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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

.A.IU. 



REPORT 



OP THE 



SEVENTY-THIED MEETING 



OF TUB 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



SOtlTHPORT IN SEPTEMBER 1903. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MlJRPvAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1904. 

Office of the Association : Burlington Hotise, London, W. 



rniNTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO. I.TD., KliW-STItEET EQUARE 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



1*1 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxvii 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement xxxviii 

Trustees and General Officers, from 1831 lii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 ... liii 

List of Evening Discourses Ixxii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxvl 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Southport Meeting Ixxvii 

Committee of Recommendations at the Soitthport Meeting Ixiix 

Treasurer's Account \kxx 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings ...... Ixxxii 

Officets and Council, 1903-1001 Ixxxiv 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxv 

Committees appointed hy the General Committee at the .Southport Meet- 
ing in September 1903 xc vii 

Communication ordered to be printed in e.vtenso cvi 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if desirable cvi 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cvili 

Places of Meeting in 1904 and 1905 cix 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes , , ex 

General Meetings , o cxxviii 

AddrosB by the President, Sir Noeman Lockxer, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S.... 3 

A2 



IV 



REPOKT — 1903. 



KE PORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



[An asterisk * indicates tJiat tlie title only is given. Tfie mark f indicates the same, 
but with a reference to the Journal or Newspa^per intvhich it is 2>vMished in extenso.] 



Page 

Investigation of the Uppei' Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Eoyal Meteorological Society. — Second Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. AV. H. 
Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon Bots, Dr. A. 
BucHAN, Dr. II. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Professor A. 
Schuster. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 31 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor VV. G. Adams, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor A. 
Schuster, and Sir A. W. Rijcker, appointed to co-operate with the Com- 
mittee of the Falmouth Observatory in their Magnetic Observations 32 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Ratleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Professors W. E. Atrton, J. Perrt, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey Foster, 
Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. 11. Preece, Professors 
J. D. Everett, A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming and J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
"VV. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomlet, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Dr. E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rijcker, Professor H. L. Callendae, and Mr. 

George Matthey 33 

Appendix I. — On the Values of the Resistance of certain Standard 

Coils of the British Association. By F. E. Smith. 38 
^j II. — On some new Mercury Standards of Resistance. By 

F. E Smith 44 

in. — On the Platinimi Thermometers of the British Asso- 
ciation. By J. A. IIarker, D.Sc 45 

IV. — Table of the Resistance found for Pure Annealed 

Copper CI 

On the Use of Vectorial Methods in Physics. By Professor 0. Heneioi, 



)) 



» 



Ph.D., F.R.S. 



51 



Meteorologicul Observations on Ben Nevis.— Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord M'Laren, Professor A. Crttm Brown (Secretary), Sir John 
Murray, I'rofessor Copeland, and Dr. Alexander Buchan. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Buchan.) SG 

Report on the Theory of Point-groups. Part III. By Frances Hardcastle. 65 



CONTENTS. M 

Page 
Seismological Investigations.— Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. W. Jtjdd (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor G. li. 
Darwin, Mi\ Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. U. T. Glazebrooe, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor 
J. H. Pointing, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. (Drawn up by the Secretary,) 77 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 77 

II. The Origin of large Earthquakes recorded in 1902 and since 18!)'J 78 

III. Earthquakes and Changes in Latitude 78 

IV. Comparison of Records from three Milne Pendulums at Shide ... 81 
V. Comparison of Registers from Shide, Kew, Bidston, and Edinburgli 81 

VI. Earthquake Commencements as recorded at Strassburg and in 

Britain 82 

VII. The Velocity of Propagation of Earthquake Vibrations 84 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — Fourth Report of tlie Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. A. Miers (Chairman), Dr. H. E. Arm- 
strong (Secretary), Professor W. P. Wynne, and Professor W. J. Pope. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 85 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall AVatts (Secretary), Sir J, N. Lockter, Professor J. Dewar, Pro- 
fessor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, Professor AV. N. Hartley, . 
Professor AVolcott Gibbs, and Captain Sir AA''. de W. Abney 87 

Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — - 
Fifth Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor AV. Noel 
Hartley (Chairman and Secretary), Professor F. R. Japp, Professor J. J. 
DoBBiE, and Air. Alexander Lauder, appointed to investigate the Rela- 
tion between the Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic 
Substances 1 26 

On the Possibility of Making Special Reports more available than at present. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. AV. A. Shenstone (Chairman), 
Dr. M. O. FoRSTER (Secretary), Professors E. Divers and W. J. Pope, 
and Dr. A. W. Crossley 169 

Duty-free Alcohol for Scientific Research. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Professor H. B. Dixon (Secretary), 
Sir Michael Foster, Sir A. W. Rucker, Dr. T. E. Thorpe, Professor 
W. H. Perkin, and Professor AV. D. Halliburton 170 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor \V. A. Tilden (Chairman) and Dr. H. E. Armstrong (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 174 

The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Dr. A. AV. Crossley (Secretary), 
Professor W. H. Perkin. and Drs. AI. 0. Forster and Le Sueur 170 

Recent Work on Hydro- aromatic Substances. By Dr. A. W. Crossley' 179 
On Dihydrobenzenes and on Aromatic Compounds derived from Hydro- 
aromatic Substances. By Dr. A. W. Crossley 182 

Edenvale Caves, co. Clare. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. R. F. 
SCHARFF (Chairman), Air. R. Lloyd Praeger (Secretary), Mr. G. Coffey, 
Profeissor G. A. J. Cole, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. G. W. Lamp- 
lughs Mr. A. McHenry, and Air. R. J. Ussher, appointed to explore Irish 
Caves. (Drawn up by Mr. R. J. Ussher.) 183 



Vi REPORT — 1903. 

Page 
Life-zones in the British Carhoniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. E. Makr (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hind (Secretary), 
Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, Dr. A. H. Fooed, Mr. H. Fox, 
Professor E. .F. Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
R. KiDSTON, Mr. G. AV. Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebotte, Mr. B. N. 
Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, and Dr. H. Woodward. (Drawn up hy the 
Secretary.) 185 

The Movements of Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire. — Fourth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor V\". W. Watts (Chair- 
man), Mr. A. R. DwEERTHOusE (Secretary), Professor A. Smithells, Rev. 
E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, Mr. George Bray, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, Mr. Percy F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. Mare. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 192 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Fourteenth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chair- 
man), Professor W. W. Waits (Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Pro- 
fessor E. J. Garwood, Professor S. H. Reynolds, Dr. Tempest Anderson, 
Mr. Godfrey Bingley, Mr. H. Coates, Mr. A. K. Coomaraswamy, 
Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. J. G. Goodchild, Mr. William Gray, Mr. Robert 
Kidston, Mr. J. St. J. Phillips, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, 
Mr. R. Welch, and Mr. H. B. Woodward. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 197 

Estuarine Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire. — Preliminary Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. G. VV. Lamplugh (Chairman), Mr. J. W. 
Stather (Secretary), Mr. F. W. Haemer, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
Clement Reid, and Mr. Thomas Sheppaed, appointed to investigate the 
Estuarine deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, and to consider its position 
with regard to the Glacial Deposits. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 218 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. IIeedman 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Lomas (Secretary), Professor W. W. Watts, and 
Messrs. P. F. Kendall, E. T. Newton, A. C. Sewaed, and W. A. E. 
UssHEE. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 219 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. J. E. Maee (Chairman), Mr. P. F. Kendall (Secretary), Professor 
T. Q. BoNNEY, Mr. C. E. De Rance, Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H. 
Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Haerison, Dr. J. IIorne, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. 
J. Lomas, Mr. A. R. Dwereyhouse, Mr. J. VV. Stather, Mr. W. T. 
Tucker, and Mr. F. W. Haemer, appointed to investigate the Erratic 
Blocks of the British Isles, and to take measures for their preservation. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 231 

Observations on Changes in the Sea Coast of the United Kingdom. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir Archibald Geikie, Captain E. W. 
Ceeak, Mr. L. F. Yeenon-Haecouet, Mr. A. T. Walmisley, Mr. W. 

Whitakee, and the Geneeal Officers, appointed by the Coimcil 258 

Report to the Committee by John Parkinson 259 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples.— Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor G. B. Howes (Chairman), Mr. 
J. E. S. Moore (Secretary), Dr. E. Rat Lankester, Professor W. F. R. 
Weldon, Professor S. J. Hiceson, Mr. A. Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 
McIntosh 282 

The Oocyte of Tomopteris. By William Wallace, B.Sc 282 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), 
Dr. W. E. HoYLE, Mr. R. McLachlan, Dr. P. L. Sclatee, and the 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing 288 



CONTENTS, VJl 

Page 
Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland.— Sixth and Final Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Ilev. E. P. 
Kntjbley (Secretary), Mr. John A. Haevie-Brown, Mr. 11. M. Bakbing- 
TON, Mr. A. H. Evans, and Dr. H. 0. Forbes, appointed to work out the 
details of the Observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and 

Lightships, 1880-1887 289 

The State of Solution of Proteids.— Pteport of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor Halliburton (Chairman), Professor E. Waymouth PiEid 
(Secretary), and Professor E. A. Schafer, appointed to investigate the 

state of Solution of Proteids 304 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands.— Thirteenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Mr. David Sharp (Secretary), 
Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. F. 

Dt: Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar A. Smith 305 

Coral Reefs of the Indian Region.— Fourth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. A. Sedgwick (Chairman), Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner (Secre- 
tary), Professor J. W. Jtjdd, Mr. J. J. Lister, Mr. Francis Darwin, 
Dr. S. F. Harmee, Profes.sor A. Macalipter, Professor W. A. Heedman, 
Professors. J. Hickson, Professor G. B. Howes, and Professor J. Graham 

Kerr 305 

Investigations in the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the 
West of Scotland at Millport.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
John Murray (Chairman), Dr. J. F. Gemmill (Secretary), Professors 
Bower, Cossae Ewaet, W. A. Heedman, and M. Laueie, and Messrs. 

Alex. Someeville and J. A. Todd 308 

Report on the Crustacea collected during the Dredging Cruise of the 
Millport Marine Biological Association's Steamer ' Mermaid ' since 

May 1902. By A lexandbe Patience 308 

The Micro-chemistry of Cells.— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. A. Schafee (Chairman), Professor A. B. Macallum (Secre- 
tary), Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor W. D. Halliburton, Dr. 
G. C. Bourne, and Professor J. J. Mackenzie. (Drawn up by the 

Secretary.) 310 

Terrestrial Surface Waves.- Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. 
Scott Keltie (Chairman'), Dr. Vaughan Coenish (Secretary), Colonel F. 
Bailey, Mr. E. A. Floyee, Professor J. Milne, and Mr. W. H. Wheeler. 

(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 312 

Women's Labour.— Third and Final Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. E. AV. Beabrook (Chairman), Mr. A. L. Bowley (Secretary), Miss 
A. M. Anderson, Miss Blackburn, Mr. C. Booth, Professor S. J. 
Chapman, Miss C. E. Collet, Professor F. Y. Edgewoeth, Mrs. J. R. 
MacDonald, Mr. L. L. Peice, Professor VV. Smart, Dr. G. Adam Smith,_ 
and Mrs. H. J. Tennant, appointed to investigate the Economic Elfect of 
Legislation regulating Women's Labour. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) ... 315 

Section I.— Effect on Hours Worked by Women 318 

„ II.— Effect on Hours Worked by Others 322 

III.— Effect on Size of Workshops and Factories 322 

IV.— Effect on Employment of Women and Methods of Pro- 

auction "•^-■* 

(General Statistics, p. 328; Statistics re Bleaching and 
Clothing, p. 382) 

„ V. — Effect on Wages and Earnings 337 

,, VI.— Effect on Efilciency of Women 339 

„ Yir. — Effect on Efficiency of Industrial Processes 339 

Conclusion 340 

Note to Report. By Aliss HEATnER-BiGG..,....,,...,.: 342 



viii REPORT — 1903. 

Page 

Appendix I. — Eeports of Investigators 342 

„ II. — Special Report on Laundries. By Miss Andehson... 350 

„ III.— The Factory Acts and Infant Mortality 301 

,, IV. — Recent Legislation Abroad. By E. W. Brabeook... 364 

The Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir J. I. Thokntceoi'T (Chairman), Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw 
(Secretary), Mr. T. Aitken, Mr. T. C. Aveling (Treasurer), Professor T. 
Hudson Beaee, Mr. "VV. Woebt Beaumont, Mr. J. Beown, Colonel R. E. B. 
Ceomptox, Mr. B. J. Diplock, Mr. A. Mallock, Professor J. Peeet, Sir 
D. Salomons, Mr. A. R. Sennett, and Mr. E. Sheapnell Smith. (Drawn 
up, at the request of the Committee, by the Secretary, assisted by Mr. J. F. 
Gill, B.Sc.j 365 

I. Results of Trials made with Committee's Dynamometer 365 

II. Suggestions by Mr. B. J. Diplock 369 

III, Papers read at the Second International Congress on Automobilism, 

Paris, 1903 372 

IV. Negotiations with the War Office 377 

Small Screw Gauge. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. 
Peeece (Chairman), Mr. W. A. Peice (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Sir 
F. J. Beamwell, Sir H. Teueman Wood, Major-General Webbek, Colonel 
Watkin, Lieut.-Colonel Ceompton, Messrs. A, Steoh, A. Le Neve 
FosTEE, C. J. Hewitt, G. K. B. Elphinstone, E. Rigg, C. V. Boys, J. 
Maeshall Goeham, O. P. Clements, W. Tatloe, Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, and Mr. Mark Baer, appointed to consider means by which 
Practical Effect can be given to the introduction of the Screw Gauge pro- 
posed by the Association in 1884 378 

Anthropometric Investigation in Creat Britain and Ireland. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. CJleland (Chairman), Mr. J. Gray 
(Secretary), Dr. T. II. Brych, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Professor 
A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. D. Hepbuen, 
and Mr. J. L. Myres. 389 

Arcbseological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres 
(Secretary), Mr. A. J. Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Professor A. Mac- 
ALiSTEE, and Professor W. Ridgeway 402 

(1) Mr. Aethur Evans's Excavations at Knossos 402 

(2) Report on Anthropological Work in Athens and in Crete by W. L. H. 

Duckworth, M.A , 404 

Silchester Excavations. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Arthur 
J. Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), and Mr. E. W. Bra- 
beook, appointed to co-operate with the Silchester Excavation Fund 
Committee in their Excavations 412 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury. — Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. R. MuNEO (Chairman), Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), 
Sir John Evans, Mr. Aethue J. Evans, Mr. Heney Balfoue, Mr. C. H. 
Read, and Mr. A. Bulleid 414 

Pigmentation Survey of the School Children of Scotland. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. E. W. Brabrook (Chairman), Mr. J. Gray 
(Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, Professor A. Macalister, Professor D. J. 
Cunningham, Mr. J. F. Tocher, and Dr, W. H. R. Rivers 415 

The Psychology and Sociology of the Todas and other Tribes of Southern 
India. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Ridgeway 
(Chairman), Dr. W. H. R. Rivers (Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, and 
Mr. W. Crooke 415 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Botanical Photof^raplas.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
L. C. MiALL (Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss (Secretary), Mr. Feancib 
Bakwin, Mr. G. F. Scott-Elliot, and Mr. A. K. CoomaeaswXmy, 
appointed to consider and report npon a Scheme for the Registration of 
Negatives of Botanical Photographs 410 

Investigation of the Cyanophyceee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. B. Faemer (Chairman), Dr. F. F. Blaceman (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Marshall Ward, Mr. Walter Gaedixee, and Dr. D. II. Scott. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 419 

The Teaching of Botany in Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor L. C. Miall (Chairman), Mr. Haeolb Wagee (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor J. R. Green, Mr. A. C. Seward, Professors H. Marshall AVaed, 
J. B. Farmer, and T. Johnson, Miss Lilian Claeke, and Dr. C. W. 
KiMMINS 420 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor H. E. Armsteong (Secretary), Lord Ateburt, 
Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. George Gladstone, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Professor A. Smithells, and Professor S. P. 
Thompson 429 

Influence of Examinations. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
the Bishop of Hereford, Sir Michael Foster, Sir P. Magnus, Sir A. W. 
RircKER, Sir 0. J. Lodge, Mr. H. W. Eve, Mr. W. A. Shenstone, Mr. 
W. D. Eggar, Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. F. II. Neville, Mrs. 
AV. N. Shaw, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), 
and Mr. R. A. Gregory (Secretary), appointed to consider and report upon 

[ the Influence exercised by Universities and Examining Bodies on Secondary 
School Curricula ; also of the Schools on University Requirements. (Drawn 
up by the Chairman.) 434 

The Conditions of Health essential to the Carrying-on of the Work of 
Instruction in Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Mr. E. AVhite Wallis (Secretary), Mr. 
E. AV. Beabeook, Dr. C. W, Kimmins, Professor L. C. Miall, and Miss 
A. C. Maitland 455 

Appendix. I. — Notes on the Essentials of School Buildings 456 

„ II. — Eyesight in School Children 460 

„ III. — Need for Appointment of AVomen-inspectors 462 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. \V. AA'hitakee (Chairman), Mr. F. AV. Ritdlee (Secretary), Sir John 
Evans, Rev. J. O. Bevan, Dr. Hoeace T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. 
Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and 
Professor W. AV. Watts. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 465 

Report of the Conferences of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held at 
Southport, September 1903 467 

The Methods and Results of a Botanical Survey of Counties. By AV. 
MuNN Rankin, B.Sc. (Lond.) 477 

Note on Maps of the Ordnance Survey. By T. V. Holmes, F.G.S 481 

A Suggestion with respect to Exploration and Registration Work for 
County Local Societies. By AVilliam Cole. F.L.S., Hon. Sec. Essex 
Field Club .' 482 



y; REPORT — 1903. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.—MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Page 

Address ty Charles Vernon Bots, F.R.S., Tresidcnt of the Section 525 

1. On the Electro-ethereal Theory of the Velocity of Light in Gases, Liquids, 

and Solids. By Lord Kelvin, O.M., G.C.V.0 535 

2. *Discussion on the Nature of the Emanations from Radium. Opened by 

Professor E. IIuthekfoed 535 

Contribution by Lord Kelvin, O.M., G.C.V.0 535 

3. tJber die in der Atmosphilre und im Erdboden enthaltene radioaktive 
Emanation. Von T. Elsteb u. 11. Gextel 537 

4. Cosmical Radio-activity. By Professor Arthur Scuustek, F.R.S 538 

5. Intensification of Chemical Action by the Emanations from Gold and 
Platinum. By G. T. Bbildt 539 

t^ • FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Sub-section — Astronomy and Meteoeologt. 

Address by W. N. Shaav, Sc.D., F.R.S., Chairman (Methods of Meteorological 

Investigation) 541 

1. tOn Simultaneous Solar and Terrestrial Phenomena. By Sir Norman 
LocKYER, K.C.B., F.R.S 549 

2. *0n the Relation of the Rainfall of Scotland to the Sun-spot Periods, 

1855-98. By A. Buchan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E 549 

3. Etudes sur les Dt5pressions Barometriques a Diverses Hauteurs. Par 

L. Teisserenc de Boet 549 

4. The Origin and Forms of Hoar Frost. Bv Kael Grossmann, M.D., 
F.R.C.S., F.G.S., and Joseph Lomas, A.R.C.S., F.G.S 555 

Department of Physics. 

1. tDiscussion on the Treatment of Irreversible Processes in Thermo- 

dynamics. Opened by J. Swinburne, M.Inst.C.E 55G 

2. Note on the Rate of Combustion and Explosive Pressure of Cordite. By 

J. E. Petavel 556 

3. Granular and SpicuJar Structure in Solids. By G. T. Beilbt 557 



CONTENTS. XI 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER l4. 

Depaetment of Mathematics, 

Page 

1. On the Differential Invariants of Surfaces and of Space. By Professor 

A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S 559 

2. On Spherical Curves. By Harold Hilton, M.A 559 

3. The Use of Tangential Co-ordinates. By R. W. H. T. Hudson 560 

4. *The Determination of Successive High Primes. By Lieut. -Colonel A. 

Cunningham, R.E., and H. J. Woodall 561 

5. Algebraic Curves on Kummer's 16-nodal Quartic Surface. By R. W. PI. 

T. Hudson 561 

Sub-section — Astronomy and Meteorology. 

1. *Emploie de ITIygrometre a Cheveu au lieu du Psychrometre. By 
Hofrath J. M. Pernter 561 

2. Was the ' New ' Star in Gemini shining previously as a very Faint Star ? 

By Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, F.R.S. 562 

3. Sur la Circulation generale de I'Atmosphere. Par H. H. Hilde- 

BRANDSSON 562 

4. Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites 

(p. 31) 565 

5. Results of the Exploration of the Air with Kites at Blue Hill Observatory, 

Mass., U.S.A., during 1900-2, and the Use of this Method on the 
Tropical Oceans. By A. Lawrence Rotch, B.S., M. A 565 

6. Work of the International Aeronautical Committee. Bj' Professor H. 
Herg esell 566 

7. Photographs of the Orion Nebula. By W. E. Wilson, F.R.S 567 

8. Lightning and its Spectra. By W. J. S. Loceyee, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.A.S. 567 

9. On the Phenomena accompanying the Volcanic Eruptions in the West 
Indies. By David Burns 667 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 
Department of Mathematics .vnd Physics. 

1. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 33) 568 

2. Note on Carbon and Iron Arc Spectra at High Gaseous Pressures. By 

R. S. HuTTON and J. E. Petavel , 568 

3. How to Exhibit in Optical Instruments the Resolution of Light into its 

Component Undulations of Flat Wavelets, and how to Employ this 
Resolution as our Guide in Making and in Interpreting Experiments. 
By G. Johnstone Stoney, M.A, Hon.Sc.D., F.R.S 568 

4. On the Form of Lagrange's Eq^uations for Non-Holonomic Systems. 

By Professor Ludavig Boltzmann 569 

5. *Wave-propagation in a Dispersive Medium. By Professor A. Schuster, 
F.R.S 569 

6. Discussion on the Use of Vectorial Methods in Physics. Opened by 

Professor O. Hesrici, F.R.S. (p. 51) .'. 569 

Contribution to the Discussion on Vectors. By James Swinburne, 
M.Inst.C.E 569 



xii REPORT — 1903. 

Page 

7. Consideration of some Points in the Design and Worliing of Ballistic 
Galvanometers. By P. H. Powell, B.Sc 570 

8. On the Use of Capacities as Multipliers for Electrostatic Voltmeters in 
Alternating Current Circuits. By Professor E. W. Makchant, D.Sc, 
andG. W. WoEBALL, B.Sc 572 

SUB-SECXION OP ASTKONOMY AND MeTEOBOLOGY, 

1. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 77) 573 

2. ^Exhibition of Photographs made with the Spectro-PIeliograph of the 
Yerkes Observatory. By A. R. Hinks, M.A 573 

3. Piadiation through a Foggy Atmosphere. By Professor Aethue 
ScHtrsTEE, F.E..S 573 

4. *Eclipse Observations of Jupiter's Satellites: a Study of the Ordinary 

Observations in Comparison with the Photometric Observations of 
Harvard. By Professor R. A. Sampson 574 

5. Solar Prominences and Terrestrial Magnetism. By the Rev. A. L. 

CoETiE, S.J., F.R.A.S .' 574 

G. Comparison of the Spectrum of Nitrogen and of the Aurora. By Dr. A. 
Paulsen 575 

7. ^Discussion on Kite Observations continued 578 

8. Diurnal Range of the Summer Temperature of the Levant. By 
Alexandee BucHAN, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E 578 

9. Progress of the Magnetic Survey of the United States. By L. A. Batjee 570 
10. tThe Earth's Total Magnetic Energy. By L. A. Bauee 580 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. A Probable Relationship between the Solar Prominences and Corona. 

By William J. S. Lockyee, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.A.S 580 

2. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 56) 581 

3. *Electrical Self-recording Instruments. By Professor H. L. Callendae, 

F.R.S 581 

4. Effect of Meteorological Conditions upon Audibility. By A. Laaveence 

RoTCH, B.S., M.A 681 

5. On some Rainfall Problems. By Hugh Robeet Mill, D.Sc, LL.D. ...581 



Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Address by Professor Waltee Noel Haetley, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 

President of the Section 583 

1. Apparatus for determining Latent Heat of Evaporation. By Professor 

J. Campbell Beown, D.Sc 602 

2. *0n some Derivatives of Fluorene. By Miss Ida Smedley 603 

3. Action of Diastase on the Starch Granules of Raw and Malted Barley. 

By Aethue R. Ling, F.I.C 603 

4. Action of Malt Diastase on Potato-starch Paste. By Aethue R. Ling, 

F.LC 604 



CONTENTS. XIU 

Page 

6. Action of Malt Diastase on Potato-starch Paste. By BeeNARd F. Davis. 
B.Sc, and Arthur E. Ling, F.I.C 604 

6 The Chemical and Physical Characters of the so-called 'Mad-stone.' 

By Dr. H. C. White 605 

7 On the Reduction of Nitrates by Sewage. By Professor E. A. Letts, 

B.Sc, Ph.D., R. F. Blake, F.I.C, and J. S. Totton, B.A 606 

8. On a Method for the Separation of Cobalt from Nickel, and the 
Volumetric Determination of Cobalt. By R. L. Taylok, F.I.C 608 

9 Report of the Committee on Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of 
Benzene (p. 85) 609 

10. Report of the Committee on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives (p. 174) 609 

11. Report of the Committee on the Possibility of making Special Reports 
more available than at present (p. 169) 



609 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. *^ Investigations at Low Temperatures :— -(a) Densities of Solid Hydrogen, 
Nitrogen, and Oxygen ; (6) Methods of producing Solid Hydrogen and 
Nitrogen ; (c) Latent Heats, Specific Heats, and Coefficient of Expansion 

of Liquid Hydrogen. By Professor James Dewae, LL.D., F.R.S 609 

2. The Application of Low Temperatures to tlie Study of Biological Pro- 

blems. By Allan Macfadten, M.D 609 

3. Report of the Committee on securing Duty-free Alcohol for Scientific 

Research (p. 170) 612 

4. The Cause of the Lustre produced on Mercerising Cotton under Tension. 

By Julius Hubxee, F.C.S., and William J. Pope, F.R.S 012 

5. Stead's recent Researches as to the Causes and Prevention of Brittleness 

in Steel. By Professor T. Tuenee, M.Sc 613 

6. The Colours of Iodides. By William Ackrotd, F.I.C 014 

7. On Essential Oils. By Dr. 0. Silberead 614 

8. The Cholesterol Group. By R. H. Pickaed, D.Sc 616 

9. On Acrldines. By Professor A. Seniee, Ph.D 616 

10. Sur le Spectre de 'Self-induction' du Silicium et ses comparaisons 
Astronomiques. Par le Comte A. de GEiMOJfT 620 

11. The Theory of Dyeing. By Professor G. VON Geoegikvics 622 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 

1. The Slow Combustion of Methane and Ethane. By William A. Bone, 

D.Sc, Ph.D 624 

2. Fluorescence as related to the Constitution of Organic Substances. By 

John Theodore Heavitt 628 

8. Preliminary Note on some Electric Furnace Reactions under High 
Gaseous Pressures. By J. E. Petavel and R. S. Hutton 630 

4. The Atomic Latent Heats of Fusion of the Metals considered from the 

Kinetic Standpoint. By Holland Ceompton 631 

5. The Influence of Small Quantities of Water in bringing about Chemical 
Reaction between Salts. By Edgae Philip Pbeman, D.Sc 631 

6. Report of the Committee on the Relation between the Absorption Spectra 
and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances (p. 126) 632 



xiv REPORT— 1903. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

Page 

1. Freezing-point Curves for Binary Systems. By James C. Philip, M.A., 

PLD 632 

2. A Contribution to the Constitution of Disaceliarides. By Thos. Ptjedie, 
F.Ii.S., and James C. Irvine, Ph.D., D.Sc 633 

3. Mutarotation in relation to the Lactonic Structure of Glucose. By E. 
Feankland Aemsteong, Ph.D 635 

4. Synthesis of Glucosides. By W. Sloax Mills, M.A 635 

5. Preparation of Oxinaido-compounds. By AV. Sloan Mills, M.A 636 

6. The Action of Oxides of Nitrogen on Oximido-compounds. By W. Sloan 

Mills, M.A 637 

7. Further Investigation on the Approximate Estimation of Minute Quan- 
tities of Arsenic in Food. By William Thomson, F.I.C., F.R.S.E. ... 638 

8. Report of the Committee on the Study of Hydro-Aromatic Substances 

(p. 179) 639 

9. Report of the Committee on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 

Elements and Compounds (p. 87) 639 

10. Experiments and Observations with Radium Compounds. By William 

AcKKOYD, F.I.C 639 

Section C.-^GEOLOGY. 
thursday, september 10. 

Address bv Professor W. W. Watts, M.Sc, Sec.G.S., President of the 

Section 641 

1. The Geology of the Country round Southport. By J. Lomas, A.R.C.S., 

F.G.S. ...: 654 

2. Martin Mere. By Harold Brodrick, M.A 656 

3. *Report of the Committee on the Registration of Type Specimens of Fossils 656 

4. *Report of the Committee on the Structure of Crystals 656 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. On the Lakes of the Upper Engadine. By Anbre Delebeoque 657 

2. On a Preglacial or Early Glacial Raised Beach in County Cork. By 

H. B. Muff, B.A., F.G.S., and W. B. Wright, B.A 657 

3. Land Shells in the Infra-Glacial Chalk-rubble at Sewerby, near Bridlington. 

By G. W. Lampltjgh, F.G.S 659 

4. Preliminary Report of the Committee on the Estuarine Deposits at 

Kirmington, Lincolnshire (p. 218) 659 

C. Report of the Committee on Erratic Blocks (p. 231) 659 

0. Report of the Committee appointed to explore Irish Caves (p. 183) 659 

7. Report of the Committee on Underground Waters of North-west York- 

shire (p. 192) 660 

8. Report of the Committee on Geological Photographs (p. 197) 660 

9. *0a the Practical Value of certain Species of Molluscs in the Coal Measures. 

By Wheelton Hind, M.D., F.R.C.S,, F.G.S 660 



CONTENTS, XV 

Page 

10. Report of the Committee on Life Zones in tlio British Carboniferous 
lioclis (p. 185) 660 

11. On some Igneous Rocks near Weston-super-Mare, Somersetshire. By 

VV. S. BouLTON, B.Sc, A.R.C.S., F.G.S 660 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1 . On Dedolomitisation. By J. J. H. Teall, M. A., F.R.S 660 

2. Fossil Floras of South Africa. By A. C. Sewaed, F.R.S 6G1 

3. On a Carboniferous Acanthodian Fish, Oyracanthides. By A. Smith 

Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S 662 

4. On some Dinosaurian Bones from South Brazil. By A. Smith Wood- 
ward, LL.D., F.R.S 663 

5. On Polyzoa as Rock-cementing Organisms. By J. Lomas, A.R.C.S., F.G.S. 663 

6. On the Igneous Rocks of the Berwyns. By T. H. Cope and J. Lomas ... 664 

7. The Llanvirn Beds in Carnarvonshire. By W. G. Fearnsides 665 

8. On the Fossil Flora of the Ardwick Series of Manchester. By E. A, 
Newell Aebee, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S 665 

9. Report of the Committee on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the 
British Isles (p. 219) 665 

10. On the Base of the Keuper in South Devon. By AleS. Someevail 665 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. On the Disturbance of Junction Beds from Differelitial Shrinkage and 

similar Local Causes during Consolidation. By G. W. Lamplugh, F.G.S. 660 

2. *0n some Contorted Strata occurring on the Coast of Northumberland. 

By J. G. GooDCHiLD 667 

3. Some Facts bearing on the Origin of Eruptive Rocks. By J. G. Good- 

child 667 

4. On a Possible Cause of the Lethal Effects produced by the Dust emitted 

during the Recent Volcanic Eruptions in the West Indies. By J. G. 
GoODCHILD 668 

6. *Notes on the Metalliferous Deposits of the South of Scotland. By J. G. 

GooDCHiLD and Wilbert Goodchild, M.B 668 

6. *Notes on the Glacial Drainage of the Forest of Rossendale. By 

A. JowETT 668 

7. A Theory of the Origin of Continents and Ocean Basins. By William 

Mackie, M.A., M.D 668 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Report of the Committee on Changes in the Sea Coast of the United King- 

dom (p. 258) 669 

2. Notes on the Sarsen Stones of the Bagshot District. By Horace 

WOOLLASTON MoNOKTON, F.L.S., F.G.S 669 

3. On the Occurrence of Stous Implements in the Thames Valley between 

Reading and Maidenhead. By Llewellyn Treacher, F.G S 670 

4. On the Origin of certain Quartz Dykes in the Isle of Man. By J. Lomas, 

A.R,C.S., F.G.S 671 



xvl REPORT — 1903. 

Page 
6. Supplemental'y List of Miaerala oceurring in Ireland. By Henry J. 

Seymour, B.A., F.G.S 671 

6. The Average Composition of the Ig-neous Rocks. By F. P. Mennell, 

F.G.S....! 671 



Section D. -ZOOLOGY. 

Address by Professor Sydney J. Hickson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of 
the Section 672 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Some Results on the Morphology and Development of Recent and Fossil 
Corals. By J. E. DuERDEN, Ph.D., A.R.O.Sc. (Loud.) 684 

2. The Coral Formations of Zanzibar and East Africa. By Cyril Crossland 68.5 

3. *Notes on the Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean. By J. Stanley 
Gardiner, M.A 687 

4. Septal Sequence in the Coral Siderastrtea. By J. E. Duerden, Ph.D., 
A.R.C.Sc. (Lond.) 687 

5 Polymorphism in the Pennatulida. By Professor Sydney J. Hickson, 
F.R.S. .:. 688 

6. The Assimilation and Distribution of Nutriment in Alajonium dtgitatum. 

By Edith M. Pratt, M.Sc 688 

7. On the Origin of the Epiphysis in Amphibia as a Bilateral Structure. By 

John Cameron, M.B 689 

8. Final Report of the Committee on the Migration of Birds (p. 289) 690 

9 Report of the Committee on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples (p. 282) 690 

10. Report of the Committee on the Index Animalium (p. 288) 690 

11. Report of the Committee on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 305) 690 

12. Fourtli Report of the Committee on Coral Reefs of the Indian Region 

(p. 305) 690 

13. 'Interim Report of the Plj'mouth Marine Laboratory Committee 690 

14. Report of the Millport Marine Laboratory Committee (p. 308) 690 

Department of Physiology, 

1. Report of the Committee on the Microchemistry of Cells (p. 310) 690 

2. Report of the Committee on the State of Solution of Proteids (p. 304) ... 690 

3. *Interim Report of the Committee on the Physiological Efl'ects of Peptone 690 

4. *Interim Report of the Committee on the Functions of Visual Purple on 

the Retina 690 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. ;; 

Address by the President 672 

1. The Bionomics of Convoluta roscoffensis,-w\i\\ special reference to its Green 

Cells. By Frederick Keeblb, M.A., and F. W. Gamble, D.Sc 691 

2, Note on the Skull of Grampus griseus found on the Coast near Galway. By 

Professar Richard J. Anderson, M.D 091 



CONTENTS. XVU 

Page 

3, Note on the Peritoneum in Meles taxus. By Professor EiCHAED J. 

Anderson, M.D 692 

4. The Skull of Ursus ornatus. By Professor Hichard J. Anderson, M.D. 692 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. *0n the Significance of Progamic Nuclear Divisions. By Professor 

Marcus Hartog 693 

2. *Nuclear Changes in the Egg oi Alcyoniiim. By M. D, Hill, M.A 093 

3. *The Function of Chromatin in Cell Division (Part I. Heterotype). By 
Professor Marcus Hartog 693 

4. *Discu3sion on Fertilisation 693 

5. tOn the Tentacles of Suctoria. By Professor Marcus Hartog 693 

6. *Demonstration of Slides showing Conjugation in Dendrocometes. By 

Professor S. J. Hickson, F.R.S 693 

7. The Effect of Solutions of Salt and other Substances on the Development 

of the Frog. By J. AV. Jenkinson, M.A 693 

8. Some recent Observations on British Reptiles. By Gerald Leighton, 
M.D., F.R.S.E 694 

9. fNotea on the Coloration of Malayan Reptiles. By N. Annandale, B.A. 694 

10. tNote on the "Walking Fish of the Malay Peninsula. By H. 0. Robinson 694 

11. tExbibition of Convergent Series of Malayan Butterflies. By H. C. 
Robinson 694 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Note on Pearl-formation in ihe Ceylon Pearl Oyster. By Professor 

W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. , and James Hoenell 095 

2. On a Phosphorescence Phenomenon in the Indian Ocean. By Professor 

W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S 695 

3. Note on Birds now rare in the British Isles. By G. P. Hughes, F.R.G.S. 696 

4. Demonstration of A^isual Combination of Complementary Colours. By 

C. A. Greaves, M.B., LL.B 696 

5. Tlie Epithelial Islets of the Pancreas in Teleostei. By John Rennie, 

D.Sc 696 

6. On the Echinodermata of the Firth of Clyde and Variation in OpMocoma 
nigra. By D. C. McIntosh, M.A , 696 

7. Note on the Eggs of the Shanny {Blermius pholis, L.). By Professor 

W. C. McIntosh, M.D., F.R.S 697 

Department of Physiology. 

1. A Physiological Theory to Explain the Winter'whitenuig of Birds and 
Mammals in Snowy Countries, and the most Striking Points in the 
Distribution of AVhite in Vertebrates generally. By Captain G. E. H. 
Barrett-Hamilton 698 

2. A New Form of Osmometer for Direct Determinations of Osmotic 

Pressure of Colloids. By Professor Benjamin Moore, M. A., D.Sc 699 

3. Experiments on the Permeability of Lipoid Membranes. By Professor 
Benjamin Moore, M.A. , D.Sc 700 

1903. a 



xviii REroiiT— 1903. 

Page 

4. tTlie Cerebrum of Apos. By Professor SHEEElNGTOiir, F.R.S., and A. S. 
Geunbatjm, M.D 700 

5. The Origin of Water in Saliva. By Joseph Baeceoft, M.A., B.Sc 700 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Address by Captain Etteick W. Ceeak, C.B., R.N., F.E.S., President of the 

Section 701 

1. tTlie Recent West Indian Eruptions. By Tempest Andeeson, M.D., 
B.Sc 711 

2. The Economic Development of West Africa. By E. D. Moeel 711 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. The Influence of Ice-melting upon Oceanic Circulation. By Professor 

0. Petteesson 712 

2. An Experiment on the Melting of Ice in Salt Water. By J. W. Sand- 
STBOM 715 

3. Report of the Committee on Terrestrial Surface Waves (p. 312) 710 

4. *The British Antarctic Expedition. By Lieut. E. Shacklexon 716 

5. Explorations and Economic Conditions in Western China. By Lieut. - 

Colonel C. C. Manifold 71G 

6. The Afforestation of Waterworks Catchment Areas. By Joseph Paeey, 

M.Inst.C.E 717 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. Notes and Suggestions on Geographical Surveying suited to present re- 

quirements. By E. A. Reeves, E.R.A.S 718 

2. *0u Map Projections suited to general purposes. By G. J. Moreison ... 710 

3. Henricus Glaveanus (Sixteenth Century Geographer) and his recently 

discovered Maps. By Edwaed Heawood, M.A 719 

4. The Results of the Expedition to Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri by Mr. W. 0. 

Grant and Dr. II. 0. Forbes. By H. 0. Foebes, LL.D 720 

e. On the Origin of Adam's Bridge. By J. Lomas, A.R.C.S., F.G.S 721 

6. Geographical Education. By H. J. Mackinder 722 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. On the Relation and Importance of Botany to Geographical Science. By 

Dr. Otto V. Daebishieb 725 

2. The Observation of Features of Vegetation in Geo2:raphieal Exploration. 

By Dr, W. G. Smith T. 72(3 

3. Botanical Survey of the Basins of the Rivers Eden, Tees, Tyne, and 

Wear. By Feancis J. Lewis, F.L.S ' 726 

4. The Peat Moors of the Southern Pennines : their Age and Origin. By 

0. E. Moss, B.Sc :. 727 

5. Queensland. By J. P. Thomson 728 



CONTENTS. XlX 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Page 
Address ty Edward W. Beabeook, C.B., President of the Section 729 

1. The Growth of Rates. By Benedict W. Ginsbueg, M.A., LL.l) 740 

2. Depreciation and Sinldng Funds in Municipal Undertakings. By 

Stanley Hoesfall Tuenee, M.A 741 



Vealth of the Empire, and how it should be used. By Sir Robeet 
EN, K.C.B 741 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. The W( 

GiFFEN, 

2. Eeport of the Committee on the Economic Eflect of Legislation regu- 
lating Women's Labour (p. 315) 743 

3. On the Eating of Land Values. By J. D. Choblton < 743, 

4. The New Labour Party in its Economic Aspect. By II. B. Lees 
Smith, M.A 744 

5. A Contribution to the Statistics of Production and Consumption of the 

United Kingdom. By S. Rosenbattm, B.Sc j.„...,,,744 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. The Potentialities of Applied Science in a Garden City. By A. R. 

Sennett, A.M.Inst.C.E 745 

2. The First Garden City : its Economic Results. By Haeold E. Mooee, 
F.S.1 746 

3. Physical Degeneration and the Poverty Line. By Mrs. H. Bosanquet... 747 

4. A Comparison of Exports to the United States, European Protective 

States, and our Colonies. By B. Ellin &ee 747 

5. The Commercial Relations between Canada and the United Kingdom, 

By F. Beadshaw 748 

6. Some Economic Aspects of the English Colour Industries. By F. Evee- 

soED j.jjj...,, .,..,,,,.,,,,.;...._...... 749 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Statistical Methods and the Fiscal Controversy. By A. L. Bowlet, 
M.A 750 

2. The Failure of Free Traders to Attain their Ideals. By W. Cunning- 
ham, D.D 750 

3. What is Success in Foreign Trade P By Edwin CANNAif, M.A-j IjL.D..,, 751 

l.'l.lfnl.l/. ,./■.)( 

Section G.— ENGINEERING, 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 
Address by Chaeles Hawkslei', M.Inst.C.E., President of the Sectioii 752 

1. *King Edward VII. Bridge over the Paver Thames between Brentford 

andKew. By Ctjthbeet A. Beeeeton, M.Inst.C.E 773 

2. "Illustrations of Graphical Analysis. By J, IIaerisoJ?^ ....i 773 



a 



Q 



XX REPORT — 1903. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 

Page 

1. *The Equipment of the Manchester Municipal Technical Institute. By 

J. H. Reynolds 773 

2. Report of the Committee on the Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction 

(p. 365) 773 

3. *Improvements in Locomobile Design, By T. Clarkson, A.M.Inst.CE. 773 

4. The Problem of Modern Street Traffic. By Lieut,-Golonel Crompton, C,B, 773 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. *The Nature and Quality of some Potable Waters in South-west Lanca- 
shire. By Professor J. Campbell Brown 775 

2. Protective Devices for High-tension Electrical Systems. By W, B. 

WOODHOUSE 775 

3. Aluminium as an Electrical Conductor, By J. B. C. Kershaw, F,I.C... 776 

4. The Electrical Conductivity of certain Aluminium Alloys as affected by 
exposure to the London Atmosphere. By Ernest Wilson 777 

5. A .Method for finding the Efficiency of Series Motors. By Ernest 
Wilson 777 

6. Parallel Working of Alternators. By B. Hopkinson 778 

7. On Electrical Propulsion as the General Means of Transport. By James 

N. Shoolbred, B.A., M.Inst.C.E 779 

8. Report of the Committee on the Small Screw Gauge (p. 378) , 780 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. *Twenty-five Years' Progress in Final and Sanitary Refuse Disposal. By 

W. F, Goodrich 780 

2. High Speed Electrical Monorails and the proposed Manchester and Liver- 

pool Express Railway. By F. B. Behr 780 

3. Oil Fuel. By A.M. Bell 780 

4. Further Experiences with the Infantry Range-finder. By Professor 
George Forbes, F.R.S 782 

5. *Water-supply in South-west Lancashire. By Joseph Parry, M.Inst.C.E. 783 

6. Rainfall on the River Bann, County Down, Ireland, at Banbridge, and at 

Lough Island Reavy Reservoir, By John Smyth, M.A., M.Inst.C.E.I, 783 

7. On the Rate of Fall of Rain at Seathwaite. By Huoh Robert Mill, 
D.Sc, LL.D 783 

8. Ou the Tidal Regime of the River Mersey. By James N. Shoolbred, 
B.A., M.In8t.C,E 784 

9. History of the Discovery of Natural Gas in Sussex, Heathfield District. 

By Richard Pearson 785 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Effect of Traffic and AVeatber ou Macadamised Roads, and the 
Prevention of Dust. By T. Aitkbn, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E 787 

2. Pendulum Apparatus for Testing Steel as regards Brittleness. By 

E. G. IzoD 787 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

3. Permanent Set in Cast Iron due to Small Stresses, and Its Bearing on 

the Design of Piston Eings and Springs. By C. H. Wingfield 788 

4. A further Note on Gas-engiue Explosions. By H. E. Wimpekis 789 

6. Preliminary Experiments on Air Friction. By Wm. Odell, A.R.C.Sc 789 

6. On Monophase Induction Repulsion Motors. By William CKAMr, 

A.M.I.E.E 790 

7. On the Ventilation of Tube Railways. By J. W. Thomas, F.I.C, F.C.S. 790 

8. *Experiments in Gas Explosion. By L. Bairstow and A. D. Alexander 791 

9. A new Form of Mirror Extensometer. By John Morrow, M.Sc 791 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 

Address hy Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., President 

of the Section 792 

1. Skulls from Round Barrows in East Yorkshire. By William Weight, 
M.B., M.Sc, F.R.C.S 801 

2. Some Observations on the Pads and Papillary Ridges on the Palm of the 
Hand. By E. J. Evatt 802 

3. Some Recent Excavations at Hastings, and the Human Remains found. 

By J. G. Gabson, M.D., and W. J. Leavis Abbott 802 

4. Remarks on a Collection of Skulls from the Malay Peninsula. By Nelson 
Annandale, B.A 802 

5. *Grattan's Craniometer and Craniometric Methods. By Professor J. 
Symington, M.D., F.R.S 803 

6. Anthropometric Measurements in Crete and other parts of the .^gean 
Area. By W. L. H. Duckworth, M.A. (p. 404) 803 

7. Report of the Committee on Anthropometric Investigation in Great 

Britain and Ireland (p. 389) 803 

8. Report of the Committee on a Pigmentation Survey of the School Children 

of Scotland (p. 415) 803 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Palasolithic Implements from the Shelly Gravel Pit at Swanscombe, Kent. 

By Mrs. C. Stopes * 803 

2. Saw-edged Palseoliths. By Mrs. C. Stopes 804 

3. The Survival of Primitive Implements in the Faroes and Iceland. By 
Nelson Annandale, B.A 805 

4. Coldrum, Kent, and its relation to Stonehenge. By George Clinch ... 805 

5. Excavations at Caerwent, Monmouthshire, 1899-1903. By T. Ashby, 
jun., M.A 806 

0. Ribchester: the Roman Fortress Bremettenacum. By John Gaestans, 
B.Litt 807 

7. The Roman Fort at Brougli. By John Garstang, B.Litt 808 

8. Report of the Committee on the Silchester Excavations (p. 412) 808 

9. On a Prehistoric Drinking-vessel found near Burnley. By Tattersall 

Williamson 808 

10. Antiquities near Kharga, in the Great Oaf is. By Charles S. Myers, M.D. 809 

11. Egyptian Burial Customs. By JoHN Gaest4NG, B.Litt 809 



Xxii REPORT — 1903. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 

1. Report of tlie Committee on the Psychology and Sociology of the Todas 

(p. 415) 810 

2. Toda Kinship and Marriage. By W. If. R. RiVEES, M.D 810 

3. The Toda Dairy. By W. H. R. Riveks, M.D 811 

4. The Ancient Monuments of Northern Honduras and the adjacent parts of 
Yucatan and Guatemala, with some Account of the Former Civilisation 
of these regions and the Characteristics of the Races now inhabiting 
them. By Dr. T. W. Gann 812 

5. The Progress of Islam in India. By William Ceooke, B.A 613 

6. The Ethnology of Early Italy and its Linguistic Relations to that of 
Britain. By Professor R. Seymour Conwat, Litt.D 814 

7. The Origin of Jewellery. By Professor W. Ribgew at 815 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Report of the Committee on Archajological and Ethnological Researches 

in Crete (p. 402) 810 

2. Excavations at Ivnossos in Crete. By A. J. Evans, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.S. 

(p. 402) 817 

3. Exploration in the East of Crete. By R. C. BosANauET, M.A 817 

4. An Early Purple-fishery. By R. C. Bosaxquet, M.A 817 

5. On a pre-Mycenaean Sanctuary with Votive Terracottas at Palaeokastro, 

in Eastern Crete. By John L. Myres, M.A 818 

6. The Temples of Abydos. By Professor W. IM. Flinders Peteie, D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S : 818 

7. The Beginning of the Egvptian Kingdom. By Professor W. M. Flindees 

Petexe, DC.L., LL.D., F.R.S 819 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. On the Occurrence of Stone Implements in the Thames Valley between 
Reading and Maidenhead. By Ll. Teeachee (p. 670) 820 

2. The Rapid Evolution of the Jamaica Black. By Miss PtJLLEN-BuERi' ... 820 

3. Mongoloid Europeans. By David MacRitchie 821 

4. Some Points about Crosses, chiefly Celtic. By Miss A. A. Bulley 822 

5. Some Suggestions as to the Origin of the Brooch, and the probable Use 

of certain Rings at present called ' Armlets.' By Edward Lovett 822 

6. tOn the Ethnology of the Siciutl Indians of British Columbia. By C. Hill 
Tout 823 

7. tOn the Canadian Indians as they are. By David Boyle 823 

8. tOn the Legends of the Dieri and Kindred Tribes of Australia. By 

A. W. HowiTT and Orro Siebkrt 823 

9. A West Indian Aboriginal Wooden Image. By J. E. Dueeden, Ph.D. 823 
10. *0n a Model of the Arbor Low gtone Circle. By H. Balfoue, M.A. ... 823 



CONTENTS. XXIU 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Page 
Address by A. C. Sewaed, M.A., F.RS., President of the Section 824 

1. Keport of the Committee on the Teaching of Botany in Schools (p. 420) 849 

2. Report of the Committee on the Investigation of the Oyanophjcese 

(p. 419) 849 

3. Report of the Committee on Botanical Photographs (p. 416) 849 

4. *Report of the Committee on the Respiration of Plants 849 

6. The Development of the Ascocarp in Ryparohiua, By B. T. P. Barker, 
M.A 849 

6. Culture Experiments with Biologic Forms of the Erysiphacece. By 

E. S. Salmon 850 

7. "Willow-canker. By Professor T. Johnson, D.Sc, F.L S 850 

8. On the Occurrence of Ulua laiissima and Enteromorp/ta compressa in 

Sewage Effluents, and on Variations in the Composition of the Tissues 
of these and Allied Seaweeds. By Professor Letts, D.Sc, Ph.D., and 
J. S. ToTTON,B.A 851 

9. On the Colonisation of a Dried River-bed. By Miss M. C. Stopes 852 

10 *The Botany of Upper Peru. By A. W. Hill, M.A 853 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. *New Discoveries in Heredity. By AV. Bateson, F.R.S 853 

2. * Results of some Cross-breeding Experiments with Plants. By Miss 
Edith Saundeks 853 

3. Recent Experiments in the Hybridisation of Orchids. By Chaeles C. 

Htiest 853 

4. *La flenr des Gnetacees. By Professor Ligniee 854 

5. 'Parthenogenesis in 6r?ze^Mm w/a. By Dr. Lorsr 854 

6. The Sandhill Vegetation of Birkdale. By Otto V. Daebishiee 854 

7. The Histology of the Sieve Tubes of Angiospenns. By Aethur W. 
Hill, M.A 854 

8. The Structure of Leaves of the Bracken from difl'erent habitats. By 

L. A. Boodle 855 

MOiYDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. Discussion on the Evolution of Monocotyledons 855 

i. The Evolution of Monocotyledons. By Ethel Saegant 855 

ii. A Consideration of the Bearing of Fertilisation Phenomena and 
Embryo Sac Structure on the Origin of Monocotyledons. By Ethel 
N. Thomas ". 857 

2. *0n Stimulus and Mechanism as Factors of Organisation. By Professor 

Faemee, F.R.S 868 

3. Alternation of Generations in the Uictyotaceci; and the Cytology of the 

Asexual Generation. By J. Llotd Williams 858 



xxiv REPORT~1903. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

Page 

1. *Modern Views on the Phylojjeny of the Algm, By Dr. F. F. Blackman 858 

2. *The new Botanical Laboratory at Cambridge. By Professor H. Mae- 
shall Wakd, F.R.S.. 859 

3. *The Seed of Lyginodendron. By Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and Pro- 
fessor F. W. Oliveb 859 

4. Fruit-dispersal in Adenostemma viscosum, Forst. By R. 11. Yapp, M.A. 859 

5. On Homoeomorpliy among Fossil Plants. By E. A. Newell Aebeb, 
M.A 859 

6. 'Methods of Mapping Plant Distribution. By T. W. Woodhead 860 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. On some Anatomical Features of the ScutoUum in Zea Mais, By 

Ethel Saegant and Agnes Robertson 860 

2. Experiments with the Staminal Hairs of Tradescantia. By Haeold 
AVagee 860 

3. On the Localisation of Anthocyan (red-cell sap) in Foliage Leaves, By 

J. Paeein, M.A 862 

4. The Forest Resources of Australia available for British Commerce. By 

E. T. SCAMMELL 862 

5. On the Preservation, Seasoning, and Strengthening of Timber by the 
Powell Process. By Wm. Powell 863 

6. *Plants on the Serpentine Rocks in the North-East of Scotland. By W. 
Wilson .,, 864 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Address by Sir William de W. Abnet, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S , 

President of the Section 865 

1. On School Curricula 876 

i. By Professor Michael E. Sadlee, M.A., LL.D 876 

ii. By Professor J. Adams, M.A., B.Sc 878 

iii. By T. E. Page, M.A 879 

iv. By G. F. Daniell, B.Sc 880 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. On Curricula of Girls' Schools 882 

i. By Miss S. A. Buestall, B.A 882 

ii. By Professor H. E. Aembteong, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S 883 

2, On School Curricula with Special Reference to Commercial Education ... 885 

i. By J. L. Paton, M.A 885 

ii. By W. C. Fletchee, M.A 886 



CONTENTS. XXV 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 

1. Discussion on the Teaching of Geography. Opened by H. J. Mackindeb, 
M.A.(p.722) :888 

2. Report on the Teaching of Botany (p. 420) 888 

3. Report on the Conditions of Health essential to the carrying on of the 

"Work of Instruction in Schools (p. 465) 888 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

1. Report on the Influence of Examinations (p. 434) 888 

2. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools (p. 429) 888 

Index 889 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 
Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations, 

Plates II. and III. 

Illustrating the Report on tbe Movements of Underground Waters of North-west 

Yorkshire. 

Plates IV. to VIII. , 

Illustrating the Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles, 

Plate IX. 

Illustrating the Report on Changes in the Sea Coast of the United Kingdom, 

Plate X. 
Illustrating the Report on Terrestrial Surface Waves. 

Plate XI. 
Illustrating the Report on the Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

TuE Association contemplates no interference with tlio ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress, 

RULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The OfiBcers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, SuhsGriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the K-cports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



xxviii REPORT — 1903. 

gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annnal Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
allfiiture years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
gabsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to jJHiY'/iase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.* 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

• A few complete sets, 1831 to ISTi, are on sale at £10 the set. 



RULES OS' XHte ASSOCIATION. XXIX 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance ' ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must he 
sent to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting 
of the Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to he placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to he sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before tfie opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to exercise the func- 
tions of Sectional Committees until their names are submitted to the 
General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,** and of preparing Reports 

> Revised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 189G. 
"^ Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

' Passed, Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. 

■* Notice to Contributors of Meviuim. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 



XXX REPORT — 1903. 

thereon, and on the order in wliicli it is desirable that they should be 
read. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex oficio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetino-s as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under°any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting at 
2 P.M., to appoint members of the Sectional Committee. ^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees. '^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section, who will be appointed by the 
General Committee at 4 p.m., and those previous Presidents and Vice- 
Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., 
in their Committee Rooms, and appoint the Sectional Committees by 
selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. Any 
Member who has intimated the intention of attending the Meeting, and 
who has already served upon a Committee of a Section, is eligible for 
election as a Member of the Committee of that Section at its first 
meeting.* The Sectional Committees thus constituted shall have power 
to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedino^s. 



Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'^ Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee except for Saturday. '' 

The business is to be conducted in the followina: manner : — 



o 



1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes c£ 
the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the heginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, witli printed copies of their lieports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in tlie Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary before the conclmioji of the Meethiq. 

• Sheffield, 1879. "= Swansea, 1880, revised, Dover, 1899. 

3 Edinburgh, 1871, revised, Dover, 1899. ■• Glasgow, 1901. 

'■' The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1383. " Nottingham, 1893. 



RULES OF IHE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly- 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 

ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.^ 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed.* At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been I'ead on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee {vide p. xxxi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be ofiered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 

> Plymouth, 1877. ' Kdiiiburgli, 1871. 



xxxii REPORT — 1903. 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the oflB.ce, the Chairman to 
have the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has 
been made) and securing the presentation of the report in due time ; and, 
farther, it is expedient that one of the members should be appointed to 
act as Secretary, for ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on 
a Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient working. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommenda- 
tion of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the 
several Sections, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the 
several Committees appointed on the recommendation of their respective 
Sections had presented their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee 
for a special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, the number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, 
but that the Members to serve on such Committee be nominated and 
selected by the Sectional Committee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this he 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money? 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 

4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 

terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 189C. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIU 

5. In each Committee the Chali-raan is tlie only person entitled to 

call on the Treasurer, Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such gi-ants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of any description are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Council. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereio 
can he used for no notices, Bxhibitiovs, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken, ^ and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisiotis desirable. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours 
Qf meeting of the Section and o£ the Sectional Committee, except for Saturday. 
1903. b 



XXxiv REPORT — 1903. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers, 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Official Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed en 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Comnuttee of Recommendations are the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General and Assistant- 
General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents 
of the Association in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.'^ 

' Passed by the General Committee at Birmingharn, 1803. 
« P.asscrl by the General Committee at Leeds, Ifsgo. 



fltJLES OP THE ASSOClATtOW. XXXV 



Corresponding Societies} 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association whicli undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, a 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required lor the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee, 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10.2 The Organising Committees of each Section shall be instructed to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 
* Revised by the General Committee, 1903. 

b2 



xxxvi REPORT — 1903. 

transmit to the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any 
recommendations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation 
of Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 



Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Offi.cei's. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 
C. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 
7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVU 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rale, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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REPom — 1903. 



TRUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-]903. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MUSCHISON (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1872 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

AVEBUKY), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playfaie, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. (Sir) A. W. RiJCKEK, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



■1 831 Jonathan Gbay, Esq. 
1832-G2 John Taylok, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
1891-98 Prof. A. W. RiJCKER, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835 



-36 



183C-37 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Vernon Haecourt, 

Veenon Harcourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1837-39 
1839-45 



1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 



1863-65 



1865- 
1866- 



Vernon Haecourt, 
F.R.S., and R. I. Murchison, 
E.sq., F.R.S. 
R. L Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 
and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. MuECHisoN, F.R.S., 
and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
50 Lieut.-Colonel E.Sabine, F.R.S. 

52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 

53 J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. • 
59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
01 Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 

62 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 

63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 

W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S, 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

F. Galton, Ei5q., F.R.S., and 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



1868-71 Dr. T. A. Hibst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S.. and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. SCLATER, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. BALFOUR, F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G.Vernon Harcol'RT, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G. Vernon Haecoubt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFEE, F.R.S. 
1897- Prof. SCHAFER, F.R.S., and Sir 

1900 W.C.ROBERTS-AUSTEN,F.R.S. 

1900-02 Sir W. C. Robeets-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
1902-03 Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 
MajorP. A. MacMahon, F.R S. 
1903 Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

ScCT'CijQ.T'lJ 

1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

Assittant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., A.ctmg 

Sccretari/, 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. BoNNEY, F.R.S., 

Secretary/. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A,, 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq,. M.A. 
1902 J. G, Gaeson, Esq., M.D. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Kev. W. ■\\Tiewell, F.R.S. 



Eev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. "W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

Prof. M'bulloch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

-p T> O 

Lord Wrotte-sley, F.R.S. . 
William Hopkins, F.R.S.. 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof.' Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J .Macquorn Rankine.Prof . Smyth , 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
' Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
I Prof. Stevelly. 



liv 



REPORT — 1903. 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 



Presidents 



Rev. W. Whewell, 
V.P.E.S. 



Secretaries 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 



D.D., Eev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 
Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 
Tyndall. 
TheEarlof Rosse, M.A.,K.P., J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 



F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A. 



J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
F.R.S... .Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 
Prof. Stevelly. 
,G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., iProf. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

F.E.S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A.,iProf. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 
I F.R.S. ; Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 

! Prof. W.J. MacquornRankine, Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 



C.E., F.R.S 
Prof. Cayley, 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 



Prof. Wheatstone, 
F.R.S. 



Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
M.A., F.R.S., : Prof . Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 
Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 
S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 
J. M. Wilson. 
D.C.L.,FleemingJenkin,Prof.H. J. S.Smith, 
Rev. S. N. Swann. 



Prof. Sir W.Thomson, D.C.L.,1 Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C.Foster, 



Tyndall, LL.D. 



! F.R.S. 

Prof. J, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, 
I F.R.S. 

J. Clerk Maxwell, 
I LL.D., F.R.S. 



1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford.., 

1874. Belfast , 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin.. .. 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 



Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 
R. B. Hayward. 
LL.D., Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 
W. K. CliflEord. 
M.A., Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 
Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 
Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Cliiford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Prof.A.S.Herschel,G.F.Rodwell. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. .{Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 
! W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S.Herschel. 

I Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., ! J.W.L.Glaisher,Prof .Herschel, Ran- 
i M.R.I.A. 1 dal Nixon, J. Perry, G.F.Rodwell. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., Prof. W.F.Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 



1871. Edinburgh Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A. 
D.C.L., F.R.S. 



C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 

Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley. 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 

Prof, G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., j Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Pres. Physical Soc. J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 

Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., ' Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. I W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 

George Johnstone Stoney, A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

M.A., F.R.S. I 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 

Prof.W. Grylls Adams, M.A.,iw. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

F.R.S. j Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A.,; Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O.J. Lodge 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ., 



LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A..Ic. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
LIj.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. i son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896, 

1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 

1901. 

1902, 

1903. 



Aberdeen. . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Presidents 



Newcastle 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiflf 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford . . . 

Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 



Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. HI. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F E, S 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S.— ZJe^^. 
of Astronomy, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— 2>e^. 
of Astrotiomy and Meteor- 
ology, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof . 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
II. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Cha:ttock, J. L. Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H. S. Carslaw, C.H. Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 

Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 

Morton, A. W. Porter. 
D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 

H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 

Loton, A. W. Porter. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINEKALOGT. 



18.S2. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming 



1837. Liverpool.. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S.. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. MiJler, Dr, 
Reynolds. 



Ivi 



BEPORT — 1903. 



Date and Place 

1838 Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 



Presidents 



Rev. "William Whe well,F.R. S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



R3V. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C. B., F.R. S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
W. bdling, M.B., F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.E.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 
I F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 



Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 
Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. .L B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, R. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweenj'. 
Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 

Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 

Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberta, Dr. 

W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 



rilESIDENTS AND SECKETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



► 



1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 
1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 



Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. "W.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 



Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D.. F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E.Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S. 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 
Oxford 



Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B.. F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 

Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 
H. S. Bell, \V. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M, Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon. T.Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W. J. Simpson . 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H.F. Mor- 

ley,W.W..T.Nicol, C.J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



SECTION B (continued). — chemistry. 



r 



1895. Ipswich 

1896. Liverpool 

1897. Toronto 



1898. Bristol... 

1899. Dover ... 

1900. Bradford 

1901. Glasgow 



Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 



E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W, J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1903. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1902. Belfast |Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 

1903. Southport 



Secretaries 



R, F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc.,|Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 

F.R.S. I derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY. 

1832. Oxford IR. I. Murchisou, F.R.S John Taylor. 

1833. Cambridge. iG. B. Greenough, F.R.S |W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

1834. Edinburgh . Prof . Jameson J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle.. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh" 



R. J.Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

^Vrti/.jR.I.Murchison.F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

<?<!0^.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography^ Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

<7<;oi7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 
Charles liyell, F.R.S.— fi'eo/?., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 
F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham.R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Gcoqraphy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton.D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. E. Strickland, J. Scoular. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Rusk in. 
S.Benson, Prof. 01dham,Prof. Ramsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852, Belfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool. 

1855. Glasgow . 



SECTION (contimied). — geology. 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Portlock, R.E., 



Lieut. -Col. 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 



■Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixv. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECBETATIIES OF THE fiECTJONS. 



lijt 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1856. Cheltenham 



i 



1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 
1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871, 

1872. 

1873. 
1874. 

*1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1 1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton... 



Bradford 
Belfast... 



Bristol... 
Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin... 



Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen . . . 
Birmingham 
Manchester 



Prof. A. C. Eamsay; F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M. A., F. R. S. 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

Dr. T.Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D,, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 

worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw, 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. bawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whita,ker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

E. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top 

ley, W. W. Watts. 



Ix 



REPonT— 1903. 



Date and Place 



1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1802. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 
1902. 



Bath. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford... 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 
Toronto 

Bristol ... 

Dover ... 

Bradford 

Glasgow 
Belfast... 



1903. Southport 



Presidents 



Prof.W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Kupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Mart, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

VV. H. Hudleston, F.R.S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

John Home, F.R.S 

Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 



Secretaries 



Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

\V. Watts, H. B. Woodwjtrd. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W, Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDakin. Prof. H. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTAKT, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford iRev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...iRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge' Rev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh . Prof . Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett, 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton, 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr, Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Graj', Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 
I Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S !e. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 

[ terson. 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, 
Hon. and "Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. j Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S, ... G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E, 

Patterson. 



• At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixiv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



1X1 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1844. York Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr, King, 

I Chester. Dr. Lankester. 

1845. Cambridge JRev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 



1846. Southamp- Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
ton. I F.R.S. 



1847. Oxford. 



H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



SECTION D (continued). — ZOOLOG? AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixiv.] 

1848. Swansea ... L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S | Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

I frey, Dr. Lankester. 

William Spence, F.R.S Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. &E. Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 
I B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
ham ' 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 



SECTION D (continued). — BIOLOGY. 



1866. Nottingham Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— JOe/?. 
of Physiol., Fiot. Humphry, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthrojjol., 
A. R. Wallace. 

1867. Dundee ... Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. a/nd Bot., 
George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

1868. Norwich ... Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 
— Dep, of Physiology, W. 
H. Flower, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 



ThQ title of Sectign D was changed to Biology, 



Ixii 



Mtoux—lOOo. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast . 



1878. Dublin , 



1881. York. 



Secretaries 



1875. Bristol ... 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth. 



1879. Sheffield .. 



1880. Swansea .. 



George Busk, F.E.S., F.L.S. 
— Bc}). of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Deji.ofEthno., E. B. Tylor. 
Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., Y.lj.^. — Dcp. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,FiofM. 
Foster, M.D., F.lj.S.—Dep. 
of Etkno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Bot. ami 
.2'otfZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Dcp. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 
Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physuil., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.B,.S.—Bep. ofAnthropol, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 
Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— i^t'j;. of 
Anat.and PhydoUVxoi. B.n- 
therf ord, M .D .— -De_/;. o/^ «- 
thropol. Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 
Prof. Redfern, ^.J).—Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.^.,Vres.^.^.—B(p.ofAn- 
throp., Sir W. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 
P. L. Sclater, Y.^.'^.—Bep.of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 
Cleland, Y.^.'&.—Bep. of 
^/ia.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S. 
A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
B(p. of Anat. and Phydol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 
J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and PhysioL, 
Prof. Macalister.— i)^;/;. of 
AntnTojfol.,^. G&\ton,¥.B..h. 
Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. B..^.—Bep. 
of Anat. and Phydol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. St. George Mivart, 
'P.B,.^.—Bep. of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 
A.C. L. Gunther,F.R.S.— -Z>fi>. 
of Anat. .J- Phydol., F. M. 
Balfour, F.R.S.— i>c/7. of 
Anthropol., F. W. Rudler. 
R. Owen, F.R.S.— i)«/A ofAn- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Phydol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 



Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 

W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 

Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 

W. Spencer. 
E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 

Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 

Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport" 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Eirmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 



1890. Leeds , 

1891. Cardiff. 



I 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford" ... 



Presidents 



Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.8. 

— Bej}. of. Zool. and Bot., 

Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 

— BejJ. of Anthrojml., Prof. 

W. Boyd Dawkins. F.R.S. 
Prof. E. EayLankester, M.A., 

F.R.S. — Bej). of Anthropol., 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

VV. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D„ D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darvvin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S, 



Secretaries 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 

Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 

Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 
W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W, L. Sclater. 



SECTION D {continued). — ZOOLOGY. 

Prof, W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. jG. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

I Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ,,. H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof, R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 
i A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 

1899. Dov^f I Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 



1895. Ipswich .. 
1896^ Liverpool.. 
18l97v Toronto .. 
1«98. Bristol, ... 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 



IWOO. Btadford.. 



J 

r 

I 



1»01. tJlasgow .., 



Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 



W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 



' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxi. 
* Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxii. 
" The title of Section D was changed to Zoology 



J:siv 



Report— 1903. 



Date and Place 



1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. V. 

Simpson. 
Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... | Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHTSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge jDr.J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh iDr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin IDr. J. C. Pritchard 

183C. Bristol 'Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S 

1837. Liverpool... [Prof. W. Claik, M.D 

1838. Newcastle iT. E. Headlam, M.D 

1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. . 
1810. Glasgow ...! James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. AL Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr.J.Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid. 



1811. Plymouth... 

1812. Manchester 

1813. Cork 

1844. York 

1815. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

P. M. Roget, M.D.. Sec. R.S. J. Butter, J. Fuge, R. S. Sargent. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. .. 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. .. 



Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham •* 



Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
Prof. G.Rolleston,M.D., F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Stnitliers. 

Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 

C. G. Wheelhouse. 
[Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
I Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smitli. 

Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith 
Ig. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
I Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 

J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
iDr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
I Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



' Sections D and E were incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Ixi). Section E, being then vacant, 
was assigned in 1851 to Geography, 

2 Vide note on page 1.x i. 



fRESlDENlS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



hv 



t)ate and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851) see Section G, 
p. Iviii.] 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Prit chard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis, 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswioii 

1852. Belfast.. 

1853. Hull 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, F.K.S.,|R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Pres. R.G.S. i Norton Shaw. 

Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 



F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 



1854. Liverpool...] Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

I F.R.S. 

1855. Glasgow ... Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

I F.R.S. 

' Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
; Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

.1860. Oxford Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 

1861. Manchester John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

1862. Cambridge Francis Gallon, F.R.S 

1863. Newcastle |sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

f864. Bath Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

! F.R.S. 

1865. Birmingham Major-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P., K.O.B., F.E.S. 

1866. Nottingham Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 



1867. Dundee 
UeS. Norwich 



Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghau, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempri^re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 



Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements E. 
F.E.S. j Markham, T. Wright. 

SECTION E {c07ltimled)i — GEOGRAPHY. 

^869. Exeter I Sir Bartle Frere, K. C.B., ; H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham 

1 LL.D., F.R.G.S. I J. H. Thomas. 

1870. Liverpool,.. Sir R.I.Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 
i LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S.,F.G.S. I Mott, Clements E. Markham. 
1903. d 



Ixvi 



REFOftt — 1903. 



Date and Place 



1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1880. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 



Edinburgh 

Brigliton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 
Dublin 



Sheffield .. 
Swansea .. 



York. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

llontreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford . . . 
Glas{.ow ... 



Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Gallon, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General SIrachcy, 

R.E., C.S.I., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 
Prof. Sir C. "Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Clements R. Markliam, C.B., 

F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 

C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.L, 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S.. 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 

J. Scott Keltic, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John Murray, F.R.S. 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

K.C.S.L 
Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S. 



A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markliam, J. H. Thomas. 

11. AV. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 
Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 
Clements R. Markham. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 
Thomas. 

n. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 
Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 

H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rj-e. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. AV. Barry, H. AV. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Eye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'HaUoran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. Q. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltic, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva AVhite. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltic, 

A. Silva AVhite. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva AVhite, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva AVhite. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. 0. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, AV. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles. H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailev. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tvrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R, 

We they. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G, 

Saudeman, A. C. Turner. 



PRESIDENTS ANt> SECRETARIES OP THE SECTIONS 



Ikvii 



Date and Place 

1902. Belfast .. 

1903. Houthport 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 

A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 
Capt. E. W. Creak, E.N., C.B., E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herberstson. 



F.R.S. 



B. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 



1833, 
1834. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

tJOMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge j Prof. Babbage, F.Pi.S J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh I .Sir Charles Lemon, Bart i Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION P. — STATISTICS. 

1835. Dublin Charles Babbage, F.R.S W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

1836. Bristol SirChas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. FrijDp, 

I James Heywood. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 



1837. Liverpool... 



18.38 
1839 

1840. 

1811. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

184.5. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 



Cork 
York 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



18.50. Edinburgh 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 



Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, BI.P., F.L.S. . 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. 



W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C, 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R.W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. AV. Cooke Tayler, 
Lieut.-Col. Sj'kes, F.R.S., J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 

F.L.S. j cock. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam ' J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 

G. R. Porter, F.R.S J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

i C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. j Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

' P. Neison. 
J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

V.P.R.S.E. Stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... J. Fletclier, Prof. Hancock. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
Duljlin. i MacAdam, jun. 

Hull 'James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S.! Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 

Liverpool... Thomas Tooke, F.R.S E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
Glasgow ... E. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
I i march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 

SECTION p (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham Rt. Hon, Lord Stanley, M.P. 



1867, Dublin His Grace the Archbishop of 

! Dublin, M.R.LA, 
1858. Leeds Edward Baines 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W, Newmarch, W. 

M, Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch, 
T. B, Baines, Prof, Cairns, S, Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 

d 2 



Ixviu 



REPORt — 1903. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1859. 
i860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

186J. 
1865 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 

Blanchester 

, Cambridge 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.E.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.8.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S, ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.rv.8. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. B.T. Rogers 



Secretaries 



Nottingham 

Dundee M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P 



Norwich .. 
Exeter .... 



Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymoutli... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 

Southport 

Montreal .., 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 
Manchester 



Samuel Brown 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, B.art., O.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W". E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



Bath . 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



1891. Cardiff, 



James Hevwood, M.A,,F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K. C. S.I. , 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. B. Grant-DufE.I 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 1 

R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Qiffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. M.arshall, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
I D>Sc., F.S.S. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M; 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch,' 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie; 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers; 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory; 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 

E. Macrory, E. t. Payne. F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G; J. JoHnstoti; 

E. Macrorj'. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macror}'. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J, 

Wstrdeiii 
Rev. W; Ci Ddvie, Prof. Leone Levi. 
B. Ma6toi-y, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 

Aclarid. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. MilBf? Moss. 
J. G. Fitdhj J^ames Meikle. 
J. G. Filch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. .Tack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, G. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F.. 

Moss. 

G. Baden- Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes,. 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott. 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott,. 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham,. 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith,. 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 


Prof. J, Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 






K.C.B. 


E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 
L. L. F. R. Price. 


1893. 


Nottingham 


Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 


Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 






F.S.S. 


Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 
L. L. F. R. Price. 


1894. 


Oxford 


Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 


E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 






F.S.S. 


W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


L. L. Price, M.A 


E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 
H. Higgs. 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 


E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 
W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 


E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 


1898. 


r>ristol 


J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D. 


E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 
Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 


1899. 


Dover 


H. Higgs, LL.B 


A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 
W. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 


A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 
Chapman, F. Hooper. 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 


W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 
Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


E. Cannan, M.A. , LL.D. ... 


A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 
Dr. A. DutBn. 


1903. 


Southport 


E. W. Brabrook, C.B 


A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 
Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1 836. Bristol I Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S, 

1837. Liverpool... 'Rev. Dr. Robinson 

1838. Newcastle [ Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

1 839. Birmingham Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 

1840. Glasgow ....Sir .Tohn Robinson 



1841. Plymouth John Taylor, F.R.S 

1842. Manchester Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

1843. Cork Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 

1844. York John Taylor, F.R.S 

184.5. Cambridge George Rennie, F.R.S 

1846. Southanjp- Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

ton 

1847. Oxford Rev. Prof, Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

1848. Swansea ... Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

1849. Birmingham Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S. 

185C. Edinburgh | Rev. R. Robinson 

1851. Ipswicli ... William Cubitt, F.R.S, , 

18.52. Belfast .John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

18.53. Hull j William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

1854. Liverpool... 'John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
18.5.5. Glasgow ... W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 
18.56. Cheltenham I George Rennie, F.R.S 

1857. Dublin ' Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

I F.R.S. 

1858. Leeds : William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 

1859. AbPTfleen...lRev. Ppf. Willi?, M.A.,F-R.«- 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C.Vignoles. T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Tliomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J, 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T.^Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Cbarles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldh.am, J.Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeifery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethj', P. Le ISTeve Fo.'^ter, H 

Wright, 



ilxs 



REPORT — 1903. 



Date and Place 



1860. 
1861. 

1862, 

1863. 

1864. 
1865, 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

]871. 
1872. 

1873. 

1874, 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

ISSO. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
J888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge . 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow . . . 

PljTnouth... 



Presidents 



Prof .W. J. Macqnorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S... . 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Tliomas Hawksle}', V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W.J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 



Secretaries 



C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkiu, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.B 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof, .Tames Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 



Dublin Edward Easton, C.E. 



P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marsliall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M, 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. P. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith, 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble. J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.Barlow,H.Bauermau.E.H.Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N, Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J, N, Shoolbred, J, P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 



Wood. 

Sheffield ... ' J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. : A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 
' Enar. ' 11. T. Wood. 



Swansea ... J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

York Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L.. F.r':s. 
Southamp- i John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

ton. 
Southport , I J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Montreal ...'Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P. Inst. C.E. 
Aberdeen... IB. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 



A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchi.son, J. P. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg,H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kenned.y, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 
i j Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 

Birmingham Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

C.E _ I Marshall, E. Rigg. 

Manchester Prof. Osborne Keynolds,M.A.,| C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 
' LL.D., F.R.S. E. Rigg. 

Bath W. H. Preece, F.RS.,lc. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

M.Inst.C.E. I Rigg, r. K. Stothert. 

Newcastle- W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ...'c. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 
upon-Tyne C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 

Leeds , Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., E. K. Cl.ark, C. W. Cooke, W, B. 

F.R.A.S. 1 M.arshall, E. Rigg. 

Cardiff T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. iC. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

' W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
Edifibttrgh jProf. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 
! M.Inst.C.E, I PoppleweJl. E, Rieg. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP THE SECTIONS. 



ixxi 



Date and Place 



1893 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 
1{J02. 
1903, 

Iggl. 
1885. 

1886. 

1687. 

1888. 

1889. 

1800. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 



Presidents 



Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ... 

Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 
Southport 

Montreal .. 
Aberdeen.. 

Birmingham 

. Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 



Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedj', 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L, F. Vcrnon-Harcourt, 

M.A„ M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 

Sir w!' White, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



Secretaries 



C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof.'^T. Hudson Bearc, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith, 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney, 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen.- 

dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A, Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stilgoe. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, G. F. Charnock, 

Prof. S. Dunkerloy, W. A. Price. 
H. Bamford, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylio. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 



1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 



Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 



SECTION H— ANTHEOPOLOGY. 

E B. Tjdor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 1 G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 
, Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. !g. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W 
I Hurst. Dr. A. TiIacgTegor. 

Sir G. Campbell, K. C.S.I., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 
M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 

Prof. A. H, Sayce, M.A G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
Lieut..General Pitt-Rivers, G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Harris Stone. 

Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

LL.D., F.R.S. R. Morison, Dr. R. Uowden. 

Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick. 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. ; Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
Prof. A, Macalister, M.A., G.W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

M D , F.R.S. 1 R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 

Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E.G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

I Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 
1 J. L. Myres. 
Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B,,: H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, II. Ling 

F.R.S. i Roth. 

Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, ' J. L. Myre.5, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 



D.C.L 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

Sir W. Turner, F.R.S. , 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B. , 
C. H. Read. F.S.A. 



Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. ]\I. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. H.iddon. J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, .T. L. Mvres, G. Parker. 
H. B.all'our, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Had Ion, J. L. Myres. 
Rev. E. Armit.age, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
Prof. D. J. Cunningham, W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 



Bradford ... I Prof. John. Rhys, M.A 
Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 
Sonthport 



F.R.S. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Symington, p.R.S. 



Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 
R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myrgs. 
E. N. Fallaizp, H. S. Kingsfo^-d, 

|]. 1\I. Utn^y, J. L. Myres. 



Ixxii 



REPORT — 1903. 



Pate and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (iuclutling Expehimknta;, 

PATHOl^OGY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY). 

1894. Oxford Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S., Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldano, 

1 M.R.C.S. 

1896. Liverpool... 1 Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S, 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 



1899. Dover .., 
1^01. Glasgpw 
}90?. Belfast 



I J. N- Langley, F.R.S. 

JPvof. J. G. McKendriok 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton, 
F.R.S. 



M. S. Pembrey. 
Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C.S.Sherrington. 
1 Prof, R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
j ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 
j Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 
' H. Starling. 
W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A, Ogborne, Dr, 
C. Shaw. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. 
Dr. p. H. Scott, F.R.S 



1897. Toronto ,.. [Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 



1898. BristoL 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford.., 
JSQl. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

}903. Southport 



I Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 

Sir George King, F.R.S 

Prof. S, H. Vines, F.R.S 

Prof, I. B. Balfour, F.K.S. ... 

I Prof. J. R. Green, F.RS 

A. C. Seward, F,R.S 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 
Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 
A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

A. 0. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 

Ct. Dowker, A- C, Seward, H. Wager, 

A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 

D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan.G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager, 
R. H. Yapp. 



4U01. Glasgow 



1902. Belfast 



1?03. Sputhport 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Rirnmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. i\I. Heller, 

R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 

Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., i Prof . R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 



F.R.S. 



Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. 
Suape. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOUESES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1842. Manphester 


Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. L Branel 


The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 




R. I. Murchison 


The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 


1843. Cor]c 


P'rof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. RobipsoR...., , 




The Distribution of Animal Life ifl 

the .^gean Sea. 
f hp flafl of iiosse's Jgle^popg, 



LIST OP EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Swansea ... 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich 



1862. Belfast. 



1853, Hull. 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 
1^68. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Eoyal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J, H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

;Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

iProf. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, E.E., F.R.S. 



Prof.J.Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
CoL E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen.. 



Subject of Discourse 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



I860. Oxford. 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S, ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn. R.N, 



Geology of Nortli America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof theExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Hent. 

.Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Diclus hicjjtiis). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and 
Animals, and their changes of 
Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 
1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyri.a and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegr.apli. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands, 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of tjie Suij, 

Arctjc Discovery. 



Ixxiv 



REPORT — 1903. 



Date and Place 



1861. Manchester 



1862. Cambridge 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A.,F.E.S, 
G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

jProf. Odling, F.E,.S 

186.^. Newcastle Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S 

1864. Bath Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S 

1865. Birmingham J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



1866. Nottingham 
1367. Dundee 



1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

187."?. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .., 

1877. Plymouth... 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S....... 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.. 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Pliillips, LL.D,, 

F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof .V/. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
P.A.Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. ..., 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K.Clifford..., 



1878. Dublin 

J879, SjiePSelc} .., 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart. .M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwcll, F.R.S 

Prof. Tail. F.R.S.E 

Sir WyviUe Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

"Cl T» (J 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

,Prof.E. Ray Lankesler, F.R.S. 



Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dj'namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
ueath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Arclueology of the early Buddliist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagina- 
tion. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agent.s. 

Tlie Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The H.ypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railwaj' Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeper^tion. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 

1880. Swansea .., 

1881, York , 



18,82. Southamp- 
ton. 
1883. Sonthport 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. CardifiE 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1805. Ipswich ... 

189C. Liverpool... 
1S97. Toronto ... 




Subject of Discourse 



1898. Bristol..., 

1899. Dover .... 

1900. Bradford. 

1901. Glasgow . 



Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

B^raucis Galton, F.Pu.S 

Prof. Hu.xley, Sec. 11. S 

\V. Spottiswopde, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Win. Thomson, F.E.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.U.S. 
Prof. E. S. Ball, F.ll.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 

John Muna3', F.R.S. E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.E.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
PrDf. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof. L. C. Miall, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Prof.A.AV.Rucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing.M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Hor.sley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.E.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

J. Milne, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. .. 

Herbert Jackson 

Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming. F.R.S 

Prof. F. Gotch.^.R.S 

Prof. W. Stroud 

Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S. ... 

,F. Darwin, F.R.S 



Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palteon- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 
Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 

Forms of Life. 
The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorjption. 
The Great Ocean Basins. 
Soap Bubbles. 
The Sense of Hearing. 
IJhe Rate of Explosions in Gases. 
Explorations in Central Africa. 
The Electrical Transmission of Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for E.^istence. 
Mimicry, 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some DitBculties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 

]\Iagnetic Induction. 
Flame. 
The Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 
Experiences and Prospects of 

African Exploration. 
Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 
Magnetism in Rotation. 
The Work of Pasteur and its various 

Developments. 
Safetj^ in Ships. 
Man before Writing. 
Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes, 

Funafuti : the Study of a Coral Island. 

Phosphorescence. 

La vibration nerveuse. 

TheCentenary of the ElectricCurrent. 

Animal Electricity. 

Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plap.ts. 



Ixxvi 



REPORT— 1903. 



Date and Place 

1902. Belfast ... 
li)03. South port 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. 11. Weldon, F.R.S. 
Dr. R, Munro 

Dr. A. Rowe 



Subject of Discourse 

Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 

Inheritance. 

Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Paleolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. 
1868. 
1869. 



1870, 

1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
187.5. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 



Dundee.. 

Norwich 
Exeter .. 



Liverpool . 
Brighton . 
Bradford . 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 
Bristol 



1900. 
1901. 

1902. 
1903. 



Bradford .. 
Glasgow ., 

Belfast .. 
Southport 




Subject of Discourse 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D..F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
\V.Spottiswoode,LL.D., F.R.S. 
C.W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayr ton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart., F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. O. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H. J. Slackinder, M.A 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. S. Flett 



Matter and Force, 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and otlier 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum, 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen, 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone, 

Electricity as a Motive Power, 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity— Telephones, 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour, 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their enemies and Signal to their 

friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent: the 

Eruptions of 1902. 



Ixxvii 



OFFICERS OF SEdtlONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE SOUTHPORT MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Charles Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. L. Boltzmann ; Prof. 0. Henrici, F.R.S. ; Prin- 
cipal Griffiths, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. Mascart ; Prof. Simon Newcomb ; 
Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— T>. E. Benson ; A. R. Hinks, M.A. ; R. W. H. T. Hudson, 
M.A. ; C. H. Lees, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; J. Loton, M.A. ; A. W. 
Porter, B.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Vroi. Walter Noel Hartley, D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. Campbell Brown, D.Sc. ; Prof. E. Diverts, F.R.S.; 

Prof. F. Stanley Kipping, F.R.S. ; Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — M. O. Forster, Ph.D. ; Prof. G. G. Henderson,D.Sc. ; James 

Ohm, M.A. ; Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. {Recorder). 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

President.— VtoL W. W. Watts, M.A., M.Sc. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. ; G. W. Lamplugh ', 

Clement Reid, F.R.S. ; A. S. Woodward, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — H. L. Bowman, M.A. ; Rev. W. L. Carter, M.A. ; J. Lomas ; 

H. W. Monckton {Recorder). 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. Sydney J. Hickson, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — F. E. Beddard, F.R.S. ; J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A. ; 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ; D. Sharp, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — J. H. Ashworth, D.Sc. ; J. Barcroft, M.A., B.Sc. ; Alfred 
Quayle ; J. Y. Simpson, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; H. W. Marett Tims, M.D. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Q&^t. Ettrick AV. Creak, R.N., C.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Tempest Anderson, M.D. ; H. R. Mill, D.Sc. ; Com- 
mander D. Wilson-Barker, R.N.R., F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries. — Edward Heawood, M.A. {Recorder) ; A. J. Herbertson ; 
E. A. Reeves ; Capt. J. C. Underwood. 



Ixxviii REPORT — l90o. 



SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND StATlSTlOS. 

'President.— Bdward "W. Brabrook, C.B. 

Vice-Presidents.— Y.. Caiman, LL.D. ; Sir Robert Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 5 

Sir Bosdin T. Leech. 
■Secretaries. — A. L. Bowley, M.A. (Recorder) ; Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. } 

B. AV. Ginsburg, M.A., LL.D. ; George Lloyd. 



SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

'President.— G. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. 
Vice-Presidents.— Vrot J. Perry, F.R.S. ; Capt. H. Riall Sankey, R.A. ; 

Sir J. I. Thorneycroft, F.R.S. 
■Secretaries.-'Pvoi. W. E. Dalby, M.A. ; W. T. Maccall, M.Sc. ; W. A- 

Price, M.A. {Recorder). 

SECTION H, — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Tiol Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Vice-Presidents. — H. Balfour, M.A. ; E. Sydney Hartland ; Prof. W. 

Ridgeway, M.A. 
Secretaries.— K N. Fallaize, M.A. ; H. S. Kingsford, B.A. ; R. M 

Littler, F.R.C.S. ; J. L. Myres, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

President. — ^ Albert Charles Seward, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. R. J. Harvey Gibson, M.A. ; Prof. J. R. Green, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Henry Ball; A. G. Tansley, M.A. ; Harold Wager (Re- 
corder) ; R. H. Yapp, M.A. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Sir William de W. Abney, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Tvoi. H. E. Ai-mstrong, F.R.S. ; H. W. Eve, M.A. ; 

J. L. Holland, B.A. ; Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Prof. R. A. Gregory ; W. M. Heller, B.Sc. (Recorder) ; 

C. W. Kimmins, D.Sc. ; H. Lloyd Snape, D.Sc. 



Committee oi^ recommendations. Ixxix 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting ; the Presidents of 
former years ; the Trustees ; the General and Assistant General 
Secretaries ; the General Treasurer ; the Presidents of the Sections ; 
Prof. A. R. Forsyth ; Prof. Schuster ; Prof. H. B. Dixon ; Prof. 
Pope ; G. W. Lamplugh ; J. J. H. Teall : Dr. D. Sharp ; Dr. J. Y. 
Simpson ; Dr. H. R. Mill ; E. Heawood ; Sir R. Giffen ; A. L. 
Bowley ; Prof. J. Perry ; W. A. Price ; H. Balfour ; J. L. Myres ; 
H. Wager ; Prof. Marshall Ward ; Prof. H. E. Armstrong > 
W. M. Heller ; W. Whitaker ; Prof. Sherrington ; J. Barcroft. 



L. 



XXX 



REPORT — 1903. 



Dr. 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 



1902-1903. RECEIPTS. 

£ 5. rf. 

Balance brought forward 1565 1!) 11 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 351 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 202 

Annual Subscriptions 58(5 

iSale of Associates' Tickets (535 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 305 

Sale of Publications 141 7 

Dividend on Consols 167 12 4 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 101 5 

Interest on Deposit 37 11 6 

Unexpended Balance of Grant returned by Committee on 

the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands 25 



£4117 II 4 



Investineuf*. 

£ s. d. 

Consols 6501 10 6 

India 3 per Cents 3600 

£10,101 10 5 



G. Caeey Foster, Gemral Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxxi 



from July 1, 1902, to June 30, 1003. Or, 

1902-1003. EXPENDITURE. 

£ s. if 
Expenses of Belfast Meeting (including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, i&c, ito.) 148 11 

Rent and Office Expenses 91 1 

Salaries, &c 52G 9 

Printing, Binding, &c 1107 1 4 

Contribution to Antarctic Expedition 750 

Payment of Grants made at Belfast : 

& s. d. 

Electrical StaiiiliirJs 35 U 

Seismoloftical Oljsei-vations 40 U U 

Iiivcstigationof the Upper Atmiisiihere by means of Kites 75 U 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth . , , 4U U U 

Study of Hydroaromatic Substances 20 

Erratic Blocks lU U 

Exploration of Irish Caves 40 

Uudergronnd Waters of North-west Yorlcshire 40 

Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rooks 5 li 

Geological Photographs 10 

Tableat the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalinm 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's Labour 25 

Researches in Crete luo 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 

Antliropometry of the Todas and other Tribes of 

•Southern India 50 

The State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Investigation of the Oyanophycea! 25 

Bespiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential for School Instruction , . 5 

Corresponding Societies Committee 20 

845 l.S 2 



3408 7 9 



Balance at Bank of England (Western Branch) £G98 7 3 
XeM Cheque not presented 52 10 



645 17 3 
Cash in hand 3 4 4 



649 1 7 
£4117 9 4 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

• 

Approved— W. B. Keen, Chartered Aceovntant, 

L. L. Price. ] , ,. 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, E.C. 

B. W Bbabbook, J ^"«»f"''«- j„iy 23, 1903. 

1903. e 



Ixxxii 



REPORT— 1903. 

Table shovnng the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



Where held 



1R31, Sept. 27 York .. 

1832, June 19 i Oxfonl 

1833, June 25 | Oambriilge 



Edinburgh 

Dulilin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne.. 

Birmingham 

(llasgow. 



1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Ang. 10 
183G, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 2C 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, .fuly 20 Plymouth 

1842, June 23 : Mauclie.ster 

Cork 

York 

Canibriilge .... 
Southampton . 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham . 
Eduiburgh .... 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Clieltenham .... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxforil 

Manchester .... 



Presidents 



Old Life 
Members 



1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 2C 

1845, June 19 
184U, Sept. 10 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 
185U, July 21 

1851, July 2... 

1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 
1,854, Sept. 20 
1855, Sept. 12 
185G, Aug. G 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 
1801), June 27 
18Ul,Sept. 4 

1802, Oct. 1 Cambridge 

18U3, Aug. 26 ! Newcastle-on-Tyne., 

1864, Sept. 13 ' Bath 



1805, Sept. 6 Birmingham 

1866, Aug. 22 Nottingham 

1867, Sept. 4 Dundee 

1808, Aug. 19 1 Norwich 

1809, Aug. 18 Eseter 

1870, Sept. 14 Liverpool 

1871, Aug. 2 Edinburgh 

1872, Aug. 14 Brighton 

1873, Sept. 17 Bradford 

1874, Aug. 19 1 Belfast 

1875, Aug. 25 1 Bristol 

1876,Sept.6 | Glasgow 

1877, Aug. 15 1 Plymouth 

1878, Aug. 14 : Dublin 

1879, Aug. 20 1 Sheffield 

1880, Aug. 25 ! Swansea 

1881, Aug. 31 York 

1882, Aug. 23 Southaiupton 

l.SSsi Sept. 19 , Southport 

1884, Aug. 27 1 Montreal 

1885, Sept. 9 1 Aberdeen 

1880, Sept. 1 Birmingham 

1887, Aug. 31 Manchester 

1888, Sept. 5 B.ath 

1889, Sept. 11 Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1890, Sept. 3 Leeds 

1891, Aug. 19 ' Cardiff 

1892, Aug. 3 Edinburgh 

1893, Sept. 13 Nottingham 

1894,Aug.8 j Oxford 

1895, Sept. 11 1 Ipswich 

1896, Sept. 16 Liverpool 

1897, Aug. 18 Torouto 

1898, Seyit. 7 'Bristol 

1899, Sept.l3 : Dover 

1900, Sept. 5 Bradford 

1901, Sept. 11 Glasgow 



1902, Sept. 10 . 

1903, Sept. 9 



Belfast 
Southport . 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.O.L.. F.E.8. 

The nev. W. Buckland, IMl.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick. F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Llo.yd.LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lan.sdowue, F.R.S... . 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Xorthumberiand, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vcrn.in Harciiurt, F.R.S. 
The Manpiis of Rreadalliane, F.R.S. 

Tlie Rev. W. WheweU, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir .Tohn F. W.Hcrschel, liart., F.R.S, 
Sir Roderick I.Mundiisou,liart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthamiiton.Pres.R.S, 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D.. F.R.S, 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

(r. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Harrowbv, F.R.S 

The Duke of .\rgvll, F.R.S 

Prof. (". G. B. Dau'benv, M.D., F.R.S.... 

The Rev. H. Lloyil, D.D.. F.R.S 

Richaril Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.ir. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairli.airn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Profi's.scir Wmi.s,M.A.,F.R.S.l 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.C.L!., F.R.S. 
Sir ( 'harles Lyi-ll, Hart., M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. .). I'liillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Kuke of Buocleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. .lost-ph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.(\L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williaiusou, F.R.S 

Prof. ,r. Tvndall. LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawksliaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T.Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoodc, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. .). Allman, M.D.. F.R.S 

A. C. Rarasav, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir .ToVin Lubbock, B.art., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavlev, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir J.' W. Daw.son, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Sir H. B. Roseoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S. 

Sir P. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S, 
i The Marquis of Sali3burv,K.G.,F.R.S. 

Sir Douglas Galtou, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
! Sir Joseph Lister. Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

! Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., See.R.S.... 

Sir WiUiam Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. W. Riicker. D.Sc, SecR.S. ... 

' Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

I Sir Nonuau Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S, 



New Life 
Members 



169 


65 


303 


169 


1U9 


28 


220 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


38 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


28(i 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


30 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


38 


212 


27 


102 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 



> Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND HECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. Ixxxiii 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



oia 

Annual 
Members 



46 
75 
71 
45 
94 
66 
197 
54 
93 
128 
CI 
63 
56 
121 
142 
104 
156 
111 
125 
177 
184 
150 
154 
182 
215 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 
311 
280 
237 
232 
307 
331 
238 
290 
239 
171 
313 
253 
330 
317 
332 
428 
510 
399 
412 
308 
341 
413 
328 
435 
290 
3S3 
286 
327 
324 
297 
374 
314 
319 



New 
Annual 
Members 



Asso- 
ciates 



Ladies Foreigners Total 



1100* 



317 


z 


60* 


376 


33t 


331* 


185 


. 


100 


190 


9t 


200 


22 


407 


172 


39 


270 


196 


40 


495 


203 


25 


376 


197 


33 


447 


237 


42 


510 


273 


47 


244 


141 


60 


510 


292 


57 


367 


236 


121 


765 


524 


101 


1094 


543 


48 


412 


346 


120 


900 


509 


91 


710 


509 


179 


1206 


821 


59 


636 


463 


125 


1589 


791 


57 


433 


242 


209 


1704 


1004 


103 


1119 


1058 


149 


766 


508 


105 


960 


771 


118 


1163 


771 


117 


720 


682 


107 


678 


600 


195 


1103 


910 


127 


976 


754 


80 


937 


912 


99 


796 


601 


85 


817 


630 


93 


884 


672 


185 


1265 


712 


59 


446 


283 


93 


1285 


674 


74 


529 


349 


41 


389 


147 


176 


1230 


514 


79 


516 


189 


323 


952 


841 


219 


826 


74 


122 


1053 


447 


179 


1067 


429 


244 


1985 


493 


100 


039 


509 


113 


1024 


579 


92 


680 


334 


152 


6,-2 


107 


141 


733 


439 


57 


773 


208 


69 


941 


451 


31 


493 


261 


139 


1384 


S73 


125 


082 


100 


96 


1051 


039 


C8 


548 


120 


45 


801 


482 


131 


794 


2)0 


80 


047 


305 


90 


C88 


365 



34 
40 



28 



35 
36 
53 
15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45+ 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
:2G&00H.§ 



11 

92 
12 
21 
12 
35 
50 
17 
77 
22 
41 
41 
33 
27 

9 
20 

6 
I 21 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

870 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3S38 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1601 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1302 
2)10 
1403 
1915 
1912 
1020 
1754 



Amount 

I'eeeiverl 

during the 

Meeting 



Grants j 

for Scientific I 

Purposes I 



Tear 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1004 
3944 
1089 
3040 
2905 
2227 
2409 
2013 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2013 
1425 

899 
2089 
1280 
3309 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4330 
21(17 
2141 
1776 
1004 
20U7 
1053 
2175 
1230- 
3228 
1398 
?:*99 
132S 







































































I] 





' 



(I 





I) 

(I 

j 

1. 











£20 

107 

435 

922 12 

932 2 
1595 11 
1540 16 
1235 10 11 
1449 17 8 
1565 10 

981 12 

831 9 

685 16 

208 5 

275 1 

159 19 

345 18 

391 9 

304 6 

205 

380 19 

480 10 

734 13 

507 15 

618 IS 

084 11 

700 19 
1111 5 10 
1293 16 6 
1008 3 10 
1289 15 8 
1591 7 10 
1750 13 
1739 4 



1940 
1022 
1572 
1472 
1285 
1085 
1151 10 

900 
1092 4 2 
1128 9 7 

725 10 6 
1080 11 11 

731 7 7 



8 1 
1 11 

3 3 



1801 








2(110 





(( 


1C.44 








1762 









476 
1120 
1083 
1173 4 
1385 (] 

995 6 
1180 18 
1511 5 
1117 (I 11 

789 Ii; 8 
11129 111 

801 1(1 II 

907 15 6 

583 15 

977 15 
U'll 
1059 111 
1212 II 
1430 14 
1072 1(1 

9ir. II 

917 II 

845 13 



1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1830 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1850 

1857 

1858 

1859 

1800 

1801 

1802 

1803 

1864 

1805 

IHOO 

1H07 

1868 

1809 

1870 

1S71 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1870 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1S80 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1M9U 

IS'.ll 

1 892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1 HilO 

1S'I7 

1 K98 

1 «99 

191 II I 

1901 

190 2 

1903 



X Including Ladies. | Fellows of tlie American As9oointion were admitted ns Hon. Membci s for tliis Mcetins. 

o 2 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1903-1904. 



PRESIDENT. 

Sm NOIIUAN LOCKYER, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., Corrosponaaut de I'lustitiit tie France, 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the Eaiu, of Derby, K.G., G.O.B. 
The Right Hon. the Eari. (if Crawford and 

Balcarrks, K.T., LL.D., F.R,S. 
The Right Hon. the BAtir. Si'EXCER, K.G., LL.D., 

Chancellor of the Victoria University. 
The Ritrht Hon. the Earl of Seftox. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Latho.m. 
Sir Henry Roscoe, B.A., Ph.D., LL.D., D.O.L., 

F.R.S. 



Sir George A. Pilkington. 

Sir C]iAni,R.s Scarisbrick, J.P. 

Alfred HorKiN.soN, Ksq., LL.D., K.C, V ice- 
Chancellor of the Victoria University. 

T. T. L. SiARisuRicK, Esq., Mayor of Southport. 

E. Marshall Hall, Esq., K.O., M.P. for South- 
port. 

Charlks H. B. Hesketr, Esq. 

Charles Weld-Blhndell, Esq. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
The Rlglit Hon, A. J. Balfour, D.C.L., JI.P., F.R.S., Cliancellor of the University of Edinburgh. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Grace the DttKK op Devonshire, K.G., LL.D., 
F.R.S., Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge. 

Alexander Peckover, Esq., LL.D., Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Cambridgeshire. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bl^hop op Ely, D.D. 

The Right Hon. Lord Walsingham, LL.D., 
P.R S., High Steward of tlie University of 
Oamotidge. 

The Right Hon. and Rev. Lord Braybrooke, 
Master of llagdalene. 

The Right Hon, Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



The Right Hon. Lord Kelvin-, G.O.V.O., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Rev. F. H. Ch.^se, D.D., Vice-Ghancellor of the 

University of Cambridge. 
The Right Rev. H. Montagu Butler, D.D., 

Master of Trinity. 
J. H. CHKSSiiYRE Daltos, Esq., M.D , Mayor of 

Cambridge. 
Robert Stephenson, Esq , Chairman of the Cani- 

bridge.sliire County Council. 
Joseph Martin, Esq., Chairman of the Isle of Ely 

County Council. 



P. H. Young, Esq., Deputy Mayor of Cambridge. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor G. Carey Foster, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 



GENERAL 
Major P. A. MacMahon, R.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



SECRETARIES. 
I Professor W. 



A, Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY, 
J. G. Garson, M.D., Burlington House, Lomlon, W. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT CAMBRIDGE. 
E. H. Parker, Esq., M..\. | A. E. Shiilky, Esq., M.A. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT CAMBRIDGE. 
S. R. Gkn, Esq. I S. Skinner, Esq., M.A, 

A. O. Seward, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. | ,1. E. L. Whitehead, Esq., M.A 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Abnky, Sir W„ K.O.B., P.R.S, 
Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
BONAR, J., Esq., LL.D. 
Bourn-e, G. C., Esq., M.A. 
Bower, Professor F. O., F.R.S. 
Brabrook, E. W., Esq., C.B. 
Callendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Major L., See. R.G.S. 
GoTCH, Professor F., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. 0., F.R.S. 
Hawkslky, C, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 
Howes, Professor G. B., P.RS. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Kkltie, J. Scopi', Esq., LL.D. 
Macalister, Professor A., F.R.S. 
McKENDRirK, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 
Noble, Sir A., Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Perkin, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Perry, Professor John, F.R.S. 
Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 
Seward, A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 
Tilden-, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
WAT-rs, Professor W. W., M.A. 
Wolpk-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. A. S.mith, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Ticasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for 
the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord Aveeurt, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.L.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.R.A.S. 

Sir Arthur W. Rijceer, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



Sir Joseph D. Eiooker, G.C.S.I. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R,S. 
Prof. A. W, Williamson, F,a.S. 
Lord Avebury, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., P.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Sir Wm. Hnggins,K.O.B.,Pres.R.S. 
Sir Archibald Geikie, Sec.B.S. 
Sir J. S. Burdou Sanderson, Bart., 

F R S 
Lord Lister, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Sir William Orookes, P.R.S. 
Sir Michael Foster, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. RUoker, D.Sc., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 



F. Gallon, Esq., D C.L., F.R.S. 
air Aiichael Foster, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., P.R.S. 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. | Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, F.R S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F,R.S. | Prof. E. A. Sohiifer, F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., P.R.S. | Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., P.R.S. 



E. W. Brabrook, Esq., C.B. 



AUDITORS. 
1 



L. L. Price, Esq., M.A. 



llEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. IxxxV 



Report of the Council for the Year 1902-1903, ■presented to the General 
Committee at Sonthport on Wednesday, September 9, 1903. 

The following resolutions were referred to the C<.»uncil by tlie General 
Committee for consideration, and action if desirable : — 

I. ' That the Council be requested to impress upon His Majesty's 
Government the desirability of appointing an Inspector of Ancient 
Monuments under the Ancient Monuments Act in the place of the 
late Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivei's.' 

II. ' That the Council be requested to call the attention of His 
Majesty's Government to the destruction of Ancieno Monuments, 
especially on Dartmoor, which is authorised under the terms of the 
Highway Act, 5 & 6 Wm. IV., c. 50, the provisions of which are 
unrepealed by later Acts ; and to urge the repeal of this section of 
the Act.' 

III. ' That the attention of the Royal Irish Academy be drawn 
to the importance of organising and carrying out a Pigmentation 
Survey of School Children in Ireland.' 

A Committee, consisting of the General Officers and Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, was appointed to draw up a Memorandum to give effect to these 
resolutions, and with the approval of the Council the following letter was 
addressed to the First Commissioner of Works and Public Buildings : — 

' British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
' Burlington House, London, W., 
' March 31, 1903. 

' Sir, — I am desired by the Council of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science to inform you that in their opinion it is 
very desirable that an Inspector under the Ancient Monuments Act be 
appointed in succession to the late General Pitt-Rivers. 

' Since the death of the late Inspector of Ancient Monuments there 
is no one with scientific knowledge of the subject whose business it is to 
superintend the operations of the Act. 

' The ancient monuments of Great Britain as a whole are not subject 
to any regular official inspection, and this lack of a personal interest in 
the monuments generally results in their neglect by their owners and by 
local authorities. The Council feel confident if an active and enthusiastic 
scientific Inspector of Ancient Monuments were appointed many more 
monuments would be placed under the Act, and would thereby be 
preserved for and by the nation. 

' I have the honour to be your obedient Sei'vant, 

(Signed) 'James Dewar, President.' 

To this letter the following reply was received : — 

' H.M. Office of Worlcs, April 8, 1903. 

'Sir, — With reference to your letter of the 31st ultimo I am directed 
by the First Commissioner of His Majesty's Works, A'c, to acquaint you, 



ixxxvi . REPORT — i908. 

for the information of the Council of the British Association, ttiat 
the question of the appointment of an Inspector under the Ancient 
Monuments Act is now engaging the attention of the Board. 

' I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) ' Scuombkkg K. McDonnell.' 



On the Resolution II. the following letter was, with the approval of the 
Council, addressed to the President of the Local Government Board : — 

'British As-sociation for the Advancement of Science, 
'Burlington House, London, \V., 

'March 31, I'JOS. 

' Sir, — I am desired by the Council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science to call your attention to the fact that in different 
parts of the country, and especially on Dartmoor, much damage has been 
and is still being done to Ancient Monuments by the materials of which 
they are constructed being taken for mending roads in the vicinity under 
cover of the Highway Act, 5 it 6 Wm. IV., c. 50, ss. li.-liv. 

' As the surface stones near to the highways become used up, and 
road-mending material has to be brought from greater distances, the 
destruction of Ancient Monuments, particularly those in the vicinity of 
the highways, has proceeded apace by the hands of the contractors' 

' The Council desire in the name of this Association to express their 
opinion that the Act above mentioned should be amended, or other means 
taken to secure as speedily as possible the protection of Ancient Monu- 
ments of all kinds from further destruction in the manner indicated. 

' I am, Sir, 

' Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) ' James DewaR. 

'To the Rt. Hon. 

' Prcbident of the Local Government Board.' 



To the above letter the following replies have been received :— 

' Local Government Board, 

' Whitehall, S.W.. April 22. 1903. 

' Hik, — I am diiected by the Local Government Board to advert to 
yciur letter of the 31st ultimo with respect to the protection of Ancient 
Monuments atid to state that the amendment of the Highway Act sug- 
gested in your letter will be noted by the Board. 

' I am to add that, having regard to the provisions of the Ancient 
Monuments Protection Acts, the Board have sent a copy of your letter to 
the Commissioners of Works. 

' I am also to suggest that, looking to the terms of the Ancient Monu- 
tnents Protection Act of 1900, the Association might bring the matter 
Under the notice of the respective County Councils. 

' I am. Sir, 

' Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) ' H. C. Howes, 

'Assistant Secretary. 
'Professor Dewar, F.R.S.' 



REPOlif OF THE dOUNClL. Ixxxvii 

' H.M. Office of Works, 

' April 30, 1903. 

« Sir,— A copy of your letter of the 31st ultimo to the President of the 
Local Government Board having been forwarded to this Department, I am 
directed by the First Commissioner of His Majesty's Works, &c., to state 
that it appears to this Board that the prevention of the damage to Ancient 
Monuments, to which you invite attention, is a matter in which the 
County Councils could most effectively take action, certain powers ^being 
conferred on those bodies by the Ancient Monuments Act 1900 (63 & 64 
Vic, c. U). 

' I am, Sir, 

' Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) ' Schomberg K. McDonnell. 
'Professor Dewar, F.R.S.' 

On the Resolution III. the following letter was addressed, with the 
approval of the Council, to the President of the Royal Irish Academy :— 

' British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
' Burlington House, London, W., 

'March 31, 1903. 

' Dear Sir,— I am desired by the Council to inform you that at the 
meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science held 
last year at Belfast the question of the desirability of organising a 
Pigmentation Survey of the School Children in Ireland was discussed on 
the reading of a paper on that subject by INIr. J. F. Tocher, a copy of 
which is herewith inclosed. 

' The Council venture to hope that the Royal Irish Academy, having 
for many years interested itself practically in tlie investigation of the 
Ethnography of Ireland, will carefully consider the scheme outhned in 
the paper, and may be induced to take up the work. 

' The Council are of opinion that as a Pigmentation Survey of the 
School Children in Scotland is at present being conducted, a correspond- 
ing survey of the School Children in Ireland would be of considerable 
scientific value, and could not be carried out under better auspices than 
those of the Royal Irish Academy. 

' I am. Sir, 

' Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) ' James Dewak, President. 

' To the President of the 

' Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.' 

The following letter was received from the Colonial Secretary for 

Bermuda : — 

' Colonial Secretary's Office, Hamilton, Bermuda, 

• October 17, 1902. 

I Sir,— I am directed by His Excellency the Governor of Bermuda to 
request you to be good enough to submit the following matter for the 
consideration of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

' A Committee of the Legislature of this Colony, appointed to consider 
and report what steps it would be desirable to take locally with a view 
to the establishment and maintenance of a Marine Biological Station in 
these islands, has reported in favour of the establishment of such a station, 
and has recommended that the Legislature should make provision for its 



Jtxxviii REtORT — 1903. 

erection and ordinary equipment. This report has been adopted by the 
House of Assembly. 

' The Committee has in its report further recommended that before 
the Legislature decides to take any definite action in the matter steps 
should be taken to endeavour to ascertain whether certain eminent 
scientific bodies and institutions both in the United Kingdom and in 
the United States of America would view with approval the establish- 
ment of such a station in these islands for purposes of scientific research, 
and to inquire also to what extent such institutions would be prepared 
to co-operate with this Colony in the matter, and to a.ssist in making the 
atation one of an international character and suitable for the prosecu- 
tion of advanced scientific research. 

' It is possible that the British Association might consider it desirable 
to encourage the establishment and maintenance of the proposed Biological 
Station, and I am requested to invite you to be good enough to submit 
this communication to that body for their information and consideration, 
' I have the honour to be, Sir, 

' Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) ' Eyre Hutson, 

' Colonial Secrelanj.'' 

The letter was referred to a Connnittee consisting of Professor Howes, 
Dr. Kay Lankcster, Professor Herdman, Mr. G. Murray, and the General 
Othcers, from whom the following report was received : — 

' The Committee have to report that in their opinion the establish- 
ment of a Marine Biological Laboratory at Bermuda is very desirable, 
the island being most favourably situated for the purpose, inasmuch as 
it permits of the study of coral reefs and the many other interesting 
forms and problems of marine life associated therewith under climatic 
conditions excellently adapted for European workers. 

' It appears from the letter of the Colonial Secretary of Bermuda that 
the Legislature of the Colony has resolved to erect and equip the labora- 
tory, and that the support asked for is a contribution in the form of a 
grant or grants towards its maintenance. 

' The Committee consider it desirable that the attention of the Com- 
mittees of Sections concei-ned in marine problems of research be directed 
to the matter for the purpose of determining whether any definite re- 
searches could be usefully engaged in at the laboratory under the auspices 
of the Association, and to what degree these may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of the funds of the Association. 

' The Comnuttee are of opinion that in return for any subsidy given 
arrangements should be made with the Colonial Government to give 
accommodation and special facilities in the laboratory to workers ap- 
pointed by the British Association.' 

The report was adopted by the Council and has been referred to the 
Organising Committees of Sections for the consideration of those Sections 
interested in marine problems of research at the Southport Meeting. 

A considerable number of notifications of alterations in coast outline 
having been received from the coastguard stations of the United King- 
dom, the Committee on Coast Erosion, consisting of Sir Archibald Geikie, 



REPORt OF THE COtJNCIL. IxxXl^ 

Captain Creak, Professor L. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. A. T. 
Walmisley, and the General Officers, were reappointed. 

On the recommendation of the Committee, the Council asked Mr. John 
Parkinson, F.G.S., of Cambridge, to undertake the tabulation of the 
returns at a fee of ten guineas, and a further sum of 5^. was placed at the 
disposal of the Committee for expenses in connection with the work. 

A valuable report and map have been prepared by Mr. Parkinson, 
which the Committee have incorporated in their report to the Council. 
The Council recommend that the report be read in the Geological Section 
at South port, and published in the Report of the Association, and that the 
Lords of the Admiralty be apprised of the valuable information which 
has been collected with their assistance and co-operation. 

The following letter was received from the then Secretary of the 
Corresponding Societies Committee : — 

' British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
' Biulington House, London, \V., 

'July 4, 1902. 

' Dear Sirs, — The Corresponding Societies Committee are of opinion 
that some improved means of giving information to the Societies as to 
how they can aid by local investigations the work of Committees is very 
desirable. 

' By the present arrangements the Societies are little more than 
placed in a position to communicate with those from whom they can 
obtain information regarding the work they could undertake. 

* My Committee therefore desire to suggest that each of the Organ- 
ising Committees of Sections be asked to consider what local work could 
be usefully undertaken by Corresponding Societies, and draw up a pro- 
gramme of that work, with directions as to the method of doing it, which 
in course would come before the Sectional Committee, and be forwarded 
for communication to the Conference of Delegates. The schemes of the 
several Sections would then be incorporated in the Report of the Con- 
ference sent to the Societies after the Meeting, and so come directly to 
their notice. 

' If this suggestion be approved of by the Council, my Committee 
desire to further suggest that it could be best given effect to by direct 
communication from the Council to the Organising Committees of 
Sections. 

' I am, yours faithfully, 
'The General Secretaries, J. G. Garson. 

' British Association.' 

The letter was referred to a Committee, consisting of the President, 
President-elect, the General Officers, Professor Armstrong, Professor 
Meldola, and Professor Perry, to consider, and to report thereon to the 
Council. 

The Committee recommended — 

'1. That the work at present intrusted to the Secretaries of the 
Sectional Committees under Rule X. should devolve upon the 
Organising Committees. 



XC REPORT — I9OB4 

' 2. That an official invitation on behalf of the Council bfe addressed 
to the Societies, through the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
asking them to appoint standing British Association Sub-Com- 
mittees to be elected by themselves with the object of dealing with 
all those subjects of investigation common to their Societies and to 
the British Association Committees, and to look after the general 
interests of science and scientific education throughout the provinces 
and provincial centres. 

'They appended the following remarks to their recommendation : — 

' The Committee have considered the communication from the Corre- 
sponding Societies Committee referred to them by the Council, and have 
examined into the general character of the work carried on by the Cor- 
responding Societies, and the nature of the subjects discussed at the 
Conferences of Delegates held annually under the auspices of the British 
Association since the year 1885. They are of opinion that the range of 
subjects very fairly covers most of the branches of scientific investigation 
in which local Societies might be expected to bear a part. New subjects 
are added from time to time, and means have been taken by the Corre- 
sponding Societies Committee to give ^^ublicity to suggestions for any 
suitable line of investigation instigated by the Corresponding Societies 
themselves. (Jf the numerous branches of inquiry being carried on by 
British Association Committees in whidi the Corresponding Societies are 
invited year by year to take a part, some have been materially assisted by 
the Corresponding Societies or their individual members. The subjects 
suitable for investigation by local Societies are necessarily governed in 
their scope by local conditions, but among those already brought under 
the notice of the Corresponding Societies there are some of a general 
character which miglit very well be taken up systematically all over the 
country. The Committee do not consider it necessary to furnish the 
Council with a complete list of such specific subjects, as these are already 
included in the various Reports of the Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee. They desire, however, to call the attention of the Council to the 
necessity for systematic co-operation among the local Societies for the 
carrying out of investigations of such general importance as the vaiious 
surveys, archaeological, ethnographic, photographic, and botanical, which 
have on several occasions been brought under the notice of the Corre- 
sponding Societies at the Conference of their Delegates. These and other 
investigations of a similarly wide range which may from time to time 
be suggested furnish ample work for the Corresponding Societies, and the 
Committee find that in certain districts considerable progress has been 
already made, or that steps are now being taken to organise the work 
already suggested. 

' The Committee have further considered the nature of the organisa- 
tion at present in existence for bringing the official representative of the 
Corresponding Societies into communication with each other and with the 
Sectional Committees at the meetings of the Association, and they are of 
opinion that it would tend to bring about a more systematic co-ordination 
of the general investigations which are now being carried on, or which it 
is desirable should be carried on, by the Corresponding Societies if 
strenuous efforts were made to bring the Delegates into more intimate 
personal relationship with the expert organisers of these various subjects 



REPORT OK THE COUNCIL. XCl 

of general interest to all local Societies. The Rules at present provide • 
for such co-operation between the Sectional Committees (through their 
Secretaries) and the Conference of Delegates ; but your Committee are of 
opinion that, owing to the stress of work thrown upon the Sectional 
Secretaries at the meetings of the Association, the Delegates cannot 
derive the full benefit of such expert assistance as they may require in 
connection with jjarticular lines of work in which their Societies are 
engaged. For the same reason the Secretaries of the Sections are unable 
to give full effect to any new schemes suitable for local investigation 
which may originate in their Section, and which, if duly considered 
beforehand and brought under the notice of the Delegates, might be of 
use both to the Corresponding Societies and to the Association. Your 
Committee recommend, therefore, that the work at present entrusted to 
the Secretaries of the Sectional Committees under E,ule X. should devolve 
upon the Organising Committees. These Committees already comprise 
the Sectional Secretaries by virtue of their constitution,- so that no 
additional work woukl be thrown upon these Secretaries, but the gentle- 
men undertaking this ofSce would be enabled to give more deliberate 
consideration to the work of the Corresponding Societies and to ensure 
before the meeting of the Association that their various Sectional Com- 
mittees, as well as the originator's of investigations requiring the co-opera- 
tion of the Corresponding Societies, sliall be fully and authoritatively 
represented at the Conference of Delegates. Your Committee propose, 
in order to give practical effect to this suggestion, that the opening clause 
of Rule 10 relating to Corresponding Societies be modified so as to 
read : — 

' "The Organising Committees of each Section shall be instructed 
to transmit to the Secretaries of the Sections, and through these to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates, copies of any recom- 
mendation, ikc." ' 

' Notice of this modification, if approved by the Council as recom- 
mended by your Committee, must be brought before the General Com- 
mittee at the next meeting. 

' In view of the increasing importance of science to the nation at large, 
your Committee desire to call the attention of the Council to the fact 
that in ths Corresponding Societies the British Association has gathered 
in the various centres represented by these Societies practically all the 
scientific activity of the provinces. The number of members and 
Associates at present on the list of the Corresponding Societies 
approaches 25,000, and no organisation is in existence anywhere in the 
country better adapted than the British Association for stimulating, en- 
couraging, and co-ordinating all the work being carried on by tlie seventy 
Societies at present enrolled. Y''our Committee are of opinion that further 
encouragement should be given to these Societies and their individual 
working members by every means within the power of the Association, 
and with the object of keeping the Corresponding Societies in more 
permanent touch with the Association they suggest that an official 
invitation on behalf of the Council be addressed to the Societies through 
the Corresponding Societies Committee asking them to appoint stand - 

' Rule 10, Corresponding Societies. * Rule XC. 



xeil REPORT — 1903. 

ing British Association Sub-Committees to be elected by themselves 
with the object of dealing with all those subjects of investigation 
common to their Societies and to the British Association Committees, 
and to look after the general interests of science and scientific education 
throughout the provinces and provincial centres. Your Committee may 
point out that the only permanent bodies carrying out systematic 
scientific work under the auspices of the Association are the various 
Committees appointed by the Sections to undertake particular investiga- 
tions and to report thereon to their respective Sections. The proposal 
now submitted is equivalent to a request that the Corresponding Societies 
should themselves appoint such Standing Committees for stimulating 
every branch of inquiry in which these Societies are co-operating with 
the Association. It is believed that the active workers in every Society 
would by this means be brought to realise more fully that their labours 
are contributing to the general advancement of science ; and since the 
subjects at present brought under the notice of the Corresponding 
Societies cover practically every department of science represented by the 
Sections of the Association, it is hoped that these new British Association 
Sub-Committees of the Corresponding Societies may serve as nuclei for 
creating and maintaining locallj' public interest in every branch of scien- 
tific knowledge. 

' Your Committee desire to lay special emphasis on the necessity for 
the extension of the scientific activity of the Corresponding Societies and 
the expert knowledge of many of their members in the direction of 
scientific education. They are of opinion that immense benefit would 
accrue to the country if the Corresponding Societies would keep this 
requirement especially in view with the object of securing adequate 
representation for scientific education on the Education Committees now 
being appointed under the new Act. The Educational Section of the 
Association having been but recently added, the Corresponding Societies 
have as yet not had much opportunity for taking part in this branch of 
the Association's work, and in view of the reorganisation in education 
now going on all over the country your Committee are of opinion that no 
more opportune time is likely to occur for the influence of scientific 
organisations to make itself felt as a real factor in national education. 
They do not at the present juncture think it desirable to formulate any 
definite scheme detailing precise methods by which the Corresponding 
Societies might be of service to the cause of scientific education. Some 
Societies might prefer to unite to form Educational Consultative Com- 
mittees of their own, and to place their services at the disposal of the 
Education Authority of their County or Borough. Others might prefer that 
individual members of their Societies should be added to the Education 
Committee, and others again might prefer to act indirectly by helping to 
foster public opinion in favour of that kind of education which it is the 
chief function of a scientific corporation such as the British Association 
to promote. In view of the importance which your Committee attach to 
this branch of the work now proposed for the Corresponding Societies, it 
is suggested that the circular issued by the Council in accordance with 
the recommendation in this Report should invite special expressions of 
opinion from the Societies through their Delegates at the next Conference 
at Southport, so that if it is considered desirable that local effort in the 
cause not only of Science but also of scientific education would be 
strengthened if backed up by the authority of the Association, the 



REPORT OF THE COUXCIL. XCIU 

necessary steps may Ije taken by the Council to bring pressure to bear 
upon the Educational Committees through tlie Board of Education. 

' The standing British Association Sub-Committees of and appointed 
by the Corresponding Societies, whether for educational or any other 
branch of work, would, through the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
be in touch with the Association, and it would always be open for these 
Sub-Committees to forward to the Corresponding Societies Committee 
suggested subjects for investigation or for discussion at the Conference. 
Your Committee are also of opinion that it would help to reassure the 
Corresponding Societies that the Association has a real interest in their 
welfare if the General Officers of the Association were made members ex 
officio of the Corresponding Societies Committee, so that thpy might keep in 
touch with the work of this Committee and also take part in the Conference 
of Delegates, and they recommend that in future the Council in nominating 
the members of this Committee add the General Officei-s to the list,' 

The Council recommend that the opening clause of Rule 10, relating 
to Corresponding Societies, be modified so as to read : — 

' " The Organising Committees of each Section shall be instructed 
to transmit to the Secretaries of the Sections, and through these to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates, copies of any recom- 
mendations, &c." ' 

On the invitation of the Organising Committee of the International 
Congress for Applied Chemistry, to be held in June 1903 at Berlin, the 
Council appointed the President (Pi-ofessor James Dewar), Sir Henry 
Roscoe, and Professor Meldola to represent the British Association as 
Delegates. 

The Council have nominated the Right Hon. the Earl Spencer, 
K.G., LL.D., Chancellor of the Victoria University, the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Sefton, Sir George Pilkington, Alfred Hopkinson, LL.D., K.C., 
Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria IJnivei'sity, and Mr. E. Marshall Hall, 
K.C., M.P., Vice-Presidents of the Association for the Meeting at 
Southport. 

The Council nominate Mr. W. Whitaker B.A., F.R.S., Chairman ; the 
Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A., Vice-Chairman ; and Mr. F. VV. Rudler, 
Secretary, to the Conference of Delegates of the Corresponding Societies, 
to be held during the Meeting at Southport. 

A Report from the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those Societies during the year 
ending May 31, 1903, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. W. 
Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rudler (Secretary), Professor R. 
Meldola, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Dr. 
H. R. Mill, Mr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, Professor W. W. 
Watts, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. C. H. Read, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
and the General Officers of the Association, are hereby nominated for 
reappointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate the Right Honoui-able Arthur James Balfour, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., as President for the Cambridge meeting in 190 i. 



xciv REPORT — 1903. 

An invitation for the Meeting of 1905 will be presented from Cape 
Town. After very full consideration of the matter the Council recom- 
mend that the invitation to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association 
in South Africa in 1905 be accepted. 

The President having approached Sir Donald Currie with the object of 
ascertaining how far transit rates to South Africa might be reduced on 
behalf of the Association and its Members, received the following letter 
in reply ; — 

' 4 Hyde Park Place, London, W., 
'June 11, 190.S. 

' Dear Professor Dewar, — "With reference to the call with which you 
favoured me the other day and to our interview of this morning, I write 
to let you know that, as I have to leave for Scotland to-morrow, I shall 
now put in writing the arrangement which 1 propose in order to carry out 
your wishes on behalf of the Association. 

' I understand from you that the Association contemplate a visit to 
South Africa the year after next, and that you have to some extent made 
the necessary preparations, but that you have been very anxious to have 
the assurance from me that the terms for the conveyance of the Members 
of the Council and their friends shall be such as can have your entire 
approval, and enable you to have a successful visit to South Africa of a 
representative character. 

' Further, I understand from you that it is possible that other friends 
will be prepared to assist the funds which will be required to make the 
visit successful and not onerous to those who may engage in it. 

' You have suggested that you will call the Council together and that 
I may be invited to meet them at Burlington House, but owing to the 
jjereavement we have suffered I am hardly likely to be able to get back 
to London for the time you have suggested, hence the desire which I had 
to let you know in writing and without delay what T have to say in order 
to assist you in the proposed visit of the Association to South Africa. In 
the first place, in regard to the terms, I propose to you that our Mail 
Company shall make a reduction of 30 per cent, upon the ordinary return 
fares which we charge to the public, this reduction to be in favour of the 
official Delegates. In addition, ordinary Members of the Association and 
members of their families may wish to accompany them, and for their 
passage I propose that the price shall be reduced 25 per cent. 

' It is very gratifying to me to be in a position to assist. I am well 
aware of the immense impetus that has been given to scientific investiga- 
tion in the United Kingdom by the annual meetings of this Association ; 
and it is thoroughly in accord with the spirit of Imperialism that the 
Mother Country should encourage Colonial scientific effort by a visit of 
the British Association to South Africa. There is another reason I am 
happy to be of service to that body of vigorous workers who by their inve.sti- 
gations advance their respective sciences, and by their lectures and teaching 
keep us in touch with the progress made in this country and in others. 

' The efforts of such intelligent workers as yourselves are not prompted 
by a love of gain and a spirit of commercial enterprise, and I venture to 
say that all who have received practical advantages and benefits from such 
researches, studies, and developments should be ready to acknowledge 
gratefully your successes in every way in their power. 

' I can lay no claim personally to having taken any part in such 
scientific research ; but it has fallen to my lot during the many years I 
have been connected with steamship enterprise and Colonial mining work, 



RErORT OF THE nOTTNCII.. XCV 

in which I aui largely interested, to take advantage, af3 I have said, of the 
lessons in practical science which the exertions of scientists have de- 
veloped. In regard to the material for the construction of ships, whether 
of steel or of iron, to the advance in naval architecture, to the adaptation 
of power to produce suitable results, to the inquiry into the means of 
securing the maximum advantage in the consumption of fuel, to the 
application of electricity as a motive and illuminative power, and to the 
utilisation of telegraphy in all its forms, men like myself who have been 
benefited by the practical applicatif)n of such discoveries are really bound 
to do all we can to assist you in any scheme such as you now contemplate 
to enlarge the scope of your aims and operations. 

' In addition to the terms for the conveyance of yourselves and friends 
of the deputation to and from South Africa, which you will approve of as 
favourable, I shall be glad to subscribe 500/. to any fund which you will, 
I think, find it desirable to collect in order that all the expenses of your 
visit to South Africa may be fully covered. 

' Believe me, yours very truly, 

'Donald Cuerie, 

' Professor Dewar, 
* President of the British Association.' 

To this letter the following reply was sent : — 

' British Association for the Advancement of Science, 

' Burlington House, London, W., June 12, 190."?. 

'Dear Sir Donald Currie, — I am in receipt of your most noble 
response to my appeal for aid and support on behalf of the project of a 
visit of the British Association for the Advancement of Science to South 
Africa in the year IQOn, and will forthwith communicate the same to the 
Council. May I at once, as the President, express on behalf of the 
Council and the Association the profound gratitude which I am sure they 
would desire me to convey for your generous appreciation of the work of 
Science, and the helpful and fatherly way in which you have responded 
to pecuniary difficulties. 

' Yours very faithfully, 

'James Dewar. 

The Council have received the following important letter from Sir 
Frederick Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S., which they desire to record in their 
Report : — 

' 5 Great George Street, Westminster, S.W., 
' July 2, 190:i 

' My dear President,— It may, perhaps, be in the recollection of a 
few of the older Members of Section G that, at the Jubilee Meetin"', 
York, 1881, I said (in a " comraunicatioii " ordered to be printed in 
cxtenso), speaking of the Steam Engine, that " a change in the pi'oduction 
of power from fuel appears to be impending, if not in the immediate 
future, at all events in a time not very far remote ; and however much 
the Mechanical Section of the British Association may to day contemplate 
with regret even the mere distant prospect of the Steam Engine becoming 
a thing of the past, I very much doubt whether those who meet here fifty 
years hence will then speak of that motor except in the character of a 
curiosity to be found in a museum. " ' 

' British Association Proceedings, 1S81 Volume, page .'503. 



XCvi REPORT — 1903. 

' In saying this, I no doubt then thought I was speaking somewliat 
hyperbolically, but from the close attention I have paid to the subject of 
internal-combustion engines, and from the way in which that attention 
has revealed a continuous and, year by year, a largely increasing develop- 
ment of such engines, I feel assured that although there may still be steam 
engines remaining in work in 1931, the output of steam engines in that 
year will be but small as compared with the output of internal -combustion 
engines. 

' I wish to keep alive the interest of the Association in this subject, 
and for this purpose I should be glad to be allowed to now present to the 
Association 50/., which I suggest should be invested in 2^ per cent. Self- 
accumulative Consols, amounting in 1931 to about 100/., which sum, or 
whatever other sum may be to the credit of the account at that time, I 
should like to be paid as an honorarium to a gentleman to be selected by 
the Council to prepare a Paper having my utterances in 1881 as a sort of 
text, and dealing with the whole question of the prime movers of 1931, 
and especially with the then relation between steam engines and internal- 
combustion engines. 

' I enclose a cheque drawn in your favour for .50/. 

' Believe me to be, yours very truly, 

' Fredkrick Bramwell. 
' Professor James Dewar, M.A., LL.D , F.R.S., kc, &c., 
' President of the British Association for tlie Advancement of Science.' 

The Council, having been informed by Dr. D. H. Scott that he does 
not intend to offer himself for re-election as General Secretary after the 
Southport Meeting, desire to record their sense of the valuable services 
he has rendered to the Association during the years he has held that 
otRce. 

The Council recommend that Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S., 
be appointed General Secretary in succession to Dr. D. H. Scott. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 

St/ leant Attendance. 
Sir Oliver Lodge. 
Professor Sollas. 



Bjl Seniority. 
Captain E. W. Creak. 
Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
Professor W. D. Halliburton. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Abney, Sir W., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 

Bonar, J., Esq., LL.D. 
♦Bourne, G. C, Esq., M.A. 

Bower, Profes.sor F. O.. F.R.S. 
*Brabrook, E. W., Esq., C.B. 

Callendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 

Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Major L., Sec. R.G.S. 

Gotch, Professor F., F.R.S. 

Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 

Hawksley, C, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 

Howes, Professor G. B., F.R.S. 



Keltie, .1. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 

Macalister, Professor A., F.R.S 
*McKendrick, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 
*Noble, Sir A., Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Perkin. Professor W. H.. F.R.S. 

Perry, Professor John, F.R.S. 

Price, L. L., Esq., SLA. 

Seward, A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 

Tilden, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 

Watts, Professor W. W., F.G.S. 

Wolfe-Barry, Sir John, K.C.B., F R.S. 
♦Woodward, Dr. A. S., F.R.S. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCvii 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
SouTHPORT Meeting in September 1903. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements 



Seismological Observations. 



To co-operate with the Royal 
Meteorological Society in ini- 
tiating an Investigation of the 
Upper Atmosphere by means 
of Kites. 



To co-operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatory 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



1903. 



Chairman.- — Lord Raj'leigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G, Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Profes- 
sors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley. Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stonej', Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir A. W. Riicker, Professor H. 
L. Callendar, and Mr. G. 
Matthey. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. 
Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Major L. Dar- 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. 
Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, 
Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. H. Dines. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Ver- 
non Boys, Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
and Dr. A. Schuster. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary .— Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, I\Ir. W. F. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, and Sir A. W. 
Riicker. 



£ s. d. 
Balance 
in hand. 



40 



50 
and bal- 
ance in 
band. 



60 



xcvm 



REPORT — 1903. 
1. Receiring Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject foi' Liivestigsitiou or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The Stuqly of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Cliairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors J. 
Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A.Schus- 
ter, AV. N. Hartley, and Wol- 
cott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. Abney, 
and Ur. W. E. Adeney. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. Divers. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. W. Crossley. 
Professor W. H. Parkin, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 



£ 
10 



s. d. 




25 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic P. locks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measui'es for their preservation. 



To explore Irish Caves. (Collec- 
tions to be placed in tlie Science 
and Art Museum, Dublin.) 



The movements of Underground 
Waters of North-west York- 
shire. 



To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. 



Chairman.— Mr. J. E. Marr. ' 10 

Secretary. —Mr. P. F. Kendall. and bal- 

Profes.sor T. G. I'.onney, Mr. C. E. ' ance in 

DeRance.ProfessorW. J.Sollas, hand. 

Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Mr. J. Home, Mr. 

F. M. Burton, Mr. J. Lomas, 

Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Mr. 

J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, 

and Mr. F. W. Harmer. 

Cliairman. — Dr. R. F. Scharff. Balance 

Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. in hand. 
Mr. G. Coffey, Professor Grenville 

Cole, Dr. Cunningham, Mr. G. 

W. LampUigh, Mr. A. McHenry, 

and Mr. R. J. Ussher. 

Chairman. — Prof essorW.W. Watts. Balance 
Secretary. — Mr. A. R. Dwevry- in hand. 

house. 
Professor A. Smithells, Rev. E. 

Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 

l\Ir. G. Bray, Rev. W. Lower 

Carter, Mr. f. Fairley, Professor 

P. F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. 

Marr. 

Chairman. — Jlr. J. E. Marr. ?5 

Secretan/. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 
Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 

Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 

Professof E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. 

Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, 

Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lam- 

plugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, 

Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. J. T. Stobbs, 

Mr. A. Strahan, and Dr. H. 

\Voodward. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Beeeiving Grants of Mimey — continued. 



XCIX 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To report upon the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British 
Isles. 



To investigate the Fossiliferous 
Drift Deposits at Kirmington, j 
Lincolnshire, and at various ! 
localities in the East Riding of ; 
Yorkshire. 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Lomas. 

Professors W. W. Watts and P. F. 
Kendall, and Messrs H. C. [ 
Beasley, E. T. Newton, A. C. • 
Seward, and W. A. E. Ussher. j 

Chairman. —Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. ! 

Secretary.— Mr. J. W. Statlier. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor ! 
J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower i 
Carter, Messrs. A. R. Dwerry- 
house, F. W. Harraer, and J. H. 
How.nrth, Rev. W. Johnson, and 
Messrs. P. F. Kendall, E. T. 
Newton, H. M. Platnauer, Cle- 
ment Reid, and T. Sheppard. 



£ 
10 



s. tl. 





50 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected bj- the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To enable Mr. J. W. Jenkinson to 
continue his Researches on the 
Influence of Salt and other 
Solutions on the Development 
of the Frog. 

To enable Dr. F. W. Gamble to con- 
duct Researches on the Colour 
Physiology of Higher Crustacea. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Sec7-etary. — Mr. J. E. 8. Moore. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. AVeldon, Pro- 
fessor G. B. Howes, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary.— Dr. F. A. Bather. 
I Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Mr. R. McLachlan, 
I and Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 
1 

Chairman. — Professor Weldon. 

Secretary.— Mr. J. W. Jenkinson. 

Professor S. J. Hickson. 



100 



GO 



15 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 15 

son. 
Secretary.— Dr. F. W. Gamble. [ 
Dr. Hoyle and Dr. F. W. Keeble. 



Section F,— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Accuracy and Comparability 
of British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade. 



Chairman. — Dr. E. Cannan. 

Secretary. — Dr. B. Ginsburg. 

Mr. A. L. Bowley, Professor S. J. 
Chapman, Sir R. Giffen, and 
Mx. R. H. Inglis Palgrave. 



25 



f 2 



REPORT — 1903. 
1. Reeeiving Grants of Money — continued 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Commiltee 


Grants 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To investigate tlie Resistance of 
Road Vehicles to Traction. 



Chairman.— Sir J. I. Thorn3-croft. 

Secretary. — Professor H. S. Hele- 
Sliaw. 

Mr. T. Aitken, Mr. T. C. Aveling, 
Professor T. Hudson Beare, Mr. 
W. W. Beaumont, Mr. J. Brown, 
Colonel R. E. Cromplon, Mr. ]!. 
J. Diplock. Mr. A. Mallock, Pro- 
fessor J. Perry, Sir D. Salomons, 
Mr. A. R. Sennett.Mr.E. Shrap- 
nell Smitli, and Professor W. C. 
Unwin. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To conduct Archreological and 
Ethnological Researches in 
Crete. 



To invest:g?te the Lake Village 
at Gla.sronbury, and to report 
on the best method of publica- 
tion of the result. 



To conduct Anthropometric In- 
vestigations among the Native 
Troops of the Egyptian Army. 



To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigation in Great Britain and 
Ireland. 



Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, Mr. A. J. 
Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Pro- 
fessor A. Macalister, and Pro- 
fessor W. Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins. 

Sir John Evans and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, C. H. Re.ad, 
H. Balfour, and A. Bulleid. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Alac- 

alister. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Sir John Evans and Professor 

D. J. Cunningham. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. L. M}Tes. 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Mr. E. 
W. Brabrook, and Mr. T. Ashby. 

Chairman. — Professor D. J. Cun- 
ningham. 

Secretary.— My. J. Gray. 

Mr. Annandale, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Dr. C. S. Myers, Mr. J. L. Myres, 
Professor A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. 
N. Fallaize, Mr. Randall Mac- 
Iver, Professor J. Symington, 
and Dr. Waterston. 



DO 



s. d. 




100 



25 



10 



25 



Balance 
in hand. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENEHAL COMMITTEE. CI 

1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The State of Solution of Proteids. 



To enable Professor Starling, Pro- 
fessor Brodie, Dr. Hopkins, Mr. 
Fletcher, Mr. Barcroft, and 
others to determine the ' Meta- 
bolic Balance Sheet ' of the 
Individual Tissues. 



Chairman. — Professor \V. D. Halli- 
burton. 

Seoretari/. — Professor E. Way- 
mouth Reid. 

Professor E. A. Schiifer. 

(liairman. — Professor Gotch. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Barcroft. 
Sir Michael Foster and Professor 
Starling. 



£ 

20 



s. d. 




40 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To carry out the scheme for the 
Registration of Negatives of 
Botanical Photographs. 



The Respiration of Plants. 



To assist Mr. Alfred Fryer in the 
completion of a Monograph on 
the genus Potainogeton. 



E.xperimental Studies in the Physi- 
ology of Heredity. 



Chairman Professor L. C. Miall. 6 0! 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Mr. Francis Darwin, Dr. W. G. 

Smith, and Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Chairman. — Professor H. Marshall 15 

Ward. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Wager. 
Mr. Francis Darwin and Professor 

J. B. Farmer. 

Chairman — Professor S. H. Vines. 10 
Secretary. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Professor H. Marshall Ward and 
Professor I. Bayley Balfour. 

Chairman. — Professor H. Marshall 35 

Ward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. C. Seward. 
Professor J. B. Farmer and Dr. 

D. Sharp. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman.— Mt. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. W. Rudler. 

Sir John Evans, Rev. J. O. Bevan, 
Dr. H. T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan 
Cornish. Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Mel- 
dola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. 
Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Prof. W. W. Watts, and the 
General Officers. 



20 



Cll 



repoM— ly03. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for InvestSgation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Co-oi3erating with the Scottish Bleteoro- 
logical fciociety in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



The Bate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
I/ocalities of Dry Land and under 
Water. 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
continue lier Report on the present 
state of the Theory of Point-groups. 



Considering the best Methods of Re- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation. 



The Consideration of the Teaching of 
Elementary Mechanics, and the Im- 
provement which niiglit be effected 
in such Teachintr. 



Chairman. — Lord McLaren . 
Secretarij. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Sir John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, Pro- 
fessor R. Copeland, and Mr. Omond. 

Chair man and Secretary. — Professor J. D. 
Everett. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve 
Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Pro- 
fessor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr.W. Galloway, Sir. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Edward Wethe- 
red, Jlr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie 
Smitli, Professor H. L. Callendar, and 
Mr. B. H. Brough. 

Chairman. — Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney. 
Srcrctari/. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Professor A. Schuster, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 

Captain Sir W. de W. Abney, Dr. C. 

Chree, Professor H. L. Callendar, Mr. 

W. E. AVilson, and Professor A. A. 

Rambaut, 

Cliairman. — Professor Horace Lamb. 

St'crctanj. — Professor J. Perry. 

Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Professors Chrystal, 
Ewing, G. A. Gibson, and Greenhill, 
Principal Griffiths, Professor Henrici, 
Dr. E. AV. Hobson, Mr. C. S. Jackson, 
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professors Love, 
Minchin, and Schuster, and Mr. A. 
W. Siddons. 



Section B.-^CHEMISTRY. 



The Nature of Alloys. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic 
Derivatives of Benzene. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. F. H. 

Neville 
Mr. C, T. Heycock and Principal E. H. 

Griffiths. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Secretari/. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Dr. W. P. Wynne and Mr. W. J. Pope. 



COMMITTEES APPOlNTEt) BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Nut receiving Grants of Mime>/-- continuedi. 



cm 



Subject te* Iftvestigation or Purpose 



The Relation between the Absorption 
Spectra RHfl Chemical Constitution of 
Organic yubstances. 



Members of the CSoinmlttfee 



CJiairmin, and Secretary. — Professor W. 

Noel Hartley. 
Professor F. R. Japp, Professor J. J. 

Dobbie, and Mr. Alexander Lauder. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and vSys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



Chdirman. — Professor J. Geikie. 
Secretary. — Professor W. W. Watts. 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. Anderson, 

Professors E. J. Garwood and S. H. 

Reynolds, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, W. 

Gray, H. B. Woodward, K. Kidston, 

J. J. H. Te^ll, J. G. Goodchild, H. 

Coates, C. V. Crook, G. Bingley, R. 

Welch, A. K. Coomaraswamy, and 

W. J. Harrison. 



To report upon the present state of i Chairman. — Professor N. Story Maske- 
our Knowledge of the Structure of I lyne. 
Crystals. ' Secretary. — Professor H. A. Miers. 

Mr. L. Fletcher, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. W. Barlow, Mr. G. F. H. Smith, 
the Earl of Berkeley, and Mr. H. L. 
Bowman. 



To promote the Registration of Type 
Specimens of Fossils in the British 
Isles. 



Chairnmn. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. F. Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidston, 
. Professor H. G. Seeley, Mr. H. Wcods, 
and Rev. J. F. Blake. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To investigate the structure, formation, 
and growth of the Coral Reefs of the 
Indian Region, with special observa- 
tions on the inter-relationship of the 
reef organisms, the depths al which 
they grow, the food of corals, effects 
of currents and character of the ocean 
bottom, &c. The land tloraand fauna 
will be collected, and it is intended 
that oljservations shall be made on the 
manners, &c., of the natives in the 
different parts of the Maldivc group. 



To enable Miss Igcsna Solla.s, of Newn- 
ham College, Cambridge, to study 
certain points in the development of 
Ophiusoids, and to enable other com- 
petent naturalists to perform delinite 
pieces of work at the Marine Labora- 
tory, Plymouth. 



Chairman. — Mr. A. Sedgwick. 

Secretary. — l\Ir. J. Stanley Gardiner. 

Professor J. W. Jndd, Mr. J. J. Lister, 
Mr. Fr,ancis Darwin. Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
and Professors A. Macalister, W. A. 
Herdman, and S. J. Uickaon. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. W. Car- 
stang. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 



CIV 



REPOKT — 1903; 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To continue the investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Roj'al Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To conduct an Investigation into the 
Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. 'T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 

Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. F. 

Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar 

A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Secretari/.—Dr. AV. E. Hoyle. 

Dr. F, F. Blackman, Mr. J. S. Gardiner, 

Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. A. C. 

Seward, Professor C. S. Sherrington, 

and Mr. A, G. Tansley. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



Terrestrial Surface Waves. 



The Geography of the Antarctic Regions 
in the area to be explored by the 
Scottish National Antarctic Expedi- 
tion. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. Scott Keltie. 
Secretary. — Dr. Vaughan Cornish. 
Lieut.-Col. F. Bailey, Mr. B. A. Floyer, 

Mr. John Milne, and Mr. W. H. 

Wheeler. 

Chairman.-~^\r T. H. Holdich. 
Secretary. — Lieut.-Col. F. Bailey. 
Mr. W. S. Bruce. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To obtain Information respecting the 
present Tidal R6gime of the River 
Mersey, with the object of submitting 
the data so obtained to Harmonic 
Analysis. 



Chairman. — Lord Kelvin. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. N. Shoolbred. 
Professors G. H. Darwin, H. S. Hele- 

Shaw, Osborne Reynolds, and W. C. 

Unwin. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To conduct Explorations with the ob- 
ject of ascertaining the Age of Stone 
Circles. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Anthropological Interest. 



Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary.— Mt. H. Balfour. 

Sir John Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, Pro- 
fessor Meldola, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. 
Munro, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and 
Mr. A. L. Lewis. 

Chairman, — Mr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. 

Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. 

Hartland. Mr. E. Heawood, Mr. H. S. 

Kingsford, and Professor Flinders 

Petrie- 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



CV 



2. Not receiving Grants of Monoj — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 

The present state of Anthropological 
Teaching in the United Kingdom and 
elsewhere. 



To organise an Ethnological Survey of 
Canada. 



Members of the Committee 



To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of tlie Ethnography, Folklore, 
and Languages of the Peoples of the 
PaciSc. 



Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tjlor. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myrps. 

Professor A. Macalister, Dr. A. C. Had- 
don, Mr. C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, 
Mr. F. W. Kudler, Dr. K. Munro, Pro- 
fessor Flinders Petrie, Mr. H. Ling 
Roth, and Professor D. J. Cunningham. 

Cliairman. — Professor D. P. Peuhallow. 

Secretary.— Mt. C. Hill-Tout. 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. E. S. Hartland, Mr. 15. Suite, Mr. 
David Boyle, Mr. C. N. Bell, Professor 
E. B. Tylor, Trofessor J. Mavor, Mr. A. F. 
Hunter, Dr. W. F. Ganong, Rev. Father 
Monies, Rev. Father A. G. Morice, 
Mr. W. Crooke, and Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Mr. H. Balfour and Mr. J. Stanley Gar- 
diner. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Physiological Effects of Peptone 
and its Precursors when introduced 
into the circulation. 



To investigate the Functions of the 
Rods and Cones in the Mammalian 
Retina with reference to the Visual 
Purple. 



Chairman. — Professor E. A. Schiifer. 
Secretary. — Professor W. H. Thompson. 
Professors R. Boyce and C. S. Sherring- 
ton. 



Chairman. — Professor J. G. McKendrick 
Secretary. — Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green 
Professors E. H. Starling and A. 
Waller. 



D. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



The conditions of Health essential to 
the carrying on of the work of in^ 
struction in schools. 



To consider and report npon the influ- 
ence exercised bj' Universities and 
Examining Bodies on .secondarj' school 
curricula, and also of the schools on 
university requirements. 



Chairman. — Professor Sherrington. 

Secretary. —Mr. E. White Wallis. 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Professor L. C. 
Miall, Miss Findlay, Miss Alice Raven- 
hill, Miss Maitland, Dr. Clement Dukes, 
Dr. Rivers, Mr. J. Russell, Dr. Sydney 
Stephenson, Dr. C. Childs, Dr. C. 
Shelley, and Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. A. Gregory. 

The Bishop of Hereford, Sir Michael 
Foster, Sir P. Magnus, Sir A. W. 
Riicker, Sir 0. J. Lodge, Mr. H. \V. Eve, 
Mr. W. A. Shenstone, Mr. W. D. Eggar, 
Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. F. H. 
Neville, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, and Dr. C. 
W. Kimmins. 



CVl 



HfiPORT— 1903. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


The Teaching of Botany in Schools. 

To report upon the Course of Experi- 
mental, Observational, and Practical 
Studies most suitable for Elementary 
; Schools. 


Chairman. — Professor L. C. Miall. 

St'crefari/. — Mr. Harold Wager. 

Professor J. R. Green, Mr. A. C. Seward, 
Professors H. M. Ward, J. B. Farmer, 
and T. Johnson, Miss Lilian Clarke, 
and Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 

Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secret ar I/.— Mv. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Jlr. K. H. Adie, 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Miss A. J. 
Cooper, Miss L. J. Clarke, BIr. George 
Fletcher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. Hall, Mr. 
A. J. Herbertson, Dr. C. W. Kimmios, 
Professor J. Perry, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, ! 
Professor A. Smithells, Dr. Lloyd 
Snape, Principal Reichel, Mr. U. 
Richardson, Mr. Harold Wager, and , 
Professor W. W. Watts. j 



Communication ordered to be 2>')'inted in extenso. 
On the Use of Vectorial Methods in Physics. By Professor Henrici, F.R.S. 

JttesohUions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if denirahle. 

(i.) ' That, as ur^ed by the President in his yS^ddress, it is desirable that Scientific 
workers, and persons interested in Science, be so organised that they nia3' exert per- 
manent influence on public opinion, in order more effectively to carry out the third 
object of this Association originally laid down by the Founders, viz., " to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages 
of a public kind which impede its progress," and that the Council be recommended 
to take steps to promote such organisation.' 

(ii.) 'That the Council be requested to consider the desirability of urging upon 
the Government, by a deputation to the First Lord of the Treasury or otherwise, the 
importance of increased national provision being made for University Education.' 

(iii.) ' The Committee of Section A, having received a communication from the 
International Meteorological Committee, is of opinion that the introduction of inter- 
national uniformity in the units adopted for the records of meteorological observa- 
tions would be of great practical advantage to Science, and that the Council be re- 
quested to take such steps as they may think tit toward giving effect to the resolu- 
tion.' 

[Translation of Extract from the Proccs Verbal of the International Meteoro- 
logical Committee at their Meeting on September 11, 1903, referred to above ; — 

' Section 6. — Dr. Shaw moved that the attention of Section A of the British 
Association be called by the International Meteorological Committee to the utility 
which would result from obtaining more uniformity in the units adopted in Meteoro- 
logy, and to inquire if the Section did not consider that the moment had come for 
bringing about this uniformity.' 

' After discussion, the T'ommittee decided to call the attention of Section A of 
the British Association to the inconveniences which arise from the lack of uniformity 
in the units adopted in Meteorological observations, and to ask it to consider if the 
I imc has not come for bringing about this uniformity.'] 



eOMMllTEES APl'OmTED BY tHE GENERAL C0.MM1TTE£. CVU 

(iv.) ' The Committee of Section A desire to express their opinion that the system- 
atic investigation of the upper currents of the atmosphere by means of kites or 
balloons is of great importance to Meteorology; and ask the Council to take such 
steps as they may think fit to urge upon the Treasury the importance of providing the 
Meteorological Council with the funds necessary for the purpose.' 

(v.) ' That the Council be asked to consider the desirability of permitting the 
publication of the whole of the Sectional programmes in the ' Daily Journal' at as 
early a date as possible.' 

(vi.) 'That it is desirable that further steps should betaken to make the Keports 
of Committees (as distinguished from papers) communicated to the Association more 
accessil)le to the general public by the provision of Indices to the published volumes 
and otherwise ; and that the Council be asked to consider the conditions upon which 
Reports of Committees and Proceeilings of Sections might be published separately if 
required.' 

(vii.) 'That the Sectional Committees be continued in existence until the new 
Sectional Committees are appointed, and be authorised to bring to the notice of the 
Council in the interval between the Annual Meetings of the Association any matter 
on which the action of the Council may be desired in the interests of the several 
Sections, and tiiat a t^ommittee may be summoned at any time by the President of 
the Section or by the Council.' 



Cviii REPORT — 1903. 



Synopsis of Grants of Moneij appropriated to Scientific Purposes by the 
General Committee at the Southport Meeting, September 1903. The 

Names of the Memhers entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the 7'esp)ective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and PJii/sics, 

£ s. d. 

*Rayleigh, Lord — Electrical Standards (Unexpended balance) — 

*Judd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 40 

*Shaw, Dr. W. N. — Upper Atmosphere Investigations (Un- 
expended balance and) 50 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations 60 

Chemistry. 

*Roscoe, Sir H.— Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

*Di vers, Prof. E. — Study of Hydro- Aroniatics 25 

Geology. 

*Marr, Mr. J. E.— Erratic Blocks (Balance in hand and) 10 

*Scharff, Dr. R. F. — To Explore Irish Caves (Balance in hand) — 
*Watts, Professor W. — Movenienis of Underground Waters 

(Balance in hand) — 

*Marr, Mr. J. E. — Life-zones in Carboniferous Rocks ?>^) 

*Herdnian, Professor — Fauna and Floia of British Trias 10 

Lamplugh, Mr. G. W. — To investigate Fossiliferous Drifts... 50 

Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Zoological Table at Naples 100 

* Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium GO 

Weldon, Professor — Investigations in Development in the 

Frog 15 

Hickson, Professor S. J. — Researches on the Higher Crustacea 15 



Economic Science and Statistics. 

Cannan, Dr. E. — British and Foreign Statistics of Interna- 
tional Trade r. 25 

Engineering. 

*Thornycroft, Sir J. J. — Resistance of Road Vehicles to Trac- 
tion 90 

Carried forward 1^595 

* ileappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEV, cix 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 595 

Ayithrojjology. 

•Evans, Sir John — Archseological and Ethnological Researches 

in Crete 100 

♦Munro, Dr. H. — Researches in Glastonbury Lake Village ... 25 
*Macalister, Professor A. — Anthropometric Investigation on 

Egyptian Troops 10 

Evans, Dr. A. J. — Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain... 25 

Physiology. 

♦Halliburton, Professor— The State of Solution of Proteids ... 20 
Gotch, Professor — Metabolism of Individual Tissues 40 

Botany. 

Vines, Professor S. H.— Completion of Monograph on Pota- 

mogeton 10 

*Miall, Professor L, C. — Botanical Photographs 5 

* Ward, Professor Marshall — Respiration of Plants 15 

Ward, Professor M. — Experimental Studies in Hei-edity ... 35 

Corresponding Societies. 

* W hitaker, Mr. W. — Preparing Report, &c 20 

^900 
* Reappointed. 



The Annual Ifeeting in 1904. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1904 will be held at 
Cambridge, commencing August 17. 

The Annual Meeting in 1905. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1905 will be held in 
South Africa. 



ex 



REPORT — 1903. 



General Statement of Sums ivhich have been -paid on account of 
Grayits for Scientific Purposes 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions C2 

Britisli Fossillclithj-ology ... 105 



±1(J7 







183G. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c .TO 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-g.auges il 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation (jO 

Thermometers 15 6 



£'135 



1837. 

Tide Di.scussions 2S4 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperat ure fi3 

Vitrilication Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 





13 


6 








12 











3 











4 


C 








18 


6 



£'922 12 (5 



1S38. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides ,50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 60 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 2 00 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 



























1 


10 


o 


10 














6 


c 








3 





8 


t 








9 


5 



£932 2 -2 



1839. 

£ 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, 1.^'C 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on .Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
serv.alions, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



.V. 


d. 








10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 








7 


7 





1 


2 





4 


18 








6 


16 





10 


6 








1 
























2 9 




£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientitic Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics .50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



:ei546 16 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and. Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 1.5 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers C 18 6 

Stars (Histoii-e Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 65 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



I 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments. . 113 

Anoplura P.ritanniaj 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil MammaHa 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vesaels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) ...... 69 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 60 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 























8 


6 















Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... S 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



?. 


d. 




















1 


U 


9 






£1449 17 8 



184.3. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of St.ars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Met corological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railwaj's 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

«liocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 

.stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) .10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 » 



CXll 



REPORT — 1903. 



£ s. d. 

Aclditional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials ■■ 60 

£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 
Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 
Co-operation 25 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 
East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at" Kew Observa- 
tory 117 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory •''6 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland .•• 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 
Earthquakes 1842 2?> 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Badiata and Mollusca of the 
^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 
Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 
the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 















8 


4 














9 


6 



17 3 



7 


3 














17 


6 








11 


10 














10 























7 


3 







































12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 14616 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters — 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1814 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness r,nd 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



GENEMAL STATEMENT. 



cxul 



1847. 

£ 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208" 



























9 


3 


7 


7 


8 


6 


5 


4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275" 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 























1 


8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 

On Growth of Plant s 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19~ 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£345 



18 





1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 

Theory of Heat 20 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 3 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 

1903. 



2 


3 


1 


1 








6 


4 











1 








9 


7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 S 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 U 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304~6~7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 
of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205" 0^0 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax ]l o 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 ""7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 118 5 

Vitality of Seeds IQ 7 H 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near B elf ast 4 

£480 16^4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 01 „^ ^ 

1855 £500 Of ^^^ ^ 



CJJIV 



REPORt — 1903. 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dtedging and Dredging 

Fol-ms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Ptopagation of Salmon 10 

£734 1 a 9 



1857. 

Maintaiilihg the Establi.sh- 

thent at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

l)redging on the West Oodst 
of Scotland 10 

InvestigEttions into th6 Mol- 

litsba of dalifornia ....:.... 10 

EXpel-ithtints on I^lax 6 

Jjatutal flistory of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on Btitish Anne- 
lida 25 

Repolt oil Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Attiticial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperatiire of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 

Life-boats 



5 


7 



4 


. 5 









£507 


15 


4 



1899. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
bredging near Dublin 15 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredscing near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 6 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 0_0 

£618 18 2 



£ *. d. 

Osteology of Bitds 50 

Ilish Tilnicata 5 

Blanure Experiments 30 

British Medusidse 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 3 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Iteland 10 

Photographic Chemistry ...... 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents .39 11 

£684 11 i 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 (3 

Dredging in t)Ublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Petformdnce 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on theConstituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19^~6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

I860 £50 1 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey .and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliograjihic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£1111 










72 











































































5 


10 








5 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXV 



1862. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining- tlie Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 G 

Moll iisca of N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photolieliometer at Kcvv 40 

PhotoL;Tapliic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Ptocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 110 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16~1; 



1803. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Blove- 

ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium S 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminoixs Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 




































































3 10 


























































£ s. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3~T0 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establisli- 

ment at Kcav Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 1'5 

Balloon Committee 2()(t 

Carbon under presstire 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 () 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 o 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 1.5 S 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humbcr 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 







1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. GOO 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollueca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kenfs Hole Excavations 100 

Moons Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aljerdeensliire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 



























8 























9 























(J 




































































10 








7 


10 



g3 



tXVl 



HEPORT — 1903. 



1866. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaiuinfr the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

TiUnar Committee 64 13 4 

lialloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Eainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum l*ay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 60 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Arayl (!omi30unds 25 

Electrical (Standards 100 

Malta Caves E.xploration .SO 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Pol}-cyanidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 2a 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Lirds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine E.xploration Fund... 100 

£1750 13 4 



1868. 

£ 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 60 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 
Steamship Performances . .. 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids (JO 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Piile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 60 

Greenland Explorations U)0 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 6 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 
Fauna 100 

i^l940 



£ *. d. 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorulogical Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Exploiations ...'. 60 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 60 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatorj'. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 































































































































































































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXVll 



Chemical Coustitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Troducts of Digestion 10 



£1622 



1870, 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatorj 6o0 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine B^auna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Katiire of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Britisli Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Dagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of .Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 60 

£1572~ 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Meth)d Compounds 25 

J-ui)ar Objects 30 




































































































































































































2 


6 

































£ 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



d. 




























£1472 2 G 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 


































































































































1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils :>0 

Matliematical Tables KM) 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 
















































































































£1685 



CXVlll 



REPORT — 1903. 



187i. 

£ 

Zoological llecoi-fl 100 

Chemistry Itecord 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Klliptic Functions 1 00 

Liglitning' (lonductors 10 

Tliermal Conductivity of 

Roclvs 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Hub-Wealdcn Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Maiiritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms -''O 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Bloclcs 10 

Dredging, Durliam and York- 
shire Coasts 28 

High Temperature of Bodies .SO 

Kiemens"s Pyrometer 3 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 

£1151 
1875. — — 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors ?0 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Crcsols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 
Kent's Cavern Kxplriration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes . .^ 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 

1876. 
Printing Mathematical Tables 1 59 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating iMachine ... 200 
Specific Volume of Liqili^s... 25 



X. 


(I. 








































































































10 





























5 











6 






15 




















































































































4 


2 








5 














Q 



16 



£ s. a. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Etliyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaccto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Pliosplioric Acid IH 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles LS 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092~4~2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors .30 

Elasticity of AVires 100 

Dipterocarpese, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle'Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmosplieric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosplioric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 















11 


7 











































































18 



















^ 7 



GENEEAL STATEMENT. 



cxix 



1878. 

£ s. (I. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of .Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 
for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 

less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the P>asalt 

of the Nortli of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammotli 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Oaves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exjjlorat ion... 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks .SO 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equiv^lept of He^t ......... 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables ■ of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients .SO 

Datum Level of tlie Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms ,36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 

.servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors .SO 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuitm 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Induct ive Capacity of Crj'stals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 
Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometrj' 60 

Patent Itf^Vfs 5 

£731 7 7 



cxx 



REPORT — 1903. 



1881. 

£ s. d. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Undergiound Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key ,5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... .50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebi'aical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of INIercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Fhenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 




























1 


11 







































































1883. 

£ 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polj'zoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaao- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 
Scottish Zoological Station... 25 
Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 
Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 



1 11 



«. 


d. 























































































3 8 











3 3 



1881. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

IMeteorological Observator}' at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaso- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthrqpometric Committee... 10 

£1173 























4 






































(1 



































t) 




















4 






GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CSXl 



1883. 

£ «. d. 

8)'noptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis SO 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, ifec, of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raj'gill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palasozoic 
Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of P.ritish Ter- 
tiary and Secondarj'^ Beds.., 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 
of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Eoraima 100 

£1385 




































































































1886. 

Electrioal Standards 40 

Solar Radiation ;i 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Reds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Vojcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Paheozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Ipvertebrata at ^t. Andrews 75 









10 


6 








10 








































































& i. d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 







1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observ.itorv 75 

Standards of Light (1880 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .Japan 

(1886gr.ant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Jajsan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plant s of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ...100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hvpsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial f holographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



CXXll 



REPORT — 1903. 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 70 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharo-e of Elec- 
tricity .'; 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives .'. 25 

Action of Light on Hj'dracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palieontographical Society ... 60 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and Westr Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 

viu.s 20 

Zoology and Botan)' of AVest 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phj'- 

sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 













































































































































n 












1889. 

Ben Nevis Obsei-vatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surf ace AVater Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ g. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try r- 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological R^eoord 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palreozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ...100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System ." 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geograph)' of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard forthe 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Metliodsof teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 1 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight ". 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

PahBozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs ...... 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya...,, ,, 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXlll 



£ s. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 

Naples Zoological Station . . . 100 
Zoology and IJotany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 
Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Metliods in Jlechani- 

cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 



d. 

9 







1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards.." 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

riiotographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of. Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Eays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phvllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Typie-Speci- 

mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolron Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

ilarine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 i 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 , 

Corresponding Societies 25 | 

£1,029 llT I 



1892. 

£ s. tl. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
PhotogTaphs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pcllian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan". 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of We.st 

India Islands 100 

C'limat ology and Hy drograph}' 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North ;- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
ilagnetic AVork at the Fal- 
mouth Observatorj- 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives , 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Slarine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botauj- of West 

India Islands 50 



CXXIV 



REPORT — 1903. 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 35 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

i'907 15 6 



1895. 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Sleteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurj'pterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Marine Biological Association 5 
Zoolog_y of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 

Anthropometric Laborator}' 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthroponietrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

porresponding Societies 25 

£583 





















5 


6 




























































































10 









































15 


6 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Electrical Standards 


25 








Photographs of Meteorological 




Phenomena 


10 








Earth Tremors 


75 
100 









Abstracts of Physical Papers 





Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 








vations made at Falmouth 








Observatory 


50 








Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 








dards 


25 








Meteorological Observations 








on Ben Nevis 


50 





n 


Wave-length Tables of the 




Spectra of tlie Elements ... 


10 








Action of Light upon Dyed 








Colours 


4 


tj 


1 


Formation of Haloids from 




Pure Materials 


20 





n 


Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 




vatives 


30 








Electrolytic Quantitative An- 




alysis 


30 

10 

5 










Erratic Blocks 





Pal.-eozoic Phyllopoda 





Photographs of Geological In- 








terest 


10 








Sliell-bearing Deposits at 




Clava, ifcc 


10 








Eurypterids of the Pentland 




Hills 


3 








New Sections of Stonesfield 




Slate .. 


50 








Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 


10 








Nature and Probable Age of 








Pligh-level Flint- drifts 


10 








Table at the Zoological Station 








at Naples 


100 








Table at the Biological Labo- 








ratory, Plymouth 


15 








Zoology, Botany, and Geology 








of the Irish Sea 


35 


9 


4 


Zoology and Botany of the 








West India Islands 


50 








Index of Genera and Species 




of Animals 


50 
5 









Climatology of Tropical Africa 





Exploration of Hadramut . . . 


50 








Calibration and Comparison of 








Measuring Instruments ... 


25 








Anthropometric Measure- 








ments in Schools 


5 
30 









Lake Village at Glastonbury 





Exploration of a Kitchen - 








midden at Hastings 


10 








Ethnographical Survey 


10 








Physiological Applications of 








the Phonograph 


'>,n 








Corresponding Societies 


30 








;e977 15 


5 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXV 



1896. 

£ 
Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Plienomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 3 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

PaliBOzoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

PalfBolithic Depo!<its at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoologj-, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake B'auna 1 00 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Coudi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£lT04 


































1 





















































































6 1 



1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Phy.siological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Ert'ects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation iu Phoeojjhycese 20 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 10^8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Phj'sical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatorj' at 

Montreal 50 



cxxvi 



REPORT — 1903. 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectta of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Cotal Reef 40 

Photographs of Geologicnl 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and tlora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 

borator}', Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in otljer 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of 

Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in PhasophyceK 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£l~2r2 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations ... 65 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

(Colours 4 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in tlie 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 
in Canada 30 





14 








19 




8 







6 












£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 

Section at Moel Try faen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Tabic at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
• tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1891) 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

EthnologicalSurvey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Etfects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Pbyfflophyceas 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1.430"l4 2 



1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 
Radiation in a Magnptic Field 25 
Meteorological Observiiiory at 

Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 

of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 
Analysis 5 


































geJteraL statement. 



cXxvn 



£ s. d. 
Isomorphous vSulpbonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 20 

The Natiue of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest :.... 10 

Kemains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

AVaters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at tlie Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et tipecierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plaiikton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 

Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands <; 100 

Coral Reefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 

Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 
Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 
Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands '. 10 

Fertilisation in Phieophyceaj 20 
Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£1,072 10 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 35 



£ 
Life-zones in British Carbo- 
niferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples :. 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of iiirds 10 

Terrestrirtl Surface Waves ... 5 
Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrican Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's LaVjour ; l5 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 7.5 

Silchester E.xcavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... S 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 
Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit .5 

Fertilisation in Phffiophycsie 15 
Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 

maceas 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth So 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish CaVcs ... 45 
Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 
Indian Ocean 50 



s. 


d. 








































































































15 


11 


















9*11 










































































CXXviii REPORT- 

£ 6-. d. 

Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves .. . 15 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 1^ 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 15 

Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hajnioglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycea; ;• 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com. 15^ 

£947 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Investigation of the Ujjper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 



-1903. 

£ 
Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hj'dro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 
Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table" at tlie Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal r>ore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedit ion 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 
Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 

India 50 

The Slate of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyce;e 25 

Respiration of Plants 13 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£845 



s. 


d. 




























































i:; 







o 
































13 


2 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 9, at 8.30 p.m., in the Opera House, South- 
port, Professor James Dewar, M.A,, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., resigned the 
office of President to Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., who 
took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 10, at 8.30 p.m., a Soire'e took place in the 

Town Hall. 

On Friday, September 11, at 8.30 p.m., in the Cambridge Hall, Dr. 
R. Munro delivered a Discourse on ' Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 
Palaeolithic Period.' 

On Monday, September 14, at 8.30 p.m., in the Cambridge Hall, Dr. 
A. W. Rowe delivered a Discourse on ' The Old Chalk Sea, and some 
of its Teachings.' 

On Tuesday, September 15, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place at the 

Town Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 16, at 2.30 p.m., in the Cambridge Hall, 
the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were 
explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Cambridge. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, August 17, 1904.] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1903. 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Sib NORMAN LOCKYER, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 

COBRESPONDANT DE L'InSTITUT DK FrAXCE, 
PRESIDENT. 



The Influence of Brain-j)ower on History. 

My first duty to-night is a sad one. I have to refer to a great loss which 
this nation and this Association have sustained. By the death of the 
great Englishman and great statesman who has just passed away we 
members of the British Association are deprived of one of the most 
illustrious of our Past-Presidents. We have to mourn the loss of an 
enthusiastic student of science. We recognise that as Prime Minister 
he was mindful of the interests of science, and that to him we owe a more 
general recognition on the part of the State of the value to the nation of 
the work of scientific men. On all these grounds you will join in tho 
expression of respectful sympathy with Lord Salisbury's family in their 
great personal loss which your Council has embodied this morninw in a 
resolution of condolence. 

Last year, when this friend of science ceased to be Prime 
Minister, he was succeeded by another statesman who also has given 
many proofs of his devotion to philosophical studies, and has shown 
in many utterances that he has a clear understanding of the real place 
of science in modern civilisation. We, then, have good grounds for 
hoping that the improvement in the position of science in this country 
which we owe to the one will also be the care of his successor, who has 
honoured the Association by accepting the unanimous nomination of your 
Council to be your President next year, an acceptance which adds a new 
lustre to this Chair. 

On this we may congratulate ourselves all the more because I think, 
although it is not generally recognised, that the century into which we 
have now well entered may be more momentous than any which has 
preceded it, and that the present history of the woi-ld is being so largely 
moulded by the influence of brain-power, which in these modern days has 
\o do with natural as well as human forces and laws, that statesmen and 

B2 



4 REPORT — 1903. 

politicians will have in the future to pay more regard to education and 
science as empiro-builders and empire-guarders than they have paid in 
the past. 

The nineteenth century will ever be known as the one in which the 
influences of science were first fully realised in civilised communities ; 
the scientific progress was so gigantic that it seems rash to predict that 
any of its successors can be more important in the life of any nation. 

Disraeli, in 1873, referring to the progress up to that year, spoke as 
follows : ' How much has happened in these fifty years — a period more 
remarkable than any, I will venture to say, in the annals of mankind. 
I am not thinking of the rise and fall of Empires, the change of dynasties, 
the establishment of Governments. I am thinking of those revolutions 
of science which have had much more effect than any political causes, 
which have changed the position and prospects of mankind more than all 
the conquests and all the codes and all the legislators that ever lived.' ^ 

The progress of science, indeed, brings in many considerations M'hich 
are momentous in relation to the life of any limited community — any one 
nation. One of these considerations to which attention is now being 
greatly drawn is that a relative decline in national wealth derived from 
industries must follow a relative neglect of scientific education. 

It was the late Prince Consort who first emphasised this when he 
came here fresh from the University of Bonn. Hence the ' Prince 
Consort's Committee,' which led to the foundation of the College of 
Chemistry, and afterwards of the Science and Art Department. From 
that time to this the warnings of our men of science have become louder 
and more ui'gent in each succeeding year. But this is not all ; the com- 
mercial output of one country in one century as compared with another is 
not alone in question ; the acquirement of the scientific spirit and 
a knowledge and utilisation of the forces of Nature are very much furtlier 
reaching in their effects on the progress and decline of nations than is 
generally imagined. 

Britain in the middle of the last century was certainly the country 
which gained most by the advent of science, for she was then in full 
possession of those material gifts of Nature, coal and iron, the combined 
winning and utilisation of which, in the production of machinery and in 
other ways, soon made her the richest country in the world, the seat and 
throne of invention and manufacture, as Mr. Carnegie has called her. 
Bein"- the great producers and exporters of all kinds of manufactured 
goods, we became eventually, with our iron ships, the great carriers, and 
hence the supremacy of our mercantile marine and our present command 

of the sea. 

The most fundamental change wrought by the early applications of 
science was in relation to producing and carrying power. With the 
vanning of mineral wealth and the production of machinery in other 

' I\'ature, November 27, 1873, vol. ix. p. 71. 



ADDRESS. 5 

Countries, and cheap and rapid transit between nations, our superiority 
as depending upon our first use of vast material resources was reduced. 
Science, which is above all things cosmopolitan — planetary, not national 
— internationalises such resources at once. In every market of the 

world 

'things of beauty, things of use, 
Which one fair planet can jsroduce, 
Brought from under every star,' 

were soon to be found. 

Hence the first great effect of the general progress of science was 
relatively to diminish the initial supremacy of Britain due to the first use 
of material resources, which indeed was the real source of our national 
wealth and place among the nations. 

The unfortunate thing was that, while the foundations of our 
superiority depending upon our material resources were being thus 
sapped by a cause tvhich was beyond our control, our statesmen and our 
Universities were blind leaders of the blind, and our other asset, our 
mental resources, which was within our control, was culpably neglected. 

So little did the bulk of our statesmen know of the part science was 
playing in the modern world and of the real basis of the nation's activities 
that they imagined political and fiscal problems to be the only matters 
of importance. Nor, indeed, are we very much better off to-day. In 
the important discussions recently raised by Mr. Chamberlain next to 
nothing has been said of the efiect of the progress of science on prices. 
The whole course of the modern world is attributed to the presence or 
absence of taxes on certain commodities in certain countries. The fact 
that the great fall in the price of food-stuffs in England did not come 
till some thirty or forty years after the removal of the corn duty between 
1847 and 1849 gives them no pause ; for them new inventions, railways, 
and steamships are negligible quantities ; the vast increase in tlie world's 
wealth, in Free Trade and Protected countries alike, comes merely, 
according to them, in response to some political shibboleth. 

We now know, from what has occurred in other States, that if our 
Ministers had been more wise and our Universities more numerous and 
efficient our mental resources would have been developed by improvements 
in educational method, by the introduction of science into schools, and, 
more important than all the rest, by the teaching of science by experiment, 
observation, and research, and not from books. It is because this was not 
done that we have fallen behind other nations in properly applying 
science to industry, so that our applications of science to industry are 
relatively less important than they were. But this is by no means all ; we 
have lacked the strengthening of the national life produced by fostering 
the scientific spirit among all classes and along all lines of the nation's 
activity ; many of the responsible authorities know little and care less 
about science ; we have not learned that it is the duty of a State to 
organise its forces as carefully for peace as for war ; that Universities and 



6 REPORT— 1903. 

other teaching centres are as important as battleships or big battalions ; 
are, in fact, essential parts of a modern State's machinery, and, as such, 
to be equally aided and as efficiently organised to secure its future well- 
being. 

Now the objects of the British Association as laid down by its 
founders seventy-two years ago are ' To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate science in different parts of the British 
Empire with one another and with foreign philosophers —to obtain a more 
general attention to the objects of science and a removal of any dis- 
advantages of a public kind which impede its progress.' 

In the main, my predecessors in this Chair, to which you have done 
me the honour to call me, have dealt, and with great benefit to science, 
with the objects first named. 

But at a critical time like the present I find it imperative to depart 
from the course so generally followed by my predecessors and to deal 
with the last object named, for unless by some means or other we ' obtain 
a more general attention to the objects of science and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress,' we shall suflTer 
in competition with other communities in which science is more generally 
utilised for the purposes of the national life. 

The Struggle for Existence in Modern Communities. 

Some years ngo, in discussing the relations of scientific instruction to 
our industries, Huxley pointed out that we were in presence of a new 
'struggle for existence,' a struggle which, once commenced, must go on 
until only the fittest survives. 

It is a struggle between organised species — nations — not between indi- 
viduals or any class of individuals. It is, moreover, a struggle in which 
science and brains take the place of swords and sinews, on which depended 
the result of those conflicts which, up to the present, have determined the 
history and fate of nations. The school, the University, the laboratory, 
and the workshop are the battlefields of this new warfare. 

But it is evident that if this, or anything like it, be true, our industries 
cannot be involved alone ; the scientific spirit, brain-power, must not 
be limited to the workshop, if other nations utilise it in all branches of 
their administration and executive. 

It is a question of an impoilant change of front. It is a question of 
Snding a new basis of stability for the Empire in face of new condition.s. 
I am certain that those familiar with the present state of things will 
acknowledge that the Prince of Wales's call, ' Wake up,' applies quite as 
much to the members of the Government as it does to the leaders of 
industry. 

What is wanted is a complete organisation of the resources of the 
nation, so as to enable it best to face all the new problems which the 



ADDRESS. 7 

progress of science, combined with the ebb and flow of population and other 
factors in international competition, are ever bringing before us. Every 
Minister, every public department, is involved ; and this being so, it is the 
duty of the whole nation — King, Lords, and Commons — to do what is neces- 
sary to place our scientific institutions on a proper footing in order to 
enable us to ' face the music,' whatever the future may bring. The idea 
that science is useful only to our industries comes from want of thought. 
If anyone is under the impression that Britain is only suffering at present 
from the want of the scientific spirit among our industrial classes, and 
that those employed in the State service possess adequate brain-power 
and grip of the conditions of the modern world into which science so 
largely enters, let him read the Report of the Royal Commission on the 
War in South Africa. There he will see how the whole ' system ' employed 
was, in Sir Henry Brackenbury's words applied to a part of it, ' unsaited 
to the requirements of an army which is maintained to enable us to make 
war.' Let him read also in the Address of the President of the Society 
of Chemical Industry what drastic steps had to be taken by Chambers of 
Commerce and ' a quarter of a million of working-men ' to get the Patent 
Law Amendment Act into proper shape in spite of all the advisei's and 
oflicials of the Board of Trade. Very few people realise the immense 
number of scientific problems the solution of which is required for the 
State service. The nation itself is a gigantic workshop ; and the more 
our rulers and legislators, administrators and executive officers possess 
the scientific spirit, the more the rule of thumb is replaced in the State 
service by scientific methods, the more able shall we be, thus armed at all 
points, to compete successfully with other countries along all lines of 
national as well as of commercial activity. 

It is obvious that the power of a nation for war, in men and arms and 
ships, is one thing ; its power in the peace struggles to v/hich I have 
referred is another. In the latter the source and standard of national 
efficiency are entirely changed. To meet war conditions, there must be 
equality or superiority in battleships and army corps. To meet the new 
peace conditions, there must be equality or superiority in Universities, 
scientific organisation, and everything which conduces to greater brain- 
power. 

Our Industries are suffering in the ^yresent hiternational ComjMtition. 

The present condition of the nation, so far as its industries are con- 
cerned, is as well known, not only to the Prime Minister, but to other 
political leaders in and out of the Cabinet, as it is to you and to me. Let 
me refer to two speeches delivered by Lord Rosebery and Mr. Chamberlain 
on two successive days in January 1901. 

Lord Rosebery spoke as follows : — ■ 

' . . . The war I regard with apprehension is the war of trade which 
is unmistakably upon us. . . . When I look round me I cannot blind my 



8 REPORT— 1903. 

eyes to the fact that, so far as we can predict anything of the twentieth 
century on which we have now entered, it is that it will be one of acutest 
international conflict in point of trade. We were the first nation of the 
modern world to discover that trade was an absolute necessity. For that 
we were nicknamed a nation of shopkeepers ; but now every nation 
wishes to be a nation of shopkeepers too, and I am bound to say that 
when we look at the character of some of these nations, and when we look 
at the intelligence of their preparations, we may well feel that it behoves 
us not to fear, but to gird up our loins in preparation for what is before us.' 

Mr. Chamberlain's views were stated in the following words : — 

' I do not think it is necessary for me to say anything as to the urgency 
and necessity of scientific training. ... It is not too much to say that 
the existence of this country, as the great commercial nation, depends 
upon it. . . . It depends very much upon what we are doing now, at the 
beginning of the twentieth century, whether at its end we shall continue 
to maintain our supremacy or even equality with our great commercial 
and manufacturing rivals.' 

All this refers to our industries. We are suff"ering because trade no 
longer follows the flag as in the old chiys, but because trade follows the 
brains, and our manufacturers are too a.pt to be careless in securing them. 
In one chemical establishment in Germany 400 doctors of science, the 
best the Universities there can turn out, have been employed at different 
times in late years. In the United States the most successful students in 
the higher teaching centres are snapped up the moment they have finished 
their course of training, and put into charge of large concerns, so that the 
idea has got abroad that youth is the password of success in American 
industry. It has been forgotten that the latest product of the highest 
scientific education must necessarily be young, and that it is the training 
and not the age which determines his employment. In Britain, on the 
other hand, apprentices who can pay high premiums are too often pre- 
ferred to those who are well educated, and the old rule-of-thumb 
processes are preferred to new developments — a conservatism too often 
depending upon the master's own want of knowledge. 

I should not be doing my duty if I did not point out that the defeat of 
our industries one after another, concerning which both Lord Rosebery 
and Mr. Chamberlain express their anxiety, is by no means the only thing 
we have to consider. The matter is not one which concerns our industrial 
classes only, for knowledge must be pursued for its own sake ; and since 
the full life of a nation with a constantly increasing complexity, not only 
of industrial, but of high national aims, depends upon the universal 
presence of the scientific spirit— in other words, brain-power — our whole 
national life is involved. 



ADDRESS. 9 

The Necessity for a Body dealing with the Organisation of Science. 

The present awakening in relation to the nation's real needs is largely 
due to the warnings of men of science. But Mr. Balfour's terrible Man- 
chester picture of our present educational condition ^ shows that the 
warning, which has been going on now for more than fifty years, has not 
been forcible enough ; but if my contention that other reorganisations 
besides that of our education are needed is well founded, and if men of 
science are to act the part of good citizens in taking their share in 
endeavouring to bring about a better state of things, the question arises, 
Has the neglect of their warnings so far been due to the way in which 
these have been given 1 

Lord Rosebery, in the address to a Chamber of Commerce from which 
I have already quoted, expressed his opinion that such bodies do not 
exercise so much influence as might be expected of them. But if com- 
mercial men do not use all the power their organisation provides, do they 
not by having built up such an organisation put us students of science to 
shame, who are still the most disorganised members of the community ? 

Here, in my opinion, we have the real reason why the scientific needs 
of the nation fail to command the attention either of the public or of 
successive Governments. At present, appeals on this or on that behalf 
are the appeals of individuals ; science has no collective voice on the 
larger national questions ; there is no organised body which formulates 
her demands. 

During many years it has been part of my duty to consider such 
matters, and I have been driven to the conclusion that our great crying 
need is to bring about an organisation of men of science and all interested 
in science similar to those which prove so effective in other branches of 
human activity. For the last few years I have dreamt of a Chamber, 
Guild, League, call it what you will, with a wide and large membership, 
which should give us what, in my opinion, is so urgently needed. Quite 
recently I sketched out such an organisation, but what was ray astonish- 
ment to find that I had been forestalled, and by the founders of the British 
Association ! 

21ie British Association such a Body, 

At the commencement of this Address I pointed out that one of the 
objects of the Association, as stated by its founders, was ' to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of science and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress.' 

Everyone connected with the British Association from its beginning 

' ' The existing educational system of this country is chaotic, is ineSectual, is 
utterly behind the age, makes us the laughing-stock of every advanced nation in 
Europe and America, puts us behind, not only our American cousins, but the German 
and the Frenchman and the Italian.' — Times, October 15, 1902. 



10 REPORT— 1903 

may be congratulated upon the magnificent way in which the other objects 
of the Association have been carried out ; but as one familiar with the 
Association for the last forty years I cannot but think that the object to 
which I have specially referred has been too much overshadowed by the 
work done in connection with the others. 

A careful study of the eai'ly history of the Association leads me to the 
belief that the function I am now dwelling on was strongly in the minds 
of the founders ; but be this as it may, let me point out how admirably 
the organisation is framed to enable men of science to influence public 
opinion and so to bring pressure to bear upon Governments which follow 
public opinion. (1) Unlike all the other chief metropolitan societies, its 
outlook is not limited to any branch or branches of science. (2) We have 
a wide and numerous fellowship, including both the leaders and the lovers 
of science, in which all branches of science are and always have been 
included with the utmost catholicity — a condition which renders strong 
committees possible on any subject. (3) An annual meeting at a time 
when people can pay attention to the deliberations, and when the news- 
papers can print reports. (4) The possibility of beating up recruits and 
establishing local committees in different localities, even in the King's 
dominions beyond the seas, since the place of meeting changes from year 
to year, and is not limited to these islands. 

We not only, then, have a scientific Parliament competent to deal 
with all matters, including those of national importance, relating to science, 
but machinery for influencing all new councils and committees dealing 
with local matters, the functions of which are daily becoming more 
important. 

The machinery might consist of our corresponding societies. We 
already have afEliated to us seventy societies with a membership of 25,000. 
Were this number increased so as to include every scientific society in the 
Empire, metropolitan and provincial, we might eventually hope for a 
membership of half a million. 

I am glad to know that the Council is fully alive to the importance of 
giving a greater impetus to the work of the corresponding societies. 
During this year a committee was appointed to deal with the question ; 
and later still, after this committee had reported, a conference was held 
between this committee and the corresponding societies committee to 
consider the suggestions made, some of which will be gathered from the 
following extract : — 

' In view of the increasing importance of science to the nation at large, 
your committee desire to call the attention of the Council to the fact that 
in the corresponding societies the British Association has gathered in the 
various centres represented by these societies practically all the scientific 
activity of the provinces. The number of members and associates at 
present on the list of the corresponding societies approaches 25,000, and 
no organisation is in existence anywhere in the country better adapted 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

than the British Association for stimulating, encouraging, and co-ordinating 
all the work being carried on by the seventy societies at present enrolled, 
Your committee are of opinion that further encouragement should be 
given to these societies and their individual working members by every 
means within the power of the Association ; and with the object of keeping 
the corresponding societies in more permanent touch with the Association 
they suggest that an official invitation on behalf of the Council be 
addressed to the societies, through the corresponding societies committee, 
asking them to appoint standing British Association sub-committees, to 
be elected by themselves, with the object of dealing with all those subjects 
of investigation common to their societies and to the British Association 
committees, and to look after the general interests of science and scientific 
education throughout the provinces and provincial centres. . . . 

' Your committee desire to lay special emphasis on the necessity for 
the extension of the scientific activity of the corresponding societies and 
the expert knowledge of many of their members in the direction of 
scientific education. They are of opinion that immense benefit would 
accrue to the country if the corresponding societies would keep this 
requirement especially in view with the object of securing adequate 
representation for scientific education on the Education Committees now 
being appointed under the new Act. The educational section of the 
Association having been but recently added, the corresponding societies 
have as yet not had much opportunity for taking part in this branch of 
the Association's work ; and in view of the reorganisation in education 
now going on all over the country your committee are of opinion that no 
more opportune time is likely to occur for the influence of scientific 
organisations to make itself felt as a real factor in national education. . . .' 

I believe that if these suggestions or anything like them — for some 
better way may be found on inquiry — are accepted, grer^t good to science 
throughout the Empire will come. Rest assured that sooner or later such 
a Guild will be formed because it is needed. It is for you to say whethei 
it shall be, or form part of, the British Association. We in this Empire 
certainly need to organise science as much as in Germany they find the 
need to organise a navy. The German Navy League, which has branches 
even in our Colonies, already has a membership of 630,000, and its 
income is nearly 20,000^. a year. A British Science League of 500,000 
with a sixpenny subscription would give us 12,000Z. a year, quite enough 
to begin with. 

I for one believe that the British Association would be a vast gainer 
by such an expansion of one of its existing functions. Increased authority 
and prestige would follow its increased utility. The meetings would possess 
a new interest ; there would be new subjects for reports ; missionary 
Work less needed than formerly would be replaced by efibrts much more 
suited to the real wants of the time. This magnificent, strong, and com- 
plicated organisation would become a living force, working throughout the 



12 REPORT— 1903. 

year instead of practically lying idle, useless, and rusting for fifty-one 
weeks out of the fifty-two so far as its close association with its members 
is concerned. 

If this suggestion in any way commends itself to you, then when you 
begin your work in your sections or General Committee see to it that a 
body is appointed to inquire how the thing can be done. Remember that 
the British Association will be as much weakened by the creation of a 
new body to do the work I have shown to have been in the minds of its 
founders as 1 believe it will be strengthened by becoming completely 
effective in every one of the directions they indicated, and for which 
effectiveness we, their successors, are indeed responsible. The time is 
appropriate for such a reinforcement of one of the wings of our organisa- 
tion, for we have recently included Education among our sections. 

There is another matter I should like to see referred to the committee 
I have spoken of, if it please you to appoint it. The British Association — • 
which, as I have already pointed out, is now the chief body in the Empire 
which deals with the totality of science — is, I believe, the only organisa- 
tion of any consequence which is without a charter, and which has not 
his Majesty the King as patron. 

The First Work of such an Organisation, 

I suppose it is my duty, after I have suggested the need of organisation, 
to tell you my personal opinion as to the matters where we suffer most 
in consequence of our lack of organisation at the present time. 

Our position as a nation, our success as merchants, are in peril 
chiefly — dealing with preventable causes — because of our lack of com- 
pletely efficient Universities and our neglect of research. This research 
has a double end. A professor who is not learning cannot teach properly 
or arouse enthusiasm in his students ; while a student of anything who 
is unfamiliar with research methods, and without that training which 
research brings, will not be in the best position to apply his knowledge in 
after-life. From neglect of research comes imperfect education and a 
small output of nev.^ applications and new knowledge to reinvigorate our 
industries. From imperfect education comes the unconcern touching 
scientific matters and the too frequent absence of the scientific spirit in 
the nation generally, from the Court to the Parish Council. 

I propose to deal as briefly as I can with each of these points. 

Universities. 

I have shown that, so far as our industries are concerned, the cause 
of our failure has been run to earth ; it is fully recognised that it arises 
from the insufficiency of our Universities both in numbers and efficiency, 
so that not only our captains of industry, but those employed in the 
nation's work generally, do not secure a training similar to that afforded 
by other nations. No additional endowment of primary, secondary, or 



ADDRESS. 13 

technical instruction will mend matters. This is not merely the opinion 
of men of science ; our great towns know it, our Ministers know it. 
It is sufficient for me to quote Mr. Chamberlain : — 

' It is not everyone who can, by any possibility, go forward into the. 
higher spheres of education ; but it is from those who do that we have to 
look for the men Avho in the future will carry high the flag of this countrj' 
in commercial, scientific, and economic competition with other nations. 
At the present moment I believe there is nothing more important than to 
supply the deficiencies which separate us from those with whom we are in 
the closest competition. In Germany, in America, in our own colony of 
Canada, and in Australia, the higher education of the people has more 
support from the Government, is carried further, than it is here in the Old 
Country ; and the result is that in every profession, in every industry, 
you find the places taken by men and by women who have had a Univer- 
sity education. And I would like to see the time in this country when 
no man should have a chance for any occupation of the better kind, either 
in our factories, our workshops, or our counting-houses, who could not 
show proof that in the course of his University career he had deserved the 
position that was ofi'ered to him. What is it that makes a country ? Of 
course you may say, and you would be quite right, " The general qualities 
of the people, their resolution, their intelligence, their pertinacity, and 
many other good qualities." Yes ; but that is not all, and it is not the 
main creative feature of a great nation. The greatness of a nation is 
made by its greatest men. It is those we want to educate. It is to 
those who are able to go, it may be, from the very lowest steps in the 
ladder, to men who are able to devote their time to higher education, that 
v/e have to look to continue the position which we now occupy as at all 
events one of the greatest nations on the face of the earth. And, 
feeling as I do on these subjects, you will not be surprised if I say 
that I think the time is coming when Governments will give more 
attention to this matter, and perhaps find a little more money to forward 
its interests.' ' 

Our conception of a Univei'sity has changed. University education is 
no longer regarded as the luxury of the rich, which concerns only those 
who can afibrd to pay heavily for it. The Prime Minister in a recent 
speech, while properly pointing out that the collective efiect of our public 
and secondary schools upon British character cannot be overrated, frankly 
acknowledged that the boys of seventeen or eighteen who have to be 
educated in them ' do not care a farthing about the world they live in 
except in so far as it concerns the cricket-field or the football-field or the 
river.' On this ground they are not to be taught science ; and hence, 
when they proceed to the University, their curriculum is limited to subjects 
which were better taught before the modern world existed, or even Galileo 

• Times, November 6, 1902. 



U REPORT— 1903. 

was born. But the science which these young gentlemen neglect, with 
the full approval of their teachers, on their way through the school and 
the University to politics, the Civil Service, or the management of com- 
mercial concerns, is now one of the great necessities of a nation ; and our 
Universities must become as much the insurers of the future progress 
as battleships are the insurers of the present power of States. In other 
words, University competition between States is now as potent as compe- 
tition in building battleships ; and it is on this ground that our University 
conditions become of the highest national concern, and therefore have to be 
referred to here, and all the more because our industries are not alone in 
question. 

Why loe have not more Universities. 

Chief among the causes which have brought us to the terrible condition 
of inferiority as compared with other nations in which we find ourselves 
are our carelessness in tlie matter of education and our false notions of 
the limitations of State functions in relation to the conditions of modern 
civilisation. 

Time was when the Navy was largely a matter of private and local 
effort. William the Conqueror gave privileges to the Cinque Ports on the 
condition that they furnished fifty-two ships when wanted. In the time 
of Edward Til., of 730 sail engaged in the siege of Calais 70-5 were 
' people's ships.' All this has passed away ; for our first line of defence 
we no longer depend on private and local effort. 

Time was when not a penny was spent by the State on elementary 
education. Again, we no longer depend upon private and local effort. 
The Navy and primary education are now recognised as properly calling 
upon the public for the necessary financial support. But when we pass 
from primary to University education, instead of State endowment we find 
State neglect ; we are in a region where it is nobody's business to see that 
anything is done. 

We in Great Britain have thirteen Universities competing with 134 
State and privately endowed in the United States and twenty-two State- 
endowed in Germany. I leave other countries out of consideration for lack 
of time, and I omit all reference to higher institutions for technical training, 
of which Germany alone possesses nine of University rank, because they 
are less important ; they instruct rather than educate, and our want is 
education. The German State gives to one University more than 
the British Government allows to all the Universities and University 
Colleges in England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales put together. These 
are the conditions which regulate the production of brain-power in the 
United States, Germany, and Britain respectively, and the excuse of the 
Government is that this is a matter for private effort. Do not our 
Ministers of State know that other civilised countries grant efiicient State 
aid, and, further, that private effort has provided in Great Britain less 
than 10 per cent, of the sum thus furnished in the United States in 



ADDRESS. 15 

addition to State aid 1 Are they content that we should go under in 
the great struggle of the modern world because the Ministries of other 
States are wiser, and because the individual citizens of another country 
are more generous, than our own ? 

If we grant that there was some excuse for the State's neglect so long 
as the higher teaching dealt only with words, and books alone had to be 
provided (for the streets of London and Paris have been used as class- 
rooms at a pinch), it must not be forgotten that during the last hundred 
years not only has knowledge been enormously increased, but things have 
replaced words, and fully equipped laboratories must take the place of 
books and class-rooms if University training worthy of the name is to be 
provided. There is much more difference in size and kind between an old 
and a new University than there is between the old caravel and a modem 
battleship, and the endowments must follow suit. 

What are the facts relating to private endowment in this country ? 
In spite of the munificence displayed by a small number of individuals in 
some localities, the truth must be spoken. In depending in our country 
upon this form of endowment we are trusting to a broken reed. If we 
take the twelve English University Colleges, the forerunners of Universities 
unless we are to perish from lack of knowledge, we find that private effort 
during sixty years has found less than 4,000,000^. ; that is, 2,000,000^. for 
buildings, and 40,000/, a year income. This gives us an average of 
166,000/. for buildings, and 3,300/. for yearly income. 

What is the scale of private effort we have to compete with in regard 
to the American Universities ? 

In the United States, during the last few years, Universities and 
colleges have received more than 40,000,000/. from this source alone ; 
private effort supplied nearly 7,000,000/. in the years 1898-1900. 

Next consider the amount of State aid to Universities afforded in 
Germany. The buildings of the new University of Strassburg have 
already cost nearly a million ; that is, about as much as has yet been found 
by private effort for buildings in Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, 
Bristol, Newcastle, and Sheffield. The Government annual endowment 
of the same German University is more than 49,000/. 

This is what private endowment does for us in England, against State 
endowment in Germany. 

But the State does really concede the principle ; its present contribu- 
tion to our Universities and colleges amounts to 155,600/. a year. No 
capital sum, however, is taken for buildings. The State endowment of 
the University of Berlin in 1891-92 amounted to 168,777/. 

When, then, we consider the large endowments of University educa- 
tion both in the United States and Germany, it is obvious that State aid 
only can make any valid competition possible with either. The more we 
study the facts, the more statistics are gone into, the more do we find 
that we, to a large extent, lack both of the sources of endowment upon 
one or other, or both, of which other nations depend. We are between 



16 REPORT— 1903. 

two stools, and the prospect is hopeless without some drastic changes. 
And first among these, if we intend to get out of the present Slough of 
Despond, must be the giving up of the idea of relying upon private 

effort. 

That we lose most where the State does least is known to Mr. Cham- 
berlain, for in his speech, to which I have referred, on the University of 
Birmingham, he said ; ' As the importance of the aim we are pursuing 
becomes more and more impressed upon the minds of the people, we may 
find that we shall be more generously treated by the State.' 

Later still, on the occasion of a visit to University College School, 
Mr. Chamberlain spoke as follows : — 

' When we are spending, as we are, many millions — I think it is 
13,000,000^ — a year on primary education, it certainly seems as if we 
might add a little more, even a few tens of thousands,- to what we give to 
University and secondary education.' ^ 

To compete on equal grounds with other nations we must have more 
Universities. But this is not all — we want a far better endowment of all 
the existing ones, not forgetting better opportunities for research on the 
part of both professors and students. Another crying need is that of 
more professors and better pay. Another is the reduction of fees ; they 
should be reduced to the level existing in those countries which are 
competing with us — to, say, one-fifth of their present rates, so as to enable 
moi'C students in the secondary and technical schools to complete their 
education. 

In all these ways facilities would be aflbrded for providing the highest 
instruction to a much greater number of students. At present there are 
almost as many professors and instructors in the Universities and colleges 
of the United States as there are day students in the Universities and 
colleges of the United Kingdom. 

Men of science, our leaders of industry, and the chiefs of our political 
parties all agree that our present want of higher education — in other 
words, properly equipped Universities — is heavily handicapping us in the 
present race for commercial supremacy, because it provides a relatively 
inferior brain-power, which is leading to a relatively reduced national 

income. 

The facts show that in this country we cannot depend upon private 
effort to put matters right. How about local effort ? 

Anyone who studies the statistics of modern municipalities will see 
that it is impossible for them to raise rates for the building and upkeep 
of Universities. 

The buildings of the most modern University in Germany have cost 
a million. For upkeep the yearly sums found, chiefly by the State, for 

' Times, November 6, 1902. 



ADDRESS. 17 

Germin Universities of different grades, taking the InComes of seven out 
of the twenty-two Universities as examples, are : — 

£ 
First Class . . . Berlin .... 130,000 

Second Clas.. . . [I'^Zn^^^^ ] • • ^^.OOO 
ThirdClass. . . { ^2£^ } . . 48.000 

Fourth Class. . . [^£^^1''} . . 37,000 

Thus, if Leeds, which is to have a University, is content v/ith the 
fourth class German standard, a rate must be levied of Id. in the pound 
for yearly expenses, independent of all buildings. But the facts are that 
our towns are already at the breaking strain. During the last fifty 
years, in spite of enormous increases in rateable values, the rates have 
gone up from about 2a-. to about 7s. in the pound for real local purposes. 
But no University can be a merely local institution. 

IIoio to got more Universities, 

What, then, is to be done ? Fortunately, we liave a j^recedent 
admirably in point, the consideration of which may help us to answer 
this question. 

1 have pointed out that in old days our Navy Avas chiefly provided 
by local and private effort. Fortunately for us those days have passed 
away ; but some twenty years ago, in spite of a large expenditure, it 
began to be felt by those who knew, that in consequence of the increase 
of foreign navies our sea power was threatened, as now, in consequence 
of the increase of foreign Universities, our brain-power is threatened. 

The nation slowly woke up to find that its enormous commerce was 
no longer insured at sea, that in relation to foreign navies our own had 
been suffered to dwindle to such an extent that it was no longer capable 
of doing the duty which the nation expected of it even in times of peace. 
At first this revelation was received with a shrug of incredulity, and 
the peace-at-any- price party denied that anything was needed ; but a ^reat 
teacher arose ; ^ as the facts were inquired into, the suspicion changed 
into an alarm ; men of all parties saw that something must be done. 
Later the nation was thoroughly aroused, and with an universal agree- 
ment the principle was laid down that, cost what it micrht to enforce 
our sea-power, our Navy must be made and maintained of a strength 
greater than those of any two possibly contending Powers. After esta- 
blishing this principle, the next thing to do was to give effect to it. 
What did the nation do after full discussion and inquiry ? A Bill was 
brought in in 1888, and a sum of 21,500,000/. was voted in order, 
during the next five years, to inaugurate a large ship-building programme, 

' Captain Mahan, of the U.S. Navy, ■whose book, ' On the Influence of Sea-power 
on History,' has suggested the title of my address. 

1903. C 



18 REPORT— 1903. 

so that Britain and Britain's commerce might be guarded on the high seas 
in any event. 

Since then we have spent 120,000,000Z. on new ships, and this year 
we spend still more millions on still more new ships. If these prove 
insufficient to safeguard our sea-power, there is no doubt that the nation 
will increase them, and I have not heard that anybody has suggested an 
appeal to private effort. 

How, then, do we stand with regard to Universities, recognising them 
as the chief producers of brain-power and therefore the equivalents of 
battleships in relation to sea-power ? Do their numbers come up to the 
standard established by the Admiralty principle to which I have referred 1 
Let us attempt to get a rough-and-ready estimate of our educational 
position by counting Universities as the Admiralty counts battleships. 
I say rough-and-ready, because we have other helps to greater brain- 
power to consider besides Universities, as the Admiralty has other ships 
to consider besides ironclads. 

In the first place, let us inquire if they are equal in number to those 
of any two nations commercially competing with us. 

In the United Kingdom we had until quite recently thirteen.^ Of 
these, one is only three years old as a teaching University, and another 
is still merely an examining board. 

In Germany there are twenty-two Universities ; in France, under 
recent legislation, fifteen ; in Italy, twenty-one. It is difficult to give the 
number in the United States, because it is clear, from the tables given in 
the Report of the Commissioner of Education, that some colleges are more 
important than some Universities, and both give the degree of Ph.D. But 
of Universities in title we have 134. Among these, there are forty-six 
with more than fifty professors and instructors, and thirteen with more 
than 150. I will take that figure. 

Suppose we consider the United States and Germany, our chief com- 
mercial competitors, and apply the Admiralty principle. We should 
require, allowing for population, eight additional Universities at the very 
lowest estimate. 

Wc see, then, that instead of having Universities equalling in number 
those of two of our chief competitors together, they are by no means equal 
to those of either of them singly. 

After this statement of the fact?, anyone who has belief in the impor- 
tance of higher education will have no difficulty in understanding the 
origin of the present condition of British industry and its constant 
decline, first in one direction and then in another, since the tremendous 
efforts made in the United States and Germany began to take eflfect. 

If, indeed, there be anything wrong about the comparison, the error 
can only arise from one of two sources — either the Admiralty is thought- 

' These are Oxford, Cambridge, Dnrliam, Victoria, Wales, Birmingham, London, 
St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Royal UniTersity. 



ADDRESS. 19 

lessly and w.astefully spending money, or there is no connection what- 
ever between the higher intelligence and the prosperity of a nation. 
I have already referred to the views of Mr. Chamberlain and Lord 
Ilosebery on this point ; we know what Mr. Chamberlain has done at 
Birmingham ; we know the strenuous efforts made by the commercial 
leaders of Manchester and Liverpool ; we know, also, the opinion of men 
of science. 

If while we spend so freely to maintain our sea-power our export of 
manufactured articles is relatively reduced because our competitors beat 
us in the markets of the vv-orld, what is the end of the vista thus opened 
up to us ? A Navy growing stronger every year and requiring larger votes 
to guard our commerce and communications, and a vanishing quantity of 
commerce to guard — a reduced national income to meet an increasing 
taxation ! 

The pity is that our Government has considered sea-power alone ; that 
while so completely guarding our commerce it has given no thought to 
one of the main conditions on which its production and increase depend. 
A glance could have shown that other countries were building Universities 
even faster than they were building battleships ; were, in fact, considering 
brain-power first and sea-power afterwards. 

Surely it is my duty as your President to point out the danger ahead, 
if such ignoring of the true situation should be allowed to continue. May 
I express a hope that at last, in Mr. Chamberlain's words, ' The time is 
coming when Governments will give more attention to this matter' 1 

What loill they cost ? 

The comparison shows that we want eight new Universities, some of 
>vhich, of course, will be colleges promoted to University rank and fitted 
to carry on University work. Three of them are already named : Man- 
chester, Liverpool, Leeds. 

Let us take this number and deal with it on the battleship condition, 
although a modern University on American or German models will cost 
more to build than a battleship. 

If our present University shortage be dealt with on battleship con- 
ditions, to correct it we should expend at least 8,000,000/. for new con- 
struction, and for the pay-sheet we should have to provide (S x 50,000/.) 
400,000/. yearly for jjersonnel and up-keep ; for it is of no use to build 
either ships or Universities without manning them. Let us say, roughly, 
capitalising the yearly payment at 2^ per cent., 24,000,000/. 

At this stage it is important to inquire whether this sum, arrived at 
by analogy merely, has any relation to our real University needs. 

I have spent a year in making inquiries, as full as I could make them, 
of friends conversant with the real present needs of each of the Univer- 
sities, old and new. I have obtained statistics which would fill a volume, 
and personally I believe that this sum at least is required to bring our 

C 2 



20 REPOKT— 1903. 

University system up to anything like the level which is insisted upon 
both in the United States and in Germany. Even Oxford, our oldest 
University, will still continue to be a mere bundle of colleges unless three 
millions are provided to enable the University, properly so called, to take 
her place among her sisters of the modern world ; and Sir Oliver Lodge, 
the Principal of our very youngest TJniversity, Birmingham, has shown 
in detail how five millions can be usefully and properly applied in that 
one locality to utilise for the good of the nation the enthusiasm and 
scientific capacity which are only waiting for adequate opportunity of 
development. 

How is this money to be raised 1 I reply, without hesitation, 
JDujdicate the Wavy Bill of 1888-9 ; do at once for brain-power what we 
so successfully did then for sea-power. 

Let 24,000,000^. be set apart from one asset, our national wealth, to 
increase the other, brain-power. Let it be assigned and borrowed as it is 
wanted ; there will be a capital sum for new buildings to be erected in 
the next five or ten years, the interest of the remainder to go towards 
increased annual endowments. 

There need be no difficulty about allocating money to the various 
institutions. Let each University make up its mind as to which rank of 
the German Universities it wishes to emulate. When this claim has been 
agreed to, the sums necessary to provide the buildings and teaching staff 
of that class of University should be granted without demur. 

It is the case of battleships over again, and money need not be spent 
more freely in one case than in the other. 

Let me at once say that this sum is not to be regarded as practically 
gone when spent, as in the case of a short-lived ironclad. It is a loan 
which will bear a high rate of interest. This is not my opinion merely ; 
it is the opinion of those concerned in great industrial enterprises and 
fully alive to the origin and effects of the present condition of things. 

I have been careful to point out that the statement that our industries 
are suffering from our relative neglect of science does not rest on my 
authority. But if this be true, then if our annual production is less by only 
two millions than it might have been, having two millions less to divide 
would be equivalent to our having forty or fifty millions less capital than 
we should have had if we had been more scientific. 

Sir John Brunner, in a speech connected with the Liverpool School of 
Tropical Medicine, stated recently that if we as a nation were now to 
borrow ten millions of money in order to help science by putting up 
buildings and endowing professors, we should get the money back in the 
course of a generation a hundredfold. He added that there was no better 
investment for a business man than the encouragement of science, and 
that every penny he possessed had come from the application of science 
to commerce. 

According to Sir Robert Giffen, the United Kingdom as a going 
concern was in 1901 worth 16,000,000,000^ 



ADDRESS. 21 

Were we to put aside 24,000,000Z. for gradually organising, building, 
and endowing new Universities, and making the existing ones more 
efficient, we should still be worth 15,976,000,000^. — a property well worth 
defending by all the means, and chief among these brain-power, we can 
command. 

If it be held that this, or anything like it, is too great a price to pay 
for correcting past carelessness or stupidity, the reply is that the 
1 20,000,000/. recently spent on the Navy, a sum five times greater, has 
been spent to correct a sleepy blunder, not one whit more inimical to the 
future welfare of our country than that which has brought about our 
present educational position. We had not sufficiently recognised what 
other nations had done in the way of ship-building, just as until now we 
have not recognised what they have been doing in University building. 

Further, I am told that the sum of 24,000,000/. is less than half the 
amount by which Germany is yearly enriched by having improved upon our 
chemical industries, owing to our lack of scientific training. Many other 
industries have been attacked in the same way since : but taking this one 
instance alone, if we had spent this money fifty years ago, when the 
Prince Consorb first called attention to our backwardness, the nation 
would now be much richer than it is, and would have much less to fear 
from competition. 

Suppose we were to set about putting our educational house in order, 
go as to secure a higher quality and greater quantity of brain-power, it 
would not be the first time in history that this has been done. Both 
Prussia after Jena and France after Sedan acted on the view ;^ 

' When land is gone and money spent, 
Then learning is most excellent.' 

After Jena, which left Prussia a ' bleeding and lacerated mass,' the King 
and his wise counsellors, among them men who had gained knowledge 
from Kant, determined, as they put it, ' to supply the loss of territory by 
intellectual effort.' 

AVhat did they do 1 In spite of universal poverty, three Universities, 
to say nothing of observatories and other institutions, were at once 
founded, secondary education was developed, and in a few years the 
mental resources were so well looked after that Lord Palmerstoii defined 
the kingdom in question as ' a country of damned professors.' 

After Sedan — a battle, as Moltke told us, ' won by the schoolmaster ' — 
France made even more strenuous efforts. The old University of France, 
with its ' academies ' in various places, was replaced by fifteen independent 
Universities, in all of which are faculties of letters, sciences, law and 
medicine. 

Tlie development of the University of Paris has been truly marvellous. 
In 1897-8 there were 12,000 students, and the cost was 200,000/. a year. 

But even more wonderful than these examples is the ' intellectual 
effort ' made by Japan, not after a war, biit to prepare for one, 



22 EEPORT— 1903. 

The question is, Shall we wait for a disaster and then imitate Prussia 
and France ; or shall we follow Japan and thoroughly prepare by 
' intellectual effort ' for the industrial struggle which lies before us ? 

Such an efiPort seems to me to be the first thing any national or 
imperial scientific organisation should endeavour to bring about. 

Research. 

When dealing with our Universities I referred to the importance of 
research, as it is now generally acknowledged to be the most powerful 
engine of education that we possess. But education, after all, is but a 
means to the end, which, from the national point of view, is the application 
of old and the production of new knowledge. 

Its national importance apart from education is now so generally 
recognised that in all civilised nations except our own means of research 
are being daily more amply provided for all students after they have 
passed through their University career ; and, more than this, for all who 
can increase the country's renown or prosperity by the making of new 
knowledge, upon which not only commercial progress, but all intellectual 
advance must depend. 

I am so anxious that my statement of our pressing, and indeed im- 
perative, needs in this direction should not be considered as resting upon 
the possibly interested opinion of a student of science merely that I must 
trouble you with still more quotations. 

Listen to Mr. Balfour : — 

' I do not believe that any man who looks round the equipment of our 
Universities or medical schools or other places of education can honestly 
say in his heart that we have done enough to equip research with all the 
costly armoury which research must have in these modern days. We, 
the richest country in the world, lag behind Germany, France, Switzer- 
land, and Italy. Is it not disgraceful ? Are we too poor or are we too 
stupid ? ' 1 

It is imagined by many who have given no thought to the matter 
that this I'esearch should be closely allied with some application of science 
being utilised at the time. Nothing could be further from the truth ; 
nothing could be more unwise than such a limitation. 

Surely all the laws of Nature will be ultimately of service, and there- 
fore there is much more future help to be got from a study of the 
unknown and the unused than we can hope to obtain by continuing the 
study of that w^hich is pretty well known and utilised already. It was a 
King of France, Louis XIV., who first commended the study of the 
meme inutile. The history of modern science shows us more and more as 
the years roll on the necessity and advantage of such studies, and there- 
fore the importance of properly endowing them : for the production of new 
knowledge is a costly and unremunerative pursuit. 

' Nature, May 30, 1901. 



ADDRESS. 23 

Years ago we had Faraday apparently wasting his energies and 
time in playing with needles ; electricity now fills the world. To-day 
men of science in all lands are studying the emanations of radium ; 
no research could be more abstract ; but who knows what advance 
in human thought may follow or what gigantic world-transforming 
superstructure may eventually be raised on the minute foundation they 
are laying ? 

If we so organise our teaching forces that we can use them at all 
stages, from the gutter to the University, to sift out for us potential Fara- 
ways — to utilise the mental products which otherwise would be wasted — 
it is only by enabling such men to continue their learning after their 
teaching is over that we shall be able to secure the greatest advantage 
which any educational system can afford. 

It is now more than thirty years ago that my attention was specially 
drawn to this question of the endowment of research — first, by conversa- 
tions with M. Dumas, the permanent secretary of the Academy of 
Sciences, who honoured me by his friendship ; and, secondly, by my 
association with Sir Benjamin Brodie and Dr. Appleton in their en- 
deavours to call attention to the matter in this country. At that time 
a general scheme of endowment suggested by Dumas was being carried 
out by Duruy. This took the form of the ' Ecole speciale des Hautes 
Etudes ' ; it was what our fellowship system was meant to be — an 
endowment of the research of post-graduate students in each seat of 
learning. The French effort did not begin then. 

I may here tell, as it was told me by Dumas, the story of L^on 
Foucault, whose many discoveries shed a glory on France and revived 
French industry in many directions.^ In 1851, when Prince Napoleon 
was President of the Republic, he sent for Dumas and some of his 
colleagues, and told them that during his stay in England, and after- 
wards in his study of the Great Exhibition of that year, he had found 
there a greater industrial development than in France, and more applica- 
tions of science, adding that he wished to know how such a state of things 
could be at once remedied. The answer was that new applications 
depended upon new knowledge, and that therefore the most direct and 
immediate way was to find and encourage men who were likely by 
research in pure science to produce this new knowledge. The Prince- 
President at once asked for names ; that of Leon Foucault was the only 
one mentioned during the first interview. 

Some time afterwards — to be exact, at about eleven in the morn- 
ing of December 2 — Dumas's servant informed him that there was 
a gentleman in the hall named Foucault, who wished to see him, and he 
added that he appeared to be very ill. When shown into the study, 
Foucault was too agitated to speak, and was blind with tears. His reply 
to Dumas's soothing questions was to take from his pockets two rolls of 

• See Proc, It, S; vol, xvji, p. Ixxxiii, 



24 EEPORT— 1903. 

banknotes, amounting to 200,000 francs, and place them on the table. 
Finally, lie was able to say that he had been with the Prince-President 
since eight o'clock that morning, discussing the possible improvement of 
French science and industry ; and that Napoleon had finally given him 
the money, requesting him to do all in his power to aid the State. 
Foucault ended by saying that, on realising the greatness of the task thus 
imposed upon him, his fears and feelings had got the better of him, for 
the responsibility seemed more than he could bear.' 

The movement in England to which I have referred began in 1872, 
when a society for the organisation of academical study was formed in 
connection with the inquiry into the revenues of Oxford and Cambridge, 
and there was a famous meeting at the Freemasons' Tavern, Mark 
Pattison being in the chair. Brodie, Rolleston, Carpenter, Burdon- 
Sanderson, were among the speakers, and the first resolution carried was, 
' That to have a class of men whose lives are devoted to research is 
a national object.' The movement died in consequence of the want of 
sympathy of the University authorities.^ 

In the year 1874 the subject was inquired into by the late Duke of 
Devonshire's Commission ; and after taking much remarkable evidence, 
including that of Lord Salisbury, the Commission recommended to the 
Government that the then grant of 1,000Z., which was expended, by a 
committee appointed by the Royal Society, on instruments needed in 
researches carried on by private individuals, should be increased, so that 
personal grants should be made. This recommendation was accepted and 
acted on ; the grant was increased to 4,000^., and finally other societies 
were associated with the Ptoyal Society in its administration. The 
committee, however, was timorous, possibly owing to the apathy of the 
Universities and the general carelessness on such matters, and only one 
personal grant was made ; the whole conception fell through. 

Meantime, however, opinion has become more educated and alive to the 
extreme importance of research to the nation, and in 1891 a suggestion was 
made to the Royal Commission which administers the proceeds of the 1851 
Exhibition that a sum of about 6,000?. a year available for scholarships 
should be employed in encouraging post-graduate research throughout the 
whole Empire. As what happened is told in the Memoirs of Lord Play- 
fair, it is not indiscreet in me to state that when I proposed this new form 
of the endowment of research it would not have surprised me if the 
suggestion had been declined. It was carried through by Lord Playfair's 

' In order to show how history is written, what actually happened on a fateful 
morning may be compared with the account given by Kinglake : ' Prince Louis rode 
home and went in out of sight. Then for the most part he remained close shat up 
in the Elysde. There, in an inner room, still decked in red trousers, but with his 
back to the daylight, they say he sat bent oTer a fireplace for hours and hours 
together, resting his elbows on his knees, and burying his face in his hands.' — 
Crimean War, vol. i. p. 245. 

» gee Nature, November and December, 1872. 



ADDRESS. 2 



^O 



enthusiastic support. This system has been at work ever since, and the 
good that has been done by it is now generally conceded. 

It is a supreme satisfaction to me to know that in this present year of 
grace the national importance of the study of the mhne inutile is more 
generally recognised than it was during the times to which I have referred 
in my brief survey ; and, indeed, we students are fortunate in having on 
our side in this matter two members of His Majesty's Government, -who 
two years ago spoke with no uncertain sound upon this matter : — 

' Do we lack the imagination required to show what these apparently 
remote and abstract studies do for the happiness of mankind ? We can 
appreciate that which obviously and directly ministers to human advance- 
ment and felicity, but seem, somehow or another, to be deficient in that 
higher form of imagination, in that longer sight, which sees in studies 
which have no obvious, necessary, or immediate result the foundation of 
the knowledge which shall give far greater happiness to mankind than 
any immediate, material, industrial advancement can possibly do ; and I 
fear, and greatly fear, tliat, lacking that imagination, we have allowed 
ourselves to lag in the glorious race run now by civilised countries in 
pursuit of knowledge, and we have permitted ourselves so far to too 
large an extent to depend upon others for those additions to our know- 
ledge which surely we might have made for ourselves.' ^ 

• I would remind you that all history shows that progress— national 
progress of every kind— depends upon certain individuals rather than 
upon the mass. Whether you take religion, or literature, or political 
government, or art, or commerce, the new ideas, the great steps, have 
been made by individuals of superior quality and genius, who have, as it 
were, dragged the mass of the nation up one step to a higher level. So it 
must be in regard to material progress. The position of the nation 
to-day is due to the efforts of men like Watt and Arkwright, or, in our 
own time, to the Armstrongs, the Whitworths, the Kelvins, and the 
Siemenses. These are the men Avho, by their discoveries, by their 
remarkable genius, have produced the ideas upon which others have acted 
and which have permeated the whole mass of the nation and aflfectcd the 
whole of its proceedings. Therefore what we have to do, and this is our 
special task and object, is to produce more of these great men.' ^ 

I finally come to the political importance of research. A country's 
research is as important in the long run as its battleships. The most 
eloquent teaching as to its national value we owe to Mr. Carnegie, for he 
has given the sura of 2,000,000^. to found a system of endowments, his 
chief purpose being, in his own words, ' to .secure if possible for the United 
States of America leadership in the domain of discovery and the utilisation 
of new forces for the benefit of man,' 

• Mr. Balfour, Mature, May 30, IDOl. 

» Mr. Chamberlain, Times, January 18, 1901. 



26 EEPORT — 1903. 

Here is a distinct challenge to Britain. Judging by experience in 
this country, in spite of the magnificent endowment of research by Mond 
and Lord Iveagh, the only source of possible competition in the British 
interest is the State, which certainly could not put the iy8,000th part 
of the accumulated wealth of the country to better use ; for without such 
help both our Universities and our battleships will become of rapidly 
dwindling importance. 

It is on this ground that I have included the importance of endowing 
research among the chief points to which I have been anxious to draw 
your attention. 

The Need of a Scientific National Council. 

In referring to the new struggle for existence among civilised com- 
munities I pointed out that the solution of a large number of scientific 
problems is now daily required for the State service, and that in this and 
other ways the source and standard of national efficiency have been 
greatly changed. 

Much evidence bearing upon the amount of scientific knowledge 
required for the proper administration of the public departments, and the 
amount of scientific work done by and for the nation, was brought before 
the Royal Commission on Science presided over by the late Duke of 
Devonshire now more than a quarter of a century ago. 

The Commission unanimously recommended that the State should be 
aided by a scientific council in facing the new problems constantly 
arising. 

But while the home Government has apparently made up its mind to 
neglect the advice so seriously given, it should be a source of gratification 
to us all to know that the application of the resources of modern science 
to the economic, industrial, and agricultural development of India has for 
many years engaged the earnest attention of the Government of that 
country. The Famine Commissioners of 1878 laid much stress on the 
institution of scientific inquiry and experiment designed to lead to the 
gradual increase of the food -supply and to the greater stability of agri- 
cultural outturn, while the experience of recent years has indicated the 
increasing importance of the study of the economic products and mineral- 
bearing tracts. 

Lord Curzon has recently ordered the heads of the various scientific 
departments to form a board, which shall meet twice annually, to begin 
with, to formulate a programme and to review past work. The board is 
also to act as an advisory committee to the Government,^ providing 
among other matters for the proper co-ordination of all matters of scientific 
inquiry affecting India's welfare. 

Lord Curzon is to be warmly congratulated upon the step he has 
taken, which is certain to bring benefit to our great Dependency, 

> Nature^ September 4, 1902, 



ADDRESS. 27 

The importance of such a board is many times greater at home, with 
so many external as well as internal interests to look after — problems 
common to peace and war, problems requiring the help of the economio 
as well as of the physical sciences. 

It may be asked, What is done in Germany, where science is fostered 
and utilised far more than here ? 

The answer is, There is such a council. I fancy, very much like wliat 
our Privy Council once was. It consists of I'epresentatives of the Ministry, 
the Universities, the industries, and agricultui'e. It is small, consisting of 
about a dozen members, consultative, and it reports direct to the Emperor. 
It does for industrial war what military and so-called defence councils do 
for national armaments ; it considers everything relating to the use of 
brain-power in peace — from alterations in school regulations and the 
organisation of the Universities, to railway rates and fiscal schemes, 
including the adjustment of duties. I am informed that what this 
council advises, generally becomes law. 

It should be pretty obvious that a nation so pi'ovided must have 
enormous chances in its favour. It is a question of drilled battalions 
against an undisciplined army, of the use of the scientific spirit as opposed 
to the hope of ' muddling through.' 

Mr. Haldane has recently reminded us that 'the weapons which 
science places in the hands of those who engage in great rivalries of 
commerce leave those who are without them, however brave, as badly 
off as were the dervishes of Omdurman against the maxims of Lord 
Kitchener.' 

Without such a machinery as this, how can our Ministers and our rulers 
be kept completely informed on a thousand things of vital importance ? 
Why should our position and requirements as an industrial and thinking 
nation receive less attention from the authorities than the headdress of 
the Guards? How, in the words of Lord Curzon,' can 'the life and 
vigour of a nation be summed up before the world in the person of its 
sovereign ' if the national organisation is so defective that it has no 
means of keeping the head of the State informed on things touching the 
most vital and lasting interests of the country ? We seem to be still in 
the Paleolithic Age in such matters, the chief diflference being that the 
sword has replaced the flint implement. 

Some may say that it is contrary to our habit to expect the 
Government to interest itself too much or to spend money on matters 
relating to peace ; that war dangers are the only ones to be met or to be 
studied. 

But this view leaves science and the progress of science out of the 
question. Every scientific advance is now, and will in the future be 
more and more, applied to war. It is no longer a question of an armed 
force with scientific corps ; it is a question of an armed force scientific 

' Tivifls, September .30, 1902. 



28 REPORT— 1903. 

from top to bottom. Thank God the Navy has ah-eady found this out. 
Science will ultimately rule all the operations both of peace and war, and 
therefore the industrial and the lighting population must both have a 
large common ground of education. Already it is not looking too far 
ahead to see that in a perfect State there will be a double use of each 
citizen — a peace use and a war use ; and the more science advances, the 
more the old difference between the peaceful citizen and the man at arms 
will disappear. The barrack, if it still exists, and the workshop will be 
assimilated ; the land unit, like the battleship, will become a school of 
applied science, self-contained, in which the officers will be the efficient 
teachers. 

I do not think it is yet recognised how much the problem of national 
defence has thus become associated with that with which we are now 
chiefly concerned. 

These, then, are some of the reasons which compel me to point out 
that a scientific council, which might be a scientific committee of the Privy 
Council, in dealing primarily with the national needs in times of peace, 
would be a source of strength to the nation. 

To sum up, then. My earnest appeal to you is to gird up your loins 
and see to it that the science of the British Empire shall no longer remain 
unorganised. I have endeavoured to point out to you how the nation at 
present suffers from the absence of a powerful, continuous, reasoned expres- 
sion of scientific opinion, urging in season and out of season that we shall 
be armed as other nations are, with efficient Universities and facilities 
for research to uphold the flag of Britain in the domain of learning and 
discovery, and what they alone can bring. 

I have also endeavoured to show how, when this is done, the nation 
will still be less strong than it need be if there be not added to our many 
existing councils another, to secure that even during peace the benefits 
which a proper co-ordination of scientific effort in the nation's interest can 
bring shall not be neglected as they are at present. 

Lest some of you may think that the scientific organisation which I 
trust you will determine to found would risk success in working on such 
large lines, let me remind you that in 1859, when the late Prince 
Consort occupied this Chair, he referred to ' impediments ' to scientific 
progress, and said, ' they are often such as can only be successfully dealt 
with by the powerful arm of the State or the long purse of the nation.' 

If the Prince Consort had lived to continue his advocacy of science, 
our position to-day would have been very different. His early death was 
as bad for Britain as the loss of a great campaign. If we cannot make 
up what we have lost, matters cannot mend. 

I have done what I feel to be my duty in bringing the present condition 
of things before you. It is now your duty, if you agree with me, to see 
that it be put right. You can if you will, 



BEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



EEPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Investigation of the Uppej' Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-opera- 
tion with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Second 
Report of the Committee, consisting of J)r. W. N. ^nkvf {Chairman), 
Mr. W. H. Dines {Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Dr. A.. Buchan, Dr. 11. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
and Professor A. Schuster. {Brawn up by the Secretary.) 

The results of last year's work have been published ; a description of the 
apparatus and methods employed being given in the ' Quarterly Journal 
of the Royal Meteorological Society,' vol. xxix., No. 126, p. 65 ; and a 
discussion of the results obtained, in a paper by Dr. Shaw and Mr. W. H. 
Dines, which appears in the 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society,' series a, vol. ccii., 1903. 

The apparatus used at Crinan last year was erected at Oxshott in the 
autumn, and it was hoped that to a limited extent the observations might 
be continued there ; but before the end of October the wire was accident- 
ally dropped across the main road leading from Eshcr to Leatherhead. 
Fortunately the wire rested on trees on both sides of the road ; but before 
it could be removed many carriages and bicyclists had passed under it. 
This accident convinced us tliat it would be unwise to continue the work 
at Oxshott, excepting for winds between south and north-west. The 
winter has been devoted to an endeavour to improve the apparatus. This 
has been accomplished : a new winding-gear has been constructed, which 
so far has given every satisfaction, and the details of the construction of 
the kites have been altered, so that they exei't a more uniform pull and 
seem to be more reliable. The apparatus was brought to Crinan at the 
beginning of August, and in view of the uncertainty about obtaining a 
vessel, was erected on the same island as last year. The apparatus in the 
possession of the Committee now consists of — 

I. Engine, boiler, and winding-gear used last year. 

II. New winding-gear. 

III. About 14: miles of wire, six of which have been purchased this 
year. 

IV. Ten kites 7 feet 6 inches high j three kites 9 feet high ; materials 
of a kite 12 feet high. 



33 l^El'OKT— 1903. 

V. Two self-recording instruments made by Mons. Te^ser&nc do Bort.' 

VI. Spare bamboo sticks, &c., for repairs. 

The old winding-gear is hardly reliable, but many of the parts will be 
available for making another. 

Application was made to the Government Grant Committee of the 
E,oyal Society for a grant of 250/. for the hire of a vessel. On the 
suggestion of this Committee the Admiralty were asked to lend a vessel 
for the purpose, and they kindly consented to do so ; but unfortu- 
nately the vessel they proposed to place at the disposal of the Kite 
Committee has met with an accident and is unavailable. The Royal 
Society have, however, made a grant of 200/., and the Committee are now 
endeavouring to hire a suitable vessel. 

Addendum to the Report of the Kite Committee. 

Great difficulty has been experienced in obtaining a suitable vessel 
owing to the lateness of the time at which inquiries about one were 
instituted and to tiie fact that July and August are the yachting season. 
A steam tug, the ' Renown,' has been hired for a month, and reached 
Crinan on August 13. The apparatus was fitted on board by the evening 
of the lith, and since then daily ascents have been made. No great 
height (over G,000 feet) has been reached, for the weather has been of the 
most unfavourable description for kite flying ; but one very interesting 
trace has been obtained — namely, that of August 20, when the kite was 
drawn in from a height of 4,500 feet during a sudden and unexpected 
thunderstorm which was accompanied by extremely violent rain and 
hail. 



Magneiic Ohservaiions at Fahnonth. — Bcport of the Committee, con- 
' sistinrj of Sir W. H. Prerce (Chairman), Br. R. T. GlazebrooK 
{Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. 
Pox, Professor A. Schuster, and Sir A. W. RCcker, appointed 
to co-operate iclth the Committee of the Falmoidh Observatory in 
their Magnetic Observations. 

The Committee report that the grant voted at the last meeting has been 
used in support of the ordinary magnetic work of the Falmouth Observa- 
tory, and that records of the horizontal force, the declination, and the 
vertical force have been kept during the year. The curves up to 
December 31, 1902, have been examined at Kew, and, specially in view of 
the disturbed state of the Kew instruments and the uncertainty as to 
the future magnetic observatory to replace Kew, have a real value. 

The results for the quiet days are published in the Report of the 
Falmouth Observatory, and will be reprinted in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society. 

The vertical force instrument to which reference was made in the 
last report has worked in a fairly satisfactory maimer during the year. 

In conclusion the Committee ask for reappointment with a further 

' A third is promised by him and expected sliortly. 



MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS AT FALMOUTH. 33 

grant of GO/. The reasons for this request are in the main the same 
as last year. It has not yet been found possible to establish the new 
magnetic observatory and to remove the recording instruments from Kew, 
though the Committee are informed that progress has been made in the 
arrangements for this ; at the same time electric traction has increased 
greatly in the neighbourhood of Kew, and the records are in consequence 
very seriously disturbed. Thus the Falmouth records are of special im- 
portance to science just now. 



Experiments for improving the Oonstrudion of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Lord Rayleigh (Ghcoirman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. 
Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. 
MuiRHEAD, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. Everett, A. 
Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Dr. E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, 
and Mr. George Matthey. 

APPENDICES PAOa 

I. On the Values of tlio Resistance of certain. Standard Coils of the Bntisli 
Association. By F. E. Smith. (Fror?i the National Physical Labora- 
tory) 38 

II. On some new Mercury Standards of Resistance. ^^ F. E. Smith. {From 

the National Physical Laboratory) 44 

III. On the Platinum, Thermometers of the British Association. By J. A. 

'Ukrk.^b., D.Sc. {From the National Physical Laboratory) . . .45 

IV. Table of the Resistance found for Piire Annealed Coiiper .... 51 

During the year a very complete comparison of the resistance standards 
Ijelonging to the Association has been carried out, and the standards have 
been compared with those of the Reichsanstalt and of the Board of Trade. 

The various units discussed in the report are : (1) The ' ohm,' 
10' C.G.S. units of resistance ; (2) the international ohm — viz., the resist- 
ance at 0° C. of a column of mercury of uniform section 106 -3 cm. in length 
and 14-4521 grammes in mass; (3) the original B.A. unit; (4) the 
Board of Trade unit, supposed to represent the international ohm, but 
constructed in 1891 so as to be equal to 1-01358 B.A. units ; (5) the 
N.P.L. unit defined as No. 4, as deduced from the wire standards of the 
Association ; (6) the E,eichsanstalt unit, constructed at the Reichsanstalt 
to represent the international ohm ; (7) the mercury tubes, constructed 
at the National Physical Laboratory to represent the international ohm. 

A full account of this comparison is given in Appendix I. to the report, 
by Mr. F. E. Smith, of the National Physical Laboratory. It appears 
from this that changes have shown themselves in all the original platinum- 
silver coils. The relative values of these coils are discussed in the Reports 
of the Committee for 1888, 1890, and 1892. The 1888 report contains a 
very complete comparison of all the coils, not merely those of platinpm- 
silver ; and it is there shown that they then agreed with the values 

1903. D 



34 KEPORT— 1903. 

assigned to tliem by Fleming in 1881. The conclusion is also drawn in the 
same report that, with the exception of the platinum-iridium coils A and 
B, no really certain variations could be traced in the other coils between 
the results of Matthiessen and Hockins's comparisons in 1864 and 1867, 
those of Chrystal in 1876, Fleming in 1881, and the present Secretary ' in 
1888. A postcript to the Report for 1888 recorded, however, an appre- 
ciable change in the coil F in the autumn of that year. 

In Appendix I. Mr. Smith starts with the values given in the 1888 
Report, which are, as nearly as we can tell, the original values of the 
coils. 

Changes in the three standards F, G, H have already been recorded 
in previous Reports (1890 and 1892). The standard coil Fiat remained 
unchanged in value until 1901-1902. Between the observations recorded 
in these years it increased in resistance by 17 x 10""'^ B.A.U., and has not 
varied since. 

The alterations in the other coils since the comparisons in 1888 have 
been as follows : — 

F. + 97xlO-''B.A.U. 

G . + 33 X 10-5 ^^ 
H. + 18x10-5 „ 

It should however be noted that, while between 1888 and 1890 the 
change in F was +64x10"* B.A.U., that in G was —27 x 10"*, and 
in H —13x10-^. Since 1890 the same coils changed by +33x10"* 
+ 54 X 10"*, and +31 x 10"* B.A.U. respectively, while between 1901 and 
1902 Flat, as has already been stated, rose by 17 X 10"* B.A.U. 

It is not easy to trace the causes of these changes. In the case of Flat 
the observations in 1901 were made at Kew, those in 1902 at Bushy 
House, and the change may in some way be connected with the removal 
of the coils. The changes in F, G, H first showed themselves after the 
coils had been subject to a very low temperature, and may have been 
started by strains due to this. 

Appendix I. gives the details on which these various statements are 
based. It appears also from the same Appendix that the new platinum- 
silver ohm standards of the Association have retained their values since 
1898 practically unchanged. 

The comparison between the standards of the Association and those 
of the Reichsanstalt leads to the result that the unit of the Association 
(No. 5 of those defined above) is less than that of the Reichsanstalt 
(No. 6) by -000105 ohm. This result is deduced (Table IX. of Appendix I.) 
from a series of extremely concordant measures on coils of value 0-1, 1, 
10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 ohms ; thus both the unit and the multiple 
coils agree in giving tlie same difference between the Reichsanstalt and 
ourselves. 

By the kindness of Mr. Trotter a comparison has been made between 
the Board of Trade unit and those of the Association, with the result 
that, as deduced from the unit coils, the Board of Trade unit is less than 
that of the Association by -00006 ohm. This result, however, is not 
confirmed by a comparison of a 1,000-ohm coil belonging to the Associa- 

' It is possible that coil JF is an exception to this statement. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 35 

tion with one of those of the Board of Trade ; ^ these coils show no 
difference. 

The above statements are made on the assumption that the variotig 
changes in the coils which have undoubtedly occurred have been rightly 
interpreted, so that we can now recover the absolute C.G.S. value of the 
coil Flat, and hence of the standard ohm as originally determined at the 
Cavendish Laboratory, and defined by the Committee in the Edinburgh 
Report, 1892. 

That this is the case is borne out by the results of the experiments on 
the specific resistance of mercury, a summary of which is given in 
Appendix II. These are not yet complete. Mr. Smith has, however, 
constructed and calibrated eleven mercury tubes. The mean cross - 
section of each of these has been determined by at least four different 
sets of measurements. In nine cases the greatest difference between any 
measurement and the mean is not more than "001 per cent. 

The values found for the resistance of each tube do not differ by 
more than '001 per cent. 

If we assume as above that the values of the wire standards of resist- 
ance of the Association are known in terms of the absolute C.G S. unit, 
then it follows that the length of the column of mercury, one square 
millimetre in section, which would have a resistance of lO'-* C.G.S. units 
would be 106-291 centimetres. The value found for this same quantity 
by the Secretary (Mr. Glazebrook) and Mr. Fitzpatrick in 1888,^ was 
106-29 centimetres. We infer then that we still can recover from our 
standard coils the absolute C.G.S. unit of resistance. 

Again, the length of the mercury column constituting the international 
ohm has been defined as 106-3 cm. 

But we have seen that the absolute C.G.S. unit as deduced from the 
wire coils of the Association has a resistance equal to that of 106-291 cm. 
Thus the absolute unit ^ is smaller than the international ohm by -009 per 
cent. Again, it has been stated above that the unit deduced from the 
standards of the Association is smaller than that of the Reichsanstalt by 
•OlOfi per cent. 

Thus the mercury standards of the Reichsanstalt, constructed to repre- 
sent the international ohm, exceed those just made for the Association 
by Mr. Smith by "OOlj per cent., or 1-5 parts in 100,000. 

Again, if these results be accepted, since the Board of Trade unit, as 
derived from the wire standards, is less than that of the Association by 
•006 per cent., and the Association unit is too small by -009 per cent., it 
follows that the Board of Trade unit is too small by -015 per cent. This 
difference arises in part from the fact that the standards of the Association, 
from which the Board of Trade standard was copied by the Secretary in 
1891, are too low ; in part from the fact that the Board of Trade standard 
has diverged slightly from that of the Association since 1891. 

' If the view be accepted that the laboratory unit is the same as in 1891, the 
Board of Trade standard has fallen since that date by -00006 ohm 

» Phil. Trans. 1888. 

' The resistance taken for a column of mercury 1 square mm. in section. 100 cm. 
in length at 0° C. at the Edinburgh Meeting in 181)2, was -9407 x 10" C.G.S. units. Mr". 
Smith's experiments give, assuming the values of the wire coils known, the result 
•9408 X 10' C.G.S. units. 



36 flfiPoRt— 1903. 

Thus, td sdnl Up this part of the Report, it may ba stated that I — 

(a) The original B.A. unit and the stcandard ohm based on it (NoS, 
3 and 5 of the units concerned) can be recovered from the wire coils 
of the Association. 

(6) The Board of Trade unit (N^o. i) is now less than the Laboratory 
unit (No. 5) by -006 per ceiit. 

(c) The Laboratory unit (No. 5) is less tlian the international ohm 
(No. 2) by -009 per cent. 

(d) The Board of Trade unit is less than the international ohm by 
•015 per cent. 

(e) The mercury tubes made at the National Physical Laboratory to 
represent the international ohm are less than those made at the Reichs- 
anstalt by "0015 per cent. 

This last result must be considered as provisional pending the comple- 
tion of Mr. Smith's work, but it is clearly highly satisfactory. 

Mr. Smith has also made progress during the year with his investiga- 
tions into certain of the anomalies shown by Clark cells, but the results of 
that inquiry are not yet ready for publication. 

The standard condensers of the Association have been frequently in 
use during the year ; about fifteen condensers have been compared with 
them. They retain their value in a satisfactory manner, and are conve- 
i.ient to work with, though possibly some improvement in tlie insulation 
jaight be desirable. 

A chronograph, purchased with part of the grant made last year, will 
enable tlie time measurements required in the measurement of capacity 
to be made with greater accuracy, and hence will permit of greater rigidity 
in the inquiry as to the permanence of the standards. 

The platinum thermometers made from the stock of wire purchased 
from Messrs. Johnson and Matthey, which at the time of the last Report 
Were in course of construction, have been completed, and the behaviour of 
some of them investigated tliroughout the past year. The resistance-box 
available was tlie old Callendar-Griffiths box used in the work of Dr. 
Chree at Kew Observatory, having coils of platinum-silver on the binary 
system. The contacts are an old form of the Cambridge Instrument 
Company's type of plug-contact, the cheeks being made of a special white 
alloy held in round Doulton-ware cups. In measurements with this box 
not much significance attaches to the third figure of decimals representing 
hundred-thousandths of an ohm, though the settings could be made to this 
amount at the lower temperatures. The box resistance-coils were intended 
for use with platinum thermometers of 1 ohm fundamental interval only, 
and therefore the two high-resistance thermometers, of 5 ohms funda- 
mental interval, could not be measured at the sulphur-point ; their 
systematic investigation has therefore been temporarily postponed. The 
want of a better box for this work is seriously felt. 

Of the original six thermometers made in August 1902, Nos. 1 to 4 
aie of 1 ohm fundamental interval, Nos. 1 and 2 being in porcelain and 
3 and 4 in specially thin Jena glass tubes of internal diameter 8 to 9 mm. 
and 38 to 40 cm. long. Nos. 5 and 6 are of 5 ohms fundamental interval, 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 37 

and in somewhat wider tubes of specially thin glass, through which the 
four leads are hermetically sealed. The heads of all these thermometers 
are of the design used by Chappuis and Harker, the contacts to the solid 
ends of the copper flexibles being made by fusible metal cups. "With 
reasonable care these contacts prove very satisfactory, both as I'egards the 
constancy of their resistance and their mechanical strength. 

In the construction of all these thermometers special care was devoted 
to adjusting their fundamental intei'vals to be very close to their nominal 
values, and after completing this adjustment all were subjected to repeated 
annealing in air at a bright-red heat, thermometers Nos. 3 and 4 being 
temporarily placed in porcelain tubes for the purpose. 

The remaining four constructed last summer, and one of later date, all 
of 1 ohm fundamental interval, have had their constants determined from 
time to time during the year. One of them — B. A.j — was selected as a repre- 
sentative platinum thermometer for use in an investigation made to deter- 
mine the relation between the platinum scale and that of the gas thermo- 
meter of the National Physical Laboratory at temperatures up to 1000° C 
During the time occupied by two sets of experiments with this instrument, 
extending over about three months in all, its constants altered by an 
amount only just greater than their probable error, showing that it is quite 
possible to use properly constructed platinum thermometers up to tem- 
peratures slightly over 1000° C. for long periods without fear of serious 
changes. 

The summary of the life history of the different thermometers is 
given in Appendix III. The chief fact apparent is that there seems to 
be a small but real difference between the 8 of thermometers 1 and 3 on 
the one hand, and 2, 4, and 7 on the other, the maximnm divergence 
being about '02. 

Prolonged electrical heating in air of the wire of one of the thermo- 
meters was not found to sensibly change the value of the S. The cause 
of the small differences found is not obvious, and further investigation is 
being made on this point. 

A change in S from l-.'oO to 1-.51 would make at the sulphur-point a 
difference of 0°-153 C, and at 1000° C. one of 0°-9. 

The question of the resistance of copper has been raised lately by the 
work of one of the sub- Committees of the Engineering Standards Com- 
mittee. For commercial purposes the resistance of copper is dehned at a 
temperature of 60° Fahr. (15°-55 C). A table in Appendix lY. gives 
the values that have been found by various experimenters. 

It is clear that copper is now prepared of a higher degree of purity 
than in the time of Matthiessen. Taking the mean of the figures 
in the table for modern electrolytic copper, we have as the value of the 
resistance of 1 metre of copper wire weighing 1 gramme at 15° '55 C. the 
value O'H'SSj ohm, but the figures of which this is a mean range from 
1475 to 1492. The value found by Matthiessen, as deduced from his paper 
in the ' Phil. Trans.' for 1860, is 0-1500 ohm. Thus the conductivity of 
modern pure electrolytic copper is 1 per cent, better than Mattliiessen's. 

The Committee on copper conductors, which investigated the question 
in 1899, adopted the number 0*1508 ohm as the resistance of a metre- 
gramme of commercial annealed high-conductivity copper. This figure 
has been accepted by the Engineering Standards Committee. 

Mr. H. A. Taylor has recently placed in the hands of the Secretary 



38 



REPORT — 1903. 



two resistances of gold-silver wire made by Matthiessen himself, to repre- 
sent the resistance at 15°^5 C. of 100 inches of pure annealed copper, 
having the weight of 100 grains. The resistances of these coils have been 
determined by Mr. Smith, and the results are given in the following 
table : — 





Coil No. 1 


Coil No. 2 


Resistance of 100 inches of copper weigh- 


•1516 


•1514 


ing 100 grains, as given by Matthiessen 






in B.A. units at 15°-5 C. 






Resistance found in 1903 in B.A. units at 


•1513, 


•1513a 


15°-5 C. 






Resistance found reduced to ohms atl5°-5 C. 


•14933 


•1492, 


Resistance deduced of a metregramme in 


•1499, 


•1499, 


ohms at 15°-5 C. ;. 







Matthiessen's value for the resistance of annealed copper at 
(60° Fahr.) as deduced from these coils, agrees very closely with 

1 . 11 .1 CI 0. n j.T-_ i^ .- ;_ i,:~ i oca „- 



Thus 

15°^55 C. ,„. ^ , , -0-- -. ^ 

the value calculated by the Secretary from the figures in his 1860 paper. 



The Committee have had under consideration the drawings and speci- 
fications for the ampere balance as designed by the late Principal 
Viriamu Jones and Professor Ayrton. The electrical parts of the 
instrument need construction under skilled supervision. Tests of various 
kinds have to be made continually, and the Committee have come to the 
conclusion that this supervision can best be secured by having the 
instrument constructed in the workshop of the National Physical 
Laboratory, under the care of Professor Ayrton and the Secretary, who, 
as Director, will be able, with the assistance of the staff of the Laboratory, 
to control the work in an efficient manner. 

The Committee are of opinion that further expenditure will be required 
in completing the set of platinum thermometers, in particular in providing 
a satisfactory resistance-box and in carrying out the researches on the 
Clark cell. They consider that it is of great importance that these 
researches should be brought to a satisfactory conclusion. 

For these reasons they recommend that they be reappointed, with a 
grant of 60/., that Lord Eayleigh be Chairman, and Mr. K. T. Glazebrook 
Secretary, 



APPENDIX I. 

071 the Valves of the Resistance of certain Standard Coils of the British 

Association. By F. E. Smith. 

{From the National Fhybical Laboratory.) 

['J"he Report covers the period 1888-1903 inclusive.] 

Changes of very considerable magnitude have taken place since 
1892 in the old B.A. standards. The removal of the coils, first to 
Liverpool, then to Kew, and finally to Teddington, has resulted in the 
comparisons being incomplete in some years. In consequence the difficulty 
of locating differences has correspondingly increased. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



39 



The observations recorded are in terms of B.A. Flat. Owing to a 
change in Flat taking place, however, the 1903 comparisons were made 
chiefly with Nalder 3715. 

In Table I. the approximate difference in B.A.U. between Flat and 
the B.A, unit coils F, G, H of the Association are given. 

Table II. gives the difference in ohms between^ ( 1-01 3-58 x Flat) and 
other platinum-silver coils. Temperature of observations, 16° C. 



Table I. 



Table II. 



Year 


Flat 










F 


G 


H 


1888 


+ 47xl0-'- 


+ 91x10-' 


+ 77x10-= 


1890 


-17 


+ 112 


+ 90 


1891 


— 


— 


— . 


1892 


-18 


+ 108 


+ 92 


1894 


— 





^ 


1897 





— 


— 


1898 


-36 


+ 99 


+ 69 


1900 


-47 


+ 92 


+ 63 


1901 


-42 


+ 92 


+ 70 


1902 


-33 


+ 90 


+ 76 


1903 


-33 


+ 75 


+ 76 





(1-01358 


X Flat) 




Niilder 


Elliott 


Elliott 


Elliott 


3715 


264 


209 


270 


— 


_ 


__ 





— 


+ 13x10-= 


— 


— 


-17x10-= 


— 


-37x10 • 


+ 27x10-= 


-17 


+ 9 


-46 


+ 27 


-17 


+ 23 


-59 


+27 


-17 


+ 23 


-54 


+ 27 





+ 38 


-39 


+44 





"■ 


-39 


+ 44 



Table III. shows the percentage difference between (10] 358 x Flat) 
and the unit of two 10-ohm platinum-silver coils of the Association 
at ] 6° C. 

Table III. 



Year 


(1'01358 X Flat) 


Elliott 
288 


Elliott 
28!) 


1897 
1898 
1902-3 


-27x10-=* 

-27 

-10 


+ 7x10-=* 

+ 7 
+ 24 



The coils F, G, and H are similarly constituted : they are the old 
B.A. coils made by Matthiessen. No. 3715 is by Nalder Bros., and the 
remainder of the coils by Messrs. Elliott Bros. No. 264 is a coil belonging 
to the Board of Trade, and has been returned to "Whitehall ; hence there 
are no observations for 1903. 

Tables I., II., and III. assume Flat to be constant. It will be observed 
that the differences of Flat and 3715, 270, 288, and 289 are constant from 
1897 to 1901. From 1901 to 1903 a change of about -017 per cent, 
is evident between Flat and the coils 3715, 264, 269, 270, and again 
between Flat and the units of the coils 288 and 289. This suggests a 
change in the value of Flat from 1901. 

Since 1901 comparisons between Flat and the manganin standards of 
the Association have been made. Table IV. gives the observed values in 
ohms. 

' 1 B.O.T. ohm = 101358 B.A.U. 



40 



REPORT— 1903. 



Table IV. — Values at 16° C. in terms o/(l-0135S x Flat), assuming 

Flat unchanged. 



Year 

1901 
1902 
1903 


Wolff 
1690 


Wolff 
780 


Wolff 
381 


Wolff 
147 


1-00012 
•99995 
•99995 


1-00002 
•99987 
•99987 


100014 
•99999 
•99999 


•99790 
•9978:? 
•99783 



The values of 1690, 780, 381, and 147 diminish by 17, 15, 15, and 
7 times 10"° ohms respectively in the interval 1901-1902. No. 147 is known 
to be a variable coil of very low insulation-resistance, and may be 
disregarded for the purpose of estimating the change in Flat. It is of 
interest as being a coil brought to Cambridge by Dr. Lindeck in 1892 and 
left with the Secretary. 

Thus the apparent /«7^s in value of 3715, 264, 269, 270, 288, 289, 
1690, 780, and 381 are respectively •017, -015, -020, -017, "017, "017, •OH, 
•015, and "015 per cent., giving a mean of -017 per cent. 

This justifies the assumption of a rise in resistance of B.A. Flat of 
•017 per cent, in the period 1901-1902. 

The following tables, V. and VL, are I. and II. revised. They take 
the change in Flat into account by means of corrections api^lied to the 
observations of the years 1902 and 1903. The values given are for 16° C. 



Table V. (I. Rerised). 
B.A.ir. 



Table VI. (II. Rerised). 
Ohms. 



Year 


Constant Flat 






Constaut(l'01358xFlat) 




























Nalder 


Elliott 


Elliott 


Elliott 




F 


G 


H 




3715 


264 


269 


270 


1888 


+47x10-' 


+ 91x10-' 


+ 77x10-' 








— 


— 


1890 


-17 


+ 112 


+ 90 




— 


— 


— 


— 


1801 





— 


— 




— 


+ 13x10-' 


— 


— 


1892 


-18 


+ 108 


+ 92 




— 




— 


— 


1894 







— 




-17x10-' 




-37x10-' 


+ 27xlO-" 


1897 





— 


— 




— 




— 


— 


1898 


-36 


+ 99 


+ 69 




-17 


+ 9 


-46 


+ 27 


1900 


-47 


+ 92 


+ 63 




-17 


+ 23 


-59 


+ 27 


191)1 


-42 


+ 92 


+ 70 




-17 


+ 23 


-54 


+ 27 


1902 


-50 


+ 73 


+ 59 




-17 


+ 21 


-56 


+ 27 


19U3 


-50 


+ 58 


+ 69 




-17 


"" 


-56 


+ 27 



Tables VII. and VIII. being III. and IV., similarly revised, show no 
marked change in any of the coils in those tables excepting 147. 

Table VII. (III. Revised). 
Values at 16° G. 



Year 


(1^01358 X Flat) 


Elliott 
288 


Elliott 
289 


1897 
]89S 
1902-3 


-•27x10-5 

-•27 

-•27 


+ 7 X 10-* 
+ 7 
+ 7 



I 



PHACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 
Table "VIII. (IV. Revised). 



41 



Year 


Wolff 
1090 


Wolff 
780 


Wolff 
381 


Wolff 
147 


lilOl 
1902 
1903 


1-00012 
1-00012 
1-00012 


1-00002 
1-00004 
1-OOOOi 


1-00014 
1-00010 
1-00016 


■09790 
•99800 
•99800 



With reference to Tables V. and VI. the data for 1901-1903 show a rise 
of -OOS per cent, for F, -034 per cent, for G, and -Oil per cent, for H, 
indicating that they are certainly changing coils, the resistance for this 
period increasing with time. 

From the values recorded 371.5 and 270 we have evidence that Flat 
has probably remained constant for the period 1894-1901. Also we infer 
that 264 is not a coil showing very great changes. 

Between the years 1892 and 1898 the differences between Flat and 
the coils F, G, and H alter by the amounts -018 per cent., -009 per cent., 
and -023 per cent, respectively. The dissimilarity of these percentage- 
differences is further evidence that the coils liave changed amongst them- 
selves in this period. Comparing the amounts with those of the period 
1901-190.3, they represent quite normal increments of resistance. The 
balance of evidence in consequence is in favour of the constancy of Flat 
over the period 1892-1898, and this constancy has therefore been assumed. 

A summarised statement of the platinum -silver coils of the Associa- 
tion will now be as follows : — 

Table IX. — SlwvAng tJw Percentage-increase in Resistance of B.A. Platlnvm- 

silcer Coils from 1888. 



Co!l 


1888 


1890 


1891 


1892 


1894 


1897 


18Q8 


1900 


1901 


1903 


1903 



•017 


Flat 











_ 












•017 


F 


— 


•06 1 


— 


•06.') 


— 


— 




•083 


•094 


•089 


•097 


•097 


Or 


— 


-•021 


— 


-•017 


— 


— 


_ 


•1)08 


-•001 


-•001 


•018 


•033 


H 


— 


-•013 


— 


-•015 


— 


— 




•008 


•014 


•007 


•018 


•018 


3715 


— 








( 


obs. 


1 



























I 


coimneiiee 


1 




264 


— 


— ■ 


ob?. 
comiuenoe 


1 


— 






•004 


-•010 


-•010 


-•008 


— 


269 


— 


— 


— 


- ■ 


obs. 
commence 


■ — 




•009 


•022 


•017 


•019 


•019 


270 


— 


— 


— 


-1 


obs. 
commence 


[ - 



















288 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- \ 


obs. 
commence 







— 


— 


— 





289 


~~' 


" 


— 


— 


~ 


obs. 1 1 
commence [ 
1 





— 


— 


— 






value 



It will be observed that a number of the coils arc steadily rising in 



The insulation remains good. 



Temperature Corfficients of B.A. Coils. 

Some .special observations have been made in order to obtain tlie 
temperature coefficients of the coils. These were carried out by keeping 
the standard coil constant and subjecting the tested coil to various 
temperatures for twelve or more hours so as to ensure no log, It is 



42 



REPORT — 1903. 



interesting to note that the temperature coefficients of some of the coils 
are appreciably different from the old values of 1892. 

Table X. — Sho%uing the old and new values of the Temperature Coefficients 

of various Coils. 





Temperature Coefficient 


Temperature Coefficient 


Coil 


Old value, per 1° C. 


New value, per 1° C. 


Flat 


•000277 B.A.U. 


■000271 B.A.U. 


F 


286 „ 


268 „ 


G 


274 „ 


274 „ 


H 


271 „ 


280 „ 


3715 


■000260? ohm 


•000307 ohm 


264 


312 .. 


283 „ 


2fl9 




285 „ 


270 


— 


315 „ 



Co^nparison of the Unit of Hesistance employed at the Reichsanstalt 
and that of the N.P.L. 

By the N.P.L. unit is meant the unit of resistance as obtained from 
the old B.A. coils.' Assuming that all the changes have been successfully 
interpreted, the unit at present employed in the Laboratory should be the 
same as that employed in the Cavendish Laboratory in 1898 and at 
Edinburgh in ] 892. 

A comparison of the two units was rendered possible in the spring. 
Two Wolff coils, Nos. 780 and 738, of nominal values 1 ohm and 10 ohms 
respectively, were despatched to Germany last winter. Their values were 
determined in Reichsanstalt units (termed international ohms) in March, 
and the coils immediately returned to the Laboratory. Unfortunately 
both coils fell in value two or three parts in the hundred-thousandth figure 
during their journeyings. The values given in the table are those deter- 
mined on their return. 

In addition, five new coils were received varying in value from -i^i\v 
to 10,000 ohms. These enabled a more complete comparison to be made. 
The Laboratory value was deduced by building up from the unit, and also 
by direct comparison with coils of similar value. 

Table XI. — Results of Measurements of various coils at the Reichsanstalt 
aitd at the Laboratory, March 1903. 



Coil No. 


Laboratory Value 
at 17° C. 


Value Deduced 
from Reichsanstalt 


Laboratory Value — 
Reichsanstalt Value. 




Certificate at 17° C. 


Percentage Difference 


2352 


•100007 


•099996 


•Oil per cent. 


2351 


lOOOU 


1-00001 


•010 „ 


780 


1-00001 


•99991 


•010 „ 


738 


9-99945 


9-9985 


•009^ 


2450 


100-004 


99-993 


•Oil 


2449 


lCOO-06 


999-96 


•010 


2448 


10000-9 


9999-8 


•Oil 



1 X N-P.L, unit =1 -01 358 B,A,U 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



43 



It is evident from these observations that a difference of -OlOj per 
cent, exists, or that — 

Kesistance of Reichsanstalt unit — Resistance of Laboratory unit 



= •000105 ohm 

Comparison of the Unit of Resistance employed at the Board of Trade 
and that of the Laboratory. 



(A) 



The comparison of these two units is not so complete. Two platinum- 
silver units and one of manganin have been determined at both labora- 
tories. The measurements taken at Teddington indicate that no change 
resulted during the journeyings of the coils. In addition one 1,000-ohm 
coil (Nalder 6863) has been determined. 

Table XII. — Residts of Measurements of various coils at the Board of Trade 
Offices and at the Laboratory, February and March 1903. 



Coil No. 


Temperature 


Laboratory 
Value 


Deduced 
B.O.T. Value 


Laboratory- 
Value— B.O.T. 


Elliott, 270 
Elliott, 264 
Wolff, 381 
Nalder, 6863 


16°-0C. 
]6°-0C. 
16°-0C. 
15°-84C. 


1-00006 
1-00008 
1-00015 
999-13 


I-OOOIO5 
1-000145 
1-00021, 
999-I3 


— -0045 per cent. 
--OO65 
-•006, „ 



The exact relationship between the B.O.T. unit and that of the 
Laboratory is therefore still incomplete. It seems fairly certain however 
that— 

Resistance of Laboratory unit— Resistance of B.O.T. unit 

= -00006 ohm, a difference of 'OOe per cent. . . (B) 

From the two relationships — 

Resistance of Reichsanstalt unit — Resistance of N.P.L, unit 

= •000105 ohm 
Resistance of Laboratory unit — Resistance of B.O.T. unit 
5= -00006 ohm 
we have 

Resistance of Reichsanstalt unit— Resistance of B.O.T. unit 

= 000165 ohm, a difference of "0165 per cent. , . (C) 

The present values of the B.A. coils are as follows : — 

Table XIIL 



Coil 


Temperature 


Besistance 


1 
Temperature Coefficient 
per 1° C. 


Flat 


16°0 C. 


1-000.50 B.A.U. 


-000271 B.A.U. 


F 




1-U0083 „ 


•000268 „ 


G 




99975 ., 


•000274 „ 


H 




-99976 „ 


-000280 „ 


371.5 




1-00050 ohm 


-000307 ohm 


2159 




1-00089 „ 


-000285 „ 


270 




1-00006 „ 


-000315 „ 


288 




10-0060 


•0031. „ 


289 




10-0026 


•00263 „ 



44 



REPORT — 1903. 



The Wolff manganin coils of the Association are also given at 16° C, 
with a temperature coefficient to be applied for small ranges of tempera- 
tui'e only, since it is by no means a linear function. 



Table XIV. 



Coil 


Temperature Resistance 


Temperature Coefficient 
per 1° C. 


1600 

780 
381 ' 
U7 


16°0 C. 

J* 
»I 


1-00013 ohm 
1-00002 „ 
1-00016 „ 
-99800 „ 


•00001 ohm 
•00001 „ 
•00002 „ 
•00001, „ 



As has already been explained, the values are given in terms of the 
Laboratory unit which represents 10'^ C.G.S. units of resistance as deter- 
mined by Lord Rayleigh and Mr. Glazebrook at Cambridge ; it has been 
assumed that the inter-comparison of ths coils enables that unit to be 
recovered. 

Appendices I. and II. of the present Report afford the means of con- 
necting this unit with those of the Board of Trade, derived from it in 
1891, and of the Reichsanstalt, and also with the ohm or international 
ohm— the resistance, that is, of a certain column of mercury. 



APPENDIX IL 

The relation between the international ohm (106"300 cm. Hg. weighing 
14"4.521 gms. at 0° C) and the unit of resistance einjjloyed at the N.P.L. 
Preliminary Note, by F. E. Smith. 

(From the National Physical Lahoratory.') 

The following measurements of six mercury tubes indicate the progress 
made in this inquiry, and also the relation obtained :— 







Conical 












L 


Correc- 
tion 




a 


b 




Tube 






Theoretical 

Length for 
1 Int. Ohm. 






b-a 


Length at 


(m-1) 


Calculated 
Resistance 


Mean 
Measured 




O^C. 


xlO'i 




of Tube. 
Int. Ohm 


Resistance. 
Lab. Unit 




U 


620731 


5. 


62-1319 


•99905 


•99913 


•00008 


V 


73-5000 


18 


73-4759 


1-00033 


1-00041 


•oooos 


G 


110^507 


9 


116-478 


1-00025 


1-00035 


•00010 


X 


6.5-6338 


2„ 


65-6354 


0-99997 


1-00007 


•00010 


Y 


62-1867 


15 


62-2382 


•99917 


•99926 


■00009 


Z 


68-5199 


8 


68-5057 


1-00021 


100029 


-00008 



Thus, Laboratory Unit of Resistance = -99991 Int. obm. 
_ 106 291 
~ 106-300 
[The above figures are intended as merely provisional.] 



Int. ohm. 



' No. 381 ig a mapganin coil bglongipg to the Board of Trade, 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



45 



With respect to the measurements of the cross-sections the uniformity 
of the results show that an accuracy of -001 per cent, may be relied upon. 
Four methods of measuring the resistance will be employed. At present 
only two of these are completed. The values in each horizontal line refer 
to different fillings ; they are quite concordant, as the values given in the 



following table show : — 



Bcsutance in Lahoratory (jY.P.L.) Units of Mercury Tiihes, 



Tube 


Resistance at 0° C. 
Potentiometer 


Resistance at 0° C. 
Kelvin Double Bridge 


U 


•99913 
•99912 
•99914 


•99913 
•99912 
•99914 


V 


100041 
1-00044 
1-00040 


100041 
1-00044 
1-000395 


G 


] -00034 
l-0003(j 
100035 


1-00035 
1-0003G 
100035 


X 


1-00007 
1-00006 
1-00007 


1-00007 

i-ooooc 

1-00006 


Y 


•9992G 
•99927 
•99925 


•9992G 
-9992G 
•99925 


Z 


1-00030 
1-00029 
1-00029 


1-00030 
1-00029 
1-00029 



APPENDIX III. 

On the Platinum The^'mometer.i of the British Association, 
By J. A. Harker, 2>.,yf. 

{From the National Physical Laboratory.) 

The four platinum thermometers numbered BA, to BAj, with which 
this Appendix chiefly deals, were constructed at the National Physical 
Laboratory in August 1902. The wii-e used for the ' bulbs ' is approxi- 
mately 'OOC in. (-15 mm.) diameter, and for the leads ^020 in. (-5 mm.). 

After ascertaining approximately the length of wire necessary to give 
a fundamental interval of 1 ohm, tiie proper amount for the four 
thermometers was cut off from the stock reel, and heated in one piece to 
moderate redness (800° C.) electrically when supported approximately 
horizontal. The platinum ' lead ' wires, which were of the same quality of 
purs metal as the finer ' bulb ' wire, were then measured off and the pairs 
assigned to each thermometer accurately matched. After a preliminary 
anneal in an oxidising atmosphere at a bright red heat, one of each of 



46 REPORT— 1903. 

these pairs was looped upon itself to form the compensator, and the other 
cut in half for attachment to the ends of the ' bulb ' wire. Several kinds 
of mica from different sources were tested as to their suitability for use as 
insulating material for the frame and washers to support the wires, and 
it was found that considerable discrimination was necessary in the selec- 
tion of the mica for this purpose. Certain qualities which were colourless 
before heating became on exposure to only 800° to 850° of a marked 
brown tint, and it was found in one case this was due to organic material 
having been used to fasten together several sheets to build up the neces- 
sary thickness, the carbonaceous matter leading to a fall in insulating 
power several hundred degrees below the temperature at which good mica 
begins to appreciably conduct, which ought not to be lower than 1150° C. 
In another case, a specimen which showed the characteristic silvery white 
lustre after several hours' exposure to 1100° C, had lost so much of its 
mechanical strength as to be almost unusable. A specimen which before 
heating was of slightly green tint was finally selected, and of this tlie 
whole of the mica frames and washers were constructed. The copper wires 
connecting the platinum leads to the fusible -metal caps were silver- 
soldered to the platinum, and for extra safety against possible strain the 
wires were screwed into the caps as well as hard soldered. In order to be 
protected as far as possible from unsymmetrical heating, which often gives 
rise to thermo-electric effects in certain types of thermometer, these joints 
between platinum and copper are arranged so as to be well inside the brass 
tube into which the glass or porcelain protection tube is fastened. The 
thermometer heads are of ebonite, and are of the design described by 
Harker and Chappuis in 'Phil. Trans.' 194, p. 52. They are practically 
airtight, and will stand vacuum or pressure for a considerable time. By a 
small tap, which is generally kept closed, communication can be made with 
a convenient appai-atus for exhausting and letting in dry air while the 
thermometer is suitably heated. The effect of electric leakage in lowering 
the apparent resistance of a platinum thermometer when damp is much 
more easily traced on thermometers of 5 or 10 ohms FI than on the usual 
1 ohm pattern used for high temperatures. "With the thermometers here 
described, having the enclosed form of head, none of the determinations of 
fixed points have been found to be vitiated by moisture, care having been 
taken not to expose any portion of the interior to prolonged contact with 
the outside air, after once being thoroughly dried out at a high tempera- 
ture. 

The mica cross, having serrated edges with teeth of 1 mm. pitch, being 
attached to the leads and compensator, the joints between the ' bulb ' 
wire are made in the strongly oxidising fiame of a very small oxy-coa.l-gas 
blowpipe without admixture of foreign material of any description. Auto- 
genous soldering of this kind is not very difficult, even for very fine wires, 
and is essential if the thermometers are intended for use to the highest 
temperatures safely measurable, namely, 1150° C, as the copper and 
silver contained in any solder which might be employed give off vapour 
sufficient to injuriously affect the platinum on prolonged exposure to a 
temperature considerably below this. The ' bulb ' wire when fastened to 
the leads is then wound, not too tightly, upon the mica frame, and the 
thermometer is then inserted into its protecting tube of very thin glass or 
of porcelain, which must be glazed on the exterior, and if the thermometer 
is not intended for use above about 1000° C, may with advantage be 
glazed both inside and out. A measurement is then taken of the funda- 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



47 



mental interval, with a view to ascertain the change on annealing, which 
is then carried out by heating two or three times to about 1000° for 
several hours, with slow cooling, the thermometers with glass tubes being 
temporarily placed in porcelain ones for this purpose. The fundamental 
interval is then taken again, and if this is not considered sufficiently near 
the desired value, it can be lowered by cutting out the requii'ed amount 
from the looped end of the wire and re-fusing, or raised by stretching 
judiciously with platinum-tipped pliers the lowest few inches of the wire, 
which is unwound for the purpose. Care must be taken after each re- 
adjustment to remove any possible new strains introduced by a thorough 
re-anneal before measurement. In the absence of definite evidence in its 
favour, it was not deemed desirable for this first set of thermometers to 
heat the wire for some hours electrically to 1400° or 1500° C, as is usual 
in careful work with wires of platinum and the allied metals employed for 
thermo-j unctions. 

After the final adjustment of the FI and final anneal, systematic obser- 
vations of the zero, steam, and sulphur points of the four thermometers 
were made from time to time with the resistance-box described in the 
text. A new calibration of the box-coils and bridge wire was made in 

February 1 903, and the values of the relation ' and of the 8 found 

since that date are tabulated for each thermometer. From this summary 
it will be seen that there appears to be a small but systematic difference 
between thermometers 1 and 3 on the one hand, and 2 and 4 on the oclier, 

=-L and of c. 

Kg 



this being noticeable both on the values of 



The values of ?J vary from 1-38709 in BAj to 



R 



1-38881 in BA, 



the mean of the four being 1-38786, which is a little higher than the 
mean value found by Chree for the group of seven thermometers studied 
by him, namely, 1-38702. 

The mean values of the c are : 





S 


Departure from Mean 


r.A, .... 

BA, . 
BA, . 
BA„ .... 


1-5121 
1-5083 
14935 
1-4912 


+ •0110 
+ -0069 
-■0079 
-0192 


MeanS = 


1-5014 


— 



The mean ^ of the six thermometers observed in sulphur in Chree's 
experiments was 1-503, the maximum being 1-509 and the minimum 
1-498. The mean values of the Rp, R,, and FI for the period from 
February 12 to August 31 are also given. In view of the uncertainties 
in the measurement of the temperature of the box-coils, which are of 
platinum silver not immersed in a liquid, and also of small irregularities 
in the behaviour of the plug-contacts, the experiments afford no certain 
evidence of systematic change in any of the thermometers, unless it 
be a small rise in the fundamental coefficient and correspondino- fall in 
the 8 of BAj. ° 



48 REPORT— 1903, 

Thernldmetel' BAo, which was heated about fifty times during No veill* 
bar 1902 in electric furnaces up to 1050°, and again during April and 
May 1903 to similar temperatures for prolonged periods, appears to be 
hardly perceptibly affected by it, no certa,in change of FI occurring during 
the period February 12 to August 18 covered by the later experiments, 
and certainly no variation of the zero of "1° C. 

To see if the small lack of homogeneity of the wire as shown by the 
properties of the different thermometers was due to the treatment it had 
received during the successive adjustments of FI, a new thermometer, 
named BA7, was made up of wire taken from the inner end of the same 
reel as the other six. No attempt was made at adjustment of its FI, 
which was found after thorough annealing to be 100022 box units. 

The 8 was found to be 1'506, an intermediate value. The wire was 
then unwound from the mica frame and suspended freely in air between 
the ends of the leads, and a current of 2h amperes, whicli was sufficient to 
maintain it at about 1400° C, was passed for about 2 hours. 

Owing to the volatilisation of a considerable quantity of platinum 
from the wire, a large increase in the FI was found, as was expected, but 

the 8 remained unchanged, though a rise in -L was recorded amounting to 

1 part in 1000. 

In order to make certain that the differences observed were not due 
to defective insulation in the thermometers, the insulation resistance be- 
tween the thermometer and compensator leads of each of the thermometers 
was measured by a direct deflection method, and found to be in no case 
less than 700,000 ohms at any temperature between 0° and 1000° for BAj 
and BA.2, and 0° and 500° for BA3 and BA^. Some experiments were 
also made on an imitation platinum thermometer having its coil wound 
on mica of standard quality, but cut at the lower end into two parts. 

Although the insulation from one part to another was practically infi- 
nite at all temperatures, when only platinum and mica were present in 
the heated part of the porcelain tube, the introduction of a small piece of 
clean copper wire into the hot space near the bulb was sufficient after 
some time to lower the insulation, even at only about 800° C, to a few 
thousand ohms. The cause of the differences between the individual 
thermometers does not, therefore, appear to be leakage. 

Neither does the cause of the small differences in values of 8 found lie 
in the method of taking the sulphur point, as the same apparatus was 
used in the same way for all the experiments. The sulphur is now boiled 
in an ai'rangement similar to Callendar and Grifhths's well-known pattern, 
except that, to avoid the necessity of removing the tube at each reheat 
after the sulphur has crystallised, the glass boiling-tube is replaced by 
one of thin weldless steel, brazed with spelter into a rather wider end- 
piece of thick iron tubing, which is exposed to the direct flame of the 
large bunsen used for heating. The level of the liquid sulphur is always 
maintained at least 2 inches above the bottom plate of the apparatus, 
and the upper level of the vapour to a definite position, which can be seen 
through mica windows in the upper part of the neck. Under these con- 
ditions no measurable superheating of the vapour has ever been observed, 
and a comparison of the sulphur points obtained with this form of ap- 
paratus with those got in the older one, with glass boiling-tube, reveals no 
measurable systematic difference. 

For the boiling-point of sulphur under normal pressure in latitude 45' 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



49 



Callendar and Griffiths's old value, 444:°-53 C, has been retained, as 

■was also the figure deduced by them from Regnault's experiments :for — - 

dp 

for sulphur, namely, -082° C. per mm., although it has been shown inde- 
pendently, by Chree andby Harker and Chappuis, that this value for the 
variation is considerably too small. It is hoped that a redetermination 
of this constant for pressures between 700 and 800 mm. will shortly be 
undertaken in the thermometric laboratory. 



BA, 



Date 



Feb. 



Au!?. 



6, 1903 
23 

7 
2.5 
26 
31 



Rfl 
257-905 



•514 
-505 
•506 
•505 
514 
-506 



Mean 1-5083 



E, 
it,, 



1-38688 
1-38702 
1-38708 
1-38712 
1-38722 
1-38722 



1-38709 



R_ 

R„ 



Mean Value of Constants 
Ri FI ' 5 

357-736 90-831 | 15083 



Difference of 
from Mean 

- -00021 
- -00007 
- -00001 
+ -00003 
+ -00013 
+ -0001 3 



1-38709 



BA., 









El 


Difference of -_ 


Date 




S 


Eo 


Eu 








from Mean 


Feb. 12, 


1903 


1-484 


1-38867 


-•00014 


,, 24 




1-499 


1-38877 


- -00004 


„ 24 




1-4&5 


1 38874 


- -00007 


May 19 




— 


1-38876 


- -00005 


July 30 




1-497 


1-38880 


- -00001 


Aug. 18 


,, 


1-489 


1-38863 


-00018 


„ 21 




— 


1-38901 


+ -00020 


,. 24 




— 


1-38890 


+ 00009 


,. 24 




1-493 


1-38889 


+ -000(18 


„ 20 




1-491 


1-38892 


+ -00011 


„ 31 




I'-iag 


1-38882 


+ -00001 


Mean 1-4912 


138881 


Mean Value of Constants 




Rf, 






Ri 


FI 


S 


El 

Eo 


257172 




3 


57163 


99991 


1-4912 


1-38881 



1903. 



50 



REPORT— 1903. 



BA. 







El 


Difference of „ 


Date 


5 


Bo! 


Ro 






from Mean 


Feb. 9, 1903 


1-511 


1-38740 


+ -00010 


^6 „ 


1-511 


1-38730 


+ -00000 


Auo-. 10 „ 


1-509 


1-38714 


-•00016 


18 „ 


1-522 


1-38732 


+ 00002 


21 „ 


1-511 


1-38724 


- -00008 


25 „ 


1-515 


1-38736 


+ -00006 


2G „ 


1-510 


1-38731 


+ -00001 


>, 31 „ 


1-510 


1-38738 


+ -00008 

■ 

f 


Mean 1-5124 


1-38730 




Mean Value of ConntanU 


1 


B, 


Ro 


Bi FI 8 


"Ro 


258-a67 


358-434 100067 1'5124 


1 38730 



BA,. 







Ri 


Difference of — 


Date 


S 


Ro 


Ro 






from Mean 


Feb. It, 1903 


1-485 


1-38816 


-•00009 


23 „ 


1-499 


1-38833 


+ -00008 


26 „ 


1-500 


1-38826 


+ -00001 


Aug. 10 „ 
18 „ 


1-497 


1-38835 


+ -00010 


1-473 ? 


— 


— 


24 „ 


1-497 


1-38825 


+ -00000 


26 


1-494 


1-38812 


- -00013 


„ 31 „ 


1-503 


1-38826 


+ -00001 


1-4935 


1-38825 




Mean T alue of Constants 




Ro 


E. 


FI 


S 


R, 

r;^ 


257627 


357616 


99-989 


1-4935 


1-38825 



Bo 



Ri 



BA, 



PI 



257-749 357-771 100022 1-506 

Thermometer electrically heated to 1400° for 2 hours 
270-036 1 375-213 \ 105-177 j 1-506 



B, 
Bii 



1-38806 
1-38949 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



51 



APPENDIX IV 

The following table gives the resistance at a temperature of 60° Fahr. 
(1 5° -55 C.) of a wire of pure annealed copper 1 metre in length, having a 
mass of 1 gramme, as deduced from the most recent determinations. 

In making the reductions, the values for the temperature coefficient 
and for the density given by the author, have been used. 

Table (jioing Resistance at 60 Fahr. of a Wire of Pure Annealed Copper, 
such that 1 inetre iceighs 1 gramme. 



Authority 



Fitzpatrick . 
Swan and Rhodin 
Do. (Second sample) 
Fleming ' . 
Lasrarde 



Source of Copper 



Electrolytic 
Swan's Copper 

»» »» 

Swan's Copper 

Grammont Electrolytic 



Reference 



'B. A. Report,' 1890 
'Proc. R. S.,' 1894 

' Phil. Hag.,' 189.S 
' Hospitalier,' 1804 



Mean value 



Value in 
Ohm 



01475 
01493 

O-l-ISfi 
0-1487 
0-1488 



0-1486 



On the Use of Vectorial Methods in Phi/sics^ 
By Professor 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S.' 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.'] 

Having been engaged for over thirty years in teaching mathematics, 
chiefly to engineering students, I have always had much sympathy with 
them. They have to consider mathematics as a tool to help them in their 
work ; abstract reasoning is in many cases a horror to them. At school 
they have most likely been treated as duffers, unable to learn mathe- 
matics ; but if the subject is led up to through concrete examples, every- 
thing becomes alive and full of interest to them. It is for such men as 
these that I speak primai-ily, not for mathematicians. It is for them that 
I advocate the more general use of vectors and their introduction into the 
school curriculum ; because vectors give the most natural nmtliematical 
expressions for many quantities in dynamics and physics, and their intro- 
duction helps in the study of these subjects and in obtaining clear views 
of the quantities dealt with. 

The very invention of vectors is due to the needs of dynamics, and he 
who first represented a force by a directed line is their inventor. Who 
this was seems to be unknown ; Newton was the first who clearly stated 
the ' Parallelogram of Forces.' Since his time vectors have always been 
used in dynamics, although the name ' vector ' was only introduced by 
Hamilton. 

That this representation of a force by a vector is natural no one will 
dispute, but only the addition of vectors (composition and decomposition 
of forces) was in use until Hamilton and Grassmann almost simultaneously, 

' In reducing Professor Fleming's result, the density has been talcen as 
8-91 grammes per c,c. 



52 ' REPORT— 1903. 

and from very different points of view, developed a calculus of vectors by 
defining their products. The applications of this new calculus to physics 
(including dynamics) remained long restricted to a few of their followers. 
It was, however, before their time that Faraday by his ' Lines of Force ' 
and ' Fields of Forces ' gave a purely geometrical representation of the 
phenomena of electricity and magnetism. Their analytical expression 
requires vectors. The first who recognised this was Clark Maxwell, and 
there can be little doubt that his success in putting Faraday's ideas into 
analytical form was greatly due to his knowledge of quaternions. His 
statements in the preface to, and in the preliminary chapter of, his ' Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism ' are in this respect of great interest. I quote 
from the latter : 'But for many purposes in physical reasoning, as dis- 
tinguished from calculation, it is desirable to avoid explicitly introducing 
the Cartesian co-ordinates, and to fix the mind at once on a point of space 
instead of its three co-ordinates, and on the magnitude and direction of a 
force instead of its three components. This mode of contemplating geo- 
metrical and physical quantities is more primitive and more natural than 
the other, although the ideas connected with it did not receive their full 
development till Hamilton made the next great step in dealing with space 
by the invention of his calculus of quaternions. 

' As the methods of Descartes are still the most familiar to students of 
science, and as they are really the most useful for purposes of calculation, 
we shall express all our results in the Cartesian form. I am convinced, 
however, that the introduction of the ideas, as distinguished from the 
operations and methods of quaternions, will be of great use to us in the 
study of all parts of our subject, and especially in electro-dynamics, 
where we have to deal with a number of physical quantities, the relations 
of which to each other can be expressed far more simply by a few words 
of Hamilton's than by the ordinary equations.' 

He goes on : ' One of the most important features of Hamilton's 
method is the division of quantities of scalars and vectors.' 

I have heard these words quoted as a proof that Maxwell was alto- 
gether in favour of Cartesian methods, and against quaternions and 
vectors. But this is wrong so far as vectors are concerned. In fact, the 
ideas which he took from Hamilton are chiefly t-wo—Jirst, vectors ; and 
second, the classification of physical quantities into scalars and vectors. 
It is well known that he attached vei-y great importance to the latter in 
connection with the theory of ' Dimensions.' ' 

This classification has been carried further by Clifford. Certain 
vector-quantities require position for their full specification ; Clifford says 
such a quantity is 'localised,' and calls a localised vector a ' rotor.' - 
Forces, spins, momentum, are examples. There are also localised scalars 
like mass and energy. 

In connection with this subject the enforced absence, due to ill-health, 
of Mr. Williams is much to be regretted. He has continued his valuable 
work of the Theory of Dimensions, and has lately taken ' position ' into 
account. It was hoped that he would communicate some of his recently 
obtained results at this meeting, and thus bear witness to the importance 
of vectors in this direction. 

' See his paper, 'Classification of Physical Quantities,' Proc. Lond. Math. Sor., 
vol. iii. p. 224. 

- Professor Joly has pointed out to me that Hamilton has also considered these, 
In his unpublished papers he calls them ' tractors.' 



ON THE USE OF VECTORIAL METHODS IK PHYSICS. 63 

With regard to vectors as entering into the study of the relations 
between physical quantities, Maxwell speaks against quaternionic opera- 
tions, but he has no word against vectors. He never makes use of 
quaternions in his great work, but in the second volume constantly uses 
vectors, and gives at the end his final results in the form of vector 
equations.' In the passage quoted he states clearly why he uses Cartesian 
methods, and I cannot help thinking that he would have used vector 
methods throughout if he had found ready to hand a vector analysis 
instead of a theory of quaternions, and if such analysis had been common 
property. 

At present every electrician expresses himself in terms of Faraday's 
lines of force ; all elementary text-books use them, and by their aid the 
elements of electricity and magnetism have been made extremely simple. 
Theorems which formerly could be proved only by the aid of a consider- 
able amount of analytical work are now proved in a few lines of reason- 
ing, and often in a much more convincing manner. But when a certain 
point is reached there is an hiatus. The more advanced parts of the science 
are still only accessible by aid of the old methods of the differential or 
integral calculus, using co-ordinates of points and components of forces. 
These results are therefore inaccessible to all who have not been able to 
spend years on pure mathematics. Most physicists and electricians have 
neither inclination nor time to do this. To bridge over the hiatus and to 
introduce continuity in treatment requires vector analysis. 

The subject itself is not difficult, and would become very easy if the 
first elements of vector algebra (which are very simple) were introduced 
into the school curriculum. 

Vector addition is already known from the composition of forces. There 
come next two products of two vectors each — the scalar-product and the 
vector-product. The former is simple enough, as it follows all laws of 
common algebra with the exception of one which, although the law which 
distinguishes it from all other algebi-as, is generally not even mentioned 
in English text-books. It is the law that a product can vanish only if 
one factor vanishes. The second, the vector- product, requires more care 
in manipulation in so far as the commutative law does not hold. In addi- 
tion to these, two products of three factors have to be considered, and the 
whole algebra is complete. 

We have next to consider variable quantities. If m is a scalar-function 
of the position of a point, hence of the position-vector p, then u = const, 
represents a surface which may be called a w-surface. If u is one-valued, 
through every point one such surface can in general be drawn. Thus 
space becomes filled with these surfaces, which are constantly used undei 
the name of equipotential, isothermal, <kc., surfaces. Similarly if 77 
denotes a vector, varying from point to point, lines which may be called 
7] lines are formed by drawing at any point the vector ?;, going along it 
through an infinitesimal distance, and drawing here the new vector. 
These are Faraday's lines of force in their purely geometrical aspect. 
They give the direction of 7; at every point, but not the magnitude. 
This Faraday introduced also in the well-known manner by drawing only 
some of these lines so that the number of the lines which cross a given 
area represents the magnitude of r/. 

See also his little book Matter and Motion, 



54 REPORT— 1908. 

If now dr denotes an element of a surface, as a vector normal to the 
surface, theia 

7f d T =■ {7} d t) 
gives the number of Ty-lines crossing the element and 



/r,d. 



extended over a finite area, the number which cross this area. 

The differentiation of a vector with regard to a scalar, say, the time, 
is very simple and oflers nothing new, although some results are striking. 
The variation of a function of p due to a displacement of the point or a 
change of p requires Hamilton's operator ^. 

This operator is of the nature of a vector and can operate on a scalar 
or a vector function, and on the latter in two ways. The three results 
thus obtained are of such physical importance that Maxwell has given 
them special names. From a scalar u we get the vector ^ m, which is 
a vector existing in general at every point where u exists and is normal 
to the It-surface through the point considered. Maxwell calls it the 
slope of u. 

If the operand is a vector jj the two results are, in Hamilton's notation 
with Maxwell's name, 

S \- »? = convergence of »/, 
V V; = curl 7;. 

Instead of the former we have in vector analysis (^ 7/) = ^>; = - S y »;, 
wliich has been called by Cliflford the divergence of »;, is written by Heavi- 
side Div. ?;. I have found it convenient to introduce for Vv or ' curl ' a 
special symbol, a v with an arrow-head rising from the top. 

A v-calculus has been worked out in connection with quaternions by 
Tait, and recently by Professor Joly. The same can be done in vector 
analysis, and a good deal has been done (by Heaviside, Gibbs, and others). 
It deserves to be established as a purely mathematical theory. 

Various applications, partly physical, partly relating to pure mathe- 
matics, Avere given at the meeting which are here omitted. 

A few words about the teaching of vectors at school. My idea is 
that they should be introduced before trigonometry is begun, soon after, 
;ind in connection with the use of squared paper, by plotting points from 
given position -vectors, and curves from simple vector-equations. 

The decomposition of a position-vector gives the co-ordinates of a 
point together with their sense, and then the equations 



x^r cos 6, 2/='>' sin 9 

lead to general definitions of the trigonometrical functions holding for all 
four quadrants. 

In the discussion which followed, and in which the President of the 
Section, Professor Bolzmann, Professor Larmor, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. 
Sumpner and others, and Professor Joly and Mr. Swinburne by letter, 
took part, no voice was raised against the extended use of vectors, but 
nearly everyone expressed the wish that an agreement should be come 



i 



ON THE USE OF VECTORIAL METHODS IN PHYSICS. 



bo 



to about the notation used, and I have been asked to give a short account 
of those now in use. 

Hamilton denotes vectors by small Greek letters. Maxwell changed 
these to German capitals, and Heaviside these again to block letters. 
Gibbs and likewise German authors use heavy type, the same letter in 
ordinary type standing for the tensors. 

With regard to the notation of products greater divergency exists, 
and besides the scalar-product of Hamilton differs in sign from that of 
vector analysis. Keeping this in mind the following table will explain 
itself : — 



Author 


Name of Product 


Symbol 


Name of Product 


Symbol 
VaiS 


Hamilton . 


Scalar . 


So0 


Vector . 


Maxwell 






)) 




S3C» 


j )i • • 


V3lffi 


Heaviside 






>» 




AB 


»> 


VAB 


Henrici 






)» 




(ai8) = a0 


i» • • 


[«/3]or[A.B] 


Lorentz 






)» 




a^ 


JT • 


[«« 


Grassman 






Inneres 




A 1 15 


' Aeu.sseres 


A.B 


Gibbs 






Direct 




a . b or A . B 


Vector or skew 


a xb or AB 


Peano 






Geometric 


AxB 


1 


— 



I have used brackets for years and found them convenient. I was led 
to them because I often found it confusing to decide at a glance how far 
Hamilton's symbols S and V extended, and had to introduce brackets 
to make this clear. ^ Professor Lorentz has adopted the same notatioTi. 
Gibbs uses brackets [A B C] for the scalar-product of three vectors, which 
otherwise would appear as A . B x C. 

There is a further product in quaternions which we may call the 
quaternion-product. Hamilton denotes it by a j3 with 



or, in my notation, 



a/3 = Sa/3+V«/3, 



«/3=-(c,/3) + [«/3]. 



This gives rise to a product a ft y for Avhich the associative law holds, 
and is a chief point in the theory of quaternions, the product being a 
quaternion. 

Professor Joly in his letter shows that the theory of quaternions can 
be based directly on this product by investigating the laws which make 
the associative law true for n ft y. 

In this way a quaternion becomes defined by the product of two 
vectors instead of by their quotient, and thus the theory of quaternions 
can be much simplified. 

But if vector algebra has been studied independently of quaternions 
then anyone who still wishes to study the latter can do so at once by aid 
of the above equation as definition of a ftj, which is a quaternion. 

Note. — I learn from the January number of the ' Jahresbericht d. 
Deutsch. Mathematiker-Vereinigung ' that on September 24, 1903, at 



* Hankel must have felt the same, for he writes Hamilton s products thus ; 
S(aJ), V(aft), V[aVJc], &c. 



56 



REPORT — 1903. 



the Naturforscherversammlung in Kassel, L. Prandtl in Hanover read a 
paper about a uniform notation in vector algebra. He recommends the 
notation of Gibbs. 

A Committee was appointed to consider the whole question. 



Meteor olo(] leal Ohser rations on Ben Nevis. — Report cf the Committee, 
considinf] of Lord M'Larex, Professor A. Crum Brown (Secreianj), 
Sir John Murray, Professor Copeland, and Dr. Alexander 
BuCHAN. (JDvaxvn up hy Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee was appointed as formerly for the purpose of co-opeiating 
■with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteorological obser- 
vations at the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

The hourly eye-observations have been made at the High Level Obser- 
vatory by Mr. Rankin and his assistants, by day and night without interrup- 
tion. At the Low Level Observatory in Fort William the self-registering 
instruments have been in continuous use throughout the year, 

The health of the observers has been good. The Directors cordially 
thank Messrs. Robert Aitken, W. Gentle, and H. D. Robb for their valuable 
services as volunteer observers, thus rendering it possible to give the mem- 
bers of the regular staff vacation and rest during the summer. 

The principal results of the observations made at the two Observatories 
during 1902 are detailed in Table I. 



Table I. 



1902 



Jan. I Feb. jfn^g], April | May | June \ July Aug. i Sapt. I Oct. | Nov. Dec. ! Year 



Mean Prflssure in Inches. 



Ben Nerls Ob- 
servatory 
Fort WiUiam 
Differences . 



25-316' 25-199 25-080: 25-295 



29959 
4-G43 



29-841 
4-li42 



29-650 29-894 
4-570| 4-599 



25-350 



29-958 
4-608 



25-4261 25-4261 25-365 



29-924129-945 29-863 
4-498! 4-519 4-498 



25-476 

29-990 
4-514 



25-351 1 25-186 

29-904 29-752 
4-553 4-566 



25-252 

29-874 
4-622 











Mean Tcmijei 


attires. 










Benli'evisOb- 


24^0 


o 
22-1 


25-8 


o 
27-1 


O 

27-6 


39°6 


37°-7 


37°9 


38°6 


32°3 


o 
29-9 


26°0 


serratory 


























Fort William 


.•!8'6 


36-0 


41-9 


44-4 


46-2 


54-5 


64-0 


64-0 


53-6 


47-1 


47-1 


41-0 


Differences . 


14-6 


13-9 


16-1 


17-3 


17-6 


14-9 


16-3 


16-1 


15-0 


14-8 


17-2 


150 



Extremes of Temperature : Maxima. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



BenNevisOb- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



36-5 


37-1 


35-6 


37-6' 


46-9 


66-4 


531 


47-9 


50-0 


45-5 


40-3 


45-0 : 


61-0 
14-5 


52-3 
15-2 


61-0 
15-5 


61-6 
24-0 


59-4 
12-5 


80-0 
13-6 


66-9 
13-8 


C5-4 
17-5 


67-9 
17-9 


58-7 
13-2 


59-6 
19-3 


S6-2 
10-2 1 



Extremes of Temperattire : Minima. 



6-G 



12-4 
68 



14-9 
C-8 



12-8 I 16-3 t lG-1 



2G-2 
13-4 



28-0 
117 



30-6 
14-5 



23-8 



39-9 
16-1 



28-1 



41-5 
13-4 



28-1 



41-2 
13-1 



23-1 I 24-9 



36-1 
13-0 



Rainfall in Inches. 



24-75 


3-36 


18-73 


9-87 


15-84 


2-91 


12-22 


9-37 


12-45 


10-03 
14-72 


1-07 
2-29 


7-58 
11-15 


3-38 
6-49 


4-63 
11-21 


1-62 
1-29 


3-65 
8-57 


4-95 
4-42 


6-49 
6-96 



31-2 
6-3 



16-31 I 

905 
7-26 



20-3 



35'6 
15-3 



13-2 



24-4 
11-2 



25-310 



29-879 
4-669 



30-7 

46-4 
15-7 



66-4 



80-0 
240 



66 



12-4 
6-8 



7-86 23-43 167-1 



3-73 9-14 
4-13 ! 14-29 



64-C 
92-7 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON REN NEVIS. 



57 



Table I. — continued. 



1902 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Marcht April 1 May | June 


July j Aug. Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Yetrj 






JViimher of Bays 1 in. or more fell. 










BenNeTisOb- 


12 


1 


7 1 2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


6 


O 


9 ' 


49 1 


aervatory 
Fort William 


1 





i 

1 


1 





. 1 


2 


2 





1 


1 
9 


Differences . 


U 





6 2 


1 


2 1 1 2 


4 


3 


8 


40 






Number of Bays 001 in. or more fell. 










BenNevtsOb-i 26 


13 ! 


28 


19 28 


14 


23 25 


26 


21 


24 


22 


269 


servatorv | 


1 
























Fort William , 24 


14 


29 


20 


22 


14 


19 


22 


22 


20 


21 


21 


243 


Differences . 1 2 


-1 1 


-1 


-1 


6 1 


4 


3 


4 


1 


3 


1 


21 






Mean Rainband {Scale 0-8). 










BenNeWaOb-l 2 2 1 


1'3 


0-8 ; 2-1 


2-9 


2-3 


3 5 2-0 ! 2-1 


2-7 


2-8 


2-1 


2-2 


servfttory 
Port William 3-6 


3-0 


3'8 34 


3-8 


38 


3-9 


4-0 4-0 


3-6 


3-4 


3-G 


3-7 


Differences . I't 


1-7 


30 1-3 


0-9 


1-5 0-4 1 2-0 1 1-9 


0-9 


06 


1-5 


15 






JVumbc" of Hours of Bright Sunshine. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 31 


G4 


29 


82 45 


131 


55 34 


40 


50 


19 


21 


GOl 


servatory 
Port William 23 


G2 


G5 


162 126 


1G5 


112 101 


CI 


88 


40 


21 


1,030 


Differences . +3 


-1-2 


36 


80 81 


34 


57 67 


20 


38 


21 


U 


429 




Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind in Miles. 










BenNerisOb- 13 


19 


13 16 ; 10 11 1 9 8 12 


14 


1 28 


20 


14 


servatory 




1 

1 1 

Percentage of Cloud. 




1 






Ben Nevis Ob- 


85 


77 


92 


7C 


93 76 


92 


93 1 86 


82 


1 92 


?4 


86 


servatory 
Fort William 


80 


6G 


81 


64 


84 73 


84 


83 


82 


69 


71 


76 


76 


Differences . 


5 


11 


11 


12 


9 3 


8 


10 1 4 


13 


21 


18 


10 

1 



The above table shows for 1902 the mean monthly and extreme 
temperature and pressure ; the amounts of rainfall ; the number of days 
of rainfall, and the days on which it equalled or exceeded 1 inch ; the 
hours of sunshine ; the mean rainband ; the mean velocity in miles per 
hour of the Avind at the top of the mountain ; and the mean cloud 
amount. The mean barometric pressures at Fort William are reduced to 
32° and sea-level ; but those at Ben Nevis Observatory to 32° only. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure was 29-^79 inches, 
or 0'022 inch above the average, whilst the mean at the top was 25'310 
inches, or 0'004: inch above the average. The mean difierence for the 
two Observatories was 4'569 inches, the mean monthly difference varying 
from 4*498 inches in June and August to 4643 inches in January. At 
the top the absolutely highest pressure for the year was 26'258 inches at 
11 P.M. on January 31, and at Fort William 31'103 inches an hour 
earlier on the same day. These are the highest barometric readings 
hitherto recorded at the Observatories, though they were closely approached 
in January 1896. They occurred while the British Isles lay under an 
anti-cyclone of extraordinary intensity, and on the top of the mountain 
the barometer remained above 26 inches from 6 p.m. on January 30 till 
3 P.M. on February 2 ; whilst at Fort William the sea-level pressure 
exceeded 31 inches from 5 p.m. on January 31 till 1 p.m. on February 1. 
At the top, the lowest pressure for the year was 24'000 inches on 
December 29, and at Fort William 28*412 inches on the same day. The 
difference of the extremes at top and bottom were, therefore, 2*258 inches 
and 2*681 inches respectively. 



58 



UEPORT— 1903. 



The deviations of the mean temperatures of the months from their 
averaiL'es are shown in Table II. : — 



Fort 


Top of 




i'ilUam. 


Ben Xevis. 






-0-5 




-0-2 


July. ; 


-3'1 


-1-5 


August . 


+ 1-5 


+ 1-8 


September 


-0-6 


-0-7 


October . 


-4-7 


-5-4 


November 


-1-3 


-0-2 


December 



Fort 


Top of 


William. 


Ben Nevis 


o 
-3-3 


-3-3 


-31 


-2-7 


+ 0-3 


+ 0-5 


-0-5 


+ 0-9 


+ 5-0 


+ 0-9 


+ 1-0 


+ 0-7 



Table II. 



Januar}'- 

Februar3' 

I^iarch 

April 

May 

June 

The most remarkable feature of the year as regards temperature was 
the continued deficiency from April to August. At both Observatories 
the mean temperature of May was only fractionally above that of April, 
whilst at the top the mean of the month was fully 10° below that of 
May 1901. The differences for November are curious. At Fort William, 
as over Scotland generally, the mean of the month was greatly above the 
average, whilst at the top there was a comparatively small excess, the 
main features of the weather there being a very low rainfall, little sun- 
shine, and an atmosphere almost continuously saturated. The month 
was characterised by a great excess of strong winds from E. and S.E., and 
the weather was chiefly of the cyclonic type. The absolutely highest 
temperature for the year at Fort William was 80°'0 on June 29, and at 
the top 66°-4 on June 28 ; the lowest at Fort William being 12°-4 or 
January 30, and at the top 6°-6 on January 26. 

In Table III. are given for each month the lowest observed hygro- 
metric readings at the top of Ben Nevis (reduced by means of Glaisher's 
Tables) :— 

Table III. 



1902 


Jan. 




Feb. 

O 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 

o 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


— ~l 

Dec. 




o 


O 


„ 


o 




o 


n 


^ 


Drv Enlb 


22'2 


22-1 


25'0 


20-0 


2G^0 


G5^0 


411-0 


38-B 


46-3 


43'5 


23'0 


23^ 


Wet Bulb 


16-1 


16-1 


17-0 


lG-0 


23-0 


5(C0 


32-3 


33^5 


33-0 


35-5 


19-8 


]7^0 


Dew-point 


-23-8 


-23-3 


-27'2 


-12-4 


5-1 


37-7 


22-3 


26-8 


lS-4 


25-9 


-0^4 


-20-8 


Elastic Force . 


•til 3 


■OH 


•on 


•024 


•054 


•226 


•119 


•140 


•100 


■140 


■043 


■016 


Relative Humiilitv 


11 


11 


' 8 


22 


37 


3(i 


48 


62 


32 


49 


35 


13 


[Sat. = 10u] 


























D.ay of Month 


31 


1 


28 


3 


n 


28 


21 


12 


8 


1 


22 


7 


Hour of Day . 


17 


1 


1 


10 


5 


10 


10 


24 


10 


10 


1 


IC 



Of these relative humidities, the lowest, 8 per cent., occurred on 
March 28, with a dew-point of -27°'2, that being the lowest dew-point for 
the year. The minimum humidity for August is unusually high. During 
that month the atmosphere was continuously saturated on tifteen days, 
rainfall and sunshine being both deficient. November was a remarkable 
month, from the 1st to the 13th and from the 23rd to the 30th being 
periods of uninterrupted saturation, whilst on only five days was the 
Observatory not continuously enveloped in mist. 

The rainfall for the year at the top was 157"10 inches, or 057 inch 
below the mean of 18 years ; whilst the annual amount at Fort William 
was 64"32 inches, or 12'35 inches below the average for the same period. 
Thus, at the foot of the mountain, as over Scotland generally, the year 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVlS. 59 

was a very dry one, whilst at the top the amount of precipitation was 
practically equal to the average. The monthly amounts at the top, 
however, showed some notable irregularities. Thus January was a very 
wet month, with a rainfall about 8 inches above the mean, whilst the 
following month had a deficiency of about 9 inches, and was the second 
driest February on record. Again, the rainfall of May was more than 
twice the normal, being the largest total for that month during the 
series of observations ; whilst, on the other hand, the rainfall for 
November was the smallest amount yet recorded for that month, being 
only a little more than half the average. At the top of the mountain, 
the greatest fall recorded in a single day was 5*92 inches on May 27, the 
corresponding fall at Fort William being 1"83 inch ; whilst the maximum 
daily amount at Fort William was 1'99 inch, on January 19, the fall at 
the top on that day being 2'12 inches. 

At the top of Ben Nevis the number of rainy days was 269, and at 
Fort William 248, the corresponding numbers for 1901 being 259 and 
235. A feature of the weather of the year over the country generally was 
that, though the rainfall was much below the normal, there were more 
than the average number of rainy days. Thus, at Fort William the rain- 
fall for the year was 16 per cent, below the normal, and yet there were 
15 more than the average number of days of rain. At the top the 
number of rainy days was 8 above the average. In each of the months 
of February, March, and April, the number of rainy days was one more 
at the foot than at the top of the mountain, the greatest number of rainy 
days in a month at either station being 29 in March at Fort William, 
and the least, 13, in February on Ben Nevis. During the year the num- 
ber of days on which 1 inch or more fell at the top was 49, whereas at 
Fort William the number of such days was only 9. The corresponding 
numbers for 1901 were 54 and 10. 

The sunshine recorder on Ben Nevis registered 601 hours out of a 
possible of 4,473 hours, or 13'5 per cent, of the possible sunshine, being 
146 hours below the average of 19 years. So little sunshine has not been 
recorded since 1890, when the annual amount was 590 hours. June was 
the sunniest month of the year, with 131 hours, being 4 more than the 
average and 25 per cent, of the possible. The amount for May was only 
45 hours, being no less than 75 hours below the mean and the least re- 
corded in that month since 1885. At Fort William the annual amount 
was 1,030 hours, being the smallest total in 12 years and 103 hours below 
the average for that period. May and November differed most from their 
averages, being respectively 40 and 43 hours below the normal for these 
months. 

At the Ben Nevis Observatory the mean percentage of cloud was 86, 
and at Fort William 76, both a little above the average. At the top, May 
and August were the cloudiest months, each with 93 per cent. No month 
at either place had a very low cloud amount, whereas in May 1901 the 
amounts at top and bottom respectively were 56 and 52 per cent. 

Auroras were observed on February 7 ; December 22, 23. 

St. Elmo's Fire:— March 12; April 13; May 4, 5; October 30 ; 
December 25, 28. 

Zodiacal Light : — Not observed during the year. 

Thunder and Lightning : — June 25 ; December 28. 

Lightning only : — January 3, 4. 

Solar Halos :— February 18 ; March 16, 24 ; April 29 (with Mock 
Suns) ; May 10, 16, 21 ; July 21 ; September 19 ; October 12, 28. 



60 REPORT— 1903. 

Lunar Halos :— January 20, 26,27; February 17, 18; March 28; 
September 19 ; December 11, 14. 

The question of the advisabiUty of continuing the work at the Ben Nevis 
Observatories has lately been under consideration, and your Committee 
consider it advisable to state here briefly the past history of the Observa- 
tories and their present position, especially in relation to the value of the 
Observatories in forecastinac Aveather. 

The Meteorological Council, in 1887, when supplying information for a 
reply to a question put in the House of Commons about the Ben Nevis 
Observatory, stated that certain telegrams which had been sent from Ben 
Nevis Observatory at their request were useless for forecasting purposes. 
This statement was understood by the public to mean that the whole work 
at Ben Nevis Observatory was useless for forecasting. This view of the 
matter was corrected (1) in a letter to 'The Times ' by Mr. Omond, and 
(2) in a Report to the meeting of the British Association from their Ben 
Nevis Committee in 1887. 

The Low Level Observatory at Fort William, built by the Scottish 
Meteorological Society, and equipped with the necessary instruments by 
the Meteorological Council, was opened in July 1890. The full and 
complete equipment of this Low Level Observatory at Fort William by 
the Meteorological Council constitutes a feature of the first importance in 
the history of the two connected Observatories. During the period of the 
last thirteen years the High and Low Level Observatories have been in 
complete working order, furnishing in combination the simultaneous 
hourly observations which, in the opinion of your Committee, were 
essential in the inquiries instituted at these Observatories into weather 
changes and general meteorology. 

As regards the seven years previous to 1890, when there were no 
hourly observations at the Low Level Observatory, what happened in 
relation to forecasting — that is, to efforts to use high level observations 
in forecasting — is told in the following extract from the Report of this 
Committee to the British Association in 1887 : — 



Extract from Report of Ben Nevis Committee of British Associatioji, 1887. 

'On the evening of August 23, 1887, there was a discussion in 
Parliament on the Vote for the Learned Societies, and in that discussion 
the next-morning newspapers reported that Mr. Jackson, of the Treasury, 
Sir John Lubbock, Sir E. Birkbeck, and others, argued against any grant 
to the Observatory, on the ground that the Meteorological Council, 
composed of men of the very highest scientific standing, had given it 
as their opinion that the practical results to be obtained from the 
Ben Nevis Observatory did not warrant the grant asked for from the 
Treasury. 

'A word as to this opinion. The Meteorological Council recently 
printed a memorandum " On Occasional Telegrams from Ben Nevis," 
signed Frederick Gaster, which was forwarded to the Treasury some time 
before the discussion came on in Parliament. A copy was also sent to 
the Directors of the Observatory by instructions from General Strachey. 
The memorandum concludes thus : " In their existing form the telegrams 
(from Ben Nevis) are absolutely useless." 

' The whole question turns on the meaning of the phrase " their 
existing form," which a few sentences will explain. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 61 

'When, in December 1883, the offer of the Directors to send daily 
telegrams from the top and bottom of the mountain was declined, the 
Meteorological Office asked instead for occasional telegrams in these 
words : "We wish Mr. Omond to use his own discretion, and telegraph 
to us whenever any very striking change of conditions or a special 
phenomenon of great interest is recorded." It will be noted that the 
Meteorological Office made no mention whatever of storms. Since 
December 1883 Mr. Omond has sent such telegrams as appeared to him to 
be wished, and no application has been made for upwards of three years 
for more frequent telegrams or any other inforniation, only that some 
time ago a request was forwarded that every effort be made that the 
telegrams do not exceed the sixpenny charge. 

' The request, it will be noticed, was for telegrams whenever any very 
striking change of conditions was recorded. Now, as a matter of fact, 
no telegram has been sent with reference to all those storms, forming 
the immense majority of storms, which have not been preceded or 
accompanied by a very striking change of conditions. But, further, 
several telegrams were sent because it seemed to Mr. Omond that the 
very striking change of conditions which occurred prognosticated settled 
tveather. Now, in drawing up the memorandum for the Treasury all 
these, as well as the other telegrams sent, were classed together by the 
Meteorological Office, and treated as if they had been intended by 
Mr. Omond to be prognostic of storms, and the nineteen telegrams sent 
were assumed to be all the warnings of storms which the OlDservatory 
could send to the office in London. From these data, so arranged for and 
collected and interpreted, the decision was come to that " in their existing 
form the telegrams from Ben Nevis are absolutely useless." It might have 
been predicted before a single telegram was received that no other than 
such a decision could possibly have been arrived at. 

'While the statement that "in their existing form the telegrams are 
absolutely useless " is thus unquestionably correct, it is, nevertheless, void 
of all meaning as respects the matter in hand. What has been done is 
not an investigation, and it is not science. But the statement underwent 
a transforming process in its passage to the House of Commons, appearing 
in this form, viz. : " The Ben Nevis observations are absolutely useless in 
forecasting weather " — a statement of which it is enough to say that it is 
incorrect. The Meteorological Office has yet to take the first step towards 
commencing an investigation into the utility of the Ben Nevis observa- 
tions for forecasting purposes. 

' On the other hand, the Council of the Scottish Meteorological Society, 
strengthened as regards the direction of the Observatory by representatives 
of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh and the Philosophical 
Society of Glasgow, includes men of equal scientific merit with any other 
Meteorological Council in the country ; and after some years' investigation, 
their opinion is that the Ben Nevis observations are of the highest utility 
in the development of meteorology and in framing forecasts of storms 
and weather for the British islands.' 

Since 1890, when the High and Low Observatories came into operation, 
no weather telegrams have been asked by or been sent to the Meteoro- 
logical Council, either from the High or Low Level Observatories, for 
forecasting purposes. Further, so far as your Committee are aware, the 
Meteorological Council have, otiicially, neither expressed an opinion as to 



C2 KEroRT— 1903. 

the value of these observations in forecasting, nor instituted any examina- 
tion of the records of the Ben Nevis Observatories with the view of 
testing their possible value in forecasting. 

As regards the future of the Observatories, it may be stated that last 
summer the Directors resolved that the two Observatories should be closed 
in October last year. They issued a memorandum which stated that the 
Observatory on the top of Ben Nevis had been in existence for nearly 
nineteen years, that it had been built, equipped, and very largely supported 
during the whole of that time by voluntary subscriptions, and that they 
considered the time had come when it should either be closed or continued 
as a State-supported institution. 

Shortly after the publication of this memorandum, however, a Com- 
mittee of Inquiry into the expenditure of the annual Parliamentary grant 
of 15,300^. for meteorology was appointed, and representations were 
made to the Directors from various quarters that it would be well if the 
work at the two Observatories was continued without interruption till 
the Committee had reported. Your Committee are, with much satis- 
faction, able to report that within a few weeks sufficient funds were 
obtained to meet the expenses incurred in maintaining the Ben Nevis 
and Fort William Observatories till October 1904. These Observatories 
will therefore continue in operation under the charge of the Directors 
as heretofore till October 1904. 

The Observatories have thus been in operation long enough to yield, 
from a discussion of the work done at them, conclusions of great value. 
Their records supply a complete set of simultaneous hourly observations 
(1) at the summit of Ben Nevis for close on twenty years, and (2) at 
sea-level in Fort William for a period of thirteen years— times long enough 
to obtain averages of value and to embrace, it may be added, fully a sun- 
spot period. The Directors have acquired these facts under conditions 
which are exceptionally favoui-able — the Observatory at sea-level being 
less than five miles distant in a straight line from the Observatory on the 
summit, and yet placed close to the sea and in a fairly open situation. 
Moreover, it is not a valley station. There are no other two associated 
Observatories or stations in the world, one at a high and the other at 
a low level, where such favourable conditions exist. 

The geographical position of Ben Nevis is also favourable. In winter 
the British islands have a higher mean temperature than any other part 
of the land surface of the world equally far north, and consequently it 
is easier to live and work in winter at great altitudes in those islands 
than anywhere else in similar latitudes. All the other mountain stations 
are either in the Tropics or in the belt of high barometric pressure 
which occupies the southern part of the Temperate Zone. Ben Nevis, 
however, is clear of this high-pressure region, and lies on the edge of the 
great barometric depression in the North Atlantic which dominates the 
weather of North-Western Europe. From Ben Nevis, therefore, we get 
data of observation which no other high-level station yet established is in 
a position to furnish to forecasters of the weather of North-Western 
Europe. 

The discussions of the double Ben Nevis and Fort William observa- 
tions all go to confirm the opinion as to the value of these observations 
expressed by the Council of the Scottish Meteorological Society in 1887 
and quoted in this report. Your Committee, however, desire to point out 
that the full value of the observations for forecasting purposes can only 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS, G3 

be tested by persons engaged in tlie practical work of forecasting day by 
day ; your Committee or any other body of scientific men can only 
indicate the lines on which results of value in forecasting may be looked 
for. 

The first work the Directors of the Observatories set themselves to do 
was to prepare the meteorological ' constants ' for the positions on the 
summit and at the base of Ben Nevis. This has been done, based on 
twenty years' observations on the summit and thirteen years' at Fort 
William. The constants for these periods will appear in vol. iii. of the 
Ben Nevis observations, now in the press, and to be published durin" the 
coming winter. 

In your Committee's previous Reports other lines of investigation 
have been frequently referred to and reported on, along which researches 
connected with the Ben Nevis observations are being carried on by 
Dr. Buchan and Mr. Omond. Some of the results have a special bearino- 
on forecasting. One or two illustrative cases may be here added. 

1. The occurrence of small diflFerences of temperature between Ben 
Nevis and Fort William, associated with very low humidities at Ben 
Nevis and great dampness at Fort William, and the relations of this 
state of things to the stability and continuance of an anti-cyclone, and 
also to thunderstorms and those heavy local rains commonly denoted as 
thunder-showers, have been reported on. 

2. The occurrence of long -continued periods of saturation of the air at 
the top of Ben Nevis, as indicative of a condition of the atmosphere 
favourable to the development and continuance of stormy weather. 

3. A marked difference in the direction of the wind on the summit 
from that at surrounding low-level stations. Such a difference most 
•commonly occurs when Ben Nevis lies between a cyclone and an anti- 
cyclone, and may be indicative of the direction of movement either of 
the cyclone or the anti- cyclone. 

4. The predictive a.spects of very strong winds on the summit of 
Ben Nevis accompanied, notwithstanding their great force, with very low- 
temperatures there and great differences of temperature between the 
summit and Fort William, and the intimate connection of the whole with 
cyclonic weather, have been pointed out. Recent kite observations have 
made us tolerably familiar with this remarkable phase of the cyclone, and 
to Ben Nevis we may look for important contributions of illustrative 
data. 

5. The difference between the Ben Nevis and Fort William barometers 
when both are reduced to sea-level. This difference, when it amounts to 
several hundredths of an inch, clearly points to an abnormal condition of 
the air between the summit and Fort William in respect to the vertical 
gradient of temperature or humidity, or both. 

The investigation of some of the points raised in this discussion has 
been a chief subject of inquiry during the past eighteen months. The 
inquiry is a discussion of the hourly observations of pressure, temperature, 
humidity, sunshine, winds and rainfall at the two Observatories in their 
inter-relations, more especially as regards the bearings of the results on 
weather changes 

The principal point to be kept in view is the relation of the differences 
of temperature at the two Observatories to the differences of their sea- 
level pressure at the time. An illustration will explain this. During 
the last three days of September 1895, the sky over Scotland was clear^ 



64 REPORT — 1903. 

sunshine strong, humidity high, night temperatures unusually high, and 
dews heavy, with calms or light winds. On these days while at the top 
temperature was very high and the air clear and very dry, at Fort William, 
under a sky equally clear and temperature high, the air showed a large 
humidity, and this state of moisture extended to a height of about 2,000 
feet, or nearly halfway to the summit. Thus, then, while the barometer 
at the top was under an atmosphere wholly anti-cyclonic, with its accom- 
panying dry dense air, the barometer at Fort William was not so circum- 
stanced. On the other hand, it was under the pressure of such dry dense 
air, above the height of 2,000 feet only, whereas from this height down 
to sea-level it was under the pressure of air whose humidity was large and 
pressure therefore much reduced. The result was that the sea-level pres- 
sure at Fort AVilliam was 0-050 inch lower than it would have been if the 
dry dense air of the anti-cyclone had been continued down to Fort William. 
This is confirmatory of what is to be expected, that the greater density of 
dry air as shown in our laboratories prevails equally in the free atmosphere. 
The first part of the discussion is virtually finished, the chief result of 
which is this : — 1. When the difference of mean temperature of the day 
is only r2°-0 or less, then the sea-level pressure calculated for the top of 
the mountain is markedly greater than at Fort William ; 2. When the 
difference of temperature is 18°-0 or greater, then the sea-level pressure 
for the summit is markedly lower than at Fort William. In the former 
case the meteorological conditions are anti-cyclonic, the weather being 
then clear, dry, and practically rainless ; and in the latter case the condi- 
tions are cyclonic, the accompanying weather being dull, humid, and rainy. 
In the course of this discussion it has been marked that the reduced hourly 
values from day to day often indicate that the transition from the anti- 
cyclonic to the cyclonic type of weather, and vice versa, is slow, sometimes 
extending over several days, thus prolonging the time for the prediction 
of the more important weather changes. 

It may be remarked that the result here empirically arrived at is in 
accordance with the principle laid down by Dal ton, that 'air charged with 
vapour or vaporised air is specifically lighter than when without the 
vapour ; or, in other words, the more vapour any given quantity of 
atmospheric air has in it, the less is its specific gravity.' 

The precursor and accompaniment of the heaviest and most wide- 
spread rains is when the sea-level pressure for the summit is very greatly 
lower than the sea-level pressure at Fort William. This indicates the 
saturation of the atmosphere to a great height, while at Fort William, and, 
say, 2,000 feet higher, the point of saturation due to the advancing cyclone 
has not yet taken place. 

On the other hand, when this point of saturation has been reached, 
then the sea-level pressure for the summit shows less difference from the 
sea-level pressure at Fort William. The changes of pressure which occur 
at the two Observatories as a cyclone advances and passes on are particu- 
larly interesting and instructive. 

It is remarkable that comparatively few observations, when the differ- 
ence of the temperature has exceeded 22°-0, could be utilised in this 
inquiry, because in such cases high winds prevailed, resulting in ' pumping ' 
of the barometer. These differences of temperature, rising even to 27°-0, 
are, however, extremely valuable for weather prediction, inasmuch as they 
often precede and accompany very severe storms of wind and rain. They 
arise from an extraordinary lowering of the temperature at the summit, 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 65 

while at Fort William no such lowering of temperature occurs. This is a 
peculiarity which kites and balloon ascents have recently familiarised us 
with, and it forms a prime factor in all inquiries into the theory of the 
cyclone, about which opinion at present is so much divided. 



Heport on the Theory 0/ Point-groups.^ — Part III, 
Jji/ Frances Hardcastle, Cambridge. 

§ 9. 1818-1857. While Fermat and Descartes, by combining the processes 
of Algebra and Geometry, were evolving the foundations of that system 
of co-ordinates which rapidly became the common language of geometers, 
a contemporary mathematician, Desargues of Lyons (1593-1662), and his 
pupil Pascal (1623-1662) were occupied with the study of those properties 
of figures, in space and in the plane, which persist under the operation 
known as projection. And had it not been for the evil fate which 
caused the publications of both master and pupil to be lost, and for the 
oblivion into which even the memory of these writings sank for more than 
180 years, it is probable that modern synthetic geometry would have been 
developed from the beginning side by side with analytical geometry, instead 
of coming into existence, as it did, a whole century and a half later than 
its rival. The fundamental characteristic of each — that which most dis- 
tinguished both systems from the geometry of the ancients — is the same, 
the systematic use of the principle of projection. But it is noteworthy 
that, although this was present from the beginning in the structure of 
Cartesian co-ordinates (whereby every point of a curve is projected on to 
the axis), it was only after the rise of descriptive geometry under Monge 
(1746-1818) and Carnot (1753-1823) (who explicitly founded it upon 
projection from ordinary space on to the plane), thatPliicker (1801-1868), 
by the use of homogeneous co-ordinates, ^ really opened up the projective 
possibilities inherent in analytical geometry. Throughout the period now 
to be discussed, the projective standpoint is the one adopted by analytical 
as well as by synthetic geometers ; the transition to the wider point of 
view afforded by bi-rational transformation was only effected after the 
ideas of the theory of functions — at that time still in its infancy — had 
permeated the whole domain of pure mathematics, and had influenced 
the theory of higher plane curves to a degree which must have been 
startling to the mathematicians of the early nineteenth century. 

Among the numerous novel terms introduced by Desargues in his 
' Brouillon projet d'une atteinte aux evenements des rencontres d'un cone 
avec un plan '^ was that of involution,^ and, unlike many of the others, it 
has survived. Starting from the detinition that six points on a straight 
line are in involution if certain ratios can be established among the seg- 
ments formed by them, Desargues proved his famous theorem that a conic 
and the sides of an inscribed quadrilateral determine six points in invo- 
lution on any transversal. He did not, however, investigate the still 

' Parts I. and II. appeared in the Brit. Assoc. Beports for 1900, 1902. 

- Moebius's Barycentrischc Calcul was printed in 1827, and was actuallj^ the first 
publication in which homogeneous co-ordinates were brought forward ; Pliicker's 
paper in Crelle, vol. v. (1830), gave the first exposition of trilinear co-ordinates. Cf. 
Clebsch, 'Julius Pliicker zum Gedachtniss,' Ahhandlungen Gotti/iffc/i.xol.xvi. (1872), 
pp. 1-40. 

^ Discovered in De la Hire's manuscript copy by Chasles in 1845, and printed in 
Poudra, (Euvres de Desargvos (Paris, 1864), vol. i. pp. 97-230. 

* Poudra, luc. cit., vol. i. p. 101, p. 109, p. 119; also vol. ii. p. 362. 

1903. F 



66 REPORT — 1903. 

more significant fact that any conic through the four vertices of the 
quadrilateral cuts the transversal in a pair of points belonging to the same 
involution. This theorem was first published by Sturm ^ (180.3-1835) in 
1826 ; his proof is algebraical, being derived from the equations which, 
ten years previously,^ had been shown by Lame to be the necessary conse- 
quence of the simultaneous existence of three equations of the second 
order. He points out that the relations he thus obtains are those which 
establish ' cette liaison remarquable qui etait nommee par Desargues invo- 
lution de six points.' He afterwards mentions that the two pairs of 
opposite sides of a quadrilateral inscribed in a conic can be regarded as a 
pair of degenerate conies, and that Desargues's theorem is thus an imme- 
diate deduction from his own more general one ; but he makes no state- 
ment which would lead us to suppose he saw the importance of con- 
sidering what we now call a range of points in involution, viz. an infinite 
number of points on a straight line, such that if any two pairs are given 
the correspondent to a fifth point is determined by the relation called in- 
volution which holds for any six. Nor, again, is he really interested in 
the fact that a whole system of conies passes through the points common 
to two conies (although, of course, he is perfectly aware that a third conic 
through these points has an equation involving one linear parameter) ; his 
concern is with properties of the individual conic of the system, not with 
the system itself. And the same remark must be made about Lame, 
although the idea of a pencil of curves is due to him ^ — that is to say, he 
found for the first time the equation, E-|-;/iE' = 0.^ of wJiat we now call 
a pencil of curves ; his primary interest was with the conditions which 
must subsist among the coefficients of the equations of three curves, in 
order that they may intersect in common points, and next, in the particu- 
lar properties which follow for conies ; with regard to curves of higher 
order, to which the greater interest, when looked at as a system, attaches 
itself, he simply stated the equation. 

Gergonne (1771-1859) seems to have been the first to derive any 
property concerning the points of intersection of curves whose equation 
is of Lame's form, as a direct consequence of this form. In 1827 he thus 
found ■'' that i/'p(p + q) of the (p + q)^ 2^'^'^'''''^^ ^f intersection of tivo curves 
o/orc^er (p-hq) He on a curve of order p, the remaining q(p-f-q) points lie 
on a curve of order q : from which he obtained the corollary : Given tioo 
systems ofxn lines in the plane, if amonr/ the m^ points of intersection of 
the lines of one system whh the lines of the other there are 2m which lie 
on a conic, theri the m(m — 2) remaining points all He on a curve of order 
(m— 2). "Writing m=.3, this is, as he points out, the theorem known as 
Pascal's. This proof of Pascal's theorem also appears incidentally in a 
long footnote to the last chapter of the first volume of Pliicker's ' Ana- 
lytisch-geometrische Entwicklungen,' printed in 1828 ; the preface is dated 
September 1827, later than the publication of Gergonne's paper, and it is 
possible that this footnote was added at the same time ; this would give 
the priority in discovery of this particular proof to Gergonne, as well as 

' ' M6moire sur les lignes du second ordre,' Gergonne'x Annalv-i, vul. xvii. pp. ITS- 
198. 

2 'Sur les intersections des lignes et des surfaces,' Gerg. ^«?i., vol. vii. pp. 229-240. 
' Clebsch, toe. cit., p. 17. 

* In his Examen des diffcrenten vu'thndes enqjloyfes pour rcsoudre les 2>roMemes de 
gcometrie, 1818, p. 29. See Part II. of this Report, § 8 {Brit. Assoc. Report, 1902). 

* ' Recherches sur quelques lois genSrales qui regissent les lignes et surfaces 
algfibriques de tous les ordres,' Gerg. Ann., vol. svii. (1827), pp. 214-252. 



ON THE THEORY OF TOINT-G ROUPS. 67 

the priority in publication which is undoubtedly his.^ This, however is 
a very small matter : Gergonne's contribution to the elucidation of pro- 
blems connected with the intersections of curves is insignificant compared 
with Pliicker's. It was Pliicker who derived from Lame's equation of a 
system of curves the theorem -which threw fresh light upon the so-called 
Cramer Paradox, which had baffled mathematicians for more than a hun- 
dred years. And it was Pliicker who, simultaneously with Jacobi (1804- 
1851), first ventured upon a line of research which afterwards proved a 
fruitful source of theorems in the theory of point-groups — the investiga- 
tion, namely, of the conditions which must exist among the co-ordinates 
of certain points if they are known to be the points of intersection of two 
curves of given (differing) orders. 

The problem which first led Pliicker to consider the paradox was that 
of determining the highest degree of osculation possible between a curve 
of order n and one of order m. This question is treated in a footnote to 
an earlier chapter - of the work just mentioned, and its solution is made 
to depend upon the establishment of a new theorem, viz. that all curves 
of the nth order, which pass through^ {(n)) — 2 given points intersect each 
other also in the samen'^—{(n)) + 2=((n-3)) points. In this passage the 
paradox is not explicitly mentioned ; but in a paper published in the 
same year in Gergonne's Annales "^ Pliicker speaks of it, describing it as 
the fact that in certain cases two curves of the same order may cut each 
other in at least as many points as are required to completely determine 
one of them. 'Cramer,' he continues, 'dans son "Introduction a 
I'analyse des courbes algebriques," est le premier, je crois, qui ait signale 
cette espece de paradoxe qui s'explique aisement en remarquant que, 
lorsqu'il est question du nombre des points necessaires et suffisants sur un 
plan, pour determiner compl^tement une courbe d'un degre determine, on 
sous-entend toujours que ces points sont pris au hasard, et ne sont lies 
entre eux par aucune relation particuliere.' He establishes his new 
theorem in almost the same words here as in the other passage ; the 
application is to the theory of the conjugate points of conies. 

The second volume of the ' Analytisch-geometrische Entwicklun^en ' 
was published in 1832 : in this Pliicker returned to the subject of^'the 
paradox,'' and remarked that Cramer had indicated the analytical explana- 
tion, viz. that the n- linear equations which correspond to the w- points 
of intersection of two curves of order to must, if n>3, be such that one 
or more, arbitrarily chosen from among them, are conditioned by those 
which remain ; he adds that a geometrical interpretation of this explana- 
tion is needed. His own new theorem affords this geometrical interpreta- 
tion, and he therefore reproduces it once more, with a proof which, when 
slightly elaborated, is substantially as follows : — 

Assume ((«)) — 2 arbitrary points in the plane, take any two curves of 
order 7i through them, 17=0, V=0, which, in general, are completely 
determined if we know one more point, not the same, on each. Suppose 

' See Kotter, ' Die Entwickelung der synthetischen Geometric von Monge bi.s 
auf Staudt,' Jahresber. d devtscJt. Math.-Verein., vol. v. (1901), p. 226. Clebsch 
(loc. cit., p. 19) ascribes the priority to Pliicker, without mentioning Gereonne 

= P. 228. 

' ((»)) is written throughout for ^ («. -t- 1) (» + 2). 

* 'Recherches sur les courbes algebriques de tous les degres,' Gerg. Ann. 
vol. xix. (1828), pp. 97-106 ; also Works (Leipzig, 1895) pp. 7C-82. 

' P. 242. 



68 REPORT — 1903. 

XJ=0, V=0 so determined, then U + \V=0, where /\ is an undetermined 
coefficient, is the equation of all those curves of order n which pass 
through the n- points of intersection of the above two curves. It requires 
one linear equation to determine X, and thus the knowledge of any new 
point P on the locus U + W=0, but not on U=0 nor on V=0, is suffi- 
cient for this purpose, and the equation of the completely determined curve 
XJ-|-\,V=0 which passes through an arbitrary point P can be obtained. 
Moreover, this same curve can also be uniquely determined by adding 
a point Pto the ((n)) — 2 arbitrary points (since ((«)) — 1 points completely 
determine a curve of order n), and it passes through the n'^ points of 
intersection of U=0, V=0, i.e. through certain 9i-— ((?i)) + 2=((?i— 3)) 
points common to U=0, V=0, as well as through the arbitrary points 
and P. Now take another curve V'=0 instead of V=0, and obtain in 
the same manner the equation U4-a'iV'=0 of a curve completely deter- 
mined by the {{n)) — 1 points, and the same point P as before ; this curve 
is therefore identical with U-l-/\iV=0 ; and it passes through certain 
((« — 3)) points common to U=0, V'=0. It has thus been shown that 
XJz=0, V=0, U-f X 1^=0 all pass through certain {{n — 3)) points as well as 
through the arbitrary points, and also that U=0, V'=0, U-H/uiV' = all 
pass through certain ((«— 3)) points as well as through the arbitrary points ; 
moreover, these points are in each case common to U=0 and to the 
particular curve determined by the addition of P to the arbitrary points, 
whose equation may be written either as U-|-XiV=0 or as U-f /uiV'=0 ; 
that is to say, they are the same {{n — Z)) fixed points. By this argument 
it can be shown that any curve which passes through ((n)) — 2 arbitrary 
points cuts any other curve through these points in the same ((^i— 3)) 
fixed points. 

The complete validity of this proof depends upon two assumptions : 
that every curve of order n through the points of intersection of two 
wiven curves U=0, V=0 of the same order has an equation of the form 
XJ-f XV=0 ; and that a curve of order n is completely determined by 
(^(^n))—\ points. The first of these is a very special case of a much more 
«eneral theorem ^ which, so long as the method of counting the constants 
of an equation was considered to aftbrd a sufficiently rigoi'ous proof of in- 
formation obtained by its means, was supposed to be intuitively true. The 
difficulties of a rigorous proof of the general theorem, moreover, do not 
appear unless cases are considered in which the points of intersection are 
multiple points on U=0, V=0, and the minute investigation of higher 
singularities of curves had not yet been attempted ; it is not surprising, 
therefore, that throughout Pliicker's lifetime the theorem in question was 
taken for granted. With regard to the second assumption, the case is 
difierent ; the paradox itself had arisen from a want of seeing exactly 
how the element of indetermination could enter into the equation of a 
curve drav.'n through ((«)) — 1 points ; and Pliicker, in the above proof, 
expressly guards himself against exceptional cases by the use of the words 
' arbitrary,' ' in general,' etc. 

This iiad not, however, prevented Pliicker from previously (in 1828) 
fallin<^ into a mistake which he afterwards corrected (in 1836). At the 
end of the footnote to the problem of osculation he had stated, namely, 
that the infinitely many curves of order n, n>m, through ((?i — 2)) points 

' Usually known as 'Noether's theorem.' See Math. Arm., vo\. ii. pp. 293-316 
(1869) and Math. Atm., vol. vi. pp. 351-359 (1872). 



I 



O'S THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 69 

on a curve of order m will all cut this curve again in the same nm - ((«)) + 2 
points. This is a fallacy, for since, by hypothesis, the ({n))—2 arbitrary 
points lie on a curve of order m, which, since ((«)) — 2 >((??i)) — l when 
n>m, would not have been possible in the original theoi'em without further 
conditions, it is now possible that the system of curves of order »i should 
consist of degenerate curves, viz. the given curve of order in together 
with a system of curves of order n—m which all pass through the addi- 
tional arbitrary point, which point, therefore, taken in combination with 
the {(n)) — 2 arbitrary points, fails to determine uniquely a curve of order 
n, and the line of argument adopted in the original theorem falls to the 
ground. (The correct statement in such a case is that the curves of order 
n all cut the curve of order m again in an iiifinite number of points.) But 
the exact number of arbitrary points which may be assumed upon the 
curve of order m without invalidating the previous line of argument can 
be found as follows : It is clear that, since n>in, the system will always 
contain certain degenerate curves, each of which consists of the given 
curve of order m, and some fixed curve of order n — m. Such a degenerate 
curve can play the part assigned to U=0 in the original theorem, and 
all the curves of order n through the ((w)) — 2 arbitrary points must pass 
through ((w— 3)) additional points on it ; it only remains to decide how 
the arbitrary points are distributed between the two curves of which it is 
composed, and what distribution of the additional points will then result. 
Now the conditions of the problem require the degenerate curve to be 
fixed, and this can only be efiected by means of the assumption on the 
curve of order n — m of a sufficient number of the arbitrary points to deter- 
mine it completely, i.e. of ((« — «i)) — 1 ; the remaining arbitrary points 
which are {(n)) — '2 — {{n—'m))-{-\ in number, lie upon the given curve of 
order m ; and the difference between nm and the last-named number, 
viz. ((?)i-3)), is the number of additional fixed points in which all the 
curves of order n will cut the given curve of order m again. 

Two equivalent algebraical statements of Pliicker's original theorem 
are given in a paper which he published in Crelle's ' Journal ' in 1836.^ 

(I.) Si Von donne a deux quantitcs variables successivement {(p)) ~2 
coujjles de valeurs quelconques, et si Von suppose que ces valeurs satisfassent 
a une equation quelconque d%i n'"'" degre entre les deux variables, il y axira 
n- — ((n)) — 2 = ((n — 3)) couples de valeurs nouveaux qui safisfont a la nieme 
equation et qui dependent uniquement des couples pre'cedents. 

(II.) Si Von connatt ((n)) — 2 couples de racines de deux equations du 
n"""' degre entre deux inconnues, Von obtiendra les ((n — 3)) couptles de 
racines restanfes, sans avoir recours a ces equations. 

In the same paper the new theorem is also stated in algebraical form : 

Si Von connait nq — ((q — 3)) couples des racines de deux e'qications du 
n"""' et du q"'""' degre entre deux inconnues, n e'ta'id 2^lus grand que q et 
qphis grand que 2, Von en deduira les ((q — 3)) coup)les des racines restantes 
sans recourir aux equations proposees, en fonction des racines connues et 
par la resolution de deux equations du ((q — 3))"""' degre. 

It is established as follows : 

Let n^p + q, and let ((;j)) — 1 of the {{n)) — '2 couples of values 
which in the original theorem were all arbitrarily assumed, be now assumed 
to satisfy an equation A^, = of order p, which is then completely 

' ' Th6oremes g^neraux concernant les equations d'un degre quelconque entre un 
nombre quelconque d'inconnues,' CreJle, vol. xvi. pp. 47-57 ; Worlis, pp- 323-333. 



70 REPORT— 1903. 

determined. If the rest, which are nq—{{q — 3)) in number, satisfy an equa- 
tion Cg = of order q, then, since Aj,C,^ = is one of the equations of order 
n satisfied by the ((w)) — 2 = ((|>)) — 1 -{-nq — ((5' — 3)) couples of values, it 
follows from the first algebraical statement of the original theorem that 
it will also be satisfied by ((?i — 3))=(((7 — 3)) + 7?;; — ((p)) + 1 other couples 
of values ■. but since every equation of order n has nq couples of values which 
are common to it and to C,^ =: 0, it follows that the nq — {i^q — 3)) above- 
mentioned couples of values which satisfy C,j = must lead to ((g — 3)) 
others, which also satisfy this equation of order q. 

Pliicker's final utterance on the intersections of plane curves occurs in 
the ' Introductory Considerations,' which form the first chapter of his 
* Theorie der algebraischen Curven,' published in 1839. He there rejaeats 
the geometrical formulation of the original theorem, and also formulates the 
new theorem, geometrically, thus : All curves of the nth order ivhich jjass 
through nq — ((q — 3)) points arbitrarily assumed on a given curve of order 
q cut this curve again in ((q — 3)) more fixed points. He further considers 
what possibilities exist for the distribution of the arbitrary points on two 
fixed curves of orders p and q respectively, where pi + q=n, in order that all 
curves of order n through these arbitrary points may intersect each given 
curve again in a certain number of fixed points. These considerations 
lead him to state : If of the n- points of intersection of two curves of order n, 
nq — ((q — 3)) lie on a curve of order q, then a curve of order n — q 
passes thro^igh the remaining n{n — (\) 2)oints. This, as he points out, is 
an improvement on Gergonne's theorem, inasmuch as it obtains the same 
result with a smaller number of assigned points. The closing paragraph 
of this chapter is devoted to historic considerations. In it Pliicker refers 
to the passages in his former book, and to his papers in Gergonne's 
Annales, and once more draws attention to Cramer as the originator of 
the paradox.^ He then goes on to explain that his paper in Crelle's 
Journal, although published in the sixteenth volume, was in the editor's 
hands at the same time as one of Jacobi's which appeared in the fifteenth 
volume. He adds that his own had been intended for the first volume of 
Liouville's Journal (which replaced Gergonne's Annales at about this date) 
and that ' a celebrated analyst had occasioned its preparation by a verbal 
observation about the difficulty of extending the relations which connect 
the roots of an equation in one variable to the case of the simultaneous 
roots of a system of two or more equations among two or more variables. 
. . . This is why it was written in French, and clothed in algebraic form.' 

It was characteristic of Pliicker's genius that he consciously limited 
the scope of his mathematical investigations to one particular domain- — ■ 
that of analytical geometry — v/ithin which, indeed, he found ample room 
for the employment of his rich imagination. This probably accounts for 
the fact that his writings on the intersections of curves are completely 
uninfluenced by the theory of functions, although his lifetime precisely 
covei's the years in which this new branch of pure mathematics was being 
created. The account of the influence of the theory of functions on the 
theory of higher plane curves will fall into a later division of this RejDort, 
but it may be mentioned here that the interest which attaches itself to 
the paper of Jacobi's referred to by Pliicker is partly due to its close 

' For this point, cf. Part 11. of this Feport, § 6, last paragraph, Brit. Assoc. 
Iiej)ort, 1902. 



ON THE THEORY OP rOINT-GROUPS. 71 

connection with the algebraical theorem called by its author's name, 
a theorem which was afterwards destined to play an important part (at 
the hands of Clebsch) in the interpretation of Abel's theorem into the 
language of analytical geometry. 

Jacobi's method is, in fact, the very i^everse of Pliicker's. Tlie open- 
ing paragraph of this memoir,^ after a brief reference to Euler's paper, 
' Sur une contradiction apparente dans la doctrine des lignes courbes,' ^ 
and to the problem in the intersections of curves which is there dealt 
with, states that those problems are of algebraical importance, and that it 
appears advisable to investigate the equations of condition which exist 
among the values of two variables which cause two integral functions to 
vanish simultaneously. Throughout the course of this investigation the 
arguments are strictly algebraical, although a geometrical equivalent of 
each theorem is given. The following brief analysis of Jacobi's memoir 
will show wherein his geometrical theorems differ in enunciation from 
Pliicker's, although dealing with the same problems. 

The two integral functions which vanish by hypothesis for simul- 
taneous values of the variable are, in the first place, to be of the same 
order n, and in order to arrive at the number of equations of condition 
■which must exist among the values of the variables in this case, Jacobi 
begins by considering a function u of order n which vanishes for ((«)) — 2 
given systems of values. Since a function of order n contains {{n)) 
coefficients (homogeneous), and since the given systems of values of the 
variables provide ((«)) — 2 linear equations among the coefficients, it 
follows that u can be written in the form a^a^^^x'y^ + b'Si>^^x'^)j'^, where a, h 
are the two coefficients which are not eliminated from the system of 
((w)) — 2 equations linear in the coefficients, and a^g, b^g are the functions 
of the {{n)) — 2 given values of the variables which, in solving for the 
other coefficients, are the multiples of a and b respectively, a-f^ taking 
all possible values from to n. Any other function v of ordei- n can 
similarly be written as a'^a^.^x"}/^ + b'l,b^f,x''if , where a , b^^ are the same 
functions as before. The common roots of ?i = 0, v=0 are seen to be 
those of 2«.^.r'"«/^=0, 26„^.'«'"y''=0 and are n- in number, ((«)) — 2 of them 
are already known, therefore the remaining {{^n — 3)) give rise to the 
2((w — 3)) 'equations of condition' among the ni^ values of x and the w^ 
corresiDondlng values of y, wliich are obtained by substituting them suc- 
cessively in the two equations 2a^^:i;"_y®=0, 26, x"}j^^O. Hence the 
theorem : 

Of tlie n^ systems of simultaneous values of x and y which satisfy two 
equations of the xith order in x andj, ((n)) — 2 may be arbitrarily assumed 
and tlie remaining ((n— 3)) are determined by these; or, among the n'^ 
values of 'X. and the n- corresj^onding values of y there are 2((n — 3)) 
equations of condition. 

The geometrical equivalent of this is : 

Of the n- 2'>oints of intersection of tioo curves of order n, ((n — 3)) are 
determined by the rest. 

In the next section of his memoir Jacobi discusses tlie more compli- 
cated case in which the two integral functions are of differing orders, 
m, n. It is here that he makes use of certain {{m-\-n — 3)) equations upon 

' 'De relationibus, quaj locum habere clcbent inter puncta intersectionis duarum 
curvarum . . . algebraicarum dati ordinis, simulcum enodatione paradoxi algebraici,' 
Crelle, vol. xv. pp. 285-308 ; Works (Berlin, 1884), vol. iii. pp. 327-351. 

- Acad. Berlin, 1748, pp. 219-233; cf. § 8 of this Report (^Brlt. Assoc. Report, 1902). 



72 REPORT— 1903. 

the existence of which he had based the theorem now known by his name, 
which he had published in the previous volume of Crelle's Journal.' 
These equations are the following, in which x, . . . x,„,„ y, . . . y,„„, are the 
mil values of x, y which satisfy two given equations, y (.r, y)=0, (l>{x, y)=0 

of orders m, n, and R^ is the value of ^^^j — t "; ^ when x=x^, y=yii. 



(Jc-=.\, . . . mn). 



dx . dy dy . dx 



2i-. 



(A) 






^ R, ' ^ R, ' • • • ^ R^ 

He first points out that if m=^n, these equations are ((2ri — 3)) in 

number, linear in -=~-, (^■=1, . . . w^), fi-om which by solving for -^ from 

Ra R;. 

'n?—\ and substituting in the remaining ((2tc— 3))— «^ + 1 = 2((to — 3)) 
equations we obtain this number of equations of condition among 
X, . . . .r,„„, y, . . . y„„„ which is the same number as was previously obtained. 
But it must be noticed that nothing is said in either case about the con- 
ditions required to ensure the mutual independence of these 2((n — 3)) 
equations. Their number, in both places, is found by a ' method of 
counting constants,' and such a method affords no readily applicable means 
for dealing with special cases. 

In the next case, in which m-^n, Jacobi again finds the number of 
equations of condition by counting the constants in equations. The argu- 
ment is briefly as follows : — An equation of order n (where n<m) is com- 
pletely determined by {{n)) — \ systems of values of x, y, therefore there 
must be mn — ((?;)) -j-l equations of condition among mn pairs of quanti- 
ties if, in accordance with a first hypothesis, mn pairs of values of x, y are 
to satisfy some particular equation of order n. In accordance with a 
second hypothesis, these mn pairs of values also satisfy some particular 
equation of order m. As a consequence of these two hypotheses, more- 
over, they can always satisfy any equation of order m formed of the sum 
of this particular one, and of the particular equation of order tc multiplied 
by any arbitrary factor of order m — n ; and such an equation of order m. 
will only have ((m)) — ((wi — n)) arbitrary coefiicients (homogeneous) in it, 
since {{m — n)) can be destroyed by means of the coefficients of the arbitrary 
factor. Thus there must be an additional number mn — {{m)) + ((m — n)) + 1 
of equations of condition among the vi7i quantities, since this consequence 
of the two hypotheses must hold, after the first hypotheses has been satis- 
fied. By addition, therefore, the total number of equations of condition 
among the '2mn quantities which satisfy two equations of orders m and n 

' Tlteoremata nova ajgelraica circa systema duarnm cequationnm inter duas 
variabiles projjositarum . Crelle, vol. xiv. pp. 281-288 ; Worlis, vol. iii. pp. 285-294. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 73 

respectively, is mn — {{n)) + 1 + mn — {{m)) + ((m—n)} + l=mji— 3?i + 1. 
This result is expressed geometrically thus : 

In order that mn points may lie on two algebraic curves of orders m, n 
it is necessary that mn — 3n+l equations of condition shoidd subsist 
among their co-ordinates. 

And by comparison with a previous theorem we see that if m=n the 
number of the equations of condition is increased by one. 

A geometrical application of the above-mentioned consequence of the 
two hypotheses is : 

If mn 2}oints are taken on a given curve of order n, n<m, there must 
be mn — ((m)) + ((m — n)) + l=((n— 3)) equations of condition among the 
co-ordinates of these points in order that these points may lie on a curve of 
order m. Or in other words, 

The maximum number of j^toints ichich can be ass2tmed on a curve of 
order n (n <m), in order that a curve of order m may pass through them, is 
mn— ((n — 3)), which (reversing w and m) is a slightly different version 
of Pliicker's theorem, and is established by strictly algebraical reasoning. 

Special instances of this theorem are : 

If m points are assumed on a straight line, or 2m jwints on a conic, it 
is possible to draiv a curve of order m through them. 

If ^m points are assumed on a cubic, where m>3, one equation of con- 
dition must hold among the co-ordinates of the points, in order that it may 
be possible to draio a curve of order m through them. And so on. 

When m=n Jacobi obtained, as has been said, directly from equa- 
tions (A) a system of 2((?i — 3)) equations of condition among the 2«2 
simultaneous roots of two equations of order n. When m^n it becomes 
a much more complicated matter to actually obtain the corresponding 
mri—2,n + \ equations of condition. The first step Jacobi makes towards 
this end is interesting, as it brings into consideration (although only in 
the special case of r=«i + ?i— 3) the question of the number of arbitrary 
constants in the equation of any curve of given order r through the points 
of intersection of two other given curves of orders m, n, a question which 
is of fundamental importance for the theory of point-groups. 

Given two equations, f{x, y)=0, <p{x, y)=0, of orders m, n, Jacobi 
takes, namely, any third equation of order m + n— 3 such that it vanishes for 
the mn simultaneous pairs of values of x, y which satisfy /=0, 0=0. Let this 
equation be denoted by ^p^^ xy^=0, a+/3 ^ ot + m— 3, and obtain from 
it 7nn equations by substituting in it the values of the mn pairs of simul- 
taneous roots ; multiply these equations in order by ^ — . . . and 
add, the result is 



^mn 



\ y^i , a;°2 y% 



R, +11, + • • •~R^;=^' 

which is the sum of all equations (A) multiplied respectively by p^g' 
This proves that one of equations (A) is a consequence of the remainder. 
But this is true for each and every linearly independent equation of order 
m + TC— 3, which can be formed in such a way as to be satisfied by the mn 
pairs of simultaneous roots ; and the number of these is equal to the num- 
ber of arbitrary constants (homogeneous) in the equation of any one. But 
such an equation can be formed by multiplying the left-hand side of 
/=0 by an arbitrary function of degree (n — 3) and then adding it to the 



74 REPORT — 1903. 

left-hand side of ^;=0 multiplied in its turn by an arbitrary function of 
degree (m — 3), and there are thus {(n — 3)) + ((j7z — 3)) arbitrary constants 
(homogeneous) involved. It is thus seen that ({m — 3)) + ((n — 3)) of 
equations (A) follow from the rest, and the number of independent 
equations is therefore {(vi + n — 3)) — ((m — 3)) — {(n — S))=^mn — 1. And 

since there are vi7i quantities ^ , they can be solved from these nin — 1 

IXk 

equations, and the results in terms of the simultaneous roots can be 
substituted in the ((m — 3)) + {{n — 3)) remaining equations, which are 
therefore the equations of condition among the 2m7i simultaneous values 
of ,T and 2/. But since it is possible that((??i — 3)) + ((w — 3)) may be >^2mn, it 
is clear, says Jacobi, that this number of equations of condition is too many ; 
and he then proceeds to show that ((«i — n — 3))of these must follow from the 
rest, and that, therefore, the real number of independent equations of condi- 
tion is, as he found before, ((wi — 3)) + ({n — 3)) — {{m — n — 3))=mn~3ii + l. 
Into- this part of his discussion it is not worth while to enter here, as, 
once more, no criterion is established of the independence of the equations 
of condition when found in this manner. 

The problem of determining the number of arbitrary constants at 
disposal [i.e., non- homogeneous) in an equation of given order r, which is 
satisfied by the simultaneous roots of two other given equations of differing 
orders m, n — or, as it may be more shortly expressed, the problem of deter- 
mining the degrees of freedom of a C,. — had been solved by Bezout (for 
any number of variables) as early as 1774 ; but the ' Theorie des equa- 
tions algebriques,' which is devoted to the genei'al problem of the elimi- 
nation of variables from a system of simultaneous equations, appears to 
have fallen temporarily into oblivion, and is not referred to by any writer 
of this period. As far as the equations of curves are concerned, Pliicker 
had only dealt with the case in which r=m^=n, in which there is pre- 
cisely one degree of freedom, as is at once appai'ent from the form of the 
equation U + AV=0 ; for even the theorem which dealt with the inter- 
sections of a C,. and a C,,, is based upon the discussion of a C,. through the 
points of intersection of two other C,s, one of which is degenerate. In 
dealing with surfaces Pliicker had come across the more general case, but 
he gave it at first a wrong solution. Jacobi, besides the more obvious 
case of r=^m = n, had treated, as we have just seen, the case for curves in 
which r^m + n — 3, and had shown that the degrees of freedom are then 
((?n — 3)) -)-((« — 3)) — 1. In the case of surfaces he also found the correct 
number, although the explicit problem before him there — as also before 
Pliicker — was that of the number of equations of condition which 
must hold among the common points of three surfaces of degree 
m, n, r, and only intermediately that of determining the degrees of 
freedom of a surface through the curve of intersection of two others. 
"When curves are concerned, the problem of determining the degrees of 
freedom of a curve through the intersections of two other curves and the 
problem of determining the number of equations of condition which must 
subsist among the co-ordinates of certain points in order that they may 
be the points of intersection of two curves of given orders are directly 
connected with one another, as will appear from an account of two papers 
by Cayley (1821-1895), which fall within the period under discussion. 

The first of these, entitled ' On the Intersections of Curves,' appeared 
in 1843,' when its author was only twenty-two years of age. It is 

' Camlridge Mathematical Journal, vol. iii. pp. 211-213 ; Worlts, vol. i. pp. 25-27. 



ON THE THEOIIY OF POINT-GROUPS. 75 

short, but bears the unmistakable impress of that prolific genius which, 
upon the suggestion offered by any particular theorem, in no matter what 
branch of pure mathematics, at once sought its appropriate generalisa- 
tion. In Chasles's ' Apercju historique ' (published in 1839) Cayley had 
come across that demonstration of Pascal's theorem which we have seen 
already employed by both Gergonne and Pliicker. The demonstration of 
the property of cubics involved is, he says, ' one of extreme simplicity. 
Let U=0, V=0 be the equations of two curves of the third order, the 
curve of the same order which passes through eight of their points of 
intersection (which may be considered as eight perfectly arbitrary 
points), and a ninth arbitrary point will be perfectly determinate. Let 
U„=;0, V„=0 be the values of U, V when the co-ordinates of this last 
point are written in the place of x, y. Then UVo — UoV=0 satisfies the 
above conditions, or it is the equation to the curve required ; but it is an 
equation which is satisfied by all the nine points of intersection of the 
two curves, i.e., any curve that passes through eight of these points of 
intersection passes also through the ninth.' He then generalises the 
form of equation used in the proof by forming U=M,._,„U„i-f-t?,._„V„, where 
■2*1— mi ^,-,1 3.re two polynomials of orders r — m, r — n with all their co- 
efficients complete, and proceeds to consider how many arbitrary con- 
stants are at disposal in this equation. At first sight it would appear 
that there are ((r — m))-\-[{r —n)) — 1, this being the number of arbitrary 
constants in ?(,_,„, Vr_„, less one removed by division (and this was the 
erroneous conclusion arrived at by Pliicker when dealing with surfaces in 
which r>m + n) ; but when we consider that, if r > m -f n, we may take 
«<,._„i=w,._,„_„V,„ and v,._„ = — "^^-m-iiU,,,. and that then UeeO, we see that 
{(r — m — n)) conditions exist among the arbitrary constants of u,_„i, v,_„ 
(viz. those obtained by equating to zero the coefficients of ?^,._,„_„), and 
that therefore there are only ((r — m)) + {{r — n)) — l — ((? — m — n)) inde- 
pendent arbitrary constants at disposal. When r-^m + n — l, or m + n — 2, 
{{r — m — «))=0, and it is therefore immaterial whether we consider these 
cases as subject to the law affecting the cases in which r<«i-j-?t, where 
they really belong, or under that of r>m-\-n; the simplest plan is to 
include them under the latter and to say that when r>m-\-n — .3 the 
degrees of freedom of a C,. through the points of intersection of the given 
C„„ C„ are {{r—m))-\-{{r — 7i)) — 1 — {(r—m — n)) ; whereas \i r<vi-\-n—'i 
the degrees of freedom are {{^•—m))-\-{{r — «)) — 1, which agrees with 
Jacobi's result for r-=m-\-n — 3. 

The above statement which is suVjstantially Cayley's own, deals only 
with the degrees of freedom of the C,. ; but the question may also be put 
in other ways, for instance : How many conditions are imposed upon the 
coefficients of any C,. by constraining it to pass through the vm points of 
intersection of a given C^, and a given C„ ? And : How many equations 
of condition must subsist among the co-ordinates of mn points on a given 
C„ if they are the points of intersection of the C„ with a C,„ ? Since, in 
general, a C,. has ((r)) — 1 degrees of freedom, and since we have shown 
that, if r>TO-i-TO— 3, a C,. under the given conditions has {{r — n)) -f- {{r—m)) 
— 1 — {{r — m—n)) degrees of freedom, it follows that the number of con- 
ditions imposed by the mn points must be the difference between these 
numbers, i.e., exactly mn ; but if r<m-\-n — 3, the degrees of freedom of 
the C^ were found to be {{r—m)) — {{r—n)) — \, and therefore the number 
of conditions imposed by the mn points on the constants of the C,. is, in 
that case, {{r)) — \—{{r—n)) — {(^r—m)) + \=mn—{{r -m — n)). Again, 



76 REPORT— 1903. 

these results show that the number of equations of condition which must 
subsist among the co-ordinates of inn points on a given C„ in order that 
they may also lie on a given C„, are ((r — m — n)), where r is the order of 
another curve through these inn points such that r<_m + n — 3. And 
this agrees with the theorems of Pliicker and Jacobi. For if o'=m = n, 
T<2r — 3, provided r>2, and ((r— ?u— w))=(( — %))=((72 — 3)) ; while if 
r=m, m>n, r<r + n — 3, provided «>2, and once more {{r — 7n — n))r= 
({-n}) = {{n-3)). 

Cayley, however, did not, in this paper, express his results in terms 
of the number of equations of condition ; the problem he was generalising 
was geometrical, and in extending it he made the geometrical statement : 
A curve of the rth order jMSsing through the mn points of intersection of 
two curves of the xath and nth orders respectively, may he made to j)ass 
through ((r)) — 1 — mn + ((r— m — n)) arbitrary points if r<m + ii — 3/ i/ 
r be greater than this value, it may be made to pass through ((r)) — 1 — mn 
points only. And he concludes : ' Suppose r < m + n — 3, and a curve of the 
rth order made to pass through ((r)) — 1 — mn + ((r — m — n)) arbitrary 
points, and mn — ((r — m — n)) of the mn points of intersection above. 
Such a curve passes through ((r)) — 1 given jjoints, and though the 
mn — ((r — ni — n)) are not perfectly arbitrary, there appears to be no 
reason why the relation between the positions of these points shotild be 
such as to jyrevent the curve from being comjjletely determined by these 
conditions. But if this be so, then the curve must pass through the 
remaining ((r — m — n)) jjoinfs of intersection, or ive have the theorem : 
If a curve of the rth order (r>m or n, r<m + n — 3) ^^ass through 
mn — ((r — m — n)) of the points of intersection of two curves of the vcith and 
nth orders respectively, it passes through the reonaining ((r — m — n)) jjoints 
of intersection.' 

More than forty years later (in 1886), this last theorem was challenged 
by a writer who had been influenced by Brill and Noether's work ; the 
account of this discussion belongs to another section. 

We have seen that Sturm in 1826 extended Desargues's theorem by 
showing that all conies through four points cut a transversal in pairs of 
points in involution. Since these conies have an equation of the form 
U + XV=0, the obvious extension of the term involution is to the sets of 
n points determined on a straight line by the curves U„ + ^-V„=0 where 
U„,V„ are of order n. Cayley, to whom the first suggestion of an 
extension of the term is due, went, however, much further than this in 
his new definition. In his paper entitled ' On the Theory of Involution in 
Geometry' published in 1847, ^ he thus defines the term : //" U,V, . . . 
be given functions of x, y, z, . . ., homogeneous of the degrees m, n, . . ., 
and u, v, . , . arbitrary functions of the degrees r — m, r — n, . . ., then 
*/6 = uU + vV+ . . . ., Q is a function of degree r, which is in involution 
with XJ, V, . . . ; but, as a matter of fact the questions affecting such 
an equation as an involution are not discussed, and he at once states 
that the question lohich immediately arises is to find the degree oj 
generality of 9, or the number of arbitrary constants which it con- 
tains. It may be remarked here that the consideration of systems of 
curves whose equations involve two independent parameters, although 
such would come under the above general form for 6 by taking 
G=U + XV + /iW, where U, V, W are of the same degree and involve 

' Caml. and Dvhlin Math Journ., vol. ii. pp. 52-61 ; Works, vol. i. pp. 259-266. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-aROUPS. 77 

two independent variables only, is foreign to Cayley's purpose, as it was 
to Pliicker's and Jacobi's ; the only application of the results in which 
the additive combination of three functions is considered is to the 
equations of surfaces which involve three independent variables. 

For our present purpose it will be sufficient to note very briefly the 
results of this paper so far as they apply to the case of two independent 
variables. A formula is, in the first place, found for the number of 
arbitrary constants in 9, when any number of variables are involved, 
which is an extension of that found in the former paper for two indepen- 
dent variables, and the fact is pointed out, once again, that, for curves, 
when r<ni + n — 3, ((7' — in — n)) more arbitrary constants exist than 
would exist if B had passed through m7i perfectly arbitrary points. The 
following general question is then attacked : To find the number of 
relations widch exist between K(^-|-l) variables, forming K systems, each of 
which satisfies simultaneously equations of the orders m, n, p, . . . respec- 
tively ; the number of these equations being anything less than <p ; or (p 
being equal to 6, jirovided at the same time K^mnp . . . This question, 
as Cayley points out, is that solved by Jacobi for the particular case in 
which K=7n?i, (^=2, 0=2, the 'relations' being equivalent to Jacobi's 
' equations of condition.' Cayley's general formula verifies Jacobi's 
result. 



Seismological Investigations. — Eighth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor J. W. Judd {Chairman), Mr. J. Milne 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. 
Boys, Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. 
Darwin, Professor J, A. Ewing, Dr. R. T. Glazebkook, Professor 
C. Gr. Knott, Professor R.Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor 
J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. 
Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, and Professor H. H. 
Turner. (Drawn itp by the Secretary.) 

[Plate I.] 
Contents. 

TAGE 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 77 

II. The Oriffin of lai-ffe JSarthquakes recorded ifi 1902 and since 1S99 . . 78 

III. Large Earthquakes and small Changes in Latitude 78 

IV. Covvparison of Records from three Milne Pendulums at Shide . . .81 
V. Comparison of Records from Shide, Keif, Bidston, and Edinburgh . . 81 

VI. Earthqualie Commencements as recorded at Strassburg and in Britain . . 82 
VII. The Speed of Earthquahe Motion and Inferenoes based thereon relating to 

the Interior of the World 8-1 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers. 

DuKlNa the past year the registers issued are Circulars Nos. 6 and 7. 
These refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edinburgh, Paisley, Toronto, Vic- 
toria (B.C.), San Fernando, Cairo, Cape of Good Hope, Calcutta, Bombay, 
Kodaikanal, Batavia, Baltimore, Mauritius, Trinidad, Irkutsk, Perth, 
Wellington, Christchurch, Cordova (Argentina), Honolulu, and Tokio. 
Mr. F. A. Chaves, Director of the Meteorological Service in the Azores, 



78 REPORT — 1903. 

writes that the two seismographs referred to in the Report for 1902 are 
now in working order, one at Ponta Delgada, 25° 41' 15" (Ih. 42m. 45s.) 
W. long., and the other at Horta, 28° 38' 26" (Ih. 54ra. 34s.) W. long. 

From Professor A. F. Griffiths, President of the Oahu College, and 
Professor W. D. Alexander, also in Hawaii, I learn that the seismograph 
sent to Honolulu in 1899 is at the U.S. Magnetic Observatoiy near Pearl 
Harbour. Mr. Weinrich, who has charge of the instrument, has installed 
it on a concrete pier rising from the bed rock. The instrument room 
measures 8 feet by 12 feet. It has stone walls 16 inches thick, and is lined 
and ceiled with boards. The room has ventilators, but the temperature 
is almost uniform at 75° F. 

Observers using or interested in the establishment of the British 
Association type of instruments who have during the past year visited 
Shide were Mr. W. J. Kenny, H.B.M. Consul, formerly of Hawaii; 
Professor H. F. Reid, of Baltimore ; Mr. C. Michie-Smith, of Kodaikanal ; 
and Mr. E. Human, of Colombo. The latter gentleman, whose object was 
to discuss observatory sites and the working of seismographs, came at the 
suggestion of the Colonial Office. 

As might be anticipated, now that experience has been gained in 
working the instruments, correspondence with stations has considerably 
decreased. 

II. The Origin of large Earth^uaJas recorded in 1902 and since 1899. 

On the accompanying map (Plate I.) the origins for 1902 are indicated 
by small numerals which correspond to earthquake numbers in the Shide 
registers. These are divided into districts marked alphabetically. The large 
numerals give the number of large earthquakes which have originated in 
each district since 1899. Maps corresponding to the one here given can 
be found in the 'British Association Reports' for 1900, p. 70, and 1902, 
p. 64. The methods employed in determining origins are referred to in 
the Report for 1900, pp. 79 and 80. 

The chief feature in the map for 1902 as compared with those for 
preceding years is the increase of activity shown for the Caucasian- 
Himalayan district K and the decrease in the Alaskan and Andean regions 
(A and D). If we omit districts E and A then, as pointed out by Pro- 
fessor Libbey, a circle of about 70° radius and centre 180° E. or W. long, 
and 60° N. latitude in Behring Straits passes through the seismic 
regions of the world which are at the present time most active. On the 
map this is indicated by a dotted line. The Pacific origins fall on a circle 
about 75° in radius, with its centre 180° E. or W. long, and 30° S. lat. 

Mr. J. H. Jeans, in his paper on ' The Vibrations and Stability of a 
Gravitating Planet,' ' suggests that these regions lie on a great circle of 
which England is the pole, this circle being the equator of the supposed 
pear-shaped form of the world. The equator for the pear-shaped form, 
according to Professor W. J. Sollas,^ has its centre about 6° N. lat. and 
30° E. long. 



'&• 



III. Earthq^iakes and Changes in Latitude. 

In the ' British Association Report' for the year 1900, p. 107, the 
wanderings of the pole from its mean position are compared for the years 

' PIM. Trans. Royal Soc, vol. cci. p. 183. 

* ' The Figure of the Earth,' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. lix. Part 2. 



sr number 
serving st 





50i}> 



\/lre^ 




Con 




hG. 1. 



[Plate 1. 



Brilish AssocialioTi, 73rd Beport. Southpryrt 1008.1 to. r««. b- ^7 

_(ron. ■hew U .ipreaaed m large .aa.«wl=.. Oteurvi.g .latl.o* „. named. ^'"""l""'"' '*'^"l"=t» «« '°^oaUd A. B. C. to., and the number <rf eartbqnaias which .mc. 1839 ba.e ^riglim^d 




ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



70 



1895 to 1898 inclusive, with the registers of earthquakes which during 
that period have disturbed the whole world, or, at least, continental 
areas. A suggested conclusion was that when the pole displacements 
were comparatively great large earthquakes were frequent, and vice 
versa. The inference to be drawn from the following note is that this 
same type of earthquake has been frequent when the change in direction 
of the movement of the pole has been marked. In the following table 
the years (1892 to 1899) have each been divided into ten parts, and the 
large earthquakes which occurred during each of these intervals are 
given by numerals. 

The earthquake registers fi'om which the latter figures have been 
abstracted are as follows : — 

1. March 14, 1892 to Aug. 7, 1893.— Strassburg and Nicolaiew(see 'Horizontalpendel- 

Beobachtungen,' &c., von Dr. E. von Kebeur-Paschwitz. ' Beitrage zur Geo- 
physik,' Band II.). 

2. Aug. 7, 1893, to Sept. 12, 1834.— Charkow (see ' Ergebnisse der auf der Charkower 

Universitiltssteinwarte,' mit den v. Rebeur'schen Horizontalpendel angestellten 
Beobachtungen, v. Prof. G. Lewitzky). 

3. Jan. 1, 1894, to Dec. 31, 1896. — Italian and other stations (see ' Bollettino della 

Society Sismologica Italiana,' 1895. 

4. Jan. 1, 1897, to Dec. 31, 1902. — Registers from stations widely spread over the 

world, published by the Seismological Investigation Committee of the British 
Association. 

Although these registers are comparable so far as world-shaking 
earthquakes are concerned, it is evident that in the last list very large 
earthquakes are included which could not have i-eached stations in 
Europe. For this reasou, so far as actual frequency is concerned, 
Registers I., II., and III. are not comparable with No. IV. 



Periods 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1807 


1898 


1899 


0-1, Jan. 1 to Feb. 5 . 


no obs. 


8 


12 


r I 


2 


3 


4 


9 


1-2, Feb. 5 to Mar. 14 . 


i» 


22 


II 


1 


r 1 
I 1 


3 


4 


r 9 


2-3, Mar. 14 to April 19 


f 14 
t 8 


16 


13 


1 


rs 

[5 


lio 


3-4, April 19 to May 26 


r32 


19 





4 


5 or 7 


4 


4-5, May 26 to July 1 . 





141 


3 


1 


8 


7 or 11 


8 


6 


.5-6, July 1 to Aug. 7 . 


8 


24 


14 


r 1 





5 


7 


f 16 
1 6 


6-7, Aug. 7 to Sept. 12 


f.^ 


20 


10 


I 2 


3 


9 


16 


7-8, Sept. 12 to Oct. 19 


12 


no obs. 





[1 


rio 

1 7 


10 


8-9, Oct. 19 to Nov. 24 


7 


6 




2 


1 


7 


9-10, Nov. 24 to Dec. 31 


10 


r 9 


j» 


1 





5 


6 


5 



I 



Earthquake figures connected by brackets refer to two periods, each 
of 36-5 days, when the change in direction of pole movement was 
marked. In the following table the total number of earthquakes which 
occurred in each of these two periods is so far as possible compared with 
the total number of earthquakes which were recorded in equal intervals 
of time (73 days) before and after the deflection periods. 

Earthquakes before deflection : no obs. 
Earthquakes during deflection : 22 
Earthquakes after deflection : 8 

Earthquakes before deflection : 3 
Earthquakes during deflection : 10 
Earthquakes after deflection : 12 or 18 



8 


38 


18 


— 


22 no obs. 


I 


3 


3 


20 


73 


21 


24 


24 2 


3 


•a 


10 


17 


44 


— 


22 


no obs. I 


O 


7 


3 


14 


8 


15 


14 


10 








17 


13 


II 


19 


22 








9 


15 


6 


10 


17 









80 



REPORT — 1903. 



Out of sixteen deflections there are twelve instances where the 
greater number of earthquakes have taken place during the deflection 
period. In three instances the number for the deflection period, although 
exceeded by number before or after that period, has been greater than 
the average of the sum of the preceding and succeeding numbers. In 
only one instance (February 5 to April 19, 1896) have the earthquakes 
in the deflection period had a distinct minimum. The totals for before, 




+ 0-3 



+0-2 



+ 1 



0-00 



during, and after comparable deflection periods are respectively 117, 200, 
and 153. 

One inference from this investigation is not that the molar displace- 
ments accompanying large earthquakes result in polar displacements, but 
rather that changes in direction of these latter movements, particularly 
when the rate of change has been rapid, have had an influence upon 
earthquake frequency. From Albrecht's figure of movements of the 
North Pole (tig. 2), on which the numbers of large earthquakes correspond- 
ing to difierent periods are given, the periods of rapid change can be seen. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 81 



IV. On the Comparison of Records from three Milne Horizontal 
Pendulums at Shide. 

At Shide three Milne horizontal pendulums are installed on two 
similar brick piers, 2 ft. 6 in. distant from each other. Each pier is 
1 ft. 6 in. square, and rises 4 feet above its footings, which rest on 
concrete. One pier was built in May 1897, and the other in November 
1902. The instruments are described in the ' British Association Report' 
for 1902, p. 60. The older of the tAvo piers carries the type instrument, 
which has a period of 16 seconds and records east and west movements. 
This is referred to as pendulum A. Pendulum B has the same period, 
and is oriented in the same direction as pendulum A. Pendulum C, 
which with B forms the Yarrow instrument, has a period of 20 seconds 
and records north-south motion. 

The following results refer to seismograms obtained between November 
21, 1902, and March 24, 1903, or in the Shide register Nos. 659 to 693. 

Times of C om,mencement. — Out of twenty-six cases the times of com- 
mencement of A and B have in eleven instances never differed more 
than one minute. When this limit has been exceeded the movements to 
be measured have usually been slight thickenings or blurs. Comparing 
C with A or B, out of nineteen cases there are ten instances falling within 
the one-minute limit. 

Times of Maxima. — The times at which maxima have occurred as 
recorded by A and B have not differed more than two minutes in ten 
instances out of fourteen records. When this limit has been exceeded 
the records usually refer to slight thickenings in traces in which one out 
of several points might be selected as a maximum. 

The maxima for C agree within the two-minute limit with those of 
A and B eight times. 

AmjMtudes. — The amplitudes recorded by A and B have in twenty- 
five cases only once differed 1 mm. from each other. The records 
obtained for C have not differed greatly ('5 to 1 "5 mm.) from those shown by 
A and B. Out of twenty instances the C records were eleven times larger, 
three times smaller, and nine times equal to those shown by A and B. 

Durations. — Out of twenty-one instances the records of C were three 
times greater, six times smaller, and twelve times practically equal to 
those obtained from A and B. 

These comparisons are similar to comparisons of records from two 
similar seismographs made by Dr. Charles Chree, F.R.S., at Kew.' 

V. On the Coinparison of Earthquake Registers from, Shide, Kew, 
Bidston, and Edinburgh. 

In the 'British Association Reports,' 1901, pp. 44-50, and 1902, 
pp. 73, 74, references are made to series of earthquake records obtained 
I at Kew, Shide, Bidston, and Edinburgh, stations which are respectively 
I situated on alluvium, chalk, sandstone, and volcanic rock. 

The following notes chiefly refer to observations made between July 1 
and December 31, 1902, dui'ing which period the instruments at the 
different stations have been so adjusted that 1 mm. deflection of the 
[outer end of the boom corresponded to a tilt of the bed plate of 0"'5. 

' See B.A. Eejjort, 1901, p. 51. 

1903. a 



82 REPORT— 1903. 

Earthquake Frequency. — The number of earthquakes recorded wore as 

follows : — 

July to December, 1902 . Bidston, 69 Shide, 40 Edinburgh, 37 Kew, 30 

During the year 1903 . „ 134 „ 78 „ 70 „ 64 

During 11 months in 1901 . „ _94 „ 90 „ 85 „ 63 

Total for two years 228 1G8 loo 127 

Each of the earthquakes considered was recorded at more than one 
station, and therefore it is exti-emely unlikely that artificially produced 
disturbances have been included in the computations. 

Earthquake Duration. — Between July and December there were ten 
earthquakes, each of which was recorded at all four stations. The total 
number of minutes which the instruments were caused to move by these 
disturbances were : — Edinburgh, 691 ; Kew, 610 ; Shide, 606 ; and 
Bidston, 545. 

Amplitudes — The sum of the maximum amplitudes in millimetres for 
ten earthquakes was as follows : — Shide, 19-4 ; Kew, 14-1 ; Edinburgh, 
12-0 ; Bidston, 9-0. 

These quantities regarded as angular displacements may be respectively 
read as 9"-7, 7"'2, 6"-5, and 4"-5. Add to these the corresponding 
quantities for earthquakes recorded between January and June, then the 
totals for the year 1902 are : Edinburgh, 21"-5 ; Shide, 2r'-l ; Kew, 20"-9 ; 
and Bidston, 13" -2. 

If in making these comparisons the large earthquakes are omitted, 
then the amplitudes of motion as recorded at different stations are 
practically identical. 

Commencements. — Out of thirteen records (June to December 1902) 
at Bidston the commencements have been the earliest — or not more than 
two minutes later than those recorded at other stations — nine times, at 
Shide seven times, at Edinburgh six times, and at Kew three times. 

Conclusion. — For the present, at least, the conclusions arrived at are 
as follows : — • 

1. Bidston records the greater number of earthquakes and obtains 
earlier commencements for the preliminary tremors more frequently than 
at other stations. 

The durations and amplitudes recorded at Bidston are less than at 
other stations. 

2. Kew records the least number of disturbances, and commencements 
are frequently late. Durations and amplitudes are similar to those 
obtaining at Shide. 

3. At Edinburgh and Shide, frequency, time of commencement, and 
amplitude are similar, but at the former station the duration is greater 
than at the latter. 

VI. Earthquake Commenceineitts as recorded at Strasshurg and 

in Britain. 

The records referred to in the' following note are those obtained in 
1902 from the Rebeur-Ehlert pendulums at Strassburg or Hamburgh 
and the Milne pendulums installed at Kew, Shide, Bidston, and Edin- 
burgh. The multiplication of the Strassburg apparatus is about eight 

' See B.A. Report, 1898, p. 268. 



ON SEFSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 83 

times that of tlie instruments employed at the stations in Britain, from 
which it might be inferred that very minute ^preliminary tremors might 
be recorded, and therefore earlier commencements of motion Ije calculated 
for these Continental stations than would obtain in Britain. 

With the assumption that the greatest difference in time that could 
exist between the commencement of motion at these two groups of 
stations is four minutes, the comparison of fifty-six records common to 
Germany and Britain leads to the following : — ■ 

In twenty-four instances the difference in the times of commence- 
ments does not exceed the four-minute limit. These in the Shide register 
correspond to numbers 581, 58+, 585, 586, 588, 590, 595, 606, 614, 616, 
619, 6196, 625, 627, 636, 641, 642c', 644, 653, 658, 661, 662, 663, 665. 

The remaining thirty-two instances where this limit has been exceeded 
refer to twenty-one mere thickenings of tlie trace and eleven to earthquakes 
with moderate amplitudes. These thirty-two instances may be divided into 
two groups, there being twenty-three cases where the British records are 
late relatively to those noted in Germany, and nine when the German 
records fall behind those obtained in Britain. The British records, which 
are late, are numbers 578, 580, 583, 597, 598, 600, 6006, 6066, 611, 6136, 
617, 618, 6226, 624, 633, 639, 640, which are all minute thickenings on the 
trace, and 589, 592, 599, 609, 612, and 659, which are well-defined records. 

The German records, which are late, are numbers 576, 582, 610, 
which, as noted in Britain, are small, and numbers 572, 593, 601c, 607, 
626, 642, which are large or fairly large disturbances. The number of 
disturbances as recorded in Germany with too late commencements, oddly 
enough, is exactly the same as recorded in Britain. 

The conclusions to which these comparisons point are : — 

1 . For recording small tremors which do not extend over great areas 
the Rebeur-Ehlert pendulum, as installed at Strassburg, possesses advan- 
tages over the Milne horizontal pendulum as installed at stations 
co-operating with the British Association. 

2. For recording the commencements and, it may be added, other 
phases of earthquake motion which affect the world as a whole the 
accuracy of the records from both types of instruments is practically 
identical. 

In connection with these conclusions it must be pointed out the 
fineness of the trace obtainable with the British Association type of 
instrument partly compensates for its comparative want of sensibility. 
The particular sensibility given to it is one that is obtainable at a variety 
of stations. Were this increased, which is easily done by raising its 
period from sixteen to twenty, or even forty, seconds, when it would be 
more responsive to tremors, then at many stations it would be found 
that diurnal and other wanderings, together with air tremors, would 
seriously interfere with the recording of earthquakes. Instruments of 
the Rebeur-Ehlert type, with large multiplication, not only consume what 
for many would be a prohibitive quantity of photographic paper, but, as 
for example at Trieste and Kremsmiinster, they are frequently recording 
movements which are not required. 



q2 



84 



REPORT— 1903. 



VII. The Velocity of Proi^agation of Earthquake Vibrations. 

In the ' British Association Report ' for 1902, p. 65, a diagram is given 
showing the time taken for various phases of earthquake motion to 
traverse arcs or distances corresponding to arcs of various lengths. 

From this diagram an arcual velocity for the maximum of large wave 
movement may be derived of 3 km. per second. For the commencement 
of such movements this would be slightly increased, and would then 
accord with observations made by Dr. F. Omori, who obtains for this 
particular phase an arcual velocity of 3'3 km. per second. 

To give actual velocities or average velocities for the preliminary 



tremors, not knowing the paths they follow, is accompanied by un- 
certainties. What can be done, and is shown in the following table, is 
from the above-mentioned time curve to calculate velocities on the 
assumption that the paths have been arcs or have approximated to chords, 
or we can make similar calculations from a time curve so corrected that 
11 and 17 minutes are respectively taken to traverse distances corre- 
sponding to 70° and 150°. The justification of reducing the steepness of 
the preliminary tremor curve and yet keeping within the results of 
observation rests upon the analysis given on pp. 5 and 6. 



Areraffe Vel 


oclties 


/ Preliminary Tremurs. 






10° 


20° 


30° 


40° 


50° 


60° 


80° 


90° 150= 


— 


Uncorrected time curve on 


3 to 5 


9-2 


9-2 


9-2 


9-2 


9-6 


9-8 


10-1 12-9 


Km. per second. 


arcs. 




















Uncorrected time curve on 


3 to 5 


9-2 


91 


9-1 


9-0 


9-2 


9-1 


9-1 9-4 


1 


chords. 




















Corrected time curve on 


3 to 5 


10-5 


11-1 


10-6 


10-9 


11-1 


12-3 


12-8 lG-3 




arcs. 




















Corrected time curve on 


3 to 5 


10-5 10-9 


10-3 


10 5 


10-6 


11-3 


11-5 12*0 


2 


chords. 




1 















From the above table it will be seen that if the preliminary tremors 
follow paths which are arcual, then there is a marked increase in speed 
of transmission on long paths as compared with the speed upon short 
paths. If, however, the paths approximate to chords, then velocities 
which arc approximately constant prevail. The deviation from being 
actually constant along chordal paths is apparently a slight increase in 
speed along paths taken nearer and nearer to the centre of the earth. 

The high values of 10 "5 to 12 km. per second suggest a high rigidity 
for the world, whilst the approximate uniformity of speed within its core 
indicate approximate uniformity in those properties which determine the 
rate at which it transmits vibrations. Unless it is assumed that as we 
descend in the earth electricity and density increase in the same ratio, to 
which hypothesis there are objections, the inference is that the nucleus of 
the world has a density more nearly uniform than is generally assumed. 

To satisfy the interpretation given to these seismometrical observations 
what is required is a globe with an approximately uniform nucleus not 
less than i j} of the earth's radius covered by a shell which passes rapidly 
upwards into the materials which constitute the crust of the world. 

' In an article in Nature, April 9, 1 903, p. 638, on ' Seismometry and Geite,' 
minimum values are given for these quantities. 

^ If these last values are plotted on squared paper a curve for their mean posi- 
tion gives the following values: 3 to 5, 9-0, 10-4, 10-fi, 10-8, ll'O, 11-3, ll'S and 120 
km. per second. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



85 



of 



That low velocities are found on wave paths corresponding to chords 
less than 10° suggests that this crust is not more than forty miles 
in thickness. This seismometrical determination of thickness for the 
earth's crust accords, it will be observed, with determinations of the same 
quantity which are chiefly dependent upon the effects of high temperatures 
assumed to prevail at such a depth. At fusion temperatures liquefaction 

[Fig. 3. — Average "Velocities for Preliminary Tremors if propagated 

along Chords.] 




150° 



is a state for many substances which is promoted by pressure, whilst at 
still higher temperatures Arrhenius points out that whatever the 
pressure might be it seems probable that fluids would become gaseous, and 
such gases would be dense, but slightly compressible and viscous. What 
the velocity table (as it now stands) indicates is that a crust passes 
rapidly into a nucleus which is exceedingly rigid and fairly homogeneous. 
A specific gravity can be defined for this nucleus which will meet the 
requirements of gravitational observations, and it seems likely that the 
same may accord with the tests of the astronomer. 



Isomorphous SalplioniG Derivativss of Benzene. — Fourth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor H. A. Miers (Chairman), 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong (Secretart/), Professor W. P. Wynne and 
Professor W. J. Pope. (Drawn up hy the Secretarij.) 

The object the Committee have primarily in view is the crystallographic 
study of the complete series of sulphochlorides and sulphobromides derived 
from the isomeric dichloro-, dibromo- and chlorobromo-benzenes. 

The results obtained in the case of the para- and two of the three 
series of meta-derivatives have been referred to in previous I'eports. It 
may be pointed out that whereas no evidence was obtained that the 1 : 4 
derivatives exist in polymorphic forms — the five compounds measured 



86 



REPORT — 1903. 



being strictly isomorphous,' in the case of the meta- derivatives, the 1:3:4 
series formed an isotrimorphous group, the 1:3:5 series an isotetra- 
morphous group. 

During the past year Mr. Harding has determined the constants of five 
of the eight members of the 1:2:4 ortho-series, viz., the chlorides derived 
from the acids Nos. 1, II, and IV and the bromide of acid No. II : — 



Br 



CI 


CI 


CI 


Br 


Br 


CI 


Br 


S03H 




S03H 




SO3H 




SO3H 



II 



III 



IV 



Of the chlorides, I and II are practically identical crystallographically ; 
the chloride of IV was obtained in quite a distinct form, belonging, how- 
ever, to the same crystallographic system. The bromide of II was obtained 
in both these forms, so that it establishes a connecting link between the 
two isomorphous series which evidently exist. 

Great diificulty was experienced in making the measurements owing 
to the low melting-points of the sulphon-halides and the extraordinary 
way in which they crystallise (from a mixture of benzene and petroleum) 
in very thin micaceous plates ; it was discovered, however, that by using 
petroleum of higher boiling-point more massive crystals could be obtained ; 
forms fit for measurement were eventually secured by this artifice. 

It would seem that the character of the solvent has a definite influence 
on crystalline form, especially in the case of substances which manifest 
polymorphism. When opportunity ofTers it will undoubtedly be desirable 
to study this question experimentally. 

The anilides, which have higher melting-points than the halides. 
crystallise with much greater facility ; the opportunity has been taken to 
study several of these. Mr. Harding finds that the orthodichloranilide 
exists in two forms, one orthorhombic the other monosymmetric ; and 
that whilst the dibromo- and bromochloranilides crystallise in a form 
isomorphous with the monosymmetric form of the dichloranilide, the 
fourth anilide crystallises in a second monosymmetric form. 

Mr. Harding has also measured the 1 : 3 dibromo- 2 sulphochloride 
and has thus made a beginning with the 1:2:3 metaseries. 

Although the material is available, it has been impossible hitherto to 
obtain two of the para-compounds and three 1:2:4 derivatives in. 
forms suitable for measurement ; it is hoped that the difficulty will be 
overcome and that the experience which has been gained will make it 
possible to extend the investigation to the remaining terms of the meta- 
and ortho-series at no distant date. It is very desirable, for this purpose, 
to have large quantities of material at disposal and that special apparatus 
should be devised which will make it possible to effect the crystallisation 
under constant conditions. 

' Mr. Harding has recently been able to obtain a sixth member of this series — 
the 1 01 : 4 Br : >3 sulpbobromide — in measurable form, and finds that it is isomorphous 
with five which Mr. Gidden measured. Mr. Gidden did not succeed in preparing this 
compound. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



87 



Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and CompoiLmls. — 
Beport of the Committee^ consisting of Sir H. E. ROSCOE (Chair- 
man), Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Pro 
fessor J. Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster 
Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain 
Sir W. DE W. Abney. 



Molybdenum (Arc Spectrum). 
Hasselberg, 'Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akadem. Handl.,' Bd. 36, No. 2, 1902. 









Reduction to 


5i?r, 


Wave-length 


Intensity 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 


Vacuum 


o u o 

3ii 


and 






3 &;? 




Character 




A.-1- 


1 
\ 


Ofe-- 


5893-67 


4 




161 


4-6 


16962-8 


91-89 


2 




1-60 


*l 


967-9 


88-61 


8 






>» 


977-3 


83-11 


2 


. 




II 


993-2 


81-85 


2 






It 


996-8 


76-90 


2 






11 


17011-2 


69-57 


4 






If 


032-4 


6905 


2 






I) 


033-9 


61-66 


2 






91 


055-4 


58-52 


8 






»l 


064-6 


51-80 


4 




1-59 


»» 


084-1 


49-99 


4 






?l 


089-4 


49-16 


3 






II 


091-9 


40-25 


2 






II 


118-0 


35-87 


2 






4-7 


130-7 


25-50 


3 






II 


161-2 


25-28 


2 






f) 


161-8 


2100 


2 




1) 


174-5 


16 00 


2 






J> 


189-2 


15-76 


2 






II 


190-0 


14-U 


2 






II 


194-7 


09-30 


2 




„ 


II 


209-1 


08-54 


»> 




M 


11 


211-3 


06-46 


2 






II 


217-5 


02-95 


4 






91 


227-9 


00-72 


4 






• 1 


234-5 


5792-10 


8 






II 


260-2 


85-99 


2 






1> 


278-4 


83-54 


4 


^ 




11 


285-7 


8096 


2 






1) 


293-5 


8038 


2 






II 


295-2 


79-65 


4 






II 


297-4 


78-46 


2 






II 


301-9 


74-85 


3 






yt 


311-8 


71-33 


2 






If 


322-3 


70-02 


2 






II 


826-3 


67-63 


2 






)) 


333-4 


66-79 


2 






IT 


336-0 


65-57 


2 






II 


339-6 


57-80 


2 






11 


3630 


51 67 


9 






l» 


381-8 



88 



REPORT — 1903. 



Molybdenum (Aec Specteum) — continued. 







Reduction to 


s >» 




Intensity 




Vacuum 


p ^ o 


Wave-length 


and 
Character 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 




3S§ 




1 








A.+ 


\" 




5747-93 


2 




1-59 


4-7 


17392-9 


47-08 


2 




j» 




395-4 


41-96 


2 




»> 




411-0 


39-93 


2 




tt 




417-1 


38-40 


2 




»» 




421-7 


35 55 


2 




»» 




433-4 


34-32 


4 




1* 




434-1 


31-58 


2 




»» 


4-8 


442-4 


3017 


4 




• « 




446-7 


29-77 


4 




)f 




447-9 


2903 


4 




*9 




450-2 


22-98 


7 




t} 




468-6 


20-45 


2 




)| 




476-3 


19-55 


2 




11 




480-1 


12-05 


4 


5712-0 Ti 


»» 




502-0 


08-28 


2 




J1 




513-6 


05-97 


6 




ft 




520-7 


02-39 


3 




»» 




631-7 


5699-87 


4 




»f 




539-5 


98-53 


4 




9» 




543-6 


96-30 


3 




f« 




660-5 


95-66 


2 




)> 




552-4 


95-10 


2 




9> 




654-1 


94-64 


2 




Jt 




555-6 


89-39 


9 




I) 




571-8 


87-93 


2 




9» 




676-2 


83-20 


4 




19 




590-9 


78-18 


5 




f» 




606-4 


74-77 


5 




9) 




617-1 


73-92 


4 




1> 




619-7 


72-35 


2 




J» 


99 


624-6 


67-57 


3 




If 




639-4 


64-65 


3 




TT 




648-5 


52-47 


2 




91 1 99 


686-6 


52-12 


3 




„ 


99 


687-7 


51-54 


2 




)» 


99 


689-5 


50-40 


8 




f1 


11 


693-0 


43-47 


2 




99 


99 


714-8 


42-05 


2 


5642-11 Ni 


T9 


99 


719-2 


35-14 


5 




9f 


19 


741-0 


32-74 


8 




99 


99 


748-5 


19-63 


4 




tf 


91 


789-9 


1903 


3 




»J 


19 


791-9 


18-69 


4 




TI 


99 


792-9 


13-37 


4 




J9 


99 


809-8 


11-20 


6 




JJ 


9» 


816-7 


09-80 


2 




99 


4-9 


821-0 


09-53 


4 




f f 


9f 


821-9 


08-90 


4 




99 


11 


823-9 


01-31 


3 






99 


848-1 


5596-62 


3 




99 


99 


863-0 


91-84 


4 




91 


99 


878-3 


89-02 


4 


6588-98 Ca 


)J 


It 


887-4 


75-47 


4 




1} 


11 


931-8 


70-69 


12 




99 


11 


946-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



89 



Molybdenum (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 







Eeduction to 


c 1»> _ 


Wave-length 


Intensity 

and [ Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 


Vacuum 


[atic 
lenc 
icuc 






Oscil] 
Freqi 
inVi 




Character 




A.+ 




5569-75 


4 




1-59 


4-9 


17949-2 


68-88 


5 




• > 


tl 


955-5 


64-34 


4 




J1 


»t 


966-7 


63-65 


2 




«9 


11 


968-9 


62-74 


2 




» 


t> 


971-8 


57-02 


4 




>f 


t> 


990-4 


52-47 


2 




)> 


»> 


18006-1 


44-78 


4s 




») 


11 


030-1 


43-38 


4s 5543-41 Fe 


»l 


11 


034-6 


41-93 


2s 




l> 


It 


039-4 


39-67 


4s 




9* 


1» 


046-7 


34-85 


2 




»t 


II 


062-4 


33-26 


12 




?» 


., 


067-6 


32-00 


2 




»» 


It 


071-7 


27-27 


4 




»» 


11 


087-2 


26-81 


4 




It 


11 


088-7 


20-93 


3 




M 


1> 


108-0 


20-32 


3 




»» 


t» 


110-0 


17-73 


2 




»• 


t* 


118-5 


11-77 


2 




»l 


Tl 


1381 


06-75 


12 




ff 


11 


154-6 


03-82 


3 




11 


5-0 


164-2 


02-18 


4 




t» 


» 


169-6 


01-78 


4s 




It 


11 


170-9 


5499-77 


2a 




»l 


11 


177-6 


98-76 


4s 




>t 


II 


180-9 


97-18 


3ii 




*1 


1) 


186-1 


94-06 


4 




»t 


11 


196-5 


92-43 


4 




»» 


11 


200-9 


90-54 


4 




tt 


11 


208-2 


88-91 


2 




tt 


II 


213-6 


76-18 


4 




?> 


II 


255-9 


73-64 


6 




I» 


II 


264-4 


65-83 


4 




!» 


^1 


290-5 


56-71 


4 


■ 

»» 


11 


320-7 


53-27 


4 




» 


11 


332-6 


50-73 


5 






11 


341-2 


48-78 


2 






>1 


347-7 


47-86 


2 






It 


350-8 


39-95 


2 






It 


377-5 


37-97 


5 






11 


384-2 


35-91 • 


4 






11 


391-2 


31-27 


2 






11 


406-9 


27-80 


2 






i^ 


418-7 


27-14 


3 






It 


420-9 


26-24 


2 






11 


424-0 


17-64 


3 






11 


453-2 


14-95 


2 






It 


462-4 


11-31 


2 






tl 


474-8 


06-64 


3 






11 


490-8 


5397-63 


3 


Ij 


5-1 


521-5 


94-75 


4s 


5394-91 \„ 
5394-84/^° 




>f 


531-4 


88-94 


2 






,, 


551-4 


72-63 


2 






If 


607-8 



90 



REPORT — 1903. 



Molybdenum (Aec Specteum) — coiitinued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Fraun 


5367-30 


4n 




64-50 


7 




60-76 


9 




56-70 


4 




55-76 


2 




55-12 


4 




27-35 


2 




24-70 


2 




20-14 


2 




18-20 


2 




14-13 


4 




06-49 


2 




5295-67 


3 




93-65 


2 




92-30 


3 




81-07 


4 




79 85 


4 




76-50 


2 




7200 


2 




61-35 


4 




59-23 


4 




45-71 


4 




4301 


4 




4109 


6 




38-41 


6 




34-47 


4 




32-58 


2 




31-27 


2 




19-62 


3 




1208 


2 




00-97 


2 




00-37 


4 




5180-44 


3 




74-35 


6 




73-14 


6 




71-33 


6 




67-98 


4 




63-40 


4 




55-48 


2 




48-65 


2 




41-47 


2 




35-17 


2 




26-94 


2 




24-03 


2 




22-00 


2 




17-18 


3 




15-86 


2 




15-21 


4 




09-90 


4 


5109-83 Fe 


00-58 


2 




5098-27 


3 




97-71 


5 


5097-67 


96-85 


4 




96-11 


3 




92-96 


2 





Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



Redu 


ction to 


C >> 


Vacuum 


o o o 

111 




1 


O 03 "^ 


A + 


A 


OD S-i r- 


1-59 


5-1 


18626-2 






636-0 






649-0 


J> 


ff 


663-1 
666-4 






668-6 






6660 




" 


675-3 






796-4 






798-3 




" 


812-7 




T> 


839-8 




5-2 


878-2 
885-4 
890-2 




t' 


930-3 






934-7 






946-8 




" 


962-9 


)f 




19001-3 
009-0 




" 


058-0 






067-8 






074-8 




" 


084-6 


" 


11 


098-9 


• 1 


>» 


105-8 




" 


110-6 


ty 


11 


153-3 
181-1 


jy 


5-3 


223-8 
2240 




» 


298-1 




" 


320-8 




11 


325-3 






3321 


«l 




344-6 




l» 


361-8 
391-5 


11 


fl 


418-3 


*» 


f} 


444-4 


ff 


11 


468-2 


II 


ff 


501-5 


IT 


)f 


510-6 


If 


If 


518-3 


11 


ff 


536-7 


If 


5-4 

•1 


541-7 
544-1 


>» 


11 


564-5 


)1 


ft 


600-2 


fl 


fl 


609-1 


») 


11 


611-3 


)l 


H 

11 


614-6 
616-4 


H 


It 


630-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



91 





Molybdenum (Arc Svbctvlvu)— continued 


• 












Beduction to 


^ ^O 




Intensity 




Vacuum 


c « ^ 


"Wave-length 


and 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 




O OJ _. 








Character 






1 








A-l- 


A 


M ^^ d 


5092 40 


2 




1-59 


5-4 


19631-7 


91-56 


2 








" 


634-9 


91-17 


3 








»» 


636-4 


90-80 


2 








)» 


637-9 


84-47 


2 








»» 


662-3 


81-49 


2 








»» 


6739 


80-23 


5 








7» 


678-7 


62-76 


2 








l» 


746-7 


60^)7 


5 








»i 


757-2 


58-30 


2 








») 


7641 


55-22 


3 








11 


776-1 


47-90 


4 








11 


804-8 


46-73 


2 








11 


809-4 


3912 


2 








»> 


839-3 


30-96 


4 








11 


871-5 


29-21 


4 








» 


878-4 


20-07 


O 








5-0 


914-7 


16-99 


5 








»» 


9268 


14-80 


2 








11 


935-5 


00-13 


4 








)> 


994-0 


4995-55 


2 








»» 


20012-3 


79-32 


5 








•1 


077-5 


76-23 


2 








11 


0900 


75-58 


2 








It 


092-6 


64-63 


4 








It 


137-0 


64-42 


3 








M 


137-8 


57-78 


6 


4957-88 Fe 






19 


164-8 


56-83 


2 








t) 


168-7 


62-20 


2 








1» 


187-5 


50-83 


5 








1» 


193-1 


41-90 


4 








5-G 


229-5 


33-99 


2 








»1 


262-0 


33-30 


4 








>» 


264-8 


31-42 


2 








>» 


272-6 


26-65 


4 








>1 


292-2 


26-42 


4 








*1 


2931 


25-08 


2 








11 


298-6 


09-41 


2 








11 


363-5 


07-65 


2 








11 


371-8 


04-03 


5 








Jt 


385-8 


4899-81 


2 








)» 


410 5 


97-50 


2 








tf 


413 


94-65 


2 








It 


424-9 


89-44 


2 








1* 


446-6 


86-70 


2 








11 


4623 


78-59 


8 








11 


492-1 


75-73 


2 


4875-67 V 






It 


604-3 


69-43 


4 








11 


530-7 


68-23 


6 








11 


636-7 


66-07 


2 








<f 


644-9 


60-99 


2 








5-7 


666-3 


60-28 


3 








11 


569-2 


58-44 


3 








11 


577-0 


51-92 


2 








11 


604-7 


50-05 


2 




, 




tt 


612-7 



92 



REPORT — 1903. 



Molybdenum (Arc Sfectrum)— continued. 



Wave-length 



4845 
39 
38 
36 
34 
33 
30 
30 
28 
23 
22 
19 
17 
14 
11 
08 
08 
05 
05 

4796 
94 
94' 
93 
92 
88 
87' 



38 
82 
35 
98 
16 
13 
73 
■15 
67 
16 
62 
47 
92 
68 
■28 
68 
29 
78 
13 
75 
'81 
03 
60 
96 
39 
83 



86-68 



85 
84 
83 
78' 
76' 
75 
74 
73 
73 
64 
60 
58 
56 
53 
51 
50 
49 
49 
49 
40 
40 
36 
35 
34 
31- 
29' 
2o- 



•34 

•64 

•16$ 

09 

'54$ 

•87 

42 

64 

-47 

■64 

■39 

■71 

■06 

•56 

■31 

•60 

•61 

•35 

•06 

•58 

36 

•84 

51 

34 

64 

36 

55 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

2 

6s 

2 

4s 

2 

2 

6 

4 

2 

5 

2 

4 

4 

2 

5s 

2 

3 

4 

4 

2 

2 



5s 
2 
5 
2 
6 also V 
5 
4 
4 
3 
4s 
8 
5 
2 
2 
2 

5s 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
7 
6 
2 



08-32 Fe 



r 4786-73 Ni 
t 86-70 V 



83-17 
76-55 Cc 



Reduction to 


S «*o 


Vacuum 


.2 fi 3 

-.3 0) O 




d p tj 






A.+ 


i_ 




1-59 


5-7 


20632-5 


)f 


)1 


656-2 


?t 


11 


6620 


11 


If 


672-6 


If 


If 


680-4 


11 


11 


684-8 


11 


If 


695-1 


11 


If 


697-6 


If 


fl 


704-0 


fl 


11 


727-6 


>1 


11 


729-9 


9f 


11 


743-4 


11 


11 


750-1 


fl 


fl 


764-2 


If 


If 


778-7 


ff 


• 1 


7900 


B7 


11 


791-7 


n 


If 


802-6 


tf 


11 


804-9 


f> 


fl 


841-7 


If 


fl 


850-2 


n 


11 


8539 


If 


11 


855-4 


fl 


• 1 


858-2 


If 


If 


878-1 


*i 


fl 


880-6 


11 


If 


885-6 


11 


ff 


891-3 


If 


ff 


894-5 


ff 


11 


901-0 


11 


5-8 


9230 


fl 


11 


9299 


If 


11 


932-8 


If 


11 


939-1 


11 


11 


942-6 


i» 


fl 


943-2 


11 


11 


982-1 


fl 


f« 


21000-9 


fl 


fl 


008-3 


11 


11 


0200 


ff 


11 


031-1 


11 


• f 


041-0 


If 


11 


044-2 


11 


tf 


048-5 


11 


11 


049-7 


If 


fl 


051-0 


11 


11 


088-7 


11 


If 


089-6 


fl 


11 


105-3 


ff 


11 


111-2 


fl 


• 1 


116-5 


11 


ff 


129-4 


11 
fl 


11 
11 


138-7 
155-7 



\ 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



93 



Molybdenum (Arc Specteum) — continued. 



Wave-length 



4723o0 
23-27 
19-08 
18-13 
16-88 
14-69 
1016 
08-43 
07-44 
06-40 
06-25 
00-71 

4696-71 
96-06 
93-55 
92-89 
92 19 
91-05 
88-41 
86-28 
86-01 
84-54 
84-04 
82-44 
81-82 
81-24 
75-91 
73-24 
72-11 
69-00 
65-59 
63-31 
62-95 X 
62-11 
57-67 
56-57 
62-47* 
51-25 
49-28 
48-02 
42-90 
41-78 
41-12 
35-22 
32 75 
30-20 
27-70 + 
26-67 
24-44 
23-66 
21-57 
18-15 
17-82 
16-81* 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2 
3 
4 
5 
2 

4 

2 
6 

7 
2 

4 
4 
8 
2 
2 

2 
2 
4 
5 
4 
4 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

6 
2 

2 
2 
6 
5 
2 

2 

4 

4 

3 

4s 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4s 

5 

7 

4 

3s 

5s 

2s 

2 

9 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



4707-46 Fe 
also Or 



4688-46 Fe 



4662-93 



4627-73 

also V 4626-74 Mn 



* Probably not due to Molybdenum. 



Reduction to 


d>.- 1 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuc 


\ + 


1 


1-59 


5-8 


21164-9 


» 


» 


175-9 


)» 


i» 


185-0 


if 


** 


189-0 


j» 


»> 


194-7 


ft 


)» 


204-3 


» 


)) 


224-9 


>i 


i> 


232-7 


)j 


5-9 


237-2 


» 


>» 


241-7 


u 


>* 


242-4 


7> 


5» 


267-5 


?» 


11 


285-6 


)9 


?» 


288-6 


>» 


»> 


299-9 


>» 


»> 


302-9 


>» 


»> 


306-1 


1> 


>» 


311-3 


»t 


)) 


323-3 


)) 


»> 


333-0 


)J 


)» 


334-2 


*« 


H 


340-9 


a 


)1 


343-2 


)) 


11 


350-5 


»» 


»> 


353-3 


»! 


)T 


356-0 


J> 


J) 


384-9 


y> 


11 


392-5 


1) 


1> 


397-7 


j» 


If 


412-0 


i> 


)J 


427-6 


J) 


)) 


438-0 


»> 


f> 


439-7 


>i 


)» 


443-6 


)9 


9* 


4640 


»l 


» 


469-1 


»» 


if 


488-0 


9f 


)» 


493-6 


)» 


» 


502-8 


1) 


)» 


508-6 


» 


S) 


532-4 


It 


91 


537-6 


»» 


11 


540-6 


1> 


6-0 


572-6 


»» 


>f 


579-5 


)l 


It 


591-3 


)J 


11 


603-0 


tf 


»1 


607-8 


J> 


1) 


618-2 


?1 


11 


621-9 


»» 


11 


631-7 


)» 


11 


647-7 


»» 


11 


649-2 


)> 


)» 


654-0 



94 



REPORT — 1903. 

Molybdenum (Aec Spectrvm)— continued. 









Reduction to ] 5^0 




Intensity 




Vacuum j -^ S 3 


Wave-length 


and 
Character 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 




OJ ^ 




1 
A 








A + 


m h ti 


4614-94 


2 




1-59 


60 


21662-7 


11-36 


4s 






,, 


679-6 


U-03 


2 












681-0 


10-07 t 


6 


4610-09 






J 




685-6 


08-90 


2s 












696-1 


08-32 


2 












693-9 


03-7S 


a 












715-3 


4599-35 


4 












736-2 


98-44 


2 












740-3 


98-07 


2 












742-3 


95-35 


6 












755-1 


93-84 


2 












762-3 


92-40 


3s 












769-1 


90-55 


4ii 












777-9 


88-33 


3n 












788-4 


87-61 


2 












791-8 


86-98 


2 


, 










794-8 


86-75 


2 












795-9 


86-25 


2 












798-3 


82-69 


2 












815-2 


82-52 


2 












816-0 


79-92 


2 












828-4 


78-06 


2 












837-3 


77-97 


2s 












837-7 


76-70 


6s 












843-8 


76-05 


2 












846-9 


75-36 


2 












849-2 


74-80 


2 












852-9 


74-66 


2 












853-5 


70-78 


2s 












872-1 


70-30 


4s 












874-4 


69-21 


2 












879-6 


67-87 


4 












886-0 


67-57 


2 












887-5 


60-32 


4s 


4560-27 Fe 






6 


•1 


922-2 


59-94 


2 












9240 


58-92 


3 












928-9 


58-30 t 


5 


4558-29 










931-9 


54-00 


4 












952-6 


53-52 


3 












954-9 


53-40 


3 












955-5 


63-00 


2 












957-4 


41-75 


4 












22011-8 


39-84 


2 












021-1 


38-60 


2 












026-1 


3700 


6 












034-9 


35-56 


4 












041-9 


35-00 


4 












044-6 


34-63 


4 












046-4 


29-59 


5 












070-9 


28-77 


5 


4258-80 Fe 










076-0 


25-56 


4 












090-6 


25-50 


2 












090-9 


24-53 


6 












095-6 


22-37 


4 












106-2 



I 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OK THE ELEMENTS. 



95 



Molybdenum (Arc Spectbum) — continued. 









Reduction to 


« >^r, 




Intensity 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 


Vacuiua 


.2 g § 


Wave-length 


and 






=3 &> 




Cliaracter 




K-V 


1 

A 


Ofe-- 


4518-61 


2 




1-59 


61 


22124-6 


ir-58 


4 




J) 


•1 


129-6 


17-30 X 


6 


4517-28 4517-32 Co 


)I 


11 


136.1 


15-36 


4 




>» 


u 


140-,5 


15-20 


3 




)» 


» 


141-3 


12-32 


5 




I» 


1» 


155-4 


06-86 


4 




It 


1> 


182-3 


06-22 \ 
06-13 J 


6 




>J 


)1 


185-4 




)» 


*1 


185-9 


01-44 


4 


4501-42 Ti 


»> 


If 


209-0 


4499-62 


4 




If 


1» 


218-2 


94-27 


2 




)> 


6-2 


244-3 


92-24 


2 




Jl 


11 


244-4 


9200 


2 




»1 


tl 


255-6 


91-46 


6 




)» 


If 


258-3 


90-37 


4 




Jl 


11 


263-7 


89-17 


3 




»> 


11 


269-6 


87-23 


4 




11 


11 


278-7 


85-16 


5 




>» 


11 


289-5 


75-82 


4 




9» 


fl 


336-1 


74-78 


8 




»l 


fj 


341-3 


73-37 


5 




>» 


1» 


348-3 


72-23 


3 




J» 


ll 


354-0 


71-85 


3 




I» 


11 


355-9 


68-46 


6 




»• 


11 


372-9 


68-28 


2 




IJ 


If 


373-8 


64-96 


6 


4464-94 Fe 


»» 


l» 


390-4 


60-80 


4 




»» 


1* 


411-3 


58-84 


3 




l» 


11 


421-2 


57-55 


7 




>> 


t» 


427-6 


52-77 


3 




»t 


11 


451-7 


49-92 


6 




» 


11 


466-1 


47-41 


3 




S! 


11 


478-8 


46-62 


4s 




1» 


»1 


482-8 


44-21 


2n 




»» 


») 


495-0 


43-25 


4s 




11 


11 


499-8 


42-37 


5s 




)f 


If 


5043 


39-15 


2s 




11 


ff 


520-6 


37-35 


2 




J) 


11 


529-7 


37-06 


4 




11 


fl 


531-2 


33-68 


3s 




11 




548-4 


29-32 


2 




11 


6-3 


570-5 


28-39 


2 




11 


)i 


576-3 


26-86 


5 




^•i 


J) 


583-3 


24-40 


2 




11 


»» 


685-6 


23-79 


5 




11 


>* 


598-8 


23-24 


2 also Ni 




1» 


If 


601-4 


22-23 


3 




11 


ft 


606-7 


20-91 


2 




11 


11 


613-5 


17-40 


2 




11 


»i 


631-4 


12-96 


4 






t» 


654-2 


11-90 


6 




11 


IT 


6.'>9-7 


11-76 


5 




11 


M 


660-4 


10-15 


4 




>1 




668-6 


09-61 


2 




>1 


)» 


671-4 



96 



REPORT — 1903. 



Molybdenum (Akc Specteum) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


440704 


2 


04-71 


3s 


0307 


4 


02-67 


4 


4398-68 


2 


97-48 


4 


97-02 


2 


96-83 


4s 


96-55 


2 


94-67 


3 


94-49 


3 


92-32 


3 


91-71 


3 


89-76 


2 


88-49 


2 


86-10 


2 


82-61 


4 


81-82 


8 


81-36 


2 


80-80 


3s 


80-47 


4 


76-87 


2 


75-21 


3 


75-07 


2 


73-52 


2 


72-31 


2 


70-33 


2 


C9-23 


5 


66-73 


4 


64-90 


2 


64-76 


2 


64-65 


3 


63-82 


3 


63-21 


2 


62-87 


2 


62-20 


3 


57-50 


3 


54-88 


2 


53-48 


4 


50-53 


6 


49-41 


2 


46-40 


2 


44-86 


3 


42-16 


2 


41-61 


4 


40-93 


4 


40-02 


3 


39-42 


2 


38-90 


4 


38-73 


2 


36-38 


2 


35-00 


4 


34-65 


2 


33-40 


2 


32-68 


2 1 



Praunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



Reduction to 


c >> _ 


Vacuum 


•2 s § 




-g 3 o 




1 


S c-|> 


A + 


" * rt 
m w a 




A 


OP^-" 


1-59 


fi-3 


22684-7 


»» 


») 


696-7 


» 


ff 


705-1 


J> 


»> 


707-2 


)f 


« 


727-8 


)l 


)» 


734 


)» 


)» 


736-4 


ft 


11 


737-3 


»> 


J> 


738-8 


«• 


»J 


748-5 


}> 


>l 


749-7 


») 


»» 


760-7 


»J 


1) 


763-9 


» 


)> 


774-0 


J) 


»» 


780-5 


91 


Jl 


792-9 


1> 


»> 


811-2 


If 


)) 


815-3 


If 


J> 


817-6 


>J 


)> 


820-6 


»J 


>9 


822-3 


>? • 


»> 


841-1 


»> 


IJ 


849-7 


» 


»» 


850-4 


») 


»» 


858-6 


J> 


J» 


864-9 


91 


J> 


875-3 


I) 


>» 


881-0 


)> 


6-4 


894-0 


») 


J) 


903-6 


J5 


>j 


904-3 


)> 


i» 


904-9 


1» 


II 


909-3 


1» 


j> 


912-5 


»S 


») 


914-3 


»> 


j> 


917-8 


» 


f> 


942-5 


1) 


)» 


956-3 


9) 


9* 


963-7 


,, 


II 


979-3 


SJ 


11 1 


985-2 


)) 


II 


23001-1 


» 


II 


009-3 


» 


II 


023-6 


» 


II 


026-5 


»t 


11 


030-1 


IJ 


II 


035-0 


» 


11 


038-2 


)) 


11 


040-9 


J) 


II 


041-8 


»» 


11 


054-4 


n 


11 


061-6 


)» 


11 


063-6 


it 

5> 


II 

II 


0702 
0740 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 97 





Molybdenum (Abc Spectrum) — continued. 












Eeduction to 


fi >> _ 








Vacuum 


_o o g 




Intensity 
and 


Fraunhoter Lines (Rowland) 




illat 
quel 
Vac^ 


Wave-length 








Character 




A.+ 


1 


gSJfl 










A~ 


Ob-" 


4330-27 


2 




1-59 


64 


23086-9 


29-82 


3 




1) 




089-3 


29-60 


2 




)t 




091-0 


26-33 


6 




fi 




107-9 


25-44 


2 




I) 




112-6 


24-72 


2 




it 




116-5 


22-60 


2 




)» 




127-8 


22-17 


4 




>* 




130-3 


18-46 


2 




)) 




1500 


18-13 


5 




It 




151-8 


15-60 


2 




ti 




165-4 


13-74 


2 




it 




175-3 


13-16 


3 




)* 




182-4 


12-98 


3 




t) 




179-6 


10-58 


4 


f 4310-63 
t 10-54 


» 




192-3 


08-85 


2 




f) 


6-5 


201-8 


05-10 


4 




f> 




221-8 


04-20 


3 




ff 




226-5 


01-45 


3 




1} 




241-5 


4296-35 


3 




tt 




269-0 


94-07 


6 




)» 




281-4 


93-42 


6 




tt 




285-0 


92-34 


6 




tt 




290-8 


91-39 


4 




»» 




296 


89-56 


4 


4289-50 Ca 


t* 




305-9 


88-82 


6 




tt 




309 5 


87-26 


4 




}i 




319-4 


84-77 


6ii 




ti 




332-3 


82-00 


4 




tt 




347-1 


80-17 


2 




»> 




359-0 


79-19 


2 




)» 




362.4 


77-58 


4 


77-54 Zr 


11 




371-2 


77-38$ 


a 


77-38 


f» 




372-3 


77-08 


6 




)» 




373-9 


75-86 


2 




}* 




380-6 


74-22 


2 




») 




389-5 


73-23 


3s 




»> 




395-0 


72-24 


3 




M 




400-4 


69-44$ 


5 


6945 


J» 




415-8 


68-25 


4 




»» 




422-3 


66-27 


4 




TI 




433-2 


64-81 


2 




It 




441-2 


61-63 


3 




11 




458-7 


61-17 


2 




It 




461-3 


60-85 


3 


60-89 


tt 




463-0 


60-52 


3 




tt 




464-8 


58-85 


2 




It 




472-0 


53-77 ' 


2 




tt 




502 


52-69 


2 




tt 


6-6 


507-9 


52-03 


5 




tt 




511-6 


51-58 


2 




It 




514-1 


50-87 


3 




11 




51S-n 


46-19 


5 


46-25 Fe 


tt 




543-9 


44-95 


3n 




1/ 




550-8 



1903. 



98 



REPORT — 1903. 
MoLYBDEKUM (Aec Specteum) — continued. 



Intensity 
Wave-length and 

Character 



4242-97 
41-03 
40-48 
40-26 
39-37 
39-25 
35-23 
33-68 
32-75 
26-44 
25-10 
24-93 
24-10 
28-15 
22-59 
20-17 

19-55 

19-20 
17-02 
14-24 
11-23 
10-39 
09-84 
08-97 
07-75 
07-*2 
06-00 
04-80 
02-42 
01-50 
01-35 
0076 
00 02 
4199-82 
94-74 
94-20 
88-49 
86-97 
85-98$ 
84-59 
84-33 
81-24 
80-69 
8012 
78-72 
78-45 
77-45 
7709 
75-32 
71-65 
71-27 
70-55 
70-01 
68-68 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



3 
5 
4 
4 also V 
4 
4 
3 
3 
6 
3 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
2 



2 



4 

3 

2 

3 

2 

3 

2 

2 

5 

2 

8 

4 

6 

2 

2 

4 

3 

3 

2 

4 

4 

3 

2 

2 

3 

2 

4 

3 



19-58 Fe 
19-52 Fe 



4185-94 



71-21 Ti 
69-93 Fe 



Reduction to 


S S'o 


Vacuum 


QUO 

,5 S =s 






::3 o-> 




1 


o o'V 


A + 


A~ 


m u a 


1-59 


0-6 


23561-8 


?» 


>j 


572-6 


)T 


T» 


575-6 


>r 


»I 


576-8 


jr 


>l 


581-4 


)» 


»» 


582-5 


»j 


»» 


604-8 


»> 


)» 


613-5 


j» 


»» 


618-7 




)} 


654-0 




?» 


661-5 




» 


662-4 


Jt 


yy 


666-1 


j> 


ji 


672-4 


ri 


)» 


675-5 


» 


)J 


688-1 




>) 


692-6 




f$ 


694-6 


»» 


>> 


706-8 


)) 


TI 


722-5 


>i 


JJ 


739-5 






744-2 


» 


»l 


747-3 


?> 


»l 


753-2 


i> 


» 


759-1 




]f 


761-0 




If 


769-0 


91 


t> 


775-7 


9> 


JJ 


788-2 


» 


}> 


794-4 


») 


)» 


795-3 


») 


»» 


798-6 


J» 


6-7 


802-7 
803-8 


)> 


11 








832-7 


99 


jt 


835-8 




}} 


868-2 




>» 


876-9 






882-6 






890-5 




1) 


892-0 






909-6 




tj 


912-8 




1> 


916-0 




}) 


924-1 




19 


925-6 




TJ 


931-3 




>j 


933-4 


)i 


l» 


943-6 




>l 


964-6 
966-8 


»> 


)» 






)) 


971-2 


• t 




974-1 

981-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 99 
Molybdenum (Abc Spectrum) — continued. 









Reduction to 


i>i _ 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuo 








Character 




A + 


i 


4166-47 


3 




1-59 


6-7 


23994-4 


65-94 


2 






)J 


997-5 


64-26 


3 






>» 


24007-1 


62-85t 


5 


62-83 




)» 


015-3 


60-44 


2 






J» 


029-2 


58-27 


2 






»» 


041-7 


57-59 


5 






J» 


045-7 


55-77 


5 






)» 


056-8 


55-47 


5 






» 


058-0 


62-07t 


4 


5211 




»1 


077-7 


49-90 


2 






ii 


090-3 


49-14 


5 






6-8 


094-6 


48-88 


2 






»» 


102-3 


43-73 


8 






») 


126-0 


42-28 


2 






») 


134-5 


39-72 


2 






)> 


149-4 


38-72 


3 






»» 


155-3 


38-35 


3 






)J 


156-9 


37-10 


2 






„ 


164-7 


35-55 


2 






>» 


173-8 


35-37 


2 






J» 


174-8 


33-18 


2 






»» 


187-6 


32-90 


2 






}f 


189-3 


32-41 


4 






)» 


192-1 


3207 


4 






)» 


194-1 


2902 


4 






J» 


212-0 


28-46 


4 








215-3 


24-72 


4 






?• 


217-3 


23-83 


4 






)• 


242-5 


2255 


2 






»» 


2500 


20-26 


6 






»J 


263-5 


19-18 


2 






J» 


269-9 


19-12t 


4 


19-05 Fe 




J) 


270-2 


15-08 


4 






»» 


294-2 


13-77 


2 






)» 


301-8 


12-29 


2 






>» 


310-5 


10-88 


2 






J» 


318-9 


10-46 


2 






»» 


321-4 


08-30 


3 


08-29 




U 


334-2 


07-63 


6 






?l 


338-1 


05-72 


4 






u 


349-4 


05-27 


4 






)» 


3521 


03-94 


3 






I) 


3600 


02-33$ 


5 


02-32 V 






369-6 


4098-91 


4 






6-9 


389-8 


96-98 


4 






)} 


401-3 


94-63 


2 






•» 


415-3 


93 32 


2 




}> 


»• 


423-1 


89-90 


3 






11 


443-6 


86-16t 


4 


4086-13 




11 


4660 


84 -54$ 


6 


84-58 




>i 


5.75-7 


81-94 


4 






11 


491-3 


81-62 


6 






11 


493-2 


78-25 


2 






n 


513-4 



■[■ Not coincident with Fraunhofer line. 



H 2 



100 



REPORT — 1903. 
Molybdenum (Akc Spectrum) — continued. 




4076-69 

76-35 
75-72 
75-43 
70-17 
70-05 
67-88 
66-52 
62-24 
59-79 
57-77 
57-61 

56-18 



51-35 


50-27 


49-75 


47-75 


47-56 


47-07 


43-91 


43-44 


4305 


41-30 


38-26 


37-95 


3683 


43-11 


32-65 


31-60 


31-06 


28-80 


27-07 


25-64 


21-19 


20-59 


19-32 


17-55 


16-86 


12-97 


12-68 


12-42 


12-12 


09-53 


08-21 


07-62 


06-85 


06-23 


05-86 


03-62 


00-67 


00-55 


3998-45 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



4 
4 
4 
4 
6 
2 
4 
5 
4 
3 also Ti 
2 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 

4 
3 
4 
4 

2 

2 
3 
2 

o 
3 

9 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



76-80 
76-64 



66-52 Co 



56-22 Cr 
56-13 Fe 



2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 

4q 

4 

2 

2 

2 

4 

also V 

2 

4 

4 

4 



32-61 Fe V 



20-64 Fe 
20-55 Sc 



00-61 Fe 



Reduct 


ion to 


S >> r. 


Vacuum 1 


.2 " § 






Oscillat 
Freque 
in Vac 


\ + 


1 1 

1 


1-59 


G-9 


24522-8 


11 


11 


524-8 


J» 


>i 


528-6 


»» 


11 


630-4 


J> 


If 


5620 


>» 


11 


562-8 


»» 


11 


582-4 


n 


ir 


584-2 


i» 


11 


6100 


») 


11 


624-9 


n 


11 


637-2 


)) 


11 


638-1 


») 


11 


646-8 


»» 


7-0 


676-1 


)» 


11 


682-6 


>» 


»1 


685-9 


»> 


11 


698-2 


>» 


11 


699-2 


i> 


11 


702-2 


11 


11 


721-5 


It 


11 


724-4 


u 


11 


726-8 


11 


11 


737-5 


11 


1» 


755-6 


1) 


1) 


758-0 


11 


»* 


764-9 


11 


11 


787-7 


») 


11 


790-6 


11 


11 


797-0 


11 


11 


800-4 


11 


11 


814-3 


11 


>1 


824-9 


1> 


11 


833-8 


11 


If 


861-2 


n 


11 


865-0 


11 


11 


872-8 


11 


11 


883-8 


9» 


11 


888-1 


11 


1> 


912-2 


11 


11 


914-0 


1* 


11 


915-6 


1» 


11 


917-4 


11 


11 


933-6 


»1 


11 


941-8 


11 


>1 


945-4 


11 


11 


950-2 


11 


11 


954-1 


)1 


11 


956-4 


9* 


7-1 


970-2 


11 


)» 


986-7 


11 
11 


I* 


989-4 
25002-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 101 



Molybdenum (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 





I Intensity 


Wave-leugth 


1 and 




Character 


399566 


1 


94-79 


2 


94-06 


4 


93-22 


3 


92-02 


4 


91-55 


4 


86-45 


4 


85-88 


3 


84-92 


2 


82-22 


4 


81-80 


3 


80-87 


3 


80-37 


4 


79-40 


4 


78-08 


4 


74-09 


4 


73-92 


4 


73-10 


2 


71-54 


3 


69-17t 


2 


68-91 


4 


66-40 


3 


65-89 


3 


64-14 


4 


63-68 


3 


60-12 


2 


69-83 


2 


59-03 


2 


68-76 


4 


55-66 


4 


54-08 


4 


51-70 


2 


51-49 


2 


51-14 


4 


50-40 


2 


47-33 


4 


4700 


2 


45-41 


4 


43-66 


4 


43-19 


6 


40-50 


2 


39-65 


2 


39-30 


2 


38-88 


3 


36-89 


2 


36-30 


2 


35-33 


3 


35-13 


4 


34-41 


3 


31-57 


3 


30-35 


3 


28-95 


3 


28-86 


3 


28-45 


3 


2600 


2 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



3969-29 Cr, Co 



61-57 Al 



45-47 Co 
44-10 Al 



Reduction to 


^^ 


Vacuum 


latio) 
uenc; 
acuo 






1 


r: C7> 




1 


O OJ 


A.+ 


M t. C 


1-59 


7-1 


25020-6 


» 


9* 


025-5 


)> 


99 


030-1 


>» 


19 


035-3 


5» 


99 


042-9 


J» 


99 


045-8 


>» 


99 


077-9 


»» 


99 


081-5 


»> 


99 


087-5 


>J 


99 


100-7 


« 


99 


107-2 


J| 


99 


113-0 


>) 


99 


116-2 


l> 


99 


122-3 


»> 


99 


130-6 


)> 


99 


155-9 


fl 


99 


1570 


)) 


99 


162-1 


>» 


99 


172-1 


)> 


99 


187-1 


tf 


99 


188-9 


91 


99 


204-7 


»» 


99 


208-4 


»» 


S9 


219-0 


J» 


99 


222-0 


JJ 


99 


245-6 


f> 


99 


246-5 


)1 


99 


251-6 


)> 


99 


253-3 


1) 


7-2 


273-1 


»> 


99 


283-1 


IJ 


99 


298-4 


» 


>f 


£99-7 


»I 


99 


301-9 


J» 


99 


306-7 


»J 


99 


326-4 


»» 


J9 


328-5 


If 


99 


338-7 


)) 


9» 


350-0 


91 


J> 


3530 


9» 


99 


368-2 


J> 


99 


375-8 


>» 


9> 


378-0 


99 


JJ 


380-7 


19 


19 


393-6 


9i 


99 


397-4 


99 


99 


403-6 


59 


99 


404-9 


99 


99 


409-6 


99 


99 


427-9 


»> 


99 


435-8 


99 


99 


444-9 


99 


99 


445-5 


19 


99 
99 


448-1 
464-0 



102 



REPORT — 1903. 
Molybdenum (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 









Reduction to 


a f>> . 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequeuc 
in Vacuo 








Character 




A.+ 


1_ 

\ 


3924-78 


2 




1-59 


7-2 


25471-9 


23-91 


4 










477-6 


22-49 


4 












486-8 


21-09 


O 












495-9 


20-25 


2 












501-4 


17-95 


4 












516-4 


17-70 


4 












518-0 


17-09 


4 












521-9 


^ 16-62 


2 








' 




525-0 


15-60 


2 












531-7 


13-52 


3 












545-2 


12-10 


3 












554-2 


11-21 


3n 












5601 


09-92 


3 












568-8 


08-42 


3 








7 


•3 


5785 


07-10 


4 












587-1 


03-07 


20n, r 












613-6 


01-95 


5 












621-0 


00-87 


2 












628-0 


00-40 


2 












631-1 


3897-68 


2 












6490 


97-05 


3 












653-1 


96-55 


3 












656-4 


93-50 


2 


3893-54 Fe 










676-5 


90-88 


3 


93-45 Co 










693-8 


89-06 


4 












705-9 


88-36 


4 












710-5 


88-15 


2 












711-9 


87-87 


2 












713-7 


86-98 


5 


86-94 










719-6 


79-20 


2 












771-2 


74-34 


3 


74-32 Ti 










803-5 


73-30 


3 


73 25 Co 










810-4 


70-77 


3 












827-3 


70-62 


3 












828-3 


69 25 


5 












837-5 


66-87 


2 












863-4 


64-25 


20d, r 


64-23 Mo, C 










870-9 


56-15 


3 












925-2 


5509 


2 












932-4 


52-17 


4 












952-0 


51-57 


2 












956-2 


49-95 


2 












967-1 


48-45 


4 


48-48 Ti 










977-2 


47-41 


4 












984-2 


46-36 


3 












991-3 


46-12 


4 












992-9 


44 09 


3 












26006-6 


40-72 


2 












029-5 


39-65 


2 












036-8 


35-49 


4a 












065-0 


35-15 


3 












067-3 


34-82 


3 












069-5 


33-92 


6 












075-7 


32-26 


4 












087-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 103 



MoLYBDKNUM (ARC SPECTRUM) — Continued. 









Reduction to 


fl t>. - 


1 

; Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuo 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 


1-59 


1_ 

A 


3831-95 


2 




7-3 


26089-1 


31-25 


3 




Tl 


>l 


093-8 


30-98 


4 


31-00 1 J, 
30-90 J ^® 


n 


If 


095-7 


30-22 


4 


1) 


I» 


100-9 


30-08 


2 




»» 


»» 


101-8 


29-95 


3 




>» 


»» 


102-7 


29-04 


6 




7» 


tl 


108-9 


27-33 


4 


- 


7f 


f* 


120-6 


26-85 


5 




tl 


If 


123-9 


25-63 


2 




)> 


)f 


132-2 


25-50 


3 




1J 


If 


133-1 


24-94 


3 




If 


if 


136-9 


24-34 


3 




fl 


tf 


142-0 


23-17 


4 




fl 


ft 


149-0 


22-14 


2 




If 


14 


154-9 


21-82 


2 




91 


tf 


158-2 


21-09 


3 




»1 


ff 


163-2 


19-98 


5 




>t 


«f 


171-8 


18-83 


4 




M 


7-4 


178-7 


17-37 


2 




If 


tt 


188-6 


15-24 


3 




11 


tf 


203-3 


14-64 


2 




»» 


1 ** 


207-4 


12-63 


4s 




ft 


! 

11 


221-2 


11-56 


3s 




} t 


1 

i f f 


228-6 


10-99 


2 




)) 




232-5 


10-31 


2 




I) 


„ 


237-2 


08-79 


3 




fl 


t* 


248-3 


08-04 


2 




}* 


ft 


252-8 


07-82 


2 




11 


tt 


254-3 


06-15 


4 




It 


tt 


265-9 


04-70 


4 




»» 


1 1 


275 9 


02-35 


2 




*> 


tf 


292-1 


02-00 


5 


01-98 


ft 


t f 


294-6 


00-28 


2 




ft 


tf 


306-4 


3798-39 


20nr 


3798-40 Mo 


n 


tt 


319-5 


97-46 


4 




tl 


If 


326-0 


97-20 


3 




tt 


It 


327-9 


96-45 


2 




ft 


ft 


332-9 


96-19 


3 




It 


tt 


334-8 


95-48 


2 




ft 


f 1 


339-7 


94-60 


4 




f) 


tt 


345-8 


88-42 


4 




tf 


If 


388-8 


86-54 


2 




ft 


it 


401-9 


85-67 


3 




}t 


It 


408-0 


85-19 


4 




tf 


11 


411-4 


82-86 


2 


. 


Ji 


It 


427-6 


82-35 


3 








431-2 


81-75 


5 








435-4 


80-78 


2 




11 


tt 


442-3 


79-92 


4 








448-2 


77-90 


3 




11 




462-3 


76-73 


2 




11 




469-8 


76-27 


2 








473-8 


72-99 


4 






7-5 


496-7 


72-11 


4 




ff 


I) 


502-8 



104 



REPORT — 1903. 



Molybdenum (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave-length 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



3770-f6 
68.92 
68-78 
67-90 
65-58 
65-92 
85-40 
65-21 
64-60 
64-20 

63-52 

6227 
61-93 
61-07 
59-80 
58-70 
5602 
55-68 
55-31 
52-12 
51-38 
48-66 
47-37 
45-12 
44-55 
43-98 
42-48 
40-97 
38-10 
36-36 
35-80 
34-56 
33-59 
33-22 
32-91 
30-75 
28-70 
28-50 
27-86 
26-45 
25-75 
24-00 
23-70 
22-50 
20-42 
19-87 
19-71 
18-66 
17-05 
16-27 
15-83 
14-73 
1364 
12-22 



6 
3 
2 
2 

3 
4 
2 

3 
2 

[ * 
[ also Mn 

3 

4 
4 
3 
4 
3 
2 
4 
2 
4 
4 
4 
3 
4 
2 
5 
2 
4 
2 
3 
3 
2 
4 
6 
2 
4 
3 
6 
4 
4 
2 
3 
2 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 

3 
4 
3 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



3727-78 Fe 



Reduction to 


« J?^ 


Vacuum 


o c.* o 
•2 c = 




cillat 
eque: 
Vac 




1 


A + 


X~ 


m t. a 


1-59 


7-5 


26513-0 


)1 


J> 


525-3 


IT 


)» 


526-3 


»» 


)* 


532-5 


»l 


)» 


541-8 


»» 


91 


546-5 


,, 


»» 


550-2 


J» 


I» 


551-5 


») 


)5 


555-7 


)» 


?1 


558-5 


J» 


>l 


663-3 


J) 


»t 


572-1 


)> 


J» 


574-6 


)» 


11 


580-7 


J» 


»> 


589-6 


?l 


J> 


597-4 


>t 


»J 


616-4 


J» 


J> 


619-0 


>» 


»» 


621-5 


JJ 


71 


644-1 


)l 


JJ 


649-5 


»» 


)» 


668-7 


») 


)» 


677-9 


5> 


>» 


693-9 


T» 


>» 


698-0 


»» 


»» 


7020 


»» 


I> 


712-6 


»* 


)» 


723-5 


>» 


>» 


744-0 


9) 


>J 


756-5 


It 


» 


760-5 


?> 


J> 


769-4 


»» 


JJ 


776-4 


)» 


>» 


779-0 


1> 


)) 


781-3 


•>% 


•» 


796-8 


»» 


M 


811-5 


)l 


♦ » 


813-0 


>» 


7-6 


817-4 


J» 


>» 


827-6 


T» 


55 


832-6 


J» 


>> 


845-2 


»J 


1> 


847-6 


>» 


}f 


856-0 


>» 


»> 


871-1 


)f 


7> 


875-1 


»» 


f> 


876-2 


J> 


>) 


883-8 


>> 


»> 


895-5 


>f 


H 


901-1 


)» 


)> 


904-3 


•» 


5* 


912-3 






920-2 
930-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 105 



Molybdenum (Arc Sfectrv M)—c(mtinufid, 



Intensity 
Wave-length | and 

Character 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



3711-68 


3 




10-32 


3 




08-73t 


4 


3708-79 


07-35 


3 




05-57 


2 




02-67 


4 


3702-63 


02-33 


2 




01-67 


2 




00-15 


3 




3698-69 


3 




9618 


3 


3696-17 Fe 


9509 


7 




93-52 


4 




92-79 


4 


3692-79 Fe 


92-24 


3 




90-72 


5 




90-30 


2 




89-13 


4 




88-45 


4 




88-12 


2 




87-12 


2 




86-72 


4 




86-27 


4 




84-48 


3 




82-12 


2 




81-88 


4 




81-69 


3 




80-85 "I 
80-75 / 


7 


3680-80 


80-36 


2 




79-39 


3 




77-83 


4 


/ 3677-83 
77-76 Fe 


70-40 


4 




76-15 


3 


3676-11 Fe 


75-54 


4 




73-38 


3 




72-97 


6 




69-50+ 


5 


3669-54 


68-63 


3 




66-87 


4 


3666-91 Fe 


64-98t 


6 


3664-97 


64-45 


4 




63-83 


2 




6314 


4 




61-91 


4 




61-24 


3 




6108 


4 




59-51 


7 




58-50 


2 




57-53 


5 


3657-56 Fe 


55-21 


3 


f 3654-81 Fe 


54-73 


4n 


54-74 Ti 
54-6 Cu 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


■§§§ 


A + 


1_ 
\ 


3 g-r* 


1-59 


7-6 


26934-4 


>t 


1> 


944-2 


» 


Jf 


955-8 


>» 


»» 


965-8 


»> 


>> 


978-8 


»» 


>» 


999-9 


»> 


)» 


27002-4 


)f 


») 


007-2 


71 


») 


018-3 


7* 


»J 


029-0 


77 


»> 


047-3 


J> 


»1 


055-4 


1» 


)J 


066-8 


*1 


>» 


072-2 


»» 


>» 


076-2 


» 


»» 


087-4 


» 


)> 


090-5 


» 


)l 


099-1 


>} 


77 


1041 


9} 


5> 


106-5 


77 


J» 


113-8 


77 


>) 


116-0 


77 


>» 


120-1 


71 


77 


133-3 


>» 


7-7 


150-6 


»» 


»> 


152-3 


>f 


)» 


153-7 
159-8 


>1 


»> 


160-7 


»J 


19 


163-5 


» 


1. 


170-7 


77 


»> 


182-2 


»? 


»» 


192-8 


>» 


„ 


194-6 


»» 


>» 


199-2 


»» 


J> 


215-1 


77 


>» 


215-2 


77 


» 


244-0 


77 


If 


250-4 
264-5 


J» 


f* 


277-7 


IT 


»> 


281-5 


»» 


99 


286-1 


J) 


>J 


291-3 


>» 


» 


300-4 


„ 


)) 


305-5 


»» 


>» 


306-7 


>» 


I) 


318-4 


»» 


)» 


325-9 


J) 


»» 


3331 


It 


J» 


350-5 


>» 


It 


354-2 



106 



REPORT — 1903. 
Molybdenum (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 




3653-75 
51-48 
50-75 
49-61 
48-75 
47-03 
42-37 
41-16 
41-08 
40-76 
38-72 
38-57 
38-35 
37-68 
35-77 
35-57+ 
35-30 
29-45 
28-80 
2850 
26-33t 
24-77 
24-60 
23-36 
17-01 
15-91 
15-32t 
14-87 
14-42 
13-94 
13-80 
13-55 
12-62 
12-15 
10-80 
08-52 
07-56 
05-19 
04-73 
04-24 

03-86 

03-10 
00-04 
359905 
96-54 
95-87 
95-71 
94-73 
91-55 
90-90 
90-47 
89-10 
87-03 
85-74 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2 

4 

2 

3 

4 

2 

4 

4 

4 

4 

3 
3 also V 

5 

4 

3 

5 

4 

5 

3 

2 
5 also Fe 

3 

T) 

4 

4 

3 

3 

2 

6 

3 

3 

4 

4 

4 

2 

4 

2 

2 

3 

4 



5 
3 

4 

4 
4 
2 
3 
4 
2 
4 
4 



Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 



3649-65 Fe 



3637-69 

3635-61 Ti, Fe 
3635-34 Ti, Fe 



3626-33 
3623-36 Fe 
3615-34 



3603-92 Ti 
03-83 Cr 



358905 



Reduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Vacuum 




\ + 


1 


1-59 


7-7 


27361-4 


»> 


j» 


378-4 


J» 


IT 


383-9 


»> 


II 


392-5 


»» 


11 


398-9 


»» 


II 


411-9 


T) 


It 


446-9 


JJ 


Jl 


456-0 


»» 


II 


456-7 


ff 


1) 


459-1 


»1 


7-8 


474-4 


»» 


TT 


475-5 


)> 


TI 


477-2 


»» 


II 


482-2 


J) 


T» 


496-7 


)J 


TI 


498-2 


1» 


IT 


500-2 


f» 


IT 


544-6 


I» 


TT 


549-5 


1» 


11 


551-7 


»1 


11 


568-3 


f> 


TI 


580-2 


)» 


II 


581-4 


t) 


IT 


589-4 


f 1 


II 


639-3 


1) 


II 


647-7 


H 


IT 


652-2 


)» 


II 


655-7 


f* 


11 


659-2 


t» 


11 


662-8 


») 


IT 


663-9 


}1 


TT 


665-8 


I) 


TI 


672-9 


II 


II 


676-5 


»l 


II 


686-9 


IT 


TI 


704-4 


• 1 


TI 


711-8 


)f 


TI 


729-0 


>9 


IT 


733-5 


« 


11 


737-3 


»1 


IT 


740-2 


tl 


IT 


746-1 


»» 


II 


769-7 


IT 
tT 
T) 


11 
TI 
IT 


777-3 

796-7 
801-9 


TI 


TI 


803-1 


If 


7-9 


810-6 


JT 

tt 




835-2 
840-3 


JT 


i» 


843-6 


IT 


*i 


854-2 


T) 




870-4 
880-4 



ON WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 107 
Molybdenum (Arc Spkciviv^i)— continued. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 


3584-42 


3 


83-30 


8 


82-03 


7 


81-15 


2 


80-70 


4 


76-35 


o 


75-88 


jt 


75-78 


3 


74-63 


3 


74-05 


5 


71-42 


3 


70-82 


5 


70-63 


3 


66-91 


2 


66-57 


2 


66-20 


4 


64-45 


3 


63-91 


4 


63-30$ 


6 


62-26 


4 


60-28t 


4 


59-42 


2 


58-25 


6 


57-63 


2 


55-58 


3 


54-35 


4 


52-57 


2 


51-12 


3 


48-88 


2 


48-05 


2 


47-57 


2 


43-27 


2 


4292 


2 


42-32 


5 


29-62 


2 


3907 


3 


37-41 


6 


34-83 


3n 


31-44 


2 


2608 


2 


25-11 


4 


24-76 


4 


22-52 


3 


21-66 


5 


21-32 


3 


21-17 


3 


18-35 


4 


17-70 


4 


14-93 


2 


13-86 


3 


10-93 


3 


08-26 


6 


07-45 


2 


07-16 


2 


05-45 


4 



Fraunhofer Lines (Kowland) 



3573 97 Fe 



3563-30 
3560-28 
356821 



Keduction to 


^ >> ^ 


Vacuum 


.2 "2 






* «' S 


X-l- 


1 
A. 

7-9 


OsciU 
Prequ 


1-59 


27890-6 


tt 


11 


899-3 


)) 


JJ 


909-2 


It 


*1 


916-1 


11 


11 


919-6 


»> 


»» 


953-5 


)1 


11 


957-2 


i1 


11 


958-0 


»> 


11 


967 


)» 


It 


971-5 


11 


11 


992-1 


11 


1) 


996-9 


l» 


11 


998-3 


») 


11 


28027-6 


*» 


11 


030-2 


»» 


11 


033-1 


)) 


11 


046-9 


I» 


»> 


051-2 


T» 


It 


0559 


I» 


11 


064-1 


)» 


11 


079-7 


U 


11 


086-5 


J> 


11 


095-7 


»» 


11 


100-7 


1) 


8-0 


116-7 


?» 


11 


127-1 


1» 


11 


140-6 


») 


11 


152-1 


Tl 


11 


169-4 


»» 


It 


176-5 


)J 


11 


180-3 


}) 


19 


214-5 


»» 


91 


217-3 


»» 


11 


222-0 


>» 


11 


243-6 


»» 


11 


2480 


J» 


11 


261-2 


J» 


11 


281-9 


»t 


11 


309-0 


>» 


11 


352-1 


f* 


11 


359-9 


»» 


11 


362-7 


>f 


It 


380-8 


M 


91 


388-5 


)» 


19 


390-4 


l» 


11 


391-6 


»1 


11 


414-4 


11 


11 


419-6 


»> 


11 


442-1 


»» 


• 1 


450-7 


Jl 


(1 


474-5 


» 


8-1 


496-2 




t> 


502-6 


If 


It 
II 


505-0 
518-9 



108 



REPORT— 1903. 
Molybdenum (Akc Spectrum) — continued. 









Reduction to 


S t^„ 








Vacuum 


o o o 
r^ i 3 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Fraunhofer Lines (Rowland) 




jillal 
ique: 
Vac 




1 




Character 




A.+ 


M J, n 
Ofa- 


3504-55 


5 


r 3504-57 V 
1 04-56 Fe 


1-59 


8-1 


28526-2 


3498-21 


2 




„ 




578-0 


93-49 


4 




^j 




616-5 


92-98 


2 




„ 




620-8 


92-05 


2 








628-4 


91-92 


2 




,, 




629-4 


90-42 


2 








641-7 


84-05 


4 


■ 


„ 




694-1 


82-55 


4 








706-5 


81-95 


3 




„ 




711-4 


80-26 


3 








725-4 


79-60 


4 








730-8 


76-15 


4 


3476-07 Ca 


» 




759-3 


75-19 


4 








767-2 


71-09 


3 








801-2 


69-80 


2 






8-2 


811-9 


69-39 


4 








815-2 


68-70 


2 








821-0 


68-02 


4 








826-7 


67-13 


3 








834-1 


66-98 


4 








835-3 


65-81 


3 








845-1 


63-78 


3 








8620 



J Certainly coincident ■with Fraunhofer lines, 
f Not coincident with Fraunhofer lines. 



Calcium (Spabk Spectrum). 
Eder and Valenta, ' Denkschr. k. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' Ixviii. 1898. 



Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber R. Akad. Wissensch. Wier 


,' cvi. 1897. 


Wave-length 




Reduction to 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Eder and 


Exner and 




1 


Valenta 


Hascliek 


Character 


A + 




6499-9 s 




8 


1-91 


4-5 


15380-5 


93-9 


Ti 




10 


»» 


?» 


394-4 


71-9 


0) 




8 


1-90 


1» 


447-0 


62-8 


g 




10 




n 


468-8 


49-99 


g 




8 


»» 


»» 


499-5 


39-4 


s 




10 


1-89 


»? 


525-0 


6169-9 


^1 




5 


1-82 


4-8 


162030 


69-4 




5 


»J 


»» 


204-3 


66-8 


■g 




5 


1-81 


)) 


211-2 


62-5 






10 


>» 


»» 


222-5 


22-5 


a> 




10 


1-80 


>i 


328-5 


02-99 


72 




8 


)» 


»> 


380-6 


6857-7 ^ 




8s 


*> 


5-0 


17066-3 


5603009 




5s 


1-53 


4-9 


842-7 


01-475 






6s 


f> 


»» 


847-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 109 
Calcium (Spaek Spectrvm)— continued. 



Wave-length 




Reduction to 








Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Edei- and 


Exner and 






Valenta 


Haschek 


Character 


\ + 


1_ 

A 


iu Vacuo 


5598-681 




5s 


1-53 


4-9 


17856-5 


94-632 




6s 


11 


J1 


869-4 


90-324 




4s 


1-52 


)» 


883-1 


88-948 




6n 


)» 


n 


887-6 


82-167 




4s 


>1 


n 


909-3 


13-120 




2b' 


1-50 


1* 


18133-7 


5349-619 




5s 


1-46 


51 


687-8 


5270-463 




5s 


1-44 


5-2 


968-5 


65-720 




5s 


»1 


1» 


985-6 


64-402 




3s 


IJ 


ti 


990-3 


62-365 




3s 


t1 


11 


997-7 


61-863 




3s 


?» 


11 


999-5 


5188-977 




2s 


1-42 


5-3 


19266-3 


5041-920 




In 


1-38 


5-4 


828-3 


4878-360 




4s 


1-33 


5-6 


20493-1 


4847-2 




In 


»» 


5-7 


624-8 


4586-08G 




6b^ 


1-26 


6-0 


21799-1 


81-618 




5s 


»» 


11 


820-3 


78-780 




4s 


1-25 


»» 


833-9 


27-183 




4b' 


l'2-l 


6-1 


22082-7 


4481-34 


4181-7 


2nMg? 


1-23 


6-2 


308-6 


67-929 




In 


1'22 




375-5 


66-625 




In 


»» 




382-1 


56-786 




3s 


»i 


1) 


431-5 


56-057 


56 06 


7s 


If 


tf 


435-2 


54-919 


54-93 


7n 


n 


19 


440-9 


44-087 




1 


u 


j» 


495-6 


42-963 




1 


)» 


»j 


501-3 


35-838 


35-84 


6s 


»» 


11 


537-4 


35-124 


35-12 


6n 


jy 


11 


541-1 


25-616 


25-62 


8b 


1-21 


6-3 


589-4 


4355-467 




Sb" 


1-19 


6-4 


953-2 


33-932 




1 


»» 


11 


23067-3 


30-313 




2 


J» 


11 


086-6 


18-798 


4318-79 


8 


1-18 




148-2 


14-148 




2 


1» 


11 


173-1 


10-585 




1 


H 


11 


192-3 


07-864 


07-92 


5 


)f 


6-5 


213-4 


02-676 


02-70 


9 


)) 




234-8 


4?99-133 


4299-14 


8 


»? 


IT 


254-0 


89-534 


89-55 


8 


11 




306-1 


83-125 


83-18 


8 


11 




340-9 


78-018 




2 


1-17 




368-8 


77-403 
71-760 




1 
lb 


11 


11 

11 


372-2 
403-1 


40 515 


40-55 


2n 


1-16 


6-6 


575-4 


38-587 




In 


)» 


11 


586-2 


26-870 


26-88 


8r 






651-6 


4130-98 




In 


1-13 


6-8 


24200-5 


27-96 




In 






218-2 


23-39 




In 


tf 




2451 


4098-876 




2b' 


It 


11 


390-0 


95 243 




2b' 


»» 


6-9 


411-7 


57-980 




3s 


1-12 




635-9 


3979-208 




r 'ghost'? 


1-10 , 


7-1 


25123-5 



110 



REPORT — 1903. 
Calcium (Spabk Spectrum) — coritltmed. 



Wave-length 1 




Reduction to 




J 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Ospillfl tiinn 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eder and 
Valenta 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A + 


1 

A 


3973-908 


3973-87 


2s 


109 


7-1 


25157-0 


68-638 


68-62 


lOr 


») 


)) 


190-5 


57-960 




r' ghost'? 


»> 


t) 


258-4 


57-232 


57-23 


4s 


»» 


,, 


2631 


49101 


49-03 


3s 


1» 


7-2 


315-0 


33-803 


33-81 


lOr 


1-08 


J) 


413-5 


23-345 




lOr' ghost'? 


»t 


»» 


481-2 


15-388 




1 


»» 


)l 


533-1 


09-980 




1 


>) 


It 


568-4 


05-691 




4s 


»» 


7-3 


596-4 


3856-153 




2b 


106 


>» 


925-3 


26-506 




4s 


?» 


)• 


26126-2 


3759-419 




3s 


1-04 


7-5 


592-4 


47-151 




4b 


>> 


»» 


679-4 


37-090 


3737-25 


10b' 


1-03 


)» 


751-3 


16-193 




2b' 


H 


»» 


901-7 


06-190 


06-25 


10b' 


)) 


7-6 


974-3 


3696-429 




2b' 


1-02 


Ji 


27045-5 


85-317 




33 


»» 


t» 


127-1 


53-606 




2 


1-01 


7-7 


362-5 


44-466 


3644-53 


8 


»> 


tt 


431-1 


30-812 


30-8 


eb-- 


)i 


7-8 


534-3 


24-162 


241 


Sb-^ 


»» 


»J 


584-8 


01-957 




2b 


100 




754-9 


3594-259 




Is 


9J 


7-9 


814-2 


87-156 




4b 


»» 


tt 


869-3 


35-60 




2s 


0-98 


SO 


28275-7 


10-97 




4s 


it 


tl 


474-2 


05-00 




5s 


,, 


8-1 


514-4 


3487-87 




2b' 


97 


tt 


662-7 


74-96 




2b' 


»* 


»l 


769-2 


56-58 




2s 


0-96 


8-2 


922-1 


44-53 




3s 


tt 


tt 


29023-3 


3387-99 




3s 


0-95 


8-4 


507-6 


72-930 




6s 


0-94 


It 


639-4 


61-374 




6s 


1J 


ti 


741-4 


49-568 




6s 


IT 


8-5 


846-1 


49-199 




4s 


«1 


tt 


849-4 


35-30 




2s 


93 


1> 


973-8 


32-20 




2n 


»» 


») 


30001-2 


29-60 




3s 


f) 


»» 


025-1 


23-09 




6s 


It 


8-6 


083-9 


3278-74 




2s 


0-92 


8-7 


490-8 


61-70 




4s 


t» 


t» 


650-2 


48-71 




3s 


091 


8-8 


772-7 


4211 




3s 


t» 


tt 


835-3 


39-15 




3s 


)1 


It 


863-5 


36 70 




5s 


tt 


J» 


886-9 


34-68 




6s 


)> 


tt 


906-2 


24-42 




Is 


l» 


» 


31004-5 


2300 




2s 


t» 


it 


018-2 


1&-45 




1 


0-90 


)t 


062-1 


17-05 




1 


,, 


»i 


075-6 


3181-409 


318151 


8b'r 


0-89 


8-9 


422-9 


79-447 


79-60 


lOb'r 


)» 


9-0 


443-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS 111 



Calcium (Spark Spectrum)— co;t<i?iW(?<f. 



Wave-length 




Reduction to 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eder and 
Valenta 


Exner and 
Haschek 




1_ 








\ + 


A 




3170-2 




In 


0-89 


9-0 


31534-8 


59-013 


5911 


lObT 






646-5 


03-92 




28 


0*88 


9-2 


32208-1 


3092-84 




8s 


0-87 




323-5 


88-11 




4s 






373-1 


82-21 




8s 


J) 


9-3 


435-0 


78-67 




3s 






472-3 


75-39 




2s 






506-9 


73-06 




Is 


jf 




631-6 


66-40 




3n 






602 2 


09-32 


3009-29 


3s 


0-85 


9-5 


33220-6 


06-98 


06-95 


4s 






246-5 


2999-74 




2 




>) 
}} 


326-7 


97-2 




1 




9-6 


354-9 


95-08 


2995 04 


3s 


9j 




378-5 


36-83 




4n 


0-83 


9-8 


34040-5 


28-92 




4n 




)1 


132-6 


2816-44 




2n 


0-80 


10-3 


35495-5 


2660-53 




4 


0-77 


10-9 


375756 


2575-22 




3 


0-75 


11-3 


38820-3 


6809 




3 


J^ 


11-4 


9280 


2398-73 




2n 


0-71 


12-3 


41676-4 


73-24 




2 


0-70 


12-6 


421240 


13-02 




1 


69 


13-0 


432205 


09-20 




1 






292-0 


229009 




1 


tf 


13-1 


653-3 


75-44 




2 


0-68 


13-3 


934-2 


59-5 




in 


jf 


13-4 


44244-2 


08-95 




2 


0-67 


13-8 


45256-6 


005 




in 




13-9 


430-3 


219803 




2 


)) 




481-5 


33-0 




I 

2 


0-66 


14-1 


46868-2 


31-2 




i 
3 


0-65 


14-5 


907-4 


230 




A 
2 


1) 


14-6 


47088-6 


1301 






1) 


14-7 


311-2 


03-47 








14-8 


525-7 


209987 






It 


if 


607-2 


86-64 








14-!) 


9090 


81-53 






" 


150 


48026-6 



112 



REPORT — 1903. 



Scandium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum). 
Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cix. 1900. 





1 


Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 


and 






in Vacuo 




Character 




1_ 








A.+ 


A 




474i-02 


2 


1-30 


5-8 


21073-4 


41-25 


2 


n 


11 


085-7 


37.86 


1 


rj 


11 


100-8 


34-30 


1 


It 


1» 


116-6 


29-40 


1 


1-29 


11 


138-5 


469850 


1 


tT 


5-9 


277-5 


70-64 


7 


1-28 


1? 


404-4 


4574-17 


la 


1-25 


6 


855-7 


4431-57 


H 


1-22 


tl 


22559-1 


20-87 


2 


1-21 


It 


6139 


4315-85 


16 


»1 


62 


G4G-5 


00-64 * 


20 


H 


6-3 


716-6 


85-01 


4 


1-20 


»t 


797-7 


74-70* 


20 


)» 


11 


852-4 


59-22 


1 


J» 


6-4 


933-5 


64-80 


a 


119 


11 


956-8 


25-24 * 


20 


n 


11 


23113-6 


21-01 * 


20 


,, 


11 


136-3 


14-32 


30 


1-18 


11 


172-2 


05-94 


6 


•• 


6-5 


220-1 


4294-98 


5 


»1 


11 


276-5 


80-05 


1 


1-17 


f 1 


357-7 


47-02 * 


100 


»t 


6-6 


539-3 


38-22 


1 


116 


1» 


588-2 


32-12 


1 Nb? 


»7 


It 


622-2 


29-98 


1 


11 


11 


634-2 


4082-60 * 


3 


M2 


6-9 


24487-3 


68-8 


2b 


*) 


11 


570-4 


61-4 


2b 


»» 


11 


615-1 


54-70 * 


3 


1-11 


,f 


«55-8 


47-96 


2 


11 


7-0 


C96-8 


23-86 * 


8 


)1 


11 


844-7 


20-56 * 


8 


»» 


11 


862-7 


14-68 


8 


1-10 


11 


901-8 


3996-76 * 


2 


»» 


7-1 


25013-2 


89-21 


1 


ft 


11 


060-5 


88-13 


1 Yb? 


tt 


11 


067-3 


44-9 


In 


1-09 


7-2 


346-8 


23-60 


1 


1-08 


n 


478-6 


12-05 * 


6 


)• 


,, 


553-2 


07-69 


6 


11 


7-3 


583-3 


3678-65 


3n r 


1-03 


7-7 


27176-2 


76-82 


I 


11 


11 


189-7 


75-42 


1 


»1 


It 


200-0 


66-69 


3 


11 


11 


264-0 


64-37 


1 


11 


11 


282-1 


51-96 * 


20 


1-01 


11 


3750 


45-46 * 


15 


tJ 


11 


423-7 


42-93* 


50 


1* 


1» 


442-7 


30-86 


100 


Jt 


7-8 


r,33-0 


28-35 


In 


It 


ff 


552-9 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 113 



Scandium (Dltba-violet Spaek Specteum)- 


-continued. 






Eeduction to 




Wave-Iength 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 








Cliaracter 


\ + 


1 

a" 




3624-77 


In 


1-00 


7-8 


27579-2 


19-97 


1 Yb? 


ti 


79 


618-8 


13-96* 


100 


»j 


If 


665-4 


03-1 


lb 


») 


11 


746-0 


3590-67 


10 


>» 


7-9 


842-0 


89-82 


10 


»» 


JJ 


848-6 


81-15 


20 


»» 


11 


915-1 


76-52 * 


30 


0-99 


11 


9531 


72-71 * 


50 


ft 


11 


9821 


67-86 


20 


>» 


11 


28020-1 


58-72 


20 


»> 


11 


092-1 


35-88 


15 


0-98 


8-0 


274-2 


3457-62 




0-96 


8-2 


896-7 


35-67 




>» 


•* 


29089-7 


29-59 




»» 


8-3 


149 7 


3394-55 


In 


0-95 


8-4 


449-6 


85-6 


lb 


JJ 


Jl 


528-5 


83-81 




»» 


>» 


6441 


79-5 


Snr 


)) 


)> 


581-8 


78-5 


Inr 


)f 


1» 


590-5 


72-30 


10 


0-94 


)» 


644-9 


69-10 


10 


?l 


1> 


675-1 


62-09 


8 


)J 


11 


735-0 


61-45 


8 


>* 


IJ 


740-7 


59-83 


8 


J> 


11 


759-8 


53-88 * 


20 


)» 


8-5 


807-7 


52-19 


2 


„ 


," 


822-7 


43-5 


3b 


.. 


»» 


900-3 


31-4 


2b 


0-93 


1- 


30008-8 


17-9 


lb 


>> 


8-6 


148-2 


17-25 


In 


T> 


11 


145-9 


13-0 


3b 


11 


11 


184-6 


12-0 


2b 


11 




193-7 


3289-50 


1 Yb? 


0-92 


8-7 


3956 


73-76 


2 


»J 


11 


536-2 


7005 


2 


») 


11 


571-8 


55-79 


1 


11 


11 


706-8 


51-44 


1 


0-91 


8-8 


746-8 


3199-6 


lb 


»t 


8-9 


31245-0 


91-2 


lb 


11 


,^ 


327-2 


39-98 


2n 


11 


9-1 


838-2 


33-32 


2n 


0-88 


19 


899-7 


30-49 


INb? 


j» 


1> 


934-6 i 


28-48 


In 


It 


?l 


955-1 1 


26-2 


lb 


»t 


If 


978-6 


08-70 


In 


11 


9-2 


32158-3 


3082-80 


1 


0-87 


9-3 


428-7 


65-32 


5n 


H 


If 


613-6 


60-7 


In 


0-86 


11 


663'J 


53-12 


4n 


»» 


9-4 


744-0 


45-88 


3n 


» 


11 


821-8 


40-15 


2n 


It 


11 


883-7 


21-14 


1 


0-85 


9-5 


090-6 


20-70 


1 


») 


11 


095-4 


19-42 


1 


99 


j» 


33109-5 



1903 



114 



REPORT — 1903. 



Scandium (Ultea-violet Spark Spectrum) — eontimwd. 







Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 








Character 


A.+ 


1 

A ~ 




3015-46 


1 


0-85 


9-5 


331530 


2989-20 


3a 


1} 


9-6 


444-2 


80-91 


1 


0-84 




548-4 


80-0 


lb 




)) 


547-5 


7417 


1 Nb? 






613-2 


131 


Id 


o'83 


9-9 


34308-2 


2871-1 


lb 


0-82 


101 


809-9 


66-2 


lb 




II 


860-0 


59-5 


lb 


0-81 


II 


961-1 


58-40 


1 


f) 




974-2 


26-88 


3n 




10-2 


35364-5 


22-4 


3b 


0-80 


10-3 


420-5 


19-75 


2ii 


It 


11 


453-8 


01-6 


lb 






683-6 


2790-94 


In 


Jy 


10-4 


819-8 


89-4 


2b 




ff 


839-5 


82-6 


lb 


0-79 


1) 


927 1 


34-12 


7 


0-78 


10-6 


36543-7 


269914 


10 




10-8 


37027-4 


84-3 


lb 


0-77 


It 


242-7 


7615 


In 


}l 


10-9 


346-4 


67-7 


lb 




It 


474-5 


11-4 


2b 


0-76 


11-1 


38282-5 


2563-30 


4 


0-74 


11-4 


991-2 


62-65 


3 


1} 


11 


39010-7 


60-39 


6 




II 


029-8 


55-91 


4 


if 


It 


112-4 


52-49 


8 


ft 


II 


166-0 


45-31 


4 


»» 


11-5 


266-9 


2400-44 


1 


0-71 


12-3 


41646-7 


2363-95 


lb 


0-70 


12-6 


42289-5 


2299-25 


In 


0-69 


13-1 


43466-6 


88-20 


In 


If 


fl 


675-6 


73-21 


3 


0-68 


13-3 


963-6 


51-94 


In 


»* 


13-4 


44391-7 


32-98 


In 


T» 


13-6 


769-6 



* Rowland 4400-555, 4374-628, 4325-152, 4320-907, 4246-696 (Y?), 4082-589 Sc. E'e, 
Ti ; 4054-714, 4023834, 4020547, 3996682, 3911-963, 3651-940, 3645-475 Sc ?, 3642-912. 
3613-947, 3576-527, 3572-712, 3553875, also 5672-047 occur in Rowland's list of solar 
lines. 



i 



OS WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



11; 



Indium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum). 
Exner and Haschek, 'Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cviii. (2), 1899. 









Reduction to 


a I*.- 


Wave-length 


Intensity 




Vacuum 


Oscillatio: 
Frequenc 
in Vacuc 


and 
Character 


Previous Observations (Ave) 


At- 
l-24~ 


1 

A 


4511-55 


50r 


4511-44 K and R 


6-1 


22159-2 


437013 


2 




1-20 


6-3 


8501 


09-72 


1 




1-18 


6-4 


23197-0 


4177-69 


2 




1-15 


6-7 


930-0 


02-01 


50r 


4101-87 


1-13 


6-8 


24371-5 


38S5-2 


3b 




1-06 


7-3 


26067-0 


3774-49 


1 




1-04 


7-4 


486-2 


10-45 


2 




1-03 


7-6 


943-3 


3633-27 


1 




1-01 


7-8 


27515-6 


11-20 


1 




1-00 


n 


683-8 


10-60 


1 




jy 


»» 


688-4 


3519-33 


ITH 




0-98 


8-0 


28406-5 


3262-48 


1 Sn 




0-92 


8-7 


30642-8 


.58-64 


3 


3258-66 


0-91 


}t 


6790 


56-22 


8r 




?» 


»» 


701-8 


3187-15 


In 




0-90 


89 


31367-0 


75-17 


ISn 




»* 


9-0 


485-5 


3039-45 


4n r 


3039-46 


86 


9-4 


.32891-3 


34-23 


In Sa 




>J 


»» 


947-9 


08-30 


10 




}t 


9-5 


33231-9 


2983.51 


8n 




0-85 


9-6 


608-1 


41-39 


10 




0-84 


9-8 


987-7 


32-73 


1 


2932-71 


0-83 


1» 


34088-1 


2890-35 


4 




0-82 


10-0 


587-8 


40-11 


1 Sn 




0-81 


10-2 


35199-6 


2754-03 


In 


2753-97 


0-79 


10-5 


36299-9 


14-1 


In 


14-05 


0-78 


10-7 


833-9 


10-39 


2b 


10-38 


91 


10-9 


884-4 


2658-7 


IbSn 




0-77 


11-2 


37601-5 


02-0 


lb 


2601-84 


0-76 


11-4 


38420-8 


2560-05 


lb 


2560-25 


0-74 


12-1 


39050-3 


2429-52 


In Sn 


2429-76 


0-72 


12-7 


41148-3 


23,50-84 


1 




0-70 


130 


42525-3 


06-18 


5 




0-69 


13-3 


43348-7 


2265-08 


2 




0-68 


fi 


44135-3 



Beryllium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum). 
Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cviii. (2), 1899. 



Wave-length 



4572-88 
3321-51 

21-23 
3131-20 

30-56 
2650-71 
2494-84 

94-69 
2348-72 

48-58 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



I 



1 
3 
3 
15 

20r 
double 

sr 

3 
1 



Previous Observations (Rowland) 



4572-9 Thal6n 
3321-5? Hartley 

3130-2 

2650-2 „ 
2493-9 



Reduction to 


a >.- 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuc 


A-l- 


1 

A 


1-25 


6-0 


21867-1 


0-93 


8-6 


30098-2 




It 


100-7 


0-88 


9-1 


31927-5 


t» 


l> 


935-9 


0-76 


1-0 


37714-7 


0-73 


1-7 


40071-0 
073-5 


0-70 


2-7 


42562-7 


„ 


»» 


666-2 



116 



REPORT — 1903. 



Lithium (Spark Spectrum). 

Eder and Valenta, ' Denkschr. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' Ixvii. 1898. 
Exner and Hasohek, ' Sitzungsber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, cvi. 1897. 











Reduction to 


fi >> „ 


Wave- 


length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observa- 
tions (Kayser and 


Vacuum 


3§« 






1 


^ a->- 


Eder and 


Exner and 


Character 


Runge) (arc) 


x+ 1 


o at _ 


Valenta 


Haschek 








A 


ofe-- 


6708-2 ) 




10 


6708-2 


1-82 


4-0 


14903-1 


6103-77 r 
4972-11 ) 




10 


6103-77 


1-66 


4-4 


16378-9 




4 


4972-11 


1-36 


5-5 


20106-7 




460310 


2n r 




1-26 


60 


21718-5 


4602-46 




lOb'r 


4602-37 


?i 


»» 


21721-5 


4273-52 




4n 


4273-44 


1-17 


6-5 


23393-4 


4132-57 




6b 


4132-44 


1-14 


6-8 


24191-2 


3985-90 




In 


3985-94 


1-10 


7-1 


25081-3 


3232-798 


3232-91 


5n 


3232-77 


0-91 


8-8 


30924-1 




2815-55 


1 




0-80 


10-3 


35506-7 


2741-57 




2 


2741-39 


0-78 


10-6 


36464-9 



Lithium (Oxyhydrogen Flame Spectrum). 
Ramage, ' Proc. Royal Soc' Ixxi. 1902, p. 164. 



I 

Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observa- 
tions (Kayser and 
Runge) (arc) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


» i {- 


6708-0 

6103-84 

4971-98 

4603-07 

4273-34 

4132-93 

3985-86 

3915-59 

3795-18 

3719-0 

3232-82 

2741-43 


10 P2 
9 A3 

2 B4 
7 A4 
1 B5 
5 A5 

1 B6 

3 A6 

2 A7 
1 A8 

4 P3 
1 1 P4 


6708-2 

6103-77 

4972-11 

4602-37 

4273-44 

4132-44 

3985-44 

3915-2 

3794-9 

3718-9 

32.32-77 

2741-39 


1-66 4-4 
1.36 5-5 
1-26 6-0 
1-17 6-5 
1-14 6-8 
1-10 7-1 
1-08 7-2 
1-05 7-4 
1-03 7-6 
0-91 88 
0-78 10-6 


16378-7 
20107-2 
21718-6 
23394-4 
24189-1 
25081-6 
25531-7 
26341-8 
26881-3 
30923-9 
36466-7 



Thallium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum). 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzungsber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cviii. 1899. 

Eder and Valenta, ' Denkschr. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' Ixviii. 1899. 

Cornu, ' C. R.,' c. 1885, p. 1181. 



Wave-length 



Exner and 
Haschek 



Eder and 
Valenta 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



3775-89 
3529-54 

J9-3.-. 

18-42 
.H456-50 
3229-90 



20r 

10 

20r 
In 
2n 
2b 



Previous 
Observations 



3775-87 K. and R. 
3529-58 
19-39 



3229-88 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


\ + 


1 


1-04 


7-4 


26476-4 


98 


8-0 


28324-3 


1 " 


.1 


406-3 


11 




454-3 




8-1 


922-9 


0-91 


S-8 


30955-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TiBLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 117 



Thallium (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous 
Observations 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 


icillation 
requency 
I Vacuo 


Exner and 


' Eder and 




1 


Haschek 


J Valenta 


1 




A + 


A~ 


OfL,-" 


3091-88 




lb 




0-88 


9-2 


32333-6 


2921-7 




lb 


2921-03 K. and R. 


0-83 


9-8 


34216-8 


18-47 




In 


18-43 


1J 


9-9 


254-6 


276800 


1 2768-00 


6nr 


2767-97 


0-79 


10-5 


36116-7 




1 2740-01 


3nr 




1> 


» 


485-6 




34-08 


In 




0-78 


„ 


564-8 




' 18-08 


in 




»» 


10-7 


780-0 




10 90 


4b 


• 2710 77 


11 


)t 


877-4 


2709-3 


09-34 


3br 


09-33 


It 


11 


899-2 




00-34 


2n 


00-3 


J? 


10-8 


37021-6 




2670-97 


1 




0-77 


10-9 


428-5 




69-90 


2n 




ft 


tt 


443-6 


2665-8 


65-74 


3n 


2665-67 


9* 


»t 


502-2 




14-22 


Is 


09-86 


0-76 


11-0 


38241-3 




09-14 


3 


09-08 


It 


1» 


315-9 




2585-90 


In 


2585-68 


0-75 


11-3 


658-7 


2580-30 


80-29 


3nr 


80-23 


u 


tf 


743-9 




44-33 


1 




0-74 


11-5 


39291-6 


253094 


30-89 


5b 




tt 




B15-8 




13-58 


1 




0-73 


11-6 


772-3 




2478-67 Fe 


4 




)? 


11-8 


40332-4 




69-27 


5 




072 


11-9 


485-9 


245204 


6204 


4n 




41 


12« 


770-4 




45-61 


2 




■M 


11 


877-6 




33-65 


In 




n 


12-1 


41078-5 




2394-72 


3s 




0-71 


12-4 


746-2 




79-6S 


lOr 


2379-66 


It 


12-5 


42010-0 




65-00 


3 




0-70 


12-6 


270-6 




62-30 


hn 


2362-16 


1) 


tt 


319-0 




4182 


A 




t9 


12-7 


689-1 




16-14 


4 


231G01 


0-69 


12-9 


43162-4 




10-50 


1 

3 




)t 


130 


267-7 


2298-25 


2298-25 


7s 




ft 


131 


498-3 




88-07 


2 




ft 


13-2 


691-8 




85-95 


1 




»» 


tt 


732-3 




65-05 


3s 




068 


13-3 


44135-8 




3783 


3r 


2237-91 


19 


13-6 


652-5 




30-3 


In 






It 


823-4 




15-9 


* 




0-67 


13-8 


45114-6 




10-79 


3 


2210-80 


tt 


„ 


218-9 




09-9 


In 




1} 




237-1 




07-21 


2b 


2207-13 


tt 




. 292-3 




03-79 


1 




ti 


91 


362-6 




2144-50 


1 




0-6S 


14-4 


46616-5 




39-44 


3 1 




11 


It 


726-8 


Cornu 




i 










2119-2 


! 






065 


14-6 


47173-0 


05 1 


] 








14-8 


470-8 


2098 5 

88-8 


i 






t» 


It 

14-9 


615-6 

859-7 


83-2 


1 






tt 


15-0 


988-1 


77-3 


i 






tt 


tt 


48124-4 


72-4 








0-64 


15 1 1 


238-1 


69-2 
62-3 


2069-80 

i 

1 


1 




11 


1 

15-2 


312-8 
474-4 



118 



REPORT — 1903. 



Thallium (Ultba-violet Spabk SPECTnvM)~conti)iued. 



Wave-Iejigtli 



Exner and 
Haschek 



57-3 
53-9 



Eder and 
Valenta 



1964-80 

1868-48 

62-70 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Previous 
Observations 



Reduction to 


1 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 

Frequenc 

in Vt^quc 


A + 


1_ 


0-64 


15-2 


592-4 


J, 


15-3 


672-6 


62 


16-2 


50879-5 


)» 


17-4 


53502-1 


H 


») 


668-1 



Potassium (Oxyhydrogen Flame Spectrum).] 
Ramage, ' Proc. Royal Soc' Ixx. 1902, p. 303. 









Reduction to 


S bo 




Intensity 




Vacuum 


.2 g § 


Wave-lengtli 


and 


Previous Observations 














Character 






1_ 


Ofe-" 








\ + 


\ 


7697 


10 PI 


7701-92 Lebmann 


2-08 


3-5 


12988-6 


64 


10 PI 


7668-54 


»• 


)» 


13044-5 


6939 


8 B3 


6938-8 Kayser and Range 


1-88 


3-9 


14407 


13 


7 B3 


11-2 


18-7 


„ 


462 


5832-25 


6 A4 


5832-23 „ 


1-59 


4-7 


17141-3 


12-53 


5 A4 


12-54 „ 


1-58 


ff 


199-5 


02-12 


7 B4 


02-01 „ 


J» 




230-8 


5782-74 


6 B4 


5782-67 „ 


»» 


4*9 


288-1 


53S9-96 


4 A5 


5359 88 „ 


1-46 


5-1 


18651-8 


43-38 


2 A5 


43-.35 „ 


f1 


»» 


709-6 


40-17 


3 B5 


4008 „ 


>» 


}* 


720-9 


23-68 


2 B5 


23-55 „ 


1-45 


ft 


778-9 


5112-76 


2 A6 


5112-68 „ 


1-40 


5-4 


19553-1 


5099-83 


1 B6 


5099-64 „ 


1-39 


Jt 


602-7 


97-64 


1 A6 


97-75 „ 


It 


tj 


611-1 


85-07 


1 B6 


84-49 „ 


tt 


»t 


659-4 


4965-61 


1 A7 


4965-5 


»* 


It 


201.32-5 


57 


1 B7 


56-8 


1-38 


»» 


167 ; 


51 46 


1 A7 


52-2 


jt 


»» 


190-1 


4870 


1 A8 


4870-8 Liveing and Dewar 


?» 


» 


528 


62 


1 B8 


63-8 ,, ,, 


>» 


1* 


562 


67 


1 A8 


568 


)» 


it 


383 


29 


1 




f 1 


t) 


702 


03 


1 A9 


03-8 


n 


i» 


814 


01 


1 B9 




)) 


»t 


823 


4798 


1 


4796-8 


yy 


ti 


836 


67 


1 




t» 


>t 


972 


60 


1 AlO 


59-8 


?» 


»» 


21002 


4642-35 
38-6 


2 
1 


I 4642 Hartley and Ramage 


ij 


It 


534-4 
551-8; 


4047-39 


9 P2 


4047-36 Kayser and Runge 


I'll 


7-0 


24700-3; 


44-33 


10 P2 


44-29 „ 


»T 


1» 


719-0. 


3447-56 


3 P3 


3447-49 „ 


0-96 


8-2 


28997-& 


46-55 


4 P3 


46-49 „ 


)» 


)t 


29006-3 


Present 


1 P4 


3217-76 „ 


It 


>l 


31068-7 


3217-36 


2 P4 


17-27 „ 


090 


8-8 


072-7 



The lines of the principal series are marked ' P,' those of the first subordinate 
series ' A,' and those of the second subordinate seiies ' B.' 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 119 



Rubidium (Oxyhydbogen Flame Spectrum). 
Ramage, ' Proc. Royal Soc' Ixx. p. 305. 











Reduction to 


S bo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 






Vacuum 


■2 § § 


Previous Observations 


A.+ 
2-15 


1 
A 


Oscil] 
Freqi 
in V 




PI 


7950-46 


Lehmann 


4-3 




7799 


10 PI 


7805-98 


f* 


2-11 


11 




6306-8 


1 






1-71 


»1 


15851-3 


6299-19 


9 A4 


6298-7 


Kayser and Runge 


f} 


)1 


870-5 


06-74 


8 A4 


06-7 


i> 1* 


1-69 


4-4 


16106-8 


616004 


5 B4 


6159-8 


)} )i 


1-68 


»» 


228-9 


6071-04 


4 B4 


6071-2 


)» )» 


1-65 


4-5 


466-8 


5724-62 


8 A5 


5724-41 


1) 19 


1-56 


4-7 


17463-2 


565416 


3 B5 


5654-22 


M 9> 


1-54 


4-8 


680-9 


48-19 


7 A5 


48-18 


)* 9> 


11 


1» 


699-6 


5579-.S 


2 B5 






l-f)2 


4-9 


918-1 


5432 05 


6 A6 


5431-83 


)} >t 


1-48 


5-1 


18403-9 


5391-3 


1 B6 






1-47 


»» 


543-0 


6315 


5 A6 


5362-94 


1} ft 


ji 


» 


640-3 


22-83 


1 B6 






1-45 


" 


781-5 


5260-51 


4 A7 


5259-8 


tl If 


1-44 


5-2 


19004-0 


34-6 


1 B7 






1-43 


)» 


098 


5195-76 


3 A7 


5194-8 


99 » 


1-42 


6-3 


240-7 


65-35 


2 






1) 


11 


354-1 


51-20 


2 A8 






1-41 


l» 


407-2 


32 


1 B8 






1-40 


IT 


480 


5089 5 


1 A8 






1-39 


5-4 


642-5 


76-3 


1 A9 






11 


>) 


693-6 


37 


1 






1-38 


)> 


847 


23 


1 AlO 


5021-8 


11 )9 


1-37 


5-5 


902 


17 


1 A9 






»» 


11 


926 


4983 


1 All 






1-36 


11 


20062 


67 


1 






)) 


1» 


127 


4215-68 


9 P2 


4215-72 


Jt f9 


1-15 


66 


23714-4 


02-04 


10 P2 


01-98 


II 99 


>J 


11 


791-4 


3591-86 


3 P3 


3591-74 


11 9> 


1-00 


7-9 


27832-8 


87-27 


4 P3 






»» 


11 


868-4 


3350-98 


1 P4 


3351-03 


11 99 


0-94 


8-5 


29833-5 


48-84 


2 P4 


48-86 


91 99 


»» 


11 


852-6 


3229-26 


1 P5 






0-91 


8-8 


309580 


28-18 


1 P5 






11 


11 


968-4 



120 



REPORT — 1908. 



CAESIUM (OXYHYDROGEN FlAME SpECTRUM). 
Kamage, ' Proc. Royal Soc' Ixx. 1902, p. 304. 



Wave-length 



6984 

74 
6869 

29 
6722 
6630 
6590 
6472 

33 
6354 
6217-6 

13-33 
6034-43 

10-59 
5847-86 

45-31 

39-33 
5746-37 
5664-14 

35-44 
5574-4 

68-9 

03-1 
5466-1 

14-4 

07-5 
5351 

41-15 

04 
5256-96 

09 
5199 

4^3-30 

55-46 
3888-75 

76-31 
3617-49 

11-70 
3477-25 
3.398-40 

48-72 

14 
3287 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



6 

9 A4 

2 

2 

9 A4 

2 

8 B4 
2 

2 

8 B4 

2 

8 A5 
4 B5 

8 A5 

2 



A6 
B5 
B6 
A6 
A7 



1 B7\ 

1 B6J 

3 A8 

4 A7 
1 A9 
1 B7 



AlO 
A8 
All 
A9 

AlO 
All 



8 P2 

10 P2 

2 P3 



P3 
P4 
P4 



1 P5 



P6 
P7 



1 P8 
1 P9 



Previous Observations 



6973-9 Kayser and Runge 



6723-6 



6213-4 
6010-6 
5845-1 



5664-0 
35-1 



5573-1 Lecoq de Boisbaudran 

01-9 "^ 
5465-8 Kayser and Runge 



5257-8 Lecoq de Boisbaudran 



4593-34 Kayser and Runge 

55-44 
3888-83 

76-73 
3617-08 

n-84 



Reduction to 


s ^-o 


Vacuum 


O CJ o 






"S <u o 








' 

1 


1 


A + 


\.~ 




1-90 


3'9 


14314 


1-89 


11 


335 


1-86 


,, 


554 


11 


4-0 


639 


1-83 


1» 


873 


1-81 


4-1 


15079 


1-79 


)l 


171 


1-76 


4-2 


447 


1-75 


»» 


540 


1-73 


4-3 


733 


1-69 

11 


4-4 


16078-7 
089-7 


1-64 


4-8 


566-7 


)» 


J» 


632-4 


1-S9 


»1 


17095-6 


„ 


11 


102-7 


SI 


J» 


120-2 


1-57 


»1 


397-2 


1-54 


11 


649-7 
739-6 


1-52 


4-9 

11 


933-9 
9516 


1-50 


5-0 


18166-2 


1-49 


11 


289-2 


1-48 


11 


463-8 


1» 


It 


487-3 


1-46 


5-1 


682 


»• 


Jl 


717-0 


1-45 


11 


848 


11 


5-2 


19016-8 


1-42 


»» 


192 


„ 


5-3 


228 


1? 


11 


396 


1-26 


6-0 


21764-8 


1-25 


11 


945-6 


107 


7-3 


25707-9 


•. 


1» 


790-4 


1-01 


7-8 


27635-7 


1-00 


!• 


680-0 


097 


8-1 


28750-3 


0-95 


8-3 


29417-3 


0-94 


11 


85.3-7 


93 


86 


30166 


92 


8-7 


414 



OS WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 121 



Antimony (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum). 

Eder and Valenta, ' Denkschr. kais. Akad. Wissensch. VVien,' Ixviii., 1899. 
Esner and Haschek, « Sitzungsber. kais. Akad. Wien,' cvi. 1897. 



1 Wave-length 






Reduction to 


g E?o 


1 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


V V li 

■■sii 


Eder and 


Exner and 


Kayser and Eunge 

(Arc) 


j 


1 1_ 


^ ® r- 


Valenta 


Haschek 




; A + 


A 


co sh C 

Ofa- 




1 469.S-2 


1 2b 




1 1-29 


5-9 


21301-9 




58-0 


In 




1-28 


t7 


462-5 




47-8 


i 1^ 




1-27 


f f 


509-6 




23-5 


lb 




>> 


6-0 


622-6 




4599-6 


lb 




1-26 




7350 




91-9 


4b 




»» 


If 


771-5 




44-8 


1 




1-25 


6-1 


996-1 




260 


lb 




1-24 


If 


22088-5 




06-8 


In 




)» 




183-6 




44990 


In 




1-23 


i ", 


221-1 




57-8 


lb 




1-22 


6-2 


426-4 




330 


1 lb 




)} 




561-9 




28-6 


lb 




1-21 


is 


574-2 




25-5 


lb 




11 


590-0 




11-7 


1 lb 




Ji 




660-5 




4378-0 


2b 




1-24 




835-1 




C70 


lb 




G-4 ! 892-6 




52-4 


10b 




1-19 


971-4 




150 


1 4b 




1-18 


„ ! 23168-9 




4260-3 


8b 




1-17 


6-5 466-0 




59-5 


lb 




11 


470-4 




300 


lb 




1-16 


6-6 634-0 




26-9 


ICa 




n 


651-4 




24-5 


lb 




!» 


664-8 




19-2 


6n 




11 


694-6 




01-1 


lb 




115 


792-1 




4195-3 


4b 




if 


6-7 : 829-5 




71-0 


lb 




»> 


„ ' 968-4 




40-7 


2b 




1-14 


6-8 124142-0 




34-0 


2b 




)f 


If 


182-8 




40580 


6(Pb) 




1-12 


6-9 


635-8 




40-6 


lb 




111 


7-0 


739-3 




33-71 


8 


4033-70 


t* 


If 


784-0 




24-8 


lb 




„ 




838-8 




3986-1 


2n 




110 


7-1 


26080-2 




68-6 


2Ca 




1-09 


If 


188-2 




64-8 


2n 




If 


11 


214-9 




60-8 


4b 




>, 


f f 


2401 


, 


33-8 


2 Ca 




108 


7-2 


418-5 




33-7 


2b 




f| 




414-2 




320 


In 




If 


ft 


426-2 




08-8 


lb 




f f 


7-3 


5760 




3883-3 


In 




1-07 




744-0 




50-4 


6b 




106 


ff 


964-0 




41-4 


6b 




)} 


If 


26024-9 




3772-9 


2b 




1-04 


7-5 


497-3 




66-6 


In 




tj 


f 1 


541-6 




54-8 


1 




If 


f f 


625-1 




39-5 


8b 




f) 


f f 


724-0 




22-93 


8 


3722-92 


103 


7-6 


853-0 




3692-0 


lb 




102 




27078-0 




87-0 


2b 


1 


tt ' 


:; 1 


114-7 



122 



REPORT 1903. 



Antimony (Ultka-violei 


Spaek Spectrum) 


— continued. 








1 Reduction to 


£!(»._ 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
Kayser and Runge 


Vacuum 


illatio 
iquenc 
Vacuo 


— . 






Eder and 


1 Exner and 


Character 


(Arc) 


A.+ 


1 


u w _^ 


Valenta 


Haechek 






' 


X 


ofe-^ 




3683-7 


2 Pb 




1-02 


7-7 


27138-9 




77-8 


1 




» 


11 


182-5 




! 75-6 


lb 




i» 


11 


198-7 




680 


lb 




»• 


>* 


255-1 




65-5 


In 




1-01 


>> 


348-3 




520 


6n 




.1 


)l 


374-6 




39-8 


1 




M 


»» 


466-3 




3801 


8 


3637-94 


» 


7-8 


479-8 




36-8 


1 




*» 


11 


488-9 




300 


4b 




» 


»1 


540-4 




27-5 


In 




H 


11 


559-4 




3597-7 


8b 




1-00 


,, 


787-7 




66-7 


8b 




0-99 


7-9 


28029-2 




59-5 


8b 




J» 


11 


085-9 




340 


4b 




0-98 


8-0 


288-5 




19-7 


4b 




i» 


1» 


403-5 




04-8 


10b 




•» 


8-1 


524-2 




3498(3 


8b 




0-97 


11 


574-8 




740 


8b 




9» 


1> 


777-2 




59-5 


lb 




11 


8-2 


897-7 




520 


lb 




0-96 


11 


960-5 




25-9 


4b 




If 


83 


29181-1 




14-7 


In 




0-95 


fi 


276-8 




03-9 


2b 




»» 


i> 


369-8 




000 


In 




»» 


(1 


403-5 




3396-0 


lb 




»» 


8-4 


438-0 




93-8 


lb 




J» 


*» 


457-1 




90 6 


lb 




IJ 


11 


484-9 


■ 


83-2 


6 


3383-24 


n 


>» 


544-2 




77-5 


lb 




0-94 


11 


599-3 




74-8 


lb 




i> 


11 


614-2 




67 2 


lb 




M 


>» 


689-9 




55-0 


lb 




• 1 


8-6 


797-8 




373 


4b 




>• 


i» 


955-8 




12-8 


In 




0-93 


8-6 


30177-3 




04-3 


2b 




»» 


>» 


255-0 




3288-3 


In 




0-92 


8-7 


402-2 




85-8 


lb 




H 


>) 


425-3 




78-7 


lb 




»» 


ii 


491-2 




76-7 


lb 




Jl 


11 


509-8 




741 


2 




»» 


1J 


534-0 




67-62 


10 


3267-60 


»T 


If 


595-1 




55-4 


1 




0-91 


11 


709-5 




52-2 


1 




1* 


8-8 


739-6 




47-7 


1 




)> 


11 


782-2 




41-2 


8b 




» 


1> 


844-0 




32-65 


10 


32-61 


»» 


11 


925-6 




3197-4 


lb 




0-90 


8-9 


31266-5 




93-7 


In 




11 


11 


302-7 




92-8 


In 




»1 


11 


311-6 




75-2 


In 




0-89 


9-0 


485-1 




69-4 


lb 




)• 


11 


642-7 




48-2 


lb 




II 


11 


756-2 




3087-2 


lb 




0-87 


9-2 


32382-6 




67-9 


1 




11 


9-3 1 


586-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 123 



Antimony (Ultka-violet Spakk Spectkum)— continued. 



Wave 


-length 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


ation 
lency 
icuo 




1 


and 


Kayser and Eunge 






Oscill 

Freqn 

in Vi 


Eder and 

Valenta 


1 Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


(Arc) 


A-l- 


1_ 

A. 




3040-7 


8b 




0-86 


1 9-4 


32877-8 




29-90 


10 


3029-91 


jl 


ft 


995-0 




24-8 


1 




ti 


9-5 


33050-5 




22-1 


2b 




0-85 


! 


079-7 




101 


2b 




tJ 




2120 




2981-2 


8n 




»» 


9-6 


533-9 




66-4 


6b 




84 


9-7 


701-3 




23-5 


lb 




0-83 


9-8 


34195-8 




13-53 


8n 




J} 


9-9 


313-4 




2895-7 


lb 




0-82 


If 


524-1 




91-7 


4b 




T» 


100 


571-7 




900 


2b 




>> 


ti 


592-1 




87-7 


lb 




Jt 




619-6 




860 


lb 




»> 




640-0 




84-0 


lb 




?T 




664-1 




800 


2b 




^t 


jt 


712-2 




78-05 


10 


287801 






735-7 




63-1 


lb 




0-81 


lo'i 


917-1 




58-1 


1 




»> 


yt 


978-3 




57-2 


In 




>f 


Jt 


989-3 




53-3 


In 




»1 




35037-0 




51-20 


8 


51-20 


?» 




062-8 




37-5 


lb 




)» 


l6-2 


232-1 




33-1 


1 




ft 


9) 


286-8 




26-9 


2b 




T» 


») 


361-6 




19-0 


lb 




0-80 


10-3 


463-3 




13-3 


In 








535-1 


2806-80 




lOn 




>t 


91 


617-5 




02-0 






if 


9f 


678-4 




2797-9 


lb 




iy 


10-4 


730-7 




95-7 


1 




)» 




758-8 




90-57 


8n 




») 




824-6 




86-2 


In 




T» 


jy 


880-8 




75-8 


lb 




0-79 




36015-2 


2769-97 


7008 


8s 


2770 04 


f } 


10-5 


089-8 




64-8 


lb 




1» 


)} 


178-5 




62-2 


In 




T» 


tj 


1985 




41-2 


In 




0-78 


10-6 


469-8 


27-37 


27-3 


3 


27-32 






655-7 


19-05 


1900 


8s 


19 00 


)i 


10-7 


767-2 


06-73 




1 






fj 


934-2 


2692-43 


2692-3 


3 


2692-35 


0-77 




371321 


82-98 


82-8 


5 


82-86 


)) 


10-8 


275-1 


70-81 


70-7 


6n 


70-73 


iy 


10-9 


430-9 


69-79 


69-6 


5n 




1 




445-2 


03-31 




Is 








536-4 


57-03 


66-8 


lb 








625-1 


52-73 


52-70 


7 


52-70 


0-76 i 


ll-O 


686-2 




32-6 


In 




.. 


f • 


974-3 


17-46 


17-5 


3n 




Tt 


111 


38193-3 


14-78 


14-8 


Is 


14-74 


«> { 




2331 


14-33 




2 




1 
11 




238-6 


12-43 


12-4 


5 


12-40 


' 1 




267-5 


2598-24 


2698-15 


9r 


2598-16 


0-75 


11-2 


477-1 


90-42 1 


90-4 


6b 




l» 


<> 


592-6 1 



124 



REPORT — 1903. 



Aktimony (Ultra-violet Spark Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave- 


length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
Kayser and Runge 

(Arc) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


scillation 
requency 
n Vacuo 


Eder and 


Exner and 


A + 


1_ 


Valenta 


Haschek 


1 






~\ 


Ofe- 




2586-8 


In 




■.C-75 


11-3 


38646-5 


2574-24 


74-1 


3s , 


74-14 


»• 


fl 


832-8 


71-64 


71-6 


In 




l» 


f» 


874-4 




70-6 


In 




»i 


«t 


890-1 


67-87 


67-8 


Is 




»t 


11-4 


931-4 


63-62 


65-6 


3b 




*f 


t» 


965-5 




57-6 


lb 




0-74 


• t 


39087-8 


54-81 


54-8 


Is 


54-72 


>l 


f» 


130-4 


44-10 


43-9 


3n 




n 


11-5 


310-6 


28-68 


28-62 


9r 


28-60 


t» 


11-6 


535-2 


28-58 




1 




i» 


ft 


536-3 




22-9 


1 




ft 


»• 


625-3 


20-30 


20-3 


In 




i» 


• ft 


666-2 




14-5 


In 


14-64 


0-73 


t» 


757-7 


10-66 


10-6 


1 


10-60 


»» 


11-7 


818-8 




07-8 


In 




»J 


tt 


863-9 




2488-3 


1 




>f 


n-8 


40176-3 




83-3 


1 




tt 


tf 


257-2 




81-8 


1 


2481-81 


>* 


. »i 


281-5 


2480-55 


80-5 


2 


80-50 


t» 


ft 


301-8 


78-45 


78-4 


4 




If 


tf 


336-0 


74-80 


74-6 


I 


74-63 


»» 


11-9 


395-4 


45-66 


45-7 


5 


45-59 


0-72 


12-0 


876-7 


29-55 




1 




»» 


'. tt 


41147-7 


26-52 


26-5 


2s 


26-44 


91 


12-2 


199-1 


22-31 


22-2 


2s 


22-21 


»» 


tf 


270-7 


2395-35 


2395-4 


In 


2395-31 


0-71 


12-4 


735-2 


83-77 


83-8 


2n 


83-71 


»» 


• ff 


938-0 


73-84 




3Fe 


73-78 


0-70 


12-5 


42113-3 




61-2 


In 




M 


1 '■ 


337-7 


60-58 


60-6 


1 


60-60 


l» 


ft 


349-9 


16-02 




3 




0-69 


12-9 


43164-8 


11-71 


11-8 


4 


11-60 


)I 


13-0 


245-0 


11-47 








»» 


. ff 


249-5 


06-56 


06-6 


2n 


06-56 


1« 


. ft 


341-6 


2296-99 




1 




1* 


13-1 


526-9 


93-48 


93-5 


2s 


2293-54 


»l 


tt 


588-8 


88-99 


89-1 


1 


89-09 


»» 


tt 


674-3 


62-51 




3 


62-55 


0-68 


13-4 


44185-3 


46-97 




1 




.)» 


13-5 


490-9 


24-92 




3 


25 06 


0-67 


13-7 


931-7 


22-02 




1 


22-10 


JJ 


tl 


990-4 


20-70 




3 


20-85 


19 


" tt 


45017-1 


08-48 




4 


08-65 


ft 


13-8 


266-2 


03-59 




2 


03-83 


ff 


13-9 


366-6 


01-36 




1 


01-46 


tT 


tt 


412-6 


2179-23 




4 


2178-33 


0-66 


141 


873-9 


75-90 




4 


75-99 


ff 


tt 


943-9 


70-13 




3 . 




If 


14-2 


46066-1 


44-99 




4 


45-10 


ff 


14-4 


605-9 


41-76 




1 


41-76 


If 


tt 


676-2 


39-75 




3 


39-89 


ff 


)t 


720-0 


18-57 




1 




065 


14-6 


47187-1 


2098-47 




1 


2098-47 


»j 


14-8 


639-0 



I 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECJRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 



Arsenic (Spark Spectrum), 
Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzuhgsber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' ex. 1901. 









Reduction to 


c rr^^ i 


Wave-length 


Litensity 

and 1 

Characte^ 

1 


Previous Observations 
Rayser and Runge (Arc) 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuc 


A.-I- 


1_ 


4540-0 


2b • 




1-24 


6-1 


22020-3 


4495-5 


2b t 




1-23 


,. 


238-4 


66-6 


lb : 




)> 


6-2 


382-2 


4368-50 


In 




1-20 


?* 


885-0 


4229-5 


lb 




1-16 


6-6 


23636-8 


08-1 


lb • 




I) 


>» 


757-1 


4197-8 


lb 




1-15 


6-7 


815-3 


88-80 


2 




IT 


•» 


871-0 


4082-8 


lb . 




1-12 


6-9 


24486-1 


64-55 


In 




)) 


U 


5961 


37-18 


30 




1-11 


7-0 


762-8 


3948-85 


lb 




1-09 


7-2 


25316-6 


31-4 


lb 




1-08 


)» 


429-0 


22-60 


100 




)) 


>» 


486-3 


3545-75 


In 




0-99 


80 


28194-8 


32560 


2n ■ 




0-91 


8-7 


30703-8 


3119-70 


In ■ 


3119-69 


0-88 


9-1 


32045-3 


16-7 


' 2b 




1» 


l» 


076-1 


3032-97 ' 


1 


3032-96 


0-86 


9-4 


9616 


2991-2 


In 


2991-11 


)» 


9-6 


33415-1 


59-8 


3b 




0-84 


9-7 


478-4 


26-3 


lb 




»» 


9-8 


34158-4 


2898-86 


2 


2898-83 


0-81 


9-9 


486-4 


60-60 


8 


60-54 


?» 


10-1 


947-6 


43-80 


2n 




») 


10-2 


35154-0 


31-0 


lb 




>» 


5» 


313-0 


2780-37 


10 


2780-30 


0-79 


10-4 


9560 


45-10 


5 


45 09 


» 


10-6 


36417-9 


2493-07 


4 


2492-98 


0-73 


11-8 


40099-4 


56-62 


4 


56-61 


0-72 


12-0 


694-3 


37-30 


1 


37-30 


1) 


12-1 


41016-9 


2381-32 


2n 


2381-28 


0-71 


125 


978-0 


70-87 


3 


70-85 


0-70 


»» 


42166-1 


69-75 


3 


69-75 


91 


?» 


186-0 


6310 


In 


63-12 


iJ 


12-6 


304-6 


50-02 


10 


49-92 


»j 


12-7 


558-3 


2288-23 


3n 


2288-19 


0-69 


13-2 


43688-7 


71-53 


In 


71-46 


1-68 


13-3 


44009-9 


66-82 


In 


66-79 


») 


>l 


101-4 


29-96 


1 




0-67 


13-6 


830-2 


2192-21 ' 


2n 




»l 


13-9 


45602-2 


65-53 


2n 


2165-64 


0-66 


14-2 


46163-9 


56-3 


In 




tJ 


14-3 


361-4 


34-87 


1 




)l 


14-5 


837-7 { 



126 REPORT— 1903. 



Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. — 
Fifth Interim Bsport of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
W. Noel Hartley [Chairman and Secretary), Professor F. K. 
Japp, Professor J. J. Dobbie, and Mr. Alexander Lauder, 
appointed to investigate the Relation between the Absorption Spectra 
and Chemical Constitution of Organic Substances. 

The work of two of the members of the Committee, Dr. Dobbie and Mr. 
Lauder, has been exclusively devoted to the investigation of certain alka- 
loids, and the connection between their chemical constitution and their 
absorption spectra, and the results they have obtained since the last 
meeting at Belfast constitute the substance of this report.^ 

Note. — As sometimes the nitrates of the alkaloids are well -crystallised 
salts, the examination has been in certain cases made with nitrates. It is 
necessary to observe, however, that unlike chlorides, sulphates, and ace- 
tates, which are very diactinic and exert only a general absorption, nitric 
acid and the nitrates give characteristic absorption bands.^ This does not 
affect the specti-a here referred to, but it might happen that if the effect 
of the nitric acid were not taken into account, erroneous conclusions could 
be drawn from the absorption band of the nitric acid being attributed to 
the organic base. 

In a paper communicated to the Royal Society eighteen years ago by 
Hartley,^ it was proved that the principal alkaloids give highly characte- 
ristic absorption spectra which can be used for their identification and for 
ascertaining their purity. Furthermore, that alkaloids closely related to 
one another, like quinine and quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine, all 
contained a similar nucleus, which was probably formed by the conjuga- 
tion of four pyridine or two quinoline groups, and that the opium alka- 
loids had also a characteristically constituted nucleus which is either a 
benzene or a pyridine derivative. Tlie effect of alkyl and acetyl sub- 
stitutions on the curve of absorption was demonstrated, the increased 
intensity of absorption of the apo- derivatives was shown and accounted 
for, and the occurrence of several oxidised radicals — hydroxyl, methoxyl, 
carbonyl, or carboxyl — in the constitution of an alkaloid was shown to 
be capable of causing remarkable differences in the absorption curves 
of the original nucleus. At the time a.t which this paper was published, 
however, little progress had been made with the investigation of the 
alkaloids, and it was not possible, therefore, to trace any closer connec- 
tion between their structure and their spectra. In this connection, 
however, the relationship of the absorption curves to the differences 
in constitution of quinoline, dihydroquinoline, and tetrahydroquinoline, 
was determined by Hartley. 

The Absorption Spectra of Corydaline, Berberine, and the Opium Alkaloids. 

The constitution of the principal members of the group of alkaloids to 
which corydaline and berberine belong — namely, papaverine, hydrastine, 

' Dobbie and Lauder, Chem. Soc. Trans., 190.3, 83, pp. 605, 626. 
* Hartley, CJievi. Soc. Trans., 1902, 81, and 1903, 83. 
' Phil. Trans., 1885, Part II., p. 471. 



ox ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 127 

narcotine, and narceine — has now been definitely determined, and the 
examination of this group furnishes a good basis for the study of the 
relationship between the absorption spectra and the constitution of the 
alkaloids. 

Since papaverine is, in some respects, more simply constituted than the 
other members of the group, it will be convenient to consider each of the 
others with reference to it. According to Goldschmiedt, the structure of 
papaverine is represented by the following formula : 

Papaverine. 

f^NoMe 
I MOMe 

i 
MeO ''■ ' '" • 

The absorption curve of papa\erine shows two absorption bands, the 
first lying between ^/X 2998 (\=3335) and V\ 3295 (A=3035), and the 
second between \/\ 3956 (\=2528) and ^X 4555 (\ = 2195). 

Hydrastine differs structurally from papaverine in the following par- 
ticulars : (i) The isoquinoline nucleus is partially reduced ; (ii) The two 
methoxyl radicals of the z'soquinoline nucleus are replaced by a dioxy- 
methylene group ; (iii) A methyl group is attached to the nitrogen atom ; 
(iv) A carbonyl group is attached to the carbon atom (4), and through 
the medium of an oxygen atom is also linked to carbon atom (2), which 
has only one atom of hydrogen attached to it. From this comparison, it is 
obvious that the two substances differ considerably in their constitution. 
On comparing the curve of the absorption spectra of hydrastine (fig. 4) with 
that of papaverine (fig. 2), it will be seen that there is a correspond- 
ingly wide difference between them ; hydrastine exhibits slightly less 
general absorption than papaverine, and shows only one absorption band 
which is wider and much more persistent than either of the absorption 
bands of papaverine. Narcotine only differs from hydrastine in con- 
taining an additional methoxyl group attached to ring IV, and the 
two alkaloids give practically identical absorption spectra (figs. 4 
and 5). Assuming the constitution of corydaline, as determined by 
Dobbie and Lauder, to be correct, it is represented by the second of 
the following formulse : 



^rt 



Tetrahydroberberine, Corydaline. 

,^\0Me ^^OMe 

„ I ' lOMe jr /L >OMe 



Hj Ho 



128 REPORT— 1903. 

On comparing this formula with that of papaverine, the differences 
will be seen to consist in the partial reduction of the isoquinoline nucleus 
and in the presence of carbon atom (5), which, with its associated methyl 
group, is linked on the one hand to carbon atom (4), and on the other to 
the nitrogen atom, thus forming a fourth closed chain in the molecule. 
Here, again, the difference between the absorption spectra and those of 
papaverine is very marked. The amount of general absorption is less, and 
there is only one absorption band, which is, however, better defined and 
more persistent than the papaverine bands (tigs. 2 and 6). 

In discussing the relations between corydaline and berberine, it is to 
be remembered that corydaline corresponds to tetrahydroberberine, and 
berberine to dehydrocorydaline. The constitutional connection between 
corydaline and tetrahydi'oberberine is undoubtedly very close, ^ as a com- 
parison of the above formulse will show, and between the spectra of 
the two substances there is also a very close relation (figs. 6 and 7), 
the only difference being that the general absorption of tetrahydro- 
berberine is slightly greater than that of corydaline. 

When papaverine is reduced to tetrahydropapaverine, it is brought 
structurally very near to corydaline. A comparison of the formulae of 
the two substances shows that the former substance differs from the latter 
in the absence of carbon atom (5) of ring II with its associated hydrogen 
atom and methyl group. The spectra of the two compounds are almost 
identical (figs. 3 and 6). Viewing corydaline as derived from tetra- 
hydropapaverine by the addition of CHg forming a fourth closed chain in 
the molecule, it might have been anticipated that the difference between 
the absorption spectra of the two substances would be greater than is 
found to be the case. It should be noted, however, that ring II in cory- 
daline is a reduced ring, and would not therefore exert the same in- 
fluence on the absorption spectra as the formation of a pyridine ring. 
It might be expected to produce an effect comparable with that produced 
by the substitution of a dioxymethylene for two methoxyl groups, 
which, we shall show later, is slight in compounds of high molecular 
weight.'-^ 

Narceine is the extreme member of this group. It has two benzene 
nuclei, but no pyridine ring, and in other particulars differs considerably 
in constitution from papaverine. The absence of any absorption band 
diSerentiates the spectra widely from those of the other members of the 
group (fig. 22). 

Note. — This was accounted for by Hartley in the following explana- 
tion : ' Carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and methoxyl on side-chains, or as 
forming a portion of the substituted benzene nuclei, exhibit great absorp- 
tive power, and the occurrence of several oxidised radicals may cause the 
following variations in spectra : (a) the absorption band becomes so 
widened as to extend into the region of rays affected by naphthalene, 
quinoline, and their derivatives ; (6) or the absorption is so powerful 
that it extends to rays less refrangible than those in which the band 
is situated, and continues so far down the curve that the selective 
absorption is not made manifest. Narceine appears to be a good ex- 
ample of this ; its absorptive power is very great, extending into the 

> Chem. Soc. Trans., 1902, 81, 145. 

- Hartley, Chem. Soc. Trans., 1885, 47, 691 ; Hartley and Dobbie, Chem. Soc. 
Trans. 1900, 77, 846. 



I 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 129 

region of such low refrangibility as \ 3000 when 1 mm. of liquid is 
examined containing only T^/^oth of substance, so that no band is visible. 
The remarks on narceine are also applicable to papaverine in every 
particular.' ' 

Dobbie and Lauder ^ have shown that corydaline and berberine give 
rise to parallel series of derivatives. The absorption spectra of the 
corresponding derivatives are related to one another in the same way as 
the spectra of the parent substances. When corydaline is acted on with 
mild oxidising agents, four atoms of hydrogen are removed, and a yellow 
substance is obtained, which stands in the same relation to corydaline as 
berberine to tetrahydroberberine.^ 

Oxidation with dilute nitric acid converts corydaline and berberine 
respectively into the dibasic corydic and berberidic acids : 

C, 3He(CH3)(OCH3)2-N(C02H)2, 

Corydic acid. 

Berberidic acid. 

whilst oxidation with permanganate gives rise, amongst other pro- 
ducts, to corydaldine in the former case, and to co-aminoethylpiperonyl- 
carboxylic anhydride in the latter. The corresponding derivatives differ 
structurally from one another in the same way as corydaline and tetra- 
hydroberberine, excepting that, in the case of corydaldine and w-amino- 
ethylpiperonylcarboxylic anhydride, ring II having disappeared, the 
difference between the two compounds is confined to the replacement 
of the two methoxyl groups of the former by dioxymethylene in the 
latter. The spectra of the corresponding derivatives (figs. 10 and 11 
and 14 and 15), exhibit the same close relationship as those of the alka- 
loids themselves. The general absorption of the berberine derivatives 
is, however, always slightly greater than that of the corresponding 
corydaline derivatives. This is probably due to the influence of the dioxy- 
methylene group, and the correctness of this inference is supported by 
the fact that piperonylic acid, C6H3(CH202)-COaH, shows slightly 
greater general absorption than veratric acid, CfiH,(OCH,),-COoH 
(figs. 12 and 13). 

Whilst the spectra of corydaldine and w-aminoethylpiperonylcar- 
boxylic anhydride approach one another closely, they differ widely from 
those of cotarnine and hydrastinine (figs. 14, 15, and 16), the correspond- 
ing oxidation products of narcotine and hydrastine respectively. The 
difference finds a sufficient explanation in the fact that whilst all four 
substances are nearly related, the chain containing the nitrogen atom, 
which is closed in the two former, is open in the two latter. When' 
however, hydrastinine is oxidised by means of an aqueous solution of 
potassium hydroxide, the open chain is closed, and oxyhydrastinine 
results, the absorption spectra of which substance are almost identi- 
cal with those of corydaldine and w-aminoethylpiperonylcarboxylic 

' Phil. Tram., 1885. " CAem. Soc. Trans., 1902, 81, 145. 

» Ibid., 1902, 81, 145. 
1903. K 



180 REPORT — 1903. 

anhydride (figs. 14, 15, and 17). The relationship between these com- 
pounds is shown by the following formulse : — 

a.-Aminoethylpiperonyl- Corydaldine. 
carboxylic anhydriae. 

o o 

H2 H2 

Hydrastinine. Oxyhydrastinine, 

CHO 

. /\/ NH-CH3 o/\/'^NCH 



<^H.<ol J^^Jh, ^H2<-! 

H 




H2 



Though Dobbie and Lauder have found that cotarnine and hydras- 
tinine in alcoholic solution do not possess the constitution commonly 
assigned to them, this in no way affects the argument, since there is an 
important constitutional difference between oxycotarnine and oxyhydras- 
tinine on the one hand, and cotarnine and hydrastinine on the other, what- 
ever formulse be accepted for the two latter. 

Again, when the pyridine ring of cotarnine and hydrastinine is closed 
by the conversion of these substances into their salts or by their reduction 
to hydro-derivatives, the changes of structure are reproduced in a striking 
manner in the spectra. 



Belationships established between differences in Constitution and Absorption 
SiJectra, which may be ajyplied to the study of Alkaloids of unknown 
Constitution. 

It is now known that many alkaloids which possess the same formula 
are stereoisomerides. Alkaloids v^hich are related in this way give, like 
other stereoisomerides, identical spectra.' Illustrations of this are 
afforded by c?-corydaline and i-corydaline (fig. 16), narcotine and gnos- 
copine (fig. 15), tetrahydroberberine and canadine (fig. 17). Quinidine 
(conquinine) and cinchonidine also give absorption spectra identical with 
those of quinine and cinchonine respectively, of which substances they 
are probably stereoisomeric forms (figs. 18 and 19). This relationship 
might sometimes be used to assist the investigation of cases of suspected 
stereoisomerism. Where, for example, two compounds of the same 
formula are known, one active and the other inactive, it may be inferred 
that they are not optical isomerides if they have different absorption 
spectra. 

A case in point is afforded by canadine and papaverine, which 
possess the same molecular formulae but give widely different absorption 
spectra. Even if it were not known otherwise that these two substances 

• Hartley and Dobbie, Chem. Soc. Trans., 1900, 77, 498 and 509. 



ON AHSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 131 

are structurally different, this might be inferred from the differences 
in their absorption spectra (figs. 2 and 7). Canadine has long been 
regarded as a stereoisomeride of tetrahydroberberine. This question 
might have been decided by a comparison of the spectra of the two sub- 
stances, which had been already undertaken when Gadamer ^ published 
an account of the resolution of tetrahydroberberine into its active com- 
ponents, and showed that one of them was identical with canadine. The 
result of the spectroscopic examination points to the same conclusion 

According to Gadamer,^ inactive corydaline exists in two modifica- 
tions, one melting at 134-135°, and the other at 158-159°. The latter 
of these only can be resolved into dextro and inactive corydalines. The 
inactive modification of lower melting-point which cannot be resolved, 
might either be a structural or a stereoisomeric modification of corydaline. 
The fact that its spectra are identical with those of natural corydaline 
(fig. 6) affords strong presumption in favour of the view that the two 
are structurally identical. 

Homologous alkaloids give practically identical spectra. It has been 
shown from the examination of many homologous substances that the 
replacement of an atom of hydrogen by a methyl group produces very 
little effect on the spectra, even when the compounds are of low mole- 
cular weight.^ The effect is still less noticeable when the replacement 
occurs in substances of high molecular weight, such as some of the 
alkaloids. The effect is such that in every case it may have been pre- 
dicted. 

Codeine and morphine (fig. 1) were examined by Hartley,'' and his 
curves show clearly the relation between these two compounds. We 
have examined numerous other cases of homologous alkaloids, and find 
that they all give practically identical spectra. The curves of cory- 
bulbine, C21H25O4N (fig. 20), and corydaline, C23H27O4N (fig. 6), and 
those of quinine, C20H24O2N2, and cupreine, C,9H2202lSr2 (fig. 18), may 
be referred to as examples. When, therefore, the formulse of two alka- 
loids differ by CH,, it may be inferred with certainty, if they give dis- 
similar spectra, that they are not homologous. On the other hand, it 
cannot be inferred with certainty that two substances which differ by 
CH2, and have very similar spectra, are really homologous, because the 
difference in the formulae may be due to other slight structural differ- 
ences. 

The formula of bulbocapnine, Ci9H,;,04N, differs from that of 
papaverine, CaoHaiO^N, and of tetrahydroberberine, C2oH2,04lSr, by 
CH2, but the wide difference between the spectra of all three sub- 
stances (figs. 21, 2, and 7) renders it highly improbable that bulbo- 
capnine is homologously related to either of the others. What is 
known of the chemistry of bulbocapnine entirely bears out this con- 
clusion. "' 

Many minor modifications of structure in alkaloids are unaccom- 
panied by any mai-ked difference in the spectra, even where the same 

* Arch. Pharvu, 1901, 239, 648. 

* Ibid., 1902, 240, 19. 

' Hartley and Huntington, Phil. Trans., 1879, Part I., 257. 

* Phil. Trans., 1885, Part II., 471. 

* Gadamer and Ziegenbein, Arch. Pharm., 1902, 240, 81. 



132 



REroRT — 1903. 



Fig. 1. — Morphine, 

C,;H,„0,N + H,0. 

{In alcohol'tc solutioii). 

The curve of codeine is identical 
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ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 133 

modifications would produce an appreciable effect on the spectra 
of compounds of low molecular weight. Corydaline, tetrahydrober- 
berine, and their derivatives afford instances in which the replacement 
of 2(OCH3) by CHoOa does not markedly alter the spectra, and nar- 
cotine and hydrastine furnish an example in which the introduction 
of an additional methoxyl group is unaccompanied by any considerable 
effect. 

The case of cinchotenine and cinchonine may be quoted as another 
instance. In cinchotenine the side chain -CH : CHj of cinchonine is 
oxidised to a carboxyl group without the spectra being appreciably 
affected. The resemblance between the two series of spectra is so close 
that it would at once sugorest a near structural relation of the substances, 
even if we knew nothing of their chemistry. 

The reduction of closed chain compounds is accompanied by a com- 
plete change in the character of the spectra.' Good illustrations of this 
are afforded by the widely different spectra of berbei-ine (fig. 9) and tetra- 
hydroberberine (fig. 7), dehydrocorydaline (fig. 8) and coiydaline (fig. 6), 
papaverine and tetrahydropapaverine (figs. 2 and 3). There are, 
however, cases in which partial reduction produces very little change. 
Hydroquinine, C20H26O2N2) is unquestionably very closely related to 
quinine, C20H24O2N2, from which its formula only differs in containing 
two more atoms of hydrogen. The difference between the spectra of the 
two substances is hardly perceptible, and it is highly probable, therefore, 
that the addition of the two atoms of hydrogen is unaccompanied by any 
important change of structure. The change probably consists in the 
reduction of the side chain. 

Prom the results of the examination of more than thirty alkaloids, it 
may be laid down as a general rule that those which agree closely in 
structure give similar absorption curves, whilst those which differ in 
essential points of structure give dissimilar curves. 

This principle has already been recognised and applied in previous 
investigations, particularly in the study of coloured substances and dyes, 
and it is probably capable of extended application in the case of the alka- 
loids, as most of these compounds have a high molecular weight, and 
changes may be effected in their molecules without alteration of the 
spectra which, in substances of lower molecular weight, would be attended 
by wide differences. The essential identity of constitution subsisting 
between two alkaloids can often be detected by the spectroscope in spite 
of differences of structure. Cinchonine and cinchotenine give practi- 
cally identical curves, whereas styrolene and benzoic acid, which differ in 
the same way, give very different curves. If, therefore, an alkaloid 
of unknown constitution is found to give spectra closely resembling 
those of an alkaloid of known constitution, it may with great pro- 
bability be inferred that the two only differ in the details of their 
structure. 

The systematic study of absorption spectra is of real practical value 
in the investigation of the alkaloids, and may often be the means of saving 
much time and labour in their chemical investigation, especially in 
dealing with a large number of closely related compounds. 



' Hartley, CJiem. Soc. Trans., 1885, 47, 691, and Phil Trans., 1885; also Hartley 
and Dobbie, Chem. Soc. Trails., 1900, 77, 846. 



134 REPORT— 1903. 



Experimental Details. 

For the specimens of the opium alkaloids, including gnoscopine, we 
are indebted to the kindness of Messrs. T. and H. Smith, of Edinburgh, 
and for the specimens of oxyhydrastinine and w-aminoethylpiperonyl- 
carboxylic anhydride, to Professor AV, H. Perkin, jun. The specimens 
of inactive and artificial corydaline, corybulbine, tetrahydroberberine, 
tetrahydropapaverine, dehydrocorydaline, corydic and berberidic acids, 
corydaldine, and hydrastinine were prepared in the laboratory of the 
University College of North Wales, Bangor ; and our best thanks are 
due to Messrs. C K. Tinkler, K. S. Caldwell, and Ed. Jones for assist- 
ing in the preparation of some of these substances, and to Mr. C. P. 
Finn for assisting in photographing the spectra. The remaining alka- 
loids were obtained by purchase. In every case the specimens were 
tested as to their purity, and, where necessary, subjected to purifica- 
tion. Whenever possible, specimens were obtained from at least two 
distinct sources, and several independent examinations were made of each 
specimen. 

In photographing the spectra and in representing them graphically, 
owing to the slight solubility of some of the substances examined, it was 
not always possible to get a solution of 1/100, and thicker layers of a 
more dilute solution had to be employed. In such cases, for convenience 
of reference, 25 mm. of a solution of 1/500 have been plotted as equi- 
valent to 5 mm. of a solution of 1/100. Except in the case of hydrastine, 
all the curves are drawn to the same scale. The position of the trans- 
mitted portions of the spectra and of the absorption band have been 
marked on one of the curves (fig. 3). 

We may remark that it is difficult by means of curves to give a proper 
representation of the photographs, it being found impracticable to 
adequately represent differences of intensity as well as extent of absorp- 
tion upon which the similarity or difference between two series of spectra 
often to a large extent depends. 

By far the most satisfactory comparison is that which is made by the 
actual inspection of the photographs. When reasonable care is taken 
to work under similar conditions, the results are remarkably constant. 
We have never discovered any discrepancy between the photographs of 
the same preparation, even when taken by different operators at wide 
intervals of time. Hartley having worked in 1882 and again in 1884 
with constant weights and not with molecular quantities of the alkaloids, 
it was found necessary, for purposes of comparison, to repeat the exami- 
nation of a few of the alkaloids which he had previously examined. In 
so far as it is possible in such cases to compare the results, they show 
remarkably close agreement. 



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142 



KEPORT — 1903. 



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■sajjaui;ttttu ui uot)nios/o .uRvi/o ssau^iofiij, 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



143 



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144 



REPORT — 1903. 



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ut aiiusiom-iuvuBiiiitu \ 



■y^ oo9's 



■sauisuintitu ut iioijnio! /o u?/ii)i/o trnt^m/x 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



145 



Papaveeiite.^ 
CjoH^iNO,. M.P. 146°. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 2.) 



Thickness of 




1 




layer hx 


Description of Spectrum 


\ 


millimetres 




A 






1 milligram-molecvle in 100 c.c. 




5, 4, and 3 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2938 3404 


1 and 2 


»» 11 • • . 

1 7nilUgravi-moleeule in 500 c.c. 


2982 3354 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2982 


3354 


4 


n ,1 ... 


2998 


3335 


3 


»» )» . • . 


2998 


3335 




Absorption hand ..... 


2998 to 3295 


3335 to 3035 




Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3295 to 3328 


3035 to 3005 


2 


», ,» ... 


2998 


3335 




\st Absorption band .... 


2998 to 3295 


3335 to 3035 




Weak spectrum transmitted from 3295 to 


3354 


3035 to 2981 




1 ndlligram-molecule in 2,500 c. 


c. 


5,4. 3 


Spectrum continuous to ... 


3956 


2528 


2 


,1 ,» • • . 


3956 


2528 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3956 to 4555 


2528 to 2195 


1 


Spectrum continuous to . ' . 


4038 


2476 




2)id AbsorjMon band .... 


4038 to 4321 


2476 to 2314 




Very weak spectrum from 4321 to 


4656 


2148 




1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c 




5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4038 


2476 




2nd Absor2)tion band .... 


4038 to 4321 


2476 to 2314 


, 


Very weak spectrum from 4321 to 


4656 


2148 


4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4038 


2476 




2nd Absorption band .... 


4038 to 4321 


2476 to 2314 




Weak spectrum from 4321 to 


4656 


2148 


3 


Same as 4, but with lines showing in 








the absorption band at . . . 


4248 


2354 


2 


Spectrum practically all transmitted, 
but veiy weak in position of ab- 
sorption band. 






1 


Spectrum practically all transmitted, 
but still very weak in position of 
absorption band. 







Cf. Hartley, Phil. Trans., 1885, Part II., 471. 



1903. 



146 



REPORT— 1903. 



Texrauydropapavbrinb. 
C20H25NO,. M.P. 200°. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 3.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 



25 and 20 
15 
10 



2 



5 and 4 



3 and 2 



Description of Spectrum 



A 



1 milligram-molecule in 500 c.c. 
Spectrum continuous to 



Line showing at . 

Spectrum continuous to 

Absorption hand . 

Weak spectrum from 3824 to 

Spectrum continuous to 

Absorption band , 

Spectrum transmitted from 3821 to 

Spectrum continuous to 

Absorjition band . 

Lines showing at . 

Spectrum transmitted from 3824 to 

Spectrum continuous to 

Absorption hand .... 

Weak spectrum from 3754 to 

Same as 2 mm. 

Lines in absorption band at . 

1 milligram'molecule in 2,500 
Spectrum practically continuous to 

Weak in position of absorption band 

Spectrum continuous to 

After this, practically all transmitted, 



3296 

3323 

3323 

3886 

3323 
3323 to 3824 

4038 

3323 
3323 to 3824 

4038 

3323 

3323 to 3824 

3754, 3778, 
and 3792 

4038 

3354 

3364 to 3754 

4113 



3033 

3009 

3009 

2573 

3009 
3009 to 2615 

2476 

3009 
3009 to 2615 

2476 

3009 

3009 to 2615 

2663, 2646, 
and 2637 

2476 

2981 

2981 to 2663 

2431 



3638 & 3694 2748 & 2707 



c. 



4113 



4415 



2431 



2265 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



147 



Htdrastine. 
C.iH^iNO,. M.P. 133°. 

Solution in Alcofwl, 
(Fig. 4.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



\ 



5, 4, and 3 
2 



5 
4 
3 



4 

2 and 1 



1 viilligram-vwlecule in 100 c.c. 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
J* >» • • , 

1 milligram-molecule in 500 c.e. 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Ahiorption hand ..... 
Lines faintly transmitted at 
Spectrum transmitted to , . . 

Absorption hand 

Spectrum feebly transmitted from 3638 to 
Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Ahiorption band . . . . 
Spectrum transmitted from 3638 to 
Spectrum transmitted to . . . 

Absorption band 

Spectrum transmitted from . 

1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c. 

Spectrum transmitted to . , . 

Absorption band 

Lines showing faintly in absorption 

band about 

Spectrum transmitted from 3530 to 
Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Still weak in position of absorption 

band. 
Same as 4 mm., but faintly transmitted 

at 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Weak beyond 

1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Line showing faintly at , . . 
Same as 5 mm., with additional line at 
Spectrum all transmitted. 



2938 


3403 


2982 


3363 


3046 


3282 


3046 to 3824 


3282 to 2615 


3824 & 3886 


2615 & 2573 


3076 


3250 


3076 to 3638 


3250 to 2748 


3886 


2573 


3064 


3263 


3064 to 3638 


3263 to 2748 


3903 


2562 


3148 


3176 


3148 to 3568 


3176 to 2802 


3568 to 3926 


2802 to 2547 


3182 


3142 


;3182to3530 


3142 to 2832 


g 3295 


3034 


3926 


2547 


14119 


2427 


4321 


2314 


4406 


2269 


4119 


2427 


4406 1 


2269 


4531 


2207 


4549 


2198 



L 2 



148 



REPORT 1903. 



Narcotine/ 
C.,,H,3N0j. M.P. 173°. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 5.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 


Description of Spectrum 


1 

A 


A 




1 milligram-molecule in 500 c c. 






25 and 20 


Spectram transmitted to . . . 


2938 


3404 


15 and 10 


>» >t ... 


2982 


3353 


5 


»i »' ... 


3077 


3249 




Absorption hand ..... 


3077 to 3638 


3249 to 2749 




Very weak spectrum from 3638 to 


3886 


2573 


4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3077 


3249 




Absorption band 


3077 to 3638 


3249 to 2749 


3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . 


3077 


3249 




Absorption hand 


3077 to 3638 


3249 to 2749 




Weak spectrum from 3638 to . 


3932 


2543 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3148 


3177 




Absorption hand 


3148 to 3471 


3177 to 2881 




Lines in absorption band about . 


3296 & 3323 


3034 & 3009 


1 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
Very weak in position of absorption band. 

1 viilligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c 


4038 


2476 


5 and 4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4127 


2423 


3 


t) i» ... 


4127 


2423 




Very faint to 


4321 


2314 


2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4420 


2262 




Weak beyond 


4127 


2423 


1 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4420 


2262 




Faint to 


4555 


2195 




1 milligram-molecule iii 12,500 c.i 






5 to 1 


Spectrum practically all transmitted. 







> Hartley, Phil. Trans., 1885, Part II., p. 471, 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION, 



149 



COETDALINE. 

Cj,H,,NO,. M.P. 136°. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 6.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



6, 4, and 3 



4 
3 
2 



1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c. 
Spectrum transmitted to 

Lines showing faintly at 

1 milligram-molecule in 500 c. 
Spectrum transmitted to 
Absorption band . 
Weak spectrum from 3824 to 
Spectrum transmitted to 
Absorption band . 
Weak spectrum 
Same as 4 mm., but stronger, 
Spectrum transmitted to 
Absorption band . 
Spectrum transmitted feebly from 3638 to 

1 nilUgram-violecule in 2,500 c.c 
Spectrum continuous to . , . 
Weak beyond. 

Still weak in position of absorption band. 
Same as 5 mm., but somewhat stronger. 
Spectrum continuous to 

»» 1) 

Weak beyond 
Spectrum continuous to 
Weak beyond 

1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. 
Spectrum practically al transmitted. I 



3323 


3009 


3323 


3009 


3886 


2573 


3354 


2981 


3354 to 3824 


2981to2SI5 


3'J99 


2500 


3354 : 


2981 


3354 to 3824 


2981 to 2615 


3824 to 4030 


2615 to 2481 



3387 2952 

3387 to 3638 2952 to 2748 

4107 2428 



4123 



2425 



4166 


2400 


4406 


2269 


4123 


2425 


4528 


2208 


4123 


2425 



Aktificiai Cobtdaliite and Inactive Coetdaline. 

The spectra of artificial corydaline and inactive corydaline are 
identical with those of corydaline. 



150 



KEPORT — 1903. 



Tetkahxdbobbbberinb, 
C^oHjiNO^. M.P. 167°. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 7.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 


Description of Spectrum 


1 


\ 




1 milligram-molecule in 500 c c. 






25, 20, and 15 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3200 


3125 


10 


j» ** ... 


3200 


3125 




Line at 


3886 


2573 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . » 


3246 


3080 




Absorption band . ' . 


3246 to 3824 


3080 to 2615 




Weak spectrum from 3824 to 


4008 


2495 


i 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3296 


3034 




Absorption lamd 


3296 to 3754 


3034 to 2664 




Weak spectrum from 3764 to 


4038 


2476 


3 


Spectrum continuous to . . .• 


3296 


3034 




Absorption band 


3296 to 3754 


3034 to 2664 




Spectrum continuous from 3754 to 


4038 


2664 to 2476 


2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3323 


3009 




Absorption band 


3323 to 3638 


3009 to 2749 




Spectrum continuous from 3638 to 


4038 


2476 


1 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
Very weak in position of absorption 
band. 

1 milligram-molecule i?/ 2,500 c.c 


4132 


2420 


5 and 4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
Weak in position of absorption band. 


1 4132 


2420 


3 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
Weak in position of absorption band. 


4412 


2266 




Very weak beyond .... 


4132 


2420 


2 and 1 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
Very weak beyond. 


4412 


2266 



Canadine. 

The spectra of canadine are identical with those of tetrahydro- 
berberine. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



151 



Dehtdrocortdaline Nitrate. 
C,,,H,3NO,HN03 + 2H,0. 

Aqtteous Solution. 
(Fig. 8.) 



Tliickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



1 
\ 



5,4.3 
2 



5 and 4 
3 



5 
4 

3 

2 



1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c. 

Spectrum practically all absorbed. 
Spectrum feebly transmitted to . 



2162 



2789 



1 milligram-molecule in 500 c.c. 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 

»» i» • • . 

\st Absorption hand .... 

Spectrum very feebly transmitted from 

2714 to 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
\st A hsorption hand .... 
Spectrum transmitted from 2673 to 

1 milliffram-molecvle in 2,500 c.c. 

Spectrum continuous to . . . ^ 
Still weak in position of absorption 

band. 

Spectrum continuous to . . . 2789 

2nd Ahsorj}tion band .... 2789 to 3282 
Spectrum very feebly transmitted from 

3282 to 3309 

Spectrum continuous to . . . 2884 

2nd Absorption hand .... 2884to3282 

Spectrum very feebly transmitted from 3282 to 3341 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 2884 

2nd Absorption hand .... 2884 to 3148 

Lines showing faintly in the band of i 2982, 3042, 

absorption at . . . . t and 3064 
Spectrum feebly transmitted from 

3148 to 3471 



2202 

2244 

2244 to 2714 

2768 
2277 
2277 to 2673 1 4391 to 3741 

2768 3612 



4625 



4541 

4456 

445610 3684 

3612 
4391 



3585 



3585 
3585 to 3047 1 

3022 

3467 
3467 to 3047 
3047 to 2993' 

3467 1 
3467 to 3177 
3353, 3287, 
and 3264 

2881 



4 tol 



1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. 

Spectrum practically continuous to 

Weak beyond 

Still weak in position of absorption 

band. 
Spectrum practically all transmitted, 

gradually getting stronger. 



4405 
3471 



2270 
2881 



152 



REPORT — 1903. 



Beebekine Niteatje, 
C2oHi.NO,.irN03. 

Aqueous Solution. 
(Fig. 9.) 



Thickness of 




1 




layer in 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


millimetres 




A. 






1 milligram-molecitle in 100 c.c. 




5 to 1 


Spectrum practically all absorbed. | 
1 viilliffram-molecule in 500 c.c. 




5 


Spectrum practically all absorbed. 






4 and 3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


2162 


4625 


2 


»» M • • . 


2162 


4625 




1st Absorption hand .... 


2162 to 2463 


4625 to 4060 




Weak spectrum from 2463 to . . 


2673 


3741 




1 milligram-molecvle in 2,500 c.c. 




5 


Spectrum cintinuous to . . . 
Still weak in position of 1st absorption 
band. 


2714 


3684 




2nd Absorjjtio?! hand .... 


2714to3295 


3684 to 3034 




Spectrum feebly transmitted from 








3295 to 


3323 


3009 


4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2768 


3612 




2nd A hsorption hand .... 


2768 to 3295 


3612 to 3034 




Spectrum feebly transmitted from 








3295 to 


3354 


2981 


3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


2768 


3612 




2nd Absorption band .... 


2768 to 3148 


3612 to 3176 




Spectrum feebly transmitted from 








3148 to 


3354 


2981 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


2768 


3612 




2nd Absorption band .... 


2768 to 3148 


3612 to 3176 


; 


Lines showing faintly in absorption f 


2982, 3042, 


3353, 3287, 




band at | 


and 3064 


and 3263 




Spectrum feebly transmitted from 








3148 to 


3638 


2748 




1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c. 




5 


Spectrum practically continuous to 


4405 


2270 




Weak beyond 


3638 


2748 




Still weak in position of absorption 








band. 








Lines showing faintly at . . . 


4533 


2206 


4tol 


Spectrum practically all transmitted 
and gradually getting stronger. 







ON ABSOKPTION SPECTKA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



153 



CoBTDic Acii). 
Ci,H,N(0CH3),(C0,H)j + iHfi. M.P. 218°. 

Aqueous Solution. 
(Fig. 10.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 


Description of Spectrum 


1 
\ 


\ 




1 milligram-molecule in 100 c.c. 






Sand 4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2244 


4456 


3 and 2 


1 milligTam-molecule in 500 e.c. 


2273 


4399 


5 to 2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c 


2354 


4248 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2508 


3987 




Absorption hand ..... 


2508 to 2982 


3987 to 3353 




Spectrum feebly transmitted from 2982 








to 


3323 


3009 


4 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


2508 


3987 




Absorption band 


2508 to 2982 


3987 to 3353 




Spectrum transmitted from 2982 to 


3323 


3009 




Very feeble prolongation to . 


3886 


2573 


3 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2508 


3987 




Absorption band 


2508 to 2884 


3987 to 3467 




Spectrum very feebly transmitted from 








2884 to 


4408 


2267 


2 


Spectrum practically continuous to 
Very weak in position of absorption 
band. 


4408 


2267 


1 


Spectrum practically all transmitted, 
but still weak towards the end. 

1 milUgravi-molecule in 12,500 c. 


c. 




5 to 1 


Same as 1 mm. above, but gradually 








getting stronger. 







154 



REPORT 1903. 



Bebbbridic Acid. 
0„H,N(CHjO3)(C02H),. M.P. 285°. 

■ Agueotis Solution, 
(Fig. 11.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
milhmetres 



Description of Spectrum 






6, 4, and 3 
2 

5 

3 and 4 
2 



5 tol 



1 milligram-molecule in 100 o.c. 
j Spectrum continuous to 
I It f» • • 

1 milligram-molecule in 500 c. 
Spectrum continuous to 



Absorption hand . 

Weak spectrum from 2982 to 

1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c. 
Spectrum continuous t3 
Absorption hand . 
Weak spectrum from 2982 to 
Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption hand . 
Weak spectrum from 2982 to 
Spectrum continuous to 
Absorption hand . 
A few lines showing in the absorption 

band. 
Spectrum continuous from 2884 to 

Weak beyond 

Spectrum continuous to , . . 
Weak in position of absorption band, 

and beyond 

Spectrum practically all transmitted, 

but still weak. 

1 milligram-inolecule in 12,500 c.c. 
Same as 1 mm. of last plate, but gradu 
ally getting stronger. 



2157 
2207 

2276 
2303 
2354 
2354 to 2982 
3148 

2508 
2508 to 2982 

3323 

2508 
2508 to 2982 

3323 

2508 
2508 to 2884 



3872 
3872 
4414 

3872 



4636 
4531 

4393 
4342 
4248 
4248 to 3353 
3176 

3987 
3987 to 3353 

3009 

3987 
3987 to 3353 

3009 

3987 
3987 to 3467 



2582 
2582 
2265 

2582 



1 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



155 



Vbbatric Acid. 
CsH,(OCH3),0OjH. + 2H,0. M.P. 179-180° 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 12.) 



Thickness of 




J_ 




layer in 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


millimetres 




A 






1 milligram-molecule in 100 e.e. 




5 to 2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3191 


3134 


1 


>l M ... 


3191 


3134 




Very faint prolongation to . 


3246 


3080 




1 milligram-molecule in 500 c.c. 




4 and 5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3246 


3080 


3 


i» i» ... 


3296 


3034 




Absorption bcmd 


3296 to 4230 


3034 to 2384 




Weak spectrum from 4230 to 


4321 


2314 




Line showing faintly at . . . 


4321 


2314 


2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3323 


3009 




1st Absorption band .... 


3323 to 3521 


3009 to 2840 




Very faint spectrum from 3521 to 


3638 


2749 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3638 to 4240 


2749 to 2358 




Weak spectrum from 4240 to 


4321 


2314 


1 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3354 


2981 




\st Absorption band .... 


3354 to 3471 


2981 to 2881 




Weak spectrum from 3471 to 


3694 


2707 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3694 to 4106 


2707 to 2435 




Weak spectrum from 4106 to 


4407 


2269 




1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c 




5 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3354 1 2981 




\st Absorption band .... 


3354 to 3471 2981 to 2881 




Spectrum from 3471 to . 


3694 2707 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3694 to 4106 2707 to 2435 




Weak spectrum from 4106 to 


4407 


2269 


4 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Very weak in position of 1st absorp- 
tion band. 


3694 


2707 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3694 to 4106 


2707 to 2435 




Weak spectrum from 4106 to 


4407 


2269 


3 


Spectrum practically continuous to 
Weak in position of absorption band. 


3886 


2573 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3886 to 4106 


2573 to 2435 




Lines showing faintly in 2nd absorp- ( 


4018, 4038, 


2488, 2476, 




tion band at .... 1 


and 3994 


and 2504 




Weak spectrum from 4106 to 


4407 


2269 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Very weak in position of 2nd absorp- 
tion band. 


4407 


2269 


1 


Spectrum all transmitted. 







156 



REPORT — 1903. 



PiPERONYLic Acid. 
C6H3(CH,0„)CO,H. M.P. 225°. 

Solution in Alcohol, 
(Fig. 13.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetreB 



Description of spectrum 



1 
A 



25,20,15andl0 
5 



5 and 4 

3 

2 and 1 



1 milligravi-molecule in 500 c.c 

Spectrum continuous to 

•) » 

Lines at . . . 

Spectrum continuous to 
Lines at ... 

Spectrum continuous to 
\st Absorption hand 
Weak spectrum from 3520 to 
2nd Absorption hand 
Weak spectrum from 4102 to 
Spectrum continuous to 
\st Absorption band 
Weak spectrum from 3471 to 
2nd Absorption band 
Weak spectrum from 4098 to 
Spectrum continuous to 
Weak in position of 1st absorption band. 
Very weak in position of 2nd absorption 
band. 

1 milligram-molecule in 2'500 c.c 
Spectrum continuous to . . . 
Weak in position of 1st absorption band 
.. <i 2nd „ „ 

Continuous to 

Still weak in position of absorption band. 
Spectrum practically continuous. 



3148 


3177 


3191 


3134 


3638, 4230, 


2749, 2364, 


and 4300 


and 2325 


3191 


3134 


3560, 3630, 


2809, 2755, 


4230 & 4350 


23G4 & 2299 


3191 


3134 


3191 to 8520 


3134 to 2840 


3630 


2755 


3630 to 4102 


2755 to 2439 


4402 


2272 


3191 


3134 


319110 3471 


3134 to 2881 


3678 


2719 


3678 to 4098 


2719 to 2440 


4402 


2272 


4402 


2272 



4402 



4402 



2272 



2272 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



157 



CORYDALDINE. 

OgH^NOCOCHj),. M.P. 175°. 

Aqueous Solution, 
(Fig. 14.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 


Description of Spectrum 


1 

A 


A 




1 milligram-molecule in 100 ex. 






5 to 1 I 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
1 milligram-molecide in 500 c.c 


1 3064 


3264 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3064 


3264 




Lines faintly transmitted . v_ 


3148 


3177 


4 and 3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3148 


3177 


2 


»? )» ... 


3148 


3177 




Absorption land 


3148 to 3494 


3177 to 2862 




Very feeble spectrum from 3494 to 


3638 


2749 




1 milligram- moleovle in 2,500 c.i 


'> 




5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


1 3182 


3143 




Absorption hand 


3182 to 3482 


3i43 to 2872 




Lines showing faintly in band 


3295 & 3323 


3035 & 3009 




Very feeble spectrum from 3482 to 


3638 


2749 




Lines faintly transmitted 


4110 & 4124 


2433 & 2425 


i 


Spectrum practically continuous to 


4321 


2314 




Very weak beyond .... 


3638 


2749 




Very weak in position of absorption 








band. 






3 


Same as 4 m.m. but stronger. 
Band still perceptible. 






2 and 1 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


4412 


2266 




Still weak beyond 


3638 


2749 




1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.( 






5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4533 


2206 


4 


tt »» • • . 


4656 


2148 


3, 2, and 1 


Spectrum practically all transmitted. 







158 



REPORT — 1903. 



w-Aminoethtlpipebonylcakboxtlic Anhtdeide. 
CgH^NOCCHjO,). M.P. 181-182°. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 15.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
inillimetrea 


Description of Spectrum 


1 

X 


\ 




1 milligram-molecule in 100 e.c. 






5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2884 


3467 




Lines showing at 


2982 


3353 


4 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


2982 


3353 


3 


i» ti ... 


3002 


3331 


2 


» >» ... 

1 milligram-molecule in 600 c.c. 


3064 


3264 


5, 4,3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3064 


3264 


2 


>t »i ... 


3148 


3177 




Ahsorj>tion land 


3148 to 3521 


3177 to 2840 




Weak spectrum from 3521 to 


3638 


2749 


• 


1 milUgram-vwlecule in 2,500 c 


c. 




5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3148 


3177 




Absorption band 


8148 to 3471 


3177 to 2881 




Lines faintly transmitted in absorp- 








tion band at 


3295 & 3323 


3035 & 3009 




Weak spectrum from 3471 to 


3886 


2573 




Lines faintly transmitted at 


4111 & 4130 


2432 


4 and 3 


Spectrum practically transmitted to . 


4321 


2314 




Weak beyond 


3638 


2749 




Position of absorption band still clearly 








perceptible. 






2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


4412 


2266 


1 


)» i> ... 

1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c. 


4656 


2148 


5 to 1 


Spectrum practically all transmitted. 




1 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



159 



Htdrastinine. 
CjiHijNOj. M.P. 116° 

Solution in Alcohol, 
(Fig. 16.) 



Thickness of 




1 




layer in 


Description of Spectrum 


A 


millimetres 




A 






1 milligram-molecule in 600 c.c. 




26, 20, and 15 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


2502 


3997 




1st Absorption band .... 


2502 to 2892 


3997 to 3459 




Weak spectrum transmitted from 2892 








to 


3148 


3177 


10 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


2502 


3997 




Faint prolongation to . 


2542 


3934 




1st Absorption band .... 


2542 to 2884 


3934 to 3467 




Weak spectrum transmitted from 2884 








to 


3148 


3467 


5 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Weak in position of 1st absorption band 


3148 


3177 




2,nd Absorption band .... 


3148 to 3638 


3177 to 2749 




Weak spectrum transmitted from 3638 








to 


3824 


2615 


4 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3296 


3034 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3296 to 3638 


3034 to 2749 




Weak spectrum transmitted from 3638 








to 


3824 


2615 


3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3296 


3034 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3296 to 3638 


3034 to 2749 




Weak spectrum transmitted from 3638 








to 


3824 


2615 




Line in absorption band at . 


3568 


2803 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3296 


3034 




2nd Absorption band .... 


3296 to 3521 


3034 to 2840 




Spectrum transmitted from 3521 to 


3824 


2615 




^rd Absorption band .... 


3824 to 4114 


2615 to 2431 




Very weak spectrum transmitted from 








4114 to 


4420 


2262 




1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c 




5 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Still weak in position of 2nd absorption 

band. 
ird Absorption band .... 


3886 


2573 




3886 to 4114 


2673 to 2431 




Spectrum transmitted from 4114 to 


4556 


2196 


4 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3886 


2573 




^rd Absorption band .... 


3886 to 4114 


2573 to 2431 




Spectrum transmitted from 4114 to 


4555 


2195 


3 and 2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Weak in position of 3rd absorption 
band. 


4656 


2148 


1 


Spectrum all transmitted. 







160 



REPORT — 1903. 



OXTHYDRASTININE. 

CioH^NOCCHjO,,)- M.P. 97-98°. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 17.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 


Description of Spectrum 


1 

A, 


\ 




1 milligram-molecule i?t 100 ex. 






5 to 1 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
1 viilligram-molecnle in 500 c.c. 


3064 


3264 


5 


Spectrum transmitted to. 


3064 


8264 


4 


)> i> ... 


3064 


3264 




Line faintly transmitted at . 


3568 


2803 


3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3064 


3264 




Absorption hand ..... 


3064 to 3521 


3264 to 2840 




Spectrum feebly transmitted from 3521 








to 


3638 


2749 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to , . . 


3148 


3177 




Absorption band 


3148 to 3482 


3177to2872 




Weak spectrum from 3482 to 


3638 


2749 




1 milligram-violecule in 2,500 c.c 


, 




5 


Spectrum continuous to 


3148 


3177 




Absorjition band 


3148 to 3482 


3177 to 2872 




Spectrum transmitted from 3482 to 


4321 


2314 




Very weak beyond .... 


3638 


2749 




Lines showing feebly in bands at 


3295&3323 


3035 &. 3009 


4 


Spectrum practically transmitted to 
Weak towards end and in the position 
of absorption band. 


4321 


2314 


3 


Same as 4 mm., but stronger. 






2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . , 
1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c 


4406 


2269 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 
Weak towards end. 


4555 


2195 


4tol 


Spectrum practically all transmitted 








and getting stronger. 







I 



ox ABSORPTION SPECTKA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



16J 



Quinine.^ 
C5oH,,N,0,,. M.P. 172-173°. 

Solution in Alcohol, 
(Fig. 18.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



1 

\ 



4, 3, and 2 



1 milligravi-violeciile in 100 c.c. 



Spectrum tranamitted to 



1 milUgravi'moleculc hi 500 c.g. 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
»» i» . • . 

lift Absorption hand .... 
Weak spectrum from 3300 to 
2nd Absorption band .... 
Very weak spectrum from 3837 to 
Si^ectrum transmitted to . . . 
\t!t Absorption band .... 
Spectrum from 3300 to . 
2nd Absorption band .... 
Spectrum transmitted from 3837 to 
1st Absorption band .... 
Lines faintly showing where the 2nd f 
absorption band occurred . . | 

1 milligi-am-moleoHle in 2,500 c.c. 

Spectrum transmitted to . 

Weak in position of 1st absorption 

band. 
Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Weak transmission in position of 1st , 

absorption band. i 

Spectrum practically all transmitted, ' 

but weak beyond. 



2802 


3569 


2881 


3467 


2905 


3442 


2938 


3403 


2938 to 3300 


3403 to 3030 


3330 


3003 


3330 to 3837 


3003 to 2606 


3890 


2570 


2038 


3403 


2938 to 3300 


3403 to 3030 


3350 


2985 


3350 to 3837 


2985 to 2606 


2938 


3404 


2938 to 3295 


3404 to 3035 


2982, 3046, 


3353, 3282, 


3295 & 3923 


3035 & 2549 



4006 



2496 



4038 i 2476 



4038 



2476 



QUINIDINE^ AND CUPEEINE, 

The spectra of quinidiiie and cupreine are identical with those of 
quinine. 

IlYDllOaTJlNlNE. 

C,„IL,N.p,. 

The spectra of hydroquinine resembled those of quinine so closely that 
no separate curve was drawn. 



' Hartle}-, Plul, Ttans,, 1885, Part II., p, 471. 



Hartley) loc. cit. 



1903. 



M 



w 



REPORT— 1903. 



CiNCHONISE.l 

Ci9H,,Np. M.P. 255-255"-5. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 19.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 


Description of Spectrum 


1 

A 


A 




1 viilligram-vwlccule ill GOO c.n 






25, 20, 15 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3076 


3251 


10 


)i n • • • 


3118 


3207 


5 


H )> ... 


3148 


3177 




Lines showing feebly at . . . 


4117&4130 


2429 & 2421 


4 and 3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3148 


3177 




Abeorptioii, hniul .... 


3148 to 3886 


3177 to 2673 




Very weak spectrum transmitted from 








388G to 


4130 


2421 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . 


3148 


3177 




Absorption bund ..... 


3148 to 3824 


3177 to 2615 




Weak spectrum transmitted from 3824 to 


4175 


2395 




Line feebly transmitted in absorption 








band 


3295 


3035 




1 milligram- iiuileeulc in 2,500 cc. 






5 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Weak in position of absorption band. 


4175 


2395 


4 and 3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Weak in position of absorption band. 


4250 


2353 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


4250 


2353 


1 


)) >» ... 

1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 cc 


4418 


2263 


4 to 1 


Spectrum all transmitted 







OlSCnONIDINE.- 

C,,,H„,N„0. M.V. 202°, 

The spectra of cinchonicliiie are identical with those of cinchonine. 

» Hartley, PJdl. Trans.t 1885, Part \ p. 471. " Hartley, loc. ci 



ON ABSORPTION srECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



m 



Morphine.^ 
C„n„NO, + H,0. 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 1.) 



ThicfenfesS df 

layer in 
milliliietrea 


bescriptidn cif St^fectrhW 


i 




1 miUiffraln-moIctiulc in 100 fc.fc. 


5 and i 


Slaectrum continlious to . . . 3323 3000 


3 


„ „ ... 3323 3009 




Line showing faintly at . . . 3824 2015 


2 


Spectrum continuous to . ; ; 3354 2981 




Ahsorjrtioiihand . . . . . 3354 to3T53 2981 to8feB4 




Lines showing faintly at . . . 38^1 fc 3886 SHl5.'c2573 




1 milligram- niolccnh in 500 c.c. 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3354 ! 2981 




Absorption, band ... 


3354 to 3638 2981 to 2749 




Weak spectrum from 3638 to 


3886 2573 


■I 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


3354 i 2981 




Absnrjdion band . . 


3354 to 3638 2981 to 2749, 




Lines faintly transmitted in ;ibsorp- 


1 




tion band at . . . 


8471 & 3568 2881 & 2803 




Spectrum continuous from 3658 to 


3886 ; 2573 | 


3 and 2 


Spectrum practically transmitted to . 
But still very weak in position of 
absorption band. 


3926 i 2547 


• 


1 wiUigram-molecide in 2,500 c.c. 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . | 4320 ' 2315 




Very weak beyond . . . . 3886 2573 


'1, 3, and 2 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 4414 2265 




Very weak beyond .... 3886 2,573 


1 


Spectrum all transmitted. 

1 


1 

1 



CODEINE.- 

"The spectra of codeine are nearly identical with tliose of morphine.- 

' Hartley, PIM. Trams. , 1885, Part II., p. 4TL = Hartlcj-, loo. vit. 

m2 



164 



tlEPORT— 1903. 



Thickness of 

lajei- in 
niillinietrea 



50, 40, and 30 

20 

10 and 8 



6 

4 

5 and 4 

3 
2 



.5 

4 to 1 



COKTBTJLBINE. 

C,,H„,NO,. M.P, 223-225^. 

Solution m Alcohol. 
(Fig. 200 



Description of Specttum 



1 milUgra'nl-vwlecule in T.OOO c.c 

Spectrum trauMiiitted to . . . 
>) 11 ■ • • 

II I) ... 

Ahaorption hand ..... 

Rather feeble spectrum from 3815 to . 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 

Absorption hand 

Spectrum fesbly transmitted from 3710 to 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 

Ahsorjitioii hand , . , 

Weak spectrum from 3638 to 

1 milligram-molecule in 2,500 c.c. 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . 4117 

Very weak in iiosition of absorption 

band. 

vSpectrum transmitted to . . . 4403 

Very weak beyond .... 4117 

Same as 3 mm., with additional line 

showing at 4495 

1 inillifjram- molecnle in 12,500 c.c. 

Spectrum transmitted to . . . : 4549 
Spectrum all transmitted. 



1 


\ 


A. 




3296 


3033 


3323 


3009 


3323 


3009 


3323to3815 


3009 to 2621 


4017 


2489 


3334 


2999 


3334 to 3740 


2999 to 2673 


4028 


2482 


3334 


2999 


3334to3638 


2999 to 2748 


4104 


2136 



2128 



2271 

2428 

2224 



2198 



BuLBOCArNIN. 

C,,,H,,,NOj. M.P. 201". 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 21.) 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetrea 


Description of Spectrum 


1 


A 


25 
20 and 15 
10 
5 
4 
3 aivl 2 


1 miUigram.-molectdc in 500 c.c. 
Spectrum continuous to . . . 

U J» ... 

). » ... 

I! t> ... 
» J» ... 
>. >» ... 


2938 
2982 
3013 
.3064 
3061 
3076 


3403 
33.53 
,3318 
3263 
3263 
3250 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND f'HEMlCAL CONSTITUTION. 



165 



BULBOCAPNIN — oontimied. 



Thickness of 

layer in 
millimetres 



Description of Spectrum 



1 iHllliffram-moleculii in 2,500 c.o 

Spectrum continuous to 

Ahsurptiooi hand .... 

Very weak spectrum from 388U to 

Spectrum continuous to 

Abnorjitwn hand .... 

Spectrum from 3886 to . 

Lines in absorption band feebly shown ( 

at I 

Spectrum continuous to , , . 
Absorj/tion band ..... 
Weak spectrum from 3824 to 
Spectrum practically continuous to 
Weak in position of absorption band. 
Spectrum practically transmitted to 



I 3521 I 

3521 to 3886 

I 4038 

3521 

3531 to 3886 

4128 
3508, :!638, 
, and 3824 

3C38 
3638 to 3824 

4128 
i 3824 



4050 



2840 
2840 to 2573 

2476 

2840 
2840to2573 

2422 

2802, 2748, 

and 2615 

2748 
2748 to 2615 

2422 

2015 

2147 



1 milUgram-molccuh in 12,500 cr. 
Spectrum all transmitted. | 



Nabceine.^ 
0,3 Ho,XO, + 3llfi. M.P. 1 4.0° 

Solution in Alcohol, 
(Fig. 22.) 



Thickness of 








layer in 


Description of Spectrum 




\ 


millimetres 




A 






1 milligrani-moleoule in 500 c.c 






25 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


:-5002 


3331 


20 and 15 


» i» ... 


;;o76 


3251 


10 and 5 


1. >i ... 


3148 


3177 


4 


11 »• ... 


3191 


3134 


3 and 2 


»> S) ... 

1 viiUigram-molecule in 2,500 c.c 


3323 


300:» 


5 and 4 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
But very weak beyond. 


3886 


2573 


3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Very weak beyond. 


4123 


2425 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
Very weak beyond. 

1 milligram-molecule in 12,500 c.c 


4411 


2267 


5 


Spectrum continuous to . . . 


4536 


2204 




Very weak beyond .... 


4411 


2267 


4 and 3 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


4555 


2195 




Very weak beyond .... 


4411 


2267 


2 and 1 


Spectrum practically all transmitted. 







I Hartley, Phil. Trans., 1885, Part JI., p. 4'fl, 



166 



REPORT — 1903. 



The Absorption SjiecAra of Laudanine and Laudanosine in Relation to 
their Co7istitutionJ By James J. Dobbie, Z).»Vc., 21. A., a?icZ Alexander 
Lauder, B.Sc. 

It has been shown that alkaloids which only differ from one another 
in minor details of structure give similar absorption curves, whilst those 
which differ widely in structure give coi'respondingly different series of 
spectra. So far, no case has yet been encountered in which two substances 



Fig. 2;5.— Laudauosine, 

C,,H,,O^N. 

{In alcoholic solution.) 

*^i-ifle of vsfiUtttitiii'fri'qiii'iHif^. 



ml 


4- 1 

H lillltll 




: 
llllltl 




.40 


OOl 2 J 


• 

llllll 


iiulliii iiiihiii 


piling 












































































































l"'^ 






















































































































































































' 


( 
































|_ 
















































\ 
























\ 
























\ 




































































; 
























1 
























1 




















1 




1 




















^_ 


^^ 


} 






























\, 


























"^ 


*^ 


























S 


'^1 


















> 










. 












1 











Fig. 24. — Laudanine, 
{Ill alcoholic solidion.) 

Smli' iif oscillntioii-firqiieinifS. 



■~ A 



i o 



~ rH 



t 



I- 



mm. 


* 1 


e 


7 


6 S 

jiitliiiliinl 


4000| 2 


3 4 

lllllllUlilH 


E 


e 

liili'i 


r 

mliiii 
















































































































1 












,' 


"^ 
















i 












































































































4 




































1 


























, 








t 












/ 




















- 




1 / 


















3 






























































/ 


























/ 


















o 


I 






/ 




















\ 






/ 




























1 






I 
















1 




( 






1 








\ 














i 
1 






' 








\ 












f 






1 








\ 










1 


' 


.^. 


.. 


J 








I 












4 
















\ 










■__ J 


:l 
















N 


V 


S 


1 


2 






















^ _ 


— 


1 



























_ 
















_ 











known to differ substantially in structui'e give an identical or nearly iden- 
tical series of spectra. 

This principle finds an interesting application in the case of laudanine, 
C.2nH2,p,0<N, and laudanosine, C.^iH.jjOjN, two rare alkaloids separated 
by Hesse - from opium. These differ from one another by CH.;, and since 
the former contains three, and the latter four methoxyl groups, it has 
been assumed that the substances are homologous, although the conversion 
of laudanine into laudanosine has not yet been accorapli.shed. If this 
view of their relation is correct, they should give practically identical 
absorption curves, and this we have found to be actually the case, the 

' Cfiem. Soc. Trans., 1903, 83, 62G. 

= Anuulen, 1870, 77, 47; Sll2>^)l., 1872, 8, 261, 



1 



ON ABSORPTION SPECfRA AND CHElWlCIAL CONSTITUTION. 167 

measurements of the photographs of the two series of spectra agreeing 
almost perfectly. 

The investigation of these compounds was undertaken solely with 
reference to their suspected homology, but it was at once seen, on examin- 
ing their spectra, that a close resemblance subsisted between them arid 
tlie spectra of corydaline and tetrahydropapaverine. The photographs of 
the spectra of corydaline and laudanosine in particular are almost indis- 
tinguishable, and suggest a very close structural relation between these 
two compounds. Laudanosine differs from tetrahydropapaverine by CH.n, 
and may simply be a homologue of this substance, possibly having a 
methyl group attached to carbon atom 4. (See papaverine, p. 127.) 

Apart from the closer resemblance of their spectra, however, there is 
some ground for believing that laudanosine is more nearly related to cory- 
daline than to tetrahydropapaverine. It differs fi'om corydaline only in 
having one atom of carbon less in its molecule ; the two substances cannot 
therefore be homologous, if the formuliB of both have been correctly 
determined. 

Corydaline has recently been analysed by numerous investigators, with 
concordant results, and its formula may be regarded as well established. 
Laudanine and laudanosine, on the other hand, have been but little 
examined, and there is a possibility that their formulfe may not yet have 
been definitely settled. Assuming, however, as we are bound to do for 
the present, that the analyses are correct, cases are known in which sub- 
stances, other than homologues, which are nearly related structurally, 
show as close an agreement between their spectra even when their formulae 
differ more widely than those of corydaline and laudanosine. 

Unfortunately, very little is known of the chemistry of laudanosine, 
but that little is entirely in favour of the view expressed as to its close 
relationship with corydaline and tetrahydropapaverine. Like those sub- 
stances, it contains four methyl groups, and yields metahemipinic acid as 
one of its products of oxidation. It further resembles corydaline in being 
optically active and in the ease with which, when heated with dilute nitric 
acid, it undergoes oxidation to a yellow base. This substance, which has 
not been analysed, may be identical with meconidine,^ an alkaloid asso- 
ciated with laudanosine in opium. The formula of meconidine, C.21H23O4N, 
bears the same relation to that of laudanosine that the formulie of dehydro- 
corydaline and berberine bear to those of corydaline and tetrahydrober- 
berine respectively, as the following table shows : — 

Ciiloiirless. Ydlow. 

Corydaline, Dehydi'ocoryd aline, 

Co.,Ho-0,,N, C.oHoaO.N, 

m.p. i35°-5. m.p. 118-120°. 

Tetl-ahydroberberine, Berberine, 

C,„H.„04N, C.oH.^O.N, 

m.p. 167°. m.p. 145°. 

Laudanosine, Meconidine, 

C.,,H.,,0,N, Co.HosO.N, 

m.p. 89°. m.p. 58°. 

* Hesse, Aomalen, 1870, 77, p. 47. 



168 



REPORT — 1903, 



Whether the yellow substance produced by the oxidation of laudano- 
sine is identical or not with uieconidine, the mere fact of the existence of 
a coloured base in opium having a formula diflering from that of laudano- 
sine by four atoms of hydrogen lends some support to the view of the 
relationship of these substances set forth in this jiaper, and this hypothesis 
receives some additional support from a comparison of the melting-points 
of the substances. The question, however, as to whether laudanosine is 
more closely related to corydaline or to tetrahydroberberine can only he 
settled by further chemical investigation. 

The point which we wish to emphasise is that it must, from the simi- 
larity of the curve plotted from its spectra, be built on the same plan as 
these two closely related compounds, 



Laudanosine. 
C,,iII,-NO,. M.P. 89° 

Solution in Alcohol. 
(Fig. 23.) 



Thickness of 




\ 




layer in 


Description of Spectrum 




A 


millimetres 




A 






1 milligram-molec%tle in 500 c.c. 






25, 20, 15 & 10 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3323 


3009 


5 


,, J, ... 


3354 


2982 




Absorjjtion band 


3354 to 3824 


2982 to 2615 




Spectrum transmitted from .S824 to 


3930 


2544 


i 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


3354 


2981 




Absorption band ..... 


3354 to 3824 


2981 to 2615 




Spectrum transmitted from 3824 to 


3930 


2544 


3 


Spoclrum transmitted to . . . 


3354 


2981 




Absorption band ..... 


3354 to 3754 


2981 to 2664 




Spectrum transmitted from H75-1 to 


3930 


2544 




Line faintly showing at . . . 


4003 


2498 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to . , . 


3388 


2951 




Absorption band ..... 


3388 to 3638 


2961 to 2749 




Spectrum transmitted from 3038 to 


4038 


247fi 


1 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 
But very weak in position of absorption 
band. 

1 miUit/ram-moh'Ciih' in 2, ,500 r.c 


4038 


2476 


4 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


4115 


2430 1 


3 


5» 9J ... 


4428 


22.58 i 


2 


II J» ... 


4555 


2195 


1 


„ all transmitted 

1 miUi gram-molecule in 12,500 c. 


c. 




4 to 1 


Spectrum all transmitted. 


1 
1 


1 



I 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 



160 



Laudanine. 

Solutiim in Alcohol, 
(Fig. 24.) 



Thickness of 




\ 




layer in 


Description of Spectrum 




A 


millimetres 




A 






1 milUgram.-molecvlc in .500 c.c. 




25, 20, and IS 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


.S323 


3009 


10 


)) »» . 




3323 


3000 




Line showing at . 




3886 


2573 


E 


Spectrum transmitted to 




3354 


2982 




AbsorjJtiun band . 




3354 to 3824 


2982 to 2615 




Spectrum transmitted from . 




3824 to 4003 


2C15to2498 


4 


Spectrum transmitted to 




3354 


2981 




Alsurptioii hand . 




3354 to 3824 


2981 to 2615 




Spectrum transmitted from . 




3824 to 4003 


2G15to2498 




Faint indications of lines from 




3754 to 3824 


2064 to 261 5 




and 


from 


4003 to 4038 


2498 to 2476 


3 


Spectrum transmitted to 




3354 


2981 




Ahsor2)tion hand . 






3354 to 3754 


2981 to 2664 




Spectrum transmitted from 






3754 to 4038 


2664 to 2476 


2 


Spectrum transmitted to 






3382 


2957 




Absorption hand . 






3382 to 3654 


2957 to 2737 




Spectrum transmitted from 






3654 to 4026 


2737 to 2484 


1 


Spectrum transmitted to 






4128 


2422 




Very weak in position of absorption 
band. 








1 viillif/ram-moleoile in 2,500 e.o. 




4 


Spectrum transmitted to . . . 


4115 


2430 


3 


!> )> ... 


4428 


2258 


2 


)» }i ^ • . 


4555 


2195 


1 


„ all transmitted 








1 milligTam-molecule in 12,500 c.c 




4 to 1 


Spectrum all transmitted. 







On the Possihiliti/ of Mahing Special Iteports more available than at 
2n'esent. — Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. A. Shen- 
STONE (Chairman), Dr. M, 0. Forster (Secretary), Professor E. 
Divers, Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. A. W. Crossley, 

The Committee recommend : — 

1. That at the close of each annual meeting the Sectional Committee 
shall request its secretaries to compile a list of the Special Reports, other 
than those of Standing Committees, which have been presented to the 
Section during the previous live years, and which have been published 
in extenso, this list (see Appendix) to include those Reports of the 
character specified which have been presented at the annual meeting 
just terminated. 



170 REPORT— 1903. 

2. That the secretaries of the Sectional Committee be requested to 
forward copies of the list to the secretaries of the Chemical (Societies of 
London and Berlin, with the suggestion that the councils of these bodies 
might be disposed to bring such lleports to the notice of Fellows by 
inserting the references in one of the issues of their publications. 



APPENDIX. 

List of Special Reports pi-esented to Section B during 1898-1902, 
indicating the type of Special Report to which attention might be drawn 
in the manner indicated by the Committee : — 

1900. 'The Constitution of Camphor.' By A. Lapworth. 

1901. ' Methods of Determining the Hydrolytic Dissociation of Salts.' 

By R. C. Farmek. 
' On the Equilibrium Law as applied to Salt Separation and 
to the Formation of Oceanic Salt Deposits.' By E. F. 
Armstrong. 

1902. ' Hydro-ai'omatic Compounds with Single Nucleus.' By A. W. 

Crossley. 
' Our Pi'esent Knowledge of Aromatic Diazo- Compounds.' 
By G. T. Morgan. 



Dtitlj-free Alcohol for Scientific Research. — Report of the Committee, 
consisiinij of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Professor H. B. 
BixoN {Secretarii), Sir Michael Foster, Sir A. W. Ri cker, Dr. 
T. E. Thorpe, Professor W. H. Perkin, ami Professor W. D. 
Halliburton. 

The Committee appointed at the Glasgow meeting in 1901 were unable 
to report in 1902, as they were at the time of the Belfast meeting in the 
midst of their negotiations with tlie Board of Inland Revenue. 

After a preliminary meeting and correspondence in the winter of 
1901-2 the Committee received iiiformati'm that the Government were 
willing to adopt a clause in the Budget Bill of 1902 which would permit 
the use of duty-free alcohol under conditions to be laid down by the 
Board of Inland Revenue. AVhen the Budget Bill was passed a deputa- 
tion from the Committee waited on the Chairman of the Board, and 
after full discussion the Committee agreed to confine their application at 
the present time to the use of duty-free alcohol (ethyl and methyl) and 
of alcoholic derivatives for the purposes of research work and higher 
teaching in the laboratories of universities, colleges, and public institu- 
tions. 

At the request of the Chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue the 
Committee drew up the following statement : — 

*7'o the Chairman of the Board of Inland Revemie, 

' August G, ] 002. 
' Sir, — At the meeting of the British Association held at Glasgow last 
year a Committee was appointed to approach the Inland Revenue Cpw 



09 DTJTY-FKEE AL{X)HOL FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. 



171 



missibners to urge the desirability of securing the use of pure alcohol 
duty-free for the purposes of scientific research, 

' It was pointed out at the Glasgow meeting that the low price of pure 
alcohol and its derivatives on the Continent and the high duty payable in 
the United Kingdom severely handicapped research workers here in 
chemistry, physiology, and pathology, and to a smaller extent in zoology 
and botany. In the recent debates on the Budget Bill this disadvantage 
was recognised, and steps were taken with a view to remedy the evil. 

' In the United States, where alcohol is taxed, permits are granted to 
scientific institutions of certain rank enabling them to obtain duty-free 
alcohol for use in their laboratories. The conditions under which these 
permits are granted by the United States Treasury have been obtained by 
this Committee. A copy of these regulations was placed in your hands at 
the interview you were good enough to grant on the 9th inst. to members 
of this Connnittee. 

' In accordance with your request we have obtained .some statistics as 
to the amount of alcohol (and its derivatives) used in English laboratories 
for higher teaching and research work. It has not been possible to obtain 
complete details, but the following figures, which are the average number 
of gallons used per annum during the last three years in the laboratories 
at Cambridge, at Owens College, and the Yorkshire College, may be taken 
as typical : — 



I. Cambridge. 

(University and College 

Laboratories.) 

Chemical Laboratories . 
Pathological ,, 
Physiological ,, 
Zoological and Botanical Labora- 
tories 

II. OWENS College. 

Chemical Laboratories 
Pathological ,, . . . 

Physiological „ . . . 

Zoological and liotanical Labora- 
tories 

III. Yorkshire College. 

Chemical Laboratories 
Medical Department 



Absolute 

Ethyl 

Alcohol 



T, , -c 1 Absolute ' „,, , ' KTethv- 
^^^^^f Methyl E 'lyl ,^.^J 

^P»''* , Alnohol I Ether ^^-^-^ 



30 
15 



15 1 
10 \ 
20 I 



30 



10 






20 



60 
10 
10 



80 



12 



600 



100 

5 

25 

120 



50 
150 



It should be pointed out that if pure alcohol could be obtained duty-free 
more would be used in scientific work instead of the methylated spirit 
now used whenever possible. 

' From the table given it will be .seen that the chief demand in scientific 
laboratories is for pure ethyl alcohol and pure ethyl ether. But other 
alcohols {e.g. methyl alcohol) and other derivatives of alcohols {e.g. methyl 
and ethyl iodides) and ethereal salts {e.g. malonic ether) are largely used 
in organic chewistrj^. These reagents are at present mainly imported 



172 REPORT— 1903. 

from Germany and pay duty to the Customs. There is therefore a desire 
that such ethereal compounds might be imported duty-free for scientific 
use. 

' In the request that we now make for the use of duty-free ethyl 
alcohol and its derivatives, for the purpose of higher teaching and 
research, we would point out that the alcohol (or other reagent) is 
destroyed or contaminated beyond recovery by the use to which it is put, 
and such destruction or contamination could be certified by the director 
of the laboratory. 

' In the opinion of the Committee there would be no ditiiculty in 
arranging for one distributing station in each university centre to supply 
the several laboratories of that centre.' 

On October 22 the Committee received from the Board a draft of the 
suggested regulations under which it was proposed to authorise the issue, 
in accordance with section 8 of the Finance Act, 1902, of pure spirit duty- 
free for purposes of scientific research and education. The Board asked 
for observations on the proposed regulations. 

The Committee had copies of these proposed regulations sent to the 
directors of the chief laboratories in the country, with a request that they 
would forward any suggestions they jnight wish to make to the Committee, 
After considering the suggestions sent in, the Committee submitted their 
observations to the Board, who adopted the alterations suggested, and 
informed the Committee that methyl alcohol might be obtained under the 
same regulations. 

The Committee, with the permission of the Board of Inland Revenue, 
published the regulations in ' The Times ' and other newspapers with the 
accompanying explanatory letter : — 



' Diity-free Alcohol for Research, 

' To the Editor of " The Times." ' 

'December 15, 1902. 

' Sir, — It has long been felt by scientific workers in this country that 
a serious drawback to the prosecution of research lies in the fact that the 
full and very heavy duty has to be paid on pure alcohol, as distinguished 
from methylated spirit, largely used in scientific laboi'atories where higher 
teaching and research are carried on. And this appeared to be a hardship 
in the first place because the alcohol thus used is eitlier destroyed or 
rendered useless for potable purposes, and in the second place because no 
such duty is paid in Germany, France, or the United States, and thus the 
British is lieavily handicapped as against the foreign worker. 

' At the meeting of the British Association held last year in Glasgow, 
a Committee was appointed with instructions to approach the Board of 
Inland Revenue with the object of endeavouring to secure the removal of 
this grievance — a grievance which was recognised by Government in the 
Budget Bill of this year. We are now glad to report that the Board has 
met our suggestions in the fairest possible manner with an obvious desire 
to extend facilities for scientific research in the direction indicated, as a 
perusal of the regulations which we enclose will show. 

' The Secretary to the Board of Inland Revenue informs us that pure 
" methyl alcohol," also much used in chemical research, may be obtained 
under the same regulations, and shoujd smaller quantities of methyl 



ON bUTY-FKEE ALCOHOL FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. 173 

alcohol be required than the minimum permitted in the case of ethyl 
alcohol, the Board will consider special applications to that effect. — 
We are, &c., 

' H. E. RoscoE, Chairman. 

' H. B. Dixon, Secretary to the Committee.' 

(Enclosure.) 
Regulations for the Use of Duty-free Spirit at Universities, Colleges, (Sec. 

1. An application must be made by the governing body or their 
representatives, stating the situation of the particular university, college, 
or public institution for research or teaching, the number of the laboratories 
therein, the purpose or purposes to which the spirits are to be applied, the 
bulk quantity likely to be required in the course of a year, and, if it 
amounts to fifty gallons or upwards, the name or names of one or more 
sureties, or a guarantee society to join in a bond that the spirits will be 
used solely for the purpose requested and at the place specified. 

2. The spirits received at any one institution must only be used in the 
laboratories of that institution, and must not be distributed for use in the 
laboratories of any other institution, or used for any other purpose than 
those authorised. 

3. Only plain British spirits or unsweetened foreign spirits of not less 
than 50 degrees over-proof (i.e. containing not less than 80 per cent, by 
weight of absolute alcohol) may be received duty-free, and the differential 
duty must be paid on the foreign spirits. 

4. The spirits must be received under bond either from a distillery or 
from an Excise or Customs general warehouse, and (except with special 
permission) in quantities of not less than nine bulk gallons at a time. 
They will be obtainable only on presentation of a requisition signed by 
the proper superA'isor. 

5. On the arrival of the spirits at the institution the proper revenue 
officer should be informed, and the vessels, casks, or packages containing 
them are not to be opened until he has taken an account of the spirits. 

6. The stock of spirits in each institution must be kept under lock in 
a special compartment under the control of a professor or some responsible 
officer of the university, college, or institution. 

7. The spirits received by the responsible officer of the institution 
may be distributed by him undiluted to any of the laboratories on the 
same premises. 

8. No distribution of spirits may be made from the receiving laboratory 
to other laboratories which are not within the same premises. 

9. A stock-book must be provided and kept at the receiving laboratory, 
in which is to be entered on the debit side an account of the bulk and 
proof gallons of spirits received with the date of receipt, and on the credit 
side an account of the bulk and proof gallons distributed to the other 
laboratories. A stock-book must also be kept at each other laboratory, in 
which must be entered on the day of receipt an account of the bulk and 
proof gallons of spirits received from the receiving laboratory. These 
books must be open at all times to the inspection of the revenue officer, 
and he will be at liberty to make any extract from them which he may 
consider necessary. 

10. The quantity of spirits in stock at any one time must not exceed 



5^74 REPORT— 1903. 

half the estimated quantity required in a year where that quantity amounts 
to 20 gallons or upwards. 

11, Any contravention of the regulations may involve the withdrawal 
of the Board's authority to use duty-free spirits. 

12. It must be understood that the Board of Inland Revenue reserve 
to themselves full discretion to withhold permission for the use of duty- 
free spirit in any case in which the circumstances may not seem to them 
to be such as to warrant the grant of it. 

jf Q,f E. ' Proof spirit ' is defined by law to be such as at the tempera- 
ture of 51 degrees Fahrenheit shall weigh ',5 of an equal measure of 
distilled water. Taking water at 51 degrees Fahrenheit as unity, the 
specihc gravity of ' proof spirit ' at 51 degrees Fahrenheit is -92308. When 
such spirit is raised to the more usual temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit, 
the specific gravity is •91984. To calculate the quantity of spirits at 
proof in a given quantity of spirit over or under proof strength, multiply 
the quantity of spirit by the number of degrees of strength of the spii'it 
and divide the product by 100. The number of degrees of strength of 
any spirit is 100 plus the number of degrees overproof, or minus the 
number of degrees underproof. 

Example : 

19-8 gallons of spirits at (US overproof 
K>0 + 64-5 - 164-5 proof strength. 
164-5 X in-8 -^ 100 = 32-571 
taken as 32-5 gallons at proof. 



Isomeric Naphthdem Dervvatues.—B.epod of the Cummitiec, consisting 
of Professor AV. A. Tilden [Ghaimmn) and Dr. H. E. Armstrong 
(Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

During the past year proof has been obtained of the structure of the 
series of higher brouiinated derivatives prepared from 1:5: G-tribromo- 
/s'-naphthol "which were referred to in last year's report ; these com- 
pounds were then represented by formulae containing a bromine atom in 
position 3 marked with a query. The following facts show that a correct 
view was then taken as to the position of this bromine atom. 

The tetrabromo-/3-naphthol (m.p. 184°), from which the higher bromi- 
nated compounds are derived, is convertible by nitric acid into a tri- 
bromo-/3-naphthaquinone (m.p. 183°) which aniline converts into the 



com 



pound 




NHPh 



Such a substance can obviously only be formed from aquinone containing 
a bromine atom in position 3, not from one containing bromine in the 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



175 



alternative position i. The relationship of the several compounds is 
therefore as follows : — 

Br Br O 

O 



OH 




Br 



Br Br Br 

'J^^ibronio-;8-naplitliol, Tettabromo /S'liaphtliol, Tribromo-;3-naphtha- 

iji.p. 159°. ni,p. 184°. qniuone, m.p, 183°. 



o 



Bi 



NHPh 



Br 



Br NPh 

Anil. 



The structure has also been determined of the tetrabromo-/?-naphthol, 
No. 3 (ni.p. 191° ; acetate, m.p. 210°), described in the 1901 report, which 
differs from all the other highly brominated naphthols in that it fails to 
give a nitro-bromo-keto- compound, being converted by nitric acid, at the 
ordinary temperature, into a tetrabromo-/?-naphthaquinone (m.p. 241°). 

This tetrabromo-/7-naphthaquinone is oxidised by dilute nitric acid to 
a new dibromophthalic acid, which by exclusion must be the hitherto 
unknown 3 : b-dibromo])hthalic acid ; the quinone is therefore 3:4:6:8- 
tetrabroino-ft-naphlhaquinune. 

The parent naphthol, which is derived from 1:3: 6-tribromo not 
from 1:5: 6-tribromo-/3-naphtliol, must therefore contain the bromine 
atoms in positions 1:3:6:8, the series of compounds being related as 
shown by the following formulte : — 



Br 



Br 



Br 



O 



Br 



OH 




CO.,H 



Tetrabromo-/8-naphthol, 
m.p. 191°. 



TctrabroiTio-)3-naphtlia- 
quinone, m.p. 241°. 



Br y COoH 

1 : ij-Dibromophthalic acid, 
m.p. 188°; anhydride, 
m.p. 155°. 

It follows from these results that whilst the product of the further 
bromination of 1 : 3 : 6-tribromo-/3-naphthol is 1 : 3 : 4 : 6-tetra-bromo- 
/3-naphthol small quantities of the 1:3:6: 8-tetrabromo- derivative are 
also formed. 

The investigation of tiie bromo-naphthols has involved incidentally 
the study of the bromophthalic acids : the discovery of 3:4- and 3 : 5- 
dibromophthalic acids in the course of the work completes the series of 
dibromo- acids. 



176 



REPORT— 1903. 



A systematic investigation of the nitro-bromo-keto- compounds formed 
by the action of nitric acid on the bromo-^S-naphthols has led to the 
important discovery that whereas most of these substances are of normal 
composition — for instance, 




NOaBr 



II 




NO2 Br 



III 



Br 



Br 



IV 



others can only be obtained in association either with acetic acid alone or 
with water of hydration. Thus : 



NO, Br 
\/ OH 



NO2 Br 
Br 





OAC + 2H2O 
Br 



A similar addition of acetic acid takes place in the case of the keto-bro- 
mides {infra) but apparently not in the case of the keto-chlorides. These, 
however, as Zincke's researches show, in a few cases combine with alcohol. 
Generally speaking, the nitro-bromo-keto- compounds increase in 
stability as the number of bromine atoms increases, so that, whilst the 
compound I, for instance, begins to decompose slightly above 0° the 
compound II is so stable that it may be left exposed during several 
months in the air at the ordinary temperature without undergoing change. 
But that structure and not merely the proportion of bromine present 
in the compound largely determines stability is shown by the fact that, 
for example, the compounds represented by the formulse 

NO2 Br 



VII 




and VIII 




Br'\..^^\v^Br 
although rich in bromine rapidly decompose at the ordinary temperature. 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



177 



When bromine (1 molecular proportion) is left in contact with the 
nitro-keto- compound 

NO2 Br 

O 



Br 



(derived from 1 : 6dibromo-/8-naphthol), suspended in glacial acetic 
acid and exposed to diffused light, nitrous fumes are slowly evolved and 
an arborescent mass of needles separates which appears to be the mono- 
hydrate (I) of the acetate of a dibromo-naphthalene-keto-bromide 




OH 

OAc + HoO II 



Bro 



,0H 



\ 



0Ac-f2H,0 




Br., 



Ill 



Bi 



,0H 



'OAC + 4H2O 



Br 



This substance melts at 63-65° ; from the mother liquors large slightly 
yellow prisms slowly separate which consist of the tetrahydrate III. 
The dihydrate II is formed only under very special conditions, namely, 
when a solution of the nitro-bromo-keto- compound from l-bromo-/i}- 
naphthol in acetic acid is acted on by bromine ; it separates very slowly 
from solution in the form of small nearly colourless needles, melting at 81°. 
If any one of these hydrated acetates be gently warmed with benzene 
a turbid solution is obtained ; if this be dried with the aid of calcium 
chloride and slowly evaporated it deposits magnificent nearly colourless 
plates of the simple keto-bromide. 

Br, 



Br 



Br 



This substance apparently is the first repi'esentative of the class of 
naphthalene keto-bromides corresponding to the keto-chlorides which have 
been so fully studied by Zincke. When gently warmed, either alone or 
in the form of one of its hydrated acetates, with glacial acetic acid, it 
loses bromine and is converted into 4 : G-dibromo-/5-naphthaquinone 
(m.p. 171°) ; if the warming be continued the liberated bromine acts on 
this compound, converting it into 3:4: C-tribromo-/j-naphthaquinone 
1903. N 



178 



REPORT — 1903. 



(in. p. 190°). Care is necessary, however, as otherwise the action may go 
further ; a pentabromo-dinaphthyl-diquinone, C2oH_r,Br504, then separates 
as a yellow crystalline insoluble powder. This compound is formed accord- 
ing to the equation 2C,oH;jBrj02 = HBr + C.joHr.Bi'jOi- -A. similar case 
of condensation was mentioned in last year's I'eport. 

Unlike the keto- chlorides, the keto-bromides do not give substituted 
naphthols when reduced either with stannous chloride and chlorhydric 
acid or with iodhydric acid (d. I'D) ; the .sole product is 4 ; 6-di- 
bromo-1 : ;i-dihydroxynaphthalene, 

OH 



OH 




which is also obtained by reducing 4 : G-dibromo-l : 2-naphthaquinone. 
The corresponding diacetate, C,oH4Br2(C)Ac)o, crystallises in large 
prisms, melting at 157'^. 

The keto-bromide is probably first transformed into 




The discovery of 4 : 6-dibromo-2-keto naphthalene! -dibromide makes 
it possible to explain the production of 4 : 6-dibromo-l : 2-naphtha- 
quinone during the decomposition by heat of the nitro-keto- compound of 
1 : 6-dibromo-^-naphthol. That the dibromo-quinone could not be formed 
by a mere bromination of G-monobromo-/j-iiaphthaquinone initially 
produced is shown by the fact that this bromination cannot be i-ealised in 
practice. The real explanation is that the bromine initially split off from 
the nitro-keto- compound brominates the undecomposed remainder of this 
substance, first displacing NOo * a subsequent decomposition produces the 
4 : 6-dibromo-quinone. 

O 



NO., Br 



Br, 



O 



+ 




Br 



ON ISOMERIC NAPTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 179 

Now that the investigation has reached a stage when it is possible 
to give a complete account of the complex series of processes underlying 
the formation of the brominated naphthols, it is proposed to submit a 
considered discussion of the results for publication. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Rejiort of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairraan), Dr. A. W. Crossley 
(Secretary), Professor W. H. PerkIxV, and Drs. M. 0. Fgrster and 
Le Sueur. 

Recent Work on Hydro-aromatic Substances. By Dr. A. W. Cro,ssley. 

The following is a summary of the work published on hydro-aromatic 
compounds since the preparation of the last report.' 

Petroleum. — When acetylene and hydrogen are passed over reduced 
nickel, there results a mixture of hydrocarbons having the general pro- 
perties of petroleum. Sabatier and Senderens -' therefore put forwai'd the 
following suggestion as accounting for the production of natural petro- 
leum. In the interior of the earth alkali metals and carbides are found 
and these under the influence of water give hydrogen and acetylene 
which in contact with finely divided iron, nickel, kc, generate the hydro- 
carbons of petroleum. This supposition is not considered probable by 
Aschan,^ who, from experimental results, is led to conclude that the slow 
distillation of fossil fat in the earth's interior gives rise mainly to an 
unsaturated hydrocarbon residue, and to a smaller extent to an unsatu- 
rated complex containing carboxyl. Pressui-e and temperature cause the 
polymerisation of these residues with production of the naphthenes and 
naphthene carboxylic acids, which must therefore be regaixled as second- 
ary products of the distillation of mineral oil in the eartli's interior. 

Mabery ^ has described various hydrocarbons, with from thirteen to 
twenty-eight carbon atoms, isolated from the portion of Pennsylvanian 
petroleum, boiling above 216°. 

Synthetical Hydrocarbons. — Starting with optically active substituted 
hydroxyhexahydrobenzenes, Zelinsky ■' has propared dimethyl- and methyl - 
ethylhexahydrobenzenes, both of which hydrocarbons show a slight 
optical activity. 

Harries and Antoni '' have further investigated the method of prepar- 
ing substituted dihydrobenzenes by distilling the phosphates of certain 
diamines. The dihydrobenzene prepared from dihydroresorcin by this 
method adds on four atoms of bromine to give the solid tetrabromide 
melting at 184° ; whilst starting with dihydroresorcin, and submittinf' it 
to the method of Crossley and Le Sueur,^ the resulting dihydrobenzene 
absorbs only two atoms of bromine, forming a dibromide wjiioh melts at 
104°-5, and decomposes with evolution of hydrogen bromide at 170°.** 

The series of substituted ketotetrahydrobenzenes described by 
Knoevenagel '^ pro\ides a starting-point for the preparation of substituted 

' Reports, 1902, 120. 2 Compt. liend., 1902, 134, 1185 

= Annalen, 1902, 324, 1. * Amer. CJiem. ,/., 1902, 28, 1G.5 

^ Ber., 1902, 35, 2677. « Annalen, 1903, 328, 8S. 

' J.C.S., 1902, 81, 822. « Crossley and Haas, J.C.S., 1903, 83 49i 

' Annalen, 1894, 281, 225. 

N2 



180 REPORT— 1903. 

dihydrobenzenes and dihydrobenzenecarboxylic acids,' as illustrated by 
the following example : — 

CH, .C CO CH3.C! C\^„ 

■ I I I I " I "" 

H,C CH, . H.C CHj 

CH„ CH„ 

CH CH 

^\ //\ 

CH3 .0 C . CH., .CCCjHj C fla . C C . CH3 

I III II ' ■ I IV II 

H,0 CH H„C CH 

\/ '\/ 

CHj CH2 

Methylketotetrahydrobenzene (i) when treated with zinc and ethyl- 
oromacetate gives rise to an oxy-ester (11), which cannot be isolated, as it 
so readily loses water, giving an unsaturated ester (in). This latter, on 
saponification, yields the corresponding dihydro-meta-tolylacetic acid, 
which when heated under pressure evolves carbon dioxide, with produc- 
tion of dihydro-meta-xylene (iv). 

Hydroxy- derivatives. — 1 : 2-dihydroxyhexahydrobenzene.^ Metliyl- 
cyclohexanose.^ 

Dihydroresorcins. — Tlie action of phosphorus haloids on dihydroresor- 
cins ■* confirms the opinion that these substances behave in general as if 
they possessed the ketoenol (i), and not the diketonic structure (11). 
/CH,, . CO .CH, . CO .CH., . CO 

CMe., I "^CH CMe, 11 \cH„ CMe., in \cH 

\CH., . COH ^CHo. CO \CH.,.CCI 

Thus dimethyldihydroresorcin gives with phosphorus trichloride, 5-cliloro- 
3-keto-l : l-dimethyl-A'*-tetrahydrobenzene (m), and with phosphorus 
tribromide the corresponding bromo- derivative ; whereas phosphorus 
pentachloride produces 3 : 5-dichloro-l : 1 -dimethyl- A'^ -^-dihydrobenzene 

.CH3 = CC1 

CMe^ I J>CR 

\CH„ — CCl 

Phosphorus pentabromide behaves as a mixture of bromine and phos- 
phorus tribromide, and gives rise to a complicated mixture of bodies, 
varying greatly according to the conditions of experiment. Among the 
substances isolated were bromodimethyldihydroresorcin, tribromoketo- 
dimethyltetrahydrobenzene, and several bromoxyleuols, which latter are, 
however, not primary products of the reaction. 

Acids. — A method for the synthetical production of dihydrobenzene- 
carboxylic acids, with ketotetrahydrobenzenes as starting-point, has 
already been alluded to. Hexahydro-aromatic acids and polyraethylene- 
carboxylic acids in general can be prepared '^ from the iodine or bromine 

' Wallach, Annalen, 1902, 323, 135. = Brunei, Compt. Rend., 1903, 136, 383. 

=• Zelinsky and Roschdestwensky, Bar., 1902, 35, 2695. 

* Crossley and Le Sueur, J.C.S., 1903, 83, 110 ; Crossley and Haas, ibid. 494, 
» Zelinsky, Ber., 1902, 35, 2687. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 181 

derivatives of hexahydrobenzene and its homologues. These substances 
react readily with magnesium to form organo-metalHc compounds, which 
with carbon dioxide yield the magnesium salts of the corresponding 
carboxylic acids. lodohexahydrobenzene is under these conditions 
transformed into hexahydrobenzoic acid. 

When ethyl dibroniopropanetetracarboxylate ' is condensed with ethyl- 
disodiopropanetetracarboxylate it gives rise to ethyl hexahydrobenzene- 
octocarboxylate (i). 

(COOC..H5)., . C . CHj . C . (COOCH,), COOH . CH . CH„ . CH . GOGH 
I ' ■ I I ■ n 1 - I 

(COOC.H,), . U . CHj . U . (COOC.lIs), COOH . CH . CH, . CH . COOH 

On hydrolysis this ester yields the corresponding octocarboxylic acid, 
which loses carbon dioxide on heating, with formation of a mixture of 
<»'««s-hexahydrobenzenetetracarboxyHc acid (n) (hexahydropyromellitic 
acid), and the double anhydride of the cis modification of the same 
acid. 

Tra7isjoriiiat{o7i of Ketones. — Cyclic alcohols when dehydrated often 
form unsaturated hydrocarbons isomeric with those that would be expected 
from the constitution of the alcohol, thus providing the initial step in the 
transformation of a ketonic oxygen from one carbon atom to another. "■* 
For example, 1:3: 3-trimethyl-5-ketohexahydrobenzene (i) (dihydroiso- 
phoron) on reduction 



CH, CH, CHj CH, CH 



CH CH CH CH O 

/\ //\ /\ /\ /% 

CH., CH, HC CH, HO CH, H,C CH, CC CH 

I I I mi' 11 HI I ■ 'I iv| ■ I V I 

CO CCCHj), H,C C(CH,\, HC C(CH,), HC CCCH,), n^G C(CH,) 

\/ '\/ ■ \/ ' ^/ \/ 

CH, CH, CH, CH CH, 

gives the corresponding alcohol, which on dehydration yields a trimethyl- 
tetrahydrobenzene identical in every respect with geraniolen, and there- 
fore possessing formula 11 ; though a hydrocarbon with either formula in 
or IV would naturally have been expected to result. On treating the 
nitrosate of this trimethyltetrahydrobenzene with sodium methylate it 
yields an oxime identical with the oxime of 1 : 3 : 3-trimethyl-6-keto- 
tetrahydrobenzene (v). The ketone regenerated from this oxime can by 
the usual reactions be converted into the corresponding saturated ketone 
1:3: 3-trimethyl-6-ketohexahydrobenzene, thus completing the ti-ans- 
formation of the ketonic group from its original position 5 to position 6. 

Aromatic from Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Phosphorus pentachloride 
in excess converts 3 : 5-dichlorodihydrobenzene into metadiohloroben- 
zene,^ and dichlorodimethyldihydrobenzene into dichloro-ortho-xylene.'* 
In the former case bromine reacts in the same way as phosphorus 
pentachloride, but not so in the latter case, where there is obtained a 
series of chlorobromoxylenes. 

' Gregorj' and Perkin, J.C.S., 190.S, 83, 780. 

- Wallach, Annalen, 1902. 324, 112. 

' Crossley and Haas, J.C.S., 1903, 83, 502. 

* Crossley and Le Sueur, J.C.S., 1902, 81, 153(!. 



182 HEPORT— 1903. 

Stereochemidnj. — A graphic method of demonstrating the nuliiber of 
different stereoisomeric forms in which a substance can exist, has been 
brought forward by Aschan,' as being preferable to the use of models. 
It is shown in detail that the possibilities of isomerism in ring-systems 
are more truly seen when the symmetry of the molecule is ,alone con- 
sidered ; and further, it is demonstrated on these lines that optical activity 
becomes possible in certain ring-systems in the absence of an asymmetric 
carbon atom. 

If one imagines the plane of a carbon ring of an alicyclic compound as 
standing vertical to the plane of the paper, it can, provided the ring atoms 
lie in one plane, be represented by a straight line on the paper. The sub- 
stituents (omitting hydrogen atoms and unsubstituted methylene groups) 
are then written, according as to whether they lie on the upper or lower 
half of the ring, above or below the projected line. Only such forms 
are identical as can be superimposed either directly or after turning 
through 180° in the plane of the paper. 

The simplest example is afforded by trimethylenedicarboxylic acid, 

,CH . COOH 
CH., ! 

CH . COOH 

which can exist in the three following forms : — 

COOH : COOH COOH COOH 

COOH COOH 

A plane of symmetry can be drawn through form 1, which is not 
possible with 2 and 3, these being mirror images of one another. Aschan 
defines as optically isomeric only those substances which are mirror 
images of one another, Avhilst the term geometrical isomerism applies to 
all those stereoisomeric foims, active or inactive, which show a dissimi- 
larity in all their physical properties. 

On Dihydrohenzenes and on Aromatic Compounds derived from 
Hydro-aromatic Siihstances. By Dr. A. W. Crossley. 

Dihydrohenzene. — It has been shown that the dihydrobenzene obtained 
from dihydroresorcin ^ has the formula 

.CH = CH 
CH, \CH 

\CH.,-CH 

that is, the double bonds are in the 1 : 3 position. Up to the present 
time it has not been found possible to prepare the hydrocarbon in a pure 
condition, as it is contaminated with tetrahydrobenzene ; but further 
experiments are being conducted in the hope of obtaining the pure 
substance by this method. 

A second means of producing this same dihydrobenzene seemed to 
consist in the removal of two molecules of hydrogen bromide from 

> Ber., 1903, 35, 3389. * J.C.S., 1903, 83, 494. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDllO-AROMATlC SUBSTANCES. 183 

tlittromofcetrahydrobenzene, tliere being only one possible Avay in which 
the hydrogen bromide could be eliminated. 

,CH., . CHBr .CH=CH 

CH, \cHBr = 2HBr + CH„ Ncfi 

\CH, . CH, \CH.,— CH 

This reaction has been tried by Baeyer ^ and Fortey.- The lattel* 
Btates that -when dibroniotetrahydrobenztne is treated with quinoline, 
dihydrobenzene is formed ; but no details of any sort are given. It 
is therefore to be presumed the author concluded that the dihydro- 
benzene so formed was the one giving a tctrabromidc melting at lSi°. 

Preliminary experiments have conclusively proved that such is not 
the case, for the hydrocarbon so obtained gives no trace of the tetra- 
bromide melting at 184°, but only the dibromide melting at 101:°'5, thus 
proving it to be A-'- ''-dihydrobenzene. 

Final experiments, with larger quantities of material are now being 
cariied out. 

Aromatic Compouiuls derived from Hydro -ciromatic Suhsfdnces. — ■ 
When dichloro-dihydrobenzene ■* (i) and dichloro-dimethyldihydro- 
benzene^ (ii) 

.CH = CCl yCH = CCl 

CHj I ^CH CMe, il \CH 

\CH,— CCl \CH,— CCi 

are treated with excess of phosphorus pentachloride, they are converted 
respectively into metadichlorobenzene and 3 : 6-dichloro-ortho-xylene. 
Bromine produces the same change with dichlorodihydrobenzene,' two 
atoms of bromine being tirst added on and then eliminated on distillation 
as hydrogen bromide. 

it was thought that the reaction would be the same with bromine 
and dichloro-dimethyldihydrobenzene, a supposition which proves to be 
incorrect ; for though the aromatic substances obtained are always 
substituted ortho-xylenes, they consist for the most part of dichloro- 
bromoxylenes, of which both the possible forms with the chlorine atoms 
in the 3 : 5 position have been isolated — namely, ." : 5-dichloro-4-bromo- 
ortho-xylene and 3 : 5-dichloro-6-bromo-ortho-xylene. The work is nob 
in a sufficiently advanced state to warrant the publication of further detailSs 



Edenvale Caves, co. Clare. — Tleport of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. R. F. ScHARFF (Chairman), Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger (Secre- 
tary), Mr. G. Coffey, Professor G. A. J. Cole, Professor D. J. 
Cunningham, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. A. McHenry, and Mr. 
R. J. UssPiER, afpointedj to explore Irish Caves. (Dravm vp tnj 
Mr. R. J. Ussher). 

In April 1902 Dr. Scharff and Mr. R. J. Ussher visited some caves in the 
CO. Clare, and decided to explore two at Edenvale, near Ennis, which 
adjoined each other and proved to be connected. 

' Annalen, 1894, 878. "- J.C.S., 1808, 73, 918. 

" J.C.S., 1903, 83, 502. ' J.C.S., 1902, 81, 1531), 

" J.aS., 1003, 83, 502. 



18 i REPORT— 1903. 

Another system of connected caves was subsequently explored there, 
and both groups of cavities were found to be prolific in remains of animals 
now extinct in Ireland, and in human relics of different periods. 

Edenvale House stands on a ridge of Carboniferous Limestone, which 
forms the western side of a deeply cleft anticlinal ; in the chasm thus 
formed lies a lake of relatively great depth, which is surrounded by a steep 
declivity on all sides but one. 

The first two cavities referred to, which have been named the Alice 
and the Gwendoline caves, open in a low escarpment on the western side 
of the Edenvale ridge. Their aspect is southerly. 

The Alice cave, after running a straight course for 80 feet, was found 
to terminate in an upward opening that had been tilled in with earth and 
stones, and contained material resembling that found in kitchen middens. 
At 40 feet from the mouth of this cave a gallery branched off, and con- 
nected it with the Gwendoline cave on a lower level. 

At 15 feet from the mouth of the Alice cave a projection in the rocky 
wall was worn smooth, as if by the constant rubbing of creatures which 
had passed in and out. 

In most parts of these caves two strata were distinguishable : — 

1st and upper. Brown earth, occa.sionally containing calcareous tufa. 
In this stratum was found much charcoal, bones of man and domestic 
animals in a fragmentary state, and also objects of human art of various 
descriptions — a bone pin or awl, an amber bead, a bracelet of bronze, and 
another of gold. 

2nd. A lower stratum composed of clay, generally of a yellow-ochre 
tint, but sometimes purplish. 

Bones and teeth of reindeer and bear were found chiefly in the latter 
stratum, and the ursine remains indicated that they belonged to individuals 
of great size. 

Having removed the fossiliferous deposits of the above caves, opera- 
tions were commenced at the orifice of the second group, opening in the 
cliff-face under Edenvale House overlooking the lake. 

This cave runs 60 feet into the rock, but is traversed by a series of 
galleries, some of which are wide and confluent. One of these galleries 
was excavated for a distance of 60 feet, and it was found to be crossed 
by another cave that led out to the cliff, but whose orifice is blocked. 

This system of caves is so extensive and complex that we have named 
it the Catacombs. It has proved still more fruitful than the former caves 
in relics of man and of extinct animals. Human bones were frequent, 
and in one place an assemblage of these included a cranium not far from 
which there were two stout iron knife-blades. A strap of bronze bearing 
a buckle was found elsewhere, ornamented with an interlaced pattern in 
silver plating. In other parts of the Catacombs were chipped flint 
scrapers, a bone piercer, a tusk of a large boar pierced as if to form an 
amulet, and a marine shell similarly pierced. 

Several marine shells occurred, although the sea is many miles away 
from the site ; also much charcoal and bones of horse, ox, pig, sheep or 
goat and dog. 

Bones and teeth of bear and reindeer were of daily occuri'ence in 
excavating the deposits, and in a few cases we obtained pieces of the bones 
and of the antlers of the great Irish deer (Irish Elk). 

The large collections of human and animal remains found in the Eden- 



ON EDENVALE; caves, CO. CLAKE. IS 



do 



Vft]6 caves are in cour.se of e.xainination, and the further exploration of 
tlie Catacombs is in progress, there being reason to believe that the un- 
explored portions considerably exceed those that have been examined. 



Life-zones in, the llriiisJi, Garhoniferous BofJis. — Heporl of the Cowr- 
mittee, conf<istinij of Dr. J. E. Mark {Ghairmaii), ]^r. VVheelton 
Hind (Secretary), Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Ckick, Dr. 
A. H. FooRD, Mr. H. Fox, Professor E, J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. 
HiNDE, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. E. Kidston, Mv. G. W. 
Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. 
Strahan, and Dr. H. Woodward. (Brawn up by the Secretary.) 

The Secretary regrets that he has received no reports from members of 
the Committee, and that the small sum of money voted last year, 51., has 
not permitted work to be carried on on the usual scale. 

In the spring, a chart of the cliief fossil shells found at variou.s 
horizons of the North Staffordshire coalfield was published by the Institute 
of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. 

This chart was drawn up by Mr. J. T. Stobbs, F.G.S., and Dr. W. 
Hind, F.G.S., and shows a section of the North Staffordshire coalfield, 
with the marine beds at present known ; each bed in the section has 
opposite to it the shells found in it, or a reference by a number to a shell 
figured as being found in other beds. This chart is an amplification of a 
section of North Staffordshire coalfields and on which the horizons at 
which fossil shells occur, drawn up by Dr. W. Hind and published in his 
monograph on CarhonicoJa, Anthraconiy'a, and Naiadites. The authors 
contend that many of the important seams of the North Staffordshire coal- 
field can be easily recognised by the mollusca found in connection with 
them, and that the marine bands form absolutely certain indices of horizons. 

Collecting has been carried on by Mr. J. T. Stobbs, F.G.S., in Wensley- 
dale and in Teesdale. 

The Secretary determined to examine the bed of Limestone mapped in 
Quarter Sheet 102 S.E., which occurred intercalated in the Millstone Grit 
beds. Mr. W. Gibson had called attention to this bed, thinking it possible 
that the Pendleside fauna might be found there, but such is not the case. 

The carefully drawn up reports and sections by Mr. Stobbs speak for 
themselves. The fossils are unfortunately not worth preserving, but the 
Secretary has been able to identify the great majority, and his identifi- 
cations are included in the lists in Mr. Stobbs's report. 

The district comprising Mickleton and Underthwaite Moors lies 
between the River Lime and the River Balder (both of which are southern 
tributaries of the River Tees), and is known as part of the area whence 
the water-supply of Stockton and Middlesbrough is obtained. At the 
present time thiee shafts and a tunnel are in progress of driving, the 
positions of which are shown in fig. 1. The opportunity was taken of in- 
specting the debi'is brought to the surface as a consequence of these works. 

The rocks occupying tliis area belong to the upper portion of the 
Yoredale series, and consist mainly of finely laminated black shales. The 
freestones are hard and approximate to the ' gannister ' type. The 
sections afforded by the streams marked (A) were also examined (see 
fig. 2). The whole series of beds points to a gradual termination of those 



186 



REPoM— 1903. 



recurrences of clear deep-soa conditions during Avhicli the Yoredale Lime-= 
stones were deposited. In this district the Crystalline Limestones are 



Fiu. 1. 





^/ 






^P X Orassholm 




7?tvci> 


}^_^y' t a) ' botany 

N ^ \ 






-^-^/y^ SAaf/ \ Hurij 


. — ■> 




\ ^^,U^3Shorr\ ^—-^"^ 






V_^^ \/ \,.^ ^^ A 






A/ew Hous^S^ J 






y "■■ +- 





■ft cv c.r' 


I 


5co/t? 


/ Inch - / M//e 





very thin, whilst the thicker ones are shallow -sea deposits, as proved by 
their detrital character. 

No. 2 Shaft (tig. 1) at Bullhill Sike passed through the following 
beds : — 

ft. in. 

Fossiliferous bullions. 
Jidmoixlia sulcata, ProtoscMzodus 

axiitiformis. 

From the black shales the folloAving fossils were collected :— 





ft. in 


Black shales 


. 40 


Hard gannister . 


. 3 



Arclueocidaris sp. 
Clwiu'tis Lfifjuessiana. 
Di.'iciiia iiitida. 
Linrjula mi/tiloides. 
Orthis Mic/iclhii. 
Orthotetes crcni stria. 
Pi'i 'ductus lonyisjj'mus. 



Sp'trifcra liiieatus. 
Ctenodonta sp. 
Si/nci/cloiiema sp. 
Belleroplwn sp. 
Jiapliistoma sp. 
TrilohUe. 



The mouth of the tunnel at No. 3 Shaft is driven in dark shale 
containing a 1-inch band of Limestone, from which were obtained the 
following : — 



Camaroplwria crvmvna. 
Orthotefps crenistria. 
I'Toductua scabriculiis. 
Mhynchonclla 2>lourodun. 



Spirifera triffonalis ? 
Phillipsia sp. 
Reed-like plant-remains. 



In the shale itself Aviculopecten dissimilis was obtained. 



tlFfe-ZONES tN tHE tJRITtSH CARUONlPEROUS HOCKS: 



187 



The succession of beds in the stream (A) (fig. 1), which tloWs into the 
reservoir near Hury, is shown in fig. 2. 



1. Limestone ..«.•. 

2. Limestone in tliin nodulixr bcils . • 

3. CrystivUiue limestone .... 

4. Blue shale 

6. Limestone 

ti. Finely laminated blue shale . 

7. Limestone ...... 

8. Fissile shales . , , , -, m 

9. Shales with calcareous nodules . , 

10. Dark fissile shale . • . • t 



11. Grey fireclay 



12. Freestone , 



13. Dark micaceous shales, with bullions 
at base 



Fiu. 2. 



ft. in. 

4 

(! 

2 n 

1 U 

2 9 (crinoidal) 
•1 I) 

lU 

9 

3 



22 



2 



13 



180 (estimated) 



188 



HEroRT-1903. 



Beds (1) and (2) are detrital limestones, from which the following list 
was collected : — 



ProdiutKS icmireticulatiis (full sized). 
Product us undat us. 
Sjiirifcri/ia octopltcata. 
titro2)kflmcHa analoga. 
Aviculajiecien disswiilis. 

sp. 
Edmimdia sulcata. 



Cuatlwj/hyllum sp., abundant near top. 
Arclucocidaris sp. 

Fciwstella sp., abundant in layers near top. 
Athyrls amhigun. 
Choiietes Bueliiaiia. 
Product us ac uleatus. 
,, pltcatilis. 

The thin crystalline Limestone (7) weathers reddish-yellow, and from 
its fossiliferous character it should constitute a good horizon for strati- 
graphical work. The following list was obtained : — 

Crinoid. JiJiynchonella 2ficurod(m. 

Orthotctes crenistria. Edmondia sp. 

Productus jiu netatus (abundant). Parnllelodoh sp! 

„ tivabriculus. Bellerdplwii Vrei. 

„ sinuntus. MacroclMillm sp. 

No fossils were found in the shales (8), (9), and (10). 

The grey fireclay (11) contained a fair. abundance of rootlets, and in 
the Freestone (12) ^tvjmaria ficoidrs was found. No fossils were seen 
either in the thick deposit of shale (13) or its contained bullions. 

In Wensleydale the typical Yoredale Rocks were examined, and fo.ssils 
were collected from the uninterrupted sections afforded by Mill Gill, 
represented in fig. 3. 

The following is a statement of the fossils found in the various beds : — 

1. Cheity Limestone. Productus ffiffa/dcus {common'). 

2. Black shales. Productus giffantetis. 
4. Strong calcareous shales. 

Product If s gifftinfcus {abivadani). 
„ hmgisjnnus. 

0. Cherty Limestone. Productus gigantcvs 

10. Black shale. Productus semireticulatus. 

11. Limestone, the upper part is cherty; at the base is a layer crowded with 
Lithostrotion, Sgringopor-a, and Cyathopligllum. 

14. Black siiale. Spirvrbis helicteres '.' ; and fragments of plant-remains in the 
roof-layer of (15) coal. 
If). Fireclay. Kootlets 

Fig. 3. 

ft. ill. 



Productus scmirvticulaiiis. 
Sjyirifvra sp. (common). 



1. Clierty limestono . 

2. Black shale . 

3. Lime.stoiie 

4. Strong calciueous shales 



B. Limcftone 



G. Black shnle . 

7. Limestinie 

8. Black shale . 

n. Cherty limestone 
10. Black shale . 



11. Limcstoue 




4 
1 ?, 

3 



11 



' I y- 



lie Limestone. 



2 .1 
G 



10 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



189 



12. Sandstone . 

13. Areuaoeous t^liale 

14. Black sLale 

15. Coal 

lU. Fireclay . 



17. Sandstone 

18. Limestone 

19. SftnJstoiie ami nrenaoeous slmles 



20. Blaok shales 



JWWW^W^v^m'! 



i¥$$($;$sss($$$s$^ 



21. Limestone (six beds) 



22. Black shale . 

23. Limestone 

24. Sliale 

25. Limestone 

26. Shale 

27. Limestone 

28. Sandstone 

29. Arenaceous shales , 



80. Sandstone 



31. Blaek sh.ale with noilnles 

32. Limestone 

33. Soft black shales . 

34. Limestone 

35. Black shales . 

36. Limestone 

37. Black shale . 

38. Nodular limestone 

39. Blaek shale . 

40. Coal .... 

41. Kireelay .... 

42. Sandstone 





SiSSMSSJmJiSSS 



R 

2 
4 

2 G 



18 
(estimated) 



^Hawes Flags 



1 9 



52 
(estimated) 



8 



15 3 



10 /Simonside Limestona 
1 U 



1 

2 9 
4 6 



IS 



6 G 

4 

3 C 

4 9 

3 

1 
6 
6 
2 

2 

6 



190 



REPORT — 1903. 



43. Sliale . . . 

44. Saiulslone 

45. Black shale . 

46. Nodular limestone . 

47. Black shale , 



48. Liinestoue 

49. Black shale 

50. Limestone 



51. Sanilstone 



53. Nodular limestone . 

54. Shales . 

P.B. . 

55. Limestone 



52. Black slialos with nodules . 





4 

10 
1 (i 

:i 
5 



9 



Hardraw Scar 
Limestone. 



32 
(estimated) I 



35 
(estimated) 



15 

3 
5 U 



y Great Scar Limestone. 



Scale : 20 feet per inch. 



20. Black shales. 

I'enfistella sp. 
Ortlt'is Michi'lini. 
Productus semireticnlatus. 
Annisium concentricttm . 
Aviculopecte n clatkratns. 



Pseudamvsiuni anisutus. 
l^vomj>halvs carbonari us. 
Itluqjistoma junior. 
Philiij)sia sf. 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CAKBONIFEROUS ROCKS, 



191 



32. Limestone. 

AUoriama sulcata (common). 



Natieojjsia, 



34. Limestone. Produofus giganteus (in lower portion). 
41. Fireclay cupper part gannister-like). Rootlets. 
46. Nodular limestone. Natieopsix sp. 

48, Limestone (Hardraw Scar). Upper portion weathers red. 

Productii.1 gemireticulaius, var. Lithostrotion. 

cnstatiin. 

49. Black shale. 

Produchis gigantevs. 

51. Sandstone. Upper portion thickly bedded, lower portion flaggy. 

52. Black shale with nodules. 



Syncyclonema Somerhii. 



Fenestclla sp. 
Athyris ambigua. 
Chonetes BucMwna. 

„ painVionacea. 
Bielasma Jinstata. 
Orthis MicheUni. 

„ res>ij>inata. 
Orthotetes crenistria. 
Prodiictus aciileaUiis. 

,, costatus. 

„ giganteus ? 

„ iongisjnmts. 

„ soabrimdus. 

„ semireticulatus, 

„ vndatus. 

Mhynohonella pleurodon. 

63, Nodular Limestone. 3Iacroclieilina sp. 
C4, Shales. 

Orthis Mu'heliiii, 
Productvs seiniri'tlonlatm. 

65. Great Scar Limestone. Prodiictus giganteus. 



Rhynclumella trilateral 
Spirifera, Uneata. 

Spiriferina cristata. 
Ariculopecteii clatliratus, 
Ctenodonta lavirostris. 
Edmondia McCogi. 

, , u7iioniforiids (young). 
Leiopteria squamosa. 
Nucula luciniformis. 
Psmdamiismm ellijjticum. 
Scaldia Benediana. 
iSyueyclonema Soicerbii. 
Nacroclieilina acuta ? 
Stroboceras snloatus. 
PMllipsia sp. 



PogidonomyaBecJwri (abundant 
in layer marked P. B., fig. 3). 



From the underset Limestone above Mill Gill, the following were 
obtained : — 



Productus giganteus. 
„ latissimus. 

„ punctatus. 



Prodvotus semireticttlatus4 
Spirifor oralis. 
Atliytis sp. 



Remarks : It will be observed that rroductns gigmitPAis ranges from 
the bottom to the top of the .section and is met with both in the Lime- 
stones and the shales. 

Posidonomya Becheri is very abundant in a layer of shale about 
9 inches above the Great Scar Limestone, and may be useful in de- 
scribing that limestone in other districts. 

The occurrence of Spirorbis lielicteres so low down on the carboniferous 
system is especially noteworthj'. It is fairly abundant in the roof-shale 
of (15) Coal, with which it is associated in the same way as with the 
Coal-seams of the true Coal-measures. 

The two thin coals (1-5) and (40) may be used as indexes to the 
Middle Limestone and the Hardraw Scar Limestone respectively, No. 15 



192 REPORT — 1908. 

Coal being 10 feet 4 inches hehw the Middle Limestone, whilst No. 40 
Coal is 11 feet 4 inches above the Hardraw Scar Limestone. 

In conclusion the Committee would ask for a larger grant than 5^., 
which only covered railway fares and actual out-of-pocket expenses, and 
would point out that the reports have always justified the grant. 

Miss Jessie Barker sends me the following list of fossils which she 
collected from a shale top at Newbrough. Professor Lebour informed her 
that the horizon of that shale was somewhat doubtful owing to faulting, 
but ' at any rate the shale is very near one of the limestones next beneath 
the 4 fathom Limestone, and called the 3 yard, 5 yard, and Scar Lime- 
stoiie respectively.' 

1. MonticuUpora tutmila. 10. Productus longispimis. 

2. Archa-ocidaris Ure/i. 17. Spirifcra conmiliita. 

3. Poteriocrinu^ fusiform} s. 18. „ laminom. 

4. Serpvlites carhmaHus. 19. Atliyris amhigua. 

5. Ostracod, jiossibly Carhonia. 20. Dlelasma hastata. 

6. Fcnestelia sp. 21. CJmietes Lagnessiana. 

7. Rhabdomeson gracilc. 22. Ehynchonella prob. triangularis. 
% Polupora sp. ? 2.S. Ortlwtctes crcnistria. 

9' Poiyzoa genus ? 21. Myalina pernoides. 

10. Liwpila mytiloides. 25. Actinppteria persulcata. 

11 Cranial 20. Ptercmites avgustatus. 

12. Po-odiictm semireticvlatvg. 27. Bellcrophon Urei. 

13_ „ striatus. 28. Porcellio jnnio. 

2^' "^ pnnctatns? 2'.K Strcpsodvn sanroideg. 

I5I " giganifii.^. ->0. Lulyrinthodon. 

1, 4, 6. 7, 8, 9, and 18 determined by Dr. G. J. H. ; 3, Mr. F. A. B., 
also 2, i think, but it is quite unmistakable ; 30, Dr. H. Woodward ; the 
remainder by Dr. W. Hind. 



77(6 Movements of Underground Waters of North-ivest Yorkshire. — 
Fourth lieport of the Committee^ consisting of Professor W. W. 
Watts {Chairman), Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Rev. E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mr. George Bray, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, Mr. 
Percy F. Kendall, and Mr. J. E. Marr. (Dratni vp hij the 

Secretari/.) 

[Plates IF. and III.] 

The Committee is carrying out the work in conjunction with a committee 
of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. 

On April 4 the members of the joint committee resumed the work of 
tracin" the underground waters of Ingleboro', described in previous reports. 

On that day half a pound of fluorescein was put into the sink at the 
Washfold (P 52) on Bent Hill Rig, Park Fell, at 2.15 p.m. This had 
almost disappeared at 6.15 p.m., when a second half-pound was intro- 
duced, this being arranged so as to flow in slowly and keep up the supply 
for a considerable time. The stream was still coloured on April 5 at 
1.30 P.M., when the remainder of the charge was sent down in a flush. 
The stream was slowly dwindling on the 5th, it having been in flood on 
the previous day. 

All the springs in the neighbourhood were carefully watched for several 



MOVEMENTS OF UNDERGROI'.XD WATERS OF NORTH-WEST YORKSHIRE. 103 

days, but as yet no result has been observed. This sink will be again 
tested during the current year. 

AVhile waiting for the result of the above experiment the survey of the 
underground passages in the neighbourhood of Alum Pot was continued. 

Previous experiments tried at the stream sinking at P 14 on Parrar's 
Allotment having been without result, 2 lb. of fluorescein were put in 
there at 7 p.m. on June 26. 

A look-out was kept at all the springs from Austwick Beck Head to 
Turn Dub for a period of ten days, and also by residents in the neighbour- 
hood up to the time of the next visit of the Committee, but without result. 

On the day following the introduction of the test there was a very 
heavy flood, which may account for the non-success of the experiment. 
This stream will be tried again as soon as favourable conditions occur. 

Streams near Ribblehead Station. 

S 102 is a small spring issuing from the grit beds of the Yoredale 
Series, above Keld Bank, on Park Fell. The stream from this spring 
sinks at P 73, about half a mile south-west of the station, at a height of 
1,240 feet above the sea. 

A quarter of a pound of fluorescein was introduced at P 73 at noon on 
June 29, and was seen at S 103 at 3.30 p.m. on the same day. It again 
sank at P 74, and reappeared at S 104 at 3.35. 

About 30 yards below S 104 the stream has been partially diverted to 
P 76, but a portion flows down the natural channel to P 75. 

By turning the whole stream alternately down P 75 and P 76 it was 
possible to trace both lines of flow. 

First the stream \»^as turned down the normal channel to P 75, and the 
fluorescein was seen at P 77 at 4.35 p.m., where it again sank, and was 
seen half an hour later in P 78. 

Secondly, the flow having been diverted into the artificial channel to 
P 76, the colour was seen in a trough at Brock Holes, the flow being 
partly by a natural channel parallel to the main joints in the limestone, 
and partly by a pipe to supply the trough. 

Fluorescein was next put into P 67, and was traced by S 95, P 68, S 69, 
P 69, and S 97, to P 70, where it finally sank. 

The fluorescein from all the above streams emerged at S 99, below the 
Station Hotel at Ribblehead, and subsequently at Batty Wife Hole, S 100. 
It then flowed overground to P 72, where it again sank, to come to light at 
S 101, near the bank of the Ribble below Gauber Farm, and so into the river. 

The spring at S 101 is .similar in appearance to Turn Dub, described 
in the last report of the Committee, but is much smaller. 

In wet weather the excess of water from Batty Wife Hole flows over 
the surface, by way of Batty Wife Beck, into the Pibble, which it then 
joins some 100 yards further up-stream tliau the water which goes under- 
ground. 

Streams near Colt Park Farm. 

The streams sinking at P 62, P 63, and P 64, near High Barn, were 
found to unite in the spring at 8 89 and to flow overground to Colt Park 
Farm, where the Water sank, to reappear at S 90, whence it flowed over- 
ground for a few yards and again sank. This water was again seen in 
the spring S 93, in Salt Lake Quarry, where it forms a waterfall visible 
from the railway. It then cresses beneath the railway and sinks in » 

1 903, 



194 REPORT— 1903. 

mass of glacial gravel at P 65, below which point we were unable to trace 
its course. 

The fluorescein from the flows just described having been allowed to 
pass off, the streams sinking at P 48 and P 49 near Bent Hill Rig Barn 
were next tested. These were found to unite and to flow along a master 
joint in the limestone via P 59 and P 60, and then to turn down a cross- 
joint to S 88, on Ashes Shaw Pasture Rocks. From S 88, after an over- 
ground journey of about ten yards, the water sinks at P61, and again 
resumes the direction of the master joints, running parallel to the hillside 
to Rake Spring, S 91. 

The stream from Rake Spring flows overground past the south end of 
Salt Lake Quarry, beneath the railway, and through Ashes Gill Planta- 
tion to P 66, on Ashes Eller Bank, where it sinks in glacial drift near 
the river. 

Sinks on Fell Close. 

There are three streams flowing over Fell Close, viz. Keld Bank Spring 
East, sinking at P 79, Fairweather Spring East ; sinking at P 80, and Fair- 
weather Spring West at P 81. 

These three streams were found to unite, and to issue at Eller Keld 
Spring, S 106, whence the water flows into the bed of Winterscale Beck, 
otherwise known as Haws Gill, where it again sinks to join the main 
drainage of Chapel-le-Dale, which will be described later. 

Proceeding southwards, the next stream is Keld Bank Spring West, 
which sinks on Scar Close Moss, at P 82. 

Fluorescein was put into P 82 at 12 noon on July 4, and was seen at 
S 105 and P 8.3 at 5 p.m. on the same day, and on the following day at 
P 84, and at Eller Keld Spring, S 106. 

The group of .small streams sinking at P 93, on Fenwick Lot, are 
almost dry in summer, and have not yet been tested. They probably fall 
into Douk Cave, P 95, but this will be determined in due course. 

The Wash/old on Souther Scales Fell. 

The group of streams sinking at the Washfold, P 94 and 96, on Souther 
Scales Fell, were tested on June 30, at 2.30 p.m., and the fluorescein was 
seen in Douk Cave, P 95, at 3.50 the same afternoon, having traversed a 
well-marked joint running N, 10° W., via the pothole known as Little 
Douk Cave. 

In Douk Cave the water again sinks, and the green colour was 
observed in Chapel Beck, in the pool below Gods Bridge, at 1 P.M. on 
July 3, and was much stronger at 2.30 p.m. 

The stream was low at the time, and there was little water above 
Gods Bridge. Weathercote Cave, P 88, and Hurtle Pot, P 90, were care- 
fully watclied from June 30 to July 3, but no trace of fluorescein was to 
be seen in either. The conclusion arrived at was, therefore, that the water 
from Douk Cave joins Chapel Beck on some part of its underground 
journey between Hurtle Pot and Gods Bridge. 

The main joint at Douk Cave runs N. 65 W., and this, if continued, 
would strike the main stream in the neighbourhood of the Vicarage, which 
agrees very well with the conclusion mentioned above. 

The small streams sinking at P 97, P 98, and P 99, still remain to be 
tested. 



British A 



[Platk II. 




U NDERGROUND WATERS OF N . W. YORKS H IR C . 

-==- iOUTHCRN APCA . -=- 



SCALt — 



[I'l.ATK II. 




MOVEMENTS OF UNDERGROUND WATERS OF NORTH-WEST YORKSHIRE. 195 

Mere Gill Hole. 

Mere Gill rises on the upper slopes of Ingleboro', and flows down 
the hollow known as Humphry Bottom, and sinks m a large open joint 
running N. 50 W. at Mere Gill Hole, on Mere Gill Piatt. 

Mere Gill was charged with fluorescein at 1 p.m. on July 4 and the 
colour was observed on the following morning in the spring S 111, on the 
left bank of Chapel Beck, immediately above Gods Bridge, and almost in 
the direct line of the master joint at Mere Gill Hole. From bill the 
water passed under Gods Bridge by way of P 91, and reappeared below 
the bridge at S 112. ^ , „, . -mt 4. 

The small streams sinking at P 101 and 102, on Black Shiver Moss, to 
the south-west of Mere Gill Hole, have not as yet been tested. 

Passing along the hillside in a south-westerly direction, the next 
stream of importance is that at Crina Bottom, the course of which has 
been described in a previous report. 

Long Kin West. 

The group of potholes known as Long Kin West, P 108, was 
examined, and it was found that no water was flowing into them nor was 
there any evidence that a stream had lately occupied any of them, and, 
consequently, no test was possible. 

By visiting these pots during heavy rain, when there is a large amount 
of local surface drainage, we may be able to connect them with some ot 
the neighbouring springs. 

Grey Wife Sike. 

On referring to the first report of the Committee, it will be found that 
an unsuccessful attempt was made to trace the water flowing down P 1, 
at the foot of Grey Wife Sike. 

On that occasion methylene blue was employed, and, as that reagent 
has since been found to be practically useless for our purposes, we deter- 
mined to try again with fluorescein. j x -d i 

Accordingly, about half a pound of fluorescein was introduced at ±^1 on 
July 2, and another similar quantity on July 4. This came out at Moses 
Well, S 7, a large spring on the right bank of Clapham Beck, on the 5th 
and 6th. 

The River Greeta. 

The last piece of work undertaken this year was the tracing of the 
underground course of the main stream in Chapel-le-Dale. 

This stream flows underground in many places in normal weather, 
but when in flood occupies a well-worn channel on the surface. 

The upper part of the stream, above Weathercote, is known as Winter- 
scale Beck, the portion between Weathercote and Gods Bridge as Chapel 
Beck, and from that point down to Ingleton as the river Greeta. 

The stream rises on the moors near the tunnel of the Midland Rail- 
way, above the Ribblehead Viaduct, and soon sinks in a series of pot- 
holes, there being, however, a well-marked open flood channel. 

The whole stream again comes to the surface at the mouth ot Gate 
Kirk Cave, S 107, and another large spring a few yards away. 

It then flows through several large pools, and again goes underground 
at P 85, leaving the stream bed dry, to again emerge about seventy yards 



196 REPORT— 190B. 

further down at S 109. It again sinks at the foot of Haws Gill, P 87, 
where it is joined by the water from Eller Keld Spring. 

Except in cases of exceptional flood, the bed of the stream below this 
point is dry, and from the point where Philpin Lane crosses the channel, 
to Philpin Hole, it is occupied by meadow land, which shows no sign of 
having been recently overflowed. 

In the clough above Weathercote Cave the water can be heard below 
the stream bed, and actually comes to the surface in several places in wet 
weather. It emerges in the flne waterfall in Weathercote Cave, and again 
passes below the limestone at the bottom of that pot. 

The water sinking in Weathercote Cave then passes through the pool 
at the bottom of Hurtle Pot, and finds its way lieneath the surface to 
Gods Bridge, where it finally comes to light, and flows off the carboniferous 
limestone on to the Silurian rocks some 200 yards farther down stream. 

In extremely wet weather Weathercote Cave fills up and overflows at 
the surface, washing over the carriage drive, and flows into Jingle Pot, 
and also down the, at other times deserted, river bed. 

Hurtle Pot, when the stream is in moderate flood, makes an extremely 
weird noise, similar to that produced by the inrush of water and air when 
the plug is removed from the bottom of a lavatory basin, but immeasurably 
louder. This noise is caused by the suction of air through gigantic eddies 
produced in the deep pool at the bottom of the pot. 

In extremely heavy flood Hurtle Pot fills up and overflows into the 
surface channel, thus acting in a manner precisely similar to Footnaw's 
Hole, described in the last report of the committee. 

The surface channel from Chapel-le-Dale Church to Gods Bridge is 
usually dry, but is occupied by the stream when in flood. 

The underground channel seems to follow the direction of the open 
one very closely, as the water can be heard at many points, and appears 
at the surface in wet weather. 

The following is the fluorescein record from which the above has been 
deduced : — 

Two pounds of fluorescein put into the stream just below the mouth of 
Gate Kirk Cave, on the morning of August 23 : Sank at P 85, and emei'ged 
at S 108 at 1 p.m. ; sank at P 8G at 1.30 p.m. ; seen at S 109 and P 87 
at 2 P.M. 

August 24. — Seen in Weathercote Cave at 9.15 a.m. ; seen in Hurtle 
Pot at 10 A.M. 

August 25. — Arrived at S 112 (Gods Bridge) at 12 noon. 

It will be seen that the work on Ingleboro' is now almost completed. 
It only remains to test two streams which have hitherto proved refractory, 
and one or two small streams on the west side of the hill. These latter 
should offer little difficulty, as the main flows on both sides of them have 
been determined, and their possible range thus limited. 

We have been unable as yet to carry out the proposed borings at Turn 
Dub, owing to the absence of the owner of the property in South Africa, 
and our consequent inability to obtain the necessary permission. 

Through the courtesy of the Yorkshire Ramblers' Club several members 
of the joint committee were enabled to make the descent of Gaping Gill, 
the pothole mentioned in the first report of the Committee, and to explore 
the extensive system of chambers and passages at the bottom of the shaft. 

The thanks of the Committee are dufe id the follo\ring gentlemen, who 



British As 



[Plate III. 




Iinti>.h Aftitoruitwn, T3id Report, Houthpoft. 1903.] 

U NDERGROUND WATERS OF N W YOPKSHiR El . 

-=- CHAPLL LL DAUAPEA -=- 



[Plate III. 



entlenien, who 




lUnstrathig the Report on the Movemfiitu of U ml -iff run ml Wfitcm of Northwrsf Yoikxliin 



J 



MOVEMENTS OF UNDERGROUND WATERS OK NORTH-WEST YORKSHIRE. 197 

have kindly assisted them in their work : — Professor Thompson and Mr. 
E. J. Edwards, of the Yorkshire College ; Mr. Metcalfe, of Weathercote ; 
Mr. Sydney Calow ; Mr. R. ISTowel], of Ribblehead ; Mr. Percy Lamb, of 
Clapham ; Mr. Taylor, of Crummack ; and Mr. Cook and Mr. Hunt, of 
Horton-in-Ribblesdale. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, and to be allowed to retain the 
unexpended balance of the grant made at the Belfast meeting. 



I'liotographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Fourleenth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie 
{Chairman)^ Professor W. W. Watts (Secretary), Professor T. G. 
BoNNEY, Professor E. J. Garwood, Professor S. H. Reynolds, 
Dr. Tempest Anderson, Mr. Godfrey Bingley, Mr. H. Coates, 
Mr. A. K. Coomaraswamy, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. J. G. Good- 
child, Mr. William Gray, Mr. Egbert Kidston, Mr. J. St. J. 
Phillips, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. R. Welch, 
and Mr. H. B. Woodward. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The Committee have to report that during the year 463 new photographs 
have been received, bringing the total number in the collection to 3,771. 
This exceeds by 50 the largest number of new photographs previously 
recorded in a single year, and the yearly average now reaches 268. About 
60 additional photographs have been sent in since this Report was written. 

The usual geographical scheme is appended. Brecknock, Cardigan, 
Nairn, and Ross appear for the first time, and very substantial additions 
are made to Cheshire, Dorset, Norfolk, Yorkshire, Glamorgan, the Channel 
Islands and Scilly, Inverness, Sutherland, Antrim, and Louth. The fol- 
lowing twenty-five counties are still entirely unrepresented : — Cambridge, 
Huntingdon, Rutland, Carmarthen, Clackmannan, Dumbarton, Dumfries, 
Kincardine, Kinross, Roxborough, Selkirk, Carlow, Kildare, Kilkenny, 
King's Co., Leitrim, Longford, Monaghan, Queen's Co., Roscommon, 
Tyrone, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, and AVicklow. 

The high standard mentioned in the last Report is maintained, the 
photographs being usually taken in sets and with a definite geological aim. 
Mr. AV. Jerome Harrison sends two large series taken to illustrate glacial 
phenomena on the Norfolk and Holderness cliffs. Mr. Morton and Mr. 
Howard contribute illustrations from Brecknock ; Mr. Pv.. H. Preston from 
the Scilly Islands ; Mr. Guiton from Jersey ; and Mr. Maidwell from the 
Nuneaton district. Mrs. Coomaraswamy has taken several series from the 
north of Scotland and of Ireland ; Mr. Wright a useful set from Dublin ; 
and Mr. Lamond Howie some interesting Scottish mountain photographs. 
The Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society continues to illus- 
trate the geology of Surrey ; Dr. Abbott that of Durham ; Mr. Hopkinson 
that of Bedfordshire ; and Mr. Hodson that of Leicestershire. 

The members of the Committee have not been idle, as is testified by 
Professor Reynolds' series from Dorset, Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, 
Glamorgan, Antrim, Down, and Kerry ; Mr. Bingley 's sets from Cheshire 
and Yorkshire ; Mr. A. K. Coomaraswamy 's series from Ross, Sutherland, 
and Berwick ; Professor Garwood's contribution from Westmoreland ; 
Mr. Teall's photographs from Hertfordshire ; and Mr. A. S. Reid's 
continuation of his series from Eigg and Perthshire. 



198 



REPORT — 1903. 



To all those contributors named and to the following the Committee 
desire to tender their warmest thanks for photographs received or help 
-rendered: Mr. J. B. Scrivenor, Mr. C. M. Gillespie, Mr. Howard Fox, 
Mr. G. T. Atchison, Mr. A. Wheen, Mr. E. M. Wrench, Mr. H. A. 
Hinton, Mr. R. H. Rastall, Mr. C. H. B. Epps, Mr. F. Greenwood, Mr. 
A. A. Armstrong, Mr. W. G. Fearnsides, Mr. J. H. Baldock, Mr, N. F. 
Robarts, Mr. C. G. Cullis, Mr. Caradoc Mills, Mr. G. E. Blundell, Mr. 
H. W. Monckton, Mr. E. K. Hall, and Mr. H. B. Woodward. 

A few phot,ographs have been received for the duplicate series, Ijut 
will be held over for the present. This collection has been sent during 
the year to natural history societies at Winchester and Croydon, and 
accounts of the work have been given by Mr. Whitaker. 





Previous Collec- 
tion 


Additions 
(1903) 


Total 


England — 








Bedfordshire .... 


4 


2 


6 


Berkshire . 






5 


— 


5 


Buckinghamshire 
Cambridgeshire 
Cheshire . 






7 
46 


1 
23 


8 
69 


Cornwall . 






60 


7 


57 


Cumberland 






39 


4 


43 


Derbyshire 
Devonshire 






44 
176 


1 
3 


45 

178 


Dorset 






101 


35 


136 


Durham . 






117 


19 


136 


Essex 






6 


— 


6 


Gloucestershire 






51 


16 


67 


Hampshire 
Herefordshire . 






36 

1 


— 


36 
1 


Hertfordshire . 






10 


5 


15 


Huntingdonshire 
Kent 






79 


O 


81 


Lancashire 






68 


1 


69 


Leicestershire . 






138 


6 


144 


Lincolnshire 






6 


— 


6 


Middlesex 






7 


— 


7 


Monmouth 






5 


— 


5 


Norfolk . 






23 


44 


67 


Northamptonshire 
Northumberland 






6 

70 


3 


6 

73 


Nottinghamshire 
Oxfordshire 






14 
1 


— 


14 

1 


Rutlandshire . 






— 


. — . 


— 


Shropshire 
Somersetshire . 






51 
66 


3 
4 


54 
70 


Staffordshire . 






53 


— 


53 


Suffolk . 






21 


— 


21 


Surrey 
Sussex 






47 
12 


7 


54 
12 


Warwickshire . 






39 


5 


44 


Westmoreland . 






78 


4 


82 


Wiltshire . 






5 


2 


7 


Worcestershire 






26 


— 


26 


Yorkshire 






644 


60 


604 


Total . 




• 


2,051 


257 


2,308 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



199 





Previous Collec- 
tion 


Additions 

(1903) 


Total 


Wales — 








Anglesey 5 

Brecknockshire ... — 


8 


5 

8 


Cardigan.shire .... 
Carmarthenshire 


• — - 


1 


1 


Carnarvonshire ... 92 


4 


96 


Denbighshire .... 


16 


— 


16 


Flintshire .... 


5 


— 


5 


Glamorganshire 


i 41 


13 


54 


Merionethshire 


19 


— 


19 


Montgomeryshire 
Pembrokeshire .... 


1 11 
1 15 


— 


11 
15 


Eadnorshire .... 

Total 

Channel Islands . 


20 

1 


— 


20 


224 


26 


250 


15 


23 


38 


Isle of Man .... 


60 


— 


60 


Scotland — 








Aberdeenshire . . ■ . 


6 


— 


6 


Argyllshire 
Ayrshire . 
Banffshire 






20 

6 

11 


3 


23 

6 

11 


Berwickshire . 






4 


5 


9 


Bute 






6 


— 


6 


Caithness . 






4 


— 


4 


Clackmannan . 






— 


— 


— 


Dumbarton 






— 


— 





Dumfries . 






— 


— ■ 





Edinburgh 






47 


— 


47 


Elgin 
Fifeshire . 






9 
24 


— 


9 
24 


Forfarshire 






7 


— 


7 


Haddingtonshire 
Inverness . 






4 
115 


23 


4 
138 


Kincardine 






— . 


— 




Kinross 






— 


■ — 





Kirkcudbright . 






3 


— 


3 


Lanarkshire 






t 11 


— 


11 


Linlithgow- 






2 


— 


2 


Nairn 






— 


2 


2 


Orkney and Shetlan 
Perthshire 


I 




3 
22 


2 


3 

24 


Eenfrewshire . 






1 


— 


1 


Ross-shire 






— 


19 


19 


Eoxborough 
Selkirk . 






— 


— 


— 


Stirlingshire . 
Sutherlandshire 






15 
6 


42 


15 

48 


Wigtown . 






— 


— 


— 


Total . 


• 


• 


326 


96 


422 



200 



REroRT — 1903. 



Previous Colleo- 

I tion 



Additions 
(1903) 



Total 



Ireland — 
Antrim 
Armagh . 
Carlow 
Cavan 
Clare 
Cork 

Donegal . 
Down 
Dublin . 
Fermanagh 
Galway 
Kerry 
Kildare , 
Kilkenny . 
King's Co. 
Leitrim . 
Limerick . 
Londonderry 
Longford . 
Louth 
Mayo . 
Meath 
Monaghan 
Queen's Co. 
Koscommon 
Sligo 

Tipperary 
Tyrone 
VVaterford 
Westmeatli 
Wexford . 
Wicklow . 

Total . 



Rock Steucturks, ^^c. 
Foreign . 
England . 

WALE.S 

Channel Islands . 

Isle of Man . 

Scotland 

Ireland . 

Rock Structures, &;c. 

Foreign . 



Total 



•2-M 
2 

1 

2 
50 
88 
33 

r, 

29 
2ti 



2 
23 

1 

II 



3,308 



34 



10 
(I 



1 

13 

2 

50 
98 
39 
5 
29 
30 



2 
23 

8 
14 



536 


61 


597 


96 1 


— 


96 


— 


— 


— 


2,051 


257 


2,308 


224 1 


2(; 


260 


15 1 


23 


38 


60 


— 


60 


326 


••6 


422 


536 


61 


597 


96 

i 


— 


96 



463 



3,771 



The collection is stored at the Mu.senm of Practical Geology, Jermyn 
Street, and the Committee wish to express their thanks to the Director 
and to Mr. Crook for the care taken of it and the space devoted to it. 

The second of the three contemplated issues of the published series of 
photographs has been sent to subscribers. The issue consists of eighteen 
half plates, four quarter-plates, and four whole-plates, and it has been 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 201 

published in the form of mounted and unmounted prints and lantern- 
slides. The negatives were contributed by thirteen photographers, and 
the descriptions by twenty geologists. To all who have thus contributed 
to the success of the issue the Committee give their best thanks. 

The process of selection for the third issue is well advanced, and it is 
hoped that j)ublication will take place early next year. 

The Committee are prepared to publish a second series if there is a 
demand for it. The number of names at present sent in is only about 
sixty, and at least twice that number would be required to put the issue 
on a possible financial basis. The first two issues of the first series show 
a small profit. The Committee intend to apply one-half to the purposes 
of the collection, and thus avoid calling upon the Association for any 
grant for a few years, while they are returning the other half to the 
subscribers in the form of additional photographs. The subscribers have 
already received an ' interim dividend ' (rather a larger one than the 
present profits warrant) in the form of four whole-plate photographs and 
additional slides. 

With regard to finances, it seems a good opportunity to state that there 
has been granted to the Committee since 1889 the sum of 130/., of which 
they have spent 101/. 10s. This sum has been used in acquiring, mounting, 
and storing 3,771 photographs. In other words, the Association has obtained 
this valuable, and unique collection at the cost of rather less than 6\d. 
per print. In addition to this, it possesses a duplicate collection of over 
•150 prints and slides, and, if the publication scheme continues to turn out 
well, the money invested by the Association will yield a further similar 
return for the next four or five years. 

Applications by Local Societies for the loan of the duplicate collection 
should be made to the Secretary. Either prints or slides, or both, can be 
lent, with a descriptive account of the slides. The carriage and the 
making good of any damage to slides or prints are expenses borne by the 
borrowing society. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed, without a grant 
and with the addition of Mr. W. Jerome Harrison and Mr. W. Whitaker. 



FOURTEENTH LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 

(To August 17, 1903.) 

This list contains tlie geological photographs which have been 
received by the Secretary of the Committee since the publication of the 
last report. Photographers are asked to afiix the registered numbers, 
as given below, to their negatives for convenience of future reference. 
Their own numbers are added in order to enable them to do so. 

Copies of photographs, desired can, in most instances, be obtained 
from the photographer direct, or from the officers of the local society 
under whose auspices the views were taken. 

The price at which copies may be obtained depends on the size of the 
print and on local circumstances over which the Committee have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copyright of any 2}hotoyraphs 
included in this list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applications 
for permission to reproduce them, should be addressed to the photographers 
direct. 



202 



REPORT — ^1903. 



It is recommended that, wherever the negative is suitable, the print be 
made by the cold-bath platinotype process. The very best photographs 
lose half their utility, and all their value as documentary evidence, unless 
accurately described ; and the Secretary would be grateful if, whenever 
possible, such explanatory details as can be given are written on the forms 
supplied by him for the purpose, and not on the back of the photograph 
or elsewhere. Much labour and error of transcription would thereby be 
saved. It is well, also, to use a permanent ink for this purpose. A local 
number by which the print and negative can be recognised should be 
written on the back of the photograph and on the top right-hand corner 
of the form. 

Copies of photographs should be sent unmounted to W. W. Watts, 
The University, Birmingham, and forms may be obtained from him. 

The size of photographs is indicated as follows : — 



L = Lantern size. 
1/4 = Quarter-plate. 
1/2 - Half -plate. 



1/1= Whole-plate. 
10/8 = 10 inches by 8. 
12/10 = 12 inches by 10, &c. 
E signifies Enlargements. 



* Indicates that photographs and slides may be purchased from the donors, or 
obtained through the address given with the series. 

LIST I. 

ACCESSIONS IN 1902-1903. 
ENGLAND. 

Bedfordshire. — Photographed by J. Hopkinson, F.G.S., Weetwood, 

Watford. 1/4. 
Regd. 
No. 

3295 (12) Stone Lane Pits, Heath, Ferruginous Sandstone in Lower Green- 

Leighton Buzzard. sand, Boulder-clay on top. 1902. 

3296 (13) Castle Hill Pit, Clophill, 10' Clay in thin layers in Lower Green- 

Ampthill. sand. 1902. 

Buckinghamshire. — Photographed by J. Hopkinson, F.G.S., Weetwood, 

Watford. 1/4. 

3297 (11) Eddleborough Church, near Outlier of Totternhoe Stone. 1902. 

Dunstable. 



Cheshire. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/4. 

1903. 



3298 


(6117)Meolse, 


near 


Hoylake 


. Submerged Forest 


3299 


(6118) „ 




SI 


)» 


3300 


(6119) „ 




)» 


)» 


3301 


(6120) „ 






• 


3302 


(6121) „ 




»J 


1} 


3303 


(6122) „ 






>l 


3304 


(6123) „ 




)» 


»» 


3305 


(6124) „ 




,, 


1* 


3306 


(6125) „ 




»f 


»l 


3307 


(6112) Hilbre 
Kirby. 


Point 


, near West 


J Bunter Sandstone. 


3308 


(6128) Middle Island, Hilbre . 


11 


3309 


(6129) 




»» • • 


i> 



ON rnOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



203 



Regd. 
No. 

3310 (6130) mibre Island 

3311 (6132) „ „ North 

3312 (6136) „ 

3313 (6133) „ 

3314 (6131) „ 

3315 (6134) „ 

3316 (6135) „ 

3317 (6142) Higher Bebingtou 

3318 (6141) 

3319 (6140) 

3320 (6138) 



Biinter Sandstone. 1903. 

„ Cross-bedding. 1903. 



Keuper Sandstone, Fault. 1903. 



Sandstone slab with Footprints. 1903. 



Cornwall. — Photographed hy J. B. Scrivenor, M.A., F.G.S., 

28 Jermyn Street, S. W. 1/4. 



3321 (1) Cligga Head 

3322 (3) „ 



Alternations of Granite and Greisen. 1902. 
Greisen Bands. 1902. 



Fhotograjjhed by C. M. Gillespie, M.A., Yorkshire College, Leeds. 1/4. 

3323 ( ) Bude Anticline in Culm. 1902. 

3324 ( ) „ 



Photographed by Howard Fox, Mr. Shephard, and W. M. Harrison, and 
presented by Howard Fox, F.G.S., Rosehill, Falmouth. 1/2 and 5/4. 

3325 (434) Jangye-ryn, Gunwalloe 



3326 (136) West Kennack, Lizard . 

3327 (135) Boulder, near Cavouga 

Rocks, between Caerleon 
Cove and Kennack Sands. 



Contorted Grit and Shale (Ordovician ?). 

1900. 
Porphyritic Diorite. 1890. 
1888. 



Cumberland.^ — Photographed by G. T. Atchison, M.A., Holmwood, 

Sutton Coldfield. 1/2. 

3328 (43) Langdale Pikes, from Borrowdale Rocks. 1902. 

Elterwater. 

3329 (45) The Bowder Stone, Borrow- „ „ „ 

dale. 

3330 (44) Half-mile below Lodore, Quarry in Borrowdale Series. 1902. 

Borrowdale. 

3331 (48) Below Watendlath, Bor- ' The Devil's Punchbowl.' 1902. 

rowdale. 

Derbyshire. — Photographed hy A. Wheen, Baslow, and presented by 
E. M. Wrench, Park Lodge, Baslow. 1/2. 

3332 (3) Cutting in Old Pack-horse Boulder-clay. 1899. 

Road, N.E. corner of Chats- 
worth Park. 



Devonshire. — Photographed by H. A. Hinton, F.G.S., 7 Cranhurst 
Road, Willesden Green, N.W. 1/4. 

1900. 



3333 ( ) Chagford, Dartmoor 

3334 ( ) Bovey Tracy . 



Dyke of red, schorlaceous Granite. 
Clay-pit in Lignite Beds. 



2C4 REPORT— 1903. 

Fhotograplbed hy E. H. Rastall, B.A., Christ'^ College, Camhridge. 1/4. 

Regd- 
No. 

3335 ( ) Budleigh Salterton . . Triassic Pebble-bed. l'.)0;!. 

DoKSET. — Photographed by Profes.sor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

University College, Bristol. 1/4. 

3336 (13) Ballard Down . . . Chalk Sea-stacks. 1902. 

3337 (16) Near Handfast Point . Early stage in formation of Sea-stack. 

1902. 

3338 (12) Handfast Point . , . Promontory and Sea-stack of horizontal 

Chalk. 'l902. 

3339 (U) „ Staire in formation of Sea-stack. 1902. 

3340 (1.5) Near Handfast Point . Sea-stacks in horizontal Chalk. 1902. 

3341 (33) Peveril Point and Ballard Chalk and Purbeck Rocks; differential 

Down. denudation. 1902. 

3342 (18) Peveril Point, Swanage . Weathered surface of Purbeck Marble. 

1902. 

3343 (21) Near Peveril Point, Swan- Weathered surface of Corhula bed in 

age. Middle Purbeck. 1902. 

3344 (17) Durlston Bay . , . Chert in lower beds of M. Purbeck. 1902. 

3345 (19) „ ... Weathered suface of 'Cinder Bed' of 

M. Purbeck. 1902. 
3348 (-20) „ ... Thin bands of 'beef in M. Purbeck clays. 

1902. 

3347 (22) „ ... Middle and Lower Purbeck. 1902. 

3348 (23) Durlston Head . . . Portland Stone capped by Purbeck. 1902. 

3349 (32) „ ... Portland Beds. 1902. 

3350 (21) Between Tilly Whim and Upper beds of Portland Stone. 1902. 

Durlston Head. 

3351 (25) Seacombe Quarrj' . . Weathering of Portland Stone. ,, 

3352 (26) E. of St. Alban's Head 

3353 (27) Dancing Ledge . . . Portland Stone. 1902. 

3354 (28) Dancing Ledge Quarry . Portland Stone and Purbeck Beds. 1902. 

3355 (29) Winspit Quarry . . . „ „ 

3356 (30) Tilly Whim, Durlston Head Sea-caves in cherty beds of Portland Stone. 

1902. 

3357 (34) „ „ Chert in Portland Stone. 1902. 

3358 (31) E. of St. Alban's Head . Sea-caves in Portland Stone. 1902. 

3359 (3.')) EmonetHilland St.iilban's Portland Beds overlying Kimmcridge Clay. 

Head. 1902. 

3360 (37) Emonet Hill, W. of St. Portland Stone and Sand. 

Alban's Head. 

3361 (36) Hounstout CliS . . . Portland Beds overlying Kimmeridge Clay. 

1902. 

3362 (39) „ ... Portland Stone, Sand, and Kimmeridge 

Clay. 1902. 

3363 (38) Chapman's Pool . . . Y-shaped valley. 1902. 

3364 (40) Between Hencliff and Lower Kimmeridge Clay and beds of 

Freshwater Steps. impure Limestone. 1902. 

3365 (41) Cliffs W. of Freshwater Kimmeridge Clay Cliffs. 1902. 

Steps. 

3366 (42) Cliffs E. of Kimmeridge Kimmeridge Clay, Stone-bands, and old 

IBay. Coal-workings. 1902. 

3367 (43) Hencliff and Kimmeridge Ledges due to Stone-bands in Kimmeridge 

Bay. Clay. 1902. 

3368 (44) Between Broad Bench and Kimmeridge Ledges. 1902. 

Kimmeridge Bay. 

3369 (45) W. side of Kimmeridge Kimmeridge Clay and Stone-bands. 1 902. 

Bay. 

3370 (46) Near Worth Matravers . Terraces (lynchets) probably due to 

ploughing.' 1902. 



ON PHOTOGRAPnS OF GEOLOGICAL LVTEREST, 



205 



Durham. — Plioloyraphed hy G . Abbott, M.R.C.S., 33 Upper Grosvenor 
Road, Tunhridye Wells. 1/2. 



Kegd. 

No. 

3734 (140) Fiihvell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3735 (141) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Lirncstone . 

3736 (1.51) Fulwell Hill, (Quarry in 

Masfuosian limestone . 

3737 (152) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3738 (1G7) Fulwell Hill, Quarry ia 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3739 (19?,) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3740 (101) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3741 (182) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3742 (137) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3743 (221) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3744 (159) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3745 (163) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3746 (158) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3747 (183) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3748 (180) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3749 (179) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

iSlagnesian Limestone . 

3750 (188) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 

3751 (17?) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian limestone . 

3752 (187) Fulwell Hill, Quarry in 

Magnesian Limestone . 



' Flag'bed^-, 20" Marl, and part of lowest 

cellular Limestone bed. 1902. 
' Flag 'beds, 20" Marl, and part of lowest 

cellular Limestone bed. 1902. 
' Flag' beds, 20" Marl, and part of lowest 

cellular Limestone bed. 1002. 
'Flag' beds, 20" Marl, and part of lowest 

cellular Limestone bed. 1902. 
' Flag' beds, 20" Marl, and pai-t of lowest 

cellular Limestone bed. 1902. 
Concretion ; spherical ' honeycomb ' (a). 

1 902. 
Concretion; spherical 'honeycomb' (a). 

1902. 
' Honeycomb ' (a) and (b) in situ. 1902. 

(b). 1902. 

„ (c), early stage. 1902. 

'Coralloid ' bed (part of ' flags '). 1902. 



Gloucesteesiiire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, ]\f.A., 
F.G.S., University College, Bristol, 1/2 and 1/4. 

3371 (55) Cutting W. of Stoke Gilford Lower Lias and Rhrctic Beds. 1902. 

Station. 

3372 (56) Cutting "W. of Stoke Gifford Zone of A. planorlis overlying Ehaetin 

Station. 1902. 

3373 (57) Near Stoke GifEord Station Red Marl faulted against Rh^tic and Tea- 

green Marl. 1902. 

3374 (58) Stoke Gifford Station . Red Marl faulted against Rhajtic and Tea- 

green Marl. 1902. 

3375 (59) „ „ . Red Marl faulted against Rhaetic and Tea- 

green Marl. 1902. 

3376 (60) East of Lilliput, Chipping Block of Rhretic Bone-bed. 1902. 

Sod bur J*. 

3377 (61) E. of Chipping Sodbury . Rhastic and Lower Lias. 1902. 

3378 (62) Half-mile E. of Lilliput, Rhsetic resting unconformably on Old Red 

Chipping Sodbury. Sandstone. 1902. 

3379 (63) Cutting, B. end of Sodbury Great Oolite and Forest Marble. 1902: 

Tunneli 



206 



REPORT — 1903. 



Regd. 




No. 




3380 


(61) Cutting S. of Badminton . 


3381 


(66) 


3382 


(72) Aust Cliff . . . . 


3383 


(68) „ . . . . 


3384 


(69) 


3385 


(70) „ . . . . 


3386 


(71) „ . . . . 



Forest Marble. 1902. 

Reaper Marl and Rhretic Beds. 1902. 
Juxtaposed faults. 1902. 
Gypsum in Keuper Marl. 1902. 



Hertfordshire. — Photographed hy3. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S , 
28 Jermyn Street, S. W. 1/4. 



3387 (1) Pinner's Cross, Smith's End, 

S. of Barley, near Royston. 

3388 (2) W. of Newsell's Park, N. of 

Barkway, near Royston. 

3389 (3) W. of Newsell's Park, N. of 

Barkway, near Royston. 

3390 (4) N. of Reed, near Royston . 

3391 (5) 



Inclined Chalk and Boulder-clay banked 

up against it. 1903. 
Chalk greatly disturbed, with Boulder-clay 

underlying it. 1903. 
Chalk greatly disturbed, with Boulder-clay 

underlying it. 1903. 
Chalk arching over, glacial disturbance. 

1903. 
Chalk arching over, glacial disturbance. 

1903. 



Kent. — Photographed by G. Abbott, M.R.C.S., .3.3 Upfer Grosvenor 
Road, Tunbridge Wells. 1/2. 

3753 (8) Opera House, Tunbridge Earth Creep. 1902. 

Wells. 

3754 (9) Opera House, Tunbridge „ „ 

Wells. 

Lancashire. — Photographed by *F. Greenwood, 5 St. Mary's Gale, 

Rochdale. 1/2. 

3393 ( ) Blackstone Edge, Rochdale Roman Road. 1895. 



3393 ( 

3394 ( 

3395 ( 

3396 ( 

3397 ( 

3398 ( 



Leicestershire. — Photographed by G. Hodson, M.Inst.C.E., 
Loughborough. 1/4. 

Blackbrook, Charnwood 



Trench cutting Blackbrook Rocks, looking 

E. 
Trench cutting Blackbrook Rocks, looking 

E. 
Trench cutting Blackbrook Rocks, looking 

W. 
Trench cutting Blackbrook Rocks, looking 

W. 
Trench cutting Blackbrook Rocks, looking 

N.W. 
Trench cutting Blackbrook Rocks, looking 

N. 



Norfolk. — Photographed by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., 52 Clare- 
mont Road, Handsworth, Birminghajii. 1/2 and 1/1. 

3399 (1897) Trimingham . . . Drift Cliffs. 1896. 

3400 (1895) „ . . . 

3401 (1850) Cromer .... Mr. Savin's collection of bones from the 

Forest Bed. 1896. 

3402 (1862) Sidestrand Beach . . ' Mud glacier ' from the drift cliffs. 1896. 

3403 (1899) Sidestrand, E. of Cromer Old Church Tower on cliffs. 1896. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST, 



207 



Regd. 

No. 
3404 
3405 
3406 

3407 
3408 
3409 
3410 
3411 
3412 
3413 
3414 
3415 
3416 
3417 
3418 
3419 
3420 
3421 

3422 
3423 
3424 
3425 
3426 
3427 
3428 

3429 
3430 
3431 
3432 
3433 
3434 
3435 
3436 

3437 

3438 

3439 
3440 
3441 
3442 



(1794) Half a mile B. of Cromer 
(683) Beeston Regis 

(1829) ClifEs W. of Cromer 

(1818) 
(1825) 
(1836e) 

(1830) W. end of Cromer 
(.692) Near Runton 
(1817) Runton ClifEs 
(1836) 

(1824) Runton Gap . 
(1816) 
(1778) West Runton . 

(698) Runton Cliffs. 
(700) Cliffs, near Runton 

(690) Runton . 

(699) Runton Cliffs 
(696) Beeston, E. of Shering- 

ham. 
(695) 
(1870) 
(1823) 
(693) 
(686) 
(1822) 
(1836d) E. end of Sheringham 

Beach. 
(501) E. end of Sheringham . 
(1877) Beeston Beach 
(1777) Sheringham Beach 
(1836a) 

(1834) Cliffs, near Sheringham . 
(1894) 

(691) W. of Sheringham 
(694) 

(1833) 

(1820) 

(1821) 

(1836b) Upper Sheringham 

(508) Wey bourn 

(496) Coast W. of Weybourn . 



E. of Sheringham . 
Cliffs, E. of Sheringham 



Contorted Drift. 1896. 

Drift Plain between cliffs and hills. 1896. 

Drift, with included Chalk Boulders, 

1896. 
Drift. 1896. 

'Elbow ' in Contorted Drift. 1896. 
Contorted Drift. 1896. 



Sandy Drift. 1896. 

Loamy Drift (contorted). 1896. 
Large Chalk Boulder. 1896. 



Long Chalk Boulder. 1896. 

Folds in Chalk, covered by Drift. 1896 



Contorted Drift. 1896. 

Drift. 1896. 

Contortions in Drift. 1896. 

Contorted Drift. 1896. 
Paramoudra. 1896. 
Paramoudra in Chalk. 1896. 
Ring of Flint. 1896. 
Contorted Drift. 1896. 
Large Chalk Boulder. 1896. 

»» M ,» 

Pinnacle of Chalk, embedded in Drift. 

1896. 
Pinnacle of Chalk, embedded in Drift. 

1896. 
Pinnacle of Chalk, embedded in Drift. 

1896. 
'Stone-bed.' 1896. 
Basalt Boulders. 1896. 
Chalk covered by Clay. 1896. 
Pebble Beach and Lagoon. 1896. 



Northumberland. — Photographed by A. A. Armstrong, M.A. 1/2, 

3443 (1) Bamborough Castle . . Junction of Whin Sill and Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1902. 

3444 (2) Fame Island and shore Thin bedding, folding and jointing in Car- 

opposite, boniferous Rocks. 1902 

3445 (3) ' Limestone Bank,' 2 m. W. Outer fosse of Roman Wall cut out of 

of Chollerford. Basalt. 1902. 



^n-ROVsniWE.— Photographed hy W. G. Fearnsides, B.A., F.6.S., Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge. 5/4. 

3446 (5) Hope Dingle, near Min- 'Boulder-bed' in Arenig Ash. 1902. 
sterley. 



208 REPORT— 1908. 

Regd. 
No. 

3447 (11) Lower Ashes Hollow, Longmyndian Scenerj'. 1902. 

Longmynd. 

3448 (12) Upper Ashes Hollow, „ 

Longmynd. 

Somerset. — Pliotographed hy Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
University College, Bristol. 1/4. 

3449 (48) Goblin Combe . 

3450 (47) 



3451 (49) 

3452 (30) 



Drj' Valley in Carboniferous Limestone. 
1902. 

Dry Valley in Carboniferous Limestone. 
1902. 

Disintegration of Carboniferous Lime- 
stone by tree-roots. 1902. 

Disintegration of Carboniferous Lime- 
stone by tree-roots. 1902. 



Surrey. — -Photographed hy J. H. Baldock, 3 St. Leonard's Road, 
Croydon, and sent through the Croydon Natural History and Scientific 
Society. 1/2. 

3453 ( ) Croham Hurst, Croydon . Conglomerate. 1901. 

3454 ( ) Bacteria Tanks, Bedding- Shelly Woolwich Beds. 1902. 

ton. 

3455 ( ) Bacteria Tanks, Bedding- ,, „ „ 

ton. 

3456 ( ) Foundations of Wolding- Red Clay- with-flints in Chalk 'Pipes.' 1902. 

ham Fort, facing N. 

3457 ( ) Foundations of Wolding- ,, ,, ,, „ 

ham Fort, facing S. 

3458 ( ) Foundations of Wolding- ,, ,, ,, ,, 

ham Fort, facing E. 

3459 ( ) Foundations of Wolding- ,, „ „ „ 

liam Fort, facing W. 

Waravick. — Photographed by F. T. Maidwell, 50 Compton Road, 
Wolverhamjjton. l/J. 

3460 (1) Moor ^Vood, Chapel End, Unconformity, Coal-measures on Stock- 

near Nuneaton. ingford Shales. 1899. 

3461 (2) Moor Wood, Chapel End, Soil Creep. 1899. 

near Nuneaton. 

3462 (3) Midland Quarry, Nuneaton Quartzite and Diorite Sill, Unconforraably 

overlain by Keuper Sandstone. 1898. 

3463 (4) Near Church, Radford, Boulder of Charnwood Syenite. 1897. 

Coventry. 

3464 (5) Near Church, Radford, „ „ „ 

Coventry. 

Westmoreland. — Photographed by Professor E. J. Garwood, M.A., F.G.S., 

University College, London. 1/4. 

3292 ( ) High Cup Nick, Appleby Valley cut in Whin Sill. 

3293 ( ) „ 

Photographed hy Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehur.^t, Headingley, J^eeds. 

1/4. 

3465 (6084) Kirkby Stephen, Bed of Jointing in Lower Brockiam. 1!)02. 

River Eden. 
8466 (608.5) Kirkby Stephen, Bed of ,; ,j „ 

Hiver Eden; 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 209 

Wiltshire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A^ F.G.S., 

University College, Bristol. 1/4. 
Regd. 

No. 

3467 (65) Cutting N.W. of Hulla- Forest Marble. 1901, 

vington. 

3468 (G7) Cutting N.W. of Halla> „ „ 

vington. 

YoKKSHiRE. — Photographed hy W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., 
52 Claremont Road, Handaworth, Birmingham. 1/1 and 1/2. 

3469 (3G8) Flamborough Head. . Chalk Cliffs, showing coast-erosion. 189!^. 

3470 (3S1) S.W.ofFlamboroughHead Drift on Chalk. 1898. 

3471 C^H3) „ „ Caves in Chalk. 1898. 

3472 (886) Near Danes' Dyke, Flam- Chalk. 1S9S. 

borough. 

3473 (893) North Sea Landing, Flam- Drift ou Chalk. 1898. 

borough. 

3474 (894) North Sea Landing, Flam- „ „ 

borough. 

3475 (897) South Landing, Flam- ,, „ 

borough. 

3476 (900) King Rock, Flamborough Boulder-clay on Chalk. 1898. 

Head. 

3477 (2070) Tbornwick Bay, Flam- Drift on Chalk. 1898 

borough. 

3478 (2072) Tliornvvick Bay, Flam- „ 

borough. 

3479 (2077) Thomwick Bay, Flam- 

borough. 

3480 (2078) Near Thornwick Bay . „ „ 

3481 (884) Sewerbv, Flamborough . Buried Cliff. 1898. 

3482 (375) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of Purple Boulder-clay. 1898. 

Bridlington. 

3483 (.•)74) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of Stratification in Boukler-clay. 1898. 

Bridlington. 

3484 (882) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of Drift. 1898. 

Bridlington. 

3485 (C94) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of „ „ 

Bridlington. 

3486 (378) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of Lamination in Djift. 1898. 

Bridlington. 

3487 (883) Hilderthorpe Cliff's, S. of Boulder-clay, Loams, and Gravels. 1898. 

Bridlin£;ton. 

3488 (377) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of Drift. 1898. 

Bridlington. 

3489 (59.^) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of „ „ 

Bridlington. 

3490 (37G) Hilderthorpe Cliff's, S. of „ „ 

Bridlington. 

3491 (881) Hilderthorpe Cliffs, S. of 

Bridlington. 

Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, Headingley, Leeds 

\l'2 and 1/4. 

3492 (6111) Meanwood Valley, Leeds. Fossil Tree in Gannister. 1902. 

3493 (6088) Hambleton Quarry, Bol- Contorted Toredale Limestones. irf02 

ton Abbey Station. 

3494 (6091) Hambleton Quarry, Bol- „ „ „ 

ton Abbey Station. 

1903. p 



210 



REPORT — 1903. 



Begd. 

No. 

3495 
3496 
3497 
3498 
3499 
3500 
3501 
3502 
3503 
3504 
3505 
3506 
3507 
3508 
3509 
3510 
3511 
3512 
3513 
3514 
3515 
3516 
3517 
3518 
3519 
3520 
3521 
3522 
3523 
3524 
3525 



609-i) Hambleton Quarry, Bol- 
ton Abbey Station. 

6095) Hambleton Quarry, Bol- 
ton Abbey Station. 

6097) Brimham Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6098) Brimbam Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6100) Brimham Books, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6101) Brimham Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6102) Brimham Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6103) Brimham Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6105) Brimham Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6106) Brimham Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6107) Brimham Rocks, near 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale. 

6070) Penyghent, from near 
Hull Pot. 

6072) Hull Pot, Horton-in- 
Ribblesdale. 

6071) Hull Pot, Horton-in- 
Ribblesdale. 

6059) Alum Pot, near Selside, 
Ribblesdale. 

6067) Turn Dub, near Horton- 
in- Ribblesdale. 

6066) Turn Dub, near Horton- 
in-Ribblesdale. 

6068) Footnaw's Hole, Ribbles- 
dale. 

6069) Footnaw's Hole, Ribbles- 
dale. 

6062) Upper part of 
Churn, Ribblesdale. 

6062a) Upper part of Long 
Churn, Ribblesdale. 

6063) Entrance to Long Churn, 
near Selside, Ribblesdale. 

6061a) Entrance to Long Chm-n, 
near Selside, Ribblesdale. 

6064) Dickon Pot, near Sel- 
side, Ribblesdale. 

6069) Horton Scar, N.W. side 
of Penyghent, Ribblesdale. 

6073) Hunt Pot, near Horton- 
in-Ribblesdale. 

6075) Hunt Pot, near Horton- 
in-Ribblesdale. 

6074) Hunt Pot, near Horton- 
in-Ribblesdale. 

6078) Bed of River Bain, Bain- 
bridge. 

6079) Lund's Fell, near Hawes 
Junction. 

ROSl) Hon Gill. T.nnd'sFell. 



Contorted Yoredale Limestones. 1902. 



Millstone Grit; atmospheric erosion. 



' Dancing Bear.' 
atmospheric erosion. 



Mountain Limestone and Millstone Grit. 

1902. 
Pot-hole in Carboniferous Limestone. 1902. 



300 feet deep, in Carboniferous Limestone. 

1902. 
Exit for water from Alum Pot. 1902. 



Long Pot-hole in Carboniferous Limestone. 1902. 



Interior of Pot-hole in Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1902. 
Carboniferous Limestone. 1902. 

Pot-hole in Carboniferous Limestone. 1902. 



Yoredale Limestone. 1902. 
Source of River Ure. 1902. 
Source of River Eden. 1902. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 211 

Eegd. 
No. 

3526 (6083) Hell Gill, Lund's Fell. Source of River Eden. 1902. 

3527 (6086) Clapham Beck Head. Outlet of stream from Gaping Gill. 1902. 

3528 (6087) Grummack Dale, near Carboniferous Limestone resting uncon- 

Clapham, E. side. formably on Silurian Grits. 1902. 



WALES. 

Brecknock.— Photographed by P. Morton, M.A., Christ's College, 
Brecon, and presented by F. T. Howard, 3I,A., F.G.S. 1/2. 

3529 (1) Canal Aqueduct, Brecon . Taken before the frost. 1890. 

3530 (2) „ „ . Effect of frost on leakage. 1895. 

3531 (3) 

3532 (4) 

3533 (5) Rhyd-goch Falls, Brecon, Grits amongst Shales and Clays. 1891. 

River Gwdi. 

3534 (6) Cilieni, just entering River Usk cuts down the more rapidly as it 

Usk, 8 m. W. of Brecon. follows the outcrop of Old Red Sand- 
stone Clays. 1890. 

3535 (7) Llyn-cwm-llwch . . . Glacial Mounds. 1900. 

3536 (8) Near Llyn-cwm-llwch, N. of Moraine at foot of Old Red Sandstone— 

y Fan-cwm-du. escarpment. 1900. 

Cardigan. — Photographed by C. G. Cullis, Eoyal College of Science, 
South Kensington, S. W, 1/4. 

3537 ( ) New Quay, Cardigan Bay. Llandovery (?) Rocks ; relation of Cleavage 

to hard and soft beds. 1903. 

Carnarvon. — Photographed by Caradoc Mills, Plas Helyg, Llanrwst. 

1/4. 

3538 (1) Near Llyn Geirionydd, Tre- Boulders. 1902. 

friw. 

3539 (2) Near Llyn Geirionydd, Tre- Perched Block. 1902. 

friw. 

3540 (3) Near Llyn Geirionydd, Tre- „ „ 

friw. 

Photographed by W. G. Fearnsides, B.A., F.G.S., Sidney Sussex College, 

Cambridge. 5/4. 

3541 ( ) Tu-hwnt-yr-bwlch, near Tremadoc Slates with fossils. 1902. 

Portmadoc. 

Glamorgan. — Photographed by G. E. Blundell, F.G.S., 

Wellington College, Berks. 5/4. 

3542 ( ) Spritsail Tor, Gower. Cave and Kitchen Midden. 1902. 

Photographed by H. W. MoNCKXON, F.G.S., F.L.S., 3 Ilarcourl 
Buildings, Temple, E.C. 1/4. 

3543 (1694) ClifE between Caswell Raised Beach. 1902. 

Bay and Brandy Cove. 



212 



REPORT — 1903. 



Regd. 

No. 

3594 

3545 

3546 

3547 

3548 

3549 

3550 
3551 

3552 
3553 

3554 



Photogi'aphed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, At. A., P.G.S., 
University College, Bristol. 1/4. 



(1) Mumbles Head . 

(3) Above the Lifeboat House, 
Mumbles Hea'l. 

(7) W. of Mumbles Head 

(5) E. of Oystermouth 
(«) 

W .. 

(8) Bishopston Common 

(2) Limeslade Bay and TwtHill 

(9) Limeslade Bay . 

(10) Between Limeslade Bay 
and Langland Bay. 

(11) Between Limeslade Bay 
and Langland Bay. 



Dip of Carboniferous Limestone. 1902. 
Dolomitisation of Carboniferous Lime- 
stone. 1903. 
Honeycomb weathering of Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1902 
Dolomitised patches 

Limestone. 1902. 
Dolomitised patches 

Limestone. 1902. 
Dolomitised patches 

Limestone. 1902. 
Stream disappearing in ' daw-pit.' 1902. 
Dip of Carboniferous Limestone and old 

shore platform. 1902. 
Weathered surface of ' Head.' 1902. 
Raised Beach on Carboniferous Limestone. 

1902. 
Raised Beach on Carboniferous Limestone. 

1902. 



in Carboniferous 



in Carboniferous 
in Carboniferous 



THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. 



Jersey. — Pliotoyraphed hy E. 

Jer>>ey 

3555 (1) ' Creux Gabourel' 

3556 (2) St. Laurence Valley . 

3557 (3) Near Rozel Bay, Le Sauchet 

3558 (4) Tortelet Bay 

3559 (5) 

3560 (6) ' Fosse Vourin,' St. Brelade 

3561 (7) Le Pinacle, St. Ouen's . 

3562 (8) 

3563 (9) ,. 

3564 (10) 

3565 (11) Blanches Banques, Quen 

vais, St. Brelade. 

3566 (12) Blanches Banques, Qucn 

vais, St. Brelade. 

3567 (13) Blanches Banques, Quen 

vais, St. Brelade. 



F. GuiTON, 8 Victoria Crescent, 

1/2. 

Three levels of Sea-beaches. 190L 
Ripijle-marked Shale. 1902. 
Marine erosion of Conglomerate. 1902, 
Raised Beach. 1902. 

'Creux'; formation of Blowhole. 1902. 
Granite and Diabase. 1 902. 

Vein of Diabase and Marmite. 1902. 
' Marmite ' or marine pot-hole. ,, 

Mound of Blown-sand. 1902. 



SciLLY Islands. — Photographed by R. H. Preston, Alverne House 

Penzance. 1/1. 

3568 (18) Peninnis Head, St. Mary's. Weathering of Granite. 1895. 

3569 (27) Dick's Cam, St. Mary's . „ ,, 

3670 ( ) 'The Tooth Rock,' St. „ „ „ 

Mary's. 

3571 (22) 'The Monk's Cowl,' St. „ „ „ 

Blarys. 

3572 ( ) 'the Pulpit Rock,' St. 

Mary's. 

3573 (29) 'The Loaded Camel,' St. „ „ „ 

Mary's. 

3574 (75) 'The Punch-bowl,' St. Agnes „ „ ., 

3575 (26) ' The Drum Rock,' St. „ „ ' , . . 

Mary's. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 213 

Regd. 
No. 

3576 ( ) 'The Giant's Chair,' St. "Weathering of Granite. 1893. 

Mary's. 

3577 (72) 'The Nag's Head,' Sr. Agnes. 

SCOTLAND. 

Argyllshire. — Photographed by A. K. CoomaraswAmy, B.Sc, F.G.S. (a), 

«?tcZ Mrs. CooM.\RASWAMY (b), Walden, Wor])le.sdon, Gnildford. 1/4. 

3578 (79a) S. of Dun Dubhaidh, lona. Schistose Marble and Gneisses. 1902. 

3579 (19b) Balephetrish, Tirec . . Well-foliated Marble. 1902. 

3580 (20b) „ „ . . Weathered Marble, with Forsterite, 

Spinel, &c. 1902. 

Berwickshire. — Pholographed hy A. K. Coomaraswamy, B.Sc, F.G.S. (a) 
a?i.c? Mrs. CoomAraswamy (b), Walden, Worplesdon, Guildford. 1/4. 

3581 (la) 'The Leithies,' near North Dyke in Carboniferous Tuff . 1902. 

Berwick. 

3582 (2a) 'The Leithies,' near North Bedded Carboniferous Tuff, with large 

Berwick. Bomb. 1902. 

3583 (3a) ' The Leithies,' near North Bedded Carboniferous Tuff, with large 

Berwick. ejected blocks. 1902. 

3584 (4a) North Berwick Law . . Carboniferous Trachyte ' Neck,' ' Crag and 

Tail.' 1902. 
3685 (28b) The Bass Eock, from near Carboniferous Trachyte. 1902. 
North Berwick. 

Inverness. — Photographed hy W. Lamond Howie, Hanover 
Lodge, Harrow. 5/4, 12/4, 18/4, &c. 

3294 ( ) The ' Parallel Roads,' Looking N.N.W. from slope of BohuntJne 

Glenroy. Hill. 1896. 

3587 ( ) Scuir-na-Gillean, Skye . Gabbro. 1903. 

3588 ( ) Summit of Blaven, from ,, ,, 

Marscow. 

3589 ( ) The Cuillins, from N. . 190.3. 

3590 ( ) The Cuillins and Glen 

Sligachan, from E. 

3591 ( ) Glen Brittle and the Cuil- „ 

lins, from Col to Loch Brittle, 
from W. 

3592 ( ) Coire-na-Creiche . . „ 

3610 ( ) Ben Alder and Cam Dearg. From Meall Cruaidh. 1902. 

Photographed hy A. S. Eeid, M.A.. F.G.S., Trinity College, 
Glenalmond, Perth. 1/2, one E. 

3593 (SE 27) Island of Eigg, fiom Outline of Scuir. 1901. 

Muck. 

3594 (SE 22) E. end of Scuir of Eigg, Steps of Basalt, surmounted by Scuir Pitch- 

from sea. stone. 1901. 

3595 (SE 6) Scuir of Eigg, fiom Position of tributary valley (Cornbheinn) 

E.N.E. in relation to Scuir valley. 1901. 

3596 (SE 17) E. end of Scuir of Eigg, Pitchstonc occupying old valley in 

from S.E. Bas.alts. 1901. 

3597 (SE29) BideinBoidheach.N.W. Paver Conglomerate under Pitcbstone and 

end of Scuir of Eigg. (E.), resting on eroded Bfisalt. 1901, 
from seit. 



214 REPORT — 1903. 

Regd. 
No. 

3598 (SE 33) Scuir of Eigg, from Physical features of Scuir ridge. 1901. 

Beannan Breaca. 

3599 (SE31) Scuir of Eigg, from high Pitchstone in main and tributary valleys. 

g]-ound S.W. of Loch Beinn 1901. 
Tighe. 

3600 (SB 35) E. prolongation of Scuir Pitchstone Ridge, to show varying trend. 

of Eigg, from N.W. 1901. 

3601 (SE 11) Scuir of Eigg, Eastern Relation of main to tributary valley. 

prolongation, from W.N.W. 1901. 

3S02 (SE34) Scuir of Eigg, from Relation of main to tributary valley, 

knoll N.W. of Loch an 1901. 
Nighean Dughaill. 

3603 (SE 40) Shoreof Laig Bay, Eigg. Basalt Dyke in Jurassic Rocks. 1901. 

3604 (SE 9) Cleadale, Eigg . . Bedded' Basalts of Small Isles Plateau. 

1901. 

3605 (SE 36) S. Shore, Ruadh'an Tan- Two Pitchstone Dykes in Basalt. 1901. 

caird, Eigg. 

3606 (SE 37) S. Shore, Ruadh'an Tan- Pitch.stone Dyke in amygdaloidal Basalt. 

caird, Eigg. 1901. 

3607 (SE 38) S. Sliore, Ruadh'an Tan- Pitchstone Dyke in amygdaloidal Basalt. 

caird, Eigg. 1901. 

Jii AIRTS. —Phofographed hy E. K. Hall, Nairn, N.B. l\l^. 

3608 ( ) Tom Riach, near Clava . Boulder. 1901. 

3609 ( ) „ 

Perthshire. — Photographed hy A. S. Reid, M.A.,F.G.S., Trinity College, 

Glenalmond, Perth. 1/2. 

3611 (CL 20) Wester Glenalmond, River Terrace and Moraine Mounds. 

near Auchnafree. 1901. 

3612 (CL36) Sma' Glen, Glenalmond A few hours' Pluvial Denudation. 1901. 

Uoss-sniRE.— Photographed by A. K. CoomaraswAmy, P.Sc, F.G.S. (a) 
awe? Mrs. CoomIraswamy (b), Walden, Worplesdon, Guildford. 1/4. 

3586 (67a) River Kanaird, near Road Erosion of earlier Terrace by river ; depo- 
sition inside curve of stream. 1902. 

3613 (62a) HiUs above Hotel, Gair- Perched Block. 1902. 

loch. 

3614 (61a) Hills above Hotel, Gair- 

loch. 

3615 (64a) Shore, Gairloch . . Ripple-marked Sand. 1902. 

3616 (38b) Gairloch Hotel . . 50' Raised Beach. 1902. 

3617 (63a) Shore, Gairloch . . Torridon Sandstone, Basement Conglome- 

rate. 1902. 

3618 (65a) ,, „ . . Augen-gneiss, vertical foliation. 1902. 

3619 (76a) Head of Loch Maree, Kinlochewe River, and Delta filling lake. 

from Kinlochewe Forest. 1902. 

3620 (73a) Ben Eadh, near Loch Quartzite scenery and glaciation. 1902. 

Maree. 

3621 (35b) Ben Eadh, near Loch „ „ „ 

Maree. 

3622 (36b) Ruadh Stac Mor and Sail White Quartzite cap on mountains of 

Mor, from Glen Goudie, Loch Torridon Sandstone ; moraines. 1902. 
Maree. 
2 23 (37b) Half-mile N.E. of Fumes, Contorted Limestone in Gneiss. 1902. 
Letterewe, Loch Maree. 



ox PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



215 



Begd. 

No. 
3624 

3625 
3626 

3627 

3628 

3629 

3630 



(74a) Kinlochewe Forest, Loch 

Maree. 
(75a) Glen Goudie, Loch Maree 
(72a) Opposite Ullapool, on 

Loch Broom. 
(69a) Braemor, head of Loch 

Broom. 
(39b) Corryhalloch, Braemor . 

(8a) Oykell Bridge . 

(9a) ,, „ . , . 



Quartzite scenery, Eastern Schists. 1902. 

Wilderness of Moraines. 1902. 
Outcrop of Thrust-planes. 1902. 

Gorge and small Waterfalls in Eastern 

Schists. 1902. 
Gorge and small Waterfalls in Eastern 

Schists. 1902. 
Monotonous scenery of Eastern Schists. 

1902. 
Silvery Eastern Schists. 1902. 



Sutherland. — Photographed by A. K. CoomAraswAmy, B.Sc, F.G.S. (a) 
amc? Mrs. CoomAraswAmy (b), Walden, Worplesdon, Guildford. 1/4. 

3631 (14a) Coul Mor, from head of ToiTidon Sandstone hill with Quartzite 

Loch Veigatie. summits. 1902. 

3632 (82a) Summit of Coul Mor . Quartzite on Torridon Sandstone. 1902. 

3633 (21a) Near Summit of Coul Mor Weathered Torridon Sandstone. 1902. 

3634 (18a) Cani.sp and Suilven, from Torridon Sandstone hills. 1902. 

Glen Canisp, near Lochinver. 

3635 (29b) Suilven, from Coul Mor . Torridon Sandstone Mountain and Gneiss 

Plateau. 1902. 

3636 (15a) Canisp and Suilven, from Torridon Sandstone. 1902. 

S. of Loch Urigill. 

3637 (12a) Tributary of Alt Achaidh, Peat on Drift (Alluvial Cone). 1902 

W. of Cromalt. 

3638 (11a) Tributary of Alt Achaidh, Peat on Drift with tree stumps. 1902. 

W. of Cromalt. 

(10a) Tributary of Alt Achaidh, „ „ „ „ 

W. of Cromalt. 

(5a) Cnoc an t'Sassunaich General view. 1902. 

(Knockan Cliff), Ullapool. 

(7a) Cnoc an t'Sassunaich Sole of Thrust-plane. 1902. 

(Knockan Cliff), Ullapool. 



3639 
3640 
3641 
3642 
3643 
3644 
3645 
3646 
3647 

3648 

3649 

3650 

3651 

3652 
3653 



(3a) S.W. shore of Cama Loch. 

(31b) Sronchrubie Cliff, Inch- 

nadamff. 
(29a) Inchnadamff . 

(28a) Cnoc an Droighinn, Inch- 
nadamff. 



Torridon Sandstone, Basement Conglome- 
rate. 1902. 
Edge of Limestone Plateau. 1902. 

Durness Limestone Plateau and Sronch- 
rubie Cliff. 1902. 
' Pipe-rock ' ; half-inch pipes. 1902. 



(22a) Traligill Burn, Inch- Conimheall (Ben More) ; Major Thrust- 

nadamff. plane in Durness Limestone. 1902. 

(23a) Traligill Burn, Inch- Conimheall (Ben More); Major Thrust- 

nadamff. plane in Durness Limestone and dry 

valley. 1902. 
(24a) Traligill Burn, Inch- Conimheall (Ben More); Major Thrust- 

nadamfl'. plane in Durness Limestone and dry 

valley. 1902. 
(31ab) Alt Uamh, near Inch- Large stream issuing from under Lime- 

nadamff. stone hill. 1902. 

(32b) Near Loch Gillaroo, Stream disappearing into Swallow-hole. 

Inchnadamff. 1902. 

(25a) Conimheall (Ben More), Quartzite. 1902. 

Assynt. 
(33b) Top of Conimheall . . Weathering of Quartzite. 1902. 
(31a) From Cnoc an Droighinn. Outliers above Ben More Thrust-plane, 

1902. 



21G 



nF.roRT— 1908. 



Kegd. 
No. 

3654 (o6a) Old Man of Stoer . 

3655 (55a) „ „ . . 

3656 (32a) Uamh Rhuadhrige, near 

Kylesku. 

3657 (33a) Half-mile S.S.W. of 

Kylesku Inn. 

3658 (34bj Aird Du Locli, from S. 

side of Loch Glencoiil. 

3659 (38a) Glen Dhu, from Unapool, 

near Kylesku. 

3660 (39a) From base of Stack of 

Glencoul. 

3661 (3Ga) Loch Glencoul, N. side . 

3662 (41a) Stack of Glencoul, from 

N.N.VV. 

3663 (30b) Quinaig, from Kyle 

Strome. 

3664 (44a) N. of Scourie . 

3665 (4oa) Creag a mhail, Scourie 

Bay. 

3666 (52a) Quinaig, Suilven, &c., 

from Scourie. 

3667 (50a) 1 m. E.S.E. of Laxford 

Bridge. 

3668 (48a) Ben Stack 

3669 (51a) Mainland, from Handa 

Island. 

3670 (42a) C^oast opposite 

Island. 

3671 (59a) H.anda, Sea Cliffs 

3672 (60a) Handa Island . 



Stack of Torridon Sandstone. 1902. 

J) .> n .1 

Nearly horizontal Foliation in Hebridean 

Gneiss. 1902. 
'Slack' due io weathering out of Basic 

Dyke in Gneiss. 1902. 
Glencoul Thrust-plane. 1902. 



Cliff of Eastern Schists; Moine Thrust- 
plane. 1902. 

Glencoul Thrust-plane ; Gneiss on Durness 
Limestone. 1902. 

Moine Schists, Moine Thrust, Cambrian 
rocks, and Gneiss. 1902. 

Torridon Sandstone Mountain and Gneiss 
Plateau. 1902. 

Hummocky (glaciated?) Gneiss. 1902. 

Basic Augen in Gneiss. 1902. 

Torridon Sandstone and Gneiss. 1902. 

Basic Auge in Gneiss. 1902. 

Gneiss Mountain, 2364 ft. 1902. 
Ben Arkle and Ben Stack. 1902. 



Handa Vertical Thrust-plane in Gneiss. U02, 

. Torridon Sandstone. 1902. 

. Torridon Sandstone Stack. 1902. 



IRELAND. 



AsTRiM.— Photogra2)hed by Mrs. Coomarasw.4MY, Walden, Worplesdon, 

Guildford. 1/4. 

3673 (24) Coast from Dunluce Castle Basalt filling Ancient Valley in Chalk. 

towards Portrush. 1902. 

3674 (23) The Gobbins Cliffs . . Higher Lava filling crack in lower. 1902. 

3675 (22) ,, ,, . . Junction of two Lava-flows. ,, 

3676 (21) Giant's Causeway . . Transverse Jointing in Columnar Basalt. 

1902. 



Photographed hy Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., University 

CoUeye, Bristol. 1/4. 

Spheroidal 'Weathering of Ba.salt. 1902. 

'» " »i »i 

Erratic block and Boche Moutimnie. „ 
Camptonite Dyke. ,, 

Puckered Gneiss. „ 

Old Sea-caves, raised. ,^ 

Slipped Basalt and Chalk. „ 



Standing on strip of faulted Basalt. 



3677 




) Giant's Causeway 




3678 




) 




3679 




) Fair Head 




3680 




) Rue Bane Point 




3681 




) 




3682 




) S. of Cushendall 




3683 




) Garron Point . 




3684 




) 




3685 




) Garron Point . 




3686 




) 




3687 




) ., . . 




3688 




) Garron Tower . , 


. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



217 



Regd. 




No. 




3689 ( 


) Garrou Point, ' Leg of 




Mutton Rock.' 


3690 ( 


) Glenarm Quarry 


3691 ( 


) Ballygally Head 


3692 ( ; 


Magheramorne . 


3693 c 


' J) . . . 


3694 ( 


) The Gobbins Cliffs . 


3695 ( 


' i> ji • • 


3696 ( 


' )» »» • • 


3697 ( 


) Beechmount, Belfast 


3698 ( 


' i» »» • 


3699 ( 


' »1 M • 


3700 ( 


' tt »• • 


3701 ( : 


»» »» 


3703 ( 


1)1 11 • 


3703 ( : 


) Cave Hill, Belfast . 


3704 ( 


' 11 l» • • 


3705 ( 


1 II II • • 


3706 ( 


1 11 II • • 



Marine undercutting. 1902. 

Basalt overlying Chalk. ,, 

Fault between Chalk and Basalt. ,, 
Basalt overlying Chalk. „ 

Amj'gdaloidal Basalt. ,, 

Amvgdaloidal Basalt with vertical amyg- 

duTes. 1902. 
Tongue of Upper Lava piercing Lower 

vesicular Lava. 1902. 
Basalt Dyke in Trias. 1902. 

Keuper. 1902. 
Boulder-clay on Keuper. „ 

>> •> •• 

Laminated Boulder-clay. „ 
Deceptive appearance of horizontality in 

Trias. 1902. 
Junction of Basalt and Chalk. 1902. 
Basalt Dyke in Chalk. „ 



DOAVN, — Photographed by Mrs. CoomArasw.\my, Walclen, Worplesdon. 

auildford. 1/4. 

3707 (27) Castles of Kivvitar, Mourne Granite, weathering. 1902. 

Mountains. 

3708 (26) Castles of Kivvitar, Mourne „ „ ,. 

Mountains. 

3709 (25) Slieve Commedagh, Mourne „ „ „ 

Mountains. 



Photographed hy Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., University 

College, Bristol 1/4. 

. Basalt Dyke in Trias. 1902. 

. Basalt Dyke in Trias. Cracks filled with 

Calcite. 1902. 
. Sills breaking across bedding. 1902. 
. Basalt Sills in Trias. „ 

. Basalt Dyke and Sills in Trias. „ 
. liasalt Dyke cutting Trias and Basalt Sills. 
190-'. 



3710 






Scrabo Hill 


3711 






1! • 


3712 








3713 






»1 • 


3714 








3715 






»l 


3716 






l> 



Dublin. — Photographed hy W. B. Wright, 14 Hume Street, Dublin, 

1/4. 

3717 (I) Greenhills . 



3718 (2) 

3719 (3) 

3720 (4) 

3721 (5) 
372§ (f.) 



Even and Current-bedded sand in Esker. 

1902. 

Ripple-bedding in E.sker. 1902. 
Silts in Esker ; crumpled band and amid 

evenly bedded silt and sand. 1902. 
Boulder in current-bedded sand in Esker. 

1902. 
Sand and silt layers truncated by coarse 

gravel in Esker. 1902. 
Sand and silt layers in Esker. 1902. 



218 REPORT — 1903. 

Regd. 
No. 

Kerry.— PAoto^rmyteo^iy Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

University College, Bristol. 1/4. 

3723 (51) W. of Dunquin, Dingle . Points formed by relatively hard beds. 

1900. 

3724 (52) Sight Point, Dingle . Highly inclined Smerwick Beds. ] 900. 

3725 (53) „ „ . . Rugged Old Red Sandstone. 

3726 (54) E. side of Smerwick Har- Clitf on Boulder-clay. 

bour. 

LovTK.— Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
University College, Bristol. 1/4. 

3727 ( ) Greenore 

3728 ( ) „ 

3729 ( ) 

3730 ( ) „ 

3731 ( ) Barnavave, 

3732 ( ) 



. Basalt Sills in Carboniferous Limestone. 
1902. 

. Basalt Sills in Carboniferous Limestone. 
1902. 

. Basalt Sills in Carboniferous Limestone. 
1902. 

. Basalt Sills with included Gabbro frag- 
ments. 1902. 
Carlingford . Granophyre network in Gabbro. 1902. 



3733 ( ) „ „ . Banded Gabbro. 



Ustuarine Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire. — Preliminary Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh {Chairman), 
Mr. J. W. Stather {Secretary), Mr. F. W. Harmer, Mr. P. F. 
Kendall, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Thomas Sheppard, 
appointed to investigate the Ilstuarine deposits at Kirmington, 
Lincolnshire, and to consider its position with regard to the Glacial 
Deposits. {Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Your Committee report that, as a favourable opportunity presented itself 
during the summer, preliminary operations were undertaken to investigate 
the beds underlying the estuarine deposit, by means of boring, and the 
results obtained are of such general interest that it is proposed to continue 
the work, and to apply for a grant of 251. to enable this to be done. 

While it would be premature at present to enter into a detailed 
account of the investigation, it may be advisable to state briefly the 
problems which are involved, and the results already obtained. Attention 
was first called to the fossiliferous nature of the deposit by Messrs. Wood 
and Rome on the ' Glacial and Post-glacial Structure of Lincolnshire and 
South-east Yorkshire,' in which they refer to it 'as a portion of the 
Hessle clay formation.' Mr. C. Reid gives a fuller account of the bed 
in his ' Survey Memoir on the Geology of Holderness ' (p. 58), stating 
that though the sand underlying the warp probably rested directly on 
the chalk, the deposit was an estuarine clay of interglacial age. Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh some time later made passing reference to the Kirmington 
section, and suggested that the bed was probably older than any of the 
Yorkshire glacial deposits. 

The warp, which is well exposed in a brickyard, is situated on a low 
hill about 80 feet above sea-level. The upper portion has yielded a few 
species of estuarine shells, but, as our recent investigations have shown, 
fresh-water shells occur in a peaty bed at its base. It is proposed to 
investigate the fauna and flora of this bed very carefully. 



ON ESTUARINE DEPOSITS AT KIRMINGTON, LINCOLNSHIRE. 219 

Below the warp a few feet of sand is exposed in the brickyard, but 
until our boring was put down there was no information as to the under- 
lying bed. Our boring proved a thickness of 12 feet of sand and fine 
chalky gravel, resting on 12 feet of stiff purple clay with foreign 
stones, evidently a glacial clay, and then 11 feet of silt, sand, and fine 
chalk rubble, below which it was impracticable to carry the boring 
without tubing the hole, for which we had not the appliances. 

As boulder-clay is seen at one corner of the pit to overlie the fossili- 
ferous warp, there seems no doubt that the bed lies between two glacial 
deposits, but it is highly desirable that the section should be carried 
downward to the chalk. 

The thanks of the Committee are due to Mr. J. Villiers of Beverley, 
who very kindly put the boring down at his own cost ; also to the Earl of 
Yarborough (landlord), Mr. Hervey (tenant), and Mr. E. P. Hankey (agent). 



Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting o/ Professor "W. A. Herdman 
(Chairman), Mr. J. LoMAS (Seeretari/), Professor W. W. Watts, 
avd Messrs. P. F. Kendall, E. T. Newton, A. C. Seward, and 
W. A. E. UssHER. (Bravm up hy the Secretary.) 

[Plates IV.-VIII.*] 

The scheme of work undertaken by the Committee includes the fol- 
lowing : — 

(1) To record all fossils from the British Trias now deposited in 
museums (public or private), special care being taken to get the exact 
locality and horizon from which the fossils were obtained. 

(2) To compare the fossils from different horizons in order to see 
whether any changes can be traced in the character of the fauna and 
flora during Triassic times, and if geographical limits can be made out for 
certain species. 

(3) To collect data regarding deep borings which show Triassic rocks. 

(4) To obtain photographs of slabs showing footprints or other fossils, 
and of quarries and beds in which organic remains have been found. 

(5) To compile a bibliography of works and papers dealing with the 
subject. 

Considerable progress has been made as the result of the Committee's 
first year's work, and many offers of assistance have been received. The 
Committee is especially indebted to Mr. H. C. Beasley, who has furnished 
a report on cheirotheroid footprints, and has promised to write other 
reports on rhyncosauroid and chelonoid footprints next year. 

REPORT ON FOOTPRINTS FROM THE TRIAS.— Part I. 

Introduction. 

The organic remains found in the Trias of Great Britain are so rare, 
and confined to so few localities, that the animal life of the period might 
appear to have been very limited, both in the number of species and of 
individuals, but for the records of the presence of an abundant fauna pre- 

* The plates are reproductions of photographs taken by kind permission of the 
authorities of the Museums mentioned. 



220 REPORT— 1903. 

served in the footprints of vertebrates and the tracks of invertebrates 
found in different horizons over extended areas wherever the conditions 
were favourable to their preservation. 

The small prospects of satisfactory results, the certainty of the expendi- 
ture of much labour and time, and the necessity for the exercise of so 
much patience have caused the systematic study of this particular branch 
of palaeontology to receive less attention than it deserves. 

The paper of Dr. Duncan in 1828,^ the great work of Sir W. Jardine 
on the Ichnology of Annandale, and the numerous papers by Huxley,''* 
Owen, Egerton, Black, Mantell, Cunningham, Harkness, A. S. Woodward, 
and others, scattered througii the transactions of various societies, are 
mainly concerned with describing prints found in the special localities to 
•which the papers relate, and not to the review of the subject as a whole. 
Dr. T. C. Winkler,^ in the archives of the Musee Teyler, brought together 
abstracts of the most important papers that had appeared up to that time, 
and gave a description of the examples in the museum of that institution ; 
but he did not attempt to correlate the results. 

The footprints in the Trias in England, and probably also in Scotland, 
are with some doubtful exceptions confined to the Keuper.** 

Whether this indicates any great difference in the mode of deposition 
and prevailing conditions or not, the fact remains that from the base of 
the Lower Keuper to well up in the Upper Keuper footprints are met with 
at intervals whenever there are beds suitable for their formation and pre- 
servation. 

The tracks of vertebrates are associated with those of invertebrates, 
probably representing Vermes, Mollusca, and Crustacea, or at any rate 
resembling the tracks made by recent members of these classes. 

On looking through collections of Triassic footprints it will be seen 
that the greater number has been obtained in this country from Storeton, 
Runcorn, Weston, and Lymm, all in Cheshire, or in other places in the 
same series of exposures of the basement beds of the Keuper and those 
beds immediately overlying them. They have also been recorded from 
beds occupying a similar horizon at Grimsill in Shropshire, and 
in Staffordshire, both north and south, particularly from quarries a few 
miles north-west of Wolverhampton and from the neighbourhood of 
Warwick. They have also been noticed in the St. Bees Sandstone near 
Appleby. In Scotland the counties of Elgin and Dumfries are classical 
localities, and a little search would probably prove their presence in most 
districts where the bed of the upper division of the Trias are quarried. 

The earliest finds of footprints in this country seem to have been those 
at Corncockle Muir in Dumfriesshire in 1824, and at Tarporley in Cheshire, 

' ' An Account of the Tracks and Footprints of Animals found impressed on Sand- 
stone in the Quan-y of Corncockle Muir in Dumfriesshire,' by the Rev. Henry Duncan, 
D.D., Minister of Ruth well, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xi. 1828. Read January 7, 
1828. 

- Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Monograph III., by T. H. Huxley, on 
' Crocodilian Remains from the Elgin tjandstone, with Remarks on the Ichnites of 
('ummingstone.' 

- ' Etude Ichnologique sur les Empreintes de Pas des Animaux Fossiles,' Archwet 
Miiaie Teyler, Harlem, second series, vol. ii., part 4, 188C. 

* Tliere are in Owens College Museum, Manchester, two slabs with footprints, 
said to have come from the Bunter Pebble Beds, near Eastham, Cheshire, and given 
by Sir J. Leader Williams. As a quantity of stone for use in the construction of the 
Manchester Ship Canal was obtained from the Runcorn and Weston Quarries there 
is a possibility of error as to the original source of the specimens. 



iNVESflGATION OF FAUNA ANd FLOHA OF TRIAS OF BRITISH ISLES. 221 

also in 1 824. The former were found by Dr. Duncan and described four 
years later in the paper referred to above. The latter, although found in 
1824, were not recognised as footprints by Sir P. Grey Egerton ' till 1836, 
and were described in 1838 in a paper read at the Geological Society's 
meeting, December 5, and at the same meeting the prints from Storeton 
were described.^ 

The footprints vary greatly both in size and form, the smallest noticed 
being about one-eighth of an inch and the largest 15 inches in length. The 
variation in form is not only caused by differences in the form of the foot 
itself, but also by the conditions under which the tracks were made, such 
as the consistence of the mud, the action of the animal, whether moving 
rapidly or otherwise, and the inclination of the surface.'* 

The prints are generally preserved as casts on the under surface of the 
overlying sandstone. The bed of marl on which the original prints were 
made, being very thin and friable, is seldom fit for removal. Immediately 
after a slab is lifted the perfect prints are often visible, but rapidly 
become obliterated. At Corncockle Muir, however, the prints themselves 
are frequently preserved. 

The bed of marl is often much broken up by desiccation cracks and 
otherwise deformed in drying, which greatly interferes with the preserva- 
tion of impressions, and casts of these cracks often form a network of 
ridges on the overlying sandstone. 

The beds in which the prints were made appear to have resulted from 
temporary accumulations of water, which, as they disappeared, left behind 
the mud, on which were preserved tlie footprints of whatever animals 
happened to cross it. In the loose sand which formed the general surface 
of the country such records of their presence would not be preserved. 

There is no indication in the forms preserved that they were produced 
by water-loving animals ; there is no more reason for supposing that the 
mud attracted an unusual concourse of animals than that it merely 
recoi'ded the presence of the usual inhabitants. 

There is every probability that the sand was usually deposited on the 
mud by a^olian rather than by aqueous agency. The prints were often 
made in a very thin layer of mud (occasionally so thin that it adhered to 
the foot of the animal, leaving the underlying sand exposed), and this 
thin layer in drying was broken up by shrinkage and divided into a 
number of curved plates, the curved surfaces being perfectly reproduced 
on the under surface of the layer of sandstone above. Had this mud 
been again covei-ed with water it would have lost its curvature, and the 

' ' On two Casts of Impressions of the Hind Foot of a gigantic Clieirotherium from 
the New Red Sandstone of Cheshire,' by Sir P. Grey Egerton, Proe. Geol. Sou., 
vol. iii. p. 11. Read December 5, 1838. 

• ' An Account of the Cbeirotherium and other unknown Animals lately discovered 
in the Quarries of Storeton Hill, in the Peninsula of Wirrall, between the Mersey and 
the Dee,' Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. iii. p. 12. Read December 5, 1838. This appears to 
have been a report by the Liverpool Natural History Society written by Mr. J. 
Cunningham and submitted by the Geological Society in London. 

^ A letter from Professor Buckland, dated Oxford, December 12, 1827, quoted in 
Dr. Duncan's paper referred to above, shows how fully the importance of studying the 
effect of varying conditions on the prints left by recent animals was recognised by 
earlier investigators. 

Professor T. McKenna Hughes in the Qiiarfi'vly Journal Geological Society, vol. s.]. 
p. 178, pis. 7-11, has a paper on ' Some Tracks of Terrestrial and Freshwater Animals,' 
which, though referring to the tracks of invertebrates, has an important bearing on 
the present subject. 



222 REPORT — 1903. 

overlying sandstone would have been flat on its under surface, as has 
been shown by Messrs. Davies and Reade.^ 

Again, we could hardly expect to find the sharpness of the prints to 
be so well preserved had they been subjected to the erosive action of 
water moving with sufficient rapidity to carry fairly coarse sand. 

There are, however, some few cases in which the sand would appear to 
have been deposited by water, where the casts of the prints consist of laminie 
of rather micaceous sandstone. An example of this may be seen in the 
collection at University College, Liverpool. Such prints are very imperfect. * 

Occasionally prints are met with on rippled surfaces with the ripples 
extending across the prints. An example of this may be seen in a large 
rippled slab at the Liverpool Public Museum, where the ripple marks 
are distinctly traceable across some large imperfect prints ; but a long 
series of smaller prints crossing these seem to have been made subsequently 
to the rippling. There is also one large print from Storeton in the 
University College, Liverpool, collection distinctly showing the same 
thing. In these cases the larger prints may have been made whilst there 
was a thin layer of water over the mud, just sufficient to form the short 
ripples represented. Such rippled surfaces are usually free from desicca- 
tion cracks, and the wind-borne sand may have been deposited before the 
water had quite disappeared. The drying would in that case be very 
gradual, and the curvature of the layer by the very unequal rate of 
desiccation of the upper and lower surfaces would be prevented. The 
covering of the mud by wind-borne sand whilst it still retained its moisture 
will explain the absence of cracks on some surfaces, and their presence in 
others where the thickness of the beds of marl is the same. 

Character of the Beds in which Footprints occur. 

Cheshire. — The quarries at Storeton are in the Lower Keuper Sand- 
stone. It is here brought down by a trough fault into the Upper Bunter, 
which bounds it on the east and west, and so forms the ridge that runs 
approximately north and south from Oxton to Higher Bebington. 

The point now being worked, and where footprints are obtained, is at 
the northern end of the south quarry, and the working shows a vertical 
face of 120 feet. The footprint beds occur rather above the middle of the 
face, and just there are three in number, confined within a thickness of 
3 or 4 feet. They were estimated by Mr. Morton ^ to be about 
124 feet above the base of the Keuper. The stone obtained is a fine 
grained sandstone, white or cream-coloured, with occasionally more 
deeply iron-stained surfaces. There are a few beds of very red marl from 
an inch to some feet in thickness, and thinner beds of a fine white clay. 
In the stratum containing the footprint beds the sandstone is flaggy, but 
the rest is rather massive and compact, somewhat soft towards the top, 
harder below, the best stone being obtained below the footprint bed. 

The method of working is to clear a space of 30 or 40 feet square 
and work downwards, so that the surface of the footprint beds is only 
exposed occasionally and its extent limited. It is hoped that careful 
observations may be continued in order to ascertain whether some slight 
difierences that have been noticed in the footprints from the three beds 
are really characteristic of the three beds over a larger area. 

' ' Description of the Strata exposed during the Construction of the Seacombe 
Branch of the Wirral Railway,' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc, vol. vii. p; 329. 

' Gcdo.jii <J' the Country around Livurjjool, 2nd edit., p. 106. 



INVESTIGATION OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIAS OF BRITISH ISLES. 223 

The beds of white clay in which the prints were made are so thin as 
to be hardly discernible on the freshly worked face, but become readily 
traceable, after a few years' weathering, when a scant vegetation has taken 
root in the softer places. 

The quarries in the neighbourhood of Runcorn extend about a mile 
along the escarpment of Lower Keuper, forming the crest of the hills 
facing the estuary of the Mersey from Runcorn to "Weston. 

The sandstone is of coarser grain than at Storeton, and of a dull red 
colour ; but the position and nature of the footprint bed are about the same, 
and it can be traced the whole length of the hill until it passes beneath 
the floor of the principal quarry now worked. The spoil banks covering 
the larger area of the old quarries still yield numerous examples, and in 
spite of the coarse nature of the stone and the deformation of its surface 
by desiccation, cracks, kc. some very perfect specimens have been pre- 
served. While the larger forms are less plentiful than at Storeton, the 
smaller ones are more numerous and varied. 

There is a second bed, a considerable distance below the footprint bed, 
which yields very many curious markings, but none that can be said with 
certainty to be of organic origin. 

At Lymm the quarries in the neighbourhood are mostly closed, and 
the spoil banks covered with vegetation. 

Near Tarporley and in Delamere ForeM beds which have yielded foot- 
prints are found. They occur at horizons rather higher in the Keuper 
than those at Storeton and Runcorn. 

Shropshire. — -The quarries at Grimsill, Shropshire (easily reached 
from Yorton station on the Crewe and Shrewsbury Railway), are very 
extensively worked, and yield from time to time not only numerous 
footprints but remains of rhynchosaurus. 

They are very like the quarries at Storeton both in the character of the 
stone and the position of the beds. 

Warwickshire. — Near Warwick the quarries at the Coten End in the 
Lower Keuper are not much worked now. The small but very interesting 
quarry at Shrewly, a mile or so from Hatton Junction, on the Great West- 
ern line, is in the Upper Keuper Sandstones, with the marls above and 
below. Footprints are frequently found, and the remains of invertebrates. 

Staffordshire. — Traces of footprints have been noticed in quarries at 
Alton and HoUington, in North Staffordshire, in the building stones of the 
Lower Keuper. 

In South Staffordshire footprints are very numerous in the quarries 
along the outcrop of the harder beds of the Keuper a few miles north- 
west of Wolverhampton. Some of the sections have recently been 
described by Mr. Beeby Thompson, F.G.S.' 

Scotland. — The footprint-yielding quarries in Dumfriesshire do not 
seem to be much worked now ; the footprint beds are described as extend- 
ing through a thickness of about forty-live feet (see Dr. Duncan's paper 
referred to above). 

For an account of the quarries at Elgin see Huxley's monograph, 
previously referred to ; also ' Reptiliferous Sandstones of Elgin,' by 
Rev. George Gordon, LL.D., ' Trans. Geological Society Edinburgh,' 
February 1892. 

• 'Some Trias Sections in South Staffordshire,' by Beeby Thompson. F.G.S.. fycnl. 
Maf) , Dec. iv., vol. ix., May 190:2. 



224 RtePoRT— 1903. 

Descrijytion of the Footprints. 

In describing the footprints in detail it will be convenient to consider" 
them merely as footprints, regarding only the features they individually 
present, without reference to the animal that may be supposed to have 
made them, except in the case where two forms have frequently been 
found together in such a position as would warrant our considering them 
as representing the fore and hind feet of the same animal. 

If we bear this principle in mind and fully recognise that the nomen- 
clature ' does not involve any assumption as to their origin, it will be well 
to group together certain of them as cheirotheroid, rhynchosauroid, and 
chelonoid, the prints in each group having a certain resemblance to those 
ascribed by the earlier writers to the Cheirotherium, the Rhynchosaurus, 
and ' some Chelonian ' respectively. This will be the more convenient, as 
the forms in each group differ greatly from those in either of the others. 
There will remain many other forms that cannot be included in these 
groups, but they may be considered later, the above being taken first, as 
they contain the more common forms. 

Cheirotheroid Forms. 

The most striking of the footprints found in the Triassic rocks is that 
to which Professor Kaup gave the name ' Cheirotherium ' when it was dis- 
covered at Hessburg, near Hildburghausen, in 1835. He also suggested 
the alternative name of ' Cheirosaurus ' in the event of the animal whose 
presence it recorded proving to be a saurian. As we are still ignorant of 
the nature of the animal I'eferred to it will be well to adhere to the 
original name. 

The print is pentadactylatc. and roughly resembles a human hand. It 
varies from 5 to 15 inches in length, the average being from 8 to 9 inches. 

The middle digit is the longest, those next on either side being rather 
shorter, and the outer ones considerably shorter still. 

The divisions between the outer digits and those next them extend 
farther back than those on either side the middle digit. 

Four of the digits are only slightly divergent, and each shows the 
presence of a sharp claw at the extremity. The outer digit on one side 
has its origin further back than the corresponding digit on the other side, 
is broader in proportion to its length, diverges considerably from the axis 
of the rest of the foot, and is usually curved outwards : it does not show 
any trace of a claw. 

Where a series of prints is shown it is usually found that they are in 
a single line, and that the curved digit occurs alternately on the right and 
left side. If a line be drawn through the middle digits of the prints 
having the curved digits on the one side and the corresponding digit of 
those having the curved digit on the other, it will be found that the distance 
between the two lines is seldom over 3 inches. This would point to 
the curved digit being the fifth ; but the suggestion has been made that 
the animal may have crossed its feet to the extent of 3 inches, and that 
the curved digit was the first. However, tracks have been found where 
the distance between the lines of the right and left feet is much greater. 
There is a slab in the Warrington Museum from Lymm where the lines 
are fully 6 inches apart, and another in the British Museum, No. R. 728, 

' In the detailed description which follows the various forms have been indicated 
by letters. These correspond with the nomenclature adopted in my previous papers, 
Proe. Liverponl. Geol. Soc, vol. vii. p. S91 ; vol. viii. p. 233; vol. ix. pp. SI and 23S. 



iNVESflGATlON OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TKIAS OF BRITISH ISLES. 225 

from Hildburghausen, very similar, in both of which the curved digit is 
still the outer one. It is therefore clear that it represents the fifth or 
outer digit, and for the purposes of this report Avill be described as such. 

At the base of each digit there appeai-s to be a pad or cushion, often 
merging into that of the next digit ; that at the base of the fifth digit is 
larger than the others and quite separate from them, and it forms the 
posterior outer margin of the print ; but on the inner side the margin 
of the print is very slightly marked, sometimes not at all, between the 
pad at the base of the first digit and that of the fifth. 

Occasionally the fifth digit is not curved, and is only slightly divergent 
from the other digits. Two prints from Grimsill, Salop, show this 
peculiarity : one is in the Ludlow Museum and the other at Shrewsbury. 

A short distance in front of the prints just described indications are 
found of the presence of a smaller foot. The print is frequently very 
slight, but is sometimes very clearly defined, and its axis coincides with 
that of the larger print. 

It consists of five short divergent digits, the fifth being nearly at right 
angles with the third ; there is no clear indication of an ungual termina- 
tion ; the print is rather broader than long, and varies from a third to 
half the size of larger print, which we may consider as that of the pes, 
and the smaller as the manus. There are pads at the base of the digits 
which coalesce and form the posterior margin of the print. 

The weight of the body was principally borne by the pes, as, although pre- 
senting a much larger surface than the manus, it made a deeper impression. 

Both pes and manus seem to have been almost digitigrade, the distal 
extremities only of the metatarsals and metacarpals reaching the ground : 
these being represented by the pads at the base of the digits. 

Traces of a Caudal Appendage. 

No certain traces of a tail have been seen associated with these foot- 
prints. In the British Museum there is a slab of prints from Storeton,' 
R. 730, on which is a long tapering mark, with rows of scales on the 
thicker part and terminating in some indistinct rod-like markings. 
This, it has been suggested, may indicate the presence of a tail. Very 
similar markings are present on a large slab from Lymm, in the Warwick 
Museum. In neither case does the marking in question occupy the 
position in regard to the footprints that might have been expected, and it 
is possible the marks in question may have had a vegetable origin. 
Undoubted tail-marks have been observed, but they were not associated 
with the Cheirotherium footprints. As will be seen later, a small print 
bearing some resemblance to the Cheirotherium does show the presence of 
a tail, and there is a very clear track of a tail associated with some 
webbed footprints on a slab at Warwick. 

Traces of the Integument. 

Professor W. C. Williamson - recorded and figured a print from 
Daresbury, a few miles from Runcorn, which showed the presence of 
small scales covering the sole of the foot. He says : — ' Many of them (tha 
scales) run across the foot in oblique lines, thus leaving no doubt they 

' Described and tigured in Geolojij of Country around Liverpool, Append., 
p. 300. 

- ' Cheirotherium I'ootprint from the Bate of the Keuper Sand&tone, Dare&bnry, 
by Professor "\V. C. Williamson, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xsiii. 1867, p, 36. 
1903. q 




226 REPORT— 1903. 

fepresent true scales and not irregular tubercles as are seen on the skin 
of many batrachians. The scales on the toes and anterior part of the 
foot are smaller than on the posterior.' Several footprints from Storeton 
are similarly, though not so distinctly, marked, and Mr. Beeby Thompson 
has found an example ' from South Staffordshire. The markings very 
much resemble the scales on the feet of recent crocodilia. 

The Cheirotherium footprints show considerable variation, even in the 
same quarry ; but it is generally such as might arise from the age of the 
individual making the print. Some prints, for instance, suggest a large 
fleshy foot, with the nails but faintly shown ; others are more slender, 
with the details more distinct. There are, however, forms showing more 
important variations, with the same distinctive fea- 
A 1. 1 — Left Pes tures frequently recurring. 

and Manus. ^ j — The most common form is that figured by 

Mr. G. H. Morton '^ as representing 

Clie'iTotherium stortonense. 
Cheirosaurus storto?iensis. 

In addition to the pads at the base of the digits this 
form shows similar pads on the digits themselves, pre- 
senting gently rounded surfaces divided by slight 
constrictions which probably mark the position of the 
joints of the phalanges. The prints of the digits are 
broadest about the middle and narrow towards the 
base. (Plate IV.) 

The natural cast figured by Mr. Morton is in the 

British Museum (R. 2591), and measures 9 inches in 

length. A slab with a series of three hind feet is in 

the Bootle Museum,^ and is supposed to be one of 

those referred to by Mr. Cunningham in his original 

paper. The feet correspond in size and form to those 

figured by Mr. Morton. The distance between the 

print of the left foot and the next print of the same 

foot is a little over 3 feet 7 inches, and the distance between the centre 

of the right foot and a line joining the centres of the two prints of the 

left is less than 3 inches. 

The somewhat elongated posterior portion of the print in Mr. Morton's 
specimen is very possibly caused by the foot having moved slightly 
forward after being put down ; there is some indication of the mud 
having been slightly raised in front of the print, but at any rate this 
elongation is not common in the Storeton prints. 

The impressions of the pads on the digits are so imperfectly and 
irregularly preserved that, supposing they coincide with the phalanges, 
the number of these in each digit of the pes cannot be determined with 
the certainty that is desirable. So far as has at present been observed 

the formula would be g ^^' ™' ^J' \ As there are no clearly marked 

' Described and a portion figured in Geol. Mag. for May 1902. ' Footprints from 
the Keuper of South Stafiordshire,' A. S. Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 

2 Geology of Country m-ouncl Liverpool., pis. 8 and 9. 

Mr. Morton suggested the specific name 'Stortonense" in a paper read March 17, 
1863, ProG. Liverpool Geol. Soo.. vol. i. 

^ The fifth digit of the middle print of this series has been chipped, giving a 
different form from that of the other two. This, i& not shown in a drawing made 
about 1839, so the damage is probably subsequent to that date. 




British Association, ISrd EejMrt, Houthport, 1903.] 



[Plate IV. 



■^,'t?iiigr" 



k..'^^' 





Slab of sandstone, probably from Storeton, with two series of footprints of Al in relief. 
Owens College Museum, Manchester. 














.f-y 



Ulustratiiuj the Report on the Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the 

Trias of the British Isles. 



British Association, I'drcl Report, SotttJqyort, 1903.] 



[Plate V. 




Natural Cast of A2 from Storeton. British ]\[useiim, Natural History. K414. 



Illustratimj the Ueport on tlie Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the 

Trias of the British Isles. 



INVESTIGATION OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIAS OF BRITISH ISLES* 227 



A 2. 



i _ 

6- 



-Left Pes. 




pads on the fifth digit, the number of joints has been estimated from its 
curvature. 

The pads, if there are any on the manus, are too slightly marked to 
o-uide us in making any formula for that foot. The manus, whenever at 
all clearly shown, shows distinctly that it was pentadactylate like the pes. 

The larger and stouter prints from Storeton appear practically identical 
with those from Hildburghausen, to which the name Cheirotherium was 
originally given. 

A 2. — A form differing somewhat from the typical Cheirotherium 
stortonense is found occasionally at Storeton, but more frequently in the 
Lymm district. The print is broader than A 1, and 
the digits are rather shorter in proportion to the 
length of the foot, and are widest at the base, where 
their width slightly exceeds that of the middle of the 
Cheirotherium stortonense. They taper rapidly to 
their extremities, which show the pi-esence of nails. 

The sole of each of these digits, instead of present- 
ing a gently rounded surface, rises sharply from each 
side towards the middle line, forming there a slight 
ridge. There are no indications of pads on the digits, 
but those at their base are clearly marked. 

The first and fifth digits are both much shorter in 
proportion to the others. The fifth, whilst projecting 
outwards at a considerable angle, has not the curva- 
ture so characteristic of Cheirotherium stortonense, 
neither does it nor its pad form so conspicuous a feature. 

The size of the foot is generally about the same as Cheirotherium 
stortonense. (Plate V.) 

The manus in the few specimens seen would seem to be rather 
broader and the digits rather stouter and more 
divergent than in Cheirotherium stortonense ; pos- 
sibly these are only individual peculiarities. 

A 3 is represented by the form found at Tar- 
porley, Cheshire, and described by Sir P. Grey 
Egerton ' under the name Cheirotherium Hercidis 
from the specimens now in the British Museum 
(R. 295) : in many respects this resembles A 2 ; 
but besides being much larger — about 15 inches 
in length — it is much elongated and the digits 
are shorter in proportion to the whole length. 
No impression of the manus has been recorded as 
associated with it. (Plate VI.) 

The possibility of the appearance of the first 
four digits in A 2 and 3 being due to the condi- 
tion of the mud in which the prints were made 
and that such conditions might be more frequent 
in the Lymm district or the horizon in which 
these prints have been found, has not b'een over- 
looked ; but as the digits of this form are associated with a much smaller 

' ' On two Casts in Sandstone of the Impressions of a gigantic Cheirotherium from 
the New Red Sandstone of Cheshire, Proc. Geol. Soc. voL iii. p. 14, and ' Notes on 
Type Specimen of Clieirotkerium, HerculAs (Egerton),' H. C. Beasley, Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc, voL ix. p. 81, pi. 5, March 12, 1901. 

Q 2 



A3. 



X _ 

6- 



-Left Pes 





228 REPORT— 1903. 

fifth digit it seetos we are justified in considering the difference as struc- 
tural. 

The three forms described may be provisionally grouped utidet* 
letter A : — 

A 1. Cheirotheriiim stortonense. 

A 2. The Lymm form. 

A 3. Cheirotherium llerculis. 

K. — The next form to be considered is one that would seem at first 
sight to be altogether dissimilar to the foregoing, but is possibly very 

intimately connected with them : it is a short 
K. l- — Left Pes. round print, rather broader than long, and mea- 

sures about 5 inches across. It shows four toes, 
greatly resembling the first four of A 2, and, like 
them wide at the base and tapering rapidly to a 
point without trace of pads, except at the base, 
and presenting the longitudinally ridged appear- 
ance described. The other digits are somewhat 
curved laterally, and a similar curvature is obser- 
vable in the Cheirofherium llerculis. 

It has been found at Storeton, but is more 
common in the Lymm district. There are two examples from Lymm in 
the Grosvenor Museum, Cheshire. 

This corresponds, in fact, somewhat to the distal portion of A 2, the 
fifth digit not having appai-ently reached the ground, or at any rate not 
having left an impression. However, as there is no sign of its being a 
merely imperfect pi-int, it has been described separately as K.^ 

B 1 is a suaall form described and figured by Mr. G. H. Morton - 
from a specimen in the Liverpool Free Museum from Storeton. It 
consists of four stout rapidly tapering digits, slightly diver- 
1^1- G- — Left gent, and a fifth short and broad standing outwards at a 
considerable angle. The points of difference between A 1 
and A 2 are greatly accentuated, the breadth of the digits 
being much greater and the length less in proportion to the 
size of the print. Mr. Morton has named this C/teiro<Aert«?u 
^— ^ minus. It is doubtful whether it is the same as the print 
^ to which Sickler gave that name in 183-5 ; but no oppor- 

tunity has occurred for comparison. The small print in the 
British Museum, R. 419, supposed by Lydekker^ to represent this, is 
rather obscure, but seems to difier from the Liverpool print. The length 
of the print is nearly 3 inches, but the Avriter has one about half 
the size — also from Storeton — in which the peculiar features of the print 
are more strongly marked. This may possibly point to the prints being 
made by an immature animal, as suggested on the original label in the 
Liverpool Museum. This print will be referred to as B 1. 

B 2. There is some resemblance between the form just described and 
the prints on a slab in the Bootle Museum (No. 5) showing a series of 
five prints, with a slightly sinuous furrow following the middle line, ap- 

' 'On two Footprints from the Lower Keuper audtlieir Relation to Chcirotlierium 
Stortoneuse,' Proc. Liverjjuol (reuL Soc, vol. ix. p. 238, pi. 15. 
- Geoloijy of the Cowntrt/ arovncl Liverpool, Append., p. 2.^9. 
' Catati-KjiK- of Fossil Ii'cpti'ia itt British 2Itucuin, \ol. iv. p. 217. 




British Association, 13rd Report, Southporl, 1903.] 



[Plate VI. 




> 

X 


'%i 


y "i^x-^^^^^^- 




t 


y'fi 


^ >^W'^ 



Natural casts of two prints A3. Cheirotherium Herculis, Egerton. 
British Museum, Natural History. 



Illustrating the Report on the Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the 

Trias of the British Isles. 



British Association, 13rd Beport, Southport, 1908.] 



[Plate VII. 




Part of a slab of sandstone from hitoreton, with prints in relief of a series of Ai, 
crossed obliiiuely by another series of smaller prints of L. British Museum, 
Natural History. The whole slab measures about 7 feet inches in lenKth ; 
only about half of the length is shown in the Plate. 

Illustrating the Report on the Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the 

Trias of the British Isles. 




INVESTIGATION OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIAS OF BRITISH ISLES. 229 

parently caused by a tail. This is almost certainly the slab described by 
Mr. Cunningham ^ as having been found at Flaybrick Hill, Birkenhead 
(it is labelled ' Probably Runcorn ' at present). There are 

two prints of the right foot and three of left, 6 inches sepa- b ''. 4- Left 

rating the right line from the left ; length of stride from Pes, 

one print to the next of the same foot is 1 5 inches. The 

prints are Ih inch long, and are rather more slender than 

B 1 ; both the first and fifth digits diverge considerably 

from the others ; there is no curvature discernible on the 

fifth ; the pes appears to have been placed upon the print 

of the manus, obliterating it and confusing both ; but one 

of the prints is fairly clear and was figured. Other imperfect prints 

probably representing this have been seen, but at present we have no 

knowledge of the manus. This form will be described as B 2.- 

L. — One other form must be included in this group. It is a small form 
about 4 inches in length, and resembles Cheirotherium in every respect 
except that it presents only four digits. Three are long, 
straight, and nearly parallel, the middle one the longest, -'■-'■ '^Tr^^^*' '^^^ 
and all terminating in long claws, and a fifth, somewhat ^° " ' 
curved, occupying nearly the same position as the fifth in 
A ; but it is rather further back and slightly nearer the 1""'^^ 

middle line of the foot. 

The pads at the base of the digits are well marked. 
The digits represented are probably 2, 3, 4, and 5. The 
curve on the fifth digit is almost entirely confined to the 
bending of the last joint. The most perfect specimen seen 
is from Guyscliff*, Warwick, now in the Bootle Museum. 
In it there is a very clearly defined margin on the inner 
side of the print extending from the tip of the second digit 
to the posterior margin of the pad, with no trace of a 
first digit reaching the ground. The same form has been 
found at Storeton lately, and there is in the British Museum a long slab 
of Cheirotherium prints (R. 729) on which a series of these prints cross 
the others obliquely. In these the prints of the manus (not shown on 
the other examples) is seen. It consists of three short stout digits, and 
is three-quarters of an inch in length and about the same in breadth. 
(Plate VII.) 

This form has been described under the letter L.^ 

This print seems to agree in some respects with the description given 
of Cheirotherium minus (Sickler) in Lydekker's ' Catalogue of Fossil 
Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum,' vol. iv. p. 217, which is 
apparently taken from Sickler, but it does not agree with that figured by 
Winkler (see anf.e).'^ 

The foregoing have all been seen to have a form resembling the 
Cheirotherium print and readily take their places in this group ; and 

' Proc. Liverpool Lit. and Phil. Sue, vol. i. (figure). 

" In the Musee Teyler, Harlem, there is a print described and figured by Winkler 
as Cheir other i] on. minor. M. Sickler (^Archives, vol. ii. p. 430, pi. 3, fig. 2). He 
suggests it may be the print of a j'oung animal, but the figure does not agree with 
the prints discussed above. 

' Proc. Liverpool Gcol. Soc, vol. ix. p. 289, pi. 15. 

* See also Buckland's Bridgwater Treatise, 1st edit., vol. i. p. 265, and vol. ii. 
pi, 26. 




230 REPORT— 1903. 

although in two cases only four digits are represented, the foot was 
probably pentadactylate ; in the case of K, the lifth digit, and in L the first 
digit failing to reach the ground, or at any rate not leaving any trace of 
its having done so. Whether this may or may not be due to a gradual 
shortening of the outer toes and the development of a form with only 
three functional digits is a matter worth considering. For this reason it 
may be well to notice here a form that can hardly be considered 
cheirotheroid, nor can it well be classed in either of the other groups. It 
is a three-toed form found in the dolomitic conglomerate of Glamorgan- 
shire and described by Mr. W. J. Sollas ^ under the name of Brontozoum 
TJbomasi. There are three impressions of the left foot and two of the 
right. The footprint ' shows the mark of three toes diverging from a 
posterior heel ; the middle toe is the most regularly defined, the outer 
comes next in regularity, and the inner last.' ' The outer toe is confluent 
with the heel ; the middle and inner toes are separated from it and from 
each other.' The total length of the impression from the point of the nail 
of the middle toe to the back of the heel is 10 inches ; the angle contained 
between the inner and outer toes is .50°, and the projection of the middle 
toe beyond a line joining the points of the inner and outer toes is 3^ inches. 
The middle toe shows the existence of a nail, which is not so clearly shown 
on the others. The length of stride is 3 feet 2 inches. The slab is now 
in the Cardiff Museum. Owing to the generally unsuitable nature of the 
matrix impressions would have been seldom made and still less frequently 
preserved. (Plate VIII.) 

In connection with the subject of this report the writer had occasion 
to examine the footprints of the following museums : — Bi'itish Museum, 
Natural History ; Museum of the Geological Survey ; Liverpool, Free 
Museum ; Liverpool, University College Museum ; Bootle (Lancashire), 
Free Museum ; Manchester, Owens College Museum ; Salford, Peel Park 
Museum ; Warrington, Municipal Museum ; Chester, Grosvenor Museum ; 
Shrewsbury, Free Museum ; Warwick, Naturalists and Archteologists' 
Field Club Museum ; Cambridge, Woodwardian Museum ; Ludlow 
Museum ; and he has to thank those in charge of these collections for the 
facilities and assistance aflforded him, particularly Dr. A. S. Woodward, 
F.R.S., Mr. E. T. Newton, F.R.S., F.G.S., Ac, and Dr. C. ^Y. Andrews 
for advice and assistance. 

Unfortunately the time at the writer's disposal has not been sufficient 
to enable him to do more this year than give an account of one group of 
footprints ; but should the Committee be reappointed, and see fit to allow 
him to continue the report, he hopes to describe the remaining two groups 
and such other footprints as have come under his notice in time for the 
succeeding meeting of the Association. 

' ' On some Three-toed Footprints from the Triassic Conglomerate of S. Wales,' 
by Mr. W. J. Sollas, M.A., F.G.S., Quart. Jonrn. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxv. p. 511. Read 
April 9, 1879. 



British Association, ISrd Beport, Southport, 1903.] [Plate VITI. 







^: 


-\ 




-^^^^^^^^^^1 

^^l^ 


■■ 






^^^1 



Footprints from the Triassic Conglomerate of Newton Nottage, 
Glamorgan. Cardiff Museum. 



Illustrating the Beport on the Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the 

Trias of the British Isles. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 231 



Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Mghth Report of the Gorrmiittee 
consisting of Dr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Mr. P. F. Kendall 
(Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 0. E. De Hance, 
Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. E. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. J. Lomas, Mr. 
A. R. DwERRYHOUSE, Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, 
and Mr. F. W. Harmer, appointed to investigate the Erratic Blochs 
of the British Isles and to take measures for their preservation. 
(Braivn up by the Secretary.) 

The majority of the records received during the present year has been 
contributed by workers in Yorkshire, and it is satisfactory to note that 
one of the few areas in that county inadequately studied hitherto is now 
receiving attention. The Thirsk Naturalists' Club has organised a sub- 
committee acting in co-operation with the ^Yorkshire Boulder Committee, 
and the first results of its investigations in the Vale of Mowbray are 
now presented. The present writer visited Thirsk in the spring of this 
year and identified many boulders which will serve as types for the 
guidance of the local workers. The observations made in the Vale of 
Mowbray may be said to close up the last gap in the network of obser- 
vations which now extends over the whole of the great county of York 
from the Tees on the north to Sheffield on the south, and from Ingleton on 
the west to the sea. The thoroughness with which the search for erratics 
has been made is very gratifying, yet the fact that fresh types of erratics 
still continue to be recorded shows that this well-worked field is far from 
being exhausted. 

In the present report we record the recognition by Professor Brogger 
of yet another type of igneous rock derived from the prolific country near 
Christiania, and the visit of the Yorkshire geologists to the Tweed Valley, 
referred to in the report presented last year, has borne fruit in the 
identification at two localities in Yorkshire of examples of the trachytes 
so characteristic of the south-east of Scotland. Other boulders worthy of 
mention are the small boulder of Borrowdale Ash, found by Mr. Gregory, 
near Keighley, at an altitude of 900 feet O.D. This is an interesting 
confirmation of a record to be found in the report for the year 1875. 
Mr. Hemingway sends some valuable notes on the puzzling drift-area 
about Barnsley. 

A welcome contribution to the knowledge of a little known area is 
the report on boulders in co. Durham sent by the Rev. W. J. Wingate. 

A series of records from East Anglia (including the first sent to this 
Committee from the county of Norfolk) shows that valuable results would 
repay workers in the district ; and it should be pointed out that with the 
centralisation of the brickmaking industry at a few centres, and the 
general introduction of road-metal from distant places, the opportunities 
for observation are being rapidly diminished by the closure of brickyards 
and gravel-pits which furnish at present the most numerous and con- 
venient opportunities for the study of erratics, especially the smaller 
ones, at the same time the larger boulders are being broken up for 
road-mending. It should here be again pointed out that the smaller 
stones are frequently of greater interest than large ones. Some of the 



232 REPORT— 1903. 

most interesting erratics yet recorded in England, such as the Norwegian 
rhomb-porphyries and the Riebeckite-Eurite of Ailsa Craig, have never 
been found in large blocks, and usually are little more than pebbles. 

The most conspicuous boulders in East Anglia are the dolerites and 
basalts, which are by far the most numerous of the igneous boulders, 
large or small ; and the writer is convinced, that the determination of 
their places of origin would throw much light upon the difficult problems 
of East Anglian glacial geology. Over a wide area from the east coast 
of Norfolk to the Fens, and southward into Essex and Hertfordshire, 
boulders of sandstone are very numerous : some of these, especially in 
Norfolk, are derived from the Neocomian sandstone, while in the southern 
part of the area blocks of brown sandstone are of very common occurrence, 
which are for the most part of Tertiary age ; but whether all are from 
the same source or not requires investigation. 

The discovery of rhomb-porphyry is not an absolutely new fact in 
the geology of Norfolk, but the specimens recorded from Hellesdon and 
Wymondliam are interesting, as they are the most southerly stations 
known for this rock in Britain. 

The two examples of Laurvikite at Bacton and Happisburgh respec- 
tively are the first records of this rock south of Lincolnshire. An endeavour 
has been made to secure the Bacton specimen for the Norwich Museum. 

The present writer has long felt the need for some summary present- 
ment of the vast mass of facts accumulated by this Committee and its 
predecessor during the last thirty-two years, and he has therefore 
prepared a synopsis of the whole of the reports from the year 1873 down 
to and including the present one. The labour has been great, but the 
advantage and convenience to students of glacial geology will, he hopes, 
be more than commensurate. The records for Ireland have not been 
included in this summary, as they were presented in tabular form in the 
Report for 1902. Next year it is contemplated to publish a second part 
of this synopsis, in which the distriV>ution of boulders of noteworthy rocks 
will be analysed. 

Durham. 
Communicated hy the Rev, W. J. WiNfiATE, of Bishop Auckland. 

Blackhalls (shore at) — 

Granite (probably Dumfrie.'!), porphyrite (Cheviot, typo), augen-gneiss, 
gneiss, quartz porphyry. 

Bisliop Auckland Cemetery (in boulder clay) — 
Carboniferous limestone. 

Barnard Castle (in bed of R. Tees) — 

Whin Sill, Carboniferous sandstone, andesitie ash (Lake District) 

Harj)erley (in bed of R. Wear) — • 
Volcanic breccia (? Lake District). 

Piercehridge, ' The Greystone ' Boulder— 
Andesitie breccia (Lake District). 

Oxenlovj — 

Andesite (Lake District) ■ 



ON ERRATIC BI^OCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 233 

Lindisfarne — 

Andesitic ash (Lake District). 

WeSTiMORELAND. 

Bepnrted by Mr. Percv F. Kendall. 

Brachenher Moor, Hilton — 
Shap granite. 

Milburn, E. of Howgill Castle — 

Whin Sill, Carboniferous limestone and sandstone. 

Blimey Hill, near Milburn — 
Whin Sill, Carboniferous sandstone, 

Hazelrig, near Gambleahy-'^ 

Carboniferous basement conglomerate, granite (Galloway), red lamprophyre 
resembling that of Knock Pike, Shap granite, Dalbeattie granite, Whin 
Sill. 

Yorkshire. 

Communicated by the Yorkshire Boulder Committee. 

Reported by Mr. W. Chadwick. 

Thirkle Bridge, Holderness — 

Dolerite, ?A inches by 31 inches by 32 inches. Situated \ mile south of the 
bridge, 

Reported by Mr. W. H. Crofts. 
Hornsea — 

Millstone grit. 

Re^wrted by Mr. P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Burstwick — 

Trachyte similar to that of Eildon Hills, Melrose; dolerite similar to those 
of Black Hills, near Earlstown ; quartz porphyry. 

Bridlington (from beach) — 
Trachyte, south of Scotland. 

Reported by Mr. G. W. B. Macturk. 

Little Weighton — 

In chalky dry valley deposit near Dannatt's chalk quarry, containing pebbles 
of basalt, quartzite, and sandstone. 

Newbald. — On roadside between Bushey Hill and Little Wood Planta- 
tion, about 2^ miles east of Newbald, 372 feet above O.D. 

Dolerite, 54 inches by 3(i inches by 24 inches. Probably removed from an 
adjacent field. 

Reported by Mr. Thos. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

Brongh. — The boulder of augite-syenite recorded from Mill Hill gravel 
pit in the 1899 Report has been transferred to the Hull Museum, 



234 REPORT — 1903. 

Kelsey Hill — 

Carboniferous limestone, 57 inches by 41 inches by 29 inches. Found 
during excavation of gravel 15 feet below the surface. Now at Hull 
Museum. 

Aldbrough (ffolderness) — 

A large mammoth tooth weighing 11 lb. 

Sand-le-Mere — 

Small mammoth tooth found on beach. 

Reported hy Mr. J, W. Stather, F.G.S. 
Hornsea — 

Small boulder of keuper marl with pseudomorphs of salt crystals. 

Reported hy Mr. F. F. Waltok, F.G.S, 

Hornsea — 

Coarse red granite, 42 in. by 30 in. by 24 in. 
Augen-gneiss, 24 in. by 24 in. by 20 in. 

Dalbeattie granite, 12 in. by 6 in. by 5 in. 

Reported by Messi's. H. B. Muff, B.A., F.G.S., and Percy 
F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Stonegate, Eskdale. — In railway cutting above Stonegate — 

Syenitic dyke-rock. 

Professor W. C. Brogger, of Christiania, has seen this specimen, and 
writes : — ' This rock is without doubt originally transported from the 
Christiania region. It is a syenitic dyke-rock, consisting of micro-perthite 
and katophoric hornblende, with traces of riebeckite, further with 
titanite, magnetite, &.c. Such dyke-rocks occur as well in the Longen 
Valley as north from Christiania accompanying pulaskites and nord- 
markites.' 

Reported by Mr. H. Brantwood Muff, B.A., F.G.S. 
Linton, Wharfedale — 

Silurian slate. At the S. end of the railway cutting, one-third of a mile 
W.S.W. of Linton, four large boulders of cleaved greenish Silurian slate in 
boulder clay. The largest boulder is nearly 8 ft. long ; another is striated 
from N.W. to S.E. 

Reported by Mr. E. Hawkesworth. 

Flaxby, S. of Boroughbridge, in Moraine-ridge — 
Whin sill. 

Wykeham — 
Whin sill. 

Brompton, near Northallerton — 
Andesite (Borrowdale series). 

Wighill, near Tadcaster — 
Whin siJl. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 235 

Reported hy the Thirsk J^aturalists' Club, per Mr. J. E. Hall, Secretary. 

Thirsk. — In gravel pit — 

Gabbro (Carrock Fell), porphyrite (Cheviot type), Shap granite, oolite (not 
local), Carboniferous conglomerate (Roman Fell type), granite. 

Upsal, Wool Moor, 725 feet O.D.— 
Dolerite, millstone grit, black limestone. 

Upsal, Hag's Hill, 225 feet O.D.— 

Gabbro (Carrock Fell). 
Granite (? Cheviot). 

A. Very frequent throughout district. 

Carboniferous limestone, black and encrinital. 

Ganister. 

Chert. 

Millstone grit* 

Dolerite. 

B. Fairly frequent throughout district. 

Andesitic breccia. 
Cleaved andesitic breccia. 

„ „ ash. 

„ ,, ,, with epidote. 

„ ,, rhyolitic breccia. 

„ „ agglomerates. 

„ ,, purple breccia. 

Shap granite. 
Vein quartz. 

C. Occasional. 

Cheviot porphyrite. 
Carboniferous conglomerate. 
Volcanic tufE (? Cheviot). 
Gabbro (? Carrock Fell). 

Remarks. — Dividing our district into three longitudinal strips, 
roughly, Codbeck (central). Swale (western), edge of Hambletons (eastern), 
we find Class A pretty evenly distributed. 

Class B very frequent in the central district and only occasional in 
the E. and W. 

Class C, so far as our research goes, are almost entirely confined to the 
central district. 

Gravel Pits, Thirsk — 

Cheviot porphyrite, 3. 
Carboniferous conglomerate, 4. 
Shap granite, at least, 30. 

Gravel Pit at Pickhill — 

Carboniferous conglomerate, 1. 

Shap granite also found at Richmond, Swaledale, and Wemmergill, 
Lunedale. 



286 REPORT— 1908, 

Boulders reach their highest limit at about 700 feet — 

72'i on Wool Moor, above Upsal, 
675 on Hood Hill, near Kilburn — 

and consist of dolerite, millstone grit, and black limestone, 

Norfolk. 
Reported by F. W. Harmek, F.G.S., and P, F. Kendat.l, F,G,S, 

Bacton. — On beach — 

Rhomb-porphyry, jasper (S. Scotland), opposite Post Office. 

2 dolerite, 1 iridescent Laurvikite well striated, about 3 ft. long. 

Helleadon. — Mr, Cunnall's brickyard. Out of chalky boulder clay — 
Rhomb-porphyry. 

Catton. — Mr. Cunnall's garden, but removed from brickyard — 

Many large boulders, including several of basalt, 1 quartz porphyry, 

1 Shap granite (now in Norwich Museum). 

Jfappisburgh. — By stables of house called ' The Chimneys '-^ 
Coarse Laurvikite about 3 ft. long. 

Fa7oo«.— Outside Post Office- 
Many large boulders of dolerite, for the most part little worn. 

Pahefield. — Out of chalky boulder clay at brickyard — 

Grey and black flints, hard chalk, septaria and fossils from Kimmeridge clay, 
Gryplwa inciirva, fossiliferous Spilsby sandstone, porphyrite (Cheviot 
type), dolerite. 

Corton. — In brick-earth — 

Flints, dolerite, quartzite pebbles (? from Trias), shell fragments. 

i^ornce^^— From chalky boulder clay in railway cutting — 

Grey and black flints, grey paramoudra with hard chalk adherent, hard 
chalk, septaria shale and fossils from Kimmeridge clay, dolerite, horn- 
blende schist, Spilsby sandstone, Red chalk with Bel. vdnivms, L. Lias 
with QryplKPa incurva. 

Oolitic limestone. Carboniferous sandstone, quartzite pebbles (? Trias). 

(Sco?e.— Brickyard \ E. of church — 
Dolerite 16 in. long. 

Tharston. — Chalk pit — 

2 large blocks 3 ft. or more in length of coarse dark red sandstone, with 

millet-seed grains, and containing subangular pebbles of flint. The rock 
closely resembles a sandstone in the Forest Bed series at Gudram's Gap, 
Bacton ; but Mr. Harmer points out that many of the Upper Tertiary 
sands form a similar rock when consolidated. 
1 Spilsby sandstone with fossils. 

Stanjield Jffall, — Ballast pit beside railway — 
Canister sandstone with rootlets, millstone grit, 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH IsLES, 237 

Wymondham. — Gravel pit in Cannonshot gi*avels. These gravels are 
mainly composed of flint, but there is a small percentage of other rocks, 
including hard sandstones, grits, and dolerites. Two specimens of Rhomb- 
porphyry. 

East Dereham. — Station brickworks. In chalky boulder clay — 

Chalk (hard and soft), flints, both black and grey, sandstone, quartzite, iron- 
stone (rather sandy), dolerite, granitoid rock resembling that of Ercal 
(Wrekin), porphyrite, jasper, greywacke sandstone, 2 ft. by 1 ft. by 1 ft. 
well striated. (This has been removed to the Norwich Museum.) 

In Crown Point brickyard- 
Cubic block of Neocomian sandstone with pebbles 1 ft. 4 in. cube, sandstone, 
dolerite. 

At Mr. Home's cottages — 

Block of greywacke sandstone 16 in, cube. 

„ very ferruginous sandstone (Tertiary), with pebbles of quartz, flint 
and clay ironstone. 

Swaffham. — Railway station. In chalky boUldef clay— 
Septarian with ammonite (probably Kimmeridge). 

Broome Ford, Ditchington — 
Kimmeridge shale in boulder clay. 

Bediligham. — Pit opposite church. In chalky bouldei* clay — ■ 
Hard and soft chalk, Kimmeridge shale, dolerite. 

Hempnall. — By butcher's shop — 

Dark green sandstone with fossils, including an ammonite (.' Neocomian), 
3 ft. by 2 ft. by 1 ft. 

Boyland Hall. — Pit at corner of road [h mile W. of)— 

Kimmeridge shale with fossils. 
Fossiliferous 8pilsby sandstone. 

Diss, — In chalky boulder clay — 
Neocomian sandstone. 

Suffolk. 

ReiJorted hy Messrs. F. W. HaRMEr, F.O'.S., and 
Percy F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Hoxne. — Brickworks. In chalky boulder clay — 

Hard chalk, Kimmeridge shale with PcrispMnctes hiplex, Neocomian Sandstone. 
Oolitic limestone. 

Needham Market. — Quin ton's brickyal'd — 

Neocomian sandstone, 2 ft. 6 in. long, out of chalky boulder clay. 

Sudbury. — Balliugdou Brickyard. In dark -brown chalky Boulder 
Clay- 

Many fragmenti of Kimmeridge ibale and septai'ia. 



238 REPORT— 1903. 

Wattisfield. — By roadside — 

Hard sandstone, dolerite, Neocomian sandstone, limestone (? Carboniferous), 
quartz pebbles (probably from Trias). 

Essex. 

Reported hy Messrs. F. W. Harmer, F.G.S., and 
Percy F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Braintree — 

Many boulders of ferruginous sandstone (probably Tertiary) and Hertford- 
shire pudding stone. 

Takeley Street.— At Old Mill Inn- 
Massive brown sandstone (probably Tertiary), 3 boulders 3 ft. by 2 ft. by 

1 ft. 9 in., 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. by 1 ft., 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. 
Schist 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 8 in. visible. 
Other smaller boulders of the sandstone also observed. 

Stanstead. — By Old Bell Inn — - 

Large concretionary masses of dark brown sandstone (Tertiary). 

Stanstead. — Through the village — 

Many boulders of Tertiary sandstone, some inclosing flint pebbles. 

Newport. — The great boulder recorded in the 1884 Report appears 
to consist of Tertiary sandstone, not of Millstone Grit, as there stated. 

Hertfordshire. 

Reported by Messrs. F. W. HarmeIr, F.G.S., and 
PeROy F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Bishops Stort/ord. — In brickyard near Isolation Hospital — 

Fossiliferous Neocomian sandstone with pebbles at gate of Isolation Hospital. 
Brown compact lustrous sandstone passing on one side into Hertfordshire 
puddingstone, 2 ft. by 1 ft. by 1 ft. 

Excavation for new houses, Elm Grove. In chalky boulder clay — 

Hard chalk, grey and black flints, green-coated flints (Eocene), Gryphcea 
incurva, G. dilatata, Ostrea deltoidea, Kimmeridgeshale, dolerite, oolitic 
limestone. 



APPENDIX. 

(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 



Summary of records from England, Wales, the Isle of Man, and 
Scotland contained in the reports from the year 1873 to 1903 inclusive. 
A summary of Irish records is embodied in the Report for 1902, 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



239 



List of Abbreviations. 



A. or And 
Agg. 
Ard, 
Aren. 
Armb. 
Ba. . 

B. (And.) 
Brec. 
Broc. 
Butt. 
Carr. 
Cham. 
Chev. 

CI. . 

CM. 

Cong. 

Criif. 

Dalb. 

Diab. 

Dior. 

Dol. 

El. . 

Bsk. 

F. . 

Fels. 

Gall. 

Gn. . 

Greens. 

H. . 



1. Frondwl 

2. Llanerchymedd 

3. Forth Noble . 



4. Tycroes. 



1. Ballantrae 

2. Girvan . 

3. West Kilbride 



1. Moel Tryfaen 



1. Adswood 

2. Alderley 



3. Arden Mills, Woodley , 

4. Bamston and Pensby 

5. Birkenhead . 



Andesite. 


Haem. 


. Haematite. 


Agglomerate. 


Irons. 


. Ironstone. 


Ardwick. 


Kim. 


. Kimmeridge. 


Arenig. 


L. or Limes. 


. Limestone. 


Armboth. 


L. (prefix) 


. Lower. 


Basalt. 


L. D. 


Lake District. 


Borrowdale. 


Lamp. 


. Lamprophyre. 


Breccia. 


Laur. 


. Laurvikite. 


Brockram. 


M. . 


. Mica. 


Buttermere. 


Markf. . 


. Markfield. 


Carrock. 


M. G. 


. Millstone Grit. 


Charnwood. 


P. . 


. Porphyrite. 


Cheviot. 


Pal. 


. Palseozoic. 


Cleveland. 


Perm. 


. Permian. 


Coal Measures. 


Porph. (suffix) 


. Porphyry. 


Conglomerate. 


P. S. 


. Pudding Stone: 


CrifiEel. 


Eh. P. . 


. Rhomb. Porphyry 


Dalbeattie. 


Rhy. 


. Rhyolite. 


Diabase. 


S. or Sands. 


. Sandstone. 


Diorite. 


Sch. 


. Schist. 


Dolerite. 


Sil. . 


. Silurian. 


Elaeolite. 


Sils. 


. Siliceous. 


Eskdale Granite. 


Syen. 


. Syenite. 


Flint. 


Swed. . 


. Swedish. 


Felstone. 


Threl. . 


. Threlkeld. 


Galloway Granite. 


Tr. . 


. Trias. 


Gneiss. 


Yored. 


. Yoredale. 


Greenstone. 


Yew. 


. Yewdale Breccia.- 


Hornblende. 






Angl 


ESEA. 




. 1881. P 


icrite. 




. 1885. Identifies local origin of Picrite. 


. 1881. K 


[orn. Diab. (? Lo 


cal). 


. 1881. P 


icrite. 




. 1885. Identifies local origin of Picrite. 


. 1881. P 


icrite. 




. 1885. Identifies local origin of Picrite. 


Ayrs 


HIRE. 




. 1901. A 


ilsa. 


• 


. 1901. ^ 


bd. Dol., Ailsa. 




. 1901. > 


fod. Dol. 




Carnarv 


ONSHIRE. 




. 1881. F 


lint. 





Cheshire. 

1891. Gran. 

1893. L.D.A., CM. Sands., Quartzite, Gall., Esk , 

Butt. 
1895. L.D.A., Esk. 
1891. L.D. And., Esk. 
1893. L.D.A., Yew. Brec, Sil. Grit, Diab., Sands., 

Gall., Esk. 
1879. Stria. 
1897. Serpentine. 
1900. Diab. 



240 



KEPOliT — 1903.- 



fi. Bramall 


. 1891. 


7. Bredbury . 


. 1891. 


8. Brimstage . 


. 1892. 


9. Cheadle 


. 1891. 


10. Chester 


. 1893. 


11. Clatterbridge 


. 1892. 


12. Dawpool 


. 1877. 



13, Dee Estuary, Burton Rooks, 
near Kirby. 



1893. 



14. 


Delamere Forest . 

1* 


1893, 
1900. 


15. 


Disley. 


. 1899. 


16. 


Dukintield to Lyne Edge , 


1888. 


17. 


Goyt Hall, Stockport . 


1892. 


18. 


Guilden Sutton, ueai 
Chester. 


• 1878. 


10. 


Hatherlow . 


1891. 


20. 


Hazel Grove 


1891. 


21. 


Hilbre. 


1892. 


22. 


Hyde .... 


. 1891. 


23. 


Knutsford . 


1891. 




,, ... 


. 1895. 


24. 


Leasowe Castle . 


. 1875. 


25. 


Little Grange 


. 1892. 


26. 


Little Storeton . 


1892. 


27. 


Lyne Edge to Harrop Edge 


1888. 


28. 


Lyme Park . 


1893. 


29. 


Macclesfield 


1891. 




»» • 


1895. 


30. 


Macclesfleld District . 


1893. 


31. 


Marple 


1891. 




,, ... 


1892. 


32. 


Mottram 


1891. 


33. 


Norbury . . . . 


1891. 


34. 


Norbury Moor 


1891. 


35. 


Northen Etchells 


1891. 


36. 


Offerton . . . . 


1891. 


37. 


Overton, Taxal . 


1890. 


38. 


Kaby to Willaston 


1896. 


39. 


Kock Ferry . 


1890. 


40. 


Setter Dog, Macclesfield 


1891. 


41. 


Spital 


1892. 


42. 


Stockport . 


1891. 


43. 


Storeton 


1892. 


44. 


Styal 


1891. 


4.5. 


Taxal 


1800. 


46. 


Thornton . 


1892. 


47. 


Thornton Hough 


1892. 


48. 


Werneth Low 


, 1890. 


49. 


West Kirby 


1892. 


oO. 


West Kirby to Pa,rk Gate 


1879. 



Esk., Rhy. Brec, ? Butt., Grail. 

Esk. 

Gall., L.D.A. Agg., Limes., Sil, Grit. 

L.D. And. 

Diab. rare. 

Fels. L.D.A., Sil. Grit. 

Hornb. Feist., Criff., L.D. Grit, Butt. L.D, 

Vole. 
L.D.A. Brec. and Ash, Criff.. Sil. Grit, 

Ba., Esk., Butt., Criff., Dalb., Dior., Diab. 

(/ Scott.), Carb. Sands., M.G., Quartzite, 

Fels., Trias. 
Diab. rare. 

L.D.A., Esk., Ailsa Craig, Criff., Flint, 
Esk.. 
Fels., Gran., And., And. Ash, Microgran.. 

Esk. 
Gall., L.D.A. 
Lias. 

L.D.A., Gall., Gran. 

L.D. And. 

L.D. Agg. and Ash., Diab. 

L.D. And. Agg. Rhy., Quartz Porpb,, 

.' Perm. L., CM. Sands., Ardwick Limea., 

Esk., Butt., Gall., ? Sil. Grit. 
Gran., ? Gall. 
Esk., Butt., Gall., L.D.A. 
Greenstone Dior. w. Isorine, Syen., Ash. 
Gran.. Sil. Grit. 

Yew. Broc, Gall., Sil. Grit, Dior,, L.D.A. 
And. Ash., Rhy. Brec, Esk., Vein. 
Gran., L.D.A. 
Gran. 
L.D.A. 

Butt., Esk., L.D.V., Ba., Gall., Gran., Grit.. 
Gran., L.D.A. Brec, ? Esk., ? Gall. 
L.D.A. 
L.D.A. 
Gran., And. 
L.D. And., Butt. 
L.D. And. and Rhy. Scott., Flint, Ebk., Gall'.,. 

Ba., Butt., Fels. 
Esk., Gall, L.D.A. Brec, Rhy., Gran.,. 

'.' CM. Sands., Butt. 
Butt. 

Gall., Sil. Grit, Diab., L.D.A., Butt., .Striic. 
Strias. 
Butt., Dalb.?, Criff., Porph. Gall., Quartzite, 

L.D. And. Rhy. Agg. 
Fels., Sil. Grit, L.D.A. and Ash., Gall., Butt , 

Carb. Sands. 
Esk., L.D. And. Brec. 
L.D.A., Dior., Sil. Grit, Gall. 
Esk. 
Eskdale, Butt., L.D. And., Gall., Quartzite, 

Gall. Gran., Trias. 
Gran., L.D.A. and Agg., Diab., Sil. Grit. 
Gran., L.D.A. and Agg., Criff'., Dalb., Sil. 

Grit. 
Esk., Butt., L.D. And. Rhy., Porph. Agg., 

Sil. Grit, CM. Sands., Quartzite, Trias. 
Ba., Gran., L.D.A. Agg. 
Greenstone, Scott. Gran., Dior. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



241 



51. Wilmslow 

52. Wirral 

53. Woodley 



1. Mary port 

2. Skiddaw 

3. Whitehaven, Coast N. 



1. Cefn Cave . 

2. Eryrys . 

3. Glyn Ceiriog 

4. Llanrwst Gorphwysfa 

5. Minera 

6. Ruabon 

7. Trevor 

8. Wrexham 



1 . Broadhurst Edge . 

2. Bugs worth . 

3. Buxton 

4. Chapel-en-le- Frith 

5. Doveboles . 

6. Hayfleld 

7. Little Hayfield . 

8. Millersdale . 



1. Ashburton . 

2. Barnstaple Bay . 

3. Berry Head . 

4. Bickington . 

5. Bishop's Teignton 

6. Cleve . 

7. Churston 

8. Diptford . 
ft. Englebourne 

10. Harberton . 

11. Kingston 

12. Maristowe . 

13. Rival ton 

14. Santon 

15. Start Point to Prawle 

16. Tamerton Foliot . 

17. Waddeton . 



1. Barnard Castle 

2. Blackballs . 

1903. 



1891. L.D.A., Esk. 






1876. Aren. 






1879. Greenstone. 






1891. L.D.A. Rhy. and Brec, Esk., 


Gall., 


Butt., 


? CM. Sands., ? Carb. L. 






1892. L.D., Scott., Ard. Limes. 






Cumberland. 







. 18S1. Gran., Trias. 

. 1901. Striifi. 

of . 1879. Criff., Greenstone. 

Denbighshire. 

. 1876. Aren. 

. 1876. Aren. 

. 1876. Aren. 

. 1874. Sils. Congl., Felspc. Stone. 

. 1881. Flint, Esk., Aren. 

. 1876. Aren. 

. 1876. Strife. 

. 1878. White sil. Rock (? Jur.). 

. 1877. Esk., Trias. 



Derbyshire. 

1901. L.D. And., Rhy., Porph. Fels., Butt, M.G., 

Grit, Trias. 
1891. L.D.A. and Rhy. Agg., Criff., M.G., CM. 

Sands., Vein Quartz, Butt., Esk., Gall., 

Flint, Trias, Carb. L. Chert and Sands. 
1895. L.D. And. and Ash, Butt., Chert, Canister, 

Toadstone. 
1893. L.D.A., Gran., Vein Quartz. 
1893. L.D.A., ?Gran., Flint. 
1893. L.D.A., Agg., Butt., Esk. 

1891. Butt., Esk. 

1892. Butt. 

1893. L.D.A. 

Devonshire. 

1877. Greenstone. 

1873. Gran. 
1875. New Reds. 

1879. Gran. 

1874. Travelled Boulders. 

1880. Quartzite. 

1875. New Reds. 

1880. Quartzite, Greenstone. 

1875. ' Trap.' 
1877. Not erratics. 
1880. Greenstone. 
1880. Quartz. 

1 876. Felsite. 
1873. 

1880. Schorlaceous Gran. 

1880. Quartzite. 

1875. New Red Sand., Dol. Limes. 

Durham Co. 

1903. Whin Sill, Carb. Sands., L.D. And. Asn. 
1903. Gran. (? Dumfries), Porpli. (Chev.), Augen- 
Gneiss, Gneiss, Quartz Porphyry, Gran. 



242 



REPORT — 1903. 



3. 


Beda Hills . 


. 1895. 


Carb. L. S. and Irons., L.D. And. and Ash, 
Gran., Quartz Porphyry (? Armb.). 


4. 


Bishop Auckland 


. 1897. 


Shap. 




„ 


. 1903. 


Carb. L. 


5. 


Darlington . 


. 1887. 


Shap. 


C. 


Durham City 


. 1895. 


L.D. A., Gran. (? Scott.). 


7. 


Etherley ". 


. 1897. 


Shap brought from Tees. 


8. 


Harperley . 


. 1903. 


Vole. Brec. (? L.D.). 


9. 


Harton 


. 1889. 


Ba. 


10. 


Kip Hill . 


. 1895. 


Carb. L. and S., L.D. A. and Porph. 


11. 


Lindisfarne . 


. 1903. 


And. Ash (L.D.). 


13. 


Low Coniscliffe . 


. 1887. 


Shap. 


13. 


Oxenlow 


. 1903. 


And. (L.D.). 


14. 


Piercebridge 


. 1887. 


Shap. 




T1 • 


. 1903. 


And., Brec. (.L.D.). 


15. 


Sadberge 


. 1887. 


Carb. Limes. 


IG. 


Seaham Harboui' 


. 1888. 


Carb. Limes. 






Essex. 


1. 


Barnston 


. 1888. 


Carb. L., M. Sch., Syen. 


2. 


Becking Place 


. 1888. 


Gneiss. 


3. 


Braintree . 


. 1888. 


Gneiss, Carb. L. 




»i ... 


. 1903. 


Ter. Sands., H.P.L. 


4. 


Causeway End . 


. 1888. 


Sands., 01. Dol. 


5. 


Fclstead 


. 1888. 


Sands., Dol., Porphyrite, Hypersthene Dol. 




„ (General) 


. 1888. 


Quartzite, Mica Schist, Quartz I'orph., Silici- 
(ied Wood, M.G. with Shells. 


G. 


French Green 


. 1888. 


Sands, Flint, Porph,, 01., Ba. Dol., Carb. L., 
Jur. L. 


7. 


Great Saling 


. 1888. 


Dolerite, 01. Dol. 


8. 


Great Leighs 


. 1888. 


Herts P.S. Sands. 


0. 


Great Waltham, North 


End. 1888. 


Sands., Herts P.S. Porph. 


10. 


Great Waltham, Ford I 


Ina . 1888. 


Sands., Carb. h.. Flint, Dol. 


11. 


Little Dunmow . 


. 18S8. 


01. Dol., Sands., Flint. Sven., Carb. L., Spher. 
Felsite, Clunch (? Oxf. Clay), Quartz 
Tourm. Rock. 


12. 


Little Saling 


". 1888. 


Calc. Sands., Sands, with Bel. (? Kell.), 01. Dol. 


13. 


Little Easton 


. 1888. 


Sands., Limes. (? Oxf.), Herts P.S. 


14. 


Little Leighs 


. 1S88. 


Dol. Fels. Porp. Sands. 


15. 


Littley Green 


. 1888. 


Carb. L. 


16 


Littley Park 


. 1888. 


Sands. 


17. 


Mill House . 


. 1888. 


Sands. 


18. 


Newport 


. 18S4 and 1903. Ter. Sands. (Not M.G. as in 1884 








Report). 


19. 


Pond Park . 


. 1888. 


Sands. (Neoc), Septaria, Flint, Herts P.S., 
Dol. 


20. 


Potash Farm 


. 1888. 


Sands. Quartz-rock. 


21. 


Snows Lane 


. 1888. 


01. Dol. 


22. 


Stanstead . 


. 1903. 


Ter. Sands. 


23. 


Stebbing 


. 1888. 


Sands., Dol., 01. Dol., Quartz, Quartzite, 
Fels., Carb. L., Porph. 


24. 


Takeley Street . 


. 1903. 


Ter. Sands., Schist. 


25. 


Woolpits Farm . 


. 1888. 


Dol. 


26. 


Whelpstones Farm 


. 1888. 


Sands. 






J^'lintshire. 


1 


Bach-y-Graig 


. 1893. 


Butt., Gall., Welsh Rocks. 


2 


Caergwrle . 


. 1876. 


Aren. 


3. 


Greenbach . 


. 1893. 


Butt., Gall., Aren. Fels. 


4 


Halkin Mountain 


. 1876. 


Aren. 


5 


Holywell . 


. 1876. 


Aren. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



243 



G. Marion Mills 
7. Muliden 



8. Mold . 

9. Pandy . 

10. Tremeirchion 



1893. Carb. L. 

1893. L.D.A. and Ash, Gall., Sil. Grit (Scott.), 

Porph. (.' Chev.), Grit (Welsh), Kby. 

(Welsh), Sands., Esk., Slates. 
1876. Arcn. 
1893. Esk., Butt., Gall., Ailsa, ?Mynydd Mawr, 

Carb. L. 
1892. AiLsa Craig. 
180;!. Grits (Welsh), Aran. Fels., Carb. L. and S., 

M.G., Slate, Quartzite, Trias, Gall, L.D.V. 



1. Danbar 



Haddingtonshire. 

1902. Zirc. Syen., Laurv. (Ballast), 



Hertfordshire. 



1. 


Am well 


. 1S85. 


Sand. 


2. 


Ashwell 


. 1871. 


Sands., Sands. Neoc, Carb. L., Ba., Gneiss, 
Sands, (Ool.), Chalk Marl, Porph. (? Chev.), 
Gran. c.f. Criff., M.G , S. (? Carb.), ? Sept. 
Kim. or Oxf., Lr., Lias, L. Ool. 




»• • 


. 1877. 


Sands. 


r> 


Bayford 


. 1 S85. 


Herts P.S. 


4. 


Bishop's Stortford . . 1903. 


Chalk (liard), Flint, Green Flints (Eoc), 








Lias, Kim. Clay, Del., Ool., Sands., Jsecc. 








Sands., H.P.S. 


5. 


Brickendon Green . . 188.5. 


Herts P.S., Sands. 


6. 


By grave 


. 1 883. 


Sands. 


7. 


Essendonbury 


. 1885. 


Sands. 


8. 


Goose Green 


. 1885. 


Sands. 


9. 


Hertford . 


. 1885. 


Herts P.S. 


10. 


Kitchen 


. 1883. 


Limes. ? Lias, Sands, L. (? Carb. or Sil.), I., 
Ba., Cone. (? Oxf.), L. (?Ool.), Gran., 
Carb. L., M.G. 


11. 


Hoddesdon . 


. 1885. 


Sands., Herts P.S. 


12. 


Kelshall 


. 1883. 


Ba., Carb. L. 


13. 


Mangrove Lane 


. 1885. 


Sands., Herts P.S. 


14. 


Royston 


. 1877. 


M.G. 


15. 


Tolmer's Church 


. 1885. 


Herts P.S. 


16. 


Ware . 


. 1885. 


Sands., Herts P.S. 


17. 


■Westmill(nearBv) 


ntingford) 1875. 


Carb. L. 



Isle of Man. 



1 . Ballafaj-le . 

2. Ballajora 

3. Claghbane to Ballaskaig 



4. Douplas Head 

5. Kirkbride . 



6. Maughold 



7. North Barrule (S. side) 



1891. 
1891. 
1892. 



1893. 
1893. 



1896. 

1897. 
1892, 



1892. 



Gran. 

Gran. 

Dalb., Loch Skerrow Gran., Bed Sands., 
Greenstone, Grit, Vein Quartz, Gran., 
Slatey Cong., Diab., Clay-Slate, Porph., 
Quartz, Siln. Grit. 

Slate (prob. from Dhoon). 

Vein Quartz, Grit, Queensbur}' Grit, Crifif., 
Syen., Shap, Gneiss, Porphyry, Pitch- 
stone, Loch Doone Gran., Limes., Sands., 
Gran. 

Airan Gran., Felsp., Porph. 

Shap. 

Biotite Gran., And. Agg., Grit, Gran., Red 
Sands., Vein Quartz, Loch Doone Gran., 
Butt., Clay-Slate (local), ' Trap.' 

Grit, Micaceous Grit, Vein Quartz, Giit 
Quartz, Clay-Slate, Dhoon Gran. 

k2 



244 



REPORT — 1903. 



8. 


Port e Bloggan 


1891. 


9. 


Port Lewaigue 


1891. 




1) »i • ■ 


1897. 


10 


Port Mooar . 


1891. 


11. 


„ „ Shore 


1891. 


12. 


„ „ to Coma . 


1891. 


13. 


Port e Vullyn to Coma 


1891. 




»i ») »« 


1892. 


14. 


Traie na Feeinney 


1891. 


15. 


Traie Uanaigue . 


. 1891. 



Gran., Ba. 

Gran., Grey Gran., Trap. 

Shap. 

Gran. 

Gran, (coarse grey). Gran, red, Sj'en. 

Gran., Porphyrj'. 

Gran., Grey Gran., Pitchstone. 

Pitchstone of Corriegills. 

Gran. 

Porphyry, White Limes., Quartzite. 



1. Arden Mills, near Woodley, 

Cheshire (for which see 
other records). 

2 . Bacup . 

3. Barton-on-Irwell 

4. Bolton-le- Sands . 
u. Bootle . 

6. Bootle Dock 

7. Castleton, Rochdale 



8. Cowm Top, Rochdale . 



9. Crosby 
10. Decoy Marsh to Ditton 



11. Dingle Point to Hale Head 

(River Mersey) 

M n »» 

12. i'acit, Rochdale . 



13. Fallowfield (Manchester) . 

14. Greenbooth, Rochdale . 

15. Haughton Green . 

16. Hale Head to Decoy Marsh 



17. Heaton Chapel 

18. Heaton Mersey 



19. Hey Houses (near Lytham) 

20. Hest Bank .... 

21. Heywood . . . . 



22. Hopwood, near Rochdale . 

23. Irlam 

24. Kensington, near Liverpool 



Lancashire. 
1891. L.D. Rhy., Esk. 



1888. Reference. 

1891. CM. Sands., Esk., L.D.A. 

1891. Carb. L. 

1877. Hornb. Feist., Esk. 

1879. Greens., Scott. Gran. 

1891. L.D.A., and Rhy., Butt., Gall., M.G., 

Esk., Carb. Sands, Quartz Porph., Sil. 
Grit. 

1892. L.D.A., Rhy. and Porphyrite, Butt., Gall., 

Carb. Sands. 

1891. Grit (M.G.), Gall., Esk., Quartzite, L.D. Rhy., 

Quartz Porph . 

1892. L.D.A. and Rhy. 
1879. Greens., Stri:«. 

1893. L.D.A. and Brec, Felsite, Sil. Grit, Esk, 

Gall., Butt., Ba., Carb. L. and Sand., 

Dalb., Dior., CM. Sand. 
1892. L.D.A. Brec, Gall., Sil. Grit, Dior, Felsite, 

Grit, Limes., Sil. Limes., Ba. 
1896. Goat Fell Gran. 
1891. Butt., L.D. Rhy. and A., Quartzite, Quartz, 

? Gall. 
1896. Esk., Quartz Syenite, Butt., L.D.A. and Rhy., 

Carb, Sands. 

1890. Butt., L.D.A. 

1891. Butt., QuartzPorph.,Quartzite,HEem.,L.D.A. 

and Rhys., ? Gall., Esk. 

1891. L.D.A. and Rhy., Gall., Butt. 

1892. Dalb., L.D.A. Brec, Butt., Criff., Dior., Sil. 

Grit, Gran., Felsite, Trias Sands, Gall., 
Sands., Esk. 
1891. CM. Sands. 

1891. Esk., Butt., L.D.A. Rhy. Brec, Gall., Dalb., 

Ba., Perid., Quartz Porph., M.G., Carb. L. 
and Sand., New Red Sand., Sil. Grit. 

1892. L.D. Porphy. and And., Gran., Butt., 

Gall. 
1891. Shap, Perm. Congl., Sil. Grit, Carb. L. 
Chert., Sands., M.G., L.D. Brec, Rhy. and 
And., Mica Trap. 

1891. Carb. L., L.D.A., Esk., Butt., ? Gall , Grit, 

Quartzose Rock, Gran., Vein Quartz, 
? Syenite. 

1892. Limes., Gall., Gran., Butt., L.D.A. 
1891. CM. Sands. 

1875. L.D.V. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OK THE BRITISH ISLES. 



246 



25. Langden End, near Rochdale 1892. 



26. Levenshulme 

27. Liverpool . 

28. Manchester. 



29. Millbottom to Micklehurst 

30. Moorside, near Rochdale 

31. Newchurch in Rossendale 

32. Old Trafford 

83. Piethorne, Rochdale . 

34. Rawtenstall 

35. Rochdale 



36. St. Helen's . 

37. Scambrick . 

38. Shaw Moor . 

39. Snape .... 

40. Sparth Bottoms, Rochdale 



41. Swaindrod, near Rochdale 

42. Spotland, Rochdale 

43. Stonyhurst . 

44. Wardle, near Rochdale 

45. Whitworth, near Rochdale 



1891. 
1893. 
1875. 
1880. 
1891. 
1893. 
1888. 
1891. 
1889. 
1890. 
1878. 
1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 



1891. 
1874. 

1888. 
1874. 
1891. 

1892. 
1892. 
1890. 
1891. 

1890. 
1896. 



Gall., Butt., Esk., L.D.A. and Porph., Quartz 

Felsite. 
CM. Sands., Ard. Limes. 
Ba., Gall., Sil. Grit, CM. Sands. 
L.D.V. 
Grit. 

CM. Sands. 
Gall. 

Esk., And. Ash, Fels., Syenite, Vein, Butt. 
Sil. Grit., Butt. 
L.D.V. 
CM. Sands. 
Lias. 
L.D.A., Butt., Gran., Esk., Gall., Criff. Gran., 

Vein Quartz, Carb. L. and Chert, Red Sand. 
Gall., Carb. Sands., Butt., L.D. Agg., Quartz 

Porph. 
Carb. Sands, Esk., L.D.V., Quartzite, L.D.A. 

Butt., Gran. 
Quartz Porph. ,Granophyre, L.D.A. Brec. Rhy ., 

Butt., Esk., ?Gall., Sil. Grit., Quartzite, 

Carb. L. Grit and Sand., Hsem., Butt. 
Butt., Sil. Grit, GaU., Gran,, ?Esk., L.D.A. 
Gran. 

L.D.V., Criflf. 
Gran. 
Gall., L.D.A. and Rhy., M.G., Carb. L. and 

Sands., Esk., Quartzite, H»m. 
L.D. Porphyrite, Gall., Carb. Sand. 
Gneiss, Gran., ? Gall. 
L.D.A., Criff., Carb. Sand. 
Perm., Marl, and Sands., L.D.A. and Rhy., 

Butt. 
Carb. Sands. 
Carb. Limes. 



Leicestershire. 



1. 


Aylestone . 


. 1878. 


Syen. (Charn.) Flint. 




j» 


. 1880. 


Syen. 




>» 


. 1881. 


Syen. 




i» 


. 1882. 


M.G. Sands., Markfield Syen. 


2. 


Beeby . 


. 1877. 


Coal. 


3.' 


Bushby 


. 1880. 


Syen. (Mt. Sorr.) 


4. 


Carlton 


. 1880. 


Ash, Syen. 


5. 


Countesthorp 


. 1880. 


Trias, Col. L., ' Greenstone,' M.G. 


6. 


Desford 


. 1874. 


Syen., Gran., Greenstone, Ba. Chert, Carb. L., 
Lias, Sands. 


7. 


Evington 


. 1877. 


Gran., M.G., Limes., Chert, CM. Sands., 
Trias, Syen., Greenstone. 




>» 


. 1878. 


Syen., Trias, M.G., Carb. Limes., Gran. 
(Mt. Sorr.) 


8. 


Hallaton 


. 1883. 


Flints, M.G., Carb. L., CM. Sands., 
? Marlstone. 


9. 


Hoby . 


. 1874. 


Syen., Gran., Greenstone, Ba., Chert, Carb. L., 
Lias, Sands. 




,, . . . 


. 1875. 


M.G., Ba. 


10. 


Hugglescote 


. 1873. 


(Charn.) Rocks., M.G., Greenstone. 


11. 


Humberstone 


. 1878. 


Syen. (Mt. Sorr.) 


12. 


Kirby Muloe 


. 1883. 


Markf ., Syen. 


13. 


Knighton 


. 1881. 


Syen. (Mt. Sorr.) 




>) 


. 1882. 


L. Lias, Gran., Syen., Greenstone. 



246 

14. Leicester 



REPORT — 1903. 



15. Leicester Abbey 

16. Leicester Forest 

17. Loseby 



IS. Loughborough to Ashby 

1 9. Blarket Bosworth 

20. Melton 

21. Newfound Pool . 

22. Newton Unthank 
2.S. Norraanton . 

24. Oadby. 

25. Ratlitfe 

2(5. Ridge way . 

27. Saffron Lane 

28. St. Margaret's, Evington 

29. Shakerstone 



iiO. Stoughton 
iM. Sayston 
32. Thurnby 



1874. 
1878. 
1880. 
1881. 



1882. 
1883. 
1886. 
1888. 
1874. 
1883. 
1877. 
1878. 
1883. 
1880. 
1874. 

1888. 
1883. 
1875. 
1880. 
1874. 

1880. 
1882. 

1878. 
1881. 
1875. 

1881. 
1880. 
1877. 
1880. 
1882. 



Dol. or ? Dior. (.' non-British). 

Syen. 

Syeu., Chert. 

M.G., Gran., Gran., Syen., Slate, Grit, &'ands., 

Carb. L., Ool., Lias L., Marl-St., Chalk, 

Coal, Shale, CM. 
Syen. of Enderby or Croft. 
Gran. (Mr. Sorr.) 

M.G., Carb. L., L. Ool., Syen. (Charn.), Coal. 
Grail. (Mt. Sorr.), M.G., Ool., Lias L. 
? M.G. or Trias. 
Markf., Syen. 
Gran., Quartz, Coai. 
JI.G., Flint, Clialk, Lias, Sands. 
M.G. 

Ash, Agg. (Charn.), Syen. 
Sj-en., Gran., Greenstone, Ba., Chert, Caib. 

L., Lias, Sands. 
Groby or JIarkf., Bone of Wliale. 
Markf., Syen. 
(Charn.) Forest Rocks. 
Gran. (Mt. Sorr.) 
Syen. Gran., Greenstone, Ba.,Cliert, Carb. L., 

Lias. Sands. 
Gran. (Mt. Sorr.) 
Gran. (Mt. Sorr.). Ba., M.G., Carb. L. and 

Chert, L. Lias. 
Syen., Trias, M.G., Ool. 
Gran. (Mt. Sorr.), M.G., 
Porph. Greenstone of 

Syen., Ba. 
Syen. (Mt. Sorr.) 
Ash, Agglom. (Charn.). 
Gran., Syen., Greenstone. 
Syen. (Alt. Sorr.), Brec, Trias or Perm. 
Carb. L., M.G., Perm. 



SI. (Swithlaud). 
Whitwick, Gran., 



Lincolnshire. 



1 . Aylerby 

2. Barnoldsby 

3. Barton on Humber 

4. Beechby . 

5. Bcnniworth 
(). Bradley 

7. Bradley Wood . 

8. Brigsley . 

9. Brocklesby 

10. Cadency . 

11. Cleethorpes 



12. E. Ravendale . 
*13. Gainsborough . 

14. Great Coates 

15. Grimsby . 

10. Brigg Howsham 
17. Humberstone . 



189S. 
1898. 
1896. 
1898. 
1896. 
1898. 
1898. 
1898. 
1896. 
1901. 

1901. 



1898. 
1900. 

1898. 

1895. 
1896. 
1898. 



Whin Sill, Sands., Gran. 

Whin Sill. 

Shap, Ba., ? Gran. 

Quart zite. 

Aug. S3-en. (Laurv.), Sands. 

Gran., Quartzite, Sands., Ba. 

Whin Sill. 

Sands., Ba., Whin Sill. 

Sands. (Primarj-), Ba., Quartz. 

Augen-Gneiss, ? Limes., Neoc, Red Chalk, 

Ba., Limes. (? Lias), Sands., Shale. 
Rh. P., El. Syen., Chev. Porph., Gray 

Eycott Hill Dol., Flints (Grey, Black, 

Pink, and Green). 
Sands., Whin Sill. 
Shap, Greenstone. 
Ba., Rh. P., Gran., Ool. Limes., Schist, 

Limes., Sands. 
Gran., Syen., Dol. 
Spilsby Sands. 
Ba., Sands., Whin Sill, Quartzite, 



Doubtful records, almost certainly brought by barges. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BKITISH ISLES. 



247 



18. Irby . 

19. Kirmingtoii 
20. 





»* 


. 1S!)7. 


Laurv., 




i» 


. IStJS. 


Basic R( 


21. 


Ludborough 


. 189G. 


Ba. 


22. 


S. Elkington 


. 180G. 


Gran. 


23'. 


S. Ferriby . 


. 1896. 


Eh. P., 
Black 
Sands 


24. 


Stewton 


. 18<1«. 


Ba. 


25. 


Ulceby 


. lS9(i. 


Ba. 


20. 


Waltliam 


. 189G. 


Ba. 



1896. Shap, Ba., Sands. (Secondary), Gran. 
1896. Rh. P. 

1895. Dol., Sands. (? Jur.), Gran. 

1896. Ba., Gran., Eh. P., Laurv., Lamprop., Dior,, 

Gneiss, Quartz Porph.,Carb. L. and G.,Lias, 
Torph., Halleflinta, M. Schist, Flint ( Black 
and Green), Ba., Congl., M.G., Irons. 
(? Lias), Septarian (.' Kim.). 
" Rh. P., Garb. L. 



Quartz P., Ba., Carb. L. and S., 
Fl., Shap, Gneiss, Schist, Gran., 
, Porph., Limes. (.' OoL), M.G. 



1. Carnedd-y-ci 

2. Glyn-Ceiriog 
:>. Llandrillo . 

■1. Llan-y-cil (Bala) 



Meeionethsiiire. 

1900. Quartzite and Greenstone from Cader 

Berwyn. 
1900. Welsh Felsitcs and Denbigh Grits. 
1900. Ash and Greenstone. 
187G. Striic, Aren. 



1. Kerry Hill . 



Montgomeryshire. 

. 1883. Sil. Grit. 



Norfolk. 



1. Bacton 

2. Bedingham . 
.'5. Boyland Hall 

4. Broom Ford, Ditcbington 

5. Catton .... 
G. Coiton 

7. Diss .... 

8. E. Dereham 



1903. 
1903. 
1903. 
1903. 
1903. 
1903. 
1903. 
1908. 



9. Forncett 


. 1903 


10. Happisburgli 


. 1903 


11. Hellesdon . 


. 1 903 


12. Hempnall . 


. 1903 


13. Paketield . 


. 1903 


14. Scole . 


. 1903 


15. StanfieldHall . 


. 1903 


16. Swaffham . 


. 1903 


17. Tharston 


. 1903 


18. Walcott 


. 1903 


19. Wymondham 


. 1903 



Rh. P., Laurv., Dol., Jasper. 

Kim. Clay, Dol., Chalk (Hard and Soft). 

Neoc. Sands., Kim. Clay. 

Kim. Clay. 

Shap, Quartz Porph., Ba. 

Flints, Dol. 

Neoc. Sands. 

Sands., Quartzite, Irons., Dol., Granitoid 

Rock (like Rock from Ercal (Wrekin), 

Porph., Jasper, Greywacke, Neoc. Sands., 

Ter. Congl., Flint, Chalk (Hard and 

Soft). 
Chalk, Flints, Kim. Clay, Dol., Hornb. Sch., 

Quartzite (? Trias), Neoc. Sands., Carb. 

Sands., L. Lias., Ool., lied Chalk. 
Laurv. 
Rh. P. 

Neoc. Sands. 
Flints, Hard Chalk, Kim. Clay, L. Lia.<-, 

Neoc. Sands., Porph. (? Chev.), Dol. 
Dol. 

Ganister, M.G. 
Sept. with Amm. (? Kim.) 
Ter. Sands., Neoc. Sands. 
Dol. 
Sands., Grit, Rh. P., Dol. 



248 



REPORT — 1903. 



1. Akeld .... 

2. Little Mill . 

3. Rochbury (? Eothbury) 

4. Roddam Dene 



Northumberland. 

. 1900. Porph. (?Chev.), Greywacke. 

. 1895. Dol., Sands., Carb. L., Jasper, Porph. 

(?Chev.), Striaj. 
. 1874. Carb. Sands. 
. 1900. Porph. (? Chev.), Greywacke. 



1. Harworth 

2. Plumtree 

3. Stanton 

4. Sth. Notts 



Nottinghamshire. 

. 1897. Chalk, Flint, Mag. L. 

. 1875. Lias L. 

. 1875. Lias L. 

. 1S75. Quartzite (? Trias), M.G., Carb. L. 



1. Wolvercote 



Oxfordshire. 

1876. Sands. (? Ter.) 



1. St. Davids 



1. Beguildy 

2. Rhayader 



1. All Stretton 

2. Bridgenorth 

3. Cefn . 

4. Chirk '. '. 

5. Church Stretton 

6. Claverly 

7. Clunbury Hills 

8. Clun . 



9. Comley 

10. Crickheath . 

11. Elle.smere . 

12. Halfpenny Green 

13. Ketley, Wellington 

14. Leebotwood 

15. Lilleshall . 

16. Llanfair Waterdine 

17. Llanymynech Hill 

18. Shifnal to Tong . 



19. Waystone . 

20. Wellington . 

21. Welsh Frankton 

22. Wroxeter . 



'EMBE 


okeshire. 




1885. 


Picrite. 




Radnorshire. 




1883. 


Sil. Grit. 




1885. 


Ditto. 




Shropshire. 




1900. 


Trias. 




1876. 


Esk. 




1876. 


Aren. 




1878. 


Ditto. 




1876. 


Ditto. 




1878. 


Ditto. 




1900. 


Criff., Esk., Butt., Perm. Sands. 




1883. 


Gran., Fels. 




1883. 


Sil. Grit. 




1882. 


Ditto. 




1883. 


Ditto. 




1883. 


Quartzites (Stiperstones). 




1900. 


Eskdale. 




1892. 


Strise. 




1878. 


White sils. Rock(?Jur.). 




1883. 


Vein Quartz. 




1873. 


? L.D. Gran., ? Scott. Gran., Charnw. 
stone, O.R.S., Sil. Limes., Shells. 


Green - 


1883. 


Gran. (Scott, or L.D.) 




1877. 


Feist. 




1886. 


Shells. 




1883. 


Sil. Grit. 




1892. 


Argillite, Limes., Caradoc Sands., 
Strise. 


Trap, 


1887. 


Esk., Syen. (? Scott), CriS., Butt. 


And., 




And. (? Welsh), Gran. (? Scott.), 


Quartz 




Fels., L.D, Rhy.-Brec. 




1883. 


Felstone. 




1886. 


Shells. 




1878. 


Aren., Sil. Grit, Carb. Sands, and Quartzite. 


1877. 


Feist. 





ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



249 



Staffordshire. 



1. Burton-on-Trent . 


. 1878 


2. Codsal. 


. 1887 


3. Colton .... 


. 1883. 


4. Gunston 


. 1887. 


5. Hanley 


. 1893. 


6. Harborne . 


. 1873. 


»» ... 


. 1876. 


7. Gospel Ash . 


. 1883. 


S. Highgate Common 


. 1883. 


9. Little Madelej' . 


. 1891. 


10. Madeley 


. 1891. 


11. Manor Green, Walsall. 


. 1879. 


12. Moseley Hole 


. 1879. 


13. Needwood Forest 


. 1878. 


14. Newcastle, Stoke-on-Tre 


nt . 1877. 


15. Red Hill Farm, nr. Stafl 


ford 1873. 


16. Rugeley 


. 1883. 


17. Tettenhall . 


. 1873. 


18. Wolverhampton . 


. 1876. 


>» 


. 1879. 


»» 


. 1886. 


19. Wightwick . 


. 1877. 



M.G., Syen., Lias. 

Gran., Esk., L.D.V., Felstone (? Scott.), 
Gran. (? Scott.), CrifE., Felstone (? Welsh), 
Butt., Porph. Scott., Vole. (? Ghev.), Ash. 

CrifEel, Aren. 

Gran. (? Scott.), ? Butt. 

L.D. And. and Agg., Butt., Gall., M.G., 
Esk., Trias. 

Gran. 

Quartzite, Vein Quartz. 

Butt., Felsite, Mica Syen. 

Gran. 

Gran., Chalk, Flint, Shells. 

Trap, Gran. 

Fels. 

Gran. 

Garb. L. and Chert, Tored. Sands., M.G. 
(? Gran.), Porphyry, Syen., Greenstone, 
Trachyte, Toadstone, Lias, Ool. 

Feist., Gran. 

Gran. 

Aren. Fels. 

Gran. 

CrifE., Esk. 

Fels., Gran., Slate, Quartzite (Trias). 

Flint, L.D. Scott. 

Feist. 



1. Baddesley . 



2. Birmingham 



3. California 

It 

4. Coventry 

5. Eddsone 



1882. 

1886. 
1874. 
1886. 
1895. 
1874. 



6. Exhall. 


. 1890 


7. Hatton-Wilmcote 


. 1874 


8. Hatton 


. 1874. 



9. Hazeler 



Warwickshire. 

1874. ? Scand. Quartzites (Camb.), Carb. L. and S., 
Chert, Lias, Gt. Ool., Cornb., Feist. (Cumb. 
or N. Wales) Wrekin Vole, Amygd. 
Gran. (? Malv.), Pale. Limes., Greens., 
Trap, Vole. Grit, Gran., Syen., Grit, 
Quartz, Jasper, Agate, Slate, Sands., Feist., 
Dol., Chalk, For. Marble, Gt. Ool., Lias, 
Mag. L., M.G., Perm., Sil. Fossil. 
Felsites and Ash(Aren.),ShaIe,Quartz Congl,, 
Flagstone, Quartzite, M.G., Sil. Sands. 

Striae. 

Aren. 

Mt. Sor. Syen., Syen. c.f. Sapcote. 

? Scand., Quartzites (Camb.), Carb. L. and S. 
Chert, Lias, Gt. Ool., Cornb., Feist. (Cumb' 
or N. Wales) Wrekin Vole, Amygd" 
Gran. (?Malv.) Pale. Limes., Greens." 
Trap, Vole. Grit, Gran., Syen., Grit' 
Quartz, Jasper, Agate, Slate, Sands., Feist.' 
Dol., Chalk, For. Marble, Gt. Ool., Lias- 
Mag. L., M.G., Perm., Sil. Fossil. 

Vein Quartz. 

Flints and Chalk. 

7 Scand., Quartzites (Camb.), Carb. L. and S., 
Chert, Lias, Gt. Ool., Cornb., Feist. (Cumb. 
or N. Wales), Wrekin Vole, Amygd. 
Gran. (? Malv.), Pal. Limes., Greens., Trap, 
Vole. Grit, Gran., Syen., Grit, Quartz, 
Jasper, Agate, Slate, Sands., Feist., Dol., 
Chalk, For. Marble, Gt. Ool., Lias, Mag. 
L., M.G., Perm., Sil. Fossil. 
1874. Ditto. 



250 



REPORT — 1903. 



10. King's Norton 

11. Knowle 



12. Lapworth . 


. 1874 


1.^. Packwood . 


. 1874 


14. l^reston 


. 1874 


15. Kowington . 


. 1874 


)f • . 


. 1874 


16. Sherbourn . 


. 1890. 


17. Stirchley 


. 1884 


18. Temple Balsall . 


. 1874. 



19. Watton Wawcn 

20. Wroxall 



1884. Fels. Ash (Aren.). 

1874. '/ Scand., Quartzites (Camb.), Carb. L. and S., 

Chert, Lias, Gt. Ool., Comb., Feist. (Cumb. 

or N. Wales), Wrekin Vole, Amj'gd. 

Gran. (? Malv.), Pal. Limes., Greens., Trap, 

Vole. Grit, Gran., Syen., Grit, Quartz, 

Jasper, Agate, Slate, Sands., Feist., Dol., 

Chalk, For. Marble, Gt. Ool , Lias, Mag. 

L., M.G., Perm., Sil. Fossil. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Ool., Chalk, Flint. 
M.G., Gran. 

Fels., Slate, CM. Shale, Car. Grit, Trias. 
.' Scand., Quartzites (Camb.), Carb. L. and S., 

Chert, Lias, Gt. Ool., Comb., Feist. (Cumb. 

or N. Wales), Wrekin Vole, Amygd. 

Gran. (? Malv.), Pal. Limes., Greens., Trap, 

Vole. Grit, Gran., Syen., Grit, Quartz, 
^ Jasper, Agate, Slate, Sands., Feist, Dol., 

Chalk, For. Marble, Gt. Ool., Lias, Mag. 

L., M.G., Perm., Sil. Fossil. 
1874. Ditto. 
1874. Ditto. 



Westmoreland. 



1. Brackenber Mooi 


, Hilton 


. 1903. 


Shap. 


2. Burney, near Milburn. 


. 1903. 


Whin Sill, Carb. Sands. 


3. Castle Hill, Kendal . 


. 1878. 


Shap. 


4. Cunswick Scar 


, , 


. 1878. 


No Limes. Sil., L.D.V. 


5. Farletoii Fell 


, 


1878. 


Carb. L., Sil. 


6. Hazelrig, near Gamblesby 


. 1903. 


Basement Carb., Gran. (Gall), Lanipro. (c.f 








Knock Pike), Shap, Dalb. Gran., Whin Sill 


7. Helm . 




1878. 


Shap. 


8. Helm End . 






1878. 


Shap. 


9. Hincaster . 






1878. 


Shap. 


10. Kendal 






1878. 


Shap, L.D.V. 


11. Kent River. 






1878. 


No Shap, W. 


12. Larkrigg 






1878. 


Shap. 


13. Milburn 






1903. 


Whin Sill, Carb. Limes, and Sands. 


14. Milnthorpe . 






1878. 


Shap. 


15. Natland 






1878. 


Shap. 


16. Oxenholme . 






1878. 


Shap. 


17. Scout Scar . 






1878. 


No Limes., but Sil., L.D.V. 


18. Sedgwick . 






1878. 


Shap. 


19. Sellet Hall . 






1878. 


Shap. 


20. Spital Wood 






1878. 


Shap. 


21. Staintou 






1878. 


Shap, L.D.V. 


22. Storth End . 






1878. 


Shap. 


2H. Wath Sutton 






1878. 


Shap. 


24. Whitbarrow 






1878. 


Sil., L.D.V. 


2.5. Windy Hill, near 


Kendal 


1878. 


Shap. 






WORCESTEKSHIRE. 


1. Bromsgrove 




1875. 


Felstone, Ash. 


»j • 






188G. 


Welsh. 


2. Burcott 






1875. 


Ash, Prem. Brec. 


3. California . 






1876. 


Gran. 


4. Canister 






1875. 


Ash. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OP THE BKITISH ISLES. 



251 



5. Catshill , . 


1875. 


Porph. 


J1 • • • ■ 


1878. 


Aren. 


<;. Clent 


188;!. 


Felstone. 


7. Frankley Hill 


1879. 


Ba., Diab. (Aren.), Felsites. 


8. Fringe Green 


1875. 




It. Haglejr .... 


1875. 


Aren. 


10. Hales Owen 


1876. 


Fels. (Aren.) 


11. King's Norton 


1875. 


Felstone. 


12. Northfield and King's Norton 


187.5. 


Felstone, Porph. 


13. Perry Hall .... 


1875. 


Ba., Ash. 


14. Ran Dan Woods . 


1875. 


Ash. 


15. St. Claines, near Worcester. 


1887. 


Criff. 


Ifi. Stoke Elm .... 


1875. 


Felstone, Ash, Sil. L. 


17. Whetley .... 


1875. 


Porph. 


18. Woodcote Farm . 


1875. 


Ash. 


19. Woodrow .... 


1875. 


Porph. 


20. Worcester .... 


1892. 


Vein Quartz, Agate, Butt., Welsh V., Flint, 
Esk., Gall. Wrekin Kh., Sil. L. 




YORKSHIRK. 


1. Airy Hill, Hunmanby 


1888. 


Jur. Sands, Gran., Shap, Ba. 


2. Airton .... 


1887. 


Garb. Cong. 


3. Aldbrough, Holderness 


1902. 


Haggis. 


i» 


i9o:i 


Tooth of Mammoth. 


4. Aldfield .... 


1902. 


Ba. 


5. Ainthorpe, near Danby 


1899. 


Porph., L.D.V. 


G. Arkendale .... 


1889. 


Garb. Limes. 


7. Atwick .... 


1896. 


Shap. 


)i 


1898. 


Gneiss, Shap. 


:» 


1900. 


Shap, Laurv., Rli. P. 


8. Ayton, near Scarborough . 


1901. 


Rh. P. 


9. Balby, near Doncaster 


1890. 


Limes., Gran. 


»j 


1890. 


Mag. L., CM. Sands. &c., M.G., Garb. L. 
Chert, Gypsum, Tr. Quartzite, Tr. or 
Perm. Sands., L.D.V., Threl., Gran., 

Shap. 


» 


1897. 


Ba., Granoph., Gran., Gneiss, Vole. Aggl., 
Quartz Porph. 


» 


1898. 


Esk. 


10. Baldersby .... 


1887. 


M.G. 


11 


1895. 


Shap. 


11. Bainton-on- Wolds 


1899. 


Ba., Brock, Gran., Grit. 


12. Bannacks . . . . 


1895. 


Garb. Sands. 


13. Barnsley . . . . 


1895. 


Sbap, Gran., Rhy., ? Armb., Butt., And., 
Ba.,Carb. L., Mag. L., Flints, I. Lias. 


14. Bartindale, North Burton . 


1901. 


Ba. 


15. Barton (N.R.) . 


1891. 


Shap. 


Ki. Barugh Hill, R.H. Bay . 


1900. 


Porph., Ool. L. 


17. Bempton .... 


1887. 


Ba. 


,, 


1888. 


Sands., Ba. 


18. Bentham .... 


1889. 


' Fourstones.' Not err.itic. 


19. Bilborough 


1896. 


Garb. L. Sands, and Chert, Trias, Mag. L., 
Ba., Shap, Clay Ironstone. 


20. Blackstone Edge 


1890. 


L.D.V. 


21. Bold Venture, near Hutton 


1899. 


Porph., Vole. Ash. 


22. Bowes .... 


1903. 


Shap. 


23. Bowland .... 


189(1. 


? L.D.V. 


24. Bradford .... 


1875. 


B. And. 


11 


1896. 


Garb. L. 


25. Brandsburton . 


1899. 


Eh. P. 


26. Brantingham Thorp . 


1899. 


Rh. P. 


27. Branton .... 


1896. 


Gran. 



252 



REPORT — 1903. 



28. Brearly 

29. Bridlington 



1896. Gran., Butt. 

1899. Sands., Shap, Ba., Carb. L. 

1903. Trachyte (S. Scotland). 

1899. Rh. P. 



30. Brigham Hill, near N. 

Frodingham. 

31. Brompton, near Northaller- 1901. Rhy., Ba., ? Gabb., Carb. L.S. 

ton. 



11 n 


1903. 


And. (Borr.) 


32. Brough-on-Humber . 


1898. 


Rh. P. 


11 


1903. 


Laurv. 


33. Buckton (Flamborough 


1888. 


Ba., Sands. 


Head). 






34. Burmiston. 


1889. 


Shap. 


11 


1898. 


Shap. 


35. Burstwick .... 


1900. 


Shap, Rh. P. 


»» 


1902. 


El. Syen. 


n 


1903. 


Trachyte (? Eildon Hills), Dol. (? Black Hills), 
Quartz Porph. 


36. Carlton Bank . 


1899. 


Carb. Grit, Porph., Vole. Ash. 


37. Camaby .... 


1902. 


Ba. 


38. Castleshaw 


1889. 


Syen. (? Butt.), Sil. Grit, Esk. Horn. Trap, 
? L.D.A. 


39. Cayton .... 


1888. 


Ba., Gran., Carb. L. Sands. 


40. Cayton Bay 


1899. 


Shap. 


41. Chalk Villa 


1895. 


Sch., Gran., Ba. 


42. Cherry Burton . 


1901. 


Chev. Porph., Ba., Greywacke, Lias. 


43. Church Carlton, nr. Barns- 


1903. 


Micro. Gran. 


lev. 






44. Claro .... 


1889. 


Carb. L. 


4.5. Claro Hill .... 


1897. 


Shap. 


46. Cloughton .... 


1898. 


Chalk. 


47. Coast Cloughton to Horn- 

S6£l. 


1879. 


Shap. 


48. Commondale 


1899. 


Porph., Sparag. ? H. Sch., Shap. 


49. Coney Garth, near Brands- 


1899. 


Rh. P. 


burton. 






50. Coniston, Holdemess 


1896. 


Gran. 


51. Cotherstone, Barnard 


1897. 


Shap. 


Castle. 






52. Cottingham 


1895. 


Ba. 


53. Cox wold .... 


1902. 


Carb. L., S. and Ch., L.D.A. 


54. Cropton (V. of P.) . 


1888. 


Sands. 


55. Crosspool (730 O.D.), near 


1883. 


Felstone, Felsite, Quartz, Fels., TufE, Mag. 


Sheffield. 




L., Slate, Sands., Rhv., ? Sil. Grit, Qzite.. 



56. Cundall, near Borough 

bridge. 

57. Cuts worth and Sprot- 

borough. 

58. Cusworth, near Doncaster 

59. Danby 



60. Dearne Valley 

61. Deepdale . 

62. Dewsbury . 

63. Dimlington 



64. Doncaster . 

65. Driffield . 



66. Easington (Holdemess) 



Carb. Chert, ? Trias, M.G. The Vol- 
canics prob. L.D., and others from S. 
of Scotland. 

1888. Shap. 

1897. Shap, Orth., Porph., Dior., Ba., Carb. Grit, 

Carb. L., Gran. 

1900. Ba. 

1899. Porph. Gran., Rh. P., Porph. Gran., Flint, 
Ba. 

1896. Gran, Ba., Carb. L., Rhy. and And. 
1887. Shap. 

1892. Butt. Gran. 

1898. Laurv., Rh. P. 

1901. Eycott Dol., Carrock. 

1902. Zir. Syen., Swed., CM., Chalk. 

1897. Ba. 

1889. Ba., Carb. L. and S., Lias, Gran., Ba. 
1902. Rh. P. 

1890. Boulders. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



253 



66. 


Easington (Holderness) 


. 1898. 


Shap, Rh. P., Gran., Laurv., Gneiss, Ba., 
Carb. L. Sands, and Basement, Brock, 
Mag. L., Lias, Crioceras, Black and Pink 
Flint, Bel. lanceolata. 




»» 


. 1902. 


Shap. 


67. 


Easington Beck (N.R.) 


. 1896 


Shap. 


68. 


East Ayton 


. 1899. 


Sch. 


69. 


Eastington Moor 


. 1899. 


Gn., Rh. P. 


70. 


East Hutton 


. 1889. 


Ba. 


71. 


Egton 


. 1902. 


H. 


72. 


EUand 


. 1893. 


Esk., Butt., L.D.V., Carb. L. 


73. 


Elloughton (Brough). 


. 1899. 


Laurv. 


74. 


Elmire 


. 1887. 


Shap. 


75. 


Elton, near Beverley . 


. 1901. 


Chev. Porph., Greywacke, Lias. 


76. 


Escrick 


. 1903. 


Carb. L 


77. 


Extwistle Moor . 


. 1903. 


Sil. Grit. 


78. 


Falsgrave . 


. 1891. 


Ba., Gran., Lias, Syen., Quartzite, M.G., 
Carb. L., Ool., Chalk F. 


79. 


Far Hollingworth 


. 1896. 


Gran., Butt. 


80. 


Ferriby Common 


. 1901. 


Rh. P., Ba., Carb. L. 


81. 


Filey. 


. 1879. 


Shap. 




jj . ■ . > 


. 1880. 


Shap. 




ji • • • • 


. 1888. 


Ba., Mica T., Limes., L. Lias, Quartz F., 
Freestone, Shap, Sands., Ba. 




J) . . . . 


. 1890. 


Ba., Sands., Carb. L. Grit, Ool. Sands. 




»»•••. 


. 1899. 


El. Syen., Lias, Eh. P. 


82. 


Flamborough 


. 1879. 


Shap. 




»» ... 


. 1887. 


Gran., Ba., Sands., M. Sch., Limes. 




»> ... 


. 1888. 


Ba., Sands. 




i» ... 


. 1899. 


Rh. P. 


83. 


Flaxby, near Borough bri 


age 1903. 


Whin Sill. 


84. 


Flaxton 


. 1889. 


Carb. L. 


85. 


Flinton 


. 1896. 


Sands. 


86. 


Flixton (Filey) . 


. 1889. 


Carb. L. and S. Sands., Ba. 


87. 


Folkton . 


. 1891. 


Ba., Carb. L., Dior., Sands. 


88. 


Fordon-on-Wolds 


. 1900. 


Gneiss, Ba., Carb. Sands. 


89. 


Foston-le-Clay . 


. 1889. 


Limes., Gran., Shap, Sands. 


90. 


Fulford . 


. 1896. 


Carb. L. and Chert, Sands., L.D.V. 


91. 


Ganton 


. 1891. 


Shap, Ba., Ool. Sands. 


92. 


Gardham (near Beverlej 


7) . 1901. 


Chev. Porph., Ba., Carb. L. 


93, 


Garton (Holderness) . 


. 1898. 


Carb., Basement, Carb. L. and Sands., M.G., 
Lias, Gneiss, Gran., Ba., Rh. P., Quartzite, 
Porphyrite. 


94. 


Garton-on-Wolds 


. 1899. 


Rh. P. 


95. 


Giggleswick 


. 1902. 


M.G., Carb. L. Sh. Grit, Sil. Grit. 


96. 


Goathland . 


. 1899. 


Sch.,Gneiss,Cleveland Dy ke.Flint, Trias, Ool. 
Sands., Chev. Porph., 1 Sparag., Fels., Ba. 


97. 


Gordale 


. 1897. 


Carb. Congl. 


98. 


Great Ayton 


. 1899. 


Porph., M.G., Carb. L. and Ch. L. and M.G.. 
Lias, Trias, Jur. Grit, Mag. L., Flint. 


99. 


Green Dyke (Peak) . 


. 1899. 


Quartz P., Porph., Gran., Ba., H. 


100. 


Grimdale-on-Wolds . 


. 1901. 


Ba. 


101. 


Gristhorpe . 


. 1888. 


Sands., Ba. 




1) ... 


. 1899. 


Rh. P. 




n . • . 


. 1902. 


Gabbro (Norse), P. and Jasp., Quartz 
Porph. 


102. 


Grosmont 


. 1888. 


Shap. 




»» 


. 1896. 


Shap. 


103. 


Guisborough 


. 1888. 


Gran. 




»» 


. 1896. 


Shap. 


104. 


Haddockstones . 


. 1899. 


Not Erratics. 


105. 


Harfa Bank 


. 1899. 


Carb., Ch. 


106. 


Harrogate . 


. 1896. 


M.G. 


107. 


Hazelgrove to Marske 


. 1896. 


Carb. L., Yore. L., Ba., Whin Sill. 



254 



REPORT — 1903. 



108. Hawks Clough, 

Valley. 

109. Hayburn Wyke . 

110. High Catton . 

111. High Lee . 

112. Holderness Coast 

113. Holtby" . 



114. Horbury . 



Calder 1896. Vein Calcite, Sil, Quartzite. 



115. Hornsea 



116. Hunmanby 

)» ■ • 

117. Hutton, near Guisborough 

118. Hutton Bushel . 

119. Hutton Moor, near Eipon 

120. Iburndale . 

121. Ingleby Greenhow . 



1902. 
1896. 

1896. 
1896. 
1897. 
1896. 



1893. 

1901. 

1879. 
1896. 
1898. 
1901. 
1902. 
lOO:!. 

1888. 
1889. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1887. 
1899. 
1887. 

1888. 



122. 


lugleton . 


. 1892. 


123. 


Keighley . 


. 1874. 
. 1879. 


124. 


Kels'ey Hill '. 


. 190:J. 


125. 


Kettleness . 


. 1901. 


126. 


Kilburn 


. 1902. 
. 1903. 


127. 


Kilnsea 


. 1890. 


128. 


Kirkby Underdale . 


. 1SS8. 


129. 


Kirklington, near Ripon 
'» ♦» 


. 1895. 
1901. 


130. 


Kirkmoorgate, R.H.B. 


. 1 900. 


131. 


Kirkthorpe 


. 1893. 


132. 


Laithkirk . , 

»» ■ • . 


. 1890. 
. 189.3. 


133. 


Langcliffe (Settle) . 


. 1902. 


134. 


Lealholm , 


. 1899. 


135. 


Lebberston 


. 1888. 


136. 


Leconfield . 


. 1901. 


137. 


Leeds 


. 1887. 


138. 


Lindholme Hall, Hatfi 
Chase. 


5ld 188S. 


139. 


Lindrick (Ripon) 


. 1893. 


140. 


Linton Wharf edale . 


. 1903. 


141. 


Little Weighton 


. 1902. 




»» • 


. 1903. 


142. 


Lockington 


. 1890. 



Haggis Rock. 

Garb. L., Sands., and Chert, Flint, Carrock, 

Mag. L., Trias, Brock, L.D.V., Shap. 
Vein Quartz (Pebble). 
Analysis of lUO Boulders. 
Swed., Hel. lanceolata. 

Carb. Sands., L. and Chert, Carb. Basement, 

Ba., Keup. Marl, Gyps., Trias Sands., 

L. Lias, L.D V., Ba., Mag. L., Shap, Scott. 

Gran. C L. Doone.) 

Esk., Batt., L.D.V., Quartzite, Vein Quartz, 

Ciiert. 
Shap, Brockram, Bh. P., Flint, 
Shap. 

Carb. L., Ba. 
Shap. 

L.D. v.. Armb 

Kh. P., Shap. L.D.V., Queensbury Grit. 
M.G., Keuper Mail, Gran., Auyen-Gneiss, 

Gran. (Dnlb.) 
Shap. Sands., Gran. ^ 
Sands., Ba. 
Porph. 

Cliev. Porph., Mag. L., Kim. Gneiss, Gran. 
Rh. P. 
Gran., M.G. 
Shap, Gran., Porpli. 
And. and Porjjh , Chev. and S., Scott., Ba., 

CI. Dyke. ? H. Criff., ? Shap, Kelso Trap. 
Ba., ? Critf., Greywacke, Vein Quartz, Threl. 
Quartz Porph., L.D.V., M.G., Carb. L.S. and 
Grit, Jur. S. 
Lamprophyre. 
Hitchingstone, M.G. 
Not erratic. 
Carb. L. 

Chev. Porph., El. Syen., Gneiss. 
Shap, And., Ash. 
DoL, M.G., Limes. (Carb.) 
Shap. 
Ool. L. 
Ba. 

Carb. Sands. 
Rh. P. 

Esk., Butt , L.D.V. 
Shap. 
Shap. 
StriiE. 

Flint, Porph., And , Gran., ? Sparag.. Quart- 
zite, Ba., Ool. L., Carb. Chert, ^Mag. L., 
M.G., Quartzite, Porph. 
Ba., Sands. 

Chev. Porph., Greywacke. 
M.G. 

Mag. L., Carb. Sands., M.G., Chert, 
Porph., Ba., Quartzite, Vein Quartz, Flint, 
Congl., Halleflinta. 
Shap. 
Sil. SI. 
Chev. Porph. 
Ba., Quartzite, Sands. 
? M.G. 





ON ERKATIC J 


RLOCKS 


OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 


255 


143. 


Lockwood . . . . 


1899. 


Porph. 




144. 


Long Lee . . , . 


1896. 


Butt., L.D.V., Esk. 




145. 


Lowthorpe 


1890. 


Ba., Garb. L., Ool. Sands,, Red Sands 


, 


146. 


Luddendenfoot . 


1893. 


L.D. Vole. 




147. 


Lund . . . . 


1891. 


Gran., Ba., Dior., Sands. 




148. 


Malham . . . . 


1887. 


Garb. Congl. 




149. 


Manfield, near Darlington. 


1889. 


Fels. Trap (?And.). 




150. 


Market Weighton 


1892. 


Ool. Sands. 






»» ■ • 


1895. 


Garb. Sands. 






»t ' • 


1898. 


Black Flint. 




151. 


Marton-cum-Grafton 


1889. 


Shap. 




152. 


Meaux . . . . 


1901. 


Rh. P., Chev. Porph., Garb. L. and S. 


, Lias. 


153. 


Middleton-on-Wolds . 


1902. 


Rh. P., Gran., Ba., Garb. S. and Grit 
Porph., Lias. 


Chev. 


154. 


Mirfield . . . . 


1893. 


Butt. 






n . . « • 


1896. 


L.D.V., Butt., Esk., Garb. Grit, Gran. 
L.D.) 


(Not 


15.5. 


Mount Grace 


1898. 


Shap. 




15C. 


Mulgrave Park . 


1890. 


Shap. 




157. 


Muston, near Filey . 


1888. 
1889. 


Ba., Grit. 
Sands., Gran., Ba. 




158. 


MytholDiroyd . 


1896. 
1902. 


Esk., Butt., Gneiss, ? L.D.V. 
L.D. And. Rhy., Butt., Esk. 




159. 


Neswick . . , . 
tt . , . . 


1888. 
1889. 


Ba. 
Ba. 




IGO. 


Newbald . . . . 


1903. 


Ba. 




IGl. 


Newbold . . . . 


1895. 


Gran., Limes. 




162. 


Newby (Scarborough) 


1890. 


Sands. 




168. 


New Year's Bridge, Den- 
shaw Valley. 


1889. 


Syen., Dior. 




164. 


Noblethorpe (Cawthorne) 


1896. 


L.D.V. 




165. 


Norber . . . . 
)i ... 


1887. 
1888. 


Garb. Congl. 
Sil. Grit. 




166. 


North Cave 


1895. 


Ba. 




167. 


North Dean 


1893. 


L.D.V., Butt., Gran., Esk. 




168. 


North Ferriby . 


. 1896. 


Garb. L. Sand. Grit Congl., Lia?, 
Ba., Gran., Sch., Gneiss. 


Chalk, 


1G9. 


North Otterington 


1888. 


Gran. 




170. 


North Stainley . 


1888. 


Garb. Grit. 




171. 


Old Bridlington 


1888. 


La., Sands. 




172. 


Out Newton 


. 1895. 
1902. 


El. Syen., Laurv., Rh. P. 
Shap. 




173. 


Patrington 


. 1898. 


Ba., Gneiss, Porph., Rh. P., Garb. 
Sands., Lias, Flint. 


L. and 


174. 


Peak Station 


. 1899. 


Gneiss, Porph., Gran., Ba., Flint, Mag. L., 








Quartzite, Vein Quartz, ? Sparag 


, Grit. 








Trias, M.G., Qz. P., And., Jasp., H 


Sch. 




)» 


. 1900. 


Rh. P., Shap. 




175 


Pickering . 


. 1896. 


Ool. Lime and Sands. 




176. 


Pickhill . 


. 1892. 


Ba. 




177 


Pierce Bridge . 


. 1887. 


Shap. 




178 


Preston (Holderness) 


. 1896. 


Ba., Garb. Sands. 




179 


Kainton (N.R.). 


. 1891. 


M.G. 




180 


Redcar to Saltburn . 


. 1896. 


Garb.L. Sands ,Grit, Mag.L., Lias, Ba.,Gran. 


181. 


Eeighton . 


. 1888. 


Gran., Garb. L. 






»» ... 


. 1889. 


Ba. 




182 


Robin Hood's Bay 


. 1887. 


Shap. 






»» 


. 1889. 


Garb. L., Shap, Grit, Sands. (? Jur.), 
Ba., Felstone. 


Gneiss, 




>i • 


. 1896. 


Shap, Sch., Garb. L., Ba., Gran., 
Armb., Dalb., Gran., Rh. P., Qz. P., 
Porph., M.G., Brock, Mag. L., Tr. 
Gyps., Lias, Ool., Flint. 


Gneiss, 
Laurv., 
Sands,, 




)» • 


. 1902. 


CR.S. and Jasper, Haggis Rock. 





256 



REPORT — 1903. 



183. Rokeby . 

184. Rough Ground . 

185. Rough Lee (Rendle Water) 

186. Royston . 

187. Rudstone . 

188. Runswick . 

189. Runswick Bay . 

190. Ruston Parva 

191. Sand Hutton . 

192. Sandle Mere (Holderness) 

193. Saltburn . 



194. Sawley Abbey 

195. Scalby 

196. Scarborough 

197. Scartii Nick 

198. Scugdale . 

199. Seamer 



200. Seamer Beacon . 

201. Seamer Beacon . 

202. Settrington (V. of P.) 

203. Sinderby . 

204. Skeffling . 

205. Skelton Beck. . 

206. SkidbyandLittleWeighton 

207. Skinning Grove . 

208. Skipsea . 

209. Skirlaugh . 

210. Sleights . 

211. Slippery Foot, Keighley 

212. Smalley Bight . 

213. Sneaton . 

214. Southburn, near Driffield 

215. Southburn (Kirkburn) 

216. South Cave 

217. Sowerby Bridge 

218. Speeton ' . 



219. Sprotborough 

220. Staintondale 

221. Staithes 

222. Stanghow 

223. Stanley 

224. Startforth 

225. Staveley 

226. Staxton (Scarborough) 

227. Stillington 



1892. Ba. 

1882. Shap, Carb. L. 

1887. Carb. Congl. 

1895. Vole. Ash, Chert, Mag. L., Threl., Ba. 

1899. Rh. P. 

1889. Gran., Shap. 

1900. Shap, Brock., Mag. L. 

1890. Dior. 

1891. Shap. 

1903. Tooth of Mammoth. 

1888. Shap. 

1896. Ba. 

1897. Laurv. 

1892. Perm. Congl., Limes. 

1890. Ba. 

1898. Ool. Sands., Carb., Ba., Chalk. 

1892. Ba., Limes., Shap. 

1891. Ool. Sands. 

1899. Ba., L.D.V., Porph. 

1899. Grit, Carb. Chert, Gran., Vole. Ash, 
Porph. 

1888. Gran., Shap., M. Schist. 

1889. Ba., Sands. 

1890. Ba., Sands. Ool. Sands., Carb. L., Gran. 

1899. Ba. 

1900. Ba. 

1901. Rh. P., Chev. Porph., Ba., Gran., Mag. L., 

Carb. L., Flint, Lias. 

1900. Jur. Sands., Chev. Porph., Ba. 

1900. Jur. Sands., Chev. Porph., Ba. 

1901. ? Quartzite, Trias, Vein Quartz, Carb. Sands., 

Jasper, Flint, Ba., Gneiss. 

1892. Carb. L. 

1898. Ba , Gneiss, Porph., Rh. P., Carb. L. and Sand., 

Lias, Flint. 

1896. Whin Sill. 

1895. Ba 

1887. Gran. 

1893. Ba. 

1896. Ba. 

1888. Gran. 
1903. Ash (Borr.). 

1893. L.D.V 

1896. Shap. 

1899. Ba. 
1890. Ba. 
1895. Limes. 
1893. L.D. Vole. 

1902. Carb. Sands. 
1888 Ba., Sands. 

1890. Sands., Ba., Shap, Carb. L., Gran., M. Sch., 
Red Sands., L. Lias, Ool. Irons. 

1899. Rh. P.. Sil. 

1900. Shap. 

1897. Shap, Orth. Porph., Dior., Ba., Carb. Grit, 

Carb. L., Gran. 

1890, Shap. 

1897. Rh. P. 

1899. Shap. 

1893. Esk., L.D.V. 

1892. Shap, Grey Gran. 

1889. Sands., Carb. L., Shap. 
1889. Carb. L., Ba. 

1888. Limes. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



257 



228. Stonegate 



1899. 





• • • 


. 1902. 


229. 


Stonegate, Eskdale . 


1903. 


230. 


Stonehouse 


1896. 


231. 


Strensall . 


1889. 


232. 


Striaesclale (Oldham W.W.) 


1899. 


233. 


Stump Howe, near Whitby 


1900. 


234. 


Sultoa-on-Hull . 


. 1895. 


235. 


Swanland . 


1896. 


236. 


Swine 


1893. 


237. 


Tanfield . 


1893. 


238. 


Teeside 


1892. 


239. 


Thirkle Bridge (Holderness 


) 1903. 


240. 


Thirley, Cloughton . 


. 1900. 


241. 


Thirsk 


1903. 


242. 


Thornborough (W. Tanf.) 


1889. 


243. 


Thornes 


1893. 


244. 


Thornton Dale (V. of P.) 


. 1901. 


245. 


Thornton-le-Beans 


1888. 


246. 


Thornton-le-Clay 


1889. 


247. 


Thorn ton-le- Moor 


1888. 


248. 


Thornwick Bay . 


. 1899. 


249. 


Todmorden 


. 1896. 


250. 


Topcliffe . 


. 1893. 


251. 


Upper Foot 


. 1896. 


252. 


Upsal. 


1903. 


253. 


Wakefield . 


. 1892. 




,, ... 


. 1893. 


254. 


Wassand (Hornsea) . 


1898. 


255. 


Wath (N. Eiding) . 


1890. 


256. 


Wawne 


, 1902. 


237. 


Weeton 


. 1898. 


258. 


Welwick . 


. 1898. 


259. 


West Rigg (Lockwood) 


1899. 


260. 


West Tanfield . 


. 1889. 


261. 


Wetwang . 


1903. 


262. 


Washton (Bourn Cas) 


1897. 


263. 


Wheatcroft, near Scar- 
borough. 


1900. 


264. 


Whitby . 


1889. 




»f • . • 


1899. 




i< . • . 


1900. 




„ . . • . 


1902. 


265. 


Whorlton . 


1887. 


266. 


Wighill, near Tadcaster . 


1901. 




i» »» 


1903. 


267. 


Willerby, near Hull . 


1898. 


268. 


Winestead . 


, 1890; 




tf . . . 


, 1892. 


269. 


Winterbut Lee . 


. 189(3. 


270. 


Withernsea 


1898. 



? Sparag., Porph., Ba., Gran., Quartz Porph., 
And., Carb. Chert L. Basement, M.G-., 
Flint, Jasper, Red Sands., ? Old Red S., 
Gneiss, H. Sch., Quartzite, Vein Quartz, 
U. Lias, Mag. L , M. Lias. 

Queensbury Grit, H. 

Syenitic Dyke-rock (Norw.). 

Gran. 

Sands., Ba. 

Sil. Grit, Syenites, L.D. (prob. Butt.), Carb. 
L.B., Quartzite, ' Trap.' 

Rh. P. 

Ba., Carb. L., L. Lias, Gran. 

Gran., Ba., Saads. 

Ba., M.G., Carb. L. 

Shap. 

Shap, Armboth, Carrock. 

Dol. 

Jur. Sands. 

Gabb. (Carr.), Porph. (Chev.), Gran., Ool., 
Carb. Congl., Shap. 

Grit. 

Esk., Butt., L.D. v., Vein Qaartz. 

Ool. 

Shap. 

Carb. L. and S., Ba., Sands., Gran., Lias. 

Gran., Ba., ? Ash. 

Laurv. 

L.D.V. 

M.G. 

L.D.V. 

Gabb. (Carr.), Gran. (? Chev.), Dol., M.G., 
Carb. L. 

Butt., Gran. 

Esk., L.D.V. 

Ba. 

Laurv., Rh. P., Ba., Greywacke, Chev. P., 

Flint. 
Ba., Gneiss, Porph , Rh. P., Carb. L. and 

Sands., Lias, Flint. 
Ditto. 
Flint, Porph , ? Sparag., Quartzite, Grit, 

And., Carb., Chert, Sch., Gran., Rh. P. 
Carb. L. 
Quartz. 
Shap. 
Shap. 

Carb. L., Shap. 

El. Syen., Doleritc. 

Jur. Sands., Blag. L., Carb. L., Ba., ? Sparag., 

Jasp., M. and L. Lias. 
L.O.R.S., Ba. 
Gran. 
Ba., Chert. 
Whin Sill. 
Carb. L. Sands., Bi,, Jur., Gran., Gneiss, 

Rh. P., Black Flint, Bel. lanceolata, L. Lias. 
Ba , Carb. L. 
Carb. L. 

Gran., Quartzite. 
Shap, Blue Gneiss, Bel. lan':eolata, Black 

Flint. 



1903. 



25S REPORT— 1903. 

271. Wykeham . . , . 1901. Ba., Chev. Porph. and And., Flint, El. Syen., 

Lias. 
.... 1902. Flint. 
1903. Whin Sill. 

272. Yedmandale, near W. 1899. Eh. P. 

Ay ton. 
„ „ 1900. Chev. Porph., Greywacke, Jasper, Gran. 

273. York 1888. Shap, Limes., Est. Sands., Carb. L., Jur. 

Sands, and Limes., And. 

, 1889. Carb. L. 

„ 1893. M.G. 

„ 1901. Carb. Sands. 

274. Youlthorpe, near Stamford 1888. Sands. 

Bridge. 



Observations on Ghanr/es in the Sea Coast of tJie United Kingdom. — 
Report of the Committee^ consisting of Sir Archibald Geikie, 
Captain E. W. Creak, Mr. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, Mr. A. T. 
Walmisley, Mr. W. Whitaker, and the General Officers, 
appointed hy the Council. 

[PLATE IX.] 

In 1898 the following resolution was referred by the General Com- 
mittee of the British Association to the Council for consideration and 
action if desirable : — 

'That the Council be requested to bring under the notice of the 
Admiralty the importance of securing systematic observations upon the 
Erosion of the Sea Coast of the United Kingdom, and that the co-opera- 
tion of the Coastguards might be profitably secured for this purpose.' 

On the recommendation of a Committee of the Council appointed to 
consider the above resolution, the Council decided to inquire whether the 
Admiralty would be willing to arrange that observations of a simple 
character on changes in the sea coast be recorded and reported by the 
Coastguards. A favourable answer having been received from the Lords 
of the Admiralty, the Committee, at the request of the Council, proceeded 
to draw up suitable forms on which to make the reports and a scheme of 
instructions to guide the observers in recording their observations. A 
supply of these forms with instructions was then forwarded to their 
Lordships, and issued by them to the Coastguards in 1899. Since that 
date forms, duly filled in, have been received regularly from the Coast- 
guard stations of the United Kingdom and filed in the offices of the 
Association in Burlington House. 

The observations having accumulated to an extent sufiicient to justify 
an attempt being made this year to tabulate them, the present Committee, 
having been appointed to superintend and direct the work, with the 
consent of the Council, obtained the services of Mr. John Parkinson, B.A., 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, to collate the data in hand. Mr. 
Parkinson has devoted himself with much ability and zeal to the some- 
what laborious task he undertook, and has prepared a most valuable 
repoi't and map which the Committee are pleased to incorporate in 
their report to the Council. 



[Plate IX. 




he United Kingdom. 



Brituh Asioeiation, 73rrf Heporl, Southport, 1903.] 




Oaln of land Ludicat^d bj 

Lm> at land LndicaUxl b; ^m 

Mo attempt U nuxte to sbow lulatiro rapidity ot eltboi gain 



lUuttTiiling the Reporl of ihe Committee on Observations on Changes in the Sea Coast of the Unili'd Kiutjdom. 



/ 



OBSERVATIONS ON CHANGES IN SEA COAST OF UNITED KINGDOM. 259 ~ 

The Committee recommend that their report be communicated to the 
■Geological Section at the Southport meeting of the Association, and that 
it be published in the Annual Report. 

The Committee further recommend that copies of the report be sent 
to the Admiralty, that their Lordships be informed of the valuable and 
important information which has been obtained through their assistance 
and co-operation, and that an offer be made to forward to them copies of 
the report for distribution to the Coastguard stations if considered 
desirable. 

In conclusion the Committee consider that the best thanks of the 
Council are due to Mr. Parkinson for his report and to the various 
officers in the Coastguard Service who have furnished the information 
upon which it is based. 

Report to the Committee hy John Parkinson. 

The observations on which this report is based were sent to the British 
Association by the Coastguards on forms supplied to them. These forms 
were of two kinds. No. I. when filled in gives information as to the nature 
of the coast reported on, the vertical range of ordinary spring tides, the 
evidence for encroachment of the sea or for gain of the land, the artificial 
causes influencing natural changes and details concerning the removal of 
shingle, ifec. Form II. is used to record any changes of especial interest, 
such as falls of cliff or the erection of new groynes. 

In this summary the observations are treated in oi'der round the coast, 
beginning with the county of Wigtown and following on from point 
to point in the direction taken by the hands of a watch. Ireland 
is treated last, the same arrangement being adopted, beginning at 
Galway Bay. 

Scotland. 

The reports received from Scotland — forty-eight in all — are for the 
most part confined to the eastern coast ; the western, including the 
Hebrides, being unrepresented as far south as the mouth of the Clyde. 

The distribution of the reports in the maritime counties and adjacent 
islands is as follows : — Wigtown, 5 ; Ayr, 3 ; I. of Arran, 2 ; I. of 
Bute, 1 ; Renfrew, 1 ; Orkney Isles, 2 ; Shetlands, 1 ; Caithness, 2 ; 
Eastern Sutherland, 1 ; Eastern Cromarty, 1 ; Eastern Inverness, 1 ;. 
Elgin, 3 ; Banff, 1 ; Aberdeen, 5 ; Kincardine, 6 ; Forfar, 5 ; Fife, 5 ; 
Haddington, 2 ; Berwick, 1. 

The following alterations are recorded : — 

Some enci-oachment of the sea takes place in the neighbourhood of 
Stranraer. Concrete walls now protect an endangered road ; a break- 
water, piles, &c. have been built at the head of the loch and groynes 
erected at Broadstone (IJ miles N.W. of Stranraer). 

No other change is on record until we reach the eastern coast of 
Sutherland, where at Helmsdale, behind the west pier, there has been 
some loss of land. This is now partially stayed by a breastwork of 
wooden piles. No gravel is removed. In Banff a slight loss occurs to 
the east of Portsoy Harbour, and stones &c. are constantly removed. 

The southern part of the Kincardine coast suffers loss in two adjacent 
places : first at Gourdon through the shingle being removed for indus- 
trial purposes, and the absence of groynes ; second in the neighbour- 
hood of Johnshaven, where the loss occurs about 300 yards south of the 

S2 



260 REPORT — 1903. 

C.G.S. and between East and West ' Mathers,' on the Lawrencekirk 
estate The damage is done by south-easterly winds and spring tides, 
and a short wall, 60 feet long, has been built 300 yards south of Johns- 
haven to save the land. No shingle is removed. 

Part of the sandy shore has been removed by the sea between East 
and "West Haven, Carnoustie (Forfar). There are no groynes, and beach 
material is occasionally removed by the permission of the factor of the 
estate. 

The cliffs in certain parts of St. Andrews Bay are being worn away 
by the sea, and near the town have to be supported by masonry and con- 
crete walls. Within the past three years several cases of landslip are 
recorded. As before no groynes have been built, and material is taken 
from the east sands by contractors for building purposes. 

The only gain in land from the Scottish coast is reported from 
Burntisland owing to the accumulation of sandbanks on the foreshore ; 
much sand is dredged for the construction of the new docks. 

Finally, in the counties of Haddington and Berwick, from Pefferburn 
to St. Abb's Head, a distance of 29 miles, a loss of cliff takes place at 
spring tides with north-easterly gales. The coast is unprotected, and no 
shingle &c. is removed. 

England. 
From St. Abb's Head to Saltburn. 

The changes on this coast appear to be insignificant, but losses are re- 
corded in the neighbourhood and to the north of Hartlepool, near Shields, 
and on the northern side of Blyth, the latter part being now protected. 
On the other hand, small gains of land are reported from Holy Island 
Sands and St. Gan IBreakwater, Redcar. As regards the coast-protections 
Berwick is shielded by a pier, while Newliggin and Cresswell (Wansbeck 
Road to Chevington Burn) are groyned. South of this section the list of 
coast-protections given in the returns apparently understates the truth, 
nothing of the kind being mentioned from Tynemouth and South Shields. 
The northern side of Blyth Harbour is protected by a wall, and piers 
have been built at Sunderland and Hartlepool. At the latter town the 
sea- and dock-walls have a tendency to keep the sand in the bay. The 
concrete pier erected at Skinningrove is said not to affect the beach. 

Sand is removed from Berwick, Bamburgh, the Amble and Hauxley 
district (Alnmouth), from the neighbourhood of North Shields (from Brier 
Dene Burn to Low Light), Sunderland, and the north of Seaham, and 
from Saltburn. On the contrary it is not removed from the ten miles of 
coast between Wansbeck River and Brier Dene Burn (Blyth Haven) from 
S. Shields to Souter Point, and from Seaham Harbour and Hawthorn Hive. 

The Yorkshire Coast south of Saltburn. 

For the stretch of coast between Saltburn and Scarborough Bay no 
returns have been received, but for the important district between Filey 
Point and Spu-rn Head the records are complete, and the following may 
be taken as a general summary. 

Between Filey Point and Flamborough Head the coast line is practi- 
cally stationary, except in Filey Bay, from Filey Brig to the King and 
Queen Rocks at Speeton, where the average loss for some twenty-eight years 
is about 3 feet per annum. On the southern side of Flamborough Head the 



OBSERVATIONS ON CHANGES IN SEA COAST OF UNITED KINGDOM. 261 

rate of erosion is about the same. The town of Filey is protected by a 
sea-wall. No groynes exist at Speeton, and shingle and sand are being 
constantly removed during the winter months ; but on the southern side 
of Flamborough Head (at Sands Road), one groyne has been built which 
retains the beach sufficiently to enable carts to get down to and to remove 
the sand. This loss is stated to have no apparent effect. At Bridlington 
Quay parades and a sea-wall prevent subsidence to the north and south of 
Bridlington Harbour, where there was formerly an annual loss: of about 
six feet. Piles are driven in close to the sea-wall, and groynes prevent 
the scour of the beach and retard the travelling sand and shingle. To the 
north of Wilsthorpe Gap groynes protect the beach, but do not prevent 
subsidence of the cliff. At Flamborough Head, Bridlington Bay, fresh- 
water springs cause the initial slipping of the cliff. The Divisional Officer, 
writing from Bridlington Quay concerning the coast from 3^ miles north 
of Filey Brig to Grimston Garth, 9 miles south of Hornsea, states that 
shingle, sand, and stones are removed from most places, except from Atwick 
Gap to Garton Gap, where the beach is protected by order of the Board of 
Trade. Along this coast, from Bridlington Quay to Spurn Head, pi-acti- 
cally the whole coast is receding at an average rate of 6 feet per annum, 
where not especially protected, as in Bridlington Harbour. 

Groynes exist at Hornsea, both to the north and south of the village, 
and keep the shingle in place ; elsewhere the loss appears to be between 
3 and 4 feet per annum. At Withei-nsea groynes in a very bad state of 
repair are placed 100 yards apart, but the average annual loss is 9 feet 
per annum. Shingle is not removed. At Sandlemere and Hompton an 
annual loss of 9 feet per annum is also recorded. 

From Kilnsea Warren to Spurn Point, a distance of 4 miles, groynes 
retain and build up a good beach ; nevertheless the annual loss is given 
as 6 feet. Three observations of definite change witnessed have been 
supplied on Form II. The first relates to a large fall of clay in June 1899 
at Pampletine Cliff, Filey. The mass was 60 yards in length by 9 yards 
in breadth, having a depth of some 100 feet. Such slips, which are not 
uncommon, are produced, not merely by the encroachment of the sea, but 
also through heavy rains and springs. At Ulrome (between Hornby 
Eunnell and Atwick) about 15 feet of cliff disappeared in 1899; the 
average annual rate is estimated at 6 feet. The cause is locally attri- 
buted to the scarcity of sand at the base of the cliff ; and it is noted 
that the loss is greatest where the cliffs are highest. 

An undated report (probably 1899-1900) from Kilnsea records a very 
rapid loss of land. In two months these slips reached the extent of 
50 yards inland and 100 yards in length, and occurred at intervals along 
some five miles of coast. Additional information, received in July 1903, 
from Withernsea states that a large quantity of cliff has been washed 
away since 1899 or 1900 from Wareholme, Garton, and Dimlington. 

The shingle is not removed from Hornsea to Kilnsea. 

The Humber Estuary. 

The records for the Estuary of the Humber are also fairly complete 
up to and beyond Barton. On the northern bank Cherry Cob Sands and 
Sunk Island Sands show slight gains, due to the building of five chalk- 
stone groynes. On the southern bank, the more northerly part of Clee- 
thorpes shows some gain : it is protected by a sea wall and groynes. 



262 REPORT— 1903. 

Also at Tetney Haven, to the south of Cleethorpes, sediment is deposited 
upon the foreshore for an area of some 2^ miles in length and i mile in 
width at spring tides. The observations extend as far south as North- 
cotes Point. The low and muddy shores of Marfleet and Paull, on the 
northern bank, show no change, but variable erosion is reported from Barton 
and Killingholme, where the shore is unprotected, and on the southern 
.shore of Cleethorpes through heavy gales. Nearly all the southern bank 
of the estuary is protected by sea-walls or groynes. At Killingholme the 
clay banks, their summits 6 or 8 feet above the beach, are covered, more 
or less completely, by an apron of chalk and ironstone. A shingle bank 
■is said to be accumulating on the northern shore of South Killingholme 
Haven, and a large sandbank in the river between North Terriby and 
Hessle. In the neighbourhood of Terriby Hall, Barton Cliff, and 
Barton Ness (Barton-on-Humber) the recorded loss is from 4 to 6 feet 
in 2^ years. Small groynes have been built from the B;ifle Butts (3 miles 
west of Hull) to . North Terriby, but are said to have no effect on the 
beach. Docks and piers occupy part of the bank between Barrow Haven 
and Chalk Point, and stones have been deposited to protect the banks near 
Barton Cliffs. Apparently erosion in the estuary of the Humber is not 
very serious, for (in July 1903) the loss of land at Barton-on-Humber is 
said to have been imperceptible since 1899, while at Killingholme no 
change has been recorded in the same time. At Cleethorpes, however, 
about 20 feet of bank have been washed away in this period ; but the 
sea-wall is now being extended for | mile E.S.E. to protect the part in 
question. 

Lincolnshire and the Wash