.M. 
4 P.M. 


4.900 
1,520 


2-5 


— 


S.W. by W. 
W. 


7,530 


le 
1 


,. 5 








11 30 a.m. 


1,840 








E. 





1 


.. c 








1 30 P.m. 


3,800 


3-5 


E.S.E. 


E. 


6,900 


1« 


.. 7 








11 A.M. 


2,726 


5-0 


E.N.B. 


N.E. 


4,300 


1 



80 



REPORT — 1902. 









Tempera- 


Wind Direction 






Date 


Time 


Greatest 
Height 


ture Gra- 
dient per 






Length of 
Wire used 


No. of 
Kites 












1,000 feet 


Above 


Below 










Feet 


°F. 






Feet 




Aug. 8 . . . . 


11 40 A.M. 


1,300 


4-0 


— 


N.N.W. 


— 


1 


,. « . 


5 20 P.M. 


C,9U0 


3-5 


N.W. 


W.N.W. 


12,000 


2« 




; 9 . . . . 


11 A.M. 


2,360 


3-7 


— 


W.N.W. 


— 


1 




,!!.... 


4 40 P.M. 


7,175 


31 


N.W. 


W.N.W. 


13,000 


2* 




, 11 . 


1 20 P..M. 


7,425 


2-4 


N.W. 


N.W.bvW. 


18.000 


3» 




12 . . . . 


10 10 A.M. 


4,0H(I 


3-5 


N. by \V. 


N.W. 


7,375 


1 




, 12 . . . . 


4 15 P.M. 


1,550 


1-5 


— 


W.S.W. 


2.9O0 


1» 




, l:! 


3 I'.M. 


1,350 


:!•() 


S.E. 


S. 


_ 


1 




, U . 


4 30 P.M. 


1,950 


1-8 


W. 


"W. 


_ 


1 




, 15 . 


11 30 A.M. 


2,300 


:i-9 


s.w. 


w. 


3,900 


1 




; 15 . . . . 


(i 30 P.M. 


1,415 


— 


s.w. 


w. 


2.500 


1 




, 10 . 


11 30 A.M. 


1,400 


l-s 


N.N.W. 


N.W. 


2,190 


1 




iw . . . . 


2 30 P.M. 


2,750 


4-3 


N.N.W. 


N. 


4,980 


2 




, 19 . 


11 10 A.M. 


4,250 


3-9 


N.N.W. 


N.W. 


7,100 


2 




, 19 . 


3 30 l-.M. 


4,400 


3-8 


W.N.W. 


N.W. 


9,537 


2« 




, 211 . 


12 10 P.M. 


11,450 


2-4 


N.W. 


N.W. 


21,350 


3* 




, 20 . 


7 20 P.M. 


4,000 


4-5 


W.N.W. 


W. 


7,100 


1 



In tlie cases marked * records from Bicliard Frires' iustriimeuts were obtained, in the others tlie 
temperature at the highest point only. 

For the period extending from July 8 to August 22 a steam-tug was 
obtained, and the apparatus mounted on the deck. This arrangement was 
found to give much more effective control over the experiments, and 
rendered possible observations in light winds that would not have lifted 
the kites on land. The observations will be discussed and the results pre- 
pared for publication in the course of the ensuing year. 

in. 

The Committee consider that the work which has been completed is 
amply sufficient to show that the apparatus and methods are effective for 
securing valuable information as to the upper air in various conditions of 
weather. There are some points in whicli it seems desirable to attempt 
to improve the recording apparatus in order that the readings may be 
more definitely checked, and the Committee think it desirable for the 
experiments to be continued for another year, during which it may be 
possible to so arrange the flights as to obtain precise information regarding 
the distribution of temperature and humidity in specific conditions of 
weather in oi'der to examine the physical processes taking place in the 
upper air corresponding to weather changes noted at the surface. 

The kites and apparatus for winding in, with such modifications as 
experience has suggested, but with little additional cost, will be available, 
but it is of great importance to be able to employ a tug, in order that the 
investigation of the upper air may not be entirely dependent upon windy 
weather. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment, with the addition of 
the names of Dr. Glazebrook and Professor Schuster, and a grant of 100/, 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. SI 



Jie^^ort on the Tlteory of Polnt-growps. — Part II. 
Bij FR.\^x'ES Hardc.\stlk, Camhrhhjr. 

CONTEKTS. 

I'AGr: 

§ 0. The Title of the Report 81 

§ 6. General Historical Introduction 81 

§ 7. The Theory of Elimination, from Leibnitz to Cramer, 1603-1 7 JO . . 83 
§ 8. Memoirs on the Intersections of Plane Curves, from Maclaurin to Lami', 

1720-1818 00 

§ 5. The Title op the Report. 

The first instalment of this report is printed in the 'British Associa- 
tion Report' for 1900 under the title 'A Report on the Present State of 
the Theory of Point-groups.' In view, however, of the space it has been 
found necessary to assign to the historical development of the subject, 
this title has been changed by the omission of the words limiting its scope 
to contemporary times. The sections of which the present instalment 
consists are numbered consecutively with Part I. After a short general 
introduction (§ 6) and a section on the Tlieory of Elimination (§ 7) the 
first period of the historical outline given in § 2 is expanded in § 8. 

§ G. General Historical Introduction. 

In the middle of the seventeenth century two men's names stand out 
prominently in the history of pure mathematics. Descartes (159G-1G50) 
and Fermat (lGOl-1665), both Frenchmen, were born within five years of 
each other, and although the exclusive epithet of Cartesian has been 
bestowed by posterity upon the technical device which each independently 
invented for the treatment of geometrical problems, it is doubtful whether 
Format's ideas were not of Avider significance,^ and in the investigations 
which boar most on our purpose he certainly showed the greater insight, 
notwithstanding certain unfortunate deviations from fact in his criticism 
of his rival. ^ 

The paper containing Fermat's exposition of the method of coordinates ^ 
begins by a detailed investigation of the equations of a straight line and 
of each of the conic sections in turn, but carries this idea no further. In 
his prefatory words, however, we note his realisation of tlie possibility of 
a more general application of the method : ' Toutes les fois que dans une 
Equation finale on trouve deux quantity's inconnues, on a un lieu, 
I'extremite de I'une d'elles decrivant une ligne droite on courbe. 
Toutes les fois que I'extremite de la quantite inconnue qui decrit le lieu 
suit une ligne droite ou circulaire, le lieu est dit ;;^a?i ; si elle decrit une 
parabole, une hyperbole ou une ellipse, le lieu est dit solide ; pour d'autres 
courbes on I'appelle lieu de ligne. Nous n'ajouterons rien sur ce dernier 
cas, car la connaissance des lieux de ligne se deduit tres facilement, au 

' Cf Cantor, Gcxcliirhtc dcr ISIathematili, vol. ii. p. 7-15. This learned and 
withal interesting history mppiies much information concerning works published 
before the year 1758, with which it closes. 

- Fermat, (Eiivres (edit. Tannery and Henrj-, Paris, 1891), vol. i. p. 121, editors' 
note. Cf. also Cantor, vol. ii. p. 744. 

' 'Introduction aux lieux plans et solides,' loc. c't., vol. i. pp. 91-110 (Latin 
original) ; vol. iii. pp. 85-101 (French trans.). 

1902. a 



82 REPORT — 1902. 

moyen de reduction, de I'etude des lieux plans et solidea.' The terms 
plane, solid, and linear loci were in general use at that time, with the 
meanings he attaches to them ; the notion of including them all under 
one law of formation marks his step towards the true analytical stand- 
point ; but the end of the paragraph shows the limitation to which his 
mind was still subject. In fact, the main interest of the new method to 
Fermat and Descartes lay in its application to the solution of algebraical 
equations by means of the intersections of geometrical curves ; they did 
not, apparently, discern that the opposite course would prove the more 
fruitful, that with a wider knowledge of the theory of algebraical 
equations future generations would obtain a grasp of the geometry of 
curves far exceeding that of the ancients. 

The slow emergence of the modern standpoint is shown by the lapse 
of time — nearly seventy years — between the publication of Descartes' 
'Geometry ' (1637) and of Newton's 0642-1727) ' Enumeratio linearum 
tertii ordinis ' (1704). Here we find stated for the first time the defini- 
tion, now usually adopted, of the order of a curve, viz., the number of 
points in which it can be cut by a straight line. Descartes had adopted 
an unfortunate classification,^ not according to degree, but according to 
'genus' : in his parlance curves of the 2nth and of the (2?i-l)th degrees 
belong to the nth genus. This had possibly arisen from his investigations 
into a celebrated problem of Pappus,' or, as Fermat seems to think,^ from 
an erroneous conclusion respecting the reduction of an equation of degree 
2n by one degree. In any case it became a source of error ^ and was 
tacitly abandoned. 

Next in importance to the order of a curve is the number of terms 
involved in its equation. The statement that the equation of a curve of 
the nth order contains ^m (w-t-3) coefficients was first made by James 
Stirling (1692-1770) in his 'Lineas tertii ordinis Newtoniante,' which was 
published thirteen years after the Enumeratio (i.e., in 1717), and is practi- 
cally an exposition of and a sequel to Newton's book. Moreover, in the 
same work -^ Stirling drew attention to the fact that a curve can only pass 
through hi {11 + ^) points, and that it is determined by this number of 
points, and thus paved the way for the enunciation, three years later 
(1720), of the so called Cramer Paradox by his contemporary Maclaurin '' 
(1698-1746). This young Scotchman was barely twenty-one when his 
' Geometrica organica, sive descriptio linearum curvai'um universalis ' was 
published. Short as it is, 140 quarto pages in all, this treatise at once 
placed its author in the front rank of geometers, and is justly held to be 
the foundation of the modern synthetic geometry of higher plane curves,^ 
in so far as this depends upon theorems dealing with their intersections. 

1 Descanes, QHtirres, edit. Cousin (Paris, 1824), vol. v. p. 338, or Geomeiria, edit. 
Schooten (Amsterdam, 1659), p. 21. 

2 Cantor, vol. ii. p. 742. 

' Fermat, vol. i. p. 119 (Latin original); vol. iii. p. 110 (French trans.). 

< Cantor, vol. ii. p. 44. " P. 69. 

" For a brief account of the historical oblivion into which the true originator of 
the paradox had fallen, cf. C. A. Scott, Bull. Am. Math. Soc, vol. iv. (1898), p. 261. 

' Brill and Noether, ' Die Enfcwicklung der Theorie der algebraischen Functionen 
in iilterer und neuerer Zeit,' Jakresber. d. dcvtsclieii Math. Ver., vol. iii. (1894), p. 129. 
This valuable report is full of suggestive criticism, most helpful to any student of 
the papers which it passes in review, but its concise language makes it rather 
difficult reading. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 83 



§ 7. The Theory op Elimination, from Leibnitz to Cramer, 

1693-1750. 

We must go back fifty years before the birth of analytical geometry 
to find the first appearance of a problem which is fundamental to the 
theory of elimination in one of its aspects, the problem, namely, of 
obtaining the greatest common measure of two algebraical expressions. 
In 1585 a Belgian mathematician, Simon Stevin (1548-1620), published an 
algebra in. which the first successful attempt at a solution was made. He 
divided one expression by the other, and this again by the remainder, until 
no remainder is left ; the last divisor is then the greatest common 
measure ; the fractions are left as they appear in the course of the work. 
Vieta (1540-1603), the greatest algebraist of the sixteenth century, wrote 
a treatise on algebraical equations in 1591 (published, after his death, in 
1615), but did not investigate this question. In fact it does not seem 
to be mentioned again in pi'int for more than a century, when Rolle 
(1652-1719) gave it a place in his 'Traite d'Alg^bre,' published in 1690. 
By this time abbreviations of the work by means of multiplication and 
division were probably in use, since we find them freely employed by 
Reyneau (1656-1728) in his ' Analyse demontr^e ' of 1708. 

In the meanwhile Fermat was attacking the problem of rationalising 
an equation which Vieta had left in a very unsatisfactory condition, and 
the method he adopted, although stated as a series of proportion sums in 
the manner of his time, amounts precisely to the elimination of an 
unknown from two equations by using the condition that their left-hand 
sides should have a greatest common measure. The example he gives ^ 
consists of a cubic and a quadratic equation, each containing one variable 
which is to be eliminated. Calling these equations P=0, Q=0, respec- 
tively, we may write P=9'o Q + Rj, and Rj is then the first remainder 
after dividing P by Q. Fermat's process, however, reverses the usual 
arrangement of terms in P and Q, writing them in ascending not in 
descending order, for he arranges his proportions so that the antecedents 
contain the variable while the consequents are free from it ; thus : 

aQO^ + a^x- + arX : «3=6Qa;- + 6ia; : b^ 

is derived from 'P=aQX^ + a^x--{-a.x + a^=:0 

Q=baX^ + biX + b.y=0 

where in his notation 

«(,:=?, n,=0, a.2=0, rt3=::^ — a^ 
bQ-=l, b^=d, b2=n^ — cib 

and thus his expression for R,, after dividing out by the factor x, diflffers 
from the usual one by the interchange of «o ^^^ ^3) "i ^^^ ";> ^o ^^^ 

b , and of - for x, being in modern notation 



a^ ^2 


+ 


«3 62 


«2 ^1 ^2 




a.2 6] 62 


«1 &0 ^1 




rto 61 



* Fermat, OHwt'es {edit. Tannery and Henrj', Paris, 1891) •Nouvean traitement 
en analytique des inconnues secondes et d'ordre superieur,' vol. i. pp. 181-188 (Latin 
original); voi. iii. pp. 157-163 (French trans.V 

g2 



84 KEPORT — 1902. 

This fact is of no importance theoretically, and -would be of but slight 
importance in practice, if the coefficients employed were the most general 
possible. But when, as in Fermat's example, the coefficients of the 
highest powers only are unity, the interchange materially complicates 
the algebra involved in the next stage of division, or in substituting, as 
he directs, the expression for x obtained from E.i=() in the quadratic 
equation ; and, presumably for this reason, Fermat left it to the industry 
of his readei's. Moreover, when the substitution has been effected, a 
further complication arises from Fermat's method : the irrelevant factor ' 
which is a necessary consequence of this process is now h\ instead of h\, 
i.e., (ri? — ctbY instead of unity ; the remaining factor (the resultant) is 
unchanged, being symmetrical with respect to this interchange of 
coefficients. 

As regards the general application of his method to a system of n 
equations among n — \ unknowns, Fermat remarks : 'II est clair que la 
methode est g^nerale. Si en effet on proposait plus de deux inconnues, 
la methode, reiterde autant qu'il le faudra, exprimera par exemple la 
troisifeme en fonction de la premiere et de la seconde, puis la seconde en 
fonction de la premiere, toujours par le meme moyen.' But we may be 
permitted to doubt whether the coui'age of most calculators would not 
fail in undertaking such an elimination without the assistance of a 
properly devised notation, of which, at this date,^ no trace is found. 

The emancipation of mathematics from the preliminary stage, in which 
attention is mainly directed to the solution of particular problems, was 
being effected during Fermat's lifetime — Kepler and Galileo were his 
seniors by thirty and thirty-seven years respectively, Descartes and 
Pascal were his contemporaries-^but the chief impulse in this direction 
was given after his death by Leibnitz (1646-1716) and by Newton. 
Leibnitz especially saw the cardinal importance of notation. The double 
suffix notation which he invented {mehrfacher Stellenzeiger) was not 
mentioned in print until 1700, but had been used by him as early as 
1678, as is shown by a Latin manuscript note found among his papers 
after his death.^ The rule here set down for removing the unknowns 
from any system of linear equations such as, 

\Q + l\x + Uy=0 
20 + 21a; + 22y=0 
30 + 31x4- 331/= 

where there is one more equation than there are unknowna, consists in 
observing the law of combination of the double indicators. A new 
method for the elimination of the unknowns from two equations of degree 
higher than the first is then derived from this rule : ' By means of this 
rule another rule can be found for removing the unknown quantity 
common to two equations of any degree whatever. Multiply each by an 
assumed expression of one degree lower, and when these products have 
been added together, so as to form a single equation, let every term of it 
be equated to zero ; we thus obtain as many equations as there were 
coefficients in the assumed expression and one more equation. Hence 

' An ingenious formula for obtaining this factor, in the most general case, is 
given by Fail de Bruno, Theorie generale de I'elimijiation (Paris, 1859), pp. 47-52. 

* The date of this manuscript is held to be 1638, although it was not printed 
until 1679, in the Varia Opera, of. Cantor, vol. ii. p. 734. 

' Gerhardt, preface to yol. vii, of Leibnitz's Works (Berlin, Halle, 1849-63), p, 5. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 85 

the former rule can be applied. If the two equations from which the 
common quantities are to be removed are not of the same degree, the 
coefficients of the higher orders in the equation of lower order are to 
be taken as zero.' In a letter to I'Hdpital dated April 28, 1693,i 
Leibnitz refers to this subject, and expresses a desire for tables by which 
the results of elimination between equations of higher order may be 
systematically deduced from those of lower order. This is the letter in 
which he for the first time explained and vindicated the new notation, 
and it has led most writers '^ to attribute to him the origin of the theory 
of determinants. However this may be, the Theory of Elimination cer- 
tainly owes its oi-igin to him, for he was the first to regard it as a matter 
for separate investigation and to desire its reduction to general laws. 

It would be interesting, were evidence on the subject forthcoming, to 
think that Leibnitz's new method of elimination had been communicated 
by him to his friend Tschirnhaus (1651-1708), with whom he was in 
constant communication on these subjects, and that it is the method 
alluded to by the latter in his memoir in the ' Acta Eruditorum ' of 1683, 
where he speaks of well-known rules for obtaining a third equation, in 
which the unknown is absent, from two given ones containing it. But, 
on the whole, it is more probable that a method of combination and sub- 
stitution, which amounts to using the condition for the existence of a 
greatest common measure was in his mind.^ 

Tables of the nature desired by Leibnitz were published by Newton 
in his ' Arithmetica Universalis ' (1707) :'' he gives the actual results of 
the ' extermination ' of a variable from certain typical equations, viz., 
from two quadratics, from a cubic and a quadratic, from a quartic and a 
quadratic, and from two cubics, but with no definite account of the steps 
of his calculation. His method, however, appears to be that of substitu- 
tion and combination, and is thus essentially different from that of Leibnitz. 
The arrangement of the terms in the successive results shows an attempt 
at a systematic derivation of each from the last, but the law is by no means 
clear. It is noteworthy that in each case the result obtained is given in 
its simplest form, i.e., the extraneous factor, which is not unity in his 
notation, has been removed. 

Newton gave no rules applicable to equations of order higher than the 
fourth, and only considered equations involving one unknown. The more 
general cases of higher equations and two unknowns were attacked for the 
first time -^ (unsuccessfully, however) by Maclaurin in the ' Geometrica 
Organica.' Neglecting for the moment the geometrical application for 
which he required his result, the interest of Section V. of this treatise 

' Leibnitz, Works, edit. Gerhardt, vol. ii. p. 239. 

- Cf. Gerhardt, GescMchte der Mathematik in Beutschland, 1877, vol. xvii. p. 184, 
and preface to vol. vii. of Leibnitz's Works, p. 8. Also Brill and Noeiher, loc. cit., 
p. 126, and Salmon, Higher Algebra, Note on History of Determinants. It has, 
however, been pointed out by Studnicka (.4. L. Caitchy als forvialer Begriinder der 
Determinanteii-TJieorie, Prag, 1876) that Cauchy was the first to develop a theory 
of determinants ; and it seems scientific to distinguish thus between the invention 
of a new mathematical machine — the suffix notation, which provides a law of 
formation for the new coefficients — and the separate discussion of its properties. 

' Cantor, vol. iii. p. 109. 

* 1st edit., p. 74. 

* Fermat realised that curves of the mth and rath orders lead, by their intersec- 
tions, to the solution of an equation of degree mn {cf. Fermat, (Euvres, vol. iii. p. 119, 
vol. i. p. 130, and Cantor, vol. ii. p. 746), but he gave no attempt at a proof. 



86 REPORT — 1902. 

centres on the attempt to eliminate one unknown between two equa- 
tions in two unknowns and to determine the dimension of the remaining 
unknown in the result. In the Lemma with which this section opens 
one equation only is assumed to be of an arbitrary number of dimensions, 
n, in X and y, while the second is a quadratic and a cubic equation 
respectively. Maclaurin substitutes for all powers of the variable y 
equal to and greater than 2 and 3 respectively in the equation of 
degree n, and thus obtains equations in 2/ lower by one degree than 
the lowest of the original pair of equations. In the simpler case (that 
of the quadratic and the equation of degree n) this gives a value 
for 1/, which simply requires substitution in the quadratic in order to 
lead to the required equation in x — of degree 2n — and does not intro- 
duce any extraneous factor. But when the original system consists 
of a cubic and an equation of degree n, leading to a system of a cubic and 
a quadratic in )j whose coefficients are functions of x, the process of 
eliminating y — whether by direct G.C.M. method or by Maclaurin's 
shortened process of combining the equations, first removing the highest 
term and then the lowest term — necessarily introduces an extraneous 
factor which involves x. To find this factor, even with an unsystematic 
notation, is easy enough in this simple case, and Maclaurin shows, quite cor- 
rectly, that the irreducible resultant is then of degree 3n ; but he saw clearly 
that all his knowledge of Newton's ' method of divisors ' would not avail 
him in the completely general case of equations of degrees m and n. He 
therefore relegates this question to Corollary I., which, freely translated, 
runs : ' Hence the intersections of lines of order m and n are seen to be 
vm in number. We have, it is true, hitherto searched in vain for a 
universal proof of this fact by reason of the difficulty of finding divisors 
in harder equations.' That he did not employ a better notation is all 
the more remarkable when we consider that in a chapter of his ' Algebra ' 
(planned about the year 1729,' but published, after his death, in 1748) 
he ' exterminates ' the unknowns from systems of two and three linear 
equations, and gives a rule for four equations which shows his clear 
appreciation of the symmetry of the result : ' If 4 equations are given, 
involving 4 unknown Quantities, their Values may be found much after 
the same Manner Vjy taking all the Products that can be made of 4 
opposite Coefficients (i.e., belonging to different equations and to dfferent 
variables) and always prefixing contrary signs to those that involve 
the Product of two opposite Coefficients.' This is exactly the idea 
involved in the modern solution by means of determinants. And con- 
sidering that Leibnitz had insisted on the value of his double suffix 
notation in the paper in the 'Acta Eruditorum ' for 1700,^ written in 
reply to a tract published in London, Maclaurin almost seems to have 
gone purposely out of his way to avoid its use,^ and, in so doing, perhaps 
lost a chance of overcoming some of the obstacles to his method of elimina- 
tion. Even the best possible notation, however, would have been com- 
paratively valueless without the realisation of the intimate theoretical 
connection between the process of finding the G.C.M. and the problem of 
elimination, and for this the time was not ripe. The method, or its 
equivalent, was used in practice, but was not explicitly explained. In 

' Cantor, vol. iii. p. 568. 

- Leibnitz, Worl/s, vol. v. pp. 340-349. 

' Cantor, vol, iii. p. 670. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 87 

fact the only contemporary statement in print on this subject is 
to be found in a small book on analytical geometry by de Gua de 
Halves,' published in 1740. He remarks - that to find the necessary 
condition in order that certain three equations may hold simultaneously : 
'on pourra se servir des formules que M. Newton a donnees dans son 
" Arithmetique Universelle," ou, ce qui revient au meme, on pourra encore 
diviser les deux premieres equations . . . par leur reste, puis les premiers 
restes par les seconds, et ainsi de restes en restes jusqu'a ce qu'on soit 
parvenu a en trouver qui ne contiennent plus I'indeterminee x, ces derniers 
restes, ^tant faits egaux a ze'ro, donneront les equations des conditions.' 

The process of combining two equations by first removing the highest 
terms, then the lowest, which Maclaurin used in his examples, was sys- 
tematically described for the first time by Euler (1707-1783) in 1748. Its ex- 
planation occupies the first half of the chapter ' De intersectione curvarum ' 
in his ' Introductio in analysin infinitorum.' ^ It also occurs in a memoir 
presented to the Academy of Sciences in Berlin,'' where it is preceded 
by the pertinent remark : ' Dans la plupart des cas si Ton se sert des 
methodes ordinaires d'^liminer, on parviendra a une equation de plus de 
dimensions que mn.' It is then followed by a discussion of a case 
in which the number of intersections must fall short of inn : when the 
equation of a curve of order m, namely, is of the form Vy^ + Qy' + 
Ei/ -4- S = O, P, Q, R, and S being of dimensions m — 3, m — 2, m — 1, 
and m respectively in x, since then ' les equations choisies n'expriment 
pas generalement les courbes des ordres m et n, mais seulement des 
especes de ces ordres.' This is the first appearance of a class of equa- 
tions which were very fully discussed later by Bezout. 

Two new methods of elimination were put forward by Euler in these 
publications ; but neither is rigorously demonstrated, and the unsystematic 
notation once more proves an obstacle to progress. That of the ' Intro- 
ductio' is the same as had occurred to Leibnitz, but of which he had 
written nothing for publication. It consists '' in multiplying each equa- 
tion by a function of y whose coefficients are undetermined quantities, 
and then equating to zero the coefficients of the different powers of i/ in 
the equation formed by subtracting these equations from each other. 
From this set of linear equations the undetermined coefficients are 
eliminated and the resultant obtained. The general rule, however, given 
for the elimination of the undetermined coefficients is very laborious and 
far inferior to that which Leibnitz bad discovered. This method has 
taken its place in modern text-books as ' Euler's method,' or, sometimes, 
as ' Euler'.? second method ' :^ it is really founded on the necessary 
existence of at least one common root of the two equations if they are 
to hold simultaneously, and Euler himself explains this in a memoir' 

' Usages de Vanalyse de Descartes jMuir decoucrir sans le secours d^t, Calcul 
Differeiitiel les Proprietes on Affections ijrincvpales des Lignes Geomctriques de tons 
Ordres. Cf. Brill and Noether, he. cit., p. 134. 

2 P. 60. 

" See Cantor, vol. iii. p. 576, for an account of this work. 

' ' Demonstration sur le nombre des points ou deux lignes des ordres quel- 
conques peuvent se couper,' Acad. Berlin, annee 1748, pp. 2.34-248. 

^ See Cantor, vol. iii. p. 577, for detailed description. 

« Encyk. dcr Math. Wis.ien., Leipzig, 1899, Bd. I., p. 246, note 80. 

' 'Nouvelle m6thode d'eliminer les quantit^s inconnues des equations,' Acad. 
Berlin, ann6e 1764, pp. 91-104. 



88 REPORT— 1902. 

published sixteen years later (which, however, throws no fresh light on 
the subject). The same principle is fundamental in the other new method, 
sketched in the Berlin memoir of 1748. But with this difference. By 
the one method the common linear factor, corresponding to the common 
root, was eliminated between the two equations, and from the resulting 
identity the system of linear equations which led to the resultant were 
obtained. In the other method the resultant is formed of the products 
of all possible differences of the roots of the two equations, such as (a— a), 
ii a, b, c . . . ", /3, y . . . are the roots — one of which must certainly 
vanish — and the crux of the solution lies in the expression of this product 
in terms of the coefficients of the two equations. Since each equation 
may also be expressed as a product of factors such as (x — a), the resultant 
equation is found to be the product of the equations formed from one 
equation by substituting in it for x the roots of the other equation. And 
this leads at once to the consideration of certain symmetric functions of 
the roots, and to the necessity of evaluating them in terms of the co- 
efficients. This process is only sketched by Eulei',' and thus his proof 
that the resultant, when the coefficients contain a second variable, attains 
the degree mn (m and ii being the degrees of the equations) in this vari- 
able is not conclusive, although the first step, of proving that it is of the 
7nth degree in the coefficients of the equation of the iith degi'ee and of 
the nth degree in the coefficients of the equation of the mth degree, is 
correctly taken. This method is sometimes known as ' Euler's first 
method,' - or, more properly, as ' elimination by symmetric functions.' 
It was also employed with far greater success by Cramer (170-4-1752) 
in the Appendix II. to his 'Introduction a I'analyse des lignes coui'bes 
algebriques.' ^ In fact, it is from Cramer's work that the impulse to 
investigate all possible symmeti'ic functions of the roots of an equation 
dates. Up till this time the only ones discussed were the products taken 
one, two, three ... at a time, known as early as 1629 by Girard"* to be 
equal to the successive coefficients of the equations, and the sums of the 
powers of the roots which Newton had investigated.* 

To Cramer, also, belongs the credit of devising a suitable notation.'' 
It is in all essentials the same as Leibnitz's, but was probably invented 
independently.*^ He writes the two equations from which x is to be 
eliminated thus : 

A . . . x"~[l]x"-' + [r-]x^-'-[V]x"-+ . . . [1"]=0 

B . . . {0) + {l)x + (2)x'^ + {S)x'+ . . . +(m)a;"'=0 



n 



where [IJ, [P], [1'*], . . . [1"] are functions of y of degree, 1, 2, . 
and (0), (1), (2), . . . (in) are functions of y of degree ?», m — 1, m — 2, 
. . . ; and calls the resulting equation in y, C. C is, then, the product 
of the equations formed from B by successive substitutions for x of the 
roots a, b, c, «tc., of A ; each term of it therefore consists of two factors : 
' I'un, facteur-premier, est le produit de quelques coefficients de B ; I'autre, 
facteur second, est une fonction des racines a,b, c . . . de I'cquation A.'** 
The ' facteurs-premiers ' ax-e easily found by combining n at a time the terms 

' Acad. Berlin, annee 1748, p. 245. 

" EncyTi. der Math. Wis.sen., Leipzig, ]8!)9, Bd. I., p. 2i5. 

^ Geneva, 1750, pp. 660. '' Cantor, vol. ii. p. 71S. 

* Arithmetica Universalis, 1st edition, p. 251. 

" Analyse, App, I., p. 657. ' Cf. Cantor, vol. iii. p, 586, » Loc. cit., p, 660. 



ON THE THEORY OF POI^T-GROUPS. 89 

(0), (1), itc. ; they are written, e.g., (0"-il), (0"-"! 11 224). The ' facteurs- 
seconds ' are connected with the ' facteurs-premiers ' by the following per- 
fectly definite statement, in which is seen the importance of the numerical 
notation : ' Chaque chiffre du facteur-premier annonce, dans le facteur- 
second qui lui est joint, \\r\e puissance des lettres a, b, c, etc., dont ce chiffre 
est I'exposant, et ces puissances sont autant de termes qu'il y a de 
maniere de les arranger.'^ In other words, each ' facteur-second ' is a 
symmetric function of the roots a, b, c, . . . of dimensions equal to the 
sum of the numbers contained in its bracket. ' Si done les racines de 
I'e'quation A etaient connues, il serait aise d'avoirtous les facteurs-seconds 
de I'equation C. Mais ces racines sont inconnues, lorsque I'equation A 
est d'un degr6 trop eleve pour que I'algebre en puisse donner la solution. 
Cependant ces facteurs-seconds se peuvent toujours calculer et exhiber 
sous une forme rationnelle, au moyen des coefficients de I'equation A.' '-^ 
And then from the known connection between the coefficients of an 
equation and the products of the roots taken one, two, . . . together. 
Cramer, by a somewhat intricate rule, deduced the values of all the 
symmetric functions required for the determinations of equation C. 

The essential feature of this rule is an arrangement of the 'facteurs- 
premiers ' in lines according to a certain law : the first line,'* for example, 
being of the type (0000), (0001), (0011), (0111), (1111), the second and 
third lines are (0002), (0012), (0112), (1112); (0003), (001 3), (01 13), 
(1113), and so on. The 'facteurs-seconds' corresponding to the first line 
are easily seen to be these said sums of the products of the roots taken 
one, two, three, four together, and are thus equal to 1, [1], [1-], [1'], [1*]. 
All the ' facteurs-seconds ' corresponding to the succeeding lines are then 
shown to be derivable, by means of a multiplication theorem for pairs of 
' facteurs-seconds,' from ' facteurs-seconds ' corresponding to terms in lines 
above them, and thus, finally, from the first line ; they can therefore be 
expressed rationally in terms of the coefficients of A. A typical example 
of the multiplication theorem is : "' 

(0"-'111223)x(0"-il)=(0"-nil224)-f2(0"-nil233) 

+ 3(0"-'*112223)-f4(0"-nill223) 

where, as Cramer is careful to point out, the sum of the significant figures 
in eacli bracket of the result is the same, being equal to the sum of those 
in the two factors. The proof of the theorem lies in translating the 
symbols into the actual terms for which they stand, viz., using the modern 
2 notation, 

'S.abcdhJ^ X :i.a=-$abcdyf* + ^^ahcd^e^P + ^%abcH''e-^j^ + i^abcde'fhf 

as is sufficiently evident. A formal proof could, of course, easily be obtained 
by induction. When the coefficients of equation A are, as we have already 
assumed them to be, functions of y, the above characteristic of the multi- 
plication theorem enables Cramer to prove that the degree in y of the 
equation C cannot exceed mn. For each ' facteur-premier ' is easily seen 
to contain y to a power {mn — sum of its numbers), and it only remains to 
show that the corresponding ' facteur-second,' when evaluated in terms of 
the coefficient of A, will contain y to a power equal to the sum of the 
numbers in its bracket. 

Now this is seen to be true of the ' facteurs-seconds ' corresponding to 

• Loc. cit., p. 664. ' Loc. C'it,, p. 665. ' Zoc, rAt., p. 6G3, '' loc. ctt.. p. 668. 



90 REPORT— 1902. 

the first line of ' facteurs-premiers ' by reason of their known values. 
And since each ' facteur- second' can be ultimately reduced, by means of 
the multiplication theorem, to the sum of products of those in the first 
line — the total sum of the significant figures in every such product being 
equal to that in the original bracket — it follows that this sum will be, 
as required, the power of y. The characteristic property of the multi- 
plication theorem, although only stated with regard to the roots of the 
equation, justifies the conclusion ' that Cramer had conceived the idea of 
' weight ' as applied to the expression in terms of the coefficients of a 
symmetric function of the roots, for the sum of the significant figures in 
the bracket of a ' facteur-second ' (which primarily denotes the degree in 
the roots) is shown in the proof we have sketched to persist throughout 
the process of tracing it back to the first line and to be thus equal to 
the sum of the suffixes in the equivalent expression in terms of the co- 
efficients. 

§ 8; Memoirs on the Intersections of Plane Curves, from Maclaurin 

TO Lame, 1720-1818. 

The progress of analytical geometry as a whole during this period of 
about a hundred years is mainly along the lines which Newton had begun 
to explore. The classic treatises of Euler and Cramer fall within its 
limits, but, original and fruitful as these works were, they formed rather 
the climax of the purely Cartesian epoch than the beginning of the modern 
era. And it is noteworthy, as corroboration of this fact, that both were 
published before the year 1758, which saw the foundation of the Turin 
Academy under Lagrange, the ' father of modern mathematics.' The 
classification of curves according to the degree of their equations, the 
investigation of all possible types of the same order, of the infinite 
branches and of the singularities of a given curve, such were the chief 
problems which occupied these geometers. The notation employed is 
invariably the Cartesian equation written at full length ; the point was 
thus the primary element in the plane, and the properties of curves 
were studied as belonging to configurations of points. The number of 
intersections of a pair of curves and the possibility of passing a curve of 
given order through a certain number of given points are questions which 
really belong to a domain beyond the vision of the mathematicians of the 
eighteenth century — a domain in Avhich a curve itself is the primary 
element and systems of curves the subject-matter of investigation. They 
arose, however, naturally enough, the moment the significance of the 
coefficients in the equation of a curve was recognised, and were only 
partially answered by Maclaurin, Euler, and Cramer before Lame, in 1818, 
took a more important step in their elucidation than he himself probably 
realised. 

The enunciation of the paradox connected with these questions is due 
to Maclaurin.- It forms the second corollary to the Lemma of Section V. in 
his 'Geometrica Organica,' and may be rendered as follows : 'A line of 
order n can cut another of the same order in 'n? points. Hence two lines 

' Brill andNoether, Jtf.7;ra&er. d. deutschen Math. Frr.,vol. iii. (1894), p. 1.S7. Cf. 
Cantor, vol. iii. p. .588. The. reference given by the former to §§ 9, 10 of Cramer's 
Appendix II. is somewhat misleading, as these only deal with the degree in the 
roots ; but if the whole proof is studied their conclusion is fully established. 

- See § 6. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUFS. 91 

o£ oi'der n may sometimes pass through the same it- points ; and thus 
given points whose number is ^n{n + S) do not suffice to determine a line 
of order Jt in such a way that the curve which can be drawn through them 
is unique ; yet, in truth, since the coefficients in the general equations of 
a line of order w are ^n{n + 3) in, number, it is clear that, if more points 
are given, it is perhaps not possible to draw a line of order n through 
them, and the problem may be impossible. So nine points do not as fully 
determine a line of order three as five do a line of order two ; yet ten are 
too many for the determination of a line of order three.' Shortly 
expressed, this amounts to the enigmatic statement that yi{n + 3) points 
both do and do not determine a curve of order n uniquely. Maclaurin 
makes no attempt at an explanation, and thirty years elapsed before the 
matter was again put forward in print. It then appeared simultaneously 
in two publications — in Cramer's ' Analyse ' and in a memoir by Euler 
entitled 'Sur une contradiction apparente dans la doctrine des lignes 
courbes.' ^ 

Cramer had spent part of a two years' leave of absence from his 
Geneva professorship in England, and it is perhaps due to this that he 
alone of foreign mathematicians gives the reference to Maclaurin's 
corollary in a footnote to his own statement of the paradox : ^ ' Une 
contradiction apparente ... est celle-ci. Puisqu'une ligne de I'ordre vi 
ne pent rencontrer une ligne de I'ordre n qu'en mn points, une ligne de 
I'ordre v ne rencontrera une autre ligne de meme ordre qu'en v"^ points. 
Si done v^ est egal ou plus grand que le nombre ^v{v + o), qui est celui des 
points qui determinent une ligne de I'ordre v, oi\ pourra faire passer plus 
d'une ligne de I'ordre v par iiV{v + 3) points, ce qui semble contraire 
a I'article § 38.' The explanation he ofiers is as follows : ' Cette contradic- 
tion se leve par la remarque qui termine § 38, c'est qu'encore qu'on ait 
autant d'equations qu'il en faut, generalement parlant, pour determiner 
tous les coefficients de I'equation prise pour i-epresenter la courbe qui doit 
passer par un certain nombre de points donnes, il peut pourtant arriver 
que ces coefficients restent indetermines. Alors I'equation prise reste 
indetermine et repre'sente une infinite de courbes du meme ordi'e.' His 
use of the plural, ' ces coefficients,' is worth noting ; in § 38 it is even more 
emphatic : ' quelques-uns de ces coefficients ' ; he probably did not recog- 
nise that a single infinity only of curves is involved.^ 

Singularly enough, Cramer, in enunciating the paradox, makes no 
mention of Euler, whose paper had been communicated to the Berlin 
Academy two years previously and printed in the year of publication of 
the ' Analyse.' The same volume of the ' Memoires de I'Academie de 
Berlin ' contains an historical paper by Cramer himself, and it is rather 
improbable that he had no knowledge of Euler's work.^ Euler's paper is 
written with characteristic naivete, almost suggesting that he is writing 
down his own train of thought step by step, in meditating over the knotty 
point. By means of the simplest examples he illustrates the cause of 
a possible indetermination in one or more of n unknown quantities, con- 
nected by n equations, summing up thus : ' Une des quantites inconnues 
restera indeterminee si une des equations proposees est renfermee dans 
les autres. De plus, deux ou plusieurs quantities inconnues resteront 

' Acad. Berlin, annce 1748, pp. 219-233. - Analyse, pp. 78, 70. 

" Cf. Scott, Bull. Am. Math. Soc, vol. iv. (1898), p. 262. 

* Cf. Cantor, vol. iii. p. 797, where doubt is thrown on Cramer's statement that 
his Analyse was written quite independently of Euler's Introductio 



92 HEPORT— 1902. 

iudeterminees s'il y a parmi les equations deux ou plusieurs, qui sont deja 
dans les autres, et qui par consequent ne contribuent rien a la determination 
renferme'es des inconnues.' ^ This indicates more insight into the possi- 
bilities in the nature of a system of equations than any passage in Cramer ; 
but when he proceeds to make use of this conclusion he fails to bring out 
the complete resolution of the paradox. He first considers the cases of 
a straight line and of a conic and shows how they may remain indeter- 
minate, even after assignation of two and five points respectively on 
them. These cases present no difficulty, but are not really relevant to 
the paradox, since in their case v'^ is less than \v{y-\-'i) : they arise when 
tlie two assigned points coincide, and when of the five points four lie on 
a straight line. The cubic, which is the next curve he considers, and to 
which the paradox is applicable, is confessedly beyond his grasp : ' II est 
cependant fort difficile de definir ces cas gendralement, comme j'ai fait pour 
les lignes du second ordre, puisque le calcul, a cause du grand nombre des 
points et des coefficients, deviendrait trop complique. Neanmoins il 
n'est pas difficile de decouvrir plusieurs cas particuliers, ou ce defaut dans 
la determination a lieu ; desquels on ne conclura pas difficilement, que 
le nombre de tels cas pent etre infiniment grand, ce qui suflit pour mon 
dessein.' ^ The particular cases alluded to are, fii'st, when the nine points 
are so situated that the cubic through them must degenerate into a conic 
and a straight line : this is analogous to the case of the conic ; 
and, next, when they are arranged in the shape of a square, so that the 
equation of a cubic through them is my{y'^-a'^)=::nx{x'^-d-), ' oii le rapport 
des coefficients m et n pent etre quelconque, de sorte qu'une infinite de 
lignes du troisieme ordre pent etre indiquee, qui passent toutea par ces 
points donne's.' ^ 

In view of the fact that Euler brings forward this example definitely 
as a special case, and that he does not even hint at a similar one in the 
discussion of quartics and quintics with which his paper closes, it is hardly 
likely that he recognised the univei'sal application of the principle which 
underlies it ; in fact, he actually deduces the equations of the two 
independent component cubics (each consisting of three straight lines) 
from the original equations by writing ??i- = 0, ?^=0, in succession. The 
principle itself was not formulated until more than sixty years had 
passed, by Lame' (1795-1870), so slowly do ideas grow. And, precisely as 
the theory of curves was originally explored in the interests of algebra 
before the reverse process set in, so here, the intersections of curves 
were studied with a view to the determination of the curves on which 
they lie long before the properties of the systems of curves themselves were 
investigated. 

In the preface to his ' Examen des differentes m^thodes employees 
pour resoudre les problemes de geom^trie,' ■* Lame acknowledges that the 
general reflections on pure mathematics which occupy a quarter of his 
book were suggested to him by the problems which it contains ; this fact, 
characteristic of the practical engineer, does not detract from the theoretical 
importance of the general statement here made for the first time,'' viz., 
that an equation whose left-hand side is formed by the additive combina- 
tion of the left-hand sides of two or three given equations of the same 
degree, each multiplied by an undetermined quantity, is the adequate repre- 

' Loc. cit., p. 227. = Loc. cit., p. 231. ' Zoc. cit., p. 231. 

' Paris, 1818, pp. 124, * Zoc. cit., p. 28. 



0^ THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 



93 



sentation of all geometrical loci of this degree which pass through the 
intersections of the lines or surfaces represented by the original equations. 
It is evident, however, from the examples, that Lame is really concerned 
with actually obtaining the necessary conditions in order that three or 
four given equations may hold simultaneously, and that the singly infinite 
(and linear) nature of the system in the one case and the doubly infinite 
(and linear) nature of the system in the other are not of primary import- 
ance to him. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord M'Laren, Professor A. Crum Brown (Secretary), 
Sir John Murray, Professor Copeland, and Dr. Alexander 
BUCHAN. (Draivn up by Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee were appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the 
Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteorological observations at 
the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

The hourly eye-observations made at the top of the mountain by night 
as well as by day have been regularly made by Mr. Angus Rankin, the 
superintendent, and staff of assistants. As the observatory at Fort 
William is one of the observatories of the Meteorological Council, the 
observations there are taken from the photographic curves. 

The health of the observers has been good during the year. The 
directors desire to express their very cordial thanks to Messrs. A. Watt, 
M.A., T. Affleck, R. Aitken, William S. Bruce, and G. Philip for the 
invaluable services rendered by them as volunteer observers at certain 
seasons of the year, particularly during the summer months, thus securing 
to the members of the staff of both observatories the rest they needed from 
their arduous work ; and to Messrs. Wedderburn and Aiken for the 
valuable observations they have made this summer at the half-way station 
on the Ben. 

The principal results of the observations made at the two observatories 
during 1900 are detailed in Table I. 

Table I. 



1901 1 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March 


April 1 May 


June 1 July Aug. | Sapt. 


Oct. 1 Nov. 


Dec. Year | 




Mea7i Pressure in Inches. 




Ben Nevis Ob- 


25-230 


25-399 


25-133 


26-162 


25-678 


25-431 


25-559 


25-4401 2B-334I 25-2491 25-470 


24-912 


25-325 


servatory- 
Fort WiUiam 


29-874 


30-078 


29-765 


29-722 


30-in8 


29-964 


30-022 


29-934 


29-827 29-801 1 30-090 


29-490 


29-889 


Differences . 


4-644 


4-ti79 


4-622 


4-560 


4-530 


4-533 


4-463 


4-494 


4-493 4-552| 4-620 


4-578 


4-664 




Meaoi Temperatures. 




Ben Nevis Ob- 


24^0 




22-0 


23-3 


28°5 


o 
38-3 


36°9 


47-^8 


i§-7 


o 
39-0 


3U°9 




28-4 


o 
23-2 


31°9 


servatory 
Fort William 


40-2 


3G-7 


39-6 


46-2 


62-9 


53-9 


61-2 


56-5 


55-8 


46-5 


41-8 


37-1 


47-3 


DifEerenoes . 


16-2 


14-7 


16-3 


16-7 


14-6 


17-0 


13-4 


15-8 


16-8 


15-6 


13-4 


13-9 


15-4 




Extremes of Temperature, Maxima, 




Ben Nevis Ob- 


36-1 


31-3 


41-2 


44-0 


52-0 67-1 


G3-0 


5G-0 


49-0 


44-4 


390 


37-5 ; 63-0 


servatory 
Port William 


68-2 


48-0 


63-3 


69-9 


72-0 


74-6 


79-6 


69-5 


G9-2 


62-1 


55-3 


630 


79-6 


Differences . 


17-1 


16-7 


12-1 


25-9 


20-9 


17-5 


16-6 


13-5 


2U-2 


17-7 


16-3 


15-5 


25-9 




Extremes of Temperature, Mijiima. 




Ben Nevis Ob- 


9-1 


8-5 


6-3 1 14-3 


22-3 


24-8 


33-9 


28-3 


28-3 1 21-3 


13-6 


12-3 6-3 


servatory 
Fort William 


26-3 


20-2 


15-J 


28-2 


31-5 


38-3 


47-0 


41-1 


36-1 


30-4 


20-9 


18-2 16-2 


Differences 


17-2 


U-7 


8-9 


13-9 


9-2 


13-5 


13-1 


11-8 


7-8 


9-1 


7-3 


5-9 


- 1 



94 



REPORT — 1902. 



Table I. — continued. 



1901 



Jan. 



Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct, 



Nov. Dec. Year 



Rainfall, in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort Willinm 
Differences . 



20-12 



7-8G 
13-14 



5-91 1 14-95 I 12-87 



2-09 
3-87 I 



4-22 
11-06 



5-62 
7-49 



4-74 1 13-19 



1-44 
3-33 



6-97 
7-34 



4-54 

3-13 
1-35 



12-93 

6-62 

7-62 



10-65 



6-64 
4-05 



16-01 

9-65 

6-87 



16-09 



4-64 
10-46 









Niimher 


"/ Days 1 in. or more fell. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


9 


1 


4 1 6 


1 4 


1 I 5 


3 


4 


4 


12 ] 


servatory 






( 














Fort William 


1 





1 


1 


1 


n 


1 


1 


o 


Differences . 


8 


1 


3 6 


1 3 


1 4 


1 


3 


3 


10 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 



18 



Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind, in Miles. 

>' 21 I 22 I 11 I 10 I 10 I 15 I 21 I 



18 



13 



25-43 1 166-43 



10-68 67-46 
15-45 I 92-03 



54 



10 
44 









Num 


her of Days 


001 


in. or more fell. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


27 


15 


18 


19 1 14 


24 


21 


25 18 


27 


23 


28 


servatorv 


























Fort William 


22 


19 


15 


19 


12 


18 


16 


23 


18 


25 


21 


27 


Differences . 


6 


-1-4 


t> 





2 


6 


5 


2 





2 


2 


1 



15 



269 



235 
24 







Mean Rainhand. {scale 


0-8). 












2-4 


1-7 


1-1 I 2-7 


1-8 


2-8 


32 


2-6 


2-5 


1-8 


1-6 


1-9 


2-2 


3-4 


2-9 


29 1 3-4 


3-J 


4-0 


3-6 


4-3 


4-3 


3-8 


3-3 


3-7 


36 









Numher of 


Hours of Bright Sunshine. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


14 


52 


87 


102 


1 239 


75 


124 


59 67 


15 


44 


16 


servatory 










! 














Fort William 


14 


49 


113 


136 


248 


159 


139 


114 114 


59 


40 


12 


Differences . 





-1-3 


26 


34 


9 


84 


15 


55 47 


44 


+ 4 


-f4 











Percentage of Cloud 












Ben Nevis Ob- 


91 


80 


75 


79 


56 


S6 


77 


90 


86 


89 


80 


?9 


servatory 
Flirt William 
Differences . 


80 
11 


70 
10 


65 
10 


64 
15 


52 
4 


76 
10 


80 
+ 3 


78 
12 


68 
18 


76 
13 


72 

8 


76 
13 



894 



1,197 
303 



15 



81 



71 
10 



This table shows for 1901 the mean monthly and extreme temperature 
and pressure ; the amounts of rainfall, the number of days of rainfall, and 
of days on which it equalled or exceeded an inch ; the hours of sunshine ; 
the mean ramband ; and the mean velocity in miles per hour of the wind 
at the top of the mountain. The mean barometric pressures at Fort 
William are reduced to 32° and sea level, but those at Ben Nevis 
Observatory to 32° only. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure was 29"889 inches, 
or 0*032 inch above the average. The mean at the top was 25*325 inches, 
or 0-020 inch above the average. The mean difference for the two 
observatories was 4-564 inches. At the top the absolutely highest 
pressure for the year was 26-037 inches in May, this being the highest 
hitherto recorded in May, and the lowest 24-159 inches in December. 
We may note that in 8 years out of 18 the Ben Nevis barometer has not 
given a reading below 24 inches. At Fort William the absolutely highest 
pressure was 30-552 inches in November, and the lowest 28*549 inches in 
December. The differences of the extremes at top and bottom were 
therefore 1-878 inch and 2-003 inches respectively. 

The deviations of the mean temperatures of the months from their 
respective averages are shown in Table II. : — 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS, 



95 





Table II. 


Fort 


Top of 




Wimam. 


Ben Nevis. 




o 
. +11 


o 

-01 


Jul)'. 


. -2-4 


-1-8 


August 


. -0-8 


-0-6 


September 


. +0-3 


+ 0-7 


October . 


. +30 


+ 5-0 


November 


. -L-9 


-2-8 


December 



Fort 
WilHam. 


Top of 
Ben Nevis 


o 
. +3-9 


o 
+ 6-4 


. -0-6 


00 


. +2-5 


+ 10 


. -11 


-0-4 


. -0-2 


+ 0-5 


. -2-9 


-20 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

At both observatories February was the coldest month of the year. 
In this month northerly winds were seven days in excess of the average 
prevalence, and winds from south and south-west correspondingly defec- 
tive. May and July M-ere both exceptionally warm months, the general 
type of weather being eminently anticycJonic, with a very large excess of 
sunshine. The absolutely highest temperature for the year at Fort 
William was 79°-6 on July 20, and at the top 63°-0 on July .3, and the 
lowest at Fort William 15°-2 on March 29, and at the top G°-3 on 
March 25. 

In Table III. are given for each month the lowest observed hygro- 
metric readings at the top of Ben Nevis : — 

Table III. 



1901 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 

o 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 








^ 








^ 


o 


o 


r. 


„ 


Dry Bulb 


20' 5 


24-0 


27-9 


30-0 


40-3 


63^0 


48-9 


63-0 


331 


28^0 


32-0 


21-3 


Wet Bulb 


17-1 


19-0 


19'6 


23^1 


29-6 


39-8 


35^1 


37^2 


28-2 


23-9 


27-5 


16^7 


Dew-point 


-6-7 


-10-5 


-14-4 


1^4 


157 


25^6 


19-9 


21-4 


18^4 


7^1 


17-1 


-15-e 


Elastic Force . 


•031 


■026 


•022 


•047 


•089 


•139 


•107 


•115 


•100 


•060 


•094 


•020 


Relative Humiditv 


28 


20 


14 


28 


36 


34 


31 


28 


53 


39 


52 


18 


[Sat. = 100] 


























Day of Month 


10 


20 


21 


17 


13 


7 


6 


20 


2 


29 


2 


22 


Hour of Day . 


2 


7 


8 


10 


5 


18 


21 


18 


3 


21 


8 


8 



Of these relative humidities the lowest, 14, occurred on March 21, 
with a dew-point of — 14°-4. The lowest dew-point of the year was 
— 15°-6 on December 22, the dry bulb being 21°-.3 and the wet bulb 
lG°-7. A noticeable feature of the table is the unusually high values of 
the minimum humidities in September and November. In the former 
month the atmosphere on the top of Ben Nevis was continuously saturated 
from the evening of the 5th till noon on the 11th, and then almost con- 
tinuously until the 14th. From the 17th to 29th inclusive there were 
only a few scattered hours at which the humidity was not 100. In 
November, the 8th to 14th and 17th to 30th were periods of continuous 
saturation. 

Tho rainfall for the year at the top was 156-43 inches, being 
less than the average by 1-27 inch. This rainfall was no less than 
53-90 inches below the very heavy amount recorded for 1900. June was 
a very wet month, the rainfall of 13^19 inches being 5-32 inches above 
the average and greater than any June rainfall except that of 1892, 
14-07 inches. February and July were comparatively dry months, with 
amounts 5-91 inches and 6-02 inches below their respective averages. 
The greatest faU recorded in a single day was 4-77 inches on March 5. 
At Fort William the annual rainfall was 67-46 inches, being 9-88 inches, 
or 13 per cent., below the as'erage. 



OCi REPORT— 1902. 

At the top of JJen Nevis the number of rainy days was 259, and at 
Fort WilUam 235. At the top the maximum monthly was 28 days in 
December, and at Fort William 27 days in the same mojith. In May 
there were only 14 rainy days at the top and 12 at Fort William. 
During the year the number of days on which 1 inch of rain or more 
fell at the top was 54, whereas at Fort William the number of such 
days was only 10. The corresponding numbers for 1900 were 69 and 15. 

The sunshine recorder on Ben Nevis showed 894 hours out of a 
possible of 4,473 hours, or 20 per cent, of the possible sunshine. The 
average of the past 18 years being 756 hours, the sunshine of 1901 was 
138 hours above the average. May and July were the two sunniest 
months with amounts 117 hours and 42 hours above their respective 
averages. The amount of 75 hours in June was deficient by no fewer than 
62 hours. At Fort William the number of hours was 1,197, or 44 
hours above the average of 11 years. The amount for May was 86 hours 
above, and that for June 29 hours below the average. 

At the Ben Nevis Observatory the mean percentage of cloud was 81, 
and at Fort William 71, both fractionally below the average. At the top 
the cloudiest month was December with 91 per cent. This is a low 
value for the maximum monthly amount, and we may contrast it with 
97 in December and 96 in January in 1900. We may note very low 
cloud amounts at both top and bottom for May. 

Auroras were observed on February 19, 20 ; July 27, 28 ; August 20 ; 
October 9. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on January 2, 24, 30 ; July 14 ; October 17, 
22 ; December 31. 

Zodiacal Light : — Not observed during the year. 

Thunder and Lightning :— July 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. 

Thunder only : — June 11 ; August 12. 

Solar Halos :— June 7, 29 ; July 14 ; September 30. 

Lunar Halos :— April 2, 23, 27 ; October 29 ; November 21 : Decem- 
ber 22. 

Meteors:— May 13, 16. 

During the past year Mr. Ormond's time has been chiefly given to 
revising and otherwise preparing for publication the ' Meteorology of the 
Ben Nevis Observations,' Part II., containing tlie observations for the 
years 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, and 1892, and an Appendix containing the 
results of several papers which have appeared in the publications of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Scottish Meteorological Society, as 
well as papers specially written for this volume. A copy of the volume 
accompanies this report. This is the first of the three volumes for the 
printing of which the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh have 
each voted 500/. The second of these volumes is now in the printer's 
hands. 

INIeanwhile other large researches are being carried on in the Society's 
office on the lines indicated by your Committee in their Report to the 
British Association at Glasgow last year. Dr. Buchan's time has been 
almost wholly occupied with a discussion of the hourly observations of 
pressure, temperature, humidity, sunshine, and rainfall at the two 
observatories, with their interrelations, particularly with the important 
bearings of the results on weather changes. 

So far as the discussion has gone the chief outcome is this, while the 
difference of the mean temperatures of the two observatories is nearly 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON REN NEVIS. 97 

15°-5, the reduction of the two barometers to sea level closely agrees after 
a further reduction for diurnal and seasonal differences, the final dif- 
ference being only the small difference of 0'005 inch on an average of the 
ten years beginning with 1891. But if, on the one hand, the mean 
temperature differences be 12°-0 or less, the difference of the reduced 
barometers is much less ; and, on the other hand, if the temperature 
differences be 18°"0 or more", then the difference of the reduced baro- 
meters is much greater. In the former case the type of weather has 
been strongly anticyclonic, but in the latter equally strongly cyclonic. 

A vital result which comes out in the course of this discussion is 
shown in the hourly reduced daily values indicating the transition from 
the anticyclonic to the cyclonic type of weather to be generally slow, 
extending over several days, thus prolonging in many cases the time of 
our prevision of the more marked weather changes. It is contemplated 
that at least another year's discussion of the important question here 
raised will be required. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that the result here empirically 
arrived at is in accordance with the principle laid down by Dalton : 
' Air charged with vapour or vaporised air is specifically lighter than 
when without the vapour ; or, in other words, the more vapour any given 
quantity of atmospheric air has in it, the less is its specific gravity,'^ 



Statistics concerning the Training of Chemists employed in Enqlish 
Chemical Industries. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Fro- 
fessor W. H. Perkin (Chairman), Professor G. G. Henderson 
(Secretary), Professor H. E. Armstrong, and Mr. G. T. Beilby. 

The Committee decided that the best method of obtaining the desired 
statistics concerning the training of the chemists employed in English 
chemical industries was to send a circular-letter, with a form for reply en- 
closed, to all those members of the Society of Chemical Industry who, so 
far as could be judged from the designations given in the list of members, 
occupy a position as manager or chemist in a works. This method was 
adopted because the great majority of the chemists engaged in techno- 
logical work in this country are members of that Society, and because 
no other means of obtaining the information seemed practicable. The 
result of the inquiry was that more than half of those addressed sent 
replies to the circular. It is probable that a considerable proportion of 
those who did not reply are not engaged in chemical works, and therefore 
the following statistics may be considered to give a fair idea of the present 
position. 

Information concerning their course of training was received from 
502 managers and chemists employed in English chemical industries. 
Of these, 107, or 21 per cent., are graduates, and 395 have not taken 
a degree ; 111, or 22 per cent., are Fellows or Associates of the Institute 
of Chemistry. 

' Dalton, Meteorol'igiccil Observations and Essays, 2ncl ed,, Manchester, 1834, 
p. 100. " ■ 

;902. H 



98 



EEPOKT — 1902. 



The following figures give more detailed information : — 

Number of graduates of a British University .... 
Number of graduates of both a British and a foreign University 
Number of graduates of a foreign University .... 



Number of non-graduates trained in a British University or Uni- 
versity College .... ...... 

Number of non-graduates trained in a British Technical College 
Number of non-graduates trained in a foreign University or Technical 

College 

Number of non-graduates trained in Evening Classes, analysts' 

laboratories, vcorks' laboratories, or otherwise . ... 



16 
32' 

107 

137= 
165 



85 



395 



The distribution of the chemists among the principal industries is 



shown in the following 


table : 


— 
















Graduates 


Non-j 


^raduati 


3S, trained in 






^ 




bo 








Industrj 


of Bvitisli 
University 


13 -a 

pqa 


■ot3 


University or 
niversity CoUe 


Technical 
College 


eign Universit 
echnical Collej 


Evening 
Classes, &c. 


Total 


• 




£ 




P 




SH 










3 








2 


20 




Acids, Alkalis, Inorganic 


9 


5 


20 


19 


78 


Salts 


















Metallurgical (various) 


1 


— 


4 


19 


13 


— 


14 


51 


Explosives . 


6 


— 


1 


4 


28 


1 


6 


46 


Dyeing and Printing . 


3 


— 


• — 


13 


16 


— 


5 


37 


Oils, Fats, Soap, 


2 


1 


3 


11 


9 


1 


5 


32 


Candles 


















Colours, Pigments, Oils, 


8 


1 


2 


6 


5 


— 


6 


28 


Varnishes 


















Brewing and Distilling 


3 


— 


4 


8 


12 


— 


1 


28 


Fine Chemicals, Phar- 


7 


— 


— 


9 


6 


— 


4 


26 


maceuticals, Confec- 


















tions 


















Sugar, Starch, Glucose . 


3 


2 


1 


2 


8 


— 


3 


]9 


Cement, Tiles, Pottery . 


— 


1 


1 


5 


10 


— 


1 


18 


Aniline Colours . 


2 


3 


7 


2 


2 


1 


— 


17 


Tar Distilling 


— 


— 


— 


5 


8 


— 


3 


16 


Paper, Paper Pulp 


— 


— 


2 


3 


3 


— 


— 


8 


Glue, Gelatine, Size 


— 


1 




4 


2 


— 


— 


7 


Paraffin and Paraffin 


— 


— 


^- 


3 


4 


— 


— 


7 


Oil 


















Dyewood and Tanning 


— 


— 


— 


5 


2 


— ■ 




7 


Extracts 


















Cyanides and Ferro- 


3 


1 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


6 


cyanides 


















Glass .... 


2 


— 


— 


2 


1 


— 


1 


6 


Coal Gas 


— 


1 


— 


— 


3 


— 


2 


6 


Miscellaneous 
Total 


10 


2 


2 


16 


12 


3 


14 


59 


59 


16 


32 


137 


165 


8 


85 


502 



> Thirteen of whom studied also in a British University or Technical College. 
^ Twenty of whom studied also in a foreign University or Technical College. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION, 99 



Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — 
Fourth Interim Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
W. Noel Hartley (Chairman ayid Secretary), Professor F. E. 
Japp, Professor J. J. Dobbie, and Mr. Alexander Lauder, 
appointed to investigate the Relation between the Absorption Spectra 
and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. 

The Committee has been occupied with two distinct branches of its work, 
each of which has demanded a large share of attention. First, the spectra 
and constitution of phloroglucinol and of substances derived therefrom, as 
being intimately connected with tautomerism. Secondly, the absorption 
curve of quinone and substances of a like nature, as being connected with 
the view that quijione has a special structure, and that all organic colour- 
ing matters are constructed on the same type. 

Part I. — The Absorption Spectra of Phloroglucinol and some of its Deri- 
vatives. By W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, F.R.S., James J. Dobbie, D.Sc, 
M.A., and Alexander Lauder, B.Sc} 

Phloroglucinol reacts with some reagents as a phenol, with others as a 
ketone. When heated with phenyl-isocyanate in benzene solution it yields 
a tricarbanilide derivative, C6H3(0-CO-NH-C6H.,)3, and when alkyl- 
ated under certain conditions it gives derivatives which are re<^arded as 
true ethers, since their alkyl groups are split off by heating with hydrogen 
iodide. On the other hand, it reacts with hydroxylamine with formation 
of a trioxime, and forms alkylated derivatives, from which the alkyl 
groups are not split oflf by boiling with hydrogen iodide. It is impossible, 
therefore, from its chemical behaviour to decide whether the oxygen atoms 
of phloroglucinol are present in enolic or ketonic groups ; that is to say, 
whether it possesses the structure (I.) or (IL) — 

C(OH) CO 

HC^'^CH HaC/^CHj 



(HO)C^^C . (OH) OC . 

CH CH 



CO 



IT. 



If it possesses the structure represented by (I.) its absorption spectra 
should closely resemble the spectra of the trimethyl ether, M.P. 52° which 
is decomposed by boiling with hydrogen iodide. If, on the other hand it 
possesses the structure represented by (TL), its spectra should resemble 
those of the alkyl derivatives which are not decomposed under this treat- 
ment. 

Before comparing the absorption spectra of phloroglucinol and its alkyl 
derivatives we deemed it advisable to examine specimens of phloroglucinol 
from as many different sources as possible, and for this purpose specimens 
were prepared from (1) kino, (2) maclurin, (3) resorcinol, (4) phenol, and 

' Chem. Soc. Trans., August 1903. 



100 REPORT— 1902. 

(5) phloroglucinol tricarboxylic ester. As the melting-point of phloro- 
glucinol is variously stated at temperatures ranging from 210-217°, we 
made a careful comparison of all our pure preparations with the view of 
determining whether specimens obtained from different sources really 
differ from one another as regards this property, or whether the diffei'ences 
observed are merely due, as stated by Baeyer,' to the various determina- 
tions not having been made under the same conditions. We first com- 
pared several specimens of phloroglucinol from kino which had been 
carefully purified by recrystallisation, and found that when slowly heated 
side by side they melted at 210°, and when quickly heated at 217°. All 
the other specimens when heated side by side with the specimens from 
kino behaved in the same way. 

The absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of all the five specimens 
vrere photographed, and the curves on comparison were found to be 
practically identical. It may therefore be regarded as definitely estab- 
lished that phloroglucinol from whatever source obtained has always the 
same structure. 

On comparing the spectra of phloroglucinol with those of the trim ethyl 
ether, M.P. 52°, the resemblance between them was found to be so close as 
to leave no doubt as to the enolic structure of phloroglucinol, assuming 
that the ether itself possesses this structui-e. 

Furthermore, the resemblance is so close that it is impossible to 
suppose that the phloroglucinol contains any appreciable quantity of sub- 
stance with a ketonic structure.- 

Both phloroglucinol and its trimethyl ether show a selective absorp- 
tion, the absorption band, however, not being strongly mai-ked. If phloro- 
glucinol possessed the ketonic structure the absorption band would be 
entirely absent since diketohexamethylene, a substance of similar structure 
to the ketonic derivatives of phloroglucinol, shows only general absorption.-^ 

CO 



HoC 



CR.2 
CH, 



CO 

Diketohesameth)'lene. 

On the other hand, the presence of an absorption band is characteristic 
of substances having the true benzenoid structure ; confirmation of this 
conclusion is aftbrded by the great similarity which exists between the 
spectra of phloroglucinol and those of pyrogallol, a substance which 
exhibits no ketonic reactions.^ The spectra of pyrogallol were described 
by Hartley and Huntington,'' but as the method of representation 
employed at that time was different from that now adopted, we have 
rephotographed the spectra and redrawn the curve to facilitate comparison 
with phloroglucinol. For the same reason we include in this paper an 
account of the re-examination of the absorption spectra of phenol.^ 

' Jier., 19, 218C. 

' Chem. Soo. Trans., 1899, 75, 640; 1900, 77, 830. 

3 Ibid., 1898. 73, .598. 

* Baeyer, Ber., 19, 163. 

5 Hartley and Huntington, PMl. Trans., Part I., 1879, 257, 

" Hartley and Huntington, he. cit. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 101 

We have also rephotographed and remeasured the absorption spectra 
of quinol, resorcinol, and pyrocatechol, which were described by Hartley 
in 1888.' The agreement between the new and old series of measure- 
ments is so close, although taken from photographs of the spectra of 
different preparations and photographed with different instruments, after 
an interval of fourteen years, that we have not thought it necessary to 
repeat an account of them in this paper. 

On comparing the mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy- derivatives it will be 
observed that while the spectra of the mono- and di- derivatives agree 
very closely, those of phenol and pyrocatechol being almost identical, the 
spectra of the tri-hydroxy-derivatives differ from the others in showing 
less general absorption and in having the absorption band much less 
distinctly marked. 

Experimental Part, 

Phloroglucinol. — The specimens of phloroglucinol which we examined 
were obtained from five different sources. 

(1) Specimens prepared from kino were obtained from Merck and from 
Schuchardt. Both preparations were supplied to us in beautiful scaly 
crystals, which were practically colourless, and behaved in exactly the 
same way when heated side by side. They were recrystallised repeatedly 
from water before being photographed. 

(2) Commercial phloroglucinol, prepared by Schuchardt from resorcinol, 
was purified by the method given by Will^ and Skraup.^ The purification 
was completed by boiling with charcoal and crystallising repeatedly from 
water. The specimen was then tested for diresorcin by dissolving in 
concentrated sulphuric acid and heating the solution in the water-bath 
with acetic anhydride. No violet coloration was produced."* All the 
specimens of commercial phloroglucinol used in the course of this investi- 
gation were purified by the above method. 

(3) Phloroglucinol was prepared from the tricarboxylic ester by 
fusion with potassium hydroxide.'^ The specimen obtained by this method 
crystallised very readily in beautiful plates, which, after being recrystallised 
several times, had the correct melting-point. 

(4) The method given by Barth and Schreder ^' was employed in the 
preparation of a fourth specimen. Phenol was melted with six times its 
weight of sodium hydroxide, and heated until the evolution of hydrogen 
ceased. The fused mass was acidified with dilute sulphuric acid, and the 
phloroglucinol extracted with ether. The yield of phloroglucinol was 
small. So far as we could detect, its properties were identical with those 
of the other specimens which we examined. It melted at the same tem- 
perature as the specimens from kino when the determinations were 
carried out side by side. Its absorption spectra were also identical with 
those of the specimens from kino. If, as stated by Gautier,^ an isomer of 
phloroglucinol is obtained by fusing phenol with soda, it is certain that 
phloroglucinol is likewise one of the products of the reaction. 

(5) A fifth specimen was prepared from maclurin by fusion with 
potassium hydroxide according to the method described by Hlasiwetz 
and Pfaundler.* 

» Chem. Soc. Trans., 1888, 53, 641. » Ber., 18, 1323. 

» Monatshefte, 10, 724. * Herzig and Zeisel, Monatshefte, 1890, 11, 421. 

» Baeyer, Beo:, 18, 3454. « ;Ber., 1879, 12, 417. 

' Bull. Soc. Chim., 33, 585. » A)m., 127, 351. 



102 



REPORT — 1902. 



The absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of all the specimens of 
phloroglucinol described above were photographed, and, on comparison, 
found to be identical. The measurements were actually taken and the 
curve drawn from the photographs of the specimen prepared from resorcin 
and purified by Skraup's method. 

A layer 50 mm. thick of a solution containing 1 milligram molecule in 



Curves of Molecular Vlbralio7is. — ^(1) Phloroglucinol; (2) Trimethylphloroglucinol. 



-L 


I 
-L 


z 


3 4 

1 


S 6 

' '1 


7 
1 1 


B 

.1 


^ 


KH), 

1 1 1 


1 


3 

\ 


1 


6 


7 8 

< 1 1 


_L_L 


1 


1 


3 


\ 
1 


s 


5 










1 












































t;r 




































_ 






5 


^ 














































<- — 


— 




P) 


'U 


Rl 


•- 






<- 


- 7; 


viierrt^n 












^ 








■6 


iO 


a 


vc 


c 






/V 


'10 


Rl 


61 


(ft 


m 


% 










^ 










































% 


!< 










































^ 


^ 










































^" 












































^ 


i ' 










































i' 


\ 










































1 


. 






\ 




































(5 








\ 




































•^ 








\ 




































>.' 


4 










































■k 


^ 










































^^ 


:k 










































^. 


^ 










































^j.. 


Q 










































<SM 


\^ 










































"i^l 


\ 










































^ t 
























\ 




















H 


5 










































1=^ 


& 










































fl^ 


; 2 


















1 




I 




















s^ 






1 


















\ 


























1 
1 














s 


^ / 


\ 


























1 
1 


















\ 
























^ -- 


1 






































1 


, / 


































"" 








■1 


4 










\ 






















~ 


~ 








fi 


\^ 










\ 






















~ 


~ 








f§ 


! 2 












N 






























■5 


■ / 














\ 










■^ 


■^ 












_ 




_i 







































20 c.c water absorbs all rays beyond ^j\ 3323 (\=3009), while a layer 
5 mm. thick of the same solution absorbs all rays beyond ^ IX 3568 
(\=2802). 

The absorption band is not strongly marked : it appears first in the layer 
1 mm. thickfof the'^solution containing 1 milligram-molecule in 20 c.c. 
water, and nearly dies out in the layer 2 mm. thick of the solution con- 
taining 1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c, although its position is still 
distinctly traceable by the weakness of the spectra in solutions of greater 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



103 



dilution. The absorption spectra of phloroglucinol in aqueous and alcoholic 
solutions are identical. 

Phloroglucinol trimethyl ether. — This compound "was prepared by 
saturating a solution of pure phloroglucinol in methyl alcohol with hydro 
chloric acid gas, and subsequently treating the dimethyl ether so obtained 

Curves of Molecular Vibratmu. — (3) Pyrogallol ; (4) Phenol. 



Scale ofOsaUedio/v 


-/rapimcuif 


























1 


5 

1 


1 


> < 


I- 6 < 

1 1 


5 7 { 

J__l_ 


1 


,40 


00 

1 


\ 


1 


J 4 


S < 

1 1 


1 


1 ( 

1 


) £ 

1 


1 


1 


2 3 

1 


A 
1 


1 


> ( 

1 


5 








A. 














































■o 














































to 














































^ 


. 












































■!i 














































^ 














































1 


















i 


Pi, 


/£ 


m 


£ 




















5^ 


<r 


-fiYR 


06 


Al 


m 


I 
































% 














































t 


Y 


\J_ 










































■1 
















































1 












































(« 














































i:' 


v-i 












































^ 


^ 


4 










































•> 


?> 


\ 




























\ 














V 


^ 


\ 




























\ 














t, 


^ 




i 


























\ 














^ 


t 












































<? 


.^ 


3 




























\ 














'^ 


1 








\ 




















/ 


\ 














t; 


! 








\ 




















/ 


\ 








1 






i 


1 


























i 


















% 


1* 


























/ 


















^ 


^^ 


Z 








\ 
















' 




















s. 






1 








































1 






1 


































■ 






1 
1 






1 








































\ 






1 








































1 


/ 




1 








































^ 


4 




1 






\ 






1 






1 








\ 














(j 


3 












\, 




1 














1 














^. 


2 












\ 


( 


N. 


, _ 


,^ 










\ 














5^ 


/ 














\ 


















1 












^ 









































with methyl iodide and potassium hydroxide dissolved in methyl alcohol.^ 
The product is an oil which quickly solidifies to beautiful colourless 
prisms, M.P. 52-5°. 

The spectra of this substance in alcoholic solution were photographed, 
and the compound itself was afterwards recovered from the alcoholic 
solution and found to be unaltered. The spectra are practically identical 
with those of phloroglucinol, as will be seen from a comparison of the 
measurements and curves. 

' Will, £er., 21, 603. 



104 



HEPORT— 1902. 



Pyrogallol. — A specimen of pyrogallol obtained from Schuchardt was 
purified by ciystallisation. lb melted at 132-134°. It was photo- 
graphed in aqueous solution, and gave spectra very similar to those of 
phloroglucinol ; the amount of general absorption is slightly greater ; the 
absorption band, which occupies the same position, is somewhat narrower, 
and dies out at the same degree of dilution as in the case of phloro- 
glucinol. 

Phenol. — The specimen employed was prepared from the purest sali- 
cylic acid by distillation with lime, B.P. 182°. The salicylic acid, 
' physiologically pure,' was kindly presented for the purpose of this inves- 
tigation by Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges, and Co. It has been shown by 
Hartley ' that the natural salicylic acid, and that prepared by Klobe's pro- 
cess but purified by recrystallising the calcium salt and separating the 
acid, are identical in physical and chemical properties. 



PHLOEOGLUCINOt. 

C,H3(OH)3 [1:3: 5]. M.P. 210-217°. 
Prepared from resorcin and purified by Skraup's method. 



Thickness of 




1 




laj'er of liquid 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


in millimetres 




A 






1 milligranfmolccnle in 20 c.c. water. 




50 and 25 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3323 


3009 


20 and 15 


>» n ... 


3362 


2974 


10 


U J» ... 


3521 


2840 


5, 4, 3, 2 


)* »* ... 


3568 


2802 


I 


H )' ... 


3)J38 


2748 




Absorption band 


3638-3886 


2748-2573 




Line at 


3886 


2573 




1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c. water. 




5 and 4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3638 


2748 




Absorption band . , . ■ ■ 


3638-3886 


2748-2573 




Line at . 


3886 


2573 


3 


Same as 4, but with very faint indica- 








tion of spectrum from 


3886-4117 


2573-2248 


2 


Spectrum continuous to 


3638 


2748 




Absorption band 


3638-3886 


2748-2573 




Lines showing in absorption band at . 


369Li, 3824 


2707,2615 




Weak spectrum transmitted from . 


3886-4133 


2573-2419 


1 


Spectrum practically continuous to 
But still weak in the position of the 
absorption band. 


4133 


2419 




1 milligram-molecule in 500 c.c. water. 




5 


Spectrum practically continuous to 
But still weak in the position of the 
absorption band. 


4133 


2419 


4 and 3 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4175 


2395 


2 


»i )» ... 


4320 


2314 


1 


!1 11 ... 


4421 


2261 



» Hartley, Cliem. Soc. Trans., 1888, 63, 664, 



ON ABSOEPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONStlTtJTtON. 105 



TRIMETHTLPHLOROGLUCINOLi 

CeH3(0-CH3)3 [1:3; 5]. M.P. 52°. 



Thickness of 




1 




layer of liquid 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


in millimetres 




A. 






1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c. alcoJtol. 




25 


Spectrum continuous to . . . ! 3534 


2829 


20, 15, 10 


)» J) ' • 




3568 


2802 


5 and 4 


') )» • • 




3638 


2748 




Ahsorption hand .... 




3638-3886 


2748-2573 




Line at 




3880 


2573 


3 


Spectrum continuous to 




3638 


2748 




Absorjjtion band .... 




3638-3886 


2748-2673 




Lines showing in absorption band at 




3694 


2707 




and 


3824 


2615 




Very faint indications of spectrum 








beyond 


3886 


2r,73 


2 


Spectrum practically continuous to 
Still weak in position of absorption 


4038 


2476 


1 


LfCtLILl. 

Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4133 


2419 




1 vdlligram-molecule in 500 c.c. alcohol. 




5, 4, 3 and 2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4133 


2419 


' 


i» )» ... 


4421 


22G1 



PrEOGiLLOL. 

0,H3(OH)3 [1:2: 3]. M.P. 132-134° 



Thickness of 




1 




layer of liquid 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


in millimetres 




A. 






1 milligram-molecule in 20 c.c. wat 


er. 




25 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3386 


2954 


20 and 15 


)» i» )» • • • 


3474 


2878 


10 


If )!»»■•• 


3491 


2864 


5 1 
4, 3, 2 i 


>> )> M ' ■ • 


3521 


2840 


1 


») )»»»••• 


3568 


2802 




1 milligram-'molecule in 100 c.c. n-a 


^er. 




5 and 4 


Spectrum continuous to ... 


3568 


2802 


3 


»> )i »» • • • 


3638 


2748 




Absorption band ..... 


3638-3886 


2748-2573 




Line at 


3886 


2573 


2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3638 


2748 




Absorption band 


3638-3824 


2748-2615 




Very weak spectrum from . 


3824-4125 


2615-2424 




Line showing in absorption band at 


3694 


2707 


1 


Spectrum practically continuous to 
But still wea,k in the position of the 
absorption band. 


4125 


2424 



106 



REPORT — 1902. 
Pyeoqallol — continued. 



Thickness of 






1 




layer of liquid 


Description of Spectrum 




A 


A 


in millimetres 










1 miUiffravi-molecule in 500 c.c. water. 






5 


Spectrum practically continuous to 
But still weak in the position of the 
absorption band. 




4125 


2424 


i 


Spectram continuous to . . . 
But still weak in the position of the 
absorption band. 




4165 


2400 


3 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 




4297 


2327 


2 


)» j» ?i • • • 




4321 


2314 


1 


5) J) )I • • • 




4405 


2270 



Phenol. 
C,H5(0H). B.P. 182°. 



Thickness of 




1 




layer of liquid 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


in millimetres 




A. 






1 milligram-molecule, in 20 c.c. alcoi 


kol. 




25 and 20 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3179 


3145 


15 


.» J* >) . 




3179 


3145 




Faint prolongation to . 




3240 


3086 


10 and 5 


Spectrum continuous to 




3295 


3034 


4 and 3 


)1 »i M 




3323 


3009 


2 


)» »» ). . 




3354 


2981 




1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c. alec 


?wl 




6 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3429 


2916 




Lines showing very faintly at 


4125 


2424 




and 


4245 


2355 


4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3429 


2916 




Jbsorjjtinn bavfl . 




3429-4112 


2916-2431 




Spectrum continuous to 




4112-4125 


2431-2424 


3 


11 »» V 




3491 


2864 




Absorption hand . 




3491-4112 


2864-2431 




Spectrum continuous from 




4112-4245 


2431-2355 


2 


„ „ to 




3521 


2840 




Absorption band . 




3521-3886 


2840-2573 




Spectrum continuous from 




3886-4321 


2573-2314 




1 milligram-molecule in 500 c.c. alco 


hoi. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3527 


2835 




Absorption band ..... 


3527-3824 


2835-2615 




Lines showing in absorption band at . 


3568 


2802 




and 


3638 


2748 




Spectrum continuous from . 


3824-4321 


2615-2314 


4 


„ „ to . . . 


3527 


2835 




Absorption band ..... 


3527-3824 


2835-2615 




Lines showing in absorption band at . 


3568 


2802 




and 


3638 


2748 


3 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3824-4368 


2615-2289 




,, practically continuous to 


4368 


2289 




But still very weak in the position of 








the absorption band. 






2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4413 


2266 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA ANt) CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 107 



Paet II. — On the Curves of Molecular Vibrations of Quinone^ 
Tp- If^itroso-jjhenol, and similarly derived Stibstances. 

The absorption spectra of quinone, j;-nitroso-phenol (quinouoxime), have 
recently been investigated by Messrs. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder, not 
only with a view to obtaining information on the subject of the consti- 
tution of these substances as represented by tlie different formulse which 
have been proposed for them, but also to determine whether there was any 
special character in the absorption curves of substances of the quinone 
type common to and distinctive of all coloured substances and dyes, 
which could be conceived to be connected with some peculiarity in their 
structure. There are some features which the three absorption curves of 
quinone, jo-nitroso-phenol, and quinone dioxime show in common, and 
jj-nitroso-phenol appeal's to stand in an intermediate position between the 
other two. It may be the case that in a substance with such a constitution 
as that represented by the following formula the oxygen is so condensed 



II 

/^\ 
HC CH 

II II 

HC CH 

\c/ 



in the molecule that it forms a new kind of ring which possesses special 
absorption properties resembling a modification of the benzene nucleus, but 
differing chiefly in the greatly increased intensity of the absorption. 

If such a structural constitution is a reality the facts in support of it 
have yet to be discovered. On the other hand, the formulae for quinone 
may very well be written in a manner similar to that of ozone, a substance 
which gives both a general and a selective absorption of a powerful 
character, and which possesses a deep blue colour. If one atom of oxygen 

in ozone (\___\ be replaced by the benzene residue C^H^ we have 
quinone as represented according to the peroxide formula 

CoH / I 
^O 

In point of fact the peculiarity of the quinone absorption curve is that 
it contains two broad absorption bands shown at different stages of 
dilution, and if we compare the curve of phenol with that of quinone, and 
also with the absorption spectrum of ozone, we perceive how the atoms of 
oxygen have modified the spectrum of the pheaol. There is this much of 
similarity between them, that if we can suppose benzene and ozone to be 
exerting a mutual action on their molecular and intramolecular vibrations, 



108 



rEpoM— 1902. 



and then form a judgment from what has been observed as to the effect of 
substitution in the benzene ring in a large number of instances, we can 
conceive of the change in their combined spectra resulting in a curve 
not dissimilar from that of quinone, the benzene residue C^H^ being 
united to O.^, as in the preceding formula. 

The following alternative formulpe have been proposed for ^j-nitroso- 
phenol, quinone, and the related substances quinone chlorimide, quinone 
dichloriraide, and quinone dioxime. The chemical arguments by which 
these alternate formulEc are supported are sufficiently well known ; they 
are generally regarded as inconclusive. 





jj-Nitro30- 
phenol 


Quinone 
Chlorimide 


Quinone 
Dichlorimide 


Quinone 
Dioxime 


Quinone 




a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


I. 


/OH 

c«h/ 
\no 


— 




_ 


— 


ir. 


CaH / 1 

\n.oh 


C.H,/ 1 

\nci 


/NCI 
C.H/ 1 
\NC1 


/NOH 

c.h / 1 

\NOH 


\o 


III. 


^n.oh 


^•"'C 


^NCl 


//NOH 
C„H,^ 

^NOH 





If the formulae II. are accepted, the substances have the benzenoid 
structure ; whereas, if the formulae III. are accepted, they all contain 
partially I'educed benzene nuclei. So far all the substances containing 
partially or completely reduced nuclei ' which have been examined differ 
from those containing unreduced nuclei in giving absorption spectra which 
show no bands ; i.e., they behave like open chain compounds. If this rule 
is of general application, and if we assume that nitroso-phenol, quinone, &c., 
are correctly represented by formulae III., they should show only general 
absorption. But as a matter of fact the spectra of all the bodies show 
well-marked absorption bands. Their spectroscopic examination, therefore, 
favours the peroxide rather than the ketonic theory of their constitu- 
tion. 

On comparing the curves of the various substances with one another, 
it will be seen that there is a considerable amount of agreement between 
the curves of quinone dichlorimide and quinone dioxime, and between 
those of quinone chloi'imide and quinone dichlorimide, the differences 
between them being such as were to be anticipated from the differences 
in their composition. 

The spectra of quinone, on the other hand, differ widely from the 
others, and it is impossible in the present state of our knowledge of the 
subject to say whether this difference is due to the difference in composi- 
tion or to some structural difference. We had hoped, from a comparison 
of the spectra of quinone chlorimide and p-nitroso-phenol, to be able to 



' Hartlej% Chem. Sue. Tra>is., 1885, 47, 685; Hartley and Dobbie, ibid., 1900, 
77, 846. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



109 



decide with certainty as to whether the constitution of the latter sub- 
stance should be represented by the formula T. or II. If it differs only 
from quinone chlorimide by 

the substitution of OH for Curves of Molecular Vibrations.— {5) Quinone 
CI, we should expect at least 
as close a resemblance be- 
tween the spectra of the two 
bodies as between the spectra 
of quinone dioxime and 
quinone dichlorimide, seeing 
that the difference in both 
cases would consist merely 
in the substitution of OH 
for CI. The difference, how- 
ever, is considerably greater 
in the one case than in the 
other, as will be seen by 
I'eference to the diagrams. 

Though we do not regard 
the evidence as conclusive, 
we are of opinion that it 
does not favour the repi'e- 
sentation of /(-nitroso-phenol 
by a formula analogous to 
that of quinone chlorimide. 

The chemical properties 
of quinone are as much 
those of a peroxide as of a 
ketone ; for instance, under 
the influence of sunlight it 
oxidises alcohol to aldehyde, ' 
while it undergoes reduction 
to quinol. 

In like manner it oxidises 
isopropyl alcohol to acetone. 
It acts upon polyhydric 
aliphatic alcohols, producing 
sugar-like substances, such 
as were obtained by E. 
Fischer by the action of 
alkaline hypobromites ; for 
instance, from mannitol is 
obtained mannitose. 

Experimental Part. 

Quinone. — The specimen 
of quinone which we ex- 
amined was prepared in the 
usual way by the oxidation 
of aniline. The absorption 
spectra of its aqueous solu- 

' Gjamician and Silber, Ber., 1901, 34, 1350. 



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REPORT — 1902. 



tion shows two well-marked absorption bands. The first band appears 
in the layer five millimetres thick of the solution containing one milligram- 
molecule in 100 c.c. water. 

The second band first appears in the layer two millimetres thick of the 
solution containing one milligram-molecule in 500 c.c. water, and is still 
distinctly traceable in the layer three millimetres thick of the solution 
containing one milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. water. 

\)-Nitroso-2ihenol. — This substance was prepared by the action of 
nitrous acid on phenol. The absorption spectra of alcoholic solutions 



Curves of Molecular Vibrations. — (6) ^-Nitroso-phenol, 
Scal&cfGfaliccfw/v fmffiouzes 



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were photographed. The general absorption is considerably greater than 
in the case of quinone dichiorimide. 

The layer two millimetres thick of the solution containing Tone 
miUigram-molecule in 100 c.c. absorbs all rays beyond '■/X 2500 (\ = 

In the layer four millimetres thick of the solution containing one milli- 
gram-molecule in 500 c.c. the spectrum is transmitted to VX 2714 
(A == 3684). ' 

At this dilution a wide absorption band begins to appear, which is 
still traceable in a layer one millimetre thick of a solution containing one 
milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c. 

A second less persistent absorption band lying between '/A 3886 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



Ill 



(\ = 2573) and ^/X 4321 (X = 2314), appeai-s in the layer three millimetres 
thick of the solution containing one milligram-molecule in 500 c.c, and 
has nearly disappeared in the layer two millimetres thick of the same 
solution. 

Quinone chlorimide. — A specimen of this substance was obtained by 
reducing ;t?-nitro-phenol with tin and hydrochloric acid, and afterwards 
oxidising the /j-amido-phenol thus obtained with an aqueous solution of 
bleaching powder. The golden-yellow crystals melted at 85°. The 
absorption spectra were photographed in alcoholic solution. The general 
absorption is considerably less than in the case of nitroso-phenol ; a layer 



[ Curves of Molecular Vibratio7is. — (7) Quinone Chlorimide. 



-^7 

,1, 


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two millimetres thick of a solution containing one milligram-molecule in 
100 c.c. absorbs all rays beyond V^. 2884 (\ = 3467). 

In the corresponding layer of the solution containing one milligram- 
molecule in 500 c.c. the spectrum is transmitted to ^/A 3148 (=3176), 
beyond which the rays are absorbed up to ^/A 4321 (\ = 2314). 

The absorption band, which begins to appear at this dilution, can still 
be traced in the layer three millimetres thick of the solution containing 
one milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. 

Quinone dioxime. — This substance was prepared by the action of 
hydroxylamine hydrochloride on hydroquinone. 

It melted with decomposition at 240°. Its absorption spectra in 
filcoholic solution were photographed. 



112 



EEPORT — 1902. 



A layer two millimetres thick of a solution containing one milligram- 
molecule in 100 c.c. transmits the spectrum to ^/k 2744 (\ = 3644), beyond 
which point there is complete absorption to '/A 4321 (\ = 2314). 

The absorption band, which begins here, is very well marked and 
persistent, being still traceable in a layer three millimetres thick of a 
solution containing one milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. 

Quinone dichlorimide. — This substance was prepared from the hydro- 
chloride of ;;-phenylene diamine by oxidation with bleaching powder. It 
decomposed at 124^. Its absorption spectra in alcoholic solution were 
photographed. 



Curves of Molecular Vibrations. — (8) Quinone Dichlorimide. 



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A layer two millimetres thick of the solution containing one milligram- 
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solution containing one milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. 

The amount of general absorption is very nearly the same as in the 
case of quinone dioxime, but the absorption band does not make its 
appearance so soon and is not so wide, although it is as persistent as the 
band of the dioxime. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



113 



Curves of Molecular Vibrations. — (9) Quinone Dioxime. 



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1902. 



114 



BEPORT — 1902. 



Qtjinonb. 



Thickness of 
layer of liquid 
in millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



4 
3 



4 and 3 
2 and 1 



1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c. water. 

Spectrum continuous to . . 3148 

1st Absorj)tio7i hand .... 3148-3568 

Kays feebly transmitted . . 3568-3638 
Spectrum continuous to . . 3175 

1st Absorption hand .... 3175-3568 

Rays feebly transmitted . . 3568-3638 
Spectrum continuous to . . 3355 

1st Absorption band .... 3355-3471 

Rays transmitted . . . 3471-3693 

Spectrum practically continuous 

to 3693 

Still weak in position of absorp- 
tion band. 
Spectrum continuous to , . 3754 

1 milUgram-itwlecttle in 500 c.c. water. 



Spectrum continuous to 



2nd Absorption band 

Line at . 

Spectrum continuous to 
2nd Absorption hand 

Spectrum transmitted . 



3754 

3824 
3824-4411 

4411 

3816 
3816-4321 
4321-4656 



1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c. water. 



Spectrum continuous to 
2nd Absorption band 

Rays transmitted . . 

Spectrum continuous to 
2nd Absorption hand 

Rays transmitted . 

Spectrum continuous to 
2nd Absorption band 

Rays transmitted . 

Spectrum continuous practically 
to 

Still very weak in position of 
absorption band. 



3816 
3816-4321 
4321-4656 

3886 
3886-4306 
4306-4656 

3886 
3886-4240 
4240-4656 

4656 



1 milUgram-moleoide in 12,500 c.c. water. 

Spectrum practically continuous 
to 

Still very weak in position of 
absorption band No. 2. 

Same as 6. 

Spectrum practically all trans- 
mitted. 



4656 



3176 
3176-2802 
2802-2748 

3149 
3149-2802 
2802-2748 

2980 
2980-2881 
2881-2707 

2707 



2663 



2663 

2615 
2615-2267 

2267 

2620 
2620-2314 
2314-2147 



2620 
2620-2314 
2314-2147 

2573 
2573-2322 

2322-2147 

2573 
2673-2368 
2358-2174 

2174 



2147 



ON ABSORFTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL, CONSTITUTION. Uo 

prNlTEOSO-PHEyOL. 

CeH^.OH.NO. 



Thickness in 
layer of liquid 
in millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



20 
15 
10 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



1 milligram-violecule In 100 c.c. alcohol. 



Spectrum continuous to 



us to 




2354 


4248 


!» 




2462 


4061 


but stronger 


to 


2462 


4061 


to 




2502 


3996 


»» • 




2502 


3996 


»t 




2673 


3741 



1 milli gram-mole oule in 500 c.c. alcohol. 



Spectrum continuous to 

»i »f )» • 

1st Absorption hand 

Line showing feebly at 

Spectrum continuous to 
1st Ahsorptio)i hand 

Rays transmitted . 
2nd Absorption band 

Spectrum weak towards end 

Spectrum continuous to 
1st Absorption hand 

Spectrum transmitted from . 
2nd Absorption band 

Lines showing at . 



Rays transmitted from . 
The latter part very weak and 
consisting of single lines only. 
Spectrum continuous to 
1st Absorption band 

Rays transmitted from . 



2673 

2714 
2714-3886 

3886 

2768 
2768-3824 
3824-3886 
3886-4321 
4321-4555 

2768 
2768-3824 
3824-3886 
3886-4306 

4119 

4128 

4245 
4306-4656 



2982 
2982-3568 

3568-4656 



1 milligram-moleciile in 2,500 c.c. alcohol. 



Spectrum continuous to 
1st Absorption band 

Eays transmitted from . 

Spectrum continuous to 
1st Absorption hand 

Rays transmitted from . 

Spectrum continuous to 
1st Absorption hand 

Rays transmitted from . 

Spectrum practically continuous to 

But still weak in position of ab 
sorption band. 

Same as 2, but stronger. 



2982 
2982-3568 
3568-4656 

.3064 
3064-3568 
3568-4656 

3148 
3148-3491 
3491-4656 

4656 



3741 

3684 
3684-2573 

2573 

3612 
3612-2615 
2615-2573 
2573-2314 
2314-2195 

3612 
3612-2615 
2615-2573 
2573-2322 

2427 

2422 

2355 
2322-2147 



3353 
3353-2802 

2802-2147 



3353 
3353-2802 

2802-2147 

3263 
3263-2802 
2802-2147 

3176 
3176-28S4 
28G4-2147 

2117 



U6 



KEPOET — 1902. 



Qtjinone Ohloeimide. 
CeH^O.N.Cl. M.P. 85°. 



Thickness of 
layer of liquid 
in millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



5.4 

2f 

1 



1 milligrmn-moleculn in 100 c.c. alcohol. 



Spectrum continuous to 



2768 


3612 


2884 


3467 


3064 


3263 



1 milliffram-molecule i» 500 c.c. alcohol. 



5 and 4 



4 
3 

2 
1 



5,4,3 
2,1 



Spectrum continuous to 




1 3064 


3263 


,, ,, ,, • 




3148 


3176 






3148 


3176 


Ahsorption hand . 




3148-4321 


3176-2314 


Eays freely transmitted from 




4321-4408 


231')-2268 


Spectrum continuous to 




3295 


3034 


Absorjjtion band . 




3295-3886 


3034-2873 


Rays freely transmitted . 




3886-1530 


2573-2207 



1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c. alcohol 

Spectrum continuous to . . . 3295 

Absorption band 3295-3886 

Eays freely transmitted from . . 3886-4530 
Spectrum continuous to . . . 3295 

Absorption band 3298-3816 

Eays freely transmitted from . . 3816-4530 
Spectrum continuous to . . . 3323 

Absorption band 3323-3816 

Eays freely transmitted . . . 3816-4555 
Spectrum continuous to . . . 3323 

Absorption band 3323-3821 

Rays transmitted .... 3521-1656 
Spectrum practically all transmitted ; 
still weak in position of absorption 
band. 



1 milUiiram-moleculc in 12,500 c.c. alcohol. 



Spectrum practically all transmitted; 

still weak in position of absorption 

band. 
Continuous spectrum transmitted. 



3031 
3034-2573 
2573-2207 

3034 
3034-2620 
2620-2207 

3009 
3009-2620 
2620-2195 

3009 
3009-2840 
2810-2147 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 117 



Quincke Dioxime. 
OeH.N^COII),. M.P. 240°, 



Thickness of 
layer of liquid 
in millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



X 



20 
15 
10 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



6 

3J 
2 



1 milligram-molecule in 20 c.c. alcohol. 



Spectrum continuous 1 o 



1 milligram-molecule in 100 c. 
Spectrum continuous to 



Absorjjtioii band . 

Rays transmitted 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . 

Kays transmitted from 

1 milligram-molecule in 500 c 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band 

Rays transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . 

Rays transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . 

Rays transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . 

Rays very feebly transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . . . 

Rays transmitted from 

1 milligram-rrwlecule in 2,500 c.c. 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . 

Rays transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous tq 
AbsorptioJi band . 

Rays transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . 

Rays transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band 

Rays transmitted from 

Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption band . 

Rays transmitted from 

(Spectrum nearly-all transmitted.) 



235 1 



2503 

2545 
2673 



c. alcolwl. 



2673 
2714 

2744 
2744-4321 
4321-4413 

2768 
2768-4243 
4243-4413 



c. alcohol. 



2768 
2768-4243 
4243-4413 

2768 
2768-4112 
4112-4534 

2791 
2791-4112 
4112-4555 

2791 
2791-3886 
3886-4656 

2881 
2884-3824 
3824-4656 



alcohol. 



2884 
2884-3824 
3824-4656 

2884 
2884-3638 
3638-4656 

2982 
2982-3521 
3521-4656 

3063 
3063-3470 
3470-4656 

3148 
3148-3295 
3295-4656 



4248 



3995 

3929 
8741 



3741 
3684 

3644 
3644-2314 
2314-2266 

3612 
3612-2356 
2356-2266 



3612 
3612-2356 
2356-2266 

3612 
3612-2431 
2431-2205 

3582 
3582-2431 
2431-2195 

3582 
3582-2573 
2573-2147 

3467 
3467-2615 
2615-2147 



3467 
3467-2615 
2615-2147 

3467 
3467-2748 
2748-2147 

3353 
3363-2840 
2840-2147 

3264 
3264-2881 
2881-2147 

3176 
3176-3034 
3034-2147 



m 



JtfiPORT— 1902. 
QuiNONE BioxiUB— continued. 



Thickness of 
laj'er of liquid 
ill millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



1 

A 



4 
3 



1 milligram'moleGule in 12,500 c.c. alcohol. 

Spectrum continuous to . , . 3148 

AbsorjMon hand 3148-3295 

Rays transmitted from . . . 321)5-4656 
(Spectrum nearly all transmitted.) 
Spectrum practically all transmitted ; 

still weak in position of absorption 

band. 
Spectrum practically all transmitted ; 

still weak in position of absorption 

band. 

Spectrum all transmitted . 



3176 
3176-3034 
3084-2147 



QuiNONE DiCHIORIMIDE. 

CgH.N.Clo. M.P. 124°. 



Thickness of 




X 




layer of liquid 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


A 


in millimetres 








1 milligra'm.'Violecule in 100 c.c. alco 


hol. 




1} 


Spectrum continuous to , . . 


2630 


3802 


3 


1) » ... 


2714 


3684 


2 


» 1) ... 


2768 


3612 


1 


II 1} ... 

1 milligram-molecule in 500 c.c. alco 


2795 
kol. 


3577 


61 

4/ 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2795 


3577 


3 


'» »» ... 


2884 


3467 




Absorption hand 


2884-3824 


3467-2616 




Eays very faintly transmitted . 


3824-4128 


2615-2422 


2 


Spectram continuous to . 


2982 


3353 




Ahsnrption hand ..... 


2982-3824 


3353-2615 




Feebly transmitted .... 


3824-4414 


2615-2265 


1 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3047 


3281 




Absorption band ..... 


3047-3638 


3281-2748 




Eays transmitted .... 


3038-4539 


2748-2203 




1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c. ale 


ohol. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to . 


3047 


3281 




Absorption band . 




3047-3638 


3281-2748 




Rays transmitted 




3638-4539 


2748-2203 


4 


Spectrum continuous to 




3064 


3263 




Absorption hand . 




3064-3638 


3263-2748 




Rays transmitted 




3638-4539 


2748-2203 


3 


Spectrum continuous to 




.3064 


3263 




Absorption band . 




3064-3521 


3263-2840 




Eays transmitted . 




3521-4656 


2840-2147 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 
QUINONE DIOHLOBIMIDE — oontiniied. 



119 



Thickness of 




1 




layer of liquid 


Description of Spectrum 


X 


A 


ia millimetres 




rt 




2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3064 


3263 




Absorption band 


3064-3491 


3263-2864 




Rays transmitted .... 


3491-4656 


2864-2147 


I 


Spectrum continuous to . . 


3148 


3176 




Absorptiofi band ..... 


3148-3471 


3176-2881 




Rays feebly transmitted in band at . 


3295 


3034 




and 


3323 


3009 




Spectrum transmitted 


3471 to 4656 


2881 to 2147 




1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. alcohol. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to . 


3148 


3176 




A bsorjjtion band ..... 


3148-3471 


3176.2881 




Rays feebly transmitted in band at . 


3295 


3034 




and 


3323 


3009 




Rays transmitted .... 


3471-4G56 


2881-2147 


4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3148 


3176 




Absorption band 


3148-3478 


3176-2881 




Rays transmitted at . 


3295 


3034 




and 


3323 


3009 




Rays transmitted .... 


3471-4656 


2881-2147 


3 


Spectrum practically all transmitted to 
But still very weak in position of 
absorption band. 


4656 


2147 


2\ 


Spectrum all transmitted ; still weak 






1/ 


in position of absorption band. 







Lastly, it may be remarked that in the report for 1899, p. 345, there are 
some brief observations on the origin of colour and on fluorescence, which 
give a physical explanation of the cause of colour in a hydrocarbon ; 
the observations are illustrated by reference to the constitution of triphenyl 
methane, a compound without any visible colour ; of anthracene, which 
in the state of greatest purity is faintly coloured ; and to bi-diphenylene 
ethylene, which is strongly coloured red. It would be difficult to account 
for these coloured substances by assuming a particular structure for 
quinone, and further assuming that all coloured substances and dyes had 
a structure similar to that of quinone. In connection with this subject 
reference may be made to some recent work of v. Baeyer and Villiger on 
dibenzylidene acetone and triphenyl methane.^ They refer to the constitu- 
tion of colourless substances which form highly coloured salts, and term the 
phenomenon halochromism. The colour is not due to a quinonoid constitution 

<0 



CgH^ 



Ho 



for it is even shared by triphenyl methane ; and, furthermore, these acetone 
derivatives are constituted in an essentially different manner from that of 
quinone and of the dyes and coloured substances formulated upon a 
similar typical structure. 

' Ber., 1902, 35, 1189-1201; also C. Sac. J. Abstr., 1902, vol. i. pp. 112 and 380, 
June 1902. 



120 HEPORf— 1902. 



Hydro-aromcdic Gom'pounds ivith Single Nucleus, 
By Arthur W. Crossley, D.Sc, Fh.D. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.'] 

When hydrogen is added on to benzene, di-, tetra-, and hexa-hydrobenzene 
are obtained, and it has become customary to consider all homologues and 
derivatives of the three above-mentioned hydrocarbons under the name 
' hydro-aromatic compounds.' ^ It is only of comparatively recent years 
that these bodies have been much investigated, stimulus to research being 
found in a knowledge of the fact that many groups of naturally occurring 
substances stand in the closest relationship to the hydro-aromatic bodies, 
notably, the terpenes and camphors, and the hydrocarbons of petroleum. 

Strictly speaking, hydro-aromatic bodies do not come under the heading 
'aromatic compounds ' ; for as soon as two hydrogen atoms are added on 
to the benzene ring the peculiar system of linkage which provides the 
characteristic aromatic properties is destroyed, and the resulting bodies 
exhibit the chemical behaviour of unsaturated aliphatic compounds (com- 
pare p. 131). This remains true when four hydrogen atoms are added 
to benzene, and when six hydrogen atoms are added there result 
hexahydrobenzene derivatives, which are almost identical in chemical 
deportment with the saturated aliphatic compounds. 

In such a brief communication as the present it has been found 
impossible to deal with the enormous amount of recent work on the 
terpenes and camphors, and therefore the subject has been avoided ; 
but in this report an attempt is made to refer to all the most important 
memoirs on the subject of hydro-aromatic compounds containing a single 
nucleus, and it is hoped that the result may prove useful to intending 
workers in this attractive field of research. 

Hydrocarbons. 

Hexahydrobenzene, C(,H,2, and its homologues (naphthenes) occur in 
various kinds of petroleum,'' in the oil from bituminous shales,^ and are 
produced during the ' cracking process.' ■* 

Hexahydrobenzene has been synthesised as follows : — 

(i.) From hexamethylene dibromide and metallic sodium.^ 
(ii.) From hydroxyhexahydrobenzene (p. 123) by converting it into 
iodohexahydrobenzene, and reducing the latter with zinc and acetic acid.** 



/CH2 . CH, ,CH„ . CH„ .CH„ . CH, 



2 



CHj \CH0H CH, \CHI CHj ^CHj 

^CH^ . CH„ NcHj . CHj \CH„ . CH„ 

In the earliest attempts to prepare hexahydrobenzene from various 
benzene and hexahydrobenzene derivatives ^ hydriodic acid was employed 

' The term hydro-aromatic compounds also includes many derivatives of aromatic 
hydrocarbons containing condensed benzene nuclei. 

" Ber., 1895, 28, 577, 1235; Amer. Chem. J., 1897, 19, 374, 419, 796; 1901, 26, 
284; Annalen, 1898, 301, 154 ; J.C.S., 1898, 73, 905, 932. 

» Ber., 1897, 30, 2743. ■• Ber., 1897, 30, 2908. 

* Perkin, Ber., 1894, 27, 216. « Baeyer. Annalen, 1894, 278, 110. 

' Berthelot, Bull. Soc. CMvi., 1867-8; Baeyer, Annalen, 1870, 165, 266 ; Wreden, 
Annalen, 1877, 187, 153; Kistner, J. rim. Chem. Oes., 20 [2], 118. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 121 

as the reducing agent ; but MarkownikofF ' has proved that this reagent 
acts on derivatives of hexahydrobeuzene to produce the isomeric methyl- 
cyclopentane 

^CHj • CHo 
CH3.CH/ I 

\CHj . CHj 

although hexahydrobenzene itself is not acted on in this manner.^ 

(iii.) From a mixture of benzene and hydrogen under the influence of 
reduced nickel.^ 

The properties of hexahydrobenzene are typical of its homologues in 
so far as the latter have been studied. It is a liquid smelling like benzene ; 
on cooling it solidifies, forming crystals (M.P. 6° -4) which, belong to the 
cubic system, and therefore have no action on polarised light, thus differ- 
ing from benzene.* Concentrated nitric acid has no action on it even 
after long standing, and a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids acts very 
slowly at ordinary temperatures, but violently on warming, producing some 
nitro products, but principally adipic acid. Chlorine substitutes, but 
bromine has no action at ordinary temperatures, and at 100° gives rise to 
polybromides of methylcyclopentane.^ 

Physical 2)roperties *^ :— In an interesting paper on the molecular 
volumes and refractive constants of benzene, hydrobenzenes, and six carbon 
open-chain hydrocarbons Bruhl ^ shows that there is no great change in 
these constants in passing from benzene to di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro- 
benzenes, as would be expected if the molecular structure of these bodies 
differed materially, whereas considerable diflTerences are noticed in passing 
from hexahydrobenzene to the open-chain hydrocarbon hexane." 

Substituted hexahydrobenzenes have been synthetised as follows : — 

(i.) From substituted hydroxyhexahydrobenzenes by method (ii.) 
above.^ 

(ii.) From chlorhexahydrobenzene by the action of zinc alkyl com- 
pounds.'" 

(iii.) From substituted benzenes by method (iii.) above. Pure products 
are only obtained from benzene and toluene, the reaction being more 
complicated in the case of higher homologues. 

2Wrahydrobenzene, CqH^q. — "When hydroxyhexahydrobenzene (p. 123) 
is treated with hydrogen bromide, bromohexahydrobenzene is obtained, 
from which quinoline removes the elements of hydrogen bromide, giving 
tetrahydrobenzene.'' 

.CHj . CHj .CHj . CH^ .CH2 . CH 

CHj \cHOH CHj \cHBr CH^ ScH 
"^CHj . CHj \cHj . CH„ \CH„ . CH„ 

' Annahn, 1898, 302, 1. 

- See also Ber., 1895, 28, 1022, 1234, and 1897, 30, 387, 1225; J.C.S., 1898, 73, 
932. 

' Sabatier and Senderens, Compt. Rend., 1901, 132, 1254. 

* 5er., 1901, 34, 2799. » ^/iwaZew, 1898, 302, 1. 

« J.C.S., 1898, 73, 932, and 1900, 77, 372, 846. 

' Ber., 1894, 27. 1065. » See also Stohmann, J.pr. Chem. [2],''48, 447. 

» Zelinsky, Ber., 1895, 28, 781, 1343 ; 1896, 29, 214 ; 1897, 30, 1532 ; 1898, 31, 
3206 ; Knoevenagel, Annalen, 1897, 297, 123. 

'» KursanofF, Ber., 1899, 32, 2972. " Baeyer, Annalen, 1894, 278, 107. 



122 REPORT— 1902. 

It has also been obtained from chlorhexahydrobenzene (from petroleum) 
by eliminating hydrogen chloride/ or by treatment with zinc ethyl.^ 

Tetrahydrobenzene is a colourless liquid, resembling petroleum, with a 
slight odour of garlic. On long standing it resinifies ; it gives a yellow 
colour with sulphuric acid, and yields a liquid dibromide, crystalline 
nitrosochloride, and nitrosate. Physical properties, see infra.^ 

Substituted tetrahydrohenzenes. — In 1896 Knoevenagel ■* described a 
series of hydrocarbons supposed to be dihydrobenzenes, but which, at a 
later date,^ were proved to be tetrahydrobenzenes. They were prepared 
by eliminating the elements of water from hydroxyhexahydrobenzenes 
(see pp. 124, 129) under the influence of phosphorus pentoxide. 

.CHj . CHOH .CH = CH 

\CH2 . CH . CE, \cHj . CH . CH, 

Optically active raethyltetrahydrobenzenes have been described by 
Zelinsky.'^ 

Dihydrobenzene, CgHg. — This hydrocarbon was first prepared by 
Baeyer '^ from 1 : 4-dihydroxyhexahydrobenzene (quinite) (p. 124), which 
with hydrobromic acid gives 1 : 4-dibromohexahydrobenzene. The latter 
readily loses two molecules of hydrogen bromide, yielding dihydrobenzene, 
for which, as Baeyer points out, there are two possible formulie : — 

/CHj . CHj yCHo . CHrt 

HO . CH \CH0H Br , CH ^CHBr 

\CH„ . CHj \cHj . CHj 

„CH - CH .CHj - CH 

CH ^CH or CH ^CH 

\cHj . CHj '^CH - CH^ 

Markownikoff,^ who prepared dihydrobenzene from dichlorhexahydro- 
benzene, obtained from light petroleum,^ considers Baeyer's hydrocarbon 
to be a mixture, as its tetrabromide on crystallisation yields fractions of 
different melting-points. 

Dihydrobenzene is a liquid resembling benzene, but having a marked 
odour of garlic : like the terpenes, it resinifies on exposure to air, and gives 
a blue colour with sulphuric acid. It rapidly decolorises potassium 
permanganate, gives only traces of a crystalline nitrosochloride, a saturated 
hydrobromide and tetrabromide.'" 

Siibstituted dihydrobenzenes can be obtained as follows : — 

(i.) From substituted 1 : 4-dihydroxyhexahydrobenzenes by the above 
method. ' ' 

' Markownikoff, Annalen, 1898, 302, 27 ; Fortey, J.C.S., 1898, 73, 941. 
- Kursanoff, Ber., 1899, 32, 2974. 

' Fortey, supra; also Hartley and Dobbie, J.C.S., 1900, 77, 84. 
■• Annalen, 289, 131. * Annalen, 1897, 297, 113, 

" Ber., 1902, 35, 2492. " Annalen, 1894, 278, 88. 

*> Ibid., 1898, 302, 29. « See also Fortey, J.C.S., 1898, 73, 944, 

■" Baeyer, Annalen, 1894, p. 95. 
" Baeyer, Ber., 1892, 26, 2122 ; and 1893, 26, 232. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 123 

(ii.) From substituted dihydroresorcins (p. 127), which on reduction 
yield dihydric alcohols, and these readily give up the elements of water.' 

yCH, . CO yCHj . CHOH 



C,H,.CH \CH C,H,.CH ^CH, 

\CH.. . COH "^CH^ . CHOH 



,CH = CH ^CH, - CH 

C„H,.CH \CH„ or C„H, . CH ^CH 



'5 



\CH = CH Vh = CH 



(iii.) From substituted dihydroresorcins by treatment with phosphorus 
pentachloride and reduction of the resulting dichlorodihydrobenzenes.^ 
,CH, . CO .CH = CCl yCH = CH 

(CH3),.C \CH (CH3), .0 \CH (CH^X.O ^CH 

\CH„ . C . OH \CH„ - CCl ^CH„ - CH 

(iv.) From the hydi'oxylaminoximes of ketotetrahydrobenzenes, which 
on reduction give diamines, and these on heating with phosphoric acid 
give the hydrocarbons.^ 

^CH - CO .CH., . C = NOII yCH„ . CHNH, 

CH3 . C \CH, CH3 . C . NHOh'^CHj CH3 . C . NH2 \CH2 

\CH„ - CH, \CH, . CH„ ^CH„ . CH, 

^CH - CH 
CH3 . C ^CH 

\CH„ . CH„ 

Methods (ii.) and (iii.) have only been so far worked out in one 
case each, and it cannot be said if they are of general applicability. 
Methods (iii.) and (iv.) possess the advantage of giving pure hydrocarbons, 
as has been shown from a careful study of their oxidation products. 

Alcohols. 

Hydroxyhexahydrobenzene was obtained by Baeyer ■• as a reduction 
product of ketohexahydrobenzene (pimeloketone, p. 125), or from 1 : 4- 
dihydroxyhexahydrobenzene (quinite, p. 124), which, with hydriodic acid, 
gives 1 : 4-iodohydroxyhexahydrobenzene, and this latter, on reduction 
with zinc dust and acetic acid, gives the alcohol : — " 

.CH„ . CHo .CH„ . CH, .CH, . CH, 

HO.CH \CH0H ICH ^CHOH CH, ^CHOH 

\CH, . CIL, \CH, . CH,, \CH, . CH, 

It has an odour like fusel oil, melts at 15°, and is more readily soluble 
in water than the aliphatic alcohols containing six carbon atoms. It is 
unacted upon by potassium permanganate, but nitric acid readily oxidises 
it to adipic acid. 

' Knoevenagel, Ajinalen, 1896, 289, 137. 
= Crossley and Le Sueur, J.C.S., 1902, 81, 821. 
' Harries, Ber., 1901, 34, 300 ; 1902, 35, 1166. 
* Ber., 1893, 26, 229 ; Annaleii, 1894, 278, 98. 
^ See also Annalen, 1898, 302, 20. 



124 REPORT— 1902. 

Homologues have been obtained from substituted ketohexahydrobeu- 
zeues (p. 126) by reduction ' or by the action of magnesium and alky] 
iodides ;2 also from ketotetrahydrobenzenes (p. 128) by the action of sodium 
in alcoholic solution : — ^ 

.CH„ . CO XHj . CHOH 

CH, \CH CH„ \CH., 

^CH„ . C . CH, \CH„ . CH . CH . CH, 

1 : Ai-Dihydroxyhexahydrobenzene (quinite) 

yCHo . CHg 

HO . CH \CH . OH 

\CH„ . CH., 

the simplest member of the inosite series is produced by the reduction of 
diketohexahydrobenzene (p. 128). It is a solid which tastes sweet at 
first, then bitter, and on oxidation with chromic acid is converted into 
quinone.* Homologues can be obtained in an analogous manner from 
substituted diketohexahydrobenzenes.'' 

Substituted 1 : 3-dihydroxyhexahydrobenzenes result from the reduction 
of substituted dihydroresorcins ; •" 1 : 2-dihydroxyhexahydrohenzene ; '' 
1 r 3 : b-trihydroxyhexahydrohenzene (phloroglucite).** 

In this group must also be included quercite and inosite, formerly 
classed with the sugars. 

Pentahydroxyhexahydrohenzene (quercite) occurs in acorns, the aqueous 
extract of which can be freed from glucose by fermentation, leaving 
quercite unaltered. The pure substance crystallises in monoclinic prisms, 
melting at about 225°, and is optically active [a]o = + 24°-24. It yields 
many well-characterised compounds, among which may be mentioned the 
pentanitrate and pentacetate. The following formula 

.CH(OH) . CH . OH 

CHj \CH . OH 

\CH(0H) . UH . OH 

was suggested by Kannonikow after Prunier ^ had shown that hydriodic 
acid converts quercite into benzene, phenol, iodophenol, quinone, and 
hydroquinone, and fusion with potash gives rise to hydroquinone and 
pyrogallol. Kiliani and Scheibler '" doubted this formula, as they could 
only obtain mucic and trihydroxyglutaric acids by oxidising quercite with 
nitric acid ; but in 1896 Kiliani and Schafer ^^ showed that potassium 
permanganate oxidises quercite to oxalic and chiefly malonic acids, thus 
proving the pi-esence of a methylene group, which fact, in conjunction 
with the above data, definitely proves Kannonikow's formula to be the 
true one. 

Hexahydroxyhexahydrobenzene (inosite) is known in one inactive and 

'- Zelinsky, references, p. 7. = Zelinsky, Ber., 1901, 34, 2877. 

» Knoevenagel, Annalen, 1896, 289, 131 ; and 1897, 297, 113. 

* Baeyer, Ber., 1892, 25, 1037. 

* Baeyer, ibid., 2122; and 1893, 26, 232. 

« Knoevenagel, Amialen, 1896, 289, 187. ' Annalen, 1898, 302, 21. 

" Wislicenus, Ber., 1894, 27, 357. " Ann. Cldm. Phys., 1879 [5], 15, 1. 

'» Ber., 1889, 22, 517. " Ber., 29. 1762. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 125 

two active modifications, its occurrence in optically active forms being 
satisfactorily explained by Baeyer's suggestions, > which would suppose 
the hydroxyl groups to occupy different positions relatively to the plane 
of the hexamethylene ring. The inactive variety occurs in muscle,- &c., 
and as its monomethyl ether (bornesite), CcHs(0H)5 . OCH3, and dimethyl 
ether (dambosite) in caoutchouc.^ c?-Inosite and Mnosite are obtained 
from their monomethyl ethers, respectively pinite ^ and quabrachite,'^ by 
the action of hydriodic acid. 

The constitution of inosite results from the work of Maquenne/' who 
suggested the formula ^ 

.CH(0H).CH.OH 
CH.OH NcH.OH 

\CH(0H).CH.0H 

It gives a hexacetate ; ^ with hydriodic acid yields benzene and triodo- 
phenol ; is oxidised completely to carbon dioxide by potassium per- 
manganate ; and with nitric acid gives the same oxidation products as 
liexahydroxybenzene, namely, di- and tetra-hydroxyquinone. 

Hydroxytetrahydrobenzene is formed when 1 : 4-iodohydroxyhexa- 
bydrobenzene (p. 123) is treated with quinoline.^ 

.CH„ . CH, ^CH . CH3 

CHI \CH . OH CH \CH . OH 

\cHj . OH.. ^CH, . CH. 

Amines. 

Hydro-aromatic amines result from the reduction of the corresponding 

oximes. 

Aminohexahydrohenzene, CgHn . NHj, obtained as above,' « or by 
reducing nitrohexahydrobenzene with tin and hydrochloric acid,'^ is a 
colourless liquid smelling like conine. 

1:2- Diaminohexahijdrobenzene,^'^ 1:3- diaminohexahydrobenzene,^^ 
1 : 'i-diaininohexahydrobenzene,^^ tetrahydrobenzijlamine.^'' 

Ketones. 

Ketohexahydrobenzene (pimeloketone) has been obtained (i.) by the 
oxidation of hydroxyhexahydrobenzene,"^ (ii.) by the distillation of calcium 
pimelate with lime,'^ 

.CH, . CH. . COOH xCH, . CH, 

CH, CH, \C0 

\CH., . CH.. . COOH \CH, . CH, 



' Annalcn, 1888, 245, 128. = Beilsteln, 3" Avfl., i. 1050. 

' Girard, Zeit.fdr Chem., 1871, :535. 

' Maquenne, Compt. Rend., 181)0, 109, 968. 

" Tanret, Compt. Rend., 109, 908. " Compt. Bend., 1887, 104, 225. 

' IMd., p. 297. " ^*i'^-. P- 1719- 

» Baeyer, AmiaUn, 1894, 278, 97. '° Baeyer, Ihid., 103. 

" MarkownikofE, Annalcn, 1898, 302, 22. '- Annalen, 1897, 295, 187. 

" Ibid., 1885, 228, 39. " Bcr., 1804, 27, 1449. 
'^ J.C.S., \90l,Abstr.,i. 691. 

19 Baeyer, Annalen, 1894, 278, 107. " Baeyer, ibid. 



126 REPORT — 1902. 

and (iii.) by the action of zinc and acetic acid on nitrohexahydrobenzene. ' 
It is a liquid with an odour of peppermint, and is readily oxidised by nitric 
acid to adipic acid. Homologues have been prepared by method (ii.) from 
substituted pimelic acids. ^ 

Of the three possible isomeric diketones two, viz., the 1 : 3- and 1 : 4- 
compounds are known. 

Dihydroresorcin (1 : 3-diketohexahydrobenzene) was first prepared by 
Merling ^ by the reduction of resorcinol with sodium amalgam ; it can 
also be obtained by the action of sodium ethylate on ethyl <3-ketohexoate.'* 

Dihydroresorcin reacts in some cases as a diketone, but its most usual 
form is that of a ketone alcohol. 

.CH„ . CO .CH„ . CO 

CH„ (1.) \CH„ CH„ (ii.) ^CH 

^CH, . CO \CH„ . C . OH 

It is a crystalline substance which dissolves in water with an intense 
acid reaction ; the solution gives a violet colour with ferric chloride, 
decomposes the carbonates of the alkali metals and silver in the cold, with 
the formation of salts, formula (ii.). It is readily oxidised by potassium 
permanganate, yielding glutaric acid, thus showing that it could not have 
the constitution represented by the formula 

^CH, . CO 

CH., \CH„ 

\CH=COH 

Alkyl iodides react with the silver salt, forming ethers 

,CH„ . CO 
CH, \CH 
\cHj-COCoH5 

and not 

.CH„ . CO 
CH. "^CHCjHj 

^CH, . CO 

because they are easily hydrolysed with regeneration of dihydroresorcin. 
With acetyl chloride only a mono-acetylated product is obtained ; and 
with halogen acids or bromine additive products. The dibromide formed 
in the latter case readily loses the elements of hydrogen bromide, giving 
monobromodihydroresorcin, having the formula 

CH; . CO 

CH, \cBr 

\CH., . C . OH 

because it decomposes the carbonates of the alkali metals, gives a violet 
colour with ferric chloride, and nascent hydrogen regenerates dihydro- 
resorcin.'^ 

> Annalen, 1 898, 302, in. 

= Zelinsky, Ber., 189.5, 28, 781, 1313, 2914 ; and 1896, 29, 214, 731. 

3 AnnaJen, 1894, 278, 20. * Voilancler, Annalen, 1897, 294, 253. 

5 Compare Vorliiader, Amiakn. 1902, 382, 251. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 127 

Towards hydroxylamine, phenylhydrazine, and hydrocyanic acid 
dihydroresorcin behaves as a diketone, formula ( i.) above, giving in the 
latter case the nitrile of dihydroxyhexahydroisophthalic acid 

,CH, . COH . COOH 
CEI„ NcHo 

\CH„ . COH . COOH 

"When heated with barium hydroxide the ring is broken, and c-ketohexoic 
acid produced ' 

.CH, . CO XHj . CO 

CH, /CH CHj ^CHj 

"^CH, . COH ^CHj . COOH 

Substituted dihydroresorcins may be obtained by various methods,^ of 
which the two following may be taken as typical : — 

(i.) The condensation of ethyl malonate with a^-unsaturated ketones.^ 

(CH,), (CH3), (CH3), 

CH + CH/COOCoHs), = CH, CH . COOC^H. = C,H.OH + CH, CH.C00C,H5 

I ■ I ' I I ' I 

CO CO COOC^Hj CO CO 

\ \ \/ 

CH3 OH3 CHj 

Substituted malonic acids may also be employed.* 

(ii.) The condensation of ethyl aceto-acetate and ethyl crotonate.' 



CHj CHg CH. 



CH CH CH 

COOCoHj . CH, + CH = COOC2H3 . CH CH, = COOC3H5 . CH CH^ + C„H,OH 



CO COOCHj 


CO COOCHj 


CO CO 


\ 


\ 


\/ 


CH3 


CH3 


CH, 



The ethyl dihydroresorcylates produced by either of the above methods 
on hydrolysis give free acids, which immediately lose carbon dioxide, 
forming dihydroresorcins. 

.CHCCOjCjHJCO ,CH, . CO 

(CH,),.C \cHj (CH3),.C \CH 

XCH., CO "^CH, .COH 

The properties of substituted dihydroresorcins are identical with those 
of the initial member of the series. The above-mentioned behaviour with 

' Vorlander, Annalen, 1897, 294, 272. 

- Ber., 1894, 27, 2053, 2126, 2338. 

' Vorlander, mpra, p. 253 ; Crossley, J.G.8., 1899, 76, 771 ; 1902, 81, G75. 

< Crossley, J.C.S., 1901, 79, 138. 

' Vorlander, Annalen, 1899, 308, 184, 



128 REPORT — 1902. 

barium hydroxide seems to be somewhat limited, as exceptions are found 
in the cases of dimethyl- and trimethyl-dihydroresorcins 

,CH. . CO .CHCCHa) . CO 
(CH3), . C ^CH (CH3), . C \CH 

\CH, .COH \CH„ COH 



ij 



neither of which gives the corresponding ketonic acids. Apparently it is 
the presence of two alkyl groups attached to one carbon atom which 
determines the behaviour of barium hydroxide,' as this is the only 
difference in constitution between the above and other dehydroresorcins 
which are hydrolysed when heated with barium hydroxide.- From a 
consideration of the electric conductivities Schilling and Vorlander-* 
conclude that the acidic properties of dihydroresorcins are as strongly 
marked as those of c-ketonic acids, although the carboxyl group is absent 
in the former. Structural difference between the two classes of compounds 
does not amount to much more than ring formation 

,CH, . CO 

CH., \CH 

\CH, . COH 

and 

CH, . CO 

CH, \CH, 

"^CH, . COOH 

and cyclic organic compounds containing oxygen exhibit acidic properties 
more pronounced than those open-chain compounds of similar constitution. 

Substituted glutaric acids result from the oxidation of substituted 
dihydroresorcins, a reaction best carried out by the employment of sodium 
hypobromite as oxidising agent.' 

1 : \-Diketohexahydrohenzene results when dry succinosuccinic acid is 
heated,"' and from the saponihcation of ethyl succinosuccinate (p. 133) 
with strong sulphuric acid.'' 

+ 
.CH(C0,C,H5) . CH, .CH, . CH, 

CO ^ ^CO -». CO "^CO 

\CH, . CHCCOjC.Hj) \CH, . CH, 

As the hydrogen atoms marked -f are replaceable by sodium, this 
reaction may be extended to the preparation of substituted diketohexa- 
hydrobenzenes. Allusion has been already made to the properties and 
transformations of these bodies. 

Halogen derivatives of the above ketones may be obtained by the 
continuous action of chlorine or bromine on phenols, quinones, Ac." 

Ketotetrahydrobenzenes have been found in the lieavy oil produced 
by the distillation of wood tar.^ 

' Crossley, J.C.S., 1902, 81, 675. 

■■i Vorliinder, Annalen, 1897, 294, 317. » Annalen, 1899, 308, 184. 

' Komppa, Ber., 1899, 32, 1421 ; Crossley, J.C.S., 1901, 79, 146 ; 1902, 81, 680, 

■■* Ber., 1889, 22, 2168. •■■ Baeyer, Annalen, 1894, 278, 88. 

' Ber., 1889, 22. 1473 ; 1891, 24, 912 ; 1892, 28, 845. 

9 Compt. Rend., 1897, 125, 1036; 1901, 132, 342. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 129 

Knoevenagel ^ has shown that by the condensation of ethy] aceto- 
acetate, &c., with alkyl diiodides or aldehydes in presence of diethylamine 
or piperidine, esters of 1 : 5-diketocarboxylic acids are produced, which 
readily form ring compounds with loss of the elements of water ; and the 
free acids generated from these bodies on hydrolysis lose carbon dioxide, 
giving ketotetrahydrobenzenes 



CjH.CO, . CH, . CO . CH3 C2H5 , 


CO , . CH . CO . CH3 

1 


H . CHO -* 


1 
1 


C^H, . C0„ . CHo . CO . CH3 C.H, , 


, CO2 . CH . CO . CH, 


CjHj . CO.. CH . CO 


CH„-CO 


" 1 \ 

-* CH^ CH -* 


1 " \ 
CH; OH 


1 ^ 
C„H, .CO2.CH-C.CH3 


1 ^ 
CH2-O.CH3 



Some of the more important reactions of these substances have been 
mentioned ; a further property of peculiar interest is their ready transfor- 
mation into aromatic derivatives ; e.</., l-keto-3-methyl-A2-tetrahydro- 
benzene readily absorbs two atoms of bromine ; the product formed is 
unstable, losing two molecules of hydrogen bromide, giving meta-cresol,^ 

^C(CH3) . CH3 XBrCCH^) . CH^ .C(CHg) . CH 

CH ^CH„ -» CHBr /^CH, -^ CH ^CH 

\C0 - CH„ ^^"^"^-^ CO - CHj \c(OH) = CH 

l-keto-S-methyl-o-isopropyl-Aj-tetrahydrobenzene under similar con- 
ditions gives sy i7i-carva,cro\.^ 

Halogen substitution productsof ketotetrahydrobenzenes result from the 
action of chlorine on phenols, aniline, &c.'' 

Ketodihydrohenzenes. — Neither of the two theoretically possible 
i.somerides is known ; but tetra- and hexa-chloro-derivatives have been 
prepared/' 

Carboxtlic Acids. 

Ilexahydrobenzoic acid has been obtained by the reduction (i.) of 
)>enzoic acid,^ (ii.) of the hydrobromide of Aj-tetrahydrobenzoic acid,^ and 
(iii.) of hydroxyhexahydrobenzoic acid,^ and also by the hydrolysis 
and distillation of the product resulting from the action of ethyl sodio- 
malonate and pentamethylenedibromide,'-* and by the distillation of 
pentamethylenedicarboxylic acid.^ Tetrahydrobe^izoic acids have been 
prepared by the removal of hydrogen bromide from monobromohexa- 
hydrobenzoic acid,"* and by the direct reduction of benzoic '' and dihydro- 

■ Annaien, 1894, 281, 2o ; 1895, 288, 321 : and 1895, 289, 131. 
- Bfir., 1893, 26, 1951 ; Aimalen, 1894, 281, 98. 
» Ber., 1894, 27, 2347. 

' Ber., 1890, 23, 3777 ; 1892, 26, 2688; 1894, 27, 547, 550, 560. 
^ Zincke, Ber., 1894, 27, 546. 
« Markownikoff, Ber., 1892, 26, 3357. 

' Aachan, Annaien, 1892, 271, 261. « Bncberer, Ber., 1894, 27, 1231, 

" Perkin and Haworth, J.C.H., 1894, 65, lOo. 
'" Annaien, 271, 261. " Jhid., 234. 

1902. K 



, 130 REPORT— 1902. 

benzoic acids,' and dihydrobenzoic acids from the oxidation of dihydro- 
benzaldehyde,- and by the action of alcoholic potash on dibromo-Aj-tetra- 
hydrobenzoic acid.'* Homologues result from the reduction of homologues 
of benzoic acid,'' and by heating hexamethylene dicarboxylic acids."' In 
chemical properties these acids exhibit great similarity with the hydro- 
phthalic acids (which see below). The hexahydro-acids appear to be 
isomeric, but not identical with the natural naphthenic acids occurring in 
petroleum.'' 

Hydroxylbexahydi'obenzoic acids,' dihydroxyhexahydroheyizoic acid,^ 
tetrahydroxyliexahydrohenzoic acid (quinic acid),^ pentaliydroxyhexahydro- 
benzoic acid,^'^ trihydroxytetrahydrobenzoic {shikiniic) acid.^^ 

lietohexahydrobenzoic acid,^^ diketohexahydrobenzoic acid (ethyl resor- 
cylates) (see p. 127). 

Hydropiitiialic Acids. 

The hydrophthalic acids have been minutely studied by Baeyer in 
his investigations on the constitution of benzene,'-* and these papers must 
be consulted for a detailed description. Here it is only possible to 
mention some of the more important properties, which show the striking- 
resemblance between these bodies and acids of the aliphatic series. 

Generally speaking the di- and tetra-hydro-acids were obtained by 
the direct reduction of the phtlialic acid, and the hexahydro-acids by the 
reduction of the hydrobromide of the tetrahydro-acid. 

8ome idea of the numerous isomerides may be gained from the 
following scheme, which shows the constitution and nomenclature '* of the 
ten possible hydroterephthalic acids. In the case of the orthophthalic 
acids there are fifteen possibilities ; and trans-hexahydrophthalic acid can 
exist in two optically active forms.''' 

Hexahydroterephthalic arid, CgHufCOOH).,. — Two possibilities de- 
pencling on the position of the carboxyl groups relative to the plane of 
the hexamethylene ring. 

Hv .COOH H. XOOH 

H^ .-^^ H, H, ,/\ H, 

H, 1; Hj H, '.\ H, 

/\ /\ 

COOH H. H COOH 

Cis trans. Cis. 

Tetrahydroterephthalicacid,C^^{COO'S.).2. — Depending on the position 

' 7?«r., 1893, 26, 4.51. - Jitrf., p. 454. 

» Aschan, Ber., 1891, 24, 2028. 

■" Ber., 1892, 25, 3355 ; 1894,27, R. 195; J.C.S., 1897, 71. 157; 1901, 79, 344, 
1379.- 

•■* Perkin and Freer, J.C.S., 1888, 53, 208. 

" Bcr., 1892, 25, 3665 ; 1894, 27, R. 195, 197. » 

' Ber., 1894, 27, 1231, 2472, 247C; 1890, 29, R. 549. 

« AnnalcJh, 271, 280. ' B<:ilstein, 3'' Auf., i. 804. 

'" Ber., 1891, 24, 1294. " Ber., 1891, 24, 1279. 

'- Bcr., 1894. 27, 103 ; 1896, 29, R. 550. 

'■' Annalen, 1888, 245, 107; 1889, 251, 257; 1890, 256, 1 : 258. 1, 145 ; 1891, 266, 
169 ; 1892, 269. 145 ; also Viliiger, Annalen, 1893, 276, 255. 
" For an explanation of which see Annalen, 1888, 245, 107. 
'' Werner and Conrad, Ber., 1899, 32', 3040. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 



131 



of the double bonds, theoretically possible in two isomeric forms, one 
of which can exist in two stereoisomeric modifications. 



COOH 
H,. Z'^, H 



H. .COOH 



H 



/\ 



Hv .COOH 



H 



hX, 



H, 
COOH 



H„ 



X 



H 



H 



H, 



/\ 



H 



H„ 



H 



COOH H 

Cis trans A.,. 



H-^^^COOH 

Cis A,. 



DihydroterephthaVic acid, CfjHrXCOOH),. — Four possibilities depend- 
ing on the position of the double bonds : one possibility appears in two 
stereoisomeric modifications. 

H. yCOOH 



H 
H 



/\ 



H 



/\ 
COOH H 

Cis trans A.. ; 



H 



COOH 



H.. 



/^ 



H 



H. .COOH 

h/\h 


COOH 

h/^h 


H^/H 

h/^cooh 


H/\cdOH 


Cis A. ..3. 


^^:.■ 




COOH 

H,/^ H 




COOH 



COOH 

As regards the resemblance to aliphatic compounds, the hexahydro-acids 
do not give addition compounds with bromine, but substitution products 
in which the bromine, as in the fatty series, occupies the a-position. The 
tetrahydro-acids take up H, : Br., or HBr, forming hexahydro-compounds, 
and the dihydro-acids combine with H, : Br2 or HBr, forming tetrahydro- 
derivatives or with 2H2 : 2Br2 or 2 HBr, forming hexahydro-derivatives ;' 
just as fatty compounds with two double bonds yield successively ethylene 
derivatives and saturated fatty substances. When a tetrahydro-acid 
absorbs hydrogen bromide the bromine atom occupies the position more 
remote from the carboxyl group, resembling, for example, the production' 
of /3-bromopropionic acid from acrylic acid and hydrogen bromide. The 
bromo-acids on treatment with nascent hydrogen have the bromine 
replaced by hydrogen, or if they contain two bromine atoms united to 
adjacent carbon atoms then both bromine atoms are removed (i.) by 
nascent hydrogen with formation of a double bond, or (ii.) by alcoholic 
potash with formation of two double bonds. 

COOH cooa- • 

COOH COOH I I , •, ;•. 

CH C . CH C .. ^._ 

/X PHRr HP/'^CH H^^CHBr h/'^CH 



H,C 
F..C 



CHBr 
CHBr 



CH 
COOH 



H.,C 



CH 



C 
COOH 



2 : 3-Dibromohexahydro- 
tereplithalic acid. 



A, : ;, Diliydrotere- 
phtlialic acid. 



H. .CHBr 

CH 

I 
COOH 

jS'y-Dibromadipic 
acid. 



H^^CH 

C 

I 
COOH 

Muconic acid. 



132 



REPORT^ — 1902. 



And when these di- or tetra-hydro-compounds are oxidised with potassium' 
permanganate, the ring is broken at the double bonds, just as in the- 
case of unsaturated fatty compounds. 

A further analogy is to be found in the gradual reduction by nascent- 
hydrogen of A, . 3-dihydroterephthalic acid and muconic acid. 



CH, 


. CH, 


CH„ 


. CH, 


HOOC . C 


C . COOH 


/ 
HOOC . CH 


HC . COOH 


CH- 


- CH 


\ 
CH 


= c^ 


1 .. 3-Dihydroterephthalic acid. 


A,-Tetrahydrc 


iterephthalic acidi. 




CHj 


- CH., 






HOOC . CH 


CH . COOH 






CHj 


/ 

- CH, 






Hexahjdroterephthalic acid. 




H 


H 


H 


H 


/ 

HOOC . C 


C . COOH 


/ 
HOOC . CH 


\ 

CH . COOH 


CH - 


// 

- CH 


\ 
CH 


/ 

= CH 


Muconic acid. 


^y-Hjdromuconic acid. 




H 


H 






/ 
HOOC . CH 


\ 

CH . COOH 






CH, 


A. 






Adipic acid. 




le first stage 


of this reduction is of special interest in view 



of 
Thiele's theory of partial saturation. ^ Baeyer states * that all A ,. 3 or 
A, . 5 dihydro-acids — that is, those containing two double bonds in the above 
positions — form only dibromides, whereas other dihydro-acids form tetra- 
bromides, and a similar case has been noticed in dimethyl- Aj . 4-dihydro- 
benzene,^ for only two atoms of bromine or one molecule of hydrogen 
bromide can be directly added to this substance, the addition taking 
place, as in the case of hydrogen, to A, .3-dihydroterephthalic acid, witk 
rearrangement of the bonds, 



CH = CH 

/ \ 

(CHsX.C CH 

\ // 

CH„ - CH 



besoming 



/ 



CH.. 



(CH3),C 



\ 



CH, 



, CH 

CH 

/ 

CHBr 



Various hexahydro-dicarboxylic acids have also been synthetically 
prepared ; for example, when methylpentamethylene dibromide is con- 
densed with ethyl sodiomalonate there results the ethyl salt of l-methyl- 
hexahydrobenzent-l : \-dicarboxylic acid,* 

CH, . CH • CHjj 

/ \ 

CH. C (COOH), 

\" / 

CH„ . CH„ 



• Annalen, 1899, 306, 87. 

' Crossley and Le Sueur, J.C.S., 1902, 81, 823. 

• Perkin and Freer, J.C.S., 1888, 53, 202. 



Ibid., 1890, 258, 2. 



ox nVDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS M'lTH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 133 

•and hexahydroterephthalic acid is obtained by saponi6cation and elimina- 
tion of 200-2 from the product of the interaction of ethylene dibromide 
«,nd ethyl sodiobutanetetracarboxylate,'^ 

CH„ . CH, CH., . OH., 



(COOCHJ., C : Na 
iBr 



\, 



Na 
Br 



I I 

CH, - CH„ 



(COOC„Hi).,-> (COOCH,)., . 1 : C (COOCH Jj 

' ■ \ /- 

CH...tH., 



.a reaction which may be extended to the preparation of hexaliydro- 
isophthalic acid,^ in which case both the cis and trans modifications were 
•obtained.^ 

Hydroxy- and ketohydro-dicarboxylic acids. — Dihydroxyhexahydro- 
isophthalic acid (see above), 1 : i:-dihydroxyhexa1iydroterephthalic acid, 
results from the addition of hydrocyanic acid to diketohexahydro- 
benzene '' and the ethyl salts of 2 : ft-dihydroxytetra- and hexahydrotere- 
jphthalic acid by the reduction of ethyl succinosuccinate.* 

Succinosuccinic acid is formed by the saponification of its ethyl salt 

CO . CH, 

/ \ + 

COOCHs . CH + OH . COOCJIs 

\ / 

CH, . CO 

prepared by the action of potassium or sodium on ethyl succinate, &c.*' 
"The ethyl salt is capable of reacting in two forms, as a diketone or a^ 
"ethyl dibydroxydihydroterephthalic acid J 



COOCH- 



The two hydrogen atoms (marked above +) can be replaced by sodium, 
thus afibrding a method for the production of homologues. The chemical 
changes which this substance is capable of undergoing have been 
frequently alluded to. 

Ethyl dihydroxydiketohexahydrohenzenedicarboxylate,^ ethyl diketo- 
Jiexahydrohenzenetetracarboxylate,^ hexahydrobenzenehexacarboxylic (hexa- 
Jiydrornellitic) acid.^'^ 

In conclusion it may be of interest to draw attention to the close 
relationship existing between aliphatic, hydro-aromatic, and aromatic 
bodies, as illustrated by the passage of substances belonging to the 
aliphatic series into hydro-aromatic bodies, and of the latter into members 

' Mackenzie and Perkin, J.C.S., 1892, 61, 172. 

" Perkin, J.C.S., 1891, 69, 798. 

' Compare Villiger, Amialen, 1893, 276, 255. 

♦ Ber. 1889, 22, 2176. * Ber., 1900, 33, 390. 
« Annalen, 1882, 211, 306 ; 1888, 245, 74 ; 1889, 253, 182. 

' Ber., 1891, 24, 2692. 

« Ber., 1886, 19, 2385 ; 1887, 20, 1307; 1889, 22, 1290; 1890, 23, 265. 

* Ber., 1889, 22, R. 289. . '" Beilstein, 3" Avjt., ii. 210t. 



COH 


. CHj 


// 

COOCH. . C 


\ 

C. ( 


CH.. 


// 
C . OH 



a 34 KEPOKT— 1902. ■ 

of the aromatic series ; and also to point out, as far as our present some- 
what scanty knowledge regarding hydro-aromatic bodies will permit, the 
resemblances and diSerences in the properties and reactions of these three 
series of bodies. 

Many instances have already been quoted of the ring formation of 
hydro-aromatic substances from open-chain compounds : e.g.. 

The preparation of hexahydrobeuzene by method (i.), p. 120. 

J, „ ketohexahydrobenzene by method (ii.), p. 125, 

„ „ substituted dihydroresorcins by methods (i.) and 

(ii.), p. 127. 
„ ,, substituted ketotetrahydrobenzenes, p 128. 

■ '■ „ „ hexahydrobeuzene dicarboxylic acid, p. 132. 

Two examples have also been given of the passage of hydro-aromatic 
into aromatic bodies (p. 129), in which cases bromine is first added on 
at a double bond and then illuminated as hydrogen bromide. Other 
similar examples are the conversion of 3-chloro-l -methyl- A, . 3-dihydro- 
benzene into metachlortoluene ' 

CCl = CH CCl = CH 

/ \ • / \ 

CH CHj -^ CH CH 

C(CHg)-CH2 C(CH3)-CH 

and of 3-chloro-l : 5-dimethy'l-A, . .(-dihydrobenzene into chlorxylenc.'^ 
From the author's experience it would seem that this action of bromine on' 
derivatives of dihydrobenzene appears to be of a general nature, but the 
work is not sufficiently far advanced to permit of a more definite state- 
ment being made. 

Bromine acts on hexahydrobeuzene, giving rise to tetrabromol>enzene.' 

In some cases oxidising agents convert hydro-aromatic into aromatic 
bodies, as the three following examples show : — 

1 : 3-Dimethyldihydrobenzene gives with nitric and sulphuric acids 
nitro-, dinitro-, and trinitro-xy lanes. ^ 

Nitric acid converts 3 : 5-dichloro-l : l-dimethyl-:l2:4"dihydrobenzene 
into 3:5- dichlorobenzoic acid.'' 

.CH = CC1 .CH = CC1 

(CH3%.0 \CH ->. HOOC.C \CH 

V^H.,-CC1 ^CH-CCl 

■1 : 4-Dihydroxyhexahydrobenzene (quinite) on oxidation with chro- 
mic acid gives quinone,'' which, however, may itself be regarded as a 
hydro -aromatic substance. 

In the following tables there will be found a comparison of some 
of the physical properties of benzene with those of the three typical 
hydro-aromatic hydrocarbons, dihydrobenzene^ tetrahydrobenzene, and 

' Klages and Knoevenagel, Ber., 1894, 27, 3022. 

= Ihid., p. 3024. 

=< Zelinsky, Ber., IDOl, 34, 2803. 

* VVallach, ^l«7irt/m, 1890, 258, 319. 

" Crossley and Le Sueur, J.C.S., 1902, 81, 831. 

« Bur., 1892, 25, 1037. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 135 

hexhydrobenzene, and of some open-chain hydrocarbons containing six 
carbon atoms : — ^ 





Index of 
Kefraotion 


d at 20°-4° 


Mol. Vol. 
at 20° 


Pm=-i 


For H, 


For D 


Benzene, CgHg 
Dihydrobenzene, C^H, 
Tetrahyrlrobenzene, C„H,„ . 
Hexahydrobenaene, C„H,2 . 
Hexane, C„H,j . 
Hexylene, C^H,. . 
Diallyl, CgHjo . 
Dipropargyl, C^Hs 


1-4967 
1-4699 
1-4435 
1-4260 


0-8799 
0-8478 
0-8102 
0-7900 
0-6603 
0-6825 
0-6880 
0-8049 


88-65 
94-36 
101-21 
107-20 
130-25 
128-08 
119-18 
96-91 


25-93 
26-33 

26-87 
27-56 
29-70 
29-45 
28-77 
25-57 


26-13 

2651 

27-01 

27-66 ■ 

29-84 

29-61 

2896 

25-74 



Dispersion of Hydrocarbons. 





Mol. refraction for H^-Ha 


Dispersion 


Dihydrobenzene 


. 27-511-26-145 


1 866 


Tetrahydrobenzene . 


. 27-837 -27-035 = 


0-802 


Hexahydrobenzene . 


. 28-292-27-578 


0-714 



Stohmann and Lansbein - sive the following tabulated results 





Heat of Combustion of 1-gram Molecule 


Heat of For- 
mation from 
Elements 


Constant Pressure 


Constant Temperature 


Dihydrobenzene, C^Hg 
Tetrahydiobenzene, CgH,„ . 
Hexahydrobenzene, CgH,, . 
Normal hexane, CgHu 


848-0 Cal. 
892-0 „ 
933-2 „ 
991-2 „ 


846-8 Cal. 
890-5 „ 
931-5 „ 


- 80 Cal. 
+ 17-0 „ 
+ 44-8 ., 

+ 5.J-8 ,, 



In comparing the chemical behaviour of these series it -will perhaps be 
best to consider a fe-w typical reagents and briefly discuss their action. 
Generally speaking, ho-wever, the properties of hydro-aromatic substances 
are the same as those of aliphatic bodies as modified by the presence of 
a- ring and -well illustrated by the hydrophthalic acids (p. 130). 



Reagent 


Aliphatic 


Hydro-aromatic 


Aromatic 


Saturated 


Unsaturated 


Saturated 


Unsaturated 


Hydrogen 

Chlorine 

Sulphuric 
Acid 


Eeplaces 
halogen 

Substitu- 
tion 


Addition 
Addition 


Eeplaces 
halogen 

Substitu- 
tion 


Addition 
Addition 


Does not add on readily 
to benzene and homo- 
logues ; but is added 
readily to carboxylic 
acids. 

Replaces halogen -with 
great difficulty. 

Substitution or addi- 
tion, according to con- 
ditions. 

Sulphonates. 



' Compare, Bruhl, J. pr. Chem. [2], 49, 201, and Ber., 1894, 27, 1065; Fortey, ' 
J.C.S., 1898, 73, 932 ; Perkin, Ber., 1902, 35, 2102. ^ J. pr. Chem. [2], 48, 447. 



136 REPORT— 1902. 

Nitric acid. — It is generally stated that nitric acid has no action on 
the saturated paraffins, but it acts readily on unsaturated and aromatic 
bodies, producing oxidation in the first case and nitro-compounds in the 
second. This statement is, however, not strictly true as regards the 
paraffins. Much work has recently been done in this direction, for a 
detailed account of which the following, among other papers, may be 
consulted. "^ 

It is true that at ordinary temperatures the paraffins remain practi- 
cally unacted on by nitric acid in any form, and that normal paraffins are 
slowly decomposed by fuming nitric acid on heating,^ but the isoparaffius, 
e.g., isohexane, isopeptane, isooctane, and diisohuty\ are very readily 
attacked by fuming nitric acid, a moderate yield of nitro-compound beinig 
obtained in each case.^ 

Hexahydrobenzene is only attacked when heated with fuming nitric 
acid, giving a dibasic acid, and its methyl derivative is directly broken 
down. Less concentrated nitric acid at high temperatures gives secondary 
nitro-compounds in addition to dibasic acids, and with methylhexahydro- 
benzene a tertiary nitro-derivative is obtained. 

On hydro-aromatic substances containing double bonds nitric acid acts 
as an oxidising agent ; in some cases niti'o-derivatives are formed, which 
are usually aromatic bodies. Presumably nitric acid first removes 
hydrogen atoms by oxidation, and then nitrates the aromatic bodies so 
formed, e.g., the production of nitro-xylenes from dimethyldihydrobenzenc 
(see p. 134). 

With aromatic substances nitric acid nitrates, and when oxidation 
does take place the side chain is the attackable point. 

Oxidising agents. — These react with hydro-aromatic substances exactly 
as with aliphatic bodies, oxidation taking place at a double bond, e g., 
1:1- dimethyl - A 2 : 4 - dihydrobenzene gives aadimethylsuccinic acid,* 

,CH = CH .COOH 

(CH3),C ^CH -♦ (CH3),.C 

^CH^-CH "^CH, .COOH 

and dimethyl dihydroresorcin, which contains a double bond and also a 
carboayl group, yields jS/3-dimethylglutaric acid on oxidation. The 

.CH^ .CO XH„ . COOH 

(CH3), . C J>CH -> (CHj); . 

^CHj . COB \CH„ . COOH 

methyl groups, however, remain intact, whereas in an aromatic body 
the side chain is the attackable point and the ring remains unbroken. 

Two other points may be worth mentioning in connection with 
dimethyldihydroresorcin. The hydroxyl group has the characteristics of 
a phenolic rather than an alcoholic group. The substance gives a violet 

' Konowaloff. Ber., 1892. 25, R. Kig ; J. Riiss. Phys. Cliem. >%e., 1899, 31, 57, 
254, 1027 ; and 1901, 33, 48, 393 ; Ber., 1899, 32, 144.5 ; Markownikoflf, Ber., 1897, 
30,974, 1222; and 1899, 32, 1441; 1902, 35, l.')84; also 386; Annalm, 1898, 301, 
201 : Zelinsky, 1897, 30, 389 ; Francis and Young, J.(JS., 1898, 73, 928 ; Pimi Cent. 
Blatt., 1902. ii. IG. 

^ Normal hexane and octane yield with dilute nitric acid secondary nitro com- 
pounds in nearly theoretical amount (Konowaloff, Ber , 1892, 25, R. 168). 

» Francis and Young (ibid.). ' Crnssley and Le Sueur, J.C.S., 1902, 81,836. 



ON HYDRO-AROMATIC C'OMrOl'NDS WITH SINGLE NUCLEUS. 



137 



coloration with ferric chloride, and caustic potash replaces the hydrogen 
atom of the hydroxyl group by potassium, giving a salt which is stable 
in aqueous solution, thus resembling potassium phenolate, and not potas- 
sium ethylate. 

Dimethyldihydroresorcin readily gives a monobromo-derivative, in 



(CH,), 



.CH., . CO 



c 

\CH., 



^CBr 
C . OH 



which the bromine atom is very stable towards alkali/ thus resembling tlie 
bromine atom in an aromatic nucleus rather than in an aliphatic body. 



Wave-lemjth Tables of the Spectra of the Elements u.ncl Compounds. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. ROSCOE (JJhair- 
man), Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Pro- 
fessor J. Devvar, Professor G. D. LivEiNG, Professor A. Schuster, 
Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, arid Captaia 
Sir W. de W. Abney. 



Infra-red Arc Spectra of the Alkalies. 
Lehmann, ' Ann. d. Physik,' t. v. 1901, p. 633. 



Wave-length 



7701-92 
7668-54 



8513-26 
7950-46 \ 
7805-98 J 
7753-58 \ 
7626-66 I 
7406-19 I 
727701 / 



9211-86 \ 

9171-38 r 

8949-92' 

8766-10 

8527-72 

8082-02 1 

8019-62/ 

7616-58 

7227-46 



Intensity 



Keduction to 
Vacuum 



A.+ 




10 
10 



4 
8 
10 
G 
6 
4 
4 



6 

6 
8 
8 
IS 
6 
6 
6 
4 



Potassium. 

I 2 08 

Rubidium. 



215 

211 
2-10 
2 07 
2-01 
1-97 



Cjesivss. 



3-5 
3-6 



3-2 
3-4 
3-5 



3-7 



Oscillation Frequency 



12981-7 
13036 7 



11743-0 
12575 2 
12807-7 
12893-8 
13109-0 
13497-5 
13738-1 





30 


10853-1 
10900 




31 


11171-1 
11404-1 




3-2 


117241 


219 


3-4 


12368-8 


217 


tr 


12465-7 


2 06 


3-6 


13125-7 


I 96 


3-7 


13833-1 



Crossley, J.C.S., 1899, 75, 776 ; Vorliinder, Annalen, 1902, 322, 251. 



138 



KEPOKT — 1902. 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum). 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cviii. 1899. 
Lohse, Berl. Akad., 1897. 









Eeduction to 


fl >-> - 


Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 

1 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuc 


\ + 


1 
K 


4740-70 


2 




1-30 


5-8 


21088-1 


400 


In 




>l 


»} 


091 


329 


In 




>> 


» 


123 


30-00 


1 




») 


>» 


135-8 


24-55 


1 




1-29 


»* 


160-2 


23-93 


1 




)» 


>) 


163-0 


23-i;o 


1 




)> 




164-5 


2017 


1 




>» 


»» 


179 9 


18-79 


1 




>» 


)> 


186-2 


1560 


1 




a 


)7 


200-4 


12-57 


1 




>» 


»1 


215-0 


08-27 


1 




>» 


»» 


233-4 


06-41 


1 




»» 


5-9 


241-7 


05-92 


2 




ji 


)> 


243-9 


02-55 


1 




»» 


T) 


259-1 


00-35 


1 




ij 


if 


269-1 


469505 


In 




yt 


If 


293-1 


94-25 


2 




jj 


J» 


296-7 


91-25 


>2 




)» 


>» 


310-4 


90 87 


1 




1-28 


J) 


312-1 


89-33 


1 




») 


}1 


319-1 


85-65 


In 






J7 


335-8 


80 81 


1 




>) 


T) 


357-9 


66-69 


1 




j» 


1} 


422-7 


.52-2 


In 






>t 


490 


5176 


2 




1-27 


)J 


491-4 


41-35 


1 


' 


)) 


)) 


539-7 


40-26 


1 




Jj 


)j 


544-8 


39-86 


1 




l» 




546-5 


34-00 


1 




?» 


6-0 


573-6 


31-94 


2 




yy 


f f 


583-2 


27-8 


In 




T> 


>* 


602-5 


26 8 


In 




j» 


If 


607 


25-24 


1 




T» 


»» 


611-7 


2422 


In 




yt 


>> 


616-5 


2405 


In 




f f 


17 


620-0 


19-67 


3 




Ji 


?) 


640-6 


12-71 


1 




»i 


5> 


673-2 


12-06 


1 




j» 


>» 


676-3 


10-00 


1 




n 


)» 


6860 


09-53 


2 




)i 


)> 


688-2 


06-69 


1 






Jl 


701-5 


05-42 


In 




»i 


»» 


706-5 


03-05 


I 




j; 


• T 


718-7 


4599-55 


In 




M 


>» 


7.33-2 


97-75 


2b 




J» 


»» 1 


743 8 


95-66 


1 




U 


., I 


753-6 


94-69 


In 




J» 




758-3 


93-65 


In 




»> 


. >» 


763-2 


93-48 


In 




J» 


)» 


764-0 


9297 


In 




>> 


» 


766-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 139 



Thorium (Ultra-violet SpAek Stectrvm)— continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 




(Exner and 


and 


W:iv 


Haschek) 


Character 




45890 


In 




89-31 


4 




88-40 


1 




87-95 


In 




87-47 1 


In 




86-80 i 


In 




86-44 


1 




84-55 


1 




83-9 


In 




82-67 


In 




81-78 


1 




81-42 


1 




79-5 


In 




79-25 


In 




75-61 


1 




73-90 


1 




611-20 


1 




(•.6-85 


1 




64-35 


1 




63-48 


5 




62-7 


In 




55-82 


8 


4555-88 


54-9 
54-08 


Ibl 
1 J 


54-31 


53-25 


1 




52-5 


In 




51-70 


1 


. 


50-55 


1 




47-0 


In 




46-3 


In 




460 


In 




44-70 


2 




43-42 


In 




42-55 


In 




41-8 


In 




40-60 


2 




3900 


1 




37 26 


2 


37-24 


36-63 


1 




34-30 


2 




33-50 


3 


33-55 


32-47 


2 


32-54 


31-90 


2 


31-89 


29-67 






29-06 






2S-6 


In 




27-93 






26-23 






' 25-31 






2504 






23-00 






21-5 


In 




21-2 


In 




19-98 






18-85 







Redact 


ion to 1 


C f? 


Vacuum 1 


•2S§ 






o 1J 




1 


A + 


A 

1 




1-27 


6-0 i 


21781 


i '• 




786-6 


1 ! 




788-1 


1 
>» 1 




790-2 


1 

1 ' T» ] 




792-5 


" i 




795-7 


11 




797-4 


)» 




806-4 


>» 




809-5 


)) 




815-3 


91 




819-6 


" 1 




821-3 


1 
J) 




830-5 


J) 




831-7 


)> 




8490 






857-2 
879-7 


»1 




890-9 




6-1 


902-8 


)l 




907-0 


?» 




911 


it 




943-8 


11 




947 


f» 




952-2 


») 




956-2 


19 




960 


11 




963-7 


t1 




969-3 


>i 




986 


>i 




991 


11 




991 
997-6 


11 




22003-7 


If 




008-0 


»» 




012 


)1 




017-4 


!t 




025-2 


>» 




033-6 


jl 




036-7 


)1 




048-5 
051-9 


)) 




056-9 


»> 




1 059-7 


» 




070-6 


)t 


' y* 


073-5 


»» 


1 

1 " 


076 


11 


1 „ 


079-1 
087-3 




1 » 


091-8 


J) 




093-1 






103-1 


yt 


1 


111 
1 113 


}> 




117-9 


>» 




123-4 



110 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thorium (Ultea-violet Spark Specteum)- 



Wave-length 
; (Exner aiid 
I Hiiachek) 



4318-40 
17-24 
16-20 
13-91 
1270 
10-73 
08-9 
US 4 
00-21 

4199-13 
.96 53 
95-45 
95- 13 
93-57 
92-45 
9202 
90-5 
897 
88-83 
87-67 
86-80 
85-99 
84-44 
81-85 
81-37 
81-02 
79 36 
771 
75-43 
74-25 
72-47 
71-97 
6.V52 
<;3-3 
61-91 
61 2S 
57-65 
57-35 
56-83 
55-8 
55-20 
54-62 
51-23 
48-7 
48-00 
45- 13 
43-30 
42-05 
41-05 
40-73 
39-26 
36-72 
36-40 
36-20 
33-12 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2n 

1 

2 

1 

2 

5 

In 

In 

2 

In 

2 

In 

1 

I 

1 

In 

In 

In 

3 

3 

2 

1 

1 

I 

1 

2 

1 

In 

1 

2 

1 

1 

4 

In 

2 

2 

In 

In 

In 

In 

1 

1 

In 

In 

2 

1 

1 

In 

2 

1 

3 

1 

1 

1 

3 



Wave-lengtli (Lohse) 



10-78 



4487-59 

83-23 



76-83 


74-37 


65-73 


61-43 



55-19 



4814 



41-21 

39-42 
36-82 
36-66 

33-2« 



continued. 




Reduction to 


a >, 


Vacuum 


•2 2° 






c3 2 o 






S S eS 




1 


■" %> 


A.+ 




^ ^ a 




A 


Op. .3 


1-27 


61 


22125-6 


If 


ft 


136-1 


»J 


Tt 


139-4 


}» 


If 


147-6 


>t 


f) 


153-5 


»» 


ft 


163 3 


»» 


tf 


172 


>» 


ft 


175 


f * 


; 


215-1 


f» 


,, 


220-4 


ft 


6-2 


233-2 


>f 


ff 


238-4 


») 


»t 


240-1 


»» 


ff 


247-9 


»» 


tf 


2535 


t» 


ft 


255 5 




tf 


263 


»> 


■>•> 


267 


It 


ft 


271-3 


»t 
It 
It 


Jf 
tt 
ff 


2771 

281-4 
285-4 


»t 
t» 


ft 
ft 


293-1 
306-0 


1* 


ff 


308-4 


It 


ff 


310-1 


♦ t 


ff 


318-4 
330 


It 


If 


338-0 


)) 


fi 


343-9 


tt 


Tf 


352-8 


») 


„ 


355 3 


It 


If 


387-6 


ft 


ft 


399 


ft 


tt 


405 7 


ft 


ff 


408-8 




ft 
If 


427-2 
428-6 


tf 


ft 


431-3 


,, 


If 


4365 


ft 


t) 


4395 


f» 


ff 


442-4 




ff 


459-5 


♦ » 


,. 


472 


)f 


11 ; 


475-8 


tt 


11 


490-3 


ft 


It 


4996 


ft 


It 


505-9 


tf 




5110 


ft 


ti 


512-6 


19 


,^ 


520-1 


»f 


11 


533-0 


ft 

ft 


11 


534-6 
535-6 
551-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SrECTRA OF TEIE ELEMENTS. 141l 



THOEIUM (ULTBA-VIOIiBT SpAEK SPEOTBUM)— cWltt/tWef?. 









Reduction to 


a &o 


Wave-length 
(Exner and 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


Vacuum 


■2§§ 

3 §§ 








Haschek) 


Character 




A-t- 


A 


4429-40 


1 




1-27 


C-3 


22570-1 


28-8 


In 




»l 


i> 


573 


27-85 


1 


27-95 


»1 


11 


578-0 


2618 


2n 


26-27 


•>y 


»i 


586-4 


25-30 


In 




>i 


>) 


591-0 


2410 


1 




»» 


M 


597-2 


22-95 


1 




J) 


»i 


603 


22-0 


In 




>> 


»» 


608 


21-8 


In 




»» 


11 


609 


19-18 


1 






n 


622-3 


18-84 


1 


18-97 Ce? 


»> 


>» 


6241 


16-40 


2 


16-48 


»» 


M 


636-6 


14 8 


In 


15-00 


J» 


fi 


645 


13-60 


1 




»» 


'» 


650-9 


12-98 


2 


f 13-02 
1 12-90 


»» 


n 


654-1 


12-68 


1 




i» 


11 


655-6 


11-80 


1 




» 


It 


660-2 


1060 


2 


10-73 


7» 


>* 


666-4 


0910 


1 




•' 


• 

91 


6741 


08-61 


1 




.. 


»» 


676-6 


06-65 


In 




J» 


»» 


686-7 


05-95 


In 




)> 


»> 


690-3 


02-98 


In 




!> 


»> 


705-6 


01-87 


1 




»> 


l> 


711-1 


00 56 


1 




>J 


)> 


7181 


4399 25 


2 


4399-39 Ce ? 


1' 


Jl 


724-8 


98-10 


2 


98-16 


» 


» 


730-8 


96-67 


1 


96-69 


)> 


>» 


738-2 


9509 


2 


95-14 Zr / 


>» 


)» 


746-3 


9328 


1 


93-31 


•» 


»> 


755-7 


91-30 


8 


91-29 


>> 


»» 


766-0 


88-59 


1 




J> 


» 


780-0 


87-93 


5 


87-98 


71 


»» 


783 5 


87-27 


1 




«» 


)l 


786-4 


86-35 


1 




)» 


J» 


791-7 


84-3 


In 




»» 


J» 


802 


82-10 


8 


82-03 


1» ' 


1» 


813-8 


81-56 


1 




»> ' 


r> 


816-3 


80-13 


In 




*» 


)> 


824-0 


7975 


In 




>» 


»» 


826-1 


7900 


1 




1> 


jt 


830-0 


77-50 


2 


77-50 


»» 


11 


837-8 


75-77 


1 




!) 


11 


846-8 


74-96 


2 


74-98 Yt? 


11 ' 


i» 


851-1 


74-08 


2 


74-15 


1) 


11 


855-6 


69-50 


2 


69-48 


*» 


,, 


879-6 


6608 


1 




71 


6-4 


897-4 


64-5 


In 




11 


„ 


906 


62-55 


1 




1) 


11 


916-0 


61-96 


1 




»» 


n 


919-1 


61-50 


2 


61-52 


»» 


11 


921-5 


59-00 


1 




»> 


i( 


934-6 


58-70 


1 




>1 


11 


936-2 


57-79 


1 


■ 


>l 


11 


9410 



142 



REPORT 1902. 



Thorium (Ultka-violet Spark Spectrum)- 


-continued. 










Reduction to 


=! >^^ 








Vacuum 


•2g§ 


vVave-length 
(Exner and 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length (Lohae) 




3 s § 






Haschek) 

! 


Character 

i 




A + 


A 




435.5-O0 


2 


55-54 


1-27 


0-4 


22953-1 


53-55 


1 


53-64 Ce ? 


»1 ' 


11 


963-3 


52>ir 


1 52-92 Ce? 


»» ■ I 


ft 


966-9 


51 00 


1 




1 
11 1 


11 


975-8 • 


49-57 


3 a 




11 


11 


984-4 


47-3fi 


1 


47-40 


" ' 1 


It 


996-0 


45--;2 


1 




i» ; 


'1 


23007-4 


44 50 


2 


44-60 


)i ' 


9* 


011-2 


44 16 


2 


44-21 


f, 


It 


013-0 


43-79 


1 


43-93 


n 


It 


015-0 


1 42-45 


2 


42-50 Zr ? 


)i 


It 


022-1 


41-22 


2 


41-80 Zr? 


11 


11 


028-6 


3755 


2 


37-64 


»» 


tl 


048-1 


36-7 


In 




11 


„ 


053 


35-89 


3 


35-97 


j» 


U 


0569 


35-4(i 


1 




ff 


19 


059-2 


34-11 


2 


34-22 


■ 

91 


91 


066-4 


32-09 


2 


32-18 


M 


1' 


076-5 


314 


lb 




»1 


1» 


081 


29-05 


1 


29-78 Zr? 


11 


11 


090-2 


28-86 


1 


28-95 


>» 


91 


094-+ 


27-30 


1 




11 




102-7 


231 


In 




H ' 


It 


125 


22-9 


In 




fi- 


It 


126 


20 77 


2 


20-84 


ll 1» 


137-6 


20-31 


.2 


20-36 


11 »» 


140-1 


19-28 


1 


i 19-82 
\ 19-42 


H »l 


147-6 


18-47 


1 


18-61 


« M 


150-0 


16-15 


1 




11 


J, 


i«2-4 


15-86 


1 




>( 


^, 


164-0 


15-52 


1 




1» 


1» 


165-8 


1422 


1 




11 




172-8 


13-53 


1 




,. 


It 


1765 


1317 


1 




„ i 


19 


■ 178-4 


10-90 


111 




1) 


11 


190-6 


10-19 


4 


1023 


91 


»♦ 


194 4 


08-42 


1 




»1 


6-5 


203-9 


07-40 


1 




91 


"i 


209-3 


06 57 


<> 


06-58 


91 


ft 


213-8 


05-65 


la 




11 




218-8 


022 


lb 


02-74 Ca ? 


91 


}* 


237 


00-98 


1 




11 


If 


246-0 


99-66 


1 




11 


f* 


251-1 


99-01 


I 


4298-79 Zr ? 


1* 


»» 


254-7 ! 


97-53 


1 




If 




262-7 


97-11 


1 




99 




2650 


96-83 


1 




99 


,j 


266-5 


95-25 


3 


95-27 


11 


ti 


275-0 


91-60 


1 




11 


ti 


294-8 


90-6 


In 




)1 11 


300 


88-23 


2 


88-20 


91 


ff 


. 313-1 


87-9 


In 


1 


•1 


»i 


-315 


86-90 


1 




11 


»i 


320-4 


86-38 


1 


8 J 39 


^ ffl 


»' 


3232 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 143 



Thohium (Ultra-violet yi'ARic Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


4385-35 


In 


8515 


2 


8.'?-70 


2 


82-20 


4 


81-03 


2 


81-23 


2 


80-43 


1 


77-49 


2 


77-13 


1 


76-97 


1 


74-51 


1 


7419 


2 


73-54 


3 


71-26 


1 


70-49 


L 


63-50 


1 


62-9 


In 


56-25 


1 


54-60 


1 


54-09 


1 


54-00 


1 


53-66 


I 


53-35 


1 


60-50 


2 


49-80 


2 


48-10 


3 


47-73 


1. 


4246-56 


1 


45-63 


I 


44-99 


1 


44-05 


2 


42-95 


In 


42-52 


In 


39-13 


1 


37-25 


In 


35-12 


1 


34-44 


1 


33-41 


1 


29-58 


2 


27-82 


1 


26-0 


In 


24-75 


1 


24-37 


1 


23-9 


In 


22-32 


1 


20-23 


2 


19-54 


1 


18-69 


1 


18-34 


1 


17-35 


1 


16-19 


1 


14-73 


1 


1415 


1 


13-28 


1 


11-67 


2 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



85-16 
83-67 
82-19 
81-61 
81-25 

77-47 
. 7704 

74-17 La? 

73-51 

71-26 

70-50 

63-54 

56-34 Ce? 



50-57 
49-91 
48-23 



4417 

40-84 U 1 



33-51 
29-73 
2698 Ca ? 



20 27 



15-74 Sr? 



11-72 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


K+ ' 


1_ 

A 


1-27 


6-5 


23328-8 


» 




329-9 


)l 




337-8 


>* 




346 


»1 




3491 


J1 




351-2 


»» ■ 




3556 


)i 




371-7 
3736 






374-5 

388 


»» 




389-7 


»» 




393-3 


»» 




405-7 


11 




410-0 


H 




448-4 


n 




452 


It 




488-3 


)» 




497-5 ■ 


Jt 




500-3 




6*6 


500-8 
502-6 


19 




504-3 


?» 




620-1 


)» 




523-9 


»' 




633-3 


M 




535-4 


•» 




541-9 


)1 




547-0 


1) 




550-6 


l» 




555-8 


tl 




561-9 


») 




564-3 


»> 




683-1 


)» 


]] 


5!'3-6 


»» 




«i05-5 


»» 




609-3 


1» 




615-0 


J» 




636-4 


>» 




646-3 


T» 




656 


If 




663 4 


»» 




665-5 


»» 




668 


fl 




676-6 


11 




688-8 


»» 




692-7 


If 




697-4 


»l 




699-4 . 


»J 




7050 


Jf 




711-5 


»t 




719-7 


»f 




722-9 


»» 


"' 1 


727-9 


It 


„ i 


736-2 ' 



144 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thoeium (Ultka-violet Spakk Svkctbvm)— continued. 









Reduction to 


^ ^^ 


'\iVave-lengtl 


Intensity 




Vacuum 


c o o 


(Exner and 


and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 




eg O ^ 




Oscill 
Freqi 
in Vi 


Haschek) 


Character 




1 
1 
\ + 


1_ 
A 


4209-01 


5 


! 09-07 


1 1-27 


6-6 


r 

23752-0 


Ofi-83 


■ 1 


06-93 


i „ 


5» 


764-3 


0203 


f 2 


02-11 


i ,, 


»» 


791-4 


4199-18 


1 1 




i .. 


C-7 


807-5 


97-24 


1 




I „ 


»1 


818-5 


9G-02 


2n 


4195-97 




»j 


825-4 


95-75 


2 


95-73 


! 


») 


826-9 


94-27 


1 


l» 


»J 


835-3 


93 15 


] 




1 " 


)» 


841-7 


92 03 


In 


91-97 Zr ? 


n 


n 


848-1 


88-75 


1 


1 


»» 


j» 


866-8 


84-95 


In 


84-87 


»» 


>» 


888 4 


84 48 


1 


84-29 


>» 


n 


8911 


83-7(5 


1 


83-57 


1 ** 


»» 


895-2 


82-15 


2 


82-21 
81-18 


1 


n 


804-4 


8015 


2 


»» 


»» 


915-9 


79-86 


2 


f 79-98 Zr ? ; 
1 79-77 1 " 


M 


ei7-5 


78-20 


: 3 


78-16 : „ 


»> 


9270 


76-55 


In 


! •' 


)» 


936-5 


74-65 


In 


1 T) 


)* 


937-4 


74-15 


In 


i >• 


M 


940 3 


73-7 


In 


i „ 


J> 


953 


71-52 


2 


71-56 ' „ 


» 


955-3 


71-00 


1 


71-00 


J» 


9684 


70-65 


2 


7067 


Jl 


970-4 


68-81 


2 


68-81 


If 


981-0 


67-15 


In 




>* 


988-8 


G6-7 


In 




»l 


993 


65-92 


1 


' 


91 


997-6 


65-25 


1 


65 24 


Jt 


•» 


24001-4 


64-43 


1 


64-45 


9» 


>) 


O06-2 


63-84 


2 


63-86 


ty 


>» 


009S 


63-37 


1 






)> 


0123 


62-87 


2 


62-88 


f* 


»t 


015-2 


6210 


1 




}l 


)| 


019-0 


61-73 


1 




)f 


J» 


021-2 


60-9 


In 




)» 


)l 


027 


59-82 


2 


59-76 




)| 


032-8 


57-67 


1 




jf 


}1 


015-2 


57-20 


1 






»» 


048-0 


5669 


^ 


4156-67 




)f 


050-9 


56-35 


1 


56-39 Zr ? 




H 


052-3 


55-5) 


I 


j 




yt 


067-7 


51-6 


1 








080 


50-17 


2 


50-11 Ce :' 




„ 


088-7 


48-5 


In 






6-8 


098 


48-35 


2 


4831 




}» 


0991 


42-87 


2 


42-80 




M 


131-1 


42-63 


2 


42-63 Ce ? 




it 


132-5 


41-82 


3 


41-75 




)» 


137-2 


40-42 


4 


40-35 




J } 


145-4 


38-97 


1 








153-8 


36-53 


2 


36-51 


]', 


JJ 


168-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTo. 



11.2 



Thorium (Ultea-violet Spark Spectrum) — continued. 









Reduction to 


« (»> „ 


Wave-length 
(Exner and 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


Vacuum 


■2S§ 
^ o-'> 






Hascliek) 


Character 




\ + 


1 

A. 


o » _ 

0^ i-t a 


4134-27 


2 


- 34-21 


1-27 


6-8 


24181-3 


32-95 


3 


32-91 






189 


31-00 


o 


31-63 






190-9 


30-83 


1 








2014 


:i0-15 


In 








205-5 


29-15 


In 








211-2 


27-GO 


I 








220-4 


24-79 


2 


24-76 Ce? 






236-9 


23-72 


I 


23-70 






243-1 


2317 


1 








246-3 


22-85 


1 


22-83 






248-9 


22-06 


1 


22-02 






253-5 


lG-91 


5 


10-83 






283-3 


15-85 


1 








289-5 


14-3 


In 








299 


13-77 


1 


13-71 






299-8 


12-95 


1 


12-92 Zr? 


,, 




306-0 


12-52 


1 


12-43 




" 


309 2 


11-09 


1 


10-98 






315-0 


10-72 


^ 


10-70 
1031 






319-8 


08-61 


3 


08-55 


** 




332-3 


08-01 


1 


07 93 






335-9 


07-58 


1 


07-50 Ce? 






338-4 


00 


In 


0603 






344 


05-55 


2 


05-46 






350-5 


U4'60 


2 


04-47 






355 1 


03-9 


In 


03-75 






359 






03-35 








01-00 


1 


00-97 Di? 






373-9 


01-08 


2 


00-50 






3760 


00-57 


1 








3800 


4099-13 


2 


4099-05 




0-9 


388-5 


97-!)3 


I 


97-85 






395-7 


97-52 


1 


97-45 






31)8-1 


94-99 


3 


94-90 






413-2 


93-60 


In 


93-57 






420-5 


91-7 


In 








433 


91-53 


1 








433-8 


86-71 


3 


86-88 La? 






402-0 


86 02 


1 


86-05 Zr .' 






403-7 


85-22 


4 


85-21 






471-6 


83-60 


1 








481-3 


82-49 


1 


82-43 Zr ? 






487 9 


82-10 


1 


82-03 Zr? 






49C-3 


81-23 


1 








495-5 


80-50 


1 








499-9 


80-12 


L 








502-2 


79-77 


1 








504-3 


79-35 


1 


77-89 Sr? 






506-8 


74-90 


1 








5:i30 


73-92 


I 








539-5 


73-15 


1 


7314 






544-1 


70-95 


1 


1 






557-4 



1902. 



146 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thorium (Ultea-violet Spark Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


4069-40 


4 


68-15 


111 


67-78 




66-3 


In 


65-90 




65-46 




64-9 


Id 


64-50 




6391 




63-59 




60-05 




59-45 




57-99 




57-52 




57-23 


In 


55-43 




55-00 




53-68 


In 


52-65 


In 


51-3 


In 


51-1 


In 


50-02 




49 02 


3 a 


48-60 




48-18 




45-85 




43 2 


In 


4136 




40-45 




39-53 




37-40 


In 


3671 




36-22 




35-02 




34-36 




32fi9 




3147 


In 


31-25 




31-00 




SO-fS 


In 


29-5 


In 


29-18 




28-83 




27-83 




27-48 




26-30 




25-78 




24-63 




23-70 




23-25 




2223 




20-22 




19-30 


10 


17-25 




16-45 





Wave-length (Lohse) 



69-39 



49-02 
48-61 
48-22 

43-21 
41-32 



30-70 



34-47 
3274 



28-94 



26-42 

2585 



22-30 Ce ? 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



\ + 



1-27 



1 

a' 



6-9 



7-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 117 



Thorium (Dltka-violet Spark Spectrum)- 



I Wave-length Intensity 
(Exner and ' and 
Haschek) Character 



4015-27 


In 


14-66 




13-45 




12-67 




11-95 




11-17 




10-65 


In 


09-70 


In 


09-22 




08-35 




07-68 


3 


0651 


2 


05 69 


3 


03-49 


3 


03-21 


2 


01-88 


1 


01-22 


1 


00-10 


1 


3998-01 


3 


97-60 


1 


9620 


2 


94-70 


2 


93-86 


I 


92 46 


1 


92-21 


1 


91-80 


in 


90-72 


in 


90-25 


1 


88-99 


1 


88-71 


I 


88-17 


3 


87-88 


1 


87-35 


1 


87-21 


1 


86-81 


1 


86-26 


1 


85-55 


1 


84-76 


1 


84-50 


1 


82-36 


1 


82-23 


1 


81-70 


1 


81-28 


3 


80-90 


2 


80-26 


1 


79-20 


2 


77-99 


1 


76-56 


2 


75-36 


1 


74-38 


1 


72-30 


1 


70-00 


1 


69-70 


In 


69-50 


1 


69-15 


1 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



-co7itini(cd. 




Reduction to 


1-4 >) 


Vacuum 


.2S§ 






illat 
que 
Vac 






A + 


1 
A 


s2a 


1-27 


7-0 


21897-9 


)» 




901-7 


?J 


If 


909-2 


»> 


» 


9141 


>J 


J) 


918-5 


)J 


)> 


923-4 


») 


)> 


926-6 


)J 




932-1 


J» 


j> 


935-5 


H 


>» 


940-9 


!» 


}} 


945-1 






952-4 
957-4 


)» 


'M 


971-1 


»» 


» 


9723 


»» 


)l 


981-1 


1» 


)j 


9910 


»» 
»» 




992-3 
999-7 


»J 


»i 


25007-9 


»» 


)» 


016-7 


J> 


j» 


0261 


M 


J) 


031-3 


'» 


l» 


0401 


)) 


• » 


041-7 


IT 


)» 


044-3 


>» 


1» 


051-0 


>> 


•J 


054-0 


)» 


)» 


061-9 


»» 


51 


063-5 


»J 


J» 


067-0 


»> 


»» 


068-9 


»» 


>> 


072-2 


>» 


i» 


072-6 


)» 


»» 


075-6 


>1 


., 


079-0 


>> 


t> 


083-5 


»> 


)) 


088-5 


»» 


5) 


090-2 


»» 


)» 


J03-G 


?» 


)» 


104-0 


»> 


>) 


107-8 


J» 


)) 


110-5 


»f 


It 


112 9 


)t 


)> 


116-9 


♦ » 


T» 


123-6 


>> 


J) 


131-2 


»1 


» 


140-3 


>» 


11 


147-9 


J» 


>f 


154-0 


1> 


J» 


1G7-2 


»» 


>l 


181-8 


»» 


»» 


183-7 


» 


»» 


1S5-0 


„ 


»» 


187-2 
L 2 



148 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thorium (Dltka-violet Spabk iiPECTUVM)—conti/uicd. 



Wave-lengthi intensity 
(Exnerand j ,-^,ja 
Haschelj) , character 



3967 52 


la 


C7;?7 


1 


C7 10 


1 


CG-9 


111 


65 00 


1 


Ga05 


2 


63-8:! 


2 


(;2-4!) 


2 


(il-07 


I 


60-50 


2 


69-38 


]n 


58 :iO 


1 


50 75 


;; 


55-3.S 


In 


53-es 


In 


52 00 


1 


51 -(.G 


3 


51 -25 


1 


50-5;{ 


'> 


49-oy 


2r 


47-80 


In 


47-48 


In 


47-:! 


In 


46-30 


'> 


4 5 9G 


I 


45-63 


• ) 


43-31 


O 


43-47 


2n 


42-J.i 


In 


42-75 


1 


42-20 


1 


41-4S 


1 


40 49 


1 


39-88 


1 


38-8G 


2 


3801 


>■> 


37 14 


2 


36 45 


1 


36 07 


1 


35 74 


I 


35 82 


1 


34 90 


1 


33 65 


1 


33 00 


1 


32 35 


1 


32 10 


I 


31 35 


In 


30 43 


1 


29 74 


• > 


27 54 


'^ 


27 24 


•» 


26 80 


1 


25 1 9 


2n 


22 31 


1 


20 41 1 


1 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A-l- 


1 


1-27 


71 


25197-6 




„ 


19S-5 




tt 


200-2 




If 


201-5 




i» 


212 6 




»t 


222-2 






224-2 
229-5 




M 


238-6 




»» 


242-2 




J» 


2494 




»» 


256-3 




t» 


266-2 




7-2 


274-8 




» 


287-3 




»» 


292-6 




ft 


298-6 




'» 


S0\-2 




ff 


305-9 




It 


315-3 


f, 


1) 


327 4 


„ 


fi 


325-4 




j» 


327 




J) 


3:^3 




»» 


335-2 




i» 


337 3 




»> 


349-0 




M 


351-2 




»» 


354-5 




ff 


355-7 




»» 


35!i-3 




n 


364-0 




»» 


370 4 




»» 


374-3 




fi 


370 9 




)i 


386-3 




t» 


391-9 




»i 


396-4 




Jt 


398-8 




»f 


4(11 () 




11 


403-7 




" 


40G-4 




11 


414-5 




)i 


418-7 




,} 


422-9 




>* 


424 5 




»j 


429-6 


" 


»» 


435-3 




It 


439-8 




,, 


4540 


" 1 


»f 


456 


IT 1 


)» 


458-8 




j» 


4C9 3 




J) 


487-8 
500-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 149 



Thorhtji (Ultra-violet Spark SPECTRVM)—aoniinued. 









Reduction to 


i^o 


Wave-length 


Intensity 




Vacuum 


■lii 


(Exner and 
Haschekl 


and j 
Character 


Wave-lengtli (Lohse) 




— 3 ^"^ 

a 2 c 


1-27 


1 

A 


3918-G2 






7-2 


25111-4 


18-13 






)> 


>» 


515-2 


16-!I0 








11 


523 2 


15-92 






>) 


;» 


529-6 


14-G 


In 




»J 


'1 


538 


13-95 






»» 


»l 


5424 


1315 






i» 


i» 


547 6 


12-41 






J> 


11 


5!)3-5 


11-45 






») 


'1 


558-3 


08-C 


In 




U 


7-3 


577 


08-03 








1» 


581-0 


07-48 


In 




91 


)» 


584 7 


Oti-95 


In 




»' 


J1 


588-1 


0t)-l3 


In 




J» 


)1 


593-5 


05-2'.) 


3r 






)> 


599-0 


04-21 






^^ 


)) 


60(5-1 


02-GO 






Tf 




ClG-6 


02-25 






»» 


)) 


(il8-9 


01-3 


In 




it 


1) 


(i25 


00-99 






)1 


r ) 


0-27 2 


00-25 






)1 


•1 


G31-C 


3899-1 


In 




»» 


) ) 


6-10 


98 95 






iy 


;« 


640-6 


98-60 






t9 


r J 


612-9 


95 55 








;i 


663-0 


95 02 






5» 


11 


660-5 


94-53 






ff 


) t 


669-7 


93-55 






»» 




676-2 


93-20 


2 




It 


; » 


678-5 


92-42 


2 








6837 


91-18 


2 






11 


691-9 


9049 


1 




n 


11 


696-4 


87-55 


1 




11 


5 » 


715-8 


87-08 


1 




ft 


•1 


719-0 


8612 


1 




J» 


)1 


723-3 


85-87 


In 




n 


•» 


727-0 


84-96 


2 








733-0 


81-67 


1 




)I 




734-9 


72 87 


3 ON 




IT 


51 


813-3 


72-45 


In 




1) 


ri 


816-1 


69-77 


1 








8340 


69-50 


1 




it 


t( 


835-8 


67-46 


1 




11 


•1 


849-4 


67-00 


In 






9i 


852-5 


65-20 


1* 




11 


11 


864-6 


63-51 


3CN 






11 


875-9 


62-50 


1 




)) 


11 


882 7 


59-98 


3n 






11 


899-6 


54-61 


3 




}f 


)l 


ii35-7 


53-60 


1 




}t 


J» 


942-5 


5310 


1 






!J 


945-8 


51-72 


In 




jj 


11 


959-1 


46-40 


1 
J. 




11 


11 


991-0 


■45-17 


1 




11 


Jl 


999-3 


43-10 


3 




*i 


if 


26013-3 



150 



REPORT — 1902. 
Thorium (Ultra-violet Spaek Spectrvm')— continued. 









Reduction to 


1 ^>., 


Wave-length 
(Exuev and 


Intensity 
and 




Vacuum 


illatio 
quenc 
Vacuc 


Wave-length (Lohse) 






Haschek) 


Cliaracter 
1 




\ + 


1_ 

A. 




S839-90 


3 




1-27 


7-3 


26035-0 


3892 


1 




»l 


)> 


041-7 


3801 


2 




It 


It 


047-9 


36-65 


2 CN 




|> 


)» 


057-1 


34-75 


1 




If 


)1 


070-0 


32-97 


1 




1} 


)> 


082-1 


32-59 


1 




ff 


11 


084-7 


31-90 


3 




J» 


It 


089-4 


29-53 


2 




)) 


)) 


105-6 


28-58 


2CN 




tt 


,, 


112-0 


28-30 


2Cisr 




J» 


H 


114-0 


2711 


2 




» 


t» 


132-1 


25-80 


1 




}• 


It 


131-0 


25-21 


2 




}* 


t) 


1350 


24-92 


1 




)) 


11 


137-0 


24 52 


1 




jt 


tl 


139-8 


23-74 


1 




)| 


It 


145-1 


23-50 


1 




Jf 


t» 


146-7 


22-33 


3 




11 


It 


164-7 


21-94 


1 




11 


It 


157-4 


21-57 


3 




II 


tt 


159-9 


20-95 


L 




11 


,, 


164-2 


2013 


In 




11 


11 


169-8 


19-46 


2ii 






,, 


174-4 


19-2 


In 




u 


»' 


176 


18-81 


1 




11 


tt 


178-9 


17-86 


2a 




91 


7-4 


185-3 


17-51 


2 




jl 


tt 


187-7 


16-73 


1 




91 


>t 


193-0 


15-71 


1 




)1 


tl 


199-0 


15-22 


1 




1) 


tt 


203-4 


15-02 


1 




It 


)> 


204-7 


14-73 


2 




It 


tt 


206-8 


13-85 


1 




11 


tt 


212-8 


13-21 


4 




jj 


tt 


217-2 


12-30 


2 




11 


t» 


223-5 


11-55 


2 




11 


tl 


228-6 


11-20 


1 




it 


tt 


231-1 


10-75 


In 




It 


tt 


234-2 


10-00 


3 




t) 


tt 


239-3 


09-25 


1 




11 


11 


244-5 


08-84 


In 




t« 


,^ 


247-3 


08-30 


m 




It 


tt 


251-0 


08-04 


3 




It 


tt 


252-8 


06-96 


1 




91 


tt 


260-3 


05-95 


2 




t) 


»1 


267-2 


05-55 


1 




It 


tt 


270-0 


05-18 


1 






tt 


272-5 


04-85 


2 




11 


1* 


274-8 


04-3 


In 




tt 


It 


279 


04-2 


In 




tl 


It 


279 


03-25 


2 




11 


tt 


283-8 


02-93 


1 




11 


?t 


2880 


02-31 


1 






It 


292-3 


02-10 


1 




11 


tl 


293-8 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 151 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum.)— continiwd. 



Wave-l'?ngtli 


Intensity 




(Exner and 


and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


Haschek) 


Character 




3801-75 


In 




01-60 


2 




00-80 


2 




00-53 


1 




00-20 


1 




379979 


1 




9936 


1 




98-70 


InFe? 




98-25 


In 




98-1 


In 




97-66 


2 




97-10 


1 




96-33 


1 




95-90 


I 




95-53 


2 




94-50 


2 




94-30 


2 




93-92 


1 




93-65 


1 




93-14 


1 




92-80 


1 




92-52 


1 




92-15 


111 




91-50 


2 




90-99 


1 




90-67 


1 




90-2 


2n 




89-29 


3 




88-54 


1 




87-65 


1 




87-34 


1 




87-04 


1 




86-12 


1 




85-80 


3 




85-50 


la 


- 


83-95 


2b 




83-48 


2 




83-27 


3 




82-35 


In 




81-83 


1 




81-05 


In 




80-6o 


1 




79-95 


1 




78-93 


1 




78-06 


1 




77-50 


1 




77-27 


1 




76-10 


2i- 




75-47 


1 




74-40 


2n 




73-94 


3 




73-23 


2n 




72-41 


2 




71-96 


1 




71-55 


1 





Reduction to 


illation 
quency 
Vacuo 


Vacuum 








1 




A.+ 


A." 


1-27 


7-4 


26296-4 






298-0 




It 


301-9 






304-8 




f* 


307-0 






309-8 






312-8 




1J 


317-4 




n 


320-5 






321 






324-6 




»7 


328-5 






333-8 




)» 


336-8 




1» 


339-4 




»? 


346-5 




)) 


347-9 




)1 


350-6 






352-4 






353-5 






358-35 






3603 






362-9 




J» 


367-4 




»» 


370-9 




f» 


373-1 




»» 


378 






382-8 




)1 


387-0 




>1 


394-0 




»1 


396-4 

402-3 




11 


405-1 




T1 






11 


407-1 






409-2 




H 


420-0 






423-3 




,^ 


424-8 




j^ 


431-2 




M 


434-8 




ft 


440-3 






443-1 


," 


1» 


448-0 


II 


»» 


455-1 




t* 


461-2 




J1 


465-1 




»» 


466-7 
474-9 




H 


479-4 




»» 


486-9 
490-1 




To 


495-0 




It 


500-7 




tf 


503-9 




*» 


506-8 



152 



REPORT— 1902. 



Thorium (Ultea-violet Spark SPECTiimi)~continved. 



Wave-lengt] 


1 Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


37704 


In 


70-25 


In 


6802 


1 


6805 


3 


67-39 


1 


66-52 


In 


65 70 


1 


65-43 


2 


64-9 


In 


64-48 


1 


64-26 


1 


63-75 


1 


63-49 


1 


63 04 


4 


62-50 


In 


61-28 


3n 


60-48 


2 


59-46 


2 


58-95 


1 


67-88 


I 


57-44 


I 


56-9 


In 


56 46 


1 


56-05 


In 


55-55 


In 


5537 


In 


5475 


2 


52-73 


6 


51-91 


1 


50-82 


1 


50 30 


1 


49-17 


1 


48-45 


2 


47-73 


3 


46-68 


1 


46-15 


3 


44-89 


2 


43-71 


2 


43-15 


1 


42-45 


1 


41-40 


6 


41-03 


2 


40-6 


In 


39-95 


1 


39-02 


4 


37-37 


1 


37-10 


1 


35 70 


1 


35-05 


1 Fe? 


34-77 


2 


32-85 


In 


31-60 


2 


30-96 


4 


28-32 


] 


28-11 


1 




7-6 



26515 
515-9 
527-4 
531-4 
536-2 
542-2 
648-0 
549-9 
554 
556-6 
558-1 
561-7 
563-7 
566-7 
570-6 
579-2 
58t-9 
5921 
505-8 
603-2 
606-4 
610 
613-3 
616-2 
619-7 
621-0 
625 4 
639-8 
645-6 
653-3 
657-0 
665-1 
670-2 
675-3 
682-8 
686-6 
695-6 
704-0 
708-0 
712-9 
720-5 
723-1 
726 
730-8 
737-5 
749-3 
751-2 
761-2 
765-9 
767-9 
781-7 
790-6 
795-3 
8141 
815-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 153 





Thorium (Ultra-violet Spask Spectrum)- 


-contin 


led. 










Eeduction to 


c h„ 


Wave-length 

(Exuer and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


Vacuum 


•2 c § 


A-f 


1_ 

\ 


Oscill; 
Freqi 
in Vi 


372G 89 


3 




1-27 


7-6 


26824-5 


2(3-40 


In 






*> 


827-9 


26 02 


1 




»T 


>i 


830 7 


24-93 


2 




)j 


)» 


838-5 


24-70 


1 




J) 


)» 


840-2 


23-85 


2 






1) 


846-3 


23-46 


2 




>) 


i» 


849-1 


22 35 


3 




I) 


»» 


857-1 


2201 


3 






9t 


859-6 


21-55 


In 






fl 


862-9 


20-i)0 


In 




}} 


J» 


867-6 


20-52 


3 




)} 


1* 


870-4 


20-18 


3 






)t 


872-8 


19-90 


1 






If 


874-8 


19-63 


1 




1} 


j» 


876-8 


18 85 


1 








882-4 


18-36 


2 








886-0 


18-00 


2 






)i 


888-4 


1698 


1 








896-0 


1642 


1 




)j 


f } 


900-0 


14 53 


In 






yf 


913-7 


1271 


2 






J) 


926-9 


11-95 


In 








932-4 


11-50 


3 








935-7 


1075 


1 






;i 


9411 


09-82 


1 






}9 


947-9 


08-90 


2 






>) 


954-6 


07-60 


1 




J) 


t\ 


964-0 


0716 


1 




jj 


») 


967-2 


0691 


2 




)» 


)1 


976-8 


06-15 


In 






)1 


975-6 


05-16 


1 








981-8 


04-16 


4 






)1 


989-0 


03-04 


2 




}} 


)1 


997-2 


02-26 


1 




jf 


;) 


27002-9 


00-95 


3 




J) 


)» 


012-5 


(lO-oO 


2n 






}) 


015-8 


00-1 


In 






)1 


019 


369895 


1 








027-1 


98-47 


2 








030-6 


98-30 


In 








031-8 


97-21 


2 








039-8 


96-82 


2 






)1 


042-7 


96-15 


3 




)1 


}t 


047-6 


95-25 


In 








054-2 


9505 


In 








0556 


94-08 


3 








062-8 


92 65 


6r 








073-2 


92-24 


1 






)} 


077-3 


90-67 


3 




f) 


If 


087-7 


90-27 


2 




a 


)} 


090-6 


88-93 


4 




If 




100-5 


8^-40 


1 








104-3 


87-80 


2n 








108-8 


87-13 


1 




jj 


ri 


113-7 



154 



REPORT- — 1902. 



Thohium ( Ultra- vtolet Spaek Specirvm)— continued. 



Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 



3686-03 
84-10 
83-50 
83-01 
82-52 
82-06 
81-38 
80-72 
79-89 
7896 
78-19 
78-0 
76 88 
75-72 
73-97 
73-45 
73-15 
71-72 
71-38 
70-80 
70-21 
69-56 
68-31 
66-53 
65-90 
65-62 
65-33 
63-88 
63-32 
62-80 
62-36 

61 65 
60-28 
59 66 
58-32 
58-20 
57-70 
56-35 
55-2 
54-74 
63-72 
52-69 

62 31 
5i-72 
23-17 
22-87 
22-45 
2125 
20-52 
19-85 
19-50 
18-87 
18-48 
17-88 
17-22 



I 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

1 

5 

1 

4 

In 

1 

4 

3 

2 

1 

IM? 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

2 

I 

1 

6a 

1 

6n 

2q 

3 

1 

o 

In 

1 

1 

2 

4 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

3 

I 
1 

In 
In 
1 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



\ + 



1-27 



J.. 



a >> 

o o o 

- rS a S 

^ 3 c3 

OQ ^ a 



7-6 


27121-8 


'» 


136-1 


7-7 


140-8 


)» 


144-0 


)) 


1476 


)1 


1510 


») 


156-0 


T> 


160-9 


H 


167-0 


H 


1739 


M 


179-6 


11 


181 


11 


189 3 


>« 


197-9 


11 


210-8 


11 


214-6 


11 


216-9 


11 


227-5 


11 


230-0 


>» 


2343 


It 


238-7 


H 


243-5 


1» 


252-8 


11 


2660 


t1 


270-7 


11 


272-8 


11 


275 


11 


285-8 


»> 


289-9 


11 


293-8 


t» 


297-1 


1* 


302-4 


J» 


312-6 


J1 


317-2 


>» 


327-2 


" i 


328-1 


1 
11 


331-9 


1 
>7 


341-9 


)) 


351 


»■» 1 


354-0 


,, 


361-7 


»» 


369-4 


)' 1 


3722 


11 


376-7 


r-8 


592-3 


" 


594-6 


" ! 


697-8 


" 1 


606-9 


)' 


616-2 


1 


617-9 


1 
11 j 


620-3 


51 ;' 


625-1 


»« 


628-1 


»' 


632-7 


»» 1 


637-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



155 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum) — continued. 









Eeduction to 


C >. - 


Wave-length 
(Exner and 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


Vacuum 


illatio 
quenc 
Vacuc 






Haschek) 


Character 




\ + 


1 


O 01 ^ 

tn tH H 
Ofe- 


3616-85 


1 




1-27 


7-8 


27641-6 


15-26 


3 






,, 


652-7 


14-16 


3 






J, 


661-1 


13-91 


1 






)» 


663-1 


1257 


1 






»» 


673-3 


12-27 


1 






»» 


675-6 


1094 


2 






it 


685-3 


10 55 


2 






it 


688-8 


10-20 


2n 






JJ 


691-5 


09-60 


4 






»» 


696-1 


09-34 


1 






»> 


698-1 


08-48 


1 








704-7 


08-07 


1 






»i 


707-9 


07-52 


1 






M 


712-1 


06-87 


In 






it 


717-1 


06-32 


2 






*9 


721-3 


05-78 


1 






f « 


725-4 


04-17 


2 






f* 


737-8 


03-76 


1 






it 


741-0 


03-49 


2 






It 


743-1 


03-32 


3 






tf 


744-4 


02-63 


In 






»t 


749-7 


02-14 


1 






tt 


763-5 


01-20 


7 






)» 


760-7 


3599 77 


1 






ft 


771-7 


99-45 


1 






11 


774-2 


99-13 


1 






i» 


777-7 


98-24 


In 






i» 


783-6 


97-00 


1 






»i 


793-1 


95 40 


2 








805-5 


94-20 


In 






7-9 


814-7 


93-96 


2 






17 


816-6 


92-92 


2 






JT 


824-6 


92-60 


1 








827-2 


91-16 


3n 






If 


838-2 


89-47 


2 






Jt 


851-4 


89-22 


1 






It 


853-3 


88-35 


2 








860-0 


85-91 


2 






)t 


879-0 


85-16 


2 






II 


884-9 


83-16 


2 






11 


899-6 


82-15 


2 






)) 


907-5 


81-33 


1 






ft 


914-7 


80-36 


2 






Tl 


922-2 


79-46 


3 






If 


929-3 


78 27 


1 






»» 


938-5 


77-34 


1 






11 


941-8 


76-68 


1 






If 


951-0 


7543 


4 






11 


960-7 


73-64 


1 






11 


974-7 


73-35 


2 






11 


977-0 


72-52 


4 






11 


983-5 


71-70 


2 






11 


990-0 


70-03 


1 






11 


28003-1 


69-75 


1 






11 


006-3 



1-56 KEPORT — 1902. 

ThoriuiM (Ultba-violet Spaek Specteum)- 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


3568-10 


1 


67-81 


1 


67-40 




67-16 




66-3 


lb 


65-21 


1 


64-83 


2 


04-1 


2b 


6348 


1 


60-99 


1 


60-08 


2 


59-55 


3 


57'56 


2 


56-45 


1 


55-9 


lb 


55-21 


2 


54-45 


1 


53-52 


In 


53-23 


2 


52-03 


1 


61-55 


1 


50-89 


1 


50-47 


2 


49-91 


2 


47-60 


1 


46-41 


1 


45-48 


3n* 


45-19 


1 


44-55 


In 


44-2 


In 


42-80 


1 


42-40 


1 


42-14 


1 


41-80 


2 


39-75 


3 


3947 


2 


38-90 


10 


38-37 


1 


37-30 1 


it i 


36-80 


1 1 


36-2 


In 


365 


lb 


33-85 


1 


33-12 


jn 


32-08 


2 


31-8 


In i 


29-06 


5 1 


28-3 


lb 


27-5 


lb 


26-89 


1 


26-40 


1 


25 80 


1 


25-30 


1 


23-73 


1 


2209 


3 




-continued. 




Reduction to 


C t>i _ 


Vacuum 


•2S§ 




^is 




1 


sg-> 


A + 


o o ^ 
ai u ^ 




X~ 


Ofc'" 


1-27 


7-9 


28018-2 






020-5 
023-7 






025-6 






032 






040-7 






043-9 






050 






054-5 






074-2 






081-4 






085-5 






101-2 






110-0 






114 






119-9 






125-9 






133-2 






135-5 






1450 




8-0 


148-7 
1540 






157-3 






161-7 






J 80-1 






189-5 






196-9 






199-2 






204-3 






207 






218-2 






221-4 






223 5 






226-2 






242-6 






244 8 






249-4 






253 6 






262-1 






266-1 






271 






276-5 i 






288-7 






295-6 






303-9 






306 






328-2 




" ! 


334 






341 






345-6 






349-5 
354-4 






358-4 




i 


371-0 




„ ' 


384-2 ' 



0>f WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 157 



Thoeium (Ultea-violet Spaek Spectrvm)— continued. 



Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



3520-85 


1 


19-88 


2 


1902 


1 


18-83 


1 


1696 


3 


1650 


2 


15-89 


1 


15-13 


1 


14-70 


2 


13-V»0 


1 


13 41 


1 


12-29 


2 


11-82 


6r 


10-91 


1 


10-72 


1 


09-33 


1 


07-72 


10 


07-00 


I 


0562 


2 


04-20 


1 


03-75 


2 


02-94 


2 


02-13 


1 


01-61 


2 


01-03 


1 


0070 


1 


(10-45 


1 


0015 


2 


S499-15 


2 


98-77 


1 


98-15 


2 


97-85 


1 


97-11 


1 


97-19 


1 


96-94 


1 


95-90 


1 


93-69 


2 


93-47 


1 


92-85 


1 


91-75 


1 


90-62 


2 


90-42 


1 


89-99 


1 


88-00 


2 


87-15 


2n 


86-67 


3 


85-6;'. 


In 


85-35 


2 


84-25 


1 


83-56 


In 


83-36 


2 


82-96 


2* 


82-70 


2 


81 20 


1 


79-33 


2 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



\ + 



1-27 



8-0 



O OJ _, 
Oi u ^ 



28394 

' 402 

! 409 
410 
425 
429- 
4:U 

; 440 
443- 

I 450 ■ 
454 
463 
467 
474 
476 
487 

i 498- 

'' 500 
517 
529 
532 
539 
545 
550 
554- 
557- 

I 559 
562 
570' 
573 

■ 579 
580 

; 584 

I 58 6 
588 
590 
614 
616 
621 
030' 
639 
641 
645 
661 
668 
672- 
681- 
683' 
692 
698 
699 
703 
705 
! 717 
i 733 



•1 
-0 
5 

■0 ! 

-2 1 
2 

3 ! 
8 
3 
3 

,o 
O 

-2 

-5 

-1 

-3 

-2 

•7 

-7 

1 

■7 

3 

9 

■2 

•9 

■6 

•7 

•1 

-3 

-4 

-4 

-9 

-5 

-3 
3 

-S 
9 
7 

■8 

•8 

-3 

-7 
3 
-6 
6 

•1 
-4 
-4 
-2 



158 REPORT— 1902. 

Thoeium (Ultra-violet Spaek Spectbum)- 



-conti/i 


lied. 




Reduction to 


rt >> 


Vacuum 


o u o 




=s S S 




.— ' 3 CO 




1 




A + 




^r"^ =1 




X 


OCu- 


1-27 


8-1 


28733-7 




>» 


739-1 




>> 


741-7 




J> 


745-4 




J> 


751-8 




>J 


754-8 




?J 


759 5 




»7 


7(53-0 




ij 


773-3 




») 


777-4 




»J 


780-5 




>) 


783-7 




j» 


809-6 




)» 


814-4 




)) 


8200 




» 


823-8 




•> 


826-3 




»j 


834-8 




T> 


844-5 




»* 


850-4 




>» 


855-3 




)) 


861-3 


„ 


S» 


868-5 




)» 


S82-1 




»» 


883-5 




>» 


S956 




n 


8961 




*1 


909-8 




>) 


911-9 




5» 


917-9 




*J 


920-5 




8'2 


926-2 




17 


932-0 




J» 


934-5 




I» 


936-8 




)) 


942-8 




)> 


949-3 




1» 


946 4 




)J 


953-7 




'» 1 


961-8 




»» ' 


967-8 




J» 


970 




») 


977 




,, 


979-2 




n 1 


982-2 




" 1 


986-5 




)» 


996-2 




)> 1 


29005-2 




" 


012-0 




» ! 


015-2 




» i 


016-5 




)) 


026-5 


" 1 


)» 


029-9 




;; 1 


049 
051-8 



Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



3479-25 


1 


78-60 


2 


78-28 


2 


77-84 


2 


7706 


1 


7670 


2 


76-13 


1 


75-71 


1 


74-46 


1 


73-97 


1 . 


73-59 


2 


73-21 


2 


7008 


5r 


69-50 


1 


68-83 


1 


68-36 


3 


68 07 


1 


67-05 


1 


65-88 


4r 


65-17 


1 


64 58 


1 Sr? 


63-86 


3 


63-00 


4r 


61-37 


1 


61-20 


1 


59-75 


1 


59-69 


1 


68-06 


1 


57-80 


1 


57-08 


1 


56-57 


1 


5610 


1 


55-40 


1 


55-1 


In 


54-83 


1 


54-35 


2 


54-05 


1 


53-68 


1 


52 81 


2 


51-85 


1 


51-13 


2 


50-9 


In 


50-0 


In 


49-77 


2 


49-42 


D 


48-9 


In 


47-75 


1 


46-68 


1 


45-87 


2 


45-50 


1 


45-34 


2 


44-15 


1 


43-25 


1 


41-49 


2 


41-16 


2 



"Wave-length (Lohse) 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 159 



Thoeium (Ultra-violet Spabk 8PECTRVM)~contmued. 







1 Reduction to 


S ^„ 


Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


O o o 

c2 0) "^ 


(Exner and 


and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 










Haschek) 


Character 




-K + 


1 


3439-83 


4 




1-27 


8-2 


29063-0 


39-07 


3 




)> 


»j 


069-5 


3713 


1 




1> 


„ 


085-9 


36-80 


2 




»» 


It 


OS.S-6 


3605 


3r 




»» 


" 


095 


34-86 


2 




»1 


^. 


105-1 


3409 


4 




1> 


8-3 


111-6 


31-95 


2 




>) 


T» 


129-7 1 


31-16 


1 




?) 


»» 


136-4 ; 


30-70 


1 




)» 


9* 


140-3 : 


30-50 


1 




») 


>» 


142-0 , 


29-99 


2 




1^ 


IJ 


146-4 


29-47 


2 




j> 


?) 


150-7 


29-10 


1 




>) 


»J 


153-8 ! 


28-09 


1 




)» 


)» 


162-4 1 


27-58 


1 




j» 


>» 


165-8 ! 


27-1 


In 




>» 


?) 


171 


26-20 


In 




»» 


»» 


178-5 


26-04 


1 




jr 


)» 


179-9 1 


25-28 


2 




)j 


»T 


186-4 


24-09 


1 




j> 


J» 


196-6 


23-24 


2 




7J 


)» 


203-8 


22-70 


1 




J) 


»» 


208-4 


21-31 


•> 




)J 


»> 


220-3 j 


19-29 


•y 




>> 


!T 


237-5 1 


18-99 


2 




J» 


1* 


240-1 j 


18-89 


2 




)» 


)» 


2410 


17-83 


1 




»» 


»J 


250-0 


17-22 


1 




?» 


» 


255-4 


10-64 


1 




>» 


J» 


261-2 


16 03 


1 




)» 


)> 


265-5 


152 


lb 




>) 


»» 


273 


14-59 


2 






»» 


277-8 


13-52 


1 




>> 


». 


287-0 


13-15 


1 




J> 


>» 


290-2 


12-53 


In 




fJ 


» 


295-5 


11-92 


2 




»» 


>» 


300-7 


11-50 


1 




T» 


?I 


304-3 


09-37 


2 




»> 


5» 


3226 


08-76 


2 




I) 


J) 


327-9 


07-76 


1 




1» 


»» 


336-5 


06-84 


1 




>T 


I» 


344-4 


05-70 


1 




>) 


>> 


354-2 


04 75 


2 




)* 


*» 


362-4 


03-42 


2 


~ 


)> 


*> 


373-9 


02-81 1 


4 




J) 


») 


379-2 


02-16 ' 


2 




1» 




384-8 


01-78 


o 




)) 


»» 


388-1 


01-17 


In 




JJ 


J) 


393-4 


3398-70 






fi 


)) 


414-7 


9802 






"il 


)J 


421-6 


97-65 






)» 


8-4 


423-7 


97-23 






n 


J? 


427-4 


96-7 


In 




5) 


)t 


432 


96-53 


1 




)1 


„ 


433-4 



IGO KEPORT — 1902. 

Thokium (Ultea-violet Spark SPECTRVM)—contmued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Hascliek) 


Character 


3395-77 


1 


95-50 


1 


95-20 


1 


94-!l0 


1 


9404 


1 


94-27 


1 


93-35 


1 


93 05 


1 


92-20 


5 


91-85 


1 


90-93 


1 


90-48 


1 


89-77 


3 


88-70 


2 


8004 


3 


.So-66 


3 


85-16 


1 


83-27 


3 


8302 


lAg 


81-51 


2 


79-9 


ib 


79-28 


1 


78-70 


•-1 


77 57 


8 


7G-98 


1 


75-15 


1 


74-73 


3 


72-85 


1 


71-90 


3 


71-05 


1 


70-95 


1 


70-53 


1 


69-23 


la 


67 93 


.) 


6G-8 


la 


6604 


2 


65-75 


la 


65-43 


1 Cu? 


64-79 


O 


63-84 


** 


63-20 


1 


62-80 


1 


6208 


1 


62-35 


1 


61-83 


3 


60-51 


2 


60-30 


1 


59-87 


1 


59-20 


1 


58-74 


<i 


57-48 


1 


57-38 


1 


57-21 


i. 


56-90 


1 


55-96 


t> 





Eeduotion to 
Vacuum 


o o o 


Wave-length (Lolise) 




Oscillal 
Freque 
in Vac 


A + 


1 
A. 




1-27 


8-4 


29440-0 






»» 


4423 






Jt 


444-4 






)» 


447-0 






») 


449-8 






J) 


452-9 






)) 


401-0 






)J 


463-0 




»> 


)» 


4710 






it 


474-0 






»i 


482 






»» 


485-9 






»i 


492-1 






M 


501-4 






t1 


519-4 






»1 


527-9 






»1 


532-3 






>1 


548-8 






»1 


551-0 






1» 


504-2 






»» 


578 






J» 


583 7 






»l 


588-8 






n 


598-7 


1 




n 


C03-9 






»» 


619-9 






j» 


623-6 






yt 


6402 






»» 


647-9 






»» 


650 7 






)» 


650-8 






») 


6605 






)» 


671 1 








683-4 
693 








694-8 
702-7 








705-5 
711-1 
719-5 






)) 


725-1 






Ji 


728-7 






)) 


729-7 






,, 


732-7 






t» 


737-4 






8-5 


748-1 






11 


750-7 






" 


754-7 
700-4 








704 6 

775-7 






»» 


770-6 






!1 


778-1 






)» 


780-4 






H 


789-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 161 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectuvm)— continued. 



Wave-length Intensity 
(Exner and and 

Haschek) ' Character 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



3355-38 


2 


54-74 


2 


54-35 




64-10 


1 


53-31 


1 


51-75 


1 


51-38 


4 


50-43 


1 


49-99 


1 


49-48 


1 


49-10 


*> 


47-72 


1 


4G-68 


*> 


45-01 


2r 


44-46 


1 


43-77 


2r 


43-41 


1 
-L 


42-37 


In 


39-70 


6 


38-50 


1 


38-00 


3 


37-65 


1 


37-26 


1 


36-9 


InMg? 


36-26 


In 


35-17 


1 


34-72 


4 


34-18 


In 


33-50 


In 


32-56 


1 


32-22 


] 


31-30 


1 


30-62 


1 


28-40 


In 


27-86 


lu 


27-32 


1 


26-58 


1 


25-27 


4r 


24-88 


2 


22-60 


1 


21-57 


3 


20-97 


3n 


20-42 


2 


19-76 


1 


19-09 


1 


18-35 


In 


17-90 


1 


17-7 


In 


16-37 


1 


14-99 


2 


13-87 


10 


12-23 


1 


10-65 


In 


10-35 


2 


09-25 


1 


1902 





Keduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


; A-t- 


1_ 

A 


1-27 


85 


29794-4 






800-0 






803-5 






805-8 






812-8 






826-7 






830-0 






838-4 






842-3 






846-9 
850-3 






862 -6 






871-9 

886-8 






891-7 






898-4 






901-1 






910-4 






934-3 






945-1 






949-6 






952-7 






956-2 






959 






965-2 






974-9 






9790 






983-9 
990-0 






998-4 






30001-5 






009-8 






015-9 






036-0 






040-8 






045-7 






052-4 






064-2 




8-6 


067-7 






088-3 






097-6 






1031 






108-1 






114-1 






120-1 






126-9 






1310 






133 






144-8 






157-4 






167-6 






182-5 

196-8 
199-7 






209-7 



162 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thorium (Ultea-violet Spark Svecthvm)— continued. 









Reduction to 


«>>. 1 


Wave-length 
(Exner and 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


Vacuum 


illatio 
quenc 
Vacuo 






Hasoliek) 


Character 




\ + 


1_ 
A 


opq-a 


3308-20 






1-27 


8-6 


30219-3 


04-33 








11 


254-7 


03-59 








»» 


261-5 


01-81 


1* 






1> 


277-8 


01-44 








)) 


281-2 


00-63 


12 






»» 


288-6 


3299-80 








1> 


296-3 


97-95 








J» 


314-2 


97-47 








»» 


317-7 


96-72 








)» 


324-6 


95-65 








?1 


334-4 


95-44 








») 


336-4 


95-12 






,, 


Jl 


339-3 


94-76 






,, 


)» 


342-8 


94-67 








)» 


343-4 


94-37 








J» 


346-2 


94 06 








)» 


349-1 


93-79 








)5 


351-6 


93-71 








)» 


352-3 


92-62 






0'92 


)» 


361-9 


91-88 








J» 


369-2 


91-50 








»» 


372-7 


90-73 


10 






)t 


879-8 


90-25 








8-7 


384-2 


88-27 








>J 


402-4 


87-90 


2 






)» 


406-8 


86-71 


2 






»> 


416-9 


84-23 


2n 






a 


439-8 


8311 


2 






)» 


450-2 


82-75 


2 






»i 


453-6 


82-2 


lb 






)» 


459 


81-56 








)) 


464-6 


81-42 








i> 


4659 


80-84 








)» 


471-3 


80-52 








»i 


474-3 


78-90 








»» 


489-3 


7()-30 








?) 


513-5 


75-20 


2r 








523-8 


74-55 








») 


529-8 


72-5 


16 






)) 


549 


71-3 


In 






?i 


560 


70-97 








)) 


563-3 


7037 








»» 


568-8 


69-57 








1) 


576-3 


67-65 








)» 


594-3 


66-45 








)» 


605-6 


65-67 








)» 


612-9 


64-56 








J1 


623-3 


64-26 








?) 


626-1 


63-8 


In 






»» 


630 


6316 








J» 


636-4 


62-79 


3 






)t 


639-9 


61-66 








11 


650-5 


61-2 


In 






)) 


655 


6104 






n 


>> 


656-4 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 163 



Thorium (Ultba-violex Spaek Sfectrvm)— continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


3259-82 


1 


59-35 


1 


58-2 


In 


58-05 


1 


57-27 


2 


56-38 


3 


55-62 


2 


54-96 


1 


53-12 


1 


52-85 


1 


52-02 


1 


60-3 


In 


5006 


1 


4902 


1 


48-62 


2n 


46-73 


1 


45-91 


3 


44-64 


1 


43-96 


1 


43-18 


1 


42-42 


2n 


41-70 


1 


41-25 


3 


40-62 


2n 


39-38 


1 


38-91 


1 


38-23 


3 


37-36 


In 


35-95 


2 


35-00 


1 


33-70 


1 


33-48 


1 


32-87 


1 


32-21 


7 


30-98 


2 


29-10 


3 


27-90 


2 


27-10 


1 


26-52 


1 


26-23 


1 


25-80 


1 


25-51 


2 


24-55 


1 


23-93 


1 


23-40 


1 


22-00 


1 


21-40 


12 


20-46 


1 


18-94 


1 


18-45 


1 


17-94 


1 


17-56 


1 


16-71 


8 


15-92 


1 


13-71 


2 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



0-92 

", 
0-^1 



S o o 
3 "u _ 



8-7 


30667-8 


tl 


672-3 


)) 


683 


»» 


684-7 


1» 


691-9 


If 


700-2 


tf 


707-4 


11 


713-7 


T> 


731-0 


8-8 


733-5 


J» 


741-3 


If 


757-5 


1 ,, 


759-9 


J7 


769-7 


17 


773-5 


1 " 


791-4 


1 

it 


799-2 


?» 


811-1 


» 


817-8 


1) 


825-2 


»» 


832-4 


»> 


839-2 


)* 


843-5 


J> 


849-5 


:} 


861-3 


» 


865-8 


») 


872-3 


1 » 


890-1 


t 

1 •' 


894 


1 

it 


903-1 


tt 


915-5 


»» 


917-6 




923-5 


)) 


928-8 


»j 


951-6 


»j 


959-6 


ji 


971-1 


1 " 


978-9 


1 


984-3 




986-2 




991-3 


„ 


994-0 




31003-3 


„ 


009-2 




014-3 


j» 


027-8 


jj 


033-6 


>J 


038-1 


M 


057-3 


)» 


062-0 


>» 


067-0 


yt 


070-6 


»» 


078-8 


8-9 


086-4 


1) 


107 8 




M2 



164 



REPORT — 1902. 



THofeiUM (Ultra-violet Spark SPKCTRvii)—c()nthtuid. 









Reduction to 


^ ^ ^ 


Wave-length 


Intensity 




Vacuum 


-2S§ 


(Exner and 


and 


Wave-length (Lohse) 




^al 


, 


Haschek) 


Chai-aeter 




\ + 
0-91 


1 


M t. B 


3212-96 


In 




8-9 


311150 


1217 


In 






jt 


122-6 


1043 








)l 


139-5 


09-47 


In 








148-9 


08-15 








j» 


161-7 


07-88 








)» 


164-3 


07-03 








■ ) 


172-6 


06-30 








it 


179-7 


05-45 


la 






t1 


188-0 


04-02 








»» 


201-9 


03-75 








,* 


204-5 


03-36 








,. 


2083 


02-25 


1 






)i 


219-1 


319909 










2500 


98-83 










252-5 


98-60 










2548 


98-34 








t» 


267-3 


97-73 


la 






*j 


273-3 


95-90 








if 


279-2 


95-45 








}j 


285-6 


93-50 








»» 


304-7 


93-29 








1 J 


306-7 


92-25 










316-9 


91-98 








t) 


319-6 


91-33 


1* 








326-0 


90-86 








1) 


330-6 


90-25 


2* 




„ 


t» 


336-6 


88-38 






„ 


)i 


355-0 


87-56 








VI 


364-0 


87-14 










367-1 


85-05 








»» 


387-7 


84-06 


In 






?» 


397-5 


83 94 








It 


398-7 


83-70 








j» 


401-1 


82-80 








f* 


409-9 


82-52 










412-7 


81-9 


In 






1* 


419 


81-33 








*t 


424-5 


80-35 








90 


434-0 


7918 








)) 


445-6 


78-91 








• t 


448-3 


78 00 








)) 


457-3 


77-65 








11 


460-8 


77-33 








)j 


463-9 


76-65 










470-7 


75-84 








»» 


478-7 


74-62 








it 


490-8 


74-34 








) J 


493-6 


73-3 


lb 






1* 


504 


72-65 








11 


510-4 


72-24 








11 


514-5 


71-84 








It 


518-4 


70-53 








» 


531-5 


69-98 


In 






11 


538-9 


69-43 








)i 


542-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 165 



Thorium (TIltba-violet Spabk Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 



3167-66 
66-63 
66-25 
65-94 
65-8 
64-60 
62-95 
62-9 
61-81 
60-95 
60-3 
69-20 
58-72 
58-02 
56-49 
55-93 
54-89 
54-40 
51-9 
51-75 
50-56 
5008 
48-11 
46-15 
42-95 
42-41 
41-95 
41-03 
39-38 
37-25 
36-83 
34-60 
33-70 
31-17 
30-08 
27-26 
25-60 
25-27 
24-47 
23-05 
22-5 
21-1 
19-60 
17-75 
16-56 
16-4 
16-9 
14-1 
12-46 
11-9 
1092 
08-37 
0711 
06-76 
05-83 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



2r 
3ii 
2 



Be? 



3 
2 

3 

3 

lb 

In 

3 

2 

1 

In 

In 

lb 

4 

In 

2 

3 



Beduction to 


fl h« 


Vacuum 


0^2 




. 1 d g8 




1 




A-l- 


x- 


CD t-l £4 

Ofo-S 


0-91 


9-0 


31560-0 




1» 


570-0 
5741 




»» 


577-2 






579 
590-6 




»* 


6070 




f* 


611-5 




»» 


618-4 




)» 


627-1 




n 


634 




»* 


644-6 




»» 


649-4 




»» 


656-4 




1) 


671-7 






677-4 

687-8 




11 


692-7 
718 




11 


719-4 




»» 


731-4 




)j 


736-1 




« 


756-1 




9-1 


765-7 




T1 


808-2 




»» 


813-6 




J» 


818-3 




)» 


827-6 




»» 


844-3 




»» 


864-9 




»1 


870-2 


jj 


t» 


893-9 




») 


902-1 




n 


927-8 




i» 


939-0 


„ 


)) 


967-9 


„ 


11 


984-7 




j» 


988-2 




>? 


996-4 




t» 


32011-1 




»> 


016-5 




»» 


031 




*i 


046-3 




fi 


065-3 




)) 


074-2 




}* 


078 




)» 


079 




i» 


103 




>* 


119-7 




t» 


126-6 




i> 


135-6 




♦ » 


162-0 




»» 


1750 




11 
9r 


168-7 
J88-3 



166 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thorium (Ultba-violet Spabk SFECTRVM)—continmd. 









Beduction to 


^ ^ 


Wave-length 


Intensity 




Vacuum 


III 


(Exner and 
Haschek) 


and 
Character 


Wave-length (Lohse) 




^ 3 c3 




1 








\ + 


\ 


S t, fl 

ofe-" 


3105-12 


1 




0-91 


91 


32195-7 


04-50 


1 




II 




202-1 


02-76 


1 




>l 


11 


220-2 


01-80 


1 




l» 


}i 


230-1 


01-02 


2 




11 


It 


238-2 


3099-90 


1 




91 


9-2 


249-9 


98 04 


6 




II 


11 


269-3 


97-35 


1 




11 


II 


276-5 


96 50 


In 




II 


11 


285-3 


94-8 


In 




)l 


11 


303-1 


93-11 


1 




11 


11 


320-7 


92-46 


1 




11 


11 


327-5 


90-20 


1 




11 


11 


351-1 


8972 


1 




1} 


11 


356-2 


88-54 


2 




II 




368-5 


84-40 


2n 




11 


11 


4120 


84-10 


In 




11 


11 


415-2 


82-30 


1 




11 


9-3 


434-0 


8206 


1 




II 




436-7 


81-80 


1 




11 


11 


440-3 


80-31 


3 




II . 


1) 


454-9 


80-00 


1 




11 




458-2 


78-99 


4 




11 


11 


468-9 


78-02 


1 




11 




479-1 


77-44 


1 




11 




485-2 


76-05 


In 




II 


11 


499-9 


75-18 


1 




11 


,1 


608-1 


72-92 


1 




II 




5330 


72-22 


2 




It 




540-4 


70-95 


3 




11 


11 


554-1 


69-35 


In 




1} 




670-8 


69-06 


1 




II 


11 


573-1 


67-81 


3 




II 


)1 


687-3 


66-33 


2n r 




II 




602-9 


6603 


1 




II 


11 


606-2 


63-15 


3r 




• 1 


11 


636-6 


61-79 


2 




II 


91 


6520 


61-4 


In 




If 


j1 


655-5 


60-27 


2 




19 


11 


667-4 


58-51 


1 




II 




686-2 


58-00 


In 




II 


11 


691-8 


51-90 


In 




19 


9-4 


757-1 


51-03 


In 




91 


11 


766-4 


49-9 


In 




11 


11 


779 


49-7 


In 




11 


11 


781 


49-16 


2 




11 




786-5 


47-06 


2 




II 


11 


809-1 


45-67 


1 




11 


It 


824-0 


43-20 


In 




11 


11 


850-7 


40-2 


In 




11 


19 


883 


38-7 


In 




11 


11 


899 


35-21 


2 




11 


1} 


936-9 


34-17 


3 




II 




948-2 


83-25 


In 




It 


It 


958-5 


3208 


I 




II 


It 


971-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 167 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum) — oontimied. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


3031-40 


1 


28-69 


1 


27-9 


lb 


26-68 


2 


22-22 


1 


21-61 


1 


19-52 


1 


18-62 


1 


17-26 


1 


15-87 


1 


15-08 


In 


13-80 


In 


12-85 


In 


11-75 


In 


09-90 


1 


08-61 


2 


08-0 


In 


07-75 


1 


07-03 


O 


06-10 


1 


02-51 


2 


01-37 


2 


2999-93 


1 


99-23 


2r 


97-11 


1 


95-90 


2 


93-91 


3 


91-82 


1 


91-20 


1 


88-33 


3 


86-92 


1 


86-20 


In 


85-38 


1 


83-97 


2 


91-69 


9 


80-5 


In 


78-80 


8 


77-4 


In 


76-85 


In 


76-18 


1 


75-06 


2 


74-15 


2 


73-67 


2 


72-36 


1 


71-63 


1 


68-81 


2 


65-64 


1 


65-05 


1 


64-17 


In 


61-9 


In 


61-62 


2 


58-20 


lu 


58-04 


2 


57-70 


2 


55-1 


In 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



0-91 



9-4 



9-5 



9-6 



9-7 



O O O 

•J3 =2 3 



VI u ^ 



32978-7 
33008-1 
017 
030-1 
078-7 
085-4 
108-3 
118-1 
1331 
148-4 
157-1 
171-2 
181-8 
193-8 
2142 
228-4 
235 
237-9 
245-9 
256-2 
295-9 
308-6 
324-6 
332-3 
355-9 
369-4 
391-5 
414-9 
421-8 
455-8 
469-7 
477-7 
486-9 
502-8 
529-5 
542 
560-9 
577 
682-8 
590-3 
603-1 
613-3 
618-4 
623-4 
641-8 
673-8 
709-8 
716-5 
726-5 
751 
755-6 
794-6 
796-5 
800-4 
830 



168 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark iiPECTRVii)—co>itini<eti. 



Wava-Iength 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


2951-37 




50-60 




60-02 




49-15 




46-75 


111 


42-97 




40-73 




39-65 




38-27 


2n 


37-51 




36-54 




36-25 




:>5-8 


In 


33-19 




32-59 




31-00 




29-33 




28-77 


o 


2830 


2 


25-70 


2n 


25-14 


3 


24-05 


2a 


22-68 


2r 


21-70 


2 


21-05 


In 


20-44 


1 


19-91 


1 


17-90 


2 


17-50 


1 


17-13 


1 


16-55 


In 


14-5 


lb 


12-82 


1 


12-10 


1 


11-43 


1 


10-71 


2 


10-31 


2 


08-41 


1 


06-05 


In 


04-36 


1 


03-24 


1 


2899-81 


2 


99-52 


1 


9903 


6 


98-40 


1 


97-19 


1 


96-81 


4 


95-24 


1 


95-25 


1 


91-87 


2 


91-35 


2 


89-1 


Tb 


87-40 


3 


86-62 


1 


86-3 


In 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



Reduction to 


C >- 


Vacuum 


S " o 




"^11 




1 




\ + 


A. 


M iH a 


0-91 


9-7 


33872-8 




»1 
1) 


881-7 
888-4 


)? 


?i 


898-3 
926-0 


,, 


)) 


9696 


»» 


>5 


995-4 


t» 


!» 


34008-9 


J) 


1 )) 


023-8 


** 


11 


032-6 




9-8 


043-9 




)' 


047-2 


"I 


)1 


052-5 
082-9 


») 


») 


089-2 


9* 


tl 


108-2 


fl 


M 


127-1 
134-2 
139-7 




J» 


170-1 


)» 


)» 


176-6 


tt 


n 


189-3 


)» 


M 


205-4 




5) 


216-8 


J» 


»J 


224-4 




1» 


231-6 




)» 


237-8 


)f 


)» 


261-4 


J» 


H 


266-1 


»» 


»» 


270-5 


" 


99 


277-2 
301 


11 


?) 


321-2 


1} 


»» 


329-6 






337-6 




U 


346-0 


l» 


'* 1 


350-7 


1» 


" 1 


373-1 


»» 


1» 


4010 


•» 




421-1 
434-2 


1) 


?» 


475-1 


»l 


9T 


478-5 


1) 


»> 


484-4 


" ', 


») 


491-8 


»» 




506-3 


»» 


lo'o 


510-8 


)> 


„ 


529-5 


» 


'» 1 

■1 j 


565-2 
569-7 
575-9 
603 


»» 




623-2 
632-6 


f) 


it 


636 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 169 



Thoeium (Ultra-violet Spakk Spkcthvm)— continued. 



Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2885-15 


3 


84-38 


3 


82-61 




82-13 




81-24 




79-65 




79-30 




76-51 




75-73 




71-83 




70-93 




70-51 




70-04 




68-73 




64-74 




62-66 


la 


61-48 




67-57 




55-97 




55-00 




54-22 




52-60 




51-4 


In 


61-35 




48-1 


In 


47-45 




45-98 




42-90 




41-25 




40-25 




39 33 




37-40 




36-14 




34-57 




33-46 




32-48 




30-54 




3002 




28-10 




27-90 




26-95 




24-78 




23-70 


In 


23-50 


1 M? 


22-6 


lb 


22-14 




21-75 




20-46 




19-41 




16-18 




14-71 




14-44 




11-49 




09-08 


2 


07-40 


2 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



K + 



10-3 



o o o 
^ &!> 

CO »M fl 



0-91 


10-0 




















10-1 




































10-2 


)» 





34650-1 
659-4 
680 7 
686 6 
697-3 
716-4 
720-7 
754-3 
763-8 
810-9 
821-6 
826-9 
832-6 
848-5 
897-1 
922-4 
936-8 
984-6 

35004-3 
016-2 
025-6 
045-6 
060 
061-0 
101 
108-9 
127-1 
165-1 
185-6 
197-9 
209-3 
233-3 
249-0 
268-5 
282-3 
294-5 
318-5 
325-2 
349-2 
351-7 
363-9 
390-8 
404-2 
409-2 
418 
425-8 
428-7 
444-9 
458-1 
498-8 
519-3 
520-7 
658-0 
588-5 
609-8 



170 REPORT— 1902. 

Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum) 



—continued. 




Reduction to 


fl >> 


Vacuum 


o o o 
-2 o 3 


1 


"§ § i 




1— J p .« 




1 


^ s> 




o w 


A.+ 




m !i d 




"a~ 


ofe — 


0-91 


10-3 


35659-1 


i» 




695-1 


)> 


ld-4 


713-8 


»» 




719-2 


11 




740-2 


,, 




775-6 


11 




812-0 


i» 




817-1 


*i 




823-8 


i> 




847-3 


»> 




860-3 


ji 




867-2 


1» 




870-2 
878-1 
887-1 


)» 




895-1 
902-9 


)1 

1) 


„ 


906-4 
913-7 
919-6 


») 




949-8 


1) 




953-3 


11 




975-7 


11 




988-5 


,J 


10-5 


999-8 


)» 




36022-6 


11 
11 




025-5 
030-6 


»» 




069-4 






078-2 


)1 




1040 


JJ 




143-2 


11 
u 




152-7 
1590 
171-5 






199 


,, 




210-5 


It 




214-5 
222-3 


11 




256-9 


»1 




320-8 


1) 


10-6 


356 


11 




357-4 


»J 




367-2 


)1 




3800 


»1 




382-5 


1) 




388-9 
431 


»1 




443-2 


)» 




506-6 


»» 




518-8 


11 




532-0 


)> 


!• 


546 



Wave-length 


Intensity 


(Exner and 


and 


Haschek) 


Character 


2803-52 


1 


00-69 


1 


2799-22 


1 


98-80 


1 


97-17 


1 


94-39 


o 


91-55 


In 


91-15 


1 


90-53 


1 


88-80 


1 


87-79 


1 


8725 


2 


87-02 


2 


86-40 


1 


85-71 


In 


85-09 


1 


84-48 


2 


84-20 


In 


83-64 


In 


83-18 


2 


80-85 


1 


80-58 


1 


78-85 


1 


77-94 


1 


76-98 


1 


76-22 


2 


75-00 


1 


74-61 


2* 


71-63 


3 


70-95 


2 


68-97 


4 


66-97 


3 


65-24 


2 


64-76 


2 


63-73 


2 


61-7 


In 


60-83 


2n 


60-62 


2 


69-93 




57-30 


In 


52-30 




49-8 


In 


49-67 




48-93 




47-98 




47-77 




47-29 




44-1 


lb 


43-20 




3843 




37-52 




36-53 




35-5 


lb 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



* Double. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 171 



Thoeium (Ultra-violet Spark SFEGTRVu)~continued. 



Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2734-48 
32-88 
31-62 
30-36 
29-40 
27-6 
27-4 
26-53 
25-5 
23-43 
22-46 
21-81 
21-46 
2002 
19-57 
16-36 
15-20 
14-75 
11-59 
10-1 
08-36 
04-05 
01-95 
00-9 

2698-84 
97-67 
96-94 
95-93 
95-65 
95-31 
94-10 
92-50 
91-29 
88-42 
87-22 
86-77 
84-43 
8109 
79-07 
78-2 
76-7 
75-80 
73-77 
71-7 
68-05 
6700 
62-95 
62-46 
61-50 
60-0 
58-77 
52-22 
50-71 
50-00 
49-62 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



3 
2 
3 
3 
1 
1 
3 
6 
3 
3 



Be? 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


\ + 


1 

A 


0-91 


10-6 




»» 




)» 




)l 




l» 




)» 




" 



10-7 



10-8 



10-9 



110 



Pi ^„ 

o o o 

^ s s 

t— I p Co 

^ crb- 

Ofci — 



36559-4 
580-8 
597-7 
614-6 
627-5 
652 
654 
665-9 
688-5 
707-7 
720-7 
729-6 
734-3 
753-7 
762-5 
803-2 
819-0 
825-1 
868-0 
888 
912-0 
970-8 

37009-5 
014 
042-1 
058-2 
068-3 
082-1 
086-0 
090-6 
107-4 
129-4 
146-0 
185-8 
202-2 
209-1 
240-9 
287-5 
315-5 
328 
348-5 
361-1 
389-5 
418 
469-6 
484-4 
541-4 
548-3 
561-9 
583 
600-4 
693-3 
714-7 
724-8 
725-4 



172 



REPORT— 1902. 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark SvECTRvyi)—co)itinved. 









Reduction to 


« ^^ 


Wave-length 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Vacuum 


o o o 

-j3 a 3 
a 2 g 


Wave-length (Lohse) 


X4- 


1 
A. 


Oscill 

Freqv 

in Vi 


2644-3 


In 




0-91 


11-0 


37798 


43-4 


In 




>» 


>1 


820 


42-75 


In 




»• 




828-4 


41-62 


9 




>• 


)» 


846-0 


40-43 


1 




»> 


»» 


861-6 


40-00 


1 


i 


11 




868-8 


39-61 


1 




»> 


1> 


873-4 


88-71 


2 




J1 


11 


8860 


37-76 


1 




J» 


f 1 


899-9 


35-96 


2 




» 


J> 


925-8 


35 5 


In 




)» 


11 


932-5 


33-45 


1 




,, 




9620 


30-13 


1 




!« 


11-1 


38009-8 


28-92 


1 




If 


1* 


027-3 


26-50 


1 




iy 


»» 


062-4 


25-86 


2 






11 


071-8 


23-57 


o 




»» 




104-9 


1902 


2 




}} 


11 


180-2 


15-49 


1 




f> 


it 


222-6 


0997 


2 


»i 


11 


303-5 


09-31 


a 


)» 


11-2 


313-0 


08-46 


1 




t> 


11 


325-5 


04-03 


1 


*) 


11 


389-9 


01-03 


In 


$t 


11 


434-1 


00-72 


3 




1) 


11 


439-7 


2597-41 


3 




f 1 


11 


488-7 


97-16 


2 




>t 


11 


492-4 


95-16 


1 




}t 


11 


522-0 


92-92 


1 




f) 


1* 


555-4 


89-17 


2 




i« 


11 


611-1 


86-24 


1 




j» 


11 


654-8 


83-48 


4 




1* 


• 1 


696-2 


80-85 


1 Ag? 




11 


11 3 


735-6 


80-48 


1 




If 


tf 


7411 


79-56 


2 




11 


It 


743-9 


76-44 


1 




it 


11 


801-8 


74-60 


1 




1» 


11 


829-7 


71-72 


5 




)» 


f) 


873-2 


67-92 


3 




tt 


11-4 


930-6 


66-70 


3 




t» 


11 


9491 


65-70 


3 




11 


ti 


964-3 


64-50 


6 




*i 


11 


982-5 


62-04 


1 




9) 


)1 


39020-0 


61-13 


1 




f) 




033-9 


59-26 


1 




»t 


11 


062-3 


55-31 


4 




It 


If 


122-6 


64-80 


4 




11 




182-6 


51-41 


1 




11 


11 


192-0 


50-8 


In 




II 


fl 


202 


5012 


1 




11 


11 


207-9 


49-66 


4 




n 


11-5 


216-1 


49-21 


3 






^f 


2270 


48-24 


1 


, 


11 


11 


234-8 


48-01 


2 




1* 


)i 


268-9 


45-80 


1 




f 1 


If 


2781 



ON WAVE-LENQTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 173 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spahk SP'ECT!RVii)—cmtinued. 



Wave-length Intensity 
I (Exner and : and 
I Hascliek) i Cliaracter 



Wave-length (Lohse) 



2545-20 


4 


42-70 


In 


4200 


2 


36-83 


In 


36-65 


3 


35-96 


1 


34-45 


1 


3373 


1 


32-56 


1 


30-06 


3 


29-63 


1 


28-45 


2 


2602 


In 


21-9 


lb 


20-77 


1 


2026 


1 


16-56 


1 


14-40 


4 


12-81 


8 


11-35 


1 


1009 


1 


08-02 


1 


05-71 


1 


04-39 


2 


03-00 


1 


01-21 


r. 


2498-49 


1 


97-69 


H 


97-35 


o 


95-47 


1 


94-74 


1 Be? 


89-72 


2 


77-07 


1 


75-41 


4 


74-09 


5 


70-74 


2 


68-27 


1 


67-75 


2 


66-27 


1 


63-30 


7 


61-99 


1 


61-38 


1 


59-08 


1 


58-87 


1 


56-94 


1 


56-41 


1 


5091 


1 


45-64 


1 


41-38 


9 


39-39 


1 


37-65 


1 


32-97 


1 


31-82 


7 


31-23 


1 


28-89 


1 


28-06 


8 



Eeduct 


ion to 


fi E?^ 


Vacuum i 


-2fi§ 






tf OJ o 






,5 P =3 




1 


\ + 

1 


\~ 




0-91 


11-5 


39316-8 






327-6 






407-7 


)» 




410-5 
436-8 


)J 




444-8 


»1 




456-0 


,, 




474-2 


)) 


ii-6 


613-1 






519-9 






538-3 


,, 




575-0 


)i 




641-0 


)1 




659 






066-8 






725-1 


)) 




759-3 


J) 




784-5 


J) 


11-7 


807-3 


5J 




827-5 


?) 




860-4 






897-1 


M 




918-2 


It 




940-4 


»I 




968-9 


)» 




40012-3 


>1 




024-8 


)1 




030-8 


)) 




060-9 


i) 




0726 


Jt 


11-8 


153-5 


»» 




359-1 




lid 


385-3 


)) 




407-0 






461-8 






502-3 


J» 




5108 


„ 




535-1 


jj 




584-1 


J» 




605-6 


»» 




615-7 


it 


12-0 


653-6 






657-1 






789-0 


)» 




797-8 


)) 




802-4 
803-7 


11 


12-1 


948-3 


J) 




981-7 


11 




41009-0 






089-9 


11 




109-4 


11 




119-3 


ti 




159-0 


11 
«■ 


12-2 

It 


172-9 
216-5 



174 



REPORT — 1902. 



Thorium (Ultra-violet Spark Spbctrum) — continued. 









Reduction to 


g S-o 


Wave-length 


Intensity 




Vacuum 


•J a i 


(Exner and 
Haschek) 


and 
Character 


Wave-length (Lohse) 




scilli 
requ 
a Va 




1 






! ^ + 


A 


Ofe--" 


2i25-5 


lb 




0-91 


12-2 


41230-2 


24-69 


3 




it 


1) 


245-5 


23-79 


2 




tt 


II 


430-0 


13-58 


6 




1J 


12-3 


457-0 


11-42 


1 




»» 


11 


499 


03-2 


In 




»t 


12-4 


628-6 


2395-72 


2 




»» 


11 


572-3 


93-21 


1 




t* 


9l 


800-3 


91-62 


3 




»i 


11 


859-8 


88-23 


1 




ii 


II 


872-2 


86-94 


1 




ii 


12-5 


966-4 


82-15 


2 




II 


11 


976-1 


81-60 


2 




»j 


11 


42041-0 


77-92 


2 




u 


11 


076-4 


75-92 


1 




)J 


11 


089-4 


75-19 


1 




11 


If 


112-3 


73-90 


1 




II 


11 


152-9 


71-50 


4 




i> 


11 


163-1 


69-04 


*? 




l» 


tt 


214-0 


68-18 


1 




11 


11 


2329 


67-12 


1 




»f 


12-6 


3130 


6319 


4 




9t 


11 


318-7 


62-32 


1 




11 


11 


408-8 


57-30 


1 




91 


11 


432-4 


65-99 


2 




I'- 


11 


443-9 


55-35 


1 




ll 


12-7 


465-3 


54-16 


1 




II 


II 


507-8 


51-81 


1 




II 


12-8 


709-0 


40-72 


3 




11 


91 


803-8 


35-59 


3 


• 


11 


11 


930-2 


28-67 


1 




11 


12-9 


960-7 


2701 


1 




11 


jy 


43001-5 


24-80 


3 




J» 


tt 


098-3 


19-58 


4 




1* 


13-0 


246-7 


11-62 


1 




11 


11 


334 


07-2 






>» 


11 


440-3 


01-32 






11 


13-1 


515-3 


2297-35 






11 


tJ 


621-6 


91-76 






11 


13-2 


798-5 


87-71 






>l 


Jt 


763-3 


84-33 






ft 


11 


814-0 


81-69 






11 


11 


836-1 


80-54 






1J 


11 


867-0 


78-93 






II 


13-4 


44280 


57-7 






If 


13-5 


439 


49-6 






11 


13-6 


821 


30-4 






II 


11 


852 


28-9 






11 


13-7 


957-4 


23-65 






}1 


11 


45098-6 


21-61 






I» 


11 


008-0 


21-15 






I) 


13-8 


301-7 


06-75 






11 


13-9 


442-8 


2199-90 






11 


It 


466-1 


98-78 






11 


If 


501-0 


92-48 











ON THE NATURE OF ALLOYS. 175 



The Nature of Alloys. — Report of the Committee consistinriqfMr. F. H. 
Neville (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. C. T. Heycock, and 
Mr. E. H.. Griffiths. 

The research for which this Committee was formed is completed, and a 
summary of the results has been published in the ' Proceedings of the 
Royal Society/ vol. Ixix., p. 320. A copy of this paper has been sent to 
the Secretary of the British Association. 

The work consists in a study of the chemical compounds and solid 
solutions to be found in alloys composed of copper and tin. 

At least three series of solid solutions are formed during the solidifica- 
tion of these alloys. 

The first series, which may be called Alpha, consists of crystals, 
isomorphous with pure copper, and varying in composition from pure 
copper to an alloy containing about 9 per cent, by weight of tin. These 
alloys solidify to a uniform mass, and apparently remain unchanged at all 
lower temperatures. 

The second series, which may be called Beta, contains percentages 
of tin varying from 22*5 per cent, to 32 per cent. Alloys between 9 per 
cent, and 22 '5 per cent, of tin solidify as a complex of crystals of Alpha 
and of Beta. But all the alloys from 9 per cent, to 32 per cent, of tin 
undergo important re-crystallisations after they have wholly solidified, 
and their final condition below 500° C is that of a complex of Alpha and 
a crystalline body which is probably Cu4Sn. 

Alloys from 32 per cent, of tin to 57 per cent, begin to solidify by the 
formation of a third type of crystalline solid solutions, which may be called 
Gamma. But the Gamma crystals break up at lower temperatures into a 
complex of crystals of the body CujSn and another substance. The alloy 
of the formula Cu3Sn is apparently a solid solution when first solidified, 
and is not converted into the compound until a lower temperature is 
reached. 

Gamma crystals containing more than 41 per cent, of tin have the 
peculiarity that, in cooling, they break up into solid CujSn and a liquid. 
Between 57 per cent, of tin and 93 per cent., the first solid that forms 
when the liquid alloy begins to solidify consists of crystals of CuySn ; but 
when the temperatui'e falls to 400° 0. these crystals become unstable, and 
a reaction takes place between them and the liquid, which results in their 
partial transformation into a body that is nearly, or quite, pure CuSn. 
Between 93 per cent, and 99 per cent, of tin the substance CuSn is the 
first body formed during solidification. Between 99 per cent, and 
100 per cent, tin appears to crystallise first. 

Assuming the alloys to have been cooled with sufficient slowness, we 
may summarise their condition at ordinary temperatures as follows : — 

to 9 per cent, of tin. 

A uniform solid solution (Alpha) of copper containing tin, or, more 
probably, containing a compound, in solution. 

9 to 25*5 per cent, of tin. 

A complex of large cystals of Alpha in. a minute eutectic of Alpha 
and Cu^Sn. 



176 



REPORT — 1902. 



25'5 to 32 per cent, of tin. 

The same complex, but containing the Cu^Sn in the larger crystals, 
and the Alpha only in the minute eutectic. At .32 per cent, the alloy is 
pure CujSn. 

32 to 38 5 per cent, of tin. 

A complex of Cu^Sn and CujSn, or of two solid solutions of these 
substances. At 38 5 per cent, the alloy is pure CusSn. 

38'5 to 93 per cent, of tin. 

Large crystalline jalates of Cu.jSn coated with a body that is almost 
pure CuSn, the whole being immersed in a eutectic of this body and tin. 

93 to 99 per cent, of tin. 

Large crystals of CuSn in a eutectic of this body and tin. 

99 to 100 per cent, of tin. 

Large crystals of tin iu the same eutectic. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
o/ Professor W. A. Tilden (Chairman), and Bv.}!. E. Armstrong 
{Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Since the last report was written, the behaviour has been studied of the 
two tri-bromo-;d-naphthols. Nos. 1 and 2, at the ordinary temperature, 
towards an excess of bromine in presence of aluminium bromide. Each 
has given two penta-brorao-/3-naphthols, the structure of which at once 
follows from the nature of the quinones derived from them, and the 
behaviour of the latter on oxidation. The results obtained can only be 
explained by assuming that the tri-bromo-/3-naphtliol, No. 2, which was 
provisionally represented as 



OH 



is in reality 




OH 



It follows, therefore, that the new di-bromophthalic acid (m.p, 195-196°, 
anhydride, 147° "5) derived from this tri-bromO-/3-naphthol by oxida- 
tion, is a 3 : 4 di-hromophthalic acid. 

The following scheme illustrates the results obtained ; 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



177 




Br Br 

Br 
Flessa's penta-bromo- 
p-iiaphthol, in.p. 243" ; 
aceliite, m.p. 2U9^. 

Br 
Br,/\/\0H 



Br O 

Br^j^JcrC?) 

Br 

Tetra-bromo quinone, 
nvp. 214°. 



Br^/I^Br(?) 

Br 

New penta-bromo-j3-naphthol, 

m.p. 25^^ ; aceluir; m.p. 201- 

202°, sleuder needles. 



Br 
Br/\/\0 

Br 
Penta-bromo-/3-iiaphtlia 
quiuono, m.p. 237°. 



Br 

Br^ .CO,H 

Br 
Tri-bromophthalio 
acid, m.p. 210° ; anhii- 
(IrlUe, m.p. 178°. ' 

Br 
Brf^CO.H 



— > 



Bri^^CO.H 
Br 



Tetr.vbromoplithalio 
acid, m.p. 2G5-2Gli° ; 
an/ii/tlriJe, m.p. 2G9°. 



The ricature of the two penta-bromo-/3-naphthols obtained a.s ultimate 
products on brominating 1:3: 6-tri-bromo-iS-naphthol is established by 
the fact that they are both formed on brominating 1:3:4: 6-tetra- 
bromo-2-naphthol (m.p. 172"), and the following considerations : — 



Br 

Tri-bromo-/3-naphthol, 
m.p. 155°. 



Br 

■ r.rMjBr^ 

Bi- 

Tetra-bromo- j3- 
naplithul, m.p. 172° 



Br 
Br'^V^OH 

Br^^;Br 

^ Br 

^ renta-bromo- 
(3-iiapUthol, m.p. 
205°-206° ; acelale, 
m.p. 203°. 
Br 

Br Br 



Er/Y^O 

Br 
Tetra-bromo- 
/3-napUtha quiuoue, 
m.p. 209°. 

Br 
Br Br 



Br 
Br 



/\ 



CO,H 
CO„H 



Peuta-bromo-/3-iiaphthol, Penta-bromo 



m.p. 225° ; ficetale, 
m.p. 215°. 



Di-bromo- 

phthalic acid 

(Brilok '). 

Br 

BrI CO,H 

Br 
Tri-bromo- 



quiuoiie, m.p. 212-. plitlialic acid, 
m.p. 210°. 



Flessa has previously - described the penta-bromo-naphthol melting 
at 243° as melting at 237°, and the derived tetra-bromo-/S-naphtha 
quinone (m.p. 214°) as melting at 164° ; but his quinone separated from 
all solvents only in ' crystalline granules,' whereas the substance meltint' 
at 214° forms magnificent flattened needles. Flessa's tri-bromophthalic 
acid melted at 191° and tlie anhydride at 157° ; whereas the acid from the 
quinone melting at 214° melts at 210°, and its anhydride at 178°. The 
structure of this acid, which has not hitherto been established, follows 
from the results represented in the above schemes ; it is 3 : 4 : 6 tri- 
bromophthalic acid. 

It is of great interest that whereas two of the penta-bromo- 
yS-naphthols give tetra-bromo-p-naptha quinones in the normal manner, 
when the bromo-nitro-keto compounds are decomposed by boilin"' with 
glacial acetic acid, two, viz. — 




Br 



OH 



and 



BrLJl^ jBr 

Br Br 

' Bruck, Ber., 1901. 2741 ; 
monomethyl .salt, m.p. 81°. 




OH 



Br(?) 



1902, 



3cid, m.p. 211-213°; anhydride, m.p. 212-213°- 

? Ber., 17, 1479. 

N 



178 



REPORT — 1902. 



give penta-broTno-/3-naphtha quinones under similar conditions ; in these 
cases position 8 is unoccupied, and a transference of bromine takes place 
from position 1, e.g., 



H Br\/N02 
Bri^'^'^'^'No 



Br Hx/NOa 
Brr'^^'N'''^^0 



Br O 






That a direct transference of bromine is effected, and that the product 
is not formed by bromination of a tetra-bromo quinone formed in the 
first instance, is proved by two facts : (1) that nearly a theoretical 
amount is obtained, showing that none of the bromine can be eliminated 
as hydrogen bromide ; (2) that the crude product is pure, showing the 
entire absence of a tetra-bromo quinone. It is to be supposed that 
if rebromination were to occur, a mixture of tetra-bromo and penta- 
bromo quinones would be formed, as a mixture of 6-bromo and 
4 : 6-dibromo-/?-naphtha quinones is obtained on decomposing the nitro- 
keto compound of 1 : 6-di-bromo-/3-naphthol. 

Such a transference of bromine occurs only in the case of the penta- 
bromo-naphthols, and has not been observed in the case of lower 
brominated naphthols, in which position 8 is unoccupied. It should be 
noted that whilst this position is free in 



Br 



OH 




the bromine atom in position 7 apparently prevents the transference of 
bromine into position 8, although in the case of 



Br 



OH 



BrO) 



Br 



the presence of a bromine atom in position 7 does not prevent the forma- 
tion of a penta-bromo quinone. 

The properties of 3 : 6-di-bromo-/3-naphtha quinone have been more 
fully studied during the year. This substance is remarkable inasmuch as 
it is far more unstable than any of the other brominated quinones. When 
kept in the dry state for several months it is transformed by atmospheric 
oxidation into 3 : 6-di-bromo-2-hydroxy-l : 4-naphtha quinone. 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



179 



o 



O — 



Br 



Br 



OH 



O 



OH 



O 



When its solution in ethylic acetate is exposed to light and air for 
several days another remarkable change occurs, the quinone being trans- 
formed into a brick-red crystalline substance, insoluble in all solvents, 
which has the composition, Co„H7Br304 (C = 43-55, H = 1 -28, Br = 43-54, 
= 11-61 ; /owk/, C = 43-83, H = 1-74, Br = 43-07, = 11-36 per 
cent.). 

Taking into account the fact that the bromine atom in position 3 of 
the quinone is very easily removed from the nucleus, as in the produc- 
tion of 





Br 



OH 



— isodynamic form of 



NPh 
O 



Br 



NHPh 



— by the action of aniline ; and also the reactivity of the hydrogen in posi- 
tion 4 (oxidation by atmospheric oxygen), it may be supposed that the 
condensation product is a di-naphthyl di-quinone. 




The behaviour of 3 : 6-di-bromo-/3-naphtha quinone under the influence 
of light and various solvents, and under the action of alkalis, is bein^ 
investigated, 



N2 



180 



REPORT— 1902. 



Tsomorphoiis Sidphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — Third Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor H. A. Miers (Chairman), Dr. 
H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), Dr. W. P. Wynne, and Mr. W. J. 
Pope. (Drawn xtp by the Secretary.) 

The crystallographic study of the 1:3:5 series, the second of the three 
series of sulphonic clilorides and bromides to be derived from the 1 : 3- 
dichloro-, chlorobromo- and dibromo-benzenes examined thus far, has been 
practically completed by Dr. Jee during the past year. The results are 
even more striking than those obtained in the case of the 1:3:4 series, 
as there is evidence that the compounds constitute not merely an i&otri- 
morphous group, as in the latter case, but an iso^eiramorphous group, as 
shown in the following table : — 





Orientation 


Crystallographic Systems 


1 


3 


r, 


Anorthic 


Monosjnn 


Monosym Anorthic 


1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
(> 


CI 
CI 
Br 
Br 
Br 
CI 


CI 
Br 
Br 
Br 
CI 
CI 


SO..Br 
SO., Br 
SO.;Br 
SO.'iOl 
S0.,C1 
SOXl 


Stable 
a-series 


Stable 
Stable 
Stable 

___ 
j3-series 


Labile 
Stable 
Stable 

7-serie3 


Stable 
5-series 



In this series the dibromobenzenesulphobromide has again been the 
means of formulating the relationships between the various terms, having 
been obtained in two distinct polymorphic forms. But in comparison 
with the 1:3:4 series the order of stability is reversed, the transition 
temperature becoming lower in passing down the series. 

It is proposed to submit an account of the results obtained in the 
case of the 1:4: ^(SOaH), 1:3: 4(S03H), and 1:3: 5(S03H) series to 
the Royal Society in the autumn. 

The third series of the 1 : 3 derivatives, in which the sulphonic group 
is between the halogens, has yet to be examined. Very great difficulty 
has been experienced in preparing the necessary material, but methods 
have now been devised which promise success. Thus diorthobromo- 
benzenesulphonic acid has been prepared from diorthobromaniline by 
Gattermann's sulphinic-acid method. Unfortunately, the corresponding 
dichlor- and chlorobromaniline are not at present available, and therefore 
other methods of preparing the dichlor- and chlorobrom acid need to be 
devised. Apparently these will be obtainable from the dimeta-derivatives 
of aniline. 

A complete series of 1:2: 4(S03H) derivatives has been prepared, 
and their crystallographic study will now be undertaken. To complete 
the investigation, so that it shall comprise all the series derivable from 
the dichloro-, dibromo- and chlorobromo-benzenes, only the 1:2:3 
(SO3H) series has to be prepared. This, again, i^ a matter of considerable 
diS^culty, recjuiring special investigation. 



ISOMORPHOUS SULPHONIC DERIVATIVES OF BENZENE. 18l 

Progress has been made in extending the investigation to the com' 
parison of the effect produced by homologous hydrocarbon radicles, and 
also in contrasting corresponding sulphur and oxygen compounds. 



Our Present Knowledije of Aromatic Diazo-compouncU. 
Bij Gilbert Thomas ^Morgan, D.Sc, F.I.C. 

[Ordered by tlie General Committee to be printed in extenso.} 

The aromatic diazo-compounds, which were originally discovered by the 
classical investigations of Griess/ have proved to be substances of the 
utmost value in the development of synthetical chemistry, both from the 
scientific and the industrial standpoints. The starting-point of these far- 
reaching researches was a comparative study of asparagine and picramic 
acid. These substances, which in 1858 were assumed to be compounds 
of a similar type, behaved quite differently towards nitrous acid, asparagine 
losing the whole of its nitrogen, whilst picramic acid exchanged three of 
its hydrogen atoms for one of nitrogen, giving rise to the earliest 
known diazo-corapound — namely, dinitrophenoldiazo-oxide. 

It is interesting to notice at this stage that, although the elimination 
of aminic nitrogen by the action of nitrous acid is characteristic not 
only of asparagine but also of the majority of aliphatic amino-compounds, 
yet the preparation of aliphatic diazo-derivatives has been accomplished, 
and the new field opened up by the discovery of ethyl-diazo-acetate - has 
yielded a rich harvest culminating in the isolation of hydrazine, hydrazoic 
acid, and diazo-methane. These important contributions to the chemistry 
of nitrogen will not, however, be further discussed in this report, which is 
restricted to a consideration of the aromatic diazo-compounds, a class of 
substances derived from the hydrocarbons of coal tar. 

The action of nitrous acid on picramic acid is now interpreted in the 
following manner, 

OH HO ! ,0 



NiH, OiN ^^^ 



2 



the product being regarded either as the internal salt or the cso-anliydride 
of dinitrophenoldiazo-hydroxide (N02)2CcH.>(OH)N20H. ^ 

Griess next extended the investigation to aniline, with the result thak 
diazoaminobenzene was produced. 



CgH^NH i H HO i 



...iZIIIiri = CoH6NH.N,CoH5 + 2H,0, 



» A/iTialen, 1858, 106, 123 ; 1860, 163, 201 ; lS6fi, 137, 39. 
» Curtius, Ber., 1888, 16, 2230. 
• H'.Titz.sch. Ber., 1890, 29, 1526, 



182 REPORT— 1902. 

and a subsequent modification of the experimental conditions led to the 
discovery of benzenediazonium nitrate, 



H HO : 

•3 



H, + m ' '■ \no. 



V03 

These three substances, the eso-anhydride, the diazoamine, and the 
diazonium salt, each containing a diazo-complex, N2, attached to one 
aromatic nucleus, are typical examples of three important classes of 
aromatic diazo-compounds. 

The process of converting the salt of a primary aromatic amine into 
the corresponding diazonium derivative is termed diazotisation, and this 
important operation may be suitably considered under a separate heading. 



L TheP 



^reparation and Practical Application of Diaxo-compounds, 
A. The Diazo-reaction. 

Benzenediazonium nitrate, the substance formed by the action of 
titrous fumes on a cold aqueous solution of aniline nitrate, was found 
to be a highly explosive salt readily soluble in water or alcohol. On 
account of these properties the isolation of the salt and the corresponding 
chloride and sulphate is a somewhat difficult and dangerous operation, 
and for many years the properties of these substances were studied in 
the solutions obtained by the action of the alkali nitrites on the 
primary ai'omatic base dissolved in excess of cold dilute acid. It has 
been found by colorimetric and electrolytic determinations of the velocity 
of this reaction that, in the absence of disturbing influences, all the 
aromatic amines arc diazotised at appi'oximately the same rate. ' 

It is however sometimes necessary to operate with the dry diazonium 
salts, and these may be prepared by the action of amyl nitrite on solutions 
of the salts of the amines in absolute alcohol,'- or glacial acetic acid.-' 

Excess of acid should be avoided in these preparations, for the 
diazonium chlorides derived from the halogen -substituted anilines combine 
with hydrogen chloride, forming acid salts of the types RNgCl, HCl and 
3RN2CI, HCl,' these products being less stable than the normal salts 
themselves. 

Bamberger showed that pure benzenediazonium chloride, when 
dissolved in water, gives a neutral reaction- and differs in this respect 
from aniline hydrochloride, the solution of which is acid, owing to the 
hydrolytic dissociation of the salt. This result indicates that the strength 
of the diazonium base is much greater than that of the corresponding 
primary aromatic amine. 

Griess found that the introduction of a diazonium salt into the 
alkaline solution of a phenol resulted in the formation of an intensely 

' Hantzsch and Schumann, Ber., 1899, 32. 1691 ; 1900, 33, 527. 
" Knoevenagel, Ber., 1890, 23, 2094 ; Bamberger, Ber,, 1890., 29, 446. 
" Hantzsch, Ber., 1897, 30, 92 ; 1901, 34, 3337. 
* Ber., 1897, 30, 1148 and 1153. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 183 

coloured substance containing the diazo-complex N : N, attached to 
a second aromatic nucleus, 

CeH^N^Cl + HC.H.OH = CgHsK^.CeH.OH + HCI. 

These products, which are called azo-compounds, are also produced 
either by the reduction and coalescence of two molecules of a nitro- 
compound, or by tlie condensation of the nitroso-compounds with the 
primary amines.^ 

On account of their condensation to form azo-compounds and their 
ready reduction to hydrazines, the diazonium salts were for many years 
assumed to have the constitution R.N : N.Cl, a formula which was 
suggested by Kekule, although Strecker, Erlenmeyer, and Blomstrand had 
at different times advocated the claims of the symbol 

R.KCl. 

N 

According to the former view, which generally prevailed until 1894, 
the diazonium bases are substances of the oxime type RN : NOH, and 
this formula, which satisfactorily accounts for the fact, first noticed by 
Griess, that benzenediazonium hydroxide forms a potassium derivative, is 
not opposed to the general behaviour of these bases and their salts when 
employed in the various synthetical operations which engrossed the 
attention of investigators in this field until the close of the period now 
under review. 

The synthetical application of the diazonium salts will be considered 
in the next section, since it does not necessarily involve any discussion as 
to their precise configuration. 

B. Diazo-compounds as Agents in Chemical Synthesis. 

1. Replacement of NH^ by CI, Br, I, CN, CNO, or CNS.^ 
Griess's researches on the production of the halogen derivatives of the 
aromatic hydrocarbons are now only of historical interest, since the methods 
commonly employed at the present time are due to Sandmeyer - and to 
Gattermann.3 The latter of these investigators also extended the scope 
of this synthetical process by demonstrating that the cyano (CNO) and 
thiocyano (CNS) radicles could also be introduced into the aromatic 
nucleus by the use of the appropriate diazonium salt. 

The course of the reaction between diazonium derivatives and cuprous 
salts (Sandmeyer) or copper powder (Gattermann) has been recently 
reviewed by Hantzech,-' whose conclusions may be summarised as 
follows : — 

The course of the Sandmeyer reaction is not a simple one, and the 
final result is due to the simultaneous effect of three concurrent actions : 
(i) the formation of a labile diazonium cuprous double salt, which sub- 
sequently undergoes decomposition in such a manner that the radicle 
originally attached to copper migrates to the aromatic nucleus ; (ii) a 
catalytic action, which becomes the main reaction when copper powder is 
employed, whereby nitrogen is eliminated from the diazo-salt, so that the 

' C. Mills, Trans., 1895, 67, 925. ^ Bvv., 1884, 17, 2S50. 

» Bcr., 1890, 23, 1218 ; 1892, 25, 1074. •" Bcr., 1900, 33, 2544. 



184 KEPORT— 1902. 

acid radicle becomes directly attached to the aromatic nucleus ; (iii) the 
formation of azo-compounds, which is accompanied by the oxidation of 
the cuprous salt to the cupric condition. 

The concurrent effect of the first two reactions was demonstrated by 
subjecting dry ;)-bromobenzenecliazonium bromide to the action of cuprous 
chloride dissolved in methyl sulphide. The product consisted chiefly of 
^j-bromochloi"obenzene mixed witli a little ^;-dibromobenzene. 

(i) 2BrC„H,N.,Br + Cu,Clo = CuoBr, + 2N., + 2C,;H,ClBr. 
(li) BrCoH,NoBr = N.H- CoH^Br,. 

Cuprous bromide and ^j-bromobenzenediazonium chloride yielded 
^j-dibromobenzene containing a little ;;-bromochlorobenzene. In both 
cases the first reaction predominates, and it may, under certain conditions, 
prevail to the almost complete exclusion of the second. Cuprous iodide, 
for example, gave rise to iodo-derivatives only, with various diazonium 
chlorides and bromides, and on the other hand the interaction of cuprous 
chloride and benzenediazonium iodide furnished chlorobenzene unaccom- 
panied by iodobenzene. 

2. Replacement of NH.^ hijNO.i. — The introduction of nitroxyl through 
the agency of the diazonium salt was first indicated by Sandmeyer, and 
further exemplified by Hantzsch (Joe. cit.) in the following experiments : — 

(i) The crystalline double salt Hg(N0._,)2, 2C,;H.-,]Sr.,.N0:, (melting-point 
76°), obtained by mixing solutions of benzenediazonium nitrate and potas- 
sium mercuric nitrite, decomposes on boiling with water yielding phenol and 
nitrophenol, but when treated with copper powder it furnishes a quanti- 
tative yield of nitrobenzene, (ii) The diazonium sulphates, when mixed 
with a freshly prepared suspension of cupro-cupric sulphate and treated 
with excess of an alkali nitrite, give I'ise to the corresponding nitro- 
derivatives ; 2 : 4 : G-tribromobenzenediazonium sulphate, for example, 
gives a 65 per cent, yield of l-nitro-2 : 4 : 6-tribroniobenzene. 

/>nitronaphthalene, a substance prepared with considerable difficulty 
by other processes, is produced from /5-naphthylamine to the extent of 
25 per cent, by this method, whereas Sandmeyer, who employed cuprous 
oxide and the diazonium nitrite, obtained only 7 per cent.' 

3. Formation of Conjugated Systems R.E or K.N : N.R. — The third 
reaction signalised by Hantzsch may be rendered more apparent by 
reversing the usual order of mixing and adding the cuprous chloride 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid to the cold solution of the diazonium salt. 
Under these conditions, aniline, o-chloroaniline and the o- and ;j-toluidines 
give rise to appreciable quantities of azo-compounds. The nitrated 
amines, however, behave very differently, yielding diphenyl-derivatives, 
this result l>eing obtained with tl)e three nitranilines, o-nitro-^J-chloro- 
aniline and o-nitroaniline-^-sulphonic acid. 

2N0 AH4N2CI + CU2CI2 = NOaCeHj.CoH^NO, + Nj + 2CuClo. = 

This type of condensation is also brought about by the use of cuprous 
oxide in ammoniacal or hydroxylamine solution.^ 

4. Introduction of the Sulplionic Radicle SO^H. — The replacement 
of NH2 by SH was first accomplished by Leuckart,'' who treated the 

' Ber., 1887, 20, 1497. 

"^ Ullmann and Forgan, Ber., 1901, 34, 3802; Niementowski, Hid., .^5325. 

3 Annalen, 1902, 320, 122. * Juurn. 2>raM. Chcm. [2], 41, 218. 



ox OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COiMPOUNDS. 185 

diazonium salt with an alkali xanthate and hydrolysed the resulting 
aromatic xanthate, thus obtaining either the thiophenol or the disulphide 
produced by oxidation. Either of these products yields the correspond- 
ing sulphonic acid on treatment with alkaline permanganate solution.' 

The production of sulphinic acids by the direct action of sulphurous 
acid on diazonium salts appears to have been first observed by Miiller and 
Wiesinger." A simple process, due to Gattermann,^ was accidentally 
discovered during an investigation of o-methoxybenzenediazonium chloride, 
when it was found that this salt on treatment with sulphurous acid yielded 
a diazonium sulphite which, on mixing with copper powder, evolved 
nitrogen giving rise to the corresponding sulphinic acid, this product 
being subsequently oxidised by means of permanganate solution. 

In general, the reaction takes place most readily with the diazonium 
sulphate, a cold solution of this salt in a large excess of dilute sulphuric 
acid being saturated with sulphur dioxide and finally treated with copper 
powder, 

RN2HSO4 -> RN2SO3H -^ N2 + RSO2H. 

In the case of the diazotised naphthylamines it is better to add their 
solutions to the mixture of reduced copper and sulphurous acid. 

These processes for the production of sulphonic acids have not, how- 
ever, been successfully applied to the diazonium salts derived from the 
nitrated aromatic amines. 

5. Rejilacement of the Diazo-7'adicle by Hydrogen. — The method 
originally employed for the elimination of the diazo-radicle consisted in 
boiling the diazonium chloride with absolute alcohol ; this operation does 
not, however, invariably give the requiied result, and Hantzsch ■* has 
accumulated evidence in support of the view that the normal decomposi- 
tion of a diazonium salt by an alcohol leads to the production of an alkyl 
phenoxide. Benzenediazonium chloride or sulphate when boiled with 
methyl alcohol yields anisole unaccompanied by benzene. Increase in 
the molecular weight of the alcohol or the accumulation of negative 
substituents in the aromatic nucleus diminishes the yield of ether and 
augments that of the hydrocarbon. The benzenediazonium salts, when 
treated with ethyl alcohol, yield phenetole and a trace of benzene ; their 
chloro- and bromo-derivatives, when boiled with this reagent, give 
halogenated benzenes but no substituted ethers, whereas methyl alcohol 
converts them into mixtures consisting chiefly of the substituted phenoxide 
and a small quantity of the halogenated hydrocarbon. Numerous 
examples of this reaction will be found in the work of Remsen and his 
pupils.'' 

In the case of diphenyltetrazonium chloride the elimination of the 
diazonium radicle takes place in two stages, 

ClN2.CeH,.C,H,N.,Cl -> CoHs.CeH.N^Cl -> CeH,.C,H5.6 

The reversion to the parent hydrocarbon is more readily effected by 
the process introduced by Baeyer and Pfitzinger,^ which consists in 
reducing the diazonium salt to the hydrazine with stannous chloride, and 

' F. Baver & Co., D.R-P., 70286 ; W.ynne and Bruce, Trans., 1898, 78, 738. 

- Ber., 1879, 12, 1848. » Her., 1899, 32, 113C. 

* Bcr., 1901, 34, 3337. "■ Amer. C'/iem. J., 16, 105 ; 19, 581, 647, 561. 

' Ber., 1898, 31, 479. 

•» Ber 1885, 18, 90, 786 (compare Wynne and Bruce, he. cit.). 



186 REPORT— 1902. 

subsequently removing the hydrazino-radicle NH.NH2 by boiling with 
cupric sulphate solution. 

Sodium stannite has been recommended as an agent for reducing 
the diazonium salt to the hydrocarbon ' : CgH5N2Cl + NaOH + NaoSn02 
=OgH6 + N, + Na2Sn03 + NaCl. 

Mai has recently found that p-toluenediazonium chloride, when added 
to a strong solution of hypophosphorous acid gives rise to toluene, the 
yield being 67 per cent. Benzenediazonium chloride yields a mixture of 
benzene (two parts) and diphenyl (1 part), whilst diazotised benzidine and 
a-naphthylamine furnish diphenyl and naphthalene respectively.^ 

6. Substitution of NH^ hy OH. — The replacement of NH2 by OH, 
although an extremely important synthetical operation, can hardly be 
included amongst the modern developments of the application of diazonium 
salts, inasmuch as the process still employed, which consists in boiling the 
aqueous solution of the diazonium salt, is a legacy derived from Griess's 
pioneering researches. 

The manufacture of the 1 : 4- and 1 :8- a-naphtholsulphonic acids 
from the corresponding amino-compounds 

S03H.C,oH6NH2 -> CioH / | --> C,oHo(OH)S03H + N2, 

\S03 

and the production of 1 : 8-dihydroxynaphthalene 3 : 6-disulphonic acid 
(chromotrope acid), may be cited as examples of the application of this 
process. 

7. 2IiscelIaneous Substitutions. — There are several other modes of 
reaction which, although of less importance from the synthetical point of 
view, are nevertheless of interest as indicating the extremely reactive 
character of the diazonium salts. 

(i) The amino groups in certain azo-dei-ivatives of /3-naphthylamine are 
replaced by the acetoxy-radicle when these substance.? are diazotised in 
warm glacial acetic acid,^ and Orndorff' ^ showed that this reaction may be 
generally employed in the production of aromatic acetates. 

(ii) A remarkable example of intramolecular change was noticed by 
Hantzsch in studying the chloro- and bromo-diazonium thiocyanates.* 
These salts, when dissolved in alcohol containing a trace of hydrochloric 
acid, become converted into the isomeric thiocyanobenzenediazonium 
chlorides and bromides, 

ClCoH,.N2.CNS -» CNS.CoH,.N2.Cl 

This change takes place only when the halogen atom is situated in 
an ortho- or para-position with respect to the diazonium group ; transfer- 
mation does not occur in the case of m-cbloro benzenediazonium thio- 
cyanate. 

The extent to which this rearrangement is possible is best indicated 
by the limiting case, 2:4: 6-tribromobenzenediazonium sulphate in the 
presence of excess of potassium thiocyanate actually giving rise to 2 : 4 : 6- 
trithiocyanobenzenediazonium thiocyanate (CNS)3C6H2N2-CNS. 

' Friedliinder, Ber., 1889, 22, 587. ^ her., 1902,35, 162. 

» Meldola and East, Tran&., 1888, 53, 460. ■■ Amer. Cliem. Jmirn., 1888, 10, 368, 
' Ber., 1896, 29, 947 ; 1898, 31, 1253. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 187 

(iii) Another extremely interesting case of molecular rearrangement is 
the conversion of the bromodiazoniuni chlorides into the isomeric chloro- 
diazonium bromides.' 

This transformation, which has been studied quantitatively, is a mono- 
molecular change, subject to the following laws : — 

1. The bromine atoms undergo replacement only when present in the 
para- or ortho-position with respect to the diazo-radicle, those in the 
ortho-position being most readily ^removed. Metabromo-derivatives are 
not aflected. 

2. The ease of transformation increases with the number of bromine 
atoms present. 

3. Tlie transformation constant, calculated from the equation ic= 
l/t log a/ (a— x), increases with the temperature, and is also influenced 
by the solvent, having its minimum value in water, and becoming greater 
as the series of alcohols is ascended. 

The diazonium salts containing two bromine atoms are stable when 
dry, but rapidly undergo conversion in ethyl alcohol ; 2 : 4 : 6-tribromo- 
benzenediazonium chloride becomes transformed even in the dry state. 

(iv) Dibenzoylhydrazines RN(COC6H.5)]Sr(COC6H5)R are obtained by 
treating diazonium salts with an aqueous suspension of benzoyl chloride 
and copper powder.^ 

C. Diazo-compounds employed in the Production of Azo-cohuriftg Matters. 

1. Aminoazo-compounds. — The action of a diazonium salt on a primary 
aromatic amine gives rise either to a diazoamine or an aminoazo- 
conipound, according as to whether the diazo-radicle remains attached 
to the aminic nitrogen, or migrates into the aromatic nucleus. Aniline 
and its homologues and substitution products yield diazoamines, which 
are often capable of undergoing rearrangement into aminoazo-compounds, 
this change being effected either by allowing the diazoamine to remain 
in alcoholic solution or by warming it with a mixture of the parent base 
and its hydrochloride. The latter mode of transformation has been 
studied quantitatively by Goldschmidt and his pupils,^ with the following 
results : — 

The transformation of diazoaminobenzene into aminoazobenzene in 
an aniline solution containing aniline hydrochloride is a monomolecular 
reaction, the velocity of transformation, in moderately dilute solution, 
being proportional to the temperature and to the amount of catalyst 
(aniline hydrochloride) but independent of the concentration. Benzene- 
diazoaraino-^>-toluene, when dissolved in aniline containing its hydro- 
chloride, becomes converted into diazoaminobenzene and ^^-toluidine, the 
resulting diazoamine then undergoing transformation in accordance with 
the preceding rules. 

This conversion takes place more slowly when the diazo-radicle shifts 
into the ortho-position with respect to the amino-group. The trans- 
formation constant of diazoaminobenzene at 45° is 0'081, whereas the 
value of this coefficient for diazoamino-jo-toluene is only 0'0095, the 
solutions employed in both cases being semi-normal. 

' Hantzsch, Bcr., 1897, 30, 2334; Journ. prakt. Chem., 27, 98; and Ber., 1900, 
33, 505. 

•■' Ber., 1902, 35, 1964. . » Ber., 1896, 29, 1369, 1899. 



188 REPORT— 1902. 

The existence of analogous intermediate diazoamino- compounds and 
diazohydroxy-derivatives in the commercial azo-colouring matters, has been 
recently demonstrated by Vaubel.'^ 

Although aniline and other benzenoid primary amines give rise to 
diazoamines when treated with diazonium salts, their dialkyl derivatives 
containing a free para-position with respect to nitrogen readily furnish 
azo-compounds of the methyl orange type. The formation of these 
colouring matters is governed by the following laws : ^ 

(i) The velocity of formation of the aminoazo- compound depends only 
on the nature of the reagents and not on the concentration. 

(ii) In coupling the hydrochloride of a tertiary base with diazobenzene 
sulphonic acid, the interaction occurs between the diazo-compound and the 
base set free by the hydrolytic dissociation of its salt. 

These laws are deduced from the following facts : — The concentration 
of the hydrochloride of the base or the diazo-compound has no influence 
on the velocity of condensation. Excess of hydrochloric acid lessens the 
velocity. The formation of methyl orange or the corresponding ethylated 
colouring matter, 

N, -, 

Co H / I + H.CgH^NR, -> HSOg.CgH.No. CgH.NRj, 

when carried out in the presence of different acids {e.f/., acetic, mono-, di-, 
and tri-chloracetic acids and hydrochloric acid), takes place most rapidly 
with the weakest acid, the velocity decreasing as the affinity constant of 
the acid increases. 

Azo-derivatives of the aromatic 7neta-diammea, although amongst the 
oldest of the colouring matters, are still manufactured on a large scale for 
the use of the dyer. Bismarck brown, which was prepared even before 
the exact nature of thediazo-reaction had been elucidated, is still employed 
in the arts, and the precise composition of the commercial product has only 
recently been established by the researches of Tauber.^ 

Chrysoidine, first introduced by Witt,'* also maintains its position 
against the newer dyestufi's. Its homologues and substitution products 
may be readily and quantitatively prepared from any of the derivatives 
of »?i-phenylenediamine, providing that these substances contain at 
least one free para-position with respect to an amino-radicle. If this 
condition is not fulfilled the production of an azo-compound, although 
still possible if the diamine contains a free ortho-position with respect to 
nitrogen, is nevertheless very considerably hindered. The formation of 
azo-derivatives fi'om symmetrically disubstituted primary ?M-diamines has 
been demonstrated,'' but the reaction 



7_ 


NH2 


/ 


\ ■ 


\_ 


/ ^ 


X 


NH2 



CeHaN.Cl + CHsCOjNa = 



* 2eit. Farhen. Textilclwm., 1902, 1, 3. 

- Goldschmidt and Merz, Ber., 1897, 30, 670 and 2075 
' Ber., 1897, 30, 2111, 2899 ; 1900, 33, 2116 

* Ber., 1877, 10, 656. 

* Morgan, Trans., 1902, 81, 86. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 189 

X NH2 

/ ^NjCftH,, + NaCl + CH3CO2H, 

takes place with considerable difficulty, and the yield of azo-compound is 
small ; moreover the complete alkylation of the amino-radicles altogether 
prevents this condensation. ' 

In the case of the naphthylamines and their sulphonic acids, the 
formation of ortho- and para-aminoazo-compounds takes place with equal 
readiness ; /3-naphthylamine, 

3 NH2 

< > 

6 7 

however, only yields azo-derivatives when the positions 1 and 8 are 
unoccupied. The presence of substituent radicles in either of these posi- 
tions leads to the formation of diazoamines,^ and there appears to be no 
tendency for the diazo-group to migrate into position 3. 

2. Hijdroxi/azo-compounds.— The formation of benzeneazophenol by the 
action of benzenediazonium chloride on an alkaline solution of phenol is 
a typical example of the method of preparing this important class of 
substances. Goldschmidt (loc. cit.) found that the essential reagents in 
this reaction are the diazo-hydroxide and the phenol set free by the 
hydrolysis of its alkali-derivative. Excess of alkali hinders the condensa- 
tion, the velocity of which diminishes as the concentration of the phenol 
or diazo-compound increases. 

Although at first sight the mode of formation of hydroxyazo-compounds 
seems to leave little room for doubt as to the constitution of the products, 
yet this point has, for many years, been the subject of considerable contro- 
versy. This discussion arose from the fact that certain of these hydroxyazo- 
compounds can also be prepared by condensing the aromatic hydrazines with 
quinones ; 4-benzene-azo-ii-naphthol, for example, can be obtained either 
from benzenediazonium chloride and a-naphthol, or from phenylhydrazine 
and a-naphthoquinone. Similarly the corresponding 2-benzene-azo a- 
naphthol is produced either as a by-product in the former of these reactions, 
or by the action of phenylhydrazine on ^-naphthoquinone, and the alternative 
methods of formation may be represented in the following manner : — 

(i) Azo-condensation, 
CH^NaiOH + H:C,oH60H = H20-fCeH5.N2.C,oH60H. 

(ii) Hydrazone condensation, 

CCH5NHNH2 + O \ CioHfiO = H20-i-C6H5NHN iCioHgO. 

Since the two reactions give rise to identically the same substance, it 

' Trans., 1902, 81, f.50. 

» Witt, Ber., 1888, 21, 3483 ; Morgan Trans., 1902, 81, 91. 



190 REPORT— 1902. 

follows that intramolecular rearrangement must have occurred during one 
or other or both of these condensations. This problem, which was for 
some years attacked by purely chemical methods/ has more recently been 
approached from the physico-chemical side, but even now the question can 
scarcely be said to be definitely settled. The cryoscopic determinations 
made by Auwers and his pupils - indicate that only the ortho-hydroxy- 
azo-compounds are quinone-hydrazones, the para-derivatives being phe- 
nolic. Chemical evidence in support of the azo-formula for the para- 
hydroxy-compounds is furnished by Hewitt,^ whilst Noelting's results 
show that these substances may also react as hydrazones.'' 

The question has again been revived by Hantzsch, who places the 
hydroxyazo-compouuds within the category of pseudo-acids. These are 
acidic substances which have a configuration differing from that of their 
salts, tautomeric change taking place during the formation of the metallic 
derivatives ; 

CgHsNHN : C.K^ : 
(-fNaOH) / \ (-H2O) 

"^ .ONa \ 

C,H5NH.N:CoH, -> CgH^NH.N : CcH,(OH)., 

^ ^OTT abnormal hydrate. 

(_ H^O) % 

C,;H5.N : N.C,;H,ONa. 

The substance CgHr.NNH : C,;H4 : O is a non-electrolyte, and hence its 
salt, when disisolved, should exhibit hydrolytic dissociation ; this however 
is not the case, the metallic derivative behaving as the salt of a negatively 
substituted phenol. The hydrates of the azo-phenols, isolated by Hewitt,'' 
contain only half a molecule of water, but the compound C1.C(3H4NH.N: 
C5H3CH3(OH).2 has been ol)tained '' which corresponds with the 
abnormal hydrate required by Hantzsch's hypothesis. 

The manufacture of hydroxyazo- and aminoazo-compounds has acquired 
considerable importance, owing to the fact that the products of the action 
of diazotised benzidine, tolidine, and o-dianisidine on the sulphonic acids 
of the naphthalenoid amines and phenols have the valuable property of 
dyeing unmordanted cotton ; a quality which is also shared by the azo- 
derivatives of primulin and dehydrothio-^j-tolidine, two amines containing 
sulphur, which were discovered by Green.' 

The sodium salt of sulphonated primulin can itself be dyed on cotton, 
and after being diazotised on the fibre and treated with a solution of 
a suitable phenol or amine, it gives rise to an insoluble azo-compound 
which, on account of the method of formation, is called an ' ingrain ' 
colouring matter. 

These insoluble azo-compounds may also be produced by first im- 
pregnating a textile fabric with a phenol, and then treating the material 
with the solution of a diazonium salt. It was in the course of an investi- 

' Liebermann, Ber.. 18S3, 16, 2858 ; Zincke, Her., 1884, 17, 3026 ; 3 887, 20, 3171 ; 
Meldola, Trans., 1889, 55, 114, 603. 

- Zeit.fiir Phys. CJiem., 21, 355, and £er., 1900, 33, 1302. 
3 Trans., 1900. 77, 99, 712, 810. ^ Bcr., 1887, 20. 2997. 

'' Ber., 1895, 28, 799; 1898, 31, 2118. " Ber., 1899, 32, 3089. 

' Tra7is., 1889, 55, 227. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 191 

gation on diazo-compounds employed in the production of these ' ingrain ' 
azo-compounds that Schraube and Schmidt first isolated the so-called 
' isodiazo-compounds.' ^ This important discovery inaugurated a new- 
era of investigation on the diazo-compounds, and led to a revival of the 
discussion regarding their constitution, a question which had been in 
abeyance for many years. 

II. The Constitution of Diazo-compounds. 
A. Metallic Diazo-derivatives. 

The alkali isodiazo-oxides, discovered by Schraube and Schmidt, are 
prepared by adding a solution of diazonium salt to a warm concentrated 
solution of an alkali hydroxide. The presence of negative radicles in the 
aromatic nuclus of the diazonium salt causes the transformation to take 
place more readily ; the conversion of p-nitrobenzenediazonium chloride 
is effected, even at — 10°, whilst the rearrangement of the unsubstituted 
diazonium compound requires a very concentrated solution of alkali 
hydroxide, and a temperature of 130-140°. The more acidic diazo- 
compounds are transformed even by the action of the alkali carbonates. ^ 
It was at first supposed that these isodiazo-oxides were metallic derivatives 
of the primary aromatic nitrosamines, the transformation taking place in 
accordance with the following equation : 

CgHsNaCl-f 2 KOH = KCl + HgO-f CgHj.NK.NO. 

This view derived support from the fact that these metallic derivatives 
showed little or no tendency to yield azo-compounds with alkaline solu- 
tions of the phenols ; moreover, they yielded nitrosamines of the secondary 
amines on alkylation, 

RNKNO ^ RNCH3.NO. 

That the nitrosamine formula is insufficient to account for all the reactions 
of the tsodiazo-oxides was soon shown by von Pechmann, who obtained an 
oxygen ether, NO2C13H4N2OCH3, from silver iso-;j-nitrobenzenediazo- 
oxide ; this methyl derivative has the properties of a diazonium salt, 
yields azo-compounds with the phenols and a diazoamine with aniline, and 
it evolves nitrogen on boiling with water, ^;-nitrophenol being simulta- 
neously produced. It therefore follows that the hydroxide corresponding 
with these metallic derivatives exhibits the phenomenon of tautomerism. 
On neutralising a suspension of potassium iso-p-nitrobenzenediazooxide 
with a weak acid, a yellow svibstance is produced, which at first shows 
little tendency to form azo-compounds with ;Q-naphthol, and its disulphonic 
acid, but when left in contact with dilute mineral acid, the product slowly 
dissolves and the soluble compound obtained has all the properties of the 
original diazonium salt. This change may be indicated in the following 
manner : 

XO2.C6H4NK.NO -> NO2C6H4NH.NO -> N02C6H4N,C1. 

This restoration of the capacity for coupling with phenols after acidifica- 
tion was at first considered to be characteristic of zVo-diazo-derivatives, 

' Btr., 1894, 27, 520; Badische Anilin u. Soda-Fabrik, D.R.-P., 78874, 80263, 
81134, 81202. 

'^ Schraube and Schmidt, and Badische Anilin u. Soda Fabrik, lac. cit. 



192 REPORT— 1902. 

but the test is not very decisive since the metallic zso-diazo-oxides them- 
selves couple with y8-naphthol dissolved in alkali hydroxide, providing 
that the solution is not too alkaline. 

It was next found that potassium benzenediazo-oxide exists in two 
modifications, the iso form pi'eviously mentioned, and the normal form 
which coupled with the phenols much more readily than its isomeride. 
This type of isomerism obtains generally amongst the metallic diazo- 
oxides, but the presence of negative substituents in the aromaticynucleus 
greatly diminishes the stability of the normal modification. On this 
account it is usually very difficult to obtain both isoraerides in a state of 
purity. 

Isomeric salts have, however, been prepared from diazobenzene- 
sulphonic acid ; the normal basic sodium salt, NaOISr2C5H4S03]S'a, 4H2O, 
is obtained by working with cooled solutions, whilst the wo-salt, which 
separates in anhydrous crystals, is produced by heating a solution of its 
isomeride ; they are both strongly alkaline and are distinguished by their 
behaviour towards y8-naphthol, the former salt readily coupling whilst the 
latter exhibits this property to a very slight extent. The corresponding 
potassium compounds have been isolated, and similar pairs of isomeric 
alkali salts have also been prepared from p-bromodiazobenzene-o-sul- 
phonic acid.^ 

Diazo- and Isodiazo-oxides. — When the isomeric diazo-oxides were 
first investigated there existed a tendency to exaggerate the differences 
between the isomerides, and they were originally supposed to dififer 
essentially in the following respects : — 

(i) Capacity for coupling with phenols or ethyl aceto-acetate and 
similarly constituted compounds. 

(ii) Behaviour towards alkylating, reducing, and oxidising agents, 
(iii) Interaction with benzoyl chloride and alkali hydroxides. 

Production of Azo-derivatives. — The normal diazo-oxides exhibit the 
greater tendency to combine with the phenols, but in the case of both 
isomerides the rate of formation of hydroxyazo-compounds is largely 
dependent on the nature of the aromatic radicle attached to the diazo- 
group, and the free isomeric diazo-hydroxides couple with phenols even 
more readily than their potassium derivatives.'^ 

It was at first supposed that the metallic isodiazo-oxides did not condense 
with ethyl aceto-acetate,^ difiering essentially in this respect from the normal 
derivatives which had long been known to furnish condensation products 
with the ester,-* but Billow subsequently sliowed that the isodiazo- compounds 
yield mixed aliphatic-aromatic hydrazones or azo-derivatives.'^ This cor- 
rection, although suggesting the structural identity of the normal and 
^sodiazo-oxides, does not assist in deciding between the two formulas 
B.N : NOH and R.NH.NO, owing to the uncertainty which still exists 
with regard to the constitution of the aromatic and mixed condensation 
products, these substances being regarded by some authorities as azo- 
derivatives, and by others as hydrazones. 

' Hantzsch, Bfir., 1895, 28, 2002 ; 1900, 33, 2158 ; and Gerilowski, ibid., 2317. 
- Bamberger, Ber., 1898, 28, 4i4. ' Schraube and Schmidt, loc. cit. 

* Japp and Klingemann, ^er., 1887, 20, 3398; Annalen, 247,190; and Claisen 
and Beyer, JBer., 1888, 21, 1697. 

£er., 1898, 31, 3122; 1899, 32, 197 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 193 

Alkyl Diaao-oxides. — The action of methyl iodide on the metallic iso- 
diazo-oxides indicates that the isodiazo-hydroxide itself is a tautomeric 
substance, for the potassium salt yields a nitrosamine R.NCH3NO, whilst 
the silver derivative gives rise to an 0-ether, R.N : NOMe, this substance 
being also produced from the silver derivative of the normal diazo- 
hydroxide. This result indicates that the isomeric diazo- hydroxides 
corresponding with the two silver derivatives both have the same struc- 
tural formula, Il.N:NOH. These 0-ethers contain the diazo-i-adicle 
N : N, for they are all explosive and readily couple with the phenols in 
alkaline solutions. "^ 

Reduction of the MetalliG Diazo-oxides. — The members of both series, 
■when treated Avith sodium amalgam, yield the corresponding hydrazines, 
provided that the i-eaction takes place in excess of alkali hydroxide.^ 

Oxidation of the Metallic Diazo-oxides ; the Aromatic Diazoic Acids.— 
Even before the discovery of the i^'odiazo-oompounds Bamberger had 
prepared acidic substances by the oxidation of the diazonium salts in 
alkaline solutions, and on repeating the experiment with the alkali iso- 
diazo-oxides he obtained a larger yield of the oxidation product.-^ These 
acidic substances, the aromatic diazoic acids, are also obtained eitlier by 
dehydrating the nitrates of the primary aromatic amines, 

R .NH2HNO3 - HoO = R.NH.NO2, 

or by the direct action of nitric anhydride on these bases, 

2RNH2+N,,05 = H^O + ^RNH.KOo. 

They readily undergo molecular rearrangement, yielding nitro-amines, the 
nitroxyl radicles entering the nucleus either in the ortho- or para-position 
with respect to the aminic nitrogen.^ These properties indicate that the 
diazoic acids are nitramines ; nevertheless they behave as tautomeric 
substances, for whereas their alkali salts give rise to secondary nitramines, 
their silver derivatives furnish 0-esters, 

r potassium salt ->■ CgHjNCHa.NO.j 
r TT -WTT^rn J methylphenylnitramine. 

^'^^^^^^^n silver salt -^ CeHgNrNOOCHs 

(_ methyl benzenediazoate. 

The methyl 0-ester, when boiled with a benzene solution of /3-uaphtholj 
yields benzene-azo-/3-naphthol, this condensation indicating its relationship 
to the diazo-compounds. 

The Isomeric Diazo-oxides and the Schotten-Bo^.imann Reaction. — The 
normal and iso-diazo-oxides, when treated with benzoyl chloride, yield 
nitrosobenzanilide with equal readiness, provided that the reaction is 
performed in the presence of a large excess of alkali hydroxide. The 
arnount of benzoyl derivative produced is very small when the mixture is 
only slightly alkaline, the diminution in yield being greatest in the case 
of the normal isomeride.' This reaction, at first sight, seems to favour 
the nitrosamine formula for the diazo-oxides 

CgHjNHNO -> C^H5N(NO).COCaH5, 

' Bamberger, Ber., 1895, 28, 225. ' Hantzsch, Her., 1898, 31, 3J0. 

' Ber., 1894, 27, 911. 

* Bamberger, Ber., 1803. 26, 471 ; 1891, 27, 359, 584, 2G0I. 
» Hantzsch, Bnr.. 1897, 30, G21. 
1902. o 



l94 REPORT— 1902. 

but vdn Pechmann's experiments ^ indicate that the product is a tauto- 
meric substance behaving also as if it had the formula 

CgHgN : NOCOCeHg. 

Thus, when condensed with sodium /3-naphthoxide, it yields benzeneazo- 
/3-naphthol, and on treatment with cold potassium hydroxide solution 
Undergoes hydrolysis, giving rise to potassium benzenediazo-oxide, a certain 
amount of this salt being also formed during the benzoylatiou of the iso- 
diazo- oxide. 

Blomstrand, who advocated the diazoniura formula CgHj.N.OK for the 

N 
normal diazo-bxide,^ supposed that the production of nitrosobenzanilide 
is due to the transformation of the benzoate CgHj-NCCOCgHj ; this, 

N 
however, is not the case, for the ester when prepai-ed from benzene- 
diazonium chlotide and silver benzoate does not yield any trace of nitroso- 
compOuttd under similar experimental conditions.^ 

Synthesis of IsOdiazo-oxides. — The oxime formula for the metallic iso* 
disLzo-oxides also derives support from the fact that the alkali benzene-iso- 
diazo-oxide is produced by the action of hydroxylamine on nitrosobenzene 
in alkaline solutions, 

R.NO + H2NOH + KOH = R.N : NOK + 2H2O. •» 

Since the isodiazo- oxide may be oxidised to the corresponding benzene- 
diazoate, and reproduced from this substance or its alkyl ester by reduction 
with sodium amalgam, the cycle of changes may be thus indicated : — 

^^ R.N : NOOK ^^ 
R.N : NOK'"--^ ^ ^" R.NiNOOCH., 



B. Stereo-chemical Helationship of the Isomeric Diazo'Oxides, 

The behaviour of the isomeric alkali diazo- oxides in the reactions 
described in the preceding section justities the belief that the two series are 
structurally identical, and that the comparatively slight differences between 
the diazo- and isodiazo-derivatives are due to a different spatial arrange- 
ment of the radicles associated with the diazo-group, N=N. Accordingly, 
Hantzsch suggested that this isomerism is comparable with that which 
obtains among the oximes, the latter kind of isomerism being explained by 
supposing that the labile and stable modilications contain the associated 
radicles differently arranged about the complex N=CH in the manner 
indicated. 

R.CH R.CH 

Stable oxime || Labile oxime || 

HO.N N.OH 

' Her., 1802, 25, 3199. 

* Journ.prakt. Cliem., 1896, 64, 329. 

=■ See also Bamberger, Ber., 1897, 30. 366. 

' Bamberger, Btr., 1895, 28, 1218. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 195 

The corresponding diazo-oxides would be thus represented : — 

R.N E.N 

»S^2/wdiazo-oxide || Antidia.zo-OKide \\ 

KON NOK. 

(normal series) (iso series) 

The assumption involved in both cases is the same — namely, that the' 
third affinity of doubly linked trivalent nitrogen may be exerted in one 
or other of two definite directions. If this be granted, then there can be 
little doubt that the labile normal diazo-oxides possess the /S^/ra-configura- 
tion, for in this series the coalescence of the contiguous associated radicles 
readily occurs with the elimination of nitrogen. The stable ■isodiazo- 
derivatives should by exclusion have the Anti-structure.^ 

There is one point, however, in which the analogy between oximes and 
diazo-oxides breaks down ; the stereo-isomeric oximes give rise to isomeric 
oxygen-ethers, whereas both the isomeric diazo-oxides yield the same 
C-ether. These 0-ethers are explosive and combine with bases and 
phenols in the presence of alkali hydroxides or carbonates yielding azo- 
compounds. They are accordingly placed by Bamberger in the Syn or 
normal series. ^ Hantzsch, on the contrary, points out that in their 
capacity for forming azo-derivatives they do not diffisr markedly from the 
iso- or an<i-diazo-derivatives. The exact relationship of these ethers to 
the metallic diazo-oxides can scarcely be considered as finally settled. 

The iso- or «w<i-diazo-oxides undoubtedly exhibit the phenomenon of 
tautomerism, and, under certain conditions, react in accordance with the 
formula R.NH.NO, the formation of iV- ethers, B,N(alk).NO (secondary 
aromatic nitrosamines), being a case in point. 

Structural Forniuke for the Isomeric Diazo-oxides. — The hypothesis 
that the isomeric diazo-oxides are structurally different has been defended 
by Bamberger ^ and Blomstrand,'* who maintain that the normal diazo- 
oxide is a diazonium derivative, having the same configuration as the 
original diazonium salts. There is no longer any difference of opinion 
with respect to the oxime formula of the isodiazo-oxides, and accord- 
ingly the second hypothesis may be thus graphically illustrated 

KN.Cl R.N.OK R.N : NOK 

-> • -> 

N N 

diazonium chloride. normal diazo-oxide. iso-diazo-oxide. 

One grave objection to the theory is at once detected from this diagram 
which indicates that the diazonium hydroxide 

R.N.OH 

N 

is capable of acting not only as an acid, but also aa a strong base, The 
difficulties attending this assumption will be considered at greater length 
in the sequel. 

Existence of Syn-diazo-Sidphonates, Cyanides, <&c. — Hantzsch, who 
obtained a very unstable red potassium benzenediazo-sulphonate isomeric 

» Hantzsch, Ber., 1894, 27, 1702; 1895, 28, 676, 1734. 

= Ber., 1895, 28, 225. » Ber., 1895, 28, 444, 826, 1218. 

« Jov/rn. pralit. Chem., 1896, 63, 169; 1897, 64, 305 ; 1897, 65, 480. 

02 



196 REPORT— 1902. 

with Fischer's yellow diazo-sulphonate CgHj.No.SOjKt asserted that these 
isomerides belonged to the syn- and c«i<vdiazo-series respectively, • but 
Bamberger objected to this classification and showed that the red salt has 
the properties of a sulphite 0,,H,=,N2.0.S0.2K. '-^ 

The former investigator has, however, succeeded in isolating a series 
of isomeric diazo-cyanides.'' ;;-Chlorobenzenediazonltitli chloi'ide, when 
treated with cold potassium cyanide solution, yields a labile salt which 
readily evolves nitrogen, forms ^>chlorobenzonitrile on treatment with 
copper powder, and passes into a stable isomeride. The latter, which is 
not affected by copper powder and may even be distilled in steam, is 
undoubtedly the o»ii-diazo-cyanide, whilst the labile derivative belongs 
to the syn-diazo-series. Both isomerides have a yellow colour, and this 
fact tends to exclude the view that the labile derivative is a diazonium 
cyanide, for the diazonium radicle gives colourless salts with colourless 
acids. 

The syn-diazo-cyanides are more stable when the aromatic nucleus 
attached to the diazo-group contains substituent radicles. 

When a diazonium chloride is treated with a suspension of silver 
cyanide the coloui-less solution obtained, after filtering off the insoluble 
yellow s7/?t-diazo-cyanide, contains a soluble double cyanide which is 
considered by Hantzsch and Danziger ^ to be a diazonium derivative. The 
double cyanide derived from ^'-cumenediazonium chloride has been iso- 
lated and its properties are best expressed by the formula 

C6H2(CH3)3.KCN, AgCN. 
N 

The «?i<i-diazo-cyanide does not yield this double salt. 

The formation of this double diazonium cyanide suggests that the 
sparingly soluble si/H-diazo-cyanide may exist in solution in a state of 
equilibrium with the isomeric diazonium salt, and further confirmation of 
this hypothesis has recently been obtained "' by a study of the cyanides 
obtained from p-methoxybenzenediazonium bromide and chloride. These 
salts by double decomposition with potassium cyanide in alcoholic solution 
yi the syn-diazo-cyanide 

MeO.C^H,.N 

II 
CN.N 

an orange- I'ed insoluble substance (melting-^Doint 51°) which couples with 
/3-naphtho], and slowly changes into the non-coupling anti-salt 

MeO.CgH^.ISr 

II 
N.CN 

a brownish-red compound melting at 121°. 

The existence of a third isomeric cyanide is indicated by evaporating 
at the ordinary temperature in the presence of excess of hydrogen cyanide 
an aqueous solution of ^;-methoxybenzenediazonium hydroxide. The 
colourless, crystalline substance obtained has the composition 

MeOCoH jNoCN, HCN, 2H2O, 

' Ber., 1894, 27, 1726. - Ber., 1894, 27, 2930. = Ber., 1895, 28, 666. 
' Ber., 18 30, 2529. ' Ber., 1900, 33, 2101 ; 1901, 34, 4166. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 19 f 

and possesses all the properties of a true metallic salt ; it is very soluble, 
and its solution is an electrolyte. Moreover, the double salt condenses 
with /3-naphthol and is converted into the yellow s^/'^-diazo-cyanide by the 
action of alkaline solutions. 

These results show that diazotised /j-anisidine gives rise to the 
three cyanides demanded by the stereochemical hypothesis 

R.N.CX KN R.N 

N CN.N N.CN 

colourless soluble coloured labile coloured stable 

electrolyte. non-electrolyte. non-electrolyte. 

The opposite view only accounts for the existence of two isomeric 
cyanides, one having the constitution of a normal diazonium salt, and the 
other that of a diazo-cyanide of the zsodiazo-series. 

The syn- and awii-diazo-cyanides cannot be regarded as diazonium salts 
comparable with those of the mineral acids, for on the one hand they are 
non-electrolytes, dissolving only sparingly in water, and on the other they 
are distinctly coloured substances, readily soluble in the organic solvents. 

Their colour confirms the assumption that they contain the group 
N=N, in common with azo-compounds. The criterion of colour must, 
however, be applied with caution, for the sjjn- and rt?i^j-alkali salts 
derived from diazotised sulphanilic acid are colourless. 

Attempts made to obtain, in a state of purity, syn- and an^i-diazo- 
derivatives containing other radicles in the place of cyanogen have not 
proved successful. 

The diazonium salts or the alkali an^i-diazo-oxides, when treated with 
the alkali phenylmercaptides, yield diazo-thioethers, which do not 
condense with /3-naphthol, and are accordingly taken to belong to the 
anti-series, 

R.N 

N.S.CgHs. 

Only in the case of ^j-chlorobenzenediazothiophenyl ether was an explosive 
intermediate compound observed which may possibly be a syw- derivative. 
Phenol-^j-diazo-hydroxide, HOC|;H,N OH, and hydrogen sulphide yield 
a hydrosulphide, HOCgH^.Nj.SH, H2S, which is possibly an anti-dia,zo- 
derivative.' 

By treating ^j-nitrobenzenediazonium chloride with hydrogen sul- 
phide, Bamberger - obtained three products : — (i) a hydrosulphide 
NOaCoH^NoSH, H2S, or N02CeH4N(SH).NH.SH, which, like the pre- 
ceding thio-derivatives, does not couple with phenol ; (ii) a very 
explosive monosulphide (NO C,3H4N.;)2S, condensing with phenols and 
decomposing in benzene at the ordinary temperature to yield yj-nitro- 
diphenyl, hydrogen sulphide, and nitrogen ; (iii) a stable disulphide 
(NO C,3H4N2)2S.2, which slowly couples with the phenols, and is decom- 
posed by benzene or toluene. The monosulphide is probably a syn-diazo- 
derivative, whilst the disulphide is considered to be an iso-{anti)-disizo- 
compound. 

Diazo-anhydrides. — The isomeric alkali diazo-oxides differ in their 
behaviour towards cold dilute acetic acid, the aw<i-diazo-oxides giving rise 

» Ber., 1895i 28, 32S7, 5 Ber., 1896, 29, 272, 



198 REPORT— 1902. 

to hydroxides R.NjOH, which are colourless unless they contain sub- 
stituent nitro-groups, whilst the s^/w-isomerides furnish extremely explo- 
sive yellow diazo-anhydrides. ^ These substances, which may sometimes 
be obtained by treating a diazonium salt with an alkali s^/^ diazo-oxide, 
slowly couple with the phenols, yield 0-diazo ethers with the alcohols, 
and react explosively with benzene, yielding diphenyl-derivatives. 
According to Bamberger's earlier papers the anhydrides should have the 
formula 

R.N.O.N.R, 

N N 
Hantzsch's stereo-chemical formula,^ 

N.R R.N 

II II 

N— O— N 

however, explains why the anhydrides readily yield s?/7i-diazo-cyanides on 
treatment with hydrogen cyanide,^ but only very slowly dissolve in 
hydrochloric acid to form diazonium chlorides. Bamberger has since 
suggested another formula for these substances, which assumes that they 
are salts of the basic diazonium hydroxide with the isomeric acidic diazo- 
hydroxide 

R.N.O.N : NR 

N 

This configuration accounts for their formation from a diazonium chloride 
and an alkali diazo-oxide. The first of these formulae is the least pro- 
bable, but it is not possible at present to decide between the remaining 
two. 

Cyclic Diazo-comj)ounds. — Diazotised sulphanilic acid and other cyclic 
diazo-compounds are taken to be either diazonium salts, 



K 



'N^;N 
SO.,/ 



or S2/«-diazo-anhydrides,'* 

r/Nn 

the introduction of negative substituent radicles increasing the tendency 
to assume the si/w-configuration. The azimino-derivatives are assumed to 
be syw-compounds, 

\NH/ 

\ Bamberger, Ser., 1896, 29, 446. « Ber., 1896, 29, 1067. 

» Ber., 1898, 31, 636. 

* Hantzsch, Ber., 1895, 28, 1734, and Ber., 1896, 29, 1622. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS, 199 

The triazolenes prepared by Bamberger ' by the action of nitrous acid Oft 
amino-iudazoles were assumed to have the formula, 

/ C — N 

CgH/ /I II 

Hantzsoh, however, advocates tjje constitution ^ 

I >C/|| 

Diazo-sulphonates. — These substances, prepared by the action of 
potassium sulphite on the diazonium chlorides, appear generally to exist 
in two modifications, but in most cases the s^/w-isomeride is so unstable 
that it has not been isolated in a pure state. The fact that both modifica- 
tions are distinctly coloured suggests that they have the constitution 
R.N iN.SOjK, analogous to the azo-compounds j the sy?i-isomeride has 
invariably a more intense colour than the anti-salt. 

Syn-2 : 4-di-iodobenzenediazo-sulphonate, 

I2C6H3.N 
II 
KSO3.N 

is an orange substance, whilst the anti-salt, 

I2C6H3.N 

II 

N.SO3K, 
is yellow. 

The naphthylamines behave exceptionally, yielding only sj/^^-diazo- 
sulphonates ; these are not converted into the anti-salt on warming, but 
decompose, yielding the corresponding azo-naphthalenes."* 

Diazo-phenylsuljjhones.'^ — By the action of benzenesulphinic acid on 
the diazo-cyanides, diazo-sulphones RNo-SOoCcHr, are produced ; the 
action goes immediately with sy^i-diazo-cyanides, but only slowly with 
their anti-salts. The products do not exhibit stereo-isomerism, and 
probably belong to the anti-series ; the syn-series has not been isolated, 

C. Diazoamines considered as Anti-diazo-covtpounds. 

Isodiazotisation of Aromatic Primary Amines. — The action of nitrous 
acid on the salt of an aromatic amine leads to the production of a 
diazonium salt, the basic nitrogen atom retaining its pentavalency 
throughout the operation. When the interaction occurs between nitrous 
acid and the free base, an iw-diazo-hydroxide is formed which condenses 
with a molecular proportion of prin\ary amine, yielding a diazoamine, 
The direct isodiazotisation of the base may also be efiected either by 
passing nitrous fumes into its solution in dry ether or ethyl acetate,'' 
or by treating the amine with an alcoholic solution of amyl nitrite 
9,nfl sodium ethoxide ; ^ in the former case a mixture of normal and 

» Ber., 1899, 32, 177.3. ^ Ber., 1902, 35, 888. 

' Hantzsoh and Schmidt, Ber., 1897, 30, 71. 

•I Hantzsch and Singer, Ber., 1897, 30, 312, 

» Ber., 1894, 27, 1948. • Ber., 1900, 33, 3511. 



200 REPORT— 1902. 

•iso-diazo-hydroxides results, whilst the latter experiment gives rise to 
the alkali isodiazo-oxide. 

Migration of the Diazo -radicle. — Griess noticed that a solution of 
diazobeozenesulphonic acid and ^5-toluidino hydrochloride gave the 
reactions of a mixture containing ;;-toluenediazonium chloride and sul- 
phanilic acid,^ and more recently Schraube and Fritsch ^ showed that a 
similar rearrangement occurs in the case of a dilute solution of p-nitro- 
benzenediazonium chloride and ^j-toluidine. These investigators state 
that the direction of the change is constant either in acid or neutral 
solution ; the velocity of migration, however, diminishes rapidly as the 
amount of acid is increased, and a large excess of this reagent altogether 
prevents the transformation. These results appear to show that the 
diazo-radicle passes from the less to the more positive radicle, but 
Hantzsch and F. M. Perkin found that a migration in the opposite 
sense occurs with benzenediazonium chloride and />-bromaniline.^ It 
may therefore be supposed that generally, when neutral or slightly acid 
solutions of a diazonium salt and a primary aromatic amine are mixed, 
there will be a certain amount of rearrangement due to the migration of 
the diazo-group. 

This migration of the diazo-radicle is probably associated with the 
changes which occur when this group passes from the diazonium to the 
diazo configuration. Bamberger ^ found that, in the inverse change, a 
transitory elimination of nitrous acid occurred, 

RN:NOH + H,0 = R.NH2 + ONOH 
R.NH2 + 0N0H + HC1 = 2H2O + R.N.CI 

N 

this reaction being effected by dissolving an alkali iso-diazo-oxide in cold 
mineral acid. If the transitory elimination of nitrous acid is assumed to 
occur in the change from the diazonium to the diazo condition, then an 
explanation of the migration of the diazo-radicle is obtained, which also 
accounts for the fact that the same mixed diazoamine is produced from 
the couple XN.Cl and YNH. as from the combination of YNjCl and 
XNHo. In the former case the diazonium hydroxide, liberated from itg 
salt by the addition of sodium acetate, would undergo hydrolysis, 

X.KOH + HoO = XNH., + ONOH, 

N 

and the nascent nitrous acid would at once isodiazotise a portion of each 
of the primary amines XNHg and YNH.,, giving rise to the diazo- 
hydroxides X.N : NOH and YN : NOH. The latter substances and the 
unaltered primary bases would then condense, and a mixed diazoamine 
would be produced, this substance consisting of a solid solution of 
XNo.NHY in YN2.NHX, the proportion of the two constituents de- 
pending on the nature of the two aromatic radicles X and Y. In certain 
cases the product may consist largely of the symmetrical diazoamines 
XNo.NHX and YN^.NHY, but the formation of these compounds is 
equally well explained by the hypothesis based on the transitory elimina- 
tion of nitrous acid. The formatioQ of the mixed diazoamine occurs even 

' Ber., 1882, 15, 2190. ? Ber., 1896, 29, 287. 

» Ber., 1897, 30, 1412, f Ber., 1S95, 29, 826. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 201 

when X and Y are radicles derived from diflFerent hydrocarbons, and sub- 
stances of this type containing naphthalene and tetrahydronaphthalene 
nuclei have been isolated.' 

The migration of the diazo-group is prevented by the alkylation of the 
primary aromatic amine, and the couples XN^Cl, YNHR and YN.^Cl, 
XNHR give rise to two isomeric mixed alkyl diazo-amines, XNgNRY 
andYN.NRX. 2 

The comparative stability of the diazoamines and their production 
from ■isodiazo-oxides point to their having the an^i-diazo contiguration ; 
the syn-isomerides have not been produced, although Hantzsch and 
P. M. Perkin {loc. cit.) obtained abnormal diazoamines which form an 
exception to the rule governing the formation of mixed diazoamines. The 
compound ClCcH^ISrsHCfiHs, for example, exists in two modifications, 
which give rise to the same products on fission with hydrochloric acid or 
phenylcarbimide. The suggestion that these two isomerides should be repre- 
sented by the formulae C«H5N:N.NH.C6H4C1 and CcHs-NH.N: NCfiHiCl, 
is not justified by the result of their fission. 

D. The Diazonium Eadicle compared with Quaternary Ammonium Ions. 

The change of opinion in favour of the Strecker-Blomstrand formula 
for the diazonium salts was in the first place based on certain general 
analogies existing between the salts of nitrogenous bases. 

The older view of the constitution of diazonium salts indicates that 
these substances form an exception to the rule that basic nitrogen is 
pentavalent in its salts, and yet the compounds in question behave as the 
salts of bases more powerful than the aromatic amines from which they 
are derived. The diazonium bases are capable of combining with the 
weaker acids, and yield soluble alkaline carbonates, e.g. (C6H5N2)2C03, and 
unstable nitrites and acetates. Moreover, this view involves the assump- 
tion that the compound C6H.5N:NOH can react as a strong ammonium 
base towards acids and as a distinctly acidic substance towards the alkali 
hydroxides. Hantzsch showed that the diazonium salts of the mineral 
acids are strongly ionised in dilute solution, but do not exhibit any trace 
of hydrolytic dissociation j the ionisation is, however, considerably dimi- 
nished by the introduction of negative radicles into the aromatic nucleus 
of the diazonium compound.^ 

Determinations of the electrical conductivity of solutions of benzene- 
diazonium chloride and nitrate showed that the benzenediazonium radicle 
is strictly comparable with other quaternary ammonium ions. The rate 
of migration of the benzenediazonium ion at 25° is 45-7, the correspond- 
ing constants for the methylpyridinium, Cr,H5NCH3, and tetramethyl- 
ammonium ions, N(CH3)^, being 44-3 and 43-6 respectively. 

The molecular conductivity of the solutions of diazonium salts increases 
with the dilution, just as in the case of the corresponding potassium and 
ammonium compounds. 

A physico-chemical study of the solutions of benzenediazonium 
hydroxide showed that the affinity constant of this base at 0° is seventy 
times greater than that of ammonium hydroxide, and somewhat exceeds 

' Morgan, Trans., 1902, 81, 91 ; and C. Smith, ibid. 901. 

- Meklola and Streatfeild, Tram., 1887, 51, 818; 1889, 65, 610, 1105; 1890, 67, 
785. ' Ber., 1895, 28, 1734. 



202 REPORT— 1902. 

that of piperidine. The affinity constants of methoxybenzenediazonium 
hydroxide and \//-cumidinediazonium hydroxide are even greater, and 
approximate closely to those of the alkali hydroxides. The effect of intro- 
ducing halogen radicles into the aromatic nucleus is indicated in a striking 
manner in the following table : — 









7c = velocity constant 


C^H^NoOH 


• 


» 


, 0'123 


BrC.H^No'OH 


t 


• 


. 0-0149 


2:4Br„C„H3N;OH 


• 


• 


, 0-0136 


2:4:6Br',CeH,N„OH 


. 


. 


. 0'0014 



A comparison of the electrical conductivity experiments with the 
results obtained in the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate by benzenediazonium 
hydroxide shows that, in 1/128 N solutions at 0°, approximately 33 per 
cent, of the base exists in the ionised condition. 

The ionisation detected in the hydrolysis experiment is greater than 
that indicated by the conductivity determinations, and this shows that 
the electrolytic dissociation is exclusively due to the reaction 

C6H5N2OH Z CeHsN + HO, 

N 
and not to the electrolysis of a diazonium s^/n-diazo-oxide, 

CcH,N-O.No.CcH5. 
N 

Condition of the Non-ionised Diazonium Hydroxide. — The solution 
of benzenediazonium hydroxide differs essentially from one containing 
piperidine in its behaviour towards alkali hydroxides, generating with 
these reagents an appreciable amount of heat exactly like a weak acid. 
This reaction is also indicated by determinations of the electrical con- 
ductivities of solutions of the diazonium hydroxide when treated with one, 
two, or more molecular proportions of sodium hydroxide. 

The simplest explanation of this phenomenon is based on the assump- 
tion that the non-ionised portion of the diazonium hydroxide exists in 
solution in a hydrated form which, on the addition of alkali hydroxide, 
yields the alkali salt, the acidic .si/^i-diazo-hydroxide behaving in this 
respect precisely like the similarly constituted oximes. 

Before the addition of alkali the equilibrium may be thus repre- 
sented : — 

CfiH.H.N CeHgN.OH 

H^o-t- -i-oh;^ I 

N HO.N.H 

The addition of the alkali hydroxide causes the hydrate to lose water 
forming the s2/n-diazo-hydroxide, which then gives rise to a certain amount 
pf sodiupi derivative, 



M ; <- II ;^ I! 

HO.NiH ; HO.N NaO.N. 1 

> Hantzsch and Davidson, Ber., 1898, 31, 1612. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDQE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 203 

If this hypothesis is not accepted, then it must be assumed that a 
quaternary ammonium hydroxide, having the functions of a strong base, 
is also capable of behaving as an acid and yielding an alkali salt. The dia- 
zonium hydroxide derived from anjsidine, for example, is a base com- 
parable in strength with the alkalies, and yet it gives rise to a stable potassium 
derivative,^ which, according to the alternative theory, has the formula 

OCH3.CGH4.N.OK 

N 

There are, however, absolutely no other examples of strong alkalies 
behaving in this way. 

On the other hand, the hypothesis based on the change of configuration 
due to the labile nature of the diazonium hydroxides, brings these bases 
into line with other quaternary ammonium derivatives. It is well known 
that almost all the quaternary ammonium hydroxides, excepting those in 
which the nitrogen is attached to four fully saturated hydrocarbon 
radicles, are unstable, and pass into substances in which the hydroxyl 
group is no longer attached to the aminic nitrogen. This alteration is 
noticed in the bases of the rosaniline, pyridine, and aci'idine series ; the 
transformations taking place in each case being indicated by the following 
diagrams : — 

V III 

>C:CcH4:NH20H -» >C(OH).C6H4.NH2 

=CH. V -CH(OHV III 

2)NR.0H -* >NIl 

— CH^ =CH/ 



/CH. .CH(OHk 

R< I >R -^ EC >R 

NROH ^^ ^ 

V III 

R.N.OH -► R.:N : N.OH 

N 
Ammonium derivatives. Pseudo-ammonium derivatives. 

According to this generalisation the sy?i-diazo-hydroxides are to be 
regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.^ 

Solid Diazonium Halides. — The unstable character of certain dia- 
zonium halides seems to be connected in some way with their colour, the 
most highly coloured salts being very explosive. These coloured salts 
are found to give colourless solutions, in which the salt is undoubtedly in 
the form of a diazonium compound. The appearance of colour in the solid 
state is considered to be due to the formation of a certain amount of 
^yw-diazo- derivative, in accordance with the condition of equilibrium : — 

R.N.X -> RN 

<- II 

N XN 

» Ber., 1900, 33, 2158. Ber., 1899, 33, 3109 ; 1900, 33, 278, 



X 


X 


R 


n; 


N + R _ n: 


N 


1 


^ CI 


H 



204 REPORT— 1902. 

The amount of coloured s^/w-compouncl present depends largely on 
the nature of the acid radicle X. 

The diazonium chlorides, and nearly all the bromides, are colourless 
and corapai'atively stable. The iodides are all coloured, and very explosive, 
the thiocyanates are somewhat less coloured than the iodides, and are 
intermediate in stability between these and the bromides. 

The influence of substituent radicles in the aromatic radicle R is 
scarcely noticeable with the diazonium chlorides ; but with the other salts 
it is found that the stability is increased by the introduction of methyl 
and methoxy groups, and diminished by that of acidic radicles.^ At low 
temperatures even the very explosive diazonium salts become stable, and it 
is noticed that, on cooling, their colour is perceptibly diminished.^ 

The Residual Affinity of Diazonium Salts.'^ — The characteristic fission 
of diazonium salts is very probably due to the preliminary addition of a 
reagent HE,, and the subsequent elimination of the hydride of the acid 
radicle with the formation of an unstable s^/^i-diazo-compound, 

' N : N + HCl -> ^=-^, 



This hypothesis affords a general explanation of the Sandmeyer re- 
action, and also of the interaction between diazonium salts and water 
or alcohol.' 

R OCHs R OC2H, 

N : N+ I " -> N : N -^ R.OC2H5 + N2 + HCI 

CI ^ CI H 

R H R H 

N ; N+ I ->. N ; N ^ R.H+N2+HCI+C2H4O. 

CI OC2H5 ci oc^H^.H 

The cuprous salts of the Sandmeyer reaction combine with syn- 
diazo-compounds to form coloured double salts of the azo-type, and, in this 
way, induce the conversion of the diazonium salt into the pseudo-diazoniura 
or syn-iorm. which subsequently decomposes in the characteristic manner. 

The diazonium perhalides are substances analogous with the periodides 
of potassium, caesium, and the quaternary ammonium bases. The halogen 
atoms are certainly not attached to both nitrogen atoms, since the com- 
pound CrtH-,]Sr2ClBrI is produced either from C6H5N.,C1 and IBr or 
from CeH.N.^Br + ICl.-' 

Hyclrolytic Dissociation of the Alkali Diazo-oxides. — It has already been 
seen that the metallic syn- and mi<i-diazo-oxides are much alike in their 
general chemical behaviour, providing that their reactions are studied in 
fairly alkaline solutions. The s^»-isomerides, however, exhibit anomalous 
properties in dilute neutral solution, and this phenomenon has been found, 
by determinations of the electrical conductivity,'' to be due to the 

» Jier., 1900, 33, 2179. = Ber., 1901, .34, 4166. 

= £er., 1897, 30, 2548; 1898, 31, 2053. * Ber., 1900, 33, 2517. 

* Ber., 189D, 28, 2754. . « Ber., 1898, 31, 1612. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS, 205 

abnormally large hydrolytic dissociation of these substances. This is 
explained by the hypothesis already employed in considering the con- 
dition of the dissolved diazonium hydroxide. The s^Ji-diazo-oxide exhibits 
n higher degree of hydrolytic dissociation than potassium cyanide or other 
dissociating salts, because the acid set free by hydrolysis is not stable, 
but passes into the intermediate hydi-ate and thence to the diazonium 
hydroxide : — 

R.N ^_ R.KOH ,, ^ II.N.OH 

II + HoO -> TT..VTTT — H9O -> 

HON " HONH N 

Anti-diazo-oxides and Primary Nitrosamines. — The alkali diazo-oxides 
behave like the salts of a distinctly acid substance, and are not greatly 
hydrolysed in dilute solution. When the dissolved salt is treated with 
the equivalent amount of hydrochloric acid, the electrical conductivity 
of the resulting solution shows that the only electrolyte present is the 
alkali chloride produced by the reaction. The solution obtained is per- 
fectly neutral, and, conversely, when the substance, which is set free by 
the acid, is treated with the equivalent quantity of alkali the product 
is neutral. These phenomena indicate that the substance set free from 
the au^i-diazo-oxide belongs to the class of pseudo-acids,' and accordingly 
the product is best represented as being a primary nitrosamine, 



R.N n R.N -| 

II -> II \^ rnh.no 

NOK L NOHJ 

anti-diazo-oxicle. labile. stable. 



The nitrosamines Br.C.H^NH.NO and NO-^.C^H^NRNO have 
the characters of pseudo-acids ; they do not react with phosphorus penta- 
chloride, acetyl chloride, or ammonia in indifferent solvents, and dissolve 
only gradually in acids regenerating the diazonium salts. 

Summary. — The theory of diazo-compounds, which ignores stereo- 
chemical differences and assumes that the diazo-oxides are structurally 
dissimilar, may be summarised in the following diagram : — 

R.N.Cl 



N 






/ r^ 






\ 


R.N.OH 

N 

4, (NaOH) 


IK,. 

1 


N : NOH] 

R.NH.NO 

rj -^ ^ tautomeric form. 


R.N.ONa 




« ^/ 


i-T rearrangement 


t:> 1 


\.t . -KT /^ XT - 


_^ 


K.i\ : XNV-'ixa 


labile normal 
diazo-oxide. 


stable iso-diazo-oside. 



Ber., 1899, 33, 575, 1703, 



206 REPORT — 1902. 

The stereochemical theory may be briefly outlined as follows 

R.N.C1 



(NaOH) 




II 



- E.NOH I ^ R.KOH 
HON.H U N 



(NaOH) 



4. 
R.N 



steric change 




:> R.NH.NO 



NaO.N 
labile siyw-diazo-oxide. 



N.ONa 
stable «7i!'i-diazo-oxide. 



The substances indicated in square brackets are hypothetical inter- 
mediate compounds, the existence of which is assumed in order to explain 
the tautomeric changes. 

In our present state of knowledge a choice still remains between a 
theory of diazo-compounds which, although not assuming any spatial 
relationships, nevertheless offers an explanation of the isomerism of these 
substances which is applicable to this series of nitrogen-derivatives alone, 
and a stereochemical hypothesis which correlates the diazo-derivatives 
with other nitrogen compounds of a similar type and affords a general 
interpretation of a considerable group of experimental facts. 

The assumption of syn- and tiM^i-isomerism explains the production 
of the two series of coloured cyanides and sulphonates from the colourless 
diazonium salts. Moreover, the stereochemical hypothesis renders it 
possible to connect the relationship between the diazonium and syn-d\&zo- 
laydroxides with the general theory of quaternary ammonium compounds. 
In a similar manner the behaviour of the primary aromatic nitrosamines 
and the «n^i-diazo-oxides may be correlated with the general theory of 
pseudo-acids and their salts. 

It may be urged against the stereO-chemical theory of diazo-compounds 
that the 67/?i-cliazo series is still very defective, being confined to three 
classes of substances, the metallic diazo-oxides, the diazo-cyanides, and 
diazo-sulphonates, and it is still possible that the isomeric cyanides and 
sulphonates may be shown to be structurally different. On the other 
hand the view that the sy?t-diazo-compounds have a diazonium configura- 
tion leads to conclusions which are not in accordance with experimental 
facts. This is particularly the case with the metallic diazo-oxides, for it 
becomes necessary to assume that the strongly basic diazonium hydroxides 
also react as acids. This hypothesis is in the highest degree improbable, 
there being no other exq,mple of a quaternary ammonium hydroxide 
possessing this dual nature. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 207 



Addendum, 

I. Additional Notes on the Stereochemical Theory. — Since ■writing the 
foregoing report the author has received a communication from Professor* 
Hantzsch containing the latest developments of the stereochemistry of 
the diazo-compounds. 

The alternative views are fully discussed and the plane jformulre sug- 
gested for the syn- Amzo derivatives, on the assumption that these sub- 
stances diflfer structurally from their an<i-isomerides, are shown to be 
incapable of accounting for the observed facts. 

In addition to the diazonium formula, three other structualj formulsd 
have been advanced for the metallic si/n-diazo-oxides : 

R.N.NO R.N - N.Na R.N:N.Na 

I \/ II 

Na O O 

These configurations fail, in the following important points, to account 
for the behaviour of these metallic diazo -derivatives : 

1. They do not furnish a simple explanation of the reciprocal trans- 
formation of these substances into diazonium salts and vice versd, 

2. They do not indicate that capacity for coupling with phenols to form 
azo-compounds, which is so essentially characteristic of the syw-diazo 
series. 

3. Moreover, they involve the additional assumption that the 
isomerism of the metallic diazo-oxides ditfers essentially from that of the 
diazo-cyanides and diazo-sulphonates, inasmuch as the latter compounds 
cannot be formulated on these lines. This hypothesis is, however, un- 
justifiable for the sy 11- Ai-Azo derivatives of the three Series (oxides, cyanides, 
and sulphonates) have comparable properties. 

The only other structurally dissimilar fornlulfe available for the syn- 
diazo-cyanides and diazo-sulphonates are the diazonium formula 

R.N.CN(S03K) 

N 

and the configuration R.N . N.CN(S03K). 

The former of these is not in accordance with the general properties 
(colour and sparing solubility) of these dei-ivatives, and moreover the 
electrolytic dissociation of the diazo-sulphonates into two ions confirms 
the view that the compounds are diazo-sulphonates, R.N:N.S03K, and not 
diazonium sulphites. 

The second formula involves an entirely new assumption — namely, that 
of isomerism due to change of valency ; but even if this possibility be 
granted, the corresponding formulation does not furnish an explanation 
of the close relationship existing between the syn and anti series, for the 
isomeric pairs of diazo-compounds, 

RN:N.CN(S03K)and RN:N.CN(S03K), 

being derivatives of pentavalent and trivalent nitrogen respectively, ouo-ht 
to ditfer completely in their chemical reactions. 

In developing the stereochemical theory of the diazo-derivatives, 



208 



liEPORT — 1902. 



Hantzsch adopts the space formulae employed in explaining the isomerism 
of the oximes. 

The assumption involved is that the valencies of the trivalent nitrogen 
atom are directed along the convergent edges of a regular tetrahedron, 
the atom itself being situated at the apex of the solid angle thus pro- 
duced. 

When two nitrogen atoms become doubly linked in a molecule, the 
compound which results is capable of existing in two stereomeric forms 
corresponding with the diagrams I« and II. 






By means of these diagrams the syn- and an<i-diazo derivatives may 
be compared with the stereomeric oximes and the cis- and <?-«ris-isomerides 
of doubly-linked carbon compounds. 

The great instability of the syn-diazo series may be explained in terms 
of v. Baeyer's ' tension ' theory. According to this hypothesis, the 
valencies linking together two conjugated atoms tend to set themselves 
in the same straight line, and when this is not possible, a stress is pro- 
duced in the molecule which renders it unstable and prone to undergo 
rearrangement. 

The diagram la indicates a molecule in this unstable condition, the 
linking A'alencies of the two nitrogen atoms being inclined at an angle to 
each other. This intramolecular strain can be relieved by placing the 
sides of the tetrahedra bounded by continuous lines in the same plane, 
the necessary change in the spatial relationship of these figures being 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF AROMATIC DIAZO-COMPOUNDS. 209 

produced either by rearrangement (I« to II), or more simply by rotating 
the tetrahedra about their common edge (la to 16). 

The former operation represents the transformation of the labile syn- 
derivative into its stable a?i^i-isomeride ; the latter indicates the final 
condition of the st/M-compound itself, and furnishes an explanation of the 
typical diazo -fission, 

N.X N X 

II ^ l|i + ! 

K.Y N Y 

brought about by the close proximity of the radicles attached to the 
diazo-complex, 

II. Isolation of the Anti-diazohydroxides R.N:N.OII. — Hantzsch has 
recently discovered that in certain cases both forms of the anti-dvAzo- 
hydroxides are capable of separate existence. The nitrosamine forms 
have already been studied ; they are comparatively stable yellow com- 
pounds belonging to the category of pseudo-acids, and yield negative 
results when treated with phosphorus pentachloride, acetyl-chloride, 
phenyl-carbimide, or a dry ethereal solution of ammonia. 

The newly isolated oxime forms 

E.N 

II 
N.OH, 

corresponding with the metallic «?i<i"-derivatives R.N: NONa(K), are labile, 
colourless substances ; they are true acids reacting with the agents 
enumerated in the preceding sentence. 

The sy?i-diazohydroxides are only known in solution. 

III. Transformation of Diazonium Salts. — The following observations 
should be added to the summary of miscellaneous substitutions : — 

Meldola and Eyre have shown that in the dinitro-anisidines a nitro- 
group situated in the ortho- or para- position with respect to amidogen is 
replaced either by chlorine, when the base is diazotised in the presence of 
hydrochloric acid,i OMe.C6H2(N02)oN2Cl-> OMe.CuH2Cl(NO,,)N..N02, 
or by hydroxyl, when the operation is carried out in sulphuric acid. 

The author has quite recently noticed a similar transformation in the 
case of 1-nitro-p-naphthylamine when diazotised in the presence of hydro- 
chloric acid, NOa.CinHfjNaCl ^Cl.C,oH6.N2.N02, and further rearrange- 
ments of this nature have been observed by other investigators.'-^ 

Although under these conditions bromine may be replaced by chlorine, 
it does not appear possible to remove fluorine or iodine from the aromatic 
nucleus through the agency of the diazo-reaction (Hantzsch). 

• Meldola and Eyre, Trans., 1001, 79, 1077 ; 1902, 81, 988. 

- Gaess and Ammelburg, ]3er., 1894, 27, 2211 ; Meldola and Strcatfeild, Tram., 
1895, 67, 909 ; Fr. Pat. 315932, Feb. 28, 1902. 



1902. 



210 REPORT— 1902. 



Registration of Type Specimens of British Fossils. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. H. Woodward (Chairman), Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward (Secretary), Kev. G. F. Whidborne, Mr. E. Kidston, 
Professor H. G. Seeley, Mr. H. Woods, and Eev. J. F. Blake. 

l)URlNG the past year an important list of the type specimens of 
fossils in the Norwich Museum has been published by Mr. Frank Leney, 
assistant curator. It was first issued in the ' Geological Magazine ' for 
April and May 1902, and subsequently reprinted as a pamphlet with a 
preface by Dr. Henry Woodward. 



Life-zones in the British Garhoniferous Bochs. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. J. E. Marr (Chairmmi), Dr. Wheelton 
Hind (Secretary), Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, Dr. 
A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. 
HiNDE, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. 
Strahan, and Dr. H. Woodward. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Collecting has been carried on during the last year by Mr. D. Tait, of 
the Geological Survey, who kindly devoted his holiday to that purpose, 
and by Mr. J. T. Stobbs, F.G.S., lecturer on mining under the Stafford- 
shire County Council. The Committee are to be congratulated on being 
able to obtain the help of such trained and skilled collectors. 

Mr. Tait collected from the Black Limestones and shales resting on 
the white shelly Limestone at Poolvash, Isle of Man, where he redis- 
covered the plant-beds mentioned by Cumming in his work on the Isle of 
Man. He then worked in the beds of the same horizon in the Valley of 
the Hodder, near Stoneyhurst, and also in the neighbourhood of Flasby, 
Yorkshire. 

Mr. Stobbs has confined his attention to the dark shales and Lime- 
stones resting on the white shelly Limestone in the Valley of the Noe, and 
at Mam Tor, near Castleton. 

Most of the Cephalopoda have been submitted to Dr. A. H. Foord, and 
the plants have been sent to Mr. Kidston. 

I have also collected and examined collections from certain horizons 
in Weardale, Redesdale, and Edendale, and while on an excursion with 
the Geologists' Association examined the beds and fauna of the Bishopton 
beds which succeed the Limestone Massif of Gower, lists of which I include 
in my report. I am indebted to my friend Dr. Wellburn for notes on 
the fish fauna of the Pendleside series. 

I have recently had the privilege of examining, at the invitation of 
M. Dupont, of the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle of Brussels, a large collec- 
tion of rock specimens and fossils which were obtained by Mr. Purvis when 
mapping the district round Clavier, a little north-east of Dinant. Some 
few outliers of yellowish and dark shales, black Limestones, cherts, and 
quartzites are found near Clavier (Explication de la Feuille de Clavier, 
Service de la Carte geologique du Royaume, 1883), which appear to me 
identical in character with rocks found in the Pendleside series. The 



Life-zones in the British carboniferous rocks. 



211 



shales and Limestones contain 
fauna. I was able to identify 

AvieulojjecteiijM'a-tcnuis. 
Posidoniidla Iccvls. 
? Posldonomya mcmhrwnacea, 
Ptero nitex angustat m. 
Chcenocardiola Footii. 
Orthoccras Morrisiawwn , 
Orthooeras striatu-anmdosum. 
Strohoceras hisnlcnt iim. 
GlypMoceras biliiigtic. 
„ diadema. 

At Vise, in beds of the same 
Massif are shales with — 

Ptcrinopcctcn pap]jraeeui 
Posldonomya Becheri 



a typical and almost complete Pendleside 
the following species : — 

O hjp Idoceras sp irale. 
Prnlecanites comprcssiis, 
Athyris amhigua. 
Chonetes Laynessiana. 
Produotus scahricidm. 

„ scmlreticidatus. 
PhiUipma Van der GraclitU, 1 long* 

check spine. 
List /■acanthus BeyrlchiA. 



!, lying on the Shelly Limestond 

Posidoniclla Iwvis 
Glypldoceras diadema 

a fauna charactei'istic of the lower part of the Pendleside series, while 
the Chokier beds contain a fauna and have a lithological character indi- 
cating higher beds in the Pendleside series, such as are found in thd 
bullions of Horsebridge Clough and Crimsworth Dean, Pule Hill, River 
Dane, and various other localities. 

It is interesting to find this fauna present in its proper position iil 
Western Eui'ope, and the same fauna obtains \\\ the Lower Carboniferous 
beds of Magdeburg still farther east,^ and still farther east in the Culm 
of Herborn.^ 

The results of Mr. Tait's collecting are as follows : 

Poolvash, Isle of Man : — 



Black shale interbeddecT with lenticles 
and hummocks of limestone containing 
marine fossils, between tide-marks west 
of the barn at Poolvash Farm. 

(There has been a great deal of lateral 
thrusting on the shore. These plant-beds 
should, I believe, rest on the shelly lime- 
stone.) 

* With reference to these fossils, Mr. 
Kidstoa says they seem to be the same 
class of organism as the unknown Pendle 
Hill (Hook Cliff) fossil (found last year by 
Mr. Tait), but apparently specifically dis- 
tinct. I would say they belong to Gop- 
perts' and Hall's Dictyonenia. 



Plants. 
Adiantites Machaneki; Stur. 
Adi.antite.1 aiitiquus, Ett. sp. 
Sjjhcno2)tc7'is paoUyraclus, Gopp. 

„ var. stenoplnjlla, Gopp. 

(S'^^/te«c)/»^ms allied to sp. hifida, 'L.ic'ti., 
or sp. auhyenicidata, Stur. 

* 1 Bictyonema, 2 sp. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Posidonomya Becheri. 

Pterinopecten {^Avicxdopecten') papy- 

raceiis. 
Sulenoinya costellatus. 
Orthoceras Aforrisianu7n. 

„ sulcatum. 
Glyphioceras rctictdatiuii or crenistria. 

Below high-water mark, 20 yards east of stream, which enters the 
sea east of Poolvash Farm : — 



Posidonomya Becheri. 
Solenomya costellata. 
Orthoceras Morrisianmn . 



Orthoceras sp. 

Cf. Glyphioceras reticulatum. 



Nothing new turned up in the black marble quarry. 

Mr. Kidston reports that the plants are those which characterise the 
Calciferous Sandstone group in Scotland, which was the case with the two 

' Wolterstorf, Bas Untercarlon von Maydchurg-Neustadt und seine Fauna, 1899. 
- Von Koencn, Bie Kulm-Fanna von Herhorn. 

p2 



212 REPORT— 1902. 

plants he identified last year fi'om beds of the same horizon in the neigh- 
bourhood of Pendle Hill. Unfortunately for the value of plants as zone 
fossils, this flora is associated in the Calciferous Sandstone group with a 
totally different fauna from that which obtains at Poolvash, and also the 
stratigraphical position of the Poolvash shales and Pendle Hill beds 
admit of no doubt, the deposits resting on the upper beds of the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone series. 

Of three specimens, doubtfully referred to Dictijonema, one was 
obtained from the Pendleside Limestone series at Hook Cliff, and the 
others from the plant-beds at Poolvash. 

The White Limestones of Poolvash contain a rich fauna identical with 
that of the upper part of the Limestone Massif at Settle, Cracoe, Clitheroe, 
and Derbyshire, and belongs to the zone of Prodnctus giganteus. 

He found the Posidonomya Becheri beds with Pterino})eclen {Avicu- 
lopecten) fapyracPAis and Posidoniella Ici'.vis in the Millbeck, 1 J mile S.E. 
of Hetton, 1-inch Geological Survey, sheet 92, N.W. 

Higher up the stream the Limestone Massif is exposed, and here 
Productns giganteus a,x\di & iy^icsil fauna were obtained. This is part of 
the Massif which extends E. and W. from Calton to Greenhow Hill via 
Cracoe. 

Mr. Tait also collected carefully from the exposures in the River 
Hodder. It will be remembered that Dr. Henry Woodward described 
two new species of Trilobites from this locality.^ 

Left bank of Hodder, above Hodder Bridge : — 

Chonetes Lagucssiana. Posidonomya Bcclyri. 

Discina nitida. Snleiwmya costellata. 

Product ux scmireticidatus. Belleropho/i C'rei. 

Ilhynchonella iJleurodon. Urthoceras sp. 

Pterinopecteu papyraveus. Large Ooniatite crushed. 

Left bank of Hodder, quarter of a mile below Hodder Bridge :— 
PhilUjfsla Polleni. Prolecaiiites comprcuus. 

Half a mile S.E. of Hodder Bridge. Cement stones which underlie 
Pendleside Limestone : — 

PhiUipsia PoUen'i. Producttis sp. 

Cf. Glyphivceras spir/tlf. 

River Hodder, 150 yards East of Stoneyhurst Bathing Cots : — 

Prolecanites compressus (satni-es). OrtJiis resiipinata. 

CrasdoJwrda carhonaria (Kidston"). Prodnctus saahriculus? 

River Hodder, east of Bathing Cots : — 

Ortlioceras annvloso-lineatuiii. OrtJiis resiipinata. 

Pfolecanites compressvs. Oracanthiis Millerl, 

Productus semireticulatus. Plant remains. 
Chonetes Laguessiana. 

River Hodder, near old limekiln, between Hodder Place and the 
bridge to the south : — 

Productus aeuleatus. OrtJiis resiipinata. 

„ iiiaivjaritaccus. Spirifer tri/jonalis. 

„ punctattis. PJdUipsia sp. 

„ semireticulatus. A Coral. ZajiJtrentis ? 

OrtJiis MicJielini. 



' Geol. Mag., Dec. 4, vol. i. 189i, p. 481. 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS KOCKS. 213 

One mile north of Hodder Bridge : — 

Seaumontia Egerto7iL Sjnriferina cristata? 

Ort/iis Michelini. Strop Iiom ana aitalotja. 

,, resiqnnaia. OrtJwtates crenistria. 

Produotus aouleatus. Spine of PaltBecMnui, 

„ margarltaccus. Fusidonomya Beohen. 

„ JimhHatus, Nuculana attenuata. 
S2)irifer trigonalh. 

Branoh of river Hodder at Agden. West margin of Slieet 92. S.W. 
of 1-inch Geological Survey : — 

Actinoocras (ligantenm. Chonctcg Lagness'inna. 

Goniatite too compressed to deter- JMclasma Jiastata. 

mine. Edmondia Maoooyi. 

Athyris amhigua. 

Stream running S.W. from Browsholm Hall. East of Sheet 91. 
S.E. 1-inch Geological Survey, showing section of Pendleside Limestone 
with flint bands : — 

Athgns amligna. GlypMoceras hldorsale. 
Chonetes Laguussiana. „ hilingue. 

Spinfer glaher ? ,, calyx. 

Posidonomya PecJieri. „ Tericulatuni ? 

Aviciilopecteii jn'eetennis, Cf. Orthoceras ohtusa. 

Ctenodonta laviroHrh. PMllipsia Polleni. 
Nutiulana aitenuata. 

The River Hodder lies about midway between the Carboniferous 
Limestone inlier of Withgill and the Millstone Grit of Longridge Fell. 
The Pendleside series are rapidly attenuating as they pass west. The 
beds in the Hodder undoubtedly belong to that series, as is shown by the 
occurrence of the typical Cephalopoda and Lamellibranchiata of the zone 
in them. I have little doubt but that the bands of Limestone in the 
Hodder represent the Pendleside Limestone of Pendle Hill. 

The Bishopton beds, Glamorganshire, consist of a series of black shales 
with Glyphiocera^ hil'mgne, G. diadema, O. reticulatum, and Fosidoniella 
hevi% overlying a series of light-coloured beds of decomposed chert with 
several fossils, amongst which are 

AtJiyris amhigua. Prodvctns scmiretlculatus. 

(Jhonctes Laguesslana. Phynchonella pleurodon. 
Pielaxma hastata, „ jivgnns, 

Sj)irifer glaher. ffriftithides Parhii. 

„ trigonalis. Pcncstella sp. 
Ortkotetes crenistria. „ sp. 

Produotus luiigispinus. Posidoniclla larig. 

These light-coloured cherty beds probably represent the uppermost 
beds of the Carboniferous Limestone series, or even passage beds between 
this serins and the Pendleside beds. It is interesting to note the presence 
of Posidoniella heins and Chonetes Lagiiessiana and the absence of 
P. giganteus in them. 

Last year I examined the upper part of the Carboniferous Lipaestone 
series of Weardale with Mr. Barker of Frosterley. 



214 



REPORT — 1902. 



A bed of Quartzorie Sandstone 
above Liitle Limestone, Wols- 
inffliam 



Pattinson's Sill : sandstone 
12 feet, sliale 2-1 feet, full 
of round black concretions at 
base 



Little Limestone, 7 feet 



High and low Uoal Sills : Shale a 
little below Little Limestone 



Famps or shales, forming upper 
few feet of Great Limestone 

Main, or Groat Limestone, 60^70 
feet 



Clwni'tcs Laf/ueasiuna, Urihutetcs orenistria, Pro- 
duutus l(i/iffisjji?iiis, P. wuricatns, P. scmireticu- 
latus, Sjnrifer ovalis, Edmondia sulcata, 
Lithodnmns lingnalis, Bdleroplion (cast), Nati- 
copsig (large cast), Pltillipsia Mchivaldi. 

AtJiyris amhigua, C'honetes Zaffuessiana, Rhj/n- 
cltonella trilatera, Produclus scmireticnlatus, 
iSpirifcr glaher, S. ovalis, S. trigonalis, Spirife- 
o-inaoctoplieata, Cypricardella Annrp, C.rectan- 
gularis, Bellerophon Urei, Ortlioceras Morrina- 
num, Zaplirentu sp., Crlnoid stems. 

Chactetes radians, Syrhujopora genicjilata, Cy- 
atJiophyllum sp., Productus h7igi82n7ms, tooth, of 
C'ochliodvs. 

Discina -nitida, ProdiictugjMnctaius, Rhynchonella 
pleurodon, Ortlwtetes crenisfria, Avicnlopecten 
sp., Allorisma sulcata, Edmondia nniomformis, 
Nucula gihbosa, Nuoulana attenvata, Proto- 
scAizodus axiniformis, Bvllcroplion, deoussaUis. 
var. striatus, Pleurotomarla atomaria, Ortlio- 
ceras sp., Fenestella sp., Crlnoid stems. 

AtJiyris 2>^^'>^o-sulcata, Chonetes Laguessiana, 
Ortkis Michelini, Productus latissimus, Fene- 
stella and Crinoids. 

Pisces. — Gyracanthus spine, Psammodus porosus. 

Corals. — Litltostrotw)i hasaltiforme, Cyatlwphyl- 
lumregium,LonsdaleiaJloriformis,Clisiophyllum 
sp,, ClKvtetes radians, C. septosa, C. tiimidus, 
Syringojiora ramnlosa, Cladochonus sp. 

Bracliiopoda. — Dielasma hastata, Camarophoria 
crumena, Athyris ^;Za?io-«!<Z<7ate, Chonetes 
Buclilana, Lingula mytiloides, Orthotetcs 
crenistria, Ortlwtetes orenistria, var. senilis, 
Ortliis Ifichelini, Productus aculeatvs, P. cora, 
P. Jivihriatus, P. gigantens, P. latissimus, 
P. longispinus, P. pi/nctati/g, P. sinuosus, 
P. semireticvlatits, Spirifer crassa, Sp. lineata, 
Sp. trigonalis, Sp. distans, Bhynohonella pug- 
nvs, li. rcni/ormis. 

Lamellibranchs. — Allorisma sulcata, A. monensis, 
A. variabilis, Edmondia sulcata, E. unioni- 
formis, Cyj'ricardella Anna, SanguinoUtes 
plicatus, Soleiwmya oostellata, S. primava, 
Pinna fla belli form is. 

Gasteropoda.^Dentalium ingens, Euomphalus 
pentangulatus, E. catillus, LeveilUn Puzo, 
Loxonema sp., Ma.croolieilina acuta, 2Vdticopsis 
atiqiliata, JV. plieistria, Pleurotomarla alta- 
vittata, P. carinata, Gow., Belleroplion eornu- 
arietis. 

Ceplialopoda.-^Actinoceras giganteum, Ortlioceras 
cinctum, O. sulcatum, Temnoclieilus pentagonus, 
Solenoclieihis rrassiventer ? 

Plnllipsia Eicluraldi. 



Mr. J. Dunn, of Redesdale, and I have collected for several years in 
the neighbourhood of Redesdale — Mr. Dunn continuously — and the 
following results have been obtained. Most of the fossils have been 
submitted to various specialists, and the lists give a fairly accurate idea 
of the fauna found in the two beds, the Redesdale Ironstone and the 
Four-Laws Limestone above it. Both these beds are probably low down 
in the Melmerby Scar series, and correspond to the lower part of the 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



215 



Massif of Carboniferous Limestone. 
Productus gigantetos. 



They are low down in the zone of 





onstone 
itone 


raestone 
omb 


1 


onstone 
atone 


L 

si 






ScS 




M g 


'^6 




^.3 

'rn'O 
rS 2 






(D 1 


3 




M 


cS 


rt 




BracMopoda 




Sanguinolites v. scriptus * 




Athyris ambigna . 


» 




„ Visetensis * 




„ Royssii 


* 


* 


Sedgwickia ovata . . '• * 




Camarophoria crumena . 


* 




Pinna flabelliformis . * 


* 


Chonetes Buchiana 


* 


* 


„ mutica . • * 




„ Laguessiana . 


* 


* 


Actinopteria persulcata . i * 




Discina nitida 


* 




Aviculopecten dissimilis | 4 sp. 




Dielasma sacculus . 


* 


* 


Strehlojjtcria Redcsda Icnsis 




Lingula mytiloides 


* 




Gasteropoda 






„ scotica 


;|: 




Eulima Phillipsiana 




# 


„ squamiformis 


* 


* 


Euomphalus pentangu- 






Orthotetes crenistria 


* 


, * 


latus .... 




♦ 


Productus aculeatus 




* 


Euomphalus cirrus . 




* 


„ cora 


* 


Jf 


Loxonema le Febvrei 




# 


» giganteus 


4 


* 


rugifera 




* 


„ longispinus 


* 




Leveillia puzo 




* 


,, latissimus 




» 


Macrocheilus acutus 


* 




1) 

„ punctatus 


* 


* 


„ imbricatus 


* 


ll< 


„ scabriculus 


* 


* 


Murcbisonia telescopium 




* 


„ sinuatus 




* 


Naticopsis implicata 




* 


„ semireticulati 


.8 * 


* 


„ plicistria 




* 


,, spinulosus 


♦ 


* 


Pleurotomaria alta-vit- 






„ undatus 


* 




tata .... 




♦ 


Spirifer glaber 
„ lineata 


* 
* 


* 


Pleurotomaria inter- 

strialis 


* 




„ ovalis 




* 


Pleurotomaria decipiens 






„ striatus 




* 


(M-Coy) . . 




* 


„ trigonalis . 




* 


Platyschizma Zonites 


* 


* 


Spiriferina octoplicata 


* 




Dentalium ingens . 




* 


„ var. cristata 


I * 










Strophomena analoga 


* 


* 


Bellerophon decussata . 


* 




Lamellihranchiata 






Urei . 


^ 




Allorisma sulcata . 


* 


* 


Conularia quadrisulcata . 


* 




Cardiomorpha parva 


* 




Cephalopoda 






Clinopistha abbreviata 




* 


Orthoceras Gesneri 


* 


* 


„ parvula 




* 


„ amiulatum . 


* 




Conocardium aliforme 




* 


„ attenuatum . 


* 




Ctenodonta undulata 


* 




„ cylindricum . 


* 




„ Iffivirostra 


* 




,, sulcatum 


* 




Edmondia arcuata . 


* 




Acanthonautilus bispino- 






„ Lowickensis 




* 


sus .... 




* 


„ Maccoyi 




* 


Glyphioceras truncatum . 


Ii< 


* 


„ oblonga 




* 


„ diadema 


* 




„ Pentonensis 


* 




Stroboceras bisulcatum . 


* 




„ rudis 


* 


* 


Solenocheilus, if. S. cras- 






„ sulcata . 


* 


* 


siventer 




* 


„ unioniformis 


* 




Cf. Vestinautilus crateri- 






Modiola Jenkinsoni 




* 


formis. 




» 


Parallelodon reticulatun 


1 


* 


Crustacea 






Nvtculfi gibbpsa 


* 




Dithyrjocaris glaber 


* 





21G 



REPORT — 1902. 



— 


S o 
a o 

CO 1^ 


lur Laws Limestone 
at the Coomb 


— 


sdesdale Ironstone 
aud Limestone 


<0 

a 
o 

1-9 

ai 

3 




rt 






Ph 


^ 


Dithyriocaris Dunni 


* 




Sanguinolites variabilis . 


# 


* 


Nuculana attenuata 


* 




Dithyriocaris tricornis , 


» 




„ brevirostris 


! * 




GrifRthides longispinus . 




* ■ 


Myalina pernoides . 


'• » 




I'hillipsia gemmuhfera . 




* 


,, Redesdalensis 


* 




„ derbiensis 




it> 


„ Verneuilii 


* 




Pigces 






Protoschizodus axinifor- 






Chomatodus, sp. 


if 




mis 


* 




Chadndus mirabilis 


* 


* 


Protoschizodus fragilis 


* 




Gy racanthus tnberculatus 


* 




Posidoniella elongata 


* 




Petalodus Hastingeri 




* 


Schizodus axiniformis 


* 




Psammodus porosus 


* 




Solenomya costellatus 




* 


Rhizodus (scales) . 


* 




Sanguinolites clavatus 


* 




Crinnidea 






„ plicatus 


* 




Ulocrinus nuciformis 


* 




„ striate- gra 


. 




■ Forbesiocrinus, sp. . 


* 




nulosus 


* 




Scytalecrinus, sp. . 


* 




Sanguinolites tricostatus 


» 


• 


Archiocidaris Urei . 


* 





Report hy Mr. J. T. Stobbs, F.G.S., on his Work in the Pendleside 
Series, Castleton District, Derbyshire. 

This series forms a passage from the Carboniferous Limestone to the 
Millstone Grits, and the transition both downwards from the Grits and 
upwards from the Massif is strikingly shown in this district. The thick 
grits may be observed to get thinner (and finer in texture), whilst the 
intervening shales get correspondingly thicker in descending order till the 
basal sandstone is reached, when the Pendleside series terminates. 
Starting from the Massif upwards the intermixing of chert beds and 
limestone may be observed at Little Huckley, the upper limestones being 
black and unfossiliferous with thin {\ inch) beds of shale intervening! 
The limestones become separated by greater thicknesses of shales (as at 
Bradwell) and are frequently represented throughout the entire series 
either by their unfossiliferous bands, limestone shales, or bullion beds. 
Lithologioally the series is very distinct, being typically black or dark- 
blue shales except the intervals measured by tlie limestone bands or bullions 
which weather a khaki colour. Towards the middle of the series the 
limestone bands pinch out laterally in a somewhat erratic manner, which 
detracts from their utility for stratigraphical purposes. 

The upper portions of the series ai-e seen in good sections, notably at 
Mam Tor, the river Noe above Upper Booth and north of Hope, and in 
the stream called Harden Clough. In the bed of River Noe (which runs 
in the series from half-mile W. of Lee House to about a mile N. of Hope) 
the succession is somewhat difficult to make out owing to faulting and 
folding. The lowest members of the series may be observed near Bradwell 
village and, I think, in the bed pf River Noe from below Edale Mill to 
I mile E of Booth. 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE URITISn CARDONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



21: 



It is somewhat remarkable that these shales should be so frequently 
found ill the bottom of valleys, but this is no doubt due to their being 
easily scoured out by the streams. Unfortunately they are frequently 
covered by drift consisting of blocks of grit which have simply rolled from 
the upper ranges of the hills into the valleys below. 

The lithological succession in descending order is — 

_, . „ . f Thick grits. 
urit aenes | sandstones and shales. 
■ Shales, often micaceous. 
Shales with bullions and harder limestone-shales, the latter usually 

rich in fossils. 
Brown shales with large bullions and black limestones, 
. Dark-blue limestones and very thin shales. 
Carboniferous f Cherts and limestones. 
Limestone [ 3Iassif. 

This succession is illustrated by the sections following : — 

1. Mam Tor, E. Face, towards Castleton. ' C and' D' on G" Map. 
Thickness Loeftlity 

2 kv. ' k.vvC ' Ck'*; ^^:^^ Lowest thin sandstone. Base of 

grit series. 



Pendleside 

Series 



15 

6 

10 

4 
1 

11 

8 
10 

35 



1 





3 













Oh 



Black thinly bedded shales. 
(lonklla Iwris (small). 



Posi- 



Bullion bed. 

Black shales. 

Glyphioceras sp. [them. 

Bullion bed — no Goniatites found in 

Dark shales, thinly bedded. 

Blue shales, crowded with Pterino' 
pccien pajryraceus (very large). 
PuMoniella hens. 

Limestone shale, crowded with Pte- 
rinopfcten papyracnis. 

Bullion bed. 

Black shales. 

Bullion bed, with Goniatites. 

Black shales. 

Limestone shales. Goniatites. 
Bullion bed. Goniatites. 



Black shales. 

Limestone shales. Atliyr'is amhigva. 
rterinopectcn papyraccns. Gly- 
phioceras apiralc. 

Black shales. 

Bullion bed (?). Dimorplweeras 

caly.r (numerous). 
Blue shales. Posidojiiella Iwvis. 

Layer crowded with Posidoniella 
lavis. 



This relation of 
Pterinopecten 
shales to base 
of grit series 
is corrobo- 
rated between 
LeeHouseand 
Edale Head 
(see_l" map), 



218 

Tliickiiess 



3 
1 8 

1 8 

3* 



10 



Thickness 

3 

5 

2 

3 3 
3 

4 

U 
1 O" 
1 



5 3 



(Esti- 12 
mated) 

6 



4 



G 



4 

1 
1 



6 




12 



REPORT — 1902. 

2. Interval, Locality 

Blue shale. Posidaniella lesvis, and.\ 

reed-like plants. 
Friable blue shale. 
Slickensided shale, showing cleavage. 
Blue shale, thinly bedded. 
Dark bituminous shale, (?) Glypldo- \ Section 'A' on 

cerns diaclema. G. sjnraJe. I' 6" map. 

Black shale. Posidoniella la-vis. 



Dark shales. 

3. Section on River Noe, 

Limestone shale. 

Black shale. 

Limestone shale. 

Black shale, weathering into flaky 

material, occasional small bullions. 
Limestone (black). 
Black shale, weathering into fine 

flakes. 
Black limestone. 
Black shale. 
Black limestone. 

Shale. 

Limestone shales, rich in fossils. 
GlypMoccras hUingue. Pish. 
Pterinopecten pajjyraceus. 



Shales with bullions. 



Locality 



Barber Booth 
— under figs. 
818 on 6" 
map. 



These shales 
contain very 
few fossils ; 
only an oc 



Between Bar- 
ber Booth and 



casionalfish/ Railway via 



scale. 



duct. 



Black shales. 

Black limestone. 

Black shales. 

Black limestone. 

Black shales. 
Chance band black 

limestone. 
Black shales. 

Thin black limestone. 
Lustreless black band. 

Black shales, with occasionar 
stronger layers. 

Limestone shales, thinly bedded and 
splitting easily. Fish remains. 
Posidanomya menibranacea (large) 
numerous in lower layers. Gly-\Railway via- 
phioceras. Posidoniella lavis. I duct. 
One fragment of Posidonoviya 
Beclieri, 

Black shales. Posidoniella Icepis. i 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



219 



Thickness 



15 



Locality- 



is 



(Esti- 35 
mated) 



Thicknesg 



6 
i 
5 



1 10 



(Esti- 28 
mate) 
from 
dip 



1 



8 



1 3 








'F' of F.B. 
near viaduct 
on G" map. 



Limestone shales, thicker bedded \ 

towards base. 
Posidunomya Becheri (numerous in 
J, i" layer). 

V p. inemlranacea (large) nnmerous. 
P. memhronaeca (small) abundant 

in thin layers. 
Large-bullion bed. Section ' T,' 6" map. 

Thinly bedded black shales, weather- 
ing into fine flakes ; no fossils ob' 
served. 

Strong limestone shales, compact, 

fine material ; few fossils ; occa» 

sionally Posidoniella Ircvis. 
Ten feet thickly bedded limestone 

shales, which ring like a tile when 

struck with hammer. 
Six-foot shales with layers of Pod' 

doniella leevis. 

Bullion bed; bullions large, cherty\ 
crowded with Glyjjhioceras retu 
culatniii; weathered by water ,,„.„■, „ -,, 
have a dull glaze; in centre of y- ^^^^^^d on 6 
bullions is a thin layer 1" which ^''■P' 
weathers white. This layer is 



( Base of series 
-| seen in this 
( locality. 



Locality 



Section 'I' on 
G" Map: 



parallel to bedding plane. I 

Thinly bedded black shales. 
4. Section on Hiver iVoe. 

Platy shales. "^ 

Shales with reed -like plants. 
Limestone shales. Posidoniella 

Itevis. 
Hard limestone band, Posidoniella 

leevis abundant. 
Green shales. Actinopteria jjersnl- 

cata (numerous). Plants (ferns), 

INeuro^rterls antcccdens, Stur. 

Interval. 



Limestone shales. Posidoniella 
leevis. \ 

Black limestone. 



Limestone shales. Posidoniella \ Back Tor 
Irevis (large and numerous). '' 



Black limestone. Goniatites. 
Cherty limestone. Plants. 
Black limestone shales. Posidoniella 
Iccvis (small and numerous). 



Bridge. 



220 



REPORT— 1902. 



Thickness 



(Esti- 28 
mated) 
from 
dip 




Locality 



Interval [(see note on (5) Section 
'P')- 



Limestone shale. Pteronitcs angus- . 

^"f"'- j.'Q'onG"Map. 

Shale rich in plants. J 



5. Section ' P' — 1" a7}d 6'^ Map. Junction of Stream from 
South and Hirer Noe. 



Thickness 

/ u 



2 C 




Black shales. PosidotiicUa Irfvls. 

Thin, laminated, sub-crystalline limestones. Phillip- 
da sp. ; Prodvctvs semireticulatns ; Chonetes 
Lagvesnana ; ? Spirifer glahcr ; Discina nitida; 
Glyjjhlocerax Mliiigue ; ? Prolecanitcs comjjressus. 

Thinly bedded black shales. 
Stronger shales. Orthoceras. 



G. Section' at Bradwell {marked ' Loir est Shales^ on \" Map). 
Thickness 



5 
11 



(Esti- 30 
mated) 




Large bullion (4' diameter) in upper portion. 
Brown, thinly bedded shales. Glyphiocerai bilingue. 
Black cherty limestone. 



Black shales. Posidoniella lavis (numerous in 
layers). 



^l Thickness 



I 3 




Cherts and limestones. 
7. Section at Bradvell ' K' on I" Map. 



Black chert. 

Dark limestone : fine shell debris. Plnllipna sp. 

Chert. 

Dark-blue limestone. 

Chert. 



Kotes on the Sections. 

From (1) section it will be seen that a fault (Downthrow, N.) occurs 
between thejmain E.^escarpmentof Mam Tor and the scarp whose section 
is given. On the N. side of Mam Tor, the tirst 700 feet are drift covered. 



LIFE-ZONES IX THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 221 

In Harden Clough at the 900-foot contour line shales with reed-like 
plant-remains are found, frequently with coaly covering. About 30 yards 
above Harden Clough Farm may be seen a gritty shale with abundant 
GlypMoceras hilingue. About 25 yards below Harden Clough Farm 
there occurs a thin cemented shale with abundant Posidoniella Icevis. 
At the junction of this stream and River Noe a thin black limestone (1 inch) 
is found ; this gives a vertical thickness of about 150 feet. 

The position of (6) section relative to the Massif may be calculated. 
It is taken in a stream 80 yards east of and parallel to the limestone and 
chert (juarry in Bradvvell Dale. The limestone and chert beds dip E. 
about 10°, and the shales are found dipping at the same rate and in the 
same direction, showing at this place perfect conformability between the 
two formations. These shales should then be about 30 feet above the 
chert beds, assuming the top beds of the quarry are the upper cherts. 

At the "VVortley Mine, JBradwell, these lowest beds of the Pendleside 
series were sunk through by a shaft, and ' the limestones and cherts were 
reached 40 fathoms (= 240 feet) from the surface.' The shales and thin 
limestones on the spoil heap yield Posidoniella loivis, ^ Glyphioceras 
hilingue, Discina nitida, Athyris ambiffua, Ehynchonella trilatera. 

Fossil Zones.— Posidoniella Icevis is found practically throughout the 

series. 

Pterinopecten jfa^yyraceus is very much more common in the upper 
shales, and may be considered the commonest fossil in them. 

Posidonomya Becheri is a valuable fossil for zoning purposes. It is 
confined to about 12 feet near the base of (3) section, and is really 
abundant in a single layer less than 1 inch thick. Associated with it is 
P. membranacea, which is confined to the same beds and is abundant in 
layers in shales about 12 feet above and 3 feet below the rich P. Becheri 

zone. 

Glyp)hiocems hilingue characterises the lowest members of the series 
as seen at Bradwell, Barber Booth, and on River Noe, below Booth. 

Glyj)hioceras reticidatum has only been found here in the beds asso- 
ciated with Posidonomya Becheri. 

G. spirale and G. diadema have been found in the upper middle beds 
of the series at Mam Tor and Peak's Hole Water. 

Actinopteria jyersrdcata and Pteronites anyushihis have been found 
abundant in certain shales, in each case overlying plant-beds. They both 
belong to lower middle beds, and have only been seen at one horizon each. 

The association of fossiliferous limestone shales and bullion-beds calls 
for remark, as it is very commonly found that such shales immediately 
overlie bullion-beds. 

The survival of Phillipsia into the Pendleside age is worthy of note. 
It is fairly common in the sub-crystalline, thinly bedded limestones shown 
in section (5). 

In conclusion doubtful points may be referred to. The conformability 
of the Pendleside series to the Massif, as seen at Bradwell, has been 
mentioned above. Negative evidence in support of the same view is 
afforded by the fact that nowhere in this area does the Massif form an 
inlier with different horizons normally in contact. 

It is impossible to estimate the thickness of the series, as all the 
measures are not exposed. To sum up what may be seen — 



222 REPORT— 1902. 

(a) From top shales N. of Mam Tor to top black limestone . 150 feet (see p. 217) 
(h) Estimated thickness from base of (a) to top of (c). . 40 „ 

(c) Thickness of section (3) 140 „ (see p. 218) 

330 

(d) Section (4) shows 74 feet, which is believed to be below (o) 

(e) Section (G) shows 36 feet 



110 feet 
Total thickness open to investigation, 440 feet. 



A List qf the Fish Fauna of the Pendleside Limestones, With Remarks on 
the Evidence u^hich may he adduced from such List in support of the 
Systematic Position of the Eocks. By Edgar D. Wellburn, F.G.S., (be. 

Remarks on the List. 

On glancing through a list of the fossil fishes of the Pendleside Lime- 
stones, one is at once struck with the great similarity of the fauna to that 
of the Millstone Grits, and through them, to a great extent, to tliat of the 
Lower Coal Measures above. On the other hand, when we compare the 
list with that of the true Yoredales (Phillips) and the Mountain Lime- 
stones below, the great dissimilarity is at once apparent, there being a 
decided and great break in the fauna of the two groups of rocks, the 
dividing line being at the base of the Pendleside Limestones ; and this 
being so, in my opinion, the division of the Carboniferous rocks should be 
at the base of the Pendlesides, they being classed along with the Millstone 
Grits and Coal Measures in the Upper Carboniferous, whereas the true 
Yoredales and Mountain Limestones should constitute the lower division.^ 

If we go into the matter more closely, and take the genera in the list 
and compare them with those found in the rocks above, we find that the 
following pass up into these rocks, but are not found in the true Yoredales 
and Mountain Limestones below, viz., Acanthodes, Marsdenius, Strepsodus, 
Rhizodopsis, Ccelacanthus, Rhadinichthys, Elonichthys, Acrolepis, and 
Platysomus. 

Again, the genera Cladodus and Orodus are very rare in the Pendle- 
sides and Millstone Grits, but very plentiful in the rocks below, and they 
appear to have rapidly died out and become extinct in the Upper 
Carboniferous rocks ; and yet again, although I have found the Lower 
Carboniferous genera Psephodus, Pristodus, and Pcecilodus in the Millstone 
Grits (but not in the Pendlesides), still they (the teeth) are extremely rare 
when compared with the other genera, as I have only found a single 
specimen of each. They are also of small size — when compared with 
those found in the Lower Carboniferous rocks, where they are very 
abundant — and the fishes appear to have become extinct in the Millstone 
Grits ; as far as I know they have not been found in the Coal Measures 
above. 



Many of the fossils have been too fragmentary to be worth preserva- 
tion. A complete series has been sent to the Geological Museum, 



It is the writer's intention to deal more fully with this subject later. 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



223 



e.nqsXqia(i q?.ioj^ 


« * 


9.nqs9qo 
'ito()9ignoQ .T89U 'jSinq^sy 


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1. Cladodus mirabilis (Agassiz) . 

2. „ sp.? . . . 

3. Orodus elongatus (Davis). 

4. Acanthodes, sp. ? . 

5. MarsdemusSummiti,g.etsp. (Wellb.) 

6. „ acuta (Wellburn) . 

7. „ sp.? 

8. Strepsodus sauroides (Birney) . 

9. Rliizodopsis sauroides (Williamson) . 

10. CcBlacanthus Hindci (Wellburn) 

11. „ sp.? .... 

12. Rhadinichthys circulus (Wellburn) . 

13. „ sp.? . 

14. Elonichthys Aitkeni (Traqnair) 

15. „ sp. nov.? 

16. „ obliquus (Wellburn) , 

17. Acrolepis Hopkinsi (M'Coy) 

18. Platysomus, sp. ? .... 















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H 



224 EEPORT— 1902. 

University College, London, where Professor Garwood has offered to 
exhibit and store them. Some few duplicates are still in the Secretary's 
hands for purposes of comparison. The Lamellibranchs and Brachiopoda 
from Eccup, collected some years ago, have been determined and sent to 
University College. Very few museums, if any, possess specimens of the 
Pendleside fauna, and practically no fossils from the alternating limestones 
and shales of the Yoredale phase of the Carboniferous Limestone are 
exposed. 

The thanks of the Committee are due to Mr. 11. Kidston, F.R.S,, 
Dr. A. H. Foord, and Dr. AVellburn for work done on the collections, 
and for furnishing reports which are incorporated herein, and to ]\Ir. J. 
Dunn for allowing me to make use of his collections in compiling the 
fauna of the Redesdale and Four Laws Limestone ; to Mr. J. Barker 
for similar help in Weardale. 

The balance of 51. left over from last year has been spent, together 
with the greater part of the grant of lu/. made at the last meeting, 
leaving only a few shillings balance. It is to be hoped that a liberal 
grant will again be forthcoming. The Secretary proposes that detailed 
work be commenced on the various limestone and shales of the western 
escarpment of the Pennine series, together with an examination of the 
quarries in the lower part of the Limestone Massif in Derbyshire, to 
ascertain if any fossils appear to be restricted to certain beds or horizons. 
The Secretary also hopes to obtain an accurate list of the Culm fauna 
of Devonshire, the similarity of the Pendleside and Culm faunas being 
most striking. 



The Movements of Jlndenirou^id Waters of North-west Yorkshire. — 
T)iird Report of the Committee, consistinr/ of Professor W. W. 
Watts {L'hairman), Mr. A. R. Dwekryhouse (Secretari/), Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Rev. E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mv. G. Bray, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, Mr. 
P. F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Plate II. 

The Committee is carrying out tlie investigation in conjunction with a 
committee of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. 

On referring to the last report of this committee it will be seen that 
on September 5, 1901, three quarters of a pound of fluorescein was put 
into the water flowing down Long Churn, near Alum Pot, at 4 p.m., and 
that a further quantity of three quarters of a pound was introduced at 
5.30 P.M. on the same day. At the time of writing the last report the 
outflow of this had not been observed ; but it has since been learned that 
it issued from Turn Dub, on the opposite side of the River Ribble, and 
close to the bank of that stream, on September 1 7. The water therefore 
took twelve days to accomplish a journey of H mile. 

The extreme slowness of the flow is partly' to be accounted for by the 
dry weather which then prevailed ; but when it is taken into considera- 
tion that the water of Long Churn plunges down a very steep fall into 
Aluni Pot, the total depth of which is some 300 feet, the gradient of the 
remainder of the stream is considerably reduced. 



MOVEMENTS OF UNDERGROUND WATERS OF NORTH-WEST YORKSHIRE. 225 

The Secretary was informed by Mr. Wilcox, of Selside, that the 
fluorescein mentioned above had been seen in Footnaw's Hole prior to its 
appearance at Turn Dub. 

The relative positions of Long Churn, Alum Pot, Footnaw's Hole, 
and Turn Dub will be seen by reference to the map (Plate II.). 

In dry weather Footnaw's Hole appears as a wide cleft in the lime- 
stone, with sloping banks of silt and sand round two sides and precipitous 
limestone rocks on the other two. When the streams are in flood after 
hea\-y rain or during the melting of snow the water in Footnaw's Hole 
I'ises to the lip and liows over down Footnaw's Beck into the Ribble. 

Turn Dub is very rarely dry, while it is only in exceptionally wet 
weather that water flows from Footnaw's Hole. 

Thus it would appear that Footnaw's Hole is a flood outlet, and only 
comes into operation Avhen the underground passage leading to Turn Dub 
is full and therefore unable to take the excess of water. As the lip of 
Footnaw's Hole is just below the 1,225-foot contour, and Turn Dub just 
below that of 1,200 feet, there cannot be a fall of more than 25 feet from 
the former to the latter. 

Further, since in ordinary weather, when the stream is issuing 
from Turn Dub only, the water in Footnaw's Hole stands some 20 feet 
below the ground level, it will be seen that there must be a siphon-like 
passage below the river ; and since this passage must be constantly filled 
with water up to the level of the overflow of Turn Dub, it will account 
for the very slow passage of the fluorescein over at least this part of the 
journey. 

Since the water passes beneath the River Ribble it follows that theie 
must be some impervious cover, because if this were not the case the 
water of the underground stream would find an escape at the lowest 
point— namely, in the bed of the river— and would not, as is the actual 
case, pass under that stream and rise some 10 or 12 feet above it on 
the opposite bank. 

With a view to ascertaining the nature of this impervious cover and 
its thickness it was determined to carry out a series of borino- operations 
in the alluvial flat between Turn Dub and the river. ° 

In the first place Turn Dub was sounded and found to be only about 
18 feet in depth. Now Turn Dub is a circular pond of still water, and 
although a large stream of water flows out there is no disturbance of the 
surface, nor welling up of the water apparent. This would lead one to 
suppose that the pool was much deeper than is actually the case. So far 
as could be ascertained by drawing the sounding-iron across the bottom 
of the pool, this consists of large boulders. This led your Committee 
to suspect that the cover consisted of boulder clay, and that the bottom 
of Turn Dub consisted of boulders, the clayey matrix having been re- 
moved by the action of the flowing water. 

The boring operations were undertaken with a small set of hand 
boring-rods provided with an auger bit. 

With this apparatus it was possible to prove that the bluish alluvial 
clay was underlain by a material consisting of a somewhat sandy-brown 
clay with many large stones, and in every way similar to the boulder clay 
of the neighbourhood, which in some places can be seen close to the river- 
bank. 

_ The presence of numerous boulders prevented the boring operations 
being earned more than a matter of 1 or 2 inches into the boulder 
1902. Q 



226 REPORT— 1902. 

clay, so that it was impossible to obtain any definite evidence regarding 
the thickness of the bed. 

Further, although boulder clay was proved to underlie the alluvium 
on both banks of the Ribble, it was impossible to obtain evidence of its 
existence in the river-bed, as this consists of coarse shingle which could 
Iiot be penetrated by the hand-boring apparatus. 

In order to clear up this matter satisfactorily it will be necessary to 
engage the services of a professional well-sinker and to have one or two 
boreholes put down by mechanical meana» 

Investigation of the Streams tributary to, or in the neighbourhood of, 

Alum Pot. 

A series of small springs rises beneath the drift and peat near the 
wall at the north end of Whit-a-Green : these run together and form a 
small stream which sinks at P 34, a small pot-hole amongst long grass. 
Fluorescein was introduced here and reappeared in half an hour at a 
small opening some hundred yards to the south of P 34 : here the 
stream can be traced on the surface for 20 yards, when it again 
sinks. 

The fluorescein was put into P 34 at 4 p.m., and was traced the 
following day at S 52 ; then overground to P 35, where it again sank 
to reappear at S 49 ; thence it flowed to P 36, and so underground to 
S 50, finally sinking at P41. 

The fluorescein sinking at P 41 did not afiect any of the springs on 
Font Green, but was again seen in Footnaw's Hole. 

This water must therefore go by a deep course, and eventually join the 
underground flow from Alum Pot to Turn Dub, vid Footnaw's Hole. 

Whit-a-Green Spring. — This rises on the higher slopes of Simon Fell 
at a height of 1,600 feet, and flows over the surface of the rocks of the 
Yoredale Series till it reaches the underlying Carboniferous limestone at 
1,250 feet, where it sinks at P 29. 

A trial with fluorescein resulted in proving that this water flows out 
at S 55 and falls into the middle opening of Long Churn, known as Dickon 
Pot, P 30, where it joins the main stream occupying that channel. 

The channel by which this stream flows can be traced for a consider- 
able distance by means of a series of openings to the surface, and it was 
found to be possible to actually traverse the tunnel throughout almost 
its entire length ; but the exploring party was eventually stopped by the 
roof coming down to the water level. 

Small Spring to the North-east of last (S 53). — There is never much 
water in this spring, and it is quite dry in seasons of drought. It 
probably derives its water from the peat at its head. 

The water sinks at P 28 and issues, as proved by a fluorescein test, 
at S 55, along with the water from P 29, 

The undergroutid junction of these two streams was afterwai'ds 
ti-aced, though it was found to be impossible to follow the whole length 
of the passage, the roof being too low, and there being deep pools of wa,ter 
lying in the bottom. 

It may be mentioned in passing that as this was a short run methy- 
lene blue was tried for the test, but although only a small quantity of 
water was flowing at the time it was not seen at S 55 ; one-fourth 
the quantity of fluorescein, however, succeeded two hours later. 



MOVEMENTS OF UNDERGROUND WATERS OF NORTH-WEST YORKSHIRE. 227 

This, together with the failure of methylene blue to put in an appear- 
ance when used at Grey Wife Sike, as mentioned in the second report of 
this committee, demonstrates conclusively the superiority of fluorescein 
for purposes of this nature. 

Long Churn Spring. — This rises on the upper slopes of the fell and 
sinks on Borrin's Moor at P 42, and after a very short underground 
course issues at S 57, forming, however, only a very insignificant part of 
that spring. 

The next series of experiments had for its object the discovery of the 
source of the bulk of the water at S 57. 

On examining the upper part of Alum Pot Beck it was found that a 
large part of that stream sank at P 33, and fluorescein introduced here 
was seen at S 57 within an hour. 

P 26 was the next point of experiment, and by a series of trials with 
fluorescein it was found that the water flowed underground along a well- 
marked line of joint to P 43 a. 

This line of joint is well marked both by crevices in the clints and by 
a line of pot-holes, in some of which the water shows itself. It runs 
N. 18° W. 

At P 34 a the water falls into another open joint, running N. 25° E., 
which leads it to S 51, whence it runs over the surface to P 43, again 
beneath the surface to S 40, and then on to S 42 and P 37, where it again 
disappears. 

At the time of these experiments the greater part of the water was 
sinking in the bed of the stream at P 37 a, but a little was flowing on to 
P 37 near the old limekiln. 

Fluorescein put into the stream just above P 37 a came out at P 38, 
where it again sank and reappeared half an hour later almost simul- 
taneously at S 43 and S 44. 

It was then traced to P 39, where it again went underground to issue 
at Font Green Spring, S 45. 

At P 40 part of this stream sinks (the whole of it in dry weather) to 
reappear at S 46, and part flows over the surface, the streams when 
reunited forming Selside Beck, which runs through the village of Selside 
and on into the River Ribble. 

The above streams occupy a wide valley and would, with the excep- 
tion of Gill Garth Beck (P 26 to P37), all drain into Selside Beck were 
they not swallowed into cracks in the limestone. 

There would appear to be two distinct sets of channels below Font 
Green — a deeper and a more superficial one. 

The water flowing by the deeper channel — viz., that from Alum Pot, 
Long Churn, and P 41 — reaches the Ribble by way of Footnaw's Hole 
and Turn Dub, while the shallower set issues on Font Green and joins 
Selside Beck. 

Many of the underground stream courses are accessible and may be 
followed for long distances with the aid of short ladders, provided the 
explorer does not object to getting wet and doing a certain amount of 
crawling in the less lofty portions. 

It was laid down in the two previous reports of this Committee that 
as a general rule the flow of undei'ground water in limestone rocks follows 
the direction of the master joints, and this view has been strikingly con- 
firmed by several of the experiments which have been carried out during 
the current year. 

Q2 



228 REPORT— 1902. 

It was seen that in the open passages in the neighbourhood of Alum 
Pot was an opportunity for putting this theory to the practical test by 
following the water step by step in its underground journeyings. 

With this object in view your Committee undertook to make a sur- 
vey of some of the more readily accessible channels, with the following 
results. 

A plan of the series of passages communicating with Long Churn and 
joining that opening with Alum Pot was constructed, and tins will be 
published in due course by the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 
Society. 

On this plan the directions of the principal lines of jointing liave 
been marked for purposes of comparison Avith the direction of the 
caverns. 

It may be confidently said that there is a general parallelism between 
joints and passages, but this is by no means so close as was at first 
expected. 

To account for the want of parallelism between joints and passages 
it is necessary to study the evolution of one of these underground 
chambers. 

The joints in the limestone undoubtedly give the initial direction to 
the underground stream ; but as soon as a channel is formed sufticiently 
large to allow of a free flow of watei*, as opposed to mere soakage, a 
number of other forces come into play which tend to modify the direction 
so as to cause it to diverge somewhat from its original one of strict 
parallelism to the joints. 

For example, the dip of the rocks causes the erosion of the channel 
to be more severe on one side than the other — namely, on the low or 
' down dip ' side — and where there are cross-joints the dip may tend to 
produce a lateral escape along one of these so as to give rise to a zigzag 
course. 

Up to a certain point the erosion in these underground river channels 
is entirely by solution, but so soon as the external opening becomes suf- 
ficiently large to admit sand gravel and boulders excavation by means of 
attrition comes into play. 

At this point in the history of a subterranean river zigzags are 
changed into sharp windings, which in their turn impart a swing to the 
waters in the straight parts, thus causing a series of windings to be set 
up in a manner similar to that which goes on in surface streams. 

As the external opening which gives access to the water increases in 
size, so does the amount of water flowing through the passage increase. 
An increase of volume means an increase of speed and a lessened ten- 
dency to winding ; at the same time the passage must be widened so as to 
accommodate the increased volume of the stream. 

The tendency at this stage is, then, to widen and straighten out the 
passages, and many are the deserted ' ox-bows,' both large and small, 
which may be seen in the passages. 

Some of these are small and situated at a considerable height above 
the floor of the main passage, while others of more recent formation 
are approximately at the same level as the water-bearing passage, a 
few of them still being occupied by a portion of the stream in times of 
flood. 

The condition of approximate stability is reached when the opening 
becomes sufliciently large to swallow the whole of the surface stream. 



Bnliult .'(Hucc'a'iim, liii'l nejml. Bi'lfant, l!)Oa. 




Illmlralh:fi Ikr llrfarl an llir J/' 



,„„ ,„ r„,hrsmml ««l"' "I N„rll,-iM r«rt,lmc. 



MOVEME^TS OF UNDEKUKOUND ^^■ATERS OF NOKTIMVEST YOKKSUIHE. 229 

On the occasion of their last visit to the district your Committee 
hurriedly explorpd a cave which they had not previously seen, and are of 
opinion that it offers remarkable facilities for the further study of the 
development of underground watercourses, inasmuch as it exhibits tribu- 
tary and deserted passages in every stage of development and decay. 

In order to enable them to further prosecute the study of this most 
interesting question your Committee hopes that it will be granted a 
new lease of life, and therefore asks to be reappointed with a further 
grant. 

The members of the Committee wish to tender their thanks to Mr. 
Theodore Ashley, of Leeds, mine surveyor, who, though not a member 
of either of the comuuttees, has given much time and care to the investi- 
gation. 



Vhotograplis of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Thirteeidh 
Beport of the Cmnmitiee, consisting of Professor James Geikie 
(Chairman)^ Professor W. W. Watts (Secreiarn), Professor T. G. 
BoNNEY, Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. Tempest ANDEUso^", Mr. 
Godfrey Bingley, Mr. H. Coates, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. J. G. 
GooDciiiLD, Mr. William Gray, Mr Robert Kidston, Mr. A. S. 
Keid, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. P. Welch, Mr. H. B. Wood- 
ward, ami ]\rr. F. Woolxough. {Drawn iqi hi/ the Secretarij.) 

The Committee have to report that during the year 412 new photographs 
have been received, bringing the total number in the collection to 3,308. 
This is the largest number of new photographs ever recorded in a single 
year, and the annual average number of photographs recorded for each 
of the thirteen years of the Conmiittee's existence now reaches 254. 

The usual geographical scheme is appended. There are no new coun- 
ties in the list, but the following are now very well represented : — Cumber- 
land, Devon, Gloucester, Leicester, Somerset, and Westmorland, while 
Suffolk, Glamorgan, Banff, Fermanagh, and Sligo are beginning to be 
better illustrated. There are, however, several counties, many of them 
mentioned in previous reports, still entirely unrepresented in the collec- 
tion. 

Several improvements are noticeable in this year's accessions. In the 
first place, instead of isolated photographs the Committee are receiving an 
increasing proportion of groups, each illusti-ating some special point, some 
defined area, or S(,'me particular piece of work. Thus Mr. Bingley sends 
a series illustrating Professor Kendall's work on the Glaciation of the 
Cleveland Hills, recently published by the Geological Society. He also 
continues his Yorkshire Coast series and those from theMagnesian Lime- 
stone district. Mr. A. S. Peid's set shows the development of joint-caves 
by marine denudation. Charnwood Forest is the subject of most useful 
sets by Dr. Meadows, Mr. Harrison, Mr. Hodson, Mr. Coomaraswamy, 
and Mr. Levi. The Geologists' Association excursions have also produced 
a Gower series by Mr. Coomaraswamy, and numerous isolated prints by 
himself and other geologists. Professor Reynolds sends sets taken along 
a new railway in Gloucestershire, and groups from South Devon, Glouces- 
tershire, and Somerset, 



230 



REPORT — 1902. 





Previous Collec- 


Additions 


Total 




tion 


(1902) 


England — 








Cornwall 


42 


8 


50 


Cumberland 






18 


21 


39 


Derbyshire 






41 


3 


44 


Devon 






135 


40 


175 


Dorset 






99 


2 


101 


Durham . 






111 


6 


117 


Essex 






3 


3 


6 


Gloucestershire 






24 


27 


51 


Hampshire 






19 


17 


36 


Kent 






72 


7 


79 


Lancashire 






67 


1 


68 


Leicestershire . 






9» 


45 


138 


Middlesex 






3 


4 


7 


Shropshire 






44 


7 


51 


Somerset . 






47 


19 


66 


Staffordshire . 






51 


2 


53 


Suifolk . 






10 


11 


21 


Surrey 






43 


4 


47 


Warwickshire . 






38 


1 


o9 


Westmorland . 






62 


16 


78 


Worcestershire 






19 


7 


26 


Yorkshire 






456 


88 


544 


Others 






215 


— 


215 


Total 

Wales— 


1,712 


339 


2,051 








Glamorganshire 


12 


29 


41 


Montgomerj'shire 


10 


1 


11 


Others 

Total 

Channel Islands . 

Isle of Man .... 

Scotland — 


172 


— 


172 


194 


30 


224 


15 


— 


15 


60 


— 


60 








Banffshire .... 


4 


7 


11 


Lanarksliire 


. 


7 


4 


11 


Orkney and Shetland 


. 


1 


2 


3 


Perthshire 




20 


2 


22 


Others . 




279 


' 


279 


Total 

Ireland— 


311 


16 


326 








Antrim 


226 


13 


239 


Donegal . 


• • . 


45 


5 


50 


Down 




86 


2 


88 


Dublin . 


, , ^ 


27 


6 


33 


Fermanagh 


■ • • 


4 


1 


5 


Sligo 


• • . 


4 


1 


5 


Others . 


• • • 


116 


— 


116 


Total 

Rock Steuctures . 


508 


28 


536 


96 


— 


96 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



231 





Previous Collec- 
tion 


Additions 
(1902) 


Total 


England 

Wales 

Channel Islands . 

Isle of Man .... 

Scotland . . . . 

Ireland 

Rock Structures . 

Total 


1,712 

194 

15 

60 

311 

508 

96 


339 
30 

15 
28 


2,051 

224 

15 

60 

326 

536 

96 


2,896 


412 


3,308 



To the same category belong also Mr. Harrison's Isle of Wight se 
and his series illustrating Pliocene and Pleistocene rocks in Suffolk. 
The Croydon Scientific and Natural History Society, through Mr. Robarts, 
continues its illustrations of local geology, a work which in future will 
presumably be carried on by the recently inaugurated county survey of 
Surrey on a larger scale. The Philosophical Society of the University of 
Durham also sends, through Mr. D. Woolacott, photographs in continua- 
tion of its former work in its county. 

Mr. Welch is continuing his admirable task of illustrating Irish geo- 
logical features, and sends beautiful sets of platinotypes from Antrim, 
Donegal, Down, Dublin, Fermanagh, and Sligo. Mr. Watson contributes 
well-taken illustrations of Carboniferous trees. 

In the second place, an increasing number of photographs are now so 
well taken and from such advantageous points of view that they tell their 
own story and depend much less on description than hitherto. 

Again, the photographs are of a more serious geological character than 
ever before, and, although many of them are pretty pictures as well, they 
illustrate important and typical geological phenomena and features really 
worthy of record. In some cases new discoveries and facts very difficult 
of portrayal are attempted and with considerable success. 

Lastly, unusual care has been taken in the descriptions ; and although 
these undoubtedly impose a tax on the photographers' time and patience, 
they add very greatly to the permanent value of the photographs. 

In addition to the larger sets specified above, especial mention should 
be made of the following :— Messrs. G. V. and H. Preston's and Mr. Reid's 
Cornish Raised Beaches ; Mr. Wrench's examples of glaciation in Derby- 
shire ; Mr. Monckton's sets from Essex, Kent, Surrey, and Yorkshire ; 
Mr. Robinson's pretty set from Yorkshire, and Mr. Metcalfe's very choice 
trio from Antrim. 

To all the gentlemen mentioned above the very best thanks of the 
Committee are due, and also to the following, who have helped by contri- 
butions and other assistance : Mr. E. Pierce, Mr. Wheen, Mr. C. H, 
Topham, Mr. J. H. Baldock, Mr. W. G. Fearnsides, Mr. G. T. Atchison, 
Mr. W. J. Forrest, Mr. C. J. Watson, Mr. J. Barrowman, Mr. W. H 
Beeby, and Miss M. K. Andrews. 

The Committee would be glad if all contributors would make use of 
local numbers as a key to their photographs. The method has several 
advantages. In addition to being a means of identification by the Secre- 
tary it enables contributors to recognise their prints in the list and to affix 
the B.A. number to their negatives. Also, if the number is placed right 
way up on the photograph, it affords a useful and sometimes needed guide 



232 EEPOKT— 1902. 

in mounting it. But it has a further use, which is much more appreciable 
novr that the collection and accessions are so large, and that less acces- 
sible and less known districts are being photographed ; by grouping his 
numbers the contributor can help the Committee in the difficult task of 
grouping the prints for mounting, a most important thing when large 
series haA'e to be dealt with from a district not personally known to the 
Secretary or his friends. 

Although a few photographs and slides for the duplicate series have 
been received during the year, notice of them is withheld for the present. 

The duplicate collection has been sent to natural history societies at 
the following places : Birmingham, Bristol, Croydon, Belfast, and Leeds. 

The first issue of the published series of geological photographs has now 
reached the subscribers. Twenty-two prints and slides taken from nega- 
tives lent by thirteen contributors have been issued, accompanied by 
printed descriptions written by fourteen geologists. To contributors and 
subscribers the Committee wish to give their best thanks. The Secretary 
has received many kindly expressions of satisfaction from the subscribers, 
amongst whom are many foreignei's living all over the world. 

It is hoped that the second issue will be complete within this year, as 
the selection has already been made and some of the work is in hand. 

Applications by Local Societies for the loan of the duplicate collection 
should be made to the Secretary. Either prints or slides, or both, can be 
lent, with a descriptive account of the slides. The carriage and the 
making good of any damage to slides or prints are expenses borne by the 
borrowing society. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed, with a small grant, 
and that Professor S. H. Reynolds, jMr. A. K. CoomarasM-amy, and Mr. 
J. St. J. Phillips be added to their number. 



THIRTEENTH LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 

(To August 27, 1902.) 

This list contains the geological photographs which have been 
received by the Secretary of the Committee since the publication of the 
last report. Photographers are asked to affix the registered numbers, 
as given below, to their negatives for convenience of future reference. 
Their own numbers are added in order to enable them to do so. 

Copies of photographs desired can, in most instances, be obtained 
fi'om the photographer direct, or from the officers of the local society 
under whose auspices the views were taken. 

The price at which copies may be obtained depends on the size of tlie 
print and on local circumstances over which the Connnittee have no conti'ol. 

The Committee do not assume the co})yright of any 2}hotor/raphs 
included in this list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applications 
for permission to reproduce them, should be addressed to the photographers 
direct. It is recommended that, wherever the negative is suitable, the 
print be made by the cold-bath platinotype process. 

The very best photographs lose half their utility, and all their value 
as documentary evidence, unless accurately described ; and the Secretary 
would be grateful if, whenever possible, such explanatoi-y details as can 
be given were written on the forms supplied for the purpose, and not on 






ON rHOTOGKAFIIS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 2 bo 

the hack of the photograj)h or elsewhere. Much labour and error of tran- 
scription would tliereby be saved. It is well, also, to use a permanent 
ink for this purpose. A local number by which the print and negative 
can be recognised should be written on the back of the photograph and 
on the top right-hand coi'ner of the form. 

Copies of photographs should be sent immonnted to W. AY. Watts, 
The University, Birmingham, and forms may be obtained from him. 

The size of photographs is indicated as follows : — 



L = Ijantein size. 
1 /4 = Quarter-plate. 
1/2:= Half plate. 



E sisjnifies Enlartremcnts. 



1/1= Whole plate. 
10/8 = 10 inches by 8. 
12/10 = 12 inches by 10, &G. 



* Indicates tliat photographs and slides may be purchased from the donors, or 
obtained through the address given with the series. 

LIST I. 

ACCESSIO:XS IN 1901-100i\ 

ENGLAND. 

Cornwall. — Photo(jrai)hed hy A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S., Trinity College, 

Gleiiahnond, Perth. 1/4. 

IJegd. 
No. 

3255 (P.T. 5) Pcndora Beach, Gerran Eaised Beach. lOOO. 

Bav. 

3256 (P.T. 1) ,. 

Photogro/phed hy G. V. and H. Preston, lUverne House, Penxance. 
*R. H. Preston, Penzance. 1/1 and 5/4. 

2880 ( ) Porthmeo Cove, Zennor . Granite vein intersecting and shifting 

another. 1896. 

2881 ( ) Forth Nanven Cove, St. Kaised Beach. 1900. 

Just. 

2882 ( ) „ „ „ Raised Beach, looking N. 1900, 

2883 C ) i> 1. ). II I. ^- " 

2884 ( ) „ „ „ ., „ E. 

2885 ( ) „ „ „ ' Head ' covering Raised Beach. 1900. 

Cumberland. — Photographed hy Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 

2886 (5822) Head of Dunmail ]?aise. Stream dividing on Cone of Dejection. 

I'JOl. 

2887 (.5G2;)) Thirlmere.fromDunniail Moraine from Wythburn Valley. 1901. 

Raise. 

2888 (5624) „ ,, ,, Dunmail Raise in distance. „ 

2889 (5628) ThrelkeldGraniteQuarry. Jointing in Microgranite. „ 

2890 (5627) 

2891 (5629) 

2892 (5630) 

2893 (5631) 

2894 (5656) Summit of Carrock Fell. Weathered Granophjre. „ 

2895 (5653) Eycott Hill . . . Hypersthene Dolerite. „ 

2896 (5652) 

2897 (5651) Great Mell Fell, Trout- Basement Beds of Carboniferous Lime- 

beck, stone. 1901. 



234 REPORT— 1902. 

Regd. 
No. 

2898 (5642) Honister Pass . . Looking down. 1901. 

2899 (5644) „ „ „ up. 

2900 (5637) Grange Bridge, Borrow- Striated roche moutonnce 

dale. 

2901 (5636) Grange Bridge, Borrow- „ „ „ 

dale. 

2902 (5634) Derwentwater . . Delta. 

2903 (5633) Syning Gill, Skiddaw . Contact, altered Slate and Granite 

Photographed hy A. K. CoomIraswImy, B.Sc, F.G.S., Walden, 
Worplesdon, Guildford. 1/4 and 1/1 E. 

2904 ( ) Seathwaite, Borrowdale . LateralEStream entering valley at high 

level. 1900. 

2905 ( ) Above Sty Head Tarn, Block of ' Snaky Ash.' 1900. ' 

Borrowdale. 

2906 ( ) From above King's Head, Skiddaw'and! Saddleback. 1900. 

Thirlspot. 

Derbyshire. — Photographed hy A. Wheen, Basloiv, and presented by 
E. M. Wrench, Park Lodge, £aslou\ 1/2. 

2907 (1) North-east corner of Chats- Stria; on Millstone Grit Boulder. 1900. 

worth Park. 

2908 (2) North-east corner of Chats- Mammillated Gritstone Boulder. „ 

worth Park. 

2909 (3) North-east corner of Chats- „ „ „ „ 

worth Park. 

Devonshire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, 3f.A., F.G.S., 

University College, Bristol. 1/2 and 1/4. 

2910 (13) Near Roiisdon . . . Cliff of Upper Greensand and Chalk. 1900. 

2911 (14) East of Rousdon . . Upper Greensand and|Lower Lias. ,, 

2912 (9) Near Rousdon . . . Landslip. „ 

2913 (8) „ „ . . . „ 

2914 (15) Rousdon Landslip . . Chalk, with hard forarainif oral lumps. „ 

2915 (10) Coast, near Pinhay . . Lower Lias and White Lias. ' „ 

2916 (11) Between Pinhay and Lyme Lower Lias. „ 

2917 (12) East of Pinhay . . . „ „ 

2918 (16) Thurlestone Sands . . Permian Conglomerate. 1901. 

2919 (17) „ „ . . Unconformity, Permian on Devonian. ,, 

2920 (20) Inner Hope, Bolt Tail . Contorted Mica-schist. 

2921 (23) „ „ 

2922 (25) Batson Creek, Kingsbridge Weathered 'Hornblende-epidote-schist.',, 

2923 (27) „ „ „ . „ contorted ' Mica-schist.' 

2924 (21) Start Point . . . Rugged weathering of Mica-schist. 

2925 (48) West of Torcross . . Quartz-veins. ,, 

2926 (19) „ „ . . Contorted Quartz-vein. „ 

2927 (24) „ „ , . Weathered surface of contorted Devonian 

Rocks. 1901. 

2928 (26) ,, „ . . Weathered surface of contorted Devonian 

Rocks. 1901. 

2929 (22) Near Hotel, Torcross . Igneous bands (?) in Devonian Slate. 1901. 

2930 (28) Shore, east of Paignton . ' Head' capping New Red Sandstone. „ 

2931 (31) „ „ „ . Marine denudation of New Red Sandstone. 

1901. 

2932 (29) Shore, near Torquay Station Step-fault in New Red Rocks. 1901. 

2933 (30) „ „ „ . Marine denudation along joints and bed- 

ding-planes in New Red Sandstone. 1901. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 235 

Regd. 

No 
2931 (37) South of Natural Arch, Coralliferous Devonian Limestone. 1901. 

Torquay. 

2935 (38) South of Natural Arch, „ ,, » " 

Torquay. 

2936 (36) Daddy Hole, Torquay . Eavine due to slipping of Devonian Lime- 

stone. 1901. 

2937 (39) Near Natural Arch, Torquay Crushed Devonian Limestone. 1901. 

2938 (45) Natural Arch, Torquay . Inverted „ „ " 

2939 (42) Thunder Hole, Torquay . Natural Arch. _ .. 

2940 (43) Meadfoot Bay, Torquay . Cleavage and Bedding in Devonian. „ 

2941 (34) Hope's Nose, Torquay . Blocks at base of Raised Beach. „ 

2942 (44) „ „ „ . Contorted Devonian Slate and Limestone, 

1901. 

2943 (40) Top of north descent into Faulted and shattered rocks. 1901. 

Anstie's Cove, Torquay. 

2944 (41) Top of north descent into Crushed Devonian Limestone. „ 

Anstie's Cove, Torquay. 

2945 (32) North of Petit Tor, Torquay Rock-fall from New Red Sandstone. „ 

2946 (33) „ „ „ „ V . " 

2947 (35) Hound Tor Ridge, near Cleavage in Culm Grits and blates. „ 

Lustleigh, Dartmoor. 

2948 (46) Near Lustleigh, Dartmoor Hollows in Granite. .. 

2949 (47) Near Foxworthy, Dartmoor Weathered surface of Granite. ,. 

Do-RSET. —Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
University/ College, Bristol. 1/4 and 1/2. 

2950 (49) Stonebarrow Hill . . Lower Lias. 1900. 

2951 (48) Black Ven, from the east . Lower Lias capped by Gault and CTpper 

Greensand. 1900. 

'DvRUKM.—Photograiihed by A. Binns and M. Dawson, of Sunderland, 
and contributed by *D. Woolacott, the University of Durham Philo- 
sophical Society. 1/2. 

2952 (18) Parson's Rock, Roker, near 'Cannon-ball' concretions in Magnesian 

Sunderland. Limestone. 1896. 

2953 (21) Fulwell Quarries, near Concretionary Magnesian Limestone. 

Sunderland. 1898. 

2954 (22) Fulwell Quarries, near Raised Beach. 1898. 

Sunderland. 

2955 (23) Fulwell Quarries, near „ detail. „ 

Sunderland. 

2956 (19) Holey Rock, near Sunder- Caves in Upper Magnesian Limestone. 

land. 1898. 

2957 (20) Hendon Banks, near Lower Boulder Clay. 1896. 

Sunderland. 

TSiSSEX,— Photographed by Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S., Harcourt 
Buildings, Temple, E.G. 1/1 E. 

3053 (1587) Grays Thurrock . . Pleistocene Brick-earth. 1901. 

3054 (1538) „ „ . • ,. » " 

3055 (1539) Sockett's Heath, north Plateau Gravels. „ 

of Little Thurrock. 

Gloucester. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
University College, Bristol. 1/2 aiid 1/4. 

2958 (68) Redland, Bristol . . Small slips above excavation on HiU-slope. 

1900. 



>l 



236 REPORT — 1902. 

Regcl. 

No. 

2959 (69) Brislington Cutting, Bristol Keuper resting unconformablj' on Pennant 

Grit. 1899. 

2960 (70) Chipping Sodbury . . Highly inclined Upper Limestone Shales 

1!)01. 

2961 (8.)) Railway Cutting, Chipping Lower Lias, White Lias, and Rhfctic. 1901. 

iSodbury. 

2962 (8i) Railway Cutting. Chipping „ „ with thin Limestones. 

Sodbury. 

2963 (85) Railway Cuttings Chipping „ „ White Lias, and RhKtic. „ 

Sodbury. 

2964 (86) Railway Cutting, Chipping „ „ 'Sun-bed,' Gotham Marble 
__-_ ^„ Sodbury. Ithittic. 1901. 
Z965 (87) Railway Cutting, Chipping Rhiutic resting unconformabJy on Carboni- 

Sodbury. ferous Limestone. 1901. 

2966 (88) Lilliput Cutting, Chiioping Trias resting unconforniably on Upper 

Sodbury. Limestone Shales. 1901. 

2967 (89) Lilliput Catting, Chiiiping Upper Limestone Shales and discordant 

Sodbury. Upper Keuper. 1901. 

2968 (82) South-east of Yate . . Celestine in sitii. 1901. 

2969 (81) „ „ . . . Blocks of Celestine Crystals. 1901. 

2970 (71) Leckhampton Quarry, Cots- Inferior Oolite. 1901. 

wolds. 

2971 (80) Leckhampton Quarry, Cots- Current-bedding in the Cephalopoda Bed. 

wolds. 1901. 

2972 (72) Leckhampton Quarry, Cots- 'Pea Grit' resting on Cephalopoda Bed. 

wolds. 1901. 

2973 (74) Leckhampton Quarry, Cots- Weathered surface of Pea Grit. 1901. 

wolds. 

2974 (73) LeckhamptonQuarry.Cots- Oolitic Marl of Inferior Oolite. „ 

wolds. 

2975 (79) LeckhamptonQuarry.Cots- Rag.stone Series and Upper Freestones at 

wolds. base. 1901. 

2976 (78) Cleeve Hill, Cheltenham . Cephalopoda Bed, Pea Grit, and Lower 

Freestone. 1901. 

2977 (76) „ „ . Current-bedding in Cephalopoda Bed. 

1901. 

2978 (75) „ „ . Freshly broken surface of Pea Grit. 1901. 

2979 (77) „ „ . Two small faults in Inferior Oolite. „ 

rhotograi^hed by C. H. Topham, 110 York Road, Montpelier, 

Bristol 1/4. 

3257 ( ) Aust Cliff, E. Severn . Rhretic Strata. 1901. 

3258 ( ) „ „ . Fault in Rha;tic Rocks. 

3259 ( ) „ „ . Keuper. „ 
^260 ( ) „ „ . Gypsum, and weathering of Keuper. ,, 
3861 ( ) „ „ . G^ psum in Keuper. „ 

Hampshiue (Isle of \YiGWi:).—Fhoto(/raphed by W. J. Harrison, 1<\G.S., 



52 Claremon 

2980 ( ) Alum Bay 

2981 ( ) „ 

2982 ( ) ,. 

2983 ( ) Fresli water 

2984 ( ) „ 

2985 ( ) „ Bay 

2986 ( ) Compton Bay . 

2987 ( ) Blackgang Chine 

^lll ( ) - 

2989 ( ) Niton 



Road, Ilaadsicorth. 1/2. 

Chalk and Eocene Beds. 1902. 
Eocene Sands. 1 902. 

Chalk and Flints. " 1902. 

Chalk. 1902. 
Wealden Beds. 1902. 
Lower Greensand. 1902. 

>> I) 

Upper Greensand, cherty. 1902. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



!37 



Kegd. 






No. 






2990 




) Niton Underclifl 


2991 




) Luccombe Chine 


2992 




) „ „ . . 


2993 




) N. of Shanklin 


2994 




) Stair Point, nr. Shanklin . 


2995 




) S. of Sandown . 


2986 




) „ . . . 



Upper Greensand, cherty. 1902. 
Lower Greensand. 1902. 



Wealden Beds. 1902. 



Kent. — Photographed hy Horace W. Monckton, F.G'.S., Ilarcourt 
Biiildlngs, Temple, E.G. 1/4 and 1/1 E. 



2997 (1570) Railway Cutting, Orping- 

ton. 

2998 (1568) S.E. Railway, between 

Chislehurst and Orpington. 

2999 (1571) 



"Woolwich Beds. 1901. 



Photographed by E. Pierce, Balfour Road, South JVonvood, and sent 
through the Croydon Scientific and JVatural History Society. 1/2. 

3000 (7) Elmsmead, Sundridgo Park, Clackheath or Oldhaven Beds. 1901. 

near Chislehurst. 

3001 (8) 



Photographed by .l.H Baldock, St. Leonard's Road, Croydon, and sent 
through the Croydon Scientific and Natural History Society. 1/2. 



3002 (9) Elmsmead, Siindrldge Park, Blackheath or Oldhaven Beds. 

near Chislehurst. 

3003 (10) 



1901. 



3262 



Lancashire. — Photographed by *R. Welch, Lonsdale Street, 

Belfast. 1/1. 

(R. W. ) The Owens College Block of Lake District Andesite dug up in 
Boulder, Manchester, Oxford Road. 1902. 



Leicestershire— PAo<o^rfl/>7iec? by W. J. Harrison, F.G.S., 

52 Claremont Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 1/2. 



3004 ( ) Church Quarry, Wood- 

house Eaves, Charnwood 
Forest. 

3005 ( ) Looking S. from Wood- 

house Windmill. 



3006 




) 


Woodhou 


:e Windmill 


3007 




) 


Hanging 


Rocks, Wood- 






bouse Eaves. 




3008 




) 


)) 


j» 


3009 




) 


IT 


»? 


3010 




) 


J» 


If 


3011 




) 


» 


>i 


S0t2 




) 


)J 


II 


3013 




) 


'> 


j» 


3014 




) 


Beacon Hill, W. end, look- 






ing 


N. 




3015 


( 


) 


Beacon Hill, centre of 






rid 


ge, lookinc 


.■s. 



Brand Conglomerate, 'Little Slate," and 
'Trachose Grit.' 1902. 

Triassic mantle over Archscan Rocks. 1902. 



Woodhouse Beds. 1902. 
Lower Woodhouse Beds. 



1902. 



Woodhouse Hornstones. 1902. 
Woodhouse Beds, above Slate-agglomerate. 

1902. 
Slate- agglomerate and Beds above it. 

1902. 
Jointing of Woodhouse Hornstones. 1902. 
Banded Woodhouse Hornstones. 1902. 
Lower Woodhouse Hornstones. 1902. 
Beacon Hill Hornstones. 1902. 



238 



REPORT — 1902. 











3016 




) Beacon Hill, 
along top. 


looking E. 


3017 




) Beacon Hill, 
ridge looking S. 


, centre of 


3018 




) Beacon Hill 


• • • 


3019 




") Broombriggs 


. 


3020 




) 


. 


3021 




) Altar Stones, 


Markfield . 


3022 




) 


n 


8023 




) Rice Rocks, near Bardon 


302$ 




) 


)) 


3025 




) 


1> 


3026 




) 




3027 




) Warren Hills 


(W.) . 


3028 




) 




3029 




) 




3030 




) Peldar Tor, 
ville. 


near Coal- 



Beacon Hill Hornstones. 1902. 



Looking towards Broombriggs. 1902. 
Beacon Hill Hornstones. 1902. 



Beds near Slate-agglomerate. 
Slate-agglomerate. 1902. 
Woodhouse Beds. 1902. 



1902. 



Agglomerates. ,, 

Slate-agglomerate and Hornstones. 1902. 

Cleaved ' Porpbyroid.' 1902. 



Photograj)hed by A. K. Coomaraswamy, B.Sc, F.6.S., Walden, 
Worjdesdon, Guildford. 1/4. 



3031 

3032 

3033 
3034 
3035 



( ) Hanging Rocks, Wood- 
bouse Eaves. 
( ) Charnwood Lodge Drive. 

C ) " " »» 

( ) Higb Sharpley. 

( ) Mountsorrel Quarry . 



3036 ( ) 



Trias mantling the features of the ancient 

rocks. 1902. 
Agglomerate at right angles to cleavage. 

1902. 
Agglomerate parallel to cleavage. 1902. 
Cleaved Porpbyroid. 1902. 
Keuper Marl resting on rounded granite 

surface. 1902. 
Terraced granite under Keuper Marl. 1902. 



Photographed by P. H. Levi, The Driffold, Stitton Coldfield. 7/2. 



3037 
3038 
3039 
3040 
3041 
3042 



( ) Charnwood Lodge Drive. 

( ) „ 

( ) High Sharpley . 

( ) Mountsorrel Quarry . 

( ) „ „ . . 

( ) Swithland Reservoir, Bud- 
don Wood. 



Cleaved Agglomerate. 1 902. 

Agglomerate. 1 902. 

Cleaved ' Porpbyroid.' 1902. 

Terraced granite under Keuper Marl. 1902. 



Granite boss. 1902. 



Leicester. — Photographed by *P. W. Wright, Quorn, and presented by 
Dr. Meadows, 33 London Road, Leicester, 1/2. 

. Terraced Granite under Keuper Marl. 1902. 



3043 
3044 



( ) Mountsorrel Quarry . 



Photographed by G. Hodson, Lougliborough. 10/8. 

3045 ( ) Blackbrook, near Shep- Foundations of Masonry Dam, looking W. 

shed 1902. 

3046 ( ) Blackbrook, near Shep- Foundations of Masonry Dam, looking W. 

shed. 1902. 

3047 ( ) Blackbrook, near Shep- Foundations of Masonry Dam, looking E. 

shed. 1902. 

3048 ( ) Blackbrook, near Shep- Foundations of Masonry Dam, looking E. 

shed. 1902. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



239 



Eegd. 

No. 
3049 

3050 

3051 

3052 



Middlesex. — Photocjraphed by Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S., 
Harcourt Buildings, Temjjle, E.G. 1/1 E. 



(1532) Tottenham Marsb, near Stratified Valley Gravel and Sand. 1901. 

Higham Hill. 
(1528) Tottenham Marsh, near Alluvium of Biver Lea. 1901. 

Higham Hill. 

(1530) Tottenham Marsh, near „ „ „ 
Higham Hill. 

(1531) Tottenham Marsh, near Stratified alluvium with shell-marl. 1901. 
Higham Hill. 



Shropshire. — Photographed by W. G. Fearnsides, B.A., F.G.S., 

Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. 1/4. 

3071 (9) My tton Dingle, Stiper Stones. Lower Arenig Eocks. 1902. 

3072 (4) Shelve Church . . . Fossiliferous Lower Arenig Beds. 1902, 

3073 (7) Tasgar Quarry, near Shelve. Fossiliferous Upper Arenig Ashes. „ 

3074 (1) Meadowtown, near Minster- Llandeilo Beds with %y/^ia. 1902. 

ley. 

3075 (3) Between Chirbury and Hagley (Bala) Ash, with ' ripplemarks.' 

Priestweston. 1902. 

3076 (13) Shineton Brook. . . Fossiliferous Tremadoc Eocks. 1902. 

3077 (10) Carding Mill Glen, Church Longmyndian Valley. 1902. 

Stretton. 

Somerset. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

' University College, Bristol. 1/4 and 1/2. 

3078 (50) Below Beach Hotel, Portis- Ripple-marks in Old Red Sandstone. 1899. 

head. 

3079 ""(51) Below Beach Hotel, Portis- Thin-bedded Old Red Sandstone. „ 

head. 
3080 
3081 



3082 

3083 

3084 

3085 

3086 

3087 

3088 

3089 
3090 

3091 

3092 

3093 

3094 

3095 



(.52) Vallis Vale, Frome 
(53) 

(54) 

(55) „ ,, 

(5G) 



. Infillingin Carboniferous Limestone. 1900, 

. Unconformity, Inferior Oolite on Car- 
boniferous Limestone. 1900. 

. Unconformity, Inferior Oolite on Car- 
boniferous Limestone. 1900. 

. Unconformity, Inferior Oolite on Car- 
boniferous Limestone. 1900. 

. Unconformity, Inferior Oolite on Car- 
boniferous Limestone. 1900. 

(57) SpringlCove.Weston-super- Eaised Beach on Carboniferous Eocks. 1901. 
Mare. 

(58) Spring Cove, Weston-super- Flow of Basalt overlain by Carboniferous 
Mare. Limestone. 1901. 

(59) Spring Cove, Weston-super- Lava resting on Carboniferous Limestone. 
Mare. 1901. 

(60) Middle Hope or Woodspring. Carboniferous Limestone and associated 

Volcanic Rocks 1900. 

(61) „ ,, Calcite veining Carboniferous lava. 1900. 
(G2) ,, ), Remains of Raised Beach adhering to cliff 

of Carboniferous Limestone. 1900. 
(63) Uphill Quarry, near Weston. Cavities in Carboniferous Limestone filled 

with cave-earth. 1901. 
Cavities in Carboniferous Limestone filled 

with cave-earth. 1901. 
Cavities in Carboniferous Limestone filled 

with cave-earth. 1901. 
Cavities in Carboniferous Limestone filled 

with cave-earth. 1901. 
Cavities in Carboniferous Limestone filled 

with cave-earth. 1901. 



(64) 
(65) 
(66) 
(67) 



240 



REPORT — 1902. 



Somerset. — Photographed by C. H. Topham, 110 York Road, 
Montpelier, Bristol. 1/4. 
Kegel . 
No. 

3263 ( ■) Burrington Combe, Men- Carboniferous Limestone Valley. 1902. 
dips. 



Staffordshire. — Photographed hy G. T. Atchison, Pj.A., LL.B., 
Holinwood, Sutton Coldfield. 1/2. 

3246 (20) Hints, near Tamworth . False-beddinginBunterrebble-beds. 1902. 

3247 (27) „ 

Suffolk. — Photographed by W. J. Harrison, F.G.S., 52 Claremont 
Road, Handsivorth, Birmhigham. 1/2. 

. Westleton Beds. 1902. 



3056 






Pakefield . 


3057 








3058 








3059 








3060 








3061 








3062 








3063 






Kessingland 


3064 






»i 


3065 






Corton 


3066 






.. 



Mid-Glacial Loams and Sands. 
Sands. 1902. 



li)0:i 



Chalky Boulder-clay above Mid-Glacial 

Sands. ] 902. 
Sun-cracks on Boulder-clav. 1902. 
Forest Bed below Glacial Sands. 1902. 



Surrey. — Photographed by J. H. Baldock, »SV. Leonard's Road, 

Croydon, 1/2. 

3067 ( ) Railway Cutting, Thorn- Eroded surface of Oldhaven Beds covered 

ton Heath. by London clay. 1 902. 

3068 ( ) Railway Cutting, Thorn- Eroded surface of Oldhaven Beds covered 

ton Heath. by Lond;n clay. 1902. 

Photograjihed by Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S., Harcourt 
Buildings, Tempile, E.G. 1/4. 

3069 (22.S) Pits near Caterham Water- Oldhaven Pebble Beds. 1894. 

■works. 

3070 (220) Pits near Caterham Water- „ „ „ 

works. 

Warwickshire. — Photographed by A. K. Coomaraswamy, 
B.Sc, F.G.S., Walden, Worjjlesdon, Guildford. 1/4. 

3096 ( ) Tuttle Hill Quarries, Cambrian Qiiartzite and Camptonite Sills. 
Nuneaton. 1902. 



Westmorland. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thoi-niehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 

3097 (5(521) Dunmail Raise . . Moraines. 1901. 

3098 (5667) Grasmere . . . Delta. „ 

3099 (5.581) BlindtarnAIoss, Grasmere. ,, ,, 

3100 (5582) Easdale from near foot Roclw moiitounce. 1901. • 

of Tarn. 

3101 (6585) Easdale Tarn, near Gras- Boulder and Moraines. 1901. 

mere. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



241 



Kegd. 

No. 

3102 

3103 

3104 

3105 

3106 

3107 

3108 

3109 
3110 
3111 
3112 



(5586) Easdale Tarn, near Gras- Moraines. 1901. 

mere. 
(5588) Easdale Tarn, near Gras- Delta. „ 

mere. 
(5590) Easdale Tarn, near Gras- Moraines at foot of Tarn. 1901. 

mere. 

(5657) Greenburn Bottom, near Homines. 1901. 
Gras me re. 

(5658) Greenburn Bottom, near „ „ 
Grasmere. 

(5659) Greenburn Bottom, near „ „ 
Grasmere. 

(5660) Greenburn Bottom, near „ „ 
Grasmere. 

(5573) Rydal Water . 
(5617) View from Fairfield 
(5616) From Fairfield 
(5599) Grisedale Tarn 



Delta. „ 

Grasmere, Elter Water, and Coniston. 1901. 

Rydal and Windermere. 1901. 

St. Sunday Crag and UUeswater. 1901. 



Worcestershire 
r^•') 



3114 
3115 
3116 

3117 
3118 



-Photographed by W. J. Harrison, F.G.S., 



3113 ( 



i)'^ Claremont Road, Handsivorth, Birmingham. 1/2. 

Cambrian Quartzite. 1902. 



) Tlie Lickey Hills, from 
Rubery Hill. 
) The Lickey Hills 
) Rubery Hill, The Lickey . 
) Rubery .... 

) Beacon Hill, The Lickey . 
) 



Manganese in Quartzite. 1902. 

Fault in Quartzite. 1902. 

Junction of Cambrian Quartzite with 

Llandovery Sandstone. 1902. 
Permian Breccia. 1902. 



Photographed by *Norman King, Malvern, and jyresented by 
A. K. CoomIraswImy, B.Sc, F.G.S. 14/10. 

3119 ( ) Looking south from Wor- Malvernian summits in cloud, 
cester Beacon. 



Yorkshire. — Photographed by Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S., 

Harcourt Buildings, Temple, E.G. 1/4. 



3120 (1490) Cliff south of Filey 

3121 (1550) Osgodby Nab and Car- 

nelian Bay, Scarborough. 

3122 (1552) Osgodby Nab and Car- 

nelian Bay, Scarborough. 

3123 (1553) Osgodby Nab and Car- 

nelian Bay, Scarborough. 



Twisted and slipped Boulder-clay. 
Nab, and landslip. 1901. 

Landslip, from Nab. „ 

Boulder-clay. 1901. 



1900. 



Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, Headingley, Leeds 

\ 12 and 114:. 



3124 
3125 

3126 
3127 

3128 



(5857) The Peak 

(5903) Blea Wyke Point, Peak , 



3129 



1902. 



Estuarine Beds, Dogger, and Lias. 1902. 
Estuarine Beds, Dogger, and Blea Wyke 
Beds. 1902. 

(5899) The Peak, N. from Beach Lower Estuarine Beds and Dogger. 1902. 

(5901) „ looking towards „ „ „ Dogger, and Blea 

Robin Hood's Bay. Wyke Beds. 1902. 

(5858) The Peak, on the line of Upper Lias thrown against Dogger and 

fault. Estuarine Beds. 1902. 

(5897) The Peak, Undercliffi . Lower Estuarine Series. 1902. 



242 



REPORT — 1902. 



Eegd. 
No. 

3130 (5882) Cliffs near Coastguard 

Station, Whitby. 

3131 (.5796) From Cliffs near Whitby 

Abbey to Saltwick Nab. 

3132 (5797) Salt wick Nab and Whitby 

3133 (5798) Black Nab, Saltwick . 

3134 (5800) 

3135 (5801) Saltwick. 

3136 (5802) „ ... 

3137 (5863) Sandseud Ness towards 

Whitby. 

3138 (5864) Cliffs S. 

northwards. 

3139 (5865) Cliffs S. of Kettleness, 

southwards. 

3140 (5867) Kettleness . 

3141 (5868) Cliffs near Runswick . 

3142 (5877) Staithes Nab, or Col- 

borne Nab. 

3143 (5879) Old Nab, Staithes , 

3144 (5812) Moors between Goath. 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3145 (5813) Moors between Goath. 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3146 (5815) Scar Wood, near Goath- 

land. 

3147 (5816) Scar Wood, near Goath- 

land. 

3148 (5819) Moors between Goath- 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3149 (5822) Moors between Goath- 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3150 (5820) Moors between Goath- 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3151 (5823) Moors between Goath- 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3152 (5826) Moors between Goath- 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3153 (5827) Moors between Goath- 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3154 (5828) Moors between Goath- 

land and Egton Bridge. 

3155 (5829) Moors, North of Danby . 

3156 (5830) 

3157 (5832) 

3158 (5833) 



Boulder-clay banked against Estuarine 
Sandstone. 1902. 

Upper Lias capped by Dogger and Boulder- 
clay. 1902. 

Upper Lias and Dogger capped by Boulder- 
clay. 1902. 

Upper Lias and Dogger. 1902. 



Upper Lias Shale. 



of Kettleness, Oolite and Upper Lias. 



3159 (5834) 

3160 (5835) 

3161 (5836) Lealholme, near Danby . 

3162 (5840) Fylingdale Moors . 



3163 
3164 
3165 



(5841) 
(5842) 
(5843) 



Old alum workings. „ 

Middle Lias Shales. „ 

,, resting on Lower Lias. 1902. 

Upper Lias. 1902. 

Notches of Moss Swang Overflow and 

Castle Rigg Oxbow. 1902. 
Gorge of Wbeeldale Beck (Murk Esk). 

1902. 
Wheeldale Beck (Murk Esk). 1902. 



Randay Mere Overflow. 1902. 



3166 (5844) 



Purse Moor Slack, near Intake. 1902 

Moss Swang, looking to Intake from 

Castle Hill. 1902. 
Moss Swang, looking up towards Intake. 

1902. 
Intake of Caatle Hill Oxbow from Moss 

Swang. 1902. 
Moss Swang, downstream from near Intake. 

1902. 
Ewe Cragg Beck. 1902. 

„ upstream. 1902. 

„ downstream. „ 

Intake of Ewe Cragg Slack at swampy 

watershed. 1902. 
Hardale Slack, Roxby Moor, downstream. 

1902. 
Hardale Slack, withdeserted Oxbow. 1902. 
Crunkley Gorge, a diversion of the Esk by 

Moraine Ridges. 1902. 
Intake of great Overflow Channel near 

Foul Sike. 1902. 
Foul Sike Channel, downstream. 1902. 

,, ,, upstream. „ 

Biller Howe Dale, Overflow of Iburndale 

Lake, upstream. 1902. 
Biller Howe Dale, across Intake of small 

BiUer Howe Slack. 1902. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



243 



Kegd. 
No. 

3167 (5845) Fylingdale Moors . 

3168 (58-17) 

3169 (5849) 

3170 (5850) Harwood Moor, Fyling 

dale Moors. 

3171 (5851) 

3172 (5852) Seamer Moor, Scar 

borough. 

3173 (5853) Hagworm Hill, Seamer 

Moor. 

3174 (5854) Forge Valley, near Scar- 

borough. 

3175 (5855) Throxenby Mere, near 

Scarborough. 

3176 (5856) North of Throxenby Mere 

3250 (6055) Gannister Quarry, Mean- 

wood Valley, Leeds. 

3251 (6057) Gannister Quarry, Mean- 

wood Valley, Leeds. 

3252 (6058) Gannister Quarry, Mean- 

wood Valley, Leeds. 

3253 (5934) Whinskill, near Settle . 

3254 (5925) 

3182 (5907) ' Heading,' Garforth Col- 

liery Sandpit. 

3183 (5908) Garforth, near Leeds . 

3184 (5910) Hope Hill Quarry,Kippax 

3185 (5911) Town Hill Close, Kippax 

3186 (5912) 

3187 (5924)'Quarry near Saston and 

Barkston. 

3188 (5925) Quarry near Saxton and 

Barkston. 

3189 (5785) Ashfield Brickworks, 

Conisborough. 

3190 (5786) Ashfield Brickworks, 

Conisborough. 

3191 (5787) Ashfield Brickworks, 

Conisborough. 

3192 (5788) Near Conisborough 

3193 (5789) „ 

3194 (5791) Warmsworth, near Don- 

caster. 

3195 (5792) Balby, near Doncaster . 

3196 (5793) „ 

3197 (5568) Rishworth Moor, Black- 

stone Edge. 



Biller Howe Dale, below confluence with 

Foul Sike Valley. 1902. 
Brown Rigg, deserted Highrlevel Channel. 

1902, 
Cloughton Moor Cottage, Overflow Channel. 

1903. 
Peat Cutting. 1903. 



Moraine. 



Diversion of River Derwent. 

Partially artificial pool in Overflow Channel. 

1902. 
Small dry Overflow Channel. 1902. 
Fossil Tree in Coal-measures. „ 

Roots in Coal-measures. 1902. 

Gannister, showing Fossil Fern. 1902. 

Perched Boulder (Silurian) on Carbo. 

niferous Limestone. 1902. 
Perched Boulder (Silurian) on CarbO' 

niferous Limestone. 1902. 
Magnesian Limestone and 'Quicksand' 

resting unconformably on Coal-measure 

Shales. 1902. 
Magnesian Limestone resting on ' Quick. 

sand.' 1902. 
Lower Magnesian Limestone. 1902. 
Magnesian Limestone resting on current- 
bedded Sands. 1902. 
Lower Magnesian Limestone, with crack 

and subsoil. 1902. 
Magnesian Limestone. 1902. 



Lower Permian Marls contorted and 
faulted. 1901. 

Lower Magnesian Limestone Escarpment. 
1901. 

Lower Magnesian Limestone, Clays, Marls, 
and Sandy Limestone resting on Coal- 
measures. 1901. 

Weathered Block of Magnesian Limestone. 
1901. 

Ridge of weathered Magnesian Limestone. 
1901. 

Lower Magnesian Limestone. 1901. 

Bunter Sands. 1901. 

„ False Bedding. 1901. 
Peat, about 4 feet thick. 1901. 



b2 



244 



REPORT — 1902. 



Photographed by W. J. Forrest, 13 Arlington Street, Bradford 1/4, 

Eegd. 
No. 

3198 ( ) Green Lane Schools, Brad- Fault in ' Better Bed ' Coal. 1902. 

ford. 

3199 ( ) 11 It II i> II M 



Photographed by A. H. 'RoBi'SSO'S, Troutsdale, Hackness, Scalhy, 1/2. 

3177 ( ) Lockton, North Riding . The Bridestones. 1902. 

3178 ( ) ., 

3179 ( ) 1, II » „ 

3180 ( ) „ 

3181 ( ) „ 

Photographed by C. J. Watson, Bottville lioad, Acocks Green. 1/4. 

1900. 



3264 (1G42) Lister Park, Bradford 

3265 (1644) Clayton, Bradford . 

3266 (1646) Horton Park, Bradford 



Carboniferous Tree and Boots. 
Stigmaria in situ. 1900. 
Carboniferous Tree-roots. 1900. 



WALES. 



Glamorgan. — Photograjthed by A. K. CoomaraswAmy, B.Sc, F.G.S. 
Walden, Worplesdon, Guildford. 1/4. 



3200 ( 

3201 ( 

3202 ( 

3203 ( 

3204 ( 

3205 ( 

3206 ( 

3207 ( 

3208 ( 

3209 ( 

3210 ( 

3211 ( 

3212 ( 

3213 ( 

3214 ( 

3215 ( 

3216 ( 

3217 ( 

3218 ( 

3219 ( 

3220 ( 

3221 ( 



Head, Gower. 

Mumbles Head, Gower . 
„ West End 

Mumbles Hill . 

Mewslade Bay, Gower 



Near Bishopston, Gower . Dry Valley and Swallow-hole in Carboni- 
ferous Limestone. 1902. 
„ „ „ ' Daw-pit ' or Swallow-hole in Carboni- 

ferous Limestone. 1902. 

Tuit Hill, from Mumbles Carboniferous Limestone, with changing 



Bacon Hole, Gosver. 
„ „ looking in 

11 II out 



strike. 1902. 
Carboniferous Limestone. 1902. 

„ „ steep dip and 

nodular masses. 1902. 
Lenticle of Shale in Carboniferous Lime- 
stone. 1902. 
Fossiliferous Carboniferous Limestone. 

1903. 
'Head' over (Blown sand) Loam, Raised 
Beach, and Carboniferous Limestone. 
1902. 
Carboniferous Limestone Cliffs. 1902. 

11 II 1* II 

Carboniferous Limestone, Ehosilly Down 

(Old Red Sandstone) behind. 1902. 
Carboniferous Limestone Cliffs. 1902. 
' Head ' at mouth of Cave. 1902. 



Roofof Cave.Stalagmite, and 'Head' below 
it. 1902. 
E. of Pwll Du Bay, Gower Raised Beach with Shells on Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1902. 
„ „ ,, Raised Beach with Shells on Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1902. 
Near Penard Castle, Gower Old Red Conglomerate. 1902. 
Penard Pill, Three Cliff Thrust-fault in Carboniferous Limestone. 
Bay, Gower. 1902 

Apprtach to Three Cliff Fault-arch. 1902. 
Bay. 

Three CliS Bay, Gower . Raised Beach Platform, with ' Head ' and 

Raised Beach. 1902. 
„ ,, ,, „ . Angular ' Head ' on Raised Beach Platform. 

1902. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 245 

Photographed hy Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

University College, Bristol. 1/4. 

Regd 
No. 

3222 (1) Penarth Head . . . Bands of Gypsum in Keuper. 1901. 

3223 ('2) „ „ . . . „ „ „ .. 

3224 (3) Between Penarth and Laver- Lower Lias to Tea-green Marls. 1901. 

nock Point. 

3225 (4) Between Penarth and Laver- Lower Lias to Tea-green Marls. 1931. 

nock Point. 

3226 (5) Between Penarth and Laver- Fault in Trias. 1901. 

nock Point. 

3227 (6) Lavernock Point. . . Lower Lias and Rhsetic Shale. 1901. 

3228 (7) „ „ . . . „ ,1 1) 

Montgomery.— PAoiog-myiecZ hy W. G. Fearnsides, B.A., F.G.S., 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. 1/4. 

3229 (6) Corndon, from Marsh Pool . Laccolite of Dolerite. 1902. 

SCOTLAND, 

'BxSVFsmRlS.—Fhotogra2}hed by A. S. Eeid, il/,^.. F.G.S., Trinity College, 
Glenalmond, Perthshire. 1/2. 

3239 (TR. 14) Fiddes Fort, Troup Joints in Old Bed Sandstone Conglomerate. 

Estate. 1900. 

3240 (T.R. 55) Cullican Beach, Fiddes Joints in Old Red Sandstone Conglomerate. 

Fort, Troup. Close view. 1900. 

3241 (T R 56) „ „ » Same joint as 3240, looking out to sea. 

1900. 

3242 (T.R. 57) ' Devil's Kitchen,' "VV. side of joint cave pierced through pro- 

Fiddes Fort, Promontory, montory. 1900. 
Troup. 

3243 (T.R. 1) ' Needle's Eye,' Fiddes Interior of 3242. 1900. 

Fort, Promontory. 

3244 (T.R. 24) 'Hell's Lum, Troup . Blow-hole broken in along master-joints. 

1900. 

3245 (T.R. 23) Gardenstown . . Promontory cut off to form stack. 1900. 

Lanarkshire. — Photographed hy C. J. Watson, Botlville Road, Acocks 

Green, Birmingham. 1/4. 

3230 (1695) Particle .... Fossil Tree in Coal-measures. 1901. 

3231 (1696) „ . . . . Coal-measure Forest. 1901. 

Photograpihed hy J. Barrowman, Staneacre, Hamilton, N.B. 1/2. 

3232 ( ) Chatelherault Park, near Bedding and dislocation in Sands above 

Hamilton. the Coal-measures. 1902. 

3233 ( ) Chatelherault Park, near Bedding and dislocation in Sands above 

Hamilton. the Coal-measures. 1902. 

Perthshire. — Photographed hy A. S. Reid, M.A., FCS., 
Trinity College, Glenalmond, Perth. 1/2. 

3248 (A.F. 4) Runnagour, Aberfoyle . liochc moittonnec. 1902. 

3249 (A.F. 15) „ „ >, ., ,1 



246 tiEfORT— 1902. 

Shetland. — Photographed hy W. H. BeEby, Hilotasdy^ 
Thames Ditton. 5/4. 
Eegd. 

No. 
3234 ( ) Noup of Nos.s . , .Old Eed Sandstone. 1899. 
^235 ( ) „ „...„„ 



IRELAND. 

ASfRiM. — Photographed by A. T. Metcalfe, F.G.S., Southwell, Notts. 

1/2. 

EI236 (G.A. 20) Tieveragh Hill, Gush- Tertiary Volcanic ' Neck.' 1901. 
endall (distant viewV 

3237 (G.A. 19) Tieveragh Hill, Gush- „ 

endall (near view). 

3238 (G.A. 3) Portrush . . . Segregation veins in a Dolerite sill. 1901. 

Photographed by Miss M. K. Andrews, 12 College Gardens, 

Belfast. 1/4. 

S267 (71) Whitewell Quarry, Belfast Ghalk traversed by Basalt Dyke. 1902. 

Photog7'aphed by *E.. Welch, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

8268 (R.W. 386B) Gobbins Gliffs, ' Man-o'-War ' Sea Stack, resulting from 

Islandmagee. weathering of dyke. 1902. 

3269 (R.W. 886) Gobbins Cliffs, Basalt. 1902. 

Islandmagee. 

§270 (R.AV. 5166) Gobbins Cliffs, Basalt-flows, highly vesicular in upper 

Islandmagee. parts. 1902. 

3271 (R.W. 5168) Gobbins Cliffs, Honeycombing in amygdaloidal basalt. 

Islandmagee. 1902. 

32?2 (R.W. 5218) Cloughan Point . Raised Beach, general character at highest 

point. 1902. 

3273 (R.W. 5217) „ „ . Raised Beach on tilted Trias. 1902. 

3274 (R.W. 5216) „ „ . ,. „ near view 

3275 (R.W. 5219) GloUghan Harbour Ghalk covered with Consolidated Gravels 

and Boulder-clay. 1902. 

3276 (R.W. 5206) Falls Road, Belfast Trias Sands overlain by Boulder-clay. 

1902. 

tio-S'S.GiiL.— Photographed by *R. Welch, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

3277 (R.W. 5223) Rosguill Peninsula, Granite, intrusive into Diorite. 1902. 

Rosapenna. 

3278 (R.W. 5215) Melmore Mt., and Junction, Granite and Schist. „ 

Kitchen Midden, near Rosa- 
penna. 

3279 (R.W. 2274) Remnant of Lord Overwhelmed by drifting sand. „ 

Boyne's House, Rosapenna 

3280 (R.W. 2279) 'Eye of Rosguill,' Natural arch eroded in quartzites. „ 

Rosapenna. 

3281 (R.W. 1484) Bunglass Cliff, Marine and sub-aerial erosion. ,, 

Slieve Liag. 

Down. — Photographed by *R. Welch, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

3282 (R.W. 5213) Ballyhome . . Raised Beach, Oxides of Iron and Magnesia 

cementing some of the coarser Gravels. 
1902. 
SiSSS (R,W. 5212) Belfast Lough . Fossil-shells from Estuarine Clays. 1901. 



ON PflOTOGRAPBS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 247 

Dublin. — Photogra2yhed by *R. Welch, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

Regd. 
No. 
3284 (R.W. 5224) The Dingle, Car- ' Dry Gap ' ia massive granite. 1902. 

rickmines. 
8285 (R.W. 5226) Esker, Greenhills, Irregular Bedding. 1902. 
Dublin. 

3286 (R.W. 5227) Esker, Greenhills, Ripple-drift in fine sand of sand pit. 

Dublin. 1902. 

3287 (R.W. 5231) Puck's Rocks, Slate and Quartzite crushed against 

Howth. Quartzite. 1902. 

3288 (R.W. 5230) Sutton, Howth . Boulder-clay resting on planed surface of 

Quartzite and Slate. 1902. 
3280 (R.W. 5232) Near the Bailey, Breccia of Quartzite and Slate cemented 
Howth. by Carbonate of Lime. 1902. 

Fermanagh. — Photographed by *R. Welch, Lonsdale Street, 

Belfast. 1/1. 

8290 (R.W. 5211) Gubbaroe Point, Water-worn Carboniferous Sandstone. 
Lower Lough Erne 1900. 

Sligo, — Photograjyhed by *E. Welch, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

8201. (R.W. 5210) Bog at Grange, Peat, with Tree-roots i« mj'm. 
near Sligo. 



Kesh Caves, co. 8Ugo. — Beport of the Committee, consisting o/Dr. R. F. 
ScHARFF {Chairman), Mr. R. Ll. Praeger {Secretary), Mr. G. 
Coffey, Professor (J. A. J. Cole, Professor D. J. Cunningham, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. A. McHenry, and Mr. R. J. Ussher, 
appointed to explore Irish Caves. (Drawn up hy the Chairman.) 

The Committee submitted to the Association a short interim report on 
the Sligo caves last year. The renewed grant received at Glasgow has 
enabled them to continue the excavations at Kesh, and to open several 
new caves near Ennis in county Clare. 

The following report on the Kesh caves is in the main by Mr. E. J. 
Ussher, who has been in charge of the operations, and who has devoted 
many weeks with most painstaking industry to this work. Professor Cole 
and Mr. Lamplugh, the latter having joined the Committee since the 
Glasgow Meeting, have incorporated some interesting remarks on the 
geological aspects of the excavations, while Mr. G. CoflFey has furnished 
the descriptions of the human implements found in the caves. I myself 
have undertaken the determination of the mammalian remains, and I 
have to acknowledge the very kind assistance of Dr. Forsyth Major and 
Mr. E. T. Newton in naming some of the more critical bones, while 
Professor Stewart and Mr. O. Thomas gave me every facility to consult 
the collections in their charge. Mr. E. T. Newton has undertaken the 
determination of the numerous bird remains, and Messrs. Kennard and 
Woodward are preparing a report on the land mollusca. 

In the tabular statement at the end I have given a list of all the 
species of mammalia whose remains were discovered. The queries indicate 
that, although the species occurred in the layers marked, the fragmentary 
character of the remains was suggestive of their having accidentally 
dropped into that particular layer. 



248 REPORT— 1902. 

Kesh, or as it is locally spelled 'Keash,' is fifteen miles south of tlie 
town of Sligo, and consists of a few scattered buildings, with farms about 
them. The spot is at the foot of Keishcorran Mountain, an isolated mass 
of Carboniferous limestone which rises to 1,183 feet ; and the country 
which extends south and west from this mountain for miles from Kesh 
presents an array of gravel eskers and elongated mounds of glacial material, 
with here and there a small lake or marsh in the hollows between them. 
Sprinklings of erratic boulders and stones occur up to the very summit of 
the mountain. These consist principally of red sandstone, with a few 
of yellow sandstone and of dyke rocks. It is believed that these rocks 
could be found in place on the next hill range to the S. and S.E. of Kesh, 
around Lough Key, but this point has not been definitely established. 
Though no continuous deposit of drift was seen on the mountain, these 
erratic blocks are sufficient to show that it has been overwhelmed by ice. 

On approaching Keishcorran from Kesh one sees a grass-grown talus 
which extends up from the plain at a steep angle for several hundred 
feet. Surmounting this is a range of clifls running along the mountain 
face like the gigantic walls of an ancient city. These are pierced along 
the top of the talus by a range of some thirteen caves. Towards the 
northern end of this series is a cavern whose large orifices, about 15 
feet high, can be seen for miles. The other caves are of various sizes, but 
the type which prevails is that of a vertical fissure enlarged down\t^ards 
into an 'A ' shape. The cliff which they penetrate faces S. W., or S.W. by W., 
and their direction is approximately parallel. These caves are intersected 
at various distances from their mouths by cross fissures, which in several 
cases form connecting galleries from cave to cave. This feature is more 
or less common to them all. The whole system of excavations, in fact, 
clearly depends upon the jointed structure of the limestone. The great 
cliff is due to the flaking away of the mass along one series of vertical 
joints, and solution works along the same series within, and produces 
passages and fissures parallel to the face. The caves connected by these 
fissures have also been worked out by solution, acting along the second 
vertical series of joints which run in perpendicularly to the great cliff face. 
The general slope of the cave-floors is from within outwards , and the 
contained deposits are mainly the detritus and residue of the limestone 
rock, with fallen blocks from the walls and roof, set in a soft calcareous 
tufa. 

Coffey Cave. 

Our excavations were commenced in May 1901 at the mouth of one 
of the larger caves, which is about central in the series, and which we 
distinguish as the Coffey Cave. It has a lofty A-shaped mouth, and a 
large deposit of clay occupies its lower portion. The section made in this 
across the cave's mouth disclosed the following deposits in descending 
order : — 

1. Surface soil of a blackish brown, containing charcoal, a tyne of Red 
Deer antler, the broken bones of domestic animals, and a few implements 
indicating temporary occupation by man rather than fixed settlement. 
The bones and implements are such as are commonly found in raths and 
crannogs, and the depth of this layer is from 6 to 12 inches. 

2. Breccia, consisting of limestone blocks and fragments fallen from 
the roof, in a deposit of calcareous tufa. This bed contained numerous 
land shells {Helix, Uyalinia, Clausilia) and bones of small mammals. 



ON KPSH CAVES, CO. SLIGO. 



240 



Among these the Arctic Lemming was numerously represented as well as 
in the next stratum. This is the first instance in which this animal has 
been identified as a former inhabitant of Ireland. A mandible has been 
referred to the Irish Stoat, though smaller than that of a Weasel ; and some 
canine remains have not yet been definitely identified. The depth of the 
breccia is from 1 foot in the centre increasing to 3 feet at the sides of 
the cave. 

3. Clay of a brown ochreous colour containing largo blocks of limestone 
and numerous bones of small mammals (including Lemming), as well as 
a few of larger ones. At a depth of 6 feet from the surface a large 
glaciated block of limestone was found. 

Plunkett Cave. 

Owing to the difficulty of removing the numerous limestone blocks 
we searched for more promising ground and decided to work at a smaller 
cave, one of the most southern of the series, which opened at a somewhat 
higher level. We called this the Plunkett Cave. A lofty entrance 
narrows down to a low mouth, from 5 to 6 feet wide, and inside this 
the cave becomes much more lofty and widens at a distance of from 
12 to IG feet from the mouth. It then forms a gallery 6 to 10 
feet wide which pursues a generally straight course, terminating at 49 
feet from the mouth. Before this termination is reached, however, a 
gallery branches off to the right, and this, after running some 20 feet, 
expands into a lofty hall, the Sloping Chamber, that has another branch to 
the left, parallel with the Plunkett Cave. We called this latter branch 
the Water Gallery. 

At the commencement of the operations no part of these galleries was 
completely choked, but all contained a considerable depth of deposits, 
chiefly of earths and clays, with blocks apd fragments of limestone. 

The upper or surface stratum, which varied from 6 inches to 2 feet 
in depth, contained a large amount of calcareous tufa, and as we advanced 
into the inner galleries this tufa grew more and more free from earthy 
admixture, being in places as white as mortar. While a variable amount 
of calcium carbonate occurs in this deposit, its whiteness is in part due to 
the usual residue of siliceous particles that results from the removal of 
limestone in solution. Characteristic bipyramidal crystals of quartz are 
thus found in some parts ; and in the Water Gallery a delicately spicular 
deposit occurs. A multitude of minute rods, sometimes set with knobs, 
are seen when the tufa is dissolved away in acetic acid. Dr. G. J. Hinde, 
F.R.S., who has kindly examined these for us, points out that they are 
crystalline and soluble in nitric acid. Their true character is still under 
consideration. In all parts of the cave explored by us this white stratum 
contained charcoal, sometimes in lumps and occasionally in horizontal 
layers, which formed distinct seams in our sections. In the most remote 
part excavated by us, the W^ater Gallery, there was a black layer of char- 
coal 1 inch deep, which extended from wall to wall, with a bed of white 
tufa above and beneath it, and at the bottom of the lower tufa there was 
more charcoal. Some pieces of peat were also found embedded elsewhere, 
which were probably brought into the cave for fuel. 

In the lower part of the upper stratum a large stone celt was found 
5 feet inside the cave's mouth, the only evidence of ^.neolithic occupation, 
and not far from it was a portion of a small iron saw of peculiar make, 



250 REPORT — 1902. 

resembling those found in Dunshaughlin crannog, and in the same vicinity 
a bronze pin with a ring attached to it. The upper stratum contained a 
second bronze pin at 38 feet from the mouth of the cave, and farther in 
again was a small iron rod. Shells of marine Mussels repeatedly occurred in 
this upper stratum and also an oyster-shell, though the sea is now fifteen 
miles distant, and is not likely to have been much nearer in neolithic 
times. 

The human remains were few, and occurred chiefly near the Sloping 
Chamber ; but the bones and teeth of domestic animals were exceedingly 
numerous, and were found wherever the stratum extended. These were 
generally fragmentary and represented the species usually found in Irish 
kitchen middens, viz., hoi-se, red deer, ox, sheep, goat, pig, and dog. 

Among the wild species represented in this upper stratum fox and 
rabbit were numerous, hare and red deer less so ; but an interesting find 
was a metatarsus of reindeer, which occurred in the gallery to the right, 
deep down in this stratum ; while charcoal was found lower down in the 
same deposit and in the same bench, each bench measuring 2 feet wide. 

In several parts of the cave the upper stratum contained bones of 
brown bear. These were found near the lower horizon of the deposit, so 
that in some cases they may have been lying on the surface of the clay 
which formed the second stratum where the deposition of the upper one 
commenced. In one case a bone of a bear was partly embedded in the 
upper stratum and partly in the clay. 

Bones of field-mice were numerous, as well as those of frog. 

The second stratum of clay, which also extended throughout the 
galleries of the Plunkett Cave, was brown, inclining to ochreous, more or 
less sandy, and contained numerous fragments of limestone and chert. 
Worn rounded pebbles were scarce in the clay, and occurred chiefly in 
or near the Water Gallery. 

The quartz sand in this yellowish clay seems to be truly detrital and 
of external origin ; it sometimes largely predominates over the clayey 
particles. The clay itself, however, probably arises from the decay of 
certain layers of the limestone, since it contains, and at times abun- 
dantly, the typical bipyramidal crystals of quartz. Its non-calcareous 
nature shows that it was deposited when solution was fairly active, while 
the upper tufaceous deposits indicate conditions favourable to stalagmitic 
growth. 

The presence of occasional worn pebbles of red sandstone in the interior 
of the caves might Ije explained on the supposition that the pebbles had 
been washed down pot holes and crevices from the hill above. The 
gravelly deposit at the mouth of the Plunkett Cave could not, however, 
be thus explained. It is too thick and too limited in area, and some of 
its contained boulders are too large to have been thus introduced, and 
there seems no escape from the conclusion that the gravel has been washed 
to the mouth of the cave from without. 

Some of the larger limestone boulders, especially those towards the 
top of the gravel, were undoubtedly glaciated (not only scratched, but 
exhibiting also the characteristic shape of glaciated blocks), and did not 
seem to have been worn or washed much since this glaciation. 

There is not enough drift on the mountain above to explain the 
presence of the gravel as a down-wash, even if the contour of the hill were 
such as to render a down-wash of this kind possible, which is not the 
case. The plain of drift, with its characteristic original moundy topo- 



On KESa CAVES, CO. SLIGO. 25 1 

gt-aphy, lies considerably below the mouths of the caves, with a steep 
talus slope now separating them, and it is highly improbable that there 
has ever been a plateau of drift material so high as the mouths of the 
caves at any time since the disappearance of the ice. There seems, there- 
fore, to be no other explanatioji possible for the gravel deposit than that it 
has been washed into the mouth of the cave at a time when the ice was at 
least as high as the escarpment into which the caves are cut, and that the 
mouth of the Plunkett Cave was already an open passage at that period. 

Hence it becomes a point of much importance to determine whether 
the caves contain any deposits of older date than the glacial period, and 
this point deserves especial prominence in any future exploration. The 
yellow clay with chei't, the lowest deposit discovered, is not a true 
* boulder clay.' It seems to be such material as might be derived 
from the solution of the limestone mixed with sand and mud from the 
waters entering the cave from without. We were not satisfied that this 
clay was older than the gravel deposit. No fossils having as yet been 
found in the yellow clay, the question as to its relation to the glacial 
period is at present of geological interest only, and no palaeontological 
point is involved. 

If a fossiliferous deposit were discovered below the yellow clay it 
would be of much scientific interest. That pre-glacially filled fissures 
may occur in the Carboniferous limestones in this country is shown by the 
presence of an earth-filled fissure overlain by boulder clay in a limestone 
quarry at Howth, which one of us examined recently, but without noticing 
any fossils in it. 

A block and cone of crystalline stalagmite were found in the clay in the 
Water Gallery, but these were the only examples noticed of this ancient 
• form of stalagmite which had evidently been broken up in this cave. 

The lower portion of the clay seemed to be devoid of bones as well aa 
of any relics of man, but in the upper portion of this deposit we found 
animal remains, including a human tooth ; and a little charcoal was met 
with in four different spots. This strongly contrasted with the abundance 
of the latter material, which was everywhere present in the upper stratum 5 
and even these few traces of it must be mentioned with caution, as 
burrowing animals may have penetrated into the clay, and thus might 
have transmitted into it some bits of charcoal from the upper stratum. 
Remains of domestic animals, so abundant in the latter, were virtually 
absent from the clay, a bone or two of ox and of goat being all the relics 
in it assignable to those mammals. The pig was, however, represented in 
four places. 

The characteristic animal throughout this stratum was the brown bear, 
whose bones and separated teeth numbered sixty at least, and occurred in 
all parts of the cave, becoming more frequent in the inner galleries. Fox 
was found in fourteen places, hare in seven, red deer in four, rabbit in three, 
wolf in at least one instance, and lemming once (at the entrance), while 
frog and field-mouse occurred repeatedly. 

We sank deep sections in several parts of the cave, with the result 
that it was found to narrow downwards and was filled in that direction 
with barren clay, which became yellow and tenaceous as the rock was 
approached in our excavations. Near the cave's mouth large quantities 
of yellow clay were found, and it may be proper to treat it as a separate 
deposit distinct from the brown sandy clay. No drift stones have been 
noticed in the yellow clay. 



252 



EEPORT — 1902, 



It will be seen from this report that during the deposition of the 
upper strata the Plunkett Cave was inhabited for a long time by men who 
used domestic animals and marine molluscs, and had implements of iron, 
bronze, and polished stone, and who, in the earlier part of this period, 
were contempoi-aneous with the reindeer and probably with the bear. 

In the subjacent clay there are evidences, left during a previous epoch, 
that bears then inhabited the cave undisturbed by human intrusion. 



Tabular Statement of the Mammalian Remains {Preliminai 


y)' 





1 Surface 
1 Stratum 


Breccia 

X 

X 
X 
X 

? 

X 


Clay 


Pig (8t(s scrofa) 

Horse (JSquus cabal/us) ..... 

Ass (E. asinus) 

Red Deer (Cerri/s L'laplnis) .... 

Reindeer {Ra.nqifer taraiuhts) 

Sheep (Oris aries) . ..... 

Goat (CajM'a hircns) ..... 

Ox (Bos taicrns) ...... 

Field-mouse {Mits si/lvaticMs') 

Rat (Ifns decumaiivs) ..... 

Arctic Lemming {Dicrostonyx torquat us) 
Rabbit (Lepus cnnicvJiis) .... 

Hare (Lfjnie timidus = rariahilis') . 

Bear ( Ursus arctos) ..... 

Bog (Canis f<i7>iUiaris) 

Wolf (Canis liipics) ..... 
¥ox (Vitlpes rulpt^s'} ..... 

Badger {Mclcs ta.vus) 

Irish Sfoat (Putorins hiheriiinis) . 

Man (Homo sapiens) 


i 

X 

' X 
X 

i X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

7 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 


X 

X 

? 

1 

X 
X 

? 

X 
X 

? 

7 

X 

7 



Erratic Blocl-n of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consistinrj 
of Mr. J. E. Mark (Chairman), Mv. P. F. Kendall (Secre- 
tary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. De Hance, Professor 
W. J. SoLLAS, Mr. E. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Harrison, 
Dr. J. HoRNE, Mr. P. M. BuRTOX, Mr. J. Lomas, Mr. A. R. 
DwERRYHousE, Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, mid 
Mr. P. W. Harmer, apjjointed to investigate the Erratic Bloclcs of 
the British Isles and to taJce measures for their preservation. (Brawn 
up hij the Secretary.) 

The records which have been transmitted to the Committee during the 
past year come from only two districts. The Boulder Committee of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union continues its most valuable work over 
the entire county. Records which call for particular notice are the 
boulder of diabase at Aldfield, near Ripon (the most westerly point to 
which rocks foreign to the district have been traced), and the boulders 
of limestone at Escrick, which resemble some of the rocks of Swaledale. 
Carboniferous limestones rarely display characters by which their exact 
place of origin can be determined. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 253 

A visit paid by the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society to 
the Tweed Valley two years ago enabled members of the Yorkshire 
Boulder Committee to acquire a' familiarity with some of the distinctive 
rocks of that region, with the result that the Haggis Rock, so well known 
to Scottish geologists, is reported from several localities in the east of 

Yorkshire. . . , i- i i i 

The interest of these observations is, however, eclipsed by a remark- 
able series of boulders noted by Mr. H. B. Muff, now of the Geological 
Survey of Scotland. Mr. Muff submitted to his colleagues, Messrs. 
B N Peach and E. H. Cunningham-Craig, a series of specimens of boulders 
from the country round Whitby, and among them were recognised rocks 
from the Southern Uplands of Scotland, such as Haggis Rock, Queens- 
bury grits, and radiolarian chert ; Old Red Sandstone conglomerate of 
a Scottish type and various volcanic rocks of which the source may be 
in either the Cheviots, Pentlands, or Ochills. The authorities quoted con- 
sider that it is unsafe to assign porphyrites specifically to the Cheviots, 
as rocks of the same petrological character occur as far north_ as the 
Ochills The succeeding determinations show that there is no improb- 
ability in this suggestion, for they include a large suite of quite distinctive 
Highland rocks, namely, Leny grits, Highland schists of Perthshire, 
Molne schists, and Ben Ledi grits. _ ^ , o i- • 

Additional localities in Yorkshire are given for the Scandinavian 
rhomb porphyries, augite- and zircon-syenites, and the Secretary, 
Mr Howarth, records a rock resembling the peculiar nodular gabbro of 
Imensfis, near Grimstad. A very satisfactory identification is that _ by 
Mr Sta'ther of a boulder absolutely identical in structure and constitu- 
tion with the elfeolite syenite (foyaite) of Kvelle, near Larvik. 

It is gratifying to be able to announce at this meeting the resumption 
of its work by the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. In past years 
(1895 and 1896) this society contributed most valuable and interesting 
reports to the Committee, and it is to be hoped that other organisations 
in Ireland will follow its example. The most noteworthy facts in the 
present report are, first, the very wide and general dispersal of the well- 
known riebeckite-eurite of Ailsa Craig. Out of forty localities which 
are mentioned in the Belfast society's lists no fewer than twenty-six 
have yielded this rock. The schedules, carefully compiled by Madame 
Christen and now presented, give in a condensed and convenient form 
the results of a large amount of patient and minute research, and might 
well be adopted as a model by any societies undertaking a survey of the 
erratic blocks and allied phenomena of a new field of study. 

An appeal will be issued In the coming year to the Scottish societies to 
take up the work of observing and recording the erratics of the country, 
so that at least their general distribution may be roughed out. Dr. John 
Home has promised his active co-operation in the determination of the 
sources of boulders observed. 

An observation made at Dunbar during the present summer 
emphasises the necessity for guarding against the inclusion in lists of 
erratics of stones which have been transported by human agency. A 
block of zircon-syenite bearing a resemblance to a rock found at Larvik 
in Norway was found upon the beach ; a specimen was submitted to the 
officers of the Geological Survey at Edinburgh, and their opinion was 
unanimous that it was not a Scottish rock. Renewed search was made 
at Dunbar, which resulted in the discovery of twenty or thirty small 



254 REPORT— 1902. 

boulders of the quite unmistakable augite-syenite (laurvigite) of 
Larvik, and upon inquiry at the coastguard station the writer was 
informed that in the last ten years several Norwegian sailing-ships have 
been wrecked upon that particular piece of shore, so it may safely be 
assumed that these stones came as ballast. If they had been ice-borne 
boulders they would certainly have been accompanied by their invariable 
associates in the English glacial deposits, the rhomb-porphyries, which 
extend in Norway over a much wider outcrop than that of the laur- 
vigites. Flints of the type found in the south of England are also very 
abundant on the beach at Dunbar. 

Yorkshire. 

Communicated by the Yorkshire Boulder Committee, 
Reported by W. Gregson, F.G.S. 

Aldfield, five miles west of Eipon. — 

1 diabase 11 in. by 7 in. by 5 in. 

600 feet O.D. on millstone grit. No angles. 

Reported by P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Escrick, near York. — Several boulders of a Carboniferous limestone 
containing many brachiopods have been found here which are quite 
unlike anything I know in the Craven area. Mr. W. Horn, of Leyburn, 
says they are different from any limestone in Wensleydale, and suggests 
Swaledale as their place of origin. A single specimen had previously 
been submitted to me from the same locality of a yellowish very crystal- 
line limestone, which I recognised as identical in colour and structure 
with that forming the matrix of specimens of Woodocrinus from the 
famous quarry near Richmond. The corroboration is interesting and 
may be valuable, as no distinctive Swaledale rock had previously been 
found in the Vale of York. The specimens were all found by Mr. E. M. 
Baines. 

Coxioold. — In a quarry beside Shandy Hall and in digging foundations 
for a house a little nearer the village the erratics consisted mainly of 
Carboniferous sandstone, limestone, and chert, with a few small boulders 
(up to about 8 inches in diameter) of Borrowdale andesite. A special 
search was made for Cheviot porphyrites with negative results. 

Kilburn. — At corner of a road \ mile S. of the village, Borrowdale 
andesitic ash containing many garnets. Roadside heap in the village, 
1 Shap granite. 

Reported by Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., F.G.S. 

Carndby. — In digging a hole for a gate-post in the main street of the 
village on high road between Bridlington and Di-iffield. 

1 Whin Sill 22 in. by 19 in. by 12 in., polished and flat. 
The boulder now lies by the roadside opposite the blacksmith's shop. 

Reported by H. B. Muff, B.Sc., F.G.S. 

The following boulders from East Yorkshire have been identified by 
B. N. Peach, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., and E, H. Cunningham -Craig, Esq., 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 255 

B.A., F.G.S., of the Geological Survey of Scotland, to whom Mr. Muff 
submitted them : — 

Bobiri Hood's Bay.— Several beach boulders of andesites, porphyrites, 
and lamprophyres of Old Red Sandstone age from the Cheviot, Pentland, 
or Ochill Hills. 

? Old Red Sandstone, Scotland, 1 specimen. 

' Haggis ' Rock, northern edge of Southern Uplands of Scotland, 1 specimen 

in Upper Boulder Clay. 
Red Jasper (radiolarian chert), Southern Uplands of Scotland, beach 

boulder. 
Leny grits, Highland schists, Perthshire; 1 specimen in Upper Boulder 

Clay ; I specimen in beach boulder. 
Epidiorite, Highland schists, Perthshire ; 1 specimen, beach boulder. 
Moine schist, Highlands, 1 specimen in Upper Boulder Clay. 

Whitby.— 

Lower Old Red Sandstone, Scotland ; 1 specimen in Lower Boulder Clay. 
Ophitic dolerite (coarse), similar to the sills of Carboniferous age in the 
'Midland Valley ' of Scotland; 1 specimen, beach boulder. 

Stonegate, Erhsdale. — 

Queensbury grit, Southern Uplands of Scotland ; 1 specimen ; Leny Grits (?) 
1 specimen. 

Egton Brickworks, Eskdale, — 

Ben Ledi grit, Highland schists, Perthshire, 1 specimen in Boulder Clay. 
Most of these boulders have been sent to the Hull Municipal Museum, 



Hull Geological Society. 

Report of the Boulder Committee, August 1902. 

Barton-on-Humher. — Quarry in glacial gravels, \ mile west of the 
town. Gravel consists mainly of local chalk and flint, but foreign rocks 
also occur as follows : — 

2 coarse conglomerates, 18 in. in diameter. 
1 glaciated basalt, 18 in. „ 

1 Cheviot porphyrite, 12 in. „ 

Amongst the smaller foreign pebbles Cheviot porphyrites are the 
most common, but magnesian limestone (Roker type), greywackes 
basalts, Carboniferous limestones, and lias also occurred. 

Reported by Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., F.G.S. 
Driffield, in the Highfield Quarry. 
Rhomb porphyry. 

Reported by G. W. B. Mactubk. 

Bluestone Bottoms, near Little Weighton. — In this wold valley, at an 
elevation of 250 feet above O.D., numbers of drift pebbles occur, Cheviot 
porphyrites being especially abundant. 



256 REPORT— 1902. 

Reported hy James Fraser Robinson. 
Wawne, near Hull. — 

Pebbles of augite syenite, rhomb porphyry, basalt, greywacke, Cheviot 
porphyrite, black flint and pink flint. 

Re2)orted by Tiwsiks. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
Easington {beach), Holderness. — 
Shap granite. 8 in. by 8 in. by 8 in. 

Meanx, near Hull. — 

Quartzite 30 in. in diameter ; pebbles of rhomb porphyry ; Cheviot porphyrite ; 
Carboniferous sandstone and dias. 

Reported by J. W. Statuee, F.G.^ 
Burstwick, Holderness. — 

Foyaite (Brogger), Kvelle, 5 in. by 1 in. hy 4 in. 

Dimlington, Holderness. — 

Zircon syenite, 2 small boulders. 

Xngermanland granite, 10 in. by 5 in. by 5 in. 

Coal-measure shale, with many Anthracosias, G in. by 4 in. by 2 in. 

Pebble of chalk, with plate of Marsvpiten ornatus attached. 

Middleton-on-the- Wolds. — In a gravel and sand-pit at west end of the 
village, 150 feet O.D., occurs gravel consisting chiefly of water-worn 
chalk and Hint pebbles, with a small percentage of foreign pebbles, 
including — 

Rhomb porphyry, coarse red granite, basalts, ganister and grit?, many Cheviot 
porphyrites, lias (ammonites). 

Out Newton, Holderness coast. — 
Bhap granite, 3 ft. by 2 ft. by 2 ft. 

Wykeham, Vale of Pickering. — In a sand-pit behind the Down Arms 
Hotel. 

A flint cast of Ananchytes ovatus. 

Reported by F. F. Walton, F.G.S. 
Aldbrough, Holderness. — 
Haggis rock. 

Hayburn Wyke. — 

Haggis rock. 

Hornsea, Holderness. — 

Rhomb porphyry with aroygdules. 
Shap granite, 18 in. by 12 in. by (?). 

ditto 8 in. by 6 in. by 3 in. 

Bedded volcanic ash, probably Borrowdale series. 
Lower Silurian conglomerates, greywackes (Queensbury grits), &c. 



ON EKRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 2o7 

Reported hy Rev. George Style, M.A. 

Gigglesiuick. — On Grammar School Cricket Ground the pavilion is set 
back into a glacial moraine containing numerous rounded to sub-angular 
stones. They include millstone grits, Yoredale grits and shales, Hardraw 
Scar limestone. Lower Carboniferous limestones, and Silurian grits. 

Note. — This deposit and the worn rocks and roches moutonnees from 
the school buildings on to the Settle golf-links, by the Ebbing and 
Flowing Well, suggest an ice-tlow coming over Buck Ha' Brow. The 
moraine might, however, have been laid down by ice coming down 
Bibblesdale by Horton and Stainforth. Further evidence required. 

Reported hij J. H. Howarth, F.G.S. 

LangcUffe, near Settle. — In cutting for engine-bed at Mr. Christie's 
mills by River Ribble through about 7 feet of top earth and drift with 
boulders, dark lower limestone irt situ exposed, finely grooved and scratched 
and very highly polished. Strite down valley. 

Reported hi/ W. Simpson, F.G.S. , and J. H. Howarth, F.G.S. 

Mytholmroyd, C alder Valley. — In cutting for sewage drain by bridge 
over canal in village. 

Deposit containing many rounded boulders and fewer sub-angular. 
One to 2 feet of top earth. Boulders in sand 3 to 6 feet. Shales in situ 
below. 

Borrowdale ash, 4 in. by 3 in. by 2 in., and numbers smaller. 

Lake District andesites, few small pebbles. 

Eskdale granite, (i in. by 5 in. by 2 in and 3 in. by 3 in. by 2 in. 

Ennerdale granophyre, 4 in. b}' 3 in. by 2 in. 

Buttermere granophyre, pebble. 

Khyolite. 

This deposit is on the opposite side of the River Calder to that 
reported previously by Messrs. Simpson and Law, and appears to be 
water-laid or re-sorted glacial debris. 

Halifax, Calder Valley. — In making a roadway and drains for develop- 
ing Willow Hall Estate between Sowerby Bridge and King Cross, Halifax, 
on the east side of the Calder Valley. 

575 feet O.D., and 275 feet above the river, deposit of clay plastered 
along valley-side from 3 to 10 feet thick, and lying on shales below the 
Rough Rock. 

The lower portion a stiff tenacious clay, almost stone-free. The upper 
a sandy clay, containing well-rounded to angular local rocks varying in 
size from pebbles to three or four large sub-angular blocks, the largest 
being 60 inches by 22 inches by 11 inches. 

Gristliorp. — On beach. 

Gabbro, similar to Imenajs, South Norway. 
Porphyrites (Cheviot type) abundant. 
Red jasper. Southern Uplands of Scotland. 
Quartz porphyry. 



1902. 



258 REPORT— 1902. 

IRELAND. 
Communicated hy the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

Investigations hito the Glacial Drifts of the North-east of Ireland, vnth 
Special Reference to the Diatribntion of Erratics and Fossils. Conducted 
for the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club by Madame Christen, 
Miss Maby K. Andrews, and Mr. Robert Bell. Microscopic Exami- 
nations conducted by Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S., a7id Misg Smythe, 
The Determination of Hocks by Professor Grenville Cole, F.G.S., 
Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., F.G.S., Mr. A. McHenry (Geological 
Survey), and Mr. J. St. J. Phillips. 

The following schedule has been prepared as a summary of the most 
important results of several years' work carried on by many members of 
the Belfast JSTaturalists' Field Club, and includes stray records from 
localities not fully examined, which have nevertheless furnished data 
sufficiently important to be worth recording. Fuller details will be 
subsequently published in the club's annual proceedings. 

Erratics. — The prevalence of Ailsa Craig eurite is remarkable : it occurs 
at twenty-six of the scheduled localities as pebbles on the sands at White- 
park Bay, Portrush, and Portstewart, on the shores of Belfast Lough, and 
in dredgings oflf Rathlin Island at a depth of 45 fathoms. Scottish rocks 
have been found in several deposits, and others whose parent locality may 
be either Scotland or Ireland. Basalts and other rocks too widely dis- 
tributed as rocks in the district to be of value in indicating lines of ice- 
flow have been omitted from the schedule for the sake of conciseness ; 
nor has it been possible in these limits to include the compass direction of 
parent rocks, which will be more easily understood by reference to the 
map,' where the distribution of a few easily recognised erratics has 
been indicated. The term ' loose strong drift ' is here applied to localities 
where the contents of boulder clay cliffs have been scattered on the shore 
by the waves of the sea, as well as to loose drift, which is dispersed over 
headlands and mountains. No. 27 (Carronreagh Quarry) offered a solitary 
example of a peculiar rubbly deposit of angular fragments. Shells are very 
rarely found in the local drift, but microzoa, especially Foraminifera, are 
widely distributed. Their occurrence in such elevated deposits as No. 3 
(Divis Mountain) and No. 7 (Cave Hill), and their absence from such a 
deposit as No. 32 (Killough) at sea level, is noteworthy. The boulder 
clavs at No. 4 and No. 7 are not typical deposits, being scanty beds of 
hard clay filled with angular fragments of chalk, flint, and basalt only. 

This invasion of the north-east of Ireland by an ice-flow from Scotland, 
the ensuing conflict between Irish and Scottish ice, and the ultimate lines 
of distribution over Ireland, ofier a fascinating problem barely touched 
upon in these researches, and urgently calling for further investigations of 
the drift deposits scattered throughout Ulster. 

' The reference is to a map which will be published bj' the Belfast Naturalists 
Field Club. 



ose atony drifts = St. D. 
^nite = Gran. Cretaceous 



Vl 



IG 



3 



o 

a 

3 



387 

21 

46 

B.C., 

S.G. 

Uii. 
Str. 

Chalk 

Nil 



17 



El 



be 
3 



825 



20 

40 

B.C. 



Un. 

Chalk 
Nil 

Nil 



18 



i- a 

"3 3 
«•? 

re g 

is 



ji * 
O M 



[rosace ^^cf^re 258. 



34 



s> 
u 
o 

s 

o 



35 



200 j (00 



28 

43 

B.C. 



48 
21 
J.C. 



Un. I [Jn 



Bas. 
Nil 

Nil 



2i 



90 



60 
26 
B.C. 



)rd. 

Nil 



Tor. 



r 



36 



a 



03, 



s o 
a P< 

a 



S 



o 
_S 

Circa 
800 

60 

St.D. 



Un. Un 



Bas. Ord. k 
Gran. 
Nil 



Nil 



37 



c 

dj 1) 
bo's 

rO to 



e 



m 

o 

o 

s 



100 



61 



S.G., 
St.D. 

Str. 



Ord. 

Nil 

Nil 



38 



^^ 

o o 



4H 



60 



B.C. 



Un. 



Gran. 



Rich 



39 



C3 



M 



O.D. 



71 



Co. Ar- 
magh 

40 



o 

.a 
cm 

CS 

a 

u 



St.D. 



Un. 



142 

47 
B.C. 

Un. 



Ord. Carb. 
L. 



Iijistraliflcd=i;ii. 



[To /iK4 page io8. 



Number refenwd lo in Sohi>Iulcs . 



Ucighi »bovc orJnanoi- <1 



She«t in Geologicnl Surru; map- 1 incli onliini 

SbcDt JD 6-iacb ordDAoce xirvejr . 

N'alure of drift (for ntibt«TlAiloa* ne aboro) 



Stralificd or un«tRiEiii«J (fur abbnsvjalion 

UDderlTing rock 
Foislb ; Shells 



' Ovb. 
I Lfau 
I Crei. 



nomber ct sWnMi) 



i! 


t 


- 1 








■ 


1 

1 


1 








5 












i 


- 


i,aoo 


m 


ICO ' 


to 






t.too 






.tG 


as 


R6 


SO 


eo 


64 


B,C. 


B.O. 


B.Q. 


Dn. 


aa. 


St*. 


BBS. 




opa. 


Kty 


MI 


Nil 








Iiuu 






Fwr. 


Ifor. 


-- ! 


6>il> 




- 


100 







I.I I 
III I 

'A' s 
8^ i 



]U>. TrtoA Trio* BAa. 



Ntl 


Vmg. 




Kor. 


Kor 


For 


Crot. 


Uiitl.. 
Orot. 




IT ill 


Joliatk 
300 I» 


100 in 



O.D. 100 



Dm. TrlM Trio* D» 
— W.und Nil , Mil 



^._ r 



P 



Ohk. Bs9. Cub. B(ui. I Trift 



Trias Triaa Triiu 



Kil I Nil Prsg. 



■11 



Ori. I Orf. 
FTmg.i Ml 



38 


3B 1 


to 






^ 


"3 1 










^^ 






*» 


'^n 


% 


il 


li 


i 




















ii» 


0,D. 


11:; 


DO 


TI 


17 


BO. 

Un, 


SlD. 

nil, 


B,0. 

Iln 



lin. Dn. Ud, Sir. 



Onl. Ord. 1 Bm. lord.*! Ort. \ann.\ On!. Cwb. 
Nil Sil , Sil I — "' 



- 1 For. 1 SH \ 



/^lrwltf ImeiiHH** tf Srntie*. — Tlutmatk k JnUlMMi tliolr occanence in ilio drill of tofaeduled localitiu. The figurva after rook names aiga If j uieral Ijpea foimd. 



Sob. oI locaUties in above Sditdolc 



SCOTLAND. 



I. AilsaCraic: Rieboekilv-eurlle . 
II CltdeAbel: PotpbyrileB (8 ^pes) . 

Eorites (2 typea) 

FeUito (:; type*) 

Diohtes (3 Ifpcs) .... 

Carbon iferons crinoidal limestone . 
11. CAxrrsB ABtA ^ iiii.'l&morph(n«4 grite (3) 
:v. 0lR7A<f ABK.V: OrdoTJi-ian ahal« 

Ord-c 



SCOTLAND OB IBBLAND 

I. CASTtBtor XoBtii A>rKiu : Old Bed ^ndftonc 
Uld B«d coDglomenii' 
FeLnte ([ale gTMD ) 
Qoam^diorite 
Metamorphosed unls 
II. Clyde or N. Antbim -. QnAiuiii- . 
Cajbonifeniujs naudftODC 

„ coDglomerale . 

lU. ( LYDt ur Tv b'.m; Dioril* . 
IV. Scotland or Duu-S Ordovician »Ii«lc 
Graojle (3 irpea) ... 
V. 800T1.ASD. Down or Axtblm: CarU vliolu 
VL Scotland or N-TTBOKB: Sj-enite 

Bpidote-Enuiltc .... 



IBELANn 



. I 



I. Derbt or N. Antbiu : aae\» 

>eridle-»cluj'l . ... . . I 

IL Debbt. N. AvrniK or TraosK : Qtmrti-feltlone ' 

III. ,. or DOWK: AmpbiboltU) . I 

IV. ^ TTBi>M:or ABHAUn: Oranite (3 tjpM). I 
V N A>TBIM: Q(iKr1iites({ types). 

Cebbly qnartiiti.-* . 
Mica Khiit [2 l)|va> 
Morlongb Bar- An^n w;lit<l 
Coslilealce : McIaui. jjriu 

., {TomamoDc;} : ijowti- porptiyTy 

Cntheniliin : Porpb;i7 (kDlnulTe In met, tocka) 
„ a^Cubloike: ForphTr)tea(ltypai) 

Ctuliendalt : PorpliyTy 

„ 1'orphjry dyko on *ciui1i 

„ Kvlntoni' iwrjihyrj . 

VI. asiiuk: Uroniiicfouk 

Tndree dUlrict : Klirolitt^ . 
„ „ TrUaalorocka. 

Iilaaic roeka . 
Chalk, &c . 
KIlntA 
Longb Neagb : rtiltdfltid ttoud . 
„ ., Cluy IroiutOTie nodulc- 

VIL Hows: MsgnenianllmeatJirir 
Quarti'mlc*- f cIjIodc 
Tlfko "n euail : Ulneltc (iiiica-traio 
Hllevo Croob : Granite ... 
Monmc dldrlct : OmDtU . 
Dylco id KTiUille : civan (rt type*) 
„ HIcbtt«ne 

Ulca-ay enlte ( uphan 1 1 c, 3 tfpM) 
, Dyka at Bli^ody Bridge PiMpbyiy , 

VIII. N. TTBOse : Oranita rock (3 lypw) 
I IX. AuAOB, CarAS or HoVAonAV (J^Iaadovny) : 



S4 


35 


ZS 


27 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 259 



Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting q/" Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), 
Professor G. B. Howes (Secreta/ri/), Professor E. Ray Lankester, 
Professor W. F. R. Weldox, Professor S. J. HiCKSOX, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. McIntosh. 

APPEXDIX PAflf; 

I. ItepoH on the Occupation of the Table . 260 

a. On the Structun: and Berelopmei/t of the Excretory Apparatus of 

Amphioxus. ^y B. S. GOODEICH, i)/.4 260 

h. On Trematodes and Cestodes parasitic on Fishes. 5// Norm an Mac- 

LAREN, Esq 260 

c. On the Algce of the Bay of Naples. 5y Miss Anna ViCKEKS . . 263 

d. On the Copepod Suh-famihj ^lidii/uB,)vith a proposed Heilsion of tho 

Classifcation. By R. NoEEis Wolfenden, M.D. Cantab., F.Z.S. 263 
II. A List of Natui'alists who have vjorhed at the Zoological Stationfronithe end 

of June 1901 to the end of June 1902 267 

III. A List of Papers which were published in the year 1901 by the Naturalists 

mho have occupied Tables in the Zoological Station ..... 269 

IV. A List of the Publications of the Zoological Station during the year ending 

June 30, 1902 270 

Owing to circumstances which transpired in the interval between applica- 
tion and the intended commencement of work for which the grant for 1902 
was obtained, Messrs. Wallace and Gurney were both rendered incapable 
of fulfilling their task, Mr. Gurney having been forbidden by his medical 
adviser to journey afield under risk of injury to his health. Your Com- 
mittee report the securing of substitutes whose names are given above, 
and whose work has been in each case a success. And they are desired by 
Mr. Wallace to state that he renews his application for the use of a Table 
during the coming year, and that he proposes to study ' Variation and 
Gestation in the Selachii.' 

In a letter received from Dr. Anton Dohrn, special mention is made 
of his ability to endorse his surmise of 1901 as to his intention of erecting 
and equipping a new laboratory for comparative physiological research. 
He informs your Committee that the Town Council of Naples have 
unanimously voted an area of land of 600 square metres, in immediate 
proximity to the two historical buildings now in use, as a site for the 
laboratory aforementioned ; and it is with satisfaction that your Com- 
mittee are enabled to report that funds sufficient for the undertaking ai-e 
guaranteed, through the generosity of personal friends of Dr. Dohrn, and 
that plans for the building are now prepared. 

The work of construction will be commenced in autumn, and it is 
expected that the laboratory will be finished and fully equipped by 
Easter, 1904. 

Dr. Dohrn lays stress on the fact that for a very considerable contri- 
bution to the cost of the new building he is indebted to an English fi-iend, 
and your Committee re-echo his hope that this may further cement the tie 
with the British Association, and that the range of the work of those who 
in future may visit the Station on its behalf shall be commensurate with 
the Station's increased facilities and growth. 

In presenting the reports of the occupants of the Table during tlie 



260 REPORT— 1902. 

present year; your Committee desire to point out that on emergency 
willing and competent persons were but awaiting their appeal. Reassured 
by this, in applying for a renewal of the grant they have every confidence 
in the future ; and they are of opinion that the increased facilities afore- 
named, by widening the field of action, will more than ever incur the 
favourable consideration of the Association's Board. 



APPENDIX. 

I. Jie})Oi't on the Occupation of the Table during December 1901 and 
Jamianj, June, and July 1902. 

a. On the Struclvre and Development of the Excretori/ Apparatus of Amphio.xus . 

By E. S. Goodrich, M.A. O.ron. 

During the latter end of December 1901 and most of January 1902 
I occupied the British Association Table at the Zoological Station in 
Naples. I had then the opportunity of examining the structure of the 
excretory organs of Amphioxus in fresh and preserved specimens. As a 
result of this study, it was discovered that the kidneys of Amphioxus are 
not, as had hitherto been supposed to be the case, segmental tubules 
opening by many funnels into the ccelom, and comparable to the excretory 
organs of the higher vertebrates ; but, on the contrary, that these kidneys 
are in the form of tubules opening only to the exterior (atrium), and pro- 
duced internally into blind branches. Moreover, it was found that these 
internal extremities are provided with numerous peculiar cells (incom- 
pletely described by Boveri) perched on the free ends of long and narrow 
tubes, down each of which works a single flagellum driving the excretory 
fluids into the renal canal. These cells exactly resemble the excretory 
cells (Solenocytes) which I have described as situated on the inner 
blind ends of the nephridia of certain Polychaite worms. It would 
appear, then, that the kidneys of Amphioxus are, physiologically and 
morphologically, strictly comparable to the nephridia of certain Annelids. 

The results of this work have been embodied in a preliminary note read 
last January before the Royal Society, and in a more complete and illustrated 
memoir published in the ' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science.' 

In June and in this month of July 1902 I have again had the privi- 
lege of occupying the British Association Table in Naples, and am 
engaged in working out the development of the excretory organs of the 
larval Phoronis and Amphioxus. 

Iiej7ort on the Occupation of the Table during March and April 1902. 
b. On Trematodes and Cestodes parasitic in Fishes. By Norman Maclaeen. 

During the six weeks in which it was my privilege to work at the 
Stazione Zoologica this spring I confined myself almost entirely to col- 
lecting material (Trematodes and Cestodes) for future anatomical investi- 
gations. Upwards of two hundred fishes were examined, and numerous 
specimens were collected. 

One of the most interesting species obtained was a hitherto undescribed 
Didymozoon from the gills of a young Orthagoriscus mola. There were 
four cysts on the same fish, varying in size from 1 to 3 cm. long and 
about 1 cm. thick. The worms are so intricately wound together that 
it is exceedingly difticult to isolate a single individual ; but judging 



ox THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



2G1 



from fragments from the largest cyst, each worm must be from one to two 
metres long. Attempts to induce the eggs to develop were quite unsuc- 
cessful. There is a similar Didyraozoon — also from Orthagoriscus — in 
the museum of Genoa Unh'ersity. 

I am at present occupied with material obtained at Naples, and hope 
to shortly publish some of my results. Appended is a list of the fishes 
examined, and I regret that owing to other work I have not yet had time 
to identify all their parasites. 

I would desire to express my great obligations to the British Associa- 
tion for permission to work at their table, and also to the officials of the 
Stazione Zoologica for their unfailing kindness. 



Fish 


1 No. 


Parasite 


Remarks 


Belone acus 


4 


Scolex sp. . 


Abundant in stomach 


Centrophorus granulo- 
sus 
Cernua gigas 


1 


— 


— 


4 








Chrysophrys aurata . 


2 


Distomum obovatum 


One specimen in intes- 






(Molin) 


line. 


Clupea aurita 


7 


Scolex sp. . 


Abundant in one speci- 
men ; encysted in 
append, pyl. 


Conger vulgaris . 


8 


Distomum rufoviride 
(Rud.) 


Abundant in stomach. 


Corvina nigra 


8 




— 


Dentex gigas 


1 




_ 


Dentex vulgaris . 


8 


Distomum megasto- 


One specimen in sto- 






mum (Rud.) 


mach. 


Galeus canis 


1 


Tctrarhynchus sp. 


In spiral fold; abun- 
dant. 


Hexanchus griseus 


3 


Distomum veleporum 


Two specimens in one 






(Crep.) 


stomach. 






Tetrarhynclius sp. 


In stomach of one. 






Bothriocephalus sp. . 


In intestine of one. 


Labrax lupus 


37 


. Tetraonclms sp. 


Seventeen on gills of 
two specimens. 






\ Scolex sp. . 


In pylorus ; abundant. 






■ Echinorhynchus sp. . 
Scolex sp. . 


One specimen in intes- 


Lepidopus caudatus . 


1 


tine. 
In gall bladder ; abun- 






dant. 


Lichia glauca 


1 


— 


— 


Lophius piscatorius . 


1 ; 


— 


— ■ 


Merlucius lupus . 


5 ; 


Scolex sp. . 


A few in the intestine. 


Merlucius vulgaris 


25 ; 


Scolex sp. . 


Two in the stomach. 


Mugil cephalus . 


many 


. — 


— 


MuUus barbatus . 


7 





__ 


MuUus surmuletus 


6 












/Distomum mcgasto- 


Seven in the stomach. 






mum (Rud.) 








Distomum sp. . 


Numerous in the sto- 
mach. 


Mustelus laevis . 


10 


■ Distomum sp. . 


Abundant; enc}'stedin 
walls of the stomach. 






Onchobothrium sp. . 


In spiral fold; abun- 
dant. 






\Tetrarhynclms sp. 


Nine in the stomach 


Mustelus vulgaris 


2 


Calliobothrium fili- 


In spiral fold of one 






coUe (Zsch.) 


specimen ; abundant. 


Myliobatis aquila 


1 


Tetrarbynchus sp. 


In spiral fold; numerous. 



262 



REPORT — 1902. 



Fish 


No. 


Parasite 


Remarks 


Oblata melanura 


7 


Pi^tomum obovatum 
(Molin) 


One in pharynx. 






/ Distomum nigrofla- 


Seven in two intestines. 






vum (Rud.) 








Distomum contortum 


Four in mouth of one 






(Rud.) 


specimen. 






Echinostoma lydise 


In one intestine ; abun- 






(Stoss.) 


dant. 






Didymozoon sp. 


Four cysts on gills of 


Oithagoriscus mola . 


3 


\ Tristonium mola3 
(Blanch.) 


one specimen. 
One on skin. 






Bothriocephalus mi- 


Fourteen in intestine 






crocephalus (Rud.) 


of one specimen ; five 
in another. 






Anthocephalus elon- 


In liver and muscles. 






gatus (Rud.) 








^ Scoles sp. . 


Several in one intesi ine. 


Pelamys sarda . 


19 


^ Tetrarhynchus sp. 
Scoles sp. . 


Five in three stomachs. 
Several in one intestine. 


Raja asterias 


3 


— 


— 






/ Bothriocephalus punc- 

tatus (Rud.) 
- Scoles sp. . 
Distomum rufoviride 
I (Rud.) 


In intestine ; abundant. 








Rhombus maximus 


10 


In intestine; abundant. 






Seven in one stomach. 








Scorpasna porcus 


2 


• — 


— 


ScorpEcna scropha 


9 


Distomum granulum 
(Rud.) ? 


One in one intestine. 


Scj'llium canicula 


3 


— 





Sebastes imperialis . 


3 


— 





Solea vulgaris 


G 


— 


— 


Squatina angelus 


1 


— 


— 


Torpedo uiarniorata . 


2 


Phyllobothrium sp. . 


In spiral fold of one 
specimen. 






■ Onchobothrium unci- 


A few in spiral fold of 


Torpedo ocellata 


5 


natum (Bud.) 
Amphibdella torpe- 
dinis (Chatin.) 


intestine. 
Numerous on gills. 


Trygon pastinaca 


1 


f Tetrarhynchus sp. 
\ Phyllobothrium sp. . 


Numerous in spiral fold. 
Numerous in spiral fold. 


Umbrina cirrhosa 


10 


Distoma tubarium 


One in stomach. 




(Rud.) 




Zeus faber . 


4 Bothriocephalus sp. . 


One in stomach. 



Seport on the Occupation of the Table from January to April 1902. 
c. On the Algcc of the Bay of Naples. By Miss Anna Vickers. 

My work at the Zoological Station in Naples from the beginning of 
January to April 12 was chiefly on material I brought myself from 
Barbados. I was able during that time to finish a certain number of 
drawings for a work which I hope to publish on the Alg;B of Barbados. 
It is to be a Phycologia of the island, which I intend to complete from fresh 
material next winter on my return to Barbados. It is not easy to work 
on dry algse. They have to go through such delicate handling, and even 
then with all the reactives used the cells scarcely get their original shape 
again. The acids tend to swell the tissues to an exaggerated size, if 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 263 

they are not stopped in their development just at the right moment. 
Therefore algsa preserved in alcohol are much easier to study and dissect.