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Sritish &zmmtion for the &jlranrement of jfrtence, 

BURLINGTON HOUSE, 

LONDON, W. 
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REPOKT 



OP THE 



SEVENTY-FOURTH MEETING 



OP THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



CAMBRIDGE IN AUGUST 1904. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1905. 



Office of the Association • Burlington House, London, W. 



PRINTED BY 
SPOTTISWOODE AND CO. LTD., NEW-STREET SQUARE 



LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



H I 

Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxxi 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement xlii 

Trustees and General Officers, from 1831 lvi 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 18.32 ... lvii 

List of Evening Discourses lxxvii 

•Lectures to the Operative Classes lxxx 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Cambridge Meeting lxxxii 

Committee of Recommendations at the Cambridge Meeting Ixxxiii 

Treasurer's Account lxxxiv 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings lxxxvi 

Officers and Council, 1904-1905 lxxxviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee lxxxix 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Cambridge Meet- 
ing in August 1904 xcvi 

Communication ordered to be printed in extenso cvi 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if desirable cvi 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cvii 

Places of Meeting in 1905 and 1906 cviii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes cix 

General Meetings cxxviii 

Address by the President, the Right Hon. A. J. Balfouk, D.C.L., M.P., 

F.R.S , 3 

A2 



IV 



REPORT — 1904. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



[An asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. The mark ] indicates the same, 
but with a reference to the Journal or Newspaper in which it is published in extenso.] 



Page 
Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Third Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. \V. H. 
Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. A. 
Buchan, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Professor A. 
Schuster. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 17 

Report on the Theory of Point-groups. Part IV. By Frances Hardcastle. 20 

Magnetic ^Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secre- 
tary), Professor W. G. Adams, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Principal 
Sir Arthur W. Rucker, and Professor A. Schuster, appointed to co- 
operate with the Committee of the Falmouth Observatory in their Magnetic 
Observations '29 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Rayleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Professors W. E. Atrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey Foster, 
Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors 
J. D. Everett, A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, and 
Mr. George Matthey 30 

Appendix I.— On Anomalies of Standard Cells. By F. E. Smith ... 33 
„ II.— On the Electromotive Force of Clark's Cell. By A. P. 

Trotter 40 

Seismological Investigations. —Ninth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. W. Judd (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 
R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, 
Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, 
and Professor H. H. Turner (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 41 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 41 

II. Comparison of Records from three Milne Horizontal Pendulums 42 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

III. An Improved Record Receiver 43 

IV. The Origins of large Earthquakes in 1903 43 

V. On International Co-operation for Seismological Work 45 

VI. Seismological Work no w in progress 46 

VII. Directions in which Seismological Work may be extended 48 

VIII. Experiment at the Ridgeway Fault 51 

Underground Temperature. — Twenty-third Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor J. D. Everett (Chairman and Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors Edward Hull, A. S. Herschel, and 
G. A. Lebour, Messrs. A. B. Wynne, W. Galloway, Joseph Dickinson, 
G. F. Deacon, E. Wethered, and A. Strahan, Professors Michie Smith 
and H. L. Callendar, Mr. B. H. Brough, and Professor Harold B. 
Dixon, appointed for the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of 
Underground Temperature downwards in various Localities of Dry Land 
and under Water. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 51 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaren, Professor A. Crum Brown (Secretary), Sir John 
Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, and Mr. R. T. Omond. (Drawn up 
by Dr. Btxchan.) 55 

The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Dr. A. W. Crossley (Secretary), 
Professor W. H. Perkin. Dr. M. O. Forster, and Dr. H. R. Le Sueur ... 60 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir Norman Lockyer, Professor Sir James 
Dewae, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, Professor W. N. 
Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. Abney, and Dr. W. E. 
Adeney 66 

The Stereochemistry of Nitrogen. By H. 0. Jones, M.A., D.Sc 169 

Dynamic Isomerism. By T. M. Lowry, D.Sc 193 

I. Introductory and Historical 193 

II. The Nature of Dynamic Isomerism 196 

III. Isomeric Changes in which Two Radicals are Interchanged 200 

IV. Isomeric Changes in which a Single Mobile Radical is Transferred 204 

V. Optical Inversion 211 

VI. C hemical Properties of Dynamic Isomerides 214 

VII. Physical Properties of Dynamic Isomerides 216 

VIII. Reversible Polymeric Change 223 

The Movements of Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire.- — Fifth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chair- 
man), Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Secretary), Professor A. Smithells, Rev. 
E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, Mr. George Bray, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, Professor P. F. Kendall, and Dr. J. E. Marr 225 

Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hind (Secretary), 
Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crtck, Dr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B. N. 
Peach, Mr. J. T. Stobbs, Mr. A. Strahan, and Dr. H. Woodward. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.) 226 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Ninth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. J. E.Marr (Chairman), Professor P. F. Kendall (Secretary), Professor 
T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. De Rance, Professor W. J Sollas, Mr. R. H. 
Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. F. M. Burton, 



vi REPORT — 1904. 

' Page 

Mr. J. Lomas, Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Mr. J. W. Stathee, Mr. W. T. 
Tucker, and Mr. F. W. Harmee, appointed to investigate the Erratic 
Blocks of the British Isles, and to take measures for their preservation. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 237 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom.— Fifteenth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chair- 
man), Professor W. W. Watts (Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Pro- 
fessor E. J. Gaewood, Professor S. H. Reynolds, Dr. Tempest Anderson, 
Dr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. Godfeey Bingley, Mr. H. Coates, Mr. C. V. 
Crook, Mr. J. G. Goodchild, Mr. William Geay, Mr. W. Jeeome Har- 
rison, Mr. Robert Kidston, Mr. J. St. J. Phillips, Mr. A. S. Keid, Mr. 
R. Welch, Mr. W. Whitakee, and Mr. H. B. Woodwaed. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 242 

Well-sections in Cambridgeshire. By W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S 266 

Investigation of the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 
and at various localities in the East Riding of Yorkshire. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Chairman), Mr. J. W. 
Stather (Secretary), Dr. Tempest Andeeson, Professor J. W. Cakr. Rev, 
W. L. Caeter, Mr. A. R. Dwereyhotjse, Mr. F. W. Haemer, Mr. J. II. 
Howarth, Rev. W. Johnson, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. E. T. New- 
ton, Mr. H. M. Platnauer, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Thomas Shep- 
paed 272 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles.— 
Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. 1Ii:rdm\n 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Lomas (Secretary), Professor W. W. Watts, Profe 
P. F. Kendall, and Messrs. H. C. Beasley, E.T. Neavton, A. C. Seward, 
and W. A. E. Usshee. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 275 

Edenvale Caves, co. Clare. — Final Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
R. F. Schaeff (Chairman), Mr. R. L. Peaegee (Secretary), Mr. G. Coffey, 
Professor G. A. J. Cole, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Mr. McHenry, and Mr. R. J. Usshee, appointed to explore Irish 
Caves. (Drawn up by the Chairman.) 288 

The Influence of Salt and other Solutions on the Development of the Frog. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. F. R. Weldon (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. W. Jenkinson (Secretary), and Professor S. J. Hickson. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 288 

The Probability of Ankylostoma becoming a Permanent Inhabitant, of our 
Coal Mines in the event of its introduction. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr G. H. F. Nuttall (Chairman), Mr. G. P. Bidder 
(Secretary), Dr. A. E. Boycott, Dr. J. S. Haldane, and Mr. A. E. Shipley 292 

Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Gaestang (Chairman and Secretary), 
Professor E. Ray Lankestee, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor S. H. Vines, 
and Professor W. F. R. Weldon 297 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. H. Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretarv), 
Dr. P. L. Sclatee, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Dr. W. E. Hoyle 297 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Fourteenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Mr. David Shaep (Secretary), 
Dr. W. T. Blanfoed, Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclatee, Dr."F. 
Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgae A. Smith 298 

Coral Reefs of the Indian Region. — Fourth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. A. Sedgwick (Chairman), Mr. J. Stanley Gaedinee (Secre- 
tary), Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. Listee, Mr. Feancis Daewin, 
Dr. S. F. Haemee, and Professors A. Macalistee, W. A. Heedman, and 
S. J. Hickson 298 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Dr. W. E. Hoyle (Secretary), Dr. 
F. F. Blackman, Mr. J. S. Gardiner, Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. A. C. 
Seward, Professor C. S. Sherrington, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, appointed 
to conduct an investigation into the Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands 299 

Colour-physiology of the Higher Crustacea. — First Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Dr. F. W. Gamble 
(Secretary), Dr. W. E. Hotle, and Mr. F. W. Keeble, appointed to enable 
Dr. F. W. Gamble and Mr. Keeble to conduct Researches in the Colour- 
physiology of the Higher Crustacea 299 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Mr. 
J. E. S. Moore (Secretary), Dr. E. Ray Lankester, Professor W. F. R. 
Weldon, Professor G. B. Howes, Mr. A. Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 

McIntosh 300 

Report on the Occupation of the Table. By E. S. Goodrich 300 

Terrestrial Surface Waves and Wave-like Surfaces. — Fourth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. J. Scott Keltie (Chairman), Dr. Vatjghan 
Cornish (Secretary), Lieut.-Col. F. Bailey, Mr. John Milne, and Mr. 
W.H.Wheeler. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 301 

On the Accuracy and Comparability of British and Foreign Statistics of In- 
ternational Trade. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. Cannan 
(Chairman), Dr. B. Ginsbtjrg (Secretary), Mr. A. L. Bowley, Professor 
S. J. Chapman, Sir R. Giffen, and Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave 302 

The Tidal Regime of the Mersey. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), and Professors 
George H. Darwin, Osborne Reynolds, Hele-Shaw, and W. C. Unwin, 
appointed to obtain information respecting the Tidal Regime of the River 
Mersey, with the object of submitting the data so obtained to Harmonic 
Analysis 318 

Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secre- 
tary), Mr. R. C. Bosanqtjet, Dr. A. J. Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Pro- 
fessor A. Macalister, and Professor W. Ridgeway 321 

Appendix. — Excavations at Knossos, Crete, 1904. By Dr. Arthur J. 

Evans 322 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury. — Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. R. Munro (Chairman), Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), 
Sir John Evans, Dr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. Henry Balfour, Mr. C. H. 
Read, and Mr. A. Bulleid. (Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and 
Mr. H. St. George Gray.) 324 

Anthropometric Investigation in Great Britain and Ireland. — Report of a 
Committee, consisting of Professor D. J. Cunningham (Chairman), Mr. 
J. Gray (Secretary), Mr. N. Annandale, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. 
Myers, Mr. J. L. Myres, Professor A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Mr. 
Randall MacIver, Professor J. Symington, and Dr. Waterston 330 

Appendix. — Pigmentation Survey of the School Children of Scotland 335 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. A. J. Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, Mr. E. W. Brabrook, and Mr. T. Ashby, appointed to co- 
operate with Local Committees in Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 337 



viii REPORT — 1904. 

* Page 

Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of the Egyptian 
\riny —Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Maca lister 
(Chairman), Dr. C. S. Myers (Secretary), Sir John Evans, and Professor 

D. J. Cunningham (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 339 

Anthropological Teaching.— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. B. Tylor (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), Professor A. 
Macalister, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr.C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. F. 
W. Rudler, Dr. R. Munro, Professor Flinders Petrie, Mr. H. Ling Roth, 
and Professor D. J. Cunningham, appointed to inquire into the present 
state of AnthropologicalTeaching in the United Kingdom and elsewhere ... 341 

The State of Solution of Pro teids.— Second Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor Halliburton (Chairman), Professor E. "Waymouth Reid 
(Secretary), and Professor E. A. Schafer, appointed to investigate the 
state of Solution of Proteids 341 

The Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors when introduced into 
the Circulation.— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. 

E. A. Schafer (Chairman), Professor W. H. Thompson (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor R. Boyce, and Professor C. S. Sherrington 342 

Metabolism of the Tissues.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Gotch (Chairman), Mr. J. Barcroft (Secretary), Sir Michael Foster, 
and Professor Starling 343 

The Respiration of Plants. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. 
Marshall Ward (Chairman), Mr. H. AVager (Secretary ), Mr. F. Darwin, 
and Professor J. B. Farmer 344 

Botanical Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
L. C. Miall (Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss (Secretary), Mr. Francis 
Darwin, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, on the Registration of Photographs of 
Botanical Interest 345 

Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. Marshall Ward (Chairman), Mr. A. C. 

Seward (Secretary), Professor J. B. Farmer, and Dr. D. Sharp 3411 

Report to the Committee by W. Bateson, M. A., F.R.S 34( i 

The Conditions of Health essential to the Carrying-on of the Work of 
Instruction in Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Mr. E. White Wallis (Secretary), Mr. 
E. W. Brabrook, Dr. 0, W. Kimmins, Professor L. C. Miall, and Miss 
Maitland 348 

Studies suitable for Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Sir Philip Magnus (Chairman), Mr. W. M. Heller (Secretary), 
Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. Adie, Professor H. E. Armstrong, Miss 
L. J. Clarke, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. George Fletcher, Professor R. A. 
Gregory, Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. Hall, Dr. A. J. Herbertsox, 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Professor J. Perry, Principal Reichel, Mr. H. 
Richardson, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, Professor A. Smithells, Dr. Lloyd 
Snape, Mr. Harold Wager, and Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to 
report upon the Courses of Experimental, Observational, and Practical 
Studies most suitable for Elementary Schools .'j52 

Influence of Examinations. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. 
E. Armstrong (Chairman), Mr. R. A. Gregory (Secretary), the Bishof 
of Hereford, Sir Michael Foster, Sir P. Magnus, Sir A. W. Rucker, 
Sir O. J. Lodge, Mr. H. W. Eve, Mr. W. A. Shen stone, Mr. W 7 . D. 
Eggar, Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. F. H. Neville, Mrs. W. N. 
Shaw, and Dr. C. W. Kimmins :J60 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. Whitakee (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rtjdler (Secretary), Sir John 
Evans, Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. Vatjghan Cornish, 
Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. 
Mill, Mr. C H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Professor W. W. Watts 
and the General Officers. (Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 377 

Report of the Conferences of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held at 

Cambridge, August 1904 379 

The Utilisation of Local Museums, with special reference to Schools. 

By the Rev. W. Johnson, BA, B.Sc 388 

On the Conformity of the Publications of Scientific Societies with certain 

Bibliographical Requirements. By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S. 394 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1904-1905 402 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Corresponding 

Societies duriDg the year ending May 31, 1904 405 



REPORT — 1904. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 

Page 
Address by Professor Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 421 

1. Thermal Dilatation of Compressed Hydrogen. By A. W. Witkowski 431 

2. Experiments to decide whether the Ether moves with the Earth. By 

Professor W. Wien 433 

3. Preliminary Note on the Tangential Stress due to Light incident obliquely 

on an Absorbing Surface. By Professor J. H. Poynting, D.Sc, F.R.S. 434 

4. The Reaction of the Radiation on a Moving Electron. By Professor M. 

Abraham _ 43g 

5. fQuantitative Determination of the Anomalous Dispersion of Sodium 

Vapour. By Professor R. W. Wood 438 

6. On the Dynamical Significance of Kundt's Law of Anomalous Dispersion. 

By Professor J. Larmor, Sec.R.S 438 

7. On the Relation of the Rontgen Radiation to Ordinary Lio-ht. By Pro- 

fessor J. Larmor, Sec.R.S 438 

Department of Mathematics. 

1. A Fragment of Elementary Mathematics. By Professor F. Morley 439 

2. *Peano's Symbolic Method. By A. N. Whitehead, F.R.S 440 

3. *The Theory of Linear Partial Differential Equations. By Mai or P. A. 

MacMahon, Sc.D., F.R.S .. 440 

4. On the Roots of the Characteristic Equatiou of a Linear Substitution. 

By T. J. Pa Bromwich 449 

5. On the Zeroes of Two Classes of Taylor Series. By G. H. Hardy 441 

6. Binary Canon Extension. By Lieut.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E. ... 443 

7. *On the Theory of Transfinite Numbers. By Dr. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S. 443 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 
Sub- section oe Astronomy and Cosmical Physics. 
Address by Sir John Eliot, K.C.I.E., M.A., F.R.S., Chairman 443 

1. The Spectra of Sun-spots. By the Rev. A. L. Cortie, S.J., F.R.A.S. ... 458 

2. -The Temperatura of the Stars. By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 459 



CONTENTS. xi 

Page 

"J. -Criteria of Stellar Temperatures. By H. F. Newall, F.R.S 459 

•A. The Short-period Barometric See-saw and its Relation to Rainfall. By 
William J. S. Lockyer, M.A., Ph.D.,F.R.A.S 459 

5. -The Relation hetween Solar Physics and Meteorology. By Professor 

BlRKELAND , 460 

6. -Experiments with Kites in the Mediterranean. By L. Teisserenc de 

£«Rt .' 460 

7. The Relation between the Minima and following Maxima of Sun-spots. 

By Alfred Angot 460 

8. ::: Relation between Pressure, Temperature, and Air Circulation in the 

South Atlantic Ocean. By Commander C. Hepworth 461 

9. On the Ultra-red Absorption Spectrum of Ozone and the Existence of that 

Gas in the Atmosphere. By Professor K. Angstrom 461 

10. An Instrument for the Measurement of the Radiation from the Earth. 

By Professor K. Angstrom 462 



Department op Mathematics. 

1 . The Law of Error. By Professor F. Y. Edgeworth, D.C.L 463 

2. Report on the Theory of Point-groups. Part IV. (p. 20). By Frances 

Hardcastle 463 

3. Notes on Plane Curves. By Harold Hilton, M.A 463 

4. *Note on a Special Homographic Transformation of Screw Systems. By 

Sir Robert Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 464 

5. *The Theory of Vibrations. By Professor V. Volterea 464 

6. *The Stability of the Steady Motion of a Viscous Fluid. By Professor 

W. McF. Orr 464 

7. -Note on the Schwarzian Derivative. By Professor A. C. Dixon, F.R.S. 464 

8. -Note on the Theory of Continuous Groups. By Professor A. R. Forsyth, 

F.R.S , 464 

9. -Some Observations on Linear Difference Equations. By Rev. E. W. 

Barnes 464 

10. *On the Use of Divergent Series in Astronomy. By Z. U. Ahmad 464 



1. 



MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

::: Recent Improvements in the Diffraction Process of Colour Photography. 
By Professor R. W. Wood 464 

2. -On ' Reststrahlen ' and the Optical Qualities of Metals. By Professor 

H. Rubens 465 

3. On the Separation of the Finest Spectral Lines. By Dr. O. Ltjmmee ... 465 

4. *Recent Work at the National Physical Laboratory. By Dr. R. T. 

Glazebrook, F.R.S 466 

5. An Effect of Electrical Vibrations in an Optically Active Medium. By 

Professor W. Voigt 466 

6. Discussion on N-Rays. Opened by Dr. 0. Lummer 467 

7. fStandards of Wave Length. By Professor Katser 468 



xii REPORT — 1904. 

Page 

8. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 30) 468 

9. ^Exhibition of a Magnetic Alloy containing no Iron. By R. A. Had- 

field 468 

Sttb-section of Astronomy and Cosmical Physics. 

1. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 41) 468 

2. Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere bv means of Kites 

(p. 17) 468 

3. The Temperature of the Air in Cyclones and Anticyclones, as shown by 

Kite-flights at Blue Hill Observatory, U.S.A. ' By A. Lawrence 
Rotch, B.S., M.A 46b 

4. -Problems of Astronomy. By Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S 469 

5. ^Discussion on Units used in Meteorological Measurement. Opened by 

Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 469 

6. -On the Masses of the Stars. By Dr. H. N. Russell 469 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. A Correlation between the Electric Conductivity of Air and the Variation 

of Barometric Pressure. By John Don, M. A., B.Sc 469 

2. On the Ionisation of the Atmosphere. By Professor A. Schuster, F.R.S. 471 

3. :;: Discussion on the Radio-activity of Ordinary Matter. Opened by Pro- 

fessor J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 471 

4. On the Radio-activity of the Hot Springs of Aix-les- Bains. By Dr. G. A. 

Blanc 471 

5. fPlan of a Combination of Atoms having the Properties of Polonium or 

Radium. By Lord Kelvin, F.R.S 472 

6. tElectrical Insulation in Vacuum. By Lord Kelvin, F.R.S 472 

7. *Electrical Conductivity of Flames. By Dr. H. A. Wilson 472 

8. The Electrical Properties of Hot Bodies. By Dr. 0. W. Richardson, 

M.A 472 

9. The Production of Radio-active Surfaces. By C. E. S. Phillips 473 

10. *The Kinetic Theory : Determination of the Size of Molecules. By J. H. 

Jeans 473 

11. Dr. Grindley's Experiments on Steam in the Light of the Ether-pressure 

Theory. By J. Macfarlane Gray 474 

12. On a Volatile Product of the Radium Emanation. By W. C. D. 

Whetham, F.R.S 474 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24. 
Department op Physics. 

1. The Propagation of Electric Waves along Spiral Wires, and on an Appli- 

ance for Measuring the Length of Waves used in Wireless Telegraphy. 
By J. A. Fleming, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S 474 

2. Eddy-current Losses in Three-phase Cable-sheaths. By M. B. Fields.... 476 

3. -Magnetic and Electric Properties of Nickel at High Temperatures. By 
Professor C. G. Knott _ _ 476 



CONTENTS. Sill 

Page 

4 On the Viscosity of Colloidal Iron Hydrate. By A. D. Denning, M.Sc, 

Ph.D 476 

5 Magnetic Double Refraction of Colloidal Iron Hydrate. By A. D. Den- 

ning, M.Sc, Ph.D 477 

6. An Experimental Verification of Newton's Second Law. By W. D. 

Eggar, M.A 478 

7. On a Modification of FitzGerald's Model of the Ether. By J. Butler 

BURKE 478 

8. "On the Electric and Thermic Conductivities of certain Alloys of Iron. 

By Professor W. F. Barrett, F.R.S., and R. A. Hadfield 479 

9. On a New Apparatus for producing Magnetic Fields of Force. By Pro- 

fessor Marcus Hartog 47 ^ 

Sub-section op Astronomy and Cosmical Physics. 

1. Report on the Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory (p. 29) ... 479 

2. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 55) 479 

3 Some Results with the Solar Physics Observatory Photo-Spectro-Helio- 

graph. By William J. S Lockyer, M.A., Ph.D ,F.R.A.S 480 

4. On the Unsymmetrical Distribution of Rainfall about the Path of a 

Barometric Depression. By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc 480 

5. The Application to Meteorology of the Theory of Correlation. By Miss 

F. E. Cave 481 

6. The Development of the Aeroplane. By Major B. Baden-Powell 481 

7. *Plato's Theory of the Planets. By Professor D'Arcy W. Thompson, C.B. 482 

8. Report on Underground Temperature (p. 51) 482 

9. *Zur Flugfrage. By Dr. F. Hirtel 482 

10. Upper Air-currents and their Relation to the Audibility of Sound. By 

Rev. J. M. Bacon 482 

11. On the Effect of Electric Air-currents. By Professor Selim Lemstrom 482 

12. The Rainfall of the Midland and Eastern Counties of England. By John 

Hopkinson, Vice-Pres.R.Met.Soc, Assoc.Inst.C.E 485 

13. The Rainfall of England, 1861-1900. By John Hopkinson, Vice-Pres. 

R.Met.Soc, Assoc.Inst.C.E 4y5 



Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 

Address by Professor Sydney Young, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the 

Section ■•■ 488 

1. The Relation between the Crystalline and the Amorphous States as dis- 
closed by the Surface Flow of Solids. By G. T. Beilb y 499 

2. The Action of certain Gases on Glass in the Neighbourhood of Hot Metals. 

By G. T. Beilby • 50 ° 

3. *On the Formation of Salts in Solutions, especially amongst Tautomeric 

~ . -~ ■«» • t iir Tl_^ 500 



Compounds. By Professor J. W. Bruhl 

*Methods of Investigating Alloys, illustrati 
By C. T. Heycock. F.R.S., and F. H. Neville, F.R.S. 



4. *Methods of Investigating Alloys, illustrated from the Copper-Tin Series. 

oUU 



xiv REPORT— 1904. 

Page 

5. Hexachlor-a-Picolin and its derivatives. By W. J. Sell, M.A., F.R.S. 501 

6. The Change of Conductivity in Solutions during Chemical Reactions. By 

P. V. Bevan, MA .'. 501 

7. On Double Acetylides. By Major A. E. Edwards and Professor W. R. 

Hodqkinson, PhD 502 

8. On some Reactions between Ammonium Salts and Metals. By Professor 

W. R. Hodgkinson, Ph.D., and Arthur H. Coote 502 

9. Report on the Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances (p. 60) 503 

10. The Constitution of Nickel Carbonyl. By H. O. Jones, M.D., D.Sc 503 

11. A Suggested Explanation of the Phenomena of Opalescence observed in 

the Neighbourhood of Critical States. By F. G. Donn an 504 

FBIDA T, A UG U8T 19. 

1. On Crystal Structure and its Relation to Chemical Constitution. By 
Professor Paul Groth .". 505 

2. On Dynamic Isomerism. By T. M. Lowrt, D.Sc. (p. 193) 509 

3. The Constitution of Phthalein Salts. By Professor Richard Meyer ... 509 

4. "Studies in the Dynamic Isomerism of a- and /3-Crotonic Acids. By 

R. S. Morrell and E. K. Hanson 512 

5. Mesoxalic Semialdehyde. By Henry J. Horstman Fenton, F.R.S. ... 512 

6. Note on the Influence of Radium Radiations on Atmospheric Oxidation 

in presence of Iron. By Henry J. Horstman Fenton, F.R.S 512 

7. A Colour Reaction for Methylfurfural and its Derivatives. By II. J. H. 
Fenton, F.R.S., and J. P. Millington, B.A 513 

8. A Reaction for Keto-hexoses. By Henry J. Horstman Fenton, F.R.S. 513 

9. On the Energy of Water and Steam at High Temperatures. By Pro- 
fessor C. Dieterici 513 

10. *On the Specific Heat of Gases at High Temperatures. By Professor 

H. B. Dixon, F.R.S „ 514 

11. *The Oxidation of Carbohydrates by Hydrogen Peroxide in presence of 
Ferrous Sulphate. By R. S. Morrell and A. E. Bellars 514 

12. Report on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Com- 
pounds (p. 66.) 514 



MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. Sur la photographie des spectres d'etincelle directe des mine>aux sulfures. 
Par le Comte A. de Gramont, D. es Sc.Ph . 514 

2. Quelques^ observations sur le groupement des raies du spectre du silicium 
d'apres l'effet de la self-induction, et sur leur presence dans les spectres 
stellaires. Par le Comte A. de Gramont, D. es Sc.Ph 515 

3 -Changes produced by the 0-rays. By Sir William Ramsay, K C B 

F - RS .' 517 

4. The Stereochemistry of Nitrogen. By H. O. Jones, M. A., D.Sc. (p. 169) 517 

5. On the Pentavalent Nitrogen Atom. By Professor Ossian Aschan 517 

<3. The Asymmetric Nitrogen Atom. By Professor E. Wedekind 51 K 

7. On the Products obtained by the Action of Tertiary Bases on some Acid 

< 'hlorides. By Professor E. Wedekind 500 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

8. Sur les Manganates et les Permanganates. By Dr. A. Etaed 523 

9. On the Bearing of the Colour Phenomena presented by Kadium Com- 
pounds. By William Ackeoyd 524 

10. ::: Pseudomorphosis in Organic Persulphates. By Professor K. Wolffen- 

stein 525 

11. A New Theory of the Periodic Law. By Professor G. J. Stokes, M.A. 525 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. On the Velocity of Osmosis and on Solubility: a Contribution to the 
Theory of Narcosis. By Professor I. Teaube 525 

2. The Action of Organic Bases on Olefinic Ketonic Compounds. By Dr. S. 
Rtjhemann and E. R. Watson 527 

3. The Union of Hydrogen and Oxygen in contact with a Hot Surface. By 

William A. Bone and Richabd V. Wheelee 527 

4. The Decomposition and Synthesis of Ammonia. By Edgae Philip 
Peeman, D.Sc 528 

5. On Active Chlorine. By C. H. Btjbgess and D. L. Chapman 529 

6. *Exhibition of Effects produced by precipitating Silver Chromate in 
Gelatine. By Professor I. Tbattbe 530 

7. ^'Exhibition of Photographs of Sections of an Australian Siderite. By 
Professor A. Liveesidge, F.R.S 530 

8. = :: Ueber Isocystein (Isothioserin). By Professor S. Gabeiel 530 

9. Saponarin, a Glucoside coloured Blue by Iodine. By G. Bargee 530 

10. *The Vapour Density of Hydrazine Hydrate. By Dr. A. Scott, F.R.S. 531 

11. *The Combining Volumes of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen. By Dr A 
Scott, F.R.S .' 531 

12. *The Action of Heat on Oxalates. By Dr. A. Scott, F.R.S 531 

13. *Some Alkyl Derivatives of Sulphur, Selenium, and Tellurion. By Dr 

A. Scott, F.R.S .' 531 

14. :!: On the Presence of Arsenic in the Body and its Secretion by the Kidneys 

By W. Thomson, F.R.S.E 531 

15. *On New Low-temperature Phenomena and their Scientific Applications. 

By Professor Sir James Dewae, F.R.S 531 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 

Address by Atjbeet Steahan, M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section 532 

1. The Geology of Cambridgeshire. By J. E. Maer, Sc.D., F.R.S 541 

2. The Great Eastern Glacier. By F. W. Haemee 542 

3. On a Great Depth of Drift in the Valley of the Stour. By W. Whitakee 

F.R.S .' 543 

4. Well-sections in Cambridgeshire. By W. Whitakee, F.R.S. (p. 266)... 544 

5. Note on a Small Anticline in the Great Oolite Series at Clapham, North 

of Bedford. By Hoeace B. Woodwaed, F.R.S 544 



xvi REPORT — 1904. 

Page 

6. Recent Coast Erosion in Suffolk — Dunwich to Covehithe. By John 

Spiller 544 

7. Report on the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, &c. 

(p. 272) 545 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1, On the Structure of the Silurian Ophiurid Lajnvorthura Miltoni. By- 

Professor W. J. Sollas, F.R.S 546 

2. The Base-line of the Carboniferous System round Edinburgh. By B. N. 

Peach, LL.D., F.R.S., and J. Hokne, LL.D., F.R.S 546 

-3. Note on the Fish-remains recently collected by the Geological Survey of 
Scotland at Salisbury Crags, Craigmillar, Clubbiedean Reservoir, and 
Torduff Reservoir, in the Edinburgh District. By Dr. R. H. Traquair, 
F.R.S 547 

4. On the Fauna of the Upper Old Red Sandstone of the Moray Firth Area. 

By Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S 547 

5. Note on Lower Cretaceous Phosphatic Beds and their Fauna. By G. W. 

Lampltjgh 548 

6. On Marine Fossils from the Ironstone of Shotover Hill, near Oxford. By 

G. W. Lamplttgh 548 

7. On the Fossil Plants of the Upper Culm Measures of Devon. By E. A. 

Newell Arber, M.A 549 

8. On Derived Plant Petrifactions from Devonshire. By E. A. Newell 

Arber, M.A 549 

9. Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles (p. 275) 549 

10. On Footprints of Small Fossil Reptiles from the Upper Karroo Rocks of 

Cape Colony. By Professor H. G. Seelet, F.R.S 549 

11. Report on Life Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks (p. 226) 650 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. Discussion on the Nature and Origin of Earth Movements 550 

i. Introduction. By Aubrey Strahan, M. A., F.R.S 550 

ii. The Earth Movements in the North- West Highlands. By Dr. John 

Horne, F.R.S 550 

iii. Effects of Earth Movements on Rocks. By J. J. H. Teall, M.A., 

F.R.S f .' ; 551 

2. Evidence in the Secondary Rocks of Persistent Movement in the Char- 

nianRange. By Professor Percy F. Kendall 558 

3. River-capture in the Don System. By Rev. W. Lower Carter, M.A.... 558 

4. On the Elephant Trench at Dewlish, Dorset : Was it a Pitfall ? By Rev. 

O. Fisher, M.A 559 

5. Notes on the Glaciation of Holyhead Mountain. By Edward Greenly 559 

6. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles (p. 237) 559 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. On the Origin of the Great Iron-ore Deposits of Lapland. By Dr. Helse 

B ackstrom 560 

2. Exhibition of Specimens of Tertiary Plutonic Rocks (including Gneisses) 

from the Isle of Rum. By Alfred Harker, M. A., F.R.S 561 



CONTENTS. XVU 

Page 

3. The Lava-Domes of the Eifel. By Edward Greenly 561 

4. Report on Geological Photographs (p. 242) 561 

5. Concretions as the Result of Crystallisation. By Professor H. A. Miers, 

F.R.S 561 

6. Basic Patches in the Granite of Mount Sorrel, Leicestershire. By R. H. 

Rastall, B.A 562 

7. On the Different Modifications of Zircon. By L. J. Spencer, M.A 562 

8. A Preliminary Description of Three New Minerals and some Curious 

Crystals of Blende from the Lengenbach Quarry, Binnenthal. By R. H. 
Solly, MA 563 

9. On the Granite from Gready, near Luxullian, in Cornwall, and its Inclu- 
sions. By Professor Karl Busz 563 

10. Report on the Movements of Underground Waters of North-west York- 
shire (p. 225) 565 

WEDNESDA Y, A UG UST 24. 

1. -Exhibition of a Model of the Cleveland Area, showing Glacier Lakes. 

By Professor Percy F. Kendall 565 

2. The Glaciation of the Don and Dearne Valleys. By Rev. W. Lower 

Carter, M.A 565 

3. The Discovery of Human Remains under Stalagmite in Gough's Cave, 

Cheddar, Somerset. By Henry N. Davies 569 

4. Report on the Exploration of Irish Caves (p. 288) 570 

5. The Geology of the Oban Hills, Southern Nigeria. By John Parkinson 570 

6. On Boulders from the Cambridge District, collected by the Sedgwick Club. 

By R. H. Rastall, B.A 571 

7. On Tidal Action in the Mersey in Recent Years. By James N. Shoolbred, 

B.A., M.Inst.C.E " 572 

8. Note on certain High-level or Plateau Gravels on the North Side of the 
Tamisian Area, and their Connection with the Tertiary History of Central 
England. By A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A 572 

9. -Some Remarkable Occurrences of Struvite Crystals. By Dr. Hugh w™ 
Marshall, F. R. S 573 



10. On the Occurrence of Pebbles of White Chalk in A berdeenshire Clay Bv 
A. W. Gibb '" J 



573 



Section D. — ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 
Address by William Bateson, M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section 574 

1. The Coloration of Marine Crustacea. By Professor F. W. Keeble 

(P- 299) 589 

2. The Miocene Ungulates of Patagonia. By Professor W. B. Scott 589 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. Heredity in Stocks. By Miss E. R. Saunders 590 

2. On the Result of Crossing Japanese Waltzing with Albino Mice. By 

A. D. Darbishire kqi 

1901 ;• 591 



xviii report — 1904. 

Page 

3. Experiments on Heredity in 'Rabbits. By C. C. Hurst, F.L.S 592 

4. -Experiments on Heredity in Fowls. By R. C. Punnett 593 

5. An ' Intermediate ' Hybrid in Wheat. By R. H. Biffen 593 

6. Experiments on the Behaviour of Differentiating Colour-characters in 
Maize. By R. H. Lock, B.A 593 

7. Experiments on Heredity and Sex-determination in Abraxas grossulanata. 

By Rev. G. H. Raynor and L. Doncaster 594 

8. Experiments on Heredity in Web-footed Pigeon. By R. Staples-Browne 595 

9. *Fowls and Sweet Peas. By W. Bateson, F.R.S 595 

10. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 

(p. 300) 595 

11. Report on the 'Index Animalium' (p. 297) 595 

12. Report on the Influence of Salt and other Solutions on the Development 

of the Frog (p. 288) 595 

13. Report on the Colour Physiology of Higher Crustacea (p. 299) 595 

14. Report on the Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean (p. 298) 595 

15. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 

(p. 297) 596 

16. Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 298) 596 

17. Report on the Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands (p. 299) 596 

M ON DA Y, A UO UST 22. 

1. :;: Egyptian Eocene Vertebrates and their Relationships, particularly with 

regard to the Geographical Distribution of Allied Forms. By Dr C. W. 
Andrews 696 

2. ' Normentafeln ' of the Development of Vertebrata. By Professor F. 

Keibel 696 

3. On the Embryos of Apes. By Professor F. Keibel 596 

4. On Professor Loos's recent Researches on Ankylostoma (the Miner's 

Worm.) By A E. Shipley, F.R.S .' 596 

5. Cytoryctes variola Guarnieri: the Organism of Small-pox. By Professor 
G.N. Calkins 597 

6. Certain Biological Aspects in the General Pathology of Malignant New 
Growths. By J. A. Murray, M.B 598 

7. On the Fertilisation of the Egg of the Axolotl. By J. W. Jenkinson, 
M.A 600 

8. Some New and Rare Isopoda taken in the British Area. By W. M. 
Tattersall, B.Sc 601 

9. fSome New and Rare Schizopoda from the Atlantic Slope on the West 

of Ireland. By E. W. L. Holt and W. M. Tattersall, B.Sc 602 

10. Some New Copepoda from the Atlantic Slopes. By G. P. Farran , 602 

11. On a New Species of Dolichoglossus. By W. M. Tattersall, B.Sc 603 

TUESBA Y, A UG UST 23. 
1. The Budgett Memorial : 

fi) Note on the Developmental Material of Polypterus obtained by the 

late Mr. J. S. Budgett. By J. Graham Kerr 604 

(ii) Notes on the Development of Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis (Daud). 

ByE. J. Bles 605 



CONTENTS. XIX 

Page 

2. Rejuvenation. By Charles Sedgwick Mtnot, LL.D., Sc.D 606 

3. An Experiment with Telegony. By Charles Sedgwick Minot, LL.D., 
Sc.D 606 

4. The Harvard Emhrvological Collection. By Charles Sedgwick Minot, 

LL.D., ScD 606 

5. The Precipitin Test in the Study of Animal Relationships. By Dr. 

George H. F. Nuttall, F.R.S 607 

6. fThe Mimetic Resemblance of Diptera for Hymenoptera, By Professor 

E. B. Poulton, F.R.S 607 

7. The Evolution of the Horse. By Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn... 607 

8. fThe Histogenesis of the Blood of the Larva of Lepidosiren. By Dr. T. H. 
Brtce 608 

9. -The Hatching of Anuran Tadpoles. By E. J. Bles, M.A 608 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. The Effects Produced by Growing Frog Embryos in Salt and other 

Solutions. By J. W. Jenkinson (p. 283) 608 

2. On the Pacific, Atlantic, Japanese, and other ' Palolos.' By Professor 

McTntosh, F.R.S 608 

3. On the Elucidation of Cellular Fields of Force by Magnetic Models. By 

Professor Marcus Hartog 610 

4. ^Demonstration of Cytoplasmic Figures in Segmenting Eggs of Ryn- 
chelmis (Prof. Vejdovsky). By Professor Marcus Hartog 611 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDA Y, AUG UST 1 8 . 
Address by Douglas W. Freshfield, F.R.G.S., President of the Section ... 612 

1, Cyrene: an Illustration of the Bearing of Geography on History. By 

D. G. Hogarth, M.A 626 

2. Ptolemy's Map of Asia Minor: Method of Construction. By the Rev. 

H. S. Cronin, B.D 627 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. The Fulani Emirates of Northern Nigeria. By Major J. A. Burdon, M.A., 

F.R.G.S 628 

2. Methods of Topographical Survey. By Major C. F. Close, C.M.G., R.E. 629 

3. The Glaciers of the Caucasus. By Maurice de Dechy 631 

4. Scenes and Studies in the Nile Valley. By Arthur Silva "White 631 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. A Journey around Lake Titicaca. By Arthur W. Hill, M.A 631 

2. Glacier-bursts. By Charles Rabot 632 

3. Report on Terrestrial Surface Waves (p. 301) 633 

4. Brunanburh: Identification of this Battle Site in North Lincolnshire. 

By the Rev. Alfred Hunt, M.A 633 

5. *The Lipari Islands and their Volcanoes. By Tempest Anderson, M.D. 

B.Sc 634 

a2 



X X REPORT — 1904. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 23. 

Page 

1. Exhibit of Maps and Photographs showing Effects of Earth Movements 

near Naples ; with a Note on the Area affected by them. By R. T. 
Gunther, M.A 634 

2. On the Nomenclature of the Physical Features of England and Wales. 

By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc 635 

3. Changes in the Fen District. By H. Yule Oldham, M.A 635 

4. Vegetation of the Fen District. By Professor R. H. Yapp, M.A 636 

5. Notes on the Malabar Coast of India. By R. S. Lepper, M.A., LL.M. 636 

6. A Geographical Object Lesson : Passes of the Alps. By A. W. Andrews 637 

7. -The Scottish Antarctic Expedition. By W. S. Bruce 637 

8. The First True Maps. By C. R. Beazley, M.A 637 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 

Address by Professor William Smart, M.A.,, D.Phil., LL.D., President of the 

Section 639 

1. Tests of National Progress. By A. L. Bowley, M.A 647 

2. A Moot Point in the Theory of International Trade. By Professor F. Y. 

Edgeworth, D.C.L 647 

3. The Influence of Agricultural Improvements on Rent. By Professor 

A. W. Flux, MA 647 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. The Incidence of Protective Duties on the Industry and Food Supply of 

France. By Yves Guyot 648 

2. The Effect of Protection on some German Industries. By Professor W. 

Lotz 651 

3. Free Trade and the Labour Market. By Professor H. Dietzel 653 

4. Economic Theory and Fiscal Policy. By L. L. Price, M.A 654 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. The Economic Importance of the Family. By Mrs. Bosanquet 655 

2. Cotton Growing in the Empire. By J. A. Hutton 656 

3. Report on the Accuracy and Comparability of British and Foreign Statis- 

tics of International Trade (p. 302) .....' 658 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. Changes in Nominal and Real Wages in Belgium. By Professor E. 

Mahaim 658 

2. The Development of Towns. By T. C. Horsfall 660 

3. The Town Housing Question. By Mrs. Fisher 660 

4. The Increase of Suburban Populations. By Sidney Low, B.A 661 

5. The Relation between Population and Area in India. By J. A. Baines, 

C.S.I 662 

6. Investigations on the Nutrition of Man. By Professor Atwater (p. 758) 663 



CONTENTS. XXI 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

Page 

1. The Modification of the Income-tax. By W. G. S. Adams 663 

2. A proposed Substitute for the Sugar-tax. By Barnard Ellinger 664 

3. Some Features of the Labour Question in America. By 0. J. Hamilton 665 

4. The Employment of the Graduate. By H. A. Roberts, M.A 666 

Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 
Address by the Hon. C. A. Parsons, M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section 667 
1. -The Origin of Sand Bipples. By Mrs. Hertha Ayrton 676 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. fFlame Temperatures in Internal Combustion. By Dugald Clerk 676 

2. :;: On the Specific Heat of Gases at High Temperatures. By Professor 

H. B. Dixon, F.R.S 676 

3. tExhaust Gas Calorimetry. By Professor B. Hopeinson, M.A. » 676 

4. tThe Effect of Receiver Drop in a Compound Engine, By J. W. Hat- 

ward, M.Sc 676 

5. Superheated Steam : Wire-drawing and other Experiments.- By A. II. 

Peaee,B.A 676 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. Electricity from Water-Power. By A. A. Campbell Swinton 677 

2. The Use of Electricity on the North-Eastern Railway and on Tyneside. 

By 0. H. Merz and AV. McLellan 678 

3. fTestiug Alternating-current Induction Motors by a Hopkinson Method. 

By W. E. Sumpner and R. W. Weeees .' 679 

4. Energy Losses in Magnetising Iron. By W. M. Mordey and A. G. 

Hansard 679 

5. fDistribution of Magnetic Induction in Multipolar Armatures. By W. M. 

Thornton , 682 

6. On Large Bulb Incandescent Electric Lamps as Secondary Standards of 

Light, By Professor J. A. Fleming, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S 682 

7. Some Investigations on the Ten-candle Power Harcouit Pentane Lamp 

made at the National Physical Laboratory. By Clifford C. Paterson 683 

TUESDA Y, A UG UST 23. 

1 . Report on the Tidal Regime of the River Mersey (p. 318) 684 

2. fThe Control of the Nile. By Major Sir Hanbury Brown, K.C.M.G... 684 

3. A Universal Testing Machine of 300 tons for Full- sized Structural 

Members. By J. H. Wicesteed, Pres.Inst.Mech.E < 684 

4. tThe Effect of Rapidly Alternating Stresses on Structural Steels. By 
Professor J. 0. Arnold 684 

5. The Production of Magnetic Alloys from Non-magnetic Metals. By R. A. 

Hadfield 685 

6. ^Indicator Tests on a small Petrol Engine. By Professor H. L. Cal- 
led dar, F.R.S 686 



xxii REPORT — 1904. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

Page 

1. tSide Slip in Motor Cars. By Hoeacb Darwin, F.R S., and 0. V. 

Burton 6y6 

2. *Au Electric Temperature Alarm. By Horace Darwin, F.R. S 680 

3. The Electrical Conductivity of certain Aluminium Alloys as affected by 

Exposure to London Atmosphere, and a Note on their Micro-structure. 
By Professor Ernest Wilson 686 

4. The proposed Barrage of the River Thames. By James Casey . 686 

5. Testing Alternate-current Motors by Continuous Current. By William 

Cramp, A.M.I.E.E 687 

6. fThe Action of Lightning Strokes on Buildings. By Killingworth 
Hedges 688 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 
Address by Henry Balfour, M. A., President of the Section 689 

1. The Evolution of the Lotus Ornament. By Professor Oscar Montelius 700 

2. -Note on the Entomology of Scarabs. By Professor W. M. Flinders 
Peteie, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S 700 

3. fExcavations at Ehnasya in Egypt, with special reference to a Series of 
Roman Lamps. By Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, 1) C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S 701 

4. Recent Explorations at Great Zimbabwe. By R. N. Hall 701 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. Report on Anthropometric Investigation in Great Britain and Ireland 

(p. 330) 701 

2. *The Alleged Physical Deterioration of the People. By Professor D. J. 

Cunningham, M.D., F.R.S 701 

3. A Comparison of the Physical Characters of Hospital Patients with those 

of Healtby Individuals from the same Areas, with Suggestions as to the 
Influence of Selection by Disease on the Constitution of City Populations. 
By F. C. Shrubsall, M.D 702 

4 An Anthropometric Survey : its Utility to Science and to the State. By 
John Gray, B.Sc ...... 704 

5. ^Discussion on Physical Deterioration and Anthropometric Survey 705 

6. The Progress of the Ethnographic Survey of Madras. By Edgar 
Thurston 705 

7. Interim Report on the Present State of Anthropological Teaching (p. 341) 706 

8. Recent Anthropometric Work in Scotland. By J. F. Tocher, F.I.C. ... 706 

9. The Distribution and Variation of the Surnames in East Aberdeenshire in 
1696 and 1896. By J. F. Tocher, F.I.C 707 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. A Plan for a Uniform Scientific Record of the Languages of Savages. 

By Sir Richard Temple, Bart., CLE 708 

2. On Group-Marriage in Australian Tribes. By A. W. How.ttt 709 



CONTENTS. XX1U 

Page 

3. The Passing of the Matriarchate. By R. S, Leppeb, M.A., LL.M 709 

4. An Anthropological View of the Origin of Tragedy. By Professor W. 
Ridgeway, M.A 710 

5. The so-called Tomb of Mena at Negadeh in Upper Egypt. By John 
Gabstang, B.Litt 711 

6. On an Interment of the Early Iron Age found at Moredun, near Edin- 
burgh. By F. R. Ooles and T. H. Beyce, M.D 712 

7. On a Phase of Transition between the Chambered Cairns and Closed 

Cysts in the South-west Corner of Scotland. By T. H. Beyce, M.D. ... 713 

8. The Cimaruta, a Neapolitan Charm. By R. T. Gunthee, M.A 714 

9. Records of Palaeolithic Man from a New Locality in the Isle of Wight. 

By Professor E. B, Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S 715 



Sub-Section op Antheopogeaphy. 

1. The Persistence in the Human Brain of certain Features usually supposed 

to be distinctive of Apes. By G. Elliot Smith, M.D 715 

2. A Note on the Brain of a Foetal Gorilla. By W. L. H. Duckwoeth, M.A. 715 

3. Some Variations in the Astragalus. By R. B. Seymoub Sewell, B.A... 716 

4. Some Varieties of the Os Calcis. By P. C. Laidlaw 716 

5. Facial Expression. By F. G. Pabsons 717 

6. Anthropometric Identification : a New System of Classifying the Records. 

By J. Geay, B.Sc 717 

7. Graphical Representation of the various Racial Human Types. By 
W. L. H. Duckworth, M.A 718 

8. Exhibit of Amorite Crania By Professor A. Macalistee, F.R.S 718 

9. Report on Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of the 
Egyptian Army (p. 339) 718 

10. The Variability of Modern and Ancient Peoples. By C S. Myees, M.D. 718 



TUESDA Y, A UG VST 23. 

1. Note on Prehistoric Archaeology in Greece. By Dr. P. Kabbadias 718 

2. Report on Archaeological and Ethnographical Explorations in Crete 

(p. 321) 719 

3. Preliminary Scheme for the Classification and approximate Chronology of 
the Periods of Minoan Culture in Crete, from the close of the Neolithic to 

the Early Iron Age. By Aethub J. Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S 719 

4. Painted Vases of the Bronze Age from Palaikastro. By R. M. Dawkins, 
B.A , 721 

5. Excavations at Heleia (Palaikastro) and Praisos in Eastern Crete. By 

R. C. Bosanquet, M.A., F.S.A 721 

6. The Linguistic Character of the Eteocretan Language. By Professor 

R. S. Conway, Litt.D 722 

7. A Find of Copper Ingots at Chalcis. By R. C. Bosanquet, M.A 722 

8. The Geometric Period in Greece. By Professor Oscae Montelius 723 

9. The Latest Discoveries in Prehistoric Science in Denmark. By Professor 
Valdemae Schmidt 723 



xxiv report — 1904. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

Page 

1 . Classification Sociale. Par M. Edmond Demolins 724 

2. Further Excavations on a Paleolithic Site in Ipswich. By Nina Frances 
Layard 725 

3. Report on the Lake Village at Glastonbury (p. 824) 72G 

4. Reports on Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain (p. 337) 726 

5. -Some Funeral Customs of the Todas. By Br. W. H. R. Rivers 720 

6. On a Votive Offering from Korea. By E. Sidney Hartland 726 

7. Notes on the Fulahs of Nigeria. By E. F. Martin 726 

8. -The Bee Cult in British Folklore. By G. L. Gomme, F.S A 727 

Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 

Address by Professor C. S. Sherrington, ScD., M.D., F.R.S., President of 
the Section 728 

1. On Reflex and Direct Response to Galvanic and Faradic Currents. 

By Professor J. A. MacWilliam 741 

2. On the Metabolism of Arginin. By Professor W. EL Thompson, M.D.... 741 

3. On the Relation of Trvpsinogen to Trypsin. By Professor E. II. Star- 
ling, F.R.S 741 

4. The Effect of Alcohol on the Heart. By Br. W. E. Dixon 742 

FBI DAY, AUGUST 19. 

Discussion on Oxidation and Functional Activity. Opened by Sir J. S. 
Burdon Sanderson, Bart., F.R.S 742 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 20. 

1. The Spread of Plague. By Dr. E. H. Hankin 748 

2. Observations on the Senses of the Todas. By YV. H. Rivers, M.D 749 

3. Recent Development of Helmholtz's Theory of Hearing. By Dr. C. S. 
Myers 760 

4. Experimental Investigations on Memory. The Localisation of Remote 
Memories. By Dr. N. Vaschide 750 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 
Discussion on Conduction and Structure in the Nerve-arc and Nerve Cell 751 

1. On Methods of Artificial Respiration. By Professor E. A. Schaire, 
F.R.S 754 

2. The Necessity of a Lantern Test as the Official Test for Colour Blindness. 

By Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green 755 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. On Protamines. By Professor A. Kossel and H. D. Dakin 755 

2. The Metabolism of different Carbohydrates. By Professor J. E. Johans- 
son 756 

3. Some Observations on Blood Pigments. By P. P. Laidlaw, B. A 757 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 

4. On the Distribution of Potassium in Animal and Vegetable Cells. By 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Ph.D 757 

5. Investigations on the Nutrition of Man. By Professor W. 0. Atwater... 758 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. Motor Localisation in the Lemur. By Dr. W. Page Mat and Professor 
Elliot Smith 760 

2. On Descending Thalamus Tracts. By Dr. W. Page Mat 760 

3. Joint-ill in Foals. By Professor G. Sims Woodhead, M.D 760 

4. A Committee of Pathological Research. By Dr. T. S. P. Strangewats 760 

5. The Effect of Chloroform on the Heart. By Professor C. S. Sherring- 
ton, M.D., F.R.S , and Miss S. C. M. Sowton 761 

6. Report on the Metabolism of the Tissues (p. 348) 762 

7. Report on the State of Solution of Proteids (p. 341) 762 

8. Report on the Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors (p. 342) 762 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 18. 
Address by Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B.,F.R.S., President of the Section... 763 

1. A New Type of Sphenophyllaceous Cone from the Lower Coal Measures. 

By D. H. Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S 777 

2. On Some New Lagenostomas. By D. H. Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., 
and E. A. Newell Arber, M.A 778 

3. Observations on Structure of the Leaf-trace of Inversicatenate Filicinae. 

By Professor C. Eg. Bertrand and Professor F. Cornaille 778 

4. On the Presence of Parichnos in Recent Plants. By T. G. Hill 780 

5. The Anatomy of Psilotum triquetrum. By Miss Sibille O. Ford 780 

6. Seed-coats of Cycads. By Marie C. Stopes, Ph.D., B.Sc 780 

7. A New Feature in the Morphology of the Fern-like Fossil Glossopteris. 

By E. A. Newell Arber, M.A 781 

8. On Reduction of the Gametophyte in Todea. By L. A. Boodle 781 

9. On the Reduction of the Marchantiaceous Type in Cyathodium. By 

William H. Lang, M.B., D.Sc. 782 

10. :;: On some Peperomia Seedlings. By A. W. Hill, M.A 783 

11. Exhibition of Specimens illustrating (1) the Comparative Constancy of 

Specific Characters of Eucalypts; (2) the Relation between the Leaf 
Venation and the Oil Constituents. By R. T. Baker, F.L.S 783 

12. ^Exhibition of Fruits of Melocanna, Melocalamus, and Ochlandra. By 

Dr. Otto Stapf 783 

13. Observations on Secondary Thickening in Amarantus spinosm. By 
Horace A. Wager, A.R.C.S 783 

14. Report on the Respiration of Plants (p. 344) 784 

15. Report on the Registration of Botanical Photographs (p. 345) 784 

16. Report on Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity (p. 346)... 784 
17 ^Interim Report on a Monograph of the Genus Potamogeton 784 



xxvi REPORT — 1904. 

Sub-Section*of Agriculture. 

Page 

Address by W. Somerville, M. A., D.Sc., D.CEc, Cliairman 784 

1. ::: The Organisation of Agricultural Research in America. By Professor 
Atwaxer "95 

2. The Improvement of Wheats and Mendel's Laws. By R. H. Biffen, 

M.A. 795 

3. Hybridisation of Cereals, By John H. Wilson, D.Sc 796 

4. The Clover Mystery: A Probable Solution. By Robert H. Elliot 797 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. On the Problems of Ecology. By Professor A. G. TANSLEr, M.A., 
F.L.S 71)7 

2. Botanical Survey of Britain. By W. G. Smith, B.Sc.,Ph.l) 798 

3. ^Observations on the Biology and Distribution of W 7 oodland Plant.-. Bv 

T. W. Woodhead 798 

4. Interglacial and Postglacial Beds of the Cross Fell District. By Francis 

J. Lewis, F.L.S ' 798 

5. Plants of the Northern Temperate Zone in their Transition to the 
High Mountains of Tropical Africa. By Professor A. Engler 799 

6. Mechanical Advantage among Plant Organs. By J. Clark, Ph.D., B.Sc. 801 

7. -Exhibition of Pure Cultures of Algje. By Professor R. Chodat 801 

8. ^Exhibition of Micro-photographs of Freshwater Plankton. By Professor 

G. S. W 7 est 802 

9. -Exhibition of Kammatograph Photographs showing the Movements of 

Plants. By Mrs. D. H. Scott 802 

10. *On the Artificial Formation of a New Race. By Professor G. Klebs... 802 

11. The Present State of our Knowledge of the Cytology of the Cyano- 
phyceae. By Harold Wager, F.R.S^ 802 

12. The Virgin-woods of Java. By Dr. J. P. Lotsy 803 



Sub-Section of Agriculture. 

1 . Analysis of the Soil by means of the Plant. By A. D. Hall, M.A 804 

2. The Probable Error of Agricultural Field Experiments. By A. D. 
Hall, M.A 804 

3. The Determination of the Availability of Insoluble Phosphate in Manures. 

By T. S. Dtmond, F.I.C., and George Clarke, A.I.C 805 

4. The Influence of Sulphates as Manure upon the Yield and Feeding-value 

of Crops. By T. S. Dtmond, F.I.C, F. Hughes, and C. Jupe 807 

5. The Improvement of Poor Clay Soils by White Clover and other 
Leguminosce. By Professor T. H. Middleton, M.A 808 

6. A New Method of Forming Nitrites and Nitrates. By Edward John 
Russell, D.Sc, and Norman Smith, M.Sc 809 

7. The Chemical Composition of Different Varieties of Mangels. By. T. B. 
Wood, M.A., and R. A. Berry, F.I.C 810 

8. Variation in the Chemical Composition of Mangels. By T. B. Wood, 
M.A., and R. A. Berry, F.I.C 811 



CONTENTS. XXVU 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

Page 

1. On the Forms of Stems of Plants. By Lord Avebtjry, D.C.L.,F.R.S.... 812 

2. ::: On Recent Researches on Parasitic Fungi. By Professor H. Marshall 
Ward.F.R.S 813 

3. :;: On the Vegetative Life of some Uridinece. By Professor Jakob 
Eriksson 813 

4. :;: On the Development of the ^Ecidium of Uromyces Poce, and on the Life- 

History of Puccinia Malvacearum. By V. H. Blackman and Miss 
Helen C. I. Feaseb 813 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. Sunshine and C0. 2 Assimilation : an Account of Experimental Researches. 

By Dr. F. F. Blackman and Miss Matthaei 813 

2. Struggle for Pre-eminence and Inhibitory Stimuli in Plants. By Pro- 
fessor L. Eeeera 814 

3. On the Proteases of Plants. By Professor S. H. Vines, F.R.S 814 

4. Sexuality in Zygospore Formation. By Dr. A. F. Blakeslee 815 

5. Some General Results of the Localisation of Alkaloids in Plants. By 
Professor L. Eereea 815 

0. The Discovery of a New Alkaloid in Strychnos Nux Vomica. By Dr. 

J. P. Lotst/. 817 

7. On the Significance of the so-called Anti-ferment Reaction in Geo- 
tropically Stimulated Roots. By Professor F. Czapek 817 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. *A Measurement of the Great Swamp Cypress at Santa Maria del Tule, 
Mexico. By Alfred P. Matjdslay 817 

2. :;: Oxidising Enzymes and Ivatalases in Plants. By Professor R. Chodat 818 

3. *On the Pollination of Gymnosperms. By Professor K. Fujrr 818 

4. The Dissemination and Germination of Arceuthobium occidentale. By Dr. 
Geoege J. Peiece 818 

5. :;: On the Transpiration Stream in Small Plants. By. Dr. Otto V. Darbi- 
shire 818 

6. On a Brilliant Pigment appearing after Injury in Species of Jacobinia 

(N.O. Acanthaceas). By J. Parkin, M.A 818 

7. Saponarin ('Soluble Starch '). By George Barger 819 

8. On the Centrosome of the Hepaticse. By K. Miteke, M.A., Ph.D 820 

9. Further Cultural Experiments with ' Biologic Forms ' of the Erysiphacece. 

By Ernest S. Salmon, F.L.S 821 

10. The Inheritance of Susceptibility and Immunity to the Attacks of Yellow 

Rust. By R. H. Biffen, M.A 822 

11. Infection Experiments with various Uredinese. By Miss C. M. Gibson... 822 

12. *On the Normal Histology of the Uredo of Puccinia glumarum. By 

T. B.P.Evans 822 

13. Pineapple Galls of the Spruce. By E. R. Btjrdon, B. A 822 

14. :;: The History and Distribution of Catesby's Pitcher Plant (Sarracen 

Catesbai). By Professor John M. Macfarlane 823 

15. ^Observations on Two Species of Alpine Rose and their supposed Hybrids. 

By Professor John M. Macfarlane 823 



xxviii report — 1904. 

Page 
16 ^Exhibition of a Bigeneric Hybrid between Gymnadenia and Nigritella. 
By Professor John M. Macfarlane 823 

17. The Destruction of Wooden Paving Blocks by the Fungus Tjentinus 
lepideusFr. By A. H. Reginald Buller, D.Sc, Ph. D 823 

18. The Reactions of the Fruit-bodies of Lentinus lepideus Fr. to External 

Stimuli. By A. H. Reginald Bullee, D.Sc, Ph.D 824 

19. The Structure of the Ascocarp in the Genus Monasais. By B. T. P. 
Barker, M.A 824 

20. Further Observations on the Ascocarp of Ryparolius. By B. T. P. 
Baekee, M.A 825 

21 -Some Features in the Development of the Geoylossacece. By Dr. Eli AS 
J. Durand 826 

Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 18. 

Address by the Right Rev. the Loed Bishop of Hereford, D.D., LL.D., 
President of the Section 827 

1. The Present Educational Position of Logic and Psychology. By Mi.~-> 

E. E.C.Jones 840 

2. Comparison of the Intellectual Power of the Two Sexes. By Dr. J. de 
Korost 841 

3. The Teaching of Experimental Science in the Secondary Schools of 

Ireland. By the Right Rev. Gerald Mollot, D.D., D.Sc 842 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. Specialisation in Science Teaching in Secondary Schools. By J. II. 
Leonard, B.Sc 844 

2. Short Description of ' Realistic Arithmetic' By Lieut.-Colonel G. Mac- 
kinlay, late R. A 844 

3. Report on the Influence of Examinations (p. 360) 844 

4. Discussion on School-leaving Certificates. Opened by the Rev. Canon 

G. C. Bell, M.A 845 

5. The Need of Scientific Method in Elementary Rural Instruction. Uv 

A. D. Hall, M.A ,. 848 

MONDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. Discussion on the Training of Teachers and the Local Education 
Authorities. Opened by the Right Hon. Henry Hobhouse, M.P 849 

2. The Research Method applied to Experimental Teaching. By Professor 

H. E. Armstrong, LL.D., F.R.S 854 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 28. 

1. Discussion on Methods of Imparting Manual Instruction in Schools. 
Opened by Sir Philip Magnus, B.Sc 855 

2. Report on the Courses of Experimental, Observational, and Practical 

Studies most Suitable for Elementary Schools (p. 352) 858 

3. Report on the Conditions of Health essential to the carrying on of the 

Work of Instruction in Schools (p. 348) 858 

frM* , 859 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plates I. and II. 
Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plates III. to VI. 
Illustrating the Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. 

Plate VII. 

Illustrating the Report on Terrestrial Surface Waves and Wave-like Surfaces. 

Plate VIII. 
Illustrating Mr. Aubrey Strahan's Address to the Geological Section. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

RULES. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
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Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
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Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. Tbey shall receive 



xxxn 



REPORT — 1904. 



gratuitously the "Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
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Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual volume 
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1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who hove not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
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2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
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1 A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874 are on sale at £10 the set. 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlii 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. Tie 
place of each Meetiug shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance 1 ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Bute to the decision of the Council, they must be 
sent to the Assistant Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the 
Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the 
Association to be placed on the list of the General Committeelo be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members. 2 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Assistant Secretary before the opening of the Meeting, 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees. 3 

(i) The President, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of a Section are 
appointed by the Council in November or December. They form, with 
the existing members (see (ii) and (vi) ), the Committee, which has the duty of 
obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Reports likely to be sub- 
mitted to the Section at the next meeting, of preparing a report thereon, 
of generally organising the business of the Section, and of bringing before 
the Council any points which they think deserving of consideration 4 

1 Revised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 

2 Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

3 Adopted by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904. 

4 Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 

1904. • b 



xxxiv REPORT — 1904. 

(ii) The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex-officio members of 
these Committees. 

(iii) The Sectional Committees may hold such meetings as they think 
proper for the organisation of the business, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the first "Wednesday of the Annual Meeting at 2 p.m. 
for the appointment of additional Members and other business. 

Any member who has served on the Committee in previous years, and 
who has intimated his intention of being present at the Meeting, is eligible 
for election as a Member of the Committee at its first meeting. 

(iv) The Sectional Committees shall have power to add to their number 
from day to day during the Annual Meeting, but it is not desirable for 
them to be larger than is necessary for efficiency ; they have also the 
power to elect not more than three Vice-Presidents at any time during 
the meeting, in addition to those appointed by the Council. 

(v) The List formed during the Annual Meeting is to be entered 
daily in the Sectional Minute- Book, and a copy forwarded without delay 
to the Printer, who is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on 
the next day in the Journal of the Sectional Proceedings. 

(vi) Before the close of the Annual Meeting each Sectional Committee 
is to nominate six members of the Association to form the nucleus of the 
Committee for the succeeding year, and forsvard a list of the six names to 
the Assistant Secretary of the Association. 

Included in the six names should be the existing President of the 
Section, or one of the Vice-Presidents, and one of the existing Secretaries. 

It will be the duty of these Members to transact the business of 
the Committee until the officers of the Section for the ensuing year are 
appoin ^d by the Council, and thus become the officers of the Committee 
(see (i) ). 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and oij tlie 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday (optional), Monday, and Tuesday, 
for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Committee of 
a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by the Sectional Com- 
mittees before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become necessary, 
in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several 
Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir of a 
length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant Secre- 
tary before the conclusion of the Meeting. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Committee that has held office since the last Annual 
Meeting. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by 
the Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accordingly. 
The List of Communications to be read on Thursday shall be then 
arranged, and the general distribution of business throughout the week 
shall be provisionally appointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting 
the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed 
to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing the same before 
8 A.M. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to prepare a copy of the Journal for the following day 
by (i) removing from the list of papers those which have been read on 
that day ; (ii) making any needful additions to or corrections in the list 
of those appointed to be read on following days ; (iii) revising the list of 
the Sectional Committee, and making any other necessary corrections, 
and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as possible to 
the Printer, who is charged with printing the same before 8 a.m. next 
morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section (generally the Recorder) should call at the Printing Office 
and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings at each Meeting of the Committee are to be 
entered in the Minute-Book, and these Minutes should be confirmed at 
the next meeting of the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant Secretary of the Association. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee, and will receive, on 
application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the 
communications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman to 
have the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has 
been made) and securing the presentation of the report in due time ; and, 
further, it is expedient that one of the members should be appointed to 
act as Secretary, for ensuring attention to business. 

It is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on 

b2 



xxxvi REPORT — 1904. 

a Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working. 

A tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section shall be sent each year to the Recorders of tbe 
several Sections, to enable them to fill in the statement whether or no the 
several Committees appointed on the recommendation of their respective 
Sections have presented their reports. 

On the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee 
for a special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, the number of Members of such Committee shall be then 
fixed, but the Members to serve on such Committee shall be nominated 
and selected by the Sectional Committee at a subsequent meeting. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons, being Members 
of the Association, whose assistance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered on the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant Secretary of the 
Association for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 
Unless this be done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the 
Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. 1 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 

4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 

terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

5. In each Committee the Chairman is the only person entitled to call 

on the Treasurer, Professor John Perry, F.R.S., for such portion 
of the sums granted as may from time to time be required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

1 Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV11 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of any description are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Council. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can be used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken, 1 and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1 . To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

1 The Sectional Committee is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of 
the Section and of the Sectional Committee, except for Saturday. 



xxxviii REPORT — 1904. 

2 To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Official Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Committee of Recommendations are the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General Secretaries, 
the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of the Association 
in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and shall not be taken into considera- 
tion by the General Committee unless previously recommended by the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report. 1 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 2 



Corresponding Societies. 3 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to 

1 Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 

2 Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 

3 Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 

the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, 
and must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the 
results of the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the 
Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee 3hall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before 
the 1st of June, to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, a 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which 
will contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society 
as may be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies 
Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 



Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. ' The Committee of each Section shall be instructed to transmit 
to the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recom- 
mendations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee 
of Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation 
of Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 

1 Revised by the General Committee, 1903. 



xl REPORT — 1904. 

the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
inc on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater- uniformity in the mode of pubiishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

The Council shall appoint and have power to dismiss such paid officers 
as they may consider necessary to carry on the work of the Association, 
on such terms as they may from time to time determine. 1 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of 2 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers and General 

Secretaries and past Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

( 3 ) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

1 Passed by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904. 

2 Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874 ; amended at Cambridge 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xli 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rnle, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of twenty-three Members of the 
General Committee whom they recommend for election as 
Members of Council. The two vacancies then remaining shall 
be filled by the General Committee, without nomination by 
the Council, at the Meeting at which the election of the other 
Members of the Council takes place. 1 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 



Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 

1 Passed by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904. 



xlii 



REPORT — 1904. 



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REPORT — 1904. 



TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-1904. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. Murchison (Bart.), 1872 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Batly, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Eckrton, Bart., F.R.S. 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

Avebury), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
Lord Rayleioii, F.R.S. 
Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord ) 

Playfair, F.R.S. 
Prof.(S:r)A.W.RuoKBB,F.R.S. 



1883 
1883-118 

1 80S 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Gray, Esq. 1891- 

1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 1898 

1 862-74 W. Spotttswootm:, Esq.. F.R.S. 1 90 I 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. WILLIAMSON, F.R.S. 



-98 Prof. A. W. RUCKEB, F.R.S. 
-1904 Prof. <;. <\ Poster, f.R.s. 
Prof. John Pkrry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SEGRETARI RS. 



1832- 
1835- 



36 



1 836-37 



Rov. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rov. W. 



Veenon Rabcotjrt, 

Vbenon Habcouet, 

and F. Baily, Esq., 

Veenon IIarcourt, 
Murchison, 



1 837-39 

1 839-45 

1845. 
1850-52 



1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 



1863-6 

1865- 
1866 



F.R.S., and R. I. 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.. 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 

50 Lient.-Colonol E. Sabine.F.R.S. 

General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. SABINE, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



1868-71 Br. T. A. Hirst. F.R.S.. and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.H.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T.TnoMSON,F.R.S.,andC.i|it. 

Dour; las Galton. F.R.S. 
1872-70 Capt. D. Galton. F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Fosteb, F.R.S. 
1876-8] Capt, D. Galton, F.R.S.. and 

Dr. 1'. L. Sclatkr. F.R.S. 

issi-82 Capt. D. Galton, f.R.s.. and 
Prof. F. M. Balfou:, F.R.s. 
1882-83 Capt. Douclas Galton. F.R.S. 
18S:!-95 Sir DOUGLAS Gai.TOX, F.R.S.. 

and A. G. Veenon FTabcol'rt, 

Esq., F.R.s. 
1895-97 A. G. Vernon Harcoubt, Esq.. 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SOHAFBB, F.R.S. 
Prof. SCHAFER, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Rori:rts-Austen,F.R.S. 
Sir W. G. Robdrts-Austen. 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. If. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
1902-03 Dr. D. IT. Scott. F.R.S., and 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
1 903 Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Hdrdmax, 

F.R.S. 



17- f 
1900 1 



1897- 

1900 
1900 02 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

John Phillips, Esq., Secretaa-y. j 1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 
rrof. J. T>. Forbes, Acting \ Secretary. 



1831 
1832 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. K. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

A mutant Secretary. 
\ 881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary, 



1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq.. M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. GABSON, Esq., M.D. 
1904 A. Silva White, Esq., A stittant 

Secretary. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lvii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., P.B.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, P.B.S 

Rev. W. Whowell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



183.". Dublin 

183C. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 
1830. Birmingham 
1840. Glasgow ... 



1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 
Arch. Smith. 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S IProf. Stevelly. 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

F.R.S. W. Scoresby. 

Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. ... J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
1845. Cambridge The Very Rev. the Dean oC Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

Ely. G. G. Stokes. 

184G. Southamp- Sir John F. W. Herschel, John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 



Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 



ton. 
1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Bart., F.R.S 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S ! Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S. Jw. J.MacquornRankine.Prof. Smyth, 



Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 

S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 

Prof. Dixon, W, J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



lviii 



report — 1904. 



Date and Place 



1859 
1860, 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864, 
1865, 

1866 
1867, 
1868, 
1860, 
1870. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Path 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Presidents 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
187?.. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1S78. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 



Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Dublin.. .. 
Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 

Southport 

Montreal ... 
Aberdeen. .. 
Birmingham 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

UD C 

Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. P.. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Q. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 

O.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cay ley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.B.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.P.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. n. Jellett, M.A.. 

M.R.I.A. 
Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof.G.C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pros. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt, Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevell)'. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. n. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Re v.N.Ferrers, Prof . Fn 1 ler, F.Jenkin , 

Prof. Stevellv, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, P. .lenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, P. .lenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. IT. J. S. Smith, 

.1. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming.Tenkin.Prof.TT.J. S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. O. P.uckle, Prof. O. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. TTarley, 

R. B. TTayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whit worth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. P.ottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. TTarley. 
Prof. W.K.Clifford,.!. W.L.Glaisher, 

Prof. A . S. llerschel, G . F. Rodwel 1. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L.Glaisher, Prof. A. S. llerschel. 
J.W.L.Glaisher.Prof.Herscbel, Ran- 
dal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rod well. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L.Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley. 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett,.!. T. Bottomley, 

.1. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. .1. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
J. II. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lis: 



Date and Place 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 
1890. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 




1895. 


Ipswich . . . 


1696. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 




1899. 




1900. 


Bradford . . . 


1901. 


Glasgow . . , 


1902 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 



Presidents 



Prof. Sir E. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. P. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt, W. do W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Gkiisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker, M.A..F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S.— Dep. 
of Astronomy, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J.Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— Dep. 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— Sub- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. R. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge. 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. II. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, VV. Watson. 
Prof. W. n. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 

son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H. S. Carslaw, C H. Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 

Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 

Morton, A. W. Porter. 
D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 

H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 

Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. II. T. Hudson, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 
yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 
Whetham. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool. 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof, dimming ... 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 



.. ! Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 
Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 



Ix 



REPORT — 1904. 



Date and Place 



1838 Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



Presidents 



Kev. William Whewell,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I. A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 



LSI;". Cambridge 

18 40. Southamp- 
ton. 
1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1 856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1 865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter... 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 



Secretaries 



Rev. Prof. Camming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

K.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harconrt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F. U.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.P.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C. B., F.R. S. 

Prof. P.. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D.. 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. ^Gladstone, F.R.S.... 



Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 
Dr. Goldine: Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. "Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideanx, R. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 
Dr. L. riayfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 

Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt. W. Randall. 

P.. V. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. II. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
• livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, VV. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 

Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Cram Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills. W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
| W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxi 



Date and Place 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 
1S78. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1881. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Presidents 



Prof. W. J. Kussell, F.K.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

W. H.Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

Prof. De'war, M.A., F.K.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F* R S 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.K.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.K.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Koscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.K.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, \V. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 

Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 
H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. K. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, II. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley.Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 

ley.W.W. J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, II. Forster 

Morlev, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. II. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, juc. 
C. II. Eothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. II, Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunslan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



1895. Ipswich 



1896. 
1897 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 



Liverpool. 
Toronto . 

Bristol .... 

Dover .... 

Bradford . 

Glasgow . 



SECTION B (continued). 
Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

J Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 



--CHEMISTRY. 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn.J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 



lxii 



REPORT — 1904. 



Date and Place 



1902. Belfast. 



1903. Southport 
1901. Cambridge 



Presidents 



Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 

Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S.... 



Secretaries 



R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 
G. G. Henderson, Prof. W.J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. 0. Jones, Prof. W. 
J. Pope. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 
1831. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Hutchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Tome, Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

1835. Dublin 'R.J.Griffith Captain Portlook, T. J. Torric. 

1836. Bristol Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 

tow/.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S.| T.J. Torrie. 

Rev. Prof . Sedgwick, F.R.S. — 'Captain Port-lock, R. Hunter. — Gco- 

6V<>;/.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.sJ graphy, Capt. H. M.Denham.R.N. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— W. C. Trevclyan, Capt, Portlock.— 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 

1812. Manchester 



Geography, Lord Prudhoe 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

(?«','/. ,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S. — Geog., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 



1813. Cork ; Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S.... 

1811. York Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 

1845. Cambridge. Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 
F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 



1810. Southamp- 
ton. 
1S17. Oxford 



1818. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 1 



1851. Ipswich . 

1852. Belfast.... 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool , 

1855. Glasgow . 



Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.R.S. 

Sir U. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 



Sir Roderick 
F.R.S. 



I. Murchison, 



Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. E. Strickland, J. Scoular. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
It. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. It. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. O. Cummiug, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. U. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

liamsay, J. Buskin. 
S. Benson, l'rof.01dham,l'rof. Ramsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof.Nicol. 



section c (^continued). — geology 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 



Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. 1. Murchison, F.R.S.... 



0. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawtou. 
Jolm Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof.Nicol. 



1 Geography was constituted a separate Sectiou, see page lxix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxiii 



Date and Place 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 
187L Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1881. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 
1S8 7, Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. A. C. Kamsay, F.E.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins.M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. B. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 

Dr. T.Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.K.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 

worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Toplcy, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B.Tawney,W.Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. U. Teall, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top 

ley, W; W. Watts. 



lxiv 



REPORT — 1904. 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath. 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 



1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast... 



1903. Southport 



Presidents 



Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.8., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.B.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.B.S. 
W. H. Hudleston, F.B.S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.B.S. 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.B.S. ... 



John Home, F.B.S 

Lieut. -Gen. C. A. McMahon. 

Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 
M.Sc. 
1901. Cambridge I Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

L. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Darker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, II. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. II. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
11. Pentecost. 

,1. W. Gregory, G. W. Laruplugh, 

Capfe MoDakin, Prof. U. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
EL L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. .7. Phillips, U. J. Seymour. 
U. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J . Lomas, H. W. Mouckcou. 
II. 1;. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, 11. Woods. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE UF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...|Rev. Prof. J. 8. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge 1 ! Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
183-1. Edinburgh .! Prof . Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1810. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 

1812. Manchester 



1813. Cork. 



SECTION Li. 

Dr. Allman 

Bev. Prof. Henslow 



ZOOLOGY AND UOTANY. 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 
J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 
Rootsey. 
. C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

John Richardson, M.D., F.B.S. J. Couoh.Dr. Lankester, B. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Bev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, B. Patterson, J. A. 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S. ... G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, B. 

Patterson. 



1 At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Lxviii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1844. York 


Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, MA., F.R.S. 


Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. Y. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 


1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



section d (continued). — ZOOLOGY and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section K of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. lxviii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
ham ' 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S, 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E, 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S, 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



section d (continued) . — biology. 



Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— Dep. 

of Physiol., Prof. Humphry, 

F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthrojml, 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 



1904. 



1 The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



lxvi 



REPORT 1904. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 


Belfast ,, , 


1875. 


Bristol 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


1878. 


Dublin 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


1880. 


Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Be}), of Dot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. Rolleston,M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S.— Dep. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,Vroi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Dip. 
of Mil no., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Dot. a>id 
ir<wZ.,l > rof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthropoid 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S — 
Dep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthropol, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Dep. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,Tioi. Ru- 
therford, M.B.—Dep. of A n ■ 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.D.— Dip. of 
Zool. and Dot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— Dip. ofAn- 
throp., Sir VV. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Dep. of 

Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 

Cleland, F.R.S.— Dep. oj 

J 4.Mf7t.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S. — 
Dep. of Zool. and Dot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S — 
Dep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Dep. of 
^l«r7m>iwZ.,F.Galton,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S. 
Dip. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Dep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye- Smith. 

A.C. L. Gunther, F.R.S.— Dep. 
of Anat. $• Physiol, F. M. 
Balfour, F.R.S.— Dep. of 
Anthropol., F. W. Rudler. 

R. Owen, F.R.S.— Dep. of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,II. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, l>. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. I'ye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 

R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 

Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 

H. Lamprey. 
W. T. Thiselton-D ver, R. O. Cunning. 

ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 

Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 

Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvn 



Date and Place 



1882. 



Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport 1 



1884. 
1885. 



Montreal .. 
Aberdeen ... 



1 88**. P.irmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888 

1880 

1890 

1801 



Bath 

Newcastle - 
upon-Tync 

Leeds . . . 
Cardiff... 



1892. 
1893. 



Edinburgh 
Nottingham 2 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1894. Oxford 3 



Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
-De]), of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthrojjol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

rip o 

Prof. W. C. M'lntosh, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S, F.R.S.E. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M. A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

1 Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. MoGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 

Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 
W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 
II. Marshall Ward. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
VV. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1807. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 




1899. 
1900. 


Bradford ... 



1901. Glasgow 



section d (continued). — zoology 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. J G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S !W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. W. F.R. Weldon, F.R.S. Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. | J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 



' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. lxxv. 

2 Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. lxxvi. 

3 The title of Section D was changed to Zoology 



d2 



Ixvm 



REPORT — 1904. 



Date and Place 



1902. Belfast 

1903. South port 



Presidents 



Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. 



1904. Cambridge William Bateson, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOOY. 

1833. Cambridge Dr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1831. Edinburgh Dr. Abercrombie Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 



SECTION E (UNTIL 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D. .. 



1838. Newcastle T. E. Headlam, M.D 

1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S 

1840. Glasgow ... James Watson, M.D 



Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr.J.Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S 



J. Butter, J. Fuge, R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham 2 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bart rum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



1 Sections D and E were incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology, 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. lxiv). Section E, being then vacant, 
was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

8 Tide note on page lxiv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



GEOGEAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and (secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. lxii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcoirn 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
DaDiel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull. 


1854. 


Liverpool. . . 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 




185D. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. Birmingham 


1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee ... 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 




1870. 


Liverpool... 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
'■ R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

, Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. 0. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. 
LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt, G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Havtland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Sliaw. 
R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghau, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright, 
Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr.Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabot, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 

Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



section E (continued). — geography. 

Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. J. H. Thomas. 

Sir R.I.Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.SJ Mott. Clements R. Markham. 



XX 



REroRT — 1904. 



Date and Place 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1881. Montreal ... 
1885. Aberdeen... 
188G. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 
189G. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 

Francis Gallon, F.R.S H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., E.G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

F.R.G.S. Thomas. 

Lieut. • General Strachcy, H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 
R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. Tuckett. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 

Adm. SirE. Ommanney, C.B. H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thorn- ! John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

son, LL.D., F.R.S., F.RS.E.' 
Clements R. Markham, C.B.,'H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. Rye. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lef roy, H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 
Rye. 



Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 



Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., Rev. Abbe Laflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 



K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. P. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, RE., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 



E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J H. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 
F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic 

E. G. Ravenstein. 
Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 



Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E , J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. Ravenstein. 

Col. Sir F. dc Winton, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. Sulivan, A. Silva AVhite. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltic, 

Playfair.K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. A. Silva White. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 

F.S.S. kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R:S.. ' J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. Keltic, A. Silva White. 

H. Seebohm, Sec. U.S., F.L.S., Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

F.Z.S. Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 

Capt. W.J. L. Wharton, R.N., John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

F.R.S. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 

11. J. Mackinder, M.A., John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

F.R.G.S. R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 

Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. Col. F. Bailey, H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill.'E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
J. Scott Keltic, LL.D. iCol. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. U. N. Dickson, Dr. H. II. Mill, H. C 

Trapnell. 



Sir John Murray, F.R.S. 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

K.C.S.I. 
Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S. 



H. N. Dickson, Dr. II. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS 



lxxi 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


1902. Belfast ... 


SirT. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 


1903. Southport 


Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C B., 
F.R.S. 


1901. Cambridge 







Secretaries 



G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 
A.J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson. 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson. 
H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 



1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
'844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849 



Newcastle Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. 
Birmingham Henry Hallarn, F.R.S. 



Glasgow ... 
Plymouth.., 
Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 



1856. 

1867. 

1858. 



Ipswich 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. ,. 

Dublin Charles Babbage, F.R.S iW. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Bristol SirChas. Lemon, Bart,, F.R.S. Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp. 

James Heywood. 

Liverpool... | Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon |"W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill.J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
Lieut.- Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 'J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 

F.L.S. cock. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 

G. R. Porter, F.R.S J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott, 
Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. i Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

V.P.R.S.E. Stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 



Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S.... 
G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. 
Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. 



Belfast I His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Dublin. Mac Adam, jun. 

Hull ! James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. Edward Cheshire, "VV. Newmarch. 

Liverpool... Thomas Tooke, F.R.S E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
Glasgow ... R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire. W. Ncw- 

i march. Prof. R. H. Walsh. 

SECTION ¥ {continued). — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Cheltenham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 
M. Tartt. 

Dublin His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. Newmarch. 

Leeds Edward Bailies T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, N. Brown, 

I Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 



IXXll 



report — 1904. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.E.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E.T.Rogers 



1868. Norwich.... 

1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 
1872 Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 

1876 Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P 



Samuel Brown 

Rt.Hon. SirStaffordH. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neavcs 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hairan 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .., 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath. 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. .. 



James Hevwood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.*S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
K. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.s. 

Robert Uiffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Brauiwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. Marshall, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F.S.S. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 

];. I'.irkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macroiy. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 
W. K. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. II. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

iRev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwcll, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham. Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barbara, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 

worth, T. II. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. II. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott. 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. II. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. K. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 
L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 
E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 
Prof. W. R. Sorley. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 




1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool . . . 


1897. 

1898. 


Toronto . . . 
Bristol 


1899. 




1900. 


Bradford ... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast . . . 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 




Secretaries 



Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle, 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc., 
F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rl. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 

Prof. E. C. K. Conner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D. 

H. Higgs, LL.B 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 

Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D. 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 



Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

W. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 
W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bid well, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 



SECTION G._ MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 

1858. 
1859. 



Bristol 

Liverpool... 
Newcastle 
Birmingham 



Glasgow 



Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S. 

Rev. II. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West, 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C.Vignoles, T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T, 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J.Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet, 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J.Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright, 



lxxiv 



REPORT — 1904. 



Date and Place 



1860. 
1861. 

1862: 

1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 

1886 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge . 
Newcastle . 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof . W. J. Macquorn Kankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.B., F.R.S.... 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 



William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.8. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 



F. J. Bramwell, C.E. 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport . 
Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacolt, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbottun. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
I'. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 
Manby, W. Smith. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S IP. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E. , F.R.S. ;H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Prof. Flcemins Jenkin, F.R.S. II. liauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 

H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 
J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 

W. H. Barlow, F.li.S C.r.arlow.H.Bauerman.E.H.C'arbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T.Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 
J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 

Edward Woods, C.E \ A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 

Edward Easton, C.E A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 
Eng. H. T. Wood. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. H. T. Wood. 

John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... A. T. Atchison, F Churton, 11. T. 

Wood. 
J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, II. T.Wood. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 
V.P.Inst.C.E. Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 

B. Baker, BLInst.C.E A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, K. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 



Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 



C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 
F.R.A.S. Marshall, E. Rigg. 

C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. 0. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 



T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., 
M.Inst.C.E. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 
1902. 
1903. 



Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 



Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.O.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourfc, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Hir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 



Bristol Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 

V R S 
Dover Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Bradford ... Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Glasgow ... R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Belfast ...Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

Southport ;C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



1901. Cambridge Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot, 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Calen- 
dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stilgoe. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 

Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 
H. Bamf ord, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 
J. B. Peace, W. T. Maccall, W. A. 

Price. 



1881. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889, 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1891. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 



Montreal . 

Aberdeen... Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Birmingham ' Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Manchester Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Bath Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Newcastle- Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 
upon-Tyne LL.D., F.R.S. 
Leeds Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Cardiff Prof. F. Max Midler, M.A. ... 

i 
Edinburgh Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Nottingham Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S E. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Carson, W 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garsou, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saurjdby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Pater son. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

Lingr Roth. 



Oxford Sir W. 11. Flower, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Ipswich ... Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 
D.C.L. 

Liverpool... Arthur J. Evans, F.S. A Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 

Toronto ... Sir W. Turner, F.R.S A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 

Bristol E. W. Brabrook, C.B H. Balfour, J. L. Myres, G. Parker. 

Dover C. H. Read, F.S.A. H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 

Bradford ... Prof. John Rhys, M.A Rev, E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
Glasgow ...Prof. D. J. Cunningham, W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

F.R.S. Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 

Belfast ... Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

. J. L. Myres. 



lxxvi 



REPORT — 1904. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1903. Southport Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. ... 

1904. Cambridge |H. Balfour, M.A 



Secretaries 



E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 
E. M. Littler, J. L. Myre.s. 

W. L. H. Duckworth, E.' N. Fallaize, 
II. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Expekimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1891. 

1896. 
1897. 

1899. 

1901. 

1902. 

1904. 



Oxford | Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S., 

M.R.C.S. 
Liverpool .. Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. 
Toronto ... Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 



Dover , 

Glasgow ... 
Belfast .., 
Cambridge 



J. N. Langley, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. lLildane, 
M. S. Pembrey. 

Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 

Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton, Dr. L. E. Shore. 

Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 
H. Starling. 

W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 
W. H. Thompson. 

J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 
C. Shaw. 

J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 
L. E. Shore. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. 
1896. 


Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto . . . 


1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 


Bradford . . . 
Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport 


1901. 


Cambridge 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S 
j Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

! Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 

Sir George King, F.R.S 

Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S 

Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.RS 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 
G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, II. Wager. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 
D.T. Gwynne-Vaughan.G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 
A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 
H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, U. Wager, 

R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackmail, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. 

Yapp. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. Glasgow ... 



Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 
Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 
II. L. Withers. 

1902. Belfast ... Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 
Prof. H. L. Withers. 

1903. Southport Sir W de W. Abney, K.C.B., Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

F.R.S. Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. 

Snape. 
1901. Cambridge i Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

I W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



lxxvii 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 




Subject of Discourse 



Manchester Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 



1843. Cork 



184 1. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

184C. Southamp- 
ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Swansea ... 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich .., 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull, 



1854. 
1855. 



Liverpool. 
Glasgow . 



Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. E.Forbes, F.R.S... . 



Dr Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S 



Prof.J.Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Russia. 
The Dinomis of New Zealand. 
The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the iEgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 
Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Geology of Russia. 
Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 
Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 
Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 
Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 
The Dodo (Bidus ineptus). 
Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 

and its Neighbourhood. 
Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 
Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 
Transit of different Weights with 

varying Velocities on Railways. 
Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 
Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 
Distinction between Plants and 
Animals, and their changes of 
Form. 
Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 

1851. 
Recent Discoveries in the properties 

of Light. 
Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 
Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 



lxxviii 



report — 1904. 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1850. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1861. Bath 

1 865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



Subject of Discourse 



1867. Dundee. 



1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford .., 

1874. Belfast , 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Mnrchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 

.Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaishor, F.R.S 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. .. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D..F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S, 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lnbbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 



Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of t lie Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistryof the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The ScientificUse of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



lxxix 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin .. 

1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



Subject of Discourse 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal.. 



1885. Aberdeen.. 



W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof.E. RayLankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 



1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. .. 



John Murray, F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof.W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

1889. Newcastle- Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
upon-Tyne F.R.S. 

Walter Gardiner, M.A 



1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich .. 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof. A. W. Riicker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 



The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The 'Challenger' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Paleon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of Power. 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crust. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applica- 
tions. 

Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 



lxxx 



REPORT — 1904. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 


Safety in Ships. 






Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 


Man before Writing. 


1897. 


Toronto . . . 


Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 


Canada's Metals. 






J. Milne, F.R.S 


Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 


1898. 




Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. .. 


F unafuti : the S t udy of a Coral Island . 








Phosphorescence. 


1899. 




Prof. Charles Richet 


La vibration ncrveuse. 




Prof. J. Fleming. F.R.S 


TheCentenary of the ElectricCnrrent, 


1900. 


Bradford . . . 


Prof F. Gotch, F.R.S 


Animal Electricity. 




Glasgow ... 


Prof. W. Stroud 


Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 


1901. 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 








Atmosphere. 






F. Darwin, F.R.S 


The Movements of Plants. 


1902. 


Belfast ... 




Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 






Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 


Inheritance. 


1903. 


Southport 


Dr. R. Munro 


Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 
Palaeolithic Period. 












Dr. A. Rowe 


The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 






Teachings. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S... 


Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 






Prof. H. F. Osborn 


Palirontological Discoveries in the 








Rocky Mountains. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


1867. 




1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 




1870. 


Liverpool... 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 




1875. 


Bristol 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881. 


York 


1882 


Southamp- 




ton. 


1883 


Southp Di- 


1884 


Montreal .. 


1885 


Aberdeen .. 


1886 


Birmingham 


1887 


. Manchester 


1888 


Bath 


1889 


Newcastle- 




upon-Tyne 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 
Commander Cameron, C.B. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 



Subject of Discourse 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity— Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



lxxxi 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 



Leeds Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.ll.S. 

Cardiff Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.ll.S. 

Edinburgh Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Nottingham Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Oxford Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Ipswich ... Dr. A. H. Fison 

Liverpool... Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S... . 

Toronto ..., Dr. H. O. Forbes 

Bristol ;Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Spinning Tops. 
Electricity in Mining. 
Electric Spark Photographs. 
Spontaneous Combustion. 
Geologies and Deluges. 
Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 
New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 
their enemies and Signal to their 



1900. 
1901. 


Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 

Belfast ... 
Southport 

Cambridge 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
11. J. Mackinder, M.A 


friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent : the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 


1902. 
1903. 


Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Dr. J. S. Flett 


1904. 


Dr. J.E. Marr, F.R.S 



1904. 



lxCTl &EPORT— 1904. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE CAMBRIDGE MEETING. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Prof. Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents— C Vernon Boys, F.R.S. ; Sir John Eliot, K.C.I.E., 

F.R.S. ; Prof. A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— C. H. Lees, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; A. R. Hinks, M.A. ; R. W. 

H. T. Hudson, M.A. ; W. J. S Lockver, Ph.D. ; A. W. Porter, 

B.Sc. ; W. C. D. Whetham, M.A., F.R.S. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Prof. Sydney Young, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Sir James Dewar, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. J. Dobbie, 

F.R.S. ; Prof. W. N. Hartley, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. (Recorder) ; M. O. Forster, Ph.D. ; 

Prof. G. G. Henderson, D.Sc. ; H. O. Jones, M.A. 

SECTION C — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Aubrey Strahan, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Br. J. E. Marr, F.R.S. ; J. J. H. Tcall, F.R.S. ; Prof. 

W. W. Watts, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Herbert L. Bowman, M.A. (Recorder) ; Rev. \\". L. Carter, 

M.A. ; J. Lomas ; H. Woods, M.A. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President. — William Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ; W. E. Hoylc, D.Sc. ; 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — J. Y. Simpson, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; J. H. Ashworth, D.Sc. ; 

L. Doncaster, M.A. ; H. W. M. Tims, B.A., M.D. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Douglas W. Freshfield, F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Capt. E. W. Creak, C.B., R.N., F.R.S. ; F. II. H. 

Guillemard, M.D. ; Colonel Sir C. Scott Moncrietf, R.E., K.C.M.G., 

C.S.I. 
Secretaries. — Edward Heawood, M.A. (Recorder) ; A. J. Herbertson, 

Ph.D. j H. Yule Oldham, M.A. ; E. A. Reeves. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Prof. William Smart, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents.— E. W. Brabrook, OB. ; Prof. H . S. Foxwell, M.A. j 

Prof. A. Marshall, LL.D. 
Secretaries. — A. L. Bowley, M.A. (Recorder) ; J. E. Bidwell, M.A. ; Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, M.A. j B. W. Ginsburg, M.A., LL.D. 



OFFICERS OF COMMITTEES. lxsxiil 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Hon. Charles A. Parsons, M.A., F.R.S., M.Inst.OJB. 
Vice-Presidents. — Col. R. E. Crompton, C.B., M.Inst.C.E. : C. Hawksley 

MJnst.C.E. ; Prof. B. Hopkinson, M.A. 
Secretaries.— W. A. Price, M.A. {Recorder) ; W. T. Miccall, M.Sc. ; J. B. 

Peace, M.A. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 
President. — Henry Balfour, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. Macalister, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. Ridgevvay, M A ; 
Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — J. L. Myres, MA. (Recorder) ; "W. L. H. Duckworth, M A ; 
E. N. Fallaize, M.A. ; H. S. Kingsford, B.A. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Prof. C. S. Sherrington, D.Sc, M.D., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

F.R.S. ; Prof. J. N. Langley, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — J. Barcroft, M.A., B.Sc. (Recorder) ; Prof. T. G. Brodie, 

M.D., F.R.S. ; Dr. L. E. Shore. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President. — Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ; W. Gardiner, F.R.S. : 

W. Somerville, D.Sj. ; Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. —Harold Wager, F.R.S. (Recorder); Dr. F. F. Blackman 

M.A. ; A. G. Tansley, M.A. ; T. B. Wood, M.A! ; R. H. Yapp, M.A . 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President.— The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Hereford, D.D., LL.D. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ; Oscar Brown hi"' 

M.A. ; Rev. H. B. Gray, D.D. ; J. N. Keynes, D.Sc. °' 

Secretaries. — W. M. Heller, B.Sc. (Recorder); J. H. Flatlnr MA ■ 

Prof. R. A. Gregory j C. W. Kimmins, M. A., D.Sc. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting ; the Presidents of 
former years ; the Trustees ; the General Treasurer ; the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries ; Prof. Horace Lamb ; Sir John Eliot ■ 
Prof. J. J. Thomson ; Prof. Sydney Young ; Prof. W. J. Pope • 
Aubrey Straham ; G. W. Laraplugh ; Dr. J. E. Marr ; W. Bateson j 
Prof. S. J. Hickson ; Dr. W. E. Hoyle ; Douglas W. Freshheld • 
Dr. J. S. Keltie ; E. Heawood ; Prof. Wm. Smart ; E. W. Brabrook ; 
Dr. E. Cannan ; Hon. Charles A. Parsons ; Col. Crompton ; W. A. 
Price ; Henry Balfour ; E. S. Hartland ; J. L. Myres j Prof. C. S. 
Sherrington ; Prof. Schafer ; J. Barcroft ; Francis Darwin ; Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward ; H. Wager ; The Bishop of Hereford ; Prof. 
H. E. Armstrong ; W. M. Heller ; and Principal E. H. Griffiths. 



lxxxiv REPORT — 1904. 



Z> f . THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1903-1901. RECEIPTS. 

Balance brought forward *>4ij 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 123 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 222 

Annual Subscriptions , 659 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 667 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 365 

Sale of Publications 127 

Dividend on Consols 1 ~>p 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 103 

Interest on Deposit 33 

Income Tax returned '17 



.« 


d. 


1 


7 








11 























4 





o 





1 





3 


1 


17 


4 



£3351 9 3 



Investments. 

& S. ll. 

Consols 6501 10 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 



£10,101 10 5 
Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift, 2 A per Cent. 

Self-cumulating Consolidated Stock 58 8 5 

£10,159 18 10 
G. Carry Foster, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 



lxxxv 



from July 1, 1903, to June 30, 1904. 



Cr 



1003-1904. EXPENDITURE. 

£ s. 
Expenses of Southport Meeting (including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, &c, Sec.) 157 10 

Rent and Office Expenses 86 4 

Salaries, &c 527 4 

Printing, Binding, &c *262 10 

Repair, &c, of Banners 7 13 

Committee on Coast Changes 12 6 

Payment of Grants made at Southport : 

£ s. d. 

Seismological Observations 40 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by meansof Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth . , 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferons Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum Auimalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics of International Trade . . 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation on Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Committee 20 

887 1 



9 

2 

6 

7 




8 11 



1941 8 5 



On deposit at Bradford District Bank £ 1027 13 4 

Balance at Bank of England 

(Western Branch) £G27 11 8 

Zm Cheques not presented 247 18 11 

379 12 9 

Cash in hand 2 14 9 



1410 10 
£3351 9 3 



* Exclusive of an outstanding' Printing Bill of about .£1,000. 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant, 
Approved— 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, E,C, 

E.W. Brabrook, } . ,., July 28, 1904. 

L.l. Price. j^«**»*, * 



lxxxvi 



REPORT— 1904. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 




1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, June 25 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 20 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 . ... 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, Aug. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 
1870, Sept. G 

1877, Aug. 15 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 
1880, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 ... . 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept, 16 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 

1901, Sept. 11 

1902, Sept. 10 

1903, Sept, 9 

1904, Aug. 17 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Llovd.LL.D., F.R.S. 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Hareourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.ll.S. 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.ll.S. 
The Lord Francis Egcrton, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John F. W.Hersehel, Bart,, F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. 
TbeMarquisofNorthauipton,Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.I). F.H.S. 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.ll.S. 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 


109 
S03 

109 
220 
313 
241 
314 
119 
227 
235 
172 
104 
141 
238 
194 
1N2 
230 
222 
184 
280 
321 
239 
2113 
2*7 
292 
2117 
107 
190 
204 
311 
240 
215 
212 
102 
239 
221 
173 
2U 1 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
200 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
3:lu 
120 
281 
290 
267 
310 
213 
250 
419 


z 

05 
109 

2S 
150 

86 

10 

18 

12 
9 
8 

10 

13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
30 
41) 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
30 
27 
13 

36 

35 
19 
18 
10 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 

in 

25 
80 
30 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 
8 
19 
20 
13 
37 
21 
21 
32 




Oxford 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 




Bristol 

Newcastle-on-Tyne . . . 
Birmingham .'. 




Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 




Cork 

York 




Cambridge 

Southampton 

Swansea 

Birmingham 




Edinburgh 




Ipswich 




Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 




The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Dau'benv, M.D., F.R.S. 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D.. F.R s 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort .. 




Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford ... 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne... 

Bath 

Birmingiiam 

Nottingham... 




The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. .. 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.ll.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.H.s. 
SirWilliam G. Aruistnuig.1 '.1:., F.lt.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.lt.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleueh, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley. LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.ll.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tvndall. LL.D., F.R.S. 




Dundee 




Norwich 




Exeter ., 




Liverpool 




Edinburgh 




Brighton 




Bradford .. 




Belfast 




Bristol 


Sir John Hawkshaw, F.ll.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.lt.S. 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Alluian, M.D., F.R.S. 

A. 0. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. ... 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. . 
Sir H. E. Roseoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Dublin 




Sheffield 




Swansea 

York 




Southampton . 




Soutliport 




Montreal 




Aberdeen 




Birmingham 

Manchester 




Bath .. 




Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 
Leeds 




Cardiff .. 


Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 




Edinburgh . 




Nottingham... 


Prof. J. S. Bunion Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury.K.G., F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
SirWilliam Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Riicker, D.Sc, SecR.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 








Liverpool 




Toronto ... 




Bristol .. 




Dover 

Bradford . . 




Glasgow 

Belfast 

Soutliport 

Cambridge .. 





* Ladies weie not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. Ixxxvii 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 





Old 

Annual 


New 

Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Grants 
for Scientific 


Year 




Members 


Members 








Purposes 














— 


— 


353 










1831 










— 


— 


— 


— 








— 


1832 










— 


— 





900 


- 






_ 


1833 







, 





— 





1298 








£20 


1834 




_ 








— 


. 











167 


1835 



















1360 








435 


1836 













— 





1840 








922 12 6 


1837 













1100* 





2400 








932 2 2 


1838 













— 


34 


143S 








1595 11 


1839 










— 


— 


40 


1353 








1540 16 4 


1840 




4G 


317 





60* 





891 








1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33f 


331* 


28 


1315 








1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 




1611 


— 


— 








1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


_ 


— 








981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 








831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 








685 16 


1846 




197 


41) 


495 


203 


53 


1320 








208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


IS 


819 


£707 








275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 








159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


I08S 








345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 








391 9 7 


1851 




G3 


6i"l 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


loss 








304 6 7 


1S52 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 








205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 








380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 








480 10 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 








734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2ol5 








507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 








618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


12(16 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 








684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 








7G6 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 








1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 








1293 10 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


333S 


3640 








1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 








1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


7C6 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 








1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 








1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 








1739 4 


1867 




117 


720 


G82 


45+ 


2004 


2042 








1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


GOO 


17 


1850 


1931 








1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 








1572 


1870 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 








1472 2 6 


1871 


2S0 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 








1285 


1872 


237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 








1685 


1873 


232 


85 


817 


638 


12 


1951 


1979 








1151 16 


1874 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 








960 


1875 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 








1092 4 2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 








1128 9 7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 








725 16 6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 








1080 11 11 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 








731 7 7 


1880 


313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 








476 8 1 


1881 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 








1126 1 11 


1882 


330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 








1083 3 3 


1883 


317 


219 


826 


74 


26A-60H.§ 


1777 


1855 








1173 4 


1884 


332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 








1385 


1885 


428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 








995 6 


1886 


510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 








1186 18 


1887 


399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 








1511 5 


1888 


412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 








1417 11 


1889 


368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 








789 16 8 


1890 


341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 








1029 10 


1891 


413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 








864 10 


1892 


328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1061 


1053 








907 15 6 


1893 


435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 








583 15 6 


1894 


290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 








977 15 5 


1895 


383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


Q 





1104 6 1 


1896 


286 ; 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 








1059 10 8 


1897 


327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2416 


2399 








1212 


1898 


324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 








1430 14 2 ' 


1899 




297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


18(11 








1072 10 i 


1900 




374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2046 








945 0' 


1901 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 








917 ; 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 








84S 13 2 I 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 j 


121 


2789 


2650 





°l 


887 18 11 


1904 



I Including Ladies. § Fellcwsoi the American AssociationwereadmittedasHon.Meinbersfortb.is Meeting 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1004-1905. 



PRESIDENT. 
The Rig bt IT< in. A, J. BALFOUR, D.O.L., LL.D , M.P., F.R.S., Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Duke of DEVONSHIRE, K.G., LL.D., 
F.R.S., Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge. 

ALEXANDER Peckover, LL.D., Lord Lieutenant 
of Cambridgeshire. 

Arthur Hall, M.A., D.L., High Sheriff of Cam- 
bridgeshire and Huntingdonshire. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishot OF Ely, D.D. 

The Right Hon. Lord Walsingham, LL.D., 
F.R.S., High Steward of the University of 
Cambridgp. 

The Right Hon. Lord Ratt.eigh, D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. Loud Kelvin-, G.C.V.O., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.I!. P. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor G. H. Darwin, M.A., LL.D 



| The Rev. F. H. Chase, D.D. , Vice-Chancellor of the 
University and President of Queens' College, 
Cambridge. 

The Very Rev. H. Montagu Dutt.er, D.D. .Matter 
of Trinity. 

Mrs. Sidgwick, Principal of Newnham College, 
Cambridge. 

J. H. Cbesshyre Dalton, M.D., Mayor of Cam- 
bridge. 

Robert Stephenson, Chairman of the Cambridge- 
shire County Council. 

JosErH Martin', Chairman of the Isle of Ely 
County Council. 

P. H. Young, Deputy Mayor of Cambridge. 



Ph.D.,F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



IIi- 



Excellency the Right Hon. Lorii Milner, 

G.C.B., G.O.M.G., High Commissioner for 

South Africa. 
The Hon. Sir Walter F. Hely-Hutchinson, 

G.C.M.G., Governor of Cape Colon v. 
Colonel Sir Henry E. McCalldm, K.C.M.G., R.E., 

Governor of Natal. 
Captain the Hon. Sir Arthur Lawley, K.C.M.G., 

Lieutenant-Governor, Transvaal. 
Major Sir H. J. Goold-Apams, K.C.M.G., Lieu- 



Sir W. H. Milton, K.C.M.G., Administrator of 

Southern Rhodesia. 
Sir Charles H. T. Metcalfe, Bart., M.A. 
Sir David Gill, K.O.B., LL.D., P.R.S. 
Theodore Reunert, M.Inst.C.E. 
The Mayor of Cape Town. 
The Mayor of Johannesburg. 
The President of the Philosophical Society 

of South Africa. 



tenant-Governor, Orange River Colony. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor John Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMahoN, R.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
A. Silva White, Burlington House, London, W. 

CENTRAL ORGANISING COMMITTEE FOR SOUTH AFRICA. 
Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., Chairman. | J. D. F. Gilchrist, M.A., Ph.D., B.Sc, Secretary 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
ABNEY, Sir W., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Bonar, J., LL.D. 
Bourne, G. 0., D.Sc. 
Bower, Professor F. 0., F.R.S. 
Brabrook, E. W., C.B. 
Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
Oallendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
Darwin. Major L., See. R.G.S. 
Gotch, Professor F., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. O., F.R.S. 
Hawkslky, C, M.Inst.C.E. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Higgs, Henry, LL.B. 

Lang ley. Professor J. X., F.R.S. 

Macalister, Professor A., F.R.S. 

McKgnprkk, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 

Mackinder, H. J., M.A. 

Noble, Sir A., Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Perkin, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 

Seward, A. 0., F.R.S. 

Shaw, Dr. W. N.. F.R.S. 

SHirLEY, A. E., F.R.S. 

Watts, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. A.Smith, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for 
the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sir Arthur W. RucKXR, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER TEARS. 



Sir Joseph D. Hooker, G.C.S.I. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. 
Lord Aveburv, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
SirWm.Huggius.K.O.B., Pres.R.S. 



Sir Archibald Geikie, Sec.B.S. 
Prof. Sir J. S. Bunion Sanderson, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Lister, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. 



Sir Michael Foster, K.O.B.. F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. Rilcker, D.Sc. F.R.S. 
Sir J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Norman Lockycr, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 



F. Galton, D.O.L., F.R.S. 

Sir Michael Foster.K.C.B., F.R.S. 

P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
| Prof. E. A. SchSfer, F.R.S. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Qarson. 



E. W. Brabrook, Esq., O.R. 



AUDITORS. 

| H. Higgs, Esq., LL,B, 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. lxxxix 



Report of the Council for the Year 1903-1904, presented to the General 

Committee at Cambridge on Wednesday, August 17, 1904. 

The Trustees of the Association having consented to act as Trustees 
for the sum of 50/., presented to the Association by the late Sir Frederick 
Bramwell, to provide for a report being prepared and presented at the 
Centenary Meeting of the Association ' dealing with the whole question 
of Prime Movers in 1931, and especially with the relation between 
steam engines and internal -combustion engines,' the money has been 
invested, in accordance with the suggestion made by Sir Frederick Bram- 
well, in 1\ per cent, self-cumulative Consols. 

The following resolutions having been referred to the Council by the 
General Committee for consideration, and action if desirable : — 

1. The Committee of Section A, having received a communication from 
the International Meteorological Committee, is of opinion that the intro- 
duction of international uniformity in the units adopted for the records of 
Meteorological observations would be of great practical advantage to science, 
and that the Council be requested to take such steps as they may think fit. 
toward giving effect to the resolution : — 

the Council appointed a Committee, consisting of Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. R. H. Scott, Mr. C. V. Boys, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, 
Professor Schuster, the President, and the General Officers, to report 
thereon. 

The Council concur with the Committee in recommending that the 
process of arriving, if possible, at a general agreement as to the use of 
common units should be : — 

(1) To prepare a statement of the considerations which would guide 
the choice of units ; 

(2) To ascertain whether the meteorological authorities in this country 
would entertain proposals to select units on these considerations ; 

(3) To ascertain whether (a) India, (b) the Colonial Organisations, 
would entertain similar proposals ; 

(4) To approach the United States upon the matter ; 

(5) To consult the meteorological organisations of foreign countries ; 
and finally 

(6) To report the proceedings to the Association of Academies with a 
view to the adoption of a general system. 

It would be desirable for the United States to be kept informed of 
the proceedings from the time that it is ascertained that the meteoro- 
logical organisations of this country are willing to consider the matter, 
but it is not desirable to challenge a categorical reply until the attitude 
of the Colonies and dependencies is known. 

A memorandum in accordance with recommendation (1) has been 
drawn up as a basis for discussion. The Meteorological Council, haying 
already expressed a favourable opinion upon it from that point of view, 
the Council are taking steps to ascertain the views of the various authori- 
ties in the manner indicated in the foregoing paragraph, and it is hoped 



XC REPORT — 1904. 

that arrangements will be made for a discussion of the subject in 



Section A at Cambridge 



o 



2. That the Council be asked to consider the desirability of permitting the 
publication of the whole of the Sectional Programmes in the daily Journal 
at as early a date as possible. 

3. That it is desirable that further steps should be taken to make the 
Reports of Committees (as distinguished from papers) communicated to the 
Association more accessible to the general public by the provision of Indices 
to the published volumes and otherwise ; and that the Council be asked to 
consider the conditions upon which reports of Committees and Proceedings of 
Sections might be published if required : 

the Council appointed a Committee, consisting of Dr. Scott Keltie, Pro- 
fessor R. Meldola, Professor Perry, Professor W. W. Watts, the President, 
and the General Officers, to report on this matter. 
The Council recommend — 

(1) That the names of Members of the Sectional Committees be printed 
' solid ' — i.e. in continuous lines, and that additional names of Members 
elected during the meeting be added successively, at the end of the list 
printed in the Journal of the previous day. 

(2) That the whole programme, so far as settled, of the proceedings of 
each Section be printed in the Journal issued on Thursday and each suc- 
cessive morning. The Recorders of Sections should be asked to furnish 
the programmes of their respective Sections several days before the com- 
mencement of the Meeting. 

(3) That the publication of the list of papers read the previous day be 
discontinued. 

(4) That the changes suggested in the publication of the reports be 
not adopted, the existing indices being sufficient for the present. 

The Council desire to draw attention to the fact that two volumes of 
' Indices '—namely, from 1831 to 1860, and from 1861 to 1890— have 
already been published and are on sale. 

4. That the Sectional Committees be continued in existence until the new 
Sectional Committees are appointed, and be authorised to bring to the notice 
of the Council in the interval between the Annual Meetings of the Association 
any matter on which the action of the Council may be desired in the interests 
of the several Sections, and that a Committee may be summoned at any time 
by the President of the Section, or by the Council : 

the Council, having considered the resolution, recommend that it lie 
referred to the Committee of Recommendations. 

5. That, the Council be requested to consider the desirability of urging 
upon the Government, by a deputation to the First Lord of the Treasury or 
otherwise, the importance of increased national provision being made for 

University Education : 

the Council considered the matter at a Special Meeting, when it was 
resolved : — 

' That the President be requested to approach the various Universities 
and University Colleges, and to inquire (1) whether they would be willing 
to join in organising a deputation to the Prime Minister to ask for 
increased help to such institutions from Government funds ; (2) whether 
they would each appoint representatives to a Joint Committee to organise 
such a deputation, it being understood that the deputation will consist 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XC1 

not merely of representatives of Universities, but of all those interested 
in the objects which it will be the aim of the deputation to secure.' 

The communication made in pursuance of the foregoing resolution by 
the President to the various universities, university colleges, and large 
organisations interested in educational science, was replied to so favour- 
ably by them that steps were taken to organise a deputation to the 
First Lord of the Treasury. 

A large and distinguished deputation, including representatives of all 
the universities, university colleges, and many county, municipal, and 
other educational authorities in the United Kingdom, was received by the 
Prime Minister, the Chancellor of the Exchequer also being present, on 
July 15, at the House of Commons. Prior to the deputation a memo- 
randum had been drawn up by the President, and agreed to by the 
representatives of the principal universities, pointing out the necessity 
of a new departure on the part of the Government in relation to State 
Aid for Universities. This memorandum was forwarded to Mr. Balfour 
some days before the date of the deputation. The deputation was intro- 
duced by Sir Norman Lockyer. Mr. Peiham (representing Oxford) 
and Dr. Chase (Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge), on behalf of the older 
universities, and Mr. Chamberlain (Chancellor of the University of 
Birmingham), on behalf of the newer universities, addressed the Prime 
Minister, pointing out the need for much more liberal State aid being- 
granted for purposes of higher education. Sir W. H. White and Sir W. 
Ramsay spoke of the importance of endowment of university teaching in 
relation to the application of science to the industries of the country. 
Sir R. Jebb mentioned the needs of the Humanity departments of 
universities. Sir Henry Roscoe discussed the importance of original 
research and its influence on our national well-being. Mr. A. Mosely, 
C.B., pointed out what was being done in other countries in practical 
university training for commercial and industrial life. Mr. Bell, M.P., 
spoke of the importance of university training being put within the 
reach, as regards expense, of the most promising minds in all classes of 
the community, so as to widen the area of selection for the higher 
activities of the nation. 

Mr. Balfour, in reply to the deputation, said that he did not suppose 
there had ever been congregated in one chamber so many representatives 
of learning in this country, and hoped that they would forgive him if he 
did not wholly rise to the expectations formed of the answer he had to 
give on behalf of the Government. The words of his which had been 
quoted would, he hoped, absolve him from the necessity of again express- 
ing sympathy with what he took to be the main object of the deputation. 
Though it has been said that we have fallen far behind at least two great 
countries in our national education, he absolutely denied that there is the 
smallest sign that in the production of the germinating ideas of science 
we have shown any inferiority. Germany has for many generations 
pursued the State-endowing process of applying science to industry, and 
in this we are far behind. The system of thought in Germany, the habits 
of the people, and the Government, in this respect place them at great 
advantage as compared to us, as far as endowment of universities can 
help a nation in the industrial struggle. But the mere endowment of 
universities will not, he thought, add greatly to the output of original 
work of the first quality. It will provide an education which will render 



xcii REPORT — 1901. 

fit for industrial work persons who, without university education, would 
be very ill-equipped indeed. He concurred with all the speakers that 
there is a great financial need, both in the old and new universities, for 
help towards this object. But there is a still greater need— namely, that 
capitalists should recognise the necessity of giving employment to those 
whom the universities turn out. There is some evidence to show that 
shipbuilders and manufacturers prefer the future captains of industry to 
begin work early in life in the old way. He thought they were wrong, 
but they must be convinced that they are wrong, otherwise there will be 
no advantage in turning out qualified students if employers are content 
to use the man who acquires his training by actual day-to-day labour, 
but is not qualified in the higher scientific attainments which are more 
and more becoming necessary. Another thing we want is the creation of 
positions which will enable a man who has exceptional gifts of originality 
in science to devote his life to the subjects of his predilection, so as not 
to be driven to another kind of life in which he will not be able to render 
the full service of which he is capable to his country. In Germany such 
positions, which must in the main be attached to the universities, are 
more numerous than in this country. He could conceive no more 
admirable use of any funds which the universities can command than 
the increase of such positions. Having dealt with the more general 
aspects of the problem presented by the various speakers, he desired 
to leave it to the Chancellor of the Exchequer to speak upon the 
more practical question of what the Government can do and what it 
cannot do. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer said that he wished to express his 
interest in the work of universities, and recognised the larger part they 
were likely to play in our national development in the future. He con- 
sidered it would be a misfortune if it were to be thought that it was the 
duty of the State to take upon itself the whole or main cost of the higher 
education of the country, or if the State were to come into such relations 
towards university education as it occupies towards elementary education. 
He must bid them consider what control the State would have to exercise, 
and what restrictions it might feel called upon to impose if it ever took 
on itself the duty of supplying to the universities such large grants as had 
been suggested. State aid must always be accompanied by State control, 
and it was, he thought, dangerous for the higher education of the country 
that it should have to conform itself, for the purpose of obtaining grants, 
to rules and regulations laid down by the Treasury. It would be not less 
disastrous in the interests of higher education if anything were done to 
relieve patriotic citizens of that sense of the importance of supporting 
higher education by voluntary endowment and subscription. The Govern- 
ment had not stinted their contributions to education as a whole. They 
had been spending large sums on primary and secondary education, which 
was a necessary equipment for any student who wished to make profitable 
use of the facilities the universities granted. The Government had shown 
their interest in universities this year by proposing to Parliament to 
double the grant recently given to university colleges, and had expressed 
a hope that in the coming year they might be able again to raise that 
sum so as, in round figures, to double it once more. We are not enjoy- 
ing one of those periods of prosperity when the Treasury could afford to 
be generous without having to place fresh burdens on the taxpayer. 
Whatever the claims of university education to further assistance, they 



REPORT OF TflE COUNCIL. XClil 

must wait further development until the finances of the country are in an 
easier position. Beyond what he had stated it would be impossible to 
make in the next financial year further large contributions to university 
education. He thought that it would be of some assistance if universities 
would meanwhile consider to what extent they were willing to come under 
control if they received grants, to what extent the State was to have a 
voice in fixing the fees of students, and to what extent it was to direct 
or influence teaching, whether it was to allocate its assistance to promote 
special branches of study, or whether it was desired to make every 
university complete in itself. 

Since the date of the deputation the President has been in corres- 
pondence with representatives of the universities, and he has reported 
that the Deputation Committee will probably hold another meeting in 
order to obtain further information from the universities to be laid before 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

The work of organising this deputation involved an amount of clerical 
work beyond the ordinary strength of the office, and special assistance 
had to be obtained for the purpose. Considerable expense has also been 
incurred in preparing and printing reports of the several meetings and 
conferences which have been held. A portion of the expenses falls into 
this year's accounts, and are included in the Treasurer's account. 

In response to a Sectional resolution received too late for presentation 
to the General Committee last year requesting ' that the attention of the 
Council be called to the inconvenience which is caused to the Sections by 
gentlemen accepting the office of Vice-President neither appearing at the 
meeting nor sending a timely notice of their inability to do so,' the 
Council has resolved that gentlemen nominated as Vice-Presidents of 
Sections shall be informed that their attendance at the meeting for which 
they are nominated is expected. 

The Council also recommend that each Sectional Committee shall 
have power to elect not more thau three Vice-Presidents at any time 
during the meeting, in addition to those nominated by the Council 
and elected by the General Committee, and that the rules be altered 
accordingly. 

Arrangements for the South African meeting in 1905 have received 
much attention during the year from a Committee of Council appointed 
for the purpose. The general arrangements for the meeting, which were 
preliminarily announced last year, have been confirmed, namely, that the 
first half of the meeting be held at Cape Town and the second half at 
Johannesburg, and that official visits of the Association be made to Natal 
and the Orange River Colony, in each of which Colonies one or more dis- 
courses will be delivered by prominent members of the Association. It 
has been found that the most convenient date for the meeting to open at 
Cape Town would be August 15, so that members starting for South Africa 
at the end of J uly could spend at least three weeks in the Colonies, and be 
back in England by the end of September. 

An Additional Expenses Fund has been opened to supplement the 
subsidy to be given by the Colonial Governments of South Africa towards 
defraying the cost of the meeting, and subscriptions to the amount of 
1.650Z. have been received or promised. The Council hope that a con- 
siderably larger sum may be forthcoming during the ensuing year, so as 
to secure a thoroughly representative meeting in the Colonies of South 
Africa. 



XC1V 



REPORT — 1904. 



The Council have considered what alterations, if any, it nlay be desirable 
to make in the transaction of business at the South African meeting in 
consequence of the exceptional distance. They are of opinion that little 
alteration will be necessary in the custom other than that previously 
mentioned, and that no changes need be proposed in the written laws of 
the Association. There will, however, be difficulties in fixing the place of 
meeting for 1907, and the date of that in 190G, for delegates from the 
towns concerned could not be expected to attend. It may also be felt 
that members who are unable to leave the United Kingdom ought to have 
the opportunity of voting on these points, and on the election of the 
President and Officers for 1 90G. The Council therefore recommend that tlie 
General Committee hold only two meetings in South Africa, one at Cape 
Town and the other at Johannesburg, and an adjourned meeting at some 
convenient place in London on some day to be hereafter fixed towards the 
end of the month of October 1905. 

An invitation to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association in 190G 
will be presented from York. A letter has been received from the Lord 
Mayor and the Chancellor of the University of Melbourne expressing the 
strong desire of the Colony of Victoria that a meeting of the British 
Association may be held in Melbourne at a convenient date. 

The Council nominate as additional Vice-Presidents of the Associa- 
tion for the Cambridge Meeting : — 



His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, 

K.G., LL.D., F.R.S., Chancellor of the 

University of Cambridge. 
Arthur Hall, Esq., M.A., D.L., High 

Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Hunts. 
The Eight Rev. the Lord Bishop of Ely, 

D.D. 
The Right Hon. Lord Walsingham, 

LL.D., F.R.S., High Steward of the 

University of Cambridge. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



The Right lion. Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Right Rev. H. Montagu Butler. D.D., 

Master of Trinity. 
Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, Principal of 

Ncwnham College. 
J. H. Chesshyre Dalton, Esq., M.D., 

Mayor of Cambridge. 
Robert Stephenson, Esq., Chairman of the 

Cambridgeshire County Council. 
Joseph Martin, Esq., Chairman of the 

Isle of Ely County Council. 



The Council nominate as Sectional Officers the various gentlemen 
whose names appear on the programme of the Cambridge Meeting. 

The Council nominate Principal E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S., Chairman, 
Dr. Tempest Anderson, Vice-Chairman, and Mr. F. W. Rudler, Secretary 
of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to be held 
during the Cambridge Meeting. 

A Report has been received from the Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the 
titles of the more important papers, especially of those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by the Societies duriDg the year ending 
May 31, 1903. 

The Council nominate for election as the Corresponding Societies 
Committee for the ensuing year the following members : — Mr. 
W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rudler (Secretary), Rev. J. O. 
Bevan, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Principal 
E H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor 
R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and the General Officers of the Association. 

The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer during 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XCV : 

the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1903, to June 30, 1904, 
have been audited and are presented to the General Committee. 

The Council having been informed by Dr. G. Carey Foster that he 
does not intend to offer himself for re-election as General Treasurer at 
the Cambridge meeting, desire to put on record an expression of their 
high appreciation of the value of the services rendered to the Association 
by him, and their great regret that he feels it needful to resign. 

The Council recommend that Professor John Perry, F.R.S., be 
appointed General Treasurer in succession to Dr. G. Carey Foster. The 
confirmation of this recommendation will cause a vacancy on the Council. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring members of the Council 
will be as follows : — By seniority, Dr. J. Scott Keltie, Mr. L. L. Price, 
and Professor W. A. Tilden ; by least attendance, Professor G. B. Howes 
and Sir J. Wolfe-Barry (resigned in November last). 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Abney, Sir W., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Armstrong, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Bonar, J., Esq., LL.D. 
Bourne, G. C, Esq., D.Sc. 
Bower, Professor F. O., F.R.S. 
Brabrook, E. W., Esq., C.B. 
* Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
Callendar, Professor H. L., F.R.S. 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Major L., Sec. R.G.S. 
Gotch, Professor F., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 
Hawkslcy, C, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 

The following claims for admission to the General Committee have 
been allowed by the Council : — 

S. Monckton Copeuian, M.D., F.R.S. 

F. W. Edridge-Green, M.D., F.R.C.S. 

William J. S. Lockyer, Ph.D. 

John Morrow, M.Sc. 

A. B. Rendle, M.A., D.Sc. 

Alfred R. Sennett. 



*Higgs, Henry, Esq., LL.B. 
*Langley, Professor J. N., F.R.S. 

Macalister, Professor A., F.R.S. 

McKendrick, Professor J.G., F.R.S. 
*Mackinder, H. J., Esq., M.A. 

Noble, Sir A., Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Perkin, Professor W. EL, F.R.S. 

Seward, A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 
*Shaw, Dr. W. N., F.R.S. 
•Shipley, A. E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Watts, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, F.R.S. 



ZCV1 



REPORT — 1904. 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
Cambridge Meeting in August 1904. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



Seisniological Observations. 



To co-operate with the Royal 
Meteorological Society in ini- 
tiating an Investigation of the 
Upper Atmosphere by means 
of Kites. 



To co -operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatory 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



C 'ha irma u. — Lord Rayleigh . 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors \V. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Professor 
A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
\V. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir A. W. Riicker, Professor H. 
L. Callendar, and Mr. G. 
Matthey. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. 
Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Major L. Dar- 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Mr. M. H. Gray, Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, Professor C. G. Knott, 
Professor R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. 
Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. 
AV. E. Plummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. 

Chairman— Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary— Mr. W. H. Dines. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Ver- 
non Boys, Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. 
Watson. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

j Secretary.— Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

I Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, and Sir A. W. 
Riicker, 



£ 

10 







40 



40 



50 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



XCVU 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitramines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to Sub- 
stitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. 



I 



Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 
Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 
Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors 

Sir J. Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. 

Abney, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 



Cliairman. — Professor E. Divers. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. W. Crossley. 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 20 

strong. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 
Professor Sydney YouDg, Dr. J. J. 

Dobbie, Dr. A. Lapworth, and 

Dr. M. 0. Forster. 



Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Professor K. J. P. 
Orton. 

Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 



S. (I. 





25 







Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



The Movements of Underground 
Waters of North-west York- 
shire. 



1904. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 
Secretary. — Mr. P. F. Kendall. 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. 

De Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. 

F. M. Burton, Mr. J. Lomas, 

Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Mr. 

J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, 

and Mr. F. W. Harmer. 



Chairman. — Prof essorW.W. Watts. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. R. Dwerry- 
house. 

Professor A. Smithells, Rev. E. 
Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mr. G. Bray, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, Professor 
P. F. Kendall, and Dr. J. E. 
Marr. 



10 

and unex- 
pended 
balance. 



Balance 
in hand. 



XCV111 



REPORT — 1904. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 




To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. 



To report upon the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British 
Isles. 



To investigate the Fossiliferous 
Drift Deposits at Kirmington, 
Lincolnshire, and at various 
localities in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. 
Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, 
Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. \V. Lain- 
plugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. J.T.St obbs, 
Mr. A. Strahan, Mr. D. T. 
Gwynne Vaughan, and Dr. H. 
Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor \V. A. Herd - 

man. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Loinas. 
Professors W. W. Watts and P. F. 

Kendall, and Messrs H. C. 

Beasley, E. T. Newton, A. C. 

Seward, and W. A. E. Ussher. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. W. Lam pi ugh. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Slather. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor 
J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Messrs. A. R. Dwerry- 
house, F. W. Harmer, and J. H. 
Howarth, Rev. W. Johnson, and 
Messrs. P. F. Kendall, E. T. 
Newton, H. M. Platnauer, Cle- 
ment Reid, and T. Sheppard. 



£ s. d. 
Balance 
in hand. 



10 



Balance 
in hand. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To enable Mr. J. W. Jenkinson to 
continue his Researches on the 
Influence of Salt and other 
Solutions* on the Development 
of the Frog. 



Chairman.— Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. — Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
fessor G. B. Howes, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, and 
the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Chairman. — Professor Weldon. 
Secretary.— Mr. J. W. Jenkinson. 
Professor S. J. Hickson. 



100 



75 



10 

and unex- 
pended 
balance. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



XCIX 




To enable Dr. F. W. Gamble and 
Mr. F. W. Keeble to conduct Re- 
searches on the relation between 
Respiratory Phenomena and 
Colour Changes in the Higher 
Crustacea. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. W. Gamble. 
Dr. Hoyle and Mr. F. W. Keeble. 



£ s. d. 
15 
and unex- 
pended 
balance. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To carry on an Expedition to in- 
vestigate the Indian Ocean 
between India and South Africa 
in view of a possible land con- 
nection, to examine the deep 
submerged banks, the Nazareth 
and Saza de Malha, and aLo 
the distribution of Marine Ani- 
mals. 



Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Stanley Gardi- 
ner. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Captain E. AV. 
Creak, Professors W. A. Herd- 
man, S. J. Hickson, and J. \V. 
Judd, Mr. J. J. Lister, Dr. H. R. 
Mill, and Admiral Sir W. J. L. 
Wharton. 



150 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Accuracy and Comparability 
of British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade. 



Chairman. — Dr. E. Cannan. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. G. S. Adams. 
Mr. A. L. Bowley, Professor S. J. 
Chapman, and Sir R, Giffen. 



20 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To conduct Archaeological and 
Ethnological Researches in 
Crete. 



To investigate the Lake Village 
at Glastonbury, and to report 
on the best method of publica- 
tion of the result. 



To conduct Anthropometric In- 
vestigations among the Native 
Troops of the Egyptian Army. 



To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



75 

and unex- 
pended 
balance. 



Balance 
in hand. 



Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. K. C. Bosanquet, Mr. A. J. 
Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Pro- 
fessor A. Macalister, and Pro- 
fessor \V. Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins. 

Sir John Evans and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, C. H. Read, 
II. Balfour, and A. Bulleid. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Mac- 10 

alister. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Sir John Evans and Professor 

D. J. Cunningham. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. J. Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Professor Bojd Dawkins, Mr. E. 
W. Brabrook, Mr. T. Ashby, and 
Professor AV. Ridgeway. 



10 



f 2 



REPORT — 1904. 
1 . Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject fov Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigation in the British Isles. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



The present state of Anthropo- | 
logical Teaching in the United 
Kingdom and elsewhere. 



Chairman.— Professor D. J. Cun- 
ningham. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Cray. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S.Myers, 
Mr. J. L. Myres, Professor A. F. 
Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Mr. 
Randall Maclver, Professor J. 
Symington, Dr. Waterston, Mr. 
E. W. Brabrook, Dr. T. H. Bryce, 
Mr. W. H. L. Duckworth, 
Mr. G. L. Gomme, Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall, Professor G. D. 
Thane, and Mr. J. F. Tocher. 

Chairman — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Sir John Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, and 
Mr. A. L. Lewis. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Professor A Macalister, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. C. H. Read, Mr. II. 
Balfour, Mr. F. W Rudler, Dr 
R. Munro, Professor Flinders 
Petrie, Mr. H. Ling Roth, and 
Professor D. J. Cunningham. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The State of Solution of Proteids. 



To enable Professor Starling, Pro- 
fessor Brodie, Dr. Hopkins, Mr. 
Fletcher, Mr. Barcroft, and 
others to determine the ' Meta- 
bolic Balance Sheet ' of the 
Individual Tissues. 

The Ductless Glands. 



Grauls 



£ i. ,1. 

10 



40 



Balance 
in hand. 



Chairman.— Professor W.D.Halli- 20 
burton. 

Secretavy. — Professor E. Way- 
mouth Reid. 

Professor E. A. Schafer. 

Chairman. — Professor Gotch. 30 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Barcroft. and unex- 

Sir Michael Foster and Professor pended 



Starling 



Chairman. — Professor Schafer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. 
E. Shore. Mr. J. Barcroft. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

To carry out the scheme for the i Chairman. — Professor L. C. Miall. 
Registration of Negatives of \ Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Botanical Photographs. Mr. Francis Darwin, Dr. W. G. 

j Smith, and Mr. A. G. Tansley^ 



balance. 



40 







COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



CI 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



I 



Experimental Studies in the Phy- Chairman. — Professor H. Marshall 



siology of Heredity. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



Ward. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. C. Seward. 
Professor J. B. Farmer and Dr. 

D. Sharp. 

Chairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Secretary. — Professor F.W. Oliver 
Messrs. A. C. Seward and E. 
Newell Arber. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To report upon the Course of Ex- 
perimental, Observational, and 
Practical Studies most suitable 
for Elementary Schools. 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary.— Mi. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Adie, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Miss A. J. Cooper, Miss 
L. J. Clarke, Mr. George Flet- 
cher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. 
Hall, Mr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor J. 
Perry, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Dr. Lloyd 
Snape, Principal Reichel, Mr. H. 
Richardson, Mr. Harold Wager, 
Miss Edna Walter, and Profes- 
sor W. W. Watts. 



Grants 

£ s. d. 
3. p i 



50 



20 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Com- | Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 
mittee for the preparation of i Secretary. — Mr. F. W. Rudler. 



' 20 



their Report. 



Rev. J. O. Bevan, Dr. H. T. 
Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. 
T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Ilopkinson, 
Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. 
Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing, Prof. W. W. 
Watts, and the General Officers 
of the Association. 



Cll 



REpORT-^-1904;. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under 
Water. 



The Consideration of the Teaching of 
Elementary Mechanics, and the Im- 
provement which might be effected 
in such Teaching. 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
continue her Report on the present 
state of the Theory of Point-groups. 



Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crura Brown. 
Sir John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, Pro- 
fessor R. Copeland, and Mr. Omond. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Professor 
H. L. Callendar. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, Professor A. S. 
Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Dr. 
C. H. Lees, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. 
Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. 
G. F. Deacon, Mr. Edward Wethe- 
red, Mr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie 
Smith, and Mr. B. H. Brough. 

Chairman. — Professor Horace Lamb. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Professors Chrystal, 
Ewing, G. A. Gibson, and Greenhill, 
Principal Griiliths, Professor Henrici, 
Dr. E. W. Hobson, Mr. 0. S. Jackson, 
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professors Love, 
Minchin, and Schuster, and Mr. A. 
W. Siddons. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



The Study cf Isomorphous Sulphonic 
Derivatives of Benzene. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tildcn. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Dr. W. P. Wynne and Professor W. J. 
Pope. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 
Secretary. — Professor W. W. Watts. 
Professor T. G. Donney, Dr. T. Anderson, 

Professors E. J. Garwood and S. H. 

Reynolds, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, W. 

Gray, H. B. Woodward, R. Kidston, 

J. J. H. Teall, J. G. Goodchild, H. 

Coates, C. V. Crook, G. Bingley, B. 

Welch, and W. J. Harrison. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



cm 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To record and determine the Exact 
Significance of Local Terms applied 
in the British Isles to Topographical 
and Geological Objects. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. Douglas W. Freshfield. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 

Lord Avebury, Mr. C. T. Clough, Pro- 
fessor E. J. Garwood, Mr. E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Col. D. A. John- 
ston, Mr. 0. T. Jones, Dr. J. S. Keltie, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. H. J. Mac- 
kinder, Dr. E. J. Marr, Dr. H. E. Mill, 
Mr. H. Yule Oldham, Dr. B. Peach, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. H. B. 
Woodward. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To conduct an Investigation into the 
Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands. 



To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by cor- 
respondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To inquire into the probability of Anky- 
lo8toma becoming a permanent in- 
habitant of our coal mines in the 
event of its introduction, with power 
to issue an interim report. 

To enable Miss Igerna Sollas, of Newn- 
ham College, Cambridge, to study 
certain points in the development of 
Ophiusoids, and to enable other com- 
petent naturalists to perform definite 
pieces of work at the Marine Labora- 
tory, Plymouth. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 

Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. F. 

Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar 

A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Secretary.— Dr. W. E. Hoyle. 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, Mr. J. S. Gardiner, 

Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. A. C. 

Seward, Professor C. S. Sherrington, 

and Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors T. W. Bridge, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Pro- 
fessor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
Professor C. Lloyd Morgan, Professor 
E. B. Poulton, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Mr. 
A. E. Shipley, and Rev. T. R. R. Steb- 
bing. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. E. Shipley. 
Secretary. — Mr. G. P. Bidder. 
Mr. G. H. F. Nuttall. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. W. Gar- 
stang. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 



CIV 



REPORT — 1904. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To enable Dr. H. W. Marett Tims to 
conduct experiments with regard to 
the effect of the Sera and Antisera 
on the Development of the Sexual 
Cells. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman— Mr. G. H. F. Nuttall. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. W. Marett Tims. 
Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. 



Section K— GEOGRAPHY. 



Terrestrial Surface Waves. 



The continued Investigation of the Os- 
cillations of the Level of the Land in 
the Mediterranean Basin. 



Chairman,. — Dr. J. Scott Keltie. 
Secretary. — Dr. Vaughan Cornish. 
Lieut.-Col. F. Bailey and Messrs. John 

Milne, W. H. Wheeler, and W. Whit- 

aker. 

Chairman.— Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Gunther. 
Drs. T. G. Bonney, F. H. Guillemard, 
J. S. Keltie, and H. R. Mill. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To investigate the Resistance of Road 
Vehicles to Traction. 



To consider the Incidence of the Patent 
and Design Laws upon the National 
Development of the Practical Appli- 
cations of Science. 



Chairman.— Sir J. I. Thornycroft. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Mallock. 

Mr. T. Aitken, Mr. T. C. Aveling, Pro- 
fessor T. Hudson Beare, Mr. W. W. 
Beaumont, Mr. J. Brown, Colonel R. E. 
Crompton, Mr. B. J. Diplock, Pro- 
fessor J. Perry, Sir D. Salomons, Mr. 
A. R. Sennett, Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith, 
and Professor W. C. Unwin. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preccc. 

Secretary. — Sir H. Trueman Wood. 

Mr. C. D. Abel, Mr. Dugald Clerk, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. R. A. Hadtield, 
Hon. C. A. Parsons, Mr. A. Siemens, 
and Major-General Webber. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



he Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Anthropological Interest. 



To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of the Ethnography, Folklore, 
and Languages of the Peoples of the 
Pacific, with a view to farther re- 
search. 



Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Kingsford. 

Dr. J.G.Garson,Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. 

Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. 

Hartland, Mr. E. Heawood, Professor 

Flinders Petrie, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, 

and Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Mr. H. Balfour and Mr. J. Stanley Gar- 
diner. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



CV 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To consider what steps may be taken to 
organise Anthropological Teaching 
and Research in the British Empire. 



Excavations on Prehistoric Sites in 
South Africa. 



Members of the Committoc 



Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. H. Balfour, Professor D. J. Cunning- 
ham, Mr. G. L. Gomme, Dr. A. C. Had- 
don, Professor A. Macalister, Dr. C. S. 
Myers, Professor Flinders Petrie, Mr. 
C. H. Read, and Mr. F. W. Rudler. 

Chairman. — Mr. H. Balfour. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 
Sir David Gill, Dr. A. C. Haddon, and 
Professor H. A. Miers. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Physiological Effects of Peptone 
and its Precursors when introduced 
into the circulation. 



Chairman. — Professor E. A. Schafer. 
Secretary. — Professor W. H. Thompson. 
Professors R. Boyce and C. S. Sherring- 
ton. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

The conditions of Health essential to | Chairman. — Professor Sherrington, 
the carrying on of the work of in- Secretary. — Mr. E. White Wallis. 
struction in schools. Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 

Professor L. C. Miall, and Miss Mait- 

land. 



To consider and report upon the influ- 
ence exercised by Universities and 
Examining Bodies on secondary school 
curricula, and also of the schools on 
university requirements. 



The Training of Teachers. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. A. Gregory. 

The Bishop of Hereford, Sir Michael 
Foster, Sir P. Magnus, Sir A. \V. 
Riicker, Sir 0. J. Lodge, Mr. H. W. Eve, 
Mr. W. A. Shenstone, Mr. W. D. Eggar, 
Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. F. H. 
Neville, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, and Dr. C. 
W. Kimmins. 

Chairman. — The Bishop of Hereford. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Holland. 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. Oscar 

Browning, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. 

Ernest Gray, and Dr. H. B. Gray. 



Mvi Report — 1904. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

The Stereochemistry of Nitrogen. By Dr. H. 0. Jones. 

Dynamic Isomerism. By Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

On the Wells of Cambridgeshire. By W. Whitakcr, F.B.S. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

From Section A . 

(i.) The Committee think it desirable that information as to reports and papers 
sent to the General Secretary for communication to any Section should be forwarded 
to the Kecorder of the Section concerned as soon as possible after it is received at the 
office. 

(ii.) The Committee of Section A desire to draw the attention of the Committee 
of Recommendations to the concluding portion of Sir John Eliot's Introductory 
Address to the Sub-Section for Astronomy and Cosmical Physics, and to express the 
opinion that the organisation of a Central Meteorological Department for the British 
Empire would be of the highest benefit to the progress of Meteorological Science 
and its application to the economic problems of the various Colonies and Depen- 
dencies. The object of each department would be to collect and prepare digests of 
the Meteorological observations taken in different parts of the Empire, to provide a 
scientific staff for dealing with the more general Meteorological problems, includ- 
ing their relations to Solar Physics and Terrestrial Magnetism, which involve the 
co-ordination of data from wide areas, and to promote experimental investiga- 
tions of the scientific questions which arise in connection with such discoveries. 
The Committee desire also to express the opinion that the reorganisation of the 
Meteorological Office, which is at present before the Government, affords an excep- 
tionally favourable opportunity for the establishment of such a central Meteoro- 
logical Department for the Empire. 

From Section F, 

(i.) That it is desirable that the Reports of Committees, especially where they 
extend over two or more years, should be offered for public circulation in a separate 
form from the annual volume of Reports, at a small price, say %d. per copy. 

(ii.) That as there has been a great demand for copies of the Reports of the 
Women's Labour Committee of this Section, and it has been impossible to satisfy it, 
these Reports be printed and sold separately at the smallest charge possible. 

From the Conference of Delegates. 

(i.) That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Members of the Council of 
the Association, together with representatives of the Corresponding Societies, to 
consider the present relation between the British Association and local Scientific 
Societies. 

That the Committee be empowered to make suggestions to the Council with a 
view to the greater utilisation of the connection between the Association and the 
affiliated Societies, and the extension of affiliation to other Societies who are at pre- 
sent excluded under Regulation 1. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEV. evil 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by the 
General Committee at the Cambridge Meeting, August 1904. The 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

'Rayleigh, Lord — Electrical Standards 40 

*<J udd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 40 

•'Shaw, Dr. W. N. — Investigations of the Upper Atmosphere 

by means of Kites 40 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 50 

Chemistry. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

*Divers, Professor E. — Study of Hydro- Aromatic Substances 25 

Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Kipping, Professor F. S. — Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Geology. 

*Marr, Dr. J. E.— Erratic Blocks (and unexpended balance) 10 
*Watts, Professor W. W. — Movements of Underground 

Waters (balance in hand) 

*Marr, Dr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 

(balance in hand) — 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Fauna and Flora of British Trias 10 
*Lamplugh, G. W. — Fossiliferous Drift Deposits (balance in 

hand) — 

Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at Zoological Station at 

Naples 100 

"Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

*Weldon, Professor — Development of Frog (and unexpended 

balance) 10 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Higher Crustacea (and unexpended 

balance) 15 



Geography. 
Murray, Sir J. — Investigations in the Indian Ocean 150 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Cannan, Dr. E. — British and Foreign Statistics of Interna- 
tional Trade 20 

Carried forward £635 

* Reappointed. 



cviii report — 1904. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 635 

Anthropology. 

*Evans, Sir J. — Excavations in Crete (and unexpended 

balance) 75 

*Munro, Dr. R. — Lake Village at Glastonbury (balance in 

hand) 

*Macalister, Professor A. — Anthropometry of Native Egyptian 

Troops 10 

*Evans, A. J. — Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 10 

*Cunningham, Professor D. J. — Anthropometric Investigation 

in Great Britain and Ireland 10 

*Read, C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 40 

*Tylor, Professor E. B. — Anthropological Teaching (balance 

in hand) 



I'hysioloyy. 

* Halliburton, Professor W. D. — The State of Solution of 

Proteids 20 

*Gotch, Professor — Metabolism of Individual Tissues (and 

unexpended balance) 30 

Schafer, Professor— The Ductless Glands 40 

Botany. 

*Miall, Professor — Botanical Photographs 5 

*Ward, Professor H. Marshall— The Physiology of Heredity ... 35 
Scott, Dr. D. H.— The Structure of Fossil Plants 50 

Educational Science. 
*Magnus, Sir P.— Studies Suitable for Elementary Schools ... 20 

CorrespoJiding Societies Committee. 
*\Vhitaker, W.— Preparing Report, &c 20 

£1,000 
* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1905. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1905 will be held in 
South Africa, commencing, August 15, at Cape Town. 

The Annual Meeting in 1906. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1906 will be held at 
York. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



C1X 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions 62 

Hritish Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c SO 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 





13 


6 








12 











3 











4 


(5 








18 


6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of ) . . . 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mudin Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 



























1 


10 


2 


10 














6 


6 








3 





s 


7 








9 


5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 

Mechanism of Waves 

Bristol Tides 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments ... 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam-vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 

Animal Secretions 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 
Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining- Statistics 



£ 


8. 


d. 


110 








63 


10 





144 


2 





35 


18 


6 


21 


11 





9 


4 


(t 


103 





7 


28 


7 





274 


1 


2 


100 





4 


171 


18 





11 





t; 


166 


16 





10 


10 


t; 


50 





O 


16 


1 





40 





o 


3 








22 








49 


7 


8 


118 


2 


9 


50 









£1595 11 



1810. 



Bristol Tides 

Subterranean Temperature ... 

Heart Experiments 

Lungs Experiments 

Tide Discussions 

Land and Sea Level 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 

Stars (Lacaille) 

Stars (Catalogue) 

Atmospheric Air 

Water on Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Meteorological Observations . 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 

Working Population 

School Statistics 

Forms of Vessels 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 

Magnetical Observations 



100 

13 13 6 

18 19 

8 13 

50 

6 11 1 
242 10 

4 15 

264 

15 15 

10 

7 
52 17 6 

112 1 6 

100 

50 

184 7 

40 

80 

185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



ex 



REPORT — 1904. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations od Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinoineters 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of "Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh .. . 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals . 2 

£'1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannire 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gaueson Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



d. 



11 




£1449 17 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 

Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 
Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons SI 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 1 17 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 
Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 





















12 


8 























II 


6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

8 





11 










5 




8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



£ s. 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Eeduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 



10 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 
Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
-ffigean and Red Seas 1842 100 

G eographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

i'981 12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic. Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 



£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



CX11 



RETORT — 1904. 



1817. 

£ g. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 ~ 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 
Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19~ 6 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391~9~ 7 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18~0 



1852. 

£ *. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850).. 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland .. . 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205~0~ 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19" 7 



1855. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



1856. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 



1854 £ 75 01 ,., „ , 

1855 £500 OOf 67500 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CX11. 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1859. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

1904. 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 I 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 



£ 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidas 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 

£684" 



8. 


d. 





















































1 


11 






11 1 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den . . 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants io 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on theConstit uents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts l 

£766 




6 



(t 









































1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 ~) „ 

1861 £22 / ' 2 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions ioo 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£lTll _ 








































































5 10 

iL ° 

5 10 



CX1V 



REPORT— 190 i. 



1862. 

£ s. 
Maintaining the Establish- 

ment at Kew Observatory 500 

PatentLaws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 



£ s. d. 

d. Thermo-electricity 15 0> 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

| Hydroida •.. 10 ' 

| £1608 3 10 




1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 










































I) 


























3 


10 

























































1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 
















0- 





0- 











o 











0- 





0- 





0- 


























15 


8 











0- 





0' 









15 » 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida. . . 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£159T 






0' 

















0- 


8 


0- 




















9 














0- 










































































10 


10 








7 


10 



GEXERAL STATEMENT. 



CXV 



18GG. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c, Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 
Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750~13~^ 




13 






















4 























1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c, Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 
Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 
Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 



































































































i 






























1868. 

£ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations . 150 

Steamship Performances . .. 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperat ure . . , 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, ice 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



*. d. 







































O 












































o 

































































1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 O 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 



CXV1 



REPORT — 1904. 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 160 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 160 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ .v. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 


























































































































£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature .. . 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 



£1685 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXV11 



1874. 

£ s. d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£115 1 16 

1875. ~~ 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeaa, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 















11 


7 



























































































8 






















9 7 



CXV111 



REPORT — 1904. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

"Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration . . . 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 
Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 
Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 6 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 
at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CX1X 



1881. 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor- laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 



s. 


d. 
































3 


1 





























































3 1 









1 


11 































































































































1 11 



1883. 

£ s. A. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 
ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Wate rs 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£1173 























4 































































































4 






cxx 



REPORT 1904. 



1885. 

£ s. 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c, of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of PalEeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondaiy Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 
Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 1 50 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation <) 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Inverte'jrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea. . . 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995~ 



s. 


a. 

















0- 







0- 





o e 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 a 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 O 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 O 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 & 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 O 

Absorption Spectra 40 0- 

Nature of Solution 20 O 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 O 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 0- 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 O 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Beds of the Isle of Wight... 20 O 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 0- 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 0' 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 O 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 0' 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 O 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 O 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXl 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Kecord 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford. . . 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palaeontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. d. 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 O 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



cxxn 



REPORT — 1904. 



£ s. d. 

Experiments with a Tow- 
net * 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Bays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

■Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolt on Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10~~b 



1S93. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis .. . 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ...100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

Indialslands 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXS111 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 
Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 
Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1895. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 6 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint- drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 
of Animals 50 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen - 

midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



CXX1V 



REPORT — 1904. 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw .'. 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palasozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 1 00 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North- Western " Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1,104 6 1 































6 


1 



































































































































1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 0- 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 O 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives ... 50 0' 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phseopbycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXV 



£ s. d. 
Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 
Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 
Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life- zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 
State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 
Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 
Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 
Fertilisation in Phseophyceae 15 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations ... 65 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 6 

Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 



Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Tryfaen ... 

Ty Newydd Caves 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 

Migration of Birds 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 

Physical Conditions 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 

Exploration of Sokotra 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 

Silchester Excavation 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 
New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 

Age of Stone Circles 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 

Fertilisation in Phyasophyceae 

Assimilation in Plants 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ s. d. 



5 








40 








30 








100 








20 








100 








15 








15 








100 








35 








50 








10 








35 








40 








20 








30 








20 








10 








20 








40 








20 








10 








20 








20 








5 








25 

















£1,430 14 2 



1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 



CXXV1 



REPORT — 1904. 



£ s. 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

iD Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 
Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Ply mouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Reefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 1 00 

Future Dealings in Raw- 
Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex.. 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phaeophycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£1,072 10 



d. 







1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismologieal Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 35 



£ 
Life-zones in British Carbo- 
niferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 
Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrasan Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 
Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phasophycere 15 
Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 

maceae 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 



s. 


d. 



































0- 























a 












































15 


11 



























9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismologieal Observations... 35 O 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXV11 



£ 
Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 
Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Kesistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egy ptian Soldiers 1 5 
Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer . . ._ 5 

Changes in Haemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs. . . 20 
Investigation of the Cyano- 

pbyceas : - 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 

Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com. 15 

£947 



s. d. 































































































1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 

Life zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 



£ s. d. 
Anthropometric Investigation 5 
Anthropometry of the Todas 

and other Tribes of Southern 

India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycere 25 0- 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£845 13 2 



1901. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hyro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Carboni- 
ferous Rocks ... 35 

Fauna and Flora of the Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village .'. 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual Tis- 
sues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 
Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20_ 

£887 





































































































10 























8 


11 





















18 11 



cxxviii report — 1904. 



General Meetings. 

On "Wednesday, August 17, at 8.30 p.m., in the Corn Exchange, Sir 
Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., LL.D, F.R.S., resigned the office of President 
to the Right Hon. Arthur Janles Balfour, D.C.L., LL.D., M.P., F.R.S., 
who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, August 18, at 5 p.m., in the Theatre, Mr. J. W. Clark 
delivered a Lecture on 'The Origin and Growth of the University of 
Cambridge ; ' and at 9 p.m., a Soire'e took place at Trinity College. 

On Friday, August 19, at 8.30 p.m., in the Theatre, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Ripple-Mai'ks and Sand- 
Dunes.' 

On Monday, August 22, at 8.30 p.m., in the Theatre, Professor 
H. F. Osborn delivered a Discourse on ' Palreontological Discoveries 
in the Rocky Mountains.' 

On Wednesday, August 24, at 2.30 p.m., in the Senate House, the 
concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were 
explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to South Africa. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence at Cape Town, on Tuesday, August 15, 1905.] 






PEESIDENT'S ADDBESS, 



1904. B 



ADDRESS 



BY 



The Right Hon. A. J. BALFOUR, D.C.L., LL.D., M.P., 

of the Univei 
PRESIDENT. 



F.R.S., Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh. 



Reflections suggested by the New Theory of Matter. 

The meetings of the British Association have, for the most part been held 
in crowded centres of population, where our surroundings never permit us 
to forget, were such forgetfulness in any case possible, how close is the tie 
that binds modern science to modern industry, the abstract researches of 
the student to the labours of the inventor and the mechanic. This, no 
doubt, is as it should be. The interdependence of theory and practice 
cannot be ignored without inflicting injury on both ; and he is but a poor 
friend to either who undervalues their mutual co-operation. 

Yet, after all, since this great Society exists for the advancement of 
science, it is well that now and again we should choose our place of 
gathering in some spot where science rather than its applications, know- 
ledge, not utility, are the ends to which research is primarily directed. 

If this be so, surely no happier selection could have been made than 
the quiet courts of this ancient University. For here, if anywhere, we 
tread the classic ground of physical discovery. Here, if anywhere, those 
who hold that physics is the true Scientia Scientiarum, the root of all the 
sciences which deal with inanimate nature, should feel themselves at 
home. For, unless I am led astray by too partial an affection for my own 
University, there is nowhere to be found, in any corner of the world, a 
spot with which have been connected, either by their training in youth, or 
by the labours of their maturer years, so many men eminent as the 
originators of new and fruitful physical conceptions. I say nothing of 
Bacon, the eloquent prophet of a new era ; nor of Darwin, the Copernicus 
of Biology ; for my subject to-day is not the contributions of Cambridge 
to the general growth of scientific knowledge. I am concerned rather 
with the illustrious line of physicists who have learned or taught within 
a few hundred yards of this building— a line stretching from Newton in 
the seventeenth century, through Cavendish in the eighteenth, through 
Young, Stokes, Maxwell, in the nineteenth, through Kelvin, who embodies 
an epoch in himself, down to Rayleigh, Larmor, J. J, Thomson, and the 

b2 



4 REPORT— 1904. 

scientific school centred in the Cavendish laboratory, whose physical specu- 
lations bid fair to render the closing years of the old century and the open- 
ing years of the new as notable as the greatest which have preceded them. 
Now what is the task which these men, and their illustrious fellow- 
labourers out of all lands, have set themselves to accomplish 1 To what 
end led these ' new and fruitful physical conceptions ' to which I have 
just referred ? It is often described as the discovery of the ' laws con- 
necting phenomena.' But this is certainly a misleading, and in my 
opinion a very inadequate, account of the subject. To begin with, it is 
not only inconvenient, but confusing, to describe as ' phenomena ' things 
which do not appear, which never have appeared, and which never can 
appear, to beings so poorly provided as ourselves with the apparatus of 
sense-perception. But apart from this, which is a linguistic error too 
deeply rooted to be easily exterminated, is it not most inaccurate in sub- 
stance to say that a knowledge of Nature's laws is all we seek when 
investigating Nature 1 The physicist looks for something more than 
what, by any stretch of language, can be described as ' co- existences ' and 
'sequences' between so-called 'phenomena.' He seeks for something 
deeper than the laws connecting possible objects of experience. His 
object is physical reality : a reality which may or may not be capable of 
direct perception ; a reality which is in any case independent of it ; a 
reality which constitutes the permanent mechanism of that physical 
universe with which our immediate empirical connection is so slight and so 
deceptive. That such a reality exists,- though philosophers have doubted, 
is the unalterable faith of science ; and were that faith per impos&ibile to 
perish under the assaults of critical speculation, science, as men of science 
usually conceive it, would perish likewise. 

If this be so, if one of the tasks of science, and more particularly of 
physics, is to frame a conception of the physical universe in its inner 
reality, then any attempt to compare the different modes in which, at 
different epochs of scientific development, this intellectual picture has 
been drawn, cannot fail to suggest questions of the deepest interest. 
True, I am precluded from dealing with such of these questions as are 
nurely philosophical by the character of this occasion ; and with such of 
them as are purely scientific by my own incompetence. But some there 
may be sufficiently near the dividing line to induce the specialists who 
rule by right on either side of it, to view with forgiving eyes any trespasses 
into their legitimate domain which I may be tempted, during the next 
few minutes, to commit. 

Let me then endeavour to compare the outlines of two such pictures, 
of which the first may be taken to represent the views prevalent towards 
the end of the eighteenth century ; a little more than a hundred years 
from the publication of Newton's ' Principia,' and, roughly speaking, about 
midway between that epoch-making date and the present moment. I 
suppose that if at that period the average man of science had been asked 



ADDRESS. 5 

to sketch his general conception of the physical universe, he would 
probably have said that it essentially consisted of various sorts of ponder- 
able matter, scattered in different combinations through space, exhibiting 
most varied aspects under the influence of chemical affinity and temperature, 
but through every metamorphosis obedient to the laws of motion, always 
retaining its mass unchanged, and exercising at all distances a force of 
attraction on other material masses, according to a simple law. To this 
ponderable matter he would (in spite of Rumford) have probably added 
the so-called ' imponderable ' heat, then often ranked among the elements ; 
together with the two ' electrical fluids,' and the corpuscular emanations 
supposed to constitute light. 

In the universe as thus conceived the most important form of action 
between its constituents was action at a distance ; the principle of the 
conservation of energy was, in any general form, undreamed of ; electricity 
and magnetism, though already the subjects of important investigation, 
played no great part in the Whole of things ; nor was a diffused ether 
required to complete the machinery of the universe. 

Within a few months, however, of the date assigned for these deliver- 
ances of our hypothetical physicist, came an addition to this general con- 
ception of the world, destined profoundly to modify it. About a hundred 
years ago Young opened, or re-opened, the great controversy which finally 
established the undulatory theory of light, and with it a belief in an 
interstellar medium by which undulations could be conveyed. But this 
discovery involved much more than the substitution of a theory of light 
which was consistent with the facts for one which was not ; since here 
was the first authentic introduction * into the scientific world-picture of a 
new and prodigious constituent — a constituent which has altered, and is 
still altering, the whole balance (so to speak) of the composition. Un- 
ending space, thinly strewn with suns and satellites, made or in the 
making, supplied sufficient material for the mechanism of the heavens as 
conceived by Laplace. Unending space filled with a continuous medium 
was a very different affair, and gave promise of strange developments. 
It could not be supposed that the ether, if its reality were once admitted, 
existed only to convey through interstellar regions the vibrations which 
happen to stimulate the optic nerve of man. Invented originally to fulfil 
this function, to this it could never be confined. And accordingly, 
as everyone now knows, things which, from the point of view of sense- 
perception, are as distinct as light and radiant heat, and things to which 
sense perception makes no response, like the electric waves of Avireless 
telegraphy, 2 intrinsically differ, not in kind, but in magnitude alone. 

This, however, is not all, nor nearly all. If we jump over the century 

1 The hypothesis of an ether was, of course, not new. But before Young and 
Fresnel it cannot be said to have been established. 

2 First known through the theoretical wpik of Maxwell and the experiments of 
Herz, 



6 REroRT — 1904. 

which separates 1804 from 1904, and attempt to give in outline the world, 
picture as it now presents itself to some leaders of contemporary specu- 
lation, we shall find that in the interval it has been modified, not merely 
by such far-reaching discoveries as the atomic and molecular composition 
of ordinary matter, the kinetic theory of gases, and the laws of the con- 
servation and dissipation of energy, but by the more and more important 
part which electricity and the ether occupy in any representation of 
ultimate physical reality. 

Electricity was no more to the natural philosophers in the year 
1700 than the hidden cause of an insignificant phenomenon. 1 It was 
known, and had long been known, that such things as amber and glass, 
when 'electrified' by friction, could be made to attract light objects 
brought into their neighbourhood ; yet it was about fifty years before the 
effects of electricity were perceived in the thunderstorm. It was about 
100 years before it was detected in the form of a current. It was about 
120 years before it was connected with magnetism; about 170 years 
before it was connected with light and ethereal radiation. 

But to-day there are those who regard gross matter, the matter of 
everyday experience, as the mere appearance of which electricity is the 
physical basis ; who think that the elementary atom of the chemist, itself 
far beyond the limits of direct perception, is but a connected system of 
monads or sub -atoms which are not electrified matter, but are electricity 
itself ; that these systems differ in the number of monads which they 
contain, in their arrangement, and in their motion relative to each other 
and to the ether ; that on these differences, and on these differences 
alone, depend the various qualities of what have hitherto been regarded 
as indivisible and elementary atoms ; and that while in most cases these 
atomic systems may maintain their equilibrium for periods which, com- 
pared with such astronomical processes as the cooling of a sun, may 
seem almost eternal, they arc not less obedient to the law of change 
than the everlasting heavens themselves. 

But if gross matter be a grouping of atoms, and if atoms be systems 
of electrical monads, what are these electrical monads ? It may be that, 
as Professor Larmor has suggested, they are but a modification of the 
universal ether, a modification roughly comparable to a knot in a medium 
which is inextensible, incompressible, and continuous. But whether 
this final unification be accepted or not, it is certain that these monads 
cannot be considered apart from the ether. It is on their interaction 
with the ether that their qualities depend ; and without the ether an 
electric theory of matter is impossible. 

Surely we have here a very extraordinary revolution. Two centuries 
ago electricity seemed but a scientific toy. It is now thought by many 
to constitute the reality of which matter is but the sensible expression. 

1 The modern history of electricity begins with Gilbert, but I have throughout 
confined ray observations to the post-Newtonian period. 



ADDRESS. 7 

It is but a century ago that the title of an ether to a place among the 
constituents of the universe was authentically established. It seems 
possible now that it may be the stuff out of which that universe is wholly 
built. Nor are the collateral inferences associated with this view of the 
physical world less surprising. It used, for example, to be thought that 
mass was an original property of matter, neither capable of explanation 
nor requiring it ; in its nature essentially unchangeable, suffering neither 
augmentation nor diminution under the stress of any forces to which it 
could be subjected ; unalterably attached to each material fragment, 
howsoever much that fragment might vary in its appearance, its bulk, its 
chemical or its physical condition. 

But if the new theories be accepted, these views must be revised. 
Mass is not only explicable, it is actually explained. So far from being 
an attribute of matter considered in itself, it is due, as I have said, to the 
relation between the electrical monads of which matter is composed and 
the ether in which they are bathed. So far from being unchangeable, it 
changes, when moving at very high speeds, with every change in its velocity. 

Perhaps, however, the most impressive alteration in our picture of the 
universe required by these new theories is to be sought in a different 
direction. "We have all, I suppose, been interested in the generally 
accepted views as to the origin and development of suns with their 
dependent planetary systems ; and the gradual dissipation of the energy 
which during this process of concentration has largely taken the form of 
light and radiant heat. Follow out the theory to its obvious conclusions, 
and it becomes plain that the stars now visibly incandescent are those in 
mid-journey between the nebula? from which they sprang and the frozen 
darkness to which they are predestined. What, then, are we to think of 
the invisible multitude of the heavenly bodies in which this process has been 
already completed 1 According to the ordinary view we should suppose 
them to be in a state where all possibilities of internal movement were 
exhausted. At the temperature of interstellar space their constituent 
elements would be solid and inert ; chemical action and molecular move- 
ment would be alike impossible, and their exhausted energy could obtain 
no replenishment unless they were suddenly rejuvenated by some celestial 
collision, or travelled into other regions warmed by newer suns. . 

This view must, however, be profoundly modified if we accept the 
electric theory of matter. We can then no longer hold that if the 
internal energy of a sun were as far as possible converted into heat either 
by its contraction under the stress of gravitation, or by chemical reactions 
between its elements, or by any other inter-atomic force ; and that were the 
heat so generated to be dissipated (as in time it must be) through infinite 
space, its whole energy would be exhausted. On the contrary, the 
amount thus lost would be absolutely insignificant compared with what 
remained stored up within the separate atoms. The system in its 
corporate capacity would become bankrupt — the wealth of its individual 



8 REPORT — 1904. 

constituents would be scarcely diminished. They would lie side by side, 
without movement, without chemical affinity ; yet each one, howsoever 
inert in its external relations, the theatre of violent motions, and of 
powerful internal forces. 

Or, put the same thought in another form : When the sudden appear- 
ance of some new star in the telescopic field gives notice to the astronomer 
that he, and perhaps, in the whole universe, lie alone, is witnessing the 
conflagration of a world, the tremendous forces by which this far-off 
tragedy is being accomplished must surely move his awe. Yet not only 
would the members of each separate atomic system pursue their relative 
course unchanged, while the atoms themselves were thus riven violently 
apart in flaming vapour, but the forces by which such a world is shattered 
are really negligible compared with those by which each atom of it is held 
together. 

In common, therefore, with all other living things we seem to be 
practically concerned chiefly with the feebler forces of Nature, and with 
energy in its least powerful manifestations. Chemical affinity and 
cohesion are on this theory no more than the slight residual effects of the 
internal electrical forces which keep the atom in being. Gravitation, 
though it be the shaping force which concentrates nebulre into organised 
systems of suns and satellites, is trifling compared with the attractions 
and repulsions with which we are familiar between electrically charged 
bodies ; while these again sink into insignificance beside the attractions 
and repulsions between the electric monads themselves. The irregular 
molecular movements which constitute heat, on which the very possibility 
of organic life seems absolutely to hang, and in whose transformations 
applied science is at present so largely concerned, cannot rival the 
kinetic energy stored within the molecules themselves. This prodigious 
mechanism seems outside the range of our immediate interests. We live, 
so to speak, merely on its fringe. It has for us no promise of utilitarian 
value. It will not drive our mills ; we cannot harness it to our trains. 
Yet not less on that account does it stir the intellectual imagination. 
The starry heavens have from time immemorial moved the worship or 
the wonder of mankind. But if the dust beneath our feet be indeed 
compounded of innumerable systems, whose elements are ever in the 
most rapid motion, yet retain through uncounted ages their equilibrium 
unshaken, we can hardly deny that the marvels we directly see are not 
more worthy of admiration than those which recent discoveries have 
enabled us dimly to surmise. 

II. 

Now whether the main outlines of the world-picture which I have 
just imperfectly presented to you be destined to survive, or whether in their 
turn they are to be obliterated by some new drawing on the scientific 
palimpsest, all will, I think, admit that SQ bold an attempt to unify 



ADDRESS. 9 

physical nature excites feelings of the most acute intellectual gratification. 
The satisfaction it gives is almost aesthetic in its intensity and quality. 
We feel the same sort of pleasurable shock as when from the crest of 
some melancholy pass we first see far below us the sudden glories of 
plain, river, and mountain. Whether indeed this vehement sentiment in 
favour of a simple universe has any theoretical justification, I will not 
venture to pronounce. There is no a priori reason that I know of for 
expecting that the material world should be a modification of a single 
medium, rather than a composite structure built out of sixty or seventy 
elementary substances, eternal and eternally different. Why, then, 
should we feel content with the first hypothesis and not with the second 1 
Yet so it is. Men of science have always been restive under the multi- 
plication of entities. They have eagerly watched for any sign that the 
different chemical elements own a common origin, and are all compounded 
out of some primordial substance. Nor, for my part, do I think such 
instincts should be ignored. John Mill, if I rightly remember, was con- 
temptuous of those who saw any difficulty in accepting the doctrine of 
'action at a distance.' So far as observation and experiment can tell us, 
bodies do actually influence each other at a distance ; and why should they 
not 1 Why seek to go behind experience in obedience to some a priori 
sentiment for which no argument can be adduced ? So reasoned Mill, and 
to his reasoning I have no reply. Nevertheless, we cannot forget that it 
was to Faraday's obstinate disbelief in 'action at a distance ' that we owe 
some of the crucial discoveries on which both our electric industries and 
the electric theory of matter are ultimately founded. While at this very 
moment physicists, however baffled in the quest for an explanation of 
gravity, refuse altogether to content themselves with the belief, so satisfy- 
ing to Mill, that it is a simple and inexplicable property of masses acting 
on each other across space. 

These obscure intimations about the nature of reality deserve, I think, 
more attention than has yet been given to them. That they exist is cer- 
tain ; that they modify the indifferent impartiality of pure empiricism can 
hardly be denied. The common notion that he who would search out the 
secrets of Nature must humbly wait on experience, obedient to its 
slightest hint, is but partly true. This may be his ordinary attitude ; 
but now and again it happens that observation and experiment are not 
treated as guides to be meekly followed, but as witnesses to be broken 
down in cross-examination. Their plain message is disbelieved, and the 
investigating judge does not pause until a confession in harmony with 
his preconceived ideas has, if possible, been wrung from their reluctant 
evidence. 

This proceeding needs neither explanation nor defence in those cases 
where there is an apparent contradiction between the utterances of expe- 
rience in different connections. Such contradictions must of course be 
reconciled, and science cannot rest until the reconciliation is effected. 



10 REPOBT— 1904. 

The difficulty only arises when experience apparently says one thing 
and scientific instinct persists in saying another. Two such cases I have 
already mentioned ; others will easily be found by those who care to seek. 
What is the origin of this instinct, and what its value ; whether it be a 
mere prejudice to be brushed aside, or a clue which no wise man would 
disdain to follow, I cannot now discuss. For other questions there are, 
not new, yet raised in an acute form by these most modern views of 
matter, on which I would ask your indulgent attention for yet a few 
moments. 

III. 

That these new views diverge violently from those suggested by 
ordinary observation is plain enough. No scientific education is likely 
to make us, in our unreflective moments, regard the solid earth on 
which wc stand, or the organised bodies with which our terrestrial fate is 
so intimately bound up, as consisting wholly of electric monads very 
sparsely scattered through the spaces which these fragments of matter 
are, by a violent metaphor, described as ' occupying.' Not less plain is it 
that an almost equal divergence is to be found between these new theories 
and that modification of the common-sense view of matter with which 
science has in the main been content to work. 

What was this modification of common sense 1 It is roughly indicated 
by an old philosophic distinction drawn between what were called the 
' primary ' and the ' secondary ' qualities of matter. The primary quali- 
ties, such as shape and mass, were supposed to possess an existence quite 
independent of the observer ; and so far the theory agreed with common 
sense. The secondary qualities, on the other hand, such as warmth and 
colour, were thought to have no such independent existence, being, 
indeed, no more than the resultants due to the action of the primary 
qualities on our organs of sense-perception ; and here, no doubt, common 
sense and theory parted company. 

You need not fear that I am going to drag you into the controversies 
with which this theory is historically connected. They have left abiding 
traces on more than one system of philosophy. They are not yet solved. 
In the course of them the very possibility of an independent physical 
universe has seemed to melt away under the solvent powers of critical 
analysis. But with all this I am not now concerned. I do not propose 
to ask what proof we have that an external world exists, or how, if it 
does exist, we are able to obtain cognisance of it. These may be ques- 
tions very proper to be asked by philosophy ; but they are not proper 
questions to be asked by science. For, logically, they are antecedent to 
physical science, and we must reject the sceptical answers to both of them 
before any such science becomes possible at all. My present purpose requires 
me to do no more than observe that, be this theory of the primary and 
secondary qualities of matter good or bad, it is the one on which, as a 
matter of fact, science has in the main proceeded. It was with matter thus 



ADDRESS. 11 

conceived that Newton experimented. To it he applied his laws of motion ; 
of it he predicated universal gravitation. Nor was the case greatly altered 
when science became as much preoccupied with the movements of molecules 
as it was with those of planets. For molecules and atoms, whatever else 
might be said of them, were at least pieces of matter, and, like other 
pieces of matter, possessed those 'primary' qualities supposed to bo 
characteristic of all matter, whether found in large masses or in small. 

But the electric theory which we have been considering carries us into 
a new region altogether. It does not confine itself to accounting for the 
secondary qualities by the primary, or the behaviour of matter in bulk 
by the behaviour of matter in atoms ; it analyses matter, whether molar 
or molecular, into something which is not matter at all. The atom is 
now no more than the relatively vast theatre of operations in which 
minute monads perform their orderly evolutions ; while the monads 
themselves are not regarded as units of matter, but as units of elec- 
tricity ; so that matter is not merely explained, but is explained away. 

Now the point to which I desire to call attention is not to be sought 
in the great divergence between matter as thus conceived by the 
physicist and matter as the ordinary man supposes himself to know it, 
between matter as it is perceived and matter as it really is, but to the 
fact that the first of these two quite inconsistent views is wholly based 
on the second. 

This is surely something of a paradox. We claim to found all our 
scientific opinions on experience ; and the experience on which we found 
our theories of the physical universe is our sense-perception of that 
universe. That is experience ; and in this region of belief there is no 
other. Yet the conclusions which thus profess to be entirely founded 
upon experience are to all appearance fundamentally opposed to it : our 
knowledge of reality is based upon illusion, and the very conceptions we 
use in describing it to others, or in thinking of it ourselves, are abstracted 
from anthropomorphic fancies, which science forbids us to believe and 
Nature compels us to entertain. 

We here touch the fringe of a series of problems with which induc- 
tive logic ought to deal ; but which that most unsatisfactory branch of 
philosophy has systematically ignored. This is no fault of men of 
science. They are occupied in the task of making discoveries, not in 
that of analysing the fundamental presuppositions which the very pos- 
sibility of making discoveries implies. Neither is it the fault of trans- 
cendental metaphysicians. Their speculations flourish on a different 
level of thought ; their interest in a philosophy of nature is lukewarm j 
and howsoever the questions in which they are chiefly concerned be 
answered, it is by no means certain that the answers will leave the 
humbler difficulties at which I have hinted either nearer to or further 
from a solution. But though men of science and idealists stand acquitted, 
the same can hardly be said of empirical philosophers. So far from solving 



12 REPORT — 1904. 

the problem involved in the attempt to extract knowledge from experi- 
ence, they seem scarcely to have understood that there was any such 
problem to be solved. Led astray by a misconception to which I have 
already referred ; believing that science was concerned only with (so-called) 
'phenomena,' that it had done all that it could be asked to do if it 
accounted for the sequence of our individual sensations, that it was con- 
cerned only with the ' laws of Nature/ and not with the inner character 
of physical reality ; disbelieving, indeed, that any such physical reality 
does in truth exist ; — it has never felt called upon seriously to consider 
what are the actual methods by which science attains its results, and how 
those methods are to be justified. If anyone, for example, will take up 
Mill's logic, with its ' sequences and co-existences between phenomena,' 
its 'method of difference,' its 'method of agreement,' and the rest ; if he 
will then compare the actual doctrines of science with this version of the 
mode in which those doctrines have been arrived at, he will soon be 
convinced of the exceedingly thin intellectual fare which has so often been 
served out to us under the imposing title of Inductive Theory. 

There is an added emphasis given to these reflections by a train of 
thought which has long interested me, though I acknowledge that it never 
seems to have interested anyone else. Observe, then, that in order of 
logic sense-perceptions supply the premisses from which we draw all our 
knowledge of the physical world. It is they which tell us there is a 
physical world ; it is on their authority that we learn its character. But 
in order of causation they are effects due (in part) to the constitution of our 
organs of sense. What we see depends not merely on what there is to be 
seen, but on our eyes. What we hear depends not merely on what there 
is to hear, but on our ears. Now, eyes and ears, and all the mechanism 
of perception, have, according to accepted views, been evolved in us and 
our brute progenitors by the slow operation of Natural Selection. And 
what is true of sense-perception is of course also true of the intellectual 
powers which enable us to erect upon the frail and narrow platform which 
sense-perception provides, the proud fabric of the sciences. 

Now Natural Selection only works through utility. It encourages 
aptitudes useful to their possessor or his species in the struggle for 
existence, and, for a similar reason, it is apt to discourage useless apti- 
tudes, however interesting they may be from other points of view, because, 
being useless, they are probably burdensome. 

But it is certain that our powers of sense-perception and of calcula- 
tion were fully developed ages before they were effectively employed in 
searching out the secrets of physical reality — for our discoveries in this 
field are the triumphs but of yesterday. The blind forces of Natural 
Selection which so admirably simulate design when they are providing 
for a present need, possess no power of prevision, and could never, 
except by accident, have endowed mankind, while in the making, with a 
physiological or mental outfit adapted to the higher physical investigations. 



Address. 13 

Ho far as natural .science can tell us, every quality of sense or intellect 
which does not help us to fight, to eat, and to bring up children, is but 
a by-product of the qualities which do. Our organs of sense-perception 
were not given us for purposes of research ; nor was it to aid us in 
meting out the heavens or dividing the atom that our powers of calcu- 
lation and analysis were evolved from the rudimentary instincts of the 
animal. 

It is presumably due to these circumstances that the beliefs of all 
mankind about the mateiual surroundings in which it dwells are not only 
imperfect but fundamentally wrong. It may seem singular that down to, 
say, five years ago, our race has, without exception, lived and died in a 
world of illusions ; and that its illusions, or those with which we are here 
alone concerned, have not been about things remote or abstract, things 
transcendental or divine, but about what men see and handle, about those 
' plain matters of fact ' among which common sense daily moves with its 
most confident step and most self-satisfied smile. Presumably, however, this 
is either because too direct a vision of physical reality was a hindrance, not 
a help, in the struggle for existence ; because falsehood was more useful 
than truth ; or else because with so imperfect a material as living 
tissue no better results could be attained. But if this conclusion be 
accepted, its consequences extend to other organs of knowledge besides 
those of perception. Not merely the senses, but the intellect, must be 
judged by it ; and it is hard to see why evolution, which has so lament- 
ably failed to produce trustworthy instruments for obtaining the raw 
material of experience, should be credited with a larger measure of 
success in its provision of the physiological arrangements which condition 
reason in its endeavours to turn experience to account. 

Considerations like these, unless I have compressed them beyond 
the limits of intelligibility, do undoubtedly suggest a certain inevitable 
incoherence in any general scheme of thought which is built out of 
materials provided by natural science alone. Extend the boundaries 
of knowledge as you may ; draw how you will the picture of the 
universe ; reduce its infinite variety to the modes of a single space-filling 
ether ; re-trace its history to the birth of existing atoms ; show how under 
the pressure of gravitation they became concentrated into nebula?, into 
suns, and all the host of heaven ; how, at least in one small planet, they 
combined to form organic compounds ; how organic compounds became 
living things ; how living things, developing along many different lines, 
gave birth at last to one superior race ; how from this race arose, after 
many ages, a learned handful, who looked round on the world which thus 
blindly brought them into being, and judged it, and knew it for what it 
was : perform, I say, all this, and though you may indeed have attained 
to science, in nowise will you have attained to a self-sufficing system 
of beliefs. One thing at least will remain, of which this long-drawn 
sequence of causes and effects gives no satisfying explanation ; and that 



14 REPORT — 1904. 

is knowledge itself. Natural science must ever regard knowledge as the 
product of irrational conditions, for in the last resort it knows no others. 
It must always regard knowledge as rational, or else science itself dis- 
appears. In addition, therefore, to the difficulty of extracting from 
experience beliefs which experience contradicts, we are confronted with the 
difficulty of harmonising the pedigree of our beliefs with their title to 
authority. The more successful we are in explaining their origin, the 
more doubt we cast upon their validity. The more imposing seems the 
scheme of what we know, the more difficult it is to discover by what 
ultimate criteria we claim to know it. 

Here, however, we touch the frontier beyond which physical science 
possesses no jurisdiction. If the obscure and difficult region which lies 
beyond is to be surveyed and made accessible, philosophy, not science, 
must undertake the task. It is no business of this .Society. We meet 
here to promote the cause of knowledge in one of its great divisions ; we 
shall not help it by confusing the limits which usefully separate one 
division from another. It may perhaps be thought that I have dis- 
regarded my own precept ; that I have wilfully overstepped the ample 
bounds within which the searchers into Nature carry on their labours. 
If it be so, I can only beg your forgiveness. My first desire has been to 
rouse in those who, like myself, are no specialists in physics, the same 
absorbing interest which I feel in what is surely the most far-reaching 
speculation about the physical universe which has ever claimed experi- 
mental support ; and if in so doing I have been tempted to hint my own 
personal opinion, that as Natural Science grows it leans more, not less, 
upon a teleological interpretation of the universe, even those who least 
agree may perhaps be prepared to pardon. 



BEPOBTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-opera- 
tion with a Committee of the Iioyal Meteorological Society. — Third 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), 
Mr. W. H. Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Dr. A.. Buchan, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
and Professor A. Schuster. (Brawn up by the Chairman and 
Secretary.) 

The Committee have acted throughout in conjunction with the Committee 
of the Royal Meteorological Society. 

Since the date of the last report an account of the observations made 
in the summer of 1903 has been communicated to the P^oyal Meteorological 
Society and published in their ' Quarterly Journal.' 

Winter Observations. 

In the interval between the meeting of the Association at Southport 
and the beginning of June experimental observations have been made at 
Oxshott ; kites, of which various details have been altered, have been 
sent up almost every clay on which the wind-force equalled or exceeded 
six on the Beaufort scale. The object of these experiments was to ascer- 
tain if the behaviour of the kites could be improved by alteration of 
shape, size, &c, more particularly with regard to uniformity of pull and 
stability in winds of varying force. 

As regards the first of these qualities considerable improvement has 
been effected by arrangements which will be described subsequently. 

Instruments. 

A new form of meteorograph has been designed for kite experiments 
by which the records of pressure, temperature, and humidity are traced 
upon a revolving disc of paper instead of a drum. 

The pressure is indicated by the variation of capacity of an aneroid 
box of thin metal containing air. This needs a temperature correction to 
give the actual pressure, and the necessary correction is obtained from 
the temperature trace. Temperature is recorded by the expansion of 
ether contained in a coil of thin brass tube, terminating at one end in a 
small aneroid box, the variation in the position of the lid indicating the 

1904. c 



e> 



18 



REPORT 1904. 



changes of temperature by direct multiplication with the aid of a single 

lever. 

The humidity is given by the expansion and contraction of a bundle 
of hairs in the usual way. This apparatus was described by Mr. Dines 
for ' Symons's Meteorological Magazine' for July. One of its advantages 
for kite work is the stability of the pen levers due to the more powerful 
controlling forces. Another important advantage is that the apparatus 
is comparatively cheap. It is made by Mr. Hicks, of Hatton Garden. 

Ascents in connection with the International Aeronautical Investigation. 

From the beginning of February till June ascents were made at 
Oxshott on every day specified by the President of the International 
Aeronautical Committee unless the wind was too light for work with 



kites. 



Ascents from II. M.S. 'Seahorse.' 



As reported last year, an application made by the Royal Society to the 
Admiralty for the loan of a vessel for experiments with kites became 
inoperative in consequence of the accident to the ship which their lord- 
ships intended to place at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose. 
At the desire of the Royal Meteorological Society the Royal Society renewed 
the application for the loan of a vessel with a view to experiments in the 
summer, and their lordships assigned H.M.S. ' Seahorse,' a special service 
vessel of COO tons and 1,000 horse-power, for the service, under the 
command of Staff-Captain F. W. A. Crooke, R.N., for six weeks from 
the middle of June. Mr. Dines visited Portsmouth to make preliminary 
arrangements, and the ' Seahorse ' arrived at Crinan on June 16. The 
fitting of the winding engine was completed on June 18, and the opera- 
tions commenced on Monday, June 20, and were continued daily until 
July 28, with the exception of Sundays and the three days, July 9, 11, 
and 12, when the vessel was at Oban for the purpose of coaling. The 
approximate heights of the several ascents were as follows : — 



Date 


Height reached 


Date 


Height reached 




Feet 




Feet 


June 20 


3,250 


July 8 


5,000 


„ 21 






4.000 


,. 13 






8,500 


>, 22 






5,340 


„ 14 






1,750 


„ 23 






3,320 


„ 15 






8,060 


„ 24 






1,100 


„ 16 






, 6,050 
16,760' 


„ 25 






3,750 






„ 27 






2.300 


„ 18 






1,200 


„ 28 






7,300 


„ 19 






4,200 


„ 29 






4,900 


„ 20 






2,680 


„ 30 






5, COO 


„ 21 






6,500 


July 1 






5,500 


22 






5,900 


2 






4,400 


„ 23 2 






— 


',', 4 






0,300 


„ 25 






5,310 


,, 5 






7,200 


„ 26 






5,280 


„ « 






5,300 


27 2 






— 


„ 7 






7,350 


„ 28 






8,000 



1 Afternoon. 

2 No ascent owing to want of wind, 
and after July 18. 



Persistently calm weather prevailed on 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE BY MEANS OF KITES. 19 

The Committee take this opportunity of recording their thanks to 
the Royal Society for their action in the matter, to the Lords of the 
Admiralty for the loan of the « Seahorse,' and to Staff-Captain Crooke 
and the officers and men of his vessel for the manner in which they 
contributed to the carrying out of the observations. An account of the 
results of the experiments will be published later. 

Proposed Observations on S.S. ' Helga: 

In the course of correspondence with Mr. E. W. L. Holt, of the 
Fishery Branch of the Irish Board of Agriculture Technical Instruction, 
Dr. Shaw learned that there was a prospect of occasional kite observa- 
tions on board the s.s. ' Helga,' belonging to the board, provided that the 
Department was not called upon to defray the expenses of the necessary 
apparatus and materials. Dr. Shaw reported the matter to the Committee, 
and reported, further, that if the Committee were willing to supply 
apparatus and gear for the experiments on the ' Helga ' the Meteorological 
Council were prepared to make arrangements with Mr. Dines to initiate 
the experiments and explain the method of working the apparatus. 

Of the contribution of 200/. from the Government Grant Fund made 
last year for the purpose of hiring a vessel a sum of about 90/. 
remained ; and as the loan of H.M.S. ' Seahorse ' obviated the necessity 
for the further hiring of a vessel, it was suggested that the unexpended 
balance of the fund might be used to provide the apparatus. After 
communicating with the Royal Society upon the matter the Committee 
decided to adopt the suggestion, and Mr. Dines made ready a duplicate 
set of apparatus, which will be mounted on board the ' Helga ' as soon as 
an opportunity offers for commencing experiments on that vessel. 

The funds appropriated to the use of the Committee during the year 
have been : — 

£ 

Balance of Government Grant Fund left over from last year . 90 

British Association Grant made at Southport .... 50 

Anonymous Contribution by a. Member of the Council of the 

Royal Meteorological Society 25 

Provision for Continuation of the Experiments. 

The Committee of Section A of the British Association passed 
a resolution desiring the Council to take steps to urge upon the 
Government the provision of means for co-operating in an organised 
union with the Continental nations and with India and America in the 
investigation of the upper air by means of balloons and kites. The 
decision of the Government with regard to the matter is nevertheless 
intimately connected with the action intended with regard to the Report 
of the Meteorological Grant Committee of the Treasury. The Com- 
mittee's report was published in June, and refers in favourable terms to 
the proposed investigation, but suggests no specific grant for the purpose. 
The action of the Government with regard to the finding of the report 
has not yet been made known. 

Nothing is therefore ascertained as to the prospects of an investiga- 
tion of the upper air of this country upon an official basis. In the 
meantime Mr. Dines is likely to be able with the apparatus in hand to 
obtain kite observations on the fixed days of the Meteorological Com- 
mittee, and to make further investigations with regard to improvements 



20 REPORT — 1904. 

of the kites and apparatus. With regard to the latter an easy means 
of calibrating the meteorograph is required, and this involves the use of 
a suitable air-tight inclosure which might be used for similar operations 
in future. The cost of such an apparatus is estimated at 251. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment, with a grant of 40Z. 



Report on the Theory of Point-groups} — P ART IV. 
By Frances Hardcastle, Cambridge. 

§ 10. 1857-1873. The rise and development of the theory of algebraic 
functions has been described by Brill and Noether in a masterpiece of 
German erudition. 2 The whole of the fifth and sixth sections of this 
work, as well as large portions of other sections, treat, historically and 
critically, of matters more or less relevant to the theory of point-groups. 
It would be impracticable to deal thoroughly with such a mass of 
material within the limits of this Report. Some account of certain 
publications of this period will, however, indicate how the theory of 
functions came to be connected with the theory of higher plane curves, 
a connection which is the origin of the theory of point-groups. And as 
a preliminary to this, the following section deals very briefly with 
Rieniann's contribution to the ideas which gave rise to this theory. 

At the very end of the eighteenth century, two years before the 
birth of Pliicker and five years before that of Jacobi, Gauss, then in 
his twenty-second year, put forward a strictly rigorous proof of the 
fundamental theorem of algebra. In this dissertation 3 the position of 
a point in the plane was taken, for the first time, as the geometrical 
interpretation of a single complex variable, in contrast to the Cartesian 
plan, which, confining the attention to real quantities, had associated 
two independent variables with each point. By this interpretation the 
first step was taken towards the connection of the theory of functions 
with the theory of higher plane curves ; for, fifty-two years later, this 
plane of the complex variable was made the foundation of the ingenious 
structure commonly known as a ' Riemann surface.' The conception of 
a many-sheeted surface spread over the plane, upon which the complex 
variable is free to move, and in which the sheets are connected by inter- 
penetration of one another in a manner which it is impossible to con- 
struct in the concrete, but which in the imagination affords a perfect 
representation of the ' branching ' of a many-valued function, each sheet 
being associated with one branch of the function, and melting into 
another sheet round a point at which, for one and the same value of the 
variable, two branches coincide — this conception, by means of which the 
many-valued function is transformed into a one-valued function of the 
position of the variable on the surface, is due to Riemann (1826-1866), 
who first described such a surface in his ' Inaugural Dissertation,' 

1 Parts I., II., and III. appeared in the Brit. Assoc. Reports for 1900, 1902, 1903. 

2 Brill and Noether, ' Die Entwicklung der Theorie der algebraischen Functionen 
in alterer und neuerer Zeit ' (Jahresber. d. devtschen Math. Ver. vol. iii. (1894), 
pp. 109-565). 

3 ■ Demonstratio nova theoreniatis, omnem functionem algebraicam rationalem 
integram unius variabilis in factores realps primi vel secundi gradus resolvi posse,' 
Helmstadt, 1799 ; Gauss, Werke, vol. iii. 1876, pp. 1-30. 



ON THE THEORY OF roiNT-GROUPS. 21 

published in 1851. ' This surface is an essential feature of Riemann's 
method ; the results in the theory of functions which he obtained are all 
intimately connected with its use ; and it is as a consequence of this fact 
that the possibility of the transference of these results into the theory 
of higher plane curves naturally presented itself to his readers. A 
Riemann surface is, in its original state, ' multiply connected,' i.e., it 
cannot be bounded by one continuous curve ; its dissection into a 
'simply connected' surface, bounded by one continuous curve, is effected 
by means of ' cross-cuts.' In one of the opening sections of his ' Theory 
of Abelian Functions ' 2 Riemann takes the number of these cross-cuts 
for any given surface to be 2p, and this assumption provides the original 
definition of the number p, a number which reappears on every page of 
this memoir, and whose importance is marked in § 11 by the establish- 
ment of its permanence under bi-rational transformation of the equation 
F (s, z) = 0, associated with the given Riemann surface. In§ 12 Riemann 
further pointed out that all algebraic equations can be divided into 
classes : those of the same class are derivable from each other by bi- 
rational transformation, and are characterised by the value of p. This 
classification is of great importance ; for subsequently, when the number p 
has been identified with a purely geometrical property of a curve, it is 
shown that, starting from this as a definition, p is permanent under a 
bi-rational transformation of the curve ; and the standpoint of projective 
geometry, from which curves are classified according to their orders, is 
almost entirely replaced in the theory of point-groups by the standpoint 
of bi-rational transformation, in which a curve is classified according to 
the value of p. 

Riemann regarded all the functions with which he dealt not, as other 
writers had done, from the point of view of the actual functional form 
they possess, but as defined by certain properties. 3 Among these 
properties is the existence of infinities of given orders at given points 
of the Riemann surface, and of given ' moduli of periodicity ' at the 
2p cross-cuts. The simplest case is that in which the function has no 
infinities, but only moduli of periodicity : these were called by Riemann 
'integrals of the first kind,' and, from the fact that there are 2p cross- 
cuts, he showed that there are exactly p linearly independent integrals 
of this kind on a surface. 4 He next discussed integrals of the 
' second ' and of the ' third ' kinds, which have respectively algebraic 
and logarithmic infinities, and then proceeded to form an algebraic 
function by means of a sum of integrals of the first and second kinds, 
together with an additive constant, this sum being subject to the 
condition that the moduli of periodicity should vanish. 5 And, by 
counting the constants in the equations which express this condition, 
he found that, after the m infinities of an algebraic function have been 
chosen on the surface, there will always remain precisely m — p 4- 1 
arbitrary constants (including the additive constant) in its expression.* 
This result was corrected seven years later by Roch (1^39-1866), 
who pointed out that under certain conditions the number of arbitrary 

1 ' Grundlagen fur eine allgemeine Theorie der Functionen einer veranderliclien 
complexen Grosse,' Inaugural-Dissertation, Gottingen, 1851, Ges. Werlte, pp. 3-47. 

2 'Theorie der Abel'schen Functionen,' Crelle, vol. liv., 1857; Ges. Werke, 
2nd edit. 1892, pp. 88-144. 

3 Loc. cit. § 3. 4 Loc. cit. § 4. 
5 Loc. cit. $ 5. 6 Loc. cit. § 5. 



22 report — 1904. 

constants is increased. The theorem in which he formulated the true 
state of the case will be enunciated later on, after a brief summary of 
some more of Riemann's results. 

After showing that an algebraic function, s, with m infinities on the 
surface, is the root of an irreducible equation of the ?ith degree whose 
coefficients are integral functions of the rnih degree in z, the complex 
variable — in other words, after showing that there is an equation, 

» m 

F(s, 2s)=0, which is so associated with the surface that as z moves over its 

whole extent, s is a one-valued function of its position with m simple 

infinities — Riemann considered the question of the determination of the 

' branch-points ' of the surface from knowledge of the associated equation. 

The essential property of a branch-point is not only that two branches of 

the function coincide for a certain value of z, but that, as z moves round 

the branch point, these branches interchange their values. 1 This opens 

up the possibility that two branch-points may, as it were, destroy 

ill- n m 

each other by coincidence ; and, by expansion of F(s, z)=0 at a point, 

Riemann showed that true branch-points only occur when =.0, but not 

anc ' uZ = 0> but ■ a ;£ / " ~- J the branches do not interchange their 

values as z moves round the point. In the discussion of the r branch-points 
which may thus disappear, Riemann explicitly limits himself by assuming 
that when branch-points coincide it shall only be in pairs ; he thus rules 

out altogether the cases in which f =0, S.Q, and W^E^tf*™) 

ds ' dz ' 8 S 2 . 8s 2 V dsdz J 

when three branch-points coincide, two of them destroying each other. 
This limitation is, however, quite unnecessary, and in the subsequent 
adaptation of his results for the purposes of higher plane curves it was 
not adhered to. 2 Riemann used his determination of the number of 
arbitrary constants in the expression of an algebraic function of the 
surface to show that every algebraic function s' with m infinities, can be 
expressed as the quotient of two integral functions. 3 The number of 
arbitrary constants in such a quotient will be, as required, m— p+l, 
provided that both numerator and denominator vanish at the r points 
in which two branch-points destroy each other; and this condition is 
also required in order to ensure that s' should, in general, assume two 
different values at such a point, although s has only one value. Now 

g-g-, the differential coefficient with respect to z of the integral of the first 

kind, is an algebraic function on the given surface, and it is infinite at the 

branch-points of the surface ; moreover ^ F vanishes at the branch-points 

of the surface and at the r other points as well ; hence the simplest 

expression as a quotient for J? is one in which the denominator is 

8F dz 

g— J the numerator is then a function which Riemann denotes as 

1 Loc. cit. § 6. 2 See Clebsch, Crelle, vol. lxiii. p. 192. 3 Loc. cit. § 8. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 23 

(f> (s , z), and it also must vanish at the r points. 1 This function <j> has, 
in general (n — 1) (m — 1) — r arbitrary constants, a number which Riemann 
had previously shown 2 to be equal to p. There are, therefore, p linearly 
independent functions (j>, which agrees with the former statement 
that there are p linearly independent integrals of the first kind. The 
function f, which thus appears quite naturally in this expression for 

^ , plays an important part in that portion of Riemann's work which, 

through its influence on the theory of higher plane curves, is connected 
with the theory of point-groups. It is characterised by the fact that it 
must vanish at the r -fixed points on the surface where a pair of branch- 
points destroy each other ; moreover, as Riemann went on to show, it 
has also m(n — 2) + ?t(»i — 2) — 2r=2p — 2 other zeros which maybe any- 
where on the surface ; 3 in contradistinction to the fixed zeros, common to 
all f's, these latter are now often spoken of as the moveable zeros of a 
^-function. Roch's correction of Riemann's enumeration of the number 
of arbitrary constants involved in the expression of an algebraic function 
on the surface — alluded to above — is concerned with this function t/>, and 
his theorem is as follows : ' 'If an algebraic function s' have m infinities 

n m 

on the surface associated with F(s, s)=0, and if q functions </>, which 
are linearly independent of each other, vanish in these m points, then 
s' has m—p+l+q arbitrary constants in its expression.' 

This is the theorem known in the theory of functions as the Riemann- 
Roch theorem ; transferred into the theory of higher plane curves it 
became part of a more general theorem, now usually spoken of as Brill 
and Noether's Theorem of Reciprocity. The latter, which is of funda- 
mental importance for the theory of point-groups, was not taken from 
any theorem which had been explicitly stated in the theory of functions, 
but its enunciation was suggested by certain results obtained by Riemann 
in connection with the theta- functions. 5 These results are based upon the 
discussion of Abel's theorem, which occupies the last three sections of the 
first part of Riemann's ' Theory of Abelian Functions.' Part II. of this 
work is devoted to the theta-functions, but the actual results in which we 
are interested appear in a later memoir (1865) on the vanishing of the 
theta-functions. 6 A short account of these investigations will now be 
given in order to show how the first idea of a point-group arose. 

Riemann was only directly concerned with Abel's theorem in so 
far as it applied to integrals of the first kind ; he was in fact the first 
definitely to enunciate and prove it for this case, for in Abel's original 
discussion of the subject this case had been treated as a particular instance 
of the more general theorem for the three kinds of Abelian integrals, and 
the conditions under which the sum of the integrals reduces to a constant 
(i.e., the case in question) are complicated, and involve possibilities which 
are excluded by Riemann's method of attacking the problem. This 
method, moreover, is readily applicable to the other cases, which, however, 
do not concern us here. The (^-function, which enters, as we have seen, 

1 Loc. clt. § 9. " Log. cit. § 7. 3 Loo. oit. § 10. 

* Roch, ' Ueber die Anzahl der willkiirlichen Constanten in algebraischen 
Functionen,' Crelle, vol. lxiv. pp. 372-376 (1865). 

5 See Brill and Noether's BericM, also Mathematische Annalen, vol. vii. p. 280. 

6 Riemann, ' Ueber das Verschwinden der Thetafunctionen,' Crelle, vol. lxv. 
1866 ; Gcs. WerJte, pp. 212-224. 



24 REPORT — 1904. 

automatically into Riemann's expression for the differential of the integral 
of the first kind, is necessarily involved in his discussion of this particular 
case of Abel's theorem ; it forms, indeed, the natural link between those 
results in the theta-functions already alluded to and Abel's theorem 
itself. Thus the theory of point-groups was originally provided with a 
purely transcendental foundation — the whole superstructure being based 
upon Abel's theorem — although, as will subsequently be seen, its true 
foundation is algebraical, and it can be rendered perfectly independent of 
transcendental considerations. 

The basis of Riemann's proof of Abel's theorem is his division of 
algebraic functions into classes pertaining to the same Riemann surface. 
For this enables him to take 4' any rational function of g and z as the 
independent variable in w, an integral of the first kind on the surface 

n m 

associated with F(s, z) = 0. If, then, t, has m infinities on the surface, 
-=- is an??i-valued algebraic function of 4' ; and if iv a \ w'"-\ . . . ,w'"°are the 

CLr* 

m-values of w for any one and the same value of £, 2 - i s a one . 

*=i dz 
valued function of 4 whose integral is everywhere finite on the surface. 
This function, composed of the sum of ?>i-integrals, is thus necessarily 
equal to a constant, and by proper choice of the path of integration can 
be easily shown to be zero ; with the notation previously introduced by 
Riemann, we have 



(A) 



0OH«l)<fel j' <p(s. 2 Z 2 )dz 2 f «M*mSm)<fc« = n 

9F(«, Sl ) I dF(s 2 z.;> +••' dF(s m z m ) 



2 " <-' a m 






where (s^) . . . (s m z m ) are pairs of values of s, z, at which 4 assumes 
one and the same value. 1 This is Abel's theorem for integrals of the 
first kind. Its importance for the theory of point-groups lies in its esta- 
blishment of a system of p differential equations formed by writing con- 
secutively <l> x . . f p for <f, in the left-hand side of equation A ; these </>'s 
being the p linearly independent numerators in Riemann's expressions 
for the;) linearly independent integrals of the first kind. In discussing 
the integration of these equations Riemann introduces the notion of a 
system of quantities being congruent, with respect to certain moduli, to 
another system ; the p quantities (6, . . . b p ), namely, are said to be 
congruent to the p quantities (a t . . . a r ) with respect to 2/> systems 

of moduli, when 6„=a 7r +Sjn 1 .A;'; ) where tt=1 . . . p and to, . . . m Zn are 

integers. The notation is (6, . . . b p ) = (a 1 . . . n p ). 2 

The necessity for this notation arises — although Riemann does not 
explicitly say so — where the paths of integration in equation (A) are 
arbitrary ; the sign of equality in that equation must then be replaced by 
a sign of congruence. 

In an earlier section (§ 10) of Part I. of the ' Theory of Abelian Func- 
tions ' Riemann had shown that a rational function can be expressed as a 
quotient of two ^-functions provided that the number of its infinities be 
less than p + l. This result is obtained by counting constants in the 

1 Riemann's ' Theorie der Abel'schen Functionen/ § 14. 2 Loc. cit. § 15. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 25 



(1) 



quotient i- ; the reasoning is somewhat obscure, and the number does 

not tally with the number of arbitrary constants previously found by the 
author ; on the contrary, it agrees with Roch's more accurate formula, 
showing that, in certain cases at least, Riemann knew that his own 
needed modification. But, however this may be, the result itself is true, 
and its use in the integration of the p equations formed from equation 

(A) is of importance. For if 4 is expressible as the quotient ^ (or, if 

d> a) 
m<p + \, as the quotient -L), then (s,s,) . . . (s m z m ) are the common roots 

» m ' n m ..(1) 

of F(s, s)=0 and of £=f (or of F(s, s)=0 and ;= ' -). That is to say, 

(si^) . . . (s m z m ) may be regarded as the common roots of F=0 and x = £r 
(or of F=0 and * (1) — £</''' 2) =0), but they are roots which vary with £, not 
those which make x=4-=0 (or (/> a, =^ <2) =0) independently of £. When 
m <p+l, they are therefore m of the 2p — 2 moveable zeros of a <£- function, 
since (1) — £</> t2) obviously fulfils the necessary conditions which make it 
0-f unction. 1 It is, of course, also possible, though not necessary, that 
even when my p + l, I should be expressible as the quotient of two 
0-f unctions, and in such cases, once more, {s x z x ) . . . (s m z m ) are m of the 
2p — 2 moveable zeros of a 0-f unction. 

Now Riemann shows that the p differential equations formed from 
equations (A) can be completely integrated, under certain conditions : 
first, when m <p + 1 and £ is perfectly general ; next, when m=p, in 
which case I is necessarily expressible as the quotient of two ^-functions ; 
and, lastly, when m=2p— 2, provided that 4 is expressible as the quotient 

of two -functions. For, in the first case, if m=p + l, — has p + l—p + 1, 

i.e., two independent constants ; it therefore depends upon one arbitrary 
parameter after its p + 1 infinities have been chosen, and therefore s, z, 
which are (p+l)-valued functions of I, also depend only upon one 

parameter, when — has been chosen so that it becomes infinite (i.e., £=0) 

at the p+l lower limits of the integrals ; of the p + 1 upper limits 
(s,s,) . . . (Sp^Zp+i) of the p + l integrals connected by the p differential 
equations it is thus seen that only one can remain arbitrary under these 
conditions, and the system can therefore be completely integrated. If 
m < p + l the reasoning only needs to be modified by considering that 
certain of the upper and lower limits coincide, whereby such integrals 
drop out from the equations. The solution of the p differential equations 
may then be written 

(M=J) + 1 P + l P+l \ 

2 v^>, S vif . . . S iv'f ) = (c, . . . c p ), 
«=i 1 1 / 

where c, . . . c p are constants which depend upon the choice of the lower 

limits of the integrals. 2 

a (1) 
In the second case, when m=p, £ is necessarily of the form — , and 

now, by the Riemann-Roch formula, it has p— p + 1 + 1, i.e., two inde- 
1 Loc. cit. § 16. - Loc. oU. § 14. 



26 REPORT— 1904. 

pendent constants as before ; the differential equations can be integrated, 
and (s^i) . . . (s p z p ) are p of the 2p— 2 moveable zeros of a (/j-function. 

In the third case, since £ is a quotient of two ^-functions, £ has 
2p — 2— ^> + l + l=p independent constants, i.e., it has j» — 1 arbitrary 
parameters, and thus, as Riemann states it, ' the problem of determining 
p— 1 of the '2p— 2 quantities (s i z 1 ) . . . (sap-a^sp-a) ni sucn a manner that 
they shall be functions of the remaining p — \ and shall satisfy the 
p differential equations 

2;>-2 

2 dw'f = c for 7T — 1, . . . p 

i 

is completely solved if the 2p — 2 quantities are the moveable zeros of a 
f/)-f unction, and there is only one solution.' Such pairs of quantities are 
said to be tiedhy the equation ^=0.' And the solution of the differential 
equations, with the notation introduced above, is 

/ ap-a 30-a a; -a \ 

^ 2 <>, Z <'. . . 2 <J = (c,. . .,.-,,), 

where c M only depends upon the additive constants in w^, i.e., upon the 
lower limits of the integrals ; or, in other words, the sum of the values 
which any one of the p linearly independent integrals of the first kind 
assumes at the 2p — 2 moveable zeros of a ^-function is congruent to a 
constant which only depends upon the lower limits of the integrals. 

Part II. of Eiemann's ' Theory of Abelian Functions ' is, as has been 
said, devoted to the consideration of the theta-functions, which he defines 
thus : 

&(«,... v p ) = ( V°^ ' * ' a^mjnj, +2%vjn H 



where the summations in the exponents are with respect to /.i, //, and 
that in the outer bracket with respect to m, . . . m^. The adoption of 
u x . . . u p the p linearly independent integrals of the first kind, in 
place of the general arguments v l . . . v v and of the moduli of periodicity 
of the m's in place of the constants a^, — an adoption which is duly 
justified by Riemann — makes, as he says, ' log $ a function of a single 
variable z, which when .v, z resume their original values after an arbitrary 
continuous change in the position of z, is changed by linear functions of 
the ti's.' 2 Thus ^ is a one-valued function of p arguments, but of a single 
point on the Riemann surface, which point is the upper limit of each 
of the p integrals which appear in the arguments of •&. The notation 
employed by Riemann has not been adopted by all following writers, for 
he does not use the symbol of integration with upper and lower limits 
associated with it ; he introduces instead a symbol of his own for the 
values of the integrals at the upper limits, and only mentions the lower 
limits in words. There is, for our purpose, a certain advantage in this 
notation, for it draws attention to the values of an integral u M at a certain 
set of points which form the different upper limits of the same integrand. 
Thus, if £, . . . f m are the m points on the surface in which a rational 
function of s, z takes the same value, then, in Riemann's notation, uf is 
the value of u M (for /u=l, . . . p) at the point e v (for v=l, . . . m), for 

1 I jk. cit. § 16. ' Loc. cit. § 17. 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 27 

which the values of s, z are s„ z„ ; in particular, if rj [ . . . /?,, are the 
p zeros which every ^-function is shown to have, then a£° is the value 
of u^ (for fi=l, . . . p) at the point i/„ (for v=l, . . . p) for which the 
values of s, z are <r„, '£ v . v 

Moreover, if in the argument of the ^-function the integral u™ 
or n*' occurs, it is possible, by allowing the point z„ or l v (still de- 
fined as above) to be a variable point on the surface, to consider 
the -9-function as a function of z„ or of £„ instead of as a function of 
the quite unspecialised point z ; this is important in connection with the 
identical vanishing of the ^-function. The introduction of additive 
constants e x . . . e p into the arguments of the 3-function is another 
important feature of Riemann's discussion of the subject ; for he shows ' 
that in S ( . . . u^—e^ . . . ) it is always possible so to determine the 

lower limits of the integrals that ( ... e M ...)=(... ZnJ? ... J 

shall hold, and it is with these lower limits that he works. The establish- 
ment of this congruence between the additive constants of each integral 
and the sum of its p values at the p zeros of the S-f unction leads to the 
preliminary discussion in § 23 and § 24 of the conditions under which 
a S-function vanishes identically, i.e., for an arbitrary position of the 
variable point on the surface. 

He first shows, in § 23, that if ( . . . u^— e h . . . ) EE ( . . . — 2a£° • • • ) 

then the ^-function with these arguments vanishes identically, i.e., for 
any arbitrary position of £ ; and, conversely, that if 3 vanishes identi- 
cally then each of its arguments u M — e^ must be congruent to a negative 
sum of the values of p—] integrals at certain p — 1 points ij x . . . v P -i- 2 
Now these p>—\ points may be arbitrarily chosen, and we still have 

3 ( . . . — Sci'i' . . . J identically zero ; and, since $ is an even function, 

this leads to B I ... 2aJ° • • • ) being also identically zero ; whence 
by the above converse we are led to certain p — 1 points r] p . . . %p_ a 
such that ( ... 2a ( i' ...) = (. . .— 2af°. . . ), i.e., to the congruence 

( . . . Saf' . . . ) = (0, 0, . . .0). But this shows that the last p — \ 

points are dependent upon the position of the first p — \ points in 
such a manner that as the latter vary continuously we always have 

2/) -2 

2 da™ = ; and this system of differential equations is, as has been seen, 

i 

always satisfied by the 2p—2 moveable zeros of the ^-function (the 

lower limits are another set of moveable zeros, since £=£--, and when 

£ = 0, f a) must = but not <// 2) ). Hence we have the important result 
that when a §- function vanishes identically its p zeros are tied by a 
^-function. 

In § 24 a second important conclusion is derived from the fact that if 

1 Loc. cit. § 22. 

2 The precise determination of these p — 1 points is as follows: — It 
is assumed that although & ( . . . r^ . . . ) vanishes identically, yet that 
& ( . . . u„ — aJ> + r M . . . ) does not vanish identically where r) p is arbitrary — the 
remaining _p — 1 zeros of this S are rj . . . -n v -i- 



28 REPORT — 1904. 

■5 vanishes identically each of the arguments is congruent to the negative 
sum of the values of p— 1 integrals at certain;?— 1 points ; these points, 
namely, are assumed to be p—1 of the p points in which any rational 
function f takes one and the same value on the surface, and then with 
the notation explained above we have 

(.. .uf-e... ..) = (.. .-2Lu». . ) 

Hence for all continuous variations of s p , z p we have 2c??t^=0, and there- 
fore the p pairs of quantities s ^, s„ are p of the moveable zeros of <j>=0, 
u' 2 >'- 2) where the remaining/?— 2 are fixed. And if m<p +1 > • • • be the values of 

u^ at these/?— 2 fixed points we have ( . . . S?«^'. . . ) =(0, 0, . . .0). Whence 

it follows that (...«„... )=f. .. - 5J. .. .V Which results are thus 
stated by Riemann : 'An arbitrary system of quantities ( . . . e„ . . . ) is only 
congruent to one system of the form (. . . ia%\ . . ] unless it is congruent to 

one of the form L . . — So "? . . .), in which case it is congruent to an in- 
finite number of the first-mentioned form.' 

It is in these results that we find the first suggestion of a point-group — 
that is, of a set of points on the Riemann surface which are chosen in 
some definite manner out of the set in which a rational function assumes 
one and the same value. Moreover, in the most general form into which 
Riemann threw these same results in his later memoir — now to be de- 
scribed — wefind a conspicuous feature to be the reversible relationship which 
exists between a pair of point-groups in the two cases which he considers — 
a relationship, namely, concerning the number of points in each point- 
group which may be arbitrarily assumed. This relationship is intimately 
connected with the Riemann- Roch theorem— although Riemann himself 
was not concerned to point this out— and is a particular case of the Theorem 
of Reciprocity established by Brill and Noether. 

The first two sections of the memoir on the vanishing of the 
.^-functions are occupied in putting the theorems of § 23 upon a more 
rigorous foundation by showing that it is always possible to take such 
arguments for a ^-function as to ensure that it does not vanish identically— 
in which case the results of § 23 and § 24 are true. The third section 
then goes on to establish these in a still more general form, by considering 
successive pairs of 5-functions with arguments that differ from each other in 
an analogous manner to those of 3( . . . r„ . . . ) and $( . . . u^—a^+r . . . ), of 
which the first vanishes identically, but not the second, and where"r M itself 
is of increasing complexity. Thus a typical pair of ^-functions is 

(1) S( . . . ct<r h + b»+. . . +a<P- m +*>—u?-»—uf-*>—. . . -u' r "- m ^—e r . . .) 
and 

(2) $( . . . ,T +1 '+ . . . +«g>-™+i>_ M <*-u_ M *-rt . . . — u 'r m) —e, ), 

the first of which is assumed to vanish identically, while the second, 
whose arguments only differ by the addition of o»- ro+u — «»-"» does not. 
Since (2) does not vanish identically we have, by considering it as a 



ON THE THEORY OF POINT-GROUPS. 29 

function of £ +lf ( . . . -a',! . . ,— a^~ m+1) +uff ) + . . . + u< >'-'"-> + e ,. ...) con- 
gruent to the sum of the values of all its p zeros ; now the m points 
e p _i . . • e p _ m are m of these zeros, since when ^ p+1 =z p _ 1 . . . z p _ m in 
turn, we get a S-function whose arguments are of the form of (1) ; let the 
p — in other zeros be i/, . . . »?,,_„„ then the above congruence, when 
identical terms are removed from each sicle^ becomes 

( . . . _a*- m+w — ... -a>;. + e r ...) = (.. . a£'+ . . . + u<"-"» . . . ). 
But again, by considering (2) as a function of z p _ 1} we find that, $ being 
an even function, ( . . . a<? +1) +- • • +af- m+1> —u\r 1 '— . . . —uf- m) —e r . . .) 
is congruent to the sum of its values at its p zeros ; and that m + 1 of 
these zeros are »/ JJ+1 . . . »/,,- m u» since when z p _ 1 =u'' )+l ' . . .a"'""" 1 ' in turn 
we get a .&- function whose arguments are of the form (1) ; now let the 
p — in — 1 other zeros be e , . . . e p _ m _ lt then the congruence which holds is 

( . . . — u '»- m) — . . . —u ( r 2 '—£ r ...) = (... u^+ . . . +uf- m ~ v , . . ). 

We have thus shown that («,... e p )=r(u™ . . . a'/") and also to 
( — it' 1 ' . . . — u u 'r' a ), i.e., that the point-groups composed of the^> yfa and 
those composed of the p— 2 e's are congruent to each other ; and, more- 
over, that when m of the points »; are arbitrary (p — m being uniquely 
determined), then in — 1 of the points £ are arbitrary (since p — in — 1 of 
the^j —2 are determinate). And it is easily seen that this relationship is 
reversible, i.e., that if m—\ of the e's are arbitrarily chosen, then in of the 
•>/s can be arbitrarily chosen. The 2p — 2 zeros of a ^-function have thus 
been divided into two point-groups, containing p and p — 2 points 
respectively, and it has been shown that if in of the p points can be 
arbitrarily chosen, then in — 1 of the p— 2 points are also arbitrary, and 
vice versa. 

A precisely similar line of argument applied to the conclusions of § 23 
shows that the 2p — 2 zeros of a <f> function may also be divided into two 
point-groups, each consisting of p — 1 points, and that then, if in of one 
point-group are arbitrary, in of the other are also arbitrary. 

The connection with the Riemann-Roch theorem is at once evident ; 
for if in the first case dealt with above we assume that a rational function 
becomes infinite at p points, then, if m of these p points are arbitrary, the 
function has m arbitrary constants, and therefore, since by the Riemann- 
Roch theorem m=jo — p + l-f^, q=m — 1, i.e., in — 1, different y functions 
can be drawn through them, which agrees with the number of t's which 
have been shown to be arbitrary ; and, conversely, if the number of 
infinities is p — 2, and if m— 1 only are arbitrary, the Riemann-Roch 
theorem shows that m— 1—p— 2 -^ + l-f</, i.e., that q=m, which agree 
with the number of rfs which may be chosen arbitrarily. 



Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, 
Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Principal Sir Arthur Rucker, 
and Professor A. SCHUSTER, appointed to co-operate with the 
Committee of the Falmouth Observatory in their Magnetic Obser- 
vations. 

The grant voted by the Association last year has been expended in 
carrying on the Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. 

The apparatus at the Observatory was inspected by Mr. T. W. Baker 



30 REPORT— 1904. 

of the National Physical Laboratory in October last, and found to be 
working well. The results for the year 1903 have been printed in the 
Proceedings of the Cornwall Polytechnic Society and in the Report of the 
National Physical Laboratory for 1903. Dr. Chree is at present engaged 
in examining the Vertical Force Records for 1904, with a view to deter- 
mining how best to treat these. They have not hitherto been worked out 
in full. 

The records for the great magnetic storm of October 31 and Novem 
ber 1, 1903, were specially good, and have been reproduced in the 
Laboratory Report. 

In view of the fact that the Kew magnets are very much disturbed 
and that the buildings at EskdaleMuir have only just been commenced, it 
is in the opinion of the Committee desirable that their work should be 
continued. They therefore recommend their reappointment, with a grant 
of 50/. 



Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Lord Rayleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. 
Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. 
Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. Everett, A. 
Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, 
and Mr. George Matthey. 

APPENDIX PAQE 

I. — On Arwinalies of Standard Cells. By F. E. Smith. {From the National 

Physical Laboratory) 33 

II. — On the Electromotive Force of a Clark Cell. By A. P. Trotter . . .40 

The Committee desire to record their deep regret at the death of their 
colleague, Professor Everett, who had been a member of the Committee 
since 1881. He attended the meeting at which the present Report was 
considered. His work in connection with the C.G.S. system of units is 
of great importance and has proved of very real value to science. 

The Committee are glad to report that during the year considerable 
progress has been made with the construction of the Ampere Balance. 
Mr. L. Oertling has constructed the weighing mechanism, which has, 
however, not yet been taken over by his Committee, and the electrical 
parts of the instrument are nearing completion in the workshops of the 
National Physical Laboratory. The following particulars of progress 
and of applied tests may be of interest. 

1. The weighing mechanism. — The castings, rods, tubes, screws, &c., 
.ntended for this had their magnetic permeability determined, and no 
part used in the construction has a permeability differing from unity by 
more than - 001 per cent. 

The balance was examined for stability and sensitiveness at Messrs. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 31 

Oertling's works with satisfactory results ; a difference of one-tenth of a 
milligramme may be detected. 

2. The marble cylinders and fittings. — Insulation and permeability 
tests were made on various samples of marble early in the year ; even- 
tually First Statuary Carrara Marble was chosen as most suitable for the 
work. An experimental marble cylinder was wound with a double helix 
and the insulation satisfactorily carried out ; the results of the tests 
leave little doubt as to the advantages of the double helix. The winding 
of both suspended cylinders has now been completed, and it is anticipated 
that the fixed cylinders will be finished in September. The linear 
measurements and insulation tests have yet to be made. Unless unfore- 
seen difficulties arise the balance equipment should be completed, and 
the whole ready for preliminary observations by the end of the year. 

During the early part of the year Mr. F. E. Smith completed hia 
researches into the construction of a mercury unit of resistance, of 
which some account was given in the last report. The results have been 
communicated to the Royal Society and are being published in the 
' Philosophical Transactions.' The values of the various tubes (eleven in 
number) are very accordant, and a mercury standard of resistance of 
a high degree of accuracy now exists. Since the completion of his work 
the specification of the Clark cell has engaged Mr. Smith's attention, and 
a detailed account of his work forms an Appendix to the present Report. 
Mr. Smith has amply confirmed the result of previous investigators that 
the greater part of the difficulty in obtaining entirely concordant results 
for the various cells set up by different experimenters is due to the 
mercurous sulphate. He describes three methods of preparing the paste 
which lead to identical results, and which have the advantage that cells 
set up with these pastes have, the same E.M.F. within one or two hundred 
thousandths of a volt immediately after manufacture. In the first 
method due to Professor Divers and Mr. Shimidzu the paste is prepared 
by the action of fuming sulphuric acid on mercury ; in the second, follow- 
ing Professor Carhart, it is prepared by the electrolysis of weak sulphuric 
acid and mercury ; while in the third mercurous sulphate is dissolved 
over a water bath in sulphuric acid. The acid solution is then poured 
into a large volume of distilled water and the mercurous sulphate is 
precipitated in a pure form. In all cases it is important that, as advised 
by Mr. Swinburne and Professor Carhart, the salt should be washed, for 
a Clark cell, with zinc sulphate, and for a cadmium cell with cadmium 
sulphate, and not with distilled water. Mr. Smith is continuing his 
inquiries and hopes shortly to be able to issue a complete specification 
for Clark and cadmium cells. The completion of the Ampere Balance 
will enable an absolute determination of their E.M.F. to be made. 

The Committee regret to report that no further progress has been 
made since their last report with the experiments to determine the per- 
manence and reliability of the platinum resistance thermometers de- 
scribed in that report. 

It was pointed out last year that a special resistance box was required 
to enable the work to continue ; unfortunately the funds necessary for 
its purchase were not forthcoming, and the work has remained stationary 
for a year. 

The Committee would consider it most unfortunate if work of 
a very real importance, on which a start has already been made and 



32 REPORT— 1904. 

considerable funds expended in the purchase and investigation of pure 
platinum wire, should lapse for want of support, and they trust that 
their recommendation in favour of the continuance of the work may 
this year be accepted. 

Meanwhile they would call attention to the very complete comparison 
up to a temperature of 1000° C. between the constant volume nitrogen 
thermometer, the platinum resistance thermometer, and the platinum — 
platinum-rhodium thermo couple communicated recently from the 
National Physical Laboratory to the Royal Society by Dr. Harker. 

The Committee have received a cordial invitation to co-operate in 
the Electrical Conference at St. Louis during the forthcoming autumn, 
and have asked Professor Perry and the Secretary, who are attending as 
delegates of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, to represent their 
views on two questions of special interest. 

The first of these relates to a proposal by Professor Carhart to substi- 
tute the saturated cadmium or Weston cell for the Clark cell as a recog- 
nised standard of E.M.F. The Committee are aware that the fact that the 
temperature coefficient of the cadmium cell is one-twentieth of that of the 
Clark cell offers many valuable advantages, but in view of the fact that 
experiments designed to lead up to a satisfactory specification of the cell 
are in progress at the National Physical Laboratory, and that the comple- 
tion of the Ampere balance would enable the absolute E.M.F. of the 
cell to be determined, the following resolution was passed at the last 
meeting : — 

' The Committee are not prepared at present to displace the Clark cell, 
and prefer to wait for the conclusion of the experiments at the National 
Physical Laboratory, and with the new balance, before coming to a deci- 
sion as to the value to be assigned to the E.M.F. of the saturated cadmium 
cell.' 

The second question relates to certain proposals as to nomenclature 
which are to be brought forward by Dr. Kenelley. These are : (a) that a 
systematic nomenclature should be agreed upon for magnetic units, and 
(b) that the prefix ' Abs ' should be used to indicate that a unit is given 
in the absolute C.G.S. electro-magnetic system, and ' Abstat ' to indicate 
that the unit in question is in the absolute C.G.S. electrostatic system. 

Thus an Abs volt would be the C.G.S. electro-magnetic unit of E.M.F. 
and ' Abstat' volt the C.G.S. electrostatic unit of E.M.F. 

These proposals have been discussed by the Committee, which have 
agreed to the following resolution : — 

' With regard to the choice of magnetic units the Committee are of 
opinion that the only two systems which need to be considered are the 
C.G.S. system and the Ampere- Volt- Ohm system, and that the quantities 
to be named, if any, are — 

(1) Magnetic Potential. 

(2) Magnetic Flux. 1 

(3) Magnetic Reluctance. 

Of the above two alternatives the Committee are in favour of the CG.S. 

1 The name 'Maxwell 'was recommended by the Paris Congress, 1900, as the 
name of this unit, and this recommendation was adopted by the Committee at 
Bradford. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 33 

system as that on which to base any nomenclature of magnetic units, but 
are of opinion that a system of nomenclature is not called for.' 

The Committee disagree with Dr. Kenelley's prefixes for the absolute 
electro-magnetic and absolute electrostatic systems of units, and express 
the opinion that no system of prefixes should be employed in which each 
prefix does not bear some definite numerical signification. 

In view of the work still necessary with regard to the Ampere 
balance, the cadmium cell, and the platinum standard of temperature, 
the Committee recommend that they be reappointed, with a grant of 
501., that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman, and Dr. R. T. Glazebrook 
Secretary. 

APPENDIX I. 

On Anomalies of Standard Cells. By F. E. Smith. 
From the National Physical Laboratory. 

During the past two years certain anomalies of Clark and of cadmium 
cells have been under investigation at the National Physical Laboratory. 
The work is still far from completion, but the essential results so far 
obtained are given in this paper. 

In March 1902 some experiments at Bushy House resulted in the 
isolation of the depolariser employed in both standards as the great 
disturbing element. Lord Rayleigh, in his paper in the ' Phil. Trans.' for 
1885, § 44, had shown this to be the case, and Mr. Swinburne arrived at 
the same conclusion in 1891, 1 while recently in America Professor H. S. 
Carhart and Mr. G. A. Hulett have traced the variations in E.M.F. of 
the cadmium cell to the same source. A new specification of the mode 
of manufacture of the paste was thought to be desirable, and this 
problem was the first to receive attention. 

In order to be independent of the variations of the other elements, 
cells were constructed of a type indicated by the arrangement 

Hg — Paste — Solution and Crystals — Paste — Hg. 
(a) (b) 

where a and b represent pastes made with different samples of mercurous 
sulphate. The Rayleigh H form of vessel was employed. Preliminary 
observations showed that when the same paste occupied the two limbs, 
such a cell had no measurable E.M.F. 

In addition a cell typified by the arrangement 

Amalgam 

ffi _ I _ Solution _ | _ w 
<X3 X. anc l Crystals X "* 

>■ I o 

*— - <— ' 

Paste (B) 

I 
Hg 

was largely employed, a four-limb vessel, similar to two Rayleigh H form 
of vessels crossed, being used to set up the standard. In this case there 

1 See B.A. Report, Cardiff, 1891. 
1904. D 



u 



REPORT — 1904. 



is one negative pole and three positive ones, and the E.M.F. between 
any two of them may be measured. Such a cell not only indicates 
whether a particular paste is abnormal or not, but each of the three 
groups of elements may be compared with an external standard. It is 
possible, of course, that a change resulting in one of the pastes may affect 
the neutrality of the solution, and so the E.M.F. of all three groups. All 
observations were made in a constant temperature room, the cells being 
immersed in paraffin oil. 

The earlier results of the investigation are omitted, but the differences 
in E.M.F. due to pastes made from purchased samples of uiercurous 
sulphate are shown by measurements made of cell No. 1 (4 limbs) and 
cell No. 28 (2 limbs), the observations covering a period of rather more 
than two years. The pastes have been distinguished by the letters K, H, 
and R ; all were subjected to the same treatment and advantage taken of 
the latest methods for their preparation known at that time. 

Table I. 



Date of 
Observation. 


Clark Cell, No. 1 (4 limbs). 


Clark Cell, 
No. 28 (2 limbs). 


H>R. K>R. 


H>K. 


H>K. 


Sept. 8, 1902 . 
Sept. 30, „ . 
Oct. 23, „ . 
Dec. 2, „ . 
Feb. 24, 1903 . 
June 24, „ . 
Nov. 2, „ . 
Feb. 6, 1904 . 
July 9, „ 


+ 00213 +000047 

196 45 

150 16 

123 43 

94 42 

62 37 

37 30 

27 41 

-000001 51 


+ 000166 

150 

104 

80 

52 

25 

7 

-000014 

52 


+ 0-00168 

104 

79 

59 

No obs. 

- 5 

-32 

-50 

-70 



It is clear that although the effect of each paste is not known two of 
them have certainly changed, of which one is K. In the chart curve 
H R shows the change in E.M.F. of the H group, assuming the R group 
to remain constant ; similarly the H K curve represents the change in 
voltage of this group, K being assumed constant, and like remarks apply 
to the third curve. There is a sudden break in the directions of the 
curves H K and K R shown after the observations of November 2, 
while none is shown in H R ; the deflections consequently indicate that 
the element K must have changed in an abnormal fashion. Indeed 
between November 2, 1903, and July 9, 1901, the E.M.F. of the K group 
apparently increased by at least 0003 volt ; a rise of exceptional 
magnitude. A fall in voltage is the usual feature. 

The fact that the E.M.F. of a cell had changed by as much as 0-16 
per cent, was very disconcerting. It is true that a difference between 
H and R was anticipated, for H was a pale yellow colour, while R was 
grey. On the other hand the paste K was also slightly yellow, yet no 
such difference is observed between K and R. It was thought that the 
mode of manufacture of the sulphate might influence the properties of the 
product. Mercurous sulphate is often prepared by precipitation, either 
Hg 2 (N0 3 ) 2 and Na 2 SO, or Hg. 2 (N0 3 ), and H 2 S0 4 being employed; 
traces of the resulting nitrate in the final product would certainly intro- 
duce a disturbing element. Again mercurous nitrate is often associated 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 






with a basic nitrate, and basic salts are to be avoided, as will afterwards 
be seen. Samples of the salts were prepared by these precipitation 
methods and the results were far from satisfactory. Two samples of the 
sulphate were also obtained from the same manufacturer ; the Clark cells 
prepared with these differed in E.M.F. by 0-0004 volt ; each was sub- 
jected to the same treatment and there was no observable difference in 
colour. 

A more satisfactory specification of the depolariser being desirable, 
other modes of manufacture eliminating the above troublesome elements 
were sought. Concentrated sulphuric acid and mercury react very slowly 
at ordinary temperatures, but much more rapidly at temperatures approxi- 
mating to 300° C. The resulting salt is associated with ELS0 4 , which 
probably is not very difficult to remove if the salt be in a fine state of 
division. Dr. Muirhead has prepared mercurous sulphate in this way and 
forwarded two Clark cells containing the product to Bushy House. A 



200 



!50 



100 



50 



00 



\ 




















i 












i 








: \ 














1 






































































I 






• 


V 










































?> 






, 










































Pv 






































V 

N 

^ 








. 






































* 

V 








*\ 












^ 




























"<0 


-e-t 


>— ©- 




s — 




p 






^_ 


















^ , 












8 

«5 








K 


nr 












*?f 






e-=-= 


"^ 




fc 





. 






























H 




^ 
























































~ "- - 


-- 


-- 
























































- 














































-V 


— 


- 


— 












































L 


flri. 


« 


' OBSER 


'ATION 


1 










, 


J 


EP 
1 


90i 


Dl 


:c 


f 


EB 






JL 

19 


INE 

33 








N 


OV. 




/ 


EB 




I9( 


)4 


JL 


ay 



100 



second method of preparation due to Divers and Shimidzu is reported in 
the ' Journal of the Chemical Society ' (47, 639). Briefly, pure mercury 
and fuming sulphuric acid saturated with S0 3 are brought into contact. 
They react in the cold, though there is no visible evidence for some time 
owing to the solubility of the product in the liquid ; the acid also becomes 
saturated with S0 2 . If the main portion of the liquid be removed from 
the salt, this latter may be freed from SO_, by warming ; mercurous 
sulphate associated with H 2 S0 4 is thus obtained. The acid is removed 
by washing. Dr. Carpenter has prepared five samples of the salt in this 
way ; they were made from five lots of the fuming acid from different 
manufacturers and mercury distilled in vacuo at the laboratory. These 
sulphates were examined in four-limb cells of the cadmium type ; the 
results of the observations are given in Table II. The standard of 
reference is cell No. W 17, a cadmium cell more than two years old and 
known to have changed but little since its manufacture. 

D2 



REPORT — 1904. 

Table U.—E.M.F. of Cadmium Cells minus &M.F. of W\7. 

Differences in hundredths of a millivolt. 



Date of 
Observation 


Cell No. 52 


Cell No. 53 


Cell No. 54 


a. 


6. 


c. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


April 4, 1904 
April 18, „ 
May 3, „ 
June 13, „ 
July 9, „ 


+ 38 
+ 35 
+ 30 
+ 27 
+ 23 


-21 

-30 
-43 

-50 
-54 


-19 

-20 
-20 
-21 
-21 


+ 38 
+ 39 
4 32 

+ 32 
+ 30 


-14 
-13 
-14 
-14 
-14 


-13 
-14 
-14 

-14 
-15 


+ 38 
+ 35 
+ 34 
+ 34 

+ 34 


+ 14 
+ 13 
+ 12 
+ 10 
+ 10 


-18 
-18 
-19 
-19 
-20 



The pastes 52a, 53a, 5fa were prepared with the same sample of 
Hg 2 S0 4 ; it was purchased and prepared in a similar manner to the 
sulphates dealt with in Table I. 516 was also a purchased sulphate. The 
remaining specimens were prepared by Divers' method. 

It will be observed that all the pastes change so as to reduce the 
E.M.F. of the cell ; but whereas the E.M.F. of the cells prepared with 
purchased sulphates is greater than that of W 17, those made up with 
the Norclhausen sulphates have in each case lower E.M.F.s. Cell No. 526 
is exceptional in the fall of its voltage. The difference in the prepared 
pastes, though small, condemns part of the method of preparation, and 
further investigation became necessary. 

The method of preparation adopted by Dr. Carpenter was at first 
repeated. Close observation showed that on formation the sulphate cakes 
considerably, and is accompanied at the surface of contact with the 
mercury by a compound of a light brick-red colour. If without freeing 
from the acid or S0 2 the product is added to distilled water, reduction of 
part of the sulphate apparently occurs, mercury is precipitated as a black 
powder, and the red compound entirely disappears. (The mercury thus 
precipitated is a valuable addition to the paste, the conversion of mercuric 
sulphate to the mercurous condition being rendered possible by its pre- 
sence.) The salt produced by freeing the first product from SO;, also 
loses the brick-red tint, and is finally obtained as a pure white paste. On 
prolonged washing with water, however, hydrolysis results and the colour 
changes to pale yellow. Two samples of hydrolysed mercurous sulphate 
were thus prepared, the one being washed for one hour with water and 
the other for twenty-four hours. An experimental cell indicated that the 
more hydrolysed product if employed to set up a cadmium cell would 
cause the E.M.F. of that cell to be greater by 0-00064 volt than if pre- 
pared with the first sample. The presence of this hydrolysed product is 
therefore to be avoided, and washing by water prohibited. 

About this time, through the kindness of Professor Ayr ton, the 
results of some experiments by Professor H. S. Carhart and Mr. G. A. 
Hulett, of the University of Michigan, were communicated to the 
Laboratory. Professor Carhart has also sought a standard method of 
preparing the depolariser, and suggests that any prepared sulphate be 
washed with cadmium sulphate (or zinc sulphate for Clark cells) in order 
to prevent hydrolysis. Prior to this, Mr. Swinburne, in a letter to 
Dr. Glazebrook, suggested the precipitation of the sulphate intended for 
Clark cells from saturated solutions of mercurous nitrate and zinc 
sulphate, the washing to be effected with alcohol or saturated zinc sul- 
phate solution. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



57 



Omitting the description of further experiments, the final mode of 
preparing the mercurous sulphate for standard cells is here given. ^ 

Fuming sulphuric acid saturated with S0 3 (32 per cent, of S0 3 is a con- 
venient specification) is added to sufficient pure distilled mercury to ensure 
the latter being always in excess. The mercury should be contained in a 
clean glass vessel and violently agitated by a glass stirrer, so that the 
product may be in a fine state of division. After seven or eight hours the 
reaction will be sufficiently advanced for the sulphate to be separated from 
the acid, but if convenient the action may go on for some days. Care- 
fully pour off as much of the strong acid as possible into a large volume 
of water or into an empty vessel, and afterwards add the pasty product 
left to thirty or forty times its bulk of distilled water. Mercury is 
precipitated and a considerable quantity of heat is evolved owing to the 
dilution of the acid. A few minutes suffice for the sulphate to settle, when 
the acid liquid may be decanted and the salt well washed by agitation 
with acidulated water (1 part of cone. H 2 S0 4 to 10,000 parts of distilled 
water). Filtering follows, a filter pump being employed to effect exhaus- 
tion. It is advisable next to pound the damp sulphate thoroughly in an 
acate mortar to ensure the absence of small caked masses, after which 
acidulated water is again added, filtering effected, and the salt washed on 
the filter-paper with two or three lots of neutral saturated cadmium 
sulphate solution (or zinc sulphate solution for Clark cells). The salt is 
now removed to a small flask, saturated cadmium sulphate solution added, 
and the whole well shaken and then allowed to stand for twenty-four 
hours. Filtering follows, then three more washings with cadmium sulphate 
solution, removal to a flask once more with CdS0 4 solution, and at the 
end of twenty-four hours the solution should still be neutral to Congo red. 
If so, the sulphate may be filtered and is ready for the manufacture of 
the paste. The whole of the operations should be conducted in a room 
screened from sunlight. As thus prepared the mixture of mercurous 
sulphate and mercury is of a dark grey colour. Cells set up with paste 
prepared from it require no ageing, and the constancy obtained with 
pastes made from materials obtained from different sources is an indica- 
tion of the purity of the salt. 

Table III. gives the results of comparisons between cadmium cells set 
up with pastes prepared in this way and cadmium cell W 17. The latter 
in every case has the greater E.M.F. Differences are expressed ir 
hundredths of a millivolt. 

Table III. 



Date of 
Observation 


Cell No. CO 


Cell No. 67 


Cell No. G8 




a b c 


a b c 


a b c 


May 12, 1904 


-24 -26 -24 


— 


— 


). 12, ,, 


-21 -20 5 -22 


— 


— 


n 12, ,, 


-20 5 -20 5 -21 


— 


— 


» 16, ,, 


— 


-27 -25 -28 


— 


» 16, ,, 


— 


-22 -21 -21 


— 


it 16, ,, 


-21 -20 -20 


-21 -21 —20 


— 


June 13, „ 


— 




-29 -29 -27 


11 1 • ', )) 







- 23 - 22 - 23 




-21 -20 5 -21 


-20 -20 5 -19 


-21 -20 -19 


July 6, " 


-21 -21 -20 


-19 5 -20 -19 5 


-20 -21 -20 


Q 


-20 5 -20 5 -20 


-20" -21 -20 


-20 -20 5 -19 5 



38 REPORT— 1904. 

The first set of observations with each cell was made about five 
minutes after adding the solution ; the second set of observations about 
twenty minutes afterwards ; and the third set three hours afterwards. 
For the first two sets of observations the temperature of the four-limb 
cells was unsteady ; for the remaining observations they and W 17 were at 
the same steady temperature. Other cells of the Eayleigh H form have 
been constructed, and the comparisons are equally satisfactory. 

An alternative method of preparing the salt was next sought. This 
second method is very simple. Any purchased sample of mercurous 
sulphate is heated together with mercury and concentrated H 2 S0 4 on a 
water-bath for half an hour, the mixture being stirred occasionally. At 
the end of that time the remaining solid is allowed to settle and the hot 
clear acid carefully poured into a large volume of distilled water. Mercu- 
rous sulphate is soluble to a considerable extent in hot concentrated 
H 2 S0 4 ; the result of the dilution is, in consequence, to precipitate the 
salt. As thus produced the mercurous sulphate is in a finely divided 
state and of a pure white colour. It is well to at once admix with a 
little mercury and filter. The washing is performed as before. Portions 
of three purchased samples of Hg 2 S0 4 were dealt with in this way, 
and after treatment gave identical results with the cells dealt with in 
Table III. The three original samples prepared in the ordinary way 
produced cells differing in E.M.F. from the standard by 40, 1G0, and 
10 hundredths of a millivolt. 

A third method devised by Professor Carhart does not necessitate the 
use of concentrated acid. In order to hasten the reaction between 
mercury and dilute sulphuric acid (one to six) an electric current is 
passed from the mercury to a sheet of platinum foil suspended in the 
liquid. It is essential that the liquid be kept well stirred so as to keep 
the mercury surface exposed. Professor Carhart has employed a beaker 
or crystallising dish to contain the liquids, and used a current of about 
0*3 ampere ; the current density, however, is not stated. At Bushy 
House the salt so produced has been compared with those prepared 
by the two previous methods. Under ordinary circumstances about three 
grams of the salt — very grey owing to the presence of mercury in a fine 
state of division — is obtained per hour. The current density at Bushy 
House has been about "01 ampere. It was gratifying to find that the 
product (washed as before) gave identical results with the other methods. 
Very violent agitation was maintained during the preparation. When 
the liquid is not stirred a yellow compound (apparently turpeth mineral 
HgS0 4 .2HgO) is also produced, and cells the pastes of which are prepared 
with the product have an E.M.F. when first set up more than a millivolt 
higher than the normal. Particular stress must therefore be laid on the 
instruction to keep the mercury surface well exposed. The same thing 
was found to happen when attempting to form mercurous sulphate by the 
electrolysis of a saturated cadmium sulphate solution in an H _ f° rm 
vessel, the electrodes being pure mercury. 

It will be observed that the remarks on the depolariser apply equally 
to Clark and to cadmium cells. Cadmium cells alone were made up in 
the final tests because of their small temperature coefficients ; but Clark 
cells have also been set up and similar results obtained. It is also neces- 
sary to add that all purchased samples of Hg 2 S0 4 are not so abnormal as 
those dealt with in Table I., nor does the E.M.F. of an abnormal cell 
always fall so rapidly as is indicated there. (The rate of fall is probably 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



39 



a function of the fineness of the sulphate.) Evidence of remarkably stable 
cells set up with purchased mercurous sulphate is afforded by six cadmium 
cells made at Bushy House in April 1902 : these have been in constant 
use, and in the case of two of them have frequently been short-circuited 
through 100 ohms. One of these cells is taken as a standard in the com- 
parisons. By reference to a seventh cell made up in June 1904 with a 
paste made from sulphate identical with that employed for the previous 
ones it is thought probable that the whole six cells have fallen -07 milli- 
volt since their manufacture, Table IV. gives the result of the com- 
parisons. 





Table ] 


V. 








Date of Observation 


16>17 16>18 


10>19 


1G>20 


1G>21 


May 5, 1902 . 


•00000 


■00000 


•00000 


•00000 


■ooooo 


Sep. 12, „ 
Feb. 25, 1903 . 
Dec. 14, „ 
Feb. C, 1904 . 
July 9, „ 


s 

+ o 5 



+ o. 


+ 

+ 


1 



o s 









»• 


+ 1 





o 5 





+ o 5 
o 





At the present time the E.M.F. of a cadmium cell set up with a paste 
made from fuming sulphuric acid and mercury is less than that of these 
cells by 021 millivolt. 

With respect to the other elements of standard cells it is proposed to 
investigate the cadmium and zinc amalgams, and the solutions of the 
sulphates of these metals, in a manner very similar to that employed for 
the pastes. Much valuable information has fortunately accumulated 
respecting the influence of impurities in these, so that probably the task 
is a light one. It is interesting to note that neither of the amalgams 
should have its surface exposed to the atmosphere for any length of time ; 
it is preferably covered with water or a solution of the sulphate of the 
metal. This prevents oxidation. In addition to these investigations the 
effects of acidity and basicity are to be determined, together with observa- 
tions in connection with lag, polarisation, temperature coefficients, &c. 

Remarks on the Ray high II Form and the Board of Trade Tube 
Form of Standard Cells. 

In 1892 Dr. Kahle, in a paper read before the British Association at 
Edinburgh, described some researches made by him on the Clark cell. 
Comparisons of H cells set up by him with tube cells set up by Dr. Glaze- 
brook at Cambridge led to the assignment of an E.M.F. to the H cell, 
four ten- thousandths of a volt less than that of the Board of Trade form. 
This difference in value has been often quoted, and is at the present time 
accepted as a fact. In view of the discrepancies produced by the paste, 
together with theoretical considerations, it was thought desirable to 
investigate this difference if such should exist. For this purpose the 
H and tube forms of cell were combined. In addition to the usual ter- 
minals to the H cell, a zinc rod was inserted in the limb containing the 
paste, so that the arrangement of the elements in this limb was in accord- 
ance with the specification of the Board of Trade pattern, The sole 
difference in the elements of the H and tube cells was therefore the sub- 
stitution of the zinc rod for zinc amalgam. In some cases the zinc rod 



40 



REPORT — 1904. 



was amalgamated, in others it was merely cleaned, in no case did it 
touch the paste. With two cadmium cells set up similarly, a rod of 
cadmium amalgam contained in a glass tube perforated at a few points 
replaced the plain cadmium rod. Very steady temperatures were main- 
tained before taking observations. 

Table V. gives the results of comparisons of these Clark and cadmium 
cells. The standard adopted for the Clarks was cell No. 10, a standard 
more than two years old and fairly constant ; that for the cadmium cells 
was a third cell, No. 48, made up at the same time. 

Cells numbered E 10 and Ell contained a different paste from that in 
C 3, C 7, C 9. The differences between H and T are small and irregular, 
and probably explained by the non-uniformity of the surface of the zinc 
rods and slight differences in the concentration of the solution. The zinc 
rods in E 10, Ell, C 3, and C 7 were amalgamated ; that in C 9 was 
cleaned only. 





Table 


V. — Diffrrcnrm in Hundredth 


of a Millivolt. 




Date of 

Observation 


Clark Cells 


Cadmium Cells 


E 10 


E 11 


C3 


C7 


C9 


4!) 


47 


July 5, '04 
i. 0, „ 

it 8, ,, 



Means 


H. T. 

-2 -8 
+ +2 

+ 4"'-G 
+ 1 -4 


n. t. 

+ +0 

+ 3 - r> 

+ 2 +0 
+ 2 -2 


H. T. 
-1 -7 
+ 4 +0 
+ 6 +2 
+ 5 +1 
+ 6 +2 

+ 4 -0 4 


H. T. 

+ 10 -2 
+ 10 +7 
+ 7 -2 
+ 9 +2 
+ 8 +12 

+ 9 +3 


H. T. 

+ 10+2 
+ 8 +15 

+ 7 +3 

+ 8 +7 


H. T. 

+ 2 +2 
+ 2 +3 

+ 2 +2 
+ 2 +2 


H. T. 
+ +1 
+ 2 +1 

+ 2'"+l 
+ 1 +1 



The observations show that no such difference as 0-0004 volt exists 
between the two forms ; the difference found in 1892 is to be attributed 
to other causes, probably the pastes employed. 



APPENDIX II. 

On the Electromotive Force of a Clark Cell. By A. P. Trotter. 

A determination of the electromotive force of the Clark cell (Wolff's 
large pattern) in terms of the ampere and ohm, has been made recently 
at the Board of Trade Electrical Standards Laboratory. The ampere, as 
measured by the Standard Ampere Balance of the Board of Trade, was 
passed with suitable precautions through a manganin coil having a 
resistance of 1-4343 G ohm at 15°-0 C, and the difference of potential 
between the ends of this coil was compared with that of the Clark cell 
upon a low- resistance potentiometer. After necessary corrections the 
electromotive force of the Clark cell was found to be 1-4329 volts at 
15°-0 C. The temperature of the Clark cell was read by a thermometer 
in an oil bath in which the cell was placed, estimating to o, 01 C. The 
cell had been kept for several months in a constant-temperature room 
and had not varied in temperature by more than o, 05 C. for forty-eight 
hours before the comparisons. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 41 



Seismolor/ical Investigations.— Ninth Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor J. W. Judd (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor 
G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. Ewing, Dr. B. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor B. Meldola, Mr. B. D. Oldham, Professor 
J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. 
Clement Beid, Mr. Nelson Bichardson, and Professor H. H. 
Turner. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

[Plates I. and II.] 



Contents. 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers .... 

II. Comparison of Records from three Milne Horizontal Pendulums 

III. An Improved Record Receiver ...... 

IV. The Origins of Large Earthquakes im 1903 . . . 
V. On International Co-operation for Seismological Worli 

VI. Seismological Work now in progress 

VII. Directions in which Seismological Work mag he extended . 
VIII. Experiment at the Ridgeivay Fault 



PART! 

41 
42 
43 
43 
45 
46 
48 
61 



I. General Notes on Stations and Registers. 

During the past year the registers issued are Circulars Nos. 8 and 9. 
These refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edinburgh, Paisley, Toronto, Vic- 
toria, B.C. ; Baltimore, San Fernando, Cairo, Ponta Delgada, Cape of Good 
Hope, Alipore, Bombay, Kodaikanal, Batavia, Irkutsk, Perth, Mauritius, 
Trinidad, Tiflis, Christchurch, Wellington, Cordova, and Tokyo. Captain 
H. G. Lyons, R.E., Director- General of the Survey Department at Cairo, 
writes that the Abbassia records terminated on December 23, 1903. On 
the same day they were recommenced at Helwan, long. E. 31° 21', 
lat. 29° 52'. At Abbassia, in the delta, the foundations were on sand, 
and during wet weather may have been disturbed. At Helwan the 
instrument stands on a limestone pier founded on solid rock. 

It is anticipated that an instrument will shortly be installed at Malta. 

The multiplication in the number of stations, scattered as they are all 
over the globe, has led to a great increase in the work of correspondence 
and reduction which has to be undertaken at Shide. Much of this work 
might well be done by an assistant under the supervision of the Secretary, 
leaving the latter more free to devote himself to scientific problems. The 
Committee consider that the time has arrived when a fund should be 
established to provide a sufficient income for securing the continuity of 
the work in the future. Upon such a fund the salary of an assistant 
would be a principal charge. The Committee are happy to be able to 
report that Mr. M. H. Gray has very generously given the sum of 1,000/. 
to serve as the nucleus of such a fund, while the Committee on Geophysics 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington have also expressed a desire to 
contribute to the important work which is being carried on at Shide. 
The Committee are in correspondence with the Executive Committee of 
the Carnegie Institution, and they trust that donors will come forward to 
assist in putting the work upon a permanent basis. 

It may here be mentioned that Mr. M. H. Gray has already given 



42 



REPORT — 1904. 



material support to the station of Shide ; his brother, Mr. R. K. Gray, 
provided the instrument for San Fernando ; Mr. Joseph Wharton, of 
Philadelphia, U.S.A., gave the instrument installed at Strathmore Col- 
lege, near that city ; pendulum apparatus was given to Shide by Mr. 
A. F. Yarrow ; the instruments in Hawaii, Victoria, and Mauritius were 
paid for, or partially paid for, by funds put at the disposal of your Secre- 
tary ; while the remaining installations were established by institutions or 
G overnments in the countries where they are now working. 

II. On the Comparison of Records from three Milne Horizontal 
Pendulums at Shide. 

These pendulums and their installations referred to in the following 
note are described in the British Association Reports, 1902, p. 60, and 
1903, p. 81. 

Pendulum A is the type instrument, and carries a load of 243 gms. 
It stands on its own pier, records E.W. motion, and its period, like 
similar instruments in other parts of the world, has been kept at about 
seventeen seconds. 

Pendulums B and C stand on the same pier and swing on the same 
cast-iron upright. B is parallel to A, and, like it, records E.W. motion. 
C responds to N.S. motion, but by means of an arm attached to it, 
similar to the arrangement shown in the British Association Reports for 
1902, p. 61, fig. 1, its records are made side by side with those of B. 
At intervals of several months the loads carried by B and C have been 
purposely varied, and the object of this note is to show the differences in 
the results obtained in consequence of such changes. In considering these 
differences two points not to be overlooked are, first, that only the move- 
ments of A and B are comparable ; and secondly, that the swinging of B 
might cause motion in C, and vice versa. 

The comparisons given in the following table refer to the number of 
records given during different periods by A, B, and C, and the number of 





Number of Records 


Number of Early 
Commencements 


December 28, 1902, to April 28, 1903 










f A, p. 17, W. 243 grms. . 
I. B, p. 17, W. 237 „ 
1, C, p. 20, W. 155 „ 


A 
35 


B 

35 


C 
31 


ABC 
15 12 15 


April 28 to December 6, 1903 










f A, p. 17, W. 243 grms. . 
II. \ B, p. 17, W. 237 „ 
I C, p. 20, W. 404 „ 


29 


40 


50 


9 12 47 


December 8, 1903, to May 2, 1904 










f A, p. 17, W. 243 grms. „ 
III. B, p. 30, W. 394 „ 
[ C, p. 20, W 404 „ 


22 


40 


31 


8 33 27 





times each of these pendulums commenced to record either sooner than the 
others or at least simultaneously with one of the others. P=period in 
seconds, and W=load carried by the booms expressed in grammes. 



GN SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 43 

During the first period the records accord fairly well with what might 
be expected, the small moment of C accounting for the small number of 
its records. 

In the second period, when the load on C was increased threefold, we 
find that it gives the largest number of records and the largest number of 
early commencements. The large increase in the records on B may be 
due to the influence of C swinging on the same support. In the last 
period, when B carried a load practically equal to that on C, and had its 
time of swing increased to thirty seconds, we see that it gave the greatest 
number of records and also most frequently was disturbed before the 
others. 

Although these records are not strictly comparable, and for the most 
part only refer to mere thickenings of the photographic trace, they suggest 
that an increase in load and of period in the type instruments would result 
in increased sensibility. 

III. Improved Record Receiver for Horizontal Pendulum Seismograph . 

The accompanying illustrations, figs. 1 and 2, show two views of 
a new seismograph recorder. 

The instrument consists of a light brass cylinder, D, 1 metre in circum- 
ference and 160 millimetres wide, mounted upon a steel spindle. One of 
the projecting ends of this spindle has a deep-threaded helix of 6 millimetres 
pitch cut in it ; this being suitably mounted upon roller bearings, advances 
the cylinder 6 millimetres for one turn in four hours, by a gear connection 
with a clock. The bromide paper carried on the cylinder is changed every 
3 - 5 or 4 days. 

A cylindrical mirror has been introduced to give a greater concentra- 
tion of the light on to the boom-plate. 

For the time record mark upon the bromide paper a shutter actuated 
by an electro-magnet is employed, the light being shut off from seven to ten 
seconds every hour. For this purpose a regulating clock with suitable 
electric contacts is required. An example of records from the new and 
old form of receiver is shown in Plate I. 

The advantages of the new arrangement are : — 

1. Although the paper moves beneath the end of the boom at more 
than four times the rate (250 millimetres per hour) that it does in the 
original receiver, only one-half the quantity of paper is used. This implies 
a large reduction in expense for paper and developer, the latter being 
applied by a brush. 

2. An open diagram is obtained on which wave-periods can be 
measured. 

3. Movements of small amplitude are easily recognised. 

4. Records can be quickly inspected and are easily stored. 

IV. The Origins of Large Earthquakes recorded in 1903 and since 1899. 

The origins of the large earthquakes recorded in 1903 are indicated by 
this Shide register number upon the accompanying map, Plate II. In the 
registers (Circulars 8 and 9) there are 135 entries for this year, whilst on 
the map only sixty-four origins are indicated, which means that there were 
about seventy-one earthquakes the materials relating to which were insuf- 
ficient to enable their origins to be determined. Even with the origins 
which have been determined, the notes of interrogation attached to 



44 



REPORT— 1904. 



numbers on the map indicate that such determinations are accompanied 
by uncertainty. 

Speaking generally, it may be inferred that about 50 per cent, of the 

Figs. 1 and 2. Milne's Horizontal Pendulum (seismograph) with new 
recording arrangement. 




s3P 



~ = Stable ~ 



MASONRK COLUMN 



PART SECTIONAL ELEVATION at A . B 




CLOCK 



BOOM 




l MASONBY COLUMN 



. I I I I I I I I I O P 



PLAN WITH THE TOP CASING REMOVED 



6 FEET 



SC AL. E 



large earthquakes have disturbed the world's surface as a whole, whilst the 
remainder have only affected areas equal to those of single continents. 

The greatest activity is again along the Libbey Circle (radius 70° and 
centre 180° E. or W. long., and 60° N. lat.). Marked activity has 
taken place at the junction of regions E. and F., and in the eastern por- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 45 

tion of the E., both of which may be described as regions in which there 
are intersections of tectonic folds. 

Maps corresponding to the one here given can bo found in the British 
Association Reports for 1900, 1902, and 1903. 

V. On International Co-operation for Seismoloyical Research. 

In 1902 the British Government received an official invitation from 
Germany to take part in a Conference the object of which was to esta- 
blish an international inquiry about earthquakes. Acting under the advice 
of a Committee appointed by the Royal Society, the Board of Education 
appointed Professors G. H. Darwin and J. Milne to represent Great 
Britain at the proposed Congress, which took place in Strassburg 
July 23 to 28, 1903. Twenty-five States or countries were represented, 
but the total number of delegates and guests who were at liberty to take 
part in the proceedings was 100, out of which sixty-two were Germans. 
Final results were arrived at by single voices, each country having one 
vote ; thus Great Britain and her colonies, like the German Empire, had 
each one vote only. France was not officially represented. 

The more important results arrived at were as follows : — 

A Central Association is to be formed with its headquarters in Strass- 
burg. Each contributing country will be represented by one member of 
a governing Committee, which elects a President, a Chief for the Central 
Office, and a General Secretary. The Chief will reside in Strassburg, but 
it was decided that the President and Secretary should be elected from 
outside Germany. 

The work of the Association would be as follows : — ■ 

1. To carry out observations after a common plan. 

2. To carry out experiments on important matters. 

3. To establish and support observatories. 

4. To collect, study, and publish reports or resumes of the same. 

The cost of this work, including a Secretary's salary, is to be for the 
first twelve years about 1,000£. per annum, twelve years being the dura- 
tion of the Convention. The contributions to make up this sum are to be 
apportioned amongst the co-operating States according to their population, 
the British contribution to be 160£. per year. Should Great Britain join 
the Convention, as it will be necessary to send a representative to the 
Governing Committee, the total annual outlay will be about 200Z. 

Whilst at Strassburg the British delegates explained that they were 
in no way empowered to pledge his Majesty's Government, and that they 
had been informed that their Government would not take action that had 
not the support of the International Association of Academics. At the 
last meeting of this Association, held in London May 24 to 30, 1904, the 
advisability of international co-operation for purposes of seismological 
research was discussed, with the result that it has been referred for 
further consideration to the following Committee : Professors A. Schuster 
(Chairman), Helmert, de Lapparent, Mojsisovics ; Agamennone, Karpinski, 
and T. C. Mendenhall. 

The Foreign Office and the Board of Education have been informed of 
this action. 



46 REPORT — 1904. 

On April 21, 1904, the Seismological Committee of the Eoyal Society 
reported to the Council of that body as follows : — 

(1) That this Committee is of opinion that any moderate subsidy 
likely to be available would be most profitably expended in support- 
ing the seismological work inaugurated by the British Association, 
and that there is urgent need of such help, which should be a first 
call on any such funds. 

(2) Assuming this need supplied, the Committee would approve 
the further co-ordination of the work by joining the proposed 
Association. 

VI. Notes upon Seismological Work in various Countries. 

1. Austria. 

With the object of recording earthquakes with a local origin, Austria 
is divided into sixteen districts, each with many observers. Their notes, 
which are for the most part made without the aid of special instruments, 
are collected at a local centre. From 120 to 200 disturbances are noted 
annually, and the registers are published separately or collectively by the 
K. Akadeniie der Wissenschaften in Wien. 

At Trieste, Laibach, Kremsmunster, Lemberg, and Pribram there are 
instruments to record earthquakes with a distant origin. Four of these 
stations have received State subventions. The registers are published in 
series with the above. 

An important publication issued by Dr. A. Belar, of Laibach, is ' Die 
Erdbebenwarte.' In it we find articles relating to seismological investiga- 
tions, notes relating to such work in general, and a catalogue of the Laibach 
observations. 

2. Belgium, 

Station Geophysique d'Uccle. Ilegisters relating to earthquakes with 
distant origins are published every three months. 

3. German)/. 

Strassburg issues a monthly register of earthquakes with distant 
origins with corresponding notes from a few foreign stations, together 
with a list of a few earthquakes which have been felt in various parts of 
the world. It is supported by the State. 

Hamburg issues a list similar to that issued by Strassburg, but more 
complete. The station was started as a private enterprise by Dr. R. 
Schiitt, but its founder has presented the same to the city authorities. 

Gottingen issues a register relating to the observations made at the 
University. 

Teleseismic observations are also made at Jena and Potsdam. It is 
proposed to establish thirty-four more stations within the German Empire. 

4. Great Britain. 
A Committee of the British Association enjoys the co-operation of 
thirty-nine stations, which are fairly evenly distributed over the world. 
Each station is provided with similar apparatus intended for a particular 
class of teleseismic observation. The registers from these stations are 
published every six months, to which is added once a year a short report. 
These publications are distributed to the co-operating stations and to 
those who desire them. Support is obtained from the British Association, 
from the Royal Society, and private sources. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 47 

5. Greece, 
D. Eginitis has published a catalogue of local disturbances, 1893-1898. 

6. Holland. 

The Magnetic and Meteorological Department in Batavia observes and 
publishes records relating to earthquakes of local and distant origin. 
Supported by the State. 

7. Hungary. 

Earthquakes are observed by a system similar to that adopted by 
Austria. At Buda Pest, Agram, O'Gylla, Fiume, and at a few other 
stations, instruments have been installed to record earthquakes with a 
distant origin. 

8. Italy. 

In Italy there are about 800 stations at which earthquakes are 
observed. Out of these there are fifteen first-class observatories provided 
with apparatus to record teleseisms and local shocks, and 150 second-class 
stations using seismoscopes. Since 1879 these have been under State 
control. The registers are published by the Central Meteorological Office 
in Rome, and to these are added corresponding records from nearly all 
the teleseismic stations of the world. This catalogue therefore practically 
contains the information relating to teleseisms contained in registers 
issued by all other nations. A few observatories, as, for example, those 
at Padua and Florence, also publish their records separately. 

9. Japan. 

Japan has at least five stations for teleseismic observations, and about 
eighty provided with instruments for recording local shocks. Records of 
these latter are made at over 1,000 centres, and as from 1,000 to 2,000 
earthquakes are recorded annually, and as each of these may be noted at 
many centres, the number of manuscripts accumulating at the Central 
Observatory in Tokyo is very great. Accounts of the more important 
shocks are published in the ' Official Gazette ' and in other newspapers. 

A catalogue of 8,331 shocks (1885-1892) was published in the 
' Seismological Journal,' and a similar but more extensive catalogue is now 
in progress. 

The Earthquake Investigation Committee issue many publications 
relating to seismology, while papers on the same appear in the Tokyo 
Physico-Mathematical Society. Very many of the publications are in 
Chinese characters. At the University there is a Professor and an 
Assistant Professor of Seismology. 

Practically all work is supported by the Government, the Investigation 
Committee alone receiving 1,000^. to 5,000^. a year. 

10. Norway. 

In connection with the Museum in Bergen Dr. Kolderup is issuing 
an annual list of earthquakes felt in Norway. 

11. lloumania. 

The ' Institut Meteorologique de Roumanie ' issues occasional sheets 
relating to teleseisms. 



48 REPORT — 1904. 

12. Russia. 

In Russia and Siberia there are seven stations of the first order at 
which teleseismic and other shocks are recorded, and ten or twelve stations 
of the second order. Teleseismic records and special papers are published 
by the ' Commission Centrale Sismique Permanente.' Some of the 
stations, like Tiflis, Taschkent, and Irkutsk, also publish their records 
separately. 

13. Servia. 

Servia has a station in Belgrade. 

14. Switzerland. 

In 1880 F. A. Forrel and Heim arranged an organisation to collect 
records relating to shocks originating in Switzerland. These are published 
by the Meteorological Bureau. 

15. U?iited States of North America. 

The Department of the Interior, in the monthly bulletin of the 
Philippine Weather Bureau, publish a list of teleseisms recorded in 
Manila, and a list of earthquakes recorded in the Philippines. 

In California there are about twenty stations furnished with apparatus 
to record local disturbances. Lists are published in the Bulletin of the 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

VII. Directions in which Seismological Work may be extended. 

Prom the preceding section it may be inferred that at the present 
time there are about eighty stations at which teleseismic disturbances are 
recorded, and that nearly half of these are in Central Europe. 

To obtain a fairly even distribution of stations over the surface of the 
world about twenty- three more places of observation are required. A 
possible distribution for these is as follows : — 

Alaska, 1 ; U.S.A., Central Canada, Newfoundland, and Central 
America, 7 ; South America, 3 ; Iceland, 1 ; 1ST. Norway, 1 ; Africa and 
Aden, 3 ; China, 2 ; the East Indies and the South Pacific, 5. 

A more immediate requirement is, however, the establishment in and 
near to districts from which world-shaking earthquakes originate of sets 
of ordinary seismographs, together with the co-operation of observers 
piovided with good time-keepers, or even fairly good watches. In dis- 
tricts remote from telegraphs or observatories these may be rated by sun 
observations. A simple method of making such an observation sometimes 
employed at Shide and Cassamiccola is as follows. In a brick wall 
facing south a hole has been made which on the outside is covered by two 
pieces of sheet -iron brought together to leave a vertical slit about 5 mm 
\\ in.) in width and 40 cm. (16 in.) in height. The sun passing before 
this slit throws an image of the same upon the opposite wall 1 4 feet dis- 
tant. On this wall opposite the slit and in a north-south plane with the 
same there is a vertical line. When the image reaches this, the sun is 
due south at an observed time. To the time when this occurs the equation 
of time is added or subtracted and local mean noon is obtained within 
about one second. 

The object of these time observations, which may be made quite well 
with an ordinary watch, is to obtain the time of arrival of earth move- 
ment at various points round an epicentre, from which may be calculated 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 49 

the positions of foci of world-shaking earthquakes, not alone from the 
initial disturbance, but also from ' after shocks,' which latter seldom reach 
distant places. 

When we know these foci, local observations enable us to make close 
approximation to the times at which large earthquakes have originated ; 
and when this is done our knowledge of the rates at which motion has 
been propagated in various directions through and round the world will 
become more reliable. 

The districts where such observations are required are indicated on the 
map, Plate II. 

District E (Japan) is already well supplied with seismographs. Dis- 
tricts requiring similar installations are : A (Alaska), B and C (Central 
America and the West Indies), and K (Caucasian Himalayan district). 
In each of these at least six seismographs and the means of obtaining good 
time are needed. 

Other lines upon which geophysical and seismological research might 
be conducted, but which have hitherto received but small attention, are 
numerous. Our knowledge of earthquake movement as recorded under- 
ground as compared with that noted upon the surface requires extension. 
As far as we can learn from the excellent work inaugurated in the 
Adalbert Shaft at Pribram by Dr. Edmund V. Mojsisovics, it would 
appear that the movement, at a depth of 1,115 m., is for world-shaking 
disturbances practically identical with that noted on the surface, from 
which it may be inferred that for this class of earthquake the large waves 
are not a mere superficial disturbance of the earth's crust. 

Whether suboceanic disturbances are accompanied by molar displace- 
ments and large changes in suboceanic configuration remains to be 
determined by soundings the results of which should be of value to the 
hydrographer. 

The fact that at certain observatories unfelt teleseismic movements 
are accompanied by perturbations of magnetic needles, which disturbances 
remain without satisfactory explanation, suggests that if such irregular per- 
turbations are clue to the influence of local subjacent magnetic magmas, 
in such localities not only should magnetic intensity be abnormal, but 
also that the differences between the observed and calculated values for 
gravity should be unusual. 

What are the relationships between seismic and volcanic activities 1 
and, further, what are the relationships between such phenomena, changes 
of level, magnetic elements, and the value for gravity ? are also questions 
the answers to which are at present largely based upon hypotheses. 

The movements on fault lines which accompany earthquake disturb- 
ances require an extended investigation, while the relationship which 
appears to exist between the dip and strike of rock folds and earthquake 
movement is a subject that has received but little attention. 

Much has already been done to establish a relationship between 
earthquake frequency and certain astronomical phenomena ; but fields for 
investigation, as, for example, the connection between movements of the 
earth's crust and the wanderings of the pole, have yet to be exploited. 
Again, as bearing upon earthquake occurrence, secular movements of the 
earth's crust, as, for example, those which are evidenced by changes in 
water level, alterations in the lengths of base lines and levels, the increase 
or decrease in the water-holding capacity of certain basins, have yet to be 
subjected to extended and careful measurements. 

1904. 



50 REPORT — 1904. 

The harmonisation of results obtained from seismometry relating to 
the probable nature of the interior of the world with the requirements of 
astronomy, geodesy, the revelations of the plumb-line and the thermometer, 
together with various branches of physical, chemical, and geological 
research, constitute inquiries of profound interest. 

Surface warpings of the earth's crust due to lunar or tidal influence or 
the variations in load which accompany changes in meteorological condi- 
tions may not only have a bearing upon earthquake frequency, but also 
may throw light upon the variations in flow and the rise and fall of 
subterranean waters, the escape of gases, and even perhaps assist the 
meteorologist in his forecasts of the weather. 

As illustrative of the practical outcome of seismological investigation 
the following may be mentioned : — 

From observations on the destructive effects of earthquakes, the 
knowledge obtained respecting the actual nature of earthquake motion, 
and from experiments made upon brick and other structures, new rules 
and formulae for the use of engineers and builders have been established. 
In Japan and other countries these have been extensively applied in the 
construction of piers for bridges, tall chimneys, walls, ordinary dwellings, 
embankments, reservoirs, &c. Inasmuch as the new types of structures 
have withstood violent earth-shakings, whilst ordinary types in the 
neighbourhood have failed, it may be infei'red that much has already been 
accomplished to minimise the loss of life and property. These investiga- 
tions have yet to be extended. 

The application of seismometry to the working of railways, particularly 
in Japan, has led to the localisation of faults on lines and alterations in 
the balancing of locomotives. The result of the latter has been to decrease 
the consumption of fuel. 

Records of the unfelt movements of earthquakes indicate the time, the 
position, and, what is of more importance, also the cause of certain cable 
interruptions. The practical importance of this latter information, 
especially to communities who may by cable failures be suddenly isolated 
from the rest of the world, is evident. The many occasions that earth- 
quake records have furnished definite information respecting disasters 
which have taken place in distant countries, correcting and extending 
telegraphic reports relating to the same, is another indication of the 
practical utility of seismic observations. Seismograms have frequently 
apprised us of sea waves and violent earthquakes in districts from which 
it is impossible to receive telegrams, whilst the absence of such records 
has frequently indicated that information in newspapers has been without 
foundation, or at least exaggerated. The localisation of the origins of 
world-shaking earthquakes, besides indicating suboceanic sites of geological 
activity, have indicated positions where the hydrographer may expect to 
find unusual depths. They have also shown routes to be avoided by 
those who lay cables. 

In addition to the above, a great proportion of which relates to what 
may be called the field work of seismology, there are many subjects bear- 
ing upon the same science which remain to be investigated within the 
walls of a laboratory ; and as it seldom happens that any one research 
fails to suggest new departures, the work of to-day implies new and 
extended investigations in the future. 




; June 27 6am. 



vwvWMlWvW 



-■■■^^ ^^% ^i -^i/W^*MA%% 



e June 2 



22 



[Plate I. 



■ mr^^if*0^0»0v^A*^^ 



r lection ct 
2° turn ot- 
rew. 



16 



movement 



yyVVyyi/lMA/Wl/wvwvwww^^ 



VVV AW- 



Shiafe 



Brituh Association, 7ith Report, Cambridge 1904.] 


[Plate I. 




1904 June 27 6am 


unlUUlidflHtarilillluiku *~JitMtfoNJ* 


2 


t 3 S • 
2/ Earthquake June 26-27 /V° 36.3 


2 2 


n 


'3 


13 \ 


/a 


OeFtcctian due 'ill lit.,,,, Per 'od of Pendulum 15 5' 


10 


screw U|'" 

9 I! 




5 


cy 


June 26 2am 


2 ' 2' '0 Per,oas ^^^^SZ^mi^ ami u-iMflfitawiv- vl^ 


|||M/^vww\A ^fvv^iA^w^^wllliW!^ — vwwtff/wj*. — ■**— 




1 j 


4 £ — 


,A IB 


.560 Earthquake June 25 1904 Shide IW 252 m m = 1 hour 


10 


6 


June 25 2 a m 


21 


>8 




T , 60mm' 1 hour 


660 Earthquakes June 25 1904 





Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigation. 



t 



ambridge 1904.] [Plate II. 

by their B.A. Shide Regi6t(uakes which since 1899 have originated 
als. CT 




CT10N. 



^ 



140 Longitude ISO East 190 



Smith Allocation, 7ilh Report. Cambridge 1904.] The Urge Earthquakes of 1903 

irom iboc n oipmwd in lv$t onnnnUi. Observing Blalloni ua oarnvd. 



[Piute II 
r ol ttrlbqaalitt whicb lint* 1899 h»ve originated 




Itltutratinij the Heport on Seiimological Investigation. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 51 

VIII. The Experiment at the Ridyeway Fault. 

Mr. Horace Darwin informs the Committee that he visited Upway in 
March last, when he took out most of the apparatus and put new 
in its place. This seems to be working well, and if it continues to do so 
he hopes to furnish a detailed report on the relative movements of the 
two sides of the fault next year. 



Underground Temperature.— Twenty-third Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. D. Everett (Chairman and Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors Edward Hull, 
A. S. Herschel, and G. A. Lebour, Messrs. A. B. Wynne, 
W. Galloway, Joseph Dickinson, G. P. Deacon, E. Wethered, 
and A. Strahan, Professors Michie Smith and H. L. Callendar, 
Mr. B. H. Brough, and Professor Harold B. Dixon, appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground, 
Temperature downivards in various Localities of Dry Land and 
under Water. (Draivn up by the Secretary?) 

In response to a pressing request from the Secretary for further informa- 
tion respecting the Calumet and Hecla mine, Professor Agassiz, in the 
spring of 1903, had all the observations (covering a period of ten years) 
tabulated and sent with sketches to Professor T. C. Chamberlin, head of 
the Geological Department of the University of Chicago, who undertook 
to superintend their examination. In February 1 901 Professor Chamberlin 
wrote the Secretary to the effect that he had only been able to prepare a 
preliminary report of a tentative kind, and that the material must have 
more critical study before going into print. Subsequent information 
unofficially communicated renders it probable that the rate deduced will 
be between 1° in 120 feet and 1° in 130 feet. 

The report of the Australian Association for the Advancement of 
Science for 1902 contains, at p. 309, an account, by Hemy C. Jenkins 
(Government Metallurgist, Victoria), of observations of underground 
temperature in deep gold mines. 

At the North Garden Gully mine, Bendigo, 99°-l was found at 
3,000 feet; and at New Chum Railway mine, Bendigo, 107°'0 was found 
at 3,645 feet. The mean surface temperature inferred from observations 
at 182 feet and 217 feet in neighbouring shallow shafts is 61 0, 4 ; which 
gives the rate as 1° F. for 80 feet at both these mines. 

Electric-resistance platinum thermometers were used. Also slow- 
acting thermometers in which fine flannel is wrapped three times round 
the bulb, and the thermometer, with cork supports, then inclosed in a 
sealed glass tube. 

A nearly identical rate was obtained in some preliminary observations 
which were taken in less favourable circumstances in a 1,700-foot heading 
at South German mine, Maldon, and at the depth of 2,080 feet in the 
Band and Albion mine, Ballarat. The rate 1° in 80 feet is exactly the 
samo as that found by Professor David in a bore, 2,733 feet deep, near 
Port Jackson. 1 

A shaft 1,000 metres deep, recently sunk at the collieries of Ronchamp 
(Haute Saone) in East France, is described in a series of four articles, by 

1 See Report for 1895. 

E 2 



52 



REPORT— 1904. 



Mons. L. Possigue, in the ' Bulletin de la Societe de l'lndustrie Minerale ' 
for 1903. The first 764 metres belong to the New Red Sandstone series, 
including Lias and Permian. The remainder include 112 m. of Upper 
Coal Measures, 66 m. of Lower Coal Measures, and 68 m. of Schists. The 
following rock temperatures were observed during the sinking : — 



Depth 


Temp. C. 


Depth 


Temp. C. 


Depth 


Temp. C. 


M. 


o 


II. 





M. 


o 


10 


105 


830 


39-6 


930 


44-6 


300 


210 


850 


10-7 


950 


452 


400 


245 


800 


410 


960 


455 


600 


31-1 


870 


41-5 


970 


45-7 


700 


342 


890 


429 


990 


464 


750 


368 


900 


435 


1000 


468 


800 


38-3 


910 


43-8 


1009 


474 



The shallowest, compared with the deepest, gives an increase of 
36°-9 C. in 999 m., which is at the rate of 1° C. in 274 in., or 1° F. in 
49-4 feet. 

When the observations are plotted they show nearly a straight line 
from 10 m. to 600 m., its gradient being 1° C. in 28-6 m. (1° F. in 52 feet), 
and the remaining portion from 600 m. to 1,009 m. oscillates about a line 
whose gradient is 1° C. in 254 m. (1° F. in 46 feet). 

Regular observations of temperature have been taken in the Simplon 
Tunnel, of which only about half a kilometre remains to be pierced. On 
its completion Mr. Francis Fox promises a full account of the tempera- 
tures, which will probably be communicated to one of the London societies 
before the end of the present year. 

A large body of evidence on temperatures in deep coal mines is con- 
tained in the report recently published by the Royal Commission on 
Coal Supplies. The chief element of uncertainty in discussing the observa- 
tions is the mean surface temperature, which has in most cases not been 
directly observed, and is doubtful to the extent of 1° or more. The 
following list of well-determined mean surface temperatures (chiefly from 
the publications of the Royal Meteorological Society) seems to constitute 
the best material for forming a judgment. They are for moderate 
elevations, except where otherwise stated : — 

Camden Square, London 49°-2 

Bolton 49°-2 

North Thoresby (LiDC.) 49°-2 

Eounton (North Yorks.) 47°3 

Ashton-under-Lyne (elevation 405 feet) . . . 46°5 

At Pendleton, near Manchester, Mr. H. Bramall took observations 
in the Rams mine and in the Agecroft Colliery. The deepest observation 
was at 3 483 feet from the surface in the Rams mine, the temperature 
found being 100°, as shown by a thermometer left for three hours in a 
hole bored 3h feet into the rock and covered with a piece of cotton waste. 
Assuming a surface temperature 47°, we have an increase of 53° in 
3,483 feet, or 1° in 66 feet. If we take the surface temperature as 48°, 
it is 1° in 67 teet. 

At Agecroft Colliery the deepest observation was 92° - 5 at 2,940 feet ; 
which with an assumed surface temperature 47° '5 gives 1° in 65 feet. 

The above-named temperature in the Rams mine was checked by 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 53 

Professor Harold Dixon in October 1902 with a slow-acting thermo- 
meter made by Negretti & Zambra and tested at Kew inserted in a 
hole 4 feet deep in the floor at the lowest point reached. 

The reading obtained was 100 o- 6, which confirms the deduction of 
1° in 66 feet. 

In the North Staffordshire coalfield Mr. W. N. Atkinson, H.M. 
Inspector of Mines, found the following temperatures at the greatest 
depths reached : — 

Sueyd Colliery, Burslem . . . 87°-5 at 2,625 feet. 

Glebe Colliery 83J „ 2,295 „ 

Great Fenton Colliery . . . 85°0 „ 2,400 „ 

Assuming 48° as the surface temperature, the mean rates of increase 
downwards are : — 

Sneyd 1° in 66-5 feet. 

Glebe 1° „ 651 „ 

Great Fenton 1° „ G4-9 „ 

The method of observation was to drill a hole, insert a bottle of water, 
and, after leaving it in the hole, plugged with clay, for twenty-four hours 
or more, take it out, and put a thermometer into the water in the bottle. 
In the Sneyd Colliery observations were thus taken at thirteen depths 
during the sinking of a shaft, beginning with 1,104 feet and ending with 
2,625 feet, and the increase shown was fairly regular. The Glebe and 
Great Fenton observations were also in sinking shafts. 

At Hamstead Colliery in South Staffordshire Mr. F. G. Meachem 
made observations extending over several years. He found the mean 
annual surface temperature to be about 49°, and the temperature of the 
undisturbed strata at the bottom, 1,950 feet deep, 66°. This last was 
ascertained by inserting a maximum and minimum thermometer, pro- 
tected by a metal case, into a bore-hole driven ten feet into freshly cut 
coal. The hole was closed with clay and left for various periods from 
one to fourteen days. 

Repeated observations gave the same result. The rate of interest 
hence deduced is 1° in 115 feet. A surface temperature of 48° would 
give 1° in 108 feet. Mr. Meachem himself says : 'All observations 
show an increase of temperature in undisturbed strata of 1° F. for every 
110 feet of descent beyond 65 feet from the surface.' ' 

Mr. W. N. Atkinson 2 obtained a nearly identical rate at a new shaft 
at Baggeridge Wood, S. Staffs ; but the circumstances were unfavourable, 
the shaft being wet, and the observations not made till about a week after 
the sinking was finished. The temperature thus found was 66^° at a 
depth of 1841 feet. Assuming a surface temperature 48|°, this is an 
increase of 1° in 102 feet. The Secretary has made inquiries to ascertain 
whether these very slow increases in South Staffordshire can be due to 
steep inclination. He learns from Mr. W. N. Atkinson that the strata 
in South Staffordshire generally are very flat and nearly level. At 
Hamstead the inclination averages only one in 55 (or, according to Mr. 
Meachem, 1 in 19). In North Staffordshire, on the other hand, the strata 
are much contorted, and the inclinations at Glebe, Great Fenton, and 
Sneyd range from 1 in 10 to 1 in 5. The suggested explanation of the 
difference therefore completely breaks down. 

1 Trans. Inst. Mm. Eng., vol. xxv. 1903, p. 271. 

2 Q. 2295 in Report of Commission. 



54 REPOKT — 1904. 

In South Wales, iu. the neighbourhood of Rhondda and Aberdare, 
Mr. William Jenkins has taken numerous observations by a somewhat 
rough method, an ordinary thermometer being inserted in a hole bored 
3 feet deep into the coal, with an oiled waste plugging, and taken out 
from time to time and reinserted till the temperature was steady, the 
whole time being upwards of an hour. The observations were made in 
various seams at depths below the surface ranging from 1,094 feet to 
2,515 feet, with very varying results, the surface being 875 feet above 
sea-level. Taking the surface temperature as 47°, and comparing it with 
the deepest observation (73|° at 2,515 feet), we have an increase of 
261,° in 2,515 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 95 feet ; but the mode of 
observation is unsatisfactory. 

At Dowlais, in the Merthyr coalfield, Mr. H. W. Martin has taken 
numerous observations in several collieries by means of thermometers 
inserted in boreholes and left for about twenty-four hours, the instruments 
being apparently strong thermometers specially ordered from a local 
optician. The greatest depth below the surface was 2,600 feet, with 
temperature 77°. Assuming the surface temperature to be 49°, this gives 
a rate of 1° in 93 feet. The inclination of the strata averages about 1 in 7. 

At the Niddrie Collieries, near Edinburgh, Mr. Robert Martin has 
made observations in the Great Seam at the depth of 2,623 feet, and finds 
the ' temperature in the solid coal face ' at this depth to be 74". The 
surface ground temperatures found at four surrounding stations of the 
Scottish Meteorological Society (Joppa, Nookton, East Linton, Smeaton) 
are 46°-l, 47°-6, 47°"7, 47°-9. Assuming a surface temperature of 47°-5, 
we have an increase at the rate of 1° in 99 feet. The strata are highly 
inclined, the dip ranging from 50° to 90° ; a circumstance conducive to a 
slow rate of increase. 

Hofra,t Prof. H. Hofer, of Leoben, Austria, has recently issued, with 
the sanction of the Austrian mining authorities, a circular giving direc- 
tions for the taking of temperature observations during the sinking of 
mining shafts, and has since been furnished, at his own request, with 
copies of most of the reports of your Committee. The circular recom- 
mends the use of maximum thermometers, divided to fifths of a degree 
centigrade, to be inserted in holes bored to the depth of at least 2 metres 
in the floor or side and well plugged. The observations are to begin at 
25 m. from the surface, to be repeated at intervals of 50 m. till a coal 
seam is approached, and then at shorter intervals through and a little 
beyond the seam. This process is to be repeated for every seam that is 
traversed. A main purpose of the investigation l is to determine the 
influence of coal seams on the temperature of their surroundings. Hot 
springs have been encountered in several Austrian coal mines, and Pro- 
fessor H<ifer ascribes their heat to chemical changes in the coal. In this 
connection it may be mentioned that much evidence has come before the 
Coal Commission of spontaneous heating of coal by exposure to the air. 
According to Professor Heifer the greatest heating occurs in brown coal. 

It seems desirable at this time to make more generally known to 
observers of rock temperature in mines that the simple and strong pattern 
of slow-action thermometer, designed by your Committee many years ago 
for this purpose, is still obtainable from the makers, Messrs. Negretti & 

1 Oester. Zeitschrift fur Berg- void Huttenrvesen, 1901, p. 249, &c. Also paper to 
Institution of Mining Engineers, London Conference, 1904. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. o5 

Zambra. It is a mercurial thermometer, with extra-thick bulb, imbedded 
in stearine, the whole being inclosed in a hermetically sealed glass tube 
with a perforated copper case for protection against breakage. 

Professor Harold Dixon, F.R.S., who has taken a leading part in the 
underground temperature work of the Coal Commission, has been added 
to the Committee ; and two old members, Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., 
and Sir C. Le Neve Foster, F.R.S., have been lost by death. Mr. Glaisher 
was one of the most active members of the Committee for the first fifteen 
years of its existence. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord McLaren, Professor A. Orum Brown (Secretary), 
Sir John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, and Mr. R. T. 
Omond. (Drawn up by Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee was appointed, as formerly, for the purpose of co-operating 
with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteorological obser- 
vations at the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

The hourly eye observations have been made at the high-level Obser- 
vatory by Mr. Rankin and his assistants uninterruptedly during the year. 
At the low-level Observatory in Fort William the self-registering instru- 
ments have been in continuous use throughout the year. 

The health of the observers has been good. Mr. Robert H. Mac- 
dougal, who has been on the staff for many years, left the Observatory in 
December, and Mr. W. L. A. Craig Christie was appointed. The 
Directors desire to thank cordially Messrs. W. G. MacConnachie, A. J. 
Ross, and J. H. Buchanan for their valuable services as volunteer 
observers while members of the ordinary staff were on holiday last 
summer. 

The results of the observations made at the two Observatories during 
1903 are detailed in Table I. 



Table I. 



1903 



Jan. 



Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov 



Dec. 



Year 



Mean Pressure in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



BenNevisOb- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



25-099 



29720 
4-621 



25-148 



29-726 
4-573 



24-9151 25-232 



29-4751 29-845 
4-56o! 4-613 



25-325 



29-S63 
4-538 



25-555 



30-088 
4-533 



25-360 



29-847 
4-487 



25-189] 25-4051 24-925 



29-659 29-924 
4-470 4-519 



29-410 
4-485 



25-315 

29-915 
4-600 



25-056 



29-650 
4-594 



25-210 



29-760 
4-550 



Mean Temperatures. 



22-7 


o 
27-3 


o 
24-6 


o 

24-5 


o 
33-4 


o 
38-7 


O 

39-8 


o 
37-6 


o 
37-3 


o 
31-7 


o 
28-3 




24-2 




30-8 


38-5 
15-8 


43-2 
15-9 


41-5 
16-9 


42-7 
18-2 


497 
16-3 


53-9 
15-2 


55-1 
15-3 


53-9 
16-3 


53-6 
16-3 


47-8 
16-1 


43-5 
15-2 


38-5 
14-3 


46-8 
16-0 






Extremes of Temperature : 


Maxima. 










35-7 : 


42-3 


37-0 ; 35-0 56-0 58-0 


49-6 


490 


50-0 


40-5 


41-9 


36-6 


58-0 


50-4 
14-7 


55-6 
133 


56-5 57-6 71-5 ' 76-0 
19-5 22-6 | 15-5 18-0 


71-1 
21-5 


63-8 
14-8 


68-0 
180 


60-0 
19-5 


55-5 
13-6 


84-0 
17-4 


76-0 
180 






Extremes of Temperature : 


Minima. 










7'7 


17-0 


14-9 12-6 15-7 j 22-8 | 277 


31-0 1 24-3 


22-8 


10-9 


13-3 


7-7 


21-3 
13-6 


32-1 
151 


32-3 

17-4 


29-6 
17 


33-4 
17-7 


36-2 
13-4 


4 0-6 
12-9 


42-2 
11-2 


35-8 
11 -5 


31-0 

8-2 


23-5 
12-6 


22-4 
91 


21-3 
13-6 



56 



REPORT — 1904. 
Table I. — continued. 



1903 


Jan. 


Feb. March April May June 


July | Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 






Bainfall in Inches. 










BenNevisOb- 

servatory 
Port William 
Differences 


33-45 

16-12 
17-33 


36-24 

17-04 
1920 


37-95 8-36 

17-25 i 3-81 
20-70 4-55 


661 ' 6-41 13-26 

4-49 i 2-97 6-60 
2-12 3-47 6-66 


20-97 10-72 

11-95, 7-15 
9-02 3-57 


18-66 

1305 
5-61 


17-27 

7-85 
9-42 


6-81 

5-61 
1-20 


216-74 

113-89 
102-85 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


11 

5 
6 


13 

7 
6 


Number 

17 | 4 

7 

10 | 4 


of Bays 1 in. or more fell. 

1 2 5 7 1 3 

1 1 3 1 
2 4 4 1 2 


8 

4 
4 


5 

1 

4 


3 

2 

1 


79 

32 

47 






Number of Days 001 in. or more fell. 










BenNevisOb- 

servatorv 
Fort William 
Differences . 


22 

21 

1 


27 28 

26 31 
1 1 -3 


22 

13 
9 


19 

1G 
3 


18 

12 
6 


23 | 29 

21 27 

2 1 2 


18 

21 
-3 


29 

29 




22 

22 




23 

20 
3 


280 

259 
21 






Mean Rainband {Scale 0-8). 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


1-4 

3-6 
2-2 


2-4 

4-8 
2-4 


2-0 

3-9 
1-9 


2-0 

31 

1-1 


2-3 

3-8 
1-5 


3-6 27 

4-7 4-7 
1-1 1 2-0 


2-6 

4-7 
2-1 


2-5 

4-0 
1-5 


3-3 

4-5 
1-2 


2-5 

40 
1-5 


1-5 

3-4 

1-9 


2-4 

4-1 
1 7 






Number of Hours of Bright Sunshine. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


16 

22 
6 


5 

10 
5 


11 

39 

28 


40 

120 
80 


79 

135 
56 


137 

178 
41 


76 

141 
65 


23 67 

91 126 

68 59 


16 

36 

211 


21 

21 




18 

15 
+ 3 


509 

934 
425 






Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind in Miles. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 


22 I 


17 1 17 1 11 11 9 1 11 | IS 1 SO 

Percentage of Cloud. 


18 


9 


19 


15 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


88 

73 

15 


98 

88 
lu 


95 

85 
10 


80 

74 
6 


82 

73 
9 


74 1 86 

68 75 

6 11 


95 

83 
12 


80 

66 
14 


96 

89 

7 


89 

80 
9 


?3 

77 
6 


87 

78 
9 



The above table shows for 1903 the monthly mean and extreme 
temperature and pressure ; the amounts of rainfall ; the number of days 
of rainfall, and of the days on which it equalled or exceeded an inch ; 
the hours of sunshine ; the mean rainband ; the mean velocity in miles 
per hour of the wind at the top of the mountain ; and the mean cloud 
amount. The mean barometric pressures at Fort William are reduced to 
32° and sea-level ; but those at Ben Nevis Observatory to 32° only. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure was 29 -760 inches, 
or - 098 inch below the average of thirteen years ; whilst the mean at 
the top was 25-210 inches, or - 090 inch below the average of twenty 
years. The mean difference for the two Observatories was 4 - 550 inches, 
the mean monthly difference varying from 4 - 621 inches in January to 
4 - 470 inches in August. At both places the mean for the year was con- 
siderably lower than any hitherto recorded, and only in June, September, 
and November were the monthly means above their normals. The means 
for October were much lower than any yet recorded for that month, the 
deficiency at Fort William being as much as 0'385 inch. At the top the 
absolutely highest pressure for the year was 25 941 inches at 2 p.m. on 
May 26, and the lowest 23-916 inches at 5 a.m. on February 27. At Fort 
William the extremes were 30572 inches at 10 a.m. on November 6, and 



MKTEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



57 



Fort 


Top of 




Fort 


Top of 


ulliam. 


Beu Nevis. 




William. 


Beu Nevis 




-0-2 




-0-7 


July. 


o 
. -20 


o 

-1-9 


+ 4-6 


+ 3-2 


August 


. -26 


-3-2 


+ 11 


+ 03 


September 


. +04 


-0-7 


-2-4 


-38 


October . 


. +1-2 


+ 0-3 


+ 0-0 


+ 0-2 


November 


. -05 


-1-2 


-1-5 


-1-3 


December 


. -16 


-1-5 



28-326 inches at G a.m. on February 27. The extreme range on Ben 
Nevis was, therefore, 2-025 inches, and at Fort William 2-246 inches. 

The deviations of the mean temperatures of the months from averages 
of the thirteen years (1891-1903) are shown in Table IT. : — 

Table II. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

The most remarkable features of the year as regards temperature were 
the low temperatures for April and the cold weather of the summer 
months. At both Observatories the April mean temperatures were the 
lowest recorded for that month since 1891, the shade minimum at 
Fort William registering frost from 12th to 18th, and on 22nd and 24th ; 
whilst on Ben Nevis the minimum fell to 12°-6 on 17th, and the maxi- 
mum rose above the freezing-point on only eleven days of the month, 
the highest shade reading there being no higher than 35° -0, on the 
6th and 9th. The absolutely highest temperature for the year at Fort 
William was 76°-0 on June 7, and at the top 58°-0 on the same day ; 
the lowest at Fort William being 21°-3 on January 13, and at the top 
7°'7 on January 10. 

In Table III. are given for each month the lowest observed hygro- 
metric readings at the top of Ben Nevis (reduced by means of Glaisher's 
Tables) :— 

Table III. 



1903 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 
40-6 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Dry Bulb 


o 
19-1 


o 
4-2-2 


22-6 


o 
16-1 


42-0 


o 

47-3 


35-8 


o 

42-7 




31-0 


23-0 




21-0 


Wet Bulb 


15-3 


32-0 


18-1 


14-1 


:«'U 


33-5 


30-9 


32-8 


303 


25-6 


19-0 


157 


Dew-point 


-12-4 


20-2 


-10-7 


-1-3 


20-0 


18-3 


193 


20-9 


16-9 


11-1) 


-6-2 


-20-9 


Elastic Force . 


•024 


•109 


•025 


•041 


•108 


•099 


■104 


•112 


■093 


•071 


•032 


•01B 


Relative Hurniilitv 


23 


41 


21 


4« 


40 


30 


42 


41 


37 


41 


2G 


14 


[Sat. = 100] 


























Day of Month 


8 


9 


3 


18 


29 


5 


8 


1 


1G 


18 


l ^ 


29 


Montli of Year 


23 


17 


17 


1 


2 


24 


2 


2 


9 


9 


3 


23 



Of these relative humidities, the lowest, 14 per cent., occurred on 
December 29 with a dew-point of -20°-9, that being the lowest dew-point 
for the year. From 9 a.m. on January 21 to noon on February 9 — that is, 
for a period of 507hours— the atmosphere was continuously in a saturated 
condition, the summit of the mountain being wreathed in fog or mist 
throughout the period, except for one short break of three hours. The 
next longest periods of continuous saturation were from April 3 to 11, 
from September 3 to 10, and from December 9 to 17. 

The rainfall for the year at the top was 216-74 inches, or 55-97 inches 
above the average of 19 years; whilst the annual amount at Fort William 
was 113-89 inches, or 35-31 inches above the average for the same period. 
At Fort William the year was the wettest hitherto recorded, but on Ben 



58 



REPORT — 1904. 



Nevis the amount was considerably below that for 1898, when the total 
was as much as 240-12 inches. On Ben Nevis the totals for January, 
February, March and August were the largest hitherto recorded for these 
months, whilst the aggregate for the first three months was half the total 
for the year and considerably more "than twice the average. At Fort 
William, also, about half the annual amount was registered during the 
first three months, whilst the aggregate for that period was more than 
twice the average. At the top of the mountain the greatest fall recorded 
on a single day was 4-78 inches on January 29, the corresponding fall 
at Fort William being 1 -78 inch ; whilst the maximum daily amount at 
Fort William was 3*09 inches on January 25, the fall at the top on that 
day being 3 -03 inches. 

At the top of Ben Nevis the number of rainy days was 280, or 17 
above the average, and at Fort William 259 days, or 25 above the average. 
The number of days on which 1 inch or more fell was much above the 
average at both observatories, Ben Nevis having no fewer than 79 such 
days, or 26 above the average, and Fort William 32, or 17 above the 
average. Of these days of heavy falls, as many as 41 occurred at Ben Nevis 
during the first three months of the year, and as many as 19 at Fort 
William. Considering also daily falls of between - 50 inch and 099 inch, 
and less heavy falls, we have the following table : 



Daily Palls of 


Aggregate of Falls 


Number of Days 


B.N.O. 


F.W. 

51-3 in. 
32-1 „ 
30-5 „ 


B.N.O. 

79 

52 

149 

280 


F.W. 

32 

4G 

181 


1 in. and over ..... 

| in. to 0-99 in. 

Less than § in 

Total 


149-4 in. 
390 „ 
28-3 „ 


216-7 „ 


113-9 „ 


259 



Thus, on Ben Nevis nearly half, and at Fort William nearly one-third, 
of the number of rainy days had falls of half an inch or over, whilst at the 
top of the mountain such falls contributed six-sevenths of the total for the 
year. Again, at Fort William 45 per cent, of the annual amount was due 
to daily falls of 1 inch or over, and at the high-level station nearly 70 per 
cent, to such heavy falls. 

The sunshine recorder on Ben Nevis registered 509 hours out of a 
total possible of 4,473 hours, or 11 -4 per cent, of the possible sunshine, being 
227 hours below the average of twenty years. This is the smallest annual 
amount recorded since the Observatory was opened, the next least sunny 
years being 1884 with 524 hours, 1886 with 571, and 1890 with 591. The 
amounts for February and March were the least on record for these 
months, and only in June, September, and December were the totals 
above the average, and that by very small amounts. At Fort William the 
annual amount was 934 hours, being the smallest total in thirteen years and 
185 hours below the average for that period. February, March, and Octo- 
ber had the smallest amounts on record for these months, the total of 10 
hours in February being only one-fifth of the average for that month. 

On Ben Nevis the mean percentage of cloud was 87, and at Fort 
William 78, both above the average. February, March, August and 
October were very cloudy months, the eye estimations of cloud amount 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 59 

agreeing with the small amount of sunshine registered by the sunshine 
recorder. 

On Ben Nevis the following phenomena were observed :— 

Auroras : — September 20 ; November 1 ; December 25. 

St. Elmo's Fire :— January 3, 6, 27, 28 ; February 27 ; March 5, 17, 
27 ; May 16 ; July 23 ; August 3, 15, IS, 19, 20, 21 : September 2, 10 : 
October 5, 15, 16. 

Thunder and Lightning :— July 2 ; August 15, 19, 20, 24. 

Thunder only : — June 25, 29. 

Lightning only :— January 26, 27 ; February 20, 25 ; March 5, 30 ; 
June 29. 

Solar Halos :— April 19 (with Mock Suns) ; June 29. 

Lunar Halos : — January 5, 8 ; February 9 ; July 31 ; December 1. 

In November 1903 the Deutsche Seewarte at Hamburg, Germany, 
applied to the Directors for daily telegrams from the Fort William and 
Ben Nevis Observatories, with a view to their use, along with similar 
data from Continental high-level stations, in aiding the preparation for 
the daily forecasts for the German Empire. These telegrams have 
accordingly been sent for several months past, and appear regularly in 
the Daily Weather Report issued by the ' Seewarte.' 

Copies of the Ben Nevis observations have also been r sent on applica- 
tion to Dr. Hergesell, to be used in connection with the International 
Aeronautical Investigation. 

The discussion of the Ben Nevis observations on the lines indicated 
in our last year's Report has been continued. The chief subjects taken 
up by Dr. Buchan have been a continuation of the inquiry into the 
relations of temperature and pressure at the two Observatories, more 
particularly in regard to the great movements of the atmosphere grouped 
under the cyclone and the anticyclone. The observations have been 
sorted out into the following four classes : — 

1. The data for the mean hourly differences of the sea-level pressures 
and temperatures for the months, including all types of weather, with the 
exception of those days on which strong winds occurred, which rendered 
the barometric readings untrustworthy owing to the pumping of the 
mercury. 

2. The second class included all those days during the fourteen years 
on which the difference of temperature, on the mean of the whole day, was 
12°-0 or less. 

3. The third class included those days on which the difference of 
temperature was 18 o- or upwards. 

4. All the other days were grouped under this class on which the 
difference of temperature lay between 12°-0 and 18°-0, showing thus the 
results for the days when the temperature differences were virtually about 
the average. 

This fourth class has been added to the investigation since the 
meeting of the British Association at Southport. Further, the averages 
for these four different classes have been now calculated from all the 
available observations made at the two Observatories from August 1900 
to December 1 903. 

The broad results are these :— (1) When the difference of the mean 



60 REPORT — 1904. 

temperatures of the day is only 12°-0, or less, the calculated sea-level 
pressure for the top of the mountain is markedly greater than at Fort 
William, and the accompanying meteorological conditions are anti- 
cyclonic, the weather being clear, dry, and practically rainless ; (2) when 
the difference of temperature is 18 o- 0, or greater, the meteorological 
conditions are cyclonic, and the accompanying weather dull, humid, and 
rainy. 

The large result here arrived at empirically is in accordance with the 
principle laid down by Dalton — viz., that air charged with vapour or 
vaporised air is specifically lighter than when without the vapour ; or, 
in other words, the more vapour any given quantity of atmospheric air 
has in it the less is its specific gravity. 

Another important result is that the cases of small differences of 
temperature between the two Observatories are chiefly occasioned by an 
increase of temperature at the top of the mountain, and large differences 
of temperature by a decrease of temperature at the top. 

The intimate relation thus disclosed between the varying temperatures 
and sea-level pressures of a high-level and a low-level station is of 
prime importance in forecasting the weather, inasmuch as it reveals, in 
a way not hitherto attempted, the varying conditions of the hygrometric 
states of the atmosphere, particularly at high levels, upon which changes 
of weather so largely depend. The setting in of a process of saturation 
of the atmosphere at great heights may thus be made known, even when 
no cloud has yet been formed to indicate any such saturation. The 
important bearing of these results on such practical problems in meteoro- 
logy as the forecasting of the monsoons of India is evident. 



The Study of JTi/dro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Dr. A. W. Crossley 
(Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and 
Dr. H. R. Le Sueur. 

Recent Work on Hydro-aromatic Stibstances. 
By Dr. A. W. Crossley. 

The following is a summary of the work published on hydro-aromatic 
compounds since the preparation of the last report. 1 

Petroleum. — Roumanian petroleum 2 resembles Russian and American 
petroleum, inasmuch as the densities of fractions taken every 2° between 
50° and 70° diminish to a minimum at 60° to 62°, and then continuously 
increase, whilst in the case of Galician oil there is a steady increase of 
density throughout. A further difference from this latter oil is to be 
found in the composition of the fractions between 60° to 100°, which do 
not contain secondary hexanes, as on nitration they yield aromatic deriva- 
tives only. Methyl- and ethyl-hexahydrobenzene are among the hydro- 
carbons contained in the Roumanian oil. 

Hydrocarbons. — Sabatier and Senderens 3 have shown that, when 
benzene or its homologues, containing methyl groups as side-chains, are 
passed together with hydrogen over reduced nickel, hydrogenation takes 
place without complication ; whereas if the hydrocarbons contain longer 

1 Reports, 1903, p. 179. 2 Poni, J. C. 8., 1903, Abst. (1), 593. 

3 Compt. Bend., 1901, 132, 1254. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 61 

side-chains (ethyl, propyl, ifce.) part of the latter is split oft'. For example, 
ethylbenzene gives principally ethylhexahydrobenzene, but also small 
amounts of methylhexahydrobenzene. Sabatier and Mailhe ' have further 
investigated the product obtained by passing benzene and hydrogen over 
reduced nickel, and find that if the temperature be maintained at 250° 
pure hexahydrobenzene is formed, identical in all respects with that 
occurring in Caucasian petroleum. If hexahydrobenzene be passed over 
reduced nickel at 270° to 280°, it is decomposed into benzene and hydrogen, 
which latter reacts with the benzene, forming methane. An energetic 
substitution reaction takes place when chlorine acts on hexahydrobenzene 
at a temperature of 0°, resulting in the formation of a mixture of mono-, 
di-, tri-, tetra-, and hexa-chloro- derivatives. 2 

According to Markownikoff, 3 methylhexahydrobenzene has not been 
obtained pure by the methods so far described ; for example, when isolated 
from Caucasian petroleum, it is contaminated with normal heptane. It 
can, however, be prepared in the pure condition by the action of zinc dust 
on an aqueous alcoholic solution of 3-bromo-l -methylhexahydrobenzene. 
The hydrocarbon obtained by eliminating the elements of hydrogen bro- 
mide from this latter substance 4 is a mixture of the two methyltetrahydro- 
benzenes with the double bonds in the 2 : 3 and 3 : 4 positions. The pure 
substances have been obtained by other methods. 5 In such hydrocarbons 
the influence of the side-chain is such that in the splitting off of hydrogen 
together with a halogen, or in the combination with a molecule containing 
mobile hydrogen, the latter splits off from, or combines preferably with, 
the carbon atom furthest removed from the side-chain, whilst the electro- 
negative element combines with the carbon nearest the side-chain. 
1:1: 3-trimethyl-A 3 -tetrahydrobenzene. 6 

Hydroxy-derivatives. — The reaction introduced by Sabatier and Sen- 
derens has been extended to the preparation of aromatic alcohols. When 
phenol is passed together with excess of hydrogen over reduced nickel at a 
temperature of 140°-160°, pure hydroxyhexahydrobenzene is obtained ; 7 
but if the temperature be raised to 215°-230°, the hydroxyhexahydro- 
benzene first formed is decomposed into ketohexahydrobenzene and 
hydrogen. From the mixture so produced Sabatier and Senderens have 
obtained the pure alcohol or ketone by, in the first case, passing the pro- 
duct with excess of hydrogen over reduced nickel at a temperature of 
140°-150°, and in the second by passing the product without hydrogen 
over reduced copper at a temperature of 330°. Under similar conditions 
thymol and carvacrol are converted into the corresponding hexahydro- 
derivatives (Brunei). 

Iodohydroxyhexahydrobenzene gives, when treated with potash or 
silver oxide, 8 the internal oxide of 1 : 2- dihydroxy hexahydrobenzene, 

°\ 

>CH— OH, 

/ \ 

CH j>CH 2 

\CH 2 — CH, 

1 Compt. Bend., 1903, 137, 240. 2 Bull. Soo., 1903, 29, 974. 

3 Cent. Blatt., 1904 (1), 1345. 4 Cent. Blatt., 1904 (1), 1346. 

5 Cent. Blatt., 1903 (2), 289 ; 1904 (1), 1213 ; Wallach, Annalen, 1903, 329, 368. 
B Harries and Weil, Ber., 1904, 37, 848. 

7 Holleman, Cent. Blatt., 1904 (1), 727; Brunei, Compt. Rend., 1903, 137, 12fi« ; 
Pabatier and Senderens, ibid., 1903, 137, 1025. 
fi Brunei, Compt. Bend., 1903, 137, 62. 



62 REPORT — 1904 

into which substance the former is easily converted by the action of water. 
When the internal oxide is treated with alcoholic ammonia, 1 there result 
1 -amino- 2-hydroxyhexahvdrobenzene and two forms of dihydroxycyclo- 
hexylamine, NH(C 6 H 10 .OH) 2 . 

Power and Tutin 2 have isolated a ltevorotatory modification of quer- 
citol from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. It is demonstrated that this 
substance has the same constitution as c?-quercitol (pentahydroxyhexa- 
hydrobenzene) which has been established by Kiliani and Schaefer, 3 and 
can only differ from the latter stereochemically ; but, since c?-quercitol has 
(a) (i -l-24: 0- 16, whilst the new quercitol has (a) d — 73° - 9, the one cannot be 
the optical antipode of the other. Eight optically active modifications of 
pentahydroxyhexahydrobenzene are possible, and until a further number 
of these isomerides are known it is impossible to assign a definite con- 
figuration either to rf-quercitol or to the new 1-quercitol. 

Aldehydes and Ketones. — The general method for the preparation of 
aldehydes by the action of organomagnesium haloids on the esters of 
orthoformic acid dissolved in dry ether 4 appears to be applicable to the 
synthesis of hydro-aromatic aldehydes, 5 and in this way hexahydro-m- 
toluic aldehyde has been prepared from 3-bromo-l-methylhexahydro- 
benzene. 

The preparation of hexahydrobenzyl alcohol 6 has been described by 
Bouveault. Methylhexylcarbinol, C e H M .CH(CH 3 )OH, is obtained when 
acetic aldehyde is allowed to act on the magnesium compound of chloro- 
hexahydrobenzene. 7 When these alcohols are oxidised with chromic acid 
the former yields hexahydrobenzaldehyde and the latter hexahydroaceto- 
phenone. 

Chloro- derivatives of ketomethyldihydrobenzene. 8 

Acids. — When pentane-aye-tricarboxylic acid is digested with acetic 
anhydride and then distilled, 9 a remarkable decomposition takes place 
with elimination of carbon dioxide and water and formation of 8-ketohexa- 
hydrobenzoic acid. 

/ CH 2 -CH 2 -CO„H .CH 2 -GH~ 

CO..H . CH( = CO„H . CH< " >CO + CO. + H 2 

\CH 2 -CH 2 C0 2 H \CH 2 -CH/ 

On reduction the corresponding hydroxy- acid is obtained, which yields 
trans-t-bromohexahydrobenzoic acid when treated with hydrogen bromide, 
and this bromo- acid, under the influence of sodium carbonate, gives rise 
to A 3 -tetrahydrobenzoic acid. c'-Ketohexahydrobenzoic acid combines with 
hydrogen cyanide to form the mixed nitriles of the cis- and trans-modifi- 
cations of a-hydroxyhexahydroterephthalic acid. Both the corresponding 
acids decompose on distillation with formation of A'-tetrahydroterephthalic 
acid, identical with the acid synthesised by Baeyer. 10 

r-Ketohexahydrobenzoic acid has been used by Perkin u as the starting- 
point for the synthetical preparation of terpin, inactive terpiiieol, and 
dipentene ; but as this report does not include a consideration of the 
terpenes and camphors, an account of this work is not given. 

' Brunei, ibid., 1903, 137, 198. - J. C. S., 3 904, 85, (324. 

3 Ber., 1898, 29, 1762. 4 Tschitschibabin, Ber., 1904, 37, 186. 

5 Ibid., 850. 6 Onmpt. Rend., 1903, 137, 60. 

7 Bull. Soc, 1903, 29, 1049. " Zincke, Annalen, 1903, 328, 261. 

» Perkin, J. C. S., 1904, 85, 416. 10 Annalen, 1888, 245, 160. 

11 J. C.S., 1904, 85,654. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 63 

Transformations. — l-Methyl-3-ketohexahydrobenzene has been con- 
verted into l-methyl-2-ketohexahydrobenzene x by the series of reactions 
already described. 2 

When 1 :5-dimethyl-3-keto-^'-tetrahydrobenzene 3 is heated with an 
equal weight of ammonium carbonate, a small quantity of a base is formed 
identical with collidine (2 :4: 6-trimethylpyridine). The mechanism of 
this process is the exact reverse of Hantzsch's reaction 4 whereby dihydro- 
pyridine, under the influence of hydrochloric acid, yields ketotetrahydro- 
benzene. 

It has been shown by Demjanow and Luschnikow 5 that it is possible 
to convert a substance containing a tetramethylene ring into one con- 
taining a pentam ethylene ring (cyclopentanol from tetramethylenemethyl- 
amine) ; and, in continuance of this work, Demjanow r ' has now provided 
an example of the conversion of a ring containing six carbon atoms into 
one containing seven. On distilling hexahydrobenzamide with phosphorus 
pentoxide it yields cyanohexahydrobenzene (1), which on reduction gives 
the corresponding amine (2). When the hydrochloride of this amine 

/CHo — OH.A ,(yQ n — CH,\ 

CH 2 < "(1) >CK.CN CH,/ "(2) >CH . CH„ . NH, 

"\CH 2 -CH/ " X!H,-CH./ 

CH 2 -CH,-CH . OH 



CH 2 / (3) 

N CH 2 -CH,-CH 2 

is acted on with silver nitrite it is converted into an alcohol identical in every 
respect with suberyl alcohol (3), already described by Markownikoff. 7 

A study of the action of bromine on 3 : 5-dichloro-l : 1 -dimethyl- A 2 :4 - 
dihydrobenzene 8 has shown that the resulting hydro-aromatic bodies very 
readily lose hydrogen bromide to form aromatic substances, of which the 
two principal ones are 3 : 5-dichloro-4-bromo-o-xylene and 3 : 5-dichloro- 
6-bromo-o-xylene. Since the dichlorodimethyldihydrobenzene, which forms 
the starting-point of the research, contains the (/em-dimethyl group, the 
migration of one of these methyl groups becomes an essential step in the 
production of an aromatic compound. The reaction has therefore been 
worked out so as to gain an insight into the course of such changes, more 
especially as, on account of the symmetry of the molecule, it forms one of 
the simplest cases in which the wandering of an alkyl group can take 
place. The reaction is largely influenced by the condition of experiment, 
but no substance has been encountered in which an alkyl group has 
wandered into any but an ortho-position. 

The Nature of Double Linkings. — Recent experimental work has 
enriched our knowledge of the behaviour of substances containing double 
linkings, more especially as regards the property of addition. In the 
case of a substance containing several double bonds in the molecule, these 
bonds often do not behave independently of one another. Thiele's theory 9 
of partial valencies provides a possible explanation of many such cases. 
Knoevenagel 10 considers it essential to study the movement of the atoms 
themselves in the molecule, and assumes that doubly linked carbon atoms are 

1 Wallach, Annaleri, 1903, 329, 368. 2 Eeports, 1903, p. 181. 

3 Knoevenagel and Erler, Ber., 1903, 36, 2129. * Annalen, 1882, 215, 297. 

5 Cent. Blatt., 1903 (1), 828. 6 Cent. Blatt., 1904 (1), 1214. 

' Ber., 1893 26, R, 813. 8 Crossley, J. C. S., 1904, 85, 264. 

*i Annalen, 1899, 306, 87. 10 Ber., 1903, 36, 2803. 



64 



RETORT — 1904. 



in a continuous state of oscillatory motion. In the case of a substance such 
as butadiene, the formation of the dibromide BrCH 2 — CH=CH — CH. 2 Br, 
is explained by supposing the swinging motion of the carbon atoms to be 
taking place first in one direction and then in the opposite, as indicated in 
the accompanying diagram (fig. 1). 

Continuous motion in one direction only is prevented by the hydrogen 
atoms attached to the terminal carbon atoms, which come into the plane 
of rotation. It is quite another matter in the case of benzene, where 
alternate carbon atoms are supposed to rotate continuously in opposite 
directions, because none of the valencies which pass into the plane of 
rotation have hydrogen atoms attached to them ; the result is that the 
double linkings change their position and travel round the ring (fig. 2). 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 






Such a theory indicates the possibility of new types of isomerism, 
more subtle even than optical isomerism, and it is pointed out that cases 
of supposed polymorphism, e.g., the quinols and benzophenone, may be 
in reality manifestations of structural differences of the above type. 
Knoevenagel supports Lehmann's view, 1 that substances exhibiting 
difference in crystalline form afford evidence of difference in chemical or, 
perhaps better, physical constitution. 

It is also suggested that bodies of the type of ethyl _ 2:5 -dihydro- 
terephthalate should be particularly liable to lose a molecule of hydrogen, 

( + ) 

HC . COOCH, 

/\ 

HC CH 

II II 
HC CH 

\/ 

HC . COOCH s 

( + ) 

since the two hydrogen atoms marked ( +) would be in a continuous state 
of bombardment, due to the swinging motion of the carbon atoms con- 
nected by a double bond. On increasing the temperature this state of 
things would become sufficiently intense to cause the partial dissociation 
of the molecule with evolution of hydrogen. This actually happens in the 
case of the above ethereal salt on heating 2 in an atmosphere of carbon 
dioxide, especially in presence of platinum black. The evolved hydrogen 
is much smaller in amount than required by theory, only 18 c.c. being 
obtained by heating one gram of the salt instead of 113 c.c. This is 



Moleliularphysik (2), 413. 



■ Bcr., 1903, 36, 2857. 



ON THE STUDY OK HYDHO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 65 

readily explained, for the evolved hydrogen combines with some unaltered 
ester, and the result of the reaction is the production of methyl terephthalate 
and methyl hexahydroterephthalate. 

A 1:S -Dihydrobenrxne. By Dr. A. W. Crossley. 

In the last report of this Committee, 1 brief allusion was made to the 
preparation of A 1 : ^-dihydrobenzene ; work in this direction has now been 
completed, with l-esults which entirely confirm the preliminary experi- 
ments. The hydrocarbon obtained from dimethyldihydroresorcin by 
Crossley and Le Sueur 2 was proved to be 1 : 1 -dimethyl- A 2 :4 dihydro- 

CH CH 



(CH 3 ) 2 C</~ \CH 



CH 2 CH 

benzene, and by submitting dihydroresorcin to an identical series of 
reactions a hydrocarbon was obtained, 3 which differed from any previously 
prepared dihydrobenzene in only combining with one molecule of bromine 
to give a dibromodihydrobenzene melting at 104 o- 5. It was therefore 
suggested that the double bonds would be in the position 1 : 3, and the 
hydrocarbon prepared by Baeyer 4 and Markownikoff 5 would be A 1 ^-di- 
hydrobenzene, which is characterised by directly adding on four atoms of 
bromine to form a solid tetrabromide melting at 184°. Harries and 
Antoni 6 consider that their work proves this suggestion to be incorrect. 

Unfortunately it was not found possible to prepare pure A 1 ^-dihydro- 
benzene from dihydroresorcin, but this end has now been attained by the 
removal of the elements of hydrogen bromide from dibromotetrahydro- 
benzene. 7 

CH, .CHBr CII = CH 

CH,/ \cHBr = 2HBr+ CH,/ \g& 

CH 2 . CH 2 CH,-CH 

The reaction can only take place in one way, and therefore leaves no 
doubt as to the constitution of the resulting hydrocarbon, which like that 
obtained from dihydroresorcin only adds on two atoms of bromine to give 
a solid melting at 104 o- 5. That this latter substance is in reality a 
dibromodihydrobenzene is conclusively proved by the fact that on treatment 
with quinoline it loses two molecules of hydrogen bromide, yielding 
benzene. 

It seems indisputable that, as already suggested, the hydrocarbon 
obtained from dihydroresorcin or from dibromotetrahydrobenzene is 
A 1:3 -dihydrobenzene, and the hydrocarbon giving the tetrabromide melting 
at 184° must therefore be A 1 : 4 -dihydrobenzene. 

1 Southport, 1903, p. 182. 2 /. C. S., 1902, 81, 822. 

3 Crossley and Haas, J. C. S., 1903, 83, 494. * Annalen, 1894, 278, 88. 

8 Annalen, 1898, 302, 29. 6 Annalen, 1903, 328, 102. 

' Proe. C.S., 1904, 20, 160. 



1904. 



66 



REPORT— 1904. 



Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — 
Report of the Committee consisting of Sir H. E. PiOSCOE (Chairman), 
Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir Norman Lockyer, Professor 
J. Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, Pro- 
fessor W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. 
W. E. Adeney. 



Abney, and Dr. 



Ruthenium. 



Kayser, ' Konigl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin,' 1897. 
Adeney, ' Proc. Royal Dublin Soc.' vol. x. (n.s.), pt. 1, No. 3. 
Exner and Hascbek, ' Sitzungsber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 
Rowland and Tatnall, ' Asiro.-phys. Journ.' vol. iii. p. 288, 1896. 



cv. 1896, cvi. 1897. 



Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Spark Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 _ 

A 


in Vacuo 


5887-371 




• 





1-60 


4-6 


16980-9 


64-830 









99 


•» 


17046-2 


33-561 






On 


1-59 


4-7 


171375 


33-380 






2 






380 


28-580 






1 






521 


28-235 






2 


■9 




53-1 


26-018 









99 


j) 


59-5 


15157 






5 


1-58 




91-7 


04-461 






4 


) J 




17223-4 


5792-382 






1 


9 9 




59-3 


90-741 






1 






64-2 


82-720 






4 






88-2 


82-511 






2 


?» 


j» 


88-8 


74-533 






2 


1-57 


J 9 


17312-7 


71352 









j» 


91 


22-3 


68-066 






3 






32 1 


58-875 













59-8 


56 980 






3 


99 




66-1 


53-772 






1 


»» 




75-2 


52-163 






3 






80-0 


47-623 






5 






93-8 


46-131 






4 


99 




98-2 


45-776 






1 


99 




99-4 


40-710 









5> 


99 


17414-7 


34-606 









1-56 




33-3 


30-122 






2 






46-7 


25-895 






4 






59-8 


24-975 






4 






62-6 


14-391 






2 




4-8 


93-9 


13025 






4 


99 




991 


02-522 






4 


1-55 




17531-3 


5699-741 






2 


jj 




399 


99-224 






9 


)) 




41-5 


96-526 






1 






49-8 


94-626 






2 




55-6 


93-190 






4 




60-1 


92-288 






1 




62-8 


88-990 






2 


99 


>> 


73 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OK THE ELEMENTS. 67 

Ruthenium— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 


¥ cfcl.jHUIll 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + 


l _ 

A 


in Vacuo 


5679-790 






4 


1-55 


4-8 


17601-5 


76-720 






1 


»» 




110 


65-370 






4 


1-54 




46-3 


63-233 









j? 




52-9 


57-127 






2 


>j 




72-0 


53-482 






2 


J] 




83-4 


53005 









> j 




849 


50-981 






2 


) j 




91-2 


49-737 






3 






951 


48-058 






1 


tj 




17700-4 


47-755 













01-3 


41-848 






2 


jj 




203 


36-441 






7 


?) 




36-9 


29-984 






1 


»j 




57 2 


27 722 






2 


1-53 




64-4 


19-558 













90-2 


09-360 






2 


jj 


4-9 


17822-4 


06-958 






3 






311 


03-782 






3 






36-2 


03-370 






2 






41-5 


00-753 






2 






49-8 


6582-501 






2 


1-52 




17908-2 


79-650 






2 


)> 




174 


78-914 






2 






19-7 


78-594 






4 






20-8 


70-906 






2 






455 


69233 


. 




4 


M 




50-9 


59-962 






6 






80-8 


56-719 






3 


9) 




91-3 


49 960 






2 


1-51 




18013-2 


40-881 






3 






42-8 


31-220 






2 






74-2 


18-056 






2 


JJ 




18117-4 


12-593 






2 


1-50 




35-4 


10934 






6 






42-8 


07151 









Jj 




53 3 


01-230 






1 




5-b 


72-7 


5496-899 






4 






90-4 


94-575 






1 






95-0 


84-850 






2 






18227-0 


84-524 






6 






28-1 


80-507 






3 






41-5 


79-619 






4 


5) 




44-3 


75377 






2 


1-49 




58-6 


73 050 






2 






66-3 


71755 









)» 




70-7 


56-329 






2n 






18322-3 


55018 






6 






26-7 


52-930 






1 






33-8 


39-618 






2n 


1-48 




78-6 


39-421 






2 


» > 




79 3 


27-815 






4 






18418-6 


19 056 






4 






48-4 


01-609 






2 


1-47 


5T 


18507-9 


01-234 






5 






09-2 


5386 083 






4 


»> 




61-2 



68 




REPORT — 


1904. 








Ruthenium— continued. 




Wave-length 


Spark Spectrum 


Intensity 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


(Kayser) 




and 




Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Hasehek 


Character 


\ + 
1-47 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


5378-042 






3 


5-1 


18589-0 


73-505 






On 






18604-7 


65-799 






2 






31-5 


62-271 






2 


1-46 




43-7 


61-967 






5 






44-8 


48-340 













92 3 


36-110 






3 






187351 


34-901 






2n 






39-4 


33114 






3 






45-7 


15-520 






2 


l'-45 




1S807-7 


09-440 






4 






29-3 


07-481 













37-2 


06-624 






1 






39-3 


06035 













41-4 


05 030 






4 






44-9 


5291-327 






1 




5-2 


93-6 


84-256 






4 


1-44 




18918-9 


80-989 






2 






306 


75-240 






1 






51-2 


66-988 






1 






81-0 


66-642 






1 






82-2 


64113 






On 






91-3 


57 240 






2 






190161 


51-816 






1 






35-8 


45-612 






2 


1-43 




58-3 


45 112 













60-2 


43-109 






2n 






67-4 


42-560 






1 






69-4 


35-774 






1 






94-4 


23-708 






3 






19138-1 


14-247 






1 






72-8 


13 586 






3 






75-2 


09-667 






2 


1-42 




89-9 


02-285 






2 




5-3 


19217 


00-040 






3 






25-3 


5195171 






4 






43 3 


76-361 













193133 


74-105 









l'4l 




21-7 


71 193 






6 






32-5 


69-242 













39-8 


68-793 













41-6 


68-237 













43 6 


60-167 






2 






739 


55-302 






4 






92-2 


53 364 






2 






99-5 


51-230 






4 






19407 5 


47-401 






4 






22 


42-933 






4 






44 2 


36-717 






5 


i'4o 




62-4 


34-285 













71-6 


34059 






2 






72-5 


27-423 






2 






97-7 


07-230 






4 




5-4 


19574-7 


01-892 













95-2 


01553 






2 






96-5 


6093-996 






4 


1-39 


,, 


19625-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



69 





] 


Ruthenium— 


■continued. 










Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
"Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Are Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


X + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


5077-484 






3 


1-39 


5-4 


19689-4 


77 243 






1 


>> 


)) 


90-3 


73T41 






2 


JJ 


99 


19706-2 


62-815 






1 


1-38 


»> 


46-5 


57-487 






4 


93 


>» 


67 3 


53114 









J9 


)> 


84-4 


47-471 






2 


99 


99 


19806-5 


45-570 






1 


99 


>J 


140 


41-528 









99 


») 


29-9 


40-908 






1 


99 


99 


32-3 


40521 






1 


99 


99 


338 


39 794 






On 


»» 


>l 


36-7 


26343 






3 


1-37 


5-5 


89-7 


20-472 









99 


»» 


19912-9 


19T40 






1 




»» 


18-2 


11-387 






3 




?) 


49 


10-765 






1 


J» 


99 


51-5 


05-394 






1 




)» 


73 


03-697 











99 


79-7 


4992-891 






2 




)> " 


20023-0 


87-412 






1 


1-36 


J» 


450 


80-498 






2 




JJ 


72-8 


76-351 






2 




)S 


89-5 


75-534 











99 


92-8 


74-255 











99 


98-0 


69-055 






2 




5» 


201190 


60-022 











99 


56-7 


55-416 






1 




?» 


74-4 


38-587 






3 


1-35 


5-6 


202431 


35-805 











»» 


545 


21233 






4 




»» 


20314-4 


11-755 






1 


1-34 


99 


53-7 


10384 











)J 


59-4 


08-045 






3 


yy 


J) 


691 


05-179 






1 




»S 


83 


03 223 






5 




5» 


89-2 


02033 











»» 


941 


01-234 











)) 


97-4 


4899-416 






1 




)» 


20405-0 


95-745 






4 




)> 


203 


95-555 






1 




»» 


211 


95-474 






1 




19 


214 


85-186 











■ 99 


64-5 


82-832 











*» 


81-1 


77-598 









1-33 


»» 


96-3 


75-188 











)> 


20506-4 


74-489 











»» 


09-4 


69-952 






1 




>» 


28-5 


69-314 






6 




>) 


312 


65 253 






1 




>> 


48-3 


63-265 











)» 


56-7 


62-024 






2 




5-7 


621 


54-731 






1 




»» 


92-8 


44-720 






4 




9* 


20635 3 


39-930 






1 


1-32 


J» 


55-8 


39174 






3 


?• 




490 



70 




REPORT— 


1904 








Ruthenium— 


eontin ued. 




Wave-length 


Spark Spectrum 


Intensity 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


(Kayser) 




and 


Frequency 






Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


+ A 


1 _ 

A 


in Vacuo 


4833-157 






2 


1-32 


5-7 


20644'7 


28-865 









,, 




207031 


22-738 













29-4 


17-512 






1 


») 




51-9 


15-694 






5 






59-7 


14-895 









>» 




632 


13-412 









5» 




70-6 


06-375 









)> 




20800-0 


05043 






2 


*» 




05-8 


01-343 






1 


1-31 




21-8 


4798-607 






2 


99 




33 7 


95-721 






2 


99 




46-3 


94-547 






2 


99 




51-3 


81-937 






1 


»> 


5-8 


20906-3 


74-168 









)J 




40-2 


73 325 









J> 




43 9 


69-464 






4 


>» 




61-2 


67 315 













70-4 


64-582 









1-30 




724 


58-043 






6 






21011-2 


56-402 






2 


»> 




18-5 


53 280 









»» 




32-2 


51-197 









»> 




41-5 


43-205 






1 


>» 




77-0 


38-587 









99 




97 5 


33-710 






4 


) J 




21119-3 


33 486 









99 




203 


31-504 






3 


»» 




29-1 


21-078 






1 


1-29 




75-8 


18-228 









>J 




88-6 


16-201 






2 


)> 




97-5 


14-335 









99 




212061 


12-146 






1 


J? 




15-9 


09-672 




4709-55 
04-2 
02-6 

4692-3 


6 
1 
1 
1 


1-28 




27-1 


4690-284 




90-5 
87-3 


4 
1 


)» 
)> 


5-9 


21314-7 


85-947 




86-2 


1 


»» 




34-5 


84-196 




84-4 


4 


)» 




42 4 


83-258 









» 




46-7 


81-966 




82-2 


4 


J> 




52-6 


81-563 




77-5 



In 






54-5 


74-821 




75-0 
74-0 


4 
In 






85-3 


70146 




70-4 
69-5 
68-5 
67-5 


4 
1 

In 
In 


J) 




21407-0 


62-663 









)> 


?> 


411 


54-901 









1-27 


J> 


76-8 


54-489 




54-6 


4 


J» 


)> 


78-7 


52371 









1) 


JS 


88-5 


48-293 









JJ 


>J 


21507-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SI'ECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

Ruthenium — contained. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

Vil PT111 111 




Wave-length 






Intensity 
and 


V ill llliJll 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


(Kayser) 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


4647-787 




4647-68 


5 


1-27 


5-9 


21509-7 


46-967 













14-9 


46-326 













16-5 


45-264 




454 


4 




„ 


21-4 


42-752 






1 






331 


42-548 






1 






341 


41-135 




41-2 







" 


40-5 


39 490 




391 





' v 




48-2 


38-569 













52-5 


35-849 




36 


4 






651 


28-495 











6-0 


98-8 


26-184 






1 






21610-1 


17-827 




12-5 
10-6 
09 5 




1 

In 
In 


1-26 




49-2 


05-833 




058 


2 






217056 


02978 













201 


01933 




019 


3 






26-8 


*4599-271 




4599 30 


6 






36-6 


96-879 




971 


4 






47 9 


93367 













64-5 


93161 













65-4 


* 92-695 




92-7 


4 






67-7 


91717 






2 






72-3 


* 91-257 




91-4 


4 






74-5 


89-734 













81-8 


89-177 




87-4 
85-5 



1 






844 


* 84-632 




84-60 
81-5 


4 
In 






21806-0 


80-246 




80-4 
74-2 


3 
In 


1-25 




26-4 


64-862 




650 


2 




6T 


21900-4 


62-772 




62-9 


1 






10-4 


* 60-157 


4560-16 


60-3 


4 






22-9 


59-215 




56-5 


1 
In 






27-5 


* 54-696 


54-70 


54-71 


6r 






49 3 


* 52-281 


52-28 


52-5 Pt 


4 






609 


* 50-112 


5011 


50-3 


3 






714 


49-589 




49-6 


2 






739 


* 48-030 


48-03 


48-2 


4 






81-4 


* 47 463 


47-46 


47.6 


4 






84-2 


47-105 




47 3 
45-4 

44-0 


2 

In 

1 






859 


42-848 


42-85 


42-7 
420 
414 


1 

In 

In 


1-24 




22013-1 




4005 


40-2 
36-0 
35 


In 
In 
In 


» 




201 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 4599-265, 4592-699, 4591-285, 4584-619, 4560-168, 
4554-697, 4552293, 4560121, 4548031, 4547467. 



72 



REPORT — 1904. 







Ruthenium— 


-continued. 
















Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vticuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


X + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


4531035 


4531-04 


4531 -2 


4 


1-24 


61 


22063-9 


25-616 













903 


* 21-110 


21-11 


21-3 


4 






22112-4 


* 17-977 


17-98 


18-2 


4 






27-7 


* 17-060 


17-06 


173 


4 






32-2 


16-421 


16-42 


166 


2 






35-3 


* 11-353 


11-35 


US 


4 






60-2 


* 10-251 


10-25 


104 


4 






65-6 


08-715 


08-72 


08-8 


q 






73-2 


08-192 




08-3 


1 






75-7 


*4498-322 


4498-32 


4498-30 


4 


1-23 




22219 4 


91846 


91-85 


921 


2 




C-2 


56-4 


90-396 


9040 


90 5 


2 






63-5 


88-550 


88-50 


88-7 


4 






72-7 


82-194 


82-19 


82-3 


2 






22304-3 


* 80-603 


80-60 


80-7 


4 






12-2 




79-80 


79 7 


1 




,, 


16-3 


75-493 




75-7 


2 






37-7 


* 74-093 


74-09 


74-2 


4 






44-7 


71-200 













59-2 




70-69 


70-8 


1 






61-7 


67-427 




67-6 


2 


1-22 




78-0 


66-511 






2 






82-7 


65-649 


65-65 




1 






87-0 


64-661 


64-66 











91-9 


* 60-209 


60-21 


60-19 
53-5 . 


6 
In 






22414-3 


* 49-509 


49-51 


49-50 


4 






68-2 


* 44-674 


44-67 


44-8 
43-3 


4 
In 






92-6 


40-245 













225091 


* 39-938 


39-94 


39-98 


5 






16-6 


39-574 




38-0 


2 
1 






18-5 


30-478 






1 


1-21 


6-3 


64-6 


* 28-624 




28-65 


4 






741 


26-182 


26-18 




1 






86-5 


24 958 




25-2 


3 






92-8 


23143 




'23-3 


1 






22602 


* 21-629 


21-63 


21-7 


4 






09 8 


21-006 


2101 


21-2 


4 






130 


20-634 


2063 




2 






14-9 


14-607 






2 






45-7 


13458 






2 






51-6 


12-058 













58-8 


* 10-207 


1021 


10-17 
09-1 


6 
In 






68-4 


05 809 




05-2 
02-7 



In 




,, 


91-0 


4399-751 


9975 


oo-o 


1 






22722-3 


*<■ 97 956 


97 96 


4398-3 


4 






315 


96-868 













37-2 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 4521-124, 4517985, 4517063, 4511-364, 4510-265, 
4498-316, 4480-617, 4474-100, 4460-194, 4449-509, 4444-681, 4439-935, 4428-631, 
4121-626, 4410-193, 4397 966. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS 78 

Ruthenium — continued. 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


4395125 


4495-13 


4395-4 


2 


1-21 


6-3 


227461 


* 91191 


9119 


915 


4 


1-20 


JJ 


66-5 


* 90-614 


90-61 


90-60 


6 




9? 


69 6 


89-547 




89-4 







5» 


75-1 


89-150 






2 




,, 


77-1. 


* 86-431 


4386 43 


86-6 
86-1 


4 
4 




J) 
»1 


91-3 


* 85-823 


85-82 


85-85 


5 




)» 


94-4 


* 85-563 


85-56 


85-60 


5 




)» 


95-8 


* 83 530 


83 53 


83-7 


2 




«» 


22806-4 


81-421 


81-42 


81-7 


2 




>! 


173 


76-745 




76-8 
73-9 
734 


1 

1 
1 






41-7 


* 72-381 


72-38 


72-38 


5 




?5 


64-5 




71-52 


716 


2 




J? 


68-8 


* 71363 






4 




J? 


69-9 


70-580 




70-9 


2 




)» 


740 


65-741 











4 


99-2 


64-270 




64-6 
63-5 


2 
1 






22906 9 


62-872 




63 2 


1 




»> 


203 


* 61-581 






2 




»> 


210 


* 61-372 


6137 


61-40 

58-5 


5 
In 




>* 


221 


57 031 




57-6 


1 




?> 


450 


* 54-960 


54-96 


552 


3 


1-19 


j> 


55 9 


* 54-300 


54-30 


54-32 


6 




)> 


59-4 


50-632 











j» 


78-8 


* 49-868 


49-86 


49-90 


5 




»» 


82-8 


* 46-640 




469 


4 




>> 


99-9 


43-178 




43-7 







>» 


23018-2 


* 42-243 


42-24 


42-25 


6 




)» 


232 


41-204 




41-4 


2 




;> 


28-6 


40503 




40-7 
400 


2 
In 






32-4 


38-829 




39 1 


2 




Jl 


413 


* 37 427 


37 43 


37-6 
37 3 


4 

1 






48-7 


* 36 584 


36-58 


367 
331 


2 
1 




»» 
)> 


532 


32-789 




32-9 







)» 


73-4 


32-655 


32-66 




2 




*> 


741 


* 31-321 


3132 


315 


4 




5» 


81-8 


28-712 




29-0 


2 




»» 


95-2 


* 27-588 


27-59 


27-8 


3 




•« 


23101-2 


27-489 






2 




)> 


017 


* 26-987 


26-99 


27 2 Pt 


4 




)» 


04-4 


* 25-215 


25-22 


25-4 


4 




)» 


138 


23-626 











>» 


22-3 


23120 


2315 


233 


2 




»> 


250 


21-450 






2 




J» 


34 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 4391-191, 4390605, 4386-436, 4385-814, 4385'553, 
4383-526, 4372-363, 4371366, 4361597, 4361-371, 4354969, 4354296, 4349867, 
4346-645, 4342236, 4337431, 4336591, 4331329, 4327590, 4326986, 4325213. 



7 1 



REPORT — 1904. 



Ruthenium — continual. 



Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Are Spectrum 



4320972 
20-743 

* 20-045 
19-274 

* 18-596 

* 16-792 
15-219 

* 14-468 
13-067 
12-632 
12 047 

09-361 
08-567 

* 07-748 



02-150 
01-297 

*4297-887 
96-860 

* 96 090 

* 94-955 
94-268 

* 93-441 
92-419 
90-692 

* S7-209 

* 84-502 



Spark Spectrum 



Adeney 



4320-04 
18-60 

14 47 



08-57 
07-75 



4297-89 
96-86 
9609 
94-96 

93-44 

90-69 

87-21 
84-49 



* 


82-357 


82 36 


* 


82-093 


82-09 


* 


78-842 




* 


77415 
73-115 

66-157 




* 


65-766 
63-551 


65-77 




60-166 


60-17 


* 


59-152 

56-790 
56-049 
55-868 
48-304 


59-15 


* 


46-902 


46-90 


* 


46-522 


46-52 



Exner and 
Haschek 



43210 

20-08 

18-7 
170 

14-6 

12-8 

110 
09 6 



07-74 
06-2 
05 

015 

4299 3 
97-92 
97-1 
96-05 
94-95 

93-48 

92 6 

909 

87-4 

84-50 

83 4 

82-6 

82-3 

81-7 

79-6 

77-6 

72-0 
67-0 

65-9 

63-7 

60-3 

59-20 

57-6 

57-0 

501 

55-7 

48-5 

46-95 

46-55 



Intensity 

and 
Character 





2 

5 

2 

4 

2 

4 

4 



2 



1 

2 



4 

1 

1 



] 

1 

8 

2 

5 

5 

4 

4 



2 

4 

6 

In 

2 

2 

1 

1 

2 

2 



In 



2 
2 
3 

5 



1 

2 
4 
4 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



r 



1-19 6-4 



IS 



17 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



23137 5 
37-8 
414 
45-6 
49 3 
59-0 
67 4 
71-4 
790 
81 "3 
84-4 

98-9 

23203 T 

07-5 



37 7 
423 

608 
66-3 
70-4 
76-6 
80-3 
84-8 
904 
99-8 
23318-7 
33 4 

351 
466 



64 
721 
95-6 



23433 8 
37 
481 
66-7 
723 

85-4 
89-5 
90-5 
23532-2 
400 
42-1 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 4320036, 4318-599, 4316-801, 
4297-870, 4296-090, 4294-948, 4293-443, 4287-204, 4284-490, 
4278-844, 4277-413, 4265-762, 4259-144, 4246-893, 4246-498. 



4314-471, 
4282-367, 



4307-746, 
4282-089, 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

Ruthenium — continued. 



75 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacu llrn 




Wavo-length 

(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeuey 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 


1 
K 


in Vacuo 
23543-0 


4246359 






6 


1-17 


6-6 


* 44-997 


424505 


4245-2 


4 


11 


ii 


505 


* 43-228 


43 23 


43 20 


6 


I 16 


,, 


60 3 


* 41231 


4123 


4125 


6 


11 


ii 


714 


40194 




40-4 





11 


ii 


76-9 






40-0 


1 


11 


ii 








38-5 


In 


11 


ii 




* 36-838 


36 84 


371 
33 6 


4 
1 


11 
,1 


ii 
ii 


23604-0 


* 32-478 


3248 


326 


4 


11 


91 


20-2 






31-7 


1 


11 


91 




* 30-470 


30-20 


30-48 


6 


11 


11 


314 


* 29-472 


2947 


29-6 

28-2 


4 
1 


11 
91 


19 
11 


371 


* 26-825 


26-82 


27-0Ca 





11 


11 




* 25-258 


25 26 


254 


3 


11 


11 


60-6 


* 20-838 


20-84 


20 85 


4 


11 


11 


85-4 


* 17 438 


1744 


17 40 


7 


11 


91 


237055 


* 14610 


14-61 


1460 


4 


*1 


11 


204 






138 


1 


11 


/> 




* 12 240 


12-24 


1220 
09 5 


5 
1 


99 
99 


)* 


337 


* 07-797 


07-80 


08-0 


2 


99 


i: 


58-8 


* 06-178 


06-18 


06-20 


4 


11 


ii 


67-9 






03 5 


1 


115 


ii 








032 


1 


11 


>• 




* 00 069 


00-07 


0005 


7 


19 


67 


238025 


*4199039 


4199 04 


419902 


4 


»» 


», 


08-2 


* 97-748 


97 75 


97-78 


4 


19 


>» 


156 


* 97-038 


97-04 


97 05 


2 


J» 


j) 


196 






95-0 


1 


99 


>? 




* 89-639 




89-9 
88-6 



In 


99 




61-7 






84-5 


In 


91 


)» 




* 82-994 




83 





11 


>5 


99 6 


* 82-807 






1 


91 


>» 


23900-7 


* 82-621 


82-62 


82-8 


2 


19 


>5 


01-7 


* 75-615 




75-8 Os 


2 


19 


J) 


41-9 






753 


2 


11 


>, 








74-5 


In 


11 


»J 








73 4 


1 


19 


>> 








70-9 


In 


11 


»J 




* 70-218 


70-22 


70-5 


2 


19 


,, 


72-8 






69 3 


1 


« 


»> 




* 67-666 


67 67 


67-65 


5 


114 


J, 


87-5 


* 67 030 


67-03 


67 3 





»> 


,» 


91-2 






65-1 


In 


11 


)» 








64-8 


In 


11 


,5 




* 61-817 


6182 


6180 


4 


11 


>» 


240213 






59-5 


1 


1* 


J* 








58-2 


1 


91 


») 





* Rowland and Tatnall : 4244-992, 4243216, 4241-215, 4236-834, 4232481, 
4230-478, 4229-475, 4226824, 4225256, 4220-838, 4217-427, 4214-714, 4214604, 
4212-225, 4207798, 4206-178, 4200062, 4199039, 4197745, 4197039, 4189-631, 
4182-998, 4182-812, 4182623, 4175-604, 4170-219, 4167-683, 4167047, 4161-823. 



76 



KEPOKT — 1904. 



Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

Vapnnm 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


, Hl\j U U» 111 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 
X 


in Vacuo 
24086-9 


*4150-475 


4150-48 


41506 


1 


1-14 


6-7 


* 48-530 


48-53 


48-7 


1 




6-8 


98-1 


* 46 956 


46-96 


46-92 


4 




99 


24107-3 


* 45-905 


45-80 


45-95 


4 


»» 


>J 


13-4 


* 44-335 




44-35 


4 


99 




24-4 


38-923 









>* 


)» 


541 


* 37-410 


3741 


37 6 
35-8 Os 
35-2 
317 

29-2 


3 
1 
1 

In 
In 


9 9 
99 

99 

1-13 


JJ 

99 


62-9 


* 28-017 


28-02 


28-2 


2 


»> 


)» 


24217 9 


* 27-611 


27-61 


27-7 
26-7 
25 3 
24-2 


2 

In 

In 

1 




J) 


20-3 


* 23 227 


23 23 


23-4 


2 


9t 


»> 


40 


21-287 




214 


2 




)> 


57 4 


* 21-147 


2115 




2 


" 




58-3 


* 18-678 






2 


3» 




72-8 


14-285 




145 


1 


J> 


) J 


98-8 


* 13 532 


13-53 


13-7 


2 


>» 


„ 


24303-2 


* 12-910 


1290 


12-95 


4 


>) 


99 


06-9 


09-796 




100 





»> 


)) 


25 3 


* 08-218 






2 


99 




34-6 


* 08-003 


08-00 


08-2 


4 


ft 




35-9 


06-065 




06-3 





99 


Jj 


47 4 


* 02-438 




02-6 


2 


*9 


J) 


68-9 


01-906 


01-91 


021 


4 


99 




72 1 


* 00-533 


00-53 


00-6 


2 


9> 




80-2 


* 4097 -965 


4097-97 


4098-00 


4 


99 


6-9 


95-6 


* 97-185 


97-97 


97-5 
95-3 


2 
In 


99 


» 


24400-1 


* 91-218 


91-22 


91-5 

88-7 


1 
1 


112 


>> 


35-7 


* 85-567 


85-57 


85-62 
83-9 


5 
1 


»> 


»» 


69 5 


82-947 




83-2 


2 






85-2 


* 80-777 


80-78 


80-76 


7 


f> 




98-3 


79-440 




79-6 

78-2 


1 
1 


9) 

91 




24506-3 


* 76-900 


76-90 


76-90 
74-4 


5 
1 


99 


>» 


21-5 


73-260 




73-4 


2 






43 4 


* 73-147 


73-15 




2 


99 




441 


* 71560 




718 


3 


)» 




53-7 


* 68-529 


68-53 


68-58 


4 






72-0 


* 67-777 


67 78 


68-0 


4 


99 


|| 


76-6 


* 64-616 


64-61 


64-9 


4 






95-7 


* 64-262 


64-26 


64-5 


2 






97-8 


* 63-160 


6316 


63 3 


2 


„ 


»» 


24604-5 


* Rowland and Tatnall : 


4150-470, 4148-539, 414 


6-939, 4145-905, 4144-324, 


4137-394, 4128-035, 4127-609, 


4123-227, 4121-153, 411 


8-666, 4113542. 4112-905, 


4108-224, 4108-001, 4102-443, 


4100-530, 4097-948, 40J 


)7-185, 4091-223, 4085-589, 


4080-757, 4076-886, 4073156, 


4071-561, 4068-529, 40( 


>7 771, 4064-615 4064-263. 


4063147. 















ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

Ruthenium — continued. 



77 







| 




Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


♦4063021 




4060-7 
58-2 


1 

In 

In 


11-2 

11 


6-9 


24605-3 


* 54-216 


4054-22 


54-1S 


4 


Ill 




58 -S 


* 52-356 


52-36 


52-6 


4 


11 




70-1 


* 51-566 


51-57 


51-56 


4 


11 




74-9 


* 49 570 


49-57 


49-8 
47-4 


2 
In 


ii 

ii 


7-0 


87-0 


* 




46-2 
43 5 


2 
2n 


n 
ii 






42123 






2 


j» 




24732-5 


40-620 




407 


o 


ii 




41-7 


* 39-379 


39-37 


39-6 


4 


n 




49-3 


37-892 




38-2 


2 


ii 




58-4 


36-612 




37 


2 


,.. 




66-2 


32-650 




32-8 


In 


• > 




90-5 


* 32-363 


32-36 


32-6 


4 


ii 




92-3 


* 31-147 


31-15 


314 
30-6 


3 
In 


ii 




99-8 


28-584 




28-8 


2 


I'- 




24815-8 


26-650 




27 


1 


ll 




27 5 


* 24-848 




251 


2 


ii 




38-3 


24-449 




24-7 


i 


ii 




411 


* 24-001 


24-00 


24-00 


4 


ii 




43-9 


22-837 




231 


2 


ii 




511 


* 22-327 


22-33 


22-30 


5 


ii 




54-2 


21146 


21 15 


21-4 


3 


ii 




610 


19-699 


19-70 


19-9 Ir 


2 


ii 




70-5 


18-891 




15S 


1 
In 


ii 

1-10 




75-5 


14297 


14-30 


14-6 


2 


?» 




24904-0 


13-871 


13-87 


141 


2 


j> 




06-6 


* 13 655 


1366 


138 


4 


., 




07-9 


11-882 


0991 


11-6 
103 


2 
1 


>* 




190 


* 08-422 


08-42 


08-6 


2 


9> 




415 


* 07-680 


07-68 


07-8 


3 


>> 




451 


* 06-749 


06-75 


07-0 


4 


>9 




509 


* 05 789 


05-79 


06-0 
04-7 


4 
In 






56-9 




03-15 


03-3 

018 

3998-2 


In 

1 

In 




7T 


732 


•3996-650 


3996-65 


96-6 


2 


)> 




25013-9 


96-136 


9614 


96-10 


4 


>> 




171 


94-700 






1 


»J 


" 


261 


89-344 






2 


>» 




59-7 


* 87-959 


87-96 


87-95 


4 


»» 




68-4 


* 85011 


85-01 


85 00 


5 


»• 




863 


84 840 






1 


9> 




88 


82-372 


8237 


82-1 


3 


J» 


"„ 


* 79-591 


! 79-59 


79-58 


2 


» 




211 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 4063-023, 4054-212, 
4045-949, 4039-365, 4032362, 4031 155, 4024847, 



4052-354, 
4023-986, 



4051-561, 
4022-315, 



4049-570, 
J013-652, 



4008-418, 4007-686, 4006-748, 4005-793, 3996-128, 3987 942, 3985-007, 3979-571. 



78 



REPORT — 1904. 





Ruthenium — 


continued. 








1 


Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


Y 1 1 1. LI 1 I J 1 1 


Oscillation 






Frequency 


Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 
4 


\ + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


*3978-620 


3978-62 


3978-61 


1-10 


7-1 


25127-3 


* 74-646 


74-65 


74-7 


5 


1-09 


>> 


52-3 


72-508 




700 


4 
1 




99 


65-5 


69-936 


69-94 









» 


85-8 




68-64 Ca 


68-6 Ca 


2 




99 




* 65-057 


65-06 


65 05 


2 




)• 


252132 




61-84 


623 






J> 


33-7 


* 57-596 


57-60 


57-7 


4 




J) 


60-8 


57-376 




57-5 


2 




99 


62-2 


* 52-850 


5285 


529 







99 


91-1 


52-436 






1 




7-2 


93-6 


* 51-351 


51-35 


51-4 


4 




99 


25300-7 


* 50-548 




50-5 


3 




99 


05-3 


* 50-366 


50-37 


50-4 


4 




1> 


06-9 


* 50-192 




50-3 


2 




9S 


08 


* 49-564 


49-56 


49-6 


2 




99 


121 


* 46-456 




46-5 


2 




>• 


320 


* 45-723 


45-72 


45-73 







99 


36-7 


* 44-341 


44-34 


44-4 
43-2 


2 
In 




99 

% 99 


45 6 


* 42-209 


42-21 


42-3 


4 




») 


59-3 


* 41-811 


41-81 


420 


3 




99 


61-8 


39-268 


39-27 









>» 


78-2 


* 38-045 


38-05 


38-2 


3 




»J 


861 


34-352 






1 




99 


25409-9 


* 


33-80 Ca 


33-80 Ca 


4 


1-08 


»» 






33 06 


331 


1 




J> 


18-3 


32-444 











)> 


22-2 


* 31-936 


31-94 


31-93 


4 




99 


27-6 


26-581 











99 


60-2 


* 26 071 


2607 


2605 


6 




99 


63-5 


* 24-776 


24-78 


24-9 


2 


,, 


9) 


72-0 


* 23-636 


23-64 


23-62 


6 




J» 


79-4 


22-476 




22-5 


1 




>) 


86-9 


21-061 

* 


2106 


211 


4 




J> 


97 1 


19-711 











)» 


25504-9 






16-7 


In 


>)• 


J> 




* 15-000 


15-00 


151 

14-5 


4 




99 
99 


35-6 


* 12-248 


12-25 


12-3 


3 




J) 


53 5 


11-279 




11-4 


3 




»> 


59-9 


* 09-229 


09-23 


09-22 


5 


"» 


99 


73 3 


* 08-907 


08-91 


09 
06-9 
06-7 


3 

In 

In 


" 


7-3 

» 
» 


75-3 


06-141 




06-3 
02-4 


1 

1 




>» 
>» 


93-4 


* 01393 


01-39 


01-5 
3898-9 Pt 


In 
4 




»> 
»• 


25624-6 



♦Rowland and Tatnall: 3978-600, 3974-650, 3965-055, 
3951-360, 3950-556, 3950-371, 3950-183, 3949-560, 3946-468, 
3942-215, 3!)41-819, 3938-060, 3933-700, 3931-920, 3026-062, 
3 120-060, 3iH4-990, 3912-252, 3909-222. 3908-906, 3901-391. 



3957-600, 3952-844, 
3945 730, 3944-339, 
3924-774, 3923-615, 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



79 





Ruthenium— 


■continual. 










Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 


V ttj^lllllll 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


and 






Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character ^ + 


1 _ 
A 


in Vacuo 


*3898 500 


3898-50 


3898-6 


In 1-08 


7-3 


25643-5 


* 97 390 


97-39 


97-5 
96-0 
951 


3 
2 

lu 


1-07 




50-9 


94-387 


94-39 


94-5 


In 






706 


* 92-916 


92-92 


93 


2 






80-4 


* 92-366 


92-37 


92-35 


2 






83-9 


* 91-567 


9157 


91-6 


4 






89-3 


* 90-350 


90-35 


90-4 
89-6 


2 

4 






97 3 


* 87-962 


87-96 


88-0 
87-6 
86-5 


1 
2 
1 






257131 


* 84-849 


84-85 


84-9 


1 






33-7 


* 84-203 


84-20 


84-3 
82-3 


2 
2 






37-9 




80-95 


81-0 
80-2 


1 
In 






59-6 




79-15 


79-2 


2 






71-1 


* 


76-23 


76-2 


1 






90-0 


* 


73-65 


73-6 


1 






25808-1 


72-386 




714 

71-0 
70-8 


1 
1 
1 

1 






16-2 


* 67-965 


67-97 


67-95 


3 






46-2 


* 


65-55 


65-6 
63-8 


2 
In 






62-2 


* 


62-82 


62-80 
62-0 
00-8 
60-0 Fe 
59-8 


6 
1 
2 
1 
1 


» 
» 




80-5 






58-8 


1 






* 57-689 


57-69 


57 65 

57-2 
56-6 
54-9 
53-4 


5 
1 
2 
1 
In 


1-06 




25915-0 


* 


52-26 


52-3 
51-3 


2 
1 






51-4 


* 


50-56 


50-50 

49-6 

49-1 

48-2 

46-7 

43-2 

42-8 

42-6 

411 


4 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 






62-9 






40-9 


2 






* 39-815 


39-82 


39-82 


4 


J* »» 


26035-6 






38-8 


2 


„ 


» 





* Rowland and Tatnall : 3898-498, 3S97"383, 3^92915, 3892-364, 3S91564, 
3- J 90-347, 3887-960, 3884-849, 3884-207. 3876-229, 3873-660, 3^67-962, 3865-547, 
3862-819, 3*57-680, 3852-260, 3850561, 3839-832. 



so 



REPORT — 1904. 



Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 






Are Spectrum 


Aueney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


*3838-215 


3838-22 


3838-2 
36-8 
361 




1-06 

99 


7-3 


26046-5 


* 


3519 


35-2 
32-3 Pd 








67-0 


* 31-946 


31-95 


31-82 
31 
30-4 
29-5 


4 






891 


* 28-859 


28-86 


28-8 


™ 


99 




26110-1 


* 




28-0 Fe 

27-5 

26-3 




99 
99 

»» 






* 25-075 


25-08 


25-05 
24-5 Fe 








35-9 


* 22-225 


22-23 
20-50 


22-19 
20-5 Fe 




99 

99 




55-3 




2000 


19-8 




99 




70-7 


* 19-184 


19-18 


19-2 
18-5 Rh 
181 




99 
99 




76 3 


* 17-439 


17-44 


17-43 
16-9 




105 


7-4 


87-9 




16-4 


16-3 




99 




95-4 




15-90 


160 Fe 




99 




98-7 


* 


150 


150 
141 




99 




26204-9 




13-20 


13-2 




*> 




17-3 


* 12-874 


12-87 


12-83 

120 

11-3 








27-3 


* 


08-82 


08-7 
06-7 


2 
1 


»» 
)> 




47-4 


* 


05-57 
04-70 
04-20 


05-5 


2 


>> 
99 
99 




69-9 


* 


03-40 , 


03-4 
01-4 


2 

1 


99 




85-3 


* 


00-39 


00-38 Ir 


4 


99 






*3799-486 


3799-49 


3799-42 


4r 


5» 




26311-9 


* 99-040 


99-04 


99-05 


4 


J> 




150 


* 98-205 


98-21 


98-18 


1 


>> 




20-8 


* 95-327 


95-33 


95-3 





99 


,, 


40-7 


* 


95 00 


95 
93-3 Rh 


2 
1 






431 


* 90-649 


90-65 


90-62 
89-8 
88-8 
88-0 Fe 


5 
1 

! 


99 
"9 




73-3 


* 86-193 


86-19 


86-27 


5 


99 


,', 


26404-4 




84-30 


84-4 


1 


99 




173 




83-5 


1 


„ ! 


,', 




* Rowland and Tatnall : 


3838-201, 38 


35191, 383 


1-934, 


3828-8' 


t9, 3828-319, 


3825-074, 3822-233, 3819173, 


3817-424, 3« 


14-976, 381 


2-869, 


3S08-81 


$4, 3805-570, 


3803-326, 3800-393, 3799489, 


3799 042, 37 


98-189, 37E 


5-316, 


3795-Of 


>2, 3790-655, 


3786194. 















ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



81 



Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

VflPllllTTI 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


V i.' l 1.1 l i. J 1 L 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + 


1 _ 

A 


in Vacuo 


3782-891 


3782-89 


3782-8 





1-05 


7'4 


26434-3 


81-313 


81-31 


81-25 


3 




99 


38-4 




80-20 


801 


1 






40-2 


* 


78-90 


78-9 


2 






55-3 




78-00 


78-0 


2n 






61-6 


* 77-723 


77-72 


77-78 
74-6 


3 
1 


104 




63-6 


* 73-306 


73-31 


73-4 





99 




94-5 


71244 




71-3 

700 
69-3 




In 

1 


99 
99 
99 


7-5 


26509-0 


* 67-500 


67 50 


67-50 


4 


99 




35-3 


65-938 




660 









46-3 


* 64-179 


64-18 


64-3 


1 


99 




58-7 




6400 


64 Fe 


1 


99 


,, 








62-7 


1 


99 






* 61-644 


61-64 


61-70 


4 


99 




76-6 


* 60-178 


60-18 


6015 


4 






87-5 


* 59-976 


59-98 


6000 


2 






89-4 




58-50 


58-5 


1 


99 




98-9 




57-80 


57-8 


1 


99 


»» 


26603 -S 




57-40 


57-4 


In 


99 




06-6 


* 56083 


5608 


56-07 


4 






16-0 


* 55-865 






2 


n 




18-6 


* 55-241 


55-24 


55-2 


3 


99 




21-9 


* 53-695 


53-70 


53-70 


4 


99 


,, 


32-9 




53 00 


53 


1 


99 




37-8 




52-70 






99 








5200 


52-0 


1 


99 




45 




50-60 


50-6 


1 


99 




54-9 




49-60 














48-40 






9) 








48-15 






99 








4715 


471 


1 


99 




79-4 


46-372 


4600 


46-4 


o 


99 


»» 


850 




45-75 


45-72 


6 


99 




89-4 


44-550 


44-55 


44-55 


2 


99 




97-9 


* 44-367 


44-37 


44-35 


2 


99 




99-2 




43-45 


43-5 


1 


99 


,, 


26703-8 


* 42-938 


42-94 


42-95 


4 






09-5 


* 42-435 


42-44 


42-45 
40-5 


5 
1 


99 


s» 


130 


* 39-622 


39-62 


39-60 


4 






33-2 


* 39 058 


39 06 


39-1 


2 






37 2 


* 38-774 


38-77 


38-8 Pd 


2 






39-2 


* 37 904 


37 90 




2 


l'-03 




516 


* 37-548 


37 55 


37-5 


3 


99 




48 




3500 Fe 


35-0 


2 


99 




66-3 




34-70 


34-6 


2 


99 




68-4 




33-90 


340 


In 


99 




741 


* 33187 




33-3 


2 


99 


»» 


79-2 1 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3778-853, 3777729, 3773314, 3767495, 3764T73, 
3761-655, 3760-163, 3759979, 3756075. 3755868, 3755234, 3753684, 3744363, 
3742-933, 3742422, 3739610, 3739057, 3738773, 3737902, 3737 540, 3733-188. 

1904. G 



82 



REPORT — 1904. 
Ruthenium— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 




Intensity 




Oscillation 


(Kayser) 






and 






Frequency 


Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


*3732170 


373217 




2 


103 


7-5 


26786-5 


* 31-045 




37310 


2 






94-6 


* 30-745 




30-65 


3 






26803-6 


* 30-587 


30-59 




7 




7-6 


04-6 


* 28-170 


28 17 
27 33 


2815 


5 






15-3 


* 27-077 


27-08 


27-15 


4 






231 


* 26-254 


26-25 
25-59 


2610 
25-6 Ir 


4 

1 






29 


* 25115 


2512 


251 


4 






37 2 


24-663 






2 


» 




405 


24-110 


2411 


24-2 


4 






44-5 




22-80 


22-9 


1 






53-9 


22-458 




22-3 


1 






56-4 


* 19-474 


19-47 


19-52 


4 






75-9 




18-60 


18-5 


1 






84-2 


* 17-823 


17 82 


17-8 


2 






89-9 


* 17-152 


1715 


1713 


4 






94-6 


16583 






1 






26901-6 


* 16-323 


16-32 


16-4 


3 






00-7 


* 15-703 


15-70 


15-7 


3 






07-2 


14-788 




15-0 
13-6 


1 

1 






11-6 


* 12-443 


12-44 


12-5 
11-2 

10-5 


3 

1 
1 






28-8 




09 35 


09-4 


1 






51-2 




08-15 


08-2 


1 


n 




53-0 




07-05 












* 05-506 


05-51 


05-5 


2 






792 


* 03-344 


03-34 


03 4 
031 


2 
1 






95 


* 02-369 


02-37 


02-5 
02 


2 
In 






27002-1 


* 01-457 




01-4 


2 






08-8 


01-134 


0113 


01-2 


2 






111 


00-487 




00-5 


1 






15-8 


3698016 




3698-0 


2 


1-02 




33-9 


* 97-921 


3697-92 




3 


,, 




34-6 


* 96-738 


96-74 


96-7 
96 


t 


" 




43-3 




94-30 


941 


1 






611 


* 93-740 


93-74 
92-90 
92-60 


937 

92-5 Rh 


2 

1 






65-2 




9110 


911 


1 






84-5 


90179 


90-18 


90-19 Pd 
87-5 


1 
1 






91-3 


86-742 


86-74 


86-6 


1 






27116-6 


* 86-109 


86-11 


86-1 


4 






206 


85-204 


85-20 




2 


„ 




27-9 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3732170, 3731048, 3730737, 3730577, 3728-173, 

3727-073, 3726-239, 3725-117, 3719468, 3717822, 3717-146, 3716314, 3715-705, 

3712-444, 3705-496, 3703343, 3702-369, 3701456, 3697-906, 3696725, 3693-734, 
3686086. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS 83 

Ruth enium — conti n wed. 









Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 




Litensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 






Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3683 730 




3683 5 


1 


1-02 


7-7 


27138-7 






82 5 


In 


n 


»> 








81-8 


In 


99 


>» 




* 78-465 


3678-47 


78-4 


4 


)> 


j> 


77-5 


78-222 


78-22 


78-2 


2 


99 


>» 


78-6 


78 140 






2 


J> 


»> 


80-0 


* 77-100 


77-10 


771 


2 


)> 


)> 


86-6 


* 76817 


76-82 


76-7 


3 


)» 


»> 


89-9 






76-4 


1 


J> 


»» 






75-60 


75-7 


1 


)» 


»> 


98-7 


* 75-408 


75-41 


75-4 


3 


» 


»» 


27200-2 


* 72-525 




72-5 


2 


99 


99 


21-6 


72-210 




72-3 


2 


»J 


99 


231 


* 71-363 




713 


2 


JJ 


99 


301 


* 69-694 


69-69 


69-79 


4 


JJ 


»> 


42-5 


68-890 




68-9 


1 


99 


JJ 


55-8 






67-1 


1 


99 


99 








65 4 


In 


J» 


99 








641 


1 


99 


99 




* 63-526 


63 53 


63-53 


5 


)J 


JJ 


88-4 


* 61-727 






2 


99 


J) 


27301-8 


* 61-486 


61-49 


61-57 


7 


»> 


99 


03-6 


* 60-964 


60-96 


61-0 


3 


99 


>> 


07 5 




60 25 


60-2 


2 


99 


» 


12-8 




59-55 






99 


>J 








59 


1 


>» 


J> 




57-716 


57-72 


57-82 


1 


101 


)J 


32-9 


57315 


57-32 


57-4 


2 


?J 


)> 


34-8 




56-50 


56-7 


1 


J> 


j; 


40-9 


56112 






2 


») 


»» 


43-8 


* 54-559 


54-56 


54-55 


4 


S» 


)j 


55-6 


53-857 


53-86 


53-9 


2 


99 


99 


60-6 




53 00 


53 


1 


M 


9? 


07 1 


52-816 









JJ 


J> 


68-4 


52-627 









99 


»» 


69-9 


* 52-465 


52-47 


52-5 


3 


99 


>> 


71-1 


* 50-473 


50-47 


50-48 


4 


99 


>9 


87-0 






500 


1 


)> 


JJ 






49-75 






99 


>> 






48-85 






99 


>> 








48 Fe 


1 


99 


>> 








47 5 


1 


99 


'„ 




* 46-266 


4627 


46-3 


3 


» 


») 


27417-6 


45-827 






1 


>> 


>» 


20-9 






41-3 


1 




>» 




* 40-791 


40-79 


40-7 


4 


9> 


»> 


51-3 


* 38163 


38-16 


38-2 


2 


99 


7-8 


78-0 


* 37 614 


3761 


37-62 


4 


99 


»» 


82-7 






37 


1 


IJ 


.» 




* 35-661 


35-66 


35-6 


4 


JJ 


»» 


97 5 


* 35093 


35 09 


35-10 


7 


99 


» 


27501-8 


* 34063 


3406 


341 


4 


« 


« 


09-6 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3678-456, 3677-098, 3676-808, 3675-400, 3672-521, 
3671-355, 3669-688, 3603-520, 3661 721, 3661-525, 3660961, 3654 549. 3652460, 
3650-465, 3646-202, 3640-786, 3638161, 3637012. 3635658, 3635084, 3634064. 

Q 2 



34 




REPORT 


1904. 












Ruthenium— 


continued. 










Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3632-545 


3632-55 


3032-0 


1 


1-01 


7*8 


27521-1 


* 31-8G0 


31-86 


31-9 


3 




„ 


26-3 




31-65Fe 


31-7 Fe 












29-352 


28-50 


28-8 Ir 
28-1 


1 








44-8 


* 27-425 


27 43 


27-5 


o 








600 


* 20-807 


20-90 


26-88 


5 


„ 






710 


* 25-345 


25 35 


25-30 


5 








75-8 


23-995 















80-1 


23-804 


23-80 


23 S 


4 








87-5 


* 20-420 


20-43 


20-4 


4 








27013-2 


* 19-334 


19-33 
18-90Fe 


19-4 
18-8 Fe 


4 








21-0 


* 17-090 


17 09 
15 05 


17 2 
15-4 


4 


1-00 






38-7 


14-486 


12-30 


14-5 
13-3 
12-6 

11-6 
108 
09-6 Pd 


1 

1 
1 








58-0 


*3009-241 






2 








98-8 


* 08-862 


08-86 


08-9 
06-0 


2 
1 








27701-8 


06-297 




06-3 


1 








21-4 


* 05-792 


05-79 


05-8 Ir 

03-3 

02-6 


3 

1 
1 






» 


25-4 


* 01-627 


01-63 


01-7 
00-8 


2 

1 






99 
99 


57 4 


*3599-913 


3599-91 


3599-95 


4 






99 


70-7 


99-548 




990 
97-5 




1 
1 


»» 




93 


73-4 


* 96-315 


96-32 


96-28 


5r 


?J 




99 


98-4 






95-8 


1 


>» 




99 




* 93-177 


9318 


9317 


4r 


>9 


7 


•9 


27822-6 




91-58 


91-7 


1 


)J 




9) 


35-0 


91044 


9104 


91-0 


1 


,, 




>> 


39-1 






90-7 


1 


9» 




»» 




* 89-370 


89-37 


89-37 


4 


J» 




99 


521 


87-344 


87-34 


87 34 

85-5 

85-3 


2 
1 

1 


99 
99 






67 9 




85-17 


85-0 


1 


99 




» 


84-S 


* 


84-21 
81-31 Fe 


84-3 
81-4 Fe 


2 
1 


99 

99 






92-3 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3031-859, 3627-433, 3626-886, 3625 339, 3620-434, 
3619-348, 3017-100, 3009247, 3008-878, 3605-785, 3601630, 3599914, 3596342, 
3593-178, 3589-360, 3584-349. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TARLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 85 

Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vaci 1,1rrl 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 








I Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


'3579-923 


357992 


35798 





1-00 


7-9 


27925-7 




78-90 


78-7 


1 


,. 


?> 


337 




77-55 


77-6 


1 


0-99 


99 


44-2 




77-10 


77-1 


2 


)J 


99 


47-7 




7617 






»> 


»» 








751 


1 


»• 


9) 




* 74-741 


74-74 
7400 


74-7 


3 


99 


99 


661 






738 Ir 


1 


J» 


» 








733 


1 


J» 


»J 






7213 


721 


1 


»! 


») 


866 


* 




719 


1 


99 


99 




* 70-743 


7074 


70-74 


1 


i> 


99 


976 






68-6 


1 


99 


»> 




* G7-30S 


67-31 


67 3 


2 


99 


>> 


28024-4 




66-59 


66-6 


2 


>> 


J> 


300 






65-5 Fe 


1 


JJ 


S» 




* 64-945 


64-95 


650 





99 


»J 


430 


* 64-714 


64-71 


64-7 


1 


)5 


JJ 


44-8 


* 64-517 


64-52 


64-6 





)> 


J> 


464 






637 


1 


JJ 


»> 








63-3 


1 


99 


99 






62-75 


62-7 


1 


») 


»> 


60-3 


* 62-035 


6204 


62-1 





JJ 


J> 


65-9 




61-83 


61-7 


1 


)» 


>» 


67 6 






61-2 


1 


>> 


>J 






6085 


60-8 Os 


2 


)» 


99 


75-4 




6000 


60-0 


1 


>J 


» 


82-0 






59-8 


1 


»> 


J) 




* 57-203 


57-20 


57 2 





J) 


>» 


28104T 






57 


1 


J) 


>J 




* 56-779 


56-78 


56-8 





)J 


99 


07-4 


* 54-002 


5400 


539 


1 


99 


>> 


29-4 




5073 


50-7 


1 


>> 


80 


55-2 


* 50420 


50-42 


504 


2 


99 


>» 


58-4 




4990 


49-8 


1 


JS 


»> 


61-8 




48-70 


48-6 


1 


79 


)» 


713 


* 47-136 


47 14 


47 1 


1 


» 


>> 


83-7 






45-9 


2b 


>> 


)» 








42-7 


1 


»» 


>» 




* 41-788 


41-79 


41-7 


3 


J* 


>> 


282263 






411 


1 


J) 


»? 








409 


1 


)> 


5> 








403 


1 


99 


SJ 




* 39-518 






2 


•9 


» 


44-8 


* 39418 


39-42 


3940 


2 


99 


>J 


452 


* 38100 


3810 


38 03 


3 


97 


s> 


55-8 




36-78 


36-7 


2 


098 


»J 


66-3 


* 35-985 


35-99 


360 


2 


>> 


>> 


72-7 


* 35-529 


35-53 


35-5 


2 


99 


>> 


763 


* 32-965 


32-97 


32-95 


2 


9* 


>J 


96-8 


* 31-545 


31-55 


31-5 


3 


99 


11 


28308-2 




29-26 


294 


2 


)) 


11 


26-5 



* Rowland and Tatnall: 3579-924, 3574-748, 3571-913, 3570748,356 
3564-719, 3564-509, 3562043, 3557207, 3556-773, 3553-998, 3550 
3541 777, 3539521, 3539415, 3538T00, 3535-988, 3535537, 3532962, 



7-309.3564-949, 
419, 3547 131, 
3531-543. 



86 



REPORT— 1904. 



Rut h Entixm—contl/t tied. 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 






Intensity 
and 


t Oscillation 


' (Kayser) 








i c requency 


Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Easchek 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


*3528-841 


3528-84 
28-05 


3528-7 


2 


0-98 


8-0 


28328-9 




27-39 


273 

26-6 
26-4 
25-7 


1 
1 
1 
lu 






41-6-. 




24-62 


24-6 


2 






63 8 




2416 


240 
22-4 
22-2 


2 

1 
1 






67-5 


* 20-285 


20-29 


2022 


4 






98-9 


* 19-795 


19-80 


19-80 


3 






28402-7 




1910 


191 


1 






08-4 




1800 












16-040 


1605 


160 
15-2 



lu 






330 


14-911 






1 






42-2 


* 14-649 


14-65 


14-60 


4 






44-3 


* 13-807 


13-81 


130 
11-5 

10-5 


2 
1 
1 
lu 






512 


09-870 






2 




8T 


830 




09 35 


09-30 
07-3 
06-9 
05-9 


4 
In 
In 
In 






87-2 




04-65 














03 60 












02-578 


02-58 


02-5 


2 






28542-3 


01-510 






1 






53-1 


*3499-098 


3499T0 


3499-05 


lOr 






70-7 


* 98 103 


9810 


98-0 


1 


0-97 




79-6 


* 96-293 






2 






93-6 


* 96-145 


96-15 


961 


2 






94-8 


* 94-410 




94-2 


3 






28609-0 


93377 


93-38 


93-2 


2 






17-5 


92-256 


92-26 


92-0 


1 






26-7 


90-879 


90-88 


90-8 


1 






46-8 




90-30 


90-3 


1 






42-7 


89-895 




88-2 


1 

In 






53-7 




87-87 


87-7 


1 






62-7 


86-948 






2 






70-3 


86-360 




85-6 


2 
In 






74-0 




83-65 


83-7 


1 




>> 


97-4 


* 83-463 


83-46 




2 




yt 


98-9 


* 83-317 


83-32 


83-3 


2 






28700-1 


82-499 


81-66 


82-5 
82-0 


2 
1 




>9 


06-8 


* 81-465 


81-47 


81-42 


4 




i» 


15-4 



♦Rowland and Tatnall : 3528-832, 3520-286, 3519-785, 3514-631, 3513799, 
3499095, 3498-086, 3196-272, 3496-131, 3494-404, 3483-438, 3483-317, 3481-449. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 87 

Ruthenium - continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


1 UlilHIUL 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3481-044 









0-97 


8-1 


28718-8 


80-295 


3480-30 


3480-2 


2 


>» 


it 


25-0 




7945 


79-5 


2 


»» 


tt 


320 






77-6 


In 


99 


it 




77 350 




77-2 





tt 


tt 


55-0 




75-00 


750 


1 


tt 


it 


68-9 


* 73 900 


73-90 


73-90 


5 


if 


tt 


78-0 




73-45 


73 4 


1 


)J 


a 


81-7 


72-843 


72-84 


72-7 


2 


ti 


tt 


86-8 




72-39 


72-4 


2 


tt 


tt 


90-5 




70-201 
69-80J 


700 
69-5 


1 

1 




a 








68-1 


In 


»» 


»» 




* 67-190 


67-19 


67 3 


2 


it 


8-2 


28833 6 


65-437 


65-44 


65-5 


1 




it 


48 1 


63751 











a 


62-2 


* 63-289 


63 29 


632 


4 




tt 


64-0 


* 62-208 


62-21 

61-55 


621 


2 




tt 


66-1 


59-736 




59-6 


2 




*t 


95-7 






58-3 


lb 


0-96 


a 




57-849 


57-05 


57-3 



1 




it 

it 


28911-5 


* 56-769 


5677 


56-7 


4 


• 


tt 


20-5 


55-888 






2 




a 


27-9 


55-548 




55-6 


2 




tt 


30-8 


53373 











i> 


49 


53-056 


53 06 


53 
521 


4 

1 




tt 


51-7 


51014 











»> 


68-8 


49-608 











tt 


806 


* 49-105 


4911 


491 


4 




a 


84-9 




46 96 


46-8 


In 




)» 




46-630 






2 




JS 


29005-6 


46-227 




46-3 


2 




a 


09-0 


46-095 


4610 









»> 


101 


45-675 











t* 


13-7 


45-453 




45-3 


1 

1 




ft 
it 


164 


44-574 






1 




it 


23 


43818 











a 


29-3 


43-309 











tt 


33-6 


41-942 











j> 


45-3 


* 40-361 


40 36 


40-4 


4 




3) 


58-5 


39-835 






2 




» 


630 


38-819 











>j 


715 


* 38-522 


38-52 


38-5 


4 




tt 


741 


* 36-886 


36-89 




5r 




ii 


87-9 


* 36-481 






2 




»» 


913 


36-237 











j> 


93-4 


* 35-340 


35-34 
34-93 


35-3 


4 




>> 
>> 


291010 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3473892, 3467-192, 3463286, 3462T86, 3456763, 
3449-107, 3440-351, 3438 510, S436883, 3436 475, 3435-327, 



88 



REPORT — 1904. 
Ruthenium— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3434-325 


3434-33 







0-96 


8-2 


29109-6 


* 33 406 


33-41 


3433-45 


4 






174 


* 32-909 


32-91 


32-9 


4 






21-5 


32-560 




32-5 









24-6 


* 32-354 


32-35 




3 






26-2 


31905 













37 3 


* 30910 


30-91 


3105 


4 






38-5 


30-568 




30-6 









41-4 


* 29-702 


29-70 


29-6 


4 






48-8 


* 28-790 


28-79 


28-60 


2 






56-5 


* 28-476 






4r 






59-2 


27-717 


27 72 











65-6 


* 26120 


26-09 


26-2 


2 






79-2 




24-39 


( 24-5 
I 24-3 


1 

1 






941 


22-578 






2 






29209-4 


20-881 













23-9 


* 20-243 


20-24 


20-2 
200 


4 
In 






29 3 


* 19-394 


19-39 




2 


" 




36-6 


* 18125 


1813 


18-1 


2 






47 5 


17-790 






1 


0-95 




50-4 


* 17-493 


17 49 


17 45 


7 






52-9 




16-90 


16-7 


1 






58-0 


* 16-329 


16-33 


16-4 
156 


1 
1 






62-9 


* 14-787 


14-79 


14-7 
14-5 


3 
1 






761 


14-422 






2 




8-3 


79 2 


14-130 













80-7 


13-870 













75-4 


* 12-947 


12-95 


12-8 


3 






91-9 


12-221 






2 






98-1 


* 11-768 


11-77 


11-6 


4 




■ • 


293020 




10-84 


10-7 


2 






100 




1010 












09-707 






2 






19-7 


* 09-420 


09-42 


09-42 
09-2 


5 
2 






22-2 


07 042 













42-7 


* 06-736 






2 






45-3 


* 06017 






2 






51-5 


05-426 













56-6 


03-924 




03-7 
02-7 
02 00 


1 
1 

4 


" 




754 


* 01-878 


01-88 




3 






87-2 


* 01-637 


01-64 




2 






89-3 


01-304 




01-4 









921 


00-890 






2 






95-8 


00-738 






1 






97-1 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3433 397, 3432896. 3432-348, 3430908, 3429689, 
3428-769, 3428460, 3426089, 3420-236, 3419389, 3418117, 3417466, 3416320, 
3414-782, 3412-939, 3411-780, 3409424, 3106731, 3406025, 3401 -876, 3401 -646. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



89 



Ruthenium— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

Vn.pnnm 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


V UtUUUUl 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + 

0-95 


1 _ 

A. 


in Vacuo 


3400-116 









8-3 


29402-5 






3399-4 


1 










339915 












3399 040 


9904 


98-9 



2 


J J 




11-8 


98-470 













16-7 


96-967 






4 




8-4 


32-2 


96-060 













37 5 


95-465 




95-3 
940 



In 






42-6 


* 92 654 


92-65 


92-68 


4 






67 


* 92032 


9203 


920 


2 






72-4 


91-042 






2 






810 


* 89-639 


89-64 


89-6 


4 






93-3 


89-250 


89-25 


89-3 









96-6 


* 88-849 


88-85 


88-8 


4 






29500-1 


87-967 


87-97 


88-0 









07-8 


* 87-368 




87 3 


2 






13 


86-390 




86-3 


2 






21-5 


* 85-838 






2 






26-4 


* 85-609 


85-61 


85-7 


2 






28-4 


* 85-303 


85-30 


85-2 


4 






310 


83 053 




823 
81-6 




1 
1 






406 


81-040 




81-0 


2 






68-3 


* 80-301 


80-30 


80-3 


4 






74-7 


* 79-747 


79-75 


79-6 


4 






79-6 


79 402 




79-4 


2 






82-6 


* 78-165 


78-17 


78-2 


4 






93 4 


76-186 






1 


0'-94 




29610-8 


75-377 






2 






179 


75036 






2 






209 


* 74-790 


74-79 


74-7 


4 






23-1 


74-115 


74-12 




2 






29 




73-45 


73-5 
73 3 Pd 


1 
1 






34-8 


72-922 


72-92 











39 5 


* 71-990 


71-99 




4 






47-7 


71-793 




71-8 









49-4 


70-720 


70-72 




2 






58-9 




70-19 


7010 


4 






63-5 


69-813 




69-7 


2 






66-4 


69-433 


69-43 


69-40 


2 






70-2 


* 68-588 


68-59 


68-58 


6 






776 


68-053 













82-3 


67-868 













84 


65-470 













297051 


65163 













07-8 


64-933 




64-8 


1 






09-9 


* 64-230 


64-23 


641 


4 








* 62-457 


62-46 


62-3 


2 


„ 




160 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3392672, 3392032, 3389644, 3388846, 3387-369, 
3385-836, 3385608, 3385207, 3380308, 3379744, 3378170, 3374-790, 3371992, 



3368-604, 3368-524, 3364243, 3362473. 



90 



REPORT — 1904. 
Ruthenium — continued. 



Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 



*3362142 
61-295 



59 230 
58110 
56-598 
56-327 
55-803 
54-001 
53-776 
53-444 
53 122 
52-060 
50-681 
50-363 
50-236 
49-822 
48-833 
48-145 
47-748 
46-360 
45-450 
44-934 
44-666 



42-999 
42-854 
41-809 
41-361 
41-230 
39-932 
39-691 
39092 
38-849 

37-963 
36-774 
36-296 
35-822 
34-764 
32-768 
32-483 
32-186 

28-583 
27-831 
25-373 
25136 
24-509 
24-077 
23-226 
22-368 



Spark Spectrum 



Adenev 



3361-30 
60-20 
59-23 



53-44 

50-36 

49-82 

48-15 
47-75 

45-45 

44-67 
43-32 

42-85 
41-81 



39 93 
39 69 



37-96 



35-82 



25-37 
2514 
24-51 



Exner and 
Haschek 



33621 
612 
60-0 
59-30 



56-3 
55-7 

536 
53-3 

52-0 

50-30 



48-0 
47-6 

453 



43 2 

42-7 
41-7 
41-3 

398 
39-72 



38-3 
37-8 
36-6 

35-7 

32-7 

321 
31-2 

27 6 
25-4 
250 
24-6 



22-2 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



4 

2 

1 

6 



2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

2 

1 

4 

2 



2 



2 

2 

4 



4 

2 

4 

2 





4 

1 

2 

2 

6 



2 

In 

4 

3 

2 

4 



2 



4 

1 

2 

4 

o 

4 

2 
4 
4 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A. + 



0-94 



1 

\ 



93 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



29731-7 
34-5 
42-0 
59-2 
70-2 
83-8 
86-1 
907 

29806-6 
08-3 
11-6 
14-5 
23-9 
36-3 
39 -1 
40-2 
43-8 
52-6 
58-8 
62-4 
73-9 
83-7 
87 5 
89-8 
92-9 

29904-8 
06-4 
154 
19-3 
20-4 
37 6 
34-4 
39-7 
41-9 

49-9 
60-6 
64-8 
691 
78-6 
966 
99-2 
30001-8 

343 
411 
53-3 
65 3 
71-3 
74-9 
82-6 
90-4 



* Rowland and Tatnall: 3362-151, 3359-239, 3353-790, 3352075, 3348 847, 
3348153, 3347-757, 3345457, 3344-679, 3341-811, 3341365, 3341230, 3339690, 
3335-836, 3332-781, 3332T90, 3327-843, 3325-136, 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 91 

Ruthenium — continued. 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


3321-634 









0-93 


8-0 


30097-1 


21-385 




3321-2 


2 




9f 


99-3 


19-944 






1 




J» 


30112-4 


19-655 






1 




>S 


150 


* 18-992 


3318-99 


18-8 


6 




99 


21-0 


* 18012 


18-01 


17-9 


4 




99 


29-9 




17-66 


175d 


2 




JJ 


331 


17 045 


17 05 


17 


1 




J> 


38-7 


* 16-523 


16-52 


16«55 


6 




J» 


43-4 


* 15-590 






2 




J» 


51-9 


* 15-365 


15-37 


15-30 


3 




99 


540 


15-181 






2 




99 


55-6 


14-203 






2 




" 


64-5 




12-99 


12-7 


1 




39 


75-6 


12-348 






1 




99 


81-4 


12-068 











J» 


84-0 


11-388 











99 


90-2 


* 11-090 


1109 


110 


4 




») 


92-9 


10-220 




10-2 







99 


30200-9 


09-965 


09-97 









» 


06-1 




09-38 


09-2 


1 




»> 


08-5 




09 00 








99 




08-751 




08-8 







J> 


14-3 


08-122 


08-12 


08 1 


4 




99 


200 


07 679 




07-7 


2 




JJ 


241 




06-81 


06-6 


1 




:> 


321 


* 06-305 


06-31 


06-2 


4 




99 


36-5 


05-804 











»> 


41-1 




0515 


051 


2 




99 


47-2 


* 04-948 




04-9 


2 




99 


491 


04-772 











J> 


50-7 


04-634 






2 




99 


51-9 


04-418 











SJ 


53-9 


* 04-141 


0414 


040 


4 




5? 


56-5 


02-312 






1 




» 


73-2 




01-94 


01-9 Pt 


1 




99 


76-6 


01-726 


01-73 


01-6 


5 




»> 


78-6 




01-35 


01-1 


2 




»J 


81-9 


3299-926 




000 







»J 


951 


* 99-479 


3299-48 


3299-3 


2 


: 92 


»J 


99-2 


* 98-559 


98-56 


98-4 


4 




J) 


30307-7 


* 98-096 


98-10 


98 


3 




JS 


11-9 


* 97-393 


9739 


97-2 


3 


„ 


»J 


19-4 


* 96-786 


96-79 


96-6 


2 




JJ 


24-0 


* 96-252 


96-25 


961 


4 




99 


28-9 


94-926 











J> 


411 


* 94-269 


94-27 


94-38 


6 




»> 


47-1 


92-390 




92-1 


2 




J» 


64-4 


91-789 




91-8 
91-5 


2 
In 






70-2 


91-250 






2 




>» 


750 






91-0 


1 


• 


.. 





* Rowland and Tatnall : 3318-965, 3318-025, 3316-524, 3315-579, 3315-363, 
3311-096, 3306-310, 3304-951, 3304-126, 3299-466, .298-549, 3298-089, 3297-389, 



3296-780, 3296-248, 3294-233. 



92 



retort — 1904. 





Ruthenium— 


continued. 










Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacu llrn 




Wave-length 






Intensity 






Oscillation 


(Kayaer) 






and 






Frequency 


Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


3289-389 




3289-3 


2n 


0-92 


8-6 


30302-2 




3286-55 


86-8 


1 


» 


8-7 


304183 


86040 






1 


3» 


99 


23-0 


85-505 




85-7 


2 


>» 


»» 


28-0 


* 85-067 






4 


>» 


99 


321 




8446 


84-5 


1 


» 


)» 


37-7 






84-3 


2 


»» 


>) 




82-744 




82-5 





>» 


>» 


53 


81-995 






2 


tt 


tt 


60-6 


81-735 


81-74 


81-5 





J» 


99 


63 




81-26 


81-2 


1 


»» 


>> 


07-3 


80-678 






1 


99 


»» 


720 


80-599 




80-5 


2 


n 


>> 


735 


79521 






2 


»» 


tt 


83*5 


* 77-699 


77-70 


77-6 


4 


»> 


tt 


30500-5 


76-820 




76-6 





>> 


tt 


08-7 




75-87 


75-7 


1 


»> 


99 


17*5 


* 74-831 


74-83 


74-7 


5 


j> 


99 


27*2 


73-765 


73 77 


73-6 





)» 


»» 


37 1 


* 73-217 


7322 


731 


5 


5» 


>J 


42-3 


72-366 









»» 


J> 


50 2 






72-0 


lu 


99 


»» 




71-746 









»» 


>» 


560 






71-2 


In 


•J 


99 




70-388 


69-80 


70-2 


2 


99 




68-7 


69-336 






2 


» 


»» 


78-5 


69 087 


6905 


68-93 


2 


J> 


)» 


80-9 


* 68-345 


68-35 


68-3 


5 


»> 


99 


87'8 


67-269 


67 07 


67 2 0s 









97-9 


66-588 


66-59 


66-4 


4 


>» 


)» 


30604-3 






661 


1 


»> 


>> 




* 64-808 


64-81 


64-90 


2 


»> 


99 


31*0 


* 64-692 












32*1 


* 63-988 




63-9 


3 


»> 


»> 


30-7 


63-740 




63-7 


3 


J> 


>» 


410 






62-5 On 





99 


JJ 








61-7 


In 


>> 


»» 




* 61-257 




611 


1 


99 


>) 


54-3 


* 60-494 


60-49 


60-45 


3 


99 


»> 


61*5 


* 60-304 


60-30 


60-1 


5 


99 


>) 


63*3 


* 59-811 


59-81 


59-6 


2 


99 


»» 


67*9 


59-111 


5911 


59 


4 


091 


J» 


74*5 


* 58-176 


58-18 


58-0 





J» 


>» 


83*3 




57-94 


57-7 


3 


>» 


»» 


906 






57-2 


1 


99 


>J 




56-746 









>> 


J> 


96-8 


* 56-477 


56-48 


56-3 


4 


J» 


»> 


99-3 


55-356 




55-2 


1 


)» 


>» 


30709-9 


55173 









99 


I* 


11-6 


* 54-856 


54-86 • 


54-6 


4 


99 


» 


14-6 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3285-066, 3277-697, 3274-834, 3273-208, 3268-346 
3264-790, 3264-688, 3263-984, b261256, 3260-477, 3260-301, 3259-805, 3258-173 
3256460, 3254-834. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OP THE ELEMENTS. 93 

Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to | 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 












Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


♦3254-674 


3254-67 


3254-5 


4 


0-91 


8-7 


30715-4 




53-36 


53-2 


2 


>» 




28-8 


53136 






2 


IS 








30-9 


* 53-038 






1 


FJ 








31-8 


52-683 




52-8 


2 


J 




8-i 




351 


52-400 









) 








37-7 


* 52031 


5203 


50-7 Pd 


3 


> 
J 








411 


* 51-464 


51-10 


51-4 


3 


9 








46-6 


50-605 






1 


) 








59-0 


50-005 


50-07 


49-9 


2 


, 








59-8 


48-977 






2 


, 








70-1 




48-04 


48-0 


1 


, 








790 


47 501 


47-50 


47-4 





, 


t 






84-1 


46-380 


46-38 


46-2 





, 


t 






94-7 


45-746 


45-75 


45-6 





, 


t 




, 


30800-8 


44-719 









, 


t 




, 


10-3 


44-585 






1 


, 


9 




, 


11-6 


44-475 




44-4 







9 






12-6 


* 43-638 


43-64 


43-4 


2 




9 






20-8 


42-978 




42-8 Pd 


2 




9 






28-9 


42-283 


42-28 


421 


2 




t 






33-6 


41-884 




41-6 Ir 







9 






37 5 


41-643 


41-64 









9 






39-7 


* 41-362 


41-36 


41-2 


4 




J 






42-4 


* 39-745 


39-75 


39-5 


3 




9 






57-8 


38-904 






2 




9 






65-8 


* 38-667 


38-67 


38-4 


5 




9 






681 


38132 











9 






73-2 


36-101 


36-10 




2 




f 






92-6 




35-85 


35-7 


o 




9 






95 


35-431 











9 






99 


35-230 




35 


2 




9 






30900-9 


34-920 


34-39 


34-7 
34-3 


2 
2 




* 
} 






03-9 
09 


33-650 











9 






160 


* 32-881 


32-89 


32-7 


4 




» 






23-4 


32-180 






1 




9 






301 


31-869 


31-87 


31-5 







> 






33 


30-738 






2 




f 






43-9 


29-881 




28-7 


2 




9 






521 


28-850 











9 






620 


* 28-651 


2S-65 


28-63 


4 




9 






63-9 


* 28-276 




28-1 


2 




9 






67-5 


* 28-021 




27-8 


3 




9 






69-9 


* 27-016 


27-02 


26-8 


2 










79-5 


* 26-497 


26-50 


26-4 


5 










85-6 


25-418 











)9 






94-9 




25-03 


24-9 


1 




99 






98-6 


24-772 




24 •![ 


2 






8 


•9 


310010 




2418 


24 


1 




99 






07 7 


* Rowland 


and Tatnall : 3254-670, 3 


253041, 32 


52 029, 32 


51-459, £243-632, 


3241-360, 3239 


•727, 3238-660, 3232-872, « 


1228-651, 3S 


S28-280, 32 


28-007, 3227-027, 


3226-502. 



















94 



REPORT — 1904. 



Ruthenium— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 










Are Spectrum 


Adeney 


Bxner and 
Hascliek 


Character 


A.+ 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


3223-723 









0-91 


8-9 


31011-1 


* 23-393 


3223-39 


3223-2 


4 


9t 


)» 


14-3 




22-07 


21-9 


2 


)» 


» 


27-1 


21-493 


21-49 


21 -3d 


1 


)> 


,» 


32-6 


* 21-303 






2 


99 


jj 


34-4 


20-899 


20-90 




2 


0-90 


,, 


47-1 


* 20-195 


20-20 


20-1 


2 


J» 


,, 


45 1 




19-49 


19-4 


2 


it 


,, 


51-9 


19-274 






1 


99 


>i 


54-0 






18-9 


1 


»> 


» 






17-96 


17-7 


2 


99 


>3 


66-7 


* 16-641 


16-64 


16-5 


4 


99 


,» 


79-4 






16-0 


1 


»> 


»J 




15-613 









J» 


)> 


89 4 


14-475 




14-3 


2 


>J 


)» 


31100-4 




13-33 


13-3 


1 


99 


J, 


11-4 


* 13098 


13-10 
12-30 


130 


3 


99 
99 




13-7 






120 Ir 


In 


>> 


,» 






11-38 


11-3 


1 


99 


J, 


30-4 




10-95 






99 


J» 








10-6 Pd 


1 


99 


,, 




10-287 


10-29 


101 


2 


»» 




410 


09-758 


09-43 


09-6 


1 


99 




461 


08-865 






1 


J> 


,» 


54-8 


08-542 






3 


>> 


»» 


57-9 


08-405 









99 


J, 


59-2 


07-751 


07-75 


07-7 





99 


S> 


65-6 




07-43 


07-3 


2 


J» 


»> 


68-9 




06-82 


06-7 


2 


JJ 


)» 


74-6 


05-428 


05-43 


05-3 


2 


>* 


,, 


88-2 




05-08 


05-0 




>» 


), 


91-5 




04-36 


04-2 


2 


»J 


»J 


98-6 




03-62 


03-6 


2 


J» 


>> 


31205-8 






03-0 


1 


J? 


J» 




02-705 




02-5 


2 


»» 


»» 


14-7 


* 01-604 






3 


>> 


») 


25-4 


01-372 


01-37 


01-38 


2 


»» 


55 


27-7 


3199-238 




31990 Ir 





JJ 


,5 


48-5 




3198-74 


98-6 


2 


JJ 


91 


53-4 


98-437 




98-5 


2 


)» 


55 


56-4 


97-603 




97-7 





>> 


55 


64-5 


* 96-718 


96-72 


96-5 


4 


>J 


55 


73-2 




95-85 


95-6 


1 


>? 


55 


81-7 


95-438 






1 


JJ 


,5 


85-7 


95-137 


95 14 


95-1 





JJ 


55 


88-6 


93-617 




93-5 


2 


»> 


55 


31303-5 




92-52 


92-5d 


1 


>» 


55 


04-5 


* 92-171 


92-17 


92-1 


2 


99 


55 


07-9 


91-900 




91-7 


2 


,, 


5, 


20-4 


91-303 






1 


» 


55 


26-2 


* 90-088 


90-09 


89-9 


4 


»» 


5, 


38-2 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3223-394, 3221311, 3220199, 3216-646, 3213-105, 
3201-631, 3196-725, 3192191, 3190096. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



95 







RUTHENIUM- 


-continued. 










Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 






Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


(Kayser) 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 

Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


*3 189 -835 




3189-7 


3 


0-90 


8-9 


31340-7 


89-418 




89-2 
88-8 


2 

1 






44-7 


88-713 




88-5 


2 






51-7 


* 88-463 


3188-46 


88-45 


5 






54- 1 


88-057 






2 






58-2 


86-867 






1 






69-9 


* 86171 


86-16 


86 


4 






76-7 


85-553 






2 






82-8 


85-276 


85-28 


85-3 
84-9 
84-1 
83-9 




1 
1 

1 






85-5 




83-54 


83-4 
82-0 


2 

1 






31402-7 


81-312 




81-4 





0-89 




24-7 


81-126 













26-5 


80-569 











9-0 


31-9 


79-380 


79-38 


79-2 


2 






43-6 


78-843 






1 






49-0 


* 77-159 


77-16 


77-18 


4 






65-6 


76-401 




76-2 


3 






73-2 




75-32 


75-30 
75-10 


4 
4 






84-0 


* 74-243 


74-24 


741 Os ? 


4 






94-5 


73-500 






2 






31501-9 


73-221 






2 






04-7 


72-778 


72-78 


72-6 









091 


71-352 






2 






23-3 


70196 




70-0 


2 






34-8 


* 68-648 


68-65 


68-5 


5 






50-2 


68-355 






1 






531 


67-514 


67-51 


67-58 









61-5 




66-68 


66-4 


2 






69-8 




66-24 


660 


2 






74-1 


65-507 













81-5 


65-307 


65-31 




1 






83-5 


65-086 




65-0 









85-7 


64-939 


64-94 


65-0 
64-7 
64 1 
64 




1 
1 
1 






87-2 


63186 


63-30 


63-25 









31604-7 




60-80 


60-78 


4 






28-6 


* 60036 


60 04 


6005 


4 






36-2 


59-003 Ca 


? 5900 


58-7 


4 






46-5 


57-739 




57 5 
57-3 
57 1 


2 
1 

1 






59-2 


56-917 






2 






67-5 


56-733 


55-90 


55-4 



1 


i] 




69-3 



* Rowland and Tatnall: 
3168-678, 3160042. 



3189-843, 3188-468, 3186162, 3177-170, 3174254, 



96 



REPORT— 1904. 

Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3154-543 






2 


0-89 


9-0 


31691-3 


* 53-927 


3153-93 


3153-7 


4 








97 5 




52-35 


52-2 


1 








31713-3 


51-780 






1 








191 




51-25 


51-3 


1 








24-4 


* 50-803 


50-80 


50-5 


4 








28-9 


50-283 




49-7 
49-3 


1 

1 
1 








34-2 


48-593 


48-59 


48-7 


2 








51-2 


48-138 















55-8 


47-547 


47-55 


47-62 











61-8 


* 47-323 






2 








64-0 


46-183 


46-18 


46 


2 




9' 


1 


75-5 


44-820 






2 








89-0 


* 44-369 


44-37 


44-2 


4 








93-8 


43-764 


43-76 


43-80 











318000 




43-46 


43-40 


4 








030 




41-66 


41-5 


2 


0-88 






21-2 


* 41-081 


41-08 


40-9 


4 








27 1 


* 40-596 




40-4 


3 








29-0 


40-201 






1 








360 


39-379 


39-65 


39-5 Pt ? 


2 








41-6 


38-884 




38 


2 
1 








49-4 


37-036 









,, 






68-2 


* 36-663 


36-66 




3 








71-9 


36-451 




36-5 


1 








741 


36-044 


36 04 
35-48 


35-98 


2 


» 






78-3 


35-170 




351 





',', 






87-2 


34-895 


34-90 


34-98 


1 








891 


33-800 




33-5 Ir 


2 

1 








31901-0 


* 32-98S 




32-99 

32-6 

32-5 


t 

2 


" 






09-3 


32-122 






1 








18-2 


30-709 















32-5 


* 29-935 






3 


•» 






40-4 


29-717 




29-7 


2 


i> 






42-7 


29-574 




29-5 

28-8 



In 


„ 






441 


28-539 






2 








54-7 




28-07 


28-05 


4 








59-5 


27-643 















63-9 


27-387 






1 








66-5 


26-730 


26-73 


26-75 


2 


„ 






73-2 


* 26-068 


24-98 


25-7 


4 

1 


99 






800 


* 24-709 




24-6 


2 








93-9 



♦Rowland and Tatnall : 3153941, 3150816, 3147-326, 3144383, 3141094, 
3140-604, 3136-671, 3132995, 3129951, 3126 075, 3124-720. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE STECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 9? 

Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 


Character 


A. + 


1 


in Vacuo 






Haschek 






A 




*3124481 


3 124 48 




2 


0-88 


9*1 


31996-2 


* 24-277 


24-28 


31241 


4 


JJ 


jj 


98-3 






23-8 


2 


JJ 


JJ 




23-610 









JJ 


»? 


32005-1 


22-970 









JJ 


91 


11-7 


22-108 


20 90 




1 


JJ 

JJ 


JJ 
JJ 


20-5 


20-650 




20-7 


1 


JJ 


JJ 


35-5 


* 18-792 




18-6 


4 


JJ 


JJ 


54-6 


* 18-170 




180 


4 


JJ 


JJ 


610 


17-563 









JJ 


JJ 


67-2 


17-181 









99 


JJ 


711 


16-945 






1 


99 


JJ 


83-6 






10-5 


In 


JJ 


JJ 




15-536 




15-5 





JJ 


JJ 


88-1 




14-53 


14-4 


In 


JJ 


9-2 


98-5 


13-756 


13-76 


138 Pd 





99 


jj 


32106-4 


13-502 




13-3 


2 


99 


»s 


09-0 


* 12-782 


12*78 


12-5 


2 


JJ 


jj 


16-4 


12-408 




12-3 


2 


JJ 


)» 


20-3 


* 12-012 


1201 




3 


99 


jj 


24-3 






11-8 


1 


99 


jj 






11-24 


111 


1 


JJ 


jj 


32-3 


* 10-641 


10-64 


10-5 


4 


99 


jj 


38-8 


10-147 









JJ 


jj 


43-6 






09-5 


In 


99 


jj 




08-526 




08-3 


2 


JJ 


jj 


61-4 


* 07-829 






3 


JJ 


jj 


67-6 


07-698 


07-70 


07-72 





JJ 


jj 


68-9 


07-373 









99 


jj 


72-3 


* 06-942 


06-94 


06-7 


3 


JJ 


jj 


76-8 


05-910 









JJ 


jj 


87-5 


* 05-524 






2 


JJ 


jj 


91-5 


05-382 


0538 


05-2 


2 


>J 


jj 


92-9 


04-570 






2 


J) 


jj 


32201-4 


04070 









JJ 


jj 


06-5 




03-51 


03-3 


2 


99 


jj 


12-3 




02-50 


02-5 


1 


JJ 


>j 


25-4 






02-2 


1 


JJ 


jj 








01-7 


1 


0-87 


jj 






01-59 


01-4 


1 


JJ 


jj 


32-3 


* 00-953 


3000-95 


3000-95 


4 


JJ 


jj 


38-9 


1 




99-8 


1 


JJ 


jj 




*3099-390 


99-39 


99-40 


5 


r» 


jj 


55-2 


98-954 









jj 


jj 


58-0 




98-05 


97-9 


2 


jj 


jj 


630 


* 97-706 


97-71 


97-6 


4 


jj 


jj 


72-7 


* 




97-2 


1 


jj 


jj 




* 96-672 


96-67 


96-65 


6 


jj 


jj 


83-6 


96062 




960 





jj 


jj 


89-9 


95-640 









19 


j» 


943 


* 94-500 


94-64 
9301 


94-5 


2 


JJ 
J? 


jj 

jj 


32306 2 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3124-480, 3124 279, 3118-799, 
3112031, 3110-650, 3107-825, 3106954, 3105523, 3100945, 
3097 337, 3096-669, 3094-507. 
1904. 



3118T82. 3112-792, 
3099-390, 3097-708, 



98 



REPORT — 1904. 





Ruthenium — 


continued. 














Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 


3092-351 









0-87 


9 2 


32328-6 


92-085 









JJ 


SJ 


31-4 


* 91-974 




3091-8 


2 


9> 


)S 


350 


91-004 






2 


5) 


>» 


42-7 




3090-54 


905 


1 


M 


>» 


47-6 


* 90-341 


90-34 




2 


» 


99 


49-7 


* 89-915 


89-92 


89-7 


4 


»> 


)> 


541 


* 89-252 


89-25 


892 


4 


J> 


J* 


611 


88-362 









JJ 


»> 


70-4 


88-177 


88-18 


88-1 


2 


9* 


)9 


72-3 


88-050 









99 


)» 


73-7 


87-039 






2 


99 


)» 


84-2 


86-888 






1 


J» 


J» 


85-9 


86-631 


86-63 




2 


99 


»» 


88-6 


* 86181 


86-18 


860 


4 


JJ 


99 


93-3 


85-597 









1) 


»> 


99-4 


84-728 









JJ 


» 


32408-6 


* 84-631 




84-5 


2 


>> 


») 


09-6 


* 83-252 




83-0 


3 


)» 


9-3 


24-0 


81-946 


81-95 


81-7 





>) 


99 


37-7 


81-489 


81-49 


81-3 





»> 


>> 


42-5 


81-218 






1 


99 


)» 


45-4 


* 81009 


81-01 




4 


99 


JJ 


47-7 


80-292 




80-3 


4 


5) 


»> 


55-2 


79-953 




80-1 





»> 


J» 


63-3 




79-27 


791 


1 


>» 


»> 


65-9 


78-209 






1 


)» 


»> 


771 


77-657 






2 


J» 


)> 


82-9 


77-175 


77-18 


77-0 


2 


J» 


JJ 


88-0 


* 76-886 




76-8 


2 


99 


)> 


911 


75-412 


75-41 


75-3 


1 


99 


JJ 


32506-6 


* 73-440 


73-50 




4 


>) 


>> 


27-5 




72-42 


72-3 


2 


*9 


>» 


38-3 


71-824 









)» 


J* 


44-6 


* 71-721 









9* 


)» 


45-7 


71586 




715 


2 


99 


»J 


471 






706 


1 


:> 


)> 








70-3 


1 


99 


JS 




69-289 






2 


99 


»» 


715 


* 68-355 


68-36 


68-2 


4 


99 


>> 


81-4 






67 5 


1 


5» 


>» 








66-4 


2 


>» 


»» 




* 64-958 


64-96 


64-95 


4 


)» 


»» 


32617-6 






63-3 


1 


" 


»» 




62 155 


6216 


620 


2 


0-86 


99 


473 




60-67 


60-4 


2 


>» 


J* 


63-2 


60346 


60-37 


60-2 





>! 


» 


66-6 


* 59-284 


59-28 


59-1 


3 


1) 


» 


78-3 


* 58-909 






1 


J» 


5) 


82-1 


58-762 


58-76 


58-6 


2 


»> 


*> 


83-6 


57-468 


57-47 


57-2 


3 


>> 


9% 


97-5 


56-971 


56-97 


56-92 





» 


)> 


32702-8 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3091-980, 3090-348, 3089916, 30S9-259, 3086-182, 
3084-637, 3083-257, 3081010, 3076-883, 3073442, 3071711, 3068-363, 3064951, 
3359-275, 3058891. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



99 



Ruthenium— continued. 



Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 



3056-877 

56192 

* 55042 



53 450 
52-445 
51-974 
51-704 
50-504 
50309 

49174 

* 48-897 

* 48-606 
48-442 

47-108 
46-356 
46-114 

* 45-833 
45-630 

44-077 
43T61 

* 42-953 

* 42-598 
42025 

* 40-418 
40071 
39 586 
38-851 

* 38-289 
38-078 
37 845 
36-580 

35-578 

* 34-167 

* 33-562 

32-771 
32-026 

30-890 
30-801 

28-785 
27-910 
27-678 
27-361 
27-195 



Spark Spectrum 



Adeney 



3055 04 



49-32 

48-90 
48-61 

47-88 

46-36 

45-83 



42-95 
42-60 

40-42 
4007 



36-58 
35-93 

3417 
33-56 
3316 
32-77 



29 04 
27 91 

27-20 



Exner and 
Haschek 



3054-8 
54-6 



503 
49-32 

48-7 
48-4 

47-6 
47-0 
461 

45-6 

44-5 



42-7 Ir 
42-3 

40-2 
39-9 

38-6 

381 

37-9 

37 

36-53 

35-6 

35-3 

33-8 

33-4 

330 

32-3 

31-5 

311 

29-2 

30-7 Os 

28-9 

27-7 



27 

26-7 



Intensity 

and 
Character 




4 
4 
2 
1 

1 

2 

1 



4 

4 



2 



2 

2 

4 



1 



1 

2 

3 

1 

3 

2 





2 

2 

2 

1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

la 



2 

2 
2 





2 
1 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A.+ 



0-86 



93 



9-4 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



32703-8 
111 
23-5 



40-4 
51-2 
563 
59-2 
721 
741 
84-8 
86-4 
89-3 
92-5 
94-2 
32800-3 
08-6 
16-7 
19-3 
22-3 
24-5 



* Rowland and Tatnall: 3055039, 3048-900, 
3042-587, 3040-420, 3038-284, 3034169, 3033-564. 



3048-603, 3045-828, 



41-2 


511 


53-4 


57-2 


63-4 


80-9 


84-6 


90-3 


97-8 


32903-9 


06-0 


08-7 


22-3 


29-4 


33-2 


48-4 


551 


59-4 


63-7 


716 


840 


84-2 


33004-2 


071 


16-7 


19-2 


23-2 


24-5 


3042-944, 



H 2 



100 



REPORT — 1904. 



Ruthknium— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 






Intensity 

and 
Character 




vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A + 


I- 


3025-212 









0-86 


9-5 


330461 




3024-0 


3023-7 


1 






59-3 




23 05 


22-8 




0-85 






69-7 




22-72 


22-5 


1 








73-4 


* 20989 


20-99 


20-7 
205 


2 
1 




»> 




JJ 


93-5 
991 


20-360 

19-876 


19-88 


19-6 








j> 




>> 


33104-4 
08-9 


19-472 


18-38 


19-2 
18-3 Os 


2 
2b 




99 




99 

93 


20-8 


18158 


1816 


17-6 


2 
2 




99 






23-3 


17-356 


1736 


17-32 


5 




" 




9) 


32-1 


16818 


1610 
15-60 


15-8 
15-3 
14-5 



2 

2 
i 




>> 
>f 
99 




>> 
99 
99 

99 


38-0 
45-8 
51-4 


14-312 


14-3 


14-3 











>> 


656 


* 13-477 
13172 

* 13040 
12003 


13-48 


13-3 
120 


3 


3 





>9 

9 
>» 




► » 

> 


74-8 
78-0 
79-6 
910 


10-623 


10-62 


10-3 


2 










33206-2 


09-798 


09-80 


09-2 



1 




9 






15-3 
25-1 


* 08-911 




08-7 


2 










27-5 


08-695 
* 08 387 


0800 


08-2 
07-8 
07-2 



2 
1 
1 




9 
9 






30-9 
35-2 


* 06-708 


06-71 


06-75 


4 










49-4 


06-094 




05-8 
051 


2 
2 










56-2 


04-708 




04-6 


2 










71-6 


02-600 

02-188 

* 01-756 


02-60 
01-76 


02-4 

01-6 
01-0 


2 

3 
1 










94-9 

99-5 

33304-3 


00-341 


00-57 
0000 


00-3 
2999-6 


2 

2 










175 

34-8 


2999011 


2999-01 


98-99 


1 










411 


* 98-446 


98-45 
98-09 


98-2 
98 


3 
1 










55 
48-9 


* 97-743 


97-74 


97-6 


2 










53 5 


♦ 


97-34 


97-4 


1 






9- 


6 


58-3 


* 97011 


96-89 
96-44 
9601 


96-6 
96-2 
95-8 


1 
1 
1 










63-4 
681 

78-4 


* 95-083 


9508 
94-54 


94-7 
94-5 
936 


5 
1 
1 










84-5 


* 93-387 




931 


3 










97-4 



* Rowland and Tatnall : 3020985, 3013-468, 3013-030, 3008906 3008-366 
3006-699, 3001-751, 2998458, 2997-730, 2997-536, 2997-006, 2995 077, 2993-385. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TARLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 101 







RUTHENIUM- 


-continued. 










Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

v a pn n in 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


V L l *.. U 1 l I 1 i. 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


2993070 






1 


0-85 


9-6 


33400-9 




2992-48 


2992-5 


1 


„ 




07-5 


92080 


92-08 


920 









120 




91-71 


91-66 


8 






16-2 


90-413 




900 


2 
In 






30-5 


* 89-770 




89-4 


2 






37-9 


89-451 






2 






40-4 


* 89-079 


89-06 


8902 









45-5 


88-224 




88 


1 


" 




55-1 


88-047 






1 


" 




57-1 


86-453 


86-45 


86-5 


1 






74-9 


86104 













78-8 




85-78 


85-5 


1 






82-5 




85-08 


84-7 


1 






90-3 




83-74 












* 82 045 


82-05 


82-0 


4 


0-84 




33524-4 


81-080 


81-08 


80-8 









35-3 


* 80-065 


80-07 


8005 


3 


|| 




46-7 


* 79-847 


79-85 


79-80 


3 






49-2 


78-760 


78-76 


78-72 


2 


„ 




61-4 


77-596 


77-60 


77-4 





» 




74-5 


77-346 


7735 


77-25 


2 


99 




77-4 


* 77-048 




76-8 


3 


„ 




80-8 


* 76-707 


76-71 


76-62 


4 






84-6 


75-253 






1 






336010 




74-79 


74-7 


1 






06-2 


* 74-454 


74-45 


74-4 


2 






100 


* 74-099 






3 






140 


73-743 


73-74 


73-7 
73-3 




1 






18-1 




73-08 


730 


2 






25-5 


72-594 


72-59 


72-4 









311 




7110 


70-9 
70-6 
70-5 


1 
1 

1 






48 


69850 


69-85 









9-7 


620 


69 069 


69-07 


68-8 


4 






70-9 


68-564 


68-56 




4 






76-6 


68-233 


6811 


67-9 









80-4 


67-456 


66-98 




2 






91-2 


66-674 


66-67 


663 


1 






98-1 


65-820 




65-72 


1 






33707-8 


65-674 


65-67 




3 






09-4 


65 286 


65-29 


65-2 


4 






13-9 


64-415 













23-7 


63-829 






3 






30-4 


63-523 


63-52 


63-50 


2 


" 




33-9 


62-705 













43-2 


62-442 













46-2 


61-803 


/ 6208 
1 61-60 


62-0 


2n 


n 




60-3 



» Rowland and Tatnall : 2989-768, 
2977037, 2976700, 2974-457, 2974095. 



2989-061, 2982-048, 2980-056, 2979-834, 



102 



REPORT - 1904. 



Ruth knium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

Vflfimin 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


V iV UU1I1 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


2961-097 






3 


0-84 


9-7 


33761-6 




2960-35 


2960-2 


2 


3» 


1» 


701 


59855 


59-86 


59-6 


2 


99 


JJ 


75-7 


58-993 









»J 


) ) 


85-6 


58-118 






3 


»» 


»> 


95-5 


57-297 









)> 


j» 


33805-0 


55-960 









99 


»> 


20-3 


55-714 









>J 


19 


23 


55-463 






2 


»> 


)) 


25 9 






55-0 


1 


>» 


99 




54-594 


54-59 


54-7 


4 


99 


99 


35-8 






54-4 


2 


>» 


J» 




54-371 


54-20 


540 





n 


J) 


38-5 


53116 









ft 


»> 


52-7 




52-78 


52-6 


1 


>» 


J) 


56-6 


52-599 






2 


t) 


)» 


58-7 




52-36 


52-2 


2 


9f 


)> 


61-3 


51-516 




51-3 


2 


99 


JJ 


712 


50-650 




50-5 


1 


•9 


») 


811 


50-080 


50-08 


50-0 





99 


J; 


87-5 


49-612 


49-61 


49-5 
49-2 


4 
1 


" 




93 






48-7 


1 


»» 


>» 






48-47 


48-2 


1 


»» 


19 


339061 




47-72 


47-7 


1 


99 


99 


14-8 


47-102 


4710 


47-0 


4 


)J 


99 


21-9 


46-670 









99 


»J 


26-3 


45-775 


45-78 


45-82 


4 


99 


>J 


37 2 


45-591 









99 


9-8 


39-2 




45-20 


45-0 


2 


J) 


>» 


43-7 


44-294 









J) 


j» 


54-2 


44035 


44-04 


431) 


3 


99 


»» 


571 


43-593 


43-59 




1 


99 


•» 


62-3 


42-823 









0-83 


>> 


71-2 


42-366 


42-37 


42-40 


1 


»» 


»i 


76-4 






41-6 


1 


»? 


j» 








41 


In 


99 


?» 




40-474 




40-3 


3 


J» 




98-3 


40057 




39-8 


3 


99 


5* 


34003-1 


39-796 









»> 


J> 


06-2 


39-247 


39-25 


39 


2 


„ 


»» 


12-5 


37-679 









» 


?» 


30-7 


37 448 






1 


»5 


)> 


333 




37-20 


37 


1 


„ 


)» 


36-2 


36-591 




1 





JJ 


»> 


43-3 


36-380 









99 


»» 


45-7 


36131 






2 


J» 


»> 


47-8 




35-67 


35-5 


2 


J» 


J5 


540 


34-638 









99 


j; 


65-9 


34-309 






2 


„ 


>> 


69-7 


33-367 


33-37 


3338 





>> 


>> 


80-7 






32-6 


1 


„ 


?> 






31-35 


31-2 


2 


>» 


>> 


341041 




29-87 


29-6 


1 


» 


s* 


21-7 


29-027 


29 03 


291 





„ 


>j 


311 


28-608 


28-61 


28-5 


2 


• 9 


it 


361 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 103 

Ruthenium — continual. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

Vnpmirn 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


V 111. U U lli 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Ai - c Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 




2928-27 






0-83 


9-8 


34140-1 


2927-858 


27-73 


2927-72 





»» 


>» 


44-3 


27-232 






2 


») 


»» 


52-2 


26-913 









J9 


>» 


55-9 




26-69 


26-5 


1 


JS 


JJ 


58-5 


25-890 


25-89 







99 


>> 


67-8 


25-685 




25-5 





»» 


»♦ 


70-2 


25-189 









99 


*J 


76-0 


24-760 









79 


JJ 


81-0 




24-20 


23-9 


2 


99 


J» 


87-5 




23-40 


231 


1 


>> 


J> 


96-9 




22-50 


22-3 


2 


,. 


» 


34207-4 




21-95 


21-8 


1 


JJ 


9-9 


190 


21-276 









99 


>> 


21-7 


21068 


21-07 




2 


)5 


>j 


241 






20-5 


1 


J* 


»> 




20-369 






1 


»> 


j> 


32-3 


19-723 


19-73 


19-6 


4 


99 


si 


39-9 


19-276 









99 


s» 


451 




18-76 


18-5 


2 


J» 


)» 


51-2 


17-880 


17-88 


17-9 


2 


}7 


»> 


616 






175 


I 


99 


?> 




17-353 









)» 


99 


67 6 


17-249 






2 


»J 


>» 


68-9 


16-351 


16-47 


16-48 


6 


J» 


J> 


79-1 


15-736 






2 


»> 


»> 


86-7 


14-403 




14-3 


2 


>> 


>> 


34302-4 




1410 


14-0 


2 


>> 


J» 


06-0 






13-5 


1 


99 


;s 




13-286 


13-29 


13-3 


3 


79 


)» 


15-6 






130 


1 


>J 


>» 




12-866 









99 


>» 


20-5 


12-555 


12-56 







99 


»» 


24-2 


12-451 


12-45 







79 


?> 


25-4 


10-542 


1010 




2 


97 


>> 


48 


09-352 


09-35 


09-95 


1 


99 


»» 


640 






09-5 


1 


97 


>j 








091 Os ? 


2 


99 


?* 




08-590 









»» 


j» 


710 






08-0 


In 


J? 


>> 








071 


In 


99 


j> 








06-6 


1 


>> 


99 




06-424 


06-42 


06-3 


3 


99 


J> 


96-6 


05-952 




05-9 


1 


99 


J> 


34402-2 


05-756 


05-76 




3 


99 


>> 


04-5 


04-825 




04-7 





>» 


J» 


15-6 






03-7 


1 


>> 


99 








03-3 


1 


>> 


JJ 




03-180 




03-0 


2 


)» 


JJ 


34-9 


02-969 




02-8 


1 


J) 


>» 


376 


02-223 


02-22 


02-10 


1 


»> 


J» 


46-4 


01-890 


01-74 


01-8 


1 


»> 


S? 


50-4 




00-63 


00-7 


2 


»> 


» 


65-4 






99-9 


1 


>J 


>J 




2899-820 


2899-70 


2899-7 


1 


99 


»J 


750 



104 



REPORT — 1904. 
Ruthenium— continued. 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vfl.punm 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


i ■ ' ' i l Ll I i 1 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


2898-845 




2898-7 


1 


0-83 


9*9 


344866 


98-650 


2898-40 


98-5 


3 


99 
99 


99 
99 


88-9 






98-0 


2 


99 


99 




97-820 


97-82 




1 


99 


100 


34510-8 


96-038 




96-7 


3 


99 


99 


128 


95-925 




95-9 


1 


99 


99 


213 


95-554 









t> 


9» 


25-7 






94-0 


1 


99 


99 




93-844 


93-84 







99 


J9 


4G-1 






92-8 


2 


99 


99 




92-654 


92-65 


92-5 


4 


99 


99 


60-4 






92-2 


1 


99 


9* 






92-00 


91-9 


1 


99 


9* 


68-1 


91-762 




91-5 


2 


99 


»9 


710 


91-242 


91-24 




2 


99 


99 


77 1 






90-7 


1 


99 


99 








89-9 


In 


99 


99 








89-6 


1 


99 


99 




89-543 


89-54 







If 


99 


97-5 


88-739 




88-8 


2 


0-82 


ft 


34G07-2 


88-112 


88-11 


8S-2 


2 


99 


99 


14-7 


87-224 


87-22 


87-3 





99 


99 


25-3 


86-646 


86-64 


86-7 


4 


ft 


99 


32-3 




85-60 


85-6 


1 


99 


99 


44-8 






851 


1 


99 


99 




84-601 


84-60 


84-7 


2 


19 


99 


56-8 


83-701 


83-70 


83-8 


3 


yy 


99 


67-6 






83-3 


1 


99 


99 




82-697 






2 


jj 


99 


79-7 


82-222 


82-22 


82-24 


2 


99 


99 


85-4 


81-373 


81-37 


81-5 


1 


99 


99 


95-7 






81-0 


1 


99 


»> 




80-637 


80-64 


80-6 





99 


99 


34704-5 




80-24 


80-3 


2 


99 


99 


09-3 


79-853 




80-0 


3 


99 


99 


140 


79-466 









99 


99 


18-7 




79-20 


79-3 


2 


99 


99 


21-8 






78-3 Pd 


1 


99 


99 




77-930 


7801 


78-1 


2 


99 


99 


37 2 






77-5 


1 


99 


99 




77-197 




77-3 


2 


99 


99 


460 






76-9 


1 


99 


»> 




* 




76-6 


1 


99 


99 








76-3 


1 


99 


99 








75-8 


1 


99 


99 








75-5 


1 


99 


99 




75-104 


75-10 


75-2 


5n 


99 


99 


71-4 






74-7 


1 


99 


99 




74161 






2 


99 


99 


82-8 




73-83 


73-9 


2 


99 


99 


86-8 




73-34 


73-5 


2 


99 


99 


92-7 


72-468 




72-5 


2 


99 


99 


34S03-2 


71-756 




71-8 


4 


99 


101 


11-9 




7157 


71-7 


2 


99 


ty 


140 


71-296 






3 


99 


>9 


173 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE 


SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 105 


RUTHENIUM- 


-continued. 






Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 

A. 


in Vacuo 






2870-8 


2 


082 


101 






2870-53 


70-6 


In 


j) 




34826-8 


2870-322 






2 


j > 




29-2 


on 047 


09-05 


691 









44-8 


68-002 









J) 


9} 


49-3 


08-420 


68-43 


68-5 


2 






52-2 


68-280 






2 


»> 


99 


53-9 




67-20 


07-3 


1 


99 


>» 


67 1 


66-743 


00-74 


66-9 


5 


99 


JJ 


72-7 




OG-41 


66-0 


2 


99 


„ 


76-7 




66-19 


66-4 


2 


>» 


99 


79-4 




65-65 


65-7 


2 


99 




860 


64-726 









0-81 




972 




63-33 


63-5 


2 


»5 




34914-2 


63 112 




631 


2 






16-8 


62-963 


62-96 


62-5 



In 


?J 




22-8 


61-833 




62-0 


1 






• 32-5 


61-508 


61-54 


61-6 


5 


9$ 




36-5 




61-17 


61-3 


1 


99 




40-6 




60-95 


Oil 


1 


99 


',', 43-3 


60-491 


60-49 









48-9 


60114 


60-11 


60-2 
600 
59-9 


4 

■2 
2 


99 

99 




53-5 




59-65 


59-6 


In 








58-693 


58-69 
57-88 


59- 1 

58 



2 


99 




68-8 


57-770 









99 




82-2 


57-367 


57-37 


57-4 


1 


)) 




87-2 




5667 


56-7 
56-3 


2 

1 


9) 


99 


95-7 


56-153 




561 


2 


j> 




35002-0 


55-995 




55-9 


2 


j» 




04-0 


55-454 


55-45 


55-5 





99 




100 




5501 


551 


1 






10-1 


54-820 


54-82 


54-9 









18-4 


54-405 




54-3 









22-8 


54-173 


5417 




4 






20-3 


53-433 


53-43 











35-4 




53-28 


53-3 
52-7 
62-4 


2 
1 
1 


99 




37 3 


51-225 






1 


»> 




62-5 




50-86 


50 S 
50-3 


2 
In 






67 




49-73 


49-7 


2 






82-2 


49-399 


49-40 


49-4 









85-0 


48-088 




48-8 


1 


J» 




93-8 




47-72 


47-8 


1 


99 


10-2 


35105-6 




47-25 


47-3 
46-9 


1 

1 


31 




11-3 


46662 




46-7 





„ 




18-6 


46-430 


45-3 


40-5 


I 






21-5 



106 



REPORT — 190 J. 



Ruthenium— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 


1 


Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A ~ 


in Vacuo 




2844-86 


2844-9 
43-9 
43-4 


2 
1 
1 


0-81 


10-2 


35156-4 


2813 277 






2 






60-4 


42-859 




43 
42-8 


o 

1 




65-6 


42-651 






1 " 




68-2 


41-777 


41-78 


41-81 


2 






79 




41-23 


41-3 


2 






85-8 


40-657 


40-66 


40-8 
39-9 


2 
1 






92-9 




39-52 


39-6 


1 






35207-0 




3916 


391 


2 






11-6 


38-729 


38-73 


38-9 
38 


2 

1 






16-8 


37-384 


37-28 











33-5 


36-684 


36-68 


36-7 
36-5 


2 
1 






42-2 


36-254 


35-77 
34-52 


36-4 


2 






47 6 


34107 




34-2 


3 




" 


74-3 




33-97 


340 


2 






760 




33-64 










801 


32-755 




32-9 









811 




3200 


321 


2 






35300-5 


31-280 













09-7 


30-815 




30-8 
30-3 
301 
29-6 
29-4 


1 

1 
1 
1 
2 




» 


15-3 


29-253 


29-25 




2 






44-8 


27-969 


27-97 


28-1 


4 






50-9 


27-627 


27-63 


27-7 









55- 1 




27-19 


27-3 


1 






60-6 




26-81 


26-9 
26-7 


2 

1 






65-4 




26-36 


26-4 


2 






71-0 




25-62 


25-6 


2 






80-3 




25-20 


25-3 


2 






85-5 


24-866 









0-80 




89-7 


24-004 




24-3 









35400-5 




23-33 


23-4 


2 




10-3 


08-8 


22-912 




22-9 









141 


22-659 


22-66 


22-62 


2 






17-3 


22-371 




22-3 









210 


22-142 






2 






23-7 


21-504 


21-50 


21-48 









31-8 


21-279 




20-8 


1 
In 






34-5 


19-667 






o 




54-8 


19-062 




19-2 


2 




62'4 


18-913 






o 




64-4 


18-460 


18-46 


18-6 


4 




70 




17 74 


17-7 


2 






80-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 107 

Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

VflMinni 




Wave-length 

(Kay sen 






Intensity 
and 


V il'LllLl 111 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


2817-192 




2817-3 


3 


0-80 


10-3 


35485-9 






16-7 


In 


JJ 


JJ 








15-9 


1 


J> 


JJ 




15-410 




15-6 





JJ 


J» 


35508-5 




2815T8 


15-2 


1 


JJ 


J) 


11-4 






14-7 


2 


JJ 


JJ 




13807 


13-81 


13-78 





99 


JJ 


28-7 




13-44 


13-38 


4 


99 


J» 


33-3 


12-925 




130 


2 


J> 


JJ 


48-3 






12-9 


1 


JJ 


JJ 






1206 


12-2 


1 


JJ 


JJ 


50-8 




11-66 


11-S 


1 


JJ 


JJ 


55-9 


11-360 









19 


JJ 


59-6 


10-788 


10-79 


10-79 





99 


JJ 


66-9 


10-645 


10-65 


10-5 


3 


JJ 


JJ 


68-7 


10131 


10-13 


10-3 


4 


)» 


)J 


75-2 


08-335 




08-5 





JJ 


jj 


97-9 




07-7 


07-7 


2 


JJ 


JJ 


35606-0 




07-34 


07-5 


2 


JJ 


JJ 


10-6 


06-845 


06-85 


06-85 





99 


JJ 


16-9 






06-5 


In 


JJ 


JJ 






04-94 


051 


2 


JJ 


JJ 


411 






04 


1 


99 


JJ 






03-76 


03-7 


1 


99 


JJ 


561 


03-593 




03-4 


1 


99 


JJ 


58-2 


02-907 


02-91 


031 


2 


JJ 


JJ 


66-9 


02-260 


02-26 


02-4 





JJ 


JJ 


751 






01-6 


1 


JJ 


JJ 








01-2 


1 


JJ 


JJ 




00-785 


00-79 


00-7 


1 


JJ 


JJ 


94 






00-6 


1 


JJ 


JJ 




00-243 


0003 







99 
JJ 


JJ 
JJ 


35701-9 




2799-71 


2799-7 


1 


JJ 


JJ 


07-7 






99-4 


1 


99 


JJ 






98-91 


99 


2 


JJ 


10-4 


17-8 




97 91 


97 9 


1 


JJ 


jj 


30-6 




97-20 


97 3 


1 


JJ 


>> 


39-6 


^796-652 


96-65 


96-6 





99 


?j 


46-6 




9610 


96-2 


1 


JJ 


»j 


53-7 






95-7 


1 


J) 


jj 




95-464 


95-46 


95-6 





99 


jj 


61-8 




94-42 


94-4 


2 


JJ 


jj 


75-2 






93-2 


1 


JJ 


jj 




92-746 






2 


J) 


u 


96-7 


92-418 


92-42 


92-4 


2 


99 


jj 


35800-9 


91-164 


91-16 


91-3 





JJ 


jj 


041 


90-695 









99 


jj 


230 




90-28 


90-3 


2 


JJ 


jj 


28-3 


89-720 


89-72 


89-6 





JJ 


jj 


35-5 




88-84 


88-8 


2 


JJ 


jj 


46-8 






88-5 


1 


JJ 


jj 




87-930 


87-93 


87-95 


3 


99 


jj 


58-5 




87-35 


87-5 


2 


JJ 


jj 


65-7 




86-50 


86-5 


1 


J> 


j> 


66-9 




85-90 


85-92 


4 


JJ 


»j 


84-6 



108 



REPORT— 1904. 



Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 

Vnfinim 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 




: 


Intensity 
and 


V 'h 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


1 Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


2785-746 






1 


0-80 


10-4 


35886-6 




2785-29 


2785-3 


2 


99 




92-4 


84-978 









J» 




96-5 


84-625 


84-62 


84-6 





»* 




35901-1 




83-85 


83-9 
83-0 


2 
1 


0-79 

5» 




111 


82-305 


82-31 


82-4 
81-0 


1 
2n 


99 
>> 




210 


80-858 


80-86 


80-5 
80-0 


2 
1 
1 


99 
99 




49-7 




79-54 


79-6 
79-2 


2 
2 






66 7 


79-081 


7908 







9* 




72-6 




78-54 


78-48 

78-2 


6 
1 


99 




79-7 


77-629 


77-63 


77-8 
77-6 
76-5 



2 
1 


99 




82-6 


76-009 




75-9 


1 


>» 




36012-5 


75-723 


75-72 


75-70 





99 




16-2 


75-288 




75-3 
75-2 


1 
1 


99 
»9 




21-9 


74-589 


74-25 


74-7 
74-4 

73-2 


2 
1 

1 


tf 

99 

99 




310 


73-068 




72-9 





99 




50-8 


72-716 


72-72 







9» 




55-3 




72-55 


72-58 
72-2 


4 

1 


99 




57-5 




7199 


72-1 


1 


>» 




64-8 




71-59 


71-6 


1 


S5 




70-0 




71-15 


71-3 


2 


JJ 




75-7 


70-805 




70-9 


2 


99 




80-2 


70-399 


70-40 


70-5 





JJ 




85-5 


69-993 









» 




90-8 


69024 


69 02 


69 02 


4 


»» 


10-5 


36103-2 


68032 









M 




16-2 




67-66 


67-7 
67 5 
671 


1 
1 
1 


99 

99 

» 




211 




66-66 


66-7 


2 


79 




341 


G6-323 









»J 




38-5 




6600 


661 


2 


ff 




42-8 


65-530 


65-53 


65-55 


2 


99 




48-8 




65-24 


65-25 


4 


99 


" 


52-7 


64-824 




650 


2 


99 


» 


58-2 


64005 




64-2 


1 


>> 




68-9 


63-513 


63-53 


63-6 


4 


»| 




75-3 


63-232 




63-3 
62-9 


2 
1 






790 


62-400 




62-4 


2 


>> 




89-9 




6217 


62-2 


1 


)» 




93-0 




61-60 


61-7 

61-5 1 


1 
In 


1> 


:; t 


36201-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 109 

Ruthenium — continued. 











Reduction to 


I 




Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 


1 
A 

10-5 


in Vacuo 




2760-88 


2760-9 


2 


0-79 


36209-8 


2760-268 


60-27 


60-2 
59-8 









17-8 




59-35 


59-3 




99 


» 


29-9 






59-0 


2 


99 


5> 








58-5 




»> 


J> 




58T04 


5810 


58-0 




»» 


J» 


46-3 


57-912 




57 5 








48-8 


57-175 




571 
56-7 
56-6 




9> 




58-5 




56-46 


56-5 
560 




99 




67-9 




55-80 Fe * 


55-9 
55-5 




99 


J) 

99 






55-30 


55-3 


2 


)) 


>J 


83-2 






54-3 


1 


)J 


)) 




53-543 


53-54 


53-6 


2 


>> 


J) 


36306-3 


52-868 


52-87 


52-94 


2 


J) 


JJ 


15-2 


52-548 


52-55 


52-59 


2 


)> 


»J 


19-5 




52-14 


52-3 


2 


99 


JJ 


24-8 


51-698 




51-9 





>> 


JJ 


30-7 






51-6 


1 


» 


»> 








51-0 


1 


») 


>J 




50-452 




50-6 





99 


10-6 


47-0 


49-923 









J> 


»> 


54-1 




49-66 


49-7 


2 


99 


>> 


57-5 




49-26 


49-4 


2 


99 


»> 


62-8 






49-2 


2 


>» 


»» 








48-7 


1 


99 


jj 








48-3 


In 


>> 


»> 






48-03 


48-08 


4 


J> 


» 


791 




47-62 


47-7 


1 


)> 


J3 


84-5 


46-991 


47-00 


471 





*» 


>> 


92-9 




46-75 


46-8 


2 


» 


)T 


96-1 


46-169 


46-17 


46-2 


o 


)J 


J> 


36403-9 




45-90 


45-98 


4 


>» 


>» 


07 3 


45-343 









99 


>» 


14-7 




45-22 


45-22 


4 


99 


)» 


16-3 


44-821 









JJ 


)» 


21-6 


44-541 


44-54 


44-62 


2 


»» 


J> 


25-3 


44 022 


4402 


44-10 


2 


>J 


») 


32-3 




43-57 


43-62 


4 


>> 


>> 


38-3 






43-3 


In 


»» 


» 








42-6 


2 


>> 


99 






42-15 


42-2 


1 


J» 


>t 


571 






41-7 


In 


0-78 


ff 








41-5 


1 


» 


99 








41-4 


In 


>> 


>> 








40-7 


2 


» 


J» 




40-327 




40-3 


1 


» 


>> 


81-4 


40-085 









»> 


>» 


84-6 




39-68 Fe 


39-8 


In 


99 


>» 




39-311 


39-40 


39-4 


4 


!» 


>> 


94-9 


1 




391 


1 


H 


»> 





110 



REPORT — 1904. 



Ruthenium — continued. 



Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 

2738-9 


A.+ 

0-78 


1_ 


2738-983 




10-6 


36501-3 






38-3 


1 




' 








38-0 


2 










2737-87 


37-8 


2 


if 




141 




37-66 












36-917 


36-92 


36-98 









26-9 


36-412 


36-54 


36-6 





ft 




33-8 


35-806 


35-81 


35-9 


2 


s» 




41-7 


34-438 


34-44 
33 68 


34-44 
33-7 


3 






59-9 
70-1 


33167 




33-2 





»» 


j» 


77-0 




32-83 


32-8 
32-5 Ir ? 




»» 


»» 


79-5 


32011 




321 





J> 


f3 


92-5 




31-48 


31-5 


■ 






99-6 


31-028 




311 


2 




j> 


36605-7 




30-79 


30-7 








08-8 


30-416 


30-42 


30-5 


2 






13-9 


30-115 













17-9 


29-540 


29-54 
29-04 
27-74 


29-5 
28-9 

27 4 


2 






25-6 
32-3 


27-063 


27-06 


271 
26-6 







10-7 


58-8 


25-549 


25-55 


25-55 


4 




99 


79-2 




24-95 


24-95 
24-2 






» 


87-2 


24-153 




240 
23-6 






9> 


97-9 




2310 


23-3 








36712-1 


22-903 




22-8 







9 , 


14-8 


22-760 


22-76 


22-6 


3 






16-8 


22-493 




1 









20-3 


21-937 











yy 


35-4 


21-653 




21-7 
21-3 
20-4 


3 






31-7 


19-838 


19-84 


19-8 









56-2 


19-610 


19-61 


19-7 


5 






59-3 


18-919 


18-92 


190 







•a 


68-6 




17-93 


180 








82-0 


17-510 


17-51 


17-45 


2 






87-7 


17100 




16-8 







99 


93-2 




16-23 


16-3 








36805-0 




1615 












15-595 




15-6 


2 






13-6 


15-326 




15-3 Rh 

14-3 

140 







" 


173 


13-824 


13-66 


13-7 


1 


" 




37-7 


13-272 


1314 


13-2 


2 






451 


12-967 











49-3 


12-493 


12-49 


12-43 


4 






55-7 


12-169 


1 


1 





,, 


JS 


60-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. Ill 

Ruthenium — continued. 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

K 


in Vacuo 






2711-9 




0-78 


10-7 








11-2 






»> 




2710321 


2710-32 


10-3 
10-0 







99 


36885-3 


09-851 











»» 


91-7 


09-291 


09-29 


09-3 


2 




»* 


99-3 


09-157 




091 







,» 


36901-2 


08-930 




08-7 







99 


04-2 


08-054 




08-2 


2 




39 


16-2 




07-41 


07 5 
07-4 
06-6 
05-6 Rh 


In 
2 

1 
lu 




91 
•» 


250 


05-416 











99 


52-2 




04-99 


04-9 


In 




91 


58-0 




04-65 


04-7 


2 




13 


62-7 




04-31 


04-4 


1 




99 


67-3 


03-891 




04-0 


2 




JJ 


731 


03-403 




03-7 







JJ 


79-7 


03-221 




03 







19 


82-3 


02-916 


02-92 


02-8 


4 




99 


86-4 


01-434 




015 


4 




99 


87-0 




01-09 


01-2 


2 




10-8 


97-6 


00-772 


00-77 


00-8 







99 


37015-6 


00-578 






1 




93 


18-3 




00-32 


00-3 


2 




99 


21-8 


2699-957 




oo-o 


1 




99 


26-8 




2699-42 


2699-5 


1 




• J 


34-2 




98-80 






: 77 


J> 






98-23 








>» 




98-161 







1 





fj 


51-4 


97-595 




97-8 




99 

99 


59-3 






97-4 


2 




>» 






97-18 








)) 




96-653 




96-7 







11 


72-2 




94-85 


94-8 
94-5 


1 
1 




J) 


970 




94-25 


94-3 
93-9 


1 
1 




„ 


37105-3 


93-750 


93-75 


93-6 







sj 


12-1 


93-392 


93-39 




2 




™ 


171 


92199 ? 


92-20 


92-08 


4 




»> 


33-5 


90-904 











»> 


51-4 


90-487 


90-49 


904 


1 




ft 


57-2 


j 


89-51 


89-6 


1 




99 


70-7 


88-969 


88-97 




1 




yf 


78-2 


88-668 






1 




it 


82-3 


88-216 


88-22 


88-4 


1 




99 


88-6 


87-580 


87-58 


87-7 


1 




tl 


97 4 


87-214 


87 21 


87-3 


1 




93 


37202-4 




86-94 


87-1 


2 




n 


06-3 


86-375 


86-38 


86-5 


4 




f> 


140 




85-94 


86-1 


1 




»> 


201 




85-57 


85-8 


1 




»» 


25-2 


85-242 


85-24 


85-4 







»» 


29-7 



112 



RETORT -1904. 



Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exncr and 
Haschek 

2684-9 


Character 


A + 

0-77 


1 

A 
10*8 


in Vacuo 


2684-540 


2684-69 





47239-5 


84-172 




84-3 Rh 


1 


»» 


>' 


44-6 


83-756 






1 


)> 


»> 


50-4 




82-84 


82-9 


In 


9> 


>> 


63-1 






81-5 


1 


>> 


»> 






80-66 


80-7 


2 


„ 


j) 


93-4 






800 


1 


91 


»» 




79-843 


79 54 


79-7 


1 


99 




37304-8 


78-837 


78-84 


78-79 


4 


9> 


10-9 


18-7 


78-267 


78-27 


78-3 





99 


j, 


27-7 


77-967 









IS 


»» 


30-9 


77-406 




77-5 





99 


» > 


38-7 


77-057 


76-86 


77-0 





»» 
»» 




43-5 


76-430 


76-27 


76-4 


2 


91 


»» 

»* 


52-3 




75-58 


75-7 


2 


»> 


91 


64-2 


75-273 


75-27 


75-2 





?» 


91 


68-4 




74-27 


74-4 


2 


91 


>» 


82-5 


73-930 




73-7 





91 


?> 


87-8 


73-691 




73-7 


2 


11 


J) 


90-6 


73-550 






2 


M 


99 


92-5 


73-089 


73 09 


73-2 





91 


99 


99 






72-6 


2 


)J 


99 




72-451 


72-45 


72-5 





11 


11 


37407 9 


70-813 









)> 


)> 


30-9 


70-586 


70-60 


70-7 





ij 


11 


33 9 






69-6 


2 


>» 


5> 






69-24 






91 


)> 






68-71 


68-7 


1 


11 


>) 


60-4 


68-421 









11 


>» 


64-5 


68-042 


67-89 


68-1 


1 


>> 
>> 


11 
JI 


69-8 


67-479 


67-48 


67 35 


1 


>) 


»> 


77-6 


65-803 






1 


11 


J> 


37501-2 


65-542 


65-54 


65-4 





)» 


)? 


04-9 


65-227 




65-1 





»» 


!» 


09-4 


64-833 


64-83 
64-65 




4 






14-9 




63-85 


63-6 


1 


19 


)» 


28-8 




62-94 


630 


2 


j) 


J» 


41-6 




62-36 


62-3 


2 


»» 


99 


50-2 


61-937 









J? 


99 


55-7 


61-690 


61-69 


61-64 


4 


;> 


19 


59-2 


61-249 


61-25 


61-20 


2 


n 


»* 


65-4 


60-673 




60-8 





»» 


)» 


71-6 




59-64 


59-8 


2 


»J 


)9 


88-2 






59-5 


In 


j> 


99 




58-862 









)> 


99 


99-2 


58-482 


58-28 


58-4 


2 


11 


11 


37604-6 


57-249 


57-25 


57-3 


1 


>> 


99 


22 


56-776 






1 


»j 


110 


28-6 


56-641 






1 


s» 


»j 


30-5 


56-328 


56-33 


56-35 


1 


11 


j> 


350 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMEN1S. 

Ruthenium — continued. 



113 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 
A 


in Vacuo 


2655-292 






1 


0-77 


11-0 


37649-6 


55193 









99 


II 


510 


54-898 


2654-90 


2655-1 





0-76 


II 


55*2 


54-563 


54-01 


54-7 
54-2 



2 


" 


II 
II 
91 


60-0 


53-776 






1 




91 


712 


53-240 


53 05 


53-2 

52-7 


1 

1 




II 
99 

91 


78-8 


52-240 


52-05 


52-3 







91 
99 


930 


51-936 


51-94 


520 


4 




99 


97 3 


51-603 




51-7 Rh ? 







99 


37702*0 


51-366 


51-37 


51-5 


2 




91 


05-4 


50-968 


50-97 









99 


11*1 


50-693 




50-6 







99 


15-0 


50-486 


5049 


50-4 


1 




99 


17*9 




5021 


50-2 


1 




II 


21*8 


G0-076 











19 


23*8 


49-608 




49-7 


2 




II 


30*4 


48-872 


48-87 


48-95 


2 




11 


40*9 


48-706 











II 


43-3 


48-535 






1 




II 


45*7 


47-019 




48-1 


1 




II 


531 


47-394 




47-5 
47-0 


2 
1 




II 

II 


620 


46-715 











99 


71*7 


46-087 


4609 


46-1 
45-3 


2 
1 




II 


80*7 


44-711 


44-71 


44-7 







II 


37800*3 


44-187 











II 


08-6 


43-600 


43-60 


43-7 
43-3 



2 




II 
II 


16*2 


43-042 


4304 


431 


4 




II 


24*2 


42-607 




42-5 
42-3 



1 




II 
19 


30*4 


42063 


42-06 









91 


38-2 




41-72 


41-7 


2 




II 


43*1 


41-549 











J9 


45*6 


40-413 


40-41 




2 




II 


61*9 




39-67 


39-7 


2 




II 


72*5 


39-205 




39-3 


2 




99 


79*4 


38-597 


38-60 


38-6 
38-5 
38-2 


2 
1 
1 




99 
99 
99 


87'9 




36-95 


36-9 


1 




99 


37911*6 


36-760 




36-7 


2 




99 


14-3 


36-617 


36-62 









99 


16*4 


35-927 


35-93 


36-0 Pd 


4 




19 


26*3 


35-451 


35-45 
33-93 


35-4 
33-7 




1 




99 

91 
II 


33*2 


33-537 











II 


60-8 




32-83 


32-9 


2 




II 


70-7 


32-584 




32-5 


1 




II 


74 5 


1904. 












I 



114 



REPORT 1904. 

Ruth ex i um— continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 

37979-9 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A.+ 


1_ 


2632-210 




2632-4 





0-76 


110 


31-657 




31-7 
31-5 


1 
1 


n 


111 


87-8 




2631-22 


31-3 


2 






94-1 


30-314 






1 


it 




38007-1 




3019 


30-2 


2 






090 


30010 









ft 




11-6 




29-49 


29-5 


1 






191 




28-91 


28-9 


2 






27 5 


28-621 













31-6 


28-375 


28-38 
27-90 


28-3 Pd ? 


4 


99 




35-2 


27737 


27-74 


27-5 


1 

1 


99 




44-5 




26-60 


26-5 


2 






60-9 


26-444 













63-2 


26-290 


25-95 


261 









65-4 




25-59 


25-6 
25-5 


1 
2 




„ 


75-6 


25-168 




25-2 







" 


81-7 




24-87 


24-9 


1 






86-0 




24-35 


24-3 


1 




" 


93-6 


23-914 






1 






99-9 




23-76 


23-7 


In 






38102-1 




23 51 


231 
22-9 
22-4 


1 
1 
In 










21-91 


21-9 


1 






29 




21-46 


21-4 


1 






35-6 


21173 




21-2 









39-8 


20-713 


20-71 


20-8 


2 






46-4 


20154 


2015 


20-2 









54-6 


19-745 




19-8 


2 






60-5 




19-42 


19-5 


2 






65-3 


19105 


18-68 


19-2 









69-8 


17-882 




/18-0 
1 17-6 


1 
1 






87-7 




17-29 


17-2 


2 






96-3 




16-50 


16-5 
15-7 


1 
1 






38207-9 


15179 


15-18 


15-2 


2 






27-2 




14-93 


15-0 


2 






31-0 


14-671 




14-8 Pd 


2 






34-6 


14151 


1415 


14-2 
140 


1 
In 






42-2 




13-37 


13-4 


In 






53-6 


13143 













570 


12-990 













59-2 


i 


12-63 


12-6 


2 






64-5 


12-165 


1217 


12-2 


2 






71-3 




11-99 


120 


1 


J, 


73-9 




11-63 


11-6 


2 




79-2 


11130 




11-2 


2 1 




« 


86-5 



()X WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OK THE SPECTKA OE THE ELEMENTS. 

Ruthenium — continued. 



Ill 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 

(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 










Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 
261018 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


K + 


1 


in V;icuo 
S8300-3 




2610-2 


2 


076 


11-0 


2609-573 


09-57 


09-6 


2 


0-75 


tt 


09-5 


09143 


0914 


09-2 
08-5 


4 
1 




11-2 

ft 


15-5 


08-024 


08 02 


08-0 


1 




99 


320 


07-440 











it 


40-6 




07-18 Fo 


07-0 


1 




tt 






06-40 


06-4 


2r± 




tt 


56-8 


05-950 




06-0 


2 




It 


62-5 


05-439 




05-5 


2 




tt 


68-4 


04-409 


04-41 


04-3 







tt 


85-2 




03-43 


03-4 


In 




>» 


99-6 




0300 


030 


1 




tt 


38406-0 




02-49 


02-4 


2 




it 


13-5 


01-553 


01-55 


01-6 


2 




tt 


27-3 


0T392 











>> 


29-7 


00-840 


00-5 


00-7 







It 
tt 


37-9 




0000 


2599-9 


1 




tt 


50-3 




2599-53 Fe 


99-6 
99-5 


1 
1 




tt 
it 






98-99 Fe 


99-0 


2 




if 




2598-681 


98-68 


98-6 







tt 


09-8 




9807 


981 


2 




it 


78-9 




97-84 


97-7 


1 




tt 


82-3 


97-417 


97 42 


97-3 


1 




it 


88-5 


96043 


96-04 


960 







tt 


38508-9 


95-734 











it 


12-5 


94-926 




95- 1 


2 




tt 


25-5 




94-65 


94-6 


1 




tt 


29-6 




93-79 


93-9 
93-6 
93-3 
931 
92-3 


In 
In 
In 
In 
1 




99 

tt 


42-4 


92-093 






2 




it 


67-6 


91-710 











tt 


73-4 




91-44 


91-5 


2 




it 


77-4 


91-201 


91-20 


91-3 


2 




tt 


80-9 


91-087 






1 




tt 


82-6 


89-886 




89-9 





>> 


tt 


38600-5 


89-649 


89-65 


89-6 


2 




tt 


04- 1 


89-129 




89-0 







it 


11-8 




88-08 


88-1 


1 




11-3 


273 


87-413 











t> 


373 




86-95 


87-0 


In 




>> 


44-4 


86-157 


86-16 


86-0 







9) 


561 


85-815 











tt 


612 


85-412 




85-6 


1 




it 


lit 


84-211 




84-4 


2 




tt 


85-2 


83131 


8313 


83-2 
83 1 


2 
1 




It 


3870T4 






82-7 


1 


>> 


ft 






82-48 






»» 


>l 




8] -990 




821 


2 


»» 


»» 


200 






81-6 


1 


tt 


19 


12 



116 



REroRT — 1904. 
Ruthenium— continued. 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




"Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 










Frequency 


Are Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


2581216 


2581-23 


2581-3 
810 


2 
1 


0-75 


11-3 


38730-1 


80-883 






2 








351 


80-316 


80-32 
80-08 


80-4 











436 


79-879 


79-94 


79-8 











50-2 


79-623 






2 








54-0 


79-309 




79 3 


1 








5S-7 


79-071 


7910 




2 








62-4 


78-653 


78-65 


78-8 
78-4 

77-5 


o 
1 

1 






" 


68-7 


77052 


77-11 


77-2 









*> 


92-7 




76-17 


76-3 

75-7 


2 
In 








38806-0 


75-339 




74-8 


1 
1 








18-5 




74-20 


74-3 


1 








35-7 


73-654 


73-65 


73-6 
73-3 



1 








44-0 




73-09 


73-0 


1 








52-5 




72-71 


72-7 


In 








58-2 


72-512 






2 








61-2 


72-370 






2 








63-3 




7117 


71-3 


2 








81-4 


71-068 




70-8 
70-5 


2 
1 








83-0 


70-180 




70-0 











96-4 


69-840 


69-84 


69-8 
69-5 


2 
1 








38 01-6 




68-93 


691 


2 








15-4 


68-854 




68-2 


4 
1 






11-4 


16-6 


67-981 




67-7 


1 
1 








29-7 


66-666 


66-67 


66-8 


2 








49-6 




66-30 


66-5 
661 


2 
1 








55-2 




65-77 


65-8 
65-5 Pd 


2 

1 








63-3 


65-277 




65-1 


1 
1 








70-7 


64-674 


64-73 


64-9 


1 


o' 


74 




79-9 


64-503 















82-5 




64-02 


64-2 


2 








89-9 




63-78 


63-8 


1 








93-5 




63-38 


63-5 


1 








99-6 




63-00 


63-2 


1 


, 






39005-4 




62-58 


62-8 


1 






11-5 


11-7 


62-252 




62-4 
61-7 
61-4 
61-1 


2 
1 
1 

1 


' 




!> 


16-7 


60-920 




610 


3 








37 


60-347 


60-35 


60-5 
C01 


2 
T 






;; 


45-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OK THE SrECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 117 

Ruthenium— continued. 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 






Intensity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 


(Kayser) 


1 




Arc Spectrum 
2559-497 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 

0-74 


1 

A 
115 ' 


in Vacuo 


2559-60 


2559-7 





39058-7 




58-91 






»? 


>> 




58-626 


58-63 


58-7 


2 


" 


J« 


720 


58-359 


| 







J» 


>> 


76-1 




58-13 


58-2 


1 


J! 


J3 


79-6 


57-784 


57-78 


57-9 


1 


»» 


)> 


84-8 




57-25 


573 


2 


•» 


)J 


930 


56-994 


56-96 


56-9 





?) 


:» 


96-9 


56-100 


56-10 


56-2 


2 


»> 


1 


39110*0 


55-955 


55-96 


55-9 


2 


>> 


SJ 


12*8 


55-734 









»» 


)J 


162 






550 


In 


»> 


jj 




54-790 






1 


" 


>> 


307 






54-5 


1 


1 


5> 




54060 






1 


1 

w 


»» 


41-9 




53 -58 


53-6 


In 


" 


JJ 


46*0 


52-965 









» 


S? 


63-5 


52-524 









>> 


)J 


65-4 


52-384 









9) 


JJ 


68-5 


52-083 


52-08 


5210 





" 


)» 


72-3 


51-822 


51-82 


51-7 Pd 





»» 


?» 


76-2 


51-466 




51-4 


1 


?» 


>> 


81*6 


50-946 






1 


» 


)» 


89-6 




49-92 


50-0 


2 


S> 


»» 


39205-4 


49-664 






2 


)> 


)> 


09-4 


49-576 




49-6 


2 


J» 


)» 


10-7 


49-260 


49-26 


49-3 ' 





» 


)» 


150 




48-86 


49-0 


1 


J> 


5» 


21-7 






48-1 


1 


»» 


»> 




47-600 


47-80 


47-8 


1 


»» 


»» 


41-2 






47 


2 


»J 


»» 




46-765 


46-81 




2 


>> 


)» 


54-0 


45-866 


46-01 


45-8 





JJ 


)» 


07*8 




45-10 


451 


In 


s> 


J» 


79-0 


44-318 


44-32 


44-4 


2 


») 


JJ 


91-0 


43-778 






1 


>J 


>> 


39300*1 


.43-349 


43-35 


43-38 


2 


)J 


" 


00-7 


43-240 









)> 


JJ 


08-4 


42-601 









>» 


J» 


18*3 




42-24 


42-3 


2n 


>> 


)> 


23*8 






41-6 


1 


JJ 


)» 




41-381 









)» 


»> 


371 


40-411 


40-41 


40-43 





>* 


r» 


52-2 


39-822 


39-82 


39-90 


1 


»> 


j> 


61-3 


38-565 









>> 


j» 


80-9 






38-1 


In 


J» 


jj 




37-776 


37-78 
37-18 
36-E0 
36-51 


376 







>> 


931 


36-315 









)» 


»» 


39415-7 




35-80 


35-7 


2 


>J 


j> 


23-8 




35-42 


35-5 


2 


)> 


» 


29-7 


35-147 


3515 


351 





>» 


>» 


33-9 




34-23 


34-2 


2 


J) 


)» 


48-2 




1 33-66 


33-6 


1 


»> 


' »» 


57-1 



118 



REPORT — 1904. 
Ruthenium — contin tied. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 


T tl'L/Lilllll 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


i 

A. 


in Vacuo 

i 


2533-331 


2533-33 


2533-3 


1 


0-74 


11-5 


39462-2 


32-128 






1 


»» 


5> 


68-7 




30-67 


300 


2 


J} 


JJ 


39503-7 




30-40 


30-2 


1 


9) 


J) 


07-9 


29-812 


29-81 


29-7 


1 


99 


11-6 


170 


28-813 









)» 


99 


32-8 


28-027 


28-03 


28-00 





>> 


>> 


45 




27-19 


27-2 


111 




99 


58-1 


26914 




271 


2 




99 


62-4 


20011 









»» 


J» 


76-7 


25-726 


25-68 


25-0 Ir 







99 


81-0 


25-263 


25-12 









99 


88-3 


24-952 


24-95 


25-0 
24-G 
23-9 
23-3 



1 

1 
1 






99-9 




22-83 


22-8 


1 




99 


39626-4 


22-410 




22-5 







99 


33 


21-7(tu 




21-9 


2 




,9 


44-2 




21-08 


21-0 


2 




»• 


53-9 


20025 


20-89 


20-8 


1 




» * 


56-4 


20-041 











JJ 


70-3 




19-40 


19-32 


4 




»> 


7S-9 


18-601 


18-00 


18-55 







99 


94-0 


17-728 






2 




)» 


39700-7 


17 403 

- 


17-40 
17 00 


17-38 


2 




99 
»> 


11-9 


10-882 




10-9 







99 


201 




10-25 


10-2 


In 




99 


300 




15-74 


15-8 


1 




it 


38-1 


15-372 




15-5 


1 




99 


43-9 




14-10 


14-3 


In 




99 


64-1 


13-417 


13-42 


13-40 


2 




>> 


74-9 


12-898 




130 


2 




99 


83-1 




12-79 


12-7 


1 




99 


84-8 


11-652 




11-7 


1 




11-7 


39802-7 




11-41 


11-4 


In 




>> 


04-9 


11-058 









99 


»j 


121 


10-238 











»» 


25-2 


09-709 




090 





„ 


»» 


33-6 


09-160 




09-2 


1 


0-73 


97 


42-3 


08-508 


08-81 


08-80 


2 




»» 


52-6 


08-377 




08-4 


2 




J» 


54-8 


07-090 


07-13 


07-16 


2 




99 


75-1 




00-01 


06-0 
06-5 


2 
2 


;; 


99 


82-7 




00-18 


061 




„ 


>• 


91-2 




05-73 


05-8 Pd 
05-5 




;; 


»> 
>> 


96-8 




05-13 


05-1 




)( 


>> 


39906-3 




03-40 


03-4 






>» 


340 


02-966 




03-0 







»> 


40-9 


02-484 


02-48 


02-5 







n 


48-5 


01-990 


02-12 


02-1 







>> 


56-5 


01-569 




01-7 


2 


„ i 


it 


61-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

Ruthenium — continued. 



119 











Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 










Frequency 


Arc Spectrun 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


2500-940 









0-73 


11-7 


39973-3 


00-484 


2500-36 


2500-3 







»> 


80-5 


2499-873 




2499-9 


2 




91 


90-3 




2499-60 


99-5 
99-2 


1 
1 






94-7 


98-670 


98-67 


98-7 Pd 


2 




#J 


40009-6 


98-512 




98-6 
98-1 


2 

1 




J) 


121 




9714 


97-0 


1 




if 


341 


95-775 


95-88 


95-8 


2 




99 


56-0 


94-773 


94-77 


94-6 


1 




99 


73-6 




94-22 


94-3 


1 




5> 


810 


94-116 


94-00 


93-80 
92-9 
92-3 
921 


2 
1 
1 
1 




11-8 

»* 

39 


82-7 


91-847 


91-85 


91-6 
91-4 


2 
1 




99 

99 


40119-1 




91-10 


91-2 


2 




11 


311 


90-555 




90-7 







99 


39-9 


90017 






2 




11 


48-6 




89-34 


89-5 


2 




11 


59-5 




88-58 


88-7 Pd 

88-3 

88-1 

87-7 


2 

1 
1 

1 




11 

9* 
11 


71-8 




87-26 


87-3 
86-7 Pd 


1 

In 




11 


931 




86-31 


86-3 


1 




99 


4020S-5 




84-66 








11 




84-055 


84-06 


84-2 







11 


450 




83-82 


83-7 
83-3 
830 


1 
1 

2 




91 
99 
99 


47-8 


82-628 











19 


68-1 






820 


1 




19 


810 




81-83 








11 




81-216 


81-22 


81-30 







19 


910 




80-83 


810 
80-3 


2 
1 




99 


97 3 


79-611 











>> 


40317-1 


79-458 











9t 


19-6 


79-010 


7901 


7902 


2 




»* 


26-9 




78-33 


78-5 
78-2 


2 
1 




If 

9* 


38 




77-22 


77-4 
77-1 


2 

1 




»» 

>» 


561 


76-960 




76-6 


2 




11-9 


60-3 


76-395 




76-4 







*t 


69-2 


75-483 




750 


2 
2 




>> 


84-4 


74-506 


74-55 









>> 


40400-2 


74-115 




74-2 


1 




>» 


06-6 




73-55 


73-8 


1 




>» 


15-8 




72-81 


730 


2 




»> 


27-9 


72-215 


72-22 


72-6 







»» 


376 



120 



REPORT — 1904. 







RUTHENIUM- 


-continued. 












Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 


| 


Wave-length 






Intensity 


V 1H- LI 1 . Mil 


Oscillation 


(Kayser) 






and 






Frequency 


Are Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


i_ 


in Vacuo 


2471-576 




2471-8 
71-3 




1 


0-73 

II 


11 -9 


40448-1 


70-805 











ft 


JJ 


60-7 


70-608 


2470-61 
69-78 


70-7 

68-8 
68-5 




1 
1 





•72 

9 


»! 


640 


67-674 


67-67 


67-7 
67-5 
67-3 
66-4 




1 
1 

In 




9 

9 

i 

9 


99 
99 
9i 
91 


105121 






65-7 


1 




9 


ft 








65-5 


1 




t 


it 








651 


1 










64-781 


64-78 


64-9 


2 




i 




59-7 


64-474 











y 


j» 


647 






64-0 


1 




t 






63-026 


63-03 


631 
62-8 


2 
1 




9 


99 


88-6 




62-20 


62-3 


1 






it 


40603-2 


61-506 


60-57 


61-7 
61-5 



1 








13-7 




6017 


60-1 
59-6 
59-4 


1 
1 
1 






99 


35-7 


59-146 


59-15 











120 


42-6 


58-706 




58-8 Rh 


2 




, 




59-8 


57-311 


57-31 


57 4 







, 




82-9 


57-050 






1 








87-2 


56-666 




56-70 


4 








93-6 


56-519 


56-59 


56-60 


4 








96-0 


56-376 















98-3 


55-614 


55-61 


55-66 


5 








407120 


55-005 




54-9 


2 








21-2 


54-267 


54-27 


54-4 











33-6 




53-85 


54-0 
52-6 


2 
In 








40-3 




51-27 


51-4 
511 


2 
2 








83-2 


50-650 


50-90 


50-7 


1 






" 


93-5 


50-464 


50-46 


50-6 









" 


96-7 


49-958 




49-6 


1 


f 


; 


» 


40805 


48-958 


48-96 


490 

48-4 




1 


9 


' 




28-0 


47 537 




47-6 
46-9 
46-7 


In 
1 

1 


9 






45-4 


45-519 


45-52 













791 


44-924 









9 






89-1 


44-497 




44-5 





f 


. 




96-2 


44-129 




44-2 


1 


f 




" 


40902-4 




43-48 


43-4 


2n 


$ 




121 


13-2 


43-036 









9 




" 


21-6 


i 


41-82 


41-6 


1 f 


9 






410 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 121 

Hut h eni tiM- continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 




Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 






~ j '. 


Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


1 K 


in Vacuo 


2441-419 


2441-42 


2441-4 





0-72 


121 


40947-7 


41-051 


41-05 


40-9 


1 


ft 


it 


53-9 


39-715 


39-72 


39-7 





»» 


tt 


76-3 






39-3 


1 


ti 


tt 








390 


1 


it 


>t 








38-8 


1 


it 


tt 








38-5 


1 


„ 


a 








37-3 


1 


i9 


j> 




37019 




371 





a 


»> 


41021-7 






36-6 


1 


»» 


tt 








36-3 


1 


a 


it 






35-53 


35-62 


4 


a 


jj 


46-8 


34-980 


34-98 


35 1 





a 


a 


65-9 




33-81 


340 


In 


a a 


75-7 






33-2 


In 


tt >> 








330 


1 


it 


a 






32-25 


32-3 


2 


a 


a 


411021 






31-6 


1 


a 


a 








30-8 


1 


a 


it 






3045 


30-5 


2 


f» 


tt 


32-6 


29-672 




29-6 


2 


a 


it 


45-7 






29-4 


1 


a 


tt 








291 


1 


a 


a 






28-98 


29-0 


1 


a 


5» 


57-5 




27-82 


27-8 


2 


tf 


12*2 


77-0 




27-26 


27-2 


1 


tt 


a 


86-5 




26-96 






a 


a 


91-6 




26-66 


26-7 


1 


tt 


tt 


96-7 






26-0 


In 


a 


tt 








25-7 


In 


it 


a 






24-56 


24-6 


1 


»» 


»» 


41232-5 






23-7 


In 


it 


a 






22-91 


230 


2 


it 


J) 


60-5 




22-30 


22-4 


2 


it 


tt 


70-9 






21-4 


1 


0-71 


tt 




20-905 




209 


2 


>» 


tt 


94-7 




20-24 


20-3 


1 


tt 


)* 


41306-0 






20-2 


1 


»J 


tt 








20-0 


1 


J? 


it 






19-04 


191 


1 


it 


tt 


27-5 






18-6 


1 


a 


tt 








18-3 


1 


a 


a 






17-05 


171 


2 


a 


tt 


60-6 




16-64 






a 


it 






15-82 


15-8 


2 


a 


tt 


81-6 




15-30 


15-4 


2 


a 


>> 


90-5 




14-93 


14-9 


2 


a 


a 


96-9 




14-00 


140 


2 


it 


„ 


41412-8 




13-60 


13-5 


2 


tt 


tt 


19-6 




13-32 


12-9 
12-6 
121 




a 
a 
tt 
tt 


tt 
it- 
tt 
tt 






11-62 


11-7 
11-5 
11-2 


i 


tt 
tt 

tt 


12-3 
»> 
»> 


536 



122 



REPORT — 1904. 







RUTHENIUM- 


-continued. 
















Reduction to 






Spark Spectrum 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 






Intensity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 






Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 






1 2410-8 


1 


0-71 


12*3 






2410-24 


10-3 


2 


II 


ii 


414773 






10-0 


1 


9f 


»> 








09-7 


1 


91 


»> 




2408-744 


08-51 


08-7 


1 


99 99 
99 »» 


415031 


07-997 


08-00 




2 


)) 99 


160 




07-37 


07-6 


1 


>» >» 


26-8 






071 


1 


JS 99 






06-67 


06-9 


1 


99 »J 


38-9 




0612 






99 99 








05-5 


1 


99 >» 








05-4 


1 


„ 






05-00 


051 


1 


>J 99 


67-7 






04-9 


1 


93 99 








04-6 


1 


99 II 




02-802 


02-80 
01-93 


02-90 


4 


99 




41605-8 




01-18 


01-3 


1 


)» 99 


33-8 






00-7 


In 


>> »J 






00-38 


00-3 


1 


>J 99 


47-8 




2399-28 






J> 


>» 






98-63 






99 


»> 








2398-0 


2 


»J 


>» 






97 70 


97-2 


2 


>> 


12-4 


99-7 


2396-791 


96-79 


96-90 


2 


99 


J» 


417100 






96-0 


In 


»» 


»» 






95-66 


95-6 


1 


u 


II 


29-7 






95-3 


1 


l» )» 








95-0 


1 


| 






94-70 






») »» 








94-2 


2 


»» 


>> 






93-84 


93-7 


1 


»» 


/» 


61-5 






93-3 


1 


»> 


II 




92-501 




92-7 


2 


II 


>J 


84-9 






921 


2 


»* 


J» 






91-73 


91-8 


1 


>» 


17 


98-3 






91-4 


1 


»> 


19 








90-6 


1 


If 


''f 








90-4 


1 


If 


»» 








901 


1 


99 


»» 








88-5 


1 


II 


II 








88-3 


In 


If 


II 






87-28 






II 


II 








84-3 


1 


»1 


l» 






83-53 


83-7 


2 


tt 


t» 


41942-2 






83 


1 


II 


»» 






82-08 


82-18 


4 


»» 


12-5 


67-6 






81-5 


1 


II 


>» 








81-2 


I 


II 


pi 








810 


1 


99 


i> 








80-8 


1 


99 


>» 








80-1 


2 


»l 


»i 






79-94 


79-9 


2 


II 


»f 


42002-4 




79-54 






If 


If 




1 


1 


77-6 


In 


ffl 


M 





ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

Ruthentum — continued. 



I2i 










Reduction to 




"Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Adeuey 


Exuer and 
Haschek 


A + 


1 _ 
A 




2376-30 


2376-6 


2 


0-71 


12-5 


42069-7 




75-71 


75-80 


4 


>) 


>> 


80-2 






75-6 


1 


>» 


3» 




2375-346 




75-3 


2 


99 


JJ 


86-6 






751 


1 


J» 


>) 








74-3 


1 


99 


91 






72-08 


72-2 


2 


0-70 


)> 


42144-6 


70-251 


70-25 


70-4 


2 


>» 


»» 


771 






70-2 


1 


J> )) 








68-7 


In 


99 9> 








68-2 Ir 


1 


99 >» 






6731 


67-5 


2 


J> 


12-6 


42229-4 






64-6 


1 


99 


J? 






6413 


64-3 


In 


51 


»> 


86-3 






63-7 


In 


»» 


)» 








62-9 


1 


»» 


)> 






62-47 


62-7 


1 


J> 


99 


423160 






62-3 


1 


99 


J» 








60-8 


In 


»* 


»» 






5914 


59-3 


2 


»5 


»> 


71-7 




58-90 


58-95 


4 


»» 


»J 


80-0 


57-991 


57-99 


58-10 


2 


'» 


*9 


96-2 




52-92 


53-2 


2 


»» 


12-7 


42487-7 


51-411 




51-6 


2 


J» 


»J 


42515-0 




£1-23 


51-3 




»» 


)> 


18-2 




C0-51 


50-7 




" 


)> 


31-3 




'6-45 


46-6 
44-7 
43-6 




99 




42604-9 


42-920 


42-92 


4303 


2 


J> 


JJ 


69-1 




42-66 


42-7 


2 


>» 


)> 


75-6 




4111 






J» 


99 




40-767 


40-77 


40-8 


2 


99 


12-8 


42708-2 




40-00 


40-2 


1 


99 


JJ 


22-2 






39-4 


1 


it 


J> 








38-9 


1 


>» 


>> 




38094 


38 05 


381 


2 


>> 


9> 


571 




36-93 


37-0 


2 


99 


»> 


78-4 






361 


1 


9* 


J» 




35047 


3505 




2 


»> 


>> 


42812-9 






34-5 


1 


»» 


»• 






3405 


341 


2 


»> 


99 


312 




3372 


33-8 


2 


If 


19 


37-2 




32-26 


32-5 


In 


»• 


99 


64 




31-81 


31-9 


1 


»» 


" 


723 




3123 


31-3 


2 


If 


»> 


830 




2911 


29-2 


2 


>» 


11 


429220 






28-5 


1 


>> 


»» 








28-1 


1 


,9 


>» 


• 




20-82 






0-69 


>t 








200 


2 


99 


J» 








18-7 


1 


t$ 


»♦ 






1351 


13-6 


1 


99 


130 


43210-4 






09-3 


1 


n 


if 








08-8 


1 


tt 


>» 








1 08-6 


1 1 


»» 


it 





124 



REPORT — 1904. 



Ruthenium — continued. 





Spark Spectrum 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 




Intensity 




Oscillation 


(Kayser) 






and 






Frequency 


Arc Spectrum 


Adeney 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 
A 


in Vacuo 






2308-1 


In 


0-69 


13-0 






2305-85 


05-7 


2 






43356-0 




04-97 






JJ 


» 






0306 








» 






2298-80 


2298-7 






131 


87-9 




97-28 


97-5 
940 
94-2 




5J 

99 


99 
>9 


434166 




87-2 


87-2 
83-2 






13-2 

ft 


43708-4 




82 00 


81-8 

81-7 
79-7 




99 


*> 


43808-0 






79-4 


In 












78-7 


In 












72-3 


In 


0-08 








68-20 


68-3 






13-3 


44073-4 




63-73 


63-6 
611 




yj 


»» 


44161-6 






51-7 




>> 


)» 





Yttrium. 

Lohsc, ' Sitzber. kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin,' xii. 1897. 
Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' 
Kayser, ' Abhandl. konigl. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin,' 1903. 











Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 

and 


Spark 
Spectrum. 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


» I- 


Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




in Vacuo 


6701-188 


o 






1-82 4-0 


14918-7 


6087-892 


2 






99 


»» 


50-6 


56-056 


1 






1-81 


41 


15019-8 


50-880 


1 






)» 


J» 


33-9 


13-988 


1 






1-80 


»» 


15115-4 


6585-077 


1 






1-79 


)» 


81-7 


77-090 


1 






•J 


99 


15200-2 


64-059 


1 






1-78 


99 


30-4 


57-568 


2 










45-4 


38-797 


3 






J> 


9* 


89-2 


05-611 


1 






1-77 4-2 


15367-1 


6437-414 


1 






1-75 


99 


15530-0 


35-226 


5 






99 


99 


35-3 


02-229 


3 






1-74 




15615-4 


6396-588 


1 






»» 


99 


29-1 


6275-214 


1 






1-71 


4-3 


15931-4 


36-962 


b 






1-70 


»» 


16029-2 


22-787 


4 






1-69 


4-4 


65-6 


18-150 


b 






99 


*» 


775 


00-043 


b 






If 


»» 


16124-7 


6191-930 


1 






1-68 


i» 


45-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 







Yttrium- 


-continued. 
















Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exner and 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 
4-4 


Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




A + 


in Vacuo 


6182-455 


b 






1-68 


16170-4 


65-310 


b 






99 




16215-4 


50-935 


1 






1-67 




53-3 


48-624 


b 






» 




59-4 


38-645 


4 






99 




85-9 


37-893 


1 






99 




87-8 


34-240 


3 






19 




97-5 


32-343 


b 






»» 




16312-6 


27-610 


1 






99 




15-2 


24-701 


1 






» 




22-9 


14-954 


1 






»» 




490 


08-050 


1 






1-66 




67-4 


02-967 


1 






)> 




81-1 


6096-999 


1 






99 




97-1 


89-597 


1 






»» 




16417-0 


88-190 


2 






J? 


4-5 


20-7 


82-800 


1 






>> 




35-3 


81-448 


1 






t 9 




39-0 


73034 


1 






1-65 




59-3 


60-526 


1 






99 




95-7 


53-998 


b 






J> 




16513-5 


42-778 


1 


• 




1-64 




44-2 


40-463 


2 






99 




40-5 


36-833 


b 






JJ 




60-5 


25-513 


1 






»> 




91-6 


23-624 


2 






>» 




96-8 


20-105 


b 






99 




16606-5 


08-424 


2 






)> 




37-8 


07-929 


1 






99 




40-2 


04-906 


1 






1-63 




48-6 


03-810 


b 






JJ 




51-6 


5987-870 


b 






S> 




931 


82-133 


2 






)> 




16711-9 


72-324 


b 






»> 




39-4 


66-439 


1 






1-62 




55-9 


50-249 


2 






99 


4-6 


16801-4 


45-946 


3 






»J 




13-6 


45081 


1 






J! 




160 


03-201 


2 






1-61 




16935-3 


5880-218 


1 






1-00 




17001-5 


72-072 


1 






99 


4-7 


25-2 


32-480 


1 






1-59 




17138-7 


22064 


2 






99 




75-4 


12-888 


1 






1-58 




98-6 


5797-348 


1 






99 




17244-6 


87-907 


1 






>» 




72-7 


81-901 


2 






J* 




90-6 


74-143 


2 






1-57 




17313-9 


65-849 


3 






>> 




42-9 


44-046 


3 






)» 


" 


17404-5 


43-567 


1 






)» 




06-1 


40-417 


1 






1-56 




15-6 


29-087 


3 






>» 




50-1 


27-090 


1 






»J 




56-2 


23 663 


o 






>> 




66-6 


20-S01 


•& 






>» 


4-8 


75-3 



126 



REPORT — 1904. 







Ytxrium- 


-continued. 
















Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exner and 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 _ 

A 


Are Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




A + 


in Vacuo 


5706-926 


5 






1-56 


4-8 


17517-9 


5675-480 


3 






1-55 


>» 


17614-8 


75-311 


2 






99 


>» 


15-3 


69-456 


1 






99 


»» 


33-6 


68-784 


1 






JJ 


>> 


35-7 


* 63-148 


6 






1-54 




53-2 


61-107 


1 






)J 


JJ 


59-6 


57-479 


1 






9. 


J> 


70-9 


48-684 


5 






»> 




98-4 


46-909 


o 






J> 




17704-1 


44-898 


4 






99 




10-3 


35-966 


1 






99 




38-4 


33121 


2 






»> 


5> 


473 


32-477 


2 






99 




49-4 


30-353 


5 






91 




561 


24114 


2 






99 




75-8 


10-580 


1 






1-53 




17818-7 


06-552 


3 






>> 


4-9 


31-4 


5598-537 


1 






»» 




56-9 


91-168 


2 






)> 




80-4 


82-098 


5 






1-52 




17909-5 


81-295 


2 






J> 




121 


77-621 


4 






»> 




23-9 


67-972 


3 






>» 




550 


56-655 


4 






S> 




91-5 


51-209 


2 






1-51 




18009-3 


46-228 


4 






>> 




25-4 


* 44-818 


5 






>> 




300 


41-852 


3 






>> 




39-6 


27-765 


6 






»> 




85-6 


25-944 


2 






»f 




88-3 


21-845 


6r 






>> 




18105-0 


13-856 


2 






1-50 




31-2 


* 10115 


5 






r» 




435 


03-665 


5 






>j 


5-0 


64-7 


5497-637 


5 






jj 




84-6 


95-802 


2 






t$ 




90-7 


93-375 


3 






JJ 




98-7 


91-634 


2 






>> 




18204-5 


80-952 


3 






»» 




400 


73-596 


4 






1-49 




64-5 


66-669 


6 






>> 




87-7 


38-447 


4 






1-48 




18382-6 


24-588 


3 






M 




18429-5 


17-246 


2 






>> 


„ 


54-6 


* 03003 


4 






>* 




18503-2 


5388-623 


1 






1-47 


5-i 


52-5 


80-851 


3 






»J 




83-9 


5290-004 


2 






1-45 


5-2 


18898-4 


70-527 


3 






1-44 




18968-2 


69-712 


5 






JJ 




71-2 


40-958 


2 






1-43 


" 19075-3 


* 05-890 


6 






1-42 


5-3 19203-7 


00-580 


5 






M 


„ 1 233 


* Ro 


wland : 566 


3-155, 5544-83 


1, 5510-120, 5' 


102-982 


5205-8 


97. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OK THE ELEMENTS. 127 



Yttrium— continued. 











Reduction to 


t 


Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exner and 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




1 _ 

\ 


Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




X + 


5196-588 


2 






1-42 


5-3 


19238-1 


35-356 


3 






1-40 


»9 


19467-5 


* 23-380 


4 






99 


99 


19513-1 


19-283 


3 






99 


JJ 


28-7 


03-941 


1 






9* 


5-4 


87-3 


*5087-600 


5 






1-39 


99 


19650-2 


73-344 


2 






99 


99 


19705-5 


70-363 


2 






99 


99 


17-0 


07-134 


3 






1-37 


5-5 


199660 


4982-297 


3 






1-36 


99 


20065-6 


74-466 


3 






99 


99 


97 2 


48-740 


1 






1-35 


99 


20201-7 


31129 


2 






99 


5-6 


737 


28-427 


1 






» 


93 


84-9 


26-503 


1 






93 


99 


92-8 


22-063 


3 






99 


99 


20311-1 


12-236 


1 






1-34 


99 


51-7 


09-185 


2 






99 


99 


64-4 


06-275 


2 






99 


99 


76-5 


* 00-304 


6 






99 


99 


20401-3 


4895-436 


1 






99 


99 


21-6 


93-620 


2 






99 


99 


29-2 


86-832 


2 






9> 


99 


57-5 


86-464 


2 






39 


99 


59-1 


* 83-881 


6 






99 


99 


69-9 


81-629 


1 






99 


99 


79-4 


79-832 


2 






99 


99 


86-9 


79-339 


1 






99 


99 


88-9 


63-303 


1 






1-33 


5-7 


20556-5 


60031 


3 






99 


99 


70-3 


56-896 


2 






99 


99 


83-6 


55073 


6 






99 


99 


91-3 


54-437 


2 






39 


99 


94-0 


52-860 


4 






99 


99 


20606-0 


45-862 


4 






99 


99 


35-7 


40-052 


5 






1-32 


99 


55-2 


39-335 


2 






99 


99 


58-3 


26-438 


1 






99 


99 


20713-5 


23-497 


4 






99 


99 


261 


23-310 


3 






99 


99 


26-9 


21-813 


2 






99 


99 


33-4 


19-857 


4 






99 


99 


41-8 


18-396 


b 






99 


99 


48-1 


17-589 


b 






99 


99 


51-6 


04-986 


3 






1-31 


99 


20806-0 


04-502 


2 






99 


99 


08-1 


4799-491 


4 






99 


99 


29-8 


87-078 


3 






99 


9? 


83-8 


86-753 


4 






99 


99 


85-3 


81-217 


4 






.. 


5-8 


20909-3 


80-360 


2 






?» 


99 


131 


66-280 


1 






1-30 


99 


74-9 


63-142 


1 






>» 


99 


88-8 


61-169 


5 




99 


99 


97-4 




* Rowland 


: 5123-390, 5C 


187-610, 4900-J 


101, 488 


3-867. 





128 




REPORT 


—1904. 












Yttrium — continued. 










Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark 

Spectrum. 

Exner and 

Haschek 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 


A + 


1 _ 

\ 


4752-970 


4 






1-30 


5-8 


21033-7 


41-595 


3 






99 




84-2 


33-637 


1 






99 




21119-6 


32-565 


3 






I) 




23-9 


28-710 


4 






1-29 




41-6 


26-031 


2 






99 




53-6 


04-818 


1 






99 


5-9 


21248-9 


01-165 


2 






9) 




65-4 


4699-424 


2 






9) 




73-4 


96-976 


3 






99 




84-4 


92-137 


2 






1-28 




21306-3 


89-938 


3 










16-3 


82-501 


6 










50-2 


78-523 


2 










68-4 


75-030 


6 










84-3 


71-020 


2 






99 




21402-7 


67-024 


2 






99 




21-0 


66-567 


2 






99 




231 


59-058 


3 






99 




57-6 


58-497 


4 






99 




60-2 


53-951 


2 






1-27 




81-2 


52-309 


2 










88-8 


43-863 


6 






99 




21527-9 


27-390 


1 








6-6 


21604-4 


13-165 


2 






1-26 




711 


04-977 


3 






99 




21710-6 


01-484 


2 










26-1 


4596-771 


4 










48-4 


90-972 


2 










76-2 


85-505 


1 










21801-8 


82-352 


2 










16-8 


81-954 


2 










18-7 


81-506 


2 










20-9 


79043 


2n 






1-25 




33-6 


73-746 


4 






99 




57-9 


70-855 


2 






99 




717 


65-120 


2 






99 




99-2 


64-576 


2 






99 


6-'l 


21901-7 


59-558 


4 










25-8 


55-491 


3 






99 




45-4 


54-651 


2 










49-5 


44-500 


3 










98-5 


42-222 


2 






1-24 




22009-5 


34-298 


2 










480 


27-983 


4 


4527-98 








78-8 


27-430 


5 


27-43 








81-5 


22-242 


2 


22-16 




99 




22106-8 


14-190 


3 










46-2 


13-764 


3 










48-3 


06-139 


6 


06-12 








85-7 


03-534 


1 






1-23 




98-6 


4492-592 


2 








6-2 


22252-6 


91-924 


3 










560 


87-683 


4 


87-61 








77-0 


87-433 


3 










78-2 


84-621 1 


2 


1 




„ 




92-2 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF TDE SPECTRA OF TEE ELEMENTS. 129 



Yttrium— continued. 





| 






Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exner and 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 




1 _ 

A 


Frequency 


Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




A. + 


in Vacuo 


4479-184 


2 






1-23 


6-2 


22319-3 


77-628 


4 


4577-59 




99 




27 


77-140 


4 


77-10 




99 




29-3 


75-900 


4 


75-9 




" 


',', 


35-7 


74-074 


3 






„ 




44-8 


72-953 


2 






55 




50-4 


65-463 


2 


65-50 




1-22 




87-9 


46-805 


4 






.. 




22481-8 


45-491 


3 






„ 




88-7 


43-834 


4 


43-83 




it 




96-9 


37-519 


3 






99 




22528-9 


36-321 


2 


36-37 




5> 




350 


33145 


1 






59 




511 


27-191 


1 






1-21 


6-3 


81-3 


22-772 


6 


22-80 




99 




226040 


18-360 


1 






99 




26-5 


17-635 


2 






99 




30-3 


15-552 


2 






19 




40-9 


02-574 


1 






99 




22707-7 


4398-201 


5 


4398-21 




99 




30-2 


97-904 


2 






99 




31-8 


94-840 


3 






9> 




47-7 


94184 


2 






99 




51 


93-788 


1 






1-20 




531 


87-908 


3 


87-84 




99 




83-6 


85-649 


2 






99 




95-3 


79-499 


4 






99 




22827-4 


75-794 


3 






99 




46-7 


75-113 


8 


75-11 




99 




50-2 


71-621 


1 






99 




68-5 


71144 


2 






99 




710 


66-204 


3 


66-30 




99 


6-4 


96-8 


58-895 


5 


58-91 




99 




22935-2 


57-876 


4 






9* 




40-6 


53-833 


1 






119 




61-9 


52-499 


2 






9J 




68-9 


48-957 


7 


48-91 




99 




87-6 


46-323 


2 






- >» 




23001-6 


44-812 


3 






59 




09-6 


37-476 


2 






99 




48-5 


30-945 


3 


30-85 




99 




83-3 


24-765 


1 






99 




23116-2 


22-474 


2 


22-4 




99 




28-5 


18-182 


1 






118 


99 


51-5 


18052 


1 






99 


99 


52-2 


16-472 


2 






99 


99 


60-7 


15-662 


3 






99 


99 


650 


14080 


2 






99 


if 


73-5 


09-784 


6 


09-81 




59 


99 


96-6 


07-234 


2 






99 


6-5 


23210-2 


05-499 


1 






99 


99 


19-6 


02-431 


5 


02-45 




99 


»» 


36-2 


00-526 


3 






99 


M 


46-5 


4291-217 


3 






117 


ft 


96-9 



1904. 



* Rowland: 4358-879. 



130 



REPORT— 1904. 







Yttrium- 


-continued. 














Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exner and 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 _ 
A 


Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




A. + 


in Vacuo 


4275-650 


1 






117 


6-5 


23381-7 


74-346 


2 






99 


99 


88-9 


72-295 


2 






99 


99 


23400-1 


69-001 


1 






99 


99 


18-2 


67-085 


3 






99 


9» 


28-6 


51-343 


5 


4251-39 




99 


6-6 


23515-3 


50-532 


1 






1-16 


99 


19-9 


41-924 


1 






99 


99 


676 


35-852 


3 


35-94 




99 


99 


23601-4 


32-709 


o 






99 


99 


18-9 


31-461 


1 






99 


99 


25-9 


29-351 


1 






99 


99 


37-7 


24-396 


3 






99 


99 


65-4 


20-779 


4 


20-81 




99 


99 


85-7 


17 960 


3 






99 


9> 


23701-5 


13-698 


3 






99 


99 


25-5 


13174 


2 






99 


99 


27-9 


09-872 


1 






99 


99 


47-1 


04-847 


4 


04-84 




99 


99 


75-5 


4199-442 


3 


4199-46 




115 


6-7 


238060 


77-684 


5 


77-65 




99 


99 


239300 


74-287 


4 


74-31 




99 


S9 


49-6 


* 67 670 


3 


67-81 




114 


99 


87-6 


57-786 


2 






99 


99 


24044-7 


43017 


6r 


43 03 




99 


6-8 


24130-2 


28-472 


6r 


28-49 




99 


99 


24215-2 


25079 


4 


25-10 




1 13 


99 


35-2 


10-964 


3 






99 


99 


24320-3 


06-552 


2 






99 


99 


44-5 


* 02-548 


7r 


02-00 




99 


99 


68-3 


4095-617 


1 






99 


6-9 


24409-4 


* 83-862 


5 


83-89 




99 


99 


79-7 


81-391 


3 






112 


99 


940 


81-089 


2 






99 


9» 


96-4 


* 77-522 


6r 


77-54 




it 


99 


24517-8 


65-159 


1 


65-20 




99 


99 


92-4 


48-004 


2 


47-98 




99 


7-0 


24696-5 


* 47-774 


4 


47-81 




ill 


99 


97-9 


44-407 


2 






99 


99 


24718-4 


44-235 


1 






>> 


99 


191 


* 39-981 


4 


4040-0 




99 


9) 


45-6 


30011 


3 






99 


99 


24806-8 


3987-652 


3 


3987-4 




99 


71 


25070-3 


* 82-746 


6 


82-75 




110 


n 


25101-2 


78-775 


1 


78-74 




9* 


99 


26-3 


73-597 


2 






99 


99 


590 


67-847 


1 






109 


99 


95-5 


55-237 


3 






99 


7-2 


25275-7 


54-431 


1 






99 


>» 


80-9 


• 51-739 


3 


51-76 




99 


>» 


98-1 


50-499 


5 


50-51 




99 


»• 


253061 


46-350 


2 






99 


,5 


32-6 


30-799 


4 


30-84 




99 


ff 


25432-9 



* Rowland: 4167-737, 4102541, 4083-783, 4077498, 4047823, 4040013, 3982-742, 
3951-765, 3950-497. 



ON WAVE-LFNGTH TABLES OF TBE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 131 

Yttrium — continued. 



Wave-length 

(Kayser) 
Arc Spectrum 



3904-738 
00-425 

3892-570 
90-281 
87-928 
78-418 
52-541 
46-805 
40-575 
33006 
26064 
18-513 
*3788-839 

* 74-494 
70-740 
47 695 
38-772 
35-756 
34-422 
24-920 
18-237 

* 10-448 
3697 923 

96-721 
93-989 
92-667 
82-985 
82-748 
68-640 
64-744 
61086 
56-390 
54-796 
53-636 
52-801 
46-363 
45-567 
39422 
35-471 

* 33267 

* 28-852 

* 21099 
11 194 
02069 
00-884 

♦3593 07 1 

* 84-656 
76-209 
71-587 
52-843 

* 49153 
13036 
11-354 

3499 044 



* 
* 

* 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



3 

2 

2 

1 

3 

2 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

3 

5 

5 

1 

3 

2 

1 

1 

3 

3 

6r 

2 

2 

1 

4 

1 

1 

3 

8 

2 

2 

2 

2 

1 

2 

3 

3 

2 

4 

7 

s 



t> 
6 
6 
7 
5 
2 
3 
2 
4 
7 
3 
3 
3n 



Spark 

Spectrum. 

Exner and 

Haschek 



3904-72 



3878-47 



33 00 
26-00 
18-49 
3788-88 
74-51 

47-70 



10-41 

3697-88 



82-85 

68-67 
64-76 

56-30 

54-77 



46-35 Sa 
45-54 



33-28 
28-89 
2112 
1119 
0212 
00-90 
3593 11 
84-71 



49-21 



Lohse 
Arc Spark 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A.+ 



1-06 



105 
104 



103 



1 

A 



1-08 7-3 



107 



7-4 

99 

7-5 

99 

»» 
>» 

76 



7-7 



7-8 



7-9 

»» 
99 
99 

8-0 

99 

8-1 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



* Rowland : 3788-839, 3774-473. 



25602-6 

310 

82-7 

97 3 

25713-3 

76-4 
259496 

88-3 
26030-5 

81-9 
26129-2 

80-9 
26384-9 
26486-2 
26512-5 
26675-5 
26739-2 

60-8 

70-4 
26838-7 

86-8 
26941-3 
27034-6 

434 

63-4 

731 
27144-2 

45-9 
272503 

79'3 
27306-5 

41-6 

54-6 

62-3 

68-5 
27416-9 

22-9 

69-2 

98-9 
27515-6 

491 
276013-2 

83-9 
27754-0 

631 
27823-4 

88-9 
27954-7 

90-8 
28138-6 

68-7 
28457-4 

710 
2857 11 



K2 



132 



retort — 1904. 







Yttbium— 


continued. 












Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exner and 


1 Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 
and 


Lohse 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Arc Spark 






Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




A + 


1 

A 

8-1 


in Vacuo 


♦3496-233 


6 


3496-25 




1-03 


285941 


85-885 


4 








99 


286790 


84-208 


2 








99 


92-7 


68-028 


3 


68-05 






8-2 


28726-5 


61-168 


2 


6115 






99 


92 


54-322 


2n 


54-23 






99 


28940-9 


51-082 


3 








99 


68-0 


48-962 


5 


48-98 






99 


88-9 


33-159 


1 








99 


29119-5 


12-620 


2 








8-3 


94-7 


09-914 


1 








99 


29324-6 


3397-169 


3 








99 


29428 


90021 


1 








8-4 


89-9 


88-725 


3 








99 


29501-2 


83-206 


2 








99 


49-3 


82-975 


2 








99 


51-4 


80054 


1 








99 


87-0 


77-863 


2 








99 


96-2 


64-923 


2 






0-94 


99 


297100 


62-381 


3 


3362-20 






99 


32-5 


62131 


4 








»» 


34-7 


59-082 


2 








8-5 


61-6 


54-979 


1 








99 


99-6 


54-749 


1 








99 


29800-4 


44-680 


In 








99 


89-7 


40-528 


2 








99 


29926-9 


37986 


1 








99 


50-8 


35-349 


1 






0-93 


99 


73-5 


31-335 


1 








99 


30009-5 


31029 


2 








99 


12-3 


* 28013 


6 


28-11 






99 


39-5 


19-922 


1 








8-6 


30112-6 


18-700 


1 








99 


23-7 


08-525 


1 








99 


30216-3 


3293-599 


In 




0-92 


99 


30343-3 


90-713 


1 




n 


99 


79-9 


82-594 


1 


3282-7 


„ 


8-7 


30454-9 


80055 


3 








99 


78-7 


78-576 


2 








99 


92-3 


52-408 


3 








8-8 


30742-6 


* 42-408 


7 


42-49 




0-91 


99 


30833-5 


* 16-812 


6 


16-87 




0-90 


99 


310779 


06-652 


1 






99 


8-9 


31176-3 


* 03-450 


5 


03-51 




99 


99 


31207 4 


* 00-386 


5 


00-44 




99 


99 


37-3 


♦3195741 


7 


3195-80 




99 


99 


82-8 


91-627 


1 






99 


99 


313231 


91-438 


4 






99 


99 


24-9 


79-539 


5 






0-89 


9 


314421 


73179 


4 


73-40 




99 


99 


31505-2 


55-785 


1 






99 


99 


31678-8 


35-285 


3 


35-30 




99 


91 


31885-8 


30059 


3 






0-88 


»j 


31936-8 


14-415 


2 


14-6 




9% 


>> 


32099-6 



* Rowland : 3328016, 3242-395, 3216-807, 3203-435, 3200407, 3195705. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 133 



Yttrium — continued. 











Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exner and 


Lohse 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


(Kayser) 


and 


Arc Spark 




1_ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




A.+ 


3112151 


3 


3112-2 




0-88 


9-2 


32122-9 


11-924 


3 






99 


99 


25-3 


09007 


2 






99 


99 


55-4 


04-808 


1 






99 


99 


981 


03-846 


2 






99 


99 


32208-9 


3096-741 


1 






99 


99 


82-8 


95-998 


3 


3096-04 




0-87 


99 


90-6 


91-850 


1 






99 


99 


323339 


86-981 


2 






99 


99 


84-9 


76-634 


2 






99 


9-3 


32493 7 


72-479 


2 






99 


99 


32537 7 


59-639 


1 






0-86 


99 


32674-3 


50-015 


1 






99 


9-4 


32777 3 


47-252 


2 






99 


99 


328070 


45-489 


3 






99 


99 


26-0 


44-956 


1 






99 


99 


31-8 


38-599 


1 






99 


99 


32900-4 


36-710 


1 






99 


*» 


160 


22-404 


3 






99 


9-5 


33076-7 


21-844 


3 






085 


99 


82-9 


10-255 


1 






99 


99 


332103 


2997-069 


3 






99 


9-6 


33359-4 


95-383 


2 






99 


99 


751 


84376 


4 






99 


99 


98-4 


74-710 


3 






99 


99 


33507-1 


74-042 


1 






084 


99 


33614-6 


65096 


4 






99 


9-7 


33715-9 


55-999 


1 






:» 


99 


33819-8 


48-533 


4 






99 


J» 


33905-5 


30128 


2 






99 


9-8 


34118-4 


19-167 


3 






083 


9-9 


344991 


2890-497 


1 






11 


99 


34586-2 


86-585 


2 






0-82 


100 


346330 


84-583 


1 






99 


99 


571 


56-419 


1 






9» 


101 


34998-8 


54-544 


2 






0-81 


99 


35021-8 


26-450 


1 






» 


10-2 


35369-9 


22-694 


2 






99 


99 


354170 


18-982 


1 


2818-88 




0-80 


10-3 


63 5 


13-773 


1 






99 


?9 


35529-2 


00-319 


1 


00-30 




99 


10-4 


35709-8 


2791-319 


1 






99 


9> 


358150 


85-293 


1 


2785-32 




99 


» 


92-5 


60-174 


3 






9» 


10-5 


362190 


30-190 


2 






0-79 


10-6 


36616-8 


23-096 


3 






0-78 


10-7 


36712-3 


2672-190 


1 






99 


109 


37411-6 


2547-661 


1 






0-77 


11-5 


39240-2 


40-384 


1 






0-74 


99 


39352-6 


2476-756 


2 






99 


11-8 


40363-6 


63-826 


2 






0-73 


11-9 


405754 


60-656 


1 


2460-73 




0-72 


9* 


40627-7 


45-688 


1 






99 


120 


40876-3 


45-309 


2 






• 9 


99 


82-7 


24-246 


2 






99 


12-2 


41237-8 


22-278 


4 


22-32 




99 


>, 


71-3 



134 



REPORT — 1904. 



Yttrium —continued. 











Reduction to 




Wave-length 
(Kayser) 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 
Spectrum. 
Exncr and 


Lohse 
Arc Spark 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 _ 

A 


Arc Spectrum 


Character 


Haschek 




\ + 


in Vacuo 


2417364 


1 






0-72 


12-2 


41355-2 


2385-298 


2 






0-71 


12-4 


419111 


61-883 


1 






99 


12-6 


42326-5 


58-79S 


2 






0-70 


99 


81-9 


55-165 


1 






99 


99 


42441-9 


54-266 


2 






99 


99 


83-5 


32-651 


2 








12-8 


42857-0 


31-732 


1 






|| 


99 


73-8 


2289-087 


2 






9* 


131 


43672-4 


83-722 


2 






0-69 


132 


437750 


83-370 


1 






9» 


99 


81-7 


77-738 


1 






•9 


»9 


438900 


74-171 


2 






0-68 


133 


43958-7 


72-884 


1 






9* 


99 


83-7 


71853 


1 






99 


99 


44003-6 


67-152 


1 






99 


99 


94-9 


65-110 


2 






99 


99 


44134-7 


64-452 


2 






„ 


99 


47-5 


62-768 


1 






99 


99 


80-3 


60-661 


1 






99 


13-4 


44221-4 


60-157 


2 






99 


99 


313 


59-594 


2 






99 


99 


42-3 


59-339 


1 






99 


99 


57 3 


49-240 


1 






99 


13-5 


44445-9 


45-720 


1 






99 


99 


44515-6 


43097 


3 






95 


99 


67-8 


42-643 


1 






99 


99 


76-8 


40-695 


1 






99 


99 


44615-6 


36-384 


1 






99 


13-6 


44701-4 


31-276 


1 






99 


if 


44803-7 


28-241 


1 






99 


9> 


64-8 


27-849 


1 






0-67 


y> 


72-7 



Line Spectrum of Sulphur. 
Erter and Valenta, ' Denkschr. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' lxvii. 1898. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 










5559129 


1 






5665123 


4 


56141 


4n 






62-741 


In 


36-968 


3 


6400 




60-289 


6 


26-458 


5n 


6390 




48-565 


1 


20-749 


3 


25 




47-296 


8 


18-968 


3n 


10 




45-920 


2n 


09-799 


10 


6290 




40-535 1 


4 


5478-589 


2n 






40-257 I 


8 


77-649 


1 






16-844 


4 


75-209 


2 






06-349 


8 


73-791 


8 






5579-327 


6 


68-565 


1 


5819-543 


2 


65097 


8 


54000 


10 



ON wave-Length tables of the spectra op the elements. 

Line Spectkum of Sulphur— continued. 



135 



h 

Wave-length 

( 


ntensity 

and 
Character, 


i . i 
1 Intensity 

Wave-length and 

[Character 


Intensity 
Wave-length and 

Character 


5434-737 


2 


- -i 

4661-782 


lb' 


4285133 


8 


32-994 


10 


56-916 


3 


83-825 


2 


28-907 


9 


51-043 




83-318 


1 






50-440 




82-741 


3 






49-328 




78-670 


3 


01035 


3u 


48-416 




69-942 


4 


5345-832 
20-894 


8 
8 


47614 
42024 


In 


67-959 
67-255 


4 
6r 






39 024 




59-408 


2 


5233187 




24-322 


In 


57 603 


3 


30040 




13618 




53772 


lOr 


27 406 


1 


4596-368 




50-150 


1 


27-072 


I 


91-285 




36-230 


1 


20-872 
19-650 
12-803 


3 

8 


91-164 

62118 "1 
52-592 J 


2 
2 


31182 

27-590 
21-810 


4 
2 
2 


07-482 


2 


5 


17397 


4 


01-520 1 
01-149 J 


2 


49-723 


3 


4193667 


2 


C 


25-159 


6 


89-896 


5b' 




24-817 


2 


86-120 1 
85-631 J 


1 






04-370 


3 


2 


5160-348 
42512 


2 
3 


4499-450 1 
86-856 J 


1 

2 


78-992 
75-415 


2 
3 






85-907 


2 


74-471 \ 
74-179 J 


7 b' 






83-647 


4 


4 






81-661 


1 


68-554 


4 


03-535 


4 


78-633 


1 


65-255 


1 


5098-890 
51-874 


1 
1 


65-329 
64-618 


1 
5 


65127 

62-856 


3b' 
10 


47-499 


3 


63-761 


5b' 


62-539 


2 


39-596 


2 


56-584 


2 


53*269 


10b' 


32-657 


8 


40043 1 


4 


49 068 


2 


27-408 


4 


32-561 J 


3 


47-126 


3 


14-248 


8 


31131 


lb' 


45-266 


10 


11-815 


3 


18-982 


2 


44027 


1 


09-762 


6 


17-134 


3 


42-390 


8b' 


07 010 


1 


15052 


4 


33 041 


1 


4993-733 


3 


4393862 


3 


27-724 


2 


92- 152 


5 


92012 


2 


19-377 


3 


42-649 
25-493 


2 
6 


67 037 
64-873 


2 
4 


12-472 1 
12-319 J 


2 1 

2} L 


24-269 


5 


62-610 


6 


11-670 


5 


17-410 


4u 


61-671 


5 


05151 


1 


02-656 
4885-831 


2 
3 


60-625 
54-739 


1 
5 


4099-607 1 
99-360 J 


3 
2 


24-353 


2n 


51-408 


2 


95-288 


2 


19834 


1 


49-551 


3 


91-372 


1 


11-967 


4 


47-558 


1 


76024 


4 


92-333 


2 


45-637 


1 


72-252 


3 






40-444 


4 


70-077 1 
69-802 J" 


3 






33-947 


1 


2 






32-852 


5 


64-634 


3b 






30-798 


1 


50328 


2 






19-762 


1 


32-956 


4b' 


4716-382 


4 


18-847 
17-299 


3 

2 


28-995 


6 


4677-804 
68-738 


I 2 
i 2 


4294-558 
91606 


8b' 
1 


11-469 
1 09-566 


1 

1 1 



136 



REPORT — 1904. 



Line Spectrum of Sulphur — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity ! 

and 
Character 


Wave-length 


Intensity 1 

and 
Character 


Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


4007-995 


2 


3861-541 


1 


3618-937 


1 


06-700 


1 


60-833 


3b 


17-086 


4b 


04-045 


1 


53-280 


3 






3999-026 


3 


51-312 


3b' 


00-307 


2n 


98-998 


4b' 


47-319 


2 


3596-152 


3 






45-336 


1 


94-575 


3 


98127 


3 


42-502 


2b 


67 382 


2n 


93-706 


5 


39-368 


2 


60-857 


In 


91-144 


4b' 


38-440 


10 


56-506 


In 






37-882 


8 


49-920 


2b 


86-158 


5 


31-980 


4 


43-856 


3b 


83-924 


6 


3794-841 


5 






82 893 


lb' 


83-543 


2b 


40-416 


3 






79-030 


4 


3499-566 


lb 


81-923 


1 


74-713 


2 






80-002 


4b' 


60030 


2 


97-438 


8 






54-879 


1 


83-140 


1 


74-316 


1 


50-927 


3 


79-435 


8b 


73-341 


4 


49-554 


4 


74061 


6 


70-820 1 
70-640 ( 


3b 


48-039 


5 


71014 


In 


3b 


44-488 


2 


3390-354 


3 


63-279 


3 


27-457 


3b 


87-242 


5 


61-695 


4 


17-864 


8b 


85-986 


2n 


59-468 \ 


1 


12-868 


2b 


77300 


1 


59-189 I 


2 


10-604 


2b 


73402 


3n 


54-457 


2 


09-470 


6b 


72-285 


In 


50-866 


In 


00-323 


2b 


70-490 


4 


47 326 


2n 


3699-529 


3b 


69-624 


3 


45-059 


1 


98-046 


1 


68-210 


2 


39-897 


In 


96-373 


3b 


67-306 


4 


33-650 


3b 


89-639 


1 


63294 


In 


32-437 


2 


80-671 


1 


56-567 


In 


32104 


3 


78-329 


4b 


55-233 


1 


28-734 


8 


72-436 


3 


44-216 


2n 


23-788 


3b' 


69-139 


6b 


41-612 


4 






63-513 


1 


40-508 


3 


20-997 


2 


62107 


5 


30-924 


1 


19-550 


3 


56-715 


3 


25013 


5b 


18-312 


1 


55-435 


1 


24100 


4 


12149 


3 


54-669 


1 


17-205 


2 


07-285 


2 


53-559 


In 


14-643 


1 


3899-501 


2 


38-267 


2 


08-953 


3 


94159 


1 


37-131 


2 


05-774 


2 


92-759 


2b 


36-305 


1 


01-806 


1 


82-366 


3 


32144 


8 


01-211 


2 


76-353 


2b 


26-508 


3 






64-773 


lb 


22-892 


2 







ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 137 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur. 

Eder and Valenta, ' Denkschr. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' lxvii. 1898. 



Intensity 


Intensity 


Intensity 


Wave-length 


and | 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Character 

1 ! 


Character 


( 


Character 


6380 




5582-183 


1 


5556189 


2 


20 




81-192 


1 


55-654 


3b 


6265 




80-882 


1 


55-209 


1 


6165 




80-506 


3 


54-788 


4 


00 




80124 


2 


54-529 


1 


6036 




79-536 


1 


54-197 


3 


5967 




79-012 


3 


53775 


3b 


00 




78-871 


3 


53-251 


2 


5838 




77-750 


3 


52-820 


3 


5779 




77-424 


3 


52-514 


1 


12 




76-891 


2b 


52-195 


1 


5653 




76-356 


1 


51-836 


3 


01-812 


3u 


75-687 


3 


51-243 


4 


01-411 


5 


75-244 


3 


50-849 


4 


00-894 


3 


74-719 


1 


50-276 


5 


00-669 


3 


74-437 


3 


49-682 


4b 


5599-778 


4 


73-972 


1 






99-477 


4b 


73-586 


3 


49 067 


4 


98-916 


4 


72-356 


2 


48-694 


1 


98-568 
98-076 


4 
4 


71-830 
71-469 


2 
5 


48-383 
47-985 


3 

1 


97-717 


1 


70-972 


1 


47 643 


3 


97376 


4 


70-639 


1 


47-361 


2 


97169 


2 


70-320 


2 


47-069 


1 


96-836 


1 


69-605 


2 


46-666 


2 


96-444 


4b 


69-112 


4 


46-409 


2 


95-898 


4b 


68-632 


1 


46051 


3 


95-505 


1 


68-337 


3 


45-638 


4 


94-900 


5b 


68-030 


3 


45-178 


4 






67 603 


3 


44-653 


5 


94-310 


5b 


67 235 


2 


44-220 


4 


93864 


5s 


66-883 


1 


43-594 


6 


93-058 


2b 


66-622 


2 


43177 


2 


92-649 


1 


66-369 


2 


42-747 


5b 


92-069 


1 


65-911 


2 


42-214 


4 


91-683 


4 


65-280 


3 


41-900 


1 


91-425 


1 


64-860 


2 


41-491 


4 


90-694 


3 


64-611 


2 


41-002 


2 


90-292 


3b 


63-976 


5 


40-712 


5 


89-798 


4 


63132 


1 


40-235 


3 


88-813 


2 


62-717 


lb 


39-663 


1 


88-469 


2 


62-395 


2 


39159 


3 


88-075 


3b 


61-886 


3 


38-621 


6 


87-408 


1 


61-441 


4 


38-189 


3b 


86-991 


2 


60-922 


3b 


37-836 


3b 


86-526 


2b 


60-407 


2 


37-309 


5 


86-168 


2 


59-787 


3 


36-926 


4 


85-775 


3 


59155 


5 


36-595 


4 


85-229 


3 


58-794 


3 


36-303 


4 


84-699 


2 


58-251 


lb 


35-781 


6 


84-331 


2 






35-347 


4 


83-900 


5b 


57-809 


3 


34-943 


3 






57-296 


3 


34-526 


6 


82-913 


1 


56-843 


5 


34132 


3s 


82-0(13 


1 3 


56-512 


1 


33-744 


6s 



138 



Report — 1904. 





Band Spectrum of Sulphur — continued. 








Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


5533-196 


5b 


5505-771 ] 2s 


5478-692 


6 






05-278 \ 2b 
04-986 j 1 


78-228 


3 






77-606 


8 


32-691 


3b 


04-681 1 


77-023 


3b 






04-295 


1 


76-597 1 


3 


32-169 


6 


03-893 


6 


76-270 1 


3 


31-422 


8 


03-449 


3b 


75-770 


4 


30-767 


3 


02-589 


5 


75-346 


5 


30-214 


2 


02-213 4 


74-950 


3 


29-901 


2 


01-350 1 


74-351 1 


4b 


29-621 


4 


00-574 4 


73-858 f 


38 


28-912 


2b 


00-398 


2 


73-374 ] 




3 


28-521 


2 


5499-733 


6 


73-049 




2 


28-126 


4 


99150 


2 


72-949 


*■ 


4 


27-657 


4 


98-816 


1 


72-782 




2 


27-240 


2 


98-475 


3 


72-500 > 




1 


26-765 


1 


98-104 


2 


72-243 i 
71-390 f 


3 


26-379 


3b 


97-395 


2 


3 


25-869 


3b 


97-014 


4 


70-780 


1 


25-438 


1 


96-703 i 
96-372 / 


3 


70-278 1 
69-931 J 


2 


25154 


3 


3 


4 


24-680 


In 


95-401 | 


5 


69-469 


3 


24-420 


2n 


94-777 [ 


4 


69120 


1 


23-540 


3 


94-381 f 


4 


68-831 


3 


22-249 


1 


93-982 ) 


3 


68-299 ) 


3 






93-505 j 


1 


67-886 \ 


1 


21-963 


4 


93-312 j 


2 


67-624 j 


2 


21-232 


8 


92-803 


8 


67053 


1 


20-521 


2 


92-105 


3 


66-556 


1 


20150 


4 


91-605 \ 


1 


66183 


3 


19-515 


1 


91-418 1 


65-896 


3 


19145 


2 


91103 \ 1 


65-658 


2 


18-761 


2b 


90-711 


2 


65-385 


1 


18-529 


1 


90-118 1 


4 


65086 


2 


18-233 


2 


89-532 


5 


64-680 


4 


17-942 


3 


89092 2 


64028 


2 


17-556 


4 


88-679 ) 4 


63-769 


1 


17038 


4 


88-274 1 2 


63-400 


1 


16-355 


5 


87-967 ( 


3 


62-975 


1 


15-746 


1 


87-510 j 


9 


62-751 


1 


15-421 


1 


86-790 


10 


62-434 1 
62-160 J 


2 


15155 


1 


86-238 


1 


3 


14-240 1 


4 


85-814 


4 


61-820 


1 


13-898 J 


3 


85-354 ) 


2 


61-473 


1 


13048 1 
12-853 J 


4 


85-075 \ 
84-525 ) 


4b 


61-160 


3 


1 


4 


60-815 


2 


12-432 


3 


83-741 


1 


60-560 


3 


11-963 


lb 


83-492 


3 


60-168 


1 


11-309 


2b 


83-248 


2 


59-531 


1 


10-460 \ 


3 


82-813 


4 


59191 


2 


10160 J 


1 


82-395 


2 


58-507 


4 


09-594 


2 


81-955 


3 


57-779 


2 


09-209 


3 


81-398 


6 


57-010 


3 


08-806 


5 


80-910 


2 


56-783 




07-637 


2b 


80-607 


2 


55-311 




07115 


2 


80198 


2 


55 010 


3b 


06-599 \ 


4 


79-916 


5 


54-648 


3 


06-256 J 


1 


79341 


1 6 


54-098 




2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 139 



Band Spectkum of Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 
1 


6453-462 


4 


5424171 J 


3 


5395-646 


52-046 


2 


23-724 | 


3 


95-327 


4 


51-647 


4 


23-438 1 


1 


93-578 \ 
93-487 1 


2 


51-202 


1 


23143 1 


5 


1 


50-511 


2 


22-743 ) 


2 


92-435 1 
92-082 f | 


2 


50190 


3 


22112 


3 


3 


48-329 


2 


21-787 


1 


90-967 | 


1 


47-880 


3 


21-467 


4 




47-459 


3 


21-078) 


4 


90-716 ) 


2 


47007 


3 


20-793 \ 


3 


90-214 


1 


46-355 


1 


20-385) 


2 


89-552 


3 


45-842 


lb 


19-994 


4 


89049 


4 


45044 


3 


19-479 


4 


88-517 


2 


44-683 


3 


19100 


3 


88-182 


3 


44152 


3 


18-609 


6 


87-504 


2 


43-867 


2 


17-827 


5 


87-105 


1 


43153 


lb 


17359 


5b 


86-763 


4 


41-892 


5b 


16-580 1 


4 


86-188 


5 


41-504 


1 


16-232 J 


4 


85-861 


3 


41-189 


4 


15149 \ 


3 


85014 


In 


40-760 


4 


15-416 J 


2 


84-516 


1 


40-536 


6 


14-325 


4 


84-183 1 


4 


40-285 


3b 


13-909 1 
13-742 f 


1 


83-578 J 


3 


39155 


6 


1 


83-100 


2 


38-472 1 
38-246 j 


3 


13-402 


4 


82-175 


3 


3n 


12-959 


1 


81-759 


3 


37 875 


3 


12-709 


1 


81-466 


3 


37-565 


1 


12-427 


2 


81-281 


3 


36-870 


4 


12061 


3 


80-918 


1 


36-440 


4b 


11-737 


2 


80-318 


3b 


35-932 


4 


11-360 


1 


79-346 | 


7 


35-367 


3 


11061 


3 


78-959 ] 


5 


34-426 


1 


10-447 


5 


78-061 


3 


33-922 


2 


09-790 


4 


77-316 1 


6 


33-600 


4 


09-402 


1 


76-897 | 


5 


32-962 





09-098 


2 


76-462 


1 


32-527 


2 


08-680 


2 


76173 


3 


31-932 


3 


08-315 


3 


75-486 


3 


31-219 | 


8 


07-998 


1 


75-158 ) 
74-695 f 


2 


or 


07-691 


5 


2 


10 


07 047 


3 


74-346 


3 


30-507 




2 


06-547 } 


1 


73-680 


3 


30-198 J 




1 


06-301 J 


2 


73195 


5 


29-566 


4 


05013 


3 


72-690 


5 


29-260 


3 


04141 


2 


72046 


2 


28-940 


4 


02-954 


3 


71-433 


3 


28-656 


1 


02-590 


1 


71147 


3 


28-349 


1 


01-957 


2 


70-810 


2 


28-068 


5 


01-593 


1 


70-473 


3 


27-685 


1 


01-185 


3 


69-944 


1 


27-272 


3 


00-805 


lb 


69-673 


2s 


26-838 \ 
26-655 J 


1 


5399-684 


2 


69-384 


1 


2 


99-350 


1 


68-989 


4 


26-197 ) 


1 8 


98-996 


3 


68-441 \ 


1 


25-712 I 


2 


98-285 


3 


68-314 J 


2 


25-390 ) 


3 


96-479 1 


2 


67-978 


3 


24-908 1 


5 


96-226 J 


2 


67-58S 


3b 


24-514 


} 


1 2 


95-841 


1 


66-993 


4 



140 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 


i 


Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




5333-106 


Charactei 
2 




Character 


5366-482 


5 


5305-501 


3 


65-380 


4 


32-817 


1 


05113 


5 


65-355 | 


1 


32-525 


2 


04-404 


1 


65-093 J 


1 


32153 


3 


03-962 


3 


64-697 


6 


31-522 


lu 


03-444 


5n 


64-237 


3 


30-789 


2 


03-274 


1 


63-814 


5 


30-295 


4 


01-986 


1 


63-297 


5 


29-516 


2b 


01-381 1 
00-924 J 


2 


62-896 ) 


3 


27-921 


1 


4 


62-520 \ 


1 


27-671 


1 


00-476 


1 


62-140 ) 


3 


27-369 


2 


5299-973 


2 


61-678 1 
61-531 J 


2 


26-731 


1 


99-601 


1 


2 


26-301 


5 


99071 1 


3 


61-158 


3 


25-715 


4 


98-795 f 


3 


60-892 


1 


25-223 


2 


98-154] 


1 


60-627 


3 


24-873 


1 


97-997 / 


2 


60-279 


4 


23-851 


2 


97-312 1 
96-983 J 


2 


59-806 


5 


23-587 


2 


2 


58-845 


4 


23-241 


2 


96015 1 
95-584 | 


2 


58-263 


3 


22-867 


2 


2 


57-740 


2 


22-271 


1 


94-551 


1 


57-367 


3 


21-858 


3 


94031 


3 


56-973 


4 


21-536] 


!}> 


93-300 


3 


56-203 


2b 


21-240 I 


92-240 


3 


55-540 


2b 


20-651 \ 
20-203 j 


1 


90-799 


lb 


54-883 


lb 


3 


90-330 1 
89-848 j 


3 


54-019 


lb 


19-835) 


1 


3 


53-062 


2b 


19-585 \ 
19-311 j 


2 


89-006 


2b 


52152 


2b 


3 


88-259 


2b 


51-273 


3 


18-654 


4 


87-585 


3 


50-816 


1 


17-883 


5 


86-932 


1 


50-405 


3 


17361 ) 


1 


86-482 


2 


49-898 


2 


17119 

16-877 j 


2 


85-746 


3 


49-390 


1 


1 


S4-913 


2 


48-912 


2 


16-586 


2 


84-450 


2 


48-361 


2 


16-202 


4 


83016 


2 


46-911 


3 


15-720 


2 


82-630 


2 


46-163 


2n 


15-338 1 
14-998 / 


2 


82-289 


1 






6 


81-579 


1 


45194 


lu 


14-481 


2 


80-228 


1 


44041 


2n 


14125 


8 


79-898 


2 


43007 


3 


13-614 | 


3 


79-433 


2 


42-359 


1 


13-272 ' 


6 


78-548 1 


3 


41-953 


1 


12-879 


1 


78-247 / 


2 


40-898 


3n 


12-506 


3 


77-876 


1 


40-121 


3 


11-760 


6 


77-440 


1 


38-777 


1 


10-621 


5n 


77-101 


lu 


38-257 


3 






76-733 


In 


37-890 


1 


09-823 


5 


76-378 


4 


37-476 


2 


09-410 


3 


75-901 


1 


37-285 


2 


09071 


1 


75-528 


3 


36-556 


1 


08-191 


2 


74-276 


1 


36127 


1 


07-847 


3 


73-990 


1 


35-510 


3 


07-525 


1 


73-592 


1 


34-833 


4 


07121 


3 


73-323 


2 


34-234 


lb 


. 06-783 


1 


72-999 


3 


33-939 


1 


06-231 


3 


72-689 


2 


33-592 


3 


05-874 


2 


72-335 


1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 141 



Band Spkctrum op Sitlphur — continued. 



! 


Intensity: 




Intensity! 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


i 


Character 1 


i 


Character 




Character 


5271-872 


1 


5244-577 


3n 


5212-052 


2 


71-316 


2 


43-906 


1 


11-593 


In 


70-558 


3 


43-212 


3 






69-378 


1 


42-702 


2n 


10-931 1 


4s 


69089 


1 


42-282 


1 


10-617 J 


2 


68-833 1 
68-508 J 


2 


42027 


1 


10017 


2n 


2 


41-737 


2 


09-045 1 


2n 


67-847 


2 


40-856 


2 


08-782 J 


4n 


67 401 


1 


40069 


2 


08-306 


3b 


67 254 


1 


39-682 


2 


07-417 


3 


67 024 


1 


39-320 


2 


06-906 


5b 


66-540 


1 


38-477 


2n 


06-409 


1 


66155 


3 


38114 


1 


05-737 


1 


65-512 


3n 


37-089 


2 


05-227 


6b 






36-527 


1 


04-779 


1 


65109 


1 


36079 


2 


04-296 


2 


64-917 


2 


35-472 


3 


03-710 1 
03-341 / 


4 


64044 


1 


34131 


2 


1 


63-500 


4n 


32-817 


In 


02-904 


2 


63017 


3n 






02-465 


3 


62-484 


In 


32-182 


1 


01-872 


2 


61-990 


1 


31-328 


2 


01-652 


3b 


61-451 1 
61-247 J 


5n 


30-792 


1 


01156 


2 


1 


30-329 


1 


00-756 


2 


60-608 


2 


29-835 


2 


00-333 


2 


60-269 


In 


29109 


In 


5199-956 


3 


59-841 i 


4 


28-457 


2 


99-582 


1 


59-552 I 


2 


27 943 


1 


99-309 1 
99-000 f 


2 


59-192 J 


1 


26-798 


1 


3 


58-607 1 
58-340 / 


2 


26-155 


2 


98-475 


2 


3 


25-734 


1 


97-817 1 
97-675 J 


4b 


57 986 


In 


25-258 


1 


2 


57-405 


2 


24-676 1 


2n 


96-769 


3 


56-803 


4 


24-454 j 


In 


96-588 


2 


56043 


2n 


23-947 1 


2 


95-966 1 


2 


55-739 


3 


23-671 J 


1 


95-728 j 


2 


55-269 


2 


23-307 1 


1 


94-782 


2 


54-974 


I 


22-983 J 


1 


94-048 


5b 


54-534 


1 


22-245 


2 


93-436 


3b 


54153 


4 


21-5461 


2n 


92-734 


Is 


53-756 


3 


21-274 J 


In 


92-288 


2 


53-303 


2 


20-690 


3 


91-956 


2 


52-981 


2 


20-229 


2 


90-521 


1 


52-700 


3 


19-882 


1 


90117 


3 


52-158 


3n 


19-544 


1 


88-573 


lb 


51-677 


3 


19-201 


2 


88-100 


1 


51-3591 
51-118 J 


3 


18-668 


1 


87-335 


1 


3 


18037 


1 


86-880 1 
86-612 / 


1 


50-512 


2n 


17-704 


4 


1 


49-820 


3 


17019 


3 


86033 


1 


49-315 { 
48-958 j 


2 


15-935 


1 


85016 


1 


2 


15-409 


3 


84-426 


3 


48090 


3 


14-796 


3b 


83-775 


2n 


47-126 \ 
46-801 j 


2 


14-451 


1 


83063 


1 


2 


13-835 


lb 


82-670 


1 


46-336 


3n 


13-158 




3 


82165 


1 


45-587 


3 


12-875 


. 


1 1 


81-562 


2n 


45015 


2 


12-594 




1 2 


81169 


1 



142 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectrum of Sulphub — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




i 
Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


5180-855 


2n 


5146-732 


3b 






78-761 


2 


46-257 


2 


5102-903 1 


3 


78043 


3b 


45-783 


4b 


02-608 j 


3 


76-861 


1 


45031 


2 


02-140 1 


2 


76-401 


2n 


44-482 


3 


01-965 J 


2 


76-361 


In 


44000 


2 


00-853 


2 


75-881 


In 


43-458 


2 


00-494 


4 


75-229 


2n 


43131 


1 


5099-627 


2 


73-653 


2n 


42-574 


In 


98-972 


4 


73171 


2n 






98-392 


2 


72-692 


1 


41-671 


2 


97634 


4 


72-307 


1 


40-923 


In 


96-911 


lb 


71175 


2 


40-448 


2n 


96-457 


1 


70-660 


1 


39074 


1 


95-983 


2 


70-353 


2 


38-400 


2 


95055 


2 


69-665 


1 


37-643 


In 


94-684 


3 


68-592 


2 


37001 


1 


94-225 \ 


2 


68122 


2 


36-624 


1 


93-912 J 


2 


66-239 


In 


36113 


1 


93098 


2 






35-663 1 
35-398 [ 


2n 


92-697 


3n 


66-142 


2n 


2n 


92195 


1 


65-330 


2n 


33-270 


1 


91-949 


In 


63-880 


3 


32-852 


1 


91-541 


2n 


63-389 


3 


29-743 


1 


90-979 


3 


63 008 


2 


28-816 


2 


90-162 


2 


61-691 


4b 


28-220 


1 


89-388 "1 
89-196 / 


2n 


61-214 


2 


27561 


1 


In 


60-816 


2 


26-914 


In 


88-322 


In 


59-844 


5 


25-783 


In 


87-529 


3 


59-557 


1 






86-884 


2n 


59148 1 


In 


23-942 


In 


86-270 


In 


58-916 1 


In 


23-188 


In 


84-475 


3 


58-194 1 


2n 


22-682 


In 


84-024 


2 


57-921 J 


2n 


21-987 


2n 


82-964 


In 


57-509 


1 


20-490 


1 






57134 


3 


19-500 


2 


82-415 


3 


56-689 


2 


18144 


2 


81-412 


3 


56-275 


1 


17233 


3 


80-781 


2 


55-826 


2 


15-673 


2 


80-325 


2 


65-332 


4 


14-984 


2b 


79-334 


lb 


54-873 


2b 


13-655 


In i 


78-503 


2 


54-379 


3 


12-976 


In 


78-022 


1 


53-960 


3 


12-558 \ 


In 


77699 


1 


53 559 


1 


12-262 | 


In 


75-217 


1 


53102 


2 


11-631 


1 


74-912 


2 


52-655 


3b 


11-279 


2 


74-576 


3 


52-281 


2 


10-943 


1 


74-086 


2 


51-929 


3 


10-152 


1 


73-586 


lb 


51-615 


1 


09-767 


1 


72-729 


In 


51-344 


1 


09186 


2 


71923 


2 


50-987 


4 


08-392 


In 


71-629 


1 


50-583 


2 


07-832 


2n 


71-349 


1 


50-287 


1 


07195 


3 


70-893 


1 


49-935 


2 


06-224 


2n 


70-563 


2 


49-583 


3 


05-412) 


2 


70181 


In 


48-917 


3b 


04-594 \ 


2 


69-757 


2 


48163 


4 


04-239) 


3 


69-355 


In 


47535 


4 


03731 


lb 1 


1 





ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 143 
Band Spectrum of Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


< 


Character 


( 


Character 
2 




Character 
2 






5039-277 


4999-574 1 
99-206 J 


5068-966 


1 


38-818 


3n 


3 


68-568 


3 






98-868 


2 


68099 


2 


38-368 


1 


98-556 


1 


67-529 


2 


37-866 


3 


97-989 


5b 


66-886 1 
66-643 j 


2n 


37 004 


4 






2 


36-532 


2 


97306 


2b 


65-833 


3 


35-866 


2b 


96-658 


3b 


65-323 


2 


35-366 


2 


96-177 


3 


64-973 


1 


35030 


In 


95-634 


3 


64-546 \ 
64-219 / 


2 


34-631 


4n 


95141 


3 


1 


33-881 


2 


94-718 


4 


63-825 1 
63-247 J 


2 


33-261 


2n 


94-197 


4 


1 


32-737 


lb 


93-775 


1 


62-779 


1 






93-208 


4 


62-315 


2b 


31-510 


lb 


92-712 


2 


61-770 


2 


30-301 


2b 


92-336 


1 


61189 


3 


28121 


1 


91-909 


3 


60-756 


lb 


27485 


1 


91-6421 


2 






26-447 


1 


91491 j 


2 


59-871 


4 


25-645 


1 


91059 


2 


59-103 


3 


25-008 


1 


90-628 


2n 


58-636 


1 


24-7001 


2 


90-258 1 


3 


58-134 


3 


24-377 1 


1 


89-995 J 


3 


57-626 


1 


22-684 


1 


89-543 


1 


56-981 


4 


22043 


3b 


89-182 


2 


56-493 


1 


21-495 


1 


88-494 


2 


56071 


1 


21003 


1 


87-317 


2n 


55-711 


3 


20-525 


2 


87-371 




55-444 


2 


19483 


2b 


85-737 




55086 


2 


18-593 


lb 


85-304 


In 


54-862 


1 


17820 


1 


84-526 




54-463 


lb 


17-096 1 
16-772 / 


In 


83842 




53057 


1 


2n 


83-385 




53 290 


8 


15-790 


lb 


82-675 




52-545 


3 


15-215 


2b 


82-162 


In 


52119 


1 


14173 


3n 


80-833 




51-440 


5 


13449 


In 


80-387 


4s 


51044 


5 


12-821 


2 


79-706 


In 


50-370 


2 


11-703 


4 


78-830 


In 


49-590 


3 


11099 


3 


78 083 


In 




1 


10-436 


2 


77-286 




48-953 


2 


09-677 


2 


76-617 




48-544 


1 


09-322) 


1 


75-282 




48137 


2 


08-988 \ 


2s 


74-566 


2 


47-790 


4 


08-224 j 


2n 


73-674 


I 


46-730 


2 


07 057 


3b 


72-641 


1 


46-266 


4s 






71915 


In 


45-418 


2 


05-971 


2b 


70-935 


In 


44-712 


5 


05-304 1 
03-968 j 


3 


70103 


i i 


43-930 


3b 


2 


69433 


1 


43-297 


4 


03-713 


2 


68-786 


1 


42-770 


2n 


03178 


2 


68-638 


2 


42438 


1 


02-765 


In 


67-576 




41-976 


3 


02020 


4 


67046 


1 


41438 


3 


01-375 


3 


66-176 




40-887 


4 


00-578 


3 


65-747 1 
65-549 J 




39-694' 


3 


00013 


2 


1 



144 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur — continued. 



Wave-length 



4964-764 
63-511 
62-962 
62-341 
61-002 
60-404 
59-968 
58-993 
58-458 
58-264 
56-692 
56193 
55-625 

54-670 

54056 

53-728 

53-300 

53-156 

52-248 

51-889 

51-020 

50-455 

49-362 

48-850 

48-458 

47-790 

47-408 

46-968 

46-464 

46-006 

45-609 

45-195 

44-803 

44179 

43-903 

43-555 

43169 

42-909 

42-439 

41-989 

41-552 

41-174 

40-737 

40-403 1 

39-871 J 

39-317 

39010 

38-531 

38-245 

37 471 

36-995 

36-588 

35-966 

35-219 

34-592 

27 070 

26-222 



Intensity 
j and 
Characteri f 



Wave-length 



j Intensity 

and 
Character 



3 

2b 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

2b 

1 

In 

2 

1 

2b 

1 

2b 

2 

2b 

2 

3 

1 

3 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

3 

2 

1 

2b 

2 

1 

1 

In 

3 

3 

1 

2 

1 

2 

2 

3 

1 

In 

1 

3 

lb 

2b 



4925-558 
25-008 
24-355 
23-598 
23-244 1 
23-036 j 
22-422 
22038 



17-827 

17-213 

16-603 

16-260 

15-980 

15-304 

14-505 

13-684 

13-214 

12-617 

12133 

11-2601 

10-984 j 

09-882 1 

09-715 j 

09-299 

08-818 

08-446 

07-653 

06-995 

06-210 

05-557 
05-088 1 
04-793 I 
04-337 1 
04-020 I 
03-452 
03 045 
02-606 
02-198 
01-610 
01 108 
00-249 

4899-780 
99-456 
99-077 
98-394 
97921 
96-96S 

96-315 
95-654 
95-290 
94-593 

93-603 



Wave-length 



In 

In 

In 

1 

lb 

2b 

1 

1 



2b 

lb 

1 

1 

1 

In 

4 

3 

In 

In 

3 

2 

2 

2n 

2 

1 

3 

1 

3 

1 

2n 

2 

In 

In 

3n 

3 

3 

2 

In 

1 

4 

2 

lb 

3 
1 
2 

4 
2 
3b 

3 
3 
1 

3b 

In 



4892-772 

90-525 
89-858 
89-406 
88-933 
88-663 
87-852 
87-429 
85144 
84-577 
84-205 
83-751 
82-399 
81-910 
81-214 
80-245 
79-754 
78-913 



75-980 

75-541 

74-927 

74-455 

73-897 

73164 

72-732 

72-237 

71-931 

71172 

70-583 

70141 

69-559 

68-609 

68-447 

67-300 

65-827 

64-823 1 

64-286 j 

63-839 

63-366 

62-881 

62-390 
62034 
61169 
60-656 
60-178 
59-465 
58-956 
58-476 
58107 
57-626 
56-827 
56-490 



Intensity 

and 
Character 

3b 

3 

In 

In 

In 

In 

2n 

2n 

2n 

In 

2n 

In 

In 

In 

3n 

2n 

In 

2n 



2n 

3n 

1 

In 

In 

In 

In 

lb 

1 

3b 

2b 

lb 

lb 

2b 

4b 

2 

4 

2b 

lb 

2b 

4 

2b 

2 
1 
4 
3 
3 
1 
3 
4 
1 
1 
5 
2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 145 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4855-803 


2b 


4770-730 1 


1 


4749-189) 


3 


55-273 


3 


70-540 J 


lu 


48-601 \ 


In 


54-898 1 


1 


70-009 


1 


48-416) 


2 


54-539 J 


1 


09-508 } 
69-259 J 


2 


48-101 


3n 


54-190 1 
53-726 / 


2n 


2 


47-786 


1 


2n 


68-566 


2 


47-533 


2 


53-255 


2b 


68-273 


1 


46-847 1 
46-263 / 


1 


52-805 1 


2 


67-939 


1 


I 






67-635 


1 


46085 


2 


52-281 f 
51 -702 1 


2 


67342 


2 


45-611 


lb 


1 


66542 


2 


45-252 


2 


51-342 


3s 


66220 


2 


44-392 


2 


51-029 


3s 


65504 


1 


43-967 


1 


50180 


2 


65221 


2 


43-741 


1 


49-707 


3 


64-762 


1 


43-465 


lb 


49-249 


3 


64-557 


In 


42-973 


3 


48-701 1 
48-230 1 


1 


64195 


3 


42-572 


lb 


3b 


63-756 


2 


42-153 


2 


47-519 


2 


63476 


1 


41-552 


1 


47-088 \ 


2 


63256 


1 


41-148 


1 


46-762 J 


2 


63-042 


2 


41-083 


2 


46124 


3 


62-749 


1 


40-680 


lb 


45-709 


2 


62-265 


2 


40-396) 


lb 


45-346 


lb 


62-098 


1 


39-985 \ 
39-821 ) 


1 


44-599 ) 


2 


61-397 


4 


2 


44-298 \ 
43-612) 


lb 


60916 


In 


39-673 


2 


1 


60437 


3b 


39-384 


1 


42-364 


2b 






38-992 


2 


41-697 


lb 






38030 


2 


40-666 


2b 


59-854 


2 


37-471 


2n 


40-187 


lb 


59-547 


1 


37-188 


1 


39-562 


2 


59 343 


1 


36-918 


In 


4784-744 


1 


59-020 


1 


£6-659 


2 


84-243 


1 


58-466 


2 


35-814 


2 


83665 


1 


57-886 \ 
57-818/ 


2 


3V568 


lb 


83-039 1 


1 


2 


35051 


2b 


82-779 I 


1 






34-327 


1 


81-948 1 


1 


57-054 


2b 


33-926 


4b 


81-738 J 


1 






33-314 


1 


80-787 


la 


56-367 


2 


33117 


1 


80-396 


1 


56064 


1 


32-982 


1 


80-170 


1 


55-757) 


4n 


32-902 


1 


79179 


1 


54-985 \ 


2n 


32-544 


1 


78-738 


1 


54-784) 


2n 


32-416 


1 


78-029 


2 


54-489 1 
53-379 J 


2n 


31-947 


2 


77-641 


2 


2 


31-649 


4b 


77-128 


In 


53150 


2 


31117 


1 


76-656 


1 


52-680 


2n 


30-893 ) 
30-662 / 


1 


75-656 1 
75-468 J 


1 


52-021 \ 


2 


1 


1 


51-740 J 


2 


30-182 


1 


75-154 


2 


51-615 


2 


29-822 v 


2a 


74-794 


1 


51-1441 
50-868 f 


In 


29-604 [ 


1 


74-164 


2 


2 


29-424 ( 


1 


73-377 


2 


50-626 \ 
50-239 f 


1 


29-244) 


2a 


72-910 


3a 


2 


28-825 1 


1 


71-729 


1 


50-029 \ 
49-722 J 


2 


28-563 f 


2 


71-285 


2 


1 


27-8561 


1 


70-912 


1 


I 49-471 


2 


27-733 \ 


1 



1904. 



146 



REPORT — 1904. 





Band Spectrum of Sulphur — continued. 








Intensity 


II 

■ 


Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4727-520 J 


1 


4709-236 


3b 


4690-619 


3 


27-067 1 


2 






90350 


In 


26-691 | 


2 


08-972 1 


1 






26-208 


3b 


08-813 J 


3 


89-793 


1 






08-162 


1 


89-602 


3 


25-570 


2 


07-935 


2b 


89-278 


2 


25-165 


1 


07514 


4 


88-687 


4b 


24-7171 
24-341 / 


3n 


07-088 


1 






2 


06-808 


3 


88-110 


3 


23-901 


2n 


06-439 


4b 


87-920 


3 


23-756 


1 






87-675 


1 


23-378 


23 


06-040 


1 


87-423 


1 


22-893 


2b 


05-702 


4 


87-220 1 


2 


22-559 


3 


05-356 


2b 


87-081 J 


2 


22-221 


4 






86-814 


2 


21-971 
21-695 
21-482 
21-194 


1 
1 
2 

2 


05-142 
04-814 
04173 


1 
3 

2b 


86-574 
86-209 
85-834 
85-453 1 




3 
1 
2 
4 


20-607 


3b 






85-243 




2 


20172 


1 


03658 


2 


85053 




2 


19-783 


2 


03-223 


4 


84-755 


- 


3 


19-199 


2 


02-896 


1 


84-503 




2 


18-644 


3 


02-585 


1 


84-384 




2 


18-178 


4 


02-407 


1 


83-969 


4 


17-798 


1 


02114 


2 


83-760 


4 


17-505 


2 


01-775 


4 


83-159 


1 


17-185 


1 


01-360 


4 


82-877 


2 


16-737 


1 


00-835 


1 


82-617 


2b 


16-540 


1 


00-579 


1 


82-378 


2 


16-283 } 


3 


00-397 


In 


82-058 

— 


3 


16-084 | 


1 


00-244 


2 


81-671 


1 


15-799) 


3 


00036 


3 


81-537 


3s 






4699-628 


2 


81-240 


3b 


15-318 [ 


2 


99-303 


1 


80-406) 


3 


14-813J 


2 


99-010 


1 


80-183 [ 


1 


14-579 \ 


3 


98-489 v 


3 


80-076 ) 


3 


14-392 1 


2 


98-250 


1 


79-761) 


3b 


14-235 f 


1 


97-871 \ 


2b 


79-418 \ 


4 


14-098 J 


3 


97-421 


3b 


79-135] 


4 


13-860 


2 


97-079' 


1 






13-556 


2 


96-911 


2 






13-365 


1 


96-773 


2 


78-509 


2 


13-109 


2b 


95-705 


1 


77-957 


4 


12-826 


4b 


95-387 1 
95-100 J 


1 


77-762 \ 




2 


12477 \ 
12-356 J 
12034) 
11-624 [ 


1 


2 


77-581 




1 


1 


94-596 


2b 


77-407 




lb 


2 


94-331 


3b 


77-047 




3 


In 


94-063 


1 


76-810 




4 


11-391 [ 
11-137 J 


2 


93-828 


2b 


76-348, 




1 


3 






76157 


2 


10941 


2 


93-100 


2 


75-816 


4 


10578 


2b 


92-756 


1 










92-526 "1 
92-174 J 


2 


75-485 


3 


10-270 


1 


1 


75-044 


6 


10030 


3 


91-727 


2 


74-731) 


3 


09-796 


1 


91-360 


4 


74-655 - 


2 


09-579 


1 


1 91147 


1 


74-432 ; 




i 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 147 



Band Spectrum of Sulphuk — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4673-953 \ 
73-784 J 


1 


4661-876 


1 


4645448 


lb 


5b 


61-799 


4 


45-110 


1 


73402 1 
73-296 J 


1 


61-593 


1 


44-734 


2 


4 


61-446 


1 


44-509 


1 


73065 


2n 


61-179 


1 


43-994 


4 


72-883 


3n 


60-863 


8 


43-568 


3 


72-824 


3 


60-443 


4 


43-247 


3 


72-424 


3 


60-265 


1 


42-297 


3 


72-176 


3 


60044 


1 


41-927 


1 


71-940 


3 


59647 


8 


41-736 


1 


71572 


3 


59 493 


6 


41-506 


4 


71-383 


] 


59-270 


4 


41-255 


2b 


71-268 


2 


58-793 


2 


40-831 


6 


70-990 


2 


58505 


4b 


40-460 


4b 


70-675 


6 






39-805 


3 


70-435 


2 






39-373 


3b 


70 329 


6 






39-196 


2 






57975 


3 


38-540 


3 






57-496 


3 


38-331 


2b 






57-188 


8 






70-122 


6 


66-495 


3b 


37-946 


1 


69-883 


6 






37-723 


2 


69-474 


1 


56140 


6 


37-363 


1 


69-475 


5 


65-691 


2 


36-802) 


3 


69-042 


3 


55-348 \ 
54T31 J 


3 


36-621 \ 


2 


68-801 


4 


3 


36-375 ) 


2 


68-483 \ 


4 


54863 ) 


4 


35-943 


2 


68-338 ( 


3b 


54-596 J 


4 


35-564 


1 


68-040 f 
67 -892 j 


3b 


54233 


5 


35-269 


2b 


4 


53-948 1 


1 


34-865 1 


1 


67-681 


1 


53841 J 


1 


34-762 | 


1 


67-554 


1 


53631 


2b 


34-527 1 
34-328 j 


4 


67-369 


3 






4 


67-147 | 


lb 


53112 


1 


33-715 


5 


66-932 1 


3b 


52-971 ) 


3 


33T55 


1 


66-787 j 


lb 


52-565 1 


4 


32-991 


1 


66-646 1 


3 


52-323 ( 


8 


32-711 


3 


66-333 


6 


52-128 i 


2 


32-460) 


3 


65-970 


2 


51-848 


3 


32-279 


1 






51331 


2 


32T39 ) 


4 






61-088 


4 


31-584 


3b 


65-712 


2 


50814 


3 


31T93 


2 


65-357 


6 


60623 


3 


30-924) 
30-753 I 


1 


64-988 


4b 


50493 


1 


2 


64-721 


4b 


49-993 


2 


30-514 [ 
30-409] 


1 


64-381 


4b 


49-404 


6 


3 


64T84 


1 


48-817 


1 


30-214 


2 


64036 


3 


48-629 


1 


30053 


2 


63-803 


2b 


48-399 1 
48-082 J 


3 


29-652 


1 






1 


29-342 


3 






47-980 


1 


28-887 


1 


63-622 


4 


47-660 


2 


28-659 


1 


63-435 


1 


47-385 


1 


28-483 


2 


63-163 


5 


47-047) 
46-892 \ 
46-709) 


In 


28-202 1 
28-014 j 


3 


62-796 \ 
62-431 J 


23 


la 


2 


2b 


4 


27-486 \ 
27-366/ 


1 


62-220 1 
62-099 J 


4 


46-404 


4 


1 


1 


45-761 


4 


27-101 


A* 



L 2 



148 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity j 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-lengtl 


l and 




Character 




Character 




Character 

i 


4626-917 


1 


4612-585 


i 
1 


4593-533 


2 


26-704 


2 


12-327 


4 


92-784 


3 


26-465 


2b 


11-950 


3 


92-190 


2b 






11-672 


3 


91-815 


2n 






11184 


3 


91-591 


1 


26079 


3 


10-810 


5 


91-420 


2 


25-639 1 
25-419 J 


1 


10-470 


6 


90-985 


In 


3 


10159 


2 


90-712 


2 


25-239 


2 


09-546 


4 


90-533 


1 


24-983 


3 


09158 


3 


90-509 


2 


24-571 1 
24-321 f 


2 


08-786 1 


2 


90062 


1 


2 


08-633 J 


2 


89-818 


2 


24- 194 1 
23-834 J 


3 


08-284 


2 


89-458 


2 


3 


07-900 


3 


89164 


2 


23-613 


2 


07447 


2 


88-936 


1 


23-399 


2 


07146 


3 


88-551 


1 


23084 


1 


06-744 


1 


88-423 


1 2 


22-853 


2 


06-493 


2b 


88-051 


2 


22-578 


2 






87-921 


1 


22-379 1 
21-876 




3 


06104 


3 


87616 


2 




3 


05-676 


2 


87-218 


3 


21-703 




1 


05-492 


1 


86-855 


In 


21-285 


. 


I 


05-288 


1 


86-594 


In 


21 124 




1 


05 056 


4 


86-415 


1 


20901 




4 


04-528 


3 


85-987 


2 


20-682 




3 


04-209 


3 


85-760 


1 


20-542 


2 


03-989 


1 


85-634 


1 


20-418 


3 


03-747 


1 


85-407 


3 


19770 


2 


03-488 


4 


85175 


1 


19-541 


2 


03127 


3 


84-908 


1 


19-368 


3 


02-913 


2 


84-666 




19-211 


3 


02-509 


6 


84-477 


4 


18-997 


o 


01-789 


1 


84-288. 


2 


18-850 


T 


01-546 


2b 


84016 


1 


18-705 


2 


01-259 


1 


83-834 


} f 


18-384 


1 


00-835 


3s 


83-626 


18-233 


2 


00-386 


3u 


83-514 


1 


17-953 


4 


4599-825 


2n 


83-331 


1 2 ^ 
lb 


17-720 


1 


99-407 


In 


83-086 


17-482 


1 


98-488 1 


1 


82-673 


2 


17161 


4 


98-347 / 


2 


82-321 


In 


16-908 


4 


98-091 


2b 


82-111 


3 


16-761 


5 


97-757 


1 


81-835 


2 

1 


16-208 \ 
16081 J 


1 


97-408 


4b 


81-674 


1 


96-751 


lb 


81-317 ! 


In 


15-784 


4 


96-497 


1 


81-058 


1 

2 


15-466 


3 


96-297 


1 


80-890 


15-188 


2 


95-964 


2 


80-497 


2 


14-786 ") 


4 


95-577 


2 


80-022 1 


1 


14-574 


3b 


95-435 


1 


79-625 


In 


14-212 


3 


95-252 


2 


79-384 


2 


13-925 


2 


95010 


2 


79-087 


1 


13-737 
13-566 < 


2 


94-730) 


1 


78-808 1 


2 


1 


94-587 1 


1 


78-528' 


1 


13-478 


1 


94-391 f 


2 


[ 78-363 


1 


13-3501 




3 


94-257J 


1 


78-068 




13-204 




1 2 


94-012 


1 


77-884 1 


1 


12-968, 


. 


1 2 


93-635 


2 


77-548^ 


4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SrECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 149 



Band Spectrum op Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


( 
1 


character 


Character 


Character 


4577-192 i 
76-987 I 


4 


4561012 


1 


4546-926 




3 


1 


60-841 


3 


46-745 




1 


76-682 1 


1 


60-483 \ 
60-194/ 


3 


46-582 




3 


76-388 ) 


1 


3 


46-336 




3 


76-210 


3 


59-882 


1 


46-196 




1 


75-953 


1 


59-743 


1 


46-067J 




2 


75-625 \ 
75-503 j 


2 


59-601 


2 


45-624 


23 


1 


59-311 


2 


45-185 


3b 


75122 


2 


58-952 


1 






74-939 


2 


58-770 \ 


2 


44-978 


1 


74-698 


2 


58-581 j 


2 


44-771 


3 


74133 


4 


58-267 


1 


44-540 


6 


73-890 


1 


57-946 


3 


44-275 


2 


73-602 


4 


57-495 


4 


44062 


4 


73-208 I 
72-966 J 


2b 


57-223 


3 


43-866 


2 


2b 


56-871 


3 


43-736 


1 


72-704 


3 


56-437 


1 


43-570 


2 


72-273 


3 


56151 


3 


43-284 \ 
42-822 J 


2 


71-998 


1 


55-928 ) 


1 


4 


71-872 


1 


55-817 \ 


2 


42-617 


2 


71-479 


1 


55-701 j 


1 


42-386 


6 


71-312 


1 


55-481 


1 


41-948 


4 


71-152 


2 


55-252 


6 


41-229 


3 


70-982 


1 


54-794 


5b 


40-948) 


10b 


70-765 


2 






40-777 \ 


10b 


70-292 


4 


54-346 1 


1 


40-655 J 


10b 


70037 


1 


54-237 J 


1 


40-395 1 


2 


69-526 


3 


53-859 ) 


1 


40-244 J 


2 


69-277 


2 


53-756 - 


1 


39-997 1 
39-726 j 


4 


68-990 


1 


53-616) 


2 


4 


68-581 


2 


53-284 


2 


39-470 


4 


68-187 


3 


53112 


2 


39194 


2 


67-674 


1 


52-962 


1 


38-982 


3 


67-435) 


2 


52-272 


1 


38-681 


4 


67-325 


. 


2 


52-553 


3 


38-438 


2 


67124 




2 


52-392 


1 


38192 


1 


66-830 


2n 


52-211 


3 


38 003 


2 


66-597 


In 


51-966 


1 


37-778 


5 


66-404 


3 


51-741 


3 


37-490 


5 


65-880 


1 


51-403 


3 


37181 1 


4 


65-713 | 
65-635 j" 


2 


51-027 


1 


36-958 j 


4 


2 


50-764 


4 


36-774 


1 


65-335 


1 


50-445 


4 


36-647 


1 


65-198 


1 


49-993 


1 


36-572 


2 


65-062 


1 


49-628 


3 


36-361 \ 


4 


64-798 


3b 


49-581 


1 


36005 J 


8 


64-437 


1 


49 346 


1 


35-678 


1 


64-230 


3 


49091 


4b 


35-398 


8 


63-864 


1 






35027 


10 


63-552 1 
63-412 f 


3 


48-716 


1 






3 


48-524 


4 


34-675 


1 


63104 


1 


48-336 


3 


34-487 ) 
34-292 \ 
34-135) 


2 


62-955 


3 


48-182 


2 


1 


62-668 


1 


47-765 


2b 


3 


62-498 


2 






33-883 \ 


3 


61-990 


1 


47 442 


4 


33-569 J 


6 


61-651 


2 


47-235^ 


1 


33-254 


4 


61-360 




3 


47-109 1 


1 


33054 




1 



150 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectbum of Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 


Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length and 




Character 
8 




Character 
2 


Character 


4532-762 


4517837 


4502-509 


1 


32-583 


1 


17 635 


1 


02-325 


2 


32-327 1 


4 


17-407 


2 


02-106 


3 


31-895 / 


1 


17-096 


3 


01-943 


2 


31-661 


3 


16-947 


3 


01-762 


2 


31-476 


1 


16-433 


2 


01-333 4 


31-253 


4 


16-177 


3 


01-191 


8 


30-992 


6b 


15-816 


6 


00-922 


8 


30-547 


6b 


15-565 


4 


00-578 } 4 


30190 


4 


15-320 


3 


00-439 J 2 


29-995 


3 


15127 


1 


00-128 4 


29-785 


3 


14-888 


1 


4499-766 


2 


29-564 


3 


14-667 


4 


99-579 


2 


29-347 1 


3 


14-472 


3 


99-400, 


1 


29-252 J 


3 


14-244 


3 


99-274 




5 


28-967 


1 


13-707 


4 


99052 




1 


28-655 


3 


13-399 


5 


98-873 


. 


2 


28-340) 


5b 


13118 


3 


98-645 




3 


27-949 \ 


lb 


12-836 


1 


98-480 


2 


27-809) 


4b 


12-650 


4 


98-149 8 


27-580 | 
27-494 / 


In 


12-349 


1 


97-888 3 


In 


12-209 


1 


97-672 2 


27-097 


4 


12-102 


1 


97-524 


2 


26-740 


2 


11-936 


3 


97-330 1 


4 


26-478 


3 


11-734 


1 


97-203 I 


4 


26-298 


1 


11-537 


1 


96-995 


1 


25-905 


4 


11-345 


2 


96-828 


6 


25-651 \ 
25-535 ; 


2n 


11054 


6 


96-566 


1 


2n 


10-791 


5 


96-462 "1 3 


25-277 


1 


10-534 


1 


96-373 I 3 


25-077 


2 


10-212 


1 


96-178 8 


24-763 


4 


10015 


6 


95-944 4 


24-408 


1 


09-516 


6 


95-646) 4 


24-198 


5 


08-999 


8b 


95-494 \ 


4 


23-782 ) 


8 






95-242) 


4 


23-660 J 


4 


08-491 


4 


95-237 5 


23-348 


2 


08013) 
07-871 \ 


2 


94-993 1 


23-208 


1 


2 


94-596 6b 


23083 


2 


07-749) 


1 


94-508 6 


22-861 


3 


07456 


4 


94023 ) 3 


22-581 


2 


07-188) 


4 


93-807 4 


22-400 


2 


07-057 


4 


93-637 ) 4 


22027 


2 


06-854) 


1 


93-281 2 


21-667 


4 


06-489 


4 


93045 5 


21-338 


2 


06-227 


6 


92-805 3 


20-999 


1 


05-821 


3 


92-679 4 


20-797 


2 


05-572 


3 


92-310) 2 


20-614 


3 


05-368 


1 


92-187 2 


20-081 


3 


05-172 


2 


92-096) 2 


19-750 


4 


04-946 


8 


91-835, 


3 


19-511 


2 


04-416 


2 


91-472 




4 


19-211 


2 


04-229 


2 


91-289 




1 


19074 


1 


03-964 


5 


91-110 


* 


4 


18-665) 


3 


03-713 


3 


90-806 




5 


18-492 \ 


1 


03-558 


3n 


90-579 




4 


18-370) 


1 


03-295 


4a 


90-375 




In 


18181 ) 


1 


02-917 


6 


90-180 


5 


18-067 I 


2 


02-730 


2 


89-911 




4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 151 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity [ 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4489-717 


1 


4476-098 } 


2b 


4462-573J 


2 


89-320 1 
89-085 J 


10 


75-867J 


2b 


62-421 ) 


1 


8 


75-558 


1 


62-329 \ 


1 


88-836 


2 


75-373) 


1 


61-660) 


3 


88-680) 




1 


75-223 1 


5 


61-406 


2 


88-604 




la 


74-910 f 


1 


61015 


4 


88-574 




Is 


74-757 j 


1 


60-415 


4 


88-215 1 
87-908 | 


6 


74-598 


2 


60-206 


2 


6 


74-281 


1 


60030 1 


3 


87-596 


8 


74-178 


1 


59-826 J 


1 


87-124) 


3 


73-899 


2b 


59-628 1 


1 


86-876 I 


6 






59-519 J 


1 


86-743 j 


3 


73-614 


4 


59-200 


2 


86-495 


5 


73-352 


4 


58-855 


3 


86-206 


5 


73107 1 


1 


58-503 1 


4 


85-877 \ 
85-803 / 


2 


72-948 J 


1 


58-293 J 


4 


2 


72-574 1 
72-204 j 


4 


57-814 \ 
57-634/ 


3n 


85-591 1 
85-401 J 


6 


4 


3n 


6 


72139 1 


2 


57-429 1 
57-300 J 


2 


85-067 x 


5 


71-964 J 


6 


2 


84-851 




5 


71-714 


1 


57-083 


1 


84-616 




5 


71-537 


2 


56-903 1 
56-708 | 


2n 


84-375 




5 


71-2881 


1 


2n 


83-891 




3b 


71-198 J 


1 


56-523 \ \ 


2n 








70-985 


1 


56-407 J 


2n 


83-657 




4 


70-667 


5 


56-226 1 
56-118/ 


In 


83-476 




2 


70-439 1 


1 


In 


83-289 >■ 


3 


70-363 J 


1 


55-916 


1 


83109 




3 


70171 


3 


55-738 \ 


2 


82-835 




5 


70063 


1 


55-538 / 


3 


82-637 




2 


69-849 


2 


55-386 


3 


82-400 




4 


69-497 


2b 


55-211 


2 


82-219 




4 


68-997 


3 


55-115 


2 


81-983 




5 


68-565 


2 


54-802 


1 


81-787 




5 


68-304 1 


2 


54-684 J 


1 


81-632' 


5 


68-219 J 


2 


54-504 v 


3 


81-4121 
81-136 j 


2 


67964 


3 


54-343 


1 


8b 


67-735 


3 


54-176 - 


1 


80-912 | 


1 


67-566 


1 


54-048 


2 


80-779 !■ 
80-501 ) 


1 


67 259 


2 


53-8r5 / 


1 


8 


67-088 


3 


53-4i'9 


5 


80-262 \ 


2 


66-883 


1 


53-306 1 
53-098 j 


5 


80092 


2b 


66-727 


1 


1 


79-782 


3 


66-488 


2 


52-667 


4 


79-523 ( 


2 


66-201 \ 


2 


52-303 


1 


79-3461 
79-265 j j 


2 


66-060 J 


2 


52-090 1 


1 


4 


65-820 


2 


51-973 j 


1 


79-047 


1 


65-392 


3 


51-751 


In 


78-893 


1 


65-232 


2 


51-562 


1 


78-647 


3 


64-798 


.5 


51-371 


3 


78-390 


2 


64-503 


3 


51 073 ) 


2n 


78-187 


1 


64-294 1 
64-210 J 


1 


50-881 - 


3n 


78023 


1 


1 


50-608 j 


3n 


78020 


8 


63-850 


4 


50-296 


2n 


77-448 


3 


63-447 


2n 


50-0 9 . 


4 


77-091 


3 


63-1661 

63002 ! 
62-868 I 


2 


49-608 


4 


76-924 


3 


1 


49-247 [ 


f 


76-403~ 


1 


5 


1 


48-993 i 


' 1 



152 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wavelength 


and 




Character 




Character 


Character 


4448-751 | 


1 


4433-123J 


1 


4414-842 } 


2 


48-443J 


1 


32-865 


1 


14-603J 


1 


48-112 


5 


32-643 


2 


14-281 


2 


47-886 


3 


32-085 1 


1 


14-100 1 


3 


47171 


2 


31-923 J 


1 


13-774 | 


2 


47017 


2 


31-643 


2 


13-574 


1 


46-787 


1 


31-349 


1 


13-421 


1 


46-611 ) 
46-437 \ 
46-313 j 


2 


30-898 


lb 


13139 


2 


2 


30-401 


2b 


12-896 


1 


2 


29-955 "1 


lb 


12-548 "1 
12-373 j 


2 


46-094 


1 


29-726 J 


lb 


2 


45-916 


1 


29131 


lb 


12-001 


2 


45-567 1 
45-476 f 


2 


28-792 


3 


11-682 


2 


2 


28-421 


1 


11-448 


1 


45-161 


2 


28-030 


1 


11-178 


lb 


44-947 1 
44-798 f 


2 


27-714 


1 


10-920 ) 
10-745 [ 
10-630 j 


1 


2 


27-569 


1 


1 


44-365 


1 


27-179 


1 


1 


44-208 


2 


26-932 


2 


10-293 


2 


43-780 


1 


26-559 


lb 


09-907 


2 


43-474 ) 


2 






09-705 


1 


43-389 \ 
43-287 j 
42-914 
42-591 
42-078 n 
41-890 | 
41-750 y 
41-595 
41-419 ) 


2 
2 
3 
4 
1 
1 
2 

3 
2 


25-884 

25044 

24-797 

24-487 

24-200 

23-999 

23-749 

23-659 

23-249 

23014 "1 

22-861 f 

22-554 

22-201 

21-731 

21-395 

21-201 

20-904 

20-617 

20-290 

19-856 1 

19-687 1 

19-401 

19079 

18-862 

18-430 


2b 
1 
1 
3b 

1 

I 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

1 

lb 

2 

2 

3b 

1 

1 

1 

2 

3b 


09-494 ) 
09-319 
09-107 J 
08-602 
08-178 
07-892 "1 
07-798 j 
07-400 
07-171 


2 
2 
1 
3 

1 

1 

1 
1 


41045 x 
40-883 
40-701 I 
40-442 
40- 140 ) 


1 

2 

2 
3 

1 


07-019 ) 
06-874 t 
06-754 ) 
06-517 
06-317 


1 

1 
2 
3 

1 


39-669 ] 
39-441 J 
38-678 ] 
38-542 j 
37-708 
37 653 
37-148 


3 

4 

3 

3 

2 

3s 

1 


06-117 
05-698 
05-415 
05-156 
04-161 
03-867 
03-633 


2 
2b 

1 
2 
4 
1 
4 


36-906 I 
36-801 f 
36-450 
36196 
35-937 


3 
3 

4 
2 


03-318 
03012 
02-750 
02-594 
02133 


1 
2 
1 
1 

4 


35-686 | 


2 






01-499 


4 


35-598 j 


2 


17-836 


1 


01-433 


1 


35-215] 


3 


17-498 


3 


01-015 1 v 
00-944 J 


2 


35132 J 


3 


17040 


1 


2 


34-742 >. 
34-596 
34-429 ]■ 
34-173 
33-997 ) 


1 


16-691 


2 


00-730 


2 


2 


16-411 


2 


00-536 


3 


1 


15-948 


1 


00-289 ► 


2 


1 


15-488 


1 


4399-961 


2 


4 


15-319 


1 


99-760 


1 


33-583 


1 


15-1401 


1 


99-580 \ 
[ 9-460] / 


2 


33-2 01 


I 


14-979 | 


2 


1 2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 153 





Band Spectrum of S 


ULP 


nun — con 


timied. 








i 

Intensity 




[ntensity 




'ntensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


1 


Character. 


Character 


Character 


4399172 


1 


4382-873 


4 


4369-613 | 


2 


98-889 


2 


82-699 


3 


69-299 1 | 
69-113/ J 


3 


98-712 


2 


82-495 


3 


3 


98-425 


5 


82-306 


1 


68-685 


6 


97836 


1 


82-179 2 


68-418 1 


5 


97 623 


6 


81-8771 4 
81-623 J 3 


68-266 J 


5 


97-141 


1 


67-951 ) 
67-746 \ 


3 


96-889 


4 


81-538 ) 


2 


4b 


96-549 


2 


81-396 


2 


67-466 ) 


8 


96-180 


4 


81-259 


1 


67146 


1 


95-605 


4 


81-131 


2 


66-968 


10 


95-250 


1 


80-731 6 


66-678 


3 


94-886 


6 


80-373 6 


66-468 


1 


94-321 1 


6 


79-971 3 


66-202 


10 


94-101 | 


5 


79-715 


3b 


65-829 


8 


93-751 


1 






65-507 


5 


93-742 1 


3 


79-531 


1 


65129 


4 


93-631 J 


3 


79-259 


8 


64-911 


4 


93-421 


1 


79-020 


4 


64-745 


4 


93172 


2 


78-610 


6 


64-481 


8 


92-936 


1 


78-321 


1 


64-208 


8 


92-768 


4 


78-1141 
77-894/ 


4 


63-919 


8 


92-471 


6 


4 


63-730 


4 


92-134 


1 


77-609 1 
77-499 / 


4 


63-482 


4 


91-941 ) 


4 


4 


63-262 


5 


91-655 \ 


1 


77-188 


8b 


62-946 1 


8 


91-479 j 


4 






62-757 j 


4 


91-306 


2 


76-867 1 
76-710/ 


4 


62-488 


8 


91005 


3 


4 


62-037 \ 




10 


90-751 


2 


76-423 


3b 


61-668 




8 


90-331 


5 






61-357 




6 


90-099 


2 


75-964 ) 


4 


61053 




5 


89-919 


1 


75-739, 


4 


60-809 




6 


89-574 


4 


75-542| j 


4 


60-394 J 




5 


89-155 


3 


75-323 


3 


60-196 ^ 
60-032 
59-867 \ 


1 


88-858 


3 


75-039 1 


4 


2 


88-495 


4 


74-832 j 


4 


3 


88-144 


5 


74-568 


3 


59-641 


6 


87-842 


2 


74-394 n 




1 


59-500 ) 


1 


87-636 


4 


74-310 




1 


59-358 


2 


87-350 


1 


74-108 




4 


59-115 


[ 


8 


87-208 


2 


73-918 


- 


2 


58-859 


3 


86-9171 \ 


4 


73-744 




2b 


58-743 


1 


86-745 J 1 


3 


73-622 




5 


58-586 




4 


86-457 f 


4 


73-477 


/ 


6b 


58-402 




3 


85-849 ) 


3 


73065 


8 


58-029 


1 


4 


85-615 


5 


72-531 


3 


57-829 


1 


6 


85-441 


1 


72-289 


3 


57-618' 


1 


85010 


5 


72-059 


4 


57-414 


1 


84-945 


4b 


71-754 


5 


57-232 


1 






71461 


5 


56-909 


6 


84-661 \ 


1 


71254 


1 


56-695 


4 


84-355 J 


4 


71-004 1 


4 


56-469 


3 


84-125 


1 


70-696 


5 


56-167 


6 


83-949 


3 


70-396 


2 


55-875 ) 


6 


83-520 


3 


70-326 1 


2 


55-677 \ 


5 


83-330 


2 


70-059 J 


5 


55-508 ) 


6 


83-155 


1 


69-859 


I 


1 2 


55-207 




6 



154 



REPORT— 1904. 



Band Spectrum op Sulphur — continued. 



Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Character 




Character 




Character 
8 


4354-973 ) 


1 


4342-966 


2 


4329-820 




54-783 1 


2 


42-815 1 
42-733 J 


2 


29-415 




5 


54-628 f 


2 


2 


29162 




5 


54-474 ) 


1 


42-391 


3 


28-799 




5 


54-293 ) 


3 


42-144 1 


2 


28-675 




5 


54-182 


3 


41-925 J 


2 


28-439 




4 


54-074 ) 


3 


41-818 


6 


28-230 


1 


53-896 { 


I 


41-572 


1 


28-118 ) 


2 


53-782 | 


1 


41-372 


6 


27-945 \ 


4 


53-560 ) 


1 


41-056 


1 


27-646 ) 


6 


53-387 I 


2 


40-855 


6 


27-445 ) 
27-149 
26-794 j 


6 


53-264 J 


1 


40-587 1 


3 


8 


53052 ) 


4 


40-439 j 


4 


1 


52-827 \ 
52-527 ) 


4 


40-088 \ 

1 


6 


26-606 


2 


4 


1 


26-420 


3 


52-339 


1 


39-839 ) 


6 


26-172 


5 


52-197 


1 


39-421 j 
39-319 J 


4 


25-786 


1 


52-002 


2 


4 


25-633 


1 


51-838 1 


1 


39-100 


5 


25-447 


3 


51-709 J 


5 


38-907 


1 


25-213 


1 


51-212 


1 


38-746 


3 


25-058 ) 


2 


50-984 


4 


38-532 | 


2b 


24-938 \ 


4 


50-745 1 \ 


1 


38-097 I 


6 


24-787 j 


4 


50-667 J 


1 


37-754 


2 


24-595 x 
24-456 
24-312 \ 
24132 
23-782 / 


1 


50-475 • 


2 


37572 


1 


2 


50-282 


1 


37-317 ) 


2 


3 


50-177 j 


3 


37-257 J 


2 


1 


50-073 \ 


3 


37-050 


1 


5 


49-811 




2 


36-854 


2 


23-212 \ 




3 


49-665 




1 


36-645 


8 


22-989 




3 


49-522 


- 


1 


36-350 1 
36-174 J 


6 


22-788 




2 


49-384 




1 


6 


22-590 




3 


49-207 , 




5 


35-824 

35-687 j 


5 


22-425 > 




3 


48-883 


3 


5 


22-216 ) 
22102 


3 


48-489 


8 


35-371 1 


4 


2 


48-120 


1 


35-178 I" 


4 


21-942 ) 


1 


47-957 1 




4 


34-839 


1 


21-817 ) 
21-726 [ 


In 


47-792 


. 


4 


34-763 ) 
34-454 [ 


6 


2 


47-667 




4 


5 


21-624 f 
21-422 l 


3 


47-447 


4 


34-185 f 


4 


5 


47-246 


3 


34-117 j 


4 


21-217 \ 


1 


47-040 


2 


33-8031 x 
33-632 J 
33-441 [ 
33-299 
32-801 1 | 


6 


21-158 J 


1 


46-871 


1 


6 


20-925 ) 
20-795 \ 


3 


46-712 


5 


1 


5 


46-445 


3 


1 


20-692 j 


3 


46061 


8 


8 


20-328 


2 


45-680 1 
45-534 J 


2 


32-7831 




1 


20-164 


4 


5 


32-618 




1 


19-884 


5 


45-232 


3 


32-381 




6 


19-614 


4 


45-019 


4 


32145 




1 


19-416 


1 


44-763 


3 


31-962 




8 


19-225 ) 


3 


44-560 


3 


31-623 




5 


19-085 [ 


3 


44-339 


4 


31-310 




5 


18-907 j 


5 


44-106 


6 


31108 




2 


18-636 ) 
18-485 .1- 


2 


43-886 


1 


30-990 , 
30-687 ' 




6 


2 


43-674 1 
43-488 j 


8 




3 


18-310 ) 


5 


8 


30-541 




1 


18-009 1 


5 


43165 




4 


30-252 | 




10b 


17-790 | 




5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 155 



Band Spectrum of Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity ' 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-lengtl 


i and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4317258 


4 


4303-860 *- 


3 


4290-281 , 
90145 | 


1 


17-155 ) 

17-062 \- 


3 


03-688J 


In 


1 


3 


03-246 ) 


V 


3 


89-979 


2 


16-969 J 


1 


03-137 ' 


1 


3 


89-763 


4 


16-753 


4 


02-883 


j 


1 


89-435 


2 


16-491 


2 


02-606 


1 


6 


89-214 } 


3 


16-225 ) 


4 


02-338 


1 


89-083 


3 


15-943 I 


3 


02-182 


4 


88-880 


1 


15-740 J 


3 


01-9721 
01-891 j 


1 


88-781 


2 


15-478 


1 


1 


88-549 


2 


15-255 


2 


01-688 ) 
01-502 I 
01-320 j 


3 


88-397 


1 


15020 1 
14-814 J 


8 


1 


88-176 


4 
lb 


3 


2 


87-956 


14-573 


1 


01-016 s 




5 


87-725 , 


4 


14-267 


1 


00-857 




1 


87-491 


3 


14080 


6 


00-701 




2 


87-305 


1 


13-694 


2n 


00-511 - 




4 


87-151 


1 


13-287 


8 


00-313 




2 


86-770 


2b 


13090 


In 


00179 




1 


86-620 


2b 


12-800 ) 


4 


00003 / 




1 


86-419 


1 


12-643 [ 


1 


4299-822 


1 


86-250 


3 


12-459 J 


4 


99-541 


2 


85-986 


5 


12-202 ] 


3 


99-216 


4 






12019 




3 


98-951 


3 






11-773 




3 


98-741 ) 


1 


85-144 


4 


11-614 




1 


98-588 1 


1 


84-795 


3b 


11-361 1 


3 


98-365 f 


2 


84-386 


2b 


11-158 J 


4 


98-235 ) 


3 


84-169 l 


2b 


10-959 1 ) 
10-869 [ 1 


1 


97-894 


2 


83-967 


4 


1 


97-511 


2 


83-627 


3 


10-627\ f 
10-427 J J 


4 


97-076 


3 


83-204 


2 


4 


96-972 


5 


82-832 


2 


10078 


5 


96-662 


3 


82-615 


1 


09-752 \ 
09-495 j 


4 


96-325 


1 


82-483 


3 


4 


96-318 


3 


82-169 


2 


09-264 


1 


95-875 


5 


82-059 ) 


2 
3 


09-075 


3 


95-598 i 


I 


3b 


81-908 
81-676 


08-797 


3 


95-353 l 




3 


2 


08-556 


1 


95-135 J 




1 


81-342 


2 


08-376 


3 


94-839 v 
94-503 1 




5 


81-128] 


2 


07-904 \ 
07-795 J" 


2 


► 


4b 


80-798 j 


3 


2 


94-310 j 




2 


80-626 


1 


07-470 


5 


94164 ; 




1 


80-480 


2 


07-250 


1 


93-895 \ 




1 


80-253 


3 


07122 


3 


93-768 J 




3 


80-107 


1 


06-888 


1 


93-484 


5 


79-909 


2 


06-680 


2 


93039 


2 


79561 


3b 


06-427 


1 


92-939 


4 


79-183 1 


2 


06-272 \ 


1 


92-409 1 


3 


79-075 J 


2 


06084 


5 


92-239 ) 


3 


78-730 


2 


05-844 | 


2 


91-9951 


3 


78-566 | 


) 2 


05-606 




1 


91-668 J 


2 


78-473 j 


1 1 


05-304 




4 


91-428 


3 


78-246 


05-009 1 




4 


91-210 


1 


77-911 ) 
77-719 1 


2b 


04-772 ) 
04-599 \ 
04-455 j 


1 


91043 


5 


5 


1 


90-762 


1 


77-500 1 
77-313 j 


2 


3 


90-59q 


3 


2 


04-058^) 




3 


90-421 | 


1 


1 


76-929 


1 



156 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Specteum of Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4276-758 "1 
76-591 / 


2 


4263-256 1 
63-133/ 


4 


4550-982 ) 


1 


2 


1 


49-850 


3 


76-312 } 


4 


62-758 


2 


49-631 j 


1 


76-205 J 


4 


62-490 


4 


49-280 


2 


75-906 


3b 


62-212 


1 


48-921 \ 
48-655 J 


2 


75-658 1 


1 


61-966 


2 


4 


75-522 J 


1 


61-759 


2 


48-479 


1 


75-297 


3 


61-407 


3 


48-215 


1 


75-087 ) . 

74-877 \ 
74-752 j 


lb 


60-963 


2 


48-109 1 . 


3 


2b 


60-756 


1 


48-012/ 




3 


lb 


60-639 


2 


47-817 




lb 


74-175 


4 


60-222 


2 


47-580 ) 


■ 


2 


73-957 


2 


59-967 


1 


46-998 - 




2 


73-602 


1 


59-804 


2 


46-789 j > 




3 


73-423 I 


3 


59-678 


3 


46-597 


2 J 


73-285 J 


3 


59-499 


2 


46-317 


2 


72-880 \ 


1 


59-335 


1 


46052 


1 


72-805 j 


In 


59019 1 


3 


45-901 


4 


72-567 


2 


58-897 J 


1 


45-704 


1 


72-369 1 


2 


58-681 


1 


45-677 


4 


72-254 j 


2 


58-532 


1 


45156 


3 


71-540 \ 


2 


58-273 


3 


45-006 


2 


71-345 [ 


2 


58-086 


2 


44-843 ) 
44-783 


1 


71-078 ( 


1 


57-843 


4 


1 


70-811 j 


3b 


57-616 


2 


44-566 ) 


2 


70-511 


4s 






44-395 


1 


70083 


2b 


57-275 


5 


44-228 


2 


69-832 


2 


57-026 1 


1 


43-944 1 
43-725 / 


2b 


69-623 


4 


56-944 | 


1 


3 


69-432 


3 


56-699 { 
56-493 J 


2b 


43-540 


2 


69-223 


1 


2 


43-311 ] 
43-201 j 


In 


68-996 


1 


56115 


2b 


In 


68-743 


lb 


55-842 


3 


42-986 


3 


68-570 


4 


55-662 ) 
55-580 


Is 


42-733 \ 


1 


68-239 


4 


la 


42-554 1 


2 


68-007 


1 


55-287 ) 


3b 


42-350 f 


2b 


67-846 


1 


54-953 


2 


42-081 j 


2 


67-676 


1 


54-815 


1 


41-901 


2 


67 411 


3b 


54-625 


2 


41-745 


3 


67-195 


1 


54-405 


3 


41-595 


1 


66-996 


la 


54-102 1 


3 


41-462 


4 


66-819 


2b 


53-960/ 


3 


41192 


1 


66-400 


3 


53-282 


5 


41-068 


2 


65-986 1 


3 


53108 


2 


40-835 


3 


65-913 J 


2 


52-884 


3 


40-583 


2 


65-685 


2 


52-594 


1 


40-339 


8 






52-402 ) 


1 


39-840 1 
39-288 j 


3b 


65-439 


4 


52-274 \ 


2 


3 


65-258 


1 


52-164 J 


2 


38-976 1 
38-769 1 


4b 


64-991 


3 


51-962 


3 


3 


64-784 


1 


51-643 


1 


38-557' 


4 


64-565 


1 


51-510 ) 


4 


38-187 


4 


64-329 , 


3n 




b 


37 894 


4 


64141 




2 


51-273 j 


3 


37-608 


4 


64-029 




1 


50-795 


1 


37-402 


1 


63-892 




2 


50-679 


1 


37-164 


4 


63-671 




2s 


50-595 1 


2 


36-857 


5 


63-551 ' 




In 


50-289 j 


1 


36-581^1 




3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 157 



Band Spectrum op Sulphur— continued. 



Wave-length 



4230-392 V 
36234J 
35-812 
35-766 
35-625 
35-363 
35-058 
34-629 
34-358 
34164 } 
33-968 f 
33-677 
33-453 
33-266 
33148 1 
32-921 / 
32-766 
32-415 
32T00 



31-458 

31-322 

31111 ) 

30-841 

30-642 

30-539 J 

30-341 

29-969 

29-668 

29-427 

29-062 

28-860 

28-656 1 

28-304 | 

28-260 

28-017 

27-770 

27-562 

27-256 

26-903 

26-727 

26-564 

26-446 [ 

26-344 ) 

26-142 ) 

25-920 

25-745 j 

25-434 

25-087 ) 

24-887 f 

24-679 

24-609 

24-382 

24-115 

23-913 

23-702 

23-369 1 

23-256 / 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2 
1 
2 
2 
4 
1 
4 
3 
3 

SI 

0J 

1 

3 

IV 

2 
8 
6 

4 
2 

4 

4 

2 

1 

6 

8 

1 

1 

8 

3 

4 

4 

1 

3 

2 

5 

4 

3 

3 

4 

3 

1 

1 

3 

4 

6 

5 

4 

1 

1 

4 

4 

2 

5 

5 

4 



Wave-length 



4223041 
22-810 , 
22-667 f 
22-480 ) 
22-221 [ 
22T50 J 
21-966 
21-811 \ 
21-592 J 
21-423 
21-221 
20-990 
20-660 1 
20-588 J 
20-311 
20-074 
19-881 
19-647 
19-411 
19-260 
19T05 
18-718 
18-544 
18-282 
18044 
17-905 
17-736 
17-534 ) 
17-374 
17-219 j 
16-962 
16-809 ) 
16-682 
16-451 ) 
16-269 | 
16-070 J 
15-841 
15-669 
15-539 
15-272 1 
15-189 j 
14-656 | 
14-106 J 
13-799 
13-513 
13-186 
12-990 
12-796 1 
12-646 / 
12-404 I 
12-232 / 
11-901 
11-763 1 
11-610/ 
11-450 
11-343 
11-256 , 
110511 



Intensity 


1 


Intensity 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Charactei 




Character 


1 


4210-943J 


3 


2 


10-758 } 


3 


3 


10-65'» f 


3 


4 


10-453 \ 
10-324 f J 


2 


3 


2 


3 


10T39 ) 


1 


1 


10-006 1 


3 


8 


09-745 f 
09-519 1 


5 


1 


4 


8 


09-287 } 


4 


1 


09011 j 


5 


8 


08-729 | 


5 


2 


08-499 
08-299 J 


3b 


5 


2 


8 


07-946 


6 


4 


07-702 ) 


4 


3 


07-525 


5 


5 


07311 [ 


5 


4 


07-144 j 


3 


3 


06-822 \ 


5 


2 


06-609 


3 


4 


06-409 


2 


4 


06-235 r 


3 


8 


05-962 


4 


3 


05-778 


2 


1 


05-592 ' 


4 


5 


05-326 


6 


2 


05-037 1 
04-827 / 


o 


1 


5 


4 


04-543 


5 


1 


04-134 


2 


4 


03-907 1 


4 


5b 


03-798/ 


4 


4 


03-563 v 


3 


3 


03-454 


3 


8 


03-279 


1 


1 


03-162 f 


1 


2 


03-045 


2 





02-888 ' 


4 


4 


02-700 


4 


4 


02-378 


3 


8b 


01-910 


5 


5 


01-514 


6 


5 


01-291 1 
01-184/ 


1 


4 


1 


3 


00-986 


8 


1 


00-553 1 


1 


4 


00-423 [ 
00-205 J 


3 


4 


5 


4 


4199-853 i 1 
99-660/ 


4 


4 


3 


3 


99-431 


3 


2 


99-139 1 | 
98-881 / 


3 


2 


2 


2 


98-698 


1 


2 


98-459 


6 


2 


98-272 1 | 


4 


3 I 


97-917 J I 


4 1 



158 



REPORT — 1904. 







Band Specteum of 


3ULPHUK — continued. 








Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 

1 


4197-730 | 


2 


4185-887 I 
85-747 [ 


3 


4174-096 


4 


97-587 } 


1 


2 


73-933 


1 


97-461 


2 


85-632 J 


1 


73-702 ) 
73-546 ( 


2 


97-297 ) 


3 


85-479 ) 


3 


1 


97-075 \ 
96-815 j 


8 


85-379 \ 


3 


73-357 I 
73-040 J 


2 


8 


85-245 J 


6 


1 


96-581 


4 


84-882 } 


3 


72-781 ) 


4 


96-392 \ 


1 


84-728 f 


8 


72-530 \ 


6 


96-227 


4 


84-461 I 
84-390 J 


1 


72-318 j 


3 


96-072 [ 





1 


72-085 


1 


95-616 


8 


84-270 


2b 


71-918 


3 


95-347 > 


4 


83-846 




3 


71-755 


4 


94-968 


1 


83-713 




4 


71-549 


2 


94-862 


1 


83-478 




4 


71-337 


2 


94-697 


3 


83-330 




6 


70-955 


6 


94-482 


4 




<• 


1 


70-662 


3 


94-308 


3 


83031 


5 


70-364 1 


8 


94-194 


1 


82-807 


2 


70-242 J 


3 


94-021 


1 


82-619 


3 


69-932 


5 


93-865 l 




4 


82-364 


2 


69-771 


1 


93-720 




4 


82-132 


3 


69-567 





93-494 




2 


81-974 


2 


69193 


3b 


93-274 


- 


i 3 


81-761 


3s 


68-973 


3 


93-128 




1 


81-583 


2 


68-801 


4 


93032 , 




1 


81-370 ) 


5 


68-608 


1 


92-847 


3 


81-188 I 


2 


68-377 


1 


92-596 


4 


81-048 J 


2 


68-221 


6 


92-313 ) 
92135 
91-946 J 


4 


80-795 \ 


4b 


67-832 ) 


5 


3 


80-648 | 


1 


67-700 


1 


2 


80-540 f 
80-355 j 


1 


67-522 j 


4 


91-660 


5 


1 


67-316 


3 


91-347 1 
91-211/ 


4 


80-198 


3 


67-028 x 


5 


1 


79951 


8 


66-890 


3 


90-980 


5 


79-657 1 


4 


66-658 1 


4 


90802 


1 


79-376 1 


8 


66-485 [ 


3 


90-730 


1 


78-856 l 


3 


66-323 


2 


90-319 


6b 


78-696 ] 


5 


66-200 ' 


4 


90131 


3 


78-322 ) 


4 


65-916 




2 


89-907 1 


6 


78-184 1 


1 


65-683 




4 


89-716 \ 


1 


78-102 f 


1 


65-473 




5 


89-552 ) 


5 


78031 I 


1 


65-270 


- 


4 


89-283 


4 


77-718 ) 


4 


65146 




4 


89-039 


3 


77-536 [ 


3 


64-956 




1 


88-816 


4 


77-389 f 
77-264 j 


2 


64-807 




1 


88-614 


2b 


1 


64-611 




3 


88-290 


5 


76-995 } 


2 


64-416 J 




3 


88-079 1 

87-787 J 


2 


76-837 1 


6 


64-247 1 




6 


5 


76-505 \ 


3 


64-094 




4 


87-622 


5 


76-348 / 


6 


63-755 




4 


87-422 


3 


75-982 


3 


63-532 


■ 


4 


87-259 1 
87-197 j 


1 


75-756 


6b 


63-285 




6 


4 


75-492 ) 


2 


62-941 


4 


86-936 1 
86-839 J 


1 


75-413 | 


!}* 


62-729 ) 


3 


4 


75-293 [ 


62-638 1 


3 


86-637 


3 


75-119 J 


4 


62-442 f 


1 


86-438 ] 




2 


74-759 1 
74-580 J 


4 


62-332 ) 


5 


86-296 




4 


5 


61-9711 


1 


86075~ 




4 


74-312 




4b 


61-858 | 




5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 159 



Band Spectrum of Sulphuk — continued. 





[ntcnsity , 


1 


Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave length 


and 


( 


Character 




Character 






Character 


4161-682 1 
61-572 f 


1 


4150009 ) 
49-890 \ 
49-734 ) 


1 


4136-701 


2 


4 


4n 


36-535 


3 


61-308 | 


1 


3 


36-202 


3 


61-173 J 


4 


49-498 


1 


36-016 


2b 


60-971 1 
60-880 J 


3 


49-406 \ 


1 






3 


49-205 1 


1 


35-854 


1 


60-734 


1 


49-042 f 


2 


35672 


3 


60-559 


2 


48-905 ) 


3 


35175 


3 


60-377 \ 


1 


48-595 


5 


34-987 


3 


60-199 1 


3 


48-227 


6 


34-755 


1 


60-034 f 


4 


48051 


1 


34-570 


2 


59-781 J 


1 


47-897 


3 


34-359 


4 


59-670 | 


3 


47-671 1 
47-525/ 


6n 


34060 


2 


59-576 I 


3 


6n 


33-852 \ 




1 


59-476 F 
59-365 ) 


3 


47-173 


1 


33-701 




2 


1 


47-025 , 


3 


33511 




2 


59039 


6 


46-862 




3 


33-359 




1 


58-764 1 
58-631 J 


3 


46-640 




2b 


33-268 1 


1 


4 


46-469 


- 


1 


32-923 


1 


58-223 [ 


3 


46-311 




2 


32-714 


2n 


58-129 J 


3 


46-099 




3 


32-432 


3 


57-887 


4 


45-890 I 




1 


31-964 


3b 


57-566 


8 


45-642 


5 


31-717 1 


1 


57-173 


2 


45-323 


1 


31-575 J 


2 


56-922 


6 


45-176 1 
45-038 / 


1 


31-343 


3 


56-651 1 


1 


2 


31131 


3 


56-485 f 


1 


44-733 


2 


30-785 


1 


56-240 1 


3 


44-310 


4 


30-684 


1 


56-126 J 


3 


43-507 


1 


30-555 


1 


55-951 


1 


43-179 


1 


30-427 


1 


55-756 


4 


43001 


3 


30-280 


1 


55-569 


3 


42-784 


3 


30112 


1 


55-272 ) 


1 


42-796 \ 


2 


29-894 


1 


55-164 \ 


4 


42-672 J 


2 


29-653 


1 


55-034 ) 


2n 


42-397 


4b 


29-387 


3 


54-747 


2 


42046 


2 


29-148 


1 


54-672 


3 


41-787 


3 


28-915 


2b 


54-362 1 
53-979 J 


5 


41-583 


2 


28-666 




1 


5 


41-317 1 


4b 


28-539 




1 


53-709 


1 


41-138/ 


1 


28-406 




1 


53-497 


5 


40-911 


1 


28-262 




4 


53-168 


3 


40-701 


4 


27-939 1 
27-795 J 


1 


53-009 


1 


40-389 


4 


3 


52-818 \ 
52-640 J 


2 


40017 1 
39-836 j 


t}> 


27-472 


1 


3 


27-274 


2 


52-391 


3 


39596 | 


2 


27-120 


1 


52-215 


3 


39-435 1 


2 


26-994 


1 


52-105 


3 


39-224 f 


2 


26-806 


2 


51-886 


3 


38-969 ) 


3 


26-604 


1 


51-622 


4 


38-842 


4 


26-402 


1 


51-410 


3 


38-249 


1 


26-205 


1 


61-185 


1 


38019 




2 


26-057 


1 


51011 \ 
50-881 J 


2 


37-829 




1 


25-830 


2 


2 


37-709 




1 


25-459 1 ) 


3 


50-758 


1 


37-469 


5 


1 25-065 J 1 


3 


60-589 \ 
60-493 J 
{ 50-285 


3 


37-055 


1 


24-8591 J 
24-694 J ) 


2 


3 


36-928 


2 


2 


I 4 


36-856 




1 


24-443 




1 2 



160 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Specteum op Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity 


j 


Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4124-243 > 


3b 


4111-037J 


1 


4098-349J 


5 


24-071 




1 


10-774 


4 


98-048 1 
97-704 j 


3n 


23-949 




2 


10-537 1 


3 


6 


23-789 




1 


10-368 J 


3 


97-443 ) 


1 


23-582 




1 


10 058 


6b 


97-262 


2 


23-457 ' 


4 


09-722 


2 


97-095 J 


3 


23-298 


1 






96-905 


4 


23109 


1 


09-109 1 


3 


96-634 


1 


22-863 ) 


2 


08-839 1 


3 


96-433 


4 


22-721 

22-565 j 


2 


08-514 


2 


96-095 ] 
95-972 j 


4 


1 


08-322 


2 


4 


22146 


4 


08-026 


2 


95-728 ) 


3 


21-881 


1 


07-801 | 
07-595 L 


4 


95-332 [ 


3 


21-541 


1 


1 


95-184 J 


4 


21-352 


1 


07-493 ) 


1 


94-941 1 
94-868 / 


1 


21-098 ] 


3b 


07-283 


3 


1 


20-735 \ 


3 


06-785 


8 


94-660 


4 


20-534 


2 


06-291 , 


2n 


94-475 


1 


20-340 


4 


06-066 ' 
05-929 ) 


1 


94-369 


4 


20-176 


1 


2 


93-928 


4 


20051 


1 


05-684 > 




1 


93-724 


1 


19-759 


1 


05-572 




2 


93-477 


4 


19-624 


1 


05-375 




2 


93-265 1 
93-189 J 


4 


19-371 


2 


05133 




2 


4 


18-950 \ 


2 


05032 




2 


92-971 


2 


18-862 / 


3 


04-868 




1 


92-799 1 
92-678 f 


3 


18-445 


1 


04-729 


> 


2 


3 


18-311 1 


2 


04-607 


1 


92-430 


1 


18-059 f 
17-852 I 


3 


04-48S 




2 


92-242 


2 


4 


04-351 




2 


91-974 \ 
91-768 J 


4 


17-587 ; 
17-423/ 


3 


04-166 




3 


4 


3 


03-958 




1 


91-418 


4 


17-107 


4 


03-694 




4 


91-229 


1 


16-874 1 


1 


03-407 J 




4 


91059 


3 


16-731 J 


3 


03140 


2 


90-589 ] 


4 


16-408 


2b 


02-973 


2 


90-493 / 


4 


16-084 


3 


02-755 


1 


90-302 


3 


15-760 


4 


02-585 


4 


89-954 


2b 


15-529 


3 


02-410 


1 


89-677 


2 


15170 


3 


02-261 


1 


89-442 ) 


1 


14-983 


1 


02-086 


3 


89-283 \ 
89-127 ) 


3 


14-743 


2 


01-892 


1 


4 


14-435 


3 


01-711 


3 


88-879 


3 


14086 


Gb 


01-390 ) 


3 


88-611 


4 


13-730 


3b 


01-199 - 


4 


88-355 


1 


13-448 


4 


01-000 j 


1 


88-205 


2 


13-208 


4 


00-743 


4 


88-092 


3 


13031 


1 


00-484 


1 


87-807 


8 


12-8951 


1 


00-264 


2 


87-547 


5 


12-640 | 


4 


00-063 


3 


87-333 


1 


12-411 | 


2 


4099-893 


1 


87-175 


4 


12-277 )■ 
12-132J 


1 


99-649 


1 


86-914 


4 


1 


99-479 1 


3 


86-734 


4 


11-953 ) 




2 


99-403 J 


3 


86-490 1 
86-359 { 


4 


11-791 




3 


99-214 


3 


4 


11-635 




3 


98-985 


4 


86-134 \ 
85-909 ( 


3 


11-449") 


1 


98-7241 


4 


2 


11-231 } 




3b 


98-526 | 




1 


85-714 


4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. lGt 



Baxd Spectrum op Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 


Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4085-445 1 


sf b 


4073-720J 


1 


4060-956 ) 


3 


85-193 j 


73-471 


3 


60-801 \ 


2 


84-950 


1 


73-224 


1 


60-624 ) 


3 


84-820 


2 


73-082 1 
72-976 / 


3 


60-343 1 
60-226 } 


5 


84-654 


2 


1 


3 


84-356 


8 


72-816 


3 


60-099 


1 


84-103 , 


3 


72-646 1 
72-538 J 


3 


59-962 


1 


83-921 


1 


3 


59-787 i 


6 


83-810 ' 


3 


72-319 


2 


59-623 1 


2 


83-590 


5 


72-181 


2 


59-496 f 


2 


83-264 


5 


72-082 


1 


59-417 J 


2 


83-115 


3 


71-668) 


4 


59-128 \ 
58-996 I 


3 


82-873 1 
82-581 J 


5 


71-522 [ 


1 


2 


5 


71-370 f 
71-198 1 


3 


58-855 \ 3 


82-298 1 


4 


4 


58-709 I 


4 


82-180 J 


4 


70-965 1 
70-808 J 


4 


58-553 ' 


5 


81-999 


4 


3 


58-239 


5 


81-833 


2b 


70-582 


4 


58-069 


1 


81-577 


5 


70-269 


5 


57-923 I 
57-865 j 


1 


81-384 


1 


70-039 


1 


1 


81193 


5 


69-950 


1 


57-644 


5 


80-977 


5 


69-722 


5 


57-397 


3 


80-786 


3 


69-399 


4 


57123 


2 


80-539 


6 


69-062 


5 


56-958 


5 


80-157 


6 


68-688 


2 


56-708 


3 


79-841 


2 


68-432 


6 


56-454 


4 


79-648) 
79-506 ( 


1 


68-015 


5b 


56-331 


1 


2 


67-810 


2 


56-046 


1 


79-375 I 


3 


67-675 


1 


55-883 


8 


79-197) 


4 


67-529 \ 


3 


55-676 ) 


3 


78-950 "1 


4 


67-355 J 


3 


55-580 j 


2 


78-870 J 


4 


67-132 


5 


55-325 ) 


5 


78-621 


3 


66-838 1 
66-593 J 


5b 


55T59 


3 


78-442 ) 


3 


5b 


54-999 ) 


2 


78-246 - 


2b 


66-279 


2 


54-794 , 
54-609 
54-435 - 


4 


78-084 J 


3 


66009 


2 


3 


77-887 


1 


65-893 


1 


3 


77-792 


1 


65-521 


6 


54-296 




3 


77-693 


1 


65-447 1 
65-259 | 


4 


54-157 1 




2 


77-581 


3 


4 


53-896) 


4 


77-437 


1 


65-060 ) 


3 


53-768 


4 


77-170 


10 


64-916 


2 


53-523 I 


3 


76-754 


5 


64-733 j 


2 


53-304 1 


6 


76-497 1 


3 


64-524 | 


1 


53-162' 


3 


76-400 J 


3 


64-372 ! 


2 


52-964 { 


3 


76194 


3 


64-201 f 
64-067 ) 


4 


52-844 ! 


3 


75-963 


I 


3 


52-639 , 


4 


75-745 


6 


63-373 1 


10 


52-482 


4 


75-555 


3 


63-181 1 


8 


52-220 [ 


4 


75-373 ) 


2 


62-933 [ 
62-757 J 


2 


52-029 i 


4 


75-208 \ 


3 


2 


51-900) 


1 


75-076 ] 


4 


62-514 


3 


51-631 


5 


74-877 , 


1 


62-286 1 
62-197 | 


3 


51-3861 


8 


74-793 


2 


3 


51-178 I 


8 


74-601 \ 


3 


61-961 


1 


50-925 \ 


4 


74-379 | 


4 


61-727 1 
61-416 ] 


8b 


50-807 I 


4 


74-193 ' 


4 


2 


50-5841 


4 


73-869 i 


1 


61177 


4 


50-432 } 


2 


1904. 












M 



162 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectrum op Sulphur— continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


4050-285J 


4 


4038-085 


3 


4025-847 


2 


50-065 ) 


4 


37-915 


1 


25-699 


1 


49-812 \ 


4b 


37-751 


1 


25-527 


1 


49-628 J 


4 


37-546 


4 


25-293 


5 


49-413 \ 
49-272 / 


3 


37-281 


6 


25-109 


5 


1 


37-018 


1 


24-806N 




1 


49-009 


5 


36-638 


1 


24-570 




5 


48-803 


1 


36-631 


3b 


24-303 




3 


48-605 2 






24-120 


- 


2 


48-341 


4 


36125 


1 


23-928 




2 


48016 




4 


35-989 \ 


1 


23-776 




3 


47-842 




3b 


35-910 ! 


1 


23-692 | 
23-459 J 


3 


47-699 




3 


35-783 I" 


3 


2 


47-448 1 
47-303 J 


3 


35-675) 


3 


23-240 


3 


2 


35-413 


1 


22-975 


3 


47-144 
46-942 r 


2 


35-147 


4 


22-794 


2s 


3 


34-967 


2 


22-619 1 
22-310 J 


4 


46-833 J 


3 


34-714 


4 


4 


46-637 1 
46-401 J 


3 


34-538 1 


1 


22-152 


3 


4 


34-332 J 


4 


21-852 


4 


46-142 


4 


34061 


5 


21-630 


1 


45-629 ) 


3 


33-772 


5 


21-490 


3 


45-432 \ 
45-325 J 


1 


33-440 


5 


21-287 1 
21-197 J 


1 


1 


33142 


4 


2 


45-075 


5 


32-928 


4 


20-966 j 
20-700 J 


3 


44-690 \ 
44-546 J 


3 


32-689 


3 


4 


3 


32-533 


2 


20-536 


2 


44-248' 




3 


32-389 


4 


20-346 


3 


44-077 




2 


32-216 


1 


20-1191 
20-008 J 


2 


43-932 




2 


32-069 


3 


2 


43-723 




2 


31-892 


3 


19-752 


2 


43-521 




2 


31-7851 


1 


19-463 


2 


43-293 i 
43-125 \ 


2 


31-629 j 


1 


19-175 


1 


2 


31-330 


4 


18-996 


1 


42-900 1 


1 


31-121 


4 


18-794) 


1 


42-586) 


2 


30-698 1 


4 


18-670 I 


2 


42-484 I 


2 


30-392 J 


5 


18-495) 


2 


42-315 ) 


5 


30-142) 


3 


18-244 


3 


42-040) 


1 


30-014 \ 


3 


18-106) 


1 


41-939 \ 


1 


29-797) 


3 


17-916 I 


1 


41-850) 


1 


29-473) 


3 


17-742) 


1 


41-668 


3 


29-276 - 
29-209 1 


3 


17-505 


1 


41-252 


6 


2 


17-332 


3 


41-065 


1 


29-022 1 
28-944 J 


2 


17-056 


2 


40-930 


2 


2 


16-862) 


1 


40-693) 


3 


28-735 


4 


16-714 1 


2 


40-575 \ 


3b 


28-394 1 
28-292 } 


4 


16-416 f 


2 


40-560] 


3 


1 


16-295) 


1 


40-290 


2 


28-033 1 
27-904/ 


4 


16145 


4 


40004 


4 


4 


15-689 


3 


39-302 


2 


27-702 


3 


15-460 1 
15-376 J 


1 


39-521 "1 
39-331 J 


5 


27-552 


3 


1 


2 


27-434 


3 


15-104 1 
14-833 / 


3n 


39-062 1 
38-859 J 


4 


27-283 


3 


1 


4 


26-991 


5 


14-743 


1 


38-620 j 
38-330 / 


3 


26-743 


5 


14-519 


3 


3 


26-369 


5 


14-337 


1 


38-296 




4b 


26-072 


5 ! 


14-183") 


1 


2 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 163 



Band Spectkum op Sulphur— continued. 



Wave-length 



1 



4014-024J 
13-600 i 
13347 J 
13054 \ 
12-891 ! 
12-724 f 
12-567 ) 
12-450 
12-283 ) 
12-161 V 
12-041 j 
11-676 
11-463 
11-209 
11-103 
10-896 
10-792 
10-670 
10-473 
10-280 
10119 
09-701 
09-508 
09133 
08-751 
08-521 
08-193 
08-016 
07-738 
07-528 
07-364 
07196 
07-064 
06-865 
06-749 
06-566 1 
06-397 J 
06-176 
05-787 
05-574 
05-196 
05040 
04-895 
04-610 
04-470 
04-388 
04-239 
04113 
03-968 
03-793 
03-477 
03-251 
03-073 
02-946 
02-755 
02-494 
02-271 
02-301 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Wave-length 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



1 


4002-112 


1 


2n 


01-959 


1 


2n 


01-681 


3 


3 


01-493 \ 


2 


1 


01-347 ! 


2 


1 


01-107 f 


3 


3 


00-955 j 


1 


1 


00-635 


8b 


1 


00-286 1 


1 


lb 


00-066 ) 


2 


1 


3999-835 . 


2 


2 


99-733 


2 


4 


99-637 ! 
99-432 f 


4 


2 


1 


3 


99-243 


2 


1 


99-125' 


1 


2 


98-925 


2 


1 


98-721 


5 


1 


98-545 


1 


1 


98-340 1 
98-026/ 


3 


2 


3 


2 


97-868 


1 


2 


97-699 


2 


2 


97-376 


2 


5 


96-778 


2 


2 


96-506 


2 


4 


96-314 


2 


3 


95-851 1 
95-722 / 


2 


1 


2 


3 


95-535 


2 


3 


95-339 


2 


1 


95-104 


2 


1 


94-846 


4 


3 


94-656 


2 


3 


94-355 


1 


2 


94-174 


2 


3 


93-991 


1 


3 


93-667 


2 


2 


93-596 


3 


2 


93-407 


4 


1 


93-133 


1 


4 


92-954 


1 


2 


92-757 


2 


1 


92-421 


2 


2 


92-048 


3 


2 


91-795 


1 


1 


91-502 


3 


1 


91-239 


1 


2 


91-040 


1 


2 


90-829 


4 


2 


90-518 


2 


3 


90-239 


. 2 


1 


89-935 


1 


1 


89-756 


3 


1 


89-444 


2 


4 


89-153 


2 


3 


89-023 


1 


2 


88-764 


2 



Wave-length 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



3988-550 
88-322 
87-955 
87-772 
87-619 1 
87-288 J 
87-057 
86-891 
86-749 
86-558 
86-331 ] 
86-016 | 
85-862 ' 
85-394 | 
85-205 J 
84-843 

84-549 

84-385 

84-247 

84-000 

83-750 

83-591 

83-339 

83-129 

82-875 

82-567 

82-479 

82-043 

81-822 

81-510 

81-275 

80-976 

80-743 ^ 

80-388 

80-176 \- 

79-946 l 

79-553 I 

79-374 1 

79-234 J 

78-909 

78-624 

78-106 

77-693) 

77-384 - 

77-117) 

76-941 

76-758 

76-483 f 

76-323 ) 

76-163 

75-930 

75-834 1 

75-711/ 

75-460 

75-192 

75-007 

74-780 



2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 
4 
3b 

1 
1 
4 
2 
2 

1 

2 

1 

4 

4 

2 

3 

3 

4b 

1 

3 

1 

4 

1 

4 

2 

4 
4 
2 
2 
5 
3 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
3 
1 
o 

3 
M 2 



164 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectkum op Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


"Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


3974-532 


1 


3962-508 


3 


3950-158J 


4 


74-386 ) 


1 


62-176 


5 


49-849 


3 


74-212 \ 
74-034 ) 


1 


61-891 | 


1 


49-609 1 
49-489 | 


3 


3 


61-759 \ 


2 


2 


73-716 


2 


61-615) 


3 


49-258 | 


4 


73-516 


1 


61-307 | 


2 


48-961 | 


4 


73-322 


2 


61-162 ! 


1 


48-687 ) 


4 


73-190 


1 


610191 


2 


48-502 \ 


4 


73-012 


3 


60-857 ) 


1 


48-364 ) 


4 


72-808 1 
72-584 J 


3 


60-678 ) 
60-579 J 


2 


48-139 


1 


1 


1 


48-009 


2 


72-321 


3 


60-398 


4 


47-735 


4 


72-131 


2 


60-243 \ 
60-119) 


1 


47-491 


1 


71-907 


1 


3 


47-336) 


2 


71-762 


3 


59-931 


2 


47-201 \ 


4 


71-542 


2 


59-806 


1 


46-740) 


1 


71-282 


3 


59-707 


1 


46-502 


4 


70-929' 


4 


59-497 


2 


46-350 


3 


70-710 


2 


59-387 


1 


46-111 


4 


70-504 


3 


59-260 


1 


45-844 


3 


70191 


1 


59-097 


4 


45-606 


3 


70-008 


4 


58-898 


1 


45-540 


3 


69-816 


2 


58-794 


2 


45-164 


4 


69-736 


1 


58-557 


2 


44-937 


1 


69-529 


1 


58-303 


5 


44-752 


1 


69-268 


1 


58-014 


1 


44-648 


4 


69-072 


1 


57-843 


3 


44-350 ) 


3 


68-955 


3 


57-665 


4 


44-136 | 


2 


68-489 


3 


57-393 


2 


43-826 f 


1 


68-375 


1 


57-144 


4 


43-548 J 


4 


68-245 


1 


56-965 


3 


43-311 1 


4 


68-096 


1 


56-363 


3 


42-567 J 


4 


67-938 


2 


56161 


Is 


42-144 1 
41-641 J 


4 


67-721 


2 


55-954 


Is 


4 


67-548 


2 


55-700 


4 


41-304 


1 


67-280 


3b 


55-461 


1 


40-765 


2b 


67-072 


3 


55-203 1 
54-943 J 


4 


40-446 


5 


66-818 


2 


4 


40162 


1 


66-631 


2 


54-755 


1 


39-808 


4 


66-450 


3 


54-404 


4 


39-358 


5 


66-257 


2 


54-179 1 
54-069 ] 


2 


38-875 1 
38-762 J 


1 


66-083 


2 


2 


1 


65-892 


4 


53-912) 


1 


38-485 


3 


65-714 


1 


53-782 \ 


2 


38-279 


1 


65-511 


4 


53-608) 


3 


38051 


2 


65-294 "1 
65-153 J 


2 


53-495 


1 


37-425 1 
37-164 J 


3 


2 


53-309 


1 


3 


64-777 


3 


53-129 


3 


36-673 


4 


64-553 


4 


52-908 


3 


36-278 


3b 


64-385 


1 


52-647 


1 


35-878 


2 


64-248 


3 


52-308 ) 


2 


35-460 ) 


5 


63-937 


3s 


52-071 \ 


2 


35-155 \ 


3 






51-837) 


2 


34-916 1 


3b 


63-602 


1 


51-500 


3 


34-535 


2 


63-435 1 
63-481 J 


4 


51-206 


3 


33-932 


4 


4 


50-978 


2 


33-685 


1 


63-077 


1 


50-673 


4 


33-249 


2b 


62-789 


3 


50-3291 


4 


32-432 


5b 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



165 



Band Spectrum op Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-lengt 


h and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


3931-947 


2 


3911050 


3 


3889-050 


2b 


31-712 


3 


10-911 


2 


88-524 


2b 


31-416 


1 


10-624 


1 


88-121 


2 


31-078 


} : 1 


09-914 


4 


87-647 


3 


30-874 


09-148 


1 


86-839 


3 


30-559 


2 


08-846) 


4 


86-036 


2b 


30-237 


1 


08-570 


3 


85-750 


5 


30-106 


2 


08-343 ) 


3 


85-399 1 


3 


29-691 


3 


07-531 


3 


85-183 j 


2 


29-461 


1 


07-127 


4 


84-873 


2 


28-856 


4b 


06-841 


1 


84-584 


1 


28-403 


2 


06-634 


1 


84-332 


3 


27-573 


2 


06-285 


4 


84-065 


2 


27-274 


2 


05-702 \ 
05-497 f 


3 


83-828 


1 


26-953 


4 


3 


83-214 


3 


26-354 


1 


05126 


4 


82-697 


3 


26-111 


3 


04-684 


1 


82-429 


5 


25-837 


2 


04-477 


3 


82-172 


1 


25-272 


2 


04-157 


6 


81-919 


2 


25-042 


2 


03-819 


1 


81-433 


6 


24-802 


2 


03-298 


1 


81-016, 


2 


24-415 


2 


02-827 


1 


80-518 


1 


24-178 


2 


02-362 


4b 


80-306 I 


1 


23-903 


1 , 


01-842) 


1 


80-123 f 
79-860 
79-635 ; 


1 


23-733 


3 


01-622 '- 


1 


2 


23-288 


1 ! 


01-432 ) 


4 


2 


22-813 


00-762 


5 


79-325 


5 


22-114 


5 


00-437 1 


3 


78-660 


3 


21-580 


1 1 


00-181 j 


3 


77-925 


1 


21-363 


f In 


3899-753 , 


6 


77-365 


4b 


21013 


I 1 


99-244 I 


2 


76-982 


2 


20-887 


2n 


98-864 |" 


3 


76-560 


2 


20-456 


4 


98-606 ) 


2 


76-103 


2 


20-047 


4 


98-248 


1 


75-707 


2 


19-577 


5 


98-023 


1 


75-378 


2 


19-022 


I 3 


97-724 


3 


74-587 


1 


18-760 


2 


97310 


1 


74-091 


4 


18-369 
18-198 


3n 


97-021 


2b 


73-670 


2b 


\ In 






73-249 


2 


17-904 


1 


96-527 


2 


72-888 


1 


17-542 1 


2n 


96-109 


3 


72-316 


1 


17-389 


In 


95-574 


2 


72-064 


2 


17046 


2 


95-165 


2b 


71-761 


In 


17-834 


1 






71-115 


3 


16-527 


3b 


94-601 


3 


70-816 


In 


15-966 


2b 


94-202 


3 


70-501 | 


3 


15-322 


3 


93-743 , 


1 


70-275 / 


2 


14-906 ) 


2b 


93-566 1 


1 


69-951 j 


1 


14-683 


2b 


93-323 ! 


3 


69-766 | 


In 


14-337 j 


lb 


93-097 I 


1 


69156 


In 


13-944 


2b 


92-815 ) 


1 


69037 


3 


13-406 


4 


92-565 


2 


68-645 


4 


13153 


2 


91-715 


2 


68-104 ] 


3 


12-771 


1 


91-434 


1 


67-509 J 


3 


12-546 


2 


91-230 


1 


66-917 


3 


12-212 


4 


90-984 


33 


66-415 


4b 


11-920 


1 


90-460 


3 


65-486 


Is 


11-661 1 


5 


90104 


2 


65-219 


2b 


11-408 | 




89-786 


2 


64-8491 


2 



166 



REPORT — 1904. 





Band Spectrum of 


Sulphur — continued. 






Intensity 


Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 


Character 




Character 


3864-566J 


2 


3840-021 


3s 


3814-984J 


lb 


64-233 


1 


39-702 


In 


14-573 


lb 


63-859 


2 


39174 


2 


14-074 


1 


63143 


4 


38-868 




1 


13-896 


1 


62-480 


2b 


38-366 




2 


13-542 


3 


62-091 


5 


38-253 




12-881 


4 


61-490) 


2 


37-914 




In 


12-467 


1 


61-218 1 


2 


37-396 


2b 


12-337 


1 


60-858 f 


2 






12-041 


3 


60-516) 


3 


37017 


3s 


11-645 


2 


59-787 


5s 


36-758 


1 


11-330 


4 


59-102 


2 


36-530 


2 


10-704 


3b 


58-366 


2b 


36-088 


3 






57-750 


4 


35-668 1 
35-506 J 


2 


09-851 


2 


57-457 


2 


2n 










35-204 


1 


09-274 


3 


56-312 


1 


34-901 


3 


08-880 


3 


56-017 \ 
55-810 J 


2 


34-157 


Is 


08-592 


1 


3 


33-798 


In 


08-377 


1 


55-428 


3 


33-505 


2b 


07-748 


2 


54-822 


1 


33-096 


1 


07-365 


3 


54-599 | 


1 


32-883 


1 


07-017 


2 


54-281 } 


1 


32-630 


1 


06-694) 


2 


54-100 I 


3 


32-407 


1 


06-414 I 


2b 


53-686 | 


3 


32-135 


1 


05-821 ) 


2b 


53-392 


2b 


31-884 


2 


05-186 


3 


53145 


1 


31-497 


lb 


04-844 


3 


52-917 { 


3 


30-975 


2 


04-423 


1 


52-590 [ 


2 


30-569 i 


1 


04136 


1 


52-300 


3 


30-269 j 


2 


03-676 1 
03-429 } 


2 


51-874 J 


3b 


29-398 


lb 


3 






29-073 


lb 


03-073 


2 


51-752 


1 


28-484 


2b 


02-421 


3 


51-271 1 
51004/ 


3 


27-437 


1 


01-903 ) 


1 


2 


27-152 


1 


01-645 L . 


3 


50-664 


lb 


26-831 


3 


01-199) 


2 


50-395 


2 


25-412 


1 


00-716 


2b 


49-499 


4 


25174 


2b 


00-252 


lb 


49-183 


1 


24-563 


4 


3799-893 


2b 


48-878 


3b 


23-727 1 


2 


99-059 


2 


48-011 


2b 


23-537 J 


2n 


98-354 


2 






22-964 


3 


97-559 


lb 


47-666 


1 


22-200 


2 


97-203 


1 


47-259 


2 


21-947 


1 


96-889 


2 


46-291 


3 


21-481 


1 


96-362 


1 


46-023 


2 


21-090 


1 


96-128 


2 


45-770 


2 


20-881 


1 


95-716 


2 


45-300 


3b 


20-188 


1 


95-390 


1 


44-988 ) 


1 


19-881 


1 


94-618 


3 


44-718 | 


3 


19-559 


1 


94-1761 
93-914 J 


1 


44-390 


1 


19-201 1 


2 


2 


44-095 


4 


18-954 j 


2 


93-564 


1 


43-471 


2 


18-528 1 
18-323 f 


1 


93-300 


2 


43-250 


2 


1 


92-841 


4 


42-689 | 


1 


17-796 


3 


92-451 


1 


42-538 | 


2 


16-986 


3 


92-072 


3 


42-277 


1 


16-626 


2a 


91-713 


4 


41-911 


3b 


15-569 


2 


91-400 


2 


40-905 


4 


15-108^ 


1 


3b 


91-055 


I 



OX WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 167 



Band Spkcteum op Sulphuk — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


3790-860 


2 


3769-651 J- 


3 


3748-054 


4 


90-554 


3 


69-472J 


6 


47-456 


4 


89-972 


3 


69-215 x 
68-996 
68-583 ]- 


1 


46-998 


6 


89-670 ) 


4 


2 


46-047 


3 


89-386 ' 


2b 


2 


45-429 


2 


89-096 f 


1 


68-233 1 


3 


44-749 


2b 


88-880 1 


3 


67-526 1 


3 


44-500 


1 


88-476 | 


3 


66-921 ) 


3 


44-186 


2b 


88-202 J" 


1 


66-670 r 
66-358) 


2 


43-782 


2 


87-843 


1 


2 


43-432 


2 


87-466 \ 


2 


65-884 1 


3b 


42-977 


2 


87-159 J 


3 


65-723 J 


2 


42-489 


3 


86-839 


2 


65-476 


2 


41-999 


3 


86-639 


3 


65-029 


4b 


41-515 


3 


86-143 


1 


64-717 


1 


41-217 1 
40-858 J 


2 


85-818 


4b 


64-321 


2 


3 


85-321 ) 


4 


63-736 


2 


40-099 


3 


85-117 1 


3 


63-546 


1 


39-885 1 
39-617 J 


1 


84-668 \ 


1 


63032 


2b 


2 


84-454 J 


1 






39-157 


2 


83-946 


2 


62-667 


2 


38-941 1 
38-667 1 


2 


83-577 


1 






2 


83-342 | 
83-085 J 


lb 






38-453 1 
38-120 J 


2 


2 


61-920) 


3 


2 


82-519 


2 


61-646 ^ 


3 


37-968 1 
37-373 J 


2 


82-030 ) 


lb 


61-249) 


3b 


3 


81-779 L 


1 


60-966 


lb 


36-744 


3 


81-511 j 


1 


60-751 


3 


36-080 


1 


81-280 


3 


60-505 


2 


35-449 


2 


80-451 


1 


60-194) 


3 


35-014 


2 


80-163 


3 


60-006 I 


3 


34-712 


2 


79-902 


1 


59-748) 


2 


34-253 


3 


79-605 


3 


59-426 


1 


33-794 


2 


79-454 


3 


59-211 


1 


33-128) 


2 


78-743 


2 


58-871 


4b 


32-782 \ 


1 


78-447 


2 


58-099 


1 


32-538) 


2 


78-103 


2 


57-815 


lb 


32033 ) 
31-756 L 


3 


77-818 


1 


57-502 


1 


1 


77-367 


2b 


57-202 


4s 


31-573) 


1 


77-028 


1 


56-768 


2 


30-971 \ 
30-661 J 


2 


76-582 1 


4 


56-280 


3b 


4 


76-307 J 


1 


55-941 


1 


30-067 


2 


75-542 1 


2 


55-542 


4 


29-845 


1 


75-262 j 


2 


55-115 


1 


29-611) 


1 


74-795 


3 


54-854 


2 


29-293 I 
29-068 ) 


3 


74-240 


2b 


54-567 


1 


1 


73-983 


1 


54-026) 


4 


28-533 


4b 


73-655 


1 


53-722 


3 






73-361 


3 


53-385 ) 


3 


28-089 


1 


72-913 


3r 


52-4731 


4 


27-819 


2 


72-422 ) 


2 


51-911 } 


3 


27-314 


2 


72-085 '■ 


2 


51-262J 


3 


27-051 


1 


71-7171 


2 


50-873 


4 


26-613 


3 


71-311 


In 


50-498 


1 


26-079 1 
25-888 j 


2 


70-777 


3 


50-175 


5 


In 


70-524 


2 


49-536 


2 


25-348 \ 


1 


70-273 


In 


49-284 


3 


25100 i 


2 






49-023 


1 


24-785"l 
24-569 } 


2 


69-768"! 


3 


48-731 


6 


1 1 



168 



REPORT — 1904. 



Band Spectrum ov Sulphur — continued. 





Intensity 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 




Character 




Character 


3724-345J 


2 


3694-703 , 


lb 


3667-340 )■ 


2 


23-368 1 


2n 


94-643 


lb 


67-067 | 


1 


22-999 J 


2s 


94-138 L 


3b 


66-899J 


1 


22-089 


2b 


93-790 i 


lb 


66-537 1 
66-217 / 


2 


21-691 


3 


93-499 J 


lb 


4 


21-043 


1 


93-086 


2n 


66-130 1 
65-695 J 


1 


20-500 


1 


92-642 ) 


3n 


1 


19-438 


In 


91-836 


3n 


65-285 


2 


19-149 


Is 


91-4001 


In 


64-990 


2 


18-847 ) 


3 


91-095 1 

90-872 J 


2 


64-689 


2 


18-518 


2 


2 


64-418 


2 


18-246 J 


1 


90-552 


1 


64-080 


2 


17-178 


2 


90-267 } 


2 


63-756 


2 


16-565 


2 


90059 | 


2 


63-473 


2 


15-885 


2 


89-610 


2b 


63-345 


1 


15-448 1 


2 


89-208 


2n 


62-877 


lb 


15137 J 


1 


87-010 


In 


62-656 


2s 


14-755 1 


3b 


86-585 


In 


62-437 


3n 


14-484 J 


2 


86-134 


2 


62-276 


2 


13-807 1 


o 


85-779 


1 


61-614) 
61-307 } 


1 


13-551 / 


3 


85-457 


1 


1 


12-747 


2 


84-943 


2 


61-023 j 


1 


12-417 


2n 


84-518 


3 


60-478 1 
60-253 j 


2s 


11-967 


2 


83-896 


1 


2s 


11-4041 
11112 J 


3 


83-595 


1 


60-019 


lb 


1 


83-225 


2 


59-656 


2 


10-818) 


2 


82-547 1 \ 
81-632 j 
81-2031 
80-939 ! I 


In 


59-075 


3 


10-573 


1 


In 


59-706 


2 


10-322 J 


2 


2n 


58-508 


1 


09-716 


4 


In 


58-295 


2s 


08-924 


2 


80-255 > 


1 


57-991 


3 


08-177 


1 


79-302 


2 


57-547 


2 


07-622 1 


2 


78-997 


3 


57-068 


o 


07-442 / 


1* 


78-446 


1 


56-852 


Is 


06-786 1 
06-590 r 


1 


77-806 


1 


56-573 


3 


In 


77-405 


Is 


56-159 


2b 


06-177 


In 


77-073 


2 


55-754 


3b 


05-306 


2s 


76-826 


1 


55-220 


5b 


04-444 


1 


76-271 


2 


54-842 1 
54-334 / 


4 


03-870 


2 


75-874 


1 


2 


03-220 


1 


75-644 


2 


54-105) 


2 


02-513 1 


2 


75-233 


3 


53-838 [ 
53-602) 


2 


02-361 j 


2 


74-055 


3 


2 


02-022 


lb 


73-517 1 
73-042/ 


2 


53-300 1 
53-096 / 


2n 


00-696 


2 


2 


2n 


3699-907 


1 


72-717 


In 


52-834 


1 


99-604 


3 


72-377 


2 


52-536 ) 


1 


99-038 


1 


71-8941 
71-632 | 


2 


52-274 \ 


1 


98-779 


2 


2 


52-074 j 


2 


98-553 


1 


71-185 


Is 


51-583 


3 


98-147 1 


2s 


70-762) : 


3n 


51-200 


1 


97-491 / 


2s 


70-333 


3 


50-537 


5 


96-955 


2 


70-153 ) 


1 


50-084 


2 


96-264 


2 


69-197 


3 


49-325 


lb 


96040 


1 


68-701 \ 


In 


49-067 


4 


95-450 1 
95-235 J 


2 


68-466 / 


1 


48-838 


3 


3n 


67-951") 


3 


48-516 


2 


94-976 


2 


67-634 | 


2n 







ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 169 



The Stereochemistry of Nitrogen. By H. 0. Jones, M.A., D.Sc. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in externa.] 

The stereochemistry of nitrogen has, for a number of years, attracted 
considerable attention, which was until recently confined chiefly to the 
isomerism of the tervalent compounds ; of late years, however, the quin- 
quevalent compounds have been the subject of an exceptionally large 
number of investigations. The former, with the exception of a few out- 
standing problems, may almost be regarded as a closed chapter, whereas 
the latter is still in a state of rapid change. The phenomena exhibited 
by these compounds are so bewildering in their variety, and apparently so 
difficult to reconcile with one another, that this brief review of the present 
state of our knowledge may be useful in promoting discussion which will 
throw some light on the obscure problems that perplex workers in the 
field. 

The facts brought to light by the work on quinquevalent nitrogen 
compounds considered in conjunction with those observed by Professor 
Pope and his collaborators in sulphur and selenium compounds necessitate 
some slight alteration in the prevalent conception of valency, and have 
at the same time supplied the materials for such a revision of ideas. 

No entirely satisfactory hypothesis as to the nature of valency and 
the forces which act in chemical compounds has hitherto been proposed. 
There is, however, a growing conviction that these forces are electrical in 
their origin and arise in consequence of the electrical structure of the 
atom ; if this be so, then these forces are very probably localised along 
certain directions outside the atom. 

However, without making any assumption as to the nature of these 
forces, the existence and stability of chemical compounds almost require 
that they should have a definite spatial configuration such as must be 
assumed in order to account for the phenomena of stereoisomerism, and 
further, that the most symmetrical configuration possible would probably 
be the most stable. By a definite stable configuration is understood an 
arrangement of atoms or groups around a plurivalent atom in which each 
group, under the action of forces exerted on it by the plurivalent atom 
and by the other groups, oscillates (within limits dependent on tempera- 
ture and other conditions) about an equilibrium position in which it 
would probably be stationary at absolute zero. The lines joining the 
centre of the plurivalent atom to the centres of the various atoms or 
groups in their equilibrium positions may be called the ' valency directions.' 
The equilibrium position for any particular radical attached to a pluri- 
valent atom — carbon, for example— would not be fixed, but would be 
dependent to some extent on the other radicals attached to the same 
atom, since the position taken up is the result of the action of a number 
of forces ; hence the valency direction must also be variable to some 
extent. These views were quite clearly expressed by van't Hoff soon 
after the tetrahedral configuration for carbon compounds was proposed. 

The new assumption, which had to be made in the light of recent 
experience, is that during a change of valency, such as that of sulphur 
from quadri- to sexa- valency, 1 the configuration of the molecule may 
alter and the radicals already present take up entirely new positions. 



Pope and Neville, Trans. Ghent 800.. 1902, 81, 1560. 



170 REPORT— 1904. 

Assumptions of a slightly different kind have been made to account for 
certain phenomena observed in quinquevalent nitrogen compounds ; it has 
been found necessary to suppose that the position occupied by the electro- 
negative radical is not always the same — in fact, that the resultant effect of 
the forces exerted by the nitrogen atom and four electro-positive radicals 
is such as to attract an electro-negative radical which may enter the 
molecule in one of two positions. 

Further, in order to account for the existence of one kind of isomerism 
observed among tervalent nitrogen compounds (p. 172), it has been sug- 
gested that for three groups attached to a nitrogen atom two configurations 
are possible. 

Stress must be laid on a difficulty encountered in the whole of this 
field — namely, the uncertainty as to the cause of certain differences which 
are observed in some compounds, particularly when those differences 
disappear on solution, whether they are to be attributed to isomerism 
of an unstable kind or merely to dimorphism : this difficulty is accentuated 
when the compounds exhibit no distinctive differences in their chemical 
reactions. 

It has been deemed advisable in dealing with this subject to treat the 
tervalent and quinquevalent nitrogen compounds separately, and in the 
latter case to present the facts completely before entering upon any dis- 
cussion of them, because it is necessary to review the whole field in 
attempting to offer a consistent explanation of the various phenomena. 
The time is certainly not yet ripe for drawing any final conclusions about 
this complicated subject, and there is still much work to be done before 
a clear path through the maze will become evident. 

I. Tervalent Nitrogen Compounds. 
(i) Compounds of the type N a b c. 

(a) The Problem of Optical Activity. — It might be expected from purely 
dynamical considerations that the most stable configuration for three 
groups attached to one atom (nitrogen) would be that in which all three 
groups were situated in the same plane with that atom ; the distances of 
the groups from the centre of the nitrogen atom would be variable and 
dependent on the nature of the groups, but no displacement out of the 
plane would be expected so long as none of the groups was asymmetric. 
Such a displacement apparently occurs when strain is introduced, as in 
the formation of cyclic compounds or double linkages, and might occur if 
one of the groups became asymmetric. 

This view is supported by the facts, since all attempts to demonstrate 
asymmetry in tervalent nitrogen compounds — other than cyclic compounds 
— have hitherto been abortive. 

Krafft l tried to resolve etbyl-benzylamine and /?-tolyl-hydrazine by 
the crystallisation of their neutral tartrates ; Behrend and Konig 2 made 
similar experiments with the tartrates and mandelates of /? benzyl-hydro- 
xylamine and /3 nitro-benzyl-benzyl-hydroxylamine, and Ladenburg 3 on 
the acid tartrates of methylaniline, tetrahydroquinoline, and tetrahydro- 
pyridine. In all cases the salts appeared to be homogeneous, their 
properties remaining unaltered by recrystallisation. 

Regarded in the light of recent experience these experiments are 

1 Ber., 1890, 23, 2780. n - Ann., 1891, 263, 175. 

3 Ber., 1893, 26, 864. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 171 

inconclusive, since similar attempts failed to resolve quinquevalent nitrogen 
compounds. The failure might have been due either to hydrolytic dissocia- 
tion of these salts of weak acids with weak bases, or to partial racemism, 
which the recent work of Professor Kipping has shown to occur so 
frequently. 

Reychler ' eliminated the first-mentioned possible cause of failure in 
his attempts to resolve methyl-ethyl /3 naphthylamine by fractional 
crystallisation of its dextro-camphorsulphonate from non-hydroxyli<" 
solvents ; the writer also made a similar attempt with inethyl-benzy*. 
aniline, but no resolution was effected in either case. 

The evidence derived from all the foregoing experiments (with the 
exception of that in which ^-tolyl-hydrazine was used) is useless if the 
change of valency direction established in the case of sulphur and selenium 
also occurs in nitrogen during the change from ter- to quinquevalency. 
There is, however, no evidence of this, and the ease with which cyclic 
compounds, such as pyridine and piperidine, form quaternary ammonium 
derivatives is not in favour of this view. 

On this account some experiments were made by Mr. J. P. Millington 
and the writer 2 with the object of obtaining evidence free from this 
objection, by avoiding a change in the valency of the nitrogen during the 
process of resolution. Benzyl-phenyl-hydrazine rf-camphorsulphonate and 
the brucine salt of methyl-ethyl aniline sulphonic acid were submitted 
to fractional crystallisation, but without effecting any separation into 
fractions of different rotatory power ; in the first case it is probable that 
no change of valency of the nitrogen atom in question takes place, and in 
the. second it is certain. 

Evidence of quite a different kind has been adduced by Messrs. 
Kipping and Salway. 3 It was proved that when an externally compen- 
sated acid chloride reacted with an externally compensated primary amine 
(each containing an asymmetric carbon atom) to form a substituted amide, 
this consisted of four compounds, which being enantiomorphously related 
in pairs give rise to two externally compensated compounds easily separable 
by fractional crystallisation. This, therefore, forms a method of testing 
for asymmetry in carbon compounds, and by analogy it should be capable 
of detecting asymmetry in nitrogen compounds. The products of the 
interaction of G^-benzyl-methyl acetyl chloride with methyl aniline, 
2>-toluidine, phenyl-hydrazine and benzyl aniline were examined and found 
to be homogeneous. The active (d) acid chloride was also allowed to react 
with |>toluidine and with benzyl aniline ; but, as before, the product 
appeared to be a chemical individual. Finally, the active chloride was 
treated with an active amine ; if the nitrogen atom form a centre of 
asymmetry, in addition to the two already present, then two compounds 
should be formed ; but again the product was homogeneous. 

Clearly, therefore, all the evidence is in favour of a plane configuration 
for tervalent nitrogen compounds. 

(b) Isomeric Tervalent Nitrogen Derivatives N a b c. — Although the 
tervalent nitrogen atom is incapable of giving rise to optical activity, it 
seems capable of giving rise to another kind of isomerism of which there 
are two distinct examples. 

1 Bull. Soc Chem., 1902[3], 27, 979. 

2 Proc. Cavil. Phil. Soc, 1904, xii. 489. 

3 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1904, 85, 438. 



172 REPORT— 1904. 

Miller and Plochl l found that the product of the interaction of as-m- 
xylidine with acetaldehyde in hydrochloric acid solution was a mixture of 
substances which had to be separated mechanically. The two substances 
have the same composition and molecular weight and give the same 
reactions. They are represented by the formula 

C 6 H 3 (CH,),NH— CH— CH 3 
CH, 
CHO 

because (1) they give the tests for an aldehyde, (2) condense with m- 
xylidine to give the same product, 

C 6 H 3 (CH 3 ) ; NH— CH— CH 3 

C 6 H 3 (CH 3 ) J N=CH— CH 2 , 

(3) give the same benzoyl derivative, and (-4) are mutually transformable. 
They differ only in melting point (102° C. and 131° C)., crystalline form, 
and solubility in ether and benzene. The evidence points very clearly to 
some cause other than structural differences to account for this kind of 
isomerism, though the possibility of tautomerism has not been definitely 
excluded. 

The other example was observed by Willgerodt 2 in the si/m-dinitro- 
phenyl -phenyl -hydrazine produced by the interaction of dinitro-chlorben- 
zene and phenyl-hydrazine. Two isomeric substances appear to be formed, 
one being an amorphous powder which is readily transformed into the 
other and crystalline isomeride. Here also the possibility of structural 
difference in the nitro group hardly exists, for if it did, it would certainly 
be observable in many other compounds. Willgerodt offers an explanation 
of this isomerism based on the assumption that free rotation is limited 
between two nitrogen atoms ; but this assumption is undesirable and is 
not supported by any other experimental facts. 

Vaubel 3 suggested a configuration for the nitrogen atom which would 
explain the above cases of isomerism, based on the following considera- 
tions : a nitrogen atom is capable of taking the place of a — CH group in 
pyridine and also of becoming quadruply linked to carbon in isocyanides. 
On this view the groups attached to the nitrogen are supposed to occupy 
definite fixed positions which are at certain different but fixed distances 
from the centre of the nitrogen atom. This assumption is unnecessary 
and is contrary to the spirit of stereochemical conceptions. 

Further work on this subject is much needed, but if it be definitely 
established that isomerism, such as that apparently exhibited by the above- 
mentioned substances, does exist, then it must be assumed that there are 
two possible positions of equilibrium for three groups attached to a nitrogen 
atom, one being somewhat more stable than the other. Isomerism, due 
to such a cause, could only be detected under favourable circumstances 
similar to those under which these experiments were carried out — namely, 
when a reaction resulting in the formation of a solid substance takes place 
in the cold ; in all such cases one isomeride would probably readily pass 
into the other. 

1 Ber., 189G, 29, 1402. 

- Journ. prakt. Chem., 1888, 37, 449. 

3 Stercochcmische Forschungen, 1S99, i. 20. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 173 

(ii) Cyclic Nitrogen Compounds. 

The evidence for isomerism of tervalent nitrogen compounds is more 
conclusive in those cases where the nitrogen atom forms part of a 
ring. 

Ladenburg ' found that when coniine hydrochloride was distilled with 
zinc dust and a little water a new substance called isoconiine was pro- 
duced ; isoconiine differs from coniine in optical rotatory power, the solu- 
bility of its chlorplatinate in alcohol and ether, and to a less degree 
in other properties. 

The existence of these isomer ides is explained by supposing that the 
hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen may be either on the same side 
of the plane of the piperidine ring as the propyl group or on the opposite 
side, thus : 

/\ /\ 

C 3 H 7 



H 1 C 3 H 7 




H 


\/ 




N— H 


H- 


-N 



This hypothesis is not incompatible with the plane configuration of 
the nitrogen atom, since the strain introduced by the formation of a ring 
may disturb the equilibrium. 

Later 2 Ladenburg described z'sostilbazoline, an isomeride of stilbazoline 
differing from it chiefly in rotatory power. Isomerism of this kind should 
exist in the y piperidine compounds which are not optically active, but 
this has never been demonstrated. 

The case is, however, much strengthened by the discovery of the 
isomerism of tropine and 4> tropine. 

\p tropine was obtained by Ladenburg and Roth 3 from hyoscine, and 
was prepared artificially by Willstatter 4 by the reduction of tropinone. 
Similarly, Willstatter and Miiller 5 obtained two tropylamines. 

In these cases there is no asymmetry in the molecule ; both compounds 
are inactive, and the isomerism can only be explained by the different 
spatial relations of the methyl and the hydroxyl or amino group thus — 



CH. 2 CH CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 

CEL.-N H— C-OH 
CH, CH CH, 



N-CH 3 H-C— OH and 



Giustiani fi described isomeric benzylmalimides which differ in solu- 
bility and melting point, and give different monacetyl and benzoyl deriva- 
tives. Here, however, there is a possibility of tautomerism which has 
not been excluded, but if this be set aside the isomerism could be 
explained in the same way as that described above. 

1 Ber., 1893, 26, 854. 4 Ber., 1896, 29, 936. 

2 Ber., 1903, 36, 3694. 5 Ber., 1898, 31, 1212, 2655. 

3 Ber., 1884, 17, 151. e Ga::., 1892, 22, 1. 169 ; 1893, 23, 1. 168. 



174 REPORT — 1904. 

a—C—b 

(iii) Isomerism in compounds of the type 

N-c. 

The isomerism among compounds in which nitrogen is doubly linked 
to carbon is now so well established and the hypothesis of Hantzsch and 
Werner to explain it so abundantly supported by experimental evidence, 
that in this place it will suffice if a very brief statement of the most 
important conclusions arrived at be made, and attention called to a few 
points which cannot as yet be regarded as settled satisfactorily. 

(a) Ketoximes. — Goldschmidt' while working with V. Meyer on the 
oximes of benzil discovered an isomeride of benzil dioxime ; later 
V. Meyer and Auwers discovered a third modification of the same 
substance 2 and a second monoxime of benzil. 3 Meyer and Auwers gave 
a clear and conclusive demonstration of the structural identity of these 
oximes 4 and proposed to account for their existence by assuming that 
free rotation between the carbon atoms was prevented in these compounds. 
The discovery of an isomeric oxime of ^-chlor benzophenone 5 disposed of 
this view, which cannot account for the existence of a second oxime, and 
the hypothesis of Hantzsch and Werner ° alone remained. 

These authors explain the isomerism of oximes by supposing that 
when a nitrogen atom is united to carbon by a double bond, the third 
valency is not in the same plane as the other two, and the group attached 
to it may take up two equilibrium positions one on either side of this plane. 

According to this hypothesis, there should be one oxime of 

a a — C — a 

)QO namely || 

0/ N-OH 

«. a — C — b a — C — b 

and two of /-CO namely and || 

b / NOH HON, 

a prediction verified for the oximes of benzophenone and ^-chlor-benzo- 
phenone and in many other cases. 

rt-C-C-a 
Then two monoximes and three dioximes of a diketone || || 

O O 
should exist, the dioximes being represented thus : 

a— C— C— a a— C C— a a— C -C — a 

II II II II II II 

HON N.OH HON HON NOH HON, 

which has been verified in the case of the mono- and dioximes of benzil. 

The isomerism in all these cases is perfectly definite, the compounds 
differing in melting point, crystalline form, solubility, and some of their 
chemical reactions, and further are mutually transformable under the 
influence of heat, solvents, and suitable reagents such as acids and 
alkalies. 

The usual criterion for determining their configurations is the 

1 Per., 1883, 16, 2176. 2 Ber., 1889, 22, 537. 3 Ber., 1889, 22, 705. 

4 Ber., 1888, 21, 784, 2510 : 1889. 22, 5G4, 1985, 1996. 

1 Ber., 1890, 23, 2403. 6 Ber., 1890, 23, 11 ; Zeit.phys. Chem., 10, 1. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGExN. 175 

'Beckmann transformation,' 1 by which the oxinies are transformed into 
substituted acid amides, thus : — 

a -G-b a-G=0 a-C-b = C-b 

II — >• and || — > 

N-OH NH-6 HO-N «.HN 

The hypothesis predicts four isomerides of compounds of the form 

a-C C-6 

|| but until quite recently no instance of this had been 

HON N OH 

observed. Manasse 2 obtained three dioximes of camphorquinone, and 
Dr. Forster 3 re-examined these and obtained a fourth. 

In the case of the ketoximes the predictions of the hypothesis have 
been experimentally verified for all kinds of ketones of the aromatic but 
not for those of the fatty series. Most of the attempts to get isomeric 
oximes of fatty aldehydes and ketones have been unsuccessful ; 4 the only 
case definitely observed is that of the oximes of oxalacetic acid, 5 of which 
there are two definite isomers differing in melting point and in their 
behaviour towards ferric chloride ; with which the a acid gives a yellowish 
brown and the /3 a violet colour. 

(b) Aldoximes — The case of the aldoximes cannot be regarded with 
the same complacency. Beckmann 6 observed that benzaldoxime when 
treated with sulphuric acid or with an ethereal solution of hydrogen 
chloride was converted into an isomeride. A long controversy then 
ensued between chemists who claimed that the isomerides were structurally 

different, as represented by C 6 H 5 CH=lsrOH and C 6 H ft CH/ , and 

X 

those who held the view that the differences were stereochemical, as in 
the case of the ketoximes. The work has been confined mainly to 
benzaldoxime and substituted benzaldoximes. The two benzaldoximes 
give respectively an oxygen and a nitrogen ester when treated with alkyl 
haloid compounds— a fact regarded as evidence in favour of structural 
isomerism. The work of H, Goldschmidt 7 on the action of phenyliso- 
cyanate on the two oximes and that of Professors Hartley and Dobbie 8 
on iheir absorption spectra, however, is in favour of structural identity. 
t~i The hypothesis of stereoisomerism is now almost universally accepted, 
and is supported by the phenomena exhibited by the esters, which were 
at first so difficult to reconcile with this view. 

"f- Beckmann 9 treated a (anti) benzaldoxime with sodium ethylate and 
benzyl chloride in the cold and obtained an oily ester which on treatment 
with hydrochloric acid split up partially into benzaldehyde and a benzyl- 
hydroxylamine and was therefore an oxygen ester, whereas by similar 
treatment of the f3 (syn) oxime he obtained a crystalline ester which 

1 Ber., 1883, 16, 2176. 2 Ber., 1893, 26, 243. 

3 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1903, 83, 514. 

* Franchimont {Fee. trar. Pays-Bas, 10, 236) ; Dunstan and Dymond, Trans 
Chem. Soc., 1892, 61, 470 ; 1894, 65, 206. 

5 Piutti (Gazz., 1888, 18,457); Ebert (Ann., 18S5, 229, 76) ; Cramer (Ber., 1891, 
24, 1206) ; Dollfus (Ber., 1892, 25, 1915) ; Fetiton and Jones (Trams. Chem. Soc, 
1901, 79, 95). 

8 Ber., 1887, 20, 2766 ; 1889, 22, 429. 7 Ber., 1889, 22, 3112. 

8 Trans. Chem. Soc., 1900, 77, 509. 9 Ber., 1889, 22, 435, 1534. 



176 REPORT— 1904. 

gave j3 benzyl-hydroxylamine on hydrolysis, and was therefore a nitrogen 
ester. 

Later Werner and Buso ' found that the liquid oxygen ester just re- 
ferred to, on treatment with hydrochloric acid underwent isomeric change 
during its partial hydrolysis, and gave rise to a solid oxygen ester. There 
are consequently two isomeric oxygen esters, the existence of which can 
only be explained by different steric relations, and a nitrogen ester. 

The phenomena exhibited by the methyl esters are complementary to 
those observed in the benzyl esters. Petraczek 2 prepared a methyl ester 
by the action of sodium and methyl iodide on a benzaldoxime, which ester 
when hydrolysed gave a methyl-hydroxylamine, H. Goldschmidt and 
Kjellin 3 isolated an ester from the products of the interaction of 
j3 benzaldoxime, methyl iodide, and sodium methylate, which gave /3 methyl- 
hydroxylamine on hydrolysis, and was therefore a nitrogen ester ; at 
the same time they observed the odour characteristic of the oxygen esters 
and concluded that the oxygen ester of the syn oxime was formed at the 
same time. 

Finally Dr. Luxmoore 4 observed that by the action of methyl bromide 
and hydrobromic acid on /? benzaldoxime the hydrobromide of a new 
nitrogen ester was produced. This ester differed from the nitrogen ester 
already known in being very readily hydrolysed by water to form 
/3 methyl-hydroxylamine ; it was also labile, and on standing changed into 
the stable syn N ester. 

Thus there is enough evidence to justify the conclusion that two benzyl- 
oxygen esters and two methyl-nitrogen esters exist, and the isomerism in 
these cases can only be explained on the hypothesis of stereoisomerism — 
thus, 



C (i H 5 — CH C 6 H,CH C 6 H 5 CH C 6 H 5 -CH 

and ^>0 

C 7 H 7 ON NOC 7 H 7 CH 3 N N— CH 3 . 



X .0 



This conclusion is supported by Goldschmidt's work on isomeric oxygen 
esters of anisaldoxime and nitro-benzaldoxime. 5 

The isomerism of the nitrogen esters is analogous to that of tropine 
and if/ tropine. 

In addition to the Beckmann transformation a second criterion for 
the determination of configuration is applicable to the aldoximes ; one of 
the oximes on treatment with acetic anhydride loses water and gives a 
nitrile, whereas the other either remains unchanged or gives an acetyl 

a-C-H 
derivative, the former must therefore be the syn-oxime, || , and 

NOH 
a-C-H. 
the latter the anti-oxime, \\ 

HON 

The hypothesis of Hantzsch and Werner, which has, as we have seen, 
accounted in a satisfactory manner for the isomerism observed among the 
oximes, requires that isomerism should exist also in other compounds with 

1 5$a, 1896, 28, 1278. 2 Ber., 1882, 16, 827. 3 Ber., 1891, 24, 2812. 

Trans. Chcm. See., 1896, 69, 177. 5 Ber., 1890, 23, 2178. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 177 

a like structure. A search for these isomeric! es instituted by Hantzsch and 
others has been successful in a number of cases. In all these cases it is 
more difficult to exclude the possibility of dimorphism and to show that 
the compounds in question are structurally identical. 

(c) Hydrazones and Semicarbazones. — The evidence for the existence 
of isomerism among hydrazones and semicarbazones is fairly conclusive, 
though by no means so satisfactory as for the oximes. 

Fehrlin ' found that the hydrazone of o-nitro-phenyl-glyoxylic acid was 
converted into an isomeride, when dissolved in alkalies and precipitated 
by the addition of acids ; the two products differed in crystalline appear- 
ance, melting point, solubility, and behaviour with nitric acid, but gave 
the same reduction product. These results were confirmed by Krause, 2 
who found, besides, that both gave hydrazones of isatin on oxidation. 

Hantzsch and Kraft 3 by the action of phenyl hydrazine on anisyl- 
phenyl-ketone on the one hand, and on its dichloride on the other, obtained 
two different anisyl-phenyl-ketone hydrazones which differed in appear- 
ance and solubility, and one of which was slowly transformed into the 
other in alcoholic solution. 

The possibility of structural differences was finally excluded by 
Overton 4 by preparing two diphenyl-hydrazones of anisyl-phenyl-ketone, 
and of ;>tolyl-phenyl-ketone by the method used by Hantzsch ; several 
other hydrazones, however, could only be obtained in one form. 

Anschiitz and Pauly 5 prepared three isomeric diphenyl-hydrazones of 
dioxy-tartaric ester, two of which are readily transformed into the third 
by heating in solution or by traces of reagents such as iodine and sulphur 
dioxide : behaviour which is very characteristic of stereoisomerides ; 
Bamberger and Schmidt 6 found that two hydrazones of benzoyl-formalde- 
hyde could be obtained, and that these were interconvertible by means of 
solvents. 

The only aldehyde hydrazones which have been obtained in different 
forms are the phenyl-hydrazones of protocatechuic aldehyde, 7 and of 
salicylic aldehyde, 8 and in both these cases the evidence is not sufficient 
to exclude the possibility of tautomerism in the benzene ring like that 
shown by phloroglucin. 

The evidence of the existence of isomeric semicarbazones is insuffi- 
cient ; but Marckwald 9 has observed very definite isomerides of diphenyl 
thiosemicarbazine itself, which differ in melting point and in their 
reaction with carbonyl chloride. Their reactions are explained as 
follows : — 

C fi H 5 NH-C-SH • C 6 H 5 -NH-C-SH 



C (i H,-NH-N N-NH-C 6 H, 

| COC1, j COCl 2 

C 6 H 5 N-C-SH C 6 H 5 -NH-C-S 



! t! >CO 

CO N / 

v / N-N-CVH 



6 J 



C 6 H 5 -N 



1 Her., 1890, 23, 1574. 2 Her., 1890, 23, 3617. 3 Ber., 1891, 24, 3511. 

4 Ber., 1893, 26, 18 ; see also Hantzsch, Ber., 26, 1. » Ber., 1895, 28, 64. 

6 Ber., 1901, 34, 2001. ' Wegscheider, JUonats., 1893, 14, 386. 

8 Biltz, Ber., 1894, 27, 2288. 9 Ber., 1892, 25, 3098. 

1904. N 



178 REPORT — 1904. 

Both react with methyl iodide to give derivatives in which the methyl 
group appears to be attached to sulphur, which points to the absence of 
structural differences. 

(d) Stereoisomers Aniles and other Compounds. — Many unsuccessful 
attempts to prepare aniles, Schiff's bases, in isomeric forms were made 
before any indication of their existence was obtained. 1 

A new isomeride of ethylidene aniline was isolated by Eibner, 2 from 
the product of the reaction in water, which melted at 85 - 5° C, whereas 
that already known melted at 126° C. The two compounds are mono- 
molecular, and the one with the lower melting point is readily converted 
into the other. Later, the same chemist with Peltzer 3 isolated two 
isomeric ethylidene o-toluidines, which were apparently structurally iden- 
tical, and of which, again, the lower melting point form could be readily 
transformed into the higher. Hantzsch and Schwab 4 described two ben- 
zylidene p-toluidines in which the isomeride with the lower melting point 
is the more stable. The possibility of structural differences in simple 
aniles, like C 6 H 5 — N=CH— CH 3 , need scarcely be considered, and the 
relations between the compounds exclude dimorphism, so that their exist- 
ence must be due to stereoisomerism. 

Lastly, Schall and Raschkowetzky 5 describe two isomeric carbo- 

diphenylimides, C^ , between which there can be no structural 

^N-C 6 H 5 
difference. 

o-N 

(e) Compounds of the type || Azo and Diazo Compounds. — Azo 

X-6, 
compounds ought to exist in isomerides similar to those of oximes and 
hydrazones, but that they do so has never been established in a satisfac- 
tory manner. Janowski G has described two trinitroazotoluenes and two 
p-azoxytoluenes ; the evidence, however, is insufficient to allow any defi- 
nite conclusion to be drawn from it. 

The diazo compounds are well known to exist in isomeric forms, to 
explain which no hypothesis seems adequate except that of Hantzsch, 
together with the admission of structural isomerism. This subject is so 
involved, and moreover has so recently formed the subject of an exhaus- 
tive report, 7 that a mere mention must suffice. Syn and anti&x&zo com- 
pounds exist, which are represented thus 

C 6 H 5 -N C 6 H 5 -N 

II and || 

X-N N-X, 

where X represents an acidic radical, a hydroxyl group, or a metallic 
radical attached to oxygen. Diazonium compounds, which are structurally 
different from the diazo compounds, also exist. 

a-C-b 
The existing isomerides of compounds of the type || and allied 

N-c 
types can only be satisfactorily explained with the aid of the Hantzsch- 

1 Ber., 1891,24, 3518; 25, 2020; Ann. Chem. Phys., 1896, 9, 433. 

2 Ber., 1894, 27, 1299. % Ber., 1900, 33, 3460. 
* Ber., 1901, 34, 822. s Ber., 1892, 25, 2880. 
6 Monats., 1888, 9, 831 ; 1889, 10, 583; Ber., 1890, 23, 1176. 

' Morgan, Brit. Assoc. Rej)., 1902, 181. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 179 

Werner hypothesis, which has predicted and accounted for all the cases of 
isomerism of this kind hitherto observed. The absence of isomerides in 
some cases in which they were expected — for instance, the oximes of 
aliphatic aldehydes and ketones — is not to be regarded as a serious objection, 
since one of the compounds may be so unstable as to be almost immediately 
transformed into the more stable isomeride, or again, in such cases as the 
azo compounds, either a suitable method for preparing the isomeride may 
not be known, or the compound may not be reactive enough to undergo 
transformation by any of the methods available. 

II. QUINQUEVALENT NlTROGEN COMPOUNDS. 

Attention was first drawn to the ammonium compounds with reference 
to the discussion whether valency was fixed or variable, and from 1816 
onwards a lively controversy waged between chemists who maintained 
that ammonium chloride was a molecular compound, and those who held 
the view that it was an atomic compound in which nitrogen was quin- 
quevalent. 

Experiments made by V. Meyer and Lecco l showed that the union of 
trimethylamine with ethyl iodide on the one hand, and of ethyl-dimethyl- 
amine with methyl iodide on the other, gave rise to the same product ; 
after an objection raised by Lossen 2 had been answered 3 this was 
regarded as strong evidence in favour of the atomic nature of these 
compounds. Had the results of these experiments been different an 
erroneous conclusion would have been arrived at. At present the doc- 
trine of variable valency is accepted by most chemists, and ammonium 

H \ 

chloride is usually represented as H— x/N — CI with a quinquevalent nitro- 

h/ 

H 

gen atom attached to four atoms of hydrogen and one of chlorine. 

(i) The Formation of Substituted Ammonium Compounds. 

The rate of formation of substituted ammonium compounds from 
amines and alkyl halogen compounds varies to a very great extent, and is 
found to depend both on the alkyl groups in the amine and on that in the 
halogen compound. Much work has already been carried out on this sub- 
ject, and much more will have to be done before one can hope to under- 
stand the reactions. Thus Menschutkin 4 investigated the velocity of the 
reaction between a very large number of alkyl halogen compounds and 
amines ; no general conclusions can be drawn from this work, the amines 
being divided into three classes, according as the maximum rate of 
formation occurs (1) for the salt of the tertiary amine, (2) for the salt of 
the secondary amine, or (3) for the quaternary ammonium salt. 

In all cases iodides reacted about seven times more rapidly than 
bromides, and these about a hundred times faster than chlorides. 

It frequently happens that the same compound is formed quite rapidly 
in one way, and quite slowly or not at all in another way. 5 

1 Ber., 1874, 7, 1747 ; 8, 233, 936 ; Annalen, 1876, 180, 170. 

2 Ber., 1875, 8, 49. 3 Ber., 1877, 10, 303. 

4 Zeit.phys. Client., 1895, 17, 191. 

5 Cf. also Proc. Chem. Soo., 1901, 17, 205. 

N2 



180 REPORT— 1904. 

Wedekind ' compared the rate of formation of quaternary compounds 
from dimethylaniline and similar tertiary amines and various alkyl iodides. 
In all cases methyl, benzyl, and allyl iodides react much more rapidly than 
any others ; the order of their rapidity, however, depends on the amine 
used. 

This kind of effect is often attributed to ' stereochemical obstruction ' 
or ' space filling,' in the same way as the phenomena observed in the 
esterification of diortho substituted benzoic acids by V. Meyer. There is 
certainly an effect of this sort. Thus, for example, tribenzylamine, 
(C 7 H 7 ) 3 ISr, is capable of reacting with methyl iodide ; dibenzyl aniline (C 6 H 5 ) 
(C 6 H 5 CH 2 )N is not ; and triphenylamine will not even react with hydro- 
chloric acid. Again, the halides of normal alkyl groups invariably react 
more rapidly than those of the corresponding iso groups. All the facts 
cannot, however, be accounted for in this way. On such a view iodides 
should react less rapidly than chlorides. Also Menschutkin 2 finds that, 
whereas substitution of an alkyl group in the a position in pyridine, 
piperidine, or quinoline diminishes the velocity of reaction with alkyl 
bromides, the introduction of the same group in the j3 or y position 
increases the velocity. 

Much more work of a systematic kind is needed before any general 
conclusions on the subject can be drawn ; all that we can at present say 
is that the rate of formation of an ammonium compound depends both on 
the alkyl radicals already present in the amine, and also on that which is 
to be added on to it. 

(ii) Compounds of the Type N« 3 6X. 

The first experiments made on compounds having three radicals 
identical and one different were those of Meyer and Lecco already 
mentioned : a very large number of similar experiments have failed to 
produce isomerides of this type. 

Le Bel 3 found that the chloroplatinate of benzyl-triethylammonium 
hydroxide was the same whether produced from triethylamine and benzyl 
chloride or from benzyl-diethylamine and ethyl iodide, and similarly with 
that of trimethyl-propyl ammonium hydroxide or tripropylmethyl- ammo- 
nium hydroxide, whereas that of trimethyl •iso-butylammonium hydroxide 
was found to exist in two different crystalline modifications, the one 
being anisotropic needles which readily changed into octahedra ; the 
chloride of the same base also exhibits differences of a similar kind. 
Similar differences were observed by Le Bel 4 in the chloroplatinate of 
dimethylamine, and by Arzruni and others 5 in ethylamine hydrochloride, 
tetramethyl ammonium chloride, ru-xylidine hydrochloride, tropidine 
chloroplatinate, and several other similar salts. Although the evidence is 
insufficient to show that these differences are not due to isomerism, it is 
highly probable that they are merely due to dimorphism. 

Messrs. Schry ver and Collie 6 found that only one chloroplatinate of 
trimethyl-ethyl ammonium hydroxide, dimethyl diethyl ammonium hydrox- 
ide, and methyl-triethyl ammonium hydroxide could be prepared. 

1 Stereochemie desfiinf. Stichstoffes, 1899, 18. 

2 Jour, russ.phys. Chem. Ges., 1902, 34, 411. 

3 Compt. rend., 1890, 110, 145 ; 1891, 112, 725 ; Bull. Soc. Chem., 1890 [3], 4, 104. 

4 Compt. rend., 1893, 116, 513. 

5 Cf. Lehmann, Molecular Physih, vol. i. pp. 177, 539, 599 ; Zeit. Kryst., vol. iii. 
p. 216. 6 -Proc. Chem. Soc., 1891, vii. 39. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 181 

Professor Kipping observed a particularly interesting kind of isomerism 
among compounds of this type in which b and X both contain an asym- 
metric carbon atom. 1 This isomerism has now been very fully investigated 
in an admirable way by himself and his collaborators. 2 

Externally compensated (d. I) a-hydrindamine when treated with 
c?-brom-camphorsulphonic acid, with the corresponding chlor acid, 



CH p 



HC 



\/ \/ 



CH 
CH 



2 



H NH 2 

or with cis ■k camphanic acid, was found to give rise to unequal quantities 
of two salts called the a and j3 salts, the ft salt being that which is formed 
in smaller quantity. These salts differ in crystalline form, in amount of 
water of crystallisation, and often also in specific rotatory power ; these 
differences are not removed by recrystallisation from hot water, and both 
salts contain the inactive base. 

It is unnecessary to discuss the large mass of detailed work which has 
been done in the painstaking demonstration that only one explanation of 
this isomerism is possible : 3 a brief summary of the conclusions will suffice. 

It has been clearly shown that each of the two active hydrindamines, 
on combining with one of the above-mentioned acids, gives rise to two 
salts called ad and fid and al and ftl respectively, and that the original a 
salt obtained from the d-l base is a mixture of ad, and al in the form of a 
partially racemic compound, whereas the original ft salt consists of a 
mixture of the two ft salts or even of all four salts ; in this case it is 
called a partially diracemic compound. 

In some cases there is a striking similarity between the ad and ftd or 
the al and ftl salts respectively, which may be isodimorphous and not 
completely separable by crystallisation. The molecular rotatory powers 
of the ft series of salts in aqueous solution are frequently abnormal, which 
may be due to incomplete electrolytic dissociation or to activity of the 
nitrogen atom (see page 190). 

Evidence of a similar kind as to the existence of isomerides has 
been obtained for the brom-camphorsulphonates of benzylhydrindamine, 4 
methylhydrindamine, 5 and ^-menthylamine, 6 and for the chlor-camphor- 
sulphonate of d and I methylhydrindamines, 7 although in these cases it 
seems impracticable to isolate the salts free from their isomerides. 

The mandelates, tartrates, camphor-vr sulphonates, and camphor-a 
sulphonates (Reychler) of these bases do not exhibit the same phenomena : 
these salts appear to be homogeneous. This isomerism, though extremely 
important from a theoretical point of view, appears not to be of general 
occurrence. 

1 Tram. Chem. Soc, 1900, 77, 861. 

- Trans. Chem. Soc, 1903, 83, 873, 889, 902. 

3 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1903, 83, 937, 1147. 

4 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1901, 79, 430. 5 1903, 83, 918. 

■ 1904, 85, 65. » Tattersall, 1904, 85. 169 



182 



REPORT — 1904. 



(iii) Compounds of the ty^e Na. 2 bc X. 

Messrs. Schryver and Collie l prepared the chloroplatinate of methyl- 
diethyl-isoamylammonium hydroxide from the iodides formed in the three 
possible ways, and found that when the processes were carried out in the 
cold, two crystalline modifications were obtained, an oblique and a pris- 
matic, the former of which was unstable and readily passed into the 
latter. This difference might easily be due to dimorphism, as in the case 
of the compounds of the type Na 3 6 X. 

The writer * investigated the formation in two different ways of a 
number of compounds with two identical radicals, and found that even 
when the reaction was carried out in the cold, the products obtained were 
in all cases the same. In a few instances the crude compounds differed 
to a slight extent, and one might even be gummy while the other was 
deposited in a crystalline state ; these differences always disappeared 
when the substances separated from solutions. The rf-camphor sulphonates 
prepared from both products were the same. 

All attempts to get isomeric piperidinium salts have also been unsuc- 
cessful. Thus Menschutkin 3 found that ethyl-allyl-piperidinium iodide 
produced in the two possible ways was the same and so also was the 
chloroplatinate. Miss de Brereton Evans 4 obtained only one form of 
ethyl-propyl-piperidinium iodide, the crystals of which, however, showed 
enantiomorphism, and Wedekind s obtained only one form of benzyl- 
piperidinium iodide, methyl- and ethyl-acetates, and the corresponding 
bromides 

Aschan 6 has investigated dipiperidinium derivatives, and though he 
obtained only one form of N.N. ethylene dipiperidinium dimethyl diiodide 
and the corresponding dibenzyl dichloride, found that two isomerides of 
ethylene-propylene dipiperidinium dibromide and of ethylene-trimethylene 
dipiperidinium dibromide and diiodide 7 seem to exist. 

The first of these compounds contains an asymmetric carbon atom : 



CH, CH, 



CH 2 / 



:N 



/ 



CH 9 -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 



CH 2 CH.) C H- 



\ 

/ 
-CH 2 



N; 



X 



CH., 



Br CH, 



CHo CH, 



whereas the others do not : 
CH 2 CHo 



CH, 



Br 
-CH, CH., CHo 



CH 



2 \ 



■N 



N< 



CH 2 CHo 



\ / 

CHo — CHo — CH., 



Br 



/ 



CH, 



CHo CH, 



Br 



1 Proc. Chem. Soc, 1891, vii. 39. 

2 Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, 1901, 11, 111 ; Trans. Chem. Soc, 1903, 83, 1400. 



s Zeit.phys. Chem., 1895, 17, 228; Ber., 1895, 28, 404. 

4 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1897, 71, 522. 

8 Be',., 1899, 32, 988; Zeit.phys. Chem., 1903, 46, 304. 



5 Stereochemie, 58. 
7 Loc cit., 306. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 183 

So far only a brief statement concerning these compounds has been 
made, and no full description of their properties or crystalline form has been 
given. The isomeric bromides differ in solubility in dilute alcohol (54 and 
8-2) ; the iodides in solubility in water and also in their temperature of 
decomposition. 

With the exception of these compounds described by Aschan, which, 
as will be seen later, must show isomerism, whatever view of their con- 
figuration and mode of formation be adopted, no compounds of the type 
under discussion have been shown to exist in isomeric forms, and it may 
therefore be concluded that under normal conditions stable isomerides 
cannot exist, the limit of ' space-filling ' having been very nearly reached 
in some of the compounds used by the writer. 

(iv) Compounds of the type N a b c d X. 

No systematic efforts had been made to obtain isomerides of com- 
pounds of the above type before Wedekind's experiments were undertaken. 
Wedekind argued, from the experiments of Messrs. Schryver and Collie and 
others, that the groups in ammonium compounds were mobile, and that 
therefore isomerism could only exist when heavy groups were used and 
when the limit of ' space-filling ' had nearly been reached. 

The formation of phenyl-ethyl-methyl-allyl ammonium iodide in the 
three possible ways, 1 namely (a) combination of methyl-ethyl aniline and 
ally] iodide, (b) allyl-ethyl aniline and methyl iodide, and (c) allyl-methyl 
aniline and ethyl iodide, showed that only one product was obtained, 
though in the first case the compound was at once deposited in a 
crystalline state ; whereas the other two combinations gave an amorphous 
product which readily became crystalline on rubbing or on separating it 
from solution. Similar phenomena were observed by the writer in the 
formation of phenyl-benzyl-ethyl-methyl ammonium iodide. 2 The union of 
benzyl iodide with ethyl-methyl aniline took place very readily and 
yielded a gummy solid which, on separating from solution, became crystal- 
line and identical with that obtained by the addition of methyl iodide, 
or of ethyl iodide to the corresponding tertiary amines, which was 
crystalline from the first. 

The phenomena observed by "Wedekind in the phenyl-benzyl-allyl- 
methyl ammonium salts 3 are, however, of quite a different kind. This 
compound was prepared by the union of (a) allyl iodide and methyl-benzyl 
aniline, (6) methyl iodide and benzyl-allyl aniline, and (c) benzyl iodide 
and methyl-allyl aniline. Combinations (a) and (c) take place readily and 
give rise to the same product, the a compound, which crystallises in the 
prismatic system, melts at 140-142° C, and distils partly unchanged 
under reduced pressure. Combination (b) takes place very slowly and 
gives an oily product which is induced to crystallise only with great diffi- 
culty and yields a very small quantity of a crystalline solid, the ft com- 
pound. This compound crystallises in a different form (also of the 
prismatic system), melts at 158-159° C, and distils unchanged under 
reduced pressure without melting. The a and ft compounds could not be 
transformed one into the other. 

Isomeric a and ft chlorides and bromides were also prepared, which 

1 Stereochemie, 53 ; Ber., 1903, 36, 3791. 

2 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1904, 85, 224. 

s Stereochemie, 33-52 ; Ber., 1899, 32, 517, 3561 



184 REPORT — 1904. 

differed in a similar way to the a and ft iodides. Hantzsch and Horn l 
prepared the a and ft iodides and made experiments to exclude the possi- 
bility of structural differences. Both iodides react as unsaturated bodies 
toward alkaline permanganate, and on oxidation give formic acid, which 
facts show that both are allyl compounds. 

The writer has compared the properties of the ft compound with those 
of phenyl-methyl-benzyl-propyl and isopropyl ammonium iodides, and found 
that it differs from both in melting-point and crystalline form, though in the 
latter particular it has a slight resemblance to the isopropyl compound. 

No other case of a similar kind has been found, though Wedekind was 
deceived by abnormal reactions into thinking that there were isomerides 
of some other compounds. Thus the addition of allyl bromide to benzyl 
isobutyl-N-methyl-acetate and of methyl-brom -acetate to benzyl-allyl- 
isobutylamine gave rise to different products, the latter of which was 
subsequently found to be a mixture. 

Methyl-allyl-tetrahydroquinolinium iodide 2 prepared in two ways was 
the same, and so with ethyl-benzyl-isotetrahydroquinolinium iodide. 3 

The tetrahydroquinolinium derivatives produced by the addition of 
methyl iodide and of methyl- and ethyl-iodo-acetates to the corresponding 
tertiary tetrahydroquinoline compounds and which were at first thought 
to be isomeric 4 were afterwards s found not to have the same composition. 
Methyl tetrahydroquinolinium N-methyl- and ethyl-acetate iodides were 
produced by the first method, but the second gave a mixture of these with 
kairolin hydriodide. 

A similar tetrahydroisoquinoline compound was obtained in one form 
only. 6 

Wedekind has also studied the formation of compounds in which two 
asymmetric nitrogen atoms are present. 7 Ethylene dikairolinium di- 
iodide was prepared in two ways and found to be the same ; ethylene 
ditetrahydroquinolinium di-ethyl-acetate di-iodide, however, appears to be 
different when prepared in the two possible ways ; the specimen formed by 
the addition of iodo-acetic ester melts at 164-165° C, whereas that formed 
by the addition of ethylene di-iodide melts at 50° C, with elimination of 
one molecule of iodo-acetic ester. The analyses of these compounds are, 
however, insufficient to prove identity, and it is possible that one of them 
is a mixture. 

Wedekind examined the stable compound to ascertain if it was homo- 
geneous, and decided that it was. Hence, the analogy between asymme- 
tric nitrogen and carbon does not seem to hold here — namely, that, when 
two asymmetric atoms are produced, all four possible compounds should 
also be produced and combine in pairs to give externally compensated 
compounds separable by crystallisation. 

(v) Optical Activity of Substituted Ammonium Compounds. 

It was expected from analogy with carbon compounds that quinque- 
valent nitrogen compounds, N ah cd X, would exist in optically active forms, 
and repeated attempts were made to prepare such compounds before 
definite success was attained. 

Le Bel 8 submitted dilute aqueous solution of various salts of the type, 

1 Ber., 1900, 35, 883. 2 Stereochemie, 75 ; loc. cit., 63. 

3 Ber., 1901, 34, 3986 « Stereochemie, 66. 5 Ber., 1902, 35, 178. 

6 Ber., 1903, 36, 1158. ' Ber., 1903, 36, 1165, 3796. 9 8 Compt. rend., 112. 724. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 185 

Na 2 b c X, and also two of the type, N a be d X — namely, methyl-ethyl- 
propylamine hydrochloride, and methyl-ethyl-propyl-isobutyl ammonium 
chloride — to the action of Penicillium ylaucum. In the last case only the 
solution acquired a small but fugitive rotatory power of 0-4°-O5° ; the 
absence of activity in the other case was attributed to mobility of groups. 

This result has been contradicted by Marckwald and Droste-Huelsdoff, 1 
but reaffirmed by Le Bel, with the addition of further details. 2 

Wedekind 3 made several unsuccessful attempts to resolve the a phenyl - 
benzyl-allyl-methyl ammonium iodide, which was successfully resolved by 
Messrs. Pope and Peachey 4 by crystallising the camphorsulphonate from 
non-hydroxylic solvents (acetone and ethyl acetate). The active com- 
pounds were then more fully investigated by Messrs. Pope and Harvey. 5 
The c?-camphorsulphonate of the cZ-base had the molecular rotatory power 
r M] D =218° in dilute aqueous solution, the corresponding l-l salt had 
M] D = —211° and the iodides had [M] D about ±200° in chloroform. 

The writer 6 also succeeded in resolving phenyl-benzyl-ethyl-methyl 
ammonium iodide in a similar way. The d-d and l-l camphorsulphonates 
had [M] = ±71°. The difference between the values of [M] D for the 
basic ions in these two cases, namely 160° (approximately), and 19"5° caused 
by the replacement of the allyl by the ethyl radical, is remarkable. 

A number of other active compounds are now being examined by 
Miss M. B. Thomas and the writer with a view of investigating: the effect 
of substitution on the rotatory power. In the series containing the radicals 
phenyl, benzyl and methyl with propyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, and isoamyl the 
rotatory power appears to increase with the molecular weight of the last- 
mentioned radical, and in the last case far exceeds that of the allyl 
compound. 

That the resolution of ammonium compounds does not always take 
place so readily as in the first case examined is evident from the writer's 
experiments, 7 and the unsuccessful attempts of Wedekind 8 to resolve 
^j-tolyl-benzyl-allyl-methyl ammonium c/-camphorsulphonate, a salt very 
similar to that first resolved. 

So far no cyclic ammonium compounds have been resolved, though 
both a and /3 substituted pyridinium and piperidinium derivatives, and 
tetrahydroquinolinium compounds should be capable of giving rise to optical 
activity. 9 

All attempts to obtain optically active compounds of the type lsa. : b c X 
have also been unsuccessful. Thus the writer ° examined a number of such 
compounds, Messrs. Kipping and Barrowcliff u examined some piperidinium 
compounds, and Aschan 12 tried to resolve the N-N ethylene-trim ethylene 
dipiperidiniutn compounds, though not in an entirely satisfactory way, but 
in no case was there any indication of activity. It is probable that all such 
compounds are planisymmetric, and therefore incapable of giving rise to 
optical activity. 

I Ber., 1899, 32, 560. 2 Compt. rend., 129, 548. 

3 Stereochemie, 82. * Trans. Chem. Soc, 1899, 75, 1127. 

5 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1901, 79, 828. 

6 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1903, 83, 1418 ; 1904, 85, 223. 

7 Loc cit., 1405. 

8 Zeit.phys. Chem., 1903, 45, 235. 

9 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1903, 83, 1415. 

10 Loc. cit., 1903, 83, 1406. Cp. also Harvey, Trans. Chem. Soc, 1901, 85, 412. 

II Loc. cit., 1903, 83, 1141. '- Loc. cit. 



186 REPORT— 1904. 

(vi) Compounds containing Asymmetric Carbon and Nitrogen Atoms. 

The examination of these compounds was undertaken with a view of 
establishing another analogy between asymmetric carbon and nitrogen 
atoms, and it has been shown ' that when an active tertiary amine (methyl 
£-amyl aniline) combines with an alkyl iodide (allyl or benzyl iodide), 
unequal quantities of the two possible compounds are produced as anti- 
cipated if the nitrogen behaved like a carbon atom. 

The two compounds formed with benzyl iodide differ somewhat in 
their solubility, but not enough to make a complete separation by 
crystallisation feasible : this can be effected by means of the cainphor- 
sulphonates. One of the iodides is dextro- and the other is lsevo-rotatory ; 
a solution of either in chloroform in the cold or in alcohol on warming 
becomes converted into the other until a state of equilibrium is reached, 
the change from one isomeride to the other being effected by the splitting 
up of the salt into benzyl iodide and amine, which then recombine, as in 
the racemisation of active nitrogen compounds in chloroform solution. 

(vii) The Configuration of Quinquevalent Nitrogen Compotmds. 

(a) A fixed Configuration necessary. — The foregoing results demand a 
stable configuration for the molecule of ammonium compounds, in which 
the nitrogen atom is quinquevalent, and is attached to five univalent 
atoms or groups. 

Werner - still adheres to a modification of the old ' molecular compound 
hypothesis ' to account for the ammonium compounds, and regards the 
existence of isomerism and optical activity as an objection to the view 
generally accepted. Dr. J. C. Cain 3 takes the same point of view, 
regards the stability of the ammonium compounds towards alkalies as a 
further objection, and proposes a new hypothesis in which ammonium 
chloride is represented as H 3 N=C1 — H. Two of the numerous important 
objections to this view may be mentioned : first, there is not enough 
evidence to show that compounds with the structure usually assigned to 
ammonium salts would not be stable, and still less for concluding that 
tervalent halogen derivatives would be stable ; and, secondly, the 
formula? proposed to account for the isomeric hydrindamine salts — 
namely, a 3 N=X — b and « 2 ^N=X— a — do not account for the mode of 
formation of these salts, and the formula? proposed for active nitrogen 
compounds — namely, 6cc?N=X — a — and acdN=X — 6 — are not optical 
antimers, and could not by a single process be produced together in equal 
quantities. 

Five points cannot be arranged symmetrically around one point so as 
to be interequivalent ; hence either one or two of the valencies of nitrogen 
must be different from the others : this conclusion finds expression in all 
the configurations proposed, and is supported by the facts. It has been 
found impossible to prepare a quinquevalent nitrogen compound contain- 
ing no electro-negative radical nor one containing more than two such 
radicals. 4 

(6) The ' Cubic Configuration.'- — The first configuration proposed was 

1 Jones, Pruc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 1904, xii. 466. 

2 Annalen, 1902, 322, 261. 

3 Memoirs of the Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., 1904, 48, No. 14. 

4 Lachmann, American Chem. Joum., 1896, 18, 372. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 



187 



the 'cubic' one suggested by van't Hoft' in 1878, 1 in which the nitrogen 
atom is supposed to be at the centre of a cube and the five groups at five 
corners, thus : 

Fig. 1. 
I 




The disposition of the valencies would have to be altered to meet the 
requirements of recent experiments. 

The number of isomerides required by this configuration is usually 
larger than by some of the others on account of the lower degree of 
symmetry which it possesses, and, since it has no special advantages, little 
use has been made of it. 

(c) The ' Double Tetrahedron ' Configuration. — The next configuration 
which was proposed is usually called the ' double tetrahedron ' configuration 
and associated with the name of Willgerodt. 2 According to this view it 
is assumed that the two new groups are attached at right angles to the 
plane of the three already present, thus giving rise to an arrangement like a 
double tetrahedron. This arrangement has the highest degree of symmetry 




of any ; it requires the existence of (1) two isomerides of the type Na 3 5X — 
namely, those in which a and b respectively occupy one apex while X 
occupies the other ; (2) three isomerides of the type Na 2 6cX, one of 
which should exist in optical antimers ; and (3) four isomerides of the 
type ~£sabcdX, all of which should exist in optically active forms. 



Ansichten iiber Org. Chem., i. 80. 



Joum.prakt. Chem., 1890, 41, 291. 



188 REPORT— 1904. 

(d) TJie ' Pyramidal ' Configuration. — Behrend ' discussed other 
possible arrangements of the five groups, and Bischoff 2 proposed the 
' pyramidal ' configuration in which the five groups are supposed to be 
situated at the angular points of a pyramid on a square base, the acidic 
radical occupying the apex thus : 




Considering this arrangement as originally suggested we should expect 
(1) no isomerides of the type N« 3 6X ; (2) two isomerides of the type 
Na 2 6cX, one of which would be capable of existing in enantiomorphously 
related forms ; and (3) three isomerides of the type NabcdX, all of which 
should be capable of existing in optically active forms. 

It is evident, however, that this view must be modified somewhat, 
for, since it does not represent the three groups in tervalent nitrogen 
compounds in one plane, there are three possibilities : (a) a change of 
valency direction occurs ; (b) the acidic radical does not occupy the apex 
(this assumption increases the number of possible isomerides very con- 
siderably) ; (c) an interchange of position between two groups occurs 
during the change of valency. 

It is desirable to avoid the first assumption, if possible ; the last two 
have been made by Professor Kipping to account for the isomerism of the 
hydrindamine salts, and will be discussed in detail. 

(e) Only the Pyramidal Configuration accounts for the Facts. — To 
decide between these various views we have the following facts which 
must be accounted for : 

(1) The existence of stable, optically active compounds. 

(2) The existence of the isomeric hydrindamine salts. 

(3) The existence of isomerides of the type Na 2 bcX. only in the case 
recorded by Aschan, and the optical inactivity of all these compounds. 

All the views account for (1), but the 'double tetrahedron' configura- 
tion does not account for (2), since both the new groups introduced during 
the change of valency are situated in the same plane symmetrically with 
reference to the existing groups, and are interchangeable by rotation. 3 

1 Ber., 1890, 23, 454. 2 Ber., 1890, 23, 1972. 

8 See Tram. Chem. Soc, 83, 949. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 



189 



This configuration may therefore be left out of consideration, and since 
the 'cubic' has no advantages and some disadvantages, we shall confine 
ourselves to the ' pyramidal,' which may conventionally be represented as 
a plane projection. 

Fig. 4. 




The way in which this configuration can be made to account for 
(2) and (3) has already been discussed. 1 The argument, therefore, need 
only be briefly stated. 

In order to account for the existence of isomeric hyd rind amine salts 
it is necessary to make one of two assumptions (6) or (c) (above) as to the 
manner in which the two new radicals, H and X, are attached to the 
amine, all three groups in the latter being in one plane with the nitrogen 
atom. 

First H and X may be placed at the two unoccupied positions at the 
base of the pyramid, the asymmetric group (a) being also at the base 
(since if it occupy the apex no isomerism arises) ; the two salts would be 
thus represented : 



Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 




and 



This assumption requires that the compound produced by the com 
bination of aX. and NaJc should have one of the configurations, 




Fig. 7. 



Fig. 8. 




or 




which are enantiomorphously related and should be optically active. 
This expectation cannot be experimentally realised. 

1 Trans. C/iem. Soc, 83, 1404. 



190 



REPORT — 1904. 



Secondly, it is assumed that, addition having taken place as before, 
the radical X then changes its position with the hydrogen atom at the 
apex of the pyramid, thus giving rise to a compound with the con- 



Fig. 9. 




figuration (fig. 9) which would be one of the isomerides, while the untrans- 
formed addition product would be the other (fig. 5 or 6). 

On this view one isomeride (the untransformed product) is devoid of 
a plane of symmetry, whereas the other is planisyrametric, one should 
therefore have an activity due to the nitrogen atom, and this might 
account for the abnormal rotatory power of the salts of the /? series. 

This view will account (a) for the existence of one isomeride of Na 2 6cX 
and its optical inactivity, since the original addition product (fig. 10) changes 



Fig. 10. 



Fig. 11. 





into a planisymmetric compound (fig. 11), and (6) for the inactivity of 
piperidinium compounds, which would be represented thus: 



Fig. 1 2. 



Fig. 13. 



CH 




CH- 



>CH, 



ch: 



- J CH; 




the plane of the piperidine ring being supposed perpendicular to the plane 
of the paper. 

A difficulty arises with regard to compounds of the type, NabcdX, 
since they can be represented as giving rise to isomerides or not, accord- 
ing to the position which the new radicals are supposed to take up with 
reference to those already present. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 



191 



Since, in general, no isomerism arises, the process probably takes 
place as follows : 

Fig. 14. 




(abcN + dX) {adcN + bX) 

giving rise to the same product. 

But in one case at least — namely, that of the a and ft phenyl-benzyl- 
allyl-methyl ammonium salts — different products are formed. It is true 
that the untransformed addition product might be expected to be an 
isomeride, as in the case of the hydrindamine salts, even in compounds of 
the type N« 3 6X and N« 2 6cX, and this may account for the labile amor- 
phous products observed by Wedekind and the writer in some instances. 
Such instances are, however, of quite a different oi'der to the stable 
isomerism of the a and ft phenyl-benzyl-allyl-methyl ammonium salts ; 
our knowledge is unfortunately insufficient to enable us to form any idea 
of the reason for the unique position of those salts, and the following 
suggestion as to their mode of production is simply tentative. Since 
they are both stable it is better to regard these both as transformed 
products which might arise thus : 

Fig. 15. 




(C 6 H 5 .C 7 H 7 .CH 3 .N + 3 H 6 I) (C 6 H 5 .C 3 H 3 .CH 3 N + C 7 H 7 I) 

The benzyl and allyl groups are regarded as the ones which inter 
change their positions with the iodine atom to form the a compound. 
The ft compound might arise thus : 

Fig. 16. 



CH, 



C 6 H 5 




C,H E 



CH 3 



C6 H 5 




C7H7 



(C 6 H 5 .C 7 H 7 .C 3 H 5 N + CH 3 I; 

The benzyl radical is regarded as more mobile than the allyl, "which is 
in accordance with observation. In all these cases the addition of the 



192 REPORT — 1904. 

alkyl and acidic radicals in both the possible positions gives rise to a 
mixture of optical antimers. 

The isomerism observed by Wedekind in the diquinolinium compounds 
if established by further work is readily accounted for, since it would be 
expected that mobility would be diminished in these cases. Two exter- 
nally compensated compounds ought to be produced, but since the pro- 
duct was apparently homogeneous, the two compounds must either be 
extremely similar or one of them must be formed in extremely small 
quantities, as in the case of the mannose cyanhydrins. 

The existence and properties of the isomeric ethylene-trimethylene 
dipiperidinium dibromides discovered by Aschan are readily accounted for 
by any one of the proposed configurations, though Aschan himself says : ' 
' Das von van't Hoff mit dem gewohnten Scharfsinn dieses Gelehrten 
vorgeschlagene Modell f ur den pentavalenten Stickstoff ist die einzige mir 
bekannte, welche die Existenz und Inaktivitat der beiden untersuchten 
Dipiperidid-Dibromide erklaren kann.' 

With the aid of the pyramidal configuration these isomerides would 
be represented thus : 

Fig. 17. 

Formed by the addition of trirnethylene dibromide to ethylene dipiperidide : 
C H 2 / \C H 2 



B 




CH 2 .-'' 

CH 2/ '' .''CH 2 

,'----'' CH 2 CH 2 
CM 2 

Fig. 18. 
Formed by the addition of ethylene dibromide to trimethylene dipiperidide : 

C& CH 2 

\^CH 2 CH 2 , vCH 2 CH ? .-i-.-/ 

CH 2 V HCH 2 7 \cH r - SCH Z 




CH 2 

Interchange of positions between the bromine atom and one of the 
chains forming the central ring is not possible without almost complete 
disintegration of the molecule, and is improbable for other reasons, so 
that each bromine atom occupies a position at the base of the pyramid. 

The planes of the piperidine rings are in each case represented as 
perpendicular to the plane of the paper ; each compound has thus a plane 
of symmetry in the plane of the paper and would be optically inactive. 

Hence, the ' pyramidal ' configuration of BischofT, with the assumptions 
made as to the mode of formation of ammonium compounds from amines, 

1 Loo. cit., 318. 



ON THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGEN. 193 

is capable of accounting for all the observed phenomena. There are, how- 
ever, a number of problems which still remain to be solved, notably, the 
investigation of the conditions which determine the stability of isomeric 
compounds such as the hydrindamine salts. 

Note. — Since the above was written Wedekind and Oberheide have 
studied the question of isomerism in the paratoluidine series. 1 p-tolyl- 
methyl-ethyl-allyl ammonium iodide was produced in two ways, and 
?>-tolyl-methyl-allyl-benzyl ammonium iodide was produced in three ways. 
In this case the stable isomerism observed in the corresponding phenyl 
compounds does not arise, and renders this still more difficult to under- 
stand. These compounds, too, have resisted all attempts to resolve them 
into their active constituents. 



Dynamic Isomerism. By T. M. Lowry, D.Sc. 
[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extcnso.~\ 

TAGE 

I. Introductory and Historical 193 

II. The Nature of Dynamic Isomerism 196 

III. Isomeric Changes in which Two Radicles are Interchanged . . . 200 

IV. Isomeric Changes in which a Single Mobile Radicle is Transferred . . 204 
V. Optical Inversion 211 

VI. Chemical Properties of Dynamic Isomerides 214 

VII. Physical Properties of Dynamic Isomerides 216 

VIII. Reversible Polymeric Change 223 

I. Introductory and Historical. 

Berzelius. — Almost simultaneously with the discovery of isomerism 
the fact was recognised that isomeric compounds were sometimes capable 
of being converted into one another : in fact Berzelius, who in 1831 had 
introduced the term isomeric to express the relationship between tartaric 
and racemic acids, found it necessary in the following year to introduce 
the term metameric in order to distinguish those isomerides which differed 
in type and were on that account easily convertible into one another. 2 
Berzelius' conception of metameric compounds is very similar to that 
which forms the subject of the present report, which deals with the phe- 
nomena of dynamic isomerism or equilibrium beticeen isomers. 

Liebig and Wohler. — Of the two examples quoted by Berzelius, one 
(the isomerism of stannous sulphate, SnS0 4 , and basic stannic sulphite, 
SnOS0 3 ) has not been realised, and the other (the supposed isomerism 
of cyanic and cyanuric acids) has proved to be an example of reversible 
polymeric change. The conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea, 
discovered by Liebig and Wohler in 1828, is the earliest example of the 
type pictured by Berzelius. It is of interest to note that the first organic 
synthesis was effected with the aid of the first isomeric change. 

Butleroiv. — Little progress was made in the study of dynamic 
isomerism until the doctrine of valency rendered possible the modern 
development of structural chemistry. In the modern period the first and 
most important contribution to the theory of dynamic isomerism is to be 

1 Ber., 1904, 37, 2712. 

-' Full quotations are given in Trofessor Armstrong's article on ' I oiierism,' 
Morley and Muir's edition of Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry. 

1904. o 



194 REPORT — 1904. 

found in Butlerow's paper ' Ueber Isodibutylen,' ? a paper which is 
remarkable in that it anticipated by a quarter of a century the views that 
are generally held at the present day. Butlerow's experiments showed 
that in presence of sulphuric acid equilibrium is established between the 
two defines and the two isomeric alcohols formulated below, so that on 
oxidising with chromic acid products were obtained characteristic of each 
of these four substances : — 

CH 3 CH,.OH CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 



<-A 



\ / \ // \ / \ / 

CH C C(OH) C 

| ^H 2 0+| % | £H 2 0+|| 

CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 

I I I I- 

CMe 3 CMe 3 CMe 3 CMe 3 

In no previous case had the existence of a reversible isomeric change been 
demonstrated, and Butlerow fully realised the importance of his discovery. 
At the end of his paper he suggested that a similar equilibrium between 
isomers might exist even in the absence of any special catalytic agent and 
that this would account for the formation of isomeric ethers from prussic acid 

C 2 H 5 .C : N <- H.C : N ^ HN : C : -* C 2 H 5 .N : C : 

ethyl cyanide prussic acid ethyl isocyanide 

and for a number of other abnormal changes. 

Subsequent investigations have fully demonstrated the correctness of 
Butlerow's theory since reversible isomeric changes have been found to 
be of frequent occurrence, especially amongst the ketones and nitro- 
compounds. 

Isomeric change not spontaneous. — The only important modification of 
Butlerow's theory that has taken place depends on the proof that has 
recently been given 2 that even the most easily convertible compounds 
do not change spontaneously but that in all cases a catalytic agent is 
necessary for the establishment of equilibrium. The necessity for a 
third substance in order to bring about chemical change has been per- 
sistently advocated by Armstrong and has been demonstrated experi- 
mentally by Dixon, Baker and others in the combustion of carbon 
monoxide and phosphorus, and in the union of hydrogen with oxygen 
and with chlorine. Baker has further demonstrated the remarkable fact 
that moisture is necessary not only for the (apparently direct) union of 
ammonia and hydrogen chloride, but also fur the dissociation of ammonium 
chloride, which cannot be decomposed by heat alone. Recent observations 
have extended the proof to the reversible isomeric change of nitro- 
camphor and /3-bromonitrocamphor and it has been found that even the 
transference of a mobile hydrogen atom cannot take place within the 
molecule, but is dependent on the formation of a complex molecular circuit. 
It is therefore impossible to maintain any longer a distinction between 
those isomerides which are only convertible in presence of a specially 
added catalytic agent and those which find in the ordinary dirt of the 
laboratory the catalytic agent that they need and which therefore appear 
to change spontaneously. 

1 Ann, 1877, 189, 44. 2 Lowry, Trans. 1899, 75, 219. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 195 

Abnormal Chemical Changes explained by Butleroiv's Theory. — Simul- 
taneously with the development of the theory of dynamic isomerism a 
large number of observations were being made which have only found a 
satisfactory explanation in the fully developed theory. The formation 
of two series of ethers from prussic acid was explained by Butlerow 
in 1877. Baeyer in 1883 was able in a similar manner to account for 

CO CO 

.... / X / \ 

the existence of isomeric ethers C 6 H 4 CO and C 6 H 4 C.OEt 

V / \ / 

NEt N 

of isatin by supposing that one of them was derived from a labile pseudo- 
isatin which was converted into ordinary isatin whenever attempts were 
made to prepare it : — 

CO CO 

/ \ — / \ 

C 6 H 4 CO or C fi H> COH 

\ / — \ • 

NH N 

In the same way it is easy to account for the apparent identity of nitroso- 
phenol and quinoneoxime by supposing that one of these compounds 
undergoes isomeric change in the course of preparation : 

ON.C 6 H 4 .OH or"* HO.N : C 6 H 4 : O. 

< — 

Laar's Theory. — In his paper, ' Ueber die Moglichkeit mehrerer Struk- 
turformeln fur dasselbe chemische Verbindung,' Laar, in 1885, rendered 
an important service by calling attention to the existence of a large 
number of facts of this kind. Unfortunately he rejected the explanation 
given above and put forward in its place his theory of tautomerism. 
According to this theory the product obtained by the action of nitrous 
acid on phenol, or of hydroxylamine on quinone, has actually not one but 
both of the alternative constitutions formulated above, the hydrogen atom 
oscillating between the two positions indicated in the formula 

> 0C CH CH CN0 *- 
H ' 



s 



in a manner comparable with the vibrations that give rise to light. The 
incorrectness of Laar's theory was proved when, in 1895 and the years 
immediately following, it was found that the isomeric forms of several 
ketones and nitro- compounds could be isolated in the solid state and were 
only slowly converted into one another. The necessity for a catalytic 
agent has also shown that the oscillation of the hydrogen atom is not an 
intramolecular process but, like other chemical changes, can only take 
place within a complex molecular circuit. The distinction between the 
two theories is of importance at the present time, because it is not 
inconceivable that tautomerism may actually exist as an intramolecular 
phenomenon, though all the cases to whicli the term has hitherto been 
applied'appear to be examples of dynamic isomerism. 

02 



19G REPORT — 1904. 

Physical Phenomena explained by Butlerow's Theory. — In addition to 
affording an explanation of many puzzling chemical changes the theory of 
dynamic isomerism has proved exceptionally fertile when applied to 
physical phenomena. Thus the gradual change of rotatory power which 
takes place in freshly prepared solutions of many of the sugars was 
observed as long ago as 1846 but has only recently been shown to be due 
to the establishment of equilibrium between isomeric forms of the sugar. 
The formation of violet salts from colourless violuric acid, of red and 
yellow salts from colourless ^-nitrophenol and of highly dextro-rotatory 
salts from laevo- rotatory nitrocamphor are due to similar changes or 
structure. Again there is good reason to suppose that many of the 
phenomena of luminosity are dependent on reversible isomeric change or 
on the analogous reversible changes involved in association and dissociation. 
This is almost certainly true of the fluorescence and phosphorescence or 
organic compounds and there is reason to think that the flash of light 
emitted when crystals of sugar or saccharin are crushed is also a mani- 
festation of isomeric change. 1 

The bearing of Dynamic Isomerism on Chemical and Physiological 
Changes. — The mere presence of the mechanism necessary for dynamic 
isomerism appears to facilitate chemical change and in many cases it is 
probably an essential factor. Thus Lapworth has recently shown 2 that 
the bromination of acetone is dependent on the presence of a minute 
amount of the enolic form, the ketone itself being apparently unacted on 
by the halogen. A similar explanation may be given of the great activity 
of phenol and aniline as compared with benzene and of the inhibiting 
influence of ortho- substitution. In this connection it is of interest to note 
that the most important natural organic materials, such as the sugars 
and the albuminoids, are very rich in those plastic groups which most 
frequently give rise to dynamic isomerism and to this fact their great 
activity may at least in part be attributed. 

II. The Nature oj Dynamic Isomerism. 

1. Definition. — Under the heading of dynamic isomerism are included 
all those cases in which it is possible to establish a condition of equilibrium 
between isomers. It may also be defined as a condition of reversible 
isomeric change. 3 But if this definition is used it must be remembered that 
reversal is largely a matter of conditions and that all isomeric changes 
are probably accompanied by a certain amount of back-action, even though 
this may be too small to be detected by the methods commonly used. 

2. Equilibrium between Isomers is only possible in presence of a 
third substance. — Proof of this was first obtained in the case of nitro- 
camphor, 4 solutions of which in chloroform could sometimes be kept for 
two or three weeks without undergoing change, although usually sufficient 
impurity was present in the solution to bring about equilibrium between 
the normal and pseudo forms in the course of a single week. 

/CH.N0 2 7 C : N0 2 H 

[82 %] C 10 H/ I Z C 10 H / | [18 %] 

x co x co 

Normal nitrocamphor Pse«do-r;itrocamphor 

1 Armstrong and Lowry, Proc. Boy. Soc. 1903, 72, 25S. 

- Tram. Chem. Soc. 190i, 85, 30. 3 Lowry, Trans. 1S99, 75, 23."). 

4 Lowry, ibid. p. 220. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 197 

.Similar observations have been made by Forster, 1 who found that a 
solution in chloroform of enolic o-benzoylcamphor could be 'preserved in 
darkness during twelve hours, exposed to bright sunlight during two 
hours and even sown with a crystal of the ketonic isomeride ' without 
undergoing change ; usually, however, six days were sufficient to bring 
about the condition of equilibrium indicated in the equation 

/ CH.CO.C G H 3 / C.CO.C G H 5 

[39 %] C 10 H M / | 2 C 1U H / I] [Gl %]. 

More recently it has been found possible to prepare solutions in benzene 
containing a mixture of normal and pseudo /3-bromonitrocamphor which 
could be kept unchanged during several days in a graduated flask, but 
reached a condition of equilibrium in a single day when brought into 
contact with the softer glass of a polarimeter tube. 2 Of themselves, there- 
fore, these isomerides are as stable as, for instance, are ethyl alcohol, 
CH 3 .CH 2 .OH, and methyl ether, CH 3 .O.CH 3 , or methyl acetate, 
CH3.CO.O.CH3, and propionic acid, CH 3 .CH,.CO.OH', but unlike these 
latter substances they become isodynamic in presence of an almost incon- 
ceivably minute amount of impurity. The addition to a solution of 
nitrocamphor in benzene of 0-0001 per cent, of piperidine is sufficient to 
establish equilibrium in two or three hours. 

3. An Ionising Solvent may promote Isomeric Change. — Although in 
the cases described neither benzene nor chloroform is capable of bringing 
about isomeric change, it is possible that an ionising solvent may act as 
the necessary ' third substance.' The isomeric change of nitrocamphor is 
accelerated to some extent by acids as well as by alkalies, and in ionising 
solvents the change is very rapid even when purified material is used ; as 
pseutlo-nitrocamphor is itself a strong acid it may well act under these 
conditions as a catalytic agent. In the case of aqueous solutions of glucose 
quantitative measurements have shown that the isomeric change cannot 
be ascribed to acid or to basic impurities, whilst neutral salts retard 
rather than accelerate the change ; the effect appears, therefore, to be 
produced directly by the solvent, assisted, perhaps, by the feebly acid 
properties of the glucose itself. 3 

4. Many substances only become Isodynamic at High Temperatures or 
in presence of a special Catalytic Agent. — Whilst it is now recognised that 
the changes which Butlerow regarded as spontaneous are actually brought 
about by a trace of acid or alkaline impurity or by an ionising solvent, 
there are many substances which, like the isodibutylenes, only become 
isodynamic under somewhat special conditions. Thus many sulphonic 
acids, like Butlerow's olefines, become isodynamic when dissolved in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid ; again where isomeric change involves the trans- 
ference of an alkyl group, it may often happen that an alkyl iodide or an 
aluminium haloid is the only efficient agent. Apart from their great 
scientific and commercial importance these cases of dynamic isomerism are 
of interest as enabling isomerides to be directly balanced against one 
another of which the relative stability could otherwise be determined only 
indirectly from the heats of combustion. In other cases a reversible 
isomeric change appears to set in spontaneously when the temperature is 

1 Trans. 1901, 79, 999. * Lowrv, Proc. 1903, 19, 131. 

8 Lowry, Trans. 1903, 83, 1314. 



198 REPORT— 1904. 

raised. A high temperature can scarcely do more than increase the 
activity of the impurities present in the material but these may easily be 
introduced at high temperature owing to incipient decomposition or to 
action on the walls of the containing vessel. 

5. Equilibrium is determined by the Velocities of Isomeric Change in 
opposite directions. — The proportions of the isomerides in the ultimate 
mixture is determined by the ratio of the velocities with which they 
undergo isomeric change under the given conditions. If these velocities 
are equal there will be 50 per cent, of each isomeride, but if one undergoes 
change ninety-nine times as fast as the other, there will only be 1 per cent, 
of it in the mixture. ' Complete ' isomeric changes are merely limiting 
cases in which one velocity is small compared to the other, and as it is 
difficult to detect a back action in which the ratio of the velocities is greater 
than 100 to 1, the distinction between complete and incomplete changes is of 
very small importance. It may be added that solids are usually incapable 
of undergoing isomeric change but if such a change should occur (owing, 
for instance, to incipient fusion or to the presence of a trace of solvent), 
it is usually complete, back action being possible only in the liquid or 
gaseous state. Thus Walker and Hambly l have shown that the conversion 
of ammonium cyanate into urea, which is complete when the solution is 
evaporated to dryness, is reversible in solution. In a normal solution at 
59 - 6°, 14*4 per cent, of ammonium cyanate undergoes isomeric change in 
a minute, and - 0038 per cent, of urea. Equilibrium is reached when 
there is 5 per cent, of cyanate and 95 per cent, of urea, as indicated by 
the equation 

[5 %] NH4.0.C N t CO(NH 2 ) 2 [95 %\ 

The concentration of the ammonium cyanate is then only N/20, and 
its velocity of change is reduced to half that in normal solution. Equi- 
librium is reached when the ratio 95/5 of the concentrations is equal to 
the ratio 7 - 2/0 - 0038 of the velocities of change in opposite directions. 2 

Ammonium cyanate changes slowly in aqueous solutions at ordinary 
temperatures ; at 100° equilibrium is reached almost immediately. Am- 
monium thiocyanate, on the other hand, does not change in aqueous 
solution, but in the fused state at 170° it changes at about the same rate 
as ammonium cyanate in aqueous solution at 60°. 3 The predominance of 
the thiocyanate in the equilibrium 

[75-7 %] NH 4 .S.C i N Z CS(NH 2 ) 2 [24-3 %] 

is in marked contrast to the instability of the cyanate. 

6. Isomeric Change proceeds according to a simple Logarithmic Law, and 
the Period of Change is the same for different Isomerides. — The logarithmic 
law has been verified in the case of glucose and other sugars, 4 in the case 
of 7r-bromonitrocamphor 5 and in many other instances. If, however, 
one of the isomerides is an active catalyst, or if by reason of association or 
dissociation only part of the material is in a condition to undergo isomeric 
change, the velocity-constant may vary as the concentration changes. In 
the absence of such disturbances the period of change must be the same 

1 Trans. 1895, 67, 746. 

2 For observations on the alkyl thiooyanates see Walker and Appleyard, Trans. 
1896, 69, 193 

8 Reynolds and Werner, Trans. 1903, 83, 1. 

1 Osalca, Zeit. phys. Chem. 1900 36, 6G1. 6 Lowry, Trans. 1899, 75, 227. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 199 

for the different isomerides, though large accidental discrepancies may 
occur when isomeric chaDge depends on a small amount of a third 
substance. A fair agreement between the two periods was observed in 
solutions in benzene of normal and pseudo 7r-bromonitrocamphor ' but 
Forster's curves for the two a-benzoylcamphors show a period twice as 
great for the ketonic as for the enolic form. 

7. Catalytic Agents alter the velocity of Isomeric Change but do not 
disturb the Equilibrium. — Schiff 2 supposed that in the case of ethyl 
aceto-acetate 

CH3.CO.CHo.CO.OEt Z CH 3 .C(OH) : CH.CO.OEt 

the material was converted by a trace of sodium ethoxide wholly into the 
enolic, and by a trace of piperidine wholly into the ketonic, form. This 
is impossible on theoretical grounds and has been disproved experi- 
mentally in this and in other cases. 3 It therefore follows that catalytic 
agents accelerate both isomeric changes in the same ratio. 

8. The Equilibrium may be affected by the Solvent, Concentration and 
Temperature. — The direct effect of these is probably small, but if there is 
a tendency for one or both of the isomerides to polymerise, as in the case 
of the nitroso- and many hydroxylic compounds, or to combine with the 
solvent, as in the case of normal nitrocamphor dissolved in benzene, or to 
combine with one another, as in the case of thiourea and ammonium 
t.hiocyanate 4 or to become ionised, as in aqueous solutions of the cyanates 
and pseudonitro- compounds, very marked effects may be indirectly 
produced. Thus Wislicenus has shown 5 that associating solvents and 
high concentrations favour the formation of the (dimolecular) enolic form 
of ethylic phenylformylacetate 

CHO.CHPh.C0 2 Et £ HO.CH : CPh.C0 2 Et. 

In the contrary direction, Perkin has shown 6 that high temperatures 
increase the proportion of the ketonic form of the diketones, probably by 
dissociating the dimolecular enolic forms. 

The great increase in stability of ammonium cyanate in dilute aqueous 
solution may be attributed to the large proportion of the salt which is 
then in an ionised condition and only indirectly available for isomeric 
change — 

CO(NH 2 ) 2 £ NH 4 .O.CN £ NH 4 | OCK 

Thus Walker and Hambly 7 have obtained evidence that at the dilution of 
N / 2000 ammonium cyanate and urea would be equally stable, and would 
be present in equal proportions in the mixture. On somewhat similar 
lines Hantzsch and Kinchenberger have contended 8 that nitroform in 
anhydrous solvents exists almost exclusively in the normal modification, 
but that in aqueous solutions it is mainly in the ionised pseudo- modifica- 
tion, pse2ido-nitroiorm being one of the strongest known acids : 

CH(N0 2 ) 3 £ (N0 2 ) 2 CH : N0 2 H £ (N0 2 )CH : N0 2 | H. 

' Loc. oit. 2 Ber. 1898, 31, 601. 

3 See Schauin, Ber. 1898, 31, 1964; and Lowry, Trans. 1899,75, 223. 
* Reynolds and Werner, loc. cit. 5 Ann. 1896, 291, 182. 

a Trans. 1892, 61, 801. ' Loc. cit. 

8 Ber. 1899, 32, 628. 



200 REPORT— 1904. 

9. The Ultimate Product of Isomeric Change is a Mixture. — It is 
necessary to emphasise the fact that except when isomeric change is 
complete the ultimate product is not a definite compound or a new 
isomeride but merely a mixture. Thus if the ultimate product of the 
isomeric change of glucose were a definite third isomeride, as has been 
suggested by Lippmann, 1 by Tanret 2 and more recently by Simon, 3 it 
would be impossible by mere crystallisation to reconvert it into the labile 
a-glucose. So also if ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea were converted 
completely into the compound 3AmCNS,CS(NH 2 ).2, postulated by Reynolds 
and Werner, it would be impossible by mere cooling to crystallise from 
the fused mass anything but the compound in question. 

10. The Classification of Dynamic Isomerides. — Following Butlerow's 
example dynamic isomerides have usually been divided into two classes 
according as isomeric change takes place ' spontaneously ' or only under 
special conditions. The ' spontaneous ' changes have often been called 
' tautomeric,' whilst the other group have been distinguished as ' ordinary ' 
isomeric changes. Such a distinction may be convenient but cannot be 
defended on any other ground, for the spontaneity of the change is not an 
inherent property of the substance but depends on the presence or absence 
of a catalytic agent in the dirt that normally accompanies it. It must 
also be remembered that many isomeric changes which are not spontaneous 
at ordinary temperatures appear to become so when the temperature is 
raised, and the classification in question thus unconsciously involves an 
arbitrary temperature limit. But although no satisfactory classification 
of dynamic isomerides can be made on the basis of the readiness with which 
they undergo change, it is nevertheless possible to distinguish two principal 
groups, of which the second includes the majority of the so-called spon- 
taneous changes. 

These two groups are as follows : 

A. Isomeric changes in which two radicles are interchanged, of which 
neither can be split off alone as an ion. Closely related to this 
group are a number of cases in which a double bond is shifted in 
an unsaturated compound. 

B. Isomeric changes in which a single radicle is transferred which 
is capable in at least one of the isomerides of acting as an ion ; the 
transference is accompanied by a rearrangement of bonds in the 
molecule. 

The fact that changes of these two types usually take place under 
different conditions and in presence of different catalytic agents, goes far 
to show that the distinction is not arbitrary but fundamental. These two 
groups of changes are dealt with in the two following sections. Optical 
inversion, which includes examples from both groups, is discussed under a 
separate heading. 

III. Isomeric Changes in which Two Radicles are Interchanged. 

1. Interchange of Radicles in Aliphatic Compounds. — Butlerow's 
observation that the isodibutylenes are accompanied by isomeric alcohols 
is of importance not only as affording an illustration of this type of 

1 Ber. 1896, 29, 203. s Bull. Soe. Ckem. 1896, iii. 15, 195. 

8 C. B. 1901, 132, 487. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 20l 

dynamic isomerism but also because it proves that the interchange of H 
and OH depends on the separation of a molecule of water. Changes of this 
type frequently occur when alcohols are dissolved in sulphuric acid, as, 
for instance, in the production of tertiary butyl derivatives from isobutyl 
alcohol 

HO.CH 2 .CHMe 2 ^CH 2 : CMe 2 + H 2 O^CH 3 .CMe,.OH. 

In the conversion of pinacone into pinacoline the reversible separation of 
a molecule of water would account for the interchange of CH 3 and OH. 

CMe.,.OH CH 3 .CMe x CH 3 .CMe, 

-Hl.,0 + | >CH.,;t | ;tH„0 + CMe 3 .CO.CH 3 . 

CMe 2 .OH ' HO.CMe/ HO.CMc OH 

A similar separation of HBr may be involved in the conversion, in 
presence of aluminium bromide, of propyl into isopropyl bromide 

CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 Bi\^HBr + CH 3 .CH : CH ,;ICH 3 .CHBr.CH 3 

whilst in the conversion of a into y-bromoacetoacetic ester the inter- 
mediate product would be a ring compound : 

CH 2V 
CH 3 CO.CHBr.CO.,Et^HBr + | >CH.OO..Et^.CH„Br.CO.CH 2 .CO J Et. 

CO / 

2. Isomeric Change of Unsaturated Compounds. — This is merely 
another phase of the preceding case, for the isomeric change depends on 
association with H 2 0, H 2 S0 4 , or HBr, instead of on dissociation, and takes 
place under similar conditions. Thus the undecyclenes, like Butlerow's 
octylenes, are in equilibrium in presence of sulphuric acid, the proportions 
being indicated in the equation L 

(4%) CH., : CH.CH 2 .C 8 H 17 ;^CH 3 .CHOH.CH 2 .C 8 H 17 ;JCH 3 .CH : CH.C 8 H 17 (96 %). 

At high temperatures changes of this type take place readily in contact 
with platinum black or alumina, for instance, 2 

/CH 2 
CH./ | ^CH 3 .CH:CH 2 ; 
N CH 2 

under conditions such as these the conversion probably depends on asso- 
ciation with water, the activity of a trace of moisture being greatly 
increased by the high temperature and the presence of the contact 
substance. Isomeric changes of this kind are very frequent, especially 
amongst the terpenes. They may lead either to the shifting of a double 
bond, as in the conversion of dihydrocarvone into carvenone 

/CO.CH 2 . /CO.CH vx 

CH 3 .CH/ >CHMe : CH 2 ^.CH 3 .CH/ >C.CHMe, 

X CH 2 .CH/ x;h 2 .ch/ 

or to a rearrangement of the ring-system in the molecule, as when pinens 

1 Thorns and Mannich, Ber. 1903, 36, 2544. 

2 Tanatar, Zeit. pliys. Chem. 1902, 41, 735 ; Ipatieff and Huhn, Ber. 1903, 36, 
2014. 



202 REPORT — 1904. 

is converted through its hydrochloride into camphene or camphor into 



carvenone. 1 



In the hexachlorocycloketopentenes, studied by Kuster, 2 the shifting 
of the double bond is accompanied by the transference of a halogen atom, 
and equilibrium is established fairly rapidly at 210°, the necessary catalyst 
being probably HC1, 

CGI: CCU CC1.CCU 

[/3=61-4 %] ! >CCC || )CO [ 7 =38-6 %]. 

CC1 2 .CC1./ CCl.CCl/ 

Included in this group are the stereoisomer™ changes of unsaturated 
compounds] The conversion of maleic into fumaric acid, which takes 
place at ordinary temperatures in presence of HBr, is almost complete, 

H.C.C0 2 H C0 2 H.C.H 

II Z II 

H.C.C0. 2 H H.C.C0. 2 H 

but the dibromotolanes which are convertible at 210° are almost equally 
stable and are present in approximately equal quantities in the melt. 3 

C G H 5 .C.Br C 6 H 5 .C.Br 

[48 %] || Z II [52%] 

C 6 H 5 .C.Br Br.C.C 6 H 5 

In each case isomeric change may be due to association with HBr, though 
another explanation is available in the case of maleic acid (compare p. 211). 

Amongst nitrogen compounds similar equilibria are observed in the 
stereoisomeric oximes 4 and the syn- and anti-diazo- compounds. 5 

3. Interchange of Radicles in Aromatic Compounds. — One of the most 
characteristic properties of aromatic compounds is the ease with which 
they undergo isomeric change, so that almost any radicle that can be 
attached to the nitrogen of aniline or the oxygen of phenol can be subse- 
quently interchanged with a hydrogen atom in the nucleus. In this way it 
is possible to transfer radicles as diverse as the halogens, N0 2 , OH, S0 3 H, 
COPh, NHPh (semidine), PhNH 2 (benzidine), and (under somewhat forced 
conditions) CH 3 . The ring-substituted compounds are very stable, and 
the back action is usually slight, but as scarcely any attempt has yet been 
made to study these changes from the standpoint of equilibrium, it is 
impossible to say to what extent reversal occurs in any given case. Two 
ring-substituted compounds may exhibit a well-defined equilibrium, and 
such a case is found in the ethylxylenesulphide sulphonic acids, 6 the 
stable proportions in the mixture being indicated by the equation 

CH 3 CH 3 

S0 3 H/\ /\S0 3 H 



[90-92 %] 



[10-8%]. 



\/OH 3 \/CH 3 

SEt SEt 



1 Bredt, Annalen, 1901, 314, 369 ; compare Armstrong arid Lowry, Trans. 1902, 
81. 1169, and p. 214 of this report. " Zeit.phys. Chem. 1895, 18, 161. 

3 Wislicenus, Deltanatschrift, Leipzig, 1890. 

* Cameron, /. phys. Chem. 1898, 2, 409 ; Carveth, ibid. 1899, 3, 437. 

5 See Dr. Morgan's report, Belfast 1902, and Hautzsch, Die DiazoverUndungen, 
Ahreris Sanuiduny, 1902. " Harker, Thesis, London, 1903. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 203 

The remarkable manner in which a small amount of o- acid persists in the 
mixture formed on sulphonating toluene affords similar evidence that this 
acid has a definite place in the equilibrium. 

4. The Beckmann Change. — These interactions, in which an alkyl 
group attached to carbon is interchanged with a negative radicle attached 
to nitrogen, belong essentially to the group of isomeric changes now under 
consideration. (Such changes are most frequently observed amongst the 
oximes and nitro- compounds, but a somewhat similar rearrangement must 
be assumed to occur in the preparation of amines from amides by Hof mann's 
reaction and in the decomposition by heat of the acid azides. Although 
the mechanism of the change is only imperfectly known, 1 the rearrange- 
ment resembles very closely that by which radicles are transferred from 
the side chain to the nucleus in aromatic compounds ; in each case isomeric 
change is usually complete, and is brought about by acid rather than by 
alkaline agents. 2 Thus, whilst alkaline catalysts greatly accelerate the 
conversion of normal into pseudo- nitrocamphor, they do not bring about 
any further change. Acid catalysts, on the other hand, are less powerful 
in producing pseudo-nitrocamphor, but cause a further non reversible 
rearrangement of the Beckmann type whereby the nitro-compound is 
converted into camphoryl oxime 

Z/NOH 
/CH.N0 2 ,C : N0 2 H y -C{ 

C„H U / | ^C 8 H 14 /| ^C 8 H 14 / >0 

x co x co xjck 

5. Mechanism of Isomeric Changes involving an Interchange of 
Radicles. — These changes appear to be electrolytic in the same sense as 
the chlorination of ethane, in which the main constituents can act only as 
depolarisers and the electrolyte is probably hydrogen chloride 

— 4- 

C 2 H 5 C1H CI C 2 H 5 C1 HC1 

| — i-t- | gives 

H C1H CI HC1 HC1 

The association of an olefine with HBr may thus take place in a closed 
electrolytic circuit in which HBr is electrolysed 



R.C.H 


— + 
BrH 


Br R.CH Br 


+ - 
HBr 


II 
R.C.H 


+ — 
H Br 


+ gives || 

H R.CH H 


- + 
BrH 



whilst the reverse dissociation might be effected by the passage of a 
current in the opposite direction, giving rise either to the original or 
to the isomeric olefine. So also in the aromatic series the conversion 
of phenylchloroacetamide, C 6 H 5 .NC1.C0.CH 3 into p chloroacetanilide, 
Cl.C 6 H 4 .NH.CO.CH 3 , may be regarded as taking place in a circuit 

1 See Steiglitz, Amur. Chem. Journ. 1896, 18, 751 ; 1903, 29, 49 ; Slossen, 1903, 29, 
289 ; Steiglitz and Earle, 1903, 29, 399 and 412. 

2 The Hofmann reaction takes place in alkaline solution, but is not an isomeric 
change, and can therefore hardly be quoted as an exception. 



204 report— i 904. 

in which hydrogen chloride is electrolysed. But when a methyl-group is 
transferred there appears to be a complete separation of the radicle (e.g. as 
CH 3 C1) and subsequent recondensation, giving rise not only to isomerides, 
but also to higher and lower homologues. 

6. Influence of Catalytic Agents. — Isomeric chaDges of this type usually 
take place only in presence of strong acids, whilst alkalies prevent rather 
than assist the change, 1 as is shown by the stability of the salts derived 
from labile sulphonic acids, diazohydroxides and oximes, and by the 
readiness with which good yields of compounds such as phenylchloro- 
acetamide and /j-phenylhydroxylamine are obtained by alkaline or neutral 
methods of preparation. The conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea 
may be regarded as due to the dissociation of the cyanate and recondensa- 
tion of the resulting NH 3 and HCNO — 

NH, CO NH 2v 

NH..CNO ■+ | +n z / c °; 

H NH NH/ 

whatever view be taken of this condensation it is evident that the ammonia 
is resolved into the two radicles H and NH,, and so functions as an acid 
rather than as a base ; there need therefore be no hesitation in classifying 
this change with the dissociation and association of acids which characterise 
this group of isomeric changes. 

IV. Isomeric Changes in which a single Mobile Radicle is Transferred. 

To this group belong all those cases in which a mobile hydrogen atom 
is transferred from oxygen or sulphur to carbon or nitrogen, as in the 
ketones, nitro- compounds and oximes, together with the few cases in 
which it is possible to prepare isomeric salts from these. The transference 
of an anion is less frequent but Hantzsch has described a number of cases 
in which a mobile OH or CN group is transferred in precisely the same 
way as the mobile hydrogen atom. The group of changes in which a 
mobile hydrogen atom is transferred includes the most important cases of 
dynamic isomerism and forms one of the most fully investigated, and at 
the same time one of the most fertile, branches of organic chemistry ; the 
great wealth of examples must be attributed to the neutral character of 
the hydrogen atom, which is equally ready to play an inert part in a 
hydrocarbon, or to associate itself with a powerful negative radicle in the 
mineral and organic acids. 

All the members of this group undergo isomeric change with great 
readiness. This is probably due to the fact that in every case at least one 
of the isomerides is an electrolyte, and so can take its place in an 
electrolytic circuit instead of acting merely as a depolariser. Thus, 
although it is difficult to think of pseudo-acetone as anything but an 
unsaturated alcohol, the proximity of the double bond gives it at least 
a superficial resemblance to acetic acid and probably confers upon it 
distinct electrolytic properties : 

/OH /OH 

CH3.CO.CH3 CH 3 .C/ CH,.C/ 

^CH 2 ^O 

Acetone Pseudo-acetone Acetic acid. 

1 Exceptions to this rule are found in cases in which an interchange of radicles 
depends on a double ketoenolic change or on a reversible hydrolysis, as in the case 
of o and £ glucose. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 205 

The relative stability of the isoinerides, depending as it does on the ratios 
of the velocities of change, is greatly influenced by substitution. The 
introduction of negative groups appears always to favour the production of 
the more acid isomeride. 

1. Ketones. — The mono-ketones are almost wholly ketonic, but their 
behaviour on bromination L and possibly their phosphorescence when 
exposed to Tesla radiation, or after exposure at low temperatures to ultra- 
violet light, indicates that even here a trace of enol may be present. The 
introduction of the C0 2 Et group in ethylic acctoacetate makes its chemical 
properties entirely different from those of acetone, but does not introduce 
any large proportion of enol into the equilibrium. 2 Amongst the 
diketones, however, ethyl acetylacetone, CH 3 .CO.CHEt.CO.CH 3 , though 
almost wholly ketonic at 93°, contains about one-third of enol at 19° ; 
methyl acetylacetone, CH 3 .CO.CH.Me.CO.CH 3 , contains about one-eighth 
of enol at 96°, and one-half at 16° ; whilst acetylacetone itself, 
CH 3 .C0.CH 2 .C0.CH 3 , contains about three-fourths of enol at 93° and 
at 17° appears to contain a certain amount of a dienolic form 

CH3.CO.CH2.CO.CH3 ■+ CH 3 .CO.CH : C(OH).CH 3 £ 
CH 2 :C(OH).CH : C(OH).CH 3 

Similarly Claisen 3 found amongst the triketones an increasing tendency 
to enolisation, as benzoyl was displaced by acetyl in the series 

CHBz 3) CHAcBz,, CHAc 2 Bz, CHAc 3 . 

Camphor, like acetone, is almost wholly ketonic, though it yields an 
7 CH 
enolic benzoate, C 8 H H <^ || , when boiled with benzoyl chloride. 4 

Nd.obz 

/ CHBr 

a-Bromocamphor,C 8 H 14 <^ , is only known in the ketonic form, but the 

X CO 
flash of light that appears when the crystals are crushed is perhaps 
an indication of the presence of a trace of the enolic form. 

/CH.COaEt, 
Ethyl camphocarboxylate, C 8 H 14 / i the analogue of ethyl 

X CO 
acetoacetate, is also mainly ketonic, 5 but solutions of a-benzoylcamphor, 

/CH.COCftHs 
G 8 H 14 / 1 , contain 60 per cent, of the enolic isomeride. 6 

X CO 

2. Aldehydes. — Enolisation of aldehyde only occurs when negative 
radicles are introduced into the methyl group, as in ethers of phenyl- 
formylacetic acid, 7 

/C 6 H 5 /C 6 H 5 

H.CO.CH< ^HO.CH : C( 

x C0 2 R x C0 2 R 

and formylacetoacetic acid. 8 

1 Lapworth, Trans. 1004, 85, :S0. = Perkin, Trans. 1892, 61, 801. 

3 Ann. 1896, 291, 25. 4 Lees, Trans. 1903, 83, 152. 

5 Briihl, Ber. 1902, 35, 3510. 6 Forster, loe. cit. 

7 Wislicenus, Ann. 1896, 291, 147 ; Lapworth and Hann, Trans. Chan. Soc. 1002, 
81, 1491. 8 Ber. 1893, 26, 2730. * 



206 report— 1904. 

/CO.CHg /CO.CH 3 

H.CO.CH< ^HO.CH : C< 

x C0 2 R x C0 2 R 

Hydroxymethylene (formyl) camphor 1 is usually regarded as the enolic 

modification, HO.CH : C/ , and formylacetylacetone, 

X CO 
H.CO.CH(CO.CH 3 ) 2 ^HO.CH : C(CO.CH 3 ) 

is a stronger acid than acetic. 

3. Esters. — The possibility of enolisation is indicated in the formula; 
assigned to ethylic sodiomalonate, EtO.CO.CH : C(OEt).ONa, and ethylic 
sodiocyanacetate, CN.CH.C(OEt).ONa, 2 and is of importance in deter- 
mining the optical inversion of carboxylic acids. In the case of ethylic 
dicarboxyglutaconate, (C0 2 Et),C : CH.CH(C0. 1 Et) 2 , and ethylic isa- 
conitate, C0 2 Et.CH : CH.CH(C0 2 Et) 2 , 3 the ester itself gives a blue 
coloration with ferric chloride and is at least partially enolic. The 
green modification of ethylic succinosuccinate is not represented in a 
satisfactory manner by either of the conventional formulae, 

/CO.CH 2v /COH.CH 2 

C0 2 Et.CH< >CH.C0 2 Et and C0 2 Et.C< >C.C0 2 Et, 

X CH 2 .CO/ X CH 2 .COH/ 

but the colour would be accounted for if it were formulated as 

EtO v /COH:CH v 7 0Et 

>C : C< >C : C< 

HO / x CH:COH/ x OH 

and if this be correct the enolised ester is actually the stable form under 
certain conditions. 

4. Phenols. — The strong enolic character of the phenols is lessened 
by substitution and by reduction, probably owing to the weakening 

/ H 

of the benzene ring. Pscudo -phenol, : C^H^ and pseudo-qainol, 

X H 

/ H 
: C 6 H 4 / are as unstable aspsett^o-camphor or pseudo-a,cetone, though 

x OH 

derivatives of this type are known, 4 but dihydroresorcinol appears to 
contain at least one keto-group and yields a dioxime, whilst phloroglucinol 
yields a trioxime, though its absorption spectrum shows that it is almost 
wholly enolic in solution. 5 

5. Amides. — These rarely, if ever, exist in an enolic form, even when 
forming part of an aromatic ring as in isatin, the a and y pyridones 
(hydroxypyridines), 

,CH.C(OH) . .CH.CH . 

CHf >N and HO.Cf X N, 

X CH : CH— / X CH : CBY 

1 Claisen, Ann. 1894, 281,306. 2 J. F. Thorpe, Trans. 1900, 77, 923. 

3 Guthzeit and Dressel, Ber. 1889, 22, 1418. 

* See especially Auwers, Ber. 1902, 35, 443-455, who gives a summary of recent 
work on the jwew^-quinols. 

5 Hartley, Dobbie, and Lander, Trans. 1902, 81, 929. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 207 

/ CH : CH 

carbostyril (hydroxyquinoline), C 6 H 4 / , and cyanuric acid, 

\N=C.OH 
7 N : C(OH) 
HO.C<^ ^N. In all these cases only one modification is known, 

^N.C(OH) '' 
and Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder have shown that this is probably the 
ketonic form. 1 Cyanic and thiocyanic acids also yield isomeric esters, 
but are only known in one form, apparently the ketonic. 2 Lees and 
Shedden 3 claim to have prepared the enolic form of acetyl-o-aminophenol, 
HO.C 6 H 4 .N : CMe.OH, but the great stability of the substance, which 
does not appear to be convertible into the ketonic isomeride, is difficult to 
reconcile with the formula they propose. 

6. Nitro- compounds. — These are influenced by substitution in a 
similar manner to the ketones. Even in aqueous solution the conversion 
of the pseudo into the normal form appears to be complete in the case 
of nitromethane, H.CH 2 .N0 2 , nitroethane, CH 3 .CH 2 .N0 2 , phenylnitro- 
methane, C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .N0 2 , and its ^-bromo- and p-m.tvo- derivatives ; but 
dinitroethane, N0 2 .CH,.N0 2 , gives a mixture of the normal and pseudo 
forms, and — in aqueous solution only (see p. 199) — acetylnitromethane 
CH 3 .CO.CH,.N0 2 , benzoylnitromethane, C 6 H 5 .CO.CH 2 .N0 2 , bromodi- 
nitromethane, N0 2 .CBrH.N0 2 , and trinitromethane, (N0 2 ) 2 CH.N0 2 , 
appear to exist almost exclusively in the pseudo- form. 4 

Similar effects are produced in the camphor series, the nitro- com- 
pounds of which have been examined both in ionising and in non-ionising 
solvents. Nitrocamphane, 



C S H- / 



j » A 



CH 2 
x CH.N0 2 , 



passes in solution completely from the pseudo- into the normal form. 5 
Nitrocamphor, 

/CH.NO-2 
CgH, / | 
x CO, 

gives a mixture, and in ft- and 7r-bromonitrocamphor, 

/CH.NO-2 
C 8 H 13 Br/ | 

x CO, 

the influence of the keto- group is so far reinforced by the bromine that 
in the solid state the pseudo- is the stable form. 6 

7. Nitroso- compounds and Oximes. — -The group > CH.NO appears 
to be even more unstable than the pseudo-amide group — N : COH — . 

1 Trans. 1899, 75, 640. « Hartley, Proc. Chem. Soc. 1899, 15, 46. 

3 Trans. 1903, 83, 750-763. 

4 Hantzsch, Ber. 1899, 32, 607. 5 Forster, Trans. 1900, 77, 260. 

6 The stability of the pseudo- form in the solid state is due to a decrease of solu- 
bility, and not to any marked increase in the proportion present in solution. 



208 report — 1904. 

Schmidt l has prepared from trimethylethylene three nitroso- compounds, 
which he formulates as 

CMeH.NO CMeH.NO CMeH.NO 

| and | 

CMe 2 .O.NO CMe 2 .O.NOo CMe 2 Cl 

These are converted by heating or by alkalies into the isomeric oximes, 
X.CMe 2 .CMe:NOH, but the change proceeds so slowly that there has 
been some hesitation in accepting the formula? proposed. The unexpected 
behaviour of these nitroso- compounds is probably due to the stability of 
the colourless polymerides, which must be resolved before isomeric change 
can take place. Piloty's chloronitrosoethane 2 behaves in a precisely 
similar manner as indicated in the scheme 

[CH 3 .CHCl.NO] 2 £2CH 3 .CHCl.NO^:,2CH 3 .CCl : NOH. 

In the nitrosoaldehydrazones studied by Bamberger and Pemsel 3 the 
conversion of the nitroso- compound into the oxime involves the change 
of the hydrazone into an azo- compound, and the stability of the nitroso- 
compound is greatly increased — 

CH 3 .C(NO) :N.NH.C 6 H 5< ^CH 8 .C( :NOH).N :N.C 6 H». 

The further equilibrium between the hydroximes > C : NOH and 
/NH 
pseudoximes > C<f has been so little studied that no definite con - 

X 
elusions can be drawn as to the effects of substitution ; in the cases 
studied by Dr. Whiteley 4 the stability of the two solid forms appears to 
be determined mainly by their solubility, and nothing is known at 
present of the proportions in which they are present in the solutions. 

8. Other cases. — The alkyl cyanides are only known in one form, but 
cyanocamphor appears to exist to some extent in the acid pseudo- form, 

/CH.C ; N 7 C : C : NH 

C 8 H, / | £C 8 H U / | 

x co. x co 

and pseiwfo-cyanoform is an even stronger acid than psemlo nitroform, 5 

CH(CN) 3 ^(CN) s : C : NH. 

Dynamic isomerism is also common amongst the hydrazones and azo- 
compounds and the amidines. A review of all the groups in which 
dynamic isomerism has been observed is given by Wislicenus, 6 but the 
examples quoted above will suffice to show the general character of the 
observations that have been made. 

9. Isodynamic salts. — Unlike hydrogen, the metallic radicles have a 
strong tendency to attach themselves to the most negative groups in the 
molecule, and isomeric change is usually both rapid and complete. By 

1 Ber. 1903, 36, 17C5. '-' Tier. 1902, 35, 3113. 

3 Ber. 1903, 36, 57-84. 4 Tram. 1903, 83, 21. 

5 Hantzsch ind Ostwald, Ber. 1899, 32, 641. 

6 ' Ueber Tautomeric' Ahren's Scvmmhvng, 1898. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 209 

taking advantage of their slight solubility, Titherley has recently prepared 
the labile silver salts of benzamide and acetamide, 1 

C 6 H 5 .CO.NHAg^C G H,.C(OAg) ■ NH, 
CH 3 .CO.NHAg^CH 3 .C(OAg) : NH, 
and Hantzsch has isolated the isodynamic forms of mercuric cyanurate 2 
But whilst it is possible to prepare N and O salts from the amides the 
ketones appear to yield only enolic salts, and it is doubtful if metals 
ever become directly linked to carbon except in the carbides and perhaps 
the cyanides. Ethyl phenylformylacetate appears at first sight to be an 
exception, since it yields two series of salts : the enolic sodium salt 
NaO.CH : CPh.C0 2 Et, prepared by the action of sodium on an ethereal 
solution of the ester, is converted almost instantly when dissolved in 
water, into an aldehydic isomeride, which gives no coloration with ferric 
chloride; on the other hand, the solid aldehydic copper salt, when 
precipitated from aqueous solution, soon passes into an enolic isomeride. 
The aldehydic salt has always been formulated as Na.CO.CHPh CO Et' 
but there does not appear to be any precedent for the direct displacement 
of aldehydic hydrogen by metals, and the difficulty entirely disappears if 
the salt be regarded as derived from an enolised ester (see p. 206) : 

NaO.CH : CPh.C0 2 ECH.CO.CPh : C(OEt).ONa. 
(enolic salt) (aldehydic salt) 

Dynamic isomerism is also possible, though not yet proved amongst 
simple inorganic salts like the sulphites 

NaO.SO.ONa^Na.S0 2 .ONa. 
10. Transference of an Anion.- In the majority of organic compounds the 
OH group is devoid of basic properties, and it is only in cases like the 
ammonium, the sulphur, and the iodine bases that it is capable of functioning 
as an anion. Occasionally, however, the necessary conditions are fulfilled 5 
and a state of equilibrium may be observed between an ammonium base and 
an isomeric carbinol.the transference of the hydroxyl- group beino- exactly 
comparable with that of the mobile hydrogen atom in the ketones and nitro- 
compounds. 3 Thus Hantzsch has shown that phenylmethylacridinium 
hydroxide, when liberated from its salts, is rapidly converted into the 
neutral isomeric phenylmethylacridol, 4 

i ~r 

CPh \C7H 4 / NMe I 0H <- H O.CPh <^g 4 VMe. 

The case that has been most fully studied is that of the alkaloid 
cotarnine, 5 

+ - 
n „ „ / CH = ^Me | OH _+ /CH(OH). NMe 

C 8 H 6 3 / <-C 8 H G 0/ I 

\CH 2 . CH 2 J \ C H 2 CH 2 

1 Trans. 1901, 79, 409. 2 Ber. 1902, 35, 2717 

3 Hantzsch describes as pwudo- acids all those substances which, like the nitro- 
paraffins, are themselves neutral, but yield salts derived from an isomeric acid 
Similarly ^^0- bases are neutral substances which combine with acids to form salts 
of an isomeric base. Occasionally the cyano- derivatives (nitrils) of the pseudo- 
bases (carbinols) can be converted into salt-like isomerides (substituted ammonium 
cyanides), and these are therefore called pseudo- salts. To these three cases Hantzsch 
applies the term tonw isomerism: * Hantzsch, Ber., 1899 32 575-600 

- Dobbie, Lauder, and Tinkler, Trans. 1903, 83, 598. 

1904. 



210 REPORT — 1904. 

The solid alkaloid appears to be the neutral carbinol, and persists in 
this form when dissolved in ether or chloroform. When dissolved in 
water or alcohol, however, it is converted largely into the ammonium-base 
from which the acid salts are derived. The addition of methyl alcohol to 
the ethereal solution causes a gradual change from the carbinol to the 
basic form, but a reverse change is brought about by adding sodium 
hydroxide to the aqueous solution. 

A similar equilibrium is possible in the salts derived from cotarnine, 
but the chloride is known only in the ammonium form and the cyanide only 
in the carbinol form : 



/CH(CN). NMe ^_ | „ H . NJ + , CN " 



CHCl . NMe~l , , CH : NMe | CI 

N]H 2 . CH 2 



r /CHCl . NMe"! ^ 

[°» H '<CH, . (U > C ' H ' 0/ 



11. Influence of Catalytic Agents.— Unlike the isomeric changes of 
Group A, which usually take place only in presence of an acid catalyst, 
those involving the transference of a mobile hydrogen atom are cha- 
racterised by an extraordinary sensitiveness to the catalytic action of 
traces of alkalies. The instantaneous fall of rotatory power on adding a 
small amount of ammonia to freshly prepared solutions of glucose was 
noticed by O'Sullivan and Tompson in 1890, 1 but it was not until some 
years later that the dependence of the mutarotation on isomeric change 
was demonstrated. Similar effects have been observed in the case of 
nitrocamphor,' 2 nitrocamphane, 3 benzoylcamphor, 4 menthyl acetoacetate, 
camphorquinone phenylhydrazone, 5 and the azo- derivatives of menthyl 
acetoacetate, and no exception has yet been discovered. The smaller 
catalytic action of acids was first noticed in the mutarotary sugars, 7 and 
Osaka 8 has shown that whilst the influence of alkalies is proportional 
to the concentration that of acids is proportional to the square root 
only. The influence of acids on nitrocamphor was at first overlooked, 9 
though it is well marked in decinormal and centinormal solutions ; Lap- 
worth was the first to show that acceleration by acids is character- 
istic of this group of isomeric changes. An apparent exception occurs 
in the case of camphorquinone phenylhydrazone, the mutarotation of which 
is stopped by traces of acid. Neutral salts have no influence on the iso- 
meric change of glucose, 10 but greatly accelerate that of nitrocamphor. 11 
This difference is probably due to the fact that pseudo-nitrocamphor is a 
strong acid, and is able to compete for a base even against a mineral 
acid. 

1 Trans. 1890, 57, 920. 2 Loc. cit. p. 221. 

3 Forster, Tram. 1900, 77, 259. * Forster, Trans. 1901, 79, 999. 

5 Lapworth and Hann, Trans. 1902, 81, 1499 and 1508. 
* Lapworth, Proe. 1903, 19, 149. 

' Levy, Zeit. phys. Chem. 1895,17,301; Trey, Zeit. phys. Chem. 1895, 18, 193; 
1897, 22, 424. 

8 Zeit. phys. Chem. 1900, 35, 661. " Loc. cit. p. 221. 

>° Lowry, Trans. 1903, 83, 1317. "Loc. cit. p. 221. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 211 

V. Optical Inversion. 

When optical isomerides become isodynamic the resulting mixture is 
inactive, for under normal conditions the d and I forms are equally stable. 
At least in the case of carbon it appears to be impossible directly to alter 
the point of attachment of the radicles, and the interchange on which the 
inversion depends can only be effected by an indirect process. In many 
cases the inversion appears to be brought about by means of a double 
keto-enolic isomeric change, the inactive enolic form being in equilibrium 
with both active forms. The proportion of enol is often exceedingly 
small, and isomeric change must then be slow even under the most favour- 
able conditions. If the mobile hydrogen atom is displaced by methyl the 
inversion is no longer possible. Thus in the case of phenylylycollic acid, 
which becomes inactive when heated alone, 1 or with dilute alkalies, 2 the 
inversion is probably effected through the intermediate inactive form 
indicated in the equation 

C,;H 5 N -. -rk/ /H ..frCgHg^p . p/ n ti, _ > C f) H 5 '\^ / /CO.OII 

HO /^\CO.OH^HO / u • ^ u±1 'V.HO / U \H 

</-aciil (50 per cent.) inactive enolic acid (trace) J-acid (5U per cent.) 

A similar explanation may be given of the conversion of maleic into 
fumaric acid, since this also involves the interchange of H and C0 2 H. 

Although changes of the keto-enolic type are exceedingly sensitive to 
alkaline catalysts the optical inversion of acids is often bi'ought about 
more rapidly by acid catalysts, on account perhaps of the greater stability 
of the ketonic form in the metallic salts. The esters (see p. 206) would 
probably be racemised even more easily than the acids but for the fact 
that it is impossible to introduce either acids or alkaline catalysts without 
hydrolysing the ester. Kipping and Hunter 3 have shown, however, that 
although benzylmethylacetic acid, C, ; H 5 .CH.,.CHMe.C0 2 H, is unchanged 
when heated at 170° during two hours, the acid chloride is racemised 
slowly at 70° and rapidly at 1 00°, and this may be taken to indicate 
that the chloride, unlike the acid, contains an appreciable quantity of 
enol. 

d-C amphoric acid, which contains two asymmetric carbon atoms, 
undergoes a reversible isomeric change when heated with water or with 
a mixture of acetic and hydrochloric acids. Only one of the asymmetric 
carbon atoms carries a hydrogen atom, and this is readily inverted, giving 
rise to a mixture of c^-camphoric and ^-isocamphoric acids in unequal 
proportions. 



/ 



,H .CO.OH 

X -CO.OH „ Tr / , ^H 



R * I ,CH 3 Cli , i ,CH 

C \ Z °\ XT 

L±±2 I ,CH 3 UM \ I ,CH 3 

\q/ C'' 

Nx>.oh Nxxoh 

e£-eamphoric acid Msocamphoric acid 

1 Lewkowitsch, Ber. 1883, 16, 2721. 

2 Holleman, Bee. Trav. Chlm. 1898, 17, 323. » Tram. 1903, 83, 1009. 

P 2 



212 REPORT — 1904. 

The second asymmetric carbon atom is not inverted, and no l-camphoric 
acid is jyroduced. It is therefore possible, by merely converting into an 
anhydride, to restore completely the original activity of the acid. 

In d-tartaric acid both active carbon atoms can be inverted, giving 
rise to me.so-tartaric and ^-tartaric acids. The rate of formation of the 
meso- acid from the d+l acid in presence of hydrochloric acid at 140° 
is l - 9 time as great as that of the d+l from the meso- acid, and 
the proportions in the equilibrium are therefore those indicated in the 
equation 

H(X ,H HO v ,CO.OH H(X .CO.OH 

W x c< Nxr 

, X CO.OH _^ , X H _> X H 

I ,CO.OH <- I ,CO.OH <— ,,H 

7 C< /C< /CC 

ho/ x h ho/ x h ho/ x cooh 

d- acid 17-3 % meso- acid 65-4 % I- acid 17'3 % 

The formation of the meso- acid involves a double, and that of the I- acid a 
quadruple keto-enolic change, and the conversion is therefore exceedingly 
slow, the proportions after heating during 42 hours at 155° being only 
3-4 % I : 18 % meso : 78 - 6 % d. y The salts undergo similar isomeric 
change when heated with an excess of alkali, but the proportions when 
equilibrium is reached appear to be 38 % I : 24 % meso : 38 % d. 

The reversible isomeric change which gluconic and allied acids undergo 
when heated with quinoline or pyridine at 130°-150° 2 is of importance, not 
only in the synthesis of the sugars but also because of the proof it affords 
that a definite mechanism is needed to bring about optical inversion, and 
that apart from this it is impossible even to interchange the points of 
attachment of an H and OH group. In each case only the terminal 
CIIOII group which carries the carboxijl is inverted, whereas if it were 
possible by this drastic treatment to shake the remaining CHOH groups 
the product would be a chaotic mixture of the sixteen acids which are 
theoretically possible. 

Closely related to the isomeric changes of the sugar-acids are those 
which the hexoses themselves undergo in solution, and especially in 
presence of alkalies. Glucose appears to exist in four isodynamic forms, 3 of 
which the stereoisomeric a and /? (hydrogen-) glucosides are the dominant 
forms and the aldehyde a minor constituent, the enol being present only 
in traces. Owing to the moderate proportion of aldo-glucose present in 
the solution equilibrium is rapidly established between the a and /3 gluco- 
sides. The enolic form is common to glucose, fructose, and mannose, and 
the slow rate at which equilibrium is established between these three 
sugars, even in the presence of considerable quantities of alkali, 4 is an 

' Hollemar, Bee. Trav. Chim. 1898, 17, 66. 
8 Fischer, Ber. 1894, 27, 3193. 

3 Compare Trans. 1903, 83, 1314. For the proof that the a and /8 glucose are the 
parent substances of the a and fi glucosides, see E. F. Armstrong, Tram. 1903, 83, 1305, 
and Behrend and Roth, Ann. 1904, 331, 359. With reference to the proportions of the 
constituents in the mixture, see Lowry, Proc. 1904, 20, 108. For the dynamio 
isomerism of the methyl glucosides and of the pentacetates, see Jungius, Proc. Kon. 
AJtad. Wet. Amsterdam, 1904, 99 and 779. 

4 Lobry de Bruyn, Bee. Trav. Chim. 1895, 14, 201. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 



213 



indication of the minute proportion of enol in the mixture. It is of 
interest to note that the complete equilibrium may include no less than 



ten isomeric sugars 
















/ CHOH 


CHO 




CHOH 




CH 2 OH 




CH 2 OH 


/ CHOH 

o ! 

\ CHOH 

\l z 

\CH 

1 


1 
CHOH 

1 




II 
COH 

1 




1 
CO 




1 
.COH 

/ 1 


CHOH 

1 
CHOH 

1 


-> 


CHOH 

1 
CHOH 

1 


-> 
<- 


1 

CHOH 

1 
CHOH 

1 


<— 


/ CHOH 
\CHJH 


CHOH 


CHOH 




CHOH 

1 




CHOH 

1 




\ 1 
X CH 

1 


CH..OH 

a and |3 glncoside 

a and p mannoside (?) 


CH,OH 

aldo-glucose 
aldo-mannose 




CH 2 OH 

enolic form 

of glucose, 

mannose, and 

fructose 




CH 2 OH 

keto-fractose 




CHOH 

a and (3 fractoside (?) 



/ CH 2 .CH.NH a ' 
The inversion of tetrahydro-fi-naphthylamine, C e H 4 / 

CH 2 .CH 2 

involves the interchange of H and NH., and the readiness with which 
it takes place at ordinary temperatures is in marked contrast with the 
great stability of compounds containing the CHOH group. It can scarcely 
be supposed that the replacement of OH by NH 2 destroys the fixity of the 
four carbon valencies, and the isomeric change may perhaps depend on 
the dissociation of an ammonium hydroxide base in the sense of the 
equation 

> CH.NH 2 + H 2 Z> CH.NH 3 .OH Z H 2 + > C : NH 3 (inactive;. 



The salts do not appear to undergo optical inversion. Another case in 
which the optical isomerides are in equilibrium at ordinary temperatures 
is that of the d and I methylethyJpropylstannic iodides, 2 in which isomeric 
change probably depends on dissociation. 



C 3 H 7 / bn V 



CH, 



CH 3 I + C 2 H 5 .Sn.C 3 H 7 T^H 5 x >Sn / 



C 3 H 7 / Da \CH 3 . 



These cases are of importance as indicating that the • spontaneous ' 
racemisation, frequently postulated in the so-called ' chaotic ' molecules, 
may actually exist as a limiting case of dynamic isomerism. 

The optical inversion of camphor during sulphonation 3 necessitates 
the rupture of one of the three chains which connect the asymmetric 
carbon atoms, and occurs under conditions very similar to those which 
actually lead to the production of carvenone. 4 The inactive dynamic 
isomeride through which inversion is accomplished is perhaps the enolic 
form of dihydroeucarvone, which, like dihydrocarvone and camphor itself, 



1 Pope and Harvey, Trans. ] 901 , 79, 74. 
3 Kipping and Pope, Trans. 1897, 71, 958. 



2 Pope and Peachey, Proc. 1900, 16, 116. 
4 Bredt, Annalcn, 1901, 314, 3G9. 



214 



REPORT — 1904. 



may be produced by removing the elements of water from the alcohol 
formulated below. 1 

CMe,OH CMe 2 



CH/ | X CH 2 

I CMe 2 | 
CH 2V | /CO 
^CMe/ 


CH/ X CH, 

t ' 1 
CH 2 CO 


-> 
<- 


II 
/ C \ 

CH/ X CH 2 
CH, COH 


O miphor 


\ / 
CHMe 

Intermediate alcohol 

I t 




X 

CMe 

Dihyclroenearvone 
(inactive enolic form) 




CH, : CMe 




CHMe, 




CH./ \CH 8 

i i 


-> 


CH 2 / ^CH 

| 




1 1 
CH 2 C 




CH, CO 




\ / 

CHMe 

Dibyrtrocarvone 




"\/ 

CHMe 

C'arvenoue 



VI. Chemical Properties of Dynamic Tsomerides. 

The addition to a mixture of isomerides in equilibrium of an agent 
which forms a stable compound with one isomeride brings about a 
complete conversion into that form. Thus although ammonium cyanate can 
be converted completely into urea by evaporating its aqueous solution, 
the reverse change is readily brought about by digesting urea with silver 
nitrate. 

(NH 2 ) 2 CO^AmCNO^AgCNO 

Again, nitrocamphor can be converted equally readily and completely 
into the bromo- derivative of the normal form or the potassium salt of the 
pseudo form. 



C 8 H U 



\ 



CHNO, 

I \ 

CO 



- C 8 H ! ., 



/ C :N0 2 H 



\ 



CO 



Nitrocamphor 



C 8 H 14 



/ 
\ 



CBr.NO, 

I 
CO 



C 8 H 



14 



,C : NO,K 



Bromo-derivative 



x CO 
Potassium salt. 



This formation of two types of derivatives is one of the most important 
indications of dynamic isomerism, and is frequently observed even when 
only one of the isomerides can be isolated. Thus camphor and other 
ketones, which certainly do not yield more than the merest trace of 
enol, are readily converted into enolic benzoates 2 when boiled with 
benzoyl chloride ; again, although the conversion of pseudo into normal 



1 Armstrong and Lowry, Trans. 1502, 81, 1409. 



Lees, Trans. 1903, 83, 152. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 215 

nitrocamphane is so complete that the pseudo- form cannot be detected in 
the equilibrium, no difficulty is experienced in reconverting it into the 
potassium salt of the pseudo- form . 

Chemical agents, therefore, give very little information as to the 
nature of the equilibrium, and can only be used for separating the 
constituents when isomeric change proceeds slowly under the prevail- 
ing conditions. Thus no difficulty is experienced in separating ammonium 
thiocyanate and thiourea or a mixture of sulphonic acids, because at 
ordinary temperatures and in dilute solution these have no tendency to 
pass into one another, and are, in fact, no longer isodynamic. So 
also Kiister was able to separate the isomeric hexachlorocycloketo- 
pentenes by converting the/3- compound into the sparingly soluble anilide, 
C 6 H 5 .NH.C 5 C1 5 0. In the case of substances such as those described in 
Section TV., in which the transference of a mobile radicle takes place 
with the utmost readiness under ordinary conditions and at atmospheric 
temperatures, the majority of chemical agents are useless for this purpose, 
especially as many of them have a very powerful catalytic action, and 
greatly accelerate the isomeric change. The only agent that seems to 
fulfil the necessary conditions is phenyl isocyanate, 1 which has little or no 
catalytic action, and may even remove any moisture or acid impurity 
already present in the solution ; experimentally it has been found that it 
combines with phloroglucinol but not with ethyl succinosuccinate, indi- 
cating that the former is enolic but the latter wholly ketonic ; the same 
agent indicates that isatin is a ketone, since it gives a substituted urea 
and not a urethane. 



[' 



,C(X _, /CCx /CO- 



c 6 h / \cohVc h/ ">co->c 6 h/ ^>co. 

Pseudo-isatin Isatin 



Benzylidene aniline, C H V CH : N.C 6 H 5 , although equally ready to com- 
bine with ketones or enols, cannot be regarded as a trustworthy indicator, 
for the addition of a trace of sodium ethoxide appears to determine 
the formation of the enolic, whilst piperidine favours the formation of 
the ketonic addition-product quite independently of the proportions of 
ketone and enol present in the mixture. 3 

A different class of agent is typified by ferric chloride, which inter- 
acts only with a minute proportion of the hydroxylic isomeride to form a 
coloured ferric salt. If this were insoluble a complete conversion into 
the hydroxylic form would ensue, but when it remains in solution it does 
not seriously disturb the equilibrium, and so may serve to indicate the 
proportion of hydroxyl present. 

.CH 2 .CO.^ . CH : COH £ .CH : C(OFeCl 2 ). 

In the case of the simple nitro-paraffins and isodynamic ketones ferric 
chloride can be used to follow the gradual conversion of one form into 
the other, but in the case of the nitro-ketones it has such a powerful 
catalytic action that equilibrium is established immediately, and no differ- 
ence can be detected either in the intensity of the colour or the rapidity 

1 Goldschmidt, Tier. 1890, 23, 257. 

2 This conclusion is in agreement with that arrived at by Hartley from a study 
of the absorption spectra. 

3 Schiff, i?«-. 1898, 31,601. 



216 REPORT— 1904. 

with which it is developed on adding ferric chloride to the normal and 
pseudo forms of 7r-bromonitrocamphor. 1 

Similar limitations are met with in the preparation of labile isomeridcs 
by chemical methods. The hydroxylic forms of many diketones 2 and 
nitroparaffins 3 can be prepared by acidifying a cold aqueous solution of 
the sodium salt with dilute mineral acids. In these cases the addition of 
a mineral acid is sufficient to eliminate the catalytic action of the base 
originally present in the salt, but stronger acids like pseudo-nitrocamphor 
are able to retain a proportion of the base even in competition with a 
mineral acid, and in this case the catalytic action of neutral salts is so 
great that the product is always a mixture of isomerides and not the 
pseudo- form. This action of neutral salts appears to have been over- 
looked by Hantzsch, who concluded that benzoylnitromethane and brorno- 
dinitromethane existed only in the hydroxylic form in aqueous solution, 
a conclusion that was based entirely on the fact that no gradual decrease 
of conductivity was observed in freshly prepared mixtures of the sodium 
salts with hydrochloric acid. 

Another method of preparing a labile isomeride is indicated by Forster, 
who has succeeded in preparing the labile diketonic form of benzoyl - 
camphor by boiling the enolic modification with formic acid, precipitating 
with water, and rapidly crystallising from alcohol ; 4 the method appears 
to depend on the formation of an easily hydrolysed formyl derivative, 

,C(COPh)CHO 



^CO, 
and may perhaps be applicable in other cases. 

VII. Physical Properties of Dynamic Isomerides. 

1. Crystallography. — In the majority of cases dynamic isomerides are 
substances of different types, and do not form isomorphous mixtures, 
though this does not prevent the inclusion in a crystal of small amounts 
of a dynamic isomeride or the staining of a colourless crystal by a coloured 
isomeride. Thus normal 7r-bromonitrocamphor is tetragonal and has 
a : c=\ : 11 002, whilst the pseudo- form is orthorhombic and has a :b : c= 
1 : 1*2159 : ? 5 Again, although both forms of n-benzoylcamphor crystal- 
lise in the orthorhombic system the ketone has a : b : c=0'7375 : 1 : 10224, 
but the enol has a : b : c— 0-9728 : 1 : 06550, and is hemihedral. 

2. Crystallisation of Fused Dynamic Isomerides. 1 — In the absence of 

1 Lowry, Trans. 1899, 75, 230. 

2 Olaisen, Ann. 1896, 291, 25; W. Wislicenus, Ann. 1896, 291, 147; Knorr, 
Ann. 1896, 293, 70; J. Wislicenus, Ber. 1897, 30, 639; Sitz. Sachs. Aliad. 
March 1, 1897; Rabe, Ber. 1899, 32, 84. 

3 Hantzsch and Schultze, Ber. 1896, 29,699,2251; Konowalow. ibid. p. 2193; 
Holleman, Bee. Trav. Chim. 1895, 14, 121 ; 1896, 15, 356, 365 ; Forster, Trans. 1900, 
77, 258. 

4 Trans. Chem. Soc. 1901, 79, 997. 

5 Lapworth aDd Kipping, Trans. 1896, 304-322. 6 Forster, loc. cit. 

' The crystallisation of dynamic isomerides has been very fully discussed from 
the standpoint of the phase rule by Bancroft (Jovrn. jjhys. Chem. 1898, 2, 143, 245), 
by Roozeboom (Zeit. phijs. Chem. 1899, 28, 289) and by Findlay (Trans. 1904, 85, 
403), but some modification of the theory is necessary in order to allow for the 
f act that dynamic isomerism is only possible in a tri- or tetra-molecular system, 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 



217 



dimorphism the freezing-point curve for a mixture of two isomerides 
A and B has the well-known V-shaped form shown in the figure. When 
equilibrium exists between them the melt has a definite composition GF, 
which does not vary much with the temperature. The form that separates 
first on cooling is determined by the intersection of F G with C D E ; in the 
figure this lies on the branch C D and the form A is the first to crystal- 
lise. If crystallisation is slow or isomeric change rapid, the composition 
of the liquid and the temperature will remain constant until the whole of 
the substance has crystallised out in the form A. Slow cooling thus 
brings about a complete isomeric change, whilst sudden chilling would 
give a solid of the same composition as the liquid mixture G ; usually the 
product will be intermediate in composition, but the exact proportions 
will depend on the melting-points of the isomerides, the composition 
of the liquid mixture, the velocity of isomeric change, and the rate of 




COMPOS/ T/OAf 



cooling. The temperature G at which one form is in stable equilibrium 
with the liquid mixture is called the ' equilibrium temperature,' 1 and is 
readily determined as the temperature at which the substance remelts 
after fusion. 

3. Fusion. Isomeric Change of Solids. Stability Limits. — Each iso- 
meride has a characteristic melting-point which is independent of isomeric 
change. The melting-point of the stable isomeride which separates first 
on cooling the melt is necessarily above the • equilibrium temperature,' 
whilst that of the labile isomeride may be either above or below this 
temperature. In the case of fl- and ir-bromonitrocamphor the constants 
are : — 



1 
132° 



m.p. of normal 108° 

m.p. of pseudo 142° 



equilibrium temperature 



124° 



100° 



the pseudo being the stable form in each case. When the melting-point 
lies above the equilibrium temperature it can be observed by rapidly 
heating a crystal and noting the temperature at which it fuses ; if heated 
slowly the crystal may melt gradually at a temperature only just above 
the equilibrium temperature, but in this case the fusion is a consequence 
of isomeric change, and will take place more and more slowly as the 
purity of the substance is increased. If the melting-point lies below the 
equilibrium temperature the fused substance will (if sufficiently impure to 
permit of isomeric change) soon solidify owing to the separation of crystals 

i kowry, Trans, 1899, 75, 233, 



218 . REPORT— 1904. 

of the stable isomeride, which will again melt when the equilibrium tem- 
perature is reached ; frequently the melting and resolidincation proceed 
simultaneously, and only a slight sintering is observed in the neighbour- 
hood of the melting-point. 

Although in the liquid state each isomeride is equally labile when 
alone, and equally stable when equilibrium is attained, in the solid state 
only one isomeride can be stable at any given temperature, namely that 
which has the least vapour pressure ; this is usually that which has the 
highest melting-point, but the opposite case is not infrequently observed. 
In the absence of a catalyst the labile isomeride may be preserved indefi- 
nitely, and may even be fused without undergoing isomeric change, but 
usually the change commences before the melting-point is reached, and 
at a temperature depending on the amount of impurity present in the 
crystals. This temperature Knorr has described as the stability limit, 1 
but it cannot be regarded as a physical constant of the substance as 
Knorr at first supposed, and his later work has shown that in the purified 
material the stability limit becomes identical with the melting-point. 2 

4. Dissolution. — Each isomeride has a true solubility which is inde- 
pendent of isomeric change, and may be determined by measuring the 
concentration of the solution obtained when the solid and solvent have 
been in contact during a period of time sufficient for saturation, but 
not long enough for isomeric change to produce any marked effect. 
Ultimately, however, a condition is reached in which the solution contains 
a stable mixture of the isomerides and is saturated with regard to 
one of them. The apparent or ultimate solubility 3 is thus dependent on 
the true solubility and the composition of the mixture in equilibrium. 

The measurement of the initial and final solubility affords a method 
of determining the composition of the mixture. Thus in the case of 
/1-bromonitrocamphor the initial solubility at 10° C. is 2 grams per 100 c.c. 
of benzene, and the final solubility 8 grams per 100 c.c. ; and it may, 
therefore, be inferred that in the ultimate mixture the isomerides are 
present in the ratio 1 : 3 approximately. 4 The method has the advantage 
of being applicable even when only one of the isomerides can be isolated. 

5. Crystallisation from Solutions. — The form that separates first on 
evaporating or cooling a solution is that which has the smallest apparent 
solubility. Usually it will be the major constituent of the mixture, but 
the minor constituent may separate if its true solubility is small. Slow 
crystallisation will then result in complete isomeric change, whilst rapid 
crystallisation will yield a mixture from which the constituents can 
sometimes be separated by picking out the crystals mechanically. 

The order of solubility can sometimes be reversed by changing the 
temperature or the solvent, or both, and in this way it may be possible 
to isolate and purify more than one isomeride. Thus Dr. Whiteley has 
shown ■' that the yellow hydroxylic modification of isonitrosomalonanilide 
separates from chloroform or benzene, but the white pseudoxime from 
ethyl acetate, methyl alcohol, ether, or acetic acid, 

HO.N : C(CO.NHPh) 2 ^ f H \(YCO NHPM 
(from hydrocarbons) «- ^_ /H ( -U.^±i±'n) 2 

(from oxygenated solvents). 

1 Ann. 1899, 306, 70 and 88. 

2 Wislicenus, 'Ueber Tautomeric,' footnote, p. 225. 3 Lowry, Trans. 1899, 75,231. 
< fcowry, Prvc, 1903, 19, 156, « Tram. 1903, 83, 34. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 219 

Precisely similar changes are observed in the case of isonitroso-p- 
chlorobenzyl cyanide, 

7 NH 
C1.C 6 H 4 .C(CN) : NOH -+ C1.C G H 4 .C(CN) ( | (?), 

x O 

which crystallises from alcohol or water in colourless needles, but passes 
into a yellowish-green isomeride when kept or when crystallised from 
petroleum. The sodium salt also exists in a colourless and a yellow form. 1 

In a somewhat similar manner Tanret - by crystallising from alcohol 
at a high temperature isolated a low-rotatory form of glucose isomeric 
with that which separates at ordinary temperatures. 

Piutti and Abati have recently prepared a white and a yellow 
modification of p methoxyphenylphthalimide, 3 which they regard as 
merely dimorphous ; but the difference in colour and the behaviour on 
heating indicate that the two forms are probably dynamic isomerides, and 
may be formulated as the symmetrical and unsymmetrical imide, 

CO C TT 

C 6 H 4 / \ N.C (i H 4 .OMe ^ CO ^ ,N > C : N.C b H 4 .OMe 

(colourless) (yellow). 

From boiling alcohol the yellow form separates, but the white form is 
stable in contact with benzene at ordinary temperatures. In the case of 
the reduced compound, ^-methoxyphenyltetrahydrophthalimide, 

CO C -FT 

C H 8 / \ N.C 6 H 4 .OMe Z CO / 8S > C : N.C G H 4 .OMe, 

x co/ X)— / 

the white form crystallises from all solvents below 70°, and the yellow 
form above 70° ; and this appears to be a fairly definite transition 
temperature. 

Polymorphism. — If isomeric change is rapid the crystallisation of 
dynamic isomerides obeys the same laws that govern the crystallisation 
of polymorphous substances, and it becomes very difficult to distinguish 
the two phenomena. In at least two important cases dynamic isomerides 
have been first described as mere polymorphs, and it is probable that in 
other cases the polymorphism is due to differences in molecular structure. 
A rearrangement of the molecules in the crystal can scarcely produce any 
marked alteration in colour, and a difference so striking as that between 
yellow and red mercuric iodide must be associated with some difference in 
molecular structure. 

6. Physical Methods of Studying Dynamic Isomerism. Mutarotation. — 
(1) In some cases it is possible to determine whether a liquid substance is 
a single compound or a mixture of isomerides in equilibrium by calculating 
the physical constants of the possible isomerides and noting whether the 
substance gives a value agreeing with one of these or intermediate in 
magnitude. Unfortunately the constants that can be calculated are few 
in number, and do not vary much in isomeric compounds ; moreover, the 
accumulation of negative groups gives rise to abnormally high optical 
constants, and the observed values often lie right outside the calculated 

1 Zimmerniann, J.pr. Chcm. 1902, ii. 66, 353. 

2 C S B. 1895, 120, 1060. 3 Ber. 1903, 36, 1000. 



220 report— 1904. 

limits. Statical methods of this kind are, therefore, of little use in detect- 
ing dynamic isomerism, and their chief value consists in the information 
that they give as to the constitution that must be assigned to the domi- 
nant form of the parent substance and to its isomeric derivatives. Thus 
Briihl, 1 by measuring the molecular refraction and dispersion, has shown 
that hydroxymethylene (formyl) camphor is mainly enolic, but its bromo- 
derivative has the aldehydic constitution : — 

.C : CH.OH /CBr.CHO 

C 8 H, / | ->C 8 H M / | 

x co x co 



and, again, that ethyl camphocarboxylate is mainly ketonic, whilst its 
acetyl- derivative is enolic. 2 

/CH.CCEt /C.CO^Et 

C 8 H, / | ^C 8 H 14 / I) 

x CO x C.OAc 

Perkin 3 has also made use of the magnetic rotatory power t a property 
that has the advantage of being much more sensitive to changes 
of structure ; thus, whilst the calculated molecular refractions of the 
two forms of ethylic phenylformylacetate differ by less than 2 per 
cent., the magnetic rotations of the two possible forms of ethyl 
acetoacetate differ by 20 per cent. ; some of the results obtained by 
this method have already been indicated (p. 203). (2) An analogous 
method depends on the fact that the composition of the stable mixture 
may be influenced to a very considerable extent by physical condi- 
tions, and properties like the molecular refraction and the magnetic 
rotation which are normally almost independent of temperature, solvent, 
and concentration may vary widely when the material examined is 
an isodynamic mixture. Such variations may indicate the existence of 
dynamic isomerism, 4 though similar effects are produced by reversible 
polymeric change and by association with the solvent. (3) A more 
sensitive method of detecting dynamic isomerism consists in following the 
physical changes which accompany isomeric change. In the case of a 
pure liquid compound the physical properties reach a constant value as 
soon as the temperature and other physical conditions are steady, but the 
existence of a time-factor is a sure indication of chemical change. Thus, 
when ethylic acetoacetate is distilled the proportions of the isomerides are 
altered, and some hours elapse before the substance recovers its normal 
density, 15 though the total change only amounts to - 0013 gram per c.c. 
Since crystallisation normally results in the complete separation of one of 
the isomerides a maximum amount of isomeric change is observed when 
the crystals revert to the liquid state either by fusion or by dissolution. 
Thus it is sometimes possible by repeated fusion to follow the gradual fall 
in the melting-point as the homogeneous crystals revert to an equilibrium 
mixture, but usually isomeric change is so rapid that a single fusion is 
sufficient to bring about a condition of equilibrium. Dissolution has the 
advantage that observations can be made at atmospheric temperatures, 
and that isomeric change then proceeds much more slowly than in the 
fused state, but the properties of the solute are often very seriously 

1 Zeit.phys. Chem. 1900, 34, 31-61. 2 Ber. 1902, 35, 3510. 

3 Tram. 1892. 61, 801. * Perkin, Briihl, he. cit. 

s gchanm, Ber. 1898, 31, 1964. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 22 1 

disguised by admixture with the solvent. Thus it would be almost 
impossible to detect with certainty the slight change in density or refrac- 
tive index which would result from a partial isomeric change in solution, 
and the change in magnetic rotatory power, though still appreciable, 
would be much smaller than in a fused substance. For this reason the 
method of dissolution only gives the best results when the physical 
property utilised has a zero value in the case of the solvent, and differs 
considerably in the different isomerides. These conditions are fulfilled by 
(1) conductivity, (2) optical rotation, (3) solubility, (4) colour. 

The electrical conductivity has been used with remarkable success by 
Hantzsch, 1 who has followed the gradual decrease of conductivity in 
solutions of the pseudo-nitroparaffins and similar compounds, freshly 
prepared by mixing a solution of the sodium, barium, or silver salt with 
a mineral acid — e.g. : — • 

+ :- — : + +- -! + 

HCl + CH^.CH : NO., Na^Na C1 + CH 3 .CH : NO , H 

+ ;'— 
^Na;Cl + CH 3 .CH 2 .NO,. 

Unfortunately the method is somewhat limited in its applicatiun, and 
cannot readily be applied to substances that are insoluble in water, or are 
only feeble electrolytes. 

Perhaps the most generally applicable method is that which consists 
in observing the mutarotation of freshly prepared solutions of optically 
active bodies. The isomerides usually differ widely in rotatory power, 
and observations can be made in any solvent and in fairly dilute solution. 
The rapidity and accuracy with which measurements can be made render 
it possible to detect changes involving only a small percentage of the 
material or taking place so rapidly that equilibrium is reached in the 
course of a few minutes, Moreover, the conditions are such that the 
behaviour of highly purified materials can be successfully investigated. 
The method has already been applied in a large number of typical cases, 
and can be extended to nearly every type of isomeric change. 

Hitherto the solubility has only been utilised in a limited number of 
cases, 2 but the method, though more tedious and perhaps less accurate 
than those just described, is even more widely applicable, and has the 
unique advantage that it gives information as to the proportions of the 
isomerides in solution, even when only one of these can be isolated. 

The recent observations of Dobbie, Lauder, and Tinkler on the ultra- 
violet absorption -spectra of cotarnine 3 show that colour may be made the 
basis of a quantitative method, and the valuable results that have been 
obtained justify the hope that the method will be applied in many other 
cases. 

7. Colour. — As a qualitative method the colour of dynamic isomerides 
has proved most valuable in indicating the occurrence of isomeric change, 
and it has the unique merit of rendering visible to the eye the progress of 
isomeric change both in the solid and in the liquid state. Moreover, 
since it has become possible to associate colour with definite types of 
structure, and even roughly to predict the probable colour of a compound 
having a given formula, it is often possible to determine, by means of the 
colour, the constitutions that must be assigned to a series of solid 



■o' 



' Ber. 1896. 29, 699, 2256 ; 1899, 32, 607, 628, 641. 

« Lowry, Proc. 1903, 19, 156; Proc. 1904, 20, 108. 3 Trans. 1903, 83, 598. 



222 REPORT— 1904. 

isomerides. Thus it is noteworthy that the earliest indication of the 
possible existence of hydroxylic pseudonitro compounds was based upon 
observations of colour-change, and the suggestion made by Armstrong 
in 1892, 1 in order to account for the coloured salts of the nitrophenols, 
has been abundantly justified by the subsequent investigations of Nef, 
Hantzsch, and others. According to this view the colourless ethers 
have formula? of the type EtO C G H 4 .NO.,, whilst the coloured salts are 
formulated as O : C () H ( : N0 2 K ; in the liquid state the nitrophenols 
themselves may exist in both forms, 

HO.C (i H 4 .NO^O : C G H 4 : N0 2 H, 

but the colourless needles of ^j-nitrophenol must be represented by the 
first, and the quinone-like crystals of o-nitrophenol by the second 
formula. 

Again, of the compounds represented by the formula? — 

(1) HO.C^.NO (2) : C,H 4 : N01I (3) O : C b H 4 < | 

x O 

the first should be blue or green like the o and y; ethers, MeO.C ( ,H, NO ;'- 
the second should be red like the sodium salt, : C 6 Hi : NONa, or 
yellow like the benzoyl- derivative O : C () H 4 : NOBz, whilst the third 
should be colourless like the pseudoquinols. The substance produced by 
the action of nitrous acid on phenol or of hydroxylamine on quinone 
separates from ether in green flakes, and gives a green solution in water, 
alcohol, oi' ether, which must contain at least a considerable proportion 
of the nitroso- compound (1) ; the colourless needles which separate 
from aqueous solution may be a dimolecular form of the nitroso- 
compound (p. 224), but must otherwise be represented by the third 
formula. 

The difference in colour between the yellow hydroximes and the 
colourless pseudoximes, observed by Dr. Whiteley in the derivatives of 
isonitrosomalonamide, has already been referred to ; a similar explanation 
may be given of the colour- changes observed in violuric acid and its 
salts (Hantzsch and Isherwood), 

/NH.CCX /NH.CO. y NH 

co< >c : noh £ co< >c< | 

Nnh.co/ x nh.co/ x O 

and in ethylic isonitrosocyanacetate and its salts 3 

NH 

HON : C(CN).C0 2 Et Z I >C(CN).CO.,Et ; 

O — / 

in each case, however, the authors regard the coloured compounds as 

— C— O 
containing the group though this group would scarcely be 

— Q— N.OH, 
likely to give rise to colour. 

8. Absorption Spectra. — Whilst valuable results are obtained by 
merely noting the colour of dynamic isomerides, data of much greater 

1 Proc. Chum. Soc. 8, 101. 2 Baeyer and Knorr, Bcr, 1902, 35, 3034. 

3 Muller, Bull. Soc. Cham. 1902, iii. 27, 1019. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 223 

value are afforded by a detailed study of their absorption spectra. 
Attention has already been called to the observations of Hartley and of 
Dobbie and Lauder, but further reference must be made to the recent 
work of Baly and Desch. 1 These authors have shown that neither of the 
ethyl- derivatives of ethyl acetoacetate give absorption bands, and con- 
clude that the absorption of light by ethyl acetoacetate depends directly on 
the occurrence of oscillatory isomeric change. They even suggest that the 
intensity of the absorption band is a direct indication of the rate at which 
the reversible isomeric change is proceeding. This theory of the origin 
of colour is in accord with the fact that nearly all coloured substances 
can be represented by two formulae, and that colour is most frequent 
amongst aromatic compounds in which a migration of the linkages is of 
frequent occurrence. If this view should be confirmed by subsequent 
observations it would form a most important application of the theory of 
dynamic isomerism. 

9. Luminosity. — Whilst colour may perhaps depend only on the 
selective absorption of light-energy by certain groups of atoms, many of 
the phenomena of luminosity appear to be directly due to the inter- 
conversion of dynamic isomerides. 2 

The simplest of these is the flash of light that is sometimes observed 
when a crystal is crushed or powdered, and which in organic compounds 
is usually associated with one of the structures that give rise to dynamic 
isomerism. Thus saccharine and menthylphenylformylacetate, which 
give an exceedingly brilliant flash, 3 are normally ketonic compounds, 
though their solutions may contain a trace of the labile enolic isomeride 

/CO / C0H V 

C b H / >NH t- C eH 4 < > T 

\so./ x so 2 / 

CHO.CHPh.C0 2 E Z HO.CH : CPh.C0 2 R. 

During rapid crystallisation a small amount of the enolic form may 
be entangled in the crystals, and the flash of light appears to be due to 
the energy liberated when the labile form undergoes isomeric change at 
the moment of crashing. 

Fluorescence appears to be a modification of this phenomenon in which 
the labile isomeride is continuously reproduced by the action of ultra- 
violet light, and phosphorescence may be regarded as fluorescence 
taking place in a viscous medium which will only permit a gradual rever- 
sion to the stable form. The relationship between fluorescence and 
dynamic isomerism has been discussed by Hewitt, 4 and the nature of 
phosphorescence may be illustrated by reference to the ketones, which 
become brilliantly phosphorescent after exposure to ultra-violet light at 
low temperatures (Dewar), probably owing to the liberation on warming 
of energy stored up at low temperatures in the labile enolic form. 

VIII. Reversible Polymeric Change. 

Reversible polymeric changes obey nearly all the laws that govern 
reversible isomeric change, and give rise to phenomena similar to those 
that have been described in the preceding sections. But whilst reversible 

1 Trans. 1904, 85, 1029. 

2 Armstrong and Lowry, Proc. Roy. Soc. 1903, 72, 258. 

3 Pope, Trans. 1895, 67, 985 ; Lapworth, Trans. 1902, 81. 1195. 
* Proc. Clicm. Soc. 1900, 16, 3; Zeit.phys. Ckem. 1900, 34, 1. 



224 report— 1904. 

isomeric changes are limited to a comparatively small group of substances, 
reversible polymeric changes occur very frequently, not only in complex 
organic compounds, but also in the simplest inorganic substances, includ- 
ing even the elements. Perhaps the most notable difference consists in 
the fact that equilibrium is largely influenced, and indeed mainly deter- 
mined, by the temperature and pressure, conditions which produce only 
small changes in the equilibrium between dynamic isomerides. 

In most cases equilibrium is attained almost instantaneously. The 
properties of freshly melted ice are perfectly normal, and the depolymeri- 
sation of N 2 4 is so rapid that it is not possible to detect any time-factor. 
Amongst organic compounds, however, gradual changes have occasionally 
been noticed. Formaldehyde shows a slow decrease of molecular weight 
in freshly diluted solutions, 1 and freshly diluted or freshly cooled solutions 
of gelatine only slowly assume their normal viscosity. The most striking 
examples of gradual changes of this type are to be found amongst the 
organic nitroso- compounds which exist in a blue or green monomolecular 
and a colourless dimolecular form. 2 In the case of nitrosobutanc, 
CMe. 3 NO, Bamberger and Seligman 3 have plotted a complete curve 
showing the gradual depolyinerisation in a solution in benzene at the 
freezing-point ; equilibrium is reached in four hours, and the decrease of 
molecular weight proceeds simultaneously with the development of the 
blue colour. 

There is reason to believe, however, that under favourable conditions 
gradual association and dissociation are not infrequent amongst simple 
inorganic compounds. Only in this way can the remarkable facts 
be explained that have been noted by many observers in studying the 
critical phenomena of gases, and to which attention has recently been 
called by Traube. 4 Thus, when liquid carbon dioxide is heated above its 
critical temperature, the upper and lower layers of gas, though easily 
miscible, remain distinct for a considerable period of time, and only 
gradually diffuse into one another. Under apparently identical conditions 
the density of the gas may vary in the ratio of 1 : 2-16. So also when the 
gas is cooled from above its critical temperature, neither the liquid nor 
the vapour has at first its normal density ; the meniscus is gradually dis- 
placed through several centimetres, equilibrium being attained only 
after a week has elapsed. Traube explains these results by assuming the 
existence of ' gasogenic ' and ' liquidogenic ' molecules, but the variation 
of physical properties with time, to which reference has been so frequently 
made in the preceding pages, affords clear evidence of the occurrence of 
chemical change, and it can scarcely be doubted that the phenomena, if 
not due to inequalities of temperature or pressure, afford indications of a 
reversible polymeric change similar in character to, but slower than, 
those which take place so rapidly in the case of water and of nitrogen 
peroxide. 

1 Inaug. Diss. Rostoch, Eschweiler ; Abstr. 1890, 954. 

» Meyer, Ber. 1888, 21, 507; 1896, 29, 94; Thiele, Abstr. 1894, i. 217; Daeyer, 
Abstr. 1894, i. 252; Piloty, Ber. 1898, 81, 218, 221, 452, 457, 1878; 1902, 35, 3113; 
1903, 36, 1297; Schmidt, Ber. 1903, 36, 1765; Bamberger and Rising:, Ber. 1901, 
34, 3877. 8 

3 Ber. 1903, 36, 689. * Aim. d. Physih, 1902, 8, 2, 267. 



MOVEMENTS OF UNDERGROUND WATERS OF NORTH-WEST YORKSHIRE. 225 



The Movements of Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire. — 
Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. 
Watts (Chairman), Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Rev. E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mr. George Bray, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, 
Professor P. F. Kendall, and Dr. J. E. Marr. 

The Committee are carrying on the work in conjunction with a committee 
of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. 

It will be remembered that at the Southport meeting the Committee 
reported that the work of tracing the streams sinking on the slopes of the 
Ingleboro' massif was complete, with the exception of a few small streams. 

These have now been traced, and the work of the Committee is there- 
fore completed, with the exception of the boreholes at Turn Dub men- 
tioned below. 

The work done during the current year consists of tracing the fol- 
lowing streams by means of fluorescein. 

East Side of Ingleboro'. 

1. The stream sinking at P 14, L near the shooting-box on the Allot- 
ment, which had been unsuccessfully tested on several previous occasions, 
was found to issue at Austwick Beck Head (S 28). 

2. A small stream to the north of last, sinking at P 18, passes by 
P 19, where the fluorescein was visible, to S 40, there joining the water 
from P 25 and P 26, previously tested. 

3. The small stream sinking at the ' Washfold ' (P 52) on Park Fell 
was found to communicate with the channel from Alum Pot to Footnaws 
Hole (S 65), where the water was strongly coloured three days after the 
fluorescein was introduced at P 52. Footnaws Hole, as has been pre- 
viously shown, discharges in normal weather at Turn Dub (S 67). 

West Side of Ingleboro'. 

4. P 93. The water from a group of small streams near Douk Cave 
on Fen wick Lot, Souther Scales Fell, flows underground along the direc - 
tion of the master joints in the limestone, and issues at S 106a, a small 
spring below Eller Keld. 

5. The water from P 97 and P 98 on Souther Scales Fell flows to a 
small spring and cave known as Far Douk, but not marked on the 6 -inch 
Ordnance Map, P 95a, and then again goes underground to join the 
river, somewhere on its underground course from Weathercote Cave to 
God's Bridge. 

6. P 101 and P 102 on Black Shiver Moss receive the waters of two 
small streams, the flow being to the lower end of Mere Gill Hole, where 
it joins the waters of Mere Gill, and again goes underground. The further 
course of this stream has been described in a previous report. 

7. P 102a on the eastern edge of Lead Mines Moss, not marked on 
the 6-inch map, receives a small stream in wet weather only. 

This, on being tested with fluorescein, was found to communicate with 
S 116 near the ' Engine Sheds' at the Ingleton Granite Quarries. 

1 The letters and numbers refer to maps published in the previous reports of the 
Committee. 

1 904. o 



226 report— 1904. 

A number of boreholes have been put down in the neighbourhood of 
Turn Dub (see previous reports), the result being that a thickness of from 
7 to 8 feet of boulder clay has been proved below the present river-bed. 

This, it is considered, is sufficient to account for the passage of the 
underground water below the surface stream. 

The boreholes are still in progress, and the Committee therefore 
seek reappointment, with permission to retain the unexpended balance. 

A full account of the work of the Committee will be published in the 
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. 



Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Bocks. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton 
Hind (Secretary), Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, Dr. 
A. H. Foobd, Mr. H. Fox, Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. 
Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. J. T. 
Stobbs, Mr. A. Strahan, and Dr. H. Woodward. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 

The Secretary once again regrets that he has received no reports from the 
large majority of the members of the Committee. 

Work has been done by Mr. J. T. Stobbs in three districts. He has 
again generously given his time, and therefore the grant is only debited 
with travelling and out-of-pocket expenses. 

Tt was found impossible owing to mining difficulties to work the 
marine band which occurs in the North Staffordshire Coalfield below the 
Gin Mine coal. But for the sum of a few shillings a trench was dug across 
the strike and the beds were exposed in succession. The marine band 
was exposed and some few fossils were collected, but the bed was much 
weathered by proximity to the surface, and it was found inadvisable on 
this account to make any prolonged search for fossils. However, the 
position of the marine band with regard to the Gin Mine coal, a subject 
on which in the course of years a curious error had arisen, was definitely 
settled. Sections and a list of fossils obtained are given in Mr. Stobbs's 
report. 

As excavations for waterworks were being carried on in the Valley 
of the Derwent Mr. Stobbs went there to examine the cuttings in the 
Pendleside Series, the upper portion of which was then exposed. A 
detailed report follows. 

It was also thought good to examine the northern boundary of the 
South Wales Coalfield, and as far as possible to collect from the small 
coal workings, confined to single seams. In the recent resurvey of the 
South Wales Coalfield palaeontology does not seem to have had the 
attention paid to it which it deserves. The grant therefore has only been 
partially used, and the Committee ask that the balance may be retained 
for future work. 

Personally, while collecting in the Carboniferous district of the 
Midlands, the Secretary has been examining the Devonian Carboniferous 
succession in the south-west of Ireland and North Devon, the results of 
which are expressed in a paper published in the ' Geological Magazine ' for 
August 1904. 

It is well known that the Carboniferous Limestone in South-west 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 227 

Ireland gradually dies away south-west of Cork, and in the succession at 
Old Head of Kinsale, and from that point westward no Limestone 
whatever occurs, but instead there is a thick mass of Grits and Slates, 
which have been called Lower Limestone Slates and Coomhola Grits. 
It is also known that the passage up from the Devonian Grits to 
Coomhola Grits is unbroken, and that the one series has no top and the 
other has no base. The Coomhola Grits are, however, fossiliferous and 
contain shells referred to Ptychopteria Damnonensis, Gucullcea uni- 
lateralism species which occur in the Pilton and Marwood series of Devon- 
shire. These beds are always classed as Upper Devonian in England, and 
therefore it would be well for the same line to be drawn in Ireland. The 
whole fauna from the Coomhola Grits should be re-examined, because I 
think it probable that trilobites and other species have been referred to 
Carboniferous forms on the supposition that the Coomhola beds were 
Carboniferous. The Coomhola Grits ai*e overlaid by the Lower Carboni- 
ferous Slate, part of which is indeed of Carboniferous age, because it 
contains Posidonomya Becheri. Here then is a point of great interest. 
Beds with a Marwood and Pilton fauna are overlaid by grey shales and 
then by black with P. Becheri ; and in North Devon the Pilton beds are 
succeeded by the Lower Culm with P. Becheri in abundance in the Venn 
Limestones. In both districts the Devonian Carboniferous succession, 
apparently unbroken and conformable, is from Marwood and Pilton beds 
to Pendleside Series, the Carboniferous Limestone being absent in each 
locality ; and if there is no unconformity it follows that the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone was never laid down in the North Devon, Cork, and 
Kerry latitude. 

Jukes considered that the Carboniferous Slate of South-west Ireland 
was contemporaneous with the Carboniferous Limestone, and his views 
are given at length, pp. 33-37 of the ' Memoir of the Geological Survey ' 
(Ireland), Explanations of Sheets 187, 195, 196 of the maps. He 
visited North Devon and says : ' I saw that both lithologically and 
palajontologically, bed for bed, and fossil for fossil, the Braunton and 
Piltown rocks of Devon were identical with the Carboniferous slate of 
Cork. The Marwood sandstones and the grey grits below them that 
form Baggypoint were obviously the same as our Coomhola Grits, and the 
red and green rocks that rise up from beneath those rocks in Morte Bay 
are exactly similar to the Upper Old Red Sandstone of large parts of the 
west of County Cork. 

'But the Coal Measures ' (by which I suppose he means the Culm, and 
I would that all subsequent geologists had recognised the Coal Measure 
horizon of these beds) ' of Devon rest on the Carboniferous slate without 
intervention of any Carboniferous Limestone in its ordinary form, often 
without any appearance of limestone at all.' But he carries his argu- 
ment too far, for he goes on to say : ' If, however, we have Coal Measures 
above and Old Red Sandstone below, the rocks between them must be of 
the age of the Carboniferous Limestone.' 

The Lower Culm is, I am convinced, of later age than the Carboniferous 
Limestone, and is the homotaxial equivalent of the Pendleside series. 
How comes it, therefore, that the Coomhola Grits and the grey portion of 
the so-called Lower Carboniferous Slate are mapped as Carboniferous 
instead of Upper Devonian 1 

The view advanced by Jukes, that the Carboniferous Slate is con- 
temporaneous with the Carboniferous Limestone, is probably correct, the 

Q2 



228 



REPORT — 1904. 



slate consisting of two portions — the lower grey or Upper Devonian, 
the upper black or Pendleside or Upper Carboniferous. There is no 
evidence of an overlap, but it must be remembered that the rocks of 
South-west Cork are nearly vertical, and have been much moved, and I 
believe the Upper or Posidonomya beds and part of the Carboniferous 
Limestone is a synclinal with the limbs absolutely in contact, so that the 
beds in the centre are doubled on themselves. 

During last winter Mr. J. G. Hamling, F.G.S., of Barnstaple, kindly 
sent me for examination a large suite of fossils collected from the Coddon 
Hill beds of the Lower Culm. These so interested me that I felt it neces- 
sary to visit the locality, which I did under his skilled guidance. The 
Lower Culm of North Devon consists of two series of rocks, neither of 
them apparently very thick, but much folded and repeated. The Coddon 
Hill beds are thin laminated, white or fawn-coloured silicious beds, with 



the following fauna : — 




Trilobites — 




*Phillipsia polleni ? . 

,, spatulata .... 
Pro'etus coddenensis .... 


. H. Woodward 
. H. Woodward 
. H. Woodward 


*Palceaeis kviirilis .... 


. Hinde. 


Pleurodictyum declianianum 
Petrcea, cf . P. piauciradialis 

*Productu$ plicatus .... 

*Chonetes laguessiana .... 


. Kayser. 
. Phill., sp. 
. Sarres. 
. de Kon. 


* Ortholetes crenestria .... 


. Phill, sp. 


*Athyris ambigva. 

* Prolecanites comp>ressus 

* ,, mixololus 


. Sow., sp. 
. Phill., sp. 


*Pterycyelus sp. 

* 1 Stroboceras sulcatus 


. Phill., sp. 


* ? Nomismoceras gpirorbis. 


Ji 11 


* Cheenocardiola footii .... 


. Baily, sp. 



Radiolarians. 
Orinoid stems. 

Those species marked with an asterisk (*) occur in the lower part of 
the Pendleside series. 

The other beds of the Lower Culm are the Venn Limestones, a "series 
of black carbonaceous limestones, with 



Posidonomya becheri, Low. 
Pseudamusium Jibrillosum, Salter, sp. 
Glyphioceras spirale, Phill., sp. 



Glyphioceras crenistria, Phill., sp. 
,, sphcericwm, Phill., sp. 

Ortkoceras sp. 



It is a point of difference amongst writers on the Culm as to whether 
the Posidonomya limestones are above or below the Coddon Hill beds. 
I believe for stratigraphical reasons that the Coddon Hill beds are at the 
base and the Venn Limestones succeed them, and also because the 
Palreontological succession in Derbyshire has beds with Prolecanites 
compressus at the base and Posidonomya Becheri immediately above 
them. In my paper in the ' Geological Magazine,' op. supra cit., I have 
gone into the stratigraphical question in detail. 

Immediately overlying the Posidonomya beds, if I am correct, are a 
series of Middle Culm grits, with occasional vegetable remains, what I 
consider to be the homotaxial equivalents of the Millstone Grit, because 
they are intercalated between beds with Prolecanites compressus and 
Posidonomya Becheri and the series of clays and shales which are well 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 229 

seen at Instow, where in a bed of calcareous bullions the following 
fossils occur : — 

Gastrioceras listeri, Mart., sp. Pterinopecten papyraceus, Sow., sp. 

„ carbonarium, v. Buch. Posidouiella Icevis, Brown., sp. 

Dimorphoceras gilbertsoni, Phill. Cwlacanthus elegam, Newb. 

Orthoceras sp. ElonicJithys aitkeni, Traq. 

The fauna is one which I regard as characteristic of the marine part 
of the Gannister Series of the Lower Coal Measures. 

The beds above the Instow series have a wonderfully familiar appear- 
ance to one acquainted with the Coal Measures, and I am glad to say 
that Mr. E. Newell Arber has read a paper at the Royal Society which 
conclusively proves from the flora contained in them that the Culm- 
bearing series round Bideford is of Middle Coal Measure age. 

This is borne out by the occurrence of Carbonicola acuta at Roberts 
quarry, near Bideford, immediately above a rich plant bed, with well- 
preserved Middle Coal Measure ferns. It must remain at present an 
open question whether the Carboniferous Limestone is represented in the 
Culm series by a few feet of calcareous shales and a band or two of 
limestone, which is seen on the foreshore near Fremington Station. The 
limestone also being exposed at Fremington Pill Quarry is open to 
question. The shales on the foreshore contain species of Brachiopoda, 
which are common to the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous. 

There are, therefore, four life-zones in the Culm — 

Zone of Carbonicola acuta and Zone of Posidonomya becheH. 

Middle Coal Measure plants. „ Prolecanites compressus. 

Zone of Gastrioceras listeri and 

G. carbonarium. 

which definitely fix the age of the Culm of North Devon. 

This fossil evidence is of importance from an economic view, for it 
definitely shows that the beds of Culm are the representatives of the 
coal seams, and that any occurrence of coal in Devonshire is altogether 
improbable. 

The line of strike of the Mendip anticlinal and the Coddon Hill 
series have a similar relation to each other that the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone of Cork and Killarney has to the Devonian Carboniferous succession 
of the Old Head of Kinsale and Coomhola, and the absence of Carboniferous 
Limestone south of a fairly definite line is noticed in Devonshire and 
South-west Cork and Kerry. This condition of things points to a 
similarity of physical causes in both areas. 

An important paper by Mr. Vaughan, F.G.S., ' On the Pala?ontological 
Sequence of the Carboniferous Limestone of the Bristol Area,' was read 
before the Geological Society in June. The paper is not yet published, 
and I hesitate to criticise it ; but in any Carboniferous area with which 
I am acquainted the fossils chosen by Mr. Vaughan as denoting zones 
and sub-zones — with one exception, that of Modiola lata, a variety 
probably of M. macadami — all occur together at several horizons. 

To quote 3. — Productus semireticidatus, P. cora, Schizophoria 
resujrinata, and Sjnriferina octojMcata occur practically at all horizons in 
the same beds. 

It is, however, a subject of congratulation that work is being com- 
menced on palasontological lines in the Bristol and Mendip area. 

The zonary divisions established by Mr. Vaughan are given in the 
following table. (This is the form in which these divisions are finally set 
out after emendation and further revision of a preliminary working system.) 



230 



REPORT — 1904. 



Zones 



Sub-zones and Horizons 






DlBUNOPHYLLUM 



** Seminula 



f (D 2 ) Lonsdaleia fioriformis. 

\ (D,) Dibunophyllum cylindricum . 



(S 2 ) Prodnctus cora (mut.). 
(SO Product lis semireticulat'its.x 



< Zapheentis 

1— I 
GO 

o 

I 

p 
o 
H Cleistopora 



MODIOLA 



(C) Syringoihyris, sp. nov. 

\/ 

7 

/\ 

(Z 2 ) Schizophoria resupinata. 

(Z,) Spirifer atf. clathratus. 
\/ 

/\ 

I (K„) Spiriferi/ta octoplicata. 

{ (KJ Prodnctus, sp. nov. 



(M) Modiola lata. 



(Caninia- 
Zone.) ' 



For example : Procluctus Cora, P. semireticulatus, and Schizophoria 
resupinata range as high as the upper 300 feet of the Pendleside Series 
in Cheshire. The first two fossils occur in the Calciferous Sandstone 
Series of Fife, P. Cora in the Ardens limestone, and P. semireticulatus 
and Schizophoria resupinata all through the Calciferous Sandstone Series. 
All three of these fossils occur throughout the Yoredale Series of Wens- 
leydale. 

Spiriferina octoplicata is found with all the above species at Castleton 
and Park Hill, Derbyshire, in the upper beds of the series, and in Fife 
is found throughout the Carboniferous Limestone Series and as low down 
as the encrinite bed in the Calciferous Limestone Series. 

Lonsdale ia fioriformis is not found in the upper beds of the limestone 
in Derbyshire, but in the main or great limestone of Weardale occurs 
with the three forms of Brachiopoda mentioned above. 

Dibunophyllum cylindricum occurs in the Lower Limestone Series of 
the West of Scotland with Lonsdaleia fioriformis, and also some way 
down in the Lpper Limestone Series of the North-west of Irebind. It 
will be a curious anomaly if the distribution of the species in the isolated 
patch of Bristol and the Mendips is totally different from that which 
obtains in all other districts of Great Britain. 

Up to the present I have looked in vain for any species of organism 
which denotes a definite Horizon in the Carboniferous Limestone Series of 
Great Britain. 

It must be noted that in Belgium the Visean is characterised by the 
presence of Prodnctus giganteus, a shell absent in the Tournaisian. 

1 Employed throughout the preliminary working system. 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



231 



In the Midlands and Scotland P. giganteus occurs throughout the whole 
of the Carboniferous Limestone Series, which makes it doubtful whether 
there is any representative of the Tournai Limestone there. 

In a paper published in the 'Geological Magazine,' December 4, 
vol. v. p. 61, I referred to the anomalies of distribution throughout the 
Carboniferous deposits of Europe of the various species of Brachiopoda 
which have been stated to denote various horizons in Belgium and Russia. 

Owing to the deep trenching, necessary for the construction of a 
reservoir by the Derwent Valley Water Board in N. Derbyshire, an 
unusual opportunity was presented of examining the upper portion of the 
Pendleside Series, which consists mainly of dark laminated shales and 
thin sandstones. 

By the favour of Mr. E. Sandeman, M.Inst.C.E., we were enabled to 
inspect the sections and the material which was being excavated on a 
large scale, and to collect therefrom. 

The lower trench, where the work of excavation was mostly proceed- 
ing at the time, cuts at right angles the bottom of the valley of the 
river Derwent, a little to the south of Hollinclough Farm, and the 
following section was exposed at this point : — 



Fig. 1. 



ft. in. 



t. Shales 



2. Grit 



3. Shales, with five thin grit bands 



4. Grit 

5. Shales 
tj. Grit 



7. Shale 



8. Grit 

9. Shale 

10. Grit 

11. Shale 

12. Grit 

13. Shale 







7 

2 9 

i G 

5 

2 9 

7 

i 

1 3 

3 



3 



232 

14. Grit 

15. Shales 



REPORT — 1904. 



16. Grit, with large calcareous bullions 

17. Shale, with large calcareous bullions 

18. Grit ...... 



19. Micaceous shales . 



20. 
21. 
22. 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 
27. 
28. 

29. 

30. 

31. 

32. 
33. 

34. 

35. 



Grit 

Compact shale 
Argillaceous sandstone 

Shale 

Grit 



Compact shale 

Thinly bedded grit 
Micaceous shale 
Grit 



Shale 



Thinly bedded grit 
Shale 



Grit 

Shale 

Grit 



Shales with lenticles of grit 

Grit .... 
Shale with thin pipes of coal 



36, 
37, 
38 
39. 

40. Grit 



Grit 
Shale 



41. Shale 



42. Grit in three beds . 



43. Micaceous shale 

44. Grit 

45. Micaceous shale 

46. Grit 

47. Shale 

48. Grit 

49. Shale with nodules 




^Sr*^ 







-apee-J 







7V-';..>;c7£.V£;\£ 




ft. in. 



6 



1 

9 

1 



4 6 

1 
7 
6 

1 8 

1 3 

1 6 

8 

10 

4 

2 
6 

1 10 

I 

1 7 
I 

1 10 

10 

1 3 

5 

7 

1 4 
1 9 

6 9 



2 6 

2 4 

10 
9 

10 
1 

Base not seen. 



LIFE-ZONES IK THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 233 

The bed ' 15. Shales ' was highly fossil if erous, yielding the following 
forms : — 

Orthoccras sp. Pterinopecten papyraceus, Calamites sp. 

Goniatites, indeterminable species of. Posidoniella leevis (large). 

Resting on '18. Grit' were numerous large ellipsoidal calcareous 
bullions, some of which measured 2 ft. 6in. and 1 ft. 6 in. along their major 
and minor axes respectively. As a rule the bullions contained numerous 
goniatites, and in one of them was found a fine specimen of Acroleins 
Hopkinsi. 

In ' 17. Shales ' Posidoniella leevis and Glyphioceras reticulatum were 
fairly abundant. 

From ' 21. Shales ' Glyphioceras reticulatum was collected. 

' 25. Compact shale ' contained large Pterinopecten papyraceus and 
Posidoniella leevis in great numbers. 

' 27. Micaceous shale ' contained Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidoniella 
leevis, Orthoceras sp., and Goniatites of indeterminable species. 

In the middle of ' 29. Shale' was a layer containing Pterinopecten 
papyraceus. 

' 33. Shale ' contained Glyphioceras reticulatum. 

' 35. Shales with lenticles of grit ' were very fossiliferous ; Posidoniella 
leevis, Pterinopecten papyraceus, Glyphioceras reticulatum, and Goniatite 
sp. were collected. 

'41. Shale' contained Calamites sp. 

' 43. Micaceous shale ' contained fragmentary plant remains. 

The upper trench had been similarly cut across R. Derwent, a short 
distance above the Abbey Farm, in measures higher in the series, where 
the shales were thinner and the grits were thicker and formed an 
increasing proportion of the strata. 

The succession revealed by these two trenches corresponds with the 
shales and sandstones towards the base of the eastern scarp of Mam Tor, 
near Castleton, Derbyshire. 

The difficulty in getting continuous sections of Pendleside shales, 
owing to their disturbed character and to the fact that they are commonly 
exposed at the bottom of valleys, has been frequently observed. Some 
light was thrown on the subject by the position of the beds in these 
trenches. Figs. 2 and 3 show the relation of these disturbances to the 
valley and hills, as seen in the lower trench, the same general features of 
which were to be observed in the upper trench also. 

The distance between the two trenches, measured in a straight line, is 
about 1| mile, and the strata forming the bed of the river are thrown 
into an anticlinal fold with subsidiary wrinklings in both instances. 
These foldings are shown in fig. 3 to be confined to the strata near the 
surface, which consist of the softer and more incoherent shales, whilst the 
hard and thick grit (No. 42 in fig. 1) may be observed to have resisted 
the crush movement and forms a fairly level floor to the excavation. 

An examination of the ground renders improbable the idea that both 
the trenches intersect the same anticline, and remembering that both 
sections occur at the bottom of deep and narrow valleys one is forced to 
regard the ' wrinkle ' and the valley itself as being related in some way 
as cause and effect. There can be no doubt that considerable ' side- 
thrust ' would result from the weight of these hills, which naturally would 
make itself felt most on those beds forming the bottom of the valley, 



234 



REPORT — 190-4. 



which would, if insufficiently rigid, be crushed and crumpled, and thus 
prepared for rapid erosion by the stream or river. So that whilst in the 



Fig. 2. 



w 




N9 4-2 Orit.(Fi4j, I.) 



Scales : Horizontal, 12 inches per mile. 
Vertical, 400 feet per inch. 



early stages the incipient valley induced the side-thrust of the hills, and 
the consequent ' crushing ' of the measures in the way indicated, the latter 



Fig. 3. 




'V°42~^P7 



f * l : 9'J'i£ L ■ . '"/ "■'•'■-; ; '/^ : >':': ; '"" :r '^'v : -■■"■■' ■•' : ' -. : '■■ '■"■ ' ■ &nc 



has undoubtedly reacted by powerfully promoting the deepening of the 
valley. 

Fig. 4. 



Ne.tcUba.nk Pic 




vet 



Scale : 2 chains per inch. 

In the North Staffordshire Coalfield it was deemed desirable to find 
the outcrop of a rich marine bed known to exist about the horizon of the 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 235 

Gin Mine Coal. Permission to cut a trench for this purpose on their 
estate near Smallthorne was kindly given by Messrs. R. Heath & Co., to 
whom we are under great obligation. Our thanks are also due to Mr. 
W. Lockett for assistance and advice. 

The horizon was reached and its relation to the coal seam, and also its 
succession of life-forms, exactly made out. This was of great importance, 
since our previous conceptions required inversion. It was rather dis- 
appointing, however, to find the richest part of the horizon, consisting of a 
very impure and earthy limestone, to be so decomposed on the hillside, 
where we were working, that the fossils were incapable of preservation, 
and often of identification. So that the proposal to work the bed on a 
larger scale at this point was abandoned. The general section is shown 
in fig. 4, and the following is the succession of the measures constituting 
the ' marine bed,' together with the fossils restricted to each stratum, so 
far as could be ascertained, viz. — 

ft. in. 

(1) Dark shale 6 

(2) Impure limestone 2 9 

(3) Dark shale 7 9 

(1) contains — 

Lvngula mytiloides, Piscina, nitida. 

(2) contains — - 

Productus scmireticulatus, Athyris ambigua, Chonetes Lagucssiana, iXucula 
gibbosa, Ephippioceras costatwm, Haphistoma junior, Pleuronautilus armatus, Pleuro- 
nautilus n. sp. (with tubercles). 

(3) (upper layer) contains — 

Archeocidaris ZIrei, crinoid ossicles, Loxonema sp., Turbonellina, cf. T.formosa, 
Orthoceras pygmceus, Pseudamusium fibrillosum, Nuculana acuta, Ctenudonta 
laviroitris. 

At base : — 

Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidoniella sulcata. 



In South Wales collecting was done on the northern outcrop of the 
Carboniferous rocks, and the opportunity was taken of examining the 
1 patchworks ' of the Coal Measures in that district. There is no doubt 
that great discrimination and experience are required in collecting from 
'patchworks,' and serious errors have arisen in the past from the work of 
spoil-heap collectors. This is the more to be regretted, since in no other 
circumstances do we find such a quantity of material available for search 
and inspection. 

Owing to the personal uncertainty as to the name of the coal seam 
from whose associated measures the fossils have been derived the position 
of the ' patch ' where they were found will be given in terms of latitude 
and longitude picked off the 1-inch Ordnance maps, so that the localities may 
be of assistance to other workers. The horizons will be taken in descending 
order. 

A few feet below the outcrop of the Soap-vein on the patchworks, 



236 report— 1904. 

west of Rhymney (51° 45' 35" N., 3° 18' 5" W.), there is a thin clayband 
ironstone which contains in great abundance — 

? Scaldia minvta or Estheria. Naiadites ? 

This band should form a good index-bed. 

Lower down on the same patchworks, near the horizon of the Elled 
Coal, south of Brynpwllog (51° 45' 45" N., 3° 18' 0" W.) were found :— 

Anthracomya modiolaris (common). Carbonicola acuta. 

From the roof of the Ras Las Coal, No. 2 Pit, Fochrhiw, the following 
were obtained : — 

Carbonicola aquilina (common" 1 . Naiadites modiolaris. 

Naiadites carinata „ 

From the patchwork near Dowlais (51° 45' 35" N., 3° 20' 15" W.), at 
the horizon of the 9-foot coal, the following were collected : — 

Anthracomya modiolaris. JVaiadites carinata (common). 

Carbonicola aquilina (common). 

The Ras Las Coal has been regarded as identical with the 9-foot coal, 
and the above lists support this correlation. 

At a level near Hirwaun (51° 45' 5" N., 3° 31' 5" W.), about the horizon 
of the Cnapiog Coal, fine specimens of Carbonicola robusta were abundant. 

In the roof -shale of a thin coal (4 inches thick) which occurs above the 
grit overlying the engine coal, where it outcrops south of Clydach Colliery, 
the following plant remains were found : — 

In an exposure of black shales in the W. bank of R. Rhymney, a few 
yards north of Blaen Rhymney, were found — 

A nthracomya pumila. Beyrichia arcuata. 

Carbonicola acuta (numerous). Coelacanthus lepturus. 

Naiadites modiolaris. 

These black shales are in the so-called Millstone Grit Series. 

In dark shales in the same series of rocks a horizon, about 15 inches 
thick, is exposed in the banks of the stream S. of Garth (51° 46' 15" N., 
3° 20' 65" W.), and contains— 

Carbonicola acuta (abundant). Carbonia sp. 

A little higher in the series and farther up the stream to the east, in 
dark shales, about 2 feet thick, the following list was obtained : — 

Solenomya primaeva. Edmondia sp. 

Ctenodonta laevirostris. Lingula mytiloides. 

Nucula aequalis. 

Higher again in the series, near Pitwellt Pond (51° 46' 45" N., 
3° 20' 30" W.), another marine bed was seen, yielding — 

Lingula mytiloides. Posidoniella laevis. 

Quarries opposite Clydach on S. side of R. Clydach showed the follow- 
ing sequence in the Carboniferous Limestone . — 

1. Blue limestone in thick beds, with thin black shales intervening. 

2. Purple and green marl with calcareous nodules, 15 feet thick. 

3. White limestone, oolitic and very pure. 



LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 237 

In the upper blue limestone, which is only used for road metal, the 
following were collected : — 

Produotus hemispherious. Lithostrotion aranam. 

„ semireticulatus. ,, sp. 

Feacstella sp. 

In the intervening black shales were obtained — 

Leioptcria lunulata. Athyris ambigua. 

Produotus margaritaceus. 

At a quarry at Blackrocks, in an oolitic portion of the limestone, is a 
grit bed containing — 

Athyris snbtilita (abundant). Lithostrotion aranaea. 

„ ambigua. 

In some of the very thin black shales are — 

Produotus hemispherious. Athyris ambigua. 

In the limestone beds at Morlais Quarries were found — 

Produotus cora (with spines). Euomphalus sp. 

„ „ (without spines). Bellerophon sp. 

Orthotetes crenistria. Lithostrotion sp. 

Spirifer sp. Fragments of Brachiopods. 

The limestone at Graig Fawr, near Cefn, contains in its upper beds — 

Myalina sp. Spirifer sp. 

Athyris ambigua (abundant). Euomphalus sp. 

Orthis sp Macrocheilina acuta. 

Orthotetes crenistria. Bellerophon sp. 

Produotus cora (abundant). Archeocidaris Urei (plate). 

„ giganteus (young). Crinoids. 

,, longispinus. 

Whilst it would be premature to generalise from what has been done 
in South Wales, the remark may be ventured that in the Coal Measures, 
so far as the subject has been worked, there is to be observed the same 
order of succession of freshwater lamellibranchs which has already been 
found in the North Staffordshire Coalfield ; and mention may also be made 
of the apparent absence in South Wales of that fauna, which is so character- 
istic of the Millstone Grit Series of the Midlands, in rocks which are 
regarded as their equivalents, and which receive the same name. 



Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Ninth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Professor P. F. Kendall 
(Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 0. E. De Rance, 
Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. F, M. Burton, Mr. J. Lomas, 
Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Mr. J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, 
and Mr. F. W. Harmer, appointed to investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles and to take measures for their preservation. 
(Brawn up by the Secretary.) 

The most noteworthy records received during the current year are those 
which are furnished by Mr. J. Lomas from Northamptonshire, Leicester- 
shire, and Rutlandshire, the first and last mentioned counties appearing 



238 report — 1904. 

for the first time in the reports of the Committee ; and the very interesting 
identifications of the source of certain beach-pebbles found near Cromer in 
the course of an excursion during the meeting at Cambridge. On this 
occasion Professor Sjogren and Professor Backstrom, of Stockholm, identi- 
fied a number of Scandinavian rocks, most of which were well known to 
glacial workers in Yorkshire, though their place of origin was unknown. 
These rocks include a cancrinite-syenite from Sarna in Dalecarlia, Sweden ; 
quartz porphyry, also from Dalecarlia ; a fine-grained granitic rock which 
is a common and widespread type in Sweden ; sparagmite conglomerate 
from Scania ; sparagmite sandstone and a series of hornblende-porphyrites 
from the Christiania district. 

Two pebbles were found, which the present writer identified as 
trachytes from the south-east of Scotland, a determination which was con- 
firmed by Dr. J. Home, F.R.S. 

The discovery of a fragment of pecten in a gravel-pit at Thirsk, by 
Mr. J. E. Hall, of that town, is an interesting fact, as no shell-fragments 
had previously been recorded so far down the vale of York. 

Lancashire. 
Reported by Mr. J. Lomas, A.R.C.S. 

On banks of Yarrow River, above Simms's Farm, Anglesark— 
Dalbeattie granite, 4 feet by 2 feet 6 inches by 1 foot 2 inches 

Winter Hill Stream. — 1,120 feet O.D., boulders of Eskdale granite and 
Lake District andesites. 

New Road from Royston Cottage to Belmont. — 1,100 feet above O.D. 

and over. 

Kinder Scout grit, very common, one 4 feet 6 inches by 3 feet by 2 feet 

6 inches. 
Ditto, 5 feet 6 inches by 3 feet 6 inches by 4 feet. 
Silurian grit, 1 foot. 
Eskdale granite, 1 foot. 
Ganister, 2 feet. 
Lake District andesite. 

Among many hundreds of boulders examined were an enormous 
number of Carboniferous grits and sandstones, but no Mountain Lime- 
stone. 

Northamptonshire. 

Reported by Mr. J. Lomas, A.R.C.S. 

Gayton Clay-pit near Blisworth — 

Chalky boulder clay, containing Chalk (red and white), Chalk ammonites, 
flints (white, brown, and red), Bunter pebbles, Great Oolite, Keuper marl. 

Hannington (new well in field) — 

Chalk, grey flint, Carboniferous grit, Lias limestone, Great Oolite. 

Raine's Siding, Glendon, near Kettering — 

In Chalky boulder clay many boulders of indurated Northampton Sands, some 
3 feet in diameter ; Trias pebbles, flints, Lincolnshire Limestone. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 239 

Rushton — 

Mountain Limestone, with encrinites and brachiopods. 
Carboniferous chert, Bunter pebbles, Chalk, and flints. 

North of Great Oakley — 
Mountain Limestone. 

Northampton. — Corby Brickworks. — Large proportion of Carboni- 
ferous boulders, including Mountain Limestone, chert, Millstone Grit, 
and ganister. Lias limestone, Great Oolite, indurated Northampton 
Sands, Trias pebbles, and one specimen of mica schist, 3 inches diameter. 

Reported by Professor P. F. Kendall. 

Brick-pit near Racecourse (in Chalky boulder clay) — 
Spilsby sandstone. 

Leicestershire. 

Reported by Mr. J. Lomas. 

East Norton Railway -cutting — 

Carboniferous Limestone. 
Millstone Grit. 
Carboniferous chert. 

Owston Gravel-pit — 
Chalk, flints, Lias limestone, Oolite, Bunter pebbles. 

Knossington. — Many boulders of Carboniferous limestone and Mill- 
stone Grit. 

Wymondham. — Old Brickworks near Station — • 

Mountain Limestone, Chalk, flints, Bunter pebbles. 
Oolite, and many Lias limestones. 

Coston Bridge — 

Coarse dolerite, 3 feet diameter. 
Fine-grained dolerite, 1 foot diameter. 
Oolite, 2 feet diameter. 
Mountain Limestone. 

Marl-pit, near Saltby — 

Great number of Bunter pebbles, Oolite ; no Lias. 

Quarry, behind Saltby Cfairch (406 O.D.) — 

Lincolnshire Oolite ; no Chalk. 
Oolitic sandstone. 

Wykeham. — Felsitic ash from Charnwood, 2 feet 6 inches diameter. 
This boulder has been identified by Professor Bonney and is recorded in 
the Survey Memoir. 



240 keport— 1904. 

Near Grimston — 

Mountain Limestone, Millstone Grit, Bunter pebbles, Trias sandstone with 

concretions of barytes. 
Lias limestone ; no Oolite. A few pieces of Chalk and flints. 

Rag dale — 

Many boulders of Mount Sorrel granite, several over 2 feet in diameter. Mill- 
stone Grit, Carboniferous sandstone, Lias limestone. 

Near Haby — 

Millstone Grit, Carboniferous sandstone and chert, Bunter pebbles, and a few 

flints. 

Thrussington Brickyard — 

Boulder clay, with Triassic matrix in which bands of selenite have formed. 

Numerous boulders of Keuper marl, with plant remains and pseudomorphs of 
rock salt. 

Bunter pebbles (some pitted), Lias limestone, no Oolite, Carboniferous lime- 
stone and chert 

Aylestone Sand-pit — 

Mount Sorrel granite, some with wind-etched surfaces ; Carboniferous Lime- 
stone and sandstone, Millstone Grit, much Keuper marl with pseudo- 
morphs and plants. 

A few Lias limestones and fossils ; no Oolite. Coal ; no Chalk. 

Blaby Clay-pit — 

Matrix of clay, almost pure Keuper marl, with bands of gypsum formed in 

boulder clay. 
Numerous Mount Sorrel granite, Carboniferous Limestone, Millstone Grit, 

Carboniferous sandstone, tea-green marls, Triassic sandstone with 

barytes. A few Lias fragments ; no Oolite. 

Enderby Granite-works — 

Black Chalky boulder clay with Liassic matrix overlies, red boulder clay with 
Mountain Limestone, granite and other rocks from the West. 

Leicester Forest Brick-works — 

Red boulder clay with much Keuper marl, coal, Millstone Grit, Carboniferous 
sandstone, limestone and chert overlaid by Chalky boulder clay with 
Liassic matrix, Chalk, flints, and (?) Carboniferous sandstone. 

Thurmaston Brickyard — 

Red marly boulder clay at base with Carboniferous chert and limestone, 
Coal Measure sandstone and Millstone Grit, Keuper marls and Triassic 
sandstone, above Chalky boulder clay with many Liassic limestones 
and fossils. 

Rutlandshire. 

Reported by Mr. J. Lomas. 

Langham, near Oakham (in sewer cutting) — 
Middle Lias limestone. 



ON ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 241 

Quarry, near Langham — 

Brown boulder clay with dolerite, oolitic limestone, Carboniferous Limestone 
and chert, Millstone Grit, Trias pebbles and flints. 



Norfolk. 
Beported by Professor P. F. Kendall. 
Beach from Cromer to Mundesley — 

Rhomb porphyry ; laurvikite (two varieties); cancrinite-syemte of Siirna, 
Dalecarlia, Sweden ; quartz porphyry, Dalecarlia ; line-grained granite, 
Sweden ; sparagmite sandstone, Scandinavia ; sparagmite conglomerate, 
Scania, Sweden ; hornblende-porphyrite, Christiania district, Norway. 

Yorkshire Boulder Committee, 1904. 

Beported by Mr. E. Hawkesworth. 

Brompton and Osmotherley. — Between Brompton and Osmotherley, 
3 miles N.E. of Northallerton, in sandy clay exposed in altering road — 

Whin Sill, Shap granite, Lake District volcanic series (several varieties), 
Carboniferous limestones and sandstones numerous, chert. 



Hull Geological Society Boulder Committee. 

Beported by Mr. G. W. B. Macturk. 

Bay well, near Hull. — In connection with the making of the new 
reservoir at Raywell an interesting section has been exposed consisting 
of boulder clay, 10 feet thick, resting on chalk 230 feet O.D, The boulder 
clay appears to be in two divisions, a red upper clay and a blue or lead- 
coloured lower clay. Among the erratics the following was recognised : — 

Carboniferous Limestone, ganister, porphyrite, greywacke, basalt, &c. 

South Cave. — In the field adjoining the railway, 300 yards east of the 
railway station — 

Carboniferous Limestone, Lower Lias. 
Soft yellow sandstone, ganister, &c. 

Beported by Mr. Tuos. Siieppard. 

Kilnsea, near Spurn — 
Two Mammoth teeth. 

Beported by Mr. J. E. Hall. 

Thirsk. — In the town gravel-pit — 
Fragment of Peoten. 



1901. R 



242 



REPORT — 1904. 



Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Fifteenth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie 
(Chairman), Professor W. W. Watts (Secretary), Professor T. G. 
Bonney, Professor E. J. Garwood, Professor S. H. Reynolds, 
Dr. Tempest Anderson, Dr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. Godfrey 
Bingley, Mr. H. Coates, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. J. G. Good- 
child, Mr. William Gray, Mr. W. Jerome Harrison, Mr. 
Robert Kidston, Mr. J. St. J. Phillips, Mr. A. S. Keid, Mr. 
K. Welch, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. H. B. Woodward. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The Committee beg to report that once again the number of new photo- 
graphs received during the year exceeds that of any previous year. The 
accessions number 543 ; the total number in the collection is 4,314, and 
the yearly average rises to 287. About 100 other photographs have been 
received, but cannot be added to this year's list. 

The geographical scheme annexed shows that four counties are 
removed from last year's ' black list ' — Cambridge, Kildare, Leitrim, and 
Wicklow having now made contributions to the collection. There are 
still 21 non-contributing counties — two in England, one in Wales, seven 
in Scotland, and eleven in Ireland. 

To this year's list Yorkshire makes, as so often before, the largest con- 
tribution, 243 ; Norfolk follows with 43, Kent with 31, and Pembroke 
with 30. Considerable additions are made to the lists of Buckingham, 
Northampton, Suffolk, Fife, Linlithgow, Renfrew, Cork, and Sligo. 





Previous 


Additions 


Total 




Collection 


(1904) 


England — 






Buckinghamshire 


8 


5 


13 


Cambridgeshire 






— 


2 


2 


Cornwall . 






57 


10 


67 


Cumberland 






43 


1 


44 


Devonshire 






178 


2 


180 


Hampshire 






36 


11 


47 


Hertfordshire . 






15 


5 


20 


Kent 






81 


31 


112 


Lancashire 






69 


8 


77 


Leicestershire . 






144 


4 


148 


Norfolk . 






•57 


43 


110 


Northamptonshire 






6 


12 


18 


Shropshire 






54 


1 


55 


Somersetshire . 






70 


8 


78 


Suffolk . 






21 


24 


45 


Surrey 






64 


4 


58 


Worcestershire 






26 


1 


27 


Yorkshire 






604 


243 


847 


Others . 






775 


— 


775 


Total . 




• 


2,308 


415 


2,723 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



243 





Previous 


Additions 


Total 




Collection 


(1904) 


Wales — 








Anglesey ..... 


5 


1 


6 


Carnarvonshire 


96 


10 


106 


Pembrokeshire .... 


15 


30 


45 


Others 

Total 

Channel Islands . 

Isle op Man .... 

Scotland— 


134 


— 


134 


250 


41 


291 


38 


— 


38 


60 


1 


61 








Edinburgh .... 


47 


7 


54 


Fifeshire 


24 


19 


43 


Haddingtonshire 


4 


1 


5 


Linlithgow .... 


2 


3 


5 


Eenfrewshire .... 


1 


4 


5 


Stirlingshire .... 


15 


3 


18 


Others 

Total 

Ireland — 


329 




329 


422 


37 


459 






Antrim .... 


273 


5 


278 


Cork 


, 


2 


19 


21 


Down 


, 


98 


7 


105 


Dublin . 


. 


39 


3 


42 


Kiklare . 






2 


2 


Leitrim . 







2 


2 


Londonderry 




23 


3 


26 


Sligo 


. t 


5 


7 


12 


Wicklow . 







1 


1 


Others . 


. 


157 


— 


157 


Total 

Rock Stbuctures, &c. . 
Summary. 


597 


49 


646 


96 


— 


96 








England .... 


2,308 


415 


2,723 


Wales .... 


250 


41 


291 


Channel Islands . 


38 





38 


Isle of Man . 


60 


1 


61 


Scotland 


422 


37 


459 


Ireland . 


597 


49 


646 


Rock Structures, &c. . 


96 




96 


Total . 


. 


3,771 


543 


4,314 



It is not easy to pick out any particular series of photographs for special 
mention, but a set of seventeen prints from Mr. Charles C. Buckingham, 
and two from Mr. De Vere, all taken under the auspices of the East Kent 
Natural History Society, seem to be of exceptional interest. They 
illustrate the course and tributaries of the Kentish river Stour, and their 

r2 



244 report — 1904. 

association with the springs known as Bournes. Mr. Buckingham has 
also photographed Reculvers Church from the same points of view as 
Lyell's famous pictures, and the result brings home the potency of marine 
denudation and the need for coast defences. 

Mr. R. Vowell Sherring, working in conjunction with the Bourne- 
mouth and District Society of Natural Science, sends some beautiful 
prints of the Bournemouth cliffs ; Mr. Mellard Reade contributes some 
excellent photographs of the well-known gypsum boulder of Crosby ; and 
Mr. Topham a series fy?Tm the gravels of Eye in Northamptonshire. The 
rhythmical fretting of limestone by water in Hell Gill is illustrated by 
Mr. Rodwell under circumstances of considerable difficulty, and the 
marine destruction of the Scarborough landslips by Mr. Monckton. 
Mr. Leach sends photographs of a mass of Carboniferous Limestone at 
Tenby, supposed to show 10,000 specimens of Productus, and, curiously 
enough, almost the same post brought a notice that ' the Corporation have 
for years been breaking up the stone for road repair, and are now in 
possession of a steam stone-breaker which will in the course of time cause 
this natural curiosity to disappear, unless some steps are taken to pre- 
vent it.' 

Messrs. Muff and Wright have taken an ideal set of photographs of the 
raised beaches and platforms of Cork, which are buried under boulder- 
clay, blown-sand, and ' head ; ' Mr. Pledge continues to illustrate Mr. 
Davies's work on the Purbeck and Portland of the Haddenham district ; 
Mr. Robarts sends further contributions on the geology of Kent 
and Surrey from the Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society ; 
and Mr. Plews gives the first photographs recorded from Cambridge- 
shire. 

The importance of the contributions of members of the Committee 
will be realised from the fact that they are responsible for 426 photo- 
graphs out of a total of 541. Mr. W. Jerome Harrison, one of the 
earliest and most earnest of geological photographers, and perhaps the 
pioneer of county photographic surveys, sends no less than 270 prints out 
of his large collection of a lifetime. These comprise a large series of the 
Yorkshire coast from Bridlington to Whitby, series from Cornwall, 
Norfolk, and Suffolk, and our first connected set from the Cambrian 
rocks of St. Davids. Mr. Bingley contributes 76 prints taken in 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Yorkshire, Anglesey, and Carnarvon. Professor 
Reynolds's work is well represented by illustrations from Hertfordshire, 
the Carboniferous area of Somerset, and volcanic areas in Fife, Hadding- 
ton, and Linlithgow. Last, but not least, Mr. Welch makes a valuable 
gift of 35 prints taken in Lancashire and Ireland, in connection with the 
work of the Belfast Naturalists' Pield Club, and of Mr. Praeger and 
Mr. Lamplugh. These include examples from Antrim and Cork, the 
glacial and associated deposits of Down and Dublin, and phenomena 
connected with limestones and caves in Sligo. One of the photo- 
graphs is both botanical and geological, for it shows the formation of 
tufa in a limestone-district through the agency of colonies of various 



mosses. 



To all the gentlemen named the Committee tender their best thanks, 
as well as to the following, who have contributed less in amount, it is 
true, but individual examples or series of high value : Mr. Epps, Mr. 
G. T. Atchison, Mr. Hopkinson, Messrs. Abley and Griffith, Mr. Hodson, 



ON rflOTOGRAPIIS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 245 

Professor Armstrong, Mr. Cobbold, Dr. Matley, Dr. Flett, Dr. Abbott, 
and Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Welch points out that one print registered last year (3289), the 
cemented breccia of quartzite and slate at Howth, which contained bones 
of mammals and fishes with land and marine shells, is now the only record 
of an interesting geological fact, as the block has been washed away by 
the sea. 

The third and last issue of the published series of ' British Geological 
Photographs ' was sent out to subscribers in May of this year. The com- 
pletion and success of its first publication scheme marks an epoch in the 
history of the Committee and the fulfilment of a long-cherished desire of 
its founders. 

Since the first meeting in 1890 the desirability of publishing a selected 
series of geological photographs has been kept before the Committee, but 
it was only in 1893 and 1894 that publishers were approached on the 
subject. AVith one consent they recommended us to go elsewhere, and so 
the matter was allowed to slumber till the Dover meeting in 1899. In 
that year a Sub-Committee of selection, consisting of Professor Bonney 
(Chairman), Professor "Watts (Secretary and Editor), Professor Garwood, 
Dr. Mill, Dr. Teall, and Mr. H. B. Woodward, was appointed, a self- 
supporting subscription scheme drawn up, and a preliminary selection of 
typical photographs made. One hundred and ninety-three subscribers 
undertook to support a series which was to consist of issues of twenty photo- 
graphs each year for three years. It was decided to issue the series in three 
forms — unmounted half-plate platinotypes, mounted platinotypes, and 
lantern slides — and each issue was to be accompanied by descriptive 
letterpress. 

Various unforeseen circumstances delayed the first issue, but it saw 
the light in September 1902 ; issue ii. followed in July 1903, and the final 
issue in May 1904. The actual series, as published, comprised seventy- 
two photographs, fifty-one being standard half -plates, ten quarter- plates, 
and eleven whole-plates, and an equal number of lantern slides. The sub- 
jects ranged over most of the ordinary geological phenomena, the chief rock 
formations, and many of the more important British localities. The nega- 
tives were lent by thirty- four photographers, and a descriptive pamphlet 
of forty-two pages was written by thirty-four contributors, amongst whom 
are many of the most famous of contemporary British geologists. To 
both geologists and photographers the Committee express their warmest 
thanks. 

The estimates on which the Sub-Committee worked proved to have 
been well founded, and the annexed balance-sheet gives an account of all 
receipts and expenditure to date. It shows a balance in favour of the 
Committee of £95 13s. 2d., and a prospective profit of over £130 when 
all outstanding accounts shall have been paid. 

The balance-sheet, however, does not make one important point clear. 
Eight whole-plate platinotypes and twelve slides beyond the number agreed 
upon have been issued to subscribers. It is estimated that these addi- 
tional photographs have cost £105. If this be added to the balance in 
hand the total profit has been £235, of which one-half has been returned 
to the subscribers and the other half retained by the Committee for the 
purpose of carrying on the work for which it was originally established by 
the Association. 



246 



REPORT — 1904. 



Balance-sheet, Publication Account, to August 13, 1904. 



Receipts. 



Prints only 
Mounted prints 
Slides . 
Prints and slides 
Mounts and slides 
Mounts and prints 
Prints, mounts and slide 

Less arrears unpaid 
Total 



Payments. 

Preliminary expenses and apparatus 

Copying negatives . 

Copyright and purchase 

Prints .... 

Mounts and mounting . 

Albums and boxes . 

Slides and mounting 

Packing .... 

Carriage of parcels . 

Printing and stationery . 

Office expenses 

Postage .... 

Renewing broken slides . 

Sets for new subscribers 

Interest on working capital 

Exhibition expenses (St. Louis and London) 

Balance transferred to Committee's account 
(£136 12*. Id., less unpaid £40 19*.) 

Total 



£ s. d. 

148 1 

196 10 

251 5 

80 10 

126 10 

7 13 

11 8 

821 17 

40 19 

780 18 



£ 


s. 


a. 


24 


9 


6 


21 


7 


5 


6 


19 





224 


1 


4 


36 


8 





13 


4 


2 


176 





1 


16 


2 


1 


29 


10 





55 


7 





7 


6 


4* 


13 


7 


0k 


11 





7 


27 


12 


4 


17 


10 





4 


19 


11 



95 13 2 



780 18 



It was pointed out in the Report for last year that in its fourteen 
years' work of collecting and storing photographs, the Committee had 
spent £101 10s. of the £130 granted to it by the Association. In 
making a clear profit of £130 the Committee may congratulate itself on 
having ' earned its keep,' and perhaps it is the only Committee of the 
Association which has ever succeeded in literally doing so. But, besides 
this, by scattering broadcast over the world typical photographs of geo- 
logical features and phenomena it has rendered a service to geological, and 
perhaps to geographical, teaching which cannot be well over-estimated. 
The British Association photographs are forming the nucleus of dozens of 
teaching- collections in the universities, schools, and museums of Britain ; 
and numerous foreign subscribers write that they are only unable to sub- 
scribe to a second series because they now want the funds to accumu- 
late other examples from their own countries. It is not so difficult to 
obtain geological photographs as it was fifteen years ago, for even the 
ubiquitous picture post card is sometimes frankly geological. 

At a meeting of the Committee held in Cambridge on August 19, 

1904, Dr. J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., in the chair, it was unanimously agreed 

That this Committee desires to record its admiration of the indefatigable 

energy shown by its Secretary, both in carrying out the original aims 

of the Committee and in bringing to a successful issue the publication 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OK GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 247 

of a typical series of Geological Photographs, services to Geological Science 
which cannot well be overestimated.' 

About 100 intending subscribers to a new series have sent in their 
names, and the Committee recommend that such a new series be under- 
taken on the same terms as the last. With the smaller number of 
subscribers, however, the margin is narrow, and while profit to the 
Committee will be small, or absent, the subscribers will have to be content 
with the ' contract number ' of photographs. Possibly the number of 
subscribers will increase when it is known that the new series will be 
actually carried out. 

Such a series will naturally be complete in itself, but it will also be 
supplementary to the first series, and in no way a repetition of it. The 
Committee would most warmly welcome any suggestions from subscribers 
and others as to the best points to be considered in the new series. 

Examples of the published series of photographs were shown at the 
Exhibition arranged by the Geographical Association in London and the 
provinces this year. Another set was sent by request to the Exhibition 
at St. Louis, and it is proposed to present this collection to the Geographical 
and Geological Department at Harvard University when the exhibition 
closes. To this set a gold medal has been awarded in group 16. 

The duplicate collection of slides has been exhibited and explained 
within the year by Mr. Whitaker at the following local scientific 
societies : — The Christ's Hospital Natural History Society, the Greville 
Place Literary Society, Maida Vale, the Stratford Congregational 
Literary Society, and the Ashmolean Natural History Society, Oxford. 

Applications by Local Societies for the loan of the duplicate collection 
should be made to the Secretary. Either prints or slides, or both, can be 
lent, with a descriptive account of the slides. The carriage and the 
making good of any damage to slides or prints are expenses borne by the 
borrowing society. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed without a grant. 



FIFTEENTH LIST OP GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 
August 17, 1903, to August 12, 1904. 

This list includes the geological photographs which have been 
received by the Secretary of the Committee since the publication of the 
last report. Photographers are asked to affix the registered numbers, 
as given below, to their negatives for convenience of future reference. 
Their own numbers are added in order to enable them to do so. 

Copies of photographs desired can, in most instances, be obtained 
from the photographer direct, or from the officers of the local society 
under whose auspices the views were taken. 

The price at which copies may be obtained depends on the size of the 
print and on local circumstances over which the Committee have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copyright of any photographs included 
in this list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applications for per- 
mission to reproduce them, should be addressed to the photographers direct. 

It is recommended that, wherever the negative is suitable, the print be 
made by the cold-bath platinotype process. The very best photographs 
lose half their utility, and all their value as documentary evidence, unless 
accurately described ; and the Secretary would be grateful if, whenever 



248 report — 1904. 

possible, such explanatory details as can be given were written on the forms 
supplied by him for the purpose, and not on the back of the photograph 
or elsewhere. Much labour and error of transcription would thereby be 
saved. It is well, also, to use a permanent ink for this purpose. A local 
number, by which the print and negative can be recognised, should be 
written on the back of the photograph and on the top right-hand corner 
of the form. 

Copies of photographs should be sent unmounted to W. W. Watts, 
The University, Birmingham, and forms may be obtained from him. 

The size of photographs is indicated as follows : — 



L = Lantern size. 
1/1 = Quarter-plate. 
1/2 = Half-plate. 



1/1= Whole-plate. 
10/8 = 10 inches by 8. 
12/10 = 12 inches by 10, &c. 



E signifies Enlargements. 



* Indicates that photographs and slides may be purchased from the donors, or 
obtained through the address given with the series. 



LIST I. 

ACCESSIONS IN 1903-1904. 

ENGLAND. 

Buckinghamshire. — Photographed by 3. PI. Pledge, 115 Richmond 
Road, Dalston, N.E. 1/2. 

Regd. 

No. 

4296 (B 14) Cutting near Digg's Upper Portland and Purbeck. 1903. 
Farm, Haddenham. 

3756 (B 15) Cutting N.W. of Had- River Gravel. 1903. 

denham to Thame Road. 

3757 (B 16) Cutting S. of main road, Portlandian Pebble-bed. 1903. 

Thame to Aylesbury, Had- 
denham. 

3758 (B 17) Cutting S. of main road, Portland Beds. 1903. 

Thame to Aylesbury, Had- 
denham. 

3759 (B 18) Cutting S. of main road, Pebble Bed in Portland. 1903. 

Thame to Aylesbury, Had- 
denham. 

Cambridge. — Photographed by A. G. Plews, Pembroke College, 

Cambridge. 1/4. 

3760 ( ) Brick Pit at Gamlingay . Unconformity of Lower Greensand on 

Ampthill Clay. 1903. 

3761 ( ) ,, „ . Unconformity of Lower Greensand on 

Ampthill Clay. 1903. 

Cornwall. — Photographed by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., 
52 Claremont Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 7/5. 

3762 (408) Cliffs N. of Newquay Devonian Rocks. 1894. 

3763 (1097 F) „ „ Coast erosion. 

3764 (420) Walrus Rock, N. of „ , 

Newquay. 



-ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 219 

Regd. 
No. 

3765 (1109 F) The Porth, Newquay 1894 

3766 (1106 F) „ „ ' The Norwegian.* 

3767 (1105 F) N. side of the Porth, Rock chasm. „ 

Newquay. 

3768 (1099 F) 3 miles N. of Newquay Folded rocks 

3769 (1528 F) Cliffs 3 to 5 miles N. of 

Newquay. 

3770 (1096 F) Bedruthan Steps . . „ 

3771 (1116 F) Bedruthan ... „ 

Cumberland. — Photographed by G. T. Atchison, M.A., LL.B., 
Holmwood, Sutton Coldfield. 1/2 

4297 (67) Below Watendlath, Borrow- ' The Devil's Punchbowl.' 1902. 
dale. 

Devonshire. — Photographed by C. H. B. Epps, B.A., 95 Upper Tulse 

Hill, S. W. 5/4. 

3772 (1150) Bathing Beach, Ilfra- Isoclinal fold in slate. 1903. 

combe. 

3773 (1151) Bathing Beach, Ilfra- Strain-slip cleavage on large scale. 1903. 

combe. 

Hampshire (Isle op Wight). — Photographed by J. Hopkinson, F.G.S., 

Weettcocd, Watford. 1/4. 

3774 (14) Undercliff between St. Bands of Chert in Upper Greensand. 

Lawrence and Ventnor. 1903. 

3775 (15) Undercliff between St. Bands of Chert in Upper Greensand. 

Lawrence and Ventnor. 1903. 

Photographed by R. Vowell Sherring, F.L.S., Hallatrow, near Bristol. 
Bournemouth and District Society of Natural Science. 10/8. 

4256 (1) Cliffs W. of Gordon Hotel Eocene Beds. 1904. 

Steps, Southbourne, Bourne- 
mouth. 

4257 (2) E. of Gordo