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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



SEVENTY.FIFTH MEETING OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 







SOUTH AFRICA 



AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 



1905 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1906 



Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, W. 



pniNTED BY 

SPOTTISWOOEE AND CO. LTD., N);\V-STnEET , QUARE 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



i«i 



Page 

Objects and Rales of the Association xxv 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencenient xxxvi 

Trustees and General Officers, from 1831 li 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 ... Hi 

List of Evening Discourses Ixxa 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the South Africa Meeting Ixxvii 

Committee of Recommendations at the South Africa Meeting ixxix 

Treasurer's Account Ixxx 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxxii 

Officers and Council, 1905-1906 Ixxxiv 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxv 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the South Afiiea 

Meeting in August and September 1905 xciii 

Communications ordered to be printed in evtenso ciii 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if desirable ciii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cv 

Places of Meeting in 1906 and 1907 cvi 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes cvu 

General Meetings cxxvii 

Address by the President, Professor G. H. DarwiK, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D., 

F.R.S 3 

A2 



iv REPORT — 1905. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Corresponding Societies Committee.— Heport of the Committee, consisting ot 
Mr. W. Whitakee (Chairman), Mr. F. AV. Eudler (Secretary), Rev. 
J. 0. Bevan, Dr. HoEACE T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor 
E. Meldola, Dr. II. R. Mill, Mr. C. II. Read, Rev. T. R. R. Sxebbing, 
Professor W. W, Watts, and the General Officers. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 35 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held in 
the Rooms of the Linnean Society, Burlington House, London, 
October 30 and 31, 190o 37 

Address by the Chairman, A. Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S 38 

The Law of Treasure Trove, especially in relation to Local Scientific 
Societies. By William Martin, M.A., LL.D 44 

The Law of Copyright as affecting the Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 
By W. Morris Colles 50 

The Preservation of our Native Plants. By Professor G. S. Boulger, 

F.L.S., F.G.S 52 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1905-1906 .59 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31, 1905 62 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor A. Crttm Brown (Secretary), 
Sir John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, Professor Copeland, and 
Mr. R. T. Omond. (Drawn up by Dr. Buchan.) 77 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secre- 
tary), Professor W. G. Adams, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Principal 
Sir Aethur Rucker, and Professor A. Schuster, appointed to co- 
operate with the Committee of the Falmouth Observatory in their Magnetic 
Observations 80 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Fourtli Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. AV. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. W. II. 
Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. A. 
BuCHAN, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R, Mill, Professor A. Schuster, 
audDr. W. AVatson , 81 



CONTENTS. V 

rage 
Seismological Investigations.— Tenth Report of tlie Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. W. Judd (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), Lord 
IvELvrv, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Mr. C. V. Bots, Professor G. H, 
Daewin, Mr. Horace Daewin, Major L. Daewin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebeook, Mr. M. H. Geat, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 
R. MELDOLA,Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Peeet, Mr. W. E. Plummee, 
Professor J. H. Potnting, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richaedson, 
and Professor H. H. Txtkner. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 83 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 83 

II. The Situation of Stations 84 

III. The Origins of Large Earthquakes in 1904 91 

IV. On International Co-operation for Seismological AVork 02 

V. Tabulation of the Records obtained in Toliyo of the Gray-Milne 

Seismograph for the Years 1886-1901. By R. D. Oldham... 92 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Ratleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Professors W. E. Ateton, J. Peeet, W. G. Adams, and G. Caeet Fostee, 
Sir Olivee J. Lodge, Dr. A. Muiehead, Sir AV. H. Peeece, Professors 
A. Schustee, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomlet, Rev. T. C, Fitzpateick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stonet, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. 
Geiffiths, Sir A. W, Ruckee, Professor H. L. Oallendae, and Mr. 
Geoegb Matthet 95 

Appendix. — On the Preparation of a Cadmium Cell. By F, E. Smith. 98 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamlnes and Allied Substances, and its 
Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor K. J. P. 
Geton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lapwoeth, and Dr. J. T. 
Hewitt 103 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir Norman Locktee, Professor Sir James 
Dewae, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schestee, Professor W. N. 
Haetlet, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. Abnet, and Dr. W. E. 
Adenet 105 

The Study of Hydro- Aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. E. Divees (Chairman), Professor A. W. Ceosslet (Secretary), 
Professor W. H. Peekin. Dr. M. 0. Foestee, and Dr. H. R. Le Sueur ... 153 

Recent Work on Hydro-Aromatic Substances. By Professor A. AV. 
Ceosslet 153 

Investigation of the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 
and at various localities in the East Riding of Yorkshire. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Chairman), Mr. J. AV. 
Stather (Secretary), Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor J. W. Caee, Rev. 
AV. Lower Carter, Mr. A. R. Dwerethottse, Mr. F. AV. Haemer, Mr. J. H. 
Howaeth, Rev. W. Johnson, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. H. B. Muff, 
Mr. E. T. Newton, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Thomas Sheppaed 160 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. — 
Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor AV. A. Heedman 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Lomas (Secretary), Professor W. W. AA^atts. Professor 
P. F. Kendall, and Messrs. H. C. Beaslet, E. T. Newton, A. 0. Seward, 
and W, A. E. Ussher. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 161 



Vi REPORT — 1905. 

Page 

The Movements ot Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire. — Sixth 
and Final Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor "NV. W. Watts 
(Chairman), Mr. A. R. Dwekkthouse (Secretary), Professor A. Smithells, 
Rev. E. Jones, Mr. Walter Moeeisoit, Mr. George Bray, Rev. W. 
LoAVER Carter, Mr. T. Faielet, Professor P. F. Kendall, and Dr. J. E. 
Mare 170 

Life-zones in the British Carhoniferous Rocks. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of ]Mr. J. E. Maer (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hind 
("Secretary), Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crtck, Dr. A. H. FooRD,Mr. H. 
Fox, Professor E. .r. Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, 
Mr. R. KiDSTOX, Mr. G. W.Lamplttgh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B.N. 
Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, Dr. A. Vatjghan, and Dr. H. Woodward. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 171 

To Record and Determine the Exact Significance of Local Terms applied in 
the British Isles to Topographical and Geological Objects. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. Douglas W. Freshfield (Chairman), Mr. 
W. G. Fearnsides (Secretary), Lord Ateburt, Mr. C. T. Clotjgh, Pro- 
fessor E. J. Garwood, Mr. E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. IIerbertson, Colonel 
D. A. Johnston, Mr. 0. T. Jones, Dr. J. S. Keltie, Mr. G. W. Lam- 
PLT7GH, Mr. H. J. Mackindee, Dr. J. E. Marr, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. H. Yule 
Oldham, Dr. B. Peach, Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. H. B. Wood- 
ward. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 174: 

The Influence of Salt and other Solutions on the Development of the Frog.— 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. F. R. Weldon (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. AV. Jenkinson (Secretary), and Professor S. J. Hickson. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 175 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples.— Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Rev. 
T. R. R. Steering (Secretary), Professor E. Rat Lankbster, Professor W. 
F. R, Weldon, Professor G. B. Howes, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
McIntosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder 181 

Report of Mr. Geoffrey Smith, B.A 182 

Report of Miss Edith M. Pratt, D.Sc 182 

Investigations at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth.— Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Garstang (Chairman and Secretary), 
Professor E. Ray Lankestee, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor Sydney 11. 
Vines, and Professor W. F. R. Weldon. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 183 
Report on the Work done during the Occupation of the British Associa- 
tion Table at Plymouth, June 1905. By Professor E. W. MacBeide 183 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium.— Report of a Committee, consisting 
of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bathee (Secretarv), 
Dr. 1 L. ScLATEE, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. AV. E. Hoyle, and the 
Hon. \A ALTER Rothschild 135 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands.- Fifteenth Report ot the Committee, 
consistmg of Professor Newton (Chairman), Mr. David Sharp (Secretary), 
S'"' ^- T. Blanford, Profes.sor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclatee, Dr. F. 
Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgae A. Smith 186 

Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands.— Report of the Committee, consisting 
ol Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Dr. AV. E. Hotle (Secietary), Dr. 
^.t. Blackman, Mr. J. S. Gaedinee, Professor AV. A. Heedman, Mr. A. C. 
Seward, Professor C. S. Sheeeington, and Mr. A. G. Taxslet, appointed 
to conduct an investigation into the Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands 186 

Zoology Organisation.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors 
L. Kay Lankester (Chairman), S. J. Hickson (Secretary), T. W. Bridge, 



CONTENTS. Vll 

age 
J. CossAE EwART, M. Haktog, W. a. Herdman, and J. Geaham Kerb, 
Mr. O. H. Lattee, Professor E. A. Minchin, Dr. P. 0. Mitchell, Professor 

C. Lloyd Moegan, Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Mr. A. E. 
Shipley, and Rev. T. R. R. Stebwng J8G 

Colour Physioloo^y of the Higher Crustacea.- — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor S. J. IIickson (Chairman), Dr. F. W. Gamble 
(Secretary), Dr. VV. E. Hoyle, and Mr. F. AV. Keeble, appointed to enable 
i)r. F. W. Gamble and Mr. Keeble to conduct Researches in the Colour 
Physiology of the Higher Crustacea 187 

On the Accuracy and Comparability of British and Foreign Statistics of In- 
ternational Trade. — Report of the ( 'ommittee, consisting of Dr. E. Cannan 
(Chairman), Mr. W. G. S. Adams (Secretary), Mr. A. L. Bowley, Professor 
S. J. Chapman, and Sir R. Giffen 187 

Age of Stone Circles. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
0. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. 11. Balfour (Secretary), Sir John Evans, 
Dr. J. G. Gakson, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Muneo, Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, to conduct Explorations with the object of 
ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles L?7 

Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor 1). J. Cunningham (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Geat (Secretary), Dr. A. C. IIaddon, Dr. C. S. Myers, Mr. J. L. 
Mtres, Professor A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallatze, Mv. Randall- 
MacIver, Professor J. Symington, Dr. WATEEST0N,SirE.\V.BRABR00E, Dr. 
T.H.BEYCE,Dr.W.H. L. Duceworth, Mr. G. L. Gomme, Major T. McCdl- 
LOCH, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, Professor G. D. Thane, and Mr. J. F. Tocher 198 

Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of the Egyptian 
Array. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Macalister 
(Chairman), Dr. C. S. Myers (Secretary), Sir John Evans, and Professor 

D. J. Cunningham. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 207 

Arcbffiological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secre- 
tary), Mr. R. C. BosANauET, Dr. A. J. Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Pro- 
fessor A. Macaxistee, and Professor W. Ridgeavay ; 208 

Appendix. — Excavations at Knossos, in Crete, 1905. By Dr. Arthur J. 

Evans 209 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury. — Seventh Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. R. MuNRO (Chairrnan),Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), 
Sir John Evans, Dr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. Henry Balfour, Mr. C. H. 
Read, and Mr. Arthur Bulleid. (Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and 
Mr. H. St. George Gray.) 210 

Anthropological Photographs. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Kingsford (Secretary), Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. BALF0UR,Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 

E. S. Hartland, Mr. E. Heawood, Professor Flinders Petrie, Mr. 
E. N. Fallaize, and Mr. J. L. Myres, appointed for the Collection, Pre- 
servation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropological 
Interest ^-2 

The State of Solution of Proteids.— Third Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor Halliburton (Chairman), Professor Waymouth Reid 
(Secretary), and Professor ScH-iFER. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 222 

Metabolism of the Tissues. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
GoTCH (Chairman), Mr. J. Baecroft (Secretary), Sir Michael Foster, 
(ipd Proftssqr ST'^kling ,,,, ,,....,..,,....,,.. ...,...,,..., 223 



viii REPORT — 1905. 

Botanical Pliotograplis. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
L. C. MiALL (Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss (Secretary), Mr. Francis 
Darwin, Mr. W. G. Smith, and Mr. A. G. Tanslet, for the Registration 
of Negatives of Photographs of Botanical Interest 226 

Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity. — Second Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor H. Marshall Ward (Chairman), Mr. 
A. C. Seward (Secretary), Professor J. B. Farmer, and Dr. D. Sharp ... 220 
Report to the Committee by W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S 226 

The Structure of Fossil Plants. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. D. H. ScoTi (Chairman), Professor F. W. Oliver (Secretary), and 
Messrs. A, C. Seward and E. IS^ewell Arbee 227 

The Training of Teachers. — Interim Report of tlie Committee, consisting of the 
Bishop of Hereford (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Holland (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. Oscar Browning, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. 
Ernest Gray, and Dr. H. B. Gray ., 228 

On the Origin and Progress of Geodetic Survey in South Africa, and of the 

African Arc of Meridian. By Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S 228 

Apioidal Binary Star-systems. By Alexander W. Roberts, D.Sc, F.R.A.S. 249 

Star Streaming. By Professor J. C. Kapteyn 257 

Recent Developments in Agricultural Science. By A. D. Hall, M.A 266 

Habits and Peculiarities of some South African Ticks. By Chas. P. LouNS- 
BURY, B.Sc, F.E.S 282 

Report on an Investigation of the Batoka Gorge and Adjacent Portions of the 

Zambesi Valley. By G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., F.G.S 292 

Report on Ruins in Rhodesia. By David Randall-MacIvek 301 



CONTENTS. IX 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



• {^An asterisk * indicates that the title only is gipen. Tlie mark f indicates the same, 
but with a reference to the Journal or Hewsjmper iii7vMch it is jjuhlishcd in extenso.] 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

Cape Town. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 16. 

Page 
Address by Professor A. R. Foestth, M.A., D.S3., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 307 

1. Observations on Atmospheric Electricity in Soutli Afi-i:.'. By Professor 

J. C. Bbattie, D.Sc, J. Lyle, M.A., and W. H. LoGF.yAN, M.A 318 

2. Apioidal Binary Star-Systems. By Alexander W. Eobebts, D.Sc, 

F.R.A.S. (p. 249) 318 

3. On the Convergence of a Reversed Power Series. By Professor A. 

Brown, M.A 318 

4. On Instruments for Stereoscopic Surveying. By H. G. FotrECADE 321 

6. On Japanese Mathematics. By Professor Paul Harzer 325 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 

1. On Star Streaming. By Professor J. C. Kaptetn (p. 257) 330 

2. The Magnetic Survey of South Africa. By Professor J. 0. Beattie and 

J. T. Morrison 330 

3. tThe Radioactivity of Ordinary Matter. By A. Wood, B.A., B.Sc 330 

4. Thermal Radiation at Very Low Temperatures. By J. T. Bottomley, 

LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S 330 

5. *A Simple Form of Gas Thermometer. By J. T. Bottomley, LL.D., 

D.Sc, F.R.S 333 

6. The Diminution of Entropy according to the Kinetic Theory of Gases. 

By S. H. BuRBURY, F.R.S 333 

7. The Daily Variation of the Northerly (X), and the Easterly (Y) Com- 

ponents of the Magnetic Intensity at Gape Town, St. Helena, and Mauri- 
tius. ByProfessor J. 0. Beattie, D.Sc 333 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18, 

1. *Qeodetic and Gravitational Observations in Spitzbergen. By Dr. 0. 
Backlund 334 



X REPORT — 1905. 

Page 

2. tOn the Theory of Algol VariaWes. By J.H.Jeans .j'84 

3. Double Star Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere. By 11. T. A. 

Innes, F.R.S.E .3.'U 

4. On Lunar Radiation. By the Eael of Rosse, K.P., F.R.S 335 

5. A New Instrument for Measuring Stellar Photographs. By Arthur A. 

Rambaxjt, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S 335 

C. Note on Professor Kapteyn's Method of Determining Stellar Parallax by 

Means of Photography. By Arthur A. Rambaut, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 338 

7. A Compaiison of the Long-period Rainfall Records at Cape Town and 

Greenwich. By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc 338 

8. The Effect of the Sun-spot Period on the Daily Variation of the Magnetic 

Elements at the Cape of Good Hojje. By G. 11. FiNCHAjr,B.A 338 

9. *Can the Earth's Motion through /Ether affect Material Phenomena ? 

By Professor J. Larmor, Sec. R.S 339 



Johannesburg. 
TUESDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1 . On the Origin and Progress of the Geodetic Survey in South Africa, and of 

the African Arc of Meridian. By Sir David Gill, K.(IB., F.R.S. (p. 228) 339 

2. On AVinding Ropes in Mines. By Professor John Perry, F.R.S 339 

3. ^On the Present State of the Lunar Theory, and on the Formation of a 

New Set of Lunar Tables. By Professor E. W. Brown, F.R.S 339 

4. *The Value of the Secular Acceleration of the Moon derived from the 

Early Eclipses of the San. By E. Nevill 339 

6. On the Density of Matter in Space. By R. T. A, Innes 339 

6. The Distances of the Nearer Fixed Stars. By R. T. A. Innes 340 

7. A Dry Daniell Pile. By J. Bboayn, F.R.S 340 

WEDXESDA Y, A UG UST .30. 

L Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 83) 340 

2. Recent Advances in Seismology. By John Milne, F.R.S 340 

8. Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites 

(p. 81) 341 

4. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 77) 341 

5. *0n the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics. By Professor John Perry, 

F.R.S 341 

6. Report on the Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory (p. 80) ... 341 

7. The Experimental Foundations of the Theory of Heat Conduction. By 

Charles H. Lees, D.Sc ~. .341 

8. Meteorological Notes from Natal Observatory. By R. Termor Ren- 

dell, B.A., F.R.A.S 342 

9. On the Interpretation of Signs in the Formulae of Solid Geometry. Bv 

Professor R. W. Genese, Si.A ". 343 

10. *Graphic Methods in Spherical Trigonometry. By Professor G. H. 

Bryan, F.R.S .' 344 



CONTENTS. XI 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Page 

1. A Kestatement of tlie Second Law of Thermodynamics and its Bearing 

upon our Views of Heat and Radiation. By M. Blieden, M.D 344 

2. On the Kinetic and Statistical Equilibrium of Ether in Ponderable Matter 

at any Temperature. By Lord Kelvin, G.O.V.O., F.R.S 346 

3. On Temperatures of Thermometers under Black Cloth and under AVhite 

Cloth. By Dr. Charles Chree, F.R.S 347 

4. '"Differential Invariants of a Plane and of a Curve on a Plane. By Pro- 

fessor A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S ". 350 

5. Chess Magic Squares. By M. Casiimoee, M.P.S 350 

6. Computation of TT. By M. Cashmorb, M.P.S 360 

7. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 95) 350 

Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 
Address by George T. Beildv, President of the Section 351 

Cape Town. 
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST IG. 

L Recent Developments in Agricultural Science. By A. D. Hall, M.A. 
(p. 266) 363 

2. *Recent Researches on the Assimilatory Processes of Plants. By Horace 

T. Brown, LL.D., F.R.S 363 

3. The Role of Enzymes in Plant Economy. By Dr. E. Feankland 

Armstrong 364 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 

\. Tlie Propagation of Explosions in Gases. By Professor H. B. Dixon, 
F.R.S 364 

2. The Influence of Phase Changes on the Tenacity of Ductile Metals at the 

Ordinary Temperature and at the Boiling-point of Liquid Air. By 

G. T. Beilby and H. N. Beilby, B.Sc 36i 

3. On the Atomic Weight of Chlorine. By Professor H, B. Dixon, F.R.S. 365 

4. The Viscosity of Liquid Mixtures at the Temperature of their Boiling- 

points. By Dr. Alexander FiNDLAY 365 

5. Report of the Committee on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 

Elements and Compounds (p. 105) 366 

6. Report of the Committee on the Study of Hydro-Aromatic Substances 

(p. 153) 366 

FRIDAY, AUGUST!^. 

1. A South African Mineral Spring. By Professor P. D. Hahn, Ph.D., M.A. 366 

2. The Need for Organised Chemical Research in Cape Colonv. By C. F. 

JuRixz, M.A .' '. 367 

3. On an Important Characteristic of Cape Wines. By Heinrich Tietz, 

Ph.D., M.A 368 

4. Report of the Committee on the Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines 

and Allied Substances, and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene 
Derivatives (p. 103) 369 



xii REPORT — 1905. 

Johannesburg. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 29. 

Page 
Address by the Pebsibent (p. 351) 369 

1. How Oxygen Assists and Retards the Dissolution of Gold in Cyanide 

Solutions. By H. Forbes JuLiiN 369 

2. The Solubility of Gold in Thiosulphates and Thiocyanates. By H. A. 

White 370 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST m. 

1. The Law Governing the Solubility of Zinc Hydrate in Alkalis. By 

James Moik, M.A., D.Sc 370 

2. The Functions of the Metallurgical Laboratory. By Geb.vkd W. 

Williams 371 

3. Notes on Economic Problems in Metallurgy on the Witwatersrand. By 

S. H. Peaece 372 

4. On a Radio-active Substance Discovered in the Transvaal. By R. Lewis 

CousENS, M.LE.E 372 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER I. 

1. The Soils of the Transvaal from their Chemical Aspect. By Herbert 

Ingle, F.I.C '. 373 

2. Pretoria Rain and its Content of Combined Nitrogen. By Herbert 

Ingle, F.I.C 373 

3. A Fuel of the Midland Districts of South Africa. By E. H. Croghan ... 373 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

Address by Professor II. A. Miees, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the 

Section 375 

Cape Town. 
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 16. 

1. *The Geology of Cape Colony. By A. W. Rogers, M. A 391 

2. The Classification of the Karroo Beds of South Africa. By R. Broom, 

M.D., D.Sc 391 

3. The Continent of Africa in relation to the Physical History of the Earth. 

By Professor W. J. Sollas, F.R.S 392 

4. Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles (p. 161) 392 
6. *Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles 392 

6. Report on the Movements of Underground Waters of North-west York- 

shire (p. 170) 392 

7. Report on Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks (p. 171) 392 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 
Joint Meeting with Section E. 

1. The Physical Geography of Cape Colony. By H. C, Schunke- 

HOLLWAT 393 

2. *GlaciaI Periods in South Africa. By A. W. Rogers, M.A 393 



CONTENTS. Xili 

Page 

3, tChanges of Climate as shown by Movements of the Snow-line and Upper 
Tree-limit since Tertiary Times. By Professor A. Penck 393 

4. The Sculpture of Mountains by Glaciers. By Professor W, M. Davis ... 393 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18. 

1. On a Subterranean Tide in the Karroo. By Professor Andrew Young, 

M.A., B.Sc 394 

2. The Stormberg Formation in the Cape Colony. By Alex. L. du Ton, B.A. 394 

3. Recent Advances in Seismology. By John Milne, F.R.S. (p. 340) 396 

4. On the Geology of South Victoria Land. By H. T. Ferear, M.A 396 

5. Baviaan's Kloof: a Contribution to the Theory of Mountain Folds. By 

Ernest H. L. Schwarz, A.R.C.S 397 

6. Report on the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 

&c. (p. 160) 398 

Johannesburg. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 29. 
Address by the President (p. 375) 398 

1. The Rhodesian Banket. By Professor J. AV. Gregoet, F.R.S 398 

2. The Indicators of the Ballarat Gold Fields : a Study in the Formation of 

Gold Pockets. By Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S 399 

3. On the Relation between Ore Veins and Pegmatites. By Professor R. 

Beck 400 

4. Magmatic Segregation of Sulphide Ores. By Dr. A. P. Coleman 400 

5. On the Marginal Phenomena of Granite Domes. By Professor Grenville 

A. J. Cole 4C0 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. Report on an Investigation of the Batoka Gorge and Adiacent Portions 

of the Zambesi Valley. By G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S. (p. 292) 401 

2. *G]acial Deposits of the Alps. By Professor A. Penck 401 

3. The Recent AVork of the Transvaal Geological Survey. By Herbert 

Kynaston, B.A 401 

4. The Correlation between the pie-Karroo Beds of the Transvaal and those 

of the Cape Colony. By Dr. F. H. Hatch 402 

5. An Instrument for Surveying Deep Borelioles. By Dr. F. H. Hatch ... 404 

6. On the Geology of Basutoland. By Rev. S. S. Dornan 404 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER I. 

1. The Dolomite Formation of the Transvaal. By C. Baring Hoewood ... 406 

2. On the Discovery of Marine Fossiliferous Rocks of Tertiary Age in Natal 

and Zululand. By William Anderson, F.R.S.E 400 

3. Evidences of Glacial Conditions in Permo-Carboniferous Times in the 

Transvaal. By Edward T. Melloe, B.Sc 407 

4. Note on the Occurrence of Dwyka Conglomerate at Kimberley Mine. By 

G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 408 



Xiv REPORT— 1905. 

Page 

5. The Diamond Pipes and Fissures of South Africa. By Haeold S. 

Haegee 408 

6. On the Geology of the West Rand. By Dr. J. T. Carkick 409 

7. The Plutonic Rocks and their Relations with the Crystalline Schists and 

other Formations. By F. P. Mennell 409 

8. A Consideration of the Archfean Period of the Continents of North 

America and South Africa, with reference to Mineral Occurrences. By 
E. F. Hbneage 410 

Section D.-ZOOLOGY. 

Cape Town. 

WUDNESBAY, AUGUST 16. 

Address by G. A. Botjlengee, F.R.S., President of the Section 412 

Recent Work on Gametogenesis and its Bearing on Theories of Heredity. By 

L. DoNCASTER, M.A 4.32 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 

1. Cases of Extensive Mortality among Marine Animals on the South 

African Coast, with Suggestions as to their Cause or Causes. By 
J. D. F. Gilchrist, M.A., Ph.D., B.Sc 4.34 

2. Recent Discoveries inthe South African Deep Sea. By J. D.F. Gilchrist, 

M.A.,Ph.D., B.Sc 435 

.3. The Ostrich and its Allies. By A. H. Evans, M.A 435 

4. On Ostrich Farming. By the Hon. Arthur Douglass 435 

5. The Role of Mucus in Corals. By Professor J. E. Dueeden, Ph.D -:. 4.3G 

6. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoo logical Station, Naples 

(p. 181) 436 

7. Report on the ' Index Animalium' (p. 185) 436 

8. Report on the Influence of Salt and other Solutions on the Development 

of the Frog (p. 175) 43G 

9. Interim Report on the Colour Physiology of the Higher Crustacea (p. 

187) 436 

10. Fifteenth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 186) 436 

11. Report on the Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands (p. 186) 437 

12. Report on Zoology Organisation ("p. 186) 437 

1?. Interim Report on the Probability oi AnTxylostomahacommg a Permanent 

Inhabitant of our Coal Mines in the Event of its Introduction (Report, 
1904, p. 292) _... 437 

14. Report on Investigations at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 

(P-183) 437 

15. *Interim Report on the Effects of Sera and Antisera on the Development 

of the Sexual Cells 437 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18. 

1. The Origin of Mammals, By R. Broom, M.D., D.Sc 437 

2. On some Earlier Stages in the Development of Peripatus Balfouri. By 

W. F. Puecell, Ph.D :, 438 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

3. Ilaljits and Peculiarities of some South African Ticks. By Chas. P, 

LouNSBTJET, B.Sc, P.E.S. (p. 282) 439 

4. The Buccal Apparatus of a Tick {Hmmaphxj salts inmcfata, C. and F.). 

By George H. F. Nuttall, F.R.S., W. F. CoorER, B.A., and R. D. 
Smedley, M.B . 439 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. *Pearl Oysters and Pearls, By Professor W. A. Herdman, F.R.S 441 

2. tCephalodiscus. By Ur. S. F. Haemer, F.R.S 441 

3. 'Demonstration of Ankylostoma Preparations, By A. E. Shipley, 

F.R.S 441 

Johannesburg. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. *Mimicry in South African Insects. By Professor E. B. PoultoN, 

F.R.S 442 

2. fThe Migration of Birds in the Southern Hemisphere. By W. L. 

SCLATEE, M.A 442 

3. On some South African Land Planarians. By Dr. H. Lyster Jameson 442 

4. Locust Destruction in the Transvaal, Season 1904-5. By C. B. Simpson 442 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Convergent Evolution, as illustrated by the Litoitterna, a Group of 

Fossil Ungulata in Patagonia. By Professor W. B. Scott 443 

2. A Neuro-syncytial Theory of Development, By Dr. W. PI. Gaskell, 

F.R.S. 443 

3. On the Growing-point in the Vertebrata. By Professor J. Cleland, 

M.D., F.R.S ... , 444 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

Cape Town. 
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 16. 



Address by Rear-Admiral Sir W. J. L. Wharton, K.C.B., P.R.S., President 

of the Section 44.5 

1. tA Short Description of the British Ordnance Survey, and some Advan- 

tages to be gained from a Topographical Survey of South Africa. By 
Colonel D. A. Johnston, C.B 459 

2. *British National Antarctic Expedition with the 'Discovery.' By L, C. 

Beenacchi 459 

TUURSDA Y, A UG UST 1 7. 
Joint Meeting with Section C. (p, 393.) 459 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18. 

1, *The Unveiling of the Coast of Africa. By H. YtJLE Oldham 459 

2. The Visit of the Scottish Antarctic Expedition to Diego Alvarez, or 

Gough Island. By R. N. Rudmose Beoavn 459 



Xvi REPORT — 1905. 

Page 

3. tThe Indigenous Forests of South Africa. By E. Hutchins 469 

4. The OUmatology of South Africa. By Chakles Stewart, B.Sc 4G0 

Johannesburg. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. *The Sikhim Himalayas and Tibet. By Douglas W. Freshfield, M.A. 462 

2. tThe Physical Features of the Transvaal. By Tudoe G. Tbevoe, F.G.S. 4G2 

3. tThe Triangulation of the Johannesburg Gold Fields. Bj C. taw bbr 

Steer 4G2 

4. Geographical Notes on Africa South of the Limpopo. Bv F. S. Water- 

meter ". 462 

WEDNJESDAT, AUGUST 30. 

1. Artificial Globes and their place in Geography. By Captain E W 

Creak, C.B., R.N., F.R.S ■......" 462 

2. *Excursions as a means of Teaching Geography. By J. Lomas, F.G.S. ... 463 

3. The Cycle of Geographic Forms in an Arid Area. By Professor "VV. M. 

I5AVIS 463 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. tThe Game Preserves of the Transvaal. By Major Stevenson Hamiiton. 

D.S.O .'464 

2. Boundaries and Areas in Africa. By J. Bolton 464 

3. A New Rainfall Map of Africa. By A. J. Herbeetson and P. C. VVaite 465 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Cape Town. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST IQ. 
Address by Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., D.Sc, President of the Section 466 

1. The Terms and Conditions of Domestic Service in England and in South 

Africa. By Lady KNiGHTLsr of Fawsley 47J 

2. Report on the Accuracy and Comparability of British and Foreign 

Statistics of International Trade (p. 187) 7.. 473 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 
L The Public Revenue of South Africa. By H. E. S. Fremantle 473 

2. The Railways of South Africa. By J. W. Jaggee, M.L.A 474 

3. The Protection of Infant Industries. By II. 0. Meredith 474 

4. *Rural Industries. By G. Fletcher 475 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 13. 

1. The Developmeut of the AVool Industry. By T. H. Moore 475 

2. Changes in the Sources of the World's Wheat Supply since 1880 Bv 

A. L. BowLEY ' 4-6 

3. The Importation from Abroad of Foodstuffs producible in Cape Colony 

By E. NoBBS f ;'• ^^q 



CONTENTS. XVn 



Johannesburg. 

TUESDA Y, A UGUST 29. 

Page 

1 . The Progress of Johannesburg. By Stephen Cottet 470 

2. A Search for General Principles concemino; the Relation between Central 

and Local Government Finance. By Edwin Cannan, M.A., LL.D. ... 480 

3. The Rise and the Growth of the Protection of Industrial Property in the 

Transvaal. By John A. Bucknill, M.A 480 

4. The Practice and Theory of Dumping. By W. J. Clarkson 482 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. *The Cost of Living on the Rand. By A. Aiken 483 

2. The Study of Economics in South Africa. By A. S. Kibd 483 

3. AVhat is Credit ? By Fkancis W. Buxton, M.A 483 

FEIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Some Aspects of the Native Question. By Howakd Pim 484 

2. Some Statistics of the Mineral Industry of the Transvaal. By A. C. 

Stttherlanb, ma 485 

3. *The Development and Working of Railways in the Colony of Natal. By 

Sir David Hunter, K.C.M.G 487 

4. The Colonial Lands of Natal. By Robert A Ababrelton 487 

5. The State in relation to Agriculture in South Africa. By F. B. Smith 489 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

Address by Colonel Sir Colin Scott Moncrieff, G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E,, 
[«CM« President of the Section 490 

Cape Town. 
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 16. 

1. Cape Town Colonial Dutch Architecture. By C. H. Smith 502 

2. *Sleam Turbines as applied to Ocean Liner.*. Bv Professor J. Harvard 

• Biles, LL.D '. £02 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 

1. Roller-bearlDgs. By Thomas W. How, F.R.G.S 602 

2. The 5Iotor-Car in South Africa. By Alfred T. Henkesst 503 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18. 
1. "Cape Government Railways. By A. M. Tippett, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E 504 



1905 



xviii REPORT — 1905, 



Johannesburg. 

TUESDA Y, A UG US T 29. 

Page 
\ddress by the President (p. 490) 504 

1. tWireless Telegraphy. By Sir W. H. Preece, K.C.B., F.R.S 504 

2. *The Strength of Winding Ropes in Mines. By Professor John Perry, 

F.R.S 504 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST iO. 

1. Electric-power Distribution in the Rand. By Robert Hammond, 

M.Inst.U.E 504 

2. * Water-power Plants. By Elsdon Dew 507 

3. Dust Fuel. By A. M. Robeson 507 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. The Harbours of South Africa, with special reference to the Causes and 

Treatment of Sandbars. By Cathcart W, Methven, F.R.S.E., 
M.Inst.C.E 508 

2. The Architectural Problem in South Africa. By William Lucas, 

F.R.G.S 510 

3. *Irrigation in South Africa. By 0. D. IL Braine 610 

4. 'The Copper Deposit of Little Namaqualand. By J. IL Ronaldson 510 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Cape Town. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST IG. 

Address by A. C. Haddon, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., President of the Section ... 511 

1. The Totemi-sm of the Bantu. By E. Sydney Hartland 527 

2. The Stone Age in South Africa. By L. Peringuey 627 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 

1. The Musical Instruments of South Africa. By;^nENRY Balfour, M.A. 528 

2. A Few Facts concerning the American Negro. By Miss B. Pullen- 

Burry 529 

3. Report on Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles (p. 198) 530 

4. Report on Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of the 

Egyptian Army (p. 207) 530 

5. Report on Anthropological Photographs (p. 222) 530 

6. Interim Report on the Age of Stone_Circles (p.'197) 53O 

7. Report on Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete (p. 208)... 630 

8. Report on the Lake Village at Glastonbury (p. 210) 53O 



CONTENTS. x;x 

mi DAY, AUGUST 18. 

Page 

1. On Artificial Deformation of the Human Body in Africa, liy Professor 

Dr. F. VON LuscHAN ^^^ 

2. -The Mental Capacity of the Bantu. By Rev. Canon Crisp 530 

3. *Magato and his Tribe. By Willi A Jt Grant 530 

Johannesburg, 
TUESDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. -Arts and Crafts among the Natives of South Africa. By Dr. S. 

SCHONLAND .,,.•• ' • " '^ 

2. -Bushmen and their Art. By W. A. Squire •'531 

3. -Stone Implements in South Africa. By J. P. Johnson 531 

4. -TheBasuto. By II. K Mabille 531 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST Zd. 
J. -The Last South African Potentate: Gugunhana. By Dr. Ltengme ... 531 

2. The Racial Affinities of the Hottentots. By Professor Dr. F. VON 

, t>.3 i 

LUSC HAN 

3. Report on Ruins in Rhodesia. By David Randall-MacIvee (p. 301) ... 531 

4. -Exhibition of Stone Implements from Zambesi. By G. W. Lamplugh, 
F.R.S ^"^^ 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. -The Bawenda. By Rev. E. Gottschling ■- 532 

2. -The Thonga Tribe, By Rev. A. H. Junod 532 

3. -Notes on the Totemism of the Becwana. By Rev. W. C. Willoughbt 532 

4. -Ihe Native Tribes of South Africa. By J. W. Shepstone, C.M.G 532 

5. : Native Circumcision L6dges. By C. A. Wheelwright, C.M.G 532 



Section I. -PHYSIOLOGY. 

Address by Colonel D. Bruce, C.B., M.B., F.R.S., President of the Section,.. 533 

Cape Town. 

WEDNESDAY. AUGUST IG. 

Discussion on the Effect of Climate upon Health 547 

THURSDA Y, A UGUST 17. 
Discussion on Stock Diseases in South Africa 549 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18. 

1. So-called Scurvy of South Africa. By Dr. A. J. Gregory 551 

2. Plague in Cape Colony. By Dr. J. A. Mitchell 551 

3. -Leprosy in South Africa. By Dr. S. Black -^ 55L 



XX REPORT — IGO'i. 

Johannesburg. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 22. 

Page 
Address by the Peesibent (p. 533) 552 

1. Rinderpest: its Prevention and Cure. By the Hon, George Turner ... 552 

2. The Advance of our Knowledge respecting the Stock Disease of South 

Africa. By Dr. A. Theilbr 553 

3. On the Nature of the Silver Reaction in Animal and Vegetable Tissues. 

By Professor A. B. Macalt.tjm, Ph.D 554 

4. On the Distribution of Chlorides in Animal and Vegetable Cells. By 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Ph.D 554 

5. Some Points in the Micro-chemistry of the Nerve Fibre. By Professor 

A. B. Macaelum, Ph.D., and Miss M. L. Menten, B.A. ...'. 555 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. The Life-history of the Coloured Labourer in the Transvaal. By Lotris 

G. Irvine, M.A.,M.D., B.Sc, and Donald Macaulat, M.A., M.B.,C.M. 655 

2. Diseases among Natives. By Dr. G. Liengme 556 

3. "Drugs as used in South Africa. By Dr. Maberlet 556 

4. *The Action of Radium on the Electric Phenomena of tlie Retina. By 

Professor J. G. McKendrick, F.R.S 556 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. The Administration of Chloroform. By AuGtrsTUS D, Waller, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S 557 

2. The Application of Food within tlie System viewed by the Light of 

Modern Research. By F. SV. Pavt, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 558 

3. "'Tathological and Therapeutical Aspects of Advenative. By Professor 

W. D. Halliburton, F.R.S 561 

4. -A Note on Specific Sera. By Dr. M. A. Rupfer 561 

5. Report on the State of Solution of Proteids (p. 222) 561 

6. Report on the Metabolism of the Tissues (p. 223) 561 

7. "Interim Report on the Ductless Glands 661 



Section K.— BOTANY. 
Address by Harold Wager, F.R.^., H.M.I., President of the Soction 562 

Cape Town. 
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST U. 

1. On the more Recent Advances in our Knowledge of Seaweed,?. By 

Professor R. W. Phillips, M.A., D.Sc 585 

2. The Prothallium of Gleichema j)ectinata. By Professor D. H. Campbeil 585 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

3, On the Healing of Pareuchymatoua Tissues in Plants. By Professor 

M. C. Potter, M.A., F.L.S 585 

4. *Joint Discussion with Section L on Educational Methods in the Teach- 

ing of Botany. Opened by Harold Wager, F.R.S 586 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 

1. On the Vegetation and the Floral Elements of Tropical Africii. By 

Professor A. Engler 586 

2. The Phyto-Geographical Subdivisions of South Africa. By II. Marloxh, 

Ph.D 689 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18. 

1. The Systematic Position of Wehoitachia. By Professor H. H. W. 

Peakson, M.A., F.L.S 590 

2. Notes on Irrigation Farming on the Orange Kiver. By F. B. Parkinson, 

A.R.S.M., F.R.G.S ". 590 



Johannesburg. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 20. 

Address by the President (p. 662) 691 

1. The Fossil Floras of South Africa. By A. 0. Seward, M.A., F.R.S. ... 591 

2. "^Recent Information concerning South African Ferns and their Dis- 

tribution. By T. R. Sim . 691 

WEDNESDA Y, A UG UST 30. 

1. Botanical Photographs as Aids to Ecological Research. Bj' Professor 

F. E. Weiss, D.Sc, F.L.S 692 

2. Report on the Registration of Botanical Photographs (p. 226) 593 

3. The Climate and Life-zones of the Transvaal. By Joseph Burtt-Davy, 

F.L.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc 593 

4. Bacteria as Agents in the 0.\idation of Amorphous Carbon. Bv Professor 

M. C. Potter, M.A., F.L.S ' 594 

5. -■•Note on the Dissipation of Absorbed Solar Radiation by Xerophilous 

Plants. By Horace T. Brown, LL.D., F.R.S 595 

6. Some Problems of Heredity. By R. P. Gregory, M.A 595 

7. Infection Phenomena in Various Uredineaj. By I. B. Pole Evans, 

B.A., B.Sc 595 

8. -On our Knowledge of South African Succulents. By Dr. S. Schonland 596 

9. Finger-and-Toe (Plasmodiovhora Brassicce). By George Potts, B.Sc, 

PhD 596 

10. -A Revised List of the Indigenous Plants of Natal. By J. Medley 

Wood 596 

11. Report on Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity (p. 226)... 596 



Xjcii REPORT — 1905. 

Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

Cape Town. 

WEDXESDAY, AUGUST IG. 

Page 
Address by Sir Richard C. Jebb, O.M., Litt.D., D.C.L., M.P., Preadent of 

the Section 597 

Cape Education : its Difficulties and Development. By Rev. W. E. C. 
Clarke, M.A 606 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 
L *The Teaching of Science. By Professor H. E. Armstron6, F.R.S 608 

2. *Tbe Development of Technical Education in a New Country. By G. 
Fletcher ... '. 608 

8. *Tbe World of Words and its Exploration. By Dr. J. A. H. Murray... 608 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. *Rural Education appropriate to Colonial Life and Agriculture in South 

Africa. By A. D. Hall, M..\ 608 

2. The Higher Education of Women in South Africa. By Miss E. M. 

Clark ;... 609 

8. The Disabilities of the South African Schoolboy. By W. W. Wat, 

M.A ; ;. 610 

Johannesburg. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 29. 

L tThe Changes in the Dutch Language since its Introduction into South 
Africa. By Dr. J. Brill, Ph.D 616 

2. tNative Education. By E. B. Saegant, M.A G15 

3. tRecent Improvements in the Education of Infants, with Special Applica- 

tion to the Transvaal. By Miss E. A. Welldon 615 

4. tManual Instruction in the Transvaal. By T. W. Lowden 615 

5. |The Teaching of Modern Languages. By H, W. Atkinson, M.A. < 015 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST ZQ. 

1. tThe Teaching of Agriculture. ByF.B. Smith 615 

2. tForestal Education. By T. R. Si*t 615 

3. tThe Teaching of Architecture. By R. G. Kiekby 615 

4. tEducation on the Yeldt. By J. II. Corbett 615 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER L 
Address by llie PIiesident (p. 597) 616 

1. tProgress of Education in the Transvaal since the War. By II. VVarre 

Cornish ;;. .., .j.., \ , ^ 616 

2. tEducation in the Orange River Colony. By the Hon. Hugh GdnNj 

M.A., B.Sc. ,. ., ....;,., 616 

8. tEducation in Rhodesift. By GtORSE Duthie , 616 

4. tThe Prospects of the Secondary Schools in the Transvaal. By C. D. 
IIorE,M.A r •; 616 



CONTENTS. XXUl 



APPENDIX. 

rage 

South Africa Meeting : 

Narrative and Itinerary 617 

A ddresses of Wt Icome ^-^ 

Lectures ^^^ 

Soutli Africa Medal Fund 031 

Index ^35 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 
Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plates II. aitd III. 

Illustrating vSir David Gill's Paper 'On the Origin and Progress of Geodetic 
Survey in South Africa, and of the African Arc of Meridian.' 

Plate IV. 

Illustrating Dr. R. Maeloth's Paper ' On the Phyto-Geogtapliical Slibdivlsiohs 

in South Africa.' 

Plate V* 
Designs for the South Africa MedaL 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no iuterference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Guvipositio7is, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

A-NunAii Subscribees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXvi REPORT— 1905. 

gratuilousi y the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay tvWiout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 184G, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admi.ssion Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1830 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries, 
Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual volume 

of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 

according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
.sura of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members ivho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

-—Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 
AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription, 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their seta) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication caa 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale at £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXVU 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or longer. Tl.e 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
ifess than two years in advance ; • and the arrangements for it shall bo 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. litembers of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Pree'*- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors cf 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of suh- 
mitting new claims under this Hide to the decision of the Council, they must he 
sent to the Assistant Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the 
Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the 
Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.^ 

1. delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under Ihe 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Bide to be sent to the 
Assistant Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Ride to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

(i) The President, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of a Section are 
appointed by the Council ih November or December. They form, with 
the existing members (see (ii) and (vi) ), the Committee, which has the duty of 
obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Reports likely to be sub- 
mitted to the Section at the next meeting, of preparing a report thereon, 
of generally organising the business of the Section, and of bringing before 
the Council any points which they think deserving of consideration.^ 

' Revised by tlie General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 
' Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

' Adopted by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904. 

* Notice to Contributors qf Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dati tig from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 



xxviii EEport — 1906. 

(ii) The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex-officio members of 
these Committees. 

(iii) The Sectional Couiniilteos may hold such meetings as they think 
proper for the organisation of the business, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the tirst Wednesday of the Annual Meeting at 2 p.m. 
for the appointment of additional Members and other business. 

Any member who has served on the Committee in previous years, and 
who has intimated his intention of being present at the Meeting, is eligible 
for election as a Member of the Committee at its first meeting. 

(iv) The Sectional Committees shall have power to add to their number 
from day to day during the Annual Meeting, but it is not desirable for 
them to be larger than is necessary for efficiency ; they have also the 
power to elect not more than three Vice-Presidents at any time during 
the meeting, in addition to those appointed by the Council. 

(v) The List formed during the Annual Meeting is to bo entered 
daily in the Sectional Minute- Book, and a copy forwarded without delay 
to the Printer, who is chai'ged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on 
the next day in the Journal i)f the Sectional Proceedings. 

(vi) Before tlie close of the Annual Meeting each Sectional Committee 
is to nominate si.x members of the Association to form the nucleus of the 
Committee for the succeeding year, and forward a list of the six names to 
the Assistant Secretary of the Association. 

Included in the six names .should be the existing President of the 
Section, or one of the Vice-Presidents, and one of the existing Secretaries. 

It will be the duty of these Members to transact the business of 
the Committee until the officers of the Section for the ensuing year are 
appointed by the Council, and thus become the officers of the Committee 
(see (i) ). 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings arc to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday (optional), Monday, and Tuesday, 
for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Committee of 
a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible rleterniinerl by tlie Sectiotjal Coni- 
luittees In fore the hc(jinniiuj^ of the Meetinij. It has therefore become necessary, 
in order to j'ive an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several 
Comniunlcations, that each author sliould prepare an Abstract of his Memoir of a 
lengtii suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book- post, on or 

before , adtkessed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

tliat his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. tliree complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of" their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant Secre- 
tary before the conclusion of the Meeting. 



RULRS OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX 

and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Committee that has held office since the last Annual 
Meeting. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by 
the Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accordingly. 
The List of Communications to be read on Thursday shall be then 
arrano-ed, and the general distribution of business throughout the week 
shall be provisionally appointed. At the close of the Committee Meetmg 
the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed 
to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing the same before 
8 A.M. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to prepare a copy of the Journal for the following day 
by (i) removing from the list of papers those which have been read on 
that day ; (ii) making any needful additions to or corrections in the li.st 
of those appointed to l.)e read on following days ; (iii) revising the list of 
the Sectional Committee, and making any other necessary corrections, 
and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as possible to 
the Printer, who is charged with printing the same before 8 a.m. next 
morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section (generally the Recorder) should call at the Printing Office 
and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings at each Meeting of the Committee are to be 
entered in the Minute-Book, and these Minutes should be confirmed at 
the next meeting of the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant Secretary of the Association. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee, and will receive, on 
application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. _ 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be ofiered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the 
communications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman to 
have the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has 
been made) and securing the presentation of the report in due time ; and, 
farther, it is expedienfthat one of the members should be appointed to 
act as Secretary, for ensuring attention to business. 

It is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on 



XXX REPORT — 1905. 

a Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
woi-king. 

A tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section shall bo sent each year to the Recorders of the 
several Sections, to enable them to fill ia the statement whether or no the 
several Committees appointed on the recommendation of their respective 
Sections have presented their reports. 

On the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee 
for a special object of science having been adopted hy the Sectional 
Committee, the number of Members of such Committee shall be then 
fixed, but the Members to servo on such Committee shall be nominated 
and selected by the Sectional Committee at a subsequent meeting. 

Committees have power to add to their number person?, being Members 
of the Association, whose assistance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered on the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant Secretary of the 
Association for presentation to the Committee of Eecommendations. 
Unless this be clone, the Becommendations cannot receive the sanction of the 
Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
Ganeral Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Moneu? 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 
for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 

Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

In each Committee the Chairman ia the only person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, Professor John Perry, F.R.S., for such portion 
of the sums granted as may from time to time be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 
June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

' Revised by the General Committee at Ipswieb. 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

7. The Cbairman of a Committee must, before the mcetiDg of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received , 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of any description are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Council. 

11. Committees are requested to fui-nish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. T/ie Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,^ and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves inio 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the coramunicatioi s 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorheejpers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

' The Sectional Committee is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of 
the Section and of the Sectional Committee, except for Saturday. 



XXXll 



REPORT — 1905. 



2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Official Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing the.se Rooms. 

GoTnmittee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the Genei-al Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Committee of Recommendations are the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General Secretaries, 
the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of the Association 
in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and shall not be taken into considera- 
tion by the General Committee unless previously recommended by the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.' 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the app lintment being sent to the Assistant Secretary.^ 

Correspondincf Societies.^ 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific investigation and 
publishes the results may become a Society affiUatrd to the British Asso- 
ciation. 

(ii) The Delegates of such Societies, who must be or become members 
of the British Association, shall be ex officio members of the General 
Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 

» Passed by the General Committee, 1884 ; revised 1903, 1905. 



RDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlU 

(iii) Any Society foi-med for the purpose of encouraging, the study of 
science, which li.as existed for three years and numbers not fewer than 
fifty members, may become a Society associated with the British Associa- 
tion. 

(iv) Each associated Society shall have the right to appoint a Delegate 
to attend the Annual Conference, and such Delegates shall be members or 
associates of the British Association, and shall have all the rights of those 
appointed by the affiliated Societies, except that of membership of the 
General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to 
the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, 
and must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the 
results of the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the 
Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by tliem. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before 
the 1st of June, to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, a. 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which 
will contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society 
as may be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies 
Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 



Conference of Delegates of Oorrespondmg Societies. 

6. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

7. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

8. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

1905. . b 



xxxlv KEPORT — 1905. 

9. The Committee of each Section shall be instrncteci to transmit 
to the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recom- 
mendations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee 
of Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation 
of Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into efl'ect. 

10. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the pnrport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing T-esults. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the ]\Ieetings. 

Local Committees sliall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Offi.CKrs. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
a'ld a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

The Council shall appoint and have power to dismiss such paid officers 
as they may consider necessary to carry on the work of the Association, 
on such terms as they may from time 'to time determine.' 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting:. 



'o- 



(1) The Council shall consist of ^ 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The Pi-esident and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

6. The past and present General Treasurers and General 
Secretaries and past Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Ti-easurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting 

7. Ordinary Members. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904. 

^ Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874 ; amended at Cambridge, 
1904. ^ 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annuaUy from the 

General Committee. 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive yeai-s ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 
(6) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 
Annual Report the names of twenty-three Members of the 
General Committee whom they recommend for election as 
Members of Council. 

(i) A nomination for either of the two vacant seats on the 

Council may be made in writing by any two or more 

members of the General Committee, and must be sent 

to the Assistant Secretary so as to be received by him 

at least twenty-four hours before the Meeting of the 

General Committee at which the election takes place. 

(ii) The nominations shall be read to the Meeting by the 

Chairman ; and if more than two persons be nominated, 

the election shall be by ballot or show of hands, and 

the two having the highest numbers of votes shall be 

declared elected. 

(iii) In case no nomination, or only one nomination, shall be 

received, as provided for by By-law, two seats on the 

Council (or one seat, as the case may be) shall remain 

vacant until the next ensuing Meeting of the Council, 

when the seats (or seat, as the case may be) shall 

be filled by co-optation of the other members of the 

Council.' 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that ot the 

OfiBcei's of the Association. 



Papers and Commtuiications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 



Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904) revised in South Africa, 
1905. 



b2 



jfXXVl 



REPORt — 1905. 



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PASr PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. XXXVll 






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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. xliii 



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REPORT — 1905. 



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PAST tiaESlDENTS, YICE-FRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. xlv 



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xlvi 



REPORT — 1905. 



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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES, xlvii 



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tAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS^ AND LOCAt, SECRETARIES. xlLs 




1905. 



REPORT — 1905. 



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TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-1905. 



1832-70 (Sir) K. I. Murchison (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq.. F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbagb, Esq., F.R.S, 
1839-44 F. Bailt, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S, 
1858-82 General E. Sabinb, F.R S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



TRUSTEES. 
1872 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

Avebuey), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pros. 

R.S. 
18.S3 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwtirds Lord) 

Playfair, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Rucker, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Gray, Esq. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1891-98 Prof. A. W. Rucker, F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904 Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1835- 

1836- 

1837- 

1839- 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 

1863-1 

186.5- 
1866- 



35 Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, 
F.R.S. 

36 Rev. W. Vbenon Harcourt, 
F.R.S., and F. Baily, Esq., 
F.R.S. 

87 Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, 

F.R.S., and R. I. Murchison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
39 R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
45 Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
50 Lieut. -Colonel B.Sabine,F.R.S. 

52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 

53 J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 

61 Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 

62 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 

63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 

65 W. Hopkins, E.sq., F.R.S., and 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

66 F. Galton. Esq., F.R.S. 
68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, J'.R.S. 



, and 



1868-71 Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. D. GALTON, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. Galton. F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schaper, F.R.S. 
Prof. Schafer, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Roberts- Austen, F.R.S, 
Sir W. C. Roberts-Austkn, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
1902-03 Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 

Major P. A. MacMAHON, F.R S. 
1903 Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 



?7- f 
1900 1 



1897- 

1900 
1900-02 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIESS. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. FoRBES, Acting 

Secretari/. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

AssiBtant Secretarij. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting- 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, E.sq., M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Gabson, Esq., M.D. 
1904 A. SiLVA White, Esq.. Assistant 

Seoreta/ry, 

c 3 



ill 



RfifORI — 1905. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the AssociatioUi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS; 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



1835. Dublin 

1830. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 
1810. Glasgow ... 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.R.S.IReV. H. Coddington. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S Prof. Forbes. 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. | Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS ANt) PHYSICS. 



18 U. Plymouth 
1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William MTiewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S..,. 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 
1 Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Wliewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Tliomson, M.A., 

F.ll.S., F.U.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
: F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheats! one. 
Prof. Forbes, W. 8. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J. MacquornRankine, Prof. Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
i kine. Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Harlnup, H. G. Pucklo, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
I Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
j Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
I Prof. Stevelly. 

Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 
I Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 
I Tyndall. 



PBESIDENTS AND gECllETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Uii 




Secretaries 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1 865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.., 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 



1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin.. ., 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



TheEarlof Bosse,M.A.,K.P., 

F.B.S. 1 

Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

■p TJ O I 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.B.S. 
Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.B.A.S. 
W. Spottigwoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.B.A.S. 

Prof. Wlieatstone, D.C.L., 

F.B.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.B.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

I 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jelleti, M.A.. 
I M.B.l.A. 

?roi. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 
i LL.D., F.B.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
j D.C.L., F.B.S. 

, ' Prof. G . C. Foster, B. A ., F.B.S., 
I Pres. Physical Soc. 
Bev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 
i D.C.L., F.B.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F3.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.B.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.B.S. 
Bt. Hon. Prof. Lord Bayleigh, 

M.A., F.B.S. 
Prof. O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
I LL.D., D.C.L.. F.R.S. 
'Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 
I F.R.S.E. 

'Prof. Q. I^. Darwin, M.A,, 
1 LL.d!, F.R.S. 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H, 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly, 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. B. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. B. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
!Bev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 
Prof. Stevelly, Bev. C. T. Wliitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Bev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Bev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 
S. Mathews, Prof. 11. J. S. Smith, 
J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin.Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Bev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Bev. B. Harley, 
j B. B. Hay ward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, B. B. Hayward, 
1 W. K. Clifford. 

Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 
j Prof. G. C. Foster, Bev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 
Everett, Bev. B. Harley. 
Prof. W.K.Clifford, J. W.L.Glaisher, 
1 Prof. A. S. Herschel, G.F. Bodwell. 
' Prof . W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 
I W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
' J.W.L.Glaisher.Prof .Herschel, Ran- 
i dal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W.F.Barrett, J.W.L. Glaisher, 
i C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 
Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 
T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 
J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casej-, G. F. Fitzgerald, J 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. - 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 
I O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
'w. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAli.ster, Rev. W. Bouth. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Bev. G. Bichardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
I son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
1 W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
IR. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
I J. H. Poypting, W. N. Shaw. 



\w 



REPORT — 1905. 



Date and Place 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
189fi. 

1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 

1901. 

1902, 

1903. 

1904. 



Mancliester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leed.s 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford..., 

Ipswich , 

liiverpool. 



Presidents 



Toronto . . 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford .. 

Glasgow .. 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 



Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.B., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.U., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. IL Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



1905. South Africa 



Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S. — Beji. 

of Afirononiji, Dr. A. A. 

Common, F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 

— Di'p. of A strunomy, Prof. 

H. H. Turner, F.R.S. j 

Prof. J. PLirser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. I 

— Dep. of Astro7iomy, Prof, j 

A. Schuster, F.R.S. | 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. — Dej).\ 

of Astronomy and Meleor- 

oloqy J)i: W.N. Shaw, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— ,?«J- 

Section of Antronomy and 

Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 

Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.E.S. 
Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Sliaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge,"Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. 11. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson.' 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H. S. Carslaw, C H. Lees, AV. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 

Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 

Morton, A. W. Porter. 
D. E. Ben.son, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 

H. T. Hud.son, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 

Loton, A. W. Porter. 
A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 

Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 

yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 

Whetham. 
A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 

Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lpes. 



18.'?2. Oxford 

18.S3. Cambridge 
1834. Edinburgh 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II.— CHEMISTET, MINERALOGT. 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Jolinston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGT. 



1835. Dublin, 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool. 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming ... 

Michael Faraday, F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 
Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 
Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dy. 

Reynolds. 



PRESIDENTS AND SE0BETARIE8 OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1838 Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



Rev. William Whewell.F.R.S, 

Prof. T.Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

Jolm Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I. A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 
Dr. Goldiutr Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. "Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, R. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 

Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 



B. C. Brodie, R, Hunt, Prof. Solly. 



John Percy, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich .,. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 



Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C. B., F.R. S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 



Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
W. bdli'ng, M.B., F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

1 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 
i F.R.S.E. 

Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. B. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F,R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S !T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 
Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. AVilson. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

1 Ronalds. 
Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

F.R.S. i Pearsall. 

Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. I Dr. Edwai'ds, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

j Price. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
I A. B. Northcote. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S.! A. Vernon Harcourt. G. D. Liveing. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R, 

Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof, 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 



Ivi 



REPORT — 1905. 



Date and Place 



1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester i 

1888. Bath 

I 

1889. Newcastle- ! 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

"El T> O 

W. H. p'erkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.E.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir T. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof, J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B.Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W, Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr, Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
i ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 

Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J, M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T, Wills. 
H. S. Bell, W, Chandler Roberts, 

J, M, Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M.Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough, 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L, Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlaiie, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P.Phillips Bedson, H, B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson, 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H, F. Mor- 

ley,W.W. J. Nicol, C. J.Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. II. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, 11. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W, J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A, Colefax, W. W.. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, IT. Forster Morley. 



1895. Ip.swich ,., 

1896. Liverpool.., 
1897 Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford,.. 

1901. Glasgow ... 



SECTION B {continued). 
Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 



— CHEMI.STRY, 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn. J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden. C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 



Presidents 



Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 

Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sidney YouDg.F.R.S.... 



1905. SouthAfrica 



George T. Beilby 



Secretaries 



R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof, 
G. G. Henderson. Prof. W. J. Pope, 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen, 
derson. Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. W, 
J. Pope. 

W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. O. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Jurit?, 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPnY 

1832. Oxford IR. I. Murcliisou, F.R.S 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



... John Taylor. 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof. Jameson J. Phillips,T. J. Torrie, Rev. J.'Vates, 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



18.35. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 



Dublin , 
Bristol , 



Liverpool... 
Newcastle. 
Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



R.J.Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geoff. ,ll.l.Mmchison,F.lS,.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

<?<^ov.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geoffrajthy, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6'^'<»«7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, Y.R.^.— Geog., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 

Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 
I F.R.S. 

i Leonard Horner, F.R.S. ... . 
i 
' Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

i 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 
i F.R.S. 

SECTION c (^continued') 
William Hopkins,M. A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

1854. Liverpool ..' Prof . Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 



1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 

18.50. Edinburgh' 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853. Hull, 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 

T. J. Torrie. 
Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 

f/rapJii/, Capt. H. M.Denham,R.N. 
W". C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 

Geoqra})hy, Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 

land, Charles Darwin. 
W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, H. Murray, 

H. E. Strickland, J. Scoular. 
W.J.Hamilton,EdwardMoore,M.D., 

R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
' Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

' Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

j Rev. W. Thorp. 

i Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 
Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 

' Prof. Ansted, Prcf. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S.Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. Ramsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

j Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

I Prof. Nicol. 

. — GEOLOGY. 

C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Brj'ce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall, 



' Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixiy. 



Iviii 



BEPORT — 1905. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1855. Glasgow ... 

1 856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin. 



1858. Leeds 

185i>. Aberdeen... 

186n. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 
lae.S. Newcastle 

18G4. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 
.866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 



Secretaries 



1875. Bristol...., 

1876. Glasgow ., 

1877. Plymouth. 

1878. Dublin.... 



Sir R. J. Miirchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M. A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

T^' P S 
Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ram.say, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Btheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof.Nicol. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 
T. Wright. 

Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 
Scott. 

Prof.Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. Shaw. 

Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 
H. C. Sorby. 

Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 
Woodall. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 
Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 
Jones, H. C. Sorbj-. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglisli, H. C. 
Sorby, Thomas Sopwit.h. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright, 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fi.sher," Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boj-d Dawkins, 

Rev. n. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes,"'L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,U.H.Tiddeman,W.Toplev. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney,W. Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Toplej^ 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Wliitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 
Teall, W. Topley. 

W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 
Topley, W. W. Watts. 

J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof.W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 
F.R.S., F.G.S. W. Watts, H. P.. Woodward." 

1889. Newcastle- Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

upon-Tyne F.U.S., F.G.S. I W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 

1890. Leeds Prof. A. 11. Green, M.A., ' J. K. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

I F.R.S., F.G.S. i E. Blarr, W. W. Watts. 

1891. Cardiff ! Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

F.G.S. j Reid, W. VV. Watts. 

Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 



1892. Edinburgh 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

1893. Nottingham J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. 



1894. Oxford.. 

1895. Ipswich 



W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. 



1896. Liverpool... J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S. 



Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Ilarker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 

A. Sliers, Clement Reid. 
J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 



1897. Toronto ...iDr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp 



F.R.S. 

1898. Bristol j W. H. Hudleston, F.R S 

I 

1899. Dover Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

1900. Bradford ... ! Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

1901. Glasgow ...Ijohn Home, F.R.S 

1902. Belfast Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

j F.R.S. 

1903. Southport |Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

I M.Sc. 

1904. Cambridge Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

1905. SouthAfrica Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 



Iuf2h, Prof. H. A. Miers. 
G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 

H. Pentecost. 
J. W. Grea:ory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDa'kin, Prof. H. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L, Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
. H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L.Bowman, 'J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaff. Prof. A. Young, Prof. R. B. 

Young. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Dimcan, F.G.S. ...|Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge 'i Rev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh. Prof. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsej'. 

W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S E. Forbe.s, W. Ick, R. Patterson.. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. i Turner. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separsite Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixiii. 



Ix 



REPOBT 1905. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1843. Cork William Thompson, F.L.S. ... G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 

1844. York Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

i Chester. Dr. Lankester. 

1845. Cambridge Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S... . Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

1846. Southamp- Sir J. Richardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

ton. F.R.S. Wooldridge. 

1847. Oxford H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

I Wollaston. 

SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botant, including physiologt. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixiii.] 

1848. Swansea ...L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S ' Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A, Hen- 

! frey. Dr. Lankester. 

William Spence, F.R.S Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S., F.R.S.E. Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 

kester. Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., ! Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
F.R.S. 1 Lankester. 

W. Ogilby I Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

SirW.Jardine,Bart.,F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 



1864. Bath Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 

I 

18G5. Birming- T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, 
ham ' I 



Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankesler, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P, 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright, 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H, B. Brady, C. E. Broom,^ H. T, 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke. Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright, 



SECTION D {continued). — BIOLOGY, 

1866, Nottingham Prof, Huxley, F.R.S.— iJr/AlDr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

o/P%«wZ., Prof. Humphry,! B. Tristram, W. Turner, E, B. 

F.R.S.—JOcp.ofAiitJmijyol,^ Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

—JJtjK of Zool. and But., M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. i H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

— Dep. of Physiology, W.' M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

I Dr. E. P. Wright. 

The title of Section D was changed to Biology, 



1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast . 



1869. Exeter George Busk, F.K.S., F.L.S. 

— Dei), "f -^"t- ^"^ Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dej). ofEthno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. ilolleston.M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., ¥.lj.i3. — Dei). of 
Anat. and Phydol.,Fioi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.Jj.H.—JDcj). 
of Etlmo., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i?ty. of Bot. and 
.goo?., Prof. WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. — 
Dep. of Anat. and Physwl., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — 1)62). of Aiithropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Z)<:^. of 
Anat. and Phynol.,Vioi. "Rxx- 
t\\evio\6.,M.i).—Dc2).ofAn- 
thropol. Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfcrn, \l.V>.—^Bvp. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— i)*:/;. ofAn- 
throp., Sir W. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, Y.U.^.— Dep.of 

Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 

Cleland, F.^.^.—Dep. of 

.4««A.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Bej). of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
Anthropol.,'P.G3Mon,¥.U.^. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. li.^.—Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. Geo)-ge Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
• — Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye- Smith. 

A.C. L. Gunther, F.R.S.— i)(-^. 
of Anat. tf- Physiol, F. M. 
i Balfour, F.R.S.— 2)f_/A of 
Anthropol., F. W. Rudler. 
1881. York R. Owen, F.R.S.— Z'ty- of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
¥.^.^.—Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow .. 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield .. 



1880. Swansea .. 



Secretaries 



Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H, 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer.H, T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dj'er, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, B. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Laraprej'. 

W. T.Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J, 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, ReV. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



Ixii 



REPOKT — 1905. 



Date aad Place 



1882, 



Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 
1893. 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen . . . 

Eirmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle - 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 



Edinburgh 

Nottingham''' 



I89i. Oxford-' 



Presidents 



Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 

- Bei). of Zool. and Bot., 

Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of A/ithrojwl., Prof. 

W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 

F.R.iS. — bcp. of Aiithrojwl., 

W. Pengelly, F.K.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. 0. Bl'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.H.E. 

W. Carrutliers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton^Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof: J. S. Rurdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D„ D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Ilaslaiti, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Pi'of . W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 

Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 
W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 
H. MarshaU Ward. 

C. Bailey, F. P]. Beddard, S. P. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Bedciard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham. Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 
1900. 



Ipswich . 

Liverpool. 

Toronto . 

Bristol. .. 

Dover .... 
Bradford . 



1901. Glasgow 



SECTION D {continued). — zoology. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. I G. C Bomne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 

.! Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

I E. E. Prince. 

. Prof. W. F.R.Weldon, F.R.S. Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

! A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 

. I Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ...W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

I Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. | J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 



' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixx. 
■^ Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxi. 
' The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECEETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



IxJli 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 


Prof. G. B. Howes, F.K.S. ... 
Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 

William Batesou, F.R.S 

G. A. Boulenger, F.Pi.S. 


Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson; 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMT AND PHYSIOLOGT. 

1833. Cambridge I Dr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh IDr. Abercroiiibie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMT AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin . 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 



1836. Bristol Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. ..; 

1837. Liverpool... Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

1838. Newcastle T. E. Headlam, JI.D 

1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 

1840. Glasgow ... | James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart, 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., Jarties LoHg, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr; J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr.J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. i J. Butter, J. Fuge, R. S. Sargent. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. .. 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar^ 

gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865, 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham '■' 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Pruf. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sliarpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. I 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S i 

G. E. Paget, M.D t 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. ! 

Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D.,' 

F.R.S. I 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S, Bartrum, Dr, W. Tiuner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P, Hcslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



' Sections D and E were incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology, 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. lix). Section E, being then vacant, 
was assigned in 1851 t« Geography. 

2 Vide note on page liz. 



Ixiv 



REPORT 1905. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C> 
p. Ivii.] 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS Of SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis, 
Dr. R. G, Latham, 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852, Belfast 

18.53. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M,D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 
' F.R.S, 
Sir J, Richardson, M,D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison, G.C. St. S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfiu-d, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I, Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P.jK.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., I 
LL.D, 



1867, Dundee ... j Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S, 

1868, Norwich ...jCapt. G. H, Richards, R,N„ 

I F.R.S. I 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
[ Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr, 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Llackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Haitland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. FergiLson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wriglit. 
Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempri&re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R, 
Markham, T. Wright, 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



1869, Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool. 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.I.Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F,R.S.,P.G,S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert Jr 

Mott, Clements R, Matkham. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS 



Ixv 



Date and Place 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford... 

1895. Ipswich 

1896. Liverpool 

1897. Toronto 

1898. Bristol... 

1899. Dover ... 

1900. Bradford 
mOl. Glasgow 

1905. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 
Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R S.E.j 
Clements R. Markham, C.B.,! 

F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 

C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen. F.R.S. 
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.L, C.B.. F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, BE., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E , 

K.C.B., F.B.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G.,C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L.,F.B.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 

J. Scott Keltic, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John Murray, F.R.S. 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

K.C.S.L 
Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S. 



A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 
Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 
Clements B. Markham. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 
Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 
Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. 0. Wood, 

H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C, 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. 0. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S.O'Halloran. 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. C.nsartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey. K. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill,"E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. U. R. MUl, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 0. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sanderpan, A. C. Turner. 

d 



Ixvi 



REPORT — 1905. 



Date and Place 



1902. 
1903, 

1904 
1905 



Belfast ... 

Southport 

. C'ambiidge 
SouthAfrica 



Presidents 



Sir T. H. Holdich, E.C.B. ... 

Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 
A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 
E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
j wood. 

Douglas W. Freshfield E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 

I H. Y. Oldham. E. A. Reeves. 
Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
R.N., K.C.B , F.R.S. j Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 

I ham. 



1833. 
1831. 



1835. 
1836. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, TI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart ..1 Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 

Dublin Charles Babbage, F.R.S \W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Bristol SirChas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 



1837. Liverpool... 



1838 
1839 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 



1851, 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 



Ipswich 
Belfast.. 



Hull 

Liverpool... 



1855. Glasgow . 



Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon . . . 



Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S, 



W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laj'- 

cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott, 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Nelson. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton iDr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

I Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

V.P.R.S.E. j Stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. . . . ' J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 



Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 



MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
i march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 

SECTION F {continued'). — economic science and STATISTICS. 



R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 
Dublin, M.R.LA. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Taitt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1858. Leeds Edward Baines 

1859. Aberdeen... Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

1860. Oxford Nassau W. Senior, M. A 

1801. Manchester William Newmarch, F.R.S... . 

1862. Cambridge Edwin Cliadwick, C.P> 

1863. Newcastle .William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

1864. Bath W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1865. Birmingham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

I M.P. 

1866. Nottingham Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



1867. Dundee ., 

1868. Norwich, 

1869. Exeter... 



M. E. Grant-Duflf, M.P. 



1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 
1872 Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol. 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 



Samuel Brown 

Et.Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P, ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath. 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant- Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. Marshall, M.A., F.S.S. 



T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macror}', Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D, Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, B. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 

Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Mollo}', W. W. Morrell, J. F, 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. B. C. Munro. 

L. L. F. R. Price. 

d2 



Ixviii 



REPORT 1905. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 
1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 



Cardiff. .., 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswncli ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto . . . 
Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ... 

Glasgow ... 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc., F S.S. 

Hon. Sir 0. W. Fremantle. 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. NichoLson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D. 

H. Higgs, LL.B 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 

Sir R. Giffen, K.G.B., F.R S. 



Secretaries 



Belfast ... IE. Cannan, M.A., LL.D. 



Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 



E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc. 



Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

W. Fhix, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 
W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley. Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. ii Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H. E. S. Fremantle, H. O. Mere- 
dith. 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836 
1837 
1838 
1839, 



Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 



1840. Glasgow 



1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
18.50. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 



Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir .loiin Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S. , 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson,M.P.,F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chat field, Thomas Webster. 
1 J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
! Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
j William Betts, jun., Charles Manby, 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Me=urier, W. P. Struv6. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
j Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
I John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 
Charles Blanby, James Thomson. 

J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 

J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J . Thomson. 

L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 



PKBSIDBNTS AND 8E0RETARIBS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 



1856. 
1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862- 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 
1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Cheltenham George Kermie, F.R.S 

Dublin |Rt. Hon. the JEarl of Kosse, 

j F.R.S. 

Leeds I William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 

Aberdeen... ; Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge . 
Mewcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 



Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 



J. Hawkshavv, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.B., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Ohas.B.VignoIes,C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.B 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 
C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Bristol i W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

Glasgow ... C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

i 
Plymouth... Edward Woods, C.E 

Dublin Edward Easton, C.E 

I 
Sheffield ..,i J. Robinson, Pres. List. Mech. 

! Eng. 

Swansea ... J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

York Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

j LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Southamp- John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

ton. ' 

Southport . J. Crunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Montreal ... Su: F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

j V.P.lnst.C.E. 
Aberdeen... B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

I 

Birmingham Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

j C.E. 
Manchester i Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Bath W. H. Preece, F.R S., 

' M.Inst.C.E. 
Newcastle- W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 
upon-Tyne | 



C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wriglit. 
P. I,e Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcctt, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Jlarsball, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urqubart. 
P. Le Neve Booster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Lc Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.BarloWjH.Bauerman.E.H.Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Slioolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, P Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. MarshaU, Hon 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 



Ixx 



REPORT— 1905. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1S95. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 

1904. 

1905. 



Leeds Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
Cardiff T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 



E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

\V. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, 11. Talbot. 
Prof.^T. Hudson Bcare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. lyiarshall, Rev. F. .1. Smith. 



Toronto ... G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 



Edinburgh I'rof. W. 0. Unwin, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Nottingham Jeremiah Head, M.Inst C.B., 
, F.C.S. 

Oxfoid Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Ipswich ... Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 

Liverpool... Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerle}', W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 
i I dar, W. A. Price. 

Bristol Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

i F.R.S. I H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 

Dover Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. | Prof . T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

I E. Stilgoe. 
Bradford' Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. Prof. T. 11. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 
ICE. I Prof. S. Dunkcrley, W. A Price. 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

Glasgow ... R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. H.Bamford,W.E. Dalby, W.A.Price. 

Belfast ... ! Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 

Southport iC. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... Prof. W. E. Dalb)-, W. T. Maccall, 

i W. A. Price. 

Cambridge Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... J. B. Peace, W. T. Maccall, W. A. 

I Price. 
SouthAfrica Col. Sir C. Scott- Moncrieff, W. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof . 

I G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. ; H. Payne, E. Williams. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

1884. Montreal ... ; E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... ;G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

1885. Aberdeen... 'Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W, 

i Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 

1886. Birmingham Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

I M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. Hurst, Dr. R. Saiindby. 

1887. Manchester Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

I A. M. Paterson. 

1888. Bath I Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Gar.son, J. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Harris Stone. 

1889. Newcastle- Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

upon-Tyne] LL.D., F.R.S. R. Morison, Dr. R. llowden. 

1890. Leeds iDr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

I F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. Dr. J. G. Garson. 

1891. Cardiff : Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 

1892. Edinburgh Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., G. W. Blo-xam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

M.D., F.R.S. R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 

1893. Nottingham Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

i I Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

i I J. L. Myres. 

1894. Oxford Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., I H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

F.R.S. j Roth. 

1895. Ipswich ...I Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, J. L. Mvres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

I D.C.L. I Ling Roth. 



' The title of Section G was changed to Engineering. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OK THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxi 



Date and- Place 



1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

190.3. 

190i. 

1905. 



Liverpool. 
Tor. nto . 



Bristol . 
Dover , 



Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 

Soutliport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 

Sir W. Turner, F.R.S A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. H.addon. J. L. Myres. 

E. \V. Brabrook, O.B H. Balfour, .J. L. Myres, G. Parker. 

C. H. Read, F.S.A. H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myics. 

Prof. John Rhys, M.A Rev. E. Armitage, 11. Balfour, \V. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
Prof. D. J. Cunningham, \V. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

F.R.S. Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres. 
E. N. Fallaize, II. S. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 
\V. L. H. Duckworth, E.'N. Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 
A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 
Hartland. 



Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 



SECTIOISr 1.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental PsychologIy). 



189L Oxford.. 



1890. 
1897. 

1899. 

1901. 

1902. 

1904. 

1906. 



1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 

1D02. 

1903. 

190L 



Liverpool 
Toronto . 

Dover . . . . 

Glasgow . 

Belfast . 



Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., 
1 M.R.C.S. 

Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 

J. N. Langley, F.R.S. 

Prof..J.G> McKendrick, F.R S. 

D. Halliburton. 



Prof. W 
F.R.S. 
Cambridge Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S 

SouthAfrica Col. D. Brace, C.B., F.R.S. .. 



Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 
M. S. Pcmbrey. 

Prof. R.P.oyce, Prof. C.S.Sherrington. 

Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton, Dr. L. E. Shore. 

Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 
H. Starling. 

W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 
W. H. Thompson. 

J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 
C. Shaw. 

J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 
L. E. Shore. 

J. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 
Stanwell. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

Ipswich ...|\V. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S, I A. C. Seward, ProL F. E. Vv'eiss. 

Liverpool... Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 'Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

' Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Toronto ...! Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 



Bristol Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. 

Dover ...... Sir George King, F.R.S. ... 

Bradford ... Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S. ... 

Glasgow ... Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.K.S. 

Belfast ... Prof. J. R. Green, F.R S.... 

Southport A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Cambridge Francis Darwin, F.R.S. ... 



1905. SouthAfrica 1 Harold Wag«r, F.R.S. 



A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 

G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 

D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan.G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tan.sley, H. Wager, 
R. H. Yapp. 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 
H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. 
Yapp. 

R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 
Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yann. 



IXXll 



KEPOBT — 1905. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


Sir John B. Gorst, F.R.S. ... 


R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 
Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 
H. L. Withers. 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 


Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 
R. M. Jones, Dr. 0. W. Kimmins, 
Prof. H. L. Withers. 


1903. 


Soathport 


Sir VV. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 


Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 






P.K.S. 


Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. 
Snape. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 


J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 
W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


Prof. Sir E. C. Jebb, D.CL., 


A.D.H<all,Prof.Hele-Shaw, Dr.C.W. 






M.P. 


Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 



LIST OF EVENING- DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Lecturer 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Blantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discouise 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the JSgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researchesof his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didtts i)U'j}tus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and 
Animals, and their changes of 
Form. 



L18I OF EVENING DISCODBSES. 



ixxiii 



Date and Place 



1651. 
1852. 



Ipswich . . 
Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



Lecturer 



G. B. Aity, F.R.S., Astronomer 

Roydl 
Pfof. G. G, Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof.J.Pliillips,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S, 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 

1860. 
1861. 
1863. 
1863. 

1864. 
186.5. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869, 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Dublin Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 

!Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Leeds |Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

1 Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Aberdeen... Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee 



Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn. R.N. 
Prof . W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S. 



Norwich 
Exeter .. 



Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. .. 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S....... 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S, 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S, 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. . . 



Subject of Discourse 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 

1851. 
Recent Discoveries in the propetties 

of Light. 
Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 
Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
Tlie Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 
The Forms and Action of Water. 
Organic Chemistry. 
The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 
The Balloon Ascents made for the 

British Association. 
The Chemical Action of Light. 
Recent Travels in Africa. 
Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 
The results of Spectrum Analysis 

applied to Heavenly Bodies. 
Insular Floras. 
The Geological Origin of the present 

Scenery of Scotland. 
The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 
ArchEeology of the early Buddhist 

Monuments. 
Reverse Chemical Actions. 
Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae, 



Ixxiv 



REPORT — 1905. 



Date and Place 



1870. 
1871. 



Liverpool.. 
Edinburgh 



1872. Brigliton .. 



1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 
1877. 



Bradford 
Belfast ... 



Bristol ..... 
Glasgow . , 
Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 



Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



1881. Montreal.. 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. T3Tidall,LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
Prof. W." K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir Jolin Lubbock, Bart., M. P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.E.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 



1880. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



W. Crookes, F.R.S ,.. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkius, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof, O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams. F.R.S. ... 

John MuiTaj% F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. R. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



1890. Leeds 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S... 
iProf. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The ScientificUse of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarised Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The 'Challenger' Expedition. 
Physical Phenomena connected with 

the Mines of Cornwall and Devon, 
The New Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Pala;on» 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 
Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 

Forms of Life. 
The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorption. 
The Great Ocean Basins. 
Soap Bubbles. 
The Sense of Hearing. 
The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 
Explorations in Central Africa. 
The Electrical Transmission of Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 
Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 



1891. CardifiE, 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich .. 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town .. 

Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein.. 

Kimberley 

Bulawayo 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. W. Riicker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

J. Milne, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. .. 

Herbert Jackson 

Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming. F.R.S 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Stroud 

Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

F. Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro 



Dr. A. Rowe 



Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 



Some Difficulties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 

Safety in Ships. 

Man before Writing. 

Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 

Funafuti : the St udy of aCoral Island, 

Phosphorescence. 

La vibration nerveuse. 

TheCentenary of the ElectricCurrent. 

Animal Electricity. 

Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palaeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 
Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Pateontological Discoveries in the 

Rocky Mountains. 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Douglas W. Freshfield 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 

H. T. Ferrar 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.RS ... 

Prof. J. O. Arnold 

A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. 

A. R. Hinks 

Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S. . . . 
Prof. J. B. Porter 

D. Randall-Maclver 



W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

I'he Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 
' Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the 'Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Bock. 

Flyborne Diseases: Malaria, Sleep- 
j ing Sickness, &c. 
I The Milky Way and the Clouds of 

Magellan. 
] Diamonds. 

The Bearing of Engineering on Min- 

I iiig- 
The Ruins of Rhodesia. 



Ixxvi 



REtORT — 1905. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter ... 



1870. Liverpool.. 

1872. Brighton .., 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1876. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southp.iif 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
189fi. 
1897. 
1898. 



Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Iieeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 
Bristol 



1900. Bradford.., 

1901. Glasgow ... 



1902. Belfast 

1903. Sonthport 

1904. Cambridge 




Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



SirJohn Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode.LL.D., F.R.S. 
C.W.Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.. . . 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

SirJohn Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst. C.B 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc. F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison... 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. S. Flett 



Subject of Lecture 



Dr. J. B. Marr, F.R.S 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage, 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten Histoiy, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their enemies .and Signal to their 

friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent : the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 



OFFICERS OF COMMITTEES. IxXvii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE SOUTH AFRICA MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

rresident.—'Proi. A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Trot W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ; Dr. O. Backluncl ; Prof. 

J. C. Beattie ; Prof. Breyer ; Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. C. Kapteyn. 
Secretaries.— C. H. Lees, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; A. R. Hinks, M. A. ; S. S. Hough, 

F.R.S. ; R. T. A. Innes ; J. H. Jeans. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — George T. Beilby. 

Vice-Presidents.-^Vvot H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ; Prof. P. D. Hahn, Ph.D. ; 

J. R. Williams ; Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Prof. G. G. Henderson, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; W. A. Caldecott 

B.A. ; Chas. F. Juritz, M.A. ; M. O. Forster, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Vroi. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Gc. S. Corstorphine, Ph.D. ; G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S. ; 

A. W. Rogers, M.A. 
Secretaries. — H. li. Bowman, M.A. {Recorder) ; J. Lomas ; Dr. Molen- 

graaff ; Prof. A. Young, B.Sc. ; Prof. R. B. Young, B.Sc. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— Gr. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. Gunning ; P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; Wm. Lutley 
Sclater, M.A. ; A. E. Shipley, M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Vroi. J. Y. Simpson, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; Dr. Pakes ; Dr. Pur- 
cell ; H. W. Marett Tims, M.D. 

• SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— AAm^r^l Sir W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. Cordier ; Prof. W. M. Davis; Douglas W. 

Freshfield ; E. H. V. Melville ; H. R. Mill, D.Sc, LL.D. ; Prof. 

A. Penck ; H. C. Schunke-Hollway. 
Secretaries.— A. J. Herbertson, Ph.D. {Recorder) ; A. H. Cornish-Bowden ; 

F. Flowers ; H. Yule Oldham, M.A. 



lxx^dii report — 1905. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

PreddenL—Hev. W. Cunningham, D.D., D.Sc, F.B.A. 
Vice-Presidents.— 8. Evans ; Hon. Sir C. Fremantle, K.C.B. ; Hon. J. X. 

Merriman. 
Secretaries. — A. L. Bowley {Recorder) ; Robert a Ababrelton ; Prof. H. E. S. 

Fremantle, M.A. ; H. O. Meredith. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Co\one\. Sir C. Scott-Moncrietf, G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 
Vice-Presidents. — Prof. T. Hudson Beare ; D. H. Hamraersley-Heenan ; 

S. Jennings ; A. Siemens. 
Secretaries. — W. Bayley Marshall {Recorder) ; W. T. Maccall ; Prof. Henry 

Payne ; E. Williams. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— A. C. Haddon, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— 'K. Balfour, M.A. ; Prof. Dr. von Luschan ; L. Perin- 

guey, F.G.S. ; ])r. Schonland, Ph.D. 
Secretaries. — E. Sidney Hartland {Recorder) ; A. R. Brown ; A. von 

Dessauer. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Colonel D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— ^\v Kendal Franks, C.B. ; Prof. Sims Woodhead ; Dr. 

C. F. K. Murray. 
Secretaries.— 3 . Barcroft (Recorder) ; Dr. Baumann ; Dr. Mackenzie ; Dr. 

G. W. Robertson ; Di-. Stanwell. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— ^&vo\(\i Wager, F.R.S., H.M.I. 

Vice-Presidents.— Ua^vry Bolus, D.Sc. ; J. Burtt-Davy, F.R.G.S. ; A. C. 

Seward, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Prof. R. H. Yapp, M.A. {Recorder) ; R. P. Gregory, M.A. ; 

Dr. Marloth ; Prof. Pearson, M.A. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Vrot Sir Richard C. Jebb, O.M., Litt.D., D.C.L., M.P. 
Vice-Presidents.— 'E. B. Sargant, M.A. ; A. Traill, M.D., LL.D. 
Secretaries. — C. W. Kimmins, M.A., D.Sc. {Recorder) ; A. D. Hall, M.A. ; 
Prof. Helc-Shaw, LL.D., F.R.S. ; J. R. Whitton. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. Ixxix 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting ; the Presidents of 
former years ; the Trustees ; the General Treasurer ; the General 
Secretaries ; Prof. Forsyth ; Prof. Hicks ; Dr. Lees ; G. T. Beilby ; 
Dr. Horace Brown ; Prof. Henderson ; Prof. Miers ; Prof. SoUas 
H. L. Bowman ; G. A. Boulenger ; Prof. Poulton ; Prof. Simpson 
Admiral Sir W. J. L. Wharton ; Dr. H. R. Mill ; Dr. Herbertson 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham ; Hon. Sir C Fremantle, A. L. Bowley 
Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncrieff ; Sir W. H. Preece ; W. Bayley Marshall 
Dr. A. C. Haddon ; H. Balfour ; E. S. Hartland ; Colonel D. Bruce 
Prof. Halliburton ; J. Barcroft ; H. Wager ; A. C. Seward ; Prof, 
Yapp ; Sir R. C. Jebb ; Rev. J. O. Bevan ; and Dr. Kimmins. 



Ixxx 



REPORT — 1905, 



Dr. 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 



1904-1905 RECEIPTS. 

£ 

Balance brought forward 1410 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 721 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 532 

Annual Subscriptions 720 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 1318 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 317 

Sale of Publications 257 

Dividend on Consols 154 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 102 

Interest on Deposit 40 

Balance of Grants returned 19 



s. 


d. 





10 
































12 





8 


4 


12 





8 


7 


14 


2 



£5592 15 11 



Investmentn. 

£ J. d. 

2i per Cent. Consolidated Stock 650110 5 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 3600 

£10,101 10 5 
Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift, 1\ per Gent. 

Self-cumulating Consolidated Stock 60 8 

£10,161 11 1 



John Peret, General Treamrer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxxf 

from July 1, 1904, to June 30, 1905. Cr. 

1901-1905. PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. 
Expenses of Cambridge Meeting (including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, &c.) 230 7 5 

Rent and Office Expenses (including repairs, renovating and 
furnishing additional room, installation of telephone, &c.) 136 19 11 

Salaries,&c 565 8 10 

Printing, Binding, &c. (£999 2s. 8d. on account of 1904) ... 1940 17 7 

Repair of Banners 3 11 11 

Payment of Grants made at Cambridge : 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 4U U 

Seismological Obserrations *. . . . 4u U 

Investigfttionof the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ., 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomeriem 20 

Aromatic Nitramlnes 25 

Fauna and Flora of the Uritish Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum Auimalium 75 

Development in the Frog , 10 

Investigations in the Indian Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Researches in Crete 75 u o 

Anthropometric Investigations on Egyptian Troops 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 10 

Anthropometric Investigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles ;10 U 

The State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants 50 

Corresponding Societies Ooinmittee 20 

928 2 2 



3805 7 10 
On deposit at Bradford Di.strict Bank 918 I 11 

Balance at Bank of England (Western 

Branch) £1734 9 1 

Ze»s Cheques not presented 867 14 10 

866 14 3 

Cash in hand 2 11 11 



£5592 15 11 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa- 
"tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
'of the Trustees. 

Approved — W. B. Keen, Chartered Accovntant, 

Edward Brabrook, \ a ^-^ 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, E.O. 

Henry HiGGS, ^^uaitors. ./j/Zw 11, 1905. 

1905. e 



Ixxxii 



REPORT— 1905. 

Table showing the Attendance and Heceipts 



Dale of Meetiug 



1831, Sept. 2r. 

1832, Juue 19 . 
183S, June 25 . 
) 834, Sept. a . 
18^5, Aug. 10 . 
183(i, Auk. 22. 

1837, Sept. 11., 

1838, Aug. 10. 
1830, Aug. 26., 
1810, Sept. 17.. 

1841, .Tuly 20 .. 

1842, June 23.. 

1843, Aug. 17.. 

1844, Sept. 26.. 

1845, June 19.. 
I84(i, Sept. 10 

1847, June 23.. 

1848, .\ug. 9 .. 

1849, Sepi 12.. 
18.5(1, .lulv 21 .. 
18.51, July 2 

1852, Sep't. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20.. 

1866, Sept. 12.. 
185(i, Aug. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, Juue 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oet. 1 .. 

1863, .\u,g. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 
1868, Au.g. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 
lS71,Aug. 2 .. 
18 72, Aug. 14.. 

1873, Sept. 17.. 

1874, Aug. 19.. 

1875, Aug. 25.. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15.. 

1878, Aug. 14.. 

1879, Aug. 20 . 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23.. 

1883, Sept. 19.. 

1884, Aug. 27 . 

1885, Sejit. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 .. 

1889, Sept. 11 ... 

1890, Sept. 3 ... 

1891, Aug. 19 ... 

1892, Aug. 3 ... 

1893, Sept. 13... 

1894, Aug. '8 ... 

1895, Sept. 11 ... 

1896, Sejit. 16 . 

1897, Aug. 18... 

1898, Sejit. 7 ... 
1839, Sept. 13... 

1900, .Sept. 5 ... 

1901, Sept. 11... 

1902, Sept. 10... 

1903, Sept, 9 ... 

1904, Aug. 17... 

1905, Aug. 15... 



Where held 



Presidents 



Yofk 

Oxford ..: 

Citmbridge 

Edinburgh 

Dubhn 

Hri.stol 

Liverpool 

Ne wcastle-on-Tyue ... I 

Birmingham ' 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea, 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ip.swich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Clieltenham . 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Ty ne. . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Etliuburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Slieffleld 

Swansea . 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 
Leeds .... 

Cardiff 

Kdinburgli 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover , 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L.. P.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, P.R.S. . . 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. .. 
SirT. M. Brisb.ane, D.C.L., P.R.S. ... 
The Kev. Provost Llo.vd,LL.D., P.R.S. 
The Marquis of Laiisdowne, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. VerudU Hareourt, P.R.S. ! 
Tlie Marquis of Breadalbane, P.R.S. 
Tlie Rev. W. WheweU, F.R.S. 
The Loril Francis Egertou, P.G.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, P.R.S 

The Rev. (J. Peacock, D.D., P.R.S. 
Sir John P. W. Hcrschel, Bart., F.R.S, 
Sir Roderick I,Murcliison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H, Inglis, Bart,, P.R.S, 
TheMarquisofNorthampton.Pres.B.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robin.son, D.D. P.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H,, P.R.S, 

(t. U. Airy, .Astronomer Royal, P.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.Ri.S 

William Hopkins, P.R.S, 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 

The Duke of Argyll, P.R.S, 

Prof. C. (J. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. 

The Rev, H, Lloyd, D,D„ F.R S, ... 

Richard Owen, M,D„ D,0,L,, P.R.S. 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrotteslev, JI.A,, F.R.S. 

William Pairbairn, LL.D., P.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WilIis,M.A,,P.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. ArmstroJig.C'.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Wilham R. Grove, Q.C., P.R.S. 
The Duke of Buocleuch, K.O.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. (i. Stoke-s, D.C.L., P R.S. 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir \V. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. W. B. Carpencer, P.R.S. .. 
Prof. A. W. William.son, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir John ilawkshaw, F.R.S. .. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. ...' 

Prof. A. Thomson, JLD., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. 

A. C. Ranii^a.v, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir .John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Dr. 0. W. Siemens F.R.S. . 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.P.L., F.R.S 

I'rof. Lord Rayleigh, P.R.S. 

Sir Lyon Playfair K.Cl.B., F.R.S. 
Sir J, W, Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., P.R.S. 

.Sir F. J, Bramwell, P.R,S 

I'rof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., P.R.S. 
Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S. . .. 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S, Uurdon Sanderson, F,R,S, 
The Marquis of Sali.sbui-y,K.G.,P.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Josepli Lister, Bart., Pi-es. R.S. .. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, P.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
Sir WilUam Turner, D.O.L., P.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Hucker, D.Sc, Sec Jl.S. 
Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., P.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., P.R.S. 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



AttENtiANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. Ixxxiii 
at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Old 
Annual 
Members 



46 

1b 

71 

45 

94 

65 
197 

54 

93 
128 

Gl 

63 

56 
121 
142 
104 
156 
111 
125 
177 
184 
150 
154 
182 
215 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 
311 
280 
237 
232 
307 
331 
238 
290 
239 
171 
313 
253 
330 
317 
332 
428 
510 
399 
412 
368 
341 
413 
328 
435 
290 
383 
286 
327 
324 
297 
374 
314 
319 
449 
937T 



New 
Annual 
Members 



317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 

25 

33 

42 

47 

60 

57 

121 

101 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 

41 

176 

79 

323 

219 

122 

179 

244 

100 

113 

92 

152 

141 

57 

69 

31 

139 

125 

96 

68 

45 

131 

86 

90 

113 

411 



ciates 



33t 

~V 
407 

270 

495 

376 

447 

510 

244 

510 

367 

765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

1206 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
766 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1285 
529 
389 

1230 
516 
952 
826 

1053 

1067 

1985 
639 

1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 
493 

1384 
682 

1051 
548 
801 
794 
647 
688 

1338 
430 



Ladies Foreigners 



1100* 



80* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
569 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
8il 
74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
579 
334 
107 
439 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 
639 
120 
482 
246 
305 
365 
317 
181 



34 
40 



28 



35 
36 
53 
15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 

453: 

17 
14 
21 
43 
U 
12 
17 
25 
U 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
26&«0H.§ 

6 
11 
92 
12 
21 
12 
35 
50 
17 
77 
22 
41 
41 
33 
27 

9 
20 

6 

21 

121 

16 



Total 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1661 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1362 
2446 
1403 
1915 
1912 
1620 
1754 
2789 
2130 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1776 
1664 
2007 
1653 
2175 
1236 
3228 
1398 
2399 
1328 
1801 
2046 
1644 
1762 
2650 
2422 















































































































Grants 


for Scieiitiac 


Purposes 


£20 





167 





435 





922 12 


6 


932 2 


2 


1595 11 





1546 16 


4 


1235 10 


11 


1449 17 


8 


1565 10 


2 


981 12 


8 


831 9 


9 


685 16 





208 5 


4 


275 1 


8 


159 19 


6 


345 18 





391 9 


7 


304 6 


7 


205 





380 19 


7 


480 16 


4 


734 13 


9 


507 15 


4 


618 18 


2 


684 11 


1 


766 19 


6 


1111 5 


10 


1293 16 


6 


1608 3 


10 


1289 15 


8 


1591 7 


10 


1750 13 


4 


1739 4 





1940 





1622 





1572 





1472 2 


6 


1285 





1685 





1151 16 





960 





1092 4 


2 


1128 9 


7 


725 16 


6 


1080 11 


11 


731 7 


7 


476 8 


1 


1126 1 


11 


1083 3 


3 


1173 4 





1385 





995 


6 


1186 18 





1511 


5 


1417 


U 


789 16 


8 


1029 10 





864 10 





907 15 


6 


583 15 


6 


977 15 


5 


1 101 6 


1 


1059 10 


8 


1212 





1430 14 


2 


1072 10 





945 





947 





845 13 


2 


887 18 


11 


928 2 


2 



Year 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1S81 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 



Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 
^ Including 848 Members of the South African Associatiou. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL , 1905-1906. 

f-ATRON. 

&IS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 

tiioFESBOR Sir G. H. DARWIN, K.C.B., M.A., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



Mis Excellency the Eight Hon. the Barl of Srl- 

bokm;, G.C.M.G., Higli Commissioner for South 

Africa. 
The Right Hon. Lord Milner, G.O.B., G.C.M.G., 

late Hiijh Commissioner for South Africa. 
H's Excellency the Hon. Sir Walter F. Helt- 

Hu'lciiiNSOx, G.C.M.G., Governor of Cape 

Colony. 
His Excellency Colonel Sir Henry E. McOaLlum, 

G.C.M.G., B.E., Govei-nor of Natal. 
HI? Excellency Captain the Hon. Sir AiiTHUR 

Lawley, K.O.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor, Trans- 
vaal. 
His Excellency Major Sir H. J. C!ooi.d-Ai)AM.s, 

K.C.M.6., Lieiitenaut-Governor, Orange River 

Colony. 



His Honour Sir W. H. Milton, K.C.M.G., Adminis- 
trator of Southern Rhodesia. 

Sir CiiABLKS H. T. Metcalfe, Bart , M.A. 

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S;, 
H.M. Astronomer, Cape Colony. 

Theodore Rbunert, M.Inst.C.E. 

The Mayor of Cai-e Town. 

The Mayor op Johannesburg. 

The President of the PHiLOSormcAL SociETlt 
op South Africa. 

The Mayor op Durban. 

The Mayor of Pietermaritzruro. 

The Mayor of Bi.oemfontein. 

The Mayor of Pretoru. 

The Mayor op Kimberlby. 

The Mayor of Bulawayo. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Grace the Archbtshop of York, D.D., D.O.L., 

M.A. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor op York. 
Tile High Sheriff op Yorkshire. 
The Most Hon. the Maequess of iliroN, K.G., 

G.O S.I., CLE., D.C.L., F.B.S. 



The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Ripoy, D.D.. 

D.C.L. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Fbversham. 
The Right Hod. Lord Wenlock,G.O.S.I.,G.C.I.E., 

K.C.B. 
Sir George S. Gibb. 
Tempest Anderson, M.D., D.Sc 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 
GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MAcMahon, R.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor W. A. HerdMan, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

A. SiLVA White, Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 

H. 0. Stuwaupson, Burlington Ilouje, London, W. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT YORK. 

Sir Joseph Sykes Rymer. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT YORK. 

- — I C. E. El.mhirst. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF 
feoURNE, G. C, D.Sc. 
Bower. Professor F. O., F.R.S. 
EoYS, 0. Verno>', F.R S. 
feRABiiO(i;<, Sir te. W., C.B. 
Brown,' Dr. Horace T.. F.R S. 
Callenpar, Professor H. L , F R S. 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
DUNSTAN, Professor W., F.R S. 
Dyson, P. W., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 
GoTCH, I'rofesfor F., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 
Hawkslky, C, M.Inst.C.E. 



THE COUNCIL. 
Higgs, Henry, LL.B. 
Lanoley, Professor J. N., F.R.S. 
Maca lister, Professor A., P'.R.S. 
McKendrick, Profess^r J. G.. F.R.S. 
Noble, Sir A., Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
PICRKIN, Professor W. H., F.B.S. 
PouLTON, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Seward, A. 0., F.R.S. 
Shaw, Dr. W. N., F R.P. 
Shipley, A. E., F.R.S. 
Watts, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, F.R S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and Prcsiclent Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General Secretaries for the present and former years, the former Assistant 
General Secretaries, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer 
and Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sir Arthur W. Rijcker, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARH. 



Sir Joseph D. Hooker, G.C.S.I. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.El.S. 
Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Pres.R.S. 
Sir H. E. RosCDC, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Huggins, K.C.B., F.R.S, 

GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 



Sir Archibald Geikie, Scc.R.S. 
Lord Lister, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B.. F.R.S. 
Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. 
Sir Michael Foster, K. C.B. , F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. 



Sir A. W. Rueker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Norman Lockyer, K.O.B. 

F.RS. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, D.C.L. 

F.R.S. 



P. Galton, D C.L., F.R.S, 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B . F.R.S 

V. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
A. 7eriioii Harcourt, F.R S 
S.r A. W. RUcker. D.?c.. F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. Sohiifer, F.RS. 

AUDITORS. 
Sir Edward Bivibrook, C.B. | Henry Higgs, LL.B. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Gaison. 



HEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Eeport oj the Council for the year 1901-1905, presented to the CtENERAl 
Committee at the Sitting in Cape 2'oivn, South Africa, on Tuesday, 
August 15, at 4.0 p.m. 

I. The arrangements for the Meeting op the Association in South 
Africa liave been directed, under the sanction of the Council, by a 
Bpecial South African Committee, sitting in London, and consisting of 
the General Officers of the Association (tlie President and President- 
Elect, the General Treasurer, and the General Secretaries), Professor Arm? 
strong, Dr. Horace Brown, Sir William Crookes, Sir James Dewar, Sir 
Archibald Geikie, Professor H. A. Miers, Sir Henry Roscoe, and Dr. 
Sclater. The co-ordination of the work of the various Local Committees 
has been carried out under the direction of the Central Organising 
Committee for South Africa, sitting at Cape Town, consisting of Sir 
David Gill ^Chairman) and Dr. J. D. F. Gilchrist (Secretary). 

An Additional Expenses Fund having been opened to supplement the 
subvention of 6,000/. from the South African Colonies, contributions 
amounting to 3,100/. have been received and encashed. 

The appointment of Vice-Presidents of the Association having been 
left by the General Committee in the hands of the Council, the following 
gentlemen have been appointed : — 



His Excellency the Eight Hon. Lord 
MiLNER, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., formerly 
High Commissioner for South Africa. 

His Excellency the Right Hon. the Eael 
OP Selboexe, G.C.M.G., High Com- 
missioner for South Africa. 

His Excellency the Hon. Sir Walter F. 
Helt-Hutchinson, G.C.MG., Gover- 
nor of Cfipe Colony. 

His Excellency Colonel Sir Henry E. 
McCallum, G.C.M.G., R.E., Governor 
of Natal. 

His Excellency Captain the Hon. Sir 
Arthur Lawley, K.C.M.G , Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, Transvaal. 

His Excellency Major Sir H. J. Goold- 
Adams, K.C.M.G., Lieutenant - Go- 
vernor, Orange River Colony. 



His Honour Sir W. H. Milton, 

K.C.M.G., Aclministrator of Southerly 

Rhodesia. 
Sir David Gill, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, 

F.R.S., His Majesty's Astronomer, 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Sir Charles H. T. Metcalfe, Bart., 

M.A. 
Theodore Reunert, M.Inst.C.E. 
The M.\YOE of Cape Town. 
The Mayor of Johannesburg. 
The President of the Philosophical 

Society of South Africa. 
The Mayor of Durban. 
The Mayor of Pietermaritzburg. 
The Mayor of Bloemfonteiu. 
The Mayor of Pretoria. 
The Mayor of Kimberley. 
The Mayor of Bulawayo. 



II. The following Agreement has been made between the British 
Association and the South African Association in the matter of financial 
svrrapgements respecting the Annual Meeting in 1905 : — 

(i) That all Members (but not Associates) of the South African Association 
shall be entitled to Associates' Tickets at the Meeting of the British A.'^socia- 
tion in South Africa in 1905. 

(ii) That the South African Association shall pay a contribution of 50jZ. 
to the funds of the British Association. 

(iii) The South African Association guarantees the purchase of a tliousand 
copies at least of the Annual Volume, tlie copies to be sent direct to the 
Memb'ers of the South African Association on payment to the British Associa- 
tion by the South African Association of the sum of 84. per copy. 



Ixxxvi REPORT — 1905. 

III. A Committee of the Council, consisting of Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Sir A. Geikie, the General Secretaries, and the General Treasurer, 
was authorised to consider the appointment of an Assistant Secretary, in 
succession to Dr. Garson, resigned, with the result that Mr. A. Silva 
White was unanimously appointed to fill that office. 

IV. The books and other publications presented to or received in 
exchange by the Association, with the exception of the publications of the 
Corresponding Societies of the Association and the Annual Volumes of 
Reports of the various Associations for the Advancement of Science, 
have been transferred to the Library of University College, Gower 
Street, the Council of University College having undertaken to give the 
same facilities to Members of the British Association for the use of 
University College Library as were granted under similar circumstances 
by the University of London. 

V. The following Resolution, from the Committee of Section A, 
having been referred to a Committee consisting of Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. 
H. R. Mill, Dr. Shaw, and the General Officers, to consider and report 
thereon to the Council : — 

The Committee of Section A desire to draw the attention of the Com- 
miUee of Becommendations to the concluding portion of Sir John Eliot's 
Introductory Address to the Sub-Section for Astronomy and Cosmical Physics, 
'and to express the opinion that the organisation of a Central Meteorological 
Department for the British Empire would be of the highest benefit to the 
progress of Meteorological Science and its application to the economic pro- 
blems of the various Colonies and Dependencies. The object of each depart- 
ment would be to collect and prepare digests of the Meteorological observa- 
tions taken in different parts of the Empire, to provide a scientific staff for 
dealing with the more general Meteorological problems, including their rela- 
tions to Solar Physics and Terrestrial Magnetism, which involve the co-ordina- 
tion of (lata from wide areas, and to promote experimental investigations of 
the scientific questions which arise in connection with such discoveries. The 
C!oramittee desire also to express the oijinion that the reorganisation of the 
Meteorological Office, which is at present before the Government, affords an 
exceptionally favourable opportunity for the establishment of such a Central 
Meteorological Department for the Empire. 

The Memorandum that follows was drawn up by the Committee and 
has been approved by the Council : — 

Memoranchim on a Proposal for dealing with Meteorological Questions 
affecting the British Dominions beyond ilte Seas. 

There is at present no provision for the systematic^treatment of the 
meteorology of the British dominions. "^ 

Observations of various kinds are made in nearly all the British Colonies 
and Dependencies, and summaries of these observations are generally included 
in the respective official publications. India, Ceylon, Canada," the several 
States of Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, the Cape of Good Hope, and the 
Transvaal have organised meteorological establishments and issue regular 
meteorological publications. Information with regard to^the meteorology of 
the Crown Colonies and Protectorates is to be found in the Blue-books of 
the several dominions. 

There is no provision for the co-ordination of the methods of observing, the 
instruments employed, or the presentation of results. 

In 1890 the Meteorological Council published a volume of summaries of 
Colonial observations of the Army Medical Department and of the Royal 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxvil 

Engineers, and recently they liavo published a volume of tables for tropical 
Africa, compiled by Mr. E. G. Ravenstein from observations practically initiated 
by a Committee of the British Association. 

Colonial observations are sent to the Meteorological Office in accordance 
with a circular despatch of Mr. Chamberlain. 

At the request of the Crown Agents, the Meteorological Council have 
recently undertaken the supervision of the supply of instruments for the 
Governments of the Crown Colonies. In their annual reports they have from 
time to time referred to the desirability of the compilation and regular issue 
of the results, but they have been unable to make provision for this service. 

The want of a satisfactory system of co-ordinating the observations from 
the several dominions is to be deplored from two points of view— the economic 
and the scientific. 

From the economic point of view, it is eminently desirable that facilities 
should be given for the comparison of the climatic features of the regions 
available for settlement and the conditions which affect various industries. 
At present it is possible to obtain a certain amount of information for an indi- 
vidual Colony by reference to Colonial Blue-books, but the data are of very 
different orders "of completeness ; and to ascertain in which Colonies specified 
climatic conditions are to be found would be a labour of such ditliculty as to 
be practically prohibitive. The Board of Trade publish a certain number of 
tables of meteorological results among their Colonial statistics, but something 
of a more comprehensive character is required. 

From the scientific point of view the regular issue of the meteorological 
data for the British Colonies in a published and easily accessible form is 
urgently desired by meteorologists of all countries. This is sufficiently shown 
by the following extract from a notice of the recent publication of the results 
for tropical Africa in the Meteorologisclw Zntschrift, the leading meteorological 
journal : — 

' To the Meteorological Council the warmest thanks of all meteorologists 
are due for their resolution to publish from time to time the reports of observ- 
ations at colonial or foreign stations, which are collected in the Meteorological 
Office partly in printed form and partly in manuscript. In this journal we 
have repeatedly pointed out that it is in the highest degree desirable that the 
rich store of observations which have accumulated in the Meteorological Office, 
and which might be of great importanco for the physics of the atmosphere as 
a whole, should be made generally known and available. ... It is very 
desirable that this valuable publication may soon be continued.' 

But there is another aspect from which the scientific treatment of meteoro- 
logical data must be regarded as having an important bearing upon the 
economic interests of remote parts of the Empire. 

Sir John Eliot, in his address to the British Association meeting at Cam- 
bridge, pointed out how the study of the meteorological conditions of the 
Indian Ocean and the bordering countries had been already applied to pro- 
blems affecting the economic conditions of India as depending upon the 
variation of the monsoon rainfall, and he gave reasons for believing that the 
further prosecution of the inquiiy promises valuable results for India, Aus- 
tralia, South and East Africa, and other countries bordering on the Indian 
Ocean if provision were made for dealing with the meteorological problem in 
a comprehensive manner with reference to the Indian Ocean as a whole. 

Similar reasoning may l)e held to apply also to other oceanic areas, in or 
on the border of which British Colonies are situated. In this connection it 
should, perhaps, be mentioned that the control of the meteorological organ- 
isation of the British West Indies is already passing into the hands of the 
United States. 

As a result of Sir John Eliot's representation, the attention of the Council 
of the British Association has been called to the advantages likely to accrue 
from the organised study of the meteorological problems affecting various 
groups of British dominions. 

It has been further pointed out that such organised study can be most 
effectively secured by the establishment of a central institution devoted 
to these objects. Such an institution ought to be in close connection with the 
Meteorological O^ce, which is itself in regular correspondence with thf 



Ixxxviii REPORT — 1905. 

meteorological organisations of foreign countries as well as those Qf the self- 
governing Colonies. The meteorology of the ocean has been an essential part 
of the work of the office from its establishment in 1854, and oceanic data must 
necessarily be appealed to for the effective study of the meteorology of the 
neighbouring land areas. 

The President and Council of the British Association are informed that 
the Meteorological Office, as at present constituted, has not the means of 
dealing effectively with the various problems of Colonial meteorology, and 
the suggested institution would have to be a distinct department with 
separate provision, whether it was in organic connection with the Office 
or not. 

The President and Council believe that the Government of India, from 
their interest in meteorological investigations, would be willing to contribute 
their fair share towards the maintenance of such an institution, and 
they desire to bring the matter to the notice of the Secretary of State for 
the Colonies with the view of ascertaining the opinion of the various 
Colonies which are interested in the subject. They desire to learn whether 
thev would be supported in an effort to obtain the establishment of such an 
institution as had been described. 

By way of summary, the objects of the suggested institution may be briefly 
stated to be : — 

1. To give any information that may be required to the Governments or 
other authorities of the British dominions as to instruments and methods to be 
adopted for an effective system of meteorological observations. 

2. To compile and publish periodical reports upon the climatic conditions 
of the various parts of the Empire upon a comparable plan. To form an 
accessible depository of information upon matters concerning the climates 
of the whole Empire, and to afford information upon those subjects to in- 
quirers. 

3. To provide a scientific staff for the study of the general meteoro- 
logical conditions which affect the weather in the various British dominions, 
and in particular to promote the formulation of meteorological laws, and to 
apply them to explain and ultimately to anticipate the occurrences of 
abnormal seasons. 

A copy of this Memorandum having been forwarded to the Colonial 
Office, with a covering-letter suggesting that the question might be 
moved by a deputation to the Secretary of State, Mr. Lyttelton replied 
that, whilst sympathising with the object which the Council had in view, 
he did not think that there would l^e any advantage in receiving a deputa- 
tion until he was in possession of further information on the subject. In 
satisfaction of this request, the Committee drafted the following additional 
information :^ 

Draft Memorandum in further explanation of the proposal for dealing 
tvith the Meteorology of the Colonies and Dependencies, for the infor- 
mation of the Secretary of State. 

This memorandum deals mainly with the object numbered 3 in the con- 
cluding summary of the memorandum approved by tlie President and Council 
on March 3, 1 905, because the services indicated under numbers 1 and 2 would 
be included incidentally in the development of number 3. 

The statement of the object numbered 3 is as follows : — 

To provide a scientific staff for the study of the general meteorological 
conditions which affect the weather in the teveral British dominions, and in 
particular to promote the formulation of meteorological laws, and to apply 
them to explain and ultimately to anticipate the occurrence of abnormal 
seasons. 

The idea underlying the proposal is to deal with the general meteorological 
conditions of wider areas than those with which the various meteorological 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, Ixxxix 

■offices of the world lla^■e hitherto been regarded as being primarily concerned. 
The British Meteorological Office does indeed concern itself with the meteoro- 
logy of the oceans from the point of view of shipping. In effect, the proposal 
is to utilise further the information already obtained at sea in conjunction 
with land observations for the investigation of the meteorology of large ocean 
areas in relation to that of the adjacent land areas, and from the point of view 
of the land population. 

It is known, for example, that the meteorological conditions of India, 
Australia, South Africa, East Africa, and Egypt stand in close relation to those 
of the Indian Ocean, and the study of these relations promises very important 
results in connection with the prediction oi the seasons. This investigation 
requires that the information shall be treated in a manner different from 
that now followed for the more immediate purpose of its application to the 
interests of shipping. 

The meteorological phenomena which are regarded as demanding careful 
study, in the first instance, are the following:— 

The conditions of favourable and unfavourable seasons in India. 

The droughts of Australia and South Africa. 

The conditions of favourable and unfavourable Nile floods. 

With those would be associated the relation of the weather of the Mediter- 
ranean to the Indian cold weather anomalies, and the relation of the South 
Indian anticyclone to the Antarctic ice. 

The larger part of the necessary land data for the investigation of these 
particular questions can probably be found in the publications of the meteoro- 
logical organisations of India, Australia,, South and East Africa, Egypt, 
Mauritius, Hong Kong, Singapore, or can be furnished directly by those 
organisations. They should be supplemented by observations contributed by 
certain foreign Governments. The marine data would have to be compiled 
from the documents collected from ships by the meteorological departments 
of this country and India. The further development of the collection of obser- 
vations—more especially of marine data— might be necessary, in order to 
complete the investigation. 

The use of the data would be, in the first instance, to obtain a survey 
of the sequence of the more general weather changes over the whole region 
under consideration. The first step in the operations therefore would be to 
consider the nature and extent of the data available for the purposes in view, 
and the form in which they should be compiled for study or for publication. 

A corresponding inquiry for the Atlantic Ocean and the countries border- 
ing upon it is equally desirable, and should be conducted concurrently in the 
interests of the British Isles and the American and West Indian Colonies. 

In order to carry out the proposal, something more than what would be 
generally understood by ' a moderate addition to the staff of the Meteoro- 
logical Office' is required. The proposal involves a scientific investigation 
of a very important character which could not be regarded as merely an 
incidental addition to the usual operations of the Office. A man of suitable 
scientific attainments should be responsible for conducting it in consultation 
with, and under the general supervision of, the Director of the Meteorological 
Office. It is desirable to mark the nature of the qualifications expected in 
the person to whom the work is entrusted by giving him the title of Assistant 
Director and providing a salary of from 400^. to 6001. a year. It should be 
remembered also that the Meteorological Office could not find accommodation 
for the proposed additional staff without some addition to the space at present 

ftvailable. , • • 

It is estimated that the annual cost of the work would be 2,000/., rising in 
five years to 2,500^. made up as follows : — 

gALAKlES : Assistant Director £450 to £5m 

Scientific assistant, computers and clerical staff 1,050 to 1,300 

Publications, printing and stationery .... 300 to 600 

Incidental Expenses, office rent, &c 200 to 150 

TKe estimate is based on the supposition th^t the Meteorological 



XC REPORT 1905. 

Committee would be willing to undertake the general control of the depart- 
ment as a branch of the Meteorological Office. 

It may be mentioned that the Government grant to the Meteorological 
Office at present stands at ]5,?>00Z Tlie cost of the marine department, as 
shown in the Keport of the Jleteoiological Council for 1903-4, is 1,3G6Z., 
txclu.sive of office expenses, publications, &c. 

The Council, in approving this Memorandum, has caused it to be con- 
veyed under a covering-letter to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

VI. The following Resolution, from the Conference of Delegates, 
was referred to the Council by the General Committee for consideration 
and action, if desirable : 

(i) That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Members of the Council 
of the Association, together with representatives of the Corresponding 
Societies, to consider the present relation between the British Association and 
local Scientific Societies. 

(ii) That the Committee be empowered to make suggestions to the Council 
with a view to the greater utilisation of the connection between the Associa- 
tion and the affiliated Societies, and the exten.sion of affiliation to other 
Societies who are at present excluded under EegulatiDU 1. 

This Resolution, having been referred to a Committee, consisting of 
Dr. E. H. Grifliths, Sir Norman Lockyer, Professor Meldola, Mr. R W. 
Rudler, Mr. W. Whitaker, and the General Officers, to consider and 
report thereon to the Council, the Committee made the following recom- 
mendations : — 

I. (i) 'That any Society which undertakes local scientific investigation 
and publishes the results may become a Society affiliated to the British 
Association. 

(ii) ' That the Delegates of such Societies shall be members of the General 
Committee. 

(iii) ' That any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging the study 
of science, which has existed for three years and numbers not fewer than 
fifty members, may become a Society associated with the British Association. 

(iv) ' That all as.sociated Societies shall have the right to appoint a 
Delegate to attend the Annual Conference, and that .such Delegates shall 
have all the riglits of those appointed b}' the affiliated Societies, except that 
of membership of the General Committee.' 

II. The Committee further recommend that the Council request the 
Corresponding Societies Committee — 

(i) ' To collect information as to the Societies of the United Kingdom who 
might become Associated Societies under Rule I. 

(ii) ' To consider and report on the question of " A Journal of Correspond- 
ing Societies" referred to in Principal Griffith's Report.' 

III. The Committee also recommend — 

' That the Council, in nominating a Chairman of the Conference of Dele- 
gates, should choose one of their own body.' 

On the recommendation of tlie Corresponding Societies Committee, 
the following Resolution, remitted to the Committee and embodying sub- 
sequent amendments, has been adopted by the Council :■. — 

By-Law. 

I. (i) ' That any Society which undertakes local scientific investigation 
and publishes the results may becopie a Society affiliated to the British 
Association, 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XCl 

(ii) ' That the Delegates of such Societies, who must be or become mem- 
bers of the British Association, shall be ex officio members of the G-eneral 
Committee. 

(iii) ' That any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging the study 
of science, which has existed for three years and numbers nnt fewer than 
fifty members, may become a Society associated with the British Association. 

(iv) ' That all as.sociated Societies shall have the right to appoint a 
Delegate to attend the Annual Conference, and that such Delegates shall be 
members or associates of the British Association, and shall have all the rights 
of those appointed by the affiUated Societies, except that of membership of 
the General Committee. 

I I. ' That the Corresponding Societies Committee be requested to collect 
information as to the Societies of the United Kingdom wlio might become 
Associated Societies under Rule I. (CoTresjJ07idi»(/ tSocieiies). 

III. 'That in nominating a Chairman of the Conference of Delegates, 
Rule VIII. (Corri'sjxmd'inff Societies) be allowed to stand.' 

VII. A Report has been received from the Corresponding Societies 
Committee, togetlier with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the 
titles of the more important papers, e.specially of those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by the Societies during the year ending 
May 31, 1905. 

VIII. A Committee of the Council, consisting of Dr. J. Scott Keltie, 
Professor Meldola, Professor W. W. Watts, and the General Officers, 
having been appointed to consider and report upon the following Resolu- 
tion : — 

(i) 'That it is desirable that the Reports of Committees, especially where 
they extend over two or more years, should be offered for public circu- 
lation in a separate form from the annual volume of Reports, at a 
small price, saj' 6d. per copy. 
(ii) ' That as there has been a great demand for copies of the Reports of the 
Women's Labour Committee of this Section, and it has been impossible 
to satisfy it, these Reports be printed and sold separately at the smallest 
charge possible.' 

The Committee reported as follows : — ^ 

(i) ' As it is the custom of the Council to provide Committees with 
any reasonable number of sepaiate copies of the Reports that ai-e asked 
for while the type is standing, and as .separate copies of such Reports are 
kept on sale and advertised in the Annual Volume, this Committee is of 
opinion that it is unnecessary to make any further arrangements for the 
separate publication of such Reports. The Committee are of opinion that 
any exceptional cases that arise might be dealt with by the General 
Officers, and subsequently reported to the Council. 

' With regard to (ii) the Committee beg leave to recommend that it 
be left to the General Officers to communicate further with the Committee 
of Section F with a view to obtaining further information as to what is 
the demand for the Reports referred to, and to act at their discretion.' 

IX. With reference to the nomination of two Members of Council for 
election by the General Committee, the Council has adopted the follow- 
ing Resolution ; — 



*o 



(i) A nomination for either of the two vacant seats on the Council may 
be made in writing by any two or more members of the General Committee, 
and must be sent to the Assistant Secretary so as to be received by hiw 



xcu 



REPORT — 1905. 



at least twenty-four hours before the Meeting of the General Committee at 
which the election takes place. 

(ii) The nominations shall be read to the Meeting by the Chairman ; and 
lif more than two persons be nominated, the election shall be by ballot or 
:show of hands, and the two having the highest numbers of votes shall be 
.declared elected. 

(iii) In case no nomination, or only one nomination, shall be received, 
:as provided for by By-law, two seats on the Council (or one seat, as the case 
■may be) sliall remain vacant until the next ensuing Meeting of the Council, 
when the seats (or seat, as the case may be) shall be filled by co-optation of 
the other members of the Council. 

X. The following Nominations are made by the Council : — 

(i) Dr. A. Smith Woodward, Chairman ; Mr. W. Whitaker, Viae- 
Chairman ; and Mr. F. W. Rudler, Secretary, of the Conference op Dele- 
gates of Corresponding Societies to be held in London in October next. 

(ii) Members of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the ensu- 
ing year : — Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rudler {Secretary/), 
Rev. J. O. Bevan, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr, J, Hopkinson, 
Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Professor W, W, Watts, and the General Officers of the 
Association. 

(iii) Sectional Officers for the Meeting in South Africa, whose 
names appear on the printed programme. 



XI. The Council has received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year, and his Accounts from July 1, 1904, to June 30, 
190.5, have been audited and are presented to the General Committee. 

XII. In accordance with the regulations, the retiring Members of the 
Council are as follows : — By seniority, Professor H. E. Armstrong, Dr. J. 
Bonar, and Major L. Darwin ; by least attendance, Sir W. Abney, and 
Mr. H. J. Mackinder. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Mem- 
bers of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are 
distinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Bourne, G. C, D.Sc. 
Bower, Professor F. O., F.R.S. 
Brabrook, E. W., C.B. 
Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
Callendar, Professor H. L.. F.R.S. 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
*Dunstan, W. R., F.R.S. 
*Dyson, F. W., F.R.S. 
*Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 
Gotch, Professor F., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 
Hawksley, C, M.Inst C.B. 



Higgs, Henry, LL.B. 

Langley, Professor J. N., F.R.S. 

Macalister, Professor A., F.R.S. 

McKendrick, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 

Noble, Sir A„ Bart,, K.C.B., F.R S, 

Perkin, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 

Seward, A. C, F.R.S. 

Shaw, Dr. W. N., F-R-S. 

Shipley, A. E., F.RS. 

Watts, Professor W.W., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, F.R S. 



XIII. The following claims for admission to the Generaj. Committee 
have been allowed by tlie Council : — 



Mr. Arpold T. WfvtfOR. 



Mr, Johp Eplton. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XClll 



CoMMirrEES APPOINTED BY TtlE GfilSfERAL CoMMW-fElt; AT THE SoUTH 

African Meeting in August and September, 1905. 



1. Receiving Grants oj Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



Seismological Observations. 



To co-operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observator}' 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



To'continue the Magnetic Survey 
of South Africa commenced by 
Professors Beattie and Morrison. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh . 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Professor 
A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir A. W. Riicker, Professor 
H. L. Callendar, and Mr. G. 
Matthey. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Dr. T. G. Bonney, 
Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. Ewing, Mr. M. H. Gray, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. Mel- 
dola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Pro- 
fessor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, Sir A. W. Riicker, 
and Dr. Charles Chree. 

Chairman.— Sir David Gill. 
Secretary. — Professor J.C. Beattie. 
Mr. S. S. Hough, Professor Morri- 
son, acd Professor A. Schuster. 



£ s. d. 
25 

and unex - 
pended 
balance. 



40 



50 



100 



xciv 



REPORT — 1905. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 




Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitramines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to Sub- 
stitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. 



Chairman. — Sir H. E. Koscoe. 
Sccretarij.—DT. Marshall Watts. 
Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors 

Sir J. Devvar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. 

Abney, and Dr. W, E. Adeney. 

Chairman. — Professor B. Divers. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. W. Crossley. 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 



Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Professor K. J. P. 
Orton. 

Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. 



To report upon the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British 
Isles. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary.— Mr. P. F. Kendall. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. De 
Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. R. 11. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. 
F. M. Burton, Mr. J. Lomas, 
Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Mr. 
J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, 
and Mr. F. W. Harmer. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G . J. 
Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall. 
Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lam- 
plugh. Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr.B.N.Peacb, Mr. A. Strahan, 
Mr. D. T Gwynne Vaughan,and 
Dr. H. Woodward. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Lomas. 

Professors W. W. Watts and P. F. 
Kendall, Messrs. H. C. Beasley, 
B. T. Newton, A. C. Seward, 
and W. A. B. Ussher, and Dr. 
A. Smith Woodwai'd. 



£ s. d. 
5 



25 



10 



Unex- 
pended 
balance. 



Balance 
in hand. 



7 8 11 
and unex- 
pended 
balance. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



xcv 




To investigate the Fossilifeious 
Drift Deposits at Kirmington, 
Lincolnshire, and at various 
localities in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. 



To enable Mr. E. Greenly to com- 
plete his Researches on the 
Composition and Origin of the 
Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. 

To enable Dr. A. Vaughan to 
continue his Researches on the 
Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of the 
South-west of England. 

To investigate and report on the 
Correlation and Age of South 
African Strata and on the 

■ question of a Uniform Strati- 
graphical Nomenclature. 



Members of the Committee 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To enable Mr. J. W. Jenkinson to con- 
tinue his Researches on the Influ- 
ence of Salt and other Solutions 
on the Development of the Frog. 

To enable Dr. F. W. Gamble and 

Mr. F. W. Keeble to conduct 

Researches on the relation be- 

I tween Respiratory Phenomena 

I and Colour Changes in the 

I Higher Crustacea. 



Chairman.— Mv. G. W. Lamplugli. 

Secretari/. —Mr. J. VV. Stather. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor 
J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Messrs. A. R. Dwerry- 
house, F. W. Harmer, and J. H. 
Howarth, Kev. W. Johnson, and 
Messrs. P. F. Kendall, E. T. 
Newton, H. M- Platnauer, Cle- 
ment Reid, and T. Sheppard. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. Harker. 
Secretary/. — Mr. E. Greenly. 
Mr. J. Lomas and Dr. C. A. 
Matley. 

Chairman.— TroSessoi J. W. Gre- 
gory. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. Vaughan. 

Dr. Wheelton Hind and Professor . 
W. W. Watts. 

Chairma7i. — Professor J. W. Gre- 
gory. 

Secretary. — Professor A. Young. 

Mr. W. Anderson, Professor R. 
Broom, Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, 
Mr. Walcot Gibson, Dr. F. H. 
Hatch, Mr. T. H. Holland, Mr. 
H. Kynaston, Dr. Molengiaaf, 
Mr. A. W. Rogers, Mr. E. H. L. 
Schwarz, and Professor R. B. 
Young. 



Chairmatt. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. — Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Mr. 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder. 

C/iairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary.— Hi. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
Lord Walsingham. 

Cha irman. — Pro f essor Weldon. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Jenkinson. 
Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 
Secretary.— Di. F. W. Gamble. | 
Dr. Hoyle and Mr. F. W. Keeble. , 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
Balance 
in hand. 



30 



15 



in 



100 



75 1 



10 



15 



I 



S;cvi 



REPORT — 1905. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — cciintirlued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Freshwater Fishes of South 
Africa, with special reference 
to those of the Zambesi. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. O. A. Boulenger. 
Secretary.— Dr. J. D. F. Gilchrist. 
Mr. W. L. Sclatei'. 




Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



The Quantity and Composition of 
Rainfall, and of Lake and River 
Discharge. 



Chairman. — Sir John Murray. ' 10 

Secretaries. — Professor A. B. Mac- 
allum and Dr. A. J. Herbertson. 

SirB. Baker.Professor W.M.Davis, 
Professor P. F. Frankland, Mr. 
A. D. Hall, Mr. E. H. V. Mel- 
ville, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor 
A. Penck, and Mr. W. Whitaker. 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Accuracy and Comparability 
of British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade. 



Clmirman. — Dr. E. Cannan. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. G. S. Adams. 
Mr. A. L. Bovvley, Professor S. J. 
Chapman, and Sir R. Giffien. 



20 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



iTo 'OQinduct Archreolcgical and 
Ethnological Researches in 
Crete. 



To invesligate the Lake Village 
at Glastonbury, and to report 
on the best method of publica- 
tion of the result. 



To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigation in the British Isles. 



J. 



Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, Mr. A 
Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Pro- 
fessor A. Macalister, and Pro- 
fessor W. Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins. 

Sir John Evans and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, C. H. Read, 
H. Balfour, and A. Bulleid. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Boyd 

Dawkins. 
Secretari/. — -Mr. J. L. Myres. 
Sir E. W. Brabrook, Mr. T. Ashby, 

and Professor W. Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Professor D. J. Cun- 
ningham. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. Myers, 
Mr. J. L. Myres, Professor A. F. 
Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Mr. 
Randall-Mad ver, Professor J. 
Symington, Dr. Waterston, Sir 
E. W. Brabrook, Dr.T.H. Br5'ce, 
Mr. W. H. L. Duckworth, 
]\Ir. G. L. Gomme, Major T. 
McCulloch, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, 
Professor G. D. Thane, and Mr. 
J. F. Tocher. 



100 



40 



30 



30 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCVli 

1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Sir John Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, and 
Mr. A. L. Lewis. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
Balance 
in hand. 



SEcriON I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The State of Solution of Proteids. 



To enable Professor Starling, Pro- 
fessor Brodie, Dr. Hopkins, Mr. 
Fletcher, Mr. Barcroft, and 
others to determine the ' Meta- 
bolic Balance Sheet ' of the 
Individual Ti-ssues. 

The Ductless Glands. 



The Effect of Climate 
Health and Disease. 



upon 



CMi>»ta?i.— Professor W.D.Halli- ( 20 

burton. 
Secretary. — Professor E. Way 

mouth Reid. 
Professor E. A. Schiifer. 



Chairman. — Professor Gotch. 
Secretaiij. — Mr. J. Barcroft 
Sir Michael Foster and Professor 
Starling. 



Chairman. — Professor Schiifer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. 
L. E. Shore and Mr. J. Barcroft. 

Chairman. — SirT. Lauder Brunton, 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Barcroft. 
Colonel D. Bruce, Dr. A. Buchan, 
Dr. F. Campbell, Sir Kendal 
Franks, Professor J. G. McKen- 
drick, Sir A. Mitchell, Dr. W. 
C. F. Murray, Dr. Porter, Pro- 
fessor G. Sims Woodhead, Dr. 
A. J. Wright, and the Heads of 
the Tropical Schools of Liver- 
pool and London. 



20 
and unex- 
pended 
balance. 



10 



20 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To carry out the scheme for the 
Registration of Negatives of 
Botanical Photographs. 



Experimental Studies in the Phy- 
siology of Heredity. 



1905. 



Chairman. — Professor L. C. Miall. 
Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Mr. Francis Darwin, Dr. W. G. 

Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, and 

Professor R. H. Yapp. 

Chairman. — Professor H. Marshall 

Ward. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Wager. 
Mr. Francis Darwin and Prc- 

fessor J. B. Farmer. 



3 



30 



XCVlll 



REPORT — 1905. 
1, Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



Members of tlie Committee 



Research on South African Cy- 
cads. 



The Peat Moss Deposits in the 
Cross Fell, Caithness, and Isle 
of Man Districts. 



Cliairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Secretary. — Professor F.W. Oliver 
Messrs. E. Newell Arber and A. C. 

Seward and Professor F. E. 

Weiss. 



Cliairman. — Mr. A. C. Seward. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. P. Gregory. 
Dr. D. H. Scott and Dr. W. H. 
Lang. 



Chairman. — Professor R.J.Harvey 

Gibson. 
Secretary. — Professor R. H. Yapp. 
Professor J. R. Green and Mr. 

Clement Reid. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To report upon the Course of Ex- 
perimental, Observational, and 
Practical Studies most suitable 
for Elementary Schools. 



The Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to the carrying on of the 
work of instruction in schools. 



To consider and report upon the 
Influence exercised by Univer- 
sities and Examining Bodies on 
secondary school curricula, and 
also of the schools on university 
requirements. 



Grants 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Adie, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Miss A. J. Cooper, Miss 
L. J. Clarke, Mr. George Flet- 
cher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. 
Hall, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor J. 
Perry, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, Pro- 
fessor A. Sraithells, Dr. Lloyd 
Snape, Principal Reichel, Mr. H. 
Richardson, Mr. Harold Wager, 
Miss Edna Walter, and Profes- 
sor W. W. Watts. 



Chairman. — Professor Sherrington. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. White Wallis. 
Sir E. W. Brabrook, Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins, Professor L. C. Miall, 

and Miss Maitland. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. A. Gregory. 
The Bishop of Hereford, Sir Michael 

Foster, Sir P. Magnus, Sir A. W. 

Riicker, Sir 0. J. Lodge, Mr. H.W. 

Eve, Mr. W. A. Shenstone, Mr. 

W. D. Eggar, Professor Marshall 

Ward, Mr. F. H. Neville, Mrs. 

W. N. Shaw, and Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins. 



£ 
20 



s. d. 




50 



25 



20 



2 



5 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCIX 



1. Receiving Grants of Money— continMeO.. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 








£ 8. d. 


Corresponding Societies Com- 


Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 


25 


mittee for the preparation of 


Secretary. — Mr. F. W. Rudler. 




their Report. 


Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Dr. H. T. 
Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Mel- 
dola. Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. 
Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Prof. W. W. Watts, and the 
General Officers of the Associa- 






tion. 





2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



To co-operate with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under 
Water. 



The Consideration of the Teaching of 
Elementary Mechanics, and the Im- 
provement which might be efEected 
in such Teaching, 



Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Sir John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, Pro- 
fessor R. Copeland, and Mr. Omond. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor 
H. L. Callendar. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, Professor A. S. 
Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Dr. 
C. H. Lees, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. 
Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. 
G. F. Deacon, Mr. Edward Wethe- 
red, Mr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie 
Smith, and Mr. B. H. Brough. 



Chairman. — Professor Horace Lamb. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Mr. U. Vernon Boys, Professors Chrystal, 
Ewing, G. A. Gibson, and Greenhill, 
Principal Griffiths, Professor Henrici, 
Dr. E. W. Hobson, Mr. C. S. Jackson, 
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professors Love, 
Minchin, and Schuster, and Mr. A. 
W. Siddons. 

f U 



REPORT — 1905. 
2. Not receiving Grants of ilfijwey— continued. 



, Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To co-operate with the Royal Meteoro- 
logical Society in the Investiga- 
tion of the Upper Atmosphere by 
means of Kites. 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
continue her Report on the present 
state of the Theory of Point-groups. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairvian. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. H. Dines. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, 
Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, 
Dr. H. R. Mill, Dr. A. Schuster, and 
Dr. W. Watson. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



The Study of .Isomorphous Sulphonic 
Derivatives of Benzene. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary .—Vioi&ssox H, E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Dr. W. P. Wynne and Professor W. J. 
Pope. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 
Professor Sydney Young, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, 
Dr. A. Lapworth, and Dr. M. 0. Forster. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To record and determine the Exact 
Significance of Local Terms applied 
in the British Isles to Topographical 
and Geological Objects. 



To enable Mr. T. Leslie to continue Ms 
researches into the Fossil Flora oi 
the Transvaal, 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary. — Professor W. W. Watts. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. Anderson, 
Professors E. J. Garwood and S. H. 
Reynolds, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, W. 
Gray, H. B. Woodward, R. Kidston, 
J. J. H. Teall, J. G. Goodchild, H. 
Coates, C. V. Crook, G. Bingley, 
R. Welch, and W. J. Harrison. 

Chairman. — Mr. Douglas W. Freshfield. 

SLcretary. — Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 

Lord Avebury, Mr. C. T. Clough, Pro- 
fessor E. J. Garwood, Mr. E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Col. D. A. John- 
ston, Mr. O. T. Jones, Dr. J. S. Keltic, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. H. J. Mac- 
kinder, Dr. E. J. Marr, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Mr. H. Yule Oldham, Dr. B. N. Peach, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. H. B. 
Woodward. 

Chairman.— VxoiessoT J. W. Gregory. 
Secretary. — Mr. A C. Seward. 
Mr. T. N. Leslie. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



CI 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
po.se of specimens where advisable. 

To conduct an Investigation into the 
Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands. 



To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by cor- 
respondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of monej' for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To inquire into the probability of Anhj- 
lostoma becoming a permanent in- 
habitant of our coal mines in the 
event of its introduction, with power 
to issue an interim report. 

To enable Miss Igerna Sollas, of Newn- 
ham College, Cambridge, to study 
certain points in the development of 
Ophiusoidg, and to enable other com- 
petent naturalists to perform definite 
pieces of work at the Marine Labora- 
tory, Plymouth. 

To enable Dr. H. W. Marett Tims to 
conduct experiments with regard to 
the effect of the Sera and Antisera 
on the Development of the Sexual 
Cells. 



Cliairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 

Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. F. 

Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar 

A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Secretary.— Dt. W. E. Hoyle. 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, Mr. J. S. Gardiner, 

Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. A. C. 

Seward, Professor C. S. Sherrington, 

and Mr. A, G. Tansley. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors T. W. Bridge, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. O. H. Latter, Pro- 
fessor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
Professor C. Lloyd Morgan, Professor 
E. B. Poulton, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Mr. 
A. E. Shipley, and Rev. T. R. R. Steb- 
bing. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. E. Shipley. 
Secretary. — Mr. G. P. Bidder. 
Mr. G. H. F. Nuttall. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Mr. W. Gar- 
stang. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Professor W. F. R. Weldon, 



Chairman.— lAx. G. H. F. Nuttall. 
Secretary.— TtT. H. W. Marett Tims. 
Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



The continued Investigation of the 
Oscillations of the Level of the Land 
' in the Mediterranean Basin. 



I Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Giinther. 
Drs. T. G. Bonney, F. H. Guillemard, 
J. S. Keltie, and H. R. MiU. 



on 



REPORT — 1905. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To carry on an Expedition to investi- 
gate the Indian Ocean between India 
and South Africa in view of a pos- 
sible land connection, to examine the 
deep submerged banks, the Nazareth 
and Saza de Malha, and also the dis- 
tribution of Marine Animals. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. 

Dr. W. T. Blandford, Captain E. W. 
Creak, Professors W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, and J. W. Judd, Mr. 
J. J. Lister, and Dr. H. B. Mill. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To investigate the Resistance of Road 
Vehicles to Traction. 



To consider the Incidence of the Patent 
and Design Laws upon the National 
Development of the Practical Appli- 
cations of Science. 



Chairman.— Sir J. I. Thornj'croft. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Mallock. 

Mr. T. Aitken, Mr. T. C. Aveling, Pro- 
fessor T. Hudson Beare, Mr. W. W. 
Beaumont, Mr. J. Brown, Colonel R. E. 
Crompton, Mr. B. J. Diplock, Pro- 
fessor J. Perry, Sir D. Salomons, Mr. 
A. R. Sennett, Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith, 
and Professor W. C. Unwin. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary.— Sir H. Trueman Wood. 

Mr. C. i). Abel, Mr. Dugald Clerk, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. R. A. Hadfield, 
Hon. C. A. Parsons, and Mr. A. Sie- 
mens. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Anthropological Interest. 



To consider what steps may be taken to 
organise Anthropological Teaching 
and Research in the British Empire. 



To conduct Anthropometric Investi- 
gations among the Native Troops of 
the Egyptian Army, 



Chairvian. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Kingsford. 

Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. 

Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. 

Hartland, Mr. E. Heawood, Professor 

Flinders Petrie, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, 

and Mr. J. L. Myres. 



Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. H. Balfour, Professor D. J. Cunning- 
ham, Mr. G. L. Gomme, Dr. A. C. Had- 
don, Professor A. Macalister, Dr. C. S. 
Myers, Professor Flinders Petrie, Mr. 
C. H. Read, and Mr. F. W. Rudler. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Macalister. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Sir John Evans and Professor D. J, 
Cunningbam. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, ciii 

2. Not reoeiving Grants of Money ~corxtin\x.Gdi. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose Members of the Committee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



The Training of Teachers. 



Chairman. — The Bishop of Htreford. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Holland. 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. Oscar 

Browning, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. 

Ernest Gray, and Dr. H. B. Gray. 



Communications ordered to he ^^rinted in extenso. 

The Geodetic Survey of South Africa. By Sir David Gill. 

On Star Stream'ug. By Professor Kapteyn. 

The Apioidal Binary Star Systems. By Dr. A. W. Roberts. 

Some Recent Developments in Agricultural Science. By A. D. Hall. 

Habits and Peculiarities of some South African Ticks. By C. P. Lounsbury. 

The lectures of Mr. Lamplugh and Mr. Kandall-Maclver (or abstracts theieof), 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council be requested to consider whether it is desirable that arrange- 
ments should be made for the separate publication of individual papers, and in 
particular that they be asked to consider the advisability of publishing a selection of 
papers having special reference to South Africa. 

From Section A. 

(i.) The Committee, being of opinion that the completion of the Geodetic Arc from 
the South to the North of Africa is of the utmost scientific importance, aad that the 
establishment of a Topographical Survey is of an importance that is at once scientific 
and economic, respectfully request the Council to make representations in such form 
as they think fit to urge upon the British South African Company the desirability of 
taking advantage of the present favourable opportunity for joining up the triangula- 
tion north and south of the Zambesi, and also to urge upon the Governments of 
the South African Colonies the immense practical and economic importance of com- 
mencing the topographical survey. 

(ii.) The Committee desire to draw attention to the importance of a Magnetic 
Survey of South Africa, and respectfully request the Council of the Association to 
approach the Cape Government with a view to urging on them the great advantages 
which would accrue to Science and to South Africa if the Government would further 
support and assist the Survey which has already been part.ly made by Professor 
Beattie and Professor Morrison, and for the continuation of which a special Com- 
mittee of the Association is being appointed to co-operate with these gentlemen. 

From Section H. 

(i.) That it is desirable that the Governments of the South African Colonies be 
urged to take all necessary steps to collect, record, and preserve the knowledge and 
observations of men, such as missionaries, administrators, and others, who were 
living in intimate relations with the native tribes before the advance of civilisation 
began to obscure and even obliterate all true tradiUpps, Qustopis, and h^bitg of the 



;<^V REPORT — 1905, ' 

South African peoples ; such steps to be taken without delay, especially in view of 
the old age and growing infirmities of most of the men referred to, and of the 
danger that with their deaths the knowledge, which if carefully recorded and pre- 
served would form a most valuable contribution towards the history of the abori- 
ginal population, would be irrevocably lost ; and that the Council be recommended 
to communicate with the South African Association and suggest the appointment of 
a Committee to deal with the matter. 

(ii.) That, owing to the ufc by different writers and Government authorities of 
various names for the same groups of South African natives, much confusion and 
difficulty have arisen in anthropological and historical literature; that it is con- 
sequently desirable that Government authorities and others should confer as to the 
proper nomenclature of such groups (clans, tribes, and nations), with a view to ascer- 
taining their interrelationships, and to suggesting the most appropriate name for 
each group, and the best method of spelling that name phonetically ; and that 
the Council be recommended to communicate with the South African Association 
and take such other steps as may conduce to this object. 

(iii.; That the Committee are of opinion that it would conduce to the greater 
eflSciency of officers who have to administer native affairs, and contribute to the 
advancement of anthropological science, as well as prove of considerable advan- 
tage to the well-being of the natives themselves, if opportunity could be given to 
such officers before or after their appointment to study comparative ethnology 
for at least two terms in one of the Universities of the United Kingdom which pre- 
sents facilities for the study ; and that in the case of junior officers already on 
active service such a course of study would facilitate their comprehension of native 
institutions and ideas and help to render their services more efficient ; another Com- 
mittee recommends the Council to take steps for the purpose of bringing this matter 
before the proper authorities. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEV. CV 



Syiiopsis of Grants of Money apiyrofriated to Scientific Fnrjwses by the 
General Committee at the South Africa Meeting, Ai(g2(st and Septem- 
ber 1906. The Names of the Members entitled to call on the General 
Treasurer for the res-pedive Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 
*Rayleigh, Lord — Electrical Standards (and unexpended 

balance) 25 

*Judd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 40 

•Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 50 

Gill, Sir D.— Magnetic Survey of South Africa 100 

Chemistry. 

♦Roscoe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

*Divers, Professor E. — Study of Hydro- Aromatic Substances 25 
*Kipping, Professor F. S. — Aromatic Nitramines 10 

Geology. 

*Marr, Dr. J. E. — Erratic Blocks (unexpended balance) ... — 

*Marr, Dr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 

(unexpended balance) — 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Fauna and Flora of British Trias 

(and unexpended balance) 7 8 11 

*Lamplugh, G. W. — Fossiliferous Drift Deposits (balance in 

hand) — 

Harker, Dr. A. — The Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Gregory, Professor J. W. — Faunal Succession in the Carbon- 
iferous Limestone of the South-west of England 15 

Gregory, Professor J. W. — The Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 



Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 100 

♦Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

*Weldon, Professor — Development of the Frog 10 

*Hickson, Professor S. J.^Higher Crustacea 15 

Boulenger, G. A. — Freshwater Fishes of South Africa 50 

Geography. 
Murray, Sir J. — Rainfall and Lake and River Discharge ... 10 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

•Cannan, Dr. E. — British and Foreign Statistics of Interna- 
tional Trade 20 

Carried forward ^597 8 11 

* Beappointed. 



Cvi REPORT — 1905. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 597 8 11 

Anthropology. 

*Evans, Sir J. — Excavations in Crete 100 

♦Munro, Dr. R. — Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

*Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd. — Excavations on Roraan Sites 

in Britain 30 

*Cunningham, Professor D. J. — Anthropometric Investigation 

in the British Isles 30 

*Reid, C, H. — Age of Stone Circles (balance in hand) — 

Physiology. 

♦Halliburton, Professor W. D. — The State of Solution of 

Proteids 20 

*Gotch, Pi'ofessor — Metabolism of Individual Tissues (and 

unexpended balance) 20 

*Schafer, Professor— The Ductless Glands 10 

Brunton, Sir Lauder. — The Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 20 

Botany. 

*Miall, Professor — Botanical Photographs (and unexpended 

balance) 3 

*Ward, Professor H, Marshall— The Physiology of Heredity 30 
*Scott, Dr. D. H.— The Structure of Fossil Plants (and un- 
expended balance) 20 

Seward, A. C. — Research on South African Cycades ... 50 

Gibson, Professor Harvey. — Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Educational Science. 

*Magnus, Sir P.— Studies suitable for Elementary Schools ... 20 
*Sherrington, Professor. — Health in relation to School In- 
struction 2 

*Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Universities and School Curri- 
cula 5 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 
•Whitaker, W.— Preparing Report, &c 25 

il,047 8 11 
* Reappointed. " 



The Annual Meeting in 1906. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1906 will be held at 
York, commencing August 1. 

The Annual Meeting in 1907. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1907 will be held at 
Leicester. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



evil 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Iclithyology .. . 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Kain-gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 





















1 





13 

















6 






£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

RaUway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 60 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 60 

Heart Experiments 6 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 



























1 


10 


12 


10 














6 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 



£932 2 2 



1839, 

Fossil Ichthyology 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 

Mechanism of Waves 

Bristol Tides 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature ,... 

Vitrification Experiments ... 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam-vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire C61este 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 

Animal Secretions 

Steam Engines in Cornvrall... 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 
Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 



£ 


s. 


d. 


110 








63 


10 





144 


2 





35 


18 


6 


21 


11 





9 


4 





103 





7 


28 


7 





274 


1 


2 


100 





4 


171 


18 





11 





6 


166 


16 





10 


10 


6 


50 








16 


1 





40 








3 








22 








49 


7 




118 


2 


9 


50 









:ei596 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 60 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 60 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



cvlii 



REPORT — 1905. 



18il. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers G 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs G2 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannipe 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gaseson Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Kailway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



£ s. d. 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 111 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 



£1449 17 S 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics ; 36 6 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Cl^ 



£. i. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms ofVessel s 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials ■■ 60 

£1565 10 



d. 



10 




1844. 
Meteorological Observations 
'at Kingussie and Inverness 12 
Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 

Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 
Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloiured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

ofthe Lower Tertiary Strata 100 
Registering the Shocks of 

; Earthquakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 
Radiata and MoUusca of the 
, ^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 
Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

: of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

, rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 















8 


4 














9 


6 



17 3 



7 


3 














17 


6 








11 


10 














10 























7 


3 







































12 8 



1845. 

£ t, d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 II 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 T 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York.. 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters ,., 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs... .... 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickne?s ?.nd 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



cs 



REPORT — 1905. 



1847. 

& s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15^ 

£275 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 























1 


8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 6 

Eegistration of Periodical 
Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£345^18^0 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391^~^7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850)... 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19^7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



1856, 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory: — 

1854 £ 75 



1855. 



fSOO 



C73 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



6x1 



£ g. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£73433 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida ...» 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 



£ ». d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry , 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 1 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

I860 £50 1 7, n 

1861 £22 0/ '- " " 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Tran.s- 

actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey .and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 5 10 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£1111^X10 



cxu 



REPORT — 1905. 



1862. 

£ i. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance CO 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 

, penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham ; 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Jjuminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 



£ i. d. 

d. Thermo-electricity 16 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

I Hydroida 10 

; £1608 3 10 



































































3 10 






























































1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 9 

Rain-gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber '50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges , 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591^7 10 



GENERA li STATEMENT, 



CXlll 



1866. 

i. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatorj'. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Eainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

T3'pical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 



i. d. 









13 


4 


















































































































































13 


4 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palest ine : 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palest ine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemoutli, kc. Leaf -beds 30 

Diedging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electiical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greei.land Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws .30 

£T730' 

1905, " 







































































































4 






























1868. 

£ g. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances .. .. 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds , 60 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopi c Investigati on s 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



4 



1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 60 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Sei'ies so 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations ]00 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids ,,. 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

S 








































































































































CXIV 



REPORT — 1905. 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Kature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood... ,, ,. 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &:c 20 

Briiish Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations ., 100 

Underground Temperature .... 60 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observation 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea , 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects ........,,,,.,.. 20 











































































































































































1 








2 


6 











i 





















£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals ." 25 

£1285 


































































































































1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 1.50 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaiissian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors ; 30 



£1685 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cxv 



1874. 

£ s. d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10> 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£ 1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids.,. 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calciilating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ *. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave ] 00 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Bocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeae, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature... 60 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 

phorig Apid, ifec 15 

£1128 















11 


7 



























































































8 



















9 7 



g2 



CXVl 



HEPORT — 1905. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siplion 
Eecorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 
for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Therma] Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

I'-ornco .50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

E!ectrol3'sis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Sails 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements iu Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Kevon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 
Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 60 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 6 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 
at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXVil 



1881. 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key .5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoologieal Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 



s. 


d. 
































3 


1 





























































3 1 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Explorati on of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 









1 


11 


























































































































1883. 

£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives , 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 








1 11 



1881. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 60 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observator}' at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£1173 4 















4 
































































































cxviii 



REPORT— 1905. 



1885. 

£, s. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopodaof Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius .SO 

Geological Record 100 

Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ s. d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Westem Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .lapan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglese}' 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathj'-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT 



CXIX 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 G 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Kecord 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palseontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds .. 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 60 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... l-'J 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

PreciousMetals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Eifect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

:£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palasozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological AsscciE,tion 200 

« Baths Committee,' Bath.. . .. 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables ......... 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palifiozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



cxx 



REPORT — 1905. 



£ s. d. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

C'orresj)onding Societies 20 

£799^6 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysisof Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of ' 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 ICPO 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

'Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands ., 50 





















8 


6 



































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXl 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Eadiation 5 5 G 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 
Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 
Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Jleasure- 

ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15^ 



1895. 

£ t. cl. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 
Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

lleduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 G 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Fhnt- drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 
of Animals SO 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



cxxn 



REPORT — 1905. 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw .". 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palreozoic Phyllnpoda .'j 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, .'^LC 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palaeolithic Deposit s at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratorj', Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1,104 6 i 































6 


1 

































































































































1897. 

i 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of tlie Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 

Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 

Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phasophyceao 20 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 



s. 





d. 

















































10 


8 





















































































10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards , 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysisand Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXXlll 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Djed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Eeef 40 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Eocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters , 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of 
Canada 75 

Lake Villag:e at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phaeophycese 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee . , 25 

£1,212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards ,,,..225 

Seismological Observations... 65 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 6 

Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 



£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 

Section at Moel Tryfaen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries "... 40 

Age of Stone Circles , 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phyjeophyceae 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1.430 14 2 



1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 
Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 



CXXIV 



EEPORT — 1905. 



£ s. d. 
Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 

boratorj', Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 

Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Peefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 

Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 
Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 
Etlinography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phieophycese 20 
Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

. £1,072 10 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 o 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic Deri- 
vatives of Benzene 35 



£ s. (I. 
Life-zones in British Carbo- 
niferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegr.-can Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnologicid Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploiation in Crete 115 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phjcophyceic 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
macea; 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples ICO 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 
Indian Ocean 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cxxv 



£ 
Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 
Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 1 5 
Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hasmoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

tinder Influence of Drugs... 20 
Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceiB 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 

Schools 

Corresponding Societies Com 



s. d. 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 3.) 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 
Underground Waters of Nort h- 

west Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 
























































































2 










. 15 





£947 









































































































3 


o 

w 











£ s. d. 
Anthropometric Investigation 5 
Anthropometry of the Todas 

and other Tribes of Southern 

India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceie 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Coriesponding Societies Com. 20 

£845 13 2 











1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hyro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Carboni- 
ferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 00 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 1 00 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual Tis- 
sues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 
Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887" 





































































































10 























8 


11 





















18 11 



exxvi 



REPORT — 1905. 



1905. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth .50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 6 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 
Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 75 

Development in the Frog ... 10 


































£ s. d. 
Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions on Egyptian Troops... 10 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual Tis- 
sues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£92i~ 2 2 



GENERAL MEETINGS. CXXVU 



General Meetings. 
AT THE CITY HALL, CAPE TOWN. 

On Tuesday, August 15, at 8.30 p.m., a letter from the retiring Presi- 
dent, the Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, D.C.L., LL.D., M.P., F.R.S., having 
been read, Professor G. H. Darwin, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., assamed 
the office of President, and delivered the first part of an Address, for 
which see p. 3. 

On Wednesday, August 16, at 8 p.m., a Reception was held by the 
Mayor. 

On Thursday, August 17, at 8.30 p.m.. Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., 
delivered a Lecture on ' W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South Africa.' 

On Friday, August 18, at 8.30 p.m., Mr. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S., 
delivered a Lecture on ' Some Surface Actions of Fluids.' 

AT JOHANNESBURG. 

On Monday, August 28, at 8.30 p.m., the Mayor and Town Council 
held a Reception at the Wanderers' Club. 

On Tuesday, August 29, at 8.30 p.m., Professor W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., 
delivered a Lecture on ' The Distribution of Power ' at St. Mary's Hall. 

On Wednesday, August 30, at 8.30 p.m., at St. Mary's Hall, Professor 
Darwin delivered the concluding part of his Address. 

On Thursday, August 31, at 8.30 p.m., Professor J. O. Arnold delivered 
a Lecture on ' Steel as an Igneous Rock ' at St. Mary's Hall. 

On Friday, September 1, at 5 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place in the Municipal Buildings, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were 
explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to York. 



*.^* &^ Appendix for a detailed account of the Meeting in South Africa texts 
of Addresses of Welcome, notices of Lecture.^, and information in regard to the 
foundation of a South Africa Medal. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1905, B 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Professor G. H. DARWIN, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



Babtholomeu Diaz, the discoverer of the Cape of Storms, spent sixteen 
months on his voyage, and the little flotilla of Vasco da Gama, sailing 
from Lisbon on July 8, 1497, only reached the Cape in the middle of 
November. These bold men, sailing in their puny fishing smacks to 
unknown lands, met the perils of the sea and the attacks of savages with 
equal courage. How great was the danger of such a voyage may be 
gathered from the fact that less than half the men who sailed with da 
Gama lived to return to Lisbon. Four hundred and eight years have 
passed since that voyage, and a ship of 13,000 tons has just brought us 
here, in safety and luxury, in but little more than a fortnight. 

How striking ai'e the contrasts presented by these events ! On the 
one hand compare the courage, the endurance, and the persistence of the 
early navigators with the little that has been demanded of us ; on the 
other hand consider how much man's power over the forces of Nature has 
been augmented during the past four centuries. The capacity for heroism 
is probably undiminished, but certainly the occasions are now rarer when 
it is demanded of us. If we are heroes, at least but few of us ever find it 
out, and, when we read stories of ancient feats of courage, it is hard to 
prevent an uneasy thought that, notwithstanding our boasted mechanical 
inventions, we are perhaps degenerate descendants of our great predecessors. 

Yet the thought that to-day is less romantic and less heroic than 
yesterday has its consolation, for it means that the lot of man is easier 
than it was. Mankind, indeed, may be justly proud that this improvement 
has been due to the successive efforts of each generation to add to the 
heritage of knowledge handed down to it by its predecessors, whereby we 
have been born to the accumulated endowment of centuries of genius and 
labour. 

I am told that in the United States the phrase ' I want to know ' has 

B2 



4 REPORT — 1905. 

lost the simple meaning implied by the words, and has become a mere 
exclamation of surprise. Such a conventional expression could hardly 
have gained currency except amongst a people who aspire to knowledge. 
The dominance of the European race in America, Australasia, and South 
Africa has no doubt arisen from many causes, but amongst these perhaps 
the chief one is that not only do ' we want to know,' but also that we are 
determined to find out. And now within the last quarter of a century 
we have welcomed into the ranks of those who ' want to know ' an 
oriental race, which has already proved itself strong in the peaceful arts 
of knowledge. 

I take it, then, that you have invited us because you want to know 
what is worth knowing ; and we are here because we want to know you, 
to learn what you have to tell us, and to see that South Africa of which 
we have heard so much, 

The hospitality which you are offering us is so lavish, and the journeys 
which you have organised are so extensive, that the cynical observer miglit 
be tempted to describe our meeting as the largest picnic on record. 
Although we intend to enjoy our picnic with all our hearts, yet I should 
like to tell the cynic, if he is here, that perhaps the most important 
object of these conferences is the opportunity tliey afford for personal 
intercourse between men of like minds who live at the remotest corners 
of the earth. 

We shall pass through your land with the speed and the voracity of a 
flight of locusts ; but, unlike the locust, we shall, I hope, leave behind us 
permanent fertilisation in the form of stimulated scientific and educa- 
tional activity. And this result will ensue whether or not we who have 
come from Europe are able worthily to sustain the lofty part of prophets 
of science. We shall try our best to play to your satisfaction on the great 
stage upon which you call on us to act, and if when we are gone you shall, 
amongst yourselves, pronounce the performance a poor one, yet the fact 
will remain, that this meeting has embodied in a material form the desire 
that the progress of this great continent shall not be merely material ; 
and such an aspiration secures its own fulfilment. However small may 
be the tangible results of our meeting, we shall always be proud to 
have been associated with you iu your efforts for the advancement of 
science. 

We do not know whether the last hundred yeai's will be regarded for 
ever as the sa'culnm mirabile of discovery, or whether it is but the prelude 
to yet more mai'vellous centuries. To us living men, who scarcely pass 
a year of our lives without witnessing some new marvel of discovery 
or invention, the rate at which the development of knowledge proceeds 
is truly astonishing ; but from a wider point of view the scale of time 
is relatively unimportant, for the universe is leisurely in its procedure. 
Whether the changes which we witness be fast or slow, they form 
a part of a long sequence of events which begin in some past of im- 
measurable remoteness and tend to some end which we cannot fore- 



ADDRESS. 5 

see. It must always be profoundly interesting to tlie mind of man 
to trace successive cause and effect in the chain of events which make 
up the history of the earth and all that lives on it, and to speculate 
on the origin and future fate of animals, and of planets, suns, and 
stars. I shall try, then, to set forth in my address some of the attempts 
which have been made to formulate Evolutionary speculation. This 
choice of a subject has moreover been almost forced on me by the scope 
of my own scientific work, and it is, I think, justified by the name 
which I bear. It will be my fault and your misfortune if I fail to 
convey to you some part of the interest which is nafturally inherent in 
such researches. 

The man who propounds a theory of evolution is attempting to recon- 
struct the history of the past by means of the circumstantial evidence 
afforded by the present. The historian of man, on the other hand, has 
the advantage over the evolutionist in that he has the written records of 
the past on which to rely. The discrimination of the truth from amongst 
discordant records is frequently a work demanding the highest qualities 
of judgment ; yet when this end is attained it remains for the historian 
to convert the arid skeleton of facts into a living whole by clothing it 
with the flesh of human motives and impulses. For this part of his task 
he needs much of that power of entering into the spirit of other men's 
lives which goes to the making of a poet. Thus the historian should 
possess not onlyihe patience of the man of science in the analysis of facts, 
but also the imagination of the poet to grasp what the facts have meant. 
Such a combination is rarely to be found in equal perfection on both 
sides, and it would not be hard to analyse the works of great historians 
so as to see which quality was predominant in each of them. 

The evolutionist is spared the surpassing difficulty of the human 
element, yet he also needs imagination, although of a different character 
from that of the historian. In its lowest form his imagination is that of 
the detective who reconstructs the story of a crime ; in its highest it 
demands the power of breaking loose from all the trammels of convention 
and education, and of imagining something which has never occurred to 
the mind of man before. In every case the evolutionist must form a 
theory for the facts before bim, and the great theorist is only to be dis- 
tinguished from the fantastic fool by the sobriety of his judgment — a 
distinction, however, sufficient to make one rare and the other only too 
common. 

The test of a scientific theory lies in the number of facts which it 
groups into a connected whole ; it ought besides to be fruitful in pointing 
the way to the discovery and co-ordination of new and previously un 
suspected facts. Thus a good theory is in effect a cyclopaedia of knowledge, 
susceptible of indefinite extension by the addition of supplementary 
volumes. 

Hardly any theory is all true, and many are not all false. A 
theory may be essentially at fault and yet point the way to truth 



6 REPORT — 1905. 

and so justify its temporary existence. We should not, therefore, totally 
reject one or other of two rival theories on the ground that they seem, 
with our present knowledge, mutually inconsistent, for it is likely that 
both may contain important elements of truth. The theories of which 
I shall have to speak hereafter may often appear discordant with one 
another according to our present lights. Yet we must not scruple to 
pursue the several divergent lines of thought to their logical conclusions, 
reiving on future discovery to eliminate the false and to reconcile together 
the truths which form part of each of them. 

In the mouths of the unscientific evolution is often spoken of as almost 
synonymous with the evolution of the various species of animals on the 
earth, and this again is sometimes thought to be practically the same 
thing as the theory of Natural Selection. Of course those who are con- 
versant with the history of scientific ideas are aware that a belief in the 
gradual and orderly transformation of Nature, both animate and inanimate, 
is of great antiquity. 

We may liken the facts on which theories of evolution are based to a 
confused heap of beads, from which a keen- sighted searcher after truth 
picks out and strings together a few which happen to catch his eye, as 
possessing certain resemblances. Until recently, theories of evolution in 
both realms of Nature were partial and discontinuous, and the chains 
of facts were correspondingly short and disconnected. At length the 
theory of Natural Selection, by formulating the cause of the divergence 
of forms in the organic world from the parental stock, furnished the 
naturalist with a clue by which he examined the disordered mass of facts 
before hira, and he was thus enabled to go far in deducing order where 
chaos had ruled before, but the problem of reducing the heap to perfect 
order will probably baffle the ingenuity of the investigator for ever. 

So illuminating has been this new idea that, as the whole of Nature 
has gi-adually been re-examined by its aid, thousands of new facts have 
been brought to light, and have been strung in due order on the necklace 
of knowledge. Indeed the transformation resulting from the new point 
of view has been so far-reaching as almost to justify the misapprehension 
of the unscientific as to the date when the doctrines of evolution first 
originated in the mind of man. 

It is not my object, nor indeed am I competent, to examine the extent 
to which the Theory of Natural Selection has needed modification since it 
was first formulated by my father and Wallace. But I am surely justified 
in maintaining that the general principle holds its place firmly as a perma- 
nent acquisition to modes of thought. 

Evolutionary doctrines concerning inanimate nature, although of much 
older date than those which concern life, have been profoundly affected 
by the great impulse of which I have spoken. It has thus come about 
that the origin and history of the chemical elements and of stellar systems 
now occupy a far larger space in the scientific mind than was formerly the 
case. The subject which I shall discuss to-night is the extent to which 



ADDRESS. 7 

ideas, parallel to those which have done so much towards elucidating the 
problems of life, hold good also in the world of matter ; and T believe that 
it will be possible to show that in this respect there exists a resemblance 
between the two realms of nature, which is not merely fanciful. It is 
proper to add that as long ago as 1873 Baron Karl du Prel discussed the 
same subject, from a similar point of view, in a book entitled ' The Struggle 
for Life in the Heavens.' ' 

Although inanimate matter moves under the action of forces which 
are incomparably simpler than those governing living beings, yet the 
problems of the physicist and the astronomer are scarcely less complex 
than those which present themselves to the biologist. The mystery of 
life remains as impenetrable as ever, and in his evolutionary speculations 
the biologist does not attempt to explain life itself, but, adopting as his 
unit the animal as a whole, discusses its relationships to other animals 
and to the surrounding conditions. The physicist, on the other hand, is 
irresistibly impelled to form theories as to the intimate constitution of the 
ultimate parts of matter, and he desires further to piece together the past 
histories and the future fates of planets, stars, and nebulfe. If then the 
speculations of the physicist seem in some respects less advanced than 
those of the biologist, it is chiefly because he is more ambitious in his 
aims. Physicists and astronomers have not yet found their Johannesburg 
or Kimberley ; but although we are still mere prospectors, I am proposing 
to show you some of the dust and diamonds which we have already 
extracted from our surface mines. 

The fundamental idea in the theory of Natural Selection is the 
persistence of those types of life which ai'e adapted to their surrounding 
conditions, and the elimination by extermination of ill-adapted types. 
The struggle for life amongst forms possessing a greater or less degree of 
adaptation to slowly varying conditions is held to explain the gradual 
transmutation of species. Although a different phraseology is used when 
we speak of the physical world, yet the idea is essentially the same. 

The point of view from which I wish you to consider the phenomena of 
the world of matter may be best explained if, in the first instance, I 
refer to political institutions, because we all understand, or fancy we 
understand, something of politics, whilst the problems of physics are 
commonly far less familiar to us. This illustration will have a further 
advantage in that it will not be a mere parable, but will involve the 
fundamental conception of the nature of evolution. 

The complex interactions of man with man in a community are usually 
described by such comprehensive terms as the State, the Commonwealth, 
or the Government. Various States differ widely in their constitution 
and in the degree of the complexity of their organisation, and we classify 
them by various general terms, such as autocracy, aristocracy, or de- 
mocracy, which express somewhat loosely their leading characteristics. 

' Der Kampf urn's Dasem am Uimmel (zweite Auflage), Denicke, Berlin, 187t5. 



8 REPORT — 190^. 

But, foi- the purpose of showing the analogy with physics, we need terms 
of wider import than those habitually used in politics. All forms of the 
State imply inter-relationship in the actions of men, and action implies 
movement. Thus the State may be described as a configuration or arrange- 
ment of a community of men ; or we may say that it implies a definite 
mode of motion of man — that is to say an oi'ganised scheme of action of 
man on man. Political history gives an account of the gi-adual changes 
in such configurations or modes of motion of men as have possessed the 
quality of persistence or of stability to resist the disintegrating influence 
of surrounding circumstances. 

In the world of life the naturalist describes those forms which persist 
as species ; similarly the physicist speaks of stable configurations or 
modes of motion of matter ; and the politician speaks of States. Tlie idea 
at the base of all these conceptions is that of stability, or the power of 
resisting disintegration. In other words, the degree of persistence or 
permanence of a species, of a configuration of matter, or of a State depends 
on the perfection of its adaptation to its surrounding conditions. 

If we trace the history of a State we find the degree of its stability 
gradually changing, slowly rising to a maximum, and then slowly de- 
clining. When it falls to nothing a revolution ensues, and a new form 
of government is established. The new mode of motion or government 
has at fii'st but slight stability, but it gradually acquires strength and 
permanence, until in its turn the slow decay of stability leads on to a new 
revolution. 

Such crises in political history may give rise to a condition in which 
the State is incapable of perpetuation by transformation. This occurs 
when a savage tribe nearly exterminates another tribe and leads the few 
survivors into slavery ; the previous form of government then becomes 
extinct. 

The physicist, like the biologist and the historian, watches the effect 
of slowly varying external conditions ; he sees the quality of persistence 
or stability gradually decaying until it vanishes, when there ensues what 
is called, in politics, a revolution. 

These considerations lead me to express a doubt whether biologists 
have been correct in looking for continuous transformation of species. 
Judging by analogy we should rather expect to find slight continuous 
changes occurring during a long period of time, followed by a somewhat 
sudden transformation into a new species, or by rapid extinction.* How- 
ever this may be, when the stability of a mode of motion vanishes, 
the physicist either finds that it is replaced by a new persistent type of 

' If we may illustrate this graphically, I suggest that the process of transforma- 
tion may be represented by long lines of gentle slope, followed by shorter lines of 
steeper slope. The alternative is a continuous uniform slope of change. If the 
former view is correct, it would explain why it should not be easy to detect specific 
change in actual operation. Some of my critics have erroneously thought that I 
advocate specific change ^er saltnm. 



ADDRESS. 9 

motion adapted to the changed conditions, or perhaps that no such trans- 
formation is possible and that the mode of motion lias become extinct. 
The evanescent type of animal life has often been preserved for us, fossi- 
lised in geological strata ; the evanescent form of government is preserved 
in written records or in the customs of savage tribes ; but the physicist 
has to pursue his investigations without such useful hints as to the past. 
The time-scale in the transmutation of species of animals is furnished 
by the geological record, although it is not possible to translate that 
record into years. As we shall see hereafter, the time needed for a change 
of type in atoms or molecules may be measured by raillionths of a second, 
while in the history of the stars continuous changes may occupy millions 
of years. Notwithstanding this gigantic contrast in speed, yet the process 
involved seems to be essentially the same. 

It is hardly too much to assert that, if the conditions which deter- 
mine stability of motion could be accurately formulated throughout tlie 
universe, the past history of the cosmos and its future fate would be 
unfolded. How indefinitely far we stand removed from such a state of 
knowledge will become abundantly clear from the remainder of my 
address. 

The study of stability and instability then furnishes the problems which 
the physicist and biologist alike attempt to solve. The two classes of 
problems differ principally in the fact that the conditions of the world of 
life are so incomparably more intricate than those of the world of matter 
that the biologist is compelled to abandon the attempt to determine the 
absolute amount of the influence of the various causes which have affected 
the existence of species. His conclusion.s are merely qualitative and 
general, and he is almost universally compelled to refrain from asserting 
even in general terms what are the reasons which have rendered one 
form of animal life stable and persistent, and another unstable and 
evanescent. 

On the other hand, the physicist, as a general rule, does not rest 
satisfied unless he obtains a quantitative estimate of various causes and 
effects on the systems of matter which he discusses. Yet there are some 
problems of physical evolution in which the conditions are so complex 
that the physicist is driven, as is the biologist, to rest satisfied with 
qualitative rather than quantitative conclusions. But he is not content 
with such crude conclusions except in the last resort, and he generally 
prefers to proceed by a different method. 

The mathematician mentally constructs an ideal mechanical system or 
model, which is intended to represent in its leading features the system 
he wants to examine. It is often a task of the utmost difficulty to devise 
such a model, and the investigator may perchance unconsciously drop out 
as unimportant something which is really essential to represent actuality. 
He next examines the conditions of his ideal system, and determines, if 
he can, all the possible stable and unstable configurations, together with 
the circumstances which will cause transitions from one to the other. 



10 REPORT— 1905. 

Even when the working model has been successfully imagined, this latter 
task may often overtax the powei's of the mathematician. Finally it 
remains for him to apply his results to actual matter, and to form a 
judgment of the extent to which it is justifiable to interpret Nature by 
means of his results. 

The remainder of my address will be occupied by an account of 
various investigations which will illustrate the principles and methods 
which I have now explained in general terms. 



Tlie fascinating idea that matter of all kinds has a common sub- 
stratum is of remote antiquity. In the Middle Ages the alchemists, 
inspired by this idea, conceived the possibility of transforming the baser 
metals into gold. The sole difficulty seemed to them the discovery of an 
appropriate series of chemical operations. We now know that they 
were always indefinitely far from the goal of their search, yet we must 
accord to them the honour of having been the pioneers of modern 
chemistry. 

The object of alchemy, as stated in modern language, was to break 
up or dissociate the atoms of one chemical element into its component 
parts, and afterwards to reunite them into atoms of gold. Although even 
the dissociative stage of the alchemistic problem still lies far beyond the 
power of the chemist, yet modern researches seem to furnish a suffi- 
ciently clear idea of the structure of atoms to enable us to see what 
would have to be done to eSect a transformation of elements. Indeed, in 
the complex changes which are found to occur spontaneously in uranium, 
radium, and the allied metals we are probably watching a spontaneous 
dissociation and transmutation of elements. 

Natural Selection may seem, at first sight, as remote as the poles 
asunder from the ideas of the alchemist, yet dissociation and transmuta- 
tion depend on the instability and regained stability of the atom, and 
the survival of the stable atom depends on the principle of Natural 
Selection. 

Until some ten years ago the essential diversity of the chemical 
elements was accepted by the chemist as an ultimate fact, and indeed the 
very name of atom, or that which cannot be cut, was given to what 
was supposed to be the final indivisible portion of matter. The chemist 
thus proceeded in much the same way as the biologist who, in discussing 
evolution, accepts the species as his working unit. Accordingly, until 
recently the chemist discussed working models of matter of atomic 
structure, and the vast edifice of modern chemistry has been built with 
atomic bricks. 

But within the last few years the electrical researches of Lenard, 
Rontgen, Becquerel, the Curies, of my colleagues Larmor and Thomson, 
and of a host of others, have shown that the atom is not indivisible, and 
a flood of light has been thrown thereby on the ultimate constitution of 



ADDRESS. 11 

matter. Amongst all these fertile investigators it seems to me that 
Thomson stands pre-eminent, because it is principally through him that 
•we are to-day in a better position for picturing the structure of an atom 
than was ever the case before. 

Even if I had the knowledge requisite for a complete exposition of 
these investigations, the limits of time would compel me to confine myself 
to those parts of the subject which bear on the constitution and origin of 
the elements. 

It has been shown, then, that the atom, previously supposed to be 
indivisible, really consists of a large number of component parts. By 
various convergent lines of experiment it has been proved that the 
simplest of all atoms, namely that of hydrogen, consists of about 800 
separate parts ; while the number of parts in the atom of the denser 
metals must be counted by tens of thousands. These separate parts of 
the atom have been called corpuscles or electrons, and may be described 
as particles of negative electricity. It is paradoxical, yet true, that the 
physicist knows more about these ultra-atomic corpuscles and can more 
easily count them than is the case with the atoms of which they form 
the parts. 

The corpuscles, being negatively electrified, repel one another just as 
the hairs on a person's head mutually repel one another when combed 
with a vulcanite comb. The mechanism is as yet obscure whereby the 
mutual repulsion of the negative corpuscles is restrained from breaking 
up the atom, but a positive electrical charge, or something equivalent 
thereto, must exist in the atom, so as to prevent disruption. The 
existence in the atom of this community of negative corpuscles is certain, 
and we know further that they are moving with speeds which may be 
in some cases comparable to the velocity of light, namely, 200,000 miles 
a second. But the mechanism whereby they are held together in a group 
is hypothetical. 

It is only just a year ago that Thomson suggested, as representing the 
atom, a mechanical or electrical model whose properties could be accu- 
rately examined by mathematical methods. He would be the first to 
admit that his model is at most merely a crude representation of actuality, 
yet he has been able to show that such an atom must possess mechanical 
and electrical properties which simulate, with what Whetham describes 
as * almost Satanic exactness,' some of the most obscure and yet most 
fundamental properties of the chemical elements. ' Se non e vero, e ben 
trovato,' and we are surely justified in believing that we have the clue 
which the alchemists sought in vain. 

Thomson's atom consists of a globe homogeneously charged with positive 
electricity, inside which there are one or more thousands of corpuscles 
of negative electricity, revolving in regular orbits with great velocities. 
Since two electrical charges repel each other if they are of the same 
kind, and attract each other if they are of opposite kinds, the corpuscles 
mutually repel one another, but all are attracted by the positive electricity 



12 REPORT— 1905. 

distributed throughout the globe. The forces called into play by these elec- 
trical interactions are clearly very complicated, and you will not be sur- 
prised to learn that Thomson found himself compelled to limit his detailed 
examination of the model atom to one containing about seventy corpuscles. 
It is indeed a triumph of mathematical power to have determined the 
mechanical conditions of such a miniature planetary system as I have 
described. 

It appears that in general there ar3 definite arrangements of the 
orbits in which the corpuscles must revolve, if they are to be persistent 
or stable in their motions. But the number of corpuscles in such a com- 
munity is not absolutely fixed. It is easy to see that we might add a 
minor planet, or indeed half a dozen minor planets, to the solar system 
without any material derangement of the whole ; but it would not be 
possible to add a hundred planets with an aggregate mass equal to that 
of Jupiter Avithout disorganisation of the solar system. So also we miglit 
add or subtract from an atom three or four corpuscles from a system 
containing a thousand corpuscles moving in regular orbits without any 
profound derangement. As each arrangement of orbits corresponds to 
the atom of a distinct element, we may say that the addition or subtrac- 
tion of a few corpuscles to the atom will not effect a transmutation of 
elements. An atom which has a deficiency of its full complement of cor- 
puscles, which it will be remembered are negative, will be positively 
electrified, Avhile one with an excess of corpuscles will be negatively elec- 
trified. I have referred to the possibility of a deficiency or excess of 
corpuscles because it is important in Thomson's theory ; but, as it is not 
involved in the point of view which I wish to take, I will henceforth only 
refer to the normal or average number in any arrangement of corpuscles. 
Accordingly we may state that definite numbers of corpuscles are capable 
of association in stable communities of definite types. 

An infinite number of communities are possible, possessing greater or 
lesser degrees of stability. Thus the corpuscles in one such community 
might make thousands of revolutions in their orbits before instability 
declared itself ; such an atom might perhaps last for a long time as esti- 
mated in millionths of seconds, but it must finally break up and the 
corpuscles must disperse or rearrange themselves after the ejection of 
some of their number. We are thus led to conjecture that the several 
chemical elements represent those different kinds of communities of cor- 
puscles which have proved by their stability to be successful in the 
struggle for life. If this is so, it is almost impossible to believe that the 
successful species have existed for all time, and we must hold that they 
originated under conditions about which I must forbear to follow Sir 
Norman Lockyer in speculating.' 

But if the elements were not eternal in the past, we must ask 
whether there is reason to believe that they will be eternal in the 

' Inorganic Ecolution, Macmillan, 1900. 



ADDRESS. 13 

future. Now, although the conception of the deciy of an element and 
its spontaneous transmutation into another clement would have seemed 
absolutely repugnant to the chemist until recently, yet analogy with other 
moving systems seems to suggest that the elements are not eternal. 

At any rate it is of interest to pui'sue to its end the history of the 
model atom which has proved to be so successful in imitating the pro- 
perties of matter. The laws which govern electricity in motion indicate 
that such an atom must be radiating or losing energy, and therefore a 
time must come when it will run down, as a clock does. When this 
time comes it will spontaneously transmute itself into an element which 
needs less energy than was required in the former state. Thomson con- 
ceives that an atom might be constructed after his model so that its decay 
should be very slow. It might, he thinks, be made to run for a million 
years or more, but it would not be eternal. 

Such a conclusion is in absolute contradiction to all that was known 
of the elements until recently, for no symptoms of decay are perceived, 
and the elements existing in the solar system must already have lasted 
for millions of years. Nevertheless, there is good I'eason to believe that 
in radium, and in other elements possessing very complex atoms, we do 
actually observe that break-up and spontaneous rearrangement which 
constitute a transmutation of elements. 

It is impossible as yet to say how science will solve this difficulty, tut 
future discovery in this field must surely prove deeply interesting.' It 
may well be that the train of thought which I have sketched will ulti- 
mately profoundly affect the material side of human life, however remote 
it may now seem from our experiences of daily life. 

I have not as yet made any attempt to represent the excessive minute- 
ness of the corpuscles, of whose existence we are now so confident ; but, 
as an introduction to what I have to speak of next, it is necessary to do 
so. To obtain any adequate conception of their size we must betake our- 
selves to a scheme of threefold magnification. Lord Kelvin has shown 
that, if a drop of water were magnified to the size of the earth, the mole- 
cules of water would be of a size intermediate between that of a cricket- 
ball and of a raai-ble. Now each molecule contains three atoms, two 
being of hydrogen and one of oxygen. The molecular system probably 
presents some sort of analogy with that of a triple star ; the three atoms, 
replacing tiie stars, revolving about one another in some sort of dance 
which cannot be exactly described. I doubt whether it is possible to say 
how large a part of the space occupied by the whole molecule is occupied 
by the atoms ; but perhaps the atoms bear to the molecule some such 
relationship as the molecule to the drop of water referred to. Finally, 
the corpuscles may stand to the atom in a similar scale of magnitude. 
Accordingly a threefold magnification would be needed to bring these 

' The view that the elements arc not absohxtely permanent seems to be gaining 
ground. See correspondence in jWiiure : D. Murray, December 7 ; Soddy and 
Campbell, December 14, 1903. 



14 REPORT — 1905. 

ultimate parts of the atom within the range of our ordinary scales of 
measurement. 

I have already considered what would be observed under the triply 
powerful microscope, and must now return to the intermediate stage of 
magnification, in which we consider those communities of atoms which 
form molecules. This is the field of research of the chemist. Although 
prudence would tell me that it would, be wiser not to speak of a subject of 
which I know so little, yet I cannot refrain from saying a few words. 

The community of atoms in water has been compared with a triple 
star, but there are others known to the chemist in which the atoms are 
to be counted by fifties and hundreds, so that they resemble constella- 
tions. 

I conceive that here again we meet with conditions similar to those 
which we have supposed to exist in the atom. Communities of atoms 
are called chemical combinations, and we know that they possess every 
degree of stability. The existence of some is so precarious that the 
chemist in his laboratory can barely retain them for a moment ; others 
are so stubborn that he can barely break them up. In this case dissocia- 
tion and reunion into new forms of communities are in incessant and 
spontaneous progress throughout the world. The more persistent or more 
stable combinations succeed in their struggle for life, and are found in 
vast quantities, as in the cases of common salt and of the combinations 
of silicon. But no one has ever found a mine of gun-cotton, because it 
has so slight a power of resistance. If, through some accidental colloca- 
tion of elements, a single molecule of gun-cotton were formed, it would 
have but a short life. 

Stability is, further, a property of relationship to surrounding con- 
ditions ; it denotes adaptation to environment. Thus salt is adapted to 
the struggle for existence on the earth, but it cannot withstand the 
severer conditions which exist in the sun. 

Thus far we have been concerned with the almost inconceivably 
minute, and I now propose to show that similar conditions prevail on a 
larger scale. 

Many geological problems might well be discussed from my present 
point of view, yet I shall pass them by, and shall proceed at once to 
Astronomy, beginning with the smallest cosmical scale of magnitude, and 
considering afterwards the larger celestial phenomena. 

The problems of cosmical evolution are so complicated that it is well 
to conduct the attack in various ways at the same time. Although the 
several theories may seem to some extent discordant with one another, 
yet, as I have already said, we ought not to scruple to carry each to its 
logical conclusion. We may be confident that in time the false will be 
eliminated from each theory, and when the true alone remains the recon- 
ciliation of apparent disagreements will have become obvious. 

The German astronomer Bode long ago propounded a simple empirical 



ADDRESS. 15 

law concerning the distances at which the several planets move about the 
Bun. It is true that the planet Neptune, discovered subsequently, was 
found to be considerably out of the place which would be assigned to it 
by Bode's law, yet his formula embraces so large a number of cases with 
accuracy that we are compelled to believe that it arises in some manner 
from the primitive conditions of the planetary system. 

The explanation of the causes which have led to this simple law as to 
the planetary distances presents an interesting problem, and, although it 
is still unsolved, we may obtain some insight into its meaning by con- 
sidering what I have called a working model of ideal simplicity. 

Imagine then a sun round which there moves in a circle a single 
large planet. I will call this planet Jove, because it may be taken as 
a representative of our largest planet, Jupiter. Suppose next that a 
meteoric stone or small planet is projected in any perfectly arbitrary 
manner in the same plane in which Jove is moving ; then we ask how 
this third body will move. The conditions imposed may seem simple, 
yet the problem has so far overtaxed the powers of the mathematician 
that nothing approaching a general answer to our question has yet been 
given. We know, however, that under the combined attractions of the 
sun and Jove the meteoric stone will in general describe an orbit of 
extraordinary complexity, at one time moving slowly at a great distance 
from both the sun and Jove, at other times rushing close past one or 
other of them. As it grazes past Jove or the sun it may often but just 
escape a catastrophe, but a time will come at length when it runs its 
chances too fine and comes into actual collision. The individual career 
of the stone is then ended by absorption, and of course by far the greater 
chance is that it will find its Nirvana by absorption in the sun. 

Next let us suppose that instead of one wandering meteoric stone or 
minor planet there are hundreds of them, moving initially in all con- 
ceivable directions. Since they are all supposed to be very small, their 
mutual attractions will be insignificant, and they will each move almost 
as though they were influenced only by the sun and Jove. Most of these 
stones will be absorbed by the sun, and the minority will collide with Jove. 

When we inquire how long the career of a stone may be, we find 
that it depends on the direction and speed with which it is started, and 
that by proper adjustment the delay of the final catastrophe may be made 
as long as we please. Thus by making the delay indefinitely long we 
reach the conception of a meteoric stone which moves so as never to come 
into collision with either body. 

There are, therefore, certain perpetual orbits in which a meteoric 
Btone or minor planet may move for ever without collision. But when 
such an immortal career has been discovered for our minor planet, it still 
remains to discover whether the slightest possible departure from the 
prescribed orbit will become greater and greater and ultimately lead to a 
collision with the sun or Jove, or whether the body will travel so as to 
cross and recross the exact perpetual orbit, always remaining close to it. 



16 REPORT — 1905. 

If the slightest departure inevitably increases as time goes on, the orbit 
is unstable ; if, on the other hand, it only leads to a slight v/aviness in the 
path described, it is stable. 

"We thus arrive at another distinction : there are perpetual orbits, 
but some, and indeed most, are unstable, and these do not offer an 
immortal career for a meteoric stone ; and there are other perpetual 
orbits which are stable or persistent. The unstable ones are those which 
succumb in the struggle for life, and the stable ones are the species 
adapted to their environment. 

Tf, then, we are given a system of a sun and lai-ge planet, together 
with a swarm of small bodies moving in all sorts of ways, the sun and 
planet will grow by accretion, gradually sweeping up the dust and 
rubbish of the system, and there will survive a number of small planets 
and satellites moving in certain definite paths. The final outcome will be 
an orderly planetary system in which the various orbits are arranged 
according to some definite law. 

But the problem presented even by a system of such ideal simplicity 
is still far from having received a complete solution. No general plan for 
determining perpetual orbits has yet been discovered, and the task of dis- 
criminating the stable from the unstable is arduous. But a beginning 
has been made in the determination of some of the zones surrounding the 
sun aiid Jove in which stable orbits are possible, and others in which 
they are impossible. There is hardly room for doubt that if a complete 
solution for our solar system were attainable, we should find that 
the orbits of the existing planets and satellites are numbered amongst 
the stable perpetual orbits, and should thus obtain a rigorous mechanical 
explanation of Bode's law concerning the planetary distances. 

It is impossible not to be struck by the general similarity between the 
problem presented by the corpuscles moving in orbits in the atom, and 
that of the planets and satellites moving in a planetary system. It may 
not, perhaps, be fanciful to imagine that some general mathematical method 
devised for solving a problem of cosmical evolution may find another 
application to miniature atomic systems?, and may thus lead onward to 
vast developments of industrial mechanics. Science, however diverse its 
aims, is a whole, and men of science do well to impress on the captains of 
industry that they should not look askance on those branches of investi- 
gation which may seem for the moment far beyond any possibility of 
practical utility. 

You will remember that I discussed the question as to whether the 
atomic communities of corpuscles could be regarded as absolutely eternal, 
and that I said that the analogy of other moving systems pointed to their 
ultimate mortality. Now the chief analogy which I had in my mind was 
that of a planetary system. 

The orbits of which I have spoken are only perpetual when the bodies 
are infinitesimal in mass, and meet with no resistance as they move. 
Now the infinitesimal body does not exist, and both Lord Kelvin and 



ADDRESS, 17 

Poincare concur in holding that disturbance will ultimately creep into 
any system of bodies moving even in so-called stable orbits ; and this is 
so even apart from the resistance offered to the moving bodies by any 
residual gas there may be scattered through space, The stability is 
therefore only relative, and a planetary system contains the seeds of its 
own destruction. But this ultimate fate need not disturb us either 
practically or theoretically, for the solar system contains in itself other 
seeds of decay which will probably bear fruit long before the occurrence 
of any serious disturbance of the kind of which I speak. 

Before passing on to a new topic I wish to pay a tribute to the men 
to whom we owe the recent great advances in theoretical dynamical 
astronomy. As treated by the master-hands of Lagrange and Laplace 
and their successors, this branch of science hardly seemed to afford scope 
for any great new departure. But that there is always room for dis- 
covery, even in the most frequented paths of knowledge, was illustrated 
when, nearly thirty years ago, Hill of Washington proposed a new 
method of treating the theory of the moon's motion in a series of papers 
which have become classical. I have not time to speak of the enormous 
labour and great skill involved in the completion of Hill's Lunar Theory, 
by Ernest Brown, whom I am glad to number amongst my pupils and 
friends ; for I must confine myself to other aspects of Hill's work. 

The title of Hill's most fundamental paper, namely, 'On Part of the 
Motion of the Lunar Perigee,' is almost comic in its modesty, for who 
would suspect that it contains the essential points involved in the deter- 
mination of perpetual orbits and their stability ? Probably Hill himself 
did not fully realise at the time the full importance of what he had done. 
Fortunately he was followed by Poincare', who not only saw its full meaning 
but devoted his incomparable mathematical powers to the full theoretical 
development of the point of view I have been laying before you. 

Other mathematicians have also made contributions to this line of 
investigation, amongst whom I may number my friend Mr. Hou"h, 
chief assistant at the Royal Observatory of Cape Town, and myself. But 
without the work of our two great forerunners we should still be in utter 
darkness, and it would have been impossible to give even this, slio^ht 
sketch of a great subject. 

The theory which I have now explained points to the origin of the 
sun and planets from gradual accretions of meteoric stones, and it 
makes no claim to carry the story back behind the time when there was 
already a central condensation or sun about which there circled another 
condensation or planet. But more than a century ago an attempt had 
already been made to reconstruct the history back to a yet remoter past, 
and, as we shall see, this attempt was based upon quite a different sup- 
position as to the constitution of the primitive solar system. I myself 
believe that the theory I have just explained, as well as that to which I 
am coming, contains essential elements of truth, and that the apparent 
discordances will some day be reconciled. The theory of which I speak 
1905, Q 



18 REPORT— 1905. 

is the celebrated Nebular Hypothesis, first suggested by the German 
philosopher Kant, and later restated independently and in better form 
by the French mathematician Laplace. 

Laplace traced the origin of the solar system to a nebula or cloud of 
rarefied gas congregated round a central condensation which was ulti- 
mately to form the sun. The whole was slowly rotating about an axis 
through its centre, and, under the combined influences of rotation and of 
the mutual attraction of the gas, it assumed a globular form, slightly 
flattened at the poles. The justifiability of this supposition is confirmed 
by the observations of astronomers, for they find in the heavens many 
nebulaj, while the spectroscope proves that their light at any rate is 
derived from gas. The primeval globular nebula is undoubtedly a stable 
or persistent figure, and thus Laplace's hypothesis conforms to the general 
laws which I have attempted to lay down. 

The nebula must have gradually cooled by radiation into space, and as 
it did so the gas must necessarily have lost some of its spring or elasticity. 
This loss of power of resistance then permitted the gas to crowd more 
closely towards the central condensation, so that the nebula contracted. 
The contraction led to two results, both inevitable according to the laws 
of mechanics : first, the central condensation became hotter ; and, 
secondly, the speed of its rotation became faster. The accelerated rota- 
tion led to an increase in the amount of polar flattening, and the nebula 
at length assumed the form of a lens, or of a disk thicker in the middle 
than at the edges. Assuming the existence of the primitive nebula, the 
hypothesis may be accepted thus far as practically certain. 

From this point, however, doubt and difficulty enter into the argu- 
ment. It is supposed that the nebula became so much flattened that it 
could not subsist as a continuous aggregation of gas, and a ring of matter 
detached itself from the equatorial regions. The central portions of the 
nebula, when relieved of the excrescence, resumed the more rounded 
shape formerly possessed by the whole. As the cooling continued the 
central portion in its turn became excessively flattened through the influ- 
ence of its increased rotation ; another equatorial ring then detached 
itself, and the whole process was repeated as before. In this way the 
whole nebula was fissured into a number of rings surrounding the central 
condensation, whose temperature must by then have i-eached incandescence. 

Each ring then aggregated itself round some nucleus which hap- 
pened to exist in its circumference, and so formed a subordinate nebula. 
Passing through a series of transformations, like its parent, this nebula 
was finally replaced by a planet with attendant satellites. 

The whole process forms a majestic picture of the history of our 
system. But the mechanical conditions of a rotating nebula are too com- 
plex to admit, as yet, of complete mathematical treatment ; and thus, in 
discussing this theory, the physicist is compelled in great measure to adopt 
the qualitative jnethods of the biologist, rather than the quantitative 
ones which he would prefer. 

The telescope seems to confirm the general correctness of Laplace's 



ADDRESS. 1 9 

hypothesis. Thus, for example, the great nebula in Andromeda presents 
a grand illustration of what we may take to be a planetary system in 
course of formation. In it we see the central condensation surrounded 
by a more or less ring-like nebulosity, and in one of the rings there appears 
to be a subordinate condensation. 

Nevertheless it is hardly too much to say that every stage in the sup- 
posed process presents to us some difficulty or impossibility. Thus we 
ask whether a mass of gas of almost inconceivable tenuity can really 
rotate all in one piece, and whether it is not more probable that there 
would be a central whirlpool surrounded by more slowly moving parts. 
Again, is there any sufficient reason to suppose that a series of intermit- 
tent efforts would lead to the detachment of distinct rings, and is not a 
continuous outflow of gas from the equator more probable 1 

The ring of Saturn .seems to have suggested the theory to Laplace ; but 
to take it as a model leads us straight to a quite fundamental difficulty. 
If a ring of matter ever concentrates under the influence of its mutual 
attraction, it can only do so round the centre of gravity of the whole 
ring. Therefore the matter forming an approximately uniform ring, if it 
concentrates at all, can only fall in on the parent planet and be re- 
absorbed. Some external force other than the mutual attraction of the 
matter forming the ring, and therefore not provided by the theory, seems 
necessary to effect the supposed concentration. The only way of avoidin<^ 
this difficulty is to suppose the ring to be ill- balanced or lop-sided ; in 
this case, provided the want of balance is pronounced enough, concentra- 
tion will take place round a point inside the ring but outside the planet. 
Many writers assume that the present distances of the planets preserve 
the dimensions of the primitive rings ; but the argument that a ring can 
only aggregate about its centre of gravity, which I do not recollect to have 
seen before, shows that such cannot be the case. 

The concentration of an ill-balanced or broken ring on an interior 
point would necessarily generate a planet with direct rotation — that is to 
say, rotating in the same direction as the earth. But several wi-iters, and 
notably Faye, endeavour to show — erroneously as I think — that a retro- 
grade rotation should be normal, and they are therefore driven to make 
various complicated suppositions to explain the observed facts. But I do 
not claim to have removed the difficulty, only to have shifted it ; for the 
satellites of Neptune, and presumably the planet itself, have retrograde 
rotations ; and, lastly, the astonishing discovery has just been made by 
William Pickering of a ninth retrograde satellite of Saturn, while the 
rotations of the eight other satellites, of the ring and of the planet itself, 
are direct. Finally, I express a doubt as to whether the telescope does 
really exactly conhrtn the hypothesis of Laplace, for I imagine that what 
■we see indicates a spiral rather than a ring-like division of nebulse.' 

' Professor Chamberlin, of Chicago, has recently proposed a modified form of the 
Nebular Hypothesis, in which he contends that the spiral form is normal. See Year 
Book, No. 3, for 1904, of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, pp. 195-258. 

c2 



20 REPORT-1905. 

This is not the time to pursue these considerations further, but enough 
has been said to show that the Nebular Hypothesis cannot be considered 
as a connected intelligible whole, however much of truth it may contain. 

In the first theory which I sketched as to the origin of the sun and 
planets, Ave supposed them to grow by the accretions of meteoric wan- 
derers in space, and this hypothesis is apparently in fundamental disagree- 
ment with the conception of Laplace, who watches the transformations 
of a continuous gaseous nebula. Some years ago a method occurred to me 
by which these two discordant schemes of origin might perhaps be recon- 
ciled. A gas is not really continuous, but it consists of a vast number of 
molecules moving in all directions with great speed and frequently coming 
into collision with one another. Now I have ventured to suggest that a 
swarm of meteorites would, by frequent collisions, form a medium endowed 
Avith so much of the mechanical properties of a gas as would satisfy 
Laplace's conditions. If this is so, a nebula may be regarded as a quasi- 
gas, whose molecules are meteorites. The gaseous luminosity which un- 
doubtedly is sent out by nebulae would then be due only to incandescent 
gas generated by the clash of meteorites, while the dark bodies themselves 
would remain invisible. Sir Norman Lockyer finds spectroscopic evi- 
dence which led him long ago to some such view as this, and it is certainly of 
interest to find in his views a possible means of reconciling two apparently 
totally discordant theories.^ However, I do not desire to lay much stress 
on my suggestion, for without doubt a swarm of meteors could only 
maintain the mechanical properties of a gas for a limited time, and, as 
pointed out by Professor Cliamberlin, it is difficult to understand how 
a swarm of meteorites moving indiscriminately in every direction could 
ever have come into existence. But my paper may have served to some 
extent to suggest to Cliamberlin his recent modification of the Nebular 
Hypothesis, in which he seeks to reconcile Laplace's view with a meteo- 
ritic origin of the planetary system.^ 

We have seen that, in order to explain the genesis of planets according 
to Laplace's theory, the rings must be ill-balanced or even broken. If the 
ring were so far from being complete as only to cover a small segment of 
the whole circumference, the true features of the occurrences in the births 
of planets and satellites might be better represented by conceiving the 
detached portion of matter to have been more or less globular from the 
first, rather than ring-shaped. Now this idea introduces us to a group 
of researches whereby mathematicians have sought to explain the birth of 
planets and satellites in a way which might appear, at first sight, to be 
fundamentally different from that of Laplace. 

The solution of the problem of evolution involves the search for those 
persistent or stable forms which biologists would call species. The sjiecies 
of which I am now going to speak may be grouped in a family, which 

' Newcomb considers the objections to Lookyer's theory insuperable. See p. 190 
of The Stars, John Murray, London, 1904. 

' See preceding reference to Chamberlin's Paper, 



ADDRESS. 21 

comprises all those various forms which a mass of rotating liquid is capable 
of assuming under the conjoint influences of gravitation and rotation. If 
the earth were formed throughout of a liquid of the same density, it 
would be one of the species of this family ; and indeed these researches 
date back to the time of Newton, who was the first to explain the figures 
of planets. 

The ideal liquid planets we are to consider must be regarded as work- 
ing models of actuality, and inasmuch as the liquid is supposed to be 
incompressible, the conditions depart somewhat widely from those of 
reality. Hence, when the problem has been solved, much uncertainty 
remains as to the extent to which our conclusions will be applicable to 
actual celestial bodies. 

We begin, then, with a rotating liquid planet like the earth, which is 
the first stable species of our family. We next impart in imagination 
more rotation to this planet, and find by mathematical calculation that 
its power of resistance to any sort of disturbance is less than it was. In 
other words, its stability declines with increased rotation, and at length 
we reach a stage at which the stability just vanishes. At this point the 
shape is a transitional one, for it is the beginning of a new species with 
different characteristics from the first, and with a very feeble degree of 
stability or power of persistence. As a still further amount of rotation is 
imparted, the stability of the new species increases to a maximum and 
then declines until a new transitional shape is reached and a new species 
comes into existence. In this way we pass from species to species with 
an ever-increasing amount of rotation. 

The first or planetary species has a circular equator like the earth ; 
the second species has an oval equator, so that it is something like an egg 
spinning on its side on a table ; in the third species we find that one of 
the two ends of the egg begins to swell, and that the swelling gradually 
becomes a well-marked protrusion or filament.^ Finally the filamentous 
protrusion becomes bulbous at its end, and is only joined to the main 
mass of liquid by a gradually thinning neck. The neck at length breaks, 
and we are left with two separated masses which may be called planet 
and satellite. It is fair to state that the actual rupture into two bodies 
is to some extent speculative, since mathematicians have hitherto failed 
to follow the whole process to the end.^ 

In this ideal problem the successive transmutations of species are 
brought about by gradual additions to the amount of rotation with which 
the mass of liquid is endowed. It might seem as if this continuous addi- 
tion to the amount of rotation were purely arbitrary and could have no 
counterpart in nature. But real bodies cool and contract in cooling, and, 

' M. Liapounoff contends that the ' pear-shaped ' figure is always unstable (' Sur 
nn problfeme de Tchebychef,' Acad. Imp. des Sciences de St-Petcrshourg, 1905), but 
I cannot agree with this view— at least for the present. 

^ See a paper by myself on ' Koche's Ellipsoids and on Allied Problems ' com- 
municated to the Royal Society, January 190G. 



22 REPORT— 1905. 

since the scale of magnitude on which our planet is built is immaterial, 
contraction will produce exactly the same effect on shape as augmented 
rotation. I must ask you, then, to believe that the effects of an apparently 
arbitrary increase of rotation may be produced by cooling. 

The figures which I succeeded in drawing, by means of rigorous calcu- 
lation, of tlie later stages of this course of evolution, are so curious as to 
remind one of some such phenomenon as the protrusion of a filament of 
protoplasm from a mass of living matter, and I suggest that we may see 
in this almost life-like process the counterpart of at least one form of the 
birth of double stars, planets, and satellites. 

As I have already said, Newton determined the first of these figures ; 
Jacobi found the second, and Poincar^ indicated the existence of the 
third, in a paper which is universally regarded as one of the masterpieces 
of applied mathematics ; finally I myself succeeded in determining the exact 
form of Poincare's figure, and in proving that it is a true stable shape. 

My Cambridge colleague Jeans has also made an interesting contri- 
bution to the subject by discussing a closely analogous problem, and he 
has besides attacked the far more difficult case where the rotating fluid is 
a compressible gas. In this case also he finds a family of types, but the 
conception of compressibility introduced a new set of considerations in 
the transitions from species to species. The problem is, however, of such 
difficulty that he had to rest content with results which were rather 
qualitative than strictly quantitative. 

This group of investigations brings before us the process of the birth 
of satellites in a more convincing form than was possible by means of the 
general considerations adduced by Laplace. It cannot be doubted that 
the supposed Laplacian sequence of events possesses a considerable 
element of truth, yet these latter schemes of transformation can be followed 
in closer detail. It seems, then, probable that both processes furnish us 
with crude models of reality, and that in some cases the first and in others 
the second is the better representative. 

The moon's mass is one-eightieth of that of the earth, whereas the 
mass of Titan, the largest satellite in the solar system, is ^^Vo ^^ ^^^^ o^ 
Saturn. On the ground of this great difference between the relative mag- 
nitudes of all other satellites and of the moon, it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that the mode of separation of the moon from the earth may also 
have been widely different. The theory of which I shall have next to 
speak claims to trace the gradual departure of the moon from an original 
position not far removed from the present surface of the earth. If this 
view is correct, we may suppose that the detachment of the moon from 
the earth occurred as a single portion of matter, and not as a concentration 
of a Laplacian ring. 

If a planet is covered with oceans of water and air, or if it is formed 
of plastic molten rock, tidal oscillations must be generated in its mobile 
parts by the attractions of its satellites and of the sun. Such movements 
must be subject to frictional resistance, and the planet's rotation will be 



ADDRESS. 23 

slowly retarded by tidal friction in much the same way that a fly-wheel 
is gradually stopped by any external cause of friction. Since action and 
reaction are equal and opposite, the action of the satellites on the planet, 
which causes the tidal friction of which I speak, must correspond to a 
reaction of the planet on the motion of the satellites. 

At any moment of time we may regard the system composed of the 
rotating planet with its attendant satellite as a stable species of motion, 
but the friction of the tides introduces forces which produce a continuous, 
although slow, transformation in the configuration. It is, then, clearly of 
interest to trace backwards in time the changes produced by such a con- 
tinuously acting cause, and to determine the initial condition from which 
the system of planet and satellite must have been* slowly degrading. We 
may also look forward, and discover whither the transformation tends. 

Let us consider, then, the motion of the earth and moon revolving in 
company round the sun, on the supposition that the friction of the tides 
in the earth is the only effective cause of change. We are, in fact, to 
discuss a working model of the system, analogous to those of which I 
have so often spoken before. 

This is not the time to attempt a complete exposition of the manner 
in which tidal friction gives rise to the action and reaction between 
planet and satellite, nor shall I discuss in detail the effects of various 
kinds which are produced by this cause. It must sufiBce to set forth the 
results in their main outlines, and, as in connection with the topic of 
evolution retrospect is perhaps of greater interest than prophecy, I shall 
begin with the consideration of the past. 

At the present time the moon, moving at a distance of 240,000 miles 
from the earth, completes her circuit in twenty-seven days. Since a day 
is the time of one rotation of the earth on its axis, the angular motion of 
the earth is twenty-seven times as rapid as that of the moon. 

Tidal friction acts as a brake on the earth, and therefore we look 
back in retrospect to times when the day was successively twenty-three, 
twenty-two, twenty-one of our present hours in length, and so on back- 
ward to still shorter days. But during all this time the reaction on the 
moon was at work, and it appears that its effect must have been such that 
the moon also revolved round the earth in a shorter period than it does 
now ; thus the month also was shorter in absolute time than it now 
is. These conclusions are absolutely certain, although the effects on the 
motions of the earth and of the moon are so gradual that they can only 
doubtfully be detected by the most refined astronomical measurements. 

We take the * day,' regarding it as a period of variable length, to 
mean the time occupied by a single rotation of the earth on its axis ; and 
the ' month,' likewise variable in absolute length, to mean the time occu- 
pied by the moon in a single revolution round the earth. Then, although 
there are now twenty-seven days in a month, and although both day and 
month were shorter in the past, yet there is, so far, nothing to tell us 
whether there were more or less days in the month in the past. For if 



24 REPORT— 1905. 

the day is now being prolonged more rapidly than the month, the number 
of days in the month was greater in the past than it now is ; and if the 
converse were true, the number of days in the month was less. 

Now it appears from mathematical calculation that the day must now 
be suffering a greater degree of prolongation than the month, and accord- 
ingly in retrospect we look back to a time when there were more days in 
the month than at present. That number was once twenty-nine, in place 
of the present twenty-seven ; but the epoch of twenty-nine days in the 
month is a sort of crisis in the history of moon and earth, for yet earlier 
the day was shortening less rapidly than the month. Hence, earlier than 
the time when there were twenty-nine days in the month, there was a 
time when there was a reversion to the present smaller number of days. 

We thus arrive at the curious conclusion that there is a certain 
number of days to the month, namely twenty-nine, which can never have 
been exceeded, and we find that this crisis was passed through by the 
earth and moon recently ; but, of course, a recent event in such a long 
history may be one which happened some millions of years ago. 

Continuing our retrospect beyond this crisis, both day and month are 
found continuously shortening, and the number of days in the month 
continues to fall. No change in conditions which we need pause to con- 
sider now supervenes, and we may ask at once, what is the initial 
stage to which the gradual transformation points ? I say, then, that 
on following the argument to its end the system may be traced back 
to a time when the day and month were identical in length, and were 
both only about four or five of our present hours. The identity of day 
and month means that the moon was always opposite to the same side of 
the earth ; thus at the beginning the earth always presented the same 
face to the moon, just as the moon now always shows the same face to 
us. Moreover, when the month was only some four or five of our present 
liours in length the moon must have been only a few thousand miles from 
the earth's surface — a great contrast with the present distance of 240,000 
miles. 

It might well be argued from this conclusion alone that the moon 
separated from the earth more or less as a single portion of matter at a 
time immediately antecedent to the initial stage to which she has been 
traced. But there exists a yet more weighty argument favourable to 
this view, for it appears that the initial stage is one in which the stability 
of the species of motion is tottering, so that the system presents the 
characteristic of a transitional form, which we have seen to denote a 
change of type or species in a previous case. 

In discussing the transformations of a liquid planet we saw the 
tendency of the single mass to divide into two portions, although we 
failed to extend the rigorous argument back to the actual moment of 
separation ; and now we seem to reach a similar crisis from the opposite 
end, when in retrospect we trace back the system to two masses of 
unequal size in close proximity with one another. The argument almost 



ADDRESS. 25 

carries conviction with it, but I have necessarily been conipeHed to pass 
over various doubtful points. 

Time is wanting to consider other subjects worthy of notice wliich 
arise out of this problem, yet I wish to point out that the earth's 
axis must once have been less tilted over with reference to the sun than 
it is now, so that the obliquity of the ecliptic receives at least a partial 
explanation. Again, the inclination of the moon's orbit may be in great 
measure explained ; and, lastly, the moon must once have moved in a 
nearly circular path. The fact that tidal friction is competent to explain 
the eccentricity of an orbit has been applied in a manner to which I shall 
have occasion to return hereafter. 

In my paper on this subject I summed up the discussion in the follow- 
ing words, which I still see no reason to retract : — 

' The argument reposes on the imperfect rigidity of solids, and on the 
internal friction of semi-solids and fluids ; these are verce causce. Thus 
changes of the kind here discussed must be going on, and must have gone 
on in the past. And for this history of the earth and moon to be true 
throughout it is only necessary to postulate a sufficient lapse of time, and' 
that thei-e is not enough matter diffused through space materially to resist 
the motions of the moon and earth in perhaps several hundred million years. 

' It hardly seems too much to say that granting these two postulates 
and the existence of a primeval planet, such as that above described, then 
a system would necessarily be developed which would bear a strong 
resemblance to our own. 

' A theory, reposing on verce causce, which brings into quantitative 
correlation the lengths of the present day and month, the obliquity of the 
ecliptic, and the inclination and eccentricity of the lunar orbit, must, I 
think, have strong claims to acceptance.' ' 

We have pursued the changes into the past, and I will refer but 
shortly to the future. The day and month are both now lengthening, 
but the day changes more quickly than the month. Thus the two periods 
tend again to become equal to one another, and it appears that when that 
goal is reached both day and month will be as long as fifty-five of our 
present days. The earth will then always show the same face to the 
moon, just as it did in the remotest past. Bub there is a great contrast 
between the ultimate and initial conditions, for the ultimate stage, with 
day and month both equal to fifty-five of our present days, is one of great 
stability in contradistinction to the vanishing stability which we found in 
the initial stage. 

Since the relationship between the moon and earth is a mutual one, 
the earth may be regarded as a satellite of the moon, and if the moon 
rotated rapidly on her axis, as was probably once the case, the earth 
must at that time have produced tides in the moon. The mass of the 
moon is relatively small, and the tides produced by the earth would be 

• Phil. Trai.s., pt. ii., 1880, p. 883. 



26 KEPORT— 1905. 

large ; accordingly the moon would pass through the several stages of her 
history much more rapidly than the earth. Hence it is that the moon 
has already advanced to that condition which we foresee as the future 
fate of the earth, and now always shows to us the same face. 

If the earth and moon were the only bodies in existence, this ultimate 
stage, when the day and month were again identical in length, would be 
one of absolute stability, and therefore eternal ; but the presence of the 
sun introduces a cause for yet further changes. I do not, however, pro- 
pose to pursue the history to this yet remoter futurity, because our system 
must contain other seeds of decay which will probably bear fruit before 
these further transformations could take eflFect. 

If, as has been argued, tidal friction has played so important a part 
in the history of the earth and moon, it might be expected that the like 
should be true of the other planets and satellites, and of the planets them- 
selves in their relationship to the sun. But numerical examination of the 
several cases proves conclusively that this cannot have been the case. The 
relationship of the moon to the earth is in fact quite exceptional in the 
solar system, and we have still to rely on such theories as that of Laplace 
for the explanation of the main outlines of the solar system. 

I have as yet only barely mentioned the time occupied by the sequence 
of events sketched out in the various schemes of cosmogony, and the 
question of cosmical time is a thorny and controversial one. 

Our ideas are absolutely blank as to the time requisite for the evolu- 
tion according to Laplace's nebular hypothesis. And again, if we adopt 
the meteoritic theory, no estimate can be formed of the time required even 
for an ideal sun, with its attendant planet Jove, to sweep up the wanderers 
in space. AVe do know, indeed, that there is a continuous gradation from 
stable to unstable orbits, so that some meteoric stones may make thousands 
or millions of revolutions before meeting their fate by collision. Accord- 
ingly, not only would a complete absorption of all the wanderers occupy 
an infinite time, but also the amount of the refuse of the solar system 
still remaining scattered in planetary space is unknown. And, indeed, 
it is certain that the process of clearance is still going on, for the earth is 
constantly meeting meteoric stones, which, penetrating the atmosphere, 
become luminous through the effects of the frictional resistance with 
which tliey meet. 

All we can assert of such theories is that they demand enormous 
intervals of time as estimated in years. 

The theory of tidal friction stands alone amongst these evolutionary 
speculations in that we can establish an exact but merely relative time- 
scale for every stage of the process. It is true that the value in years of 
the unit of time remains unknown, and it may be conjectured that the 
unit has varied to some extent as the physical condition of the earth has 
gradually changed. 

It is, however, possible to determine a period in years which must be 
shorter than that in which the whole history is comprised. If at every 



ADDRESS. 



27 



moment since the birth of the moon tidal friction had always been at 
work in such a way as to produce the greatest possible effect, then we 
should find that sixty million years would be consumed in this portion of 
evolutionary history. The true period must be much greater, and it does 
not seem extravagant to suppose that 500 to 1,000 million years may have 
elapsed since the birth of the moon. 

Such an estimate would not seem extravagant to geologists who have, 
in various ways, made exceedingly rough determinations of geological 
periods. One such determination is derived from measures of the thick- 
ness of deposited strata, and the rate of the denudation of continents by 
rain and rivers. I will not attempt to make any precise statement on 
this head, but I imagine that the sort of unit with which the geologist 
deals is 100 million years, and that he would not consider any estimate 
involving from one to twenty of such units as unreasonable. 

Mellard Reade has attempted to determine geological time by certain 
arguments as to the rate of denudation of limestone rocks, and arrives at 
the conclusion that geological history is comprised in something less than 
600 million years. • The uncertainty of this estimate is wide, and I imagine 
that geologists in general would not lay much stress on it. 

Joly has employed a somewhat similar, but probably less risky, method 
of determination.'^ When the earth was still hot, all the water of the globe 
must have existed in the form of steam, and M-hen the surface cooled that 
steam must have condensed as fresh water. Rain then washed the con- 
tinents and carried down detritus and soluble matter to the seas. Common 
salt is the most widely diffused of all such soluble matter, and its transit 
to the sea is an irreversible process, because the evaporation of the sea 
only carries back to the land fresh water in the form of rain. It seems 
certain, then, that the saltness of the sea is due to the washing of the 
land throughout geological time. 

Rough estimates may be formed of the amount of river water which 
reaches the sea in a year, and the measured saltness of rivers furnishes a 
knowledge of the amount of salt which is thus carried to the sea. A 
closer estimate may be formed of the total amount of salt in the sea. On 
dividing the total amount of salt by the annual transport Joly arrives at 
the quotient of about 100 millions; and thence concludes that geological 
history has occupied 100 million years. I will not pause to consider the 
several doubts and difficulties which arise in the working out of this 
theory. The uncertainties involved must clearly be considerable, yet it 
seems the best of all the purely geological arguments whence we derive 
numerical estimates of geological time. On the whole I should say that 
pure geology points to some period intermediate between 50 and 1,000 
millions of years, but the upper limit is more doubtful than the lower. 

' Chemical Demidation in relation to Geological Time, V>ogue, London, 1879 ; or 
Boy. Soc. January 23, 1879. 

' * An Estimate of the Geological Age of the Earth,' rrarm. Roy. Dublin Soc, 
vol. vii. series iii., 1902, pp. 23-66. 



28 REPORT— 1905. 

Thus far we do not find anything which renders the tidal theory of evolu- 
tion untenable. 

But the physicists have formed estimates in other ways which, until 
recently, seemed to demand in the most imperative manner a far lower 
scale of time. Accoixling to all theories of cosmogony, the sun is a star 
which became heated in the process of its condensation from a condition of 
wide dispersion. When a meteoric stone falls into the sun the arrest of 
its previous motion gives rise to heat, just as the blow of a horse's shoe on 
a stone makes a spark. The fall of countless meteoric stones, or the 
condensation of a rarefied gas, was supposed to be the sole cause of the 
sun's high temperature. 

Since the mass of the sun is known, the total amount of the heat 
generated in it, in whatever mode it was formed, can be estimated with a 
considerable amount of precision. The heat received at the earth from 
the sun can also be measured with some accuracy, and hence it is a mere 
matter of calculation to determine how much heat the sun sends out in a 
year. The total heat which can have been generated in the sun divided 
by the annual output gives a quotient of about 20 millions. Hence it 
seemed to be imperatively necessary that the whole history of the solar 
system .should be comprised within some 20 millions of years. 

This argument, which is due to Hehnholtz, appeared to be absolutely 
crusliing, and for the last forty years the physicists have been accustomed 
to tell the geologists that they must moderate their claims. But for 
myself I liave always believed that the geologists were more nearly correct 
than the physicists, notwithstanding the fact that appearances were so 
strongly against them. 

And now, at length, relief has come to the strained relations between 
the two parties, for the recent marvellous discoveries in physics show 
that concentration of matter is not the only source from which the sun 
may draw its heat. 

Radium is a substance which is perhaps millions of times more 
powerful than dynamite. Thus it is estimated that an ounce of radium 
would contain enough power to raise 10,000 tons a mile above the earth's 
surface. Another way of stating the same estimate is this : the energy 
needed to tow a ship of 12,000 tons a distance of six thousand sea miles 
at 15 knots is contained in 22 ounces of radium. The ' Saxon ' probably 
, burns three or four thousand tons of coal on a voyage of approximately the 
same length. Again, M. and Mme. Curie have proved that radium actually 
gives out heat,' and it has been calculated that a small proportion of 
radium in the sun would suffice to explain its present radiation. Other 
lines of argument tend in the same direction.^ 

' Lord Kelvin has estimated the age of the earth from the rate of increase 
of temperature underground. But the force of his argument seems to be entirely 
destroyed by this result. See a letter by R. J. Strutt, Nature, December 21, 1905. 

•^ See W. E. Wilson, Nature, July 0, 1903 ; and G. H. Darwin, Nat^ire, Septem- 
ber 24, 1903. 



ADDRESS. 29 

Now wo know that the earth contains radio-active materials, and it 
is safe to assume that it forms in some degree a sample of the materials 
of the solar system. Hence it is almost certain that tlie sun is radio- 
active also ; and besides it is not improbable that an element with so 
heavy an atom as radium would gravitate more abundantly to the central 
condensation than to the outlying planets. In this case the sun should 
contain a larger proportion of radio-active material than the earth. 

This branch of science is as yet bat in its infancy, but we already see 
how unsafe it is to dogmatise on the potentialities of matter. 

It appears, then, that the physical argument is not susceptible of a 
greater degree of certainty than that of the geologists, and the scale of 
geological time remains in great measure unknown. 

I have now ended my discussion of the solar system, and must pass 
on to the wider fields of the stellar universe. 



Only a few thousand stars are visible with the unaided eye, but 
photography has revealed an inconceivably vast multitude of stars and 
nebula?, and every improvement in that art seems to disclose yet more 
and more. About twenty years ago the number of photographic objects 
in the heavens was roughly estimated at about 170 millions, and some 
ten years later it had increased to about 400 millions. Although Newcomb 
in his recent book on 'The Stars,' refrains even from conjecturing any 
definite number, yet I suppose that the enormous number of 400 millions 
must now be far below the mark, and photography still grows better year 
by year. It seems useless to consider whether the number of stars has 
any limit, for infinite number, space, and time transcend our powers of 
comprehension. We must then make a virtue of necessity, and confine 
our attention to such more limited views as seem within our powers. 

A celestial photograph looks at first like a dark sheet of paper splashed 
with whitewash, but further examination shows that there is some de«-ree 
of method in the arrangement of the white spots. It may be observed 
that the stars in many places are arranged in lines and sweeping 
trains, and chains of stars, arranged in roughly parallel curves, seem 
to be drawn round some centre. A surface splashed at hazard mioht 
present apparent evidence of system in a few instances, but the frequency 
of the occurrence in the heavens renders the hypothesis of mere chance 
altogether incredible. 

Thus there is order of some sort in the heavens, and, although no 
reason can be assigned for the observed arrangement in any particular 
case, yet it is possible to obtain general ideas as to the succession of 
events in stellar evolution. 

Besides the stars there are numerous streaks, wisps, and agglomera- 
tions of nebulosity, whose light we know to emanate from gas. Spots of 
intenser light are observed in less brilliant regions • clusters of stars are 
sometimes imbedded in nebulosity, while in other cases each individual 



30 KEroRT — 1905. 

star of a cluster stands out clear by itself. These and other observations 
force on us the conviction that the wispy clouds represent the earliest 
sta<'e of development, the more condensed nebulte a later stage, and the 
stars themselves the last stage. This view is in agreement with the 
nebular hypothesis of Laplace, and we may fairly conjecture that the 
chains and lines of stars represent pre-existing streaks of nebulosity. 

As a star cools it must change, and the changes which it undergoes 
constitute its life-history, hence the history of a star presents an analogy 
with the life of an individual animal. Now, the object which I have had 
in view has been to trace types or species in the physical world through 
their transformations into other types. Accordingly it falls somewhat 
outside the scope of this address to consider the constitution and history 
of an individual star, interesting although those questions are. T 
may, however, mention that the constitution of gaseous stars was first 
discussed from the theoretical side by Lane, and subsequently more com- 
pletely by Ritter. On the observational side the spectroscope has proved 
to be a powerful instrument in analysing the constitutions of the stars, 
and in assigning to them their respective stages of development. 

If we are correct in believing that stars are condensations of matter 
originally more widely spread, a certain space surrounding each star 
must have been cleared of nebulosity in the course of its formation. 
Much thought has been devoted to the determination of the distribution 
of the stars in space, and although the results are lacking in precision, 
yet it has been found possible to arrive at a rough determination of the 
average distance from star to star. It has been concluded, from investi- 
gations into which I cannot enter, that if we draw a sphere round the sun 
with a radius of twenty million millions of miles,' it will contain no 
other star ; if the radius were twice as great the sphere might perhaps 
contain one other star ; a sphere with a radius of sixty million millions of 
miles will contain about four stars. This serves to give some idea of the 
extraordinary sparseness of the average stellar population ; but there are 
probably in the heavens urban and rural districts, as on earth, where the 
stars may be either more or less crowded. The stars are moving rela- 
tively to one another with speeds which are enormous, as estimated by 
terrestrial standards, but the distances which separate us from them are 
so immense that it needs refined observation to detect and measure the 
movements. 

Change is obviously in progress everywhere, as well in each individual 
nebula and star as in the positions of these bodies relatively to one another. 
But we are unable even to form conjectures as to the tendency of the 
evolution which is going on. This being so, we cannot expect, by con- 
sidering the distribution of stars and nebulae, to find many illustrations of 
the general laws of evolution which I have attempted to explain ; accord- 
ingly I must confine myself to the few cases where we at least fancy our- 

> This is the distance at which the earth's distance from the sun would appear 
to be 1". 



ADDRESS. 31 

selves able to form ideas as to the stages by which the present conditions 
have been reached. 

Up to a few years ago there was no evidence that the law of gravi- 
tation extended to the stars, and even now there is nothing to prove the 
transmission of gravity from star to star. But in the neighbourhood of 
many stars the existence of gravity is now as clearly demonstrated as 
within the solar system itself. The telescope has disclosed the double 
character of a large number of stars, and the relative motions of the pairs 
of companions have been observed with the same assiduity as that of the 
planets. When the relative orbit of a pair of binary or double stars is 
examined, it is found that the motion conforms exactly to those laws of 
Kepler which prove that the planets circle round the sun under the action 
of solar gravitation. The success of the hypothesis of stellar gravitation 
has been so complete that astronomers have not hesitated to explain the 
anomalous motion of a seemingly single star by the existence of a dark 
companion ; and it is interesting to know that the more powerful telescopes 
of recent times have disclosed, in at least two cases, a faintly luminous 
companion in the position which had been assigned to it by theory. 

By an extension of the same argument, certain variations in the 
spectra of a considerable number of stars have been pronounced to prove 
them each to be really double, although in genei-al the pair may be so 
distant that they will probably always remain single to our sight. Lastly, 
the variability in the light of other apparently single stars has proved 
them to be really double. A pair of stars may partially or wholly cover 
one another as they revolve in their orbit, and the light of the seemingly 
single star will then be eclipsed, just as a lighthouse winks when the light 
is periodically hidden by a revolving shutter. Exact measurements of the 
character of the variability in the light have rendered it possible not only 
to determine the nature of the orbit described, but even to discover the 
figures and densities of the two components which are fused together by 
the enormous distance of our point of view. This is a branch of astronomy 
to which much careful observation and skilful analysis has been devoted ; 
and I am glad to mention that Alexander Roberts, one of the most 
eminent of the astronomers who have considered the nature of variable 
stars, is a resident in South Africa. 

I must not, however, allow you to suppose that the theory of eclipses 
will serve to explain the variability of all stars, for there are undoubtedly 
others whose periodicity must be explained by something in their internal 
constitution. 

The periods of double stars are extremely various, and naturally those 
of short period have been the first noted ; in times to come othei's with 
longer and longer pei-iods will certainly be discovered. A leading cha- 
racteristic of all these double stars is that the two companions do not 
differ enormously in mass from one another. In this respect these 
systems present a strongly marked contrast with that of the sun, attended 
as it is by relatively insignificant planets. 



32 REPORT — 1905. 

Ill the earlier part of my address I showed how tlieory indicates that 
a rotating fluid body will as it cools separate into two detached masses. 
Mathematicians have not yet been able to carry their analysis far enough 
to determine the relative magnitudes of the two parts, but as far as we 
can see the results point to the birth of a satellite whose mass is a con- 
siderable fraction of that of its parent. Accordingly See (who devotes 
his attention largely to the astronomy of double stars), Eoberts, and others 
consider that what they have observed in the heavens is in agreement 
with the indications of theory. It thus appears that there is reason to 
hold that double stars have been generated by the division of primitive 
and more diffused single stars. 

But if this theory is correct we should expect the orbit of a double 
star to be approximately circular ; yet this is so far from being the case 
that the eccentricity of the orbits of many double stars exceeds by far 
any of the eccentricities in the solar system . Now See has pointed out 
that when two bodies of not very unequal masses revolve round one 
another in close proximity the conditions are such as to make tidal friction 
as efficient as possible in transforming the orbit. Hence we seem to see 
in tidal friction a cause which may have sufficed not only to separate 
the two component stars from one another, but also to render the orbit 
eccentric. 

I have thought it best to deal very briefly with stellar astronomy, in 
spite of the importance of the subject, because the direction of the changes 
in progress is in general too vague to admit of the formation of profitable 
theories. 

^ We have seen that it is possible to trace the solar system back to a 
primitive nebula with some degree of confidence, and that there is reason 
to believe that the stars in general have originated in the same manner. 
But such primitive nebulne stand in as much need of explanation as their 
stellar ofispring. Thus, even if we grant the exact truth of these theories, 
the advance towards an explanation of the universe remains miserably 
slight. Man is but a microscopic being relatively to astronomical space, 
and he lives on a puny planet circling round a star of inferior rank.' 
Does it not then seem as futile to imagine that he can discover the origin 
and tendency of the universe as to expect a housefly to instruct us as*to 
the theory of the motions of the planets ? And yet, so long as he shall 
last, he will pursue his search, and will no doubt discover many wonderful 
things which are still hidden. We may indeed be amazed at all that man 
has been able to find out, but the immeasurable magnitude of the undis- 
covered will throughout all time remain to humble his pride. Our 
children's children will still be gazing and marvelling at the starry 
heavens, but the riddle will never be read. 



EE POETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



1905. 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the ■Committee, consist- 
ing of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rudler 
(Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. 
Vaughan Cornish, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, 
Mr. J. HoFKiNSON, Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. 
C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Professor W. W. Watts, 
and the General Officers. (Drawn up hij the Secretary.) 

The Committee beg leave to report that at several meetings during the 
past session they have had under consideration the suggestion-s with 
reference to Corresponding Societies which were brought forward by 
Principal E. H. Griffiths at the Conference of Delegates at Cambridge 
last year. In accordance with a Resolution passed at that meeting, and 
sent up to the Committee of Recommendations, the General Committee 
of the Association appointed a Committee, consisting of certain Members 
of the Council, with representatives of the Corresponding Societies, in 
order to consider the present relation between the British Association 
and the local scientific societies, with power to make suggestions for the 
greater utilisation of such relationship. This Joint Committee duly 
reported to the Council of the Association, and their Report was remitted 
by the Council to the Corresponding Societies Committee. The recom- 
mendations in the Report were discussed and amended by this Committee, 
and were finally adopted, in the amended form, by the Council. 

As a result of this discussion there will henceforth be two classes of 
local societies eligible for relationship with the British Association. One 
class, to be called Affiliated Societies, will consist, as at present, of such 
societies as undertake local scientific investigation and publish the 
results. Each Affiliated Society may be represented at the meetings of 
the British Association by a delegate, who must be a Member of the 
Association, and who will be, for the time being, a member of the General 
Committee. The new class of corresponding societies, to be called 
Associated Societies, will include societies formed for the purpose of 
encouraging the study of science, which have been in existence for at 
least three years and number not fewer than fifty members. Each 
Associated Society will have the right to appoint a delegate to attend 
the Annual Conference. This delegate, who may be either a Member or 

D2 



36 REPORT — 1905. 

an Associate of the British Association, will have all the rights of a 
delegate from an Affiliated Society, except that of membership of the 
General Committee. 

With regard to the suggestion made in the Chairman's Address to 
the Delegates at Cambridge, that a ' Journal of Corresponding Societies ' 
should be established, the Committee, after very careful consideration of 
the subject, came unanimously, though regretfully, to the conclusion that, 
in their opinion, the publication of such a Journal by the British Associa- 
tion would be impracticable. 

The question of obtaining, if possible, reduced railway rates for 
memlers of local scientific societies when travelling even singly for 
scientific purposes was referred to this Committee by the Delegates 
at the Cambridge Conference. A form of application to the various 
railway companies has consequently been drafted, and distributed to all 
the Affiliated Societies with the view of ascertaining their opinion. 
This application has been genei'ally, but not unanimously, approved, and 
it now remains for the Committee to submit the matter to the Council of 
the Association before further action can be taken. 

In view of the visit of the British Association to South Africa, it lias 
been felt that the most convenient course to adopt this year would be to 
hold the Conference of Delegates in London after the South African 
meeting. This suggestion has been approved by the Council, and it has 
consequently been arranged that the Conference shall be held on 
October 30 and 31, the latter being the date of a meeting in London of 
the General Committee of the British Association, which the delegates of 
the Affiliated Societies have a right to attend. 

It is proposed that at this Conference the following subjects, among 
others, shall be discussed : — 

1 . The Preservation of our Native Plants. 

2. The Law of Treasure Trove. 

3. Copyright Law as it affects Scientific Societies. 

The usual Schedule of Questions has been sent out to the Affiliated 
Societies, and from the returns which have been received it appears that 
twenty-one Societies have been engaged during the past session in more 
or less original scientific work of a local character. 

The City of London College Science Society has been added to the list 
of Corresponding Societies. 

As the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society has 
failed to retui^n the Schedule after repeated application, the Committee 
regret that they are compelled to recommend its removal from the list of 
Corresponding Societies. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 25^. As the 
Committee have been charged by the Council with the duty of collecting 
information regarding the Societies of the United Kingdom which are 
eligible for relation with the British Association under the new class of 
Associated Societies, much additional correspondence, needing exti-a 
expenditure for clerical assistance, cfec, will be thrown upon the Committee 
during the forthcoming year. It will probably not be easy to discover all 
the smaller societies scattered throughout the country, and the Committee 
will consequently be glad of any information which will assist them in 
this branch of their work. 



1 



COUKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 37 

Jiejxjrt of (he Conference of Delegates of Correspondhuj Societies held in 
the Rooms of the Linnean Society, Burlington House, London, 
October 30 and 31, 1905. 

Chairman . . A. Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Vice-Chairman . W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. 
Secretary . . F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 

The following Coi'responding Societies nominated Delegates to repre- 
sent them at the Conference. The attendance of the Delegates is 
indicated in the list by the figures 1 and 2 placed in the margin opposite 
to the name of each Society, and referring respectively to the first and 
second meetings. Where no figure is shown it will be understood that 
the Delegate did not attend.' 

List of Societies sending Delegates. 

Andersoniau Naturalists' Sacioty . M. A. 15. Gilmour, F.Z.S. 
1 '.J Bath Natural History and Antiqua- i ^ ^ ^y Shickle, M.A., F.S.A. 

nan Field Club. j 

1 2 Belfast Naturalists' Field Club . . W. Gra}% M.R.I.A. 

Belfast Natural History and Philoso- 1 -p^. j^i^nso,, Symington, F.R.S. 

phical Society. J 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . . A. H. Evans, M.A., F.Z.S. 
Birmingham and Midland Institute 1 ^y ^ ^ Marshall, M.Ihst.C.B. 

Scientific Society. j j j 

Birmingham Natural History and 1 n j Wat=on 

Philosophical Society. i ' ' 

Buchan Field Club . . . . J. F. Tocher, F.I.C. 
Caradoc and Severn Vallev Field Club Professor W. W. Watts, F.R.S. 
Cardiff Naturalists' Society . . FrincipalE.H.Griffiths.D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Croydon Natural History and Scien- 1 ^^ y gj-j^,jjgy y G S 
tific Society. J * ' . > ■ • • 

1 2 Dorset Natural History and Aiiti- 1 ^ j, g , jj ^_ 
quarian Field Club. J ■' 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club . . Prof. G. A. J. Cole, F.G.S. 
East Kent Scientific and Natural \ * g Tieid M A 
Historj' Society. J • • '' • 

1 2 Elgin and Morayshire Literary and \ ,y rp i j p 
Scientific Association. J ' y ' • • 

1 2 Essex Field Club . . . , F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 

Glasgow Geological Society . . J. B. Murdoch. 
1 2 Glasgow Natural History Society . Peler Ewing, F.L.S. 
Glasgow Royal Philosophical Society G. T. Beilby. 
Halifax Scientific Society . . . W. Simpson, F.G.S. 
1 Hampshire Field Club and Archteo- 1 ,y T)„ig f g a 

logical Society. I ' > • • • 

2 Haslemere Microscope and Natural | jj^^^_ j^^jj^ j^^,^^^ll_ 

History Society. J 

2 Hertfordshire Natural History Society J. Ilopkinson, F.L.S. 
1 2 Holmesdale Natural History Club . Rev. R. Ashington Bullen, C.A., 

F.L.S. 
2 Hull Geological Society . . . G. W. B. Macturk. 

"ciu?'*'"*'^'' ^""^ ^'^^'^ Naturalists' I ,^ gheppard, F.G.S. 
1 2 Institution of Mining Engineers . J. A. Longden, M.Inst.C.E. 

Leeds Geological Association . . Professor P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 
1 2 Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific | „ q Marsh 
Association. I ' ' 



' The attendances are taken from the Attendance-book, which each Delegate 
is requeste'd to sign on entering the Meeting-room, 



38 REPORT— 1905. 

Liverpool Geograpbical Society . . James Irvine, F.R.G.S. 
Liverpool Geological Society . . Joseph Lomas, P.G.S. 
1 2 London : City of London College Itt t-ui ■mno 

Science Society . . . ^ | J- Logan Lobley. F.G.S. 

1 2 Manchester Geographical Society . J. Hovi^ard Keed. 

^ ^ ^ Socie'ty^' Geological and Mining J ^.^^.^^ ^^^^_ 

1 2 Manchester Microscopical Society . F. W. Jlembry, F.R.M.S. 

1 2 Midland Counties Institution of En- Itat j utt iz-im 

]■ J. A. Longden, M.lQst.C.E. 
gineers. J ° ' 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil, |. ,-,y , MTtPTf 
and Mechanical Engineers. J "' ' ' ' • • • 

1 2 Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' 1 -c. j. ^ 

Society. j ^"'*^^^ ^"™«y- 

1 2 Northamptonshire Natural History 1 -d u rn, tti /-> t. 

Society and Field Club. | ^^^^^ Thompson. F.G.b. 

North of England Institute of Mining 1 . -r q 

and Mechanical Engineers. / "^^ "- ^^^^^r. 

2 North Staffordshire Field Club . . W. D. Spanton, F.R.C.S. 
Northumberland, Durham, and New- | 

castle-upon-Tyne Natural History I N. H Martin, F.R.S.E. 
Society. J 

Nottingham Naturalists' Society . Prof. J. W. Carr, M.A., F.L.S. 

1 2 Paisley Philosophical Institution . Wm. Peattie. 
1 2 Perthshire Society of Natural Science H. Coates, F.R.S.E. 
1 2 Quekett Microscopical Club . . C. F. Rousselet, F.R.M.S. 
1 2 Rochdale Literary and Scientific 1 t t> a i ^.i tx c. 
Society. j •^- ^- Ashworth, D.Sc. 

2 Somersetshire Archaeological and 1 t?. t ,-n i -m t c. 
Natural History Society } ^- ^- ^1^'-^. F.L.S. 

I 2 South-Bastern Union of Scientific i Rev. R. Ashington Bullen, B.A., 
Societies. J F.L.S. 

South Staifordshire and East Wor- 'I 
cestershire Institute of Mining I A. R. Sawyer, 
Engineers. J 

Tyneside Geographical Society . . Herbert Shaw, F.R.G.S. 
1 2 Woolliope Naturalists' Field Club . Rev. J. 0. Bevan, M.A., F.S.A. 
1 2 Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic "1 -n ii^ t r, ^ ^ a 

Society \ Lower Carter, M.A. 

1 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . . T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

2 Yorkshire Philosophical Society , Dr. Tempest Anderson. 

First Meetiiig, October 30. 

This Meeting was presided over by Dr. Smith Woodward, F.R.S. 
The Corresponding Societies Committee wei-e represented by Mr. Whitaker, 
F.R.S., the Rev. J. O. Bevan, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. J. Hopkinson, and Mr. Rudler. 

The Chairman of the Conference, after welcoming the Delegates, 
delivered the following Address : — 

Chairman^ s Address. 

I esteem it a special honour to have been deputed by the Council to 
preside over this Conference of Delegates, because there is no nation in 
the world in which local Scientific Societies are so numerous or form so 
prominent a feature of intellectual life as in the kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland. I also undertake the duty with peculiar pleasure, because 
I began my scientific career as an active member of the small Society at 
one time flourishing in my native town, and it was then that I first 
learned how to observe and Jiow to write down my observations in a 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 39 

logical form. None but those who have associated with the scientific 
men of other countries, and have seen the splendid isolation in which 
most of them are accustomed to work, can appreciate the service which 
our scattered small Societies render to the cause of natural science here. 
Through the influence of these bodies everyone who is able to devote his 
energies to original research is assured the sympathy, and frequently the 
help, of a multitude of cultured men who are too much occupied with 
other pursuits to give more than superficial attention to natural science. 
Through the same influence also a continual stream of recruits is furnished 
to the great Societies in our three metropolitan centres, whose activities 
and resources excite the admiration, if not the envy, of our colleagues in 
scientific research abroad. 

The purpose of this Conference, however, is not to dilate on our happy 
circumstances and. achievements, but rather to consider how we can 
render the organisation and woi'k of the Societies more effective in pro- 
moting the objects for which the British Association exists. I therefore 
hope I may be pardoned if I devote the greater part of my brief Address 
to critical remarks and suggestions. One who comes into contact with 
many local Societies, and takes little part in the work of any, receives 
impressions which may interest those among the Delegates who have not 
had the opportunity of taking the same broad point of view. Some of 
these impressions I purpose to recount. 

In the first j)lace it seems to me that some of the Societies — especially 
the Field Clubs, which ad3nit too many so-called 'antiquarians' — con- 
tinually reduce their efficiency, and even endanger their existence as 
scientific bodies, by the luxurious picnics which are misnamed ' ex- 
cursions.' The excursion -circulars of one Society, which I often see, 
particularly amuse me. The hour of starting is made sufficiently late to 
avoid the discomforts of even moderately early rising ; carriages are 
arranged for every possible part of the route ; at least an hour is spent in 
an elaborate luncheon at some well-appointed hostelry ; an hour and a 
half afterwards an amiable hostess invites the party to tea ; and then, 
after inspecting some old building, the direct return journey is begun. 
Natui-al history forms an entirely subordinate part of the programme. 
I know three Societies which have lost the co-operation of some of the 
best naturalists in their district by frivolity of this kind ; and, however 
tempting the prospect of multiplied subscriptions may be, I do not think 
it is to the advantage of science for any Society to increase its member- 
ship at the sacrifice of strict attention to its main objects. Excursions 
are a most admirable institution, but when intended for the study of 
natural history should be as systematically scientific as the meetings. 

Again, I would allude for a moment to the intellectual entertainment 
provided at the evening meetings. As remarked by my predecessor last 
year, there can be no doubt that the best work done by the smaller 
Societies is that of instruction in the current progress of science, and the 
presentation of the matter in such a form as to rouse interest in scientific 
pursuits. In most cases this work is admirably done by the various 
members who happen to be absorbed in the different branches of science 
to which they devote their leisure ; but some Societies are more ambitious 
and, while maintaining their original very moderate subscription, exert 
all the personal influence they can command to induce professional scien 
tific men to come and give them, as an entirely gratuitous .service, the 
fruit of their life-long studies. I know one Society, consisting mainly 



40 ki<:pokt— 1905. 

of well-to-do people, which has already carried on this practice for several 
years. By personal solicitation, which it is difficult to refuse, they induce 
professional men not only to lecture, but to take the trouble to make 
their lectures popularly entertaining ; and yet the members pay less for 
the whole season's course than most of them would have neither hesita- 
tion nor difficulty in paying for a single seat at a concert. Now profes- 
sional scientific men, as a rule, are so much interested in their researches 
that they are only too ready to communicate whatever they can to any 
sympathetic inquirer ; but it rarely happens that their ordinary income 
is commensurate with the circumstances in which they are compelled to 
live. It is therefore unfair, to say the least, to expect them to do real 
hard work, such as a popular lecture entails, without being provided with 
the fee which would go as a matter of course to the medical man, 
lawyer, or musician in the exercise of any of his professional duties. If 
a Society decides to arrange for the highest type of instruction, it should 
in any case make the subscription sufficiently large to prevent this teach- 
ing from being done at the expense of those who can least afford it. 

Even in the case of Societies whose main object is to encourage 
original research, it is becoming more and more expedient to restrict the 
meetings almost entirely to general discourses and demonstrations. 
Nearly all original papers are now of necessity so technical that they 
must be studied closely in print before they can be appreciated ; and the 
most active even of the metropolitan Societies are those Avhich make 
a special feature of ' exhibits ' while taking the majority of papers as 
' read.' I have often thought that in the smaller local Societies much 
might be accomplished by making special arrangements for papers by real 
workers to treat of the unsolved problems of the sciences in which they 
are interested. I believe it is a maxim among ordinary teachers that the 
learner must bo told facts as definitely as possible, and not allowed to 
suspect that there may be doubt about any of them. Consequently all 
elementary books of instruction are written to give the impression that 
there is no particular in which the knowledge they contain can be 
improved. For the guidance of more advanced students, who know 
better, we are distinctly in need of a series of books to treat of ignorance 
rather than knowledge r and until these are forthcoming the Societies 
cannot do more important service to research than that of supplying the 
deficiency. 

The allusion to books of reference reminds me of another direction in 
which the local Societies might with advantage exert more influence than 
they are commonly accustomed to do. The selection of books on natural 
science in many of our smaller public libraries can only be described as 
lamentable. Not only is the student of small means unable to borrow 
from this source the ordinary standard treatises which a competent Com- 
mittee should provide : he can rarely find even the most important books 
- descriptive of the natural history of the district in which the library is 
situated. I know one of these small libraries where the Librarian and 
Conmiittee are so ignorant that, for lack of capacity to choose new books, 
they have confined their attention for many years to buying new copies 
of the old books that happen to have been worn out by prolonged and 
continual service. They have solved their difficulties by supplying what 
.seemed to be in constant demand. I believe, in response to public ridicule, 
the Committee have lately ordered their Librarian (a hopelessly illiterate 
man) to read the 'Publishers' Circular' and the ' i^then;eura,' so tiiat he 



COKKESrONniNCi t^OClETIES. 4 

may examine reviews and notices and direct their attention to anything 
worth buying. When such incoiupetence prevails in the selection even of 
general literature, in which all educated people are more or less interested, 
it is not surprising that less popular subjects should suffer ; and if the 
Library Committees themselves do not seek the advice of the local Socie- 
ties, the latter should certainly assert themselves more than they usually 
do, and insist that at least the more important of the larger educational 
works on science shall be properly chosen and made available for 
reference. 

I am glad to learn from this year's Report of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee tliat the British Association has now decided, on 
certain conditions, to admit to our Conference Delegates from the local 
Societies which do not attempt more than the educational and missionary 
work of which T have been speaking. The importance of a Society's 
efforts for the advancement of science is by no means always measurable 
by the extent of its publications, and I feel sure that the next Conference 
will welcome among the Delegates from the newly Associated Societies 
several most useful members. In fact, I am inclined to agree with my 
predecessor of last year, that we should discourage rather than foster the 
multiplication of publications by local Societies. I entirely disagree 
with Principal Griffiths' proposal for the establishment of a new central 
Journal ; but I do think that the tendency towards centralisation in the 
publication of nearly all the best work during the past two decades is a 
matter for great satisfaction among scientific men. It is still possible for 
those who are engaged in research, and who publish their results in the 
journals of the great Metropolitan Societies, to be at the same time most 
active members of the Field Clubs and Societies in the districts in which 
they reside. At the local meetings they have the opportunity of discussing 
their researches with their fellows before they are sufficiently advanced 
for publication ; and I know several cases connected with my own branch 
of science in which the value of the completed work as published depends 
largely on the unreported Conferences which have been held upon it in 
the district where it was produced. There still remain, of course, several 
matters, chiefly of local interest, which it is advisable to publish on the 
spot, and these should form the bulk of a Society's annual issue. 

Finally, I would allude to the main object for which this Conference 
appears to have been originally established. I think it was hoped that 
an annual meeting of Delegates would lead to more definite concerted 
action or co-operation between the local Societies in prosecuting certain 
specified lines of research. It was thought that proposals for organised 
work might be formulated, and that each active Society would accom- 
plish its share of the programme. Year after year, however, suggestions 
have been made and inquiries have been started, in most cases, I believe, 
without any satisfactory response. In fact, the spirit of individualism 
seems to pervade our scientific Societies just as it pervades everything that 
is distinctively British. We cannot endure the feeling that we are merely 
units in the working of an organised machine ; we all wish for freedom 
to follow our own inclinations. However large and important a Society 
may be, its main activities always depend on quite a small proportion of 
its members, and if they have gradually lapsed into a settled routine, it is 
difficult for any outside influence to make much alteration in their course. 
Moreover, I fear that the all-pervading mania for 'tit-bits,' which is 
so characteristic of this restle&s age, has penetrated even -wme of our 



42 KEPOKT— 1905. 

Societies, and reduced the amount of systematic and persistent plodding 
which is necessary for many important lines of research. An ' infinite 
capacity for taking pains ' is much more fruitful than genius in not a few- 
directions ; and if the active members of a Society lack this quality, it is 
hopeless to expect them to assist in any extensive and organised scheme. 
Nevertheless, it seems to me that this Conference has other and perhaps 
equally important uses. It enables the chosen representatives of the 
various Societies to discuss many general questions in which all are inter- 
ested ; it brings together many active workers whose exchange of ideas, 
in private conversation quite as much as in public meeting, tends to the 
advancement of our common object ; and if none of our resolutions have 
much binding force in plans for organised research, there cannot be any 
doubt as to the value of the union in friendship which results from the 
intercourse that is held. 

At the conclusion of the Chairman's Address the Report of tlie 
Corresponding Societies Committee was read by the Secretary. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing (Corresponding Societies Committee), in 
opening the discussion, said he would like to ask the opinion of the 
Delegates on the question of excursions, which liad been touched on by 
the Chairman. The speaker in his younger days had attended a great 
many of these excursions in Devonshire, and had found that when, for 
example, he was collecting fossils, and wanted to set to work with hammer 
and chisel on some very hard rock, before he had had time to acquire his 
specimen all the rest of the members of the excursion were a mile or more 
away. The same thing happened when he was interested in collecting 
wood-lice. He did not know what remedy there was for people of like 
tastes with himself,, unless they could be attended with a motor-car that 
would enable them to overtake the other members of the excursion ! 
In the case of archseology it was different, as when anyone was dis- 
coursing on the ruins of a castle or an interesting church the whole party 
could study it, and the public at large were generally interested in such 
subjects, whereas in the study of natural history there were probably 
but very few members who cared for each special branch. While he was 
President of a local Natural History Society he bad endeavoured to con- 
fine himself to natural history as much as possible, but he found that 
the lectures on architecture were more popular than any of their natural 
history subjects. Then one year they endeavoured to get specialists of 
repute to whom they paid considerable fees, and they had a very good 
time, but unfortunately were left in debt. 

Mr. W. Dale (Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society) said 
chat he had had a good deal of experience, having been Secretary of 
a club numbering 300 members, and that he had the same difficulty as 
that referred to by Mr. Stebbing. They had no evening meetings, and 
he very much questioned whether evening meetings properly belonged to 
Natural History or Field Clubs. He thought a Natural History Society 
should take the field, and study nature in the open air. He found it 
convenient to arrange during the session at least three sectional meetings 
for the study of natural history, which they called Meetings for Nature- 
Study. In a Field Club there would always be a certain number of people 
who were devoted to architecture. 

Mr. W. Gray (Belfast Naturalists' Field Club) said liis Society num- 
bered about 400 members, and he had been connected with it for over 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 43 

forty years, having been Secretary for about fifteen years. With all due 
respect to the remarks that had been made, he believed that the serious 
work of a scientific Society could be combined with the more popular 
side, and he believed it should be the object of the local scientific Society 
to make real solid science popular. 

Mr. Beeby Thompson (Northamptonshire Natural History Society) 
said it was useless to go out with an excursion with the object of doing 
any solid work. Those who were familiar with such excursions must be 
well aware that there was little time for actual work, and indeed he did 
not think the excursions were quite intended for that kind of thing. In 
all these excursions the chief object should be to show the members of the 
Society what was of interest in natural history, and if they wanted 
really to work they must go at some other time. Excursions afforded 
facilities for getting over much ground under a competent director ; but 
if one of the party came across anything to work at, he should go back 
and undertake the research at leisure. Many of the excursions which 
had been described as picnics might, after all, be very useful. 

Mr. P. Ewing (Glasgow Natural History Society) said that his Society 
was not troubled with the expense of excursions, for tlieir Excursions 
Committee arranged in such a way that no expense foi' the day should 
exceed half-a-crown. Their excursions usually took place on a Saturday, 
when reduced fares could be obtained. When organising an excursion 
they stated definitely what its special objects were. If it was for orni- 
thology they named the birds that were common to the particular district 
they intended visiting ; if for botany, the plants that were likely to be 
seen ; and so on. Their Society divided itself into six sections under 
special leaders. 

Mr. H. Coates (Perthshire Society of Natural Science) said that his 
Society made a standing rule not to accept any kind of hospitality, and 
this was now so well known that they were not asked to accept it. 
They sought to attain definite results by appointing leaders skilled in 
each subject. He would mention that within the last two years they 
had tried a new experiment which had been very successful, namely, the 
establishment of a Junior Section of the Society, consisting of the elder 
children of the schools who had gone in for a Natural History Essay Com- 
petition which the Society had instituted. Those who were successful 
were allowed to join the Junior Section, and there were a few excursions 
organised especially for them, each of whicli was led by an adult botanist, 
ornithologist, and so on, of the Society ; and they were specially enjoined 
to avoid interference with rare plants or animals. They were told to look 
but not to touch. These junior excursions had been found very successful, 
and had not developed into mere pleasure-excursions or picnics on the 
part of the children. They found that those who had gone in for the 
Essay Competition were really in earnest, and were glad of the help 
of the Society's adult members. In these ways Mr. Coates thought 
they had got over a few of the difficulties which the Chairman had 
referred to. 

Mr. W. Marsh (Leeds Naturalists' Club) said he tliought they must 
all be agreed as to the great value of the excursions of their Societies in 
Yorkshire, There was one of these local Societies in every town and 
practically in every parish. The Naturalists' Union is held together by its 
excursions. They organised eight in the year, and worked much upon 
the lines mentioned by Mr. Coates, going to a particular district where 



44 KEPORT— 1905. 

they might expect to find a rare plant or insect, or for a particular 
geological purpose, and visiting a different division of the county at each 
excursion. They thought the picnic element was very strongly to be 
deprecated. As the group of Affiliated Societies consists of such Societies 
as undertake local investigation and publish their results, Mr. Marsh 
said he would like to ask whether the Committee had any condition as 
to the length of time which should elapse before the publication of such 
results. The Society he represented did not always consider it advisable 
to publish immediately, but held over anything of interest they might 
have until they had a sufficient number of papers to make a volume. 

Mr. E. R. Sykes (Dorset Field Club) said he felt that his Society had 
become rather too much of a picnic society, but they were bent on mend- 
ing their ways. 

The Rev. W. Lower Carter (Yorkshire Geological Society) explained 
that the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union had a membei'ship numbering 400 
members and 3,000 associates. One important thing connected with the 
Society was the circular which it sent out. It contained notes on all the 
various branches of natural history of the district, given in a very brief form, 
with suggestions for looking for any plants, insects, etc., which have at 
some time been found but have not been seen for a number of years. 

Mr. W. Whitaker (Vice-Chairman), referring to the question asked 
by Mr. Marsh as to the length of time given for the publication of reports 
of the different Societies, said he did not know that there was any definite 
rule on the subject, but his own idea was that they looked forward to some- 
thing every year. But if a Society published a number every two years, 
and that was its method of publication, the Committee would not expect 
more. What they wanted to do was to keep the Societies in touch, and 
they would be inclined to look leniently on a little lapse in publication. 

Mr. William Martin, M.A., LL.D., introduced the following subject : 

The Law of Treasure Trove, es2iecially in relation Iq local Scientific Societies. 

The law of treasure ti'ove has hitherto been the recipient of much 
condemnation. It is customary to find attributed to it the loss of valuable 
and, indeed, irreplaceable relics of bygone times. Defence of the existing 
system which allocates to the Crown, or the Crown's assignees, ownerless 
gold and silver accidentally discovered, or exhumed after search, is rarely 
heard. In fact, treasure trove is often, perhaps usually, considered as 
synonymous with ' melting-pot.' Thus, a maintenance of the law of 
treasure trove, we are told, ' is the best way to ensure that no such dis- 
coveries are made known, and to drive the finder to put all such treasures 
in the melting-pot.' ' While but few submit practical suggestions for the 
amendment of the existing system — suggestions which the Government 
might have no hesitation in accepting — in many quarters a drastic altera- 
tion of the existing provisions is demanded. 

Now a radical amendment of the law of treasure trove may, in view 
of the difficulties attendant upon legislation, not to mention the deep- 
rooted conservative instinct of lawyers and landed proprietors, be con- 
sidered as almost ' beyond the range of practical politics.' May it not, 
then, be well to examine closely the present system, and to seek for 
amendment wliereby, without offence to the susceptibilities of the various 

' Methods and Aims in ircho'oloijy, by W. M. Flinders Petiie (1904), p. 183. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 45 

classes of society, much of the evil which the law is said to have en"en- 
dered may be removed, and the way paved for an extension of the law 
more iu consonance with modern feeling and enterprise ? 

With the view of showing that improvement might be accomplished 
by a more efficacious administration of the present law, and by employino- 
to a greater extent the powers already possessed by the authorities, the 
following remarks are submitted for consideration. 

The natural feeling that the apprehension, or the detention, of derelict 
property carries with it the right to possess, has, in mature .systems of 
jurisprudence, given place to the knowledge that the right to possess by 
no means follows upon a detention. In some instances only, as is well 
known, does legal ownership follow the mere fact of possession or 
detention. When however there is found property uncared for, and 
lacking visible guardianship, the natural feeling that ownership should 
follow upon possession asserts itself so strongly as sometimes to stifle 
conscience. Efforts to find an owner ai-e, in consequence, relaxed, and 
the assurance assumed that the law, when indeed a thought is »iven to 
it in such a case, is on the side of the finder. 

In the case of gold and silver that have been put by with a view to 
reclamation and all knowledge of the deposit, or of the depositor, has 
vanished, the treasure accrues in jitre regali to the Crown. Wlien the 
Crown has transmitted its rights, treasure trove passes to the Crown's 
assignee. 

By the law of treasure trove, then, the rights of the finder, whatever 
they may be, are postponed to those of the Crown, so that the law of first 
finding is ousted. 

As already mentioned, it is deplored by many that the Crown steps in 
and secures the result of a find. It is assumed that were this exception 
to the law of first finding removed, the finder would proportionately be 
benefited by not being deprived of what in justice, it is said, belongs to 
him, and that the risk of a consignment to the melting pot of uni(iuc 
articles, ancient and modern, would be so lessened as practically to be 
non-existent. 

That the truth of this assumption is more than doubtful a cursory 
examination of the law of first finding will suffice to show. Accordin" to 
that law, the instances when the finder of derelict property becomes its 
owner by the mere fact of finding and taking possession are by no means 
common. Whether in the absence of all knowledge, actual or constructive, 
of the loser, a finder may assume the favoured position of owner depends 
largely upon the locality of the find and the position that the finder bears 
towards that locality. Probably the case which is most favourable to the 
tinder is when the property has been lost on the highway or in a shop to 
which the public has had access. On the other hand, it is clear that those 
who are employed on private land cannot retain, as against the owner 
of the site, articles found during the course of their duties. 

Further it is highly improbable that a mere tenant could legally hold 
finds from his landlord's estate as against that landlord. We are also all 
conversant with the difiiculties of settling the rights of a finder as regards 
property found in quasi-public places, such as promenade piers, tramcars, 
and the like ; for the fact of finding by no means concludes the matter. 
In the result it is unsafe to dogmatise upon the ownei-ship of lost property 
when found by one to Avhom the owner is unknown or practically 
unknowable. A settlement of the question can only bo liad in this as 



46 REPORT — 1905. 

in other couiiections, in the full light of all the circumstances of the 
finding. 

Now, since among the essentials of treasure trove is that of an 
advertent depositing, it is unlikely that the treasure would come within 
these cases where, in the absence of a law of treasure trove, finds belong 
to their accidental discoverer. From the circumstances in which treasure 
trove was originally put out of sight and eventually lost to mind, it may 
safely be classed with those objects which become attached to the soil, 
and pass with it to the successive owners, of course supposing the absence 
of a special law to the contraiy. The articles then constituting the find 
would certainly not belong to him who accidentally discovered their 
hiding-place ; indeed a retention by him with the immediate intention 
of depriving permanently the owner of the soil of his property in them 
would be criminal. After the owner had gained physical possession of 
the articles, he would be at liberty to sell, preserve, or retain them, or to 
destroy them capriciously, advertently, or without a thought of his action. 
But, thanks to the law of treasure trove, precious metal may not be cast 
into the melting-pot precipitately unless the Crown has transferred to 
others its right to treasure trove. Even when an individual or a corporate 
body owns the right to treasure trove found on the demesne, articles 
which illegally have been withheld may eventually become the property 
of the finder owing to the action of the Statute of Limitations, six years 
being the prescriptive period (21 Jac. I., 1623, c. 16). Remembering the 
class of persons who usually discover treasure trove, the risk of the 
melting-pot under the general law is thus further increased. As against 
the Crown and its property the Statute of Limitations, of course, has 
no place. 

Let us now for a moment briefly review the action of the Crown when 
treasure trove reaches the hands of the Treasury officials. First, as 
regards the finder, the Treasury promises remuneration to an extent 
proportionate to the value of the discovered articles retained by the 
Treasury. In the Treasury Circular of 1886 no allusion is made to the 
owner of the soil or to any other person in whom, according to the law of 
first finding, the articles should vest. Secondly, as regards the articles, 
these when received are sent to the British Museum or to some other 
institution. In the event of the articles not being required they are 
returned to the finder. 

It may now be asked, In what way would the abolition of the law of 
treasure trove subserve the interests of archseology 1 It is clear that the 
finder would not be benefited, for experience shows that a finder as a rule 
disposes of his find to the first stranger who offers what the finder in his 
ignorance considers adequate. Would the public be the better ? Rarely 
would treasure find its way into public museums ; at any rate not to the 
extent to which it is now possible. At the best the treasure would be 
placed in a private collection, or, what is worse, would be passed from one 
to another until all knowledge of the locality of the find and of the 
attendant circumstances was lost. Surely it is not less law of treasure 
trove that we want, but more. Its provisions should be extended so as to 
include ' with adequate safeguards and inducements, all objects of distinct 
antiquarian value, whether of gold or silver, or not, and irrespective of 
any requirement of proof or presumption as to their having been originally 
hidden.' " 

' Juridical Review, vol. xv. p. 277. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 47 

On the present occasion, however, it is only incidentally that I would 
urge, if need be, an extension of the law. My object is rather to indicate 
how by a mere departmental instruction, at the cost of printing and 
postage alone, the risk in England and Wales of loss of objects of 
antiquarian value might be considerably lessened. I am alluding to a 
suggested recognition by the Treasury of its servants, viz. Post Office 
officials, who are to be found in every village and town throughout the 
country, as the accredited custodians for the time being of all articles of 
antiquarian value, which having been brought to them purport to have 
been discovered in the neighbourhood. Further, I am suggesting the 
dissemination through those officials, as, for instance, by notices and 
posters, of the liberal terms which the Treasury has promised to finders. 

As regards the first point, the Post Office for many reasons is to be 
preferred to the police officials. The reasons for the preference, even if 
not obvious, need not here be enumerated. With respect to the prac- 
ticability of the scheme suggested, I have been informed privately by an 
official of the Post Office that there could be no objection from a practical 
point of view to the receipt of treasure trove and other articles, provided 
that they wei-e immediately forwarded to the postmaster of the district 
in which the receiving office lay. On the delivery by the finder of the 
article at the village or other post office he should be given a receipt 
with counterfoil and an envelope addressed, say, to the Treasury Solicitor. 
The receipt could then be placed in the envelope and posted by the finder 
himself, who would retain the counterfoil. In this way the confidence of 
finders would be gained, for they would be assured of the safety and 
acknowledgment of their deposits at the Post Office. 

As I'egards the second point, the publication of the Treasury promise 
of remuneration to the finder, we have fortunately to hand the precedent 
set by the Royal Irish Academy, which has for many years been in the 
habit of posting notices, illustrated and otherwise, throughout Ireland. 

The practice, too, of the Corporation of the City of London, to whom 
the franchise of treasure trove was granted by the first charter of 
Charles I., may be instanced. Mr. Welch, F.S.A., Curator of the Guild- 
hall Museum, kindly informs me that the Corporation inserts in all its 
building leases a clause claiming coins and other objects of value which 
may be discovered on the site. As Curator of the Museum, Mr. Welch 
unofficially secures, through the clerk of the works, the co-operation of 
the workmen in all important improvements, with whom he agrees for 
liberal payment for all objects worth securing for the Museum. 

As regards the County Council of London, who, I believe, have not 
had the right to treasure trove conferred upon them, a notice is posted 
upon buiUlings in course of demolition, and upon sites which are being 
excavated by them. By this notice a reward is promised to workmen 
who discover objects of geological and archjeological interest, which, being 
the property of the Council, are handed over to the foreman or clerk of 
the works. 

With precedents such as these to hand, it would not be difficult for 
the Treasury to scatter broadcast its notices concerning the remuneration 
offered to finders of treasure trove. That the Treasury has issued such 
a notice comes as a surprise to many, for the general feeling I find, 
even among the educated classes, is that no reward is given to finders. 
I myself on applying this year at the Treasury for a copy of the Circular 
issued by the Treasury in 1886, was informed that 'no instructions are 



48 REPORT — 1905. 

issued by this department as to the remuneration offered to finders of 
treasure trove.' On further correspondence taking place, I was told tiiat 
the Treasury had not 'expressed any intention of departing from the 
general principles on which they have hitherto acted in dealing with 
treasure trove.' 

By the Circular of 1886 'the antiquarian value of such of the coins 
or objects as are retained or sold,' less a deduction of 20 per cent, of the 
antiquarian value of the objects retained, or of 10 per cent, of the anti- 
quarian value of all objects discovered, was promised to the findei's. 

The finder alone is dealt with by the Circular, there being no mention 
in it of the finder's employer or of the owner of the soil on which the 
treasure has been discovered. In this respect, then, the finder is in a 
better position than he would in all probability have occupied had his 
rights been those arising merely from the law of first finding. Finders as 
a rule are not aware of the true value of what they discover. Conse- 
quently it is to their interest to abstain from a sale to a passer-by or to a 
casual stranger, who usually has some good idea of the transaction in whicli 
he is engaged. If it were known that a finder's interests were enhanced 
by a delivery of the articles into proper custody, much of what otherwise 
would be lost or cast into the melting-pot would be preserved for future 
generations. 

I think I have now placed my views sufficiently before the Committee 
to enable me to sum up what I suggest is suitable for discussion, viz. : — 

' That a union of antiquarian and allied Societies is desirable for the 
purpose of submitting to his Majesty's Commissioners of the Treasury one 
or more resolutions which relate to the amendment of the Law of Trea- 
sure Trove and of the administration of that Law.' 

The specific amendments with which the resolutions should be concerned 
are the taking of the necessary steps for bringing to the knowledge of the 
public, as, for instance, through the medium of the Post Office — 

(1) The importance of the preservation of treasure Irovc; 

(2) The remuneration which is offered to finders ; and, if considered expedient, 

(3) The desirability for the remuneration offered to finders being put upon a 

statutory basis ; and 

(4) An extension of the Law of Treasure Trove so as to cover other relics of 

antiquity, thereby bringing the Law into harmony with what is believed 
to be the Law of Scotland. 

Finally, whatever resolutions were arrived at, suitable explanations of 
the reasons that led up to the resolutions and practical suggestions for 
carrying out the objects aimed at should be appended when they were 
forwarded to their destination. 

Mr. T. Sheppard (Hull Scientific Club and Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union) said that inidoubtedly the law as it stands at present is greatly 
misunderstood, and from some little experience he had found that 
anything that was discovered was looked upon as Crown property, and 
both the owner of the land and the actual finder expected nothing what- 
ever in return. The suggestion that had been made with i-egard to the 
Post Office regulations, and that all antiquities should be looked upon as 
treasure trove or Crown property, was one that required careful considera- 
tion. Speaking as the Curator of a comparatively small museum (Hull), 
he could say that the number and quantity by weight of the articles 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 49 

brought to him as ' antiquities ' was simply appalling. Personally he felt 
that in consequence of the organisation of such Societies as were connected 
with the British Association and the local museums, which were now fairly 
on the alert, the disposal of local antiquities, other than gold and silver, 
might be fairly left as at present. The man who finds anything is gene- 
rally the least qualified to know anything about its value, and often 
thinks a thing of priceless value when it is of no value whatever, and 
vice versd. In Hull they had tried something similar to the rule which is 
in practice in London in reference to the finding of treasure during the 
demolition of property, but it had not acted satisfactorily. The fact 
that the -Hull Corporation had a clause put in the agreement that any 
objects found upon the site were to be given up to the Corporation simply 
gave the men the idea that they were not entitled to anything ; and 
consequently, as soon as anything was picked up it was 'sneaked' into the 
pocket and probably sold to anybody who happened to be on the spot. 
The result was that, notwithstanding the official statement in the agree- 
ment, and notwithstanding the fact that the foremen were told to look 
out for specimens, very few of them were really given up. He would 
strongly support any resolution to make the law of treasure trove better 
known than it is at present. He did not see the advisability of includ- 
ing all antiquities, but thought something might be done to let the local 
museums have a share. 

Mr. J. Hopkinson (Hertfordshire Natural History Society) said that 
while it was pretty generally known that the finder got the bullion value 
of the article found, it was not generally appreciated that now, according 
to the regulations made in 1886, on the suggestion of Sir John Evans, 
the finder got the archseological value, which may be considerably more 
than the bullion value. He quite agreed with the suggestion made that 
there should be some notice to that effect put up at the post offices all 
over the country ; but the deduction of 20 per cent, of the value would, 
of course, act as a deterrent from sending the objects found to the 
Treasury. He thought the law at present bore most unjustly on local 
museums, for in his opinion the local museums should always have the 
first right of purchasing the objects at their value. He thought it was 
very hard upon a locality that valuable things found in it should have 
to go to the British Museum. 

Mr. W. Gray (Belfast) said he thought something should be done to 
make people know that they would be remunerated for anything they 
found. Preference had been made to the Circular issued by the Royal 
Irish Academy, and it would be very interesting for Societies like theirs 
to know the result of that Circular. He knew that a Circular issued by 
his Society to the National Schools had been an absolutely dead letter. 

Mr. W. Taylor (Elgin Literary and Scientific Society) said he would 
like to suggest that, whenever things were found about the value of which 
there was any doubt, they should be sent to the proper authorities for 
investigation. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan (Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club) asked 
whether it would not be desirable to enter into correspondence with the 
Society of Antiquaries on the subject before any formal action were 
taken, as possibly it possessed some information of which the Conference 
might be ignorant, or it might have taken action in relation to the 
matter. Mr. Bevan said that as it was possible for the Crown sometimes 
to delegate its rights for the possession of treasure trove to some other 

1905. E 



50 REPORT — 1905. 

body, as it had done in the case of the City of London, he would like to' 
know if it had been done in the case of other bodies, such as the Duchies 
of Lancaster and Cornwall. Would there be any special provision there 1 

Dr. ]\Iartin explained that there were two classes of delegation of the 
rights of treasure trove. The Corporation of the City of London had the 
right to treasure ti-ove in virtue of a charter of Charles I.'s time ; and 
as regards the second class of case, he instanced that of the Royal 
Irish Academy. It was simply, so far as his knowledge extended, the 
agent of the Crown for its collection and for its exhibition, so that the 
Royal Irish Academy was directly under the control of the Crown as 
regards treasure trove. The City of London was not an agent of the 
Crown : it was the principal in the matter of treasure trove. There were 
many instances throughout the country where a franchise had been handed 
over or assigned to the Lords of the Manor. In the case of the Duchy of 
Lancaster (speaking under correction) he was almost certain that it had 
this right to treasure trove from time immemorial. As regards the Duchy 
of Cornwall, he had no information. There were many instances where 
the right to treasure trove had been assigned in virtue of charters which 
are still in existence. In reply to a question by Mr. Stebbing as to the 
law in regard to treasure cast up by the sea. Dr. Martin said it was 
certainly not treasure trove, but probably belonged to the Crown under 
the technical expression Droits of the Admiralty. 

The Rev. R. Ashington BuUen (Holmesdaie Society and S.E. Union) 
remarked that the famous gold cup found at Rillaton in Cornwall seemed 
to have come into the possession of Queen Victoria at a time (1837) when 
there was no Duke of Cornwall. It was exhibited at the Royal Archteo- 
logical Institute in 1867 by permission of the Queen and the Prince of 
Wales. The gold lunettes found at Harlyn in Cornwall in 1866 were 
claimed by the Duke of Cornwall in his own right. 

Mr. W. Morris Colles (Director of the Authors' Syndicate) then intro- 
duced the following subject : — 

The Lav) of Copyright as affecting the Proceedings o/ Scientific Societies. 

From the proof of ' Papers relating to the Question of Copyright ' 
which had been placed in his hands since he entered the room, he gathered 
that the points which called for discussion were, mainly, the relations 
between Scientific Societies, their members, and the public with reference 
to papers communicated to, and printed by, or delivered before the Societies. 
These naturally resolve themselves into two classes — namely, public and 
private. As regards papers which were published in the general sense, 
by being placed on sale, the ordinary rules of copyright law applied ; but 
papers which were only privately printed were indistinguishable from 
papers existing only in manuscript, as they were not published at all, and 
the copyright, unless assigned, remained in the authors by common law. 

Some of the Societies had, he noticed, bye-laws declaring the copyright 
of all accepted papers to be vested in them, but it was questionable 
whether these bye-laws were in themselves sufficient to give the Societies 
a good title to the copyright in such papers without an actual assignment 
(which could be prepared by their legal advisers) in such a form as to hold 
good either against the members tliemselves or against infringers. This 
was, in short, a case like so many arising under the Copyright Acts, which 
could only be met by special contract, l^either Section 18 of the Copy- 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 51 

right Act of 1842 nor the clauses of the Copyright Bill of 1900. affect- 
ing ' collective works,' could be held to apply. It had been suggested 
that Scientific Societies should endeavour to procure some special legis- 
lation when the Bill of 1900 was proceeded with ; but Mr. Colles expressed 
it as his opinion that it would be found iinpracticable to obtain any addi- 
tions to the Bill of 1900 that would meet the case, and believed it would 
still be found necessary to deal with this question as a matter of special 
contract outside the Statutes. The temper of Parliament towai-ds the 
Copyright Question was such that it was always peculiarly difficult to 
obtain exceptional rights, nor were such rights capable of being easily 
defined or made generally applicable. 

Mr. Harold Hardy dealt with the position of the author of a paper 
which might be read at a meeting of a Scientific Society. This, he 
said, was partly affected by the law of copyright in books and partly 
by the law relating to copyright in lectures. While the paper was unread 
or unpublished the author was entitled to copyright in his literary com- 
position, and could restrain anyone from publishing it : he was in the 
same position as the author of a book in manuscript. Again, when the 
paper was read before the Society, if the audience consisted merely of 
members of the Society, or a limited number of persons invited and 
admitted by ticket, that was not regarded in law as publication, and the 
author would still be entitled to copyright, as in an unpublished manu- 
script. If, however, a paper was read before a meeting to which the 
public generally were admitted, the author could only protect his copy- 
right by adopting one of two methods recognised by the law. He could, 
of course, print and publish his paper before oral delivery and register it 
as a book at Stationers' Hall. In that case he would enjoy the same 
copyright as attaches to a published book. Another method was a very 
curious provision of the law, and one which was unreasonable at the pre- 
sent day. The law provided that if the author gave two days' notice to 
two magistrates living within five miles of the place where the paper was 
to be read, he would have protection for his copyright in the work for 
twenty-eight years. That was a provision which was generally unknown 
and consequently ignored. It was a senseless provision, because it 
imposed no duty upon the magistrates to take any steps with regard to 
the notice. They might lock it up in the pigeon-lioles of their desks, and, 
instead of being a warning to the public that the author's rights were 
preserved, the public generally knew nothing at all about it. This 
notice to the magistrates, therefore, ought to be abolished, and he was 
glad to find that the recommendation of the Royal Commissioners with 
regard to it had been adopted in the new Copyright Bill. Another 
amendment he suggested was that the law should give protection for the 
oral delivery of lectures. A lecture might be described as a literary com- 
position adapted for communication to the public either by printing or by 
oral delivery. Both those qualities had a commercial value and ought to 
be protected ; but at the present time there was no protection for the right 
of publishing a lecture by oral delivery as distinct from the copyright. 
The law relating to lectures should be made somewhat analogous to the 
law in respect of dramatic compositions. The author of a play had copy- 
right and the right of representation in public. The right of representa- 
tion of a play might be compared to the publication of a lecture by an 
oral delivery, or the ' lecturing right,' as it was called in the Copyrio-ht 
Bill of 1900. ^^ * 

b2 



52 REPORT— 1905. 

Mr. Longden, representing the Institution of Mining Engineers, said 
that so far as the ' Transactions ' of the Institution of Civil Engineers are 
concerned they are safely guarded. The Institution has rules by which 
if anybody communicates a paper to it that paper becomes its property ; 
but it appeared to the speaker that the reason why its papers are so safely 
guarded is because it takes an interest in the matter and follows it up. 
If anybody chooses to pirate the information which has been communi- 
cated, the culprit hears of it and is stopped. The Institution of 
Mining Engineers found it difficult to prevent people from pirating the 
information which had been communicated. He thought the rules were 
almost identical in both Societies, and it seemed to him it was largely a 
matter of laxity. But so far as the British Association was concerned, 
he took it that the Association would rather the information was circu- 
lated than kept back. 

The Rev. W. Lower Carter (Yorkshire) wished to know what posi- 
tion the British Association took as regarded the abstracts which it 
published. There had been a discussion as to whether it was free for any- 
body to reprint, or to print any such part of them as they chose, without 
any reference to the British Association or to the author. 

Dr. H. R. Mill (Corresponding Societies Committee) said he did not 
think a scientific man wished to keep the result of his investigations to 
himself, once it was given to a Society, whether one of the learned 
Societies publishing transactions in the ordinary way or the British 
Association publishing abstracts only. A scientific man surely desired 
that his paper should be as widely known and as much quoted as pos- 
sible. That was Dr. Mill's position, and he thought that any question of 
retaining copyright in scientific work once given to the public was absurd. 
He looked upon the British Association as an Association intended for 
the dissemination of science, one of whose objects was to make known as 
widely as possible the information collected. 

Tlie Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing said he quite agreed with Dr. Mill that 
scientific men were glad to find their papers sufficiently popular to be re- 
printed. 

Second Meeting, October 31. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, E.R.S., in the Chair. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Mr. "W. 
Whitaker, the Rev. J. O. Bevan, Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. John Hopkinson, 
Mr. T. V. Holmes, and Mr. Rudler. 

Professor G. S. Boulger^ F.L.S., F.G.S., introduced the following 
subject : — 

Tlie Preservation of our Native Plants. 

Plants are in danger of extermination from inevitable natural causes, 
such as the encroachments of the sea and the increasing density of popu- 
lation, with its concomitant clearing, draining, and building. Among 
avoidable causes of loss the more important are the thoughtless excesses 
of children, tourists, and botanists, and the work of trade-collectors. 
The demands of artists have led to much local extermination of the sea- 
holly, and the fruitless endeavours of amateurs to cultivate our terrestrial 
orchids seriously endanger some species. Nurserymen, who certainly do 
not cultivate orchids, offer them for sale, just as clergymen and others 



CORKESrONDING SOCIETIES. 1)3 

in the Lake District, or other districts still rich in feni^:, advertise 
collections of these plants. It is mainly plants, such as primroses and 
ferns, which can be obtained in large quantities that appeal to the trade- 
collectors ; but these men, who now range far afield from London or 
other large towns, are often merely the employes of large wholesale firms. 
Botanists, who ought to know better, are often recklessly wholesale in 
their collecting, rooting up numerous specimens of non-variable species, 
partly for the purpose of exchange. Even the gathering of the blossom 
may endanger the continuance of species which are annual, such as 
Blackstonia perfoliata, by preventing the formation of seed. 

Among protective measures are the concealment and enclosure of the 
localities of rarities, the cultivation of wild forms, transplanting them from 
places where they are in danger, educational or moral methods, and legisla- 
tion. Enclosure, unless a keeper be employed, may only direct attention to 
the locality of some rarity : it must be costly, and can be only of very limited 
application. Much may be done by the cultivation of rarities in gardens 
near by, so as to supply tourists, as M. Correvon grows edelweiss and 
other Alpines at Geneva. Small gardens near Ben Lawers, in the Lake 
District, and at the Lizard would be very valuable. Ultimately we must 
depend mainly upon the development of a general sentiment in favour of 
the conservation of our natural beauties, and nothing will conduce to 
this end more than educational measures. We must educate our teachers. 
A leaflet might be distributed among them stating the case ; and per- 
haps a ' reader ' might be prepared intermingling pleas for plant protec- 
tion with interesting accounts of plants and plant-life. The clergy, or 
other managers of school- treats, might well represent to the children 
beforehand such simple principles as that one cannot both eat one's 
cake and have it ; that some flowers should be left to form seed to grow 
into new plants ; and that some should be left for others' enjoyment. 

As the results of education must be tardy, and the existing law is 
inadequate, legislation appears necessary. It is at present necessary 
to prove damage : it is difficult to secui-e the co-operation of landowners 
and the police ; and the powers of the Home Secretary and of the County- 
Councils as to the making of bye-laws are not sufficiently clear. It is 
proposed to introduce a Bill on the lines of the AVild Birds' Protection 
Acts, applying only to persons over fourteen years of age as principals, 
and exempting occupiers of land and those authorised by them, but 
authorising the scheduling of species, districts, or whole counties. 

The Rev. R. Ashington Bullen, on discussion being invited, said there 
were two points which had not been touched upon by the Professor. One 
was the prevalence of incendiary fires. He had reason to believe that 
the whortleberry, which had been trying to grow in his district (near 
Woking), had been entirely destroyed during this last summer. His 
daughter had found some good specimens of this little plant, almost 
a stranger in that particular part of the country, which in the course 
of a few years would have acclimatised itself, but which was now com- 
pletely destroyed. The other point which the Professor had left out 
was the mischief done by golf-links. At Reigate a beautiful feature of 
the country had been destroyed in the filling up of a bog, which doubt- 
less had also resulted in the destruction of the sundew . 

Mr. W. Watts (Manchester Geological Society) said the district from 
which he came suffered immensely from the depredations alluded to by 



54 REPORT — 1905. 

Professor Boulger. Daffodils, which a few years ago grew abundantly in 
a wood in front of his house, were now almost extinct owing to the 
depredations of collectors, who came every spring and carried them away. 
Many fir-trees were also subject to destruction. With reference to the 
picking of blackbei-ries, he had done what he could to induce farmers to 
prevent the people from gathering them, but the farmers dare not inter- 
fere, as if they did, the coping on their walls, &c., would be pushed down. 
It was also pitiable to see the way in which young trees were dug up. 
It would be a great benefit if something could be done to prevent cyclists 
and others from breaking the trees and taking the bloom away with them. 

Mr. P. Ewing (Glasgow) said he would speak first upon the clergy. 
Speaking for Scotland, the English clergy were the worst enemies they 
had. A great many plants had become extinct owing to their depreda- 
tions. As to the market gardener, he did not mind him so much, as he 
generally left something of the plants behind. He had known districts 
supposed to be cleared by these men in which the plants had come back 
again. The thing he objected to was the extermination of plants that 
would not reproduce tliemselves. He spoke of the Alpine flowers. He 
thought legislation was a difficult matter, and, so far as he could gather, 
the Bill proposed left the owner free to allow people on his land to get 
anything they wanted. 

Mr. Longden (Stanton) said he did not think there would be any 
chance of getting legislation on the subject next year, but it appeared to 
him there were means, through the school teachei's, of preventing the 
destruction of wild flowers. A short circular, he suggested, should be 
sent out in the first instance to the school teachers calling their attention 
to the subject, and, perhaps, putting them in communication with someone 
who would get out a book with simple English names, illustrated, and 
with interesting stories, if possible, with reference to the plants, so that 
the children should be interested. He thought this would be a move in 
the right direction. He also thought the practice of herbaceous garden- 
ing was an immense improvement on carpet gardening, and one way in 
which wild flowers could be preserved. 

Mr. H. Coates (Perth) thought that the local Societies were very much 
indebted to Professor Boulger for his paper, as he regarded this as one of 
the most important subjects they could possibly discuss, and one which 
they were eminently qualified to deal with, because they knew the local 
conditions in the different districts and might be able to suggest remedies. 
Mr. Coates said he was very much in favour of one suggestion, which 
he hoped his Society might be able to carry out, and that was with regard 
to the establishment of gardens for the cultivation of plants which are 
in danger of extermination. Professor Boulger had specially referred to 
Ben Lawers in that connection, and Mr. Coates saw no reason why his 
Society should not take the initiative in doing something in that way. 
The Perthshire Society had always looked upon Ben Lawers as specially 
its own preserve, and had always jealously guarded it, and he could safely 
say that the botanists of his Society had done what they could. Professor 
Boulger had also referred to the practice in England of collecting large 
numbers of the^more showy plants, but Mr. Coates thought that did not 
obtain very much in Scotland — or, at any rate, in Perthshire — probably 
because thei'e was not the same ready sale for them there as in London. 
What they suffered most from was the local professional collector, who 
collected rare plants to sell to tourists. He knew one locality which had 



COKHESPONDINCr SOCIETIES. 55 

been completely stripped of certain rare flowers, and other plants were in 
danger of extermination in the same way. He thought one <9f. the most 
valuable suggestions which had been made was with regard to teaching 
teachers. In the locality he represented a special efl'ort had been made 
to get teachers interested in the work of the Society, and a large number, 
both of the head masters and some of the more intelligent assistant 
teachers, were members of the Society. In this way he thought local 
Societies might do a very great deal in trying to encourage the teachers 
to take up this subject intelligently, and especially to point out the great 
danger of the extermination of rare plants. With regard to the sugges- 
tion of gardens for cultivation, the only difficulty he saw was that of 
finding a suitable situation where the conditions of soil would be pre- 
cisely similar to those in which the plants grow. 

Mr. W. Gray (Belfast) considered tliat the object of a Society like 
his was not so much to preserve rare plants as to prevent plants from 
becoming rare. As it was, the flowers and ferns which used to decorate 
the roads and hedges were being entirely obliterated. He thought nothing 
would prevent these depredations but law. They might talk about moral 
suasion and the influence of the clergy and of teachers, but they would 
never touch the main point unless a law was made to prevent the destruc- 
tion of other people's property without their permission, and then, in 
doing this, care must be taken to give facilities for the scientific collector 
to carry out his function. 

Mr. W. Marsh (Leeds) said he thought they would agree that, if 
legislation could be obtained to protect these beautiful flowers and ferns, 
it was a very desirable thing ; but in the meantime the damage was being 
done and legislation was slow, and he would immensely like to see the 
idea of issuing a circular carried out. Nature- study was becoming an 
important part of education. He thought they had 4,000 children in 
Leeds, who were beginning to take an interest in wild flowers, and as 
these went out in the country the depredations were likely to be serious. 

Mr. J. Hopkinson (Watford) gave an account of the depredations in 
the neighbourhood of St. Albans of dealers in ferns some thirty years 
ago, when several species which then adorned their lanes and woods were 
absolutely extirpated. He thought the idea of a circular a good one and 
that it should be carried out before any legal Act could be obtained, 
■which would take time. 

Mr. Whitaker (Croydon) said he would like to say a word on the 
other side. He thought collectors had been somewhat unfairly treated. 
They were not the only off"enders. The offenders are the people who buy 
the things, and those are the people who ought to be got at. It was no 
use getting at the servants : they must get at the masters. Who were 
they ? In the first place, there were the artists. A great deal was also 
due to the craze people had for fllling their rooms with cut flowers. 
Where did the fault lie ? He would quote the words of a very old 
authority, ' The woman did it.' 

The Chairman said he judged that the general wish of the meeting was 
that the subject should not be allowed to drop, and that the matter should 
be brought before the different Corresponding Societies for them to do 
what they could in the next year by bringing the subject before the 
proper authorities. He would like to add one word to what had been 
said, and that was in reference to the action of a certain Moss Litter 
Company. He did not know many places wliere they were working, but 



56 REPORT — 1905. 

they had completely ruined one of the most prolific floras near his native 
town. He could also endorse what Mr. "Watts had said with regard to the 
farmers not daring to exert their power for fear of reprisals. 

Professor Boulger, in reply to the various remarks, said that owing to 
the question of time he had purposely said little or nothing on what had 
been done in the matter in America, where they had set us a very good 
example ; but he ventured to make the suggestion that if in a compara- 
tively new and thinly populated country, such as the United States, actual 
measures of legislation besides other measures were necessary, they were 
obviously far more necessary in a densely crowded old country like our 
own. He did not quite understand what was the cause of the incendiary 
fires of which Mr. Bullen had spoken, although he could quite understand 
the damage that would be done. He learned that Eryrngium campestre 
had been exterminated by golf at New Romney, Kent, and from the other 
side of the Atlantic, at Staaten Island, a rare species of Clematis is in 
immediate danger of extermination from the same cause. The sundew 
at Reigate is an additional example. He saw that the meeting generally 
was fully in sympathy with the suggestion of a circular, possibly connected 
with the publication of a ' reader.' The latter would be a very simple 
matter, and he fully agreed that legislation was entirely inadequate. A 
public sentiment must be created. The only question was whether they 
wei'e to wait for the sentiment to grow or whether they were to assist its 
growth by means of legislation 1 His idea was that the two things had 
better go on ^;«rz pnssti. 

With regard to what Mr. Coates had said on a special situation for 
the cultivation of Alpine flowers, many people managed to grow most 
Alpines in non-Alpine situations, and he believed that by taking proper 
pre-cautions, such as by covering up the plants in winter, there need be 
no difficulty. He thought it would be a particularly good thing if the 
Perthshire Society made some arrangement for the cultivation of Ben 
Lawers plants, and if somebody in the West of England could be got to 
establish a garden for the jalants of the Lizard. As to local culture there 
was another way in which it could be dealt with. He noticed when he was 
in Cheddar a little while ago that the cottagers root up and pick Thalic- 
trum montanmn, which might be a little difficult of cultivation, but that 
they did not do so with regard to the Cheddar pink. The pink is mostly 
cultivated in gardens. At present, however, the localities where these 
plants still linger ai"e very difficult of access. 

The danger with regard to nature-study was a very great one, and 
there was no way of preventing rare flowers from being picked except by 
not taking people to the localities, or by keeping the knowledge to oneself. 
It was for this reason he cordially joined some years ago in protesting 
against the foolish action of the Essex County Council in suggesting an 
excursion of school teachers to the localities for rare plants in the New 
Forest. As to what Mr. Whitaker had said about women, it was not 
encouraging to think that what had been done to protect birds had not 
been assisted by women. They still wore egrettes, and it could not be 
due to ignorance, having regard to the vast amount of talking and the 
amount of literature which had been produced on the subject. He was 
sorry to hear what the Chairman had to say about the Moss Litter Com- 
pany, and was afi'aid that this, like the drainage of agricultural land, 
was something that could not be prevented. He could quite understand 
that a great many of our fen plants might be destroyed in this way, and 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 57 

it seemed a most regrettable thing, as our marsh plants are among the 
most interesting natives, and by the drainage of the land they are be- 
coming every year more rare. With regard to the proposed Act, he did 
not suppose it would do its work unless backed by public interest. He 
agreed with the suggestion that a circular should be issued as soon as 
possible, and steps be taken to have also a ' reader.' Tliis, however, he 
did not think sufficient ; and though once of a different opinion, he now- 
believed legislation to be absolutely necessary. 

Reports from the Sections. 

The Secretary explained that a letter had been sent to the Recorder 
of each Section asking for information as to any local work which could 
be usefully undertaken by the Coi-responding Societies during the ensuing 
year. The response to this letter had not been very encouraging, but 
such letters as had been received were read. 

Mr. J. Lomas, representing Section C {Geology), had asked the 
Delegates to assist the following Committees, viz. : 1. Erratic blocks ; 
2. Trias Committee ; 3. Geographical and geological names. Although 
the first Committee has been at work for many years, there are still 
parts of England from which no reports have yet been received. The 
Trias Committee seeks to record all the fossils which have been found in 
the Triassic rocks of Great Britain, to trace type specimens, and to collect 
exact data as to the horizon at which the specimens were found. Photo- 
graphs of sections, footprints, or other fossils would be gladly acknow- 
ledged by the Secretary. The third Committee is one which can properly 
discharge its duties only by the co-operation of the various local Societies 
affiliated to the British Association. 

Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, Secretary of Section U (Zoology), wrote 
explaining that he had not been able to communicate with the Sectional 
Committee, but on his own responsibility suggested the following sub- 
jects as worthy of local attention : 1. A systematic study of the fresh- 
water Plankton of East Anglia ; 2. A study of the Rotifera of East 
Anglia. 

Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Recorder of Section E {Geograjyhy), called 
attention to the Committee on local names for geological and topo- 
graphical features, and suggested that the Corresponding Societies might 
also assist by sending data as to the composition and value of rainfall 
and discharge of rivers and lakes for a nev/ Committee. Any results of 
investigations relating to local climate and health might be sent to 
another new Committee, of which Sir Lauder Brunton is Chairman, deal- 
ing with the effect of climate upon health and disease. 

Mr. J. Barcroft, Recorder of Section I (Physiology), inquired whether 
the local Societies could aid the last-named Committee in considering the 
etfeet of climate on disease. One of the first objects of the Committee 
must be to get in touch with meteorologists on the one hand, in order 
to secure accurate data concerning climate, and with medical societies on 
the other hand, in order to get statistics about disease. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan ventured to ask the support of the Delegates 
for the consideration of questions involved in relation to the Committee 
on the quantity and composition of rainfall, and of lake and river dis- 
charge. It referred to the ratio of the discharge of the river to the 
rainfall in particular districts, and the position of the discharge in relation 



58 REPORT— 1905. 

to the sediment which it might bring down. This important Committee 
took the whole world for its range. 

Mr. John Hopkinson said that no new Committee was needed for 
ascertaining the amount of rainfall for this country, as that was already 
thoroughly worked up by Dr. H. R. Mill, who had an army of about 
4,000 observers whose returns were published annually ^in ' British Rain- 
fall ' ; and he was sure it would be greatly to the advancement of science 
if all returns were sent to Dr. Mill rather than that there should be a 
separate department dealing with the same subject. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan explained that the work of the Committee he re- 
presented was not to determine the amount of the rainfall, but to determine 
the ratio of the river-discharge to the whole of the rainfall in particular 
districts, which of course involved questions relating to the position of 
the soil and the amount of water that is absorbed by the soil. It had to 
determine these particular ratios, and not to determine the absolute amount 
of rainfall ; and another thing was to determine the character of the 
solution in the discharge at the mouth of the river in relation to the 
different strata in the area over which the rainfall would go. 

Dr. H. R. Mill, a member of the new Committee, wrote : ' The object 
of the new Committee is not to divert the rainfall records of this country 
from the existing publications, where they are most conveniently acces- 
sible, but to collect all published notices and to secure new observations 
of the composition of the dissolved matter in rain and river water, and 
also to deal with the subject of river- discharge. The work proposed does 
not overlap with that of any previously existing Committee.' 

Mr. W. Whitaker proposed a vote of thanks to the Chairman, which 
was carried by acclamation, and the proceedings then closed. 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



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62 REPORT— 1905. 



Catalogue of the more important Papers, and especiallij those referring 
to Local Scientific Investigations, pjuhlished by the Corresponding 
Societies during the yea.r ending May 31, 1905. 

*^* This Catalogue contains only the titles of papers published in the volumes or 
j)arts of the publications of the Corresponding Societies sent to the Secretary of 
the Committee in accordance with Rule 2. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Allen, H. Stanley. Experiments in Eadio-Activity. * Proc. GlasgoAv R. Phil, 
See' XXXV. 82-96. 1904. 

Notes on Physical Apparatus. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil, Soc' xxxv, ITS- 
ISO. 1904. 

AsHWORTH, James (N. Eng. Inst. Eug.). Observations on Water-sprayed or 

Damped Air in Coal Mines. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 11-21. 1905. 
Bare, J. Miller. Observations on Variable Stars. ' Proc. R. Astr, Soc. Canada, 

1904,' 42-48. 1905. 
BiCKERTON, Prof. A. W. The Energy of Stellar Collision. ' Proc. R, Astr, Soc, 

Canada, 1904,' 67-61. 1905. 
Bladen, W. AVells, Report of the Meteorological Section. ' Trans. N. Staff". 

F. C.'xxxvm. 150-157, 1904; xxxix. 133-139. 1905. 
BoKGSTROM, Dr. L. H. The Shelburne Meteorite. ' Proc. R. Astr. Soc. Canada, 

1904,' 69-94. 1905. 
Brown, M. Walton. Barometer, Thermometer, &c., Readings for the Year 1902. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxv. 839-848. 1904. 
Campbell-Bayard, F. Presidential Address. [The Weather of the District.] 

' Proc. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1903-1904,' iii.-.x, 1904. 

Meteorological Report for 1903. 'Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci, Soc, 1903- 

1904,' 46-52, and Appendices of Tables, 55 pp. 1904. 

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Meteorological Notes, 1904. 

' Record of Bare Facts,' No. 14, 42-56. [1905.] 
Chant, C. A. Presidential Address. [Astronomical and Astrophysical Progress 

during 1904.] ' Proc. R. Astr. Soc. Canada, 1904.' xiii.-xxvi. 1905, 

Some New Determinations of the Reflecting Powers of Glass and Silvered 

Glass Mirrors. ' Proc. R. Astr. Soc. Canada, 1904,' 21-34. 1905. 

Cheshire, F. J. Abbe's Test of Aplauatism and a Simple Apertometer derived 

therefrom, ' Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 1-8. 1904. 
Coates, Henry. Seasonal Notes (Opening Addresses). ' Proc. Perths, Soc, Nat, 

Sci.' IV, ii.-vii., xxii.-xxxiii. 1904. 
Coleman, Prof. A. P, Theories of World Building. 'Proc. R. Astr. Soc. 

Canada, 1904,' 53-56. 1905. 
COLLINGAVOOD, E. J. Meteorological Record for 1902 at Lilburn Tower, North- 
umberland. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xviii. 302, 1904. 
Craw, J. T. Note of Rainfall and Temperature at Milstone Hill and West 

Foulden for the Year, 1902. ' History Berwicksh. Nat, Club,' xviu, 303-304. 

1904. 
Cresswell, Alfred. Records of Meteorological Observations taken at the 

Observatory of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, Edgbaston, 1904. 

'Birrn. and Mid. Inst. Sci. Soc' 30 pp. 1905. 
DuzES, Dr. T. Archibald. The Parallel Roads of Glen Roy. ' Trans. Croydon 

N. H. Sci. Soc, 1903-1904,' 23-34. 1904. 
Eaton, H. S. Returns of Rainfall, &c., in Dorset in 1903. 'Proc, Dorset 

N, H. A, F. C xxv. 129-139. 1904. 
Fawsiit, Dr. C . E. The Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions. ' Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' 

XXXV. 171-175. 1904. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 63 

FilON, Dr. L. N. G. Comets: their Appearance, Nature and Origin. 'Trans. 

Croydon N. H. tici. «jc. l'JO.3- 11)04,' 1-10. 1004. 
FoLL, Adolphus, F. The Hammer-Fenneil Tach} meter-Theodolite. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxvii. :]7;J-387. 1905. 
Geokgi, Maurice (Mid. Inst. Eng.). Notes and Considerations on Systems having 

Work of an Intermittent and Irregular Character to perform : Methods of Load 

Compensation. ' Trans. lust. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 80-113. 1905. 
Ghat, Prof. Andrew. The Development of Electrical Science during the Nine- 
teenth Century, and the Electromagnetic Theoiy of Light. ' Proc. Glasgow 

R. Phil. Soc' XXXV. 1-54. 1904, 
HoEFER, Hans. Underground Temperatures, especially in Coal Mines. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvir. 351-367. 1905. 
Hoi'KiNSON, John. Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the Year 1903. 

' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 97-108. 1904. 
Meteorological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the Year 1903. 

' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 117-124. 1904. 
HoAVELL, David J. Recent Lunar Photographs. 'Proc. R. Astr. Soc. Canada, 

1904,' 49-52. 1905. 
Hunter, A. F. Elliptical Solar Halo observed in Simcoe Co., Ontario, May 31, 

1904. ' Proc. R. Astr. Soc. Canada, 1904,' 62. 1905. 
Lamplough", F. E. The Age of tlie Earth. ' Journal Northants N. H. Soc' xii. 

220-227. 1904. 
Latham, Baldwin. Croydon Bourne Flows. ' Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc 

1903-1904,' App. 1-44 and diagrams, &c. 1904. 
McMiCHAEL, J. A. Particulars of a Cyclone in the Neighbourhood of Chester, 

July 21, 1904. ' Report Chester Soc. Nat. Sci. 1904-1905,' 18. 1905. 
Markham. C. a., and R. T. D. Smith. Meteorological Report. — Observers' Notes. 

'Journal Northants N. H. Soc' xii. 186-191, 2.3.3-238, 288-293, 310-316. 

1904-1905. 
Maunder, E. Walter. Magnetic Distin-bances, 1882-1903, as recorded at the 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and their Association with Sun Spots. ' Proc. 

R. Astr. Soc Canada, 1904,' 95-100. 1905. 
Metrick, E. Meteorological Observations, 1904. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' Nc 63, 112-141. 1905. 
Mitchell, Rev. J. C. Results of Meteorological Observations taken in Chester 

during 1904. ' Report Chester Soc. Nat. Sci. 1904-1905,' 19-26. 1905. 
MoNCK, W. H. S. Further Considerations on Aerolites. ' Proc R. Astr. Soc. 

Canada, 1904,' 10-20. 1905. 
MuiR, Dr. Thomas. Farther Note on Factorizable Continuants. 'Trans. S. 

African Phil. Soc' xv. 183-194. 1905. 
MussoN, W. Balfour. Astrophysical Research. ' Proc. R. Astr. Soc. Canada, 

1904,' 35-41. 1905. 
Rheinberg, Julius. An Overlooked Point concerning the Resolving Power of 

the Microscope. ' Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 21-28. 1904. 
Scott, Dunbab D. Mine-surveying Instruments, Part II. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXVIII. 624-684. 1904. 
Waugh, Rev. W. R. On some Recent Sun Spots. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C 

XXV. 157-160. 1904. 
Whitton, James. Meteorological Notes and Remarks upon the Weather during 

the Year 1902, with its General Effects upon Vegetation. ' Trans. Glasgow 

N. II. Soc' VII. 27-45. 1904. 
Williams, W. E. The Stability of Flying Machines. * Proc. Glasgow R. Phil, 

Soc' XXXV. 181-188. 1904. 
WooDROW, John. Report of Meteorological Observations taken at the Coats 

Observatory, 1904. ' Paisley Phil. Inst.' 16 pp. 1905. 
Yorkshire Philosophical Societt. Meteorological Record for the Year 1904, 

' Report Yorks. Phil. Soc. for 1904,' 15-20. 1905. 



64 REPORT — 1905. 



Section B. — Chemistry. 

Beilet, G. T. Advances in Chemical Industry during the Nineteenth Century. 

' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 189-217. 1904. 
Beown, Hokace F. a New Process of Chlorination for Mixed Gold a,nd Silver 

Ores. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 529-534. 1905. 
Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd, and J. Baenes. The Physical and Chemical Properties 

of the so-called Coal Deposit exhibited by Mr. Henry Hall, I.S.O. ' Trans. 

Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxyiii. 5.39-542. 1904. 
DvoEKOViTZ, Dr. P. Petroleum and its Use for Illumination, Lubricating, and 

Fuel Purposes. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 495-506. 1905. 
Faemee, Geoege (Inst. Min. Eng.). The Problem of Gob Fires. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxviii. 434-450. 1905. 
Haevet, Sidney. Presidential Address. [The Wonders of Radium.] 'Trans. 

E. Kent S. N. H. Soc' iv. 1-3. 1905. 
Hendeeson, Prof. G. G. Some Developments in Chemical Theory during the 

Nineteenth Century. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 97-119. 1904. 
Keeshaw, John B. C. Fuel Economy from the Chemical Point of View. 

' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxv. 27-48. 1904. 
LiSHMAN, Dr. G. P. The Analytical Valuation of Gas-coals. ' Trans. Inst. Min 

Eng.' XXVII. 616-526. 1905. 
■ (N. Eng. Inst.). Notes on Safety Lamp Oils. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng. 

xxTiii. 338-340. 1905. 
Reed, Lbstee. The Microscope and Food Adulteration. ' Trans. Croydon 

N. H. Sci. Soc 1903-1904,' 41-44. 1904. 
Simon, R. Dendritic Forms in Paper. ' Trans. Manch. Mic Soc. 1903,' 92-95. 

1904. 

Section C. — Geology. 

Allan SON- Winn, R. G. The Sea's Encroachment on the East Coast. ' The 

Naturalist for 1904,' 305-308. 1904. 
Baldwin, AValtee. A Carboniferous Air-breather from Sparth Bottoms, Roch- 
dale. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii. 523-527. 1604. 
(Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). Sparth Bottoms Qiiarrv, Rochdale. * Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 301-302. 1905. 
Baeke, F. Further Notes on the Occurrence of Glacial Drift in the Potteries. 

' Trans. IJ. Staff. F. C xxxviii. 113-117. 1904. 
Bell, Robert. Notes on the Discovery of Dopplerite in Sluggan Bog. ' Proc. 

Belfast Nat. F. C v. 216-217. 1905. 
Blashill, Thos. Changes in Spurn Point and their Bearing on the Site of 

Ravenser. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 264-268. 1904. 
Bolton, Herbeet. On the Occurrence of a Shell-bearing Gravel at Dumball 

Island. 'Proc Bristol Nat. Soc' x. 241-344. 1904. 
■ The Palfeontology of the Lancashire Coal Measures. Parts II. and III. 

' Trans. Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii. 578-650, 668-689. 1904. 
Booth, Wm. H. Artesian Wells. 'Journ. City of London CoU. Sci. Soc' 

X. 43-49. 1905. 
Brodeick, H. British Caves. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol, Soc' ix. 354-358. 1904. 
Beoom, Dr. R. On the Affinities of TrityIodo7i. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' 

XVI. 73-77. 1905. 
Browne, A. J. Jukes. The Geology of the Country round Chard. 'Proc. 

Somersetshire A. N. H. Soc' ix. 12-22. 1904. 
BuTTEEPiELD, A. E. Notes on the Growth of Sptirn. 'The Naturalist for 1904,' 

325-328. 1904. 
Caeadoc and Seveen Valley Field Club. Geological Notes, 1904. ' Record 

of Bare Facts,' No. 14. 41 pp. [1905.] 
CoLENUTT, G. W. Freshwater I3a3', Isle of Wight. ' Proc. Hants. F. C iv. 

82-92. 1905. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 65 

Collins, J. H. Anniversary Address. [The Geology of the District.] Traus. 

Cornwall K. Geol. Sec' xiii. 9-20. 1905. 
CoLLYEK, H. C. Jade or Nephrite. ' Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1903-1004,' 

34-40. 1904. 
Cor£, T. H. Types of Rock-flow in the Ceiriog Valley, and their Analogies with 

River Structure. [Presidential Address.] ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' 

IX. .303-331. 1904. 
Cbotdon Natural Histokt and Scientific Societt. Geological Report. 

' Proc. Croydon N. il. Sci. Soc. 1903-1904,' xxxiv.-xxvi. 1904. 
CuLPiN, II., and G. Geace. Preliminary Note on Upper Coal Measures in 

Yorkshire. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xv. 330. 1905. 
An Exposure of Upper Coal Measures near Conishorough. * The 

Naturalist for 1905,' 40. 1905. 
CuTTKiss, S. W. Bibliography. The Yorkshire Caves. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. 

Poly. Soc' XV. 293-304. 1905. 
Davison, Dr. C. Yorkshire Earthquakes. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 26-28. 1905. 
Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). A Section of the Glacial 

Deposits met with in the Construction of the New Docks at Salford. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 372-373. 1005. 
The Permian and Carboniferous Rocks in a Section in High Street, Chorlton- 

on-Medlock, Manchester. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 375-377. 1905. 
DiBLET, G. E. The Fauna and Lithological Features of the Chalk in the 

Rochester District. ' Rochester Naturalist,' in. 297-304. 1905. 
Dickson, E. Notes on some of the Small Glaciers and Glacial Deposits near the 

Summit of the Furka Pass, and a Comparison with Similar Deposits in the 

English Lake District. ' Proc Liverpool Geol. Soc' is. 388-400. 1904._ 
Dron, R. W. (Mining lust. Scot.). The Occurrence of Calcareous Coal in a 

Lanarkshire (Joalheld. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 92-94. 1905. 
Dtj Ton, Alex. L. The Forming of the Drakeusberg. 'Traus. S. African Phil, 

Soc' XVI. 53-71. 1905. 
DwERRrnousE, A. R, The Underground Waters of North-west Yorkshire. 

' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xv. 248-292. 1905. 
Fox, Howard. Further Notes on the Devonian Rocks and Fossils in the Parish 

of St. Minver. ' Trans. Cornwall R. Geol. Soc' xiii. 33-87. 1905. 
Gerhard, John. Notes on Fossils found above the Bradford Four Feet Coal at 

Bradford Colliery, Manchester. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii. 555- 

562. 1904. 
Gibson, Walcot. Sections of Boreholes and Wells in the County of Stafford. 

' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxsviii. 122-149. 1904. 
Greener, G. A. The Coal-fields of the Faroe Islands. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXVII. 331-340. 1905. 
Halse, Edward. Some Silver-hearing Veins of Mexico (concluded). ' Traus. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 169-189. 1905. 
IIarmer, F. W. Field Excursiou to Cromer, Norwich, and Lowestoft, July 9- 

14, 1903. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xv. 305-314. 1905. 
■ The Pleistocene Deposits of East Anglia. 'Proc. Y'orks. Geol. Poly. Soc' 

XV. 315-329. 1905. 
HoBSON, B. A Glacial Boulder from Red Bank, Hanging Ditch, Manchester. 

' Trans. Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii. 549-551. 1904. 
Hogg, A. J. The Gravels of South Norwood Hill, 'Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. 

Soc. 1903-1904,' 18-19. 1904. 
Holmes, W. Murton. List of I'ossils collected [in the Neighbourhood of Croy- 
don]. 'Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc 1903-1904,' 45-46. 1904. 
HooLEY, R. W. Excavations on the Site of the Electric Light Works, South- 
ampton, May 1903. ' Proc. Hants F. C v. 47-52. 1905. 
Jackson, Douglas (Mining Inst. Scot.). Natural Coke in Douglas Colliery, Lanark- 
shire. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 251-252. 1905. 
Jowett, a., and H. B. Muef. The Glaciation of the Bradford and Keighley 

District. ' Proc Yorks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xv. 193-247. 1905. 

1905. F 



66 REroRT— 1905. 

Kendall, Percy F., and H. Howarth. The Yorkshire Boulder Corumittee and 
its Eiphteenth Year's Work, 1903-4. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 78-80. 1905. 

Kber, AValtee. Rocks and Minerals of the CrieiF District. ' Trans. Perths. See. 
Nat. Sci ' IV. 1-21. 1904. 

The Amoeboid Agates of Monzie,near CriefF. ' Trans, Perths. Soc. Nat. Sci.' 

IV. 21-24. 1904. 
Preliminary List of Minerals occurring in Perthshire. ' Trans. Perths. Soc. 



Nat. Sci.' IV. 25-27. 1904. 
LoMAS, J. The Coasts of Lancashire and Cheshire, their Forms and Origin. 

' Proe. Liverpool Geol. Soc' ix. 332-3.39. 1904. 
Macnair, Peter. On Pseudogaylussite dredged from the Clyde at Cardross, and 

other recent Additions to the Mineral Collection in the Kelvingrove Museum. 

' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 250-262. 1904. 
Monckton, C. F. Cinnabar-bearing Rocks of British Columbia. 'Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxvii. 4(53-469. 1905. 
Morgan, Dr. C. Llotd, and Prof S. H. Reynolds. The Field Relations of the 

Carboniferous Volcanic Rocks of Somerset. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' x. 188- 

212. 1904. 
Okiel, Rev. B. The Avon and its Gravels. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' x. 228-240. 

1904. 
Preston, Henry. The Red Rocks underlying Lincolnshire. 'The Naturalist 

for 1904,' 313-315. 1904. 
Reade, T. Mellard. On some Borings at Altcar made by the Lancashire and 

Yorkshire Railway Company. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' ix. 359-369. 

1904. 

and P. Holland. Sand and Sediments. Part I. Recent Fluviatile 

Deposits. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' ix. 370-387. 1904. 

Richardson, Nelson M. The Geology and Natural History of the Coast. ' Proc. 

Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxv. xl.-xliV. 1904. 
Roberts, N. F. Notes on a Section of Clay with Flints near Woldingham. 

' Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc, 1903-1904,' 11-14. 1904. 
The Plateau Gravel, Upper Norwood, and associated Eolithic Implements. 

'Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc, 1903-1904.' 14-18. 1904. 
Rogers, A. W. The Glacial Conglomemte in the Table Mountain Series near 

Clanwilliam. 'Traus. Si)uth African Phil. Soc' xvi. 1-8. 1905. 

and A. !>. Drr Toix. The Sutherland Volcanic Pipes and their Relationship 

to other Vents in South Africa. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xv. 61-83. 
1904. 

Rtjdlee, F. \V. On the Natural History of Pyrites and Gypsum. [Presidential 

Address.] ' Essex Naturalist,' xili. 305-327. 1904. 
Salter, Dr. A. E. The Gravels of Hertfordshire. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' 

xii. 137-144. 1905. 
Sawyer, A. R. The Transvaal Kromdraai Conglomerates. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXVII. 457-462. 1905. 
The South Rand Goldfield, Transvaal. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng,' xxvii. 546- 

555. 1905. 
ScHWARZ, E. H. L. High-level Gravels of the Cape and the Problem of the 

Karroo Gold. ' Traus. S. African Phil. Soc' xv. 43-59. 1904. 

The Rocks of Tristan D'Acunha, brought back by H.M.S. Odin, 1904, with 

their Bearing on the Question of the Permanence of Ocean Basins. ' Trans. 
S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 9-51. 1905. 

Sewell, J. T. Marine Erosion in the Whitbv District. 'The Naturalist for 

1905,' 85-87. 1905, 
Sheppard, Thomas. The Making of East Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 

105-115, 131-139. 1905. 
Shone, Wji. Notes on Wynne and Cambrian Slate Quarries, Glvn Ceiriog. 

' Report Chester Soc. Nat. Sci., 1904-1905,' 17. 1905. 
Shore, T. W. The Origin of Southampton Water. ' Proc. Hants F. C v. 1-26. 

1905. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 67 

Stobbs, J. T. Notes on some recent Geolofjical Exposures in North Staffordshire. 
' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxviii. 1 20-1 21 . 1904. 

Thompson, Beeby. The Cow Meadow Gravel Pit. ' Journal Northants N. H. 
Soc' XII. 207-212. 11)04. 

Wabd, John. Contributions to the Geology and Paljeontology of North Stafford- 
shire. No. V. Additional Notes on a Section of Strata at Weston Sprink. 
' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxix. 122-128. 1905. 

Additions to the Literature relating to the Geology, Mineralogy and 

Paleontology of North Staffordshire. 'Trans. N. Staff". F. C xxxix. 

129-132. 1905. 
Watts, Prof. W. W. The Buried Landscape of Charnwood Forest. * Proc. 

Liverpool Geol. Soc' ix. 340-353. 1904. 
Whitehead, J. J. (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). Notes on Coal in the Transvaal. 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 380-394. 1905. 
WiCKES, W. H. The Rhsetic Bone Beds. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' x. 213-227. 

1904. 
Woodward, Dr. A. Smith. On some Abnormal Ribs of Hyperodapedon from the 

Keuper Sandstone of Hollington. 'Trans. N. Staff'. F. C xxxix. 115-117. 

1905. 

Section D. — Zoology, 

Akmitage, Jos. Notes on the Bats near Barnsley. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 

37-39. 1905. 
Akmitt, Mart L. Additional Notes on Rydal Beetles. 'The Naturalist for 

1905,' 66-57. 1905. 

Observations on Spiders at Rydal. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 69-78. 1906. 

Battley, A. U. The Colours of Insects. 'Trans. E. Kent S. N. H. Soc' iv. 

4-6. 1905. 

Notes on Lepidoptera. ' Trans. E. Kent S. N. H. Soc' iv. 35. 1905. 

Bayfokd E G. Notes on Blethisa multijmnctata L. and other Geodephagous 

Beetles. " ' The Naturalist for 1 904,' 280-282. 1904. 
Sirex juvencvs F. and <S'. nochlio F. in Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 

lOO-lOi; 1905. 
Bickekton, William. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the 

Year 1903. 'Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 125-134. 1904. 
Black, James E. Notes on Coleoptera collected at Rydal, June 22-28, 1904. 

' The Naturalist for 1905,' 54-55. 1905. 
Blackburn, Rev. E. Percy. Mollusca of Driffield and Neighbourhood. • The 

Naturalist for 1904,' 364-367. 1904. 
Bladen, W. Wells. Bird Notes (1902-3), chiefly taken at Stone. 'Trans. N. 

Staff". F. C xxxviii. 85-94. 1904. 
Bolton, Herbert. On abnormally-marked Lion Cubs. 'Proc. Bristol Nat. 

Soc' X. 248-250. 1904. 
Bostock E. D. Report of the Entomological Section. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C 

XXXVIII. 106-107, 1904 ; xxxix. 69-72. 1905. 
BoxTLGER, Prof. G. S. The Life and Work of John Ray, and their Relation to the 

Progress of Science. [Presidential Address.] * Journal City of London Coll. 

Sci. Soc' X. 3-13. 1904. 
Broom, Dr. R. On Two New Therocephalian Reptiles {Glanosuchus macrops and 

Fristerognathus Baini). ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xv. 85-88. 1904. 
The Origin of the Mammalian Carpus and Tarsus. ' Trans. S. African Phil. 

Soc' XV. 89-96. 1904. 

Observations on the Structure of Mesosaui-us. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' 

XV. 103-113. 1904. 

On the Structure and Affinities of the Endithiodont Reptiles. ' Trans. 



S. African Phil. Soc' xv. 259-282. 1905. 
Bruce, David. List of Birds observed on Eight several visits to Loch Roag, Outer 
Hebrides, in the months of June and July from 1886 to 1902. ' Trans. Glasgow 
N. H. Soc' VII. .5-8. 1904. 

F2 



68 REPORT — 1905. 



Cameron, P. On some New Genera and Species of Hymenoptera from Cape 
Colony and Transvaal. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xv. 195-257. 1905. 

Oakadoc' and Severn Valley Field Club. Entomological Notes, 1904. 
' Record of Bare Facts,' No. 14, 39-40. 1005. 

Zoological Note>, 1904. ' Record of Bare Facts,' No. 14, 28-38. 1905. 

Carr, Prof. J. AV. Nottinghamshire Arachnida. ' Report Nott. Nat. Soc. 1903- 
1904,' 16-20. 1905. 
Nottinghamshire Natural History Notes for 1903-4. ' Nott. Nat. Soc. 1903- 



1904,' 21-25. 1905. 
Castellain, a. List of Birds and Flov^ers of Bath and its Neighbourhood, with 

the Periods of their First Singing and Flowering, observed in the Year 1903. 

' Proc. Bath N. H. A. F. C x. 352-355. 1904. 
Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society. Zoological Report. ' Proc. 

Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1903-1904,' xxviii.-xxix. 1904. 
OFrump], W. B. Yorkshire Naturalists at Hebden Bridge. ' The Naturalist for 

1904,' 196-200. 1904. 
Elliman, E. G. Coleoptera observed in Hertfordshire in 1904. ' Trans. Herts 

N. H. Soc' XII. 168. 1905. 
Foster, H. M. List of the Aquatic Larviie of Flies occurring in the Hull District. 

' Trans. Hull Sci. F. N. Club,' in. 180-181. 190J. 
Garrard, G. E. Freshwater Polyzoa. ' Journal Northants N. H, Soc' xii, 

158-164. 1904. 
George, C. F. Lincolnshire Freshwater Mites. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 

25-20. 1905. 
GiBBS, \. E. Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire in the Year 1903. 

' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 109-116. 1904. 
Notes on some Hertfordshire Mammalia. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 

135-136. 1904. 

Coleoptera New to the Hertfordshire Fauna. ' Trans. Herts N. 11. Soc' xn. 



156. 1905. 
Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire in the Year 1904. 'Trans. 

Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 159-164. 1905. 
Gilchrist, Dr. J. I). F. Some Features of the Marine Fauna of South Africa. 

[Annual Address.] ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xv. i-xi. 1905. 
Gyngell, W. On the Nesting Habits of the Rook. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 

269-270. 1904. 
The Sino-ing Time of Birds: Notes made in the Neighbourhood of Scar- 
borough. "The Naturalist for 1905,' 140-151. 1905. 
Hammond, H. W. Bird Song. ' Rochester Naturalist,' in. 305-318. 1905. 
HiCKSON, Prof. S. J. Variations. [Presidential Address, 1903.] ' Trans. Manch. 

Mic. Soc 1903,' 25-34. 1904. 
Jahn, Louis H. Coleoptera occurring in North Staffordshire. ' Trans, N. Staff. 

F. C XXXIX. 73-90. 1905. 
Jeffrey, Wm. R. Nature Notes from Ashford. ' Trans. E. Kent, S. N, H. Soc' 

IV. 35. 1905. 
JouRDViN, Rev. F. C. R. The Dartford Warbler {Melizophilus undatus, Bodd.) 

and its Allies. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxviii. 78-84. 1904. 
KiTCHiN, V. P. Notes on Variation in Melitcea aurinia {artemis). ' Trans. Herts 

N. H. Soc' XII. 165-167. 1905. ' 
Lofthouse, T. AsHTON. Addition to the Yorkshire List of Lepidoptera. ' The 

Naturalist for 1905,' 84. 1905. 
Lord, J. E. Notes: 1. On Englenadeses- ; II. On a Peculiar Habit of Pamphat/iis 

hyaUnits: IIL On a New Rotifer. 'Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc. 1903,' 75-80. 1904. 
MacfiEj Dr. Johnstone. List of Birds observed at or near Davos in the Winter 

of 1901-2. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' yii. 25-27. 1904. 
McLean, Kenneth. The Effect of the Storms of 1903 on Bird I;ife during 

1903-4. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 355-358. 1004. 
Manders, Major N. Notes on Marlborough Butterflies. 'Report Marlb, Coll. 

N. H. Soc' No. 53, 48 52. 1905. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 69 

Masefiet.p, J. IJ. R. What to Study in Nature, nnd IIow to Study it. [Annual 

Address.] ' Tnina. N. Stall'. F. C.' xxxviii. 40-02. 1904. 
lleport of the Zoological Section. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xx.xviii. 07-77, 

1904; XXXIX. 59-68. 1905. 
Meyrick, E. Keport of the Botanical Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. FT. Soc' 

No. 53, 56-G13. 1905. 
■ Report of the Entomological Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' 

No. 5;5, 67-81. 1905. 

Ornithological List. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. II. Soc' No. 53, 82-85. 1905. 

. List of Ilymenoptera, Hemiptera, &c., of the District. * Report Marlb. Coll. 

N. H. C No. 53.' 86-98. 1905. 
Palmer, Mebvyn G, The Marshes. ' Rochester Naturalist,' in. 25-3-270. 1904. 
Paterson, John. Birds of the Clyde between Glasgow and the Red Bridge, 

Uddingston. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 5S-09. 1904. 
Patience, Dr. Alexander. On the Occurrence of the Schizopod Pseudomma 

7-oseum, G. O. Sars, within the Clyde Area. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 

74-76. 1904. 
Pekinguey, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera of South Africa {Lucanidce 

and Scarabeidcp). 'Trans. S. African PhiJ. Soc' xiii. 1-293. 1904. 
Petch, T. The Rediscovery of Limax tenellus, Mull.j in Britain and Essex. 

' Essex Naturalist,' xiii. 342. 1905. 
The Published Records of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the East 

Riding, with Additions. ' Trans. Hull Sci. E. N. Club,' m. 121-172. 1904. 
Marine Zoology in the East Riding, 1904. ' Trans. Hull Sci. F. N. Club,' 



III. 181. 1904. 
Pdrcell, Dr. F. W. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of South African 

Spiders. 'Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xv. 115-173. 1904. 
Radclyffe, Capt. C. E. The Natural History of Alaska. ' Proc Dorset N. H. 

A. F. C XXV. 8-lG. 1904. 
Read, R. H. Birds' Eggs. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxviii. 95-105. 1904. 
Richardson, N. M. Report on Observations of tlie First Appearances of Birds 

and Insects and the First Flowering of Plants in Dorset, 1903. ' Proc Dorset 

N. H. A. F. C xxv. 275-285. 1904. 
Roebuck, W. D. Molluscan Fauna of Langstrothdale, ' The Naturalist for 

1904,' 293-297. 1904. 
RossETER, T. B. The Genital Organs of Tcenia sinuosa. ' Journal Quekett Club,' 

IX. 81-90. 1904. 
lloussELET, C. F. On a New Freshwater Polyzoon from Rhodesia, Lophopodella 

Thomasi, gen. et sp. nov. 'Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 45-56. 1904. 
Scott, Dr. Thomas. On some Entomostraca from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 46-52. 1904. 
ScouRFiELD, D. J. The Locomotion of Microscopic Aquatic Organisms. ' Journal 

City of London Sci. Soc' x. 63-70. 1905. 
Synopsis of the Known Species of British Freshwater Entomostraca : Part III. 

Ostracoda, Phyllopoda, and Branchiura. 'Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 29-44. 

1904. 
S[HEPrARD], T. Yorkshire Naturalists at Harwood Dale. 'The Naturalist for 

1904,' 179-188. 1904. 

• Yorkshire Naturalists at Buckden. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 271-280. 1904. 

Smith, Arthur. Lincolnshire Mammals. 'The Naturalist for 1905,' 45-49. 

1905. 
Smith, Frank, P. The Spiders of Epping Forest : Part III. ' Essex Naturalist,' 

XIII. 209-218. 1904. 
■ The Spiders of the Sub-family Erigonenie. 'Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 9- 

20. 1904. 
The Spiders of the Erigone Group. 'Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 109-116. 

1904. 
Snell, F. C. With a Camera in the Country. ' Trans. E. Kent S. N. H. Soc' 

IV. 15-21. 1905. 



70 REPORT — 1905. 

SoAMES, Rev. TI. A. Note on the Sertulariidfe of Kent and Sussex. * Journal 

Quekett Club,' ix. 69-70. 1904. 
So4E, C. D. Two New British Water-mites. ' Journal Quekett Club.' ix. 105- 

108. 1904. 
Thompson, M. L. Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1903. ' The Naturalist for 1904/ 

231-232. 1904. 
Thomson, A. E. Spiders. ' Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc. 1903,' 54-70. 1904. 
VXvRA, Dr. V. On the Phyllopods Limnadia lenticularis (L.) and Limnetis 

brachyura (O.F.M.) and their Occurrence in Bohemia. 'Journal Quekett 

Club,' IX. 63-68. 1904. 
Wardlb, Sir Thomas. Fossil Fern from Butterton. 'Trans. N. Staff. F. C 

XXXIX. 118-119. 1905. 
Welch, R. On Helix {Helicella) Zakkarensis, Kobelt. ' Proc. Belfast Nat. F. C 

VI. 222-223. 1905. 
WESCHfi, W. Some New Sense Organs in Diptera. ' Journal Quekett Club,' ix, 

91-104. 1904. 
Wheldon, J. A. Nesting Habits of Rooks. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 298- 

299. 1904. 

Section E. — Geography. 

FisHEE, Rev. A. B. Western Uganda. 'Journal Manch. Geog, Soc' xx. 49-62. 

1905. 
FiTKUZAWA, Sampachi. The Future of Japan from the Geographical Point of 

View. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 289-300. 1904. 
HoDSON, T. C. The Assam Hills. ' Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc. 1904,' 14-41. 

1905. 
McFaklane, Rev. Samuel. My Experiences as a Pioneer Missionary amongst 

the Cannibals of New Guinea. * Journal Mancb. Geog. Soc' xx. 8-28. 1904. 
Maetin, H. C. The Isle of Man and its Beauty Spots. ' Journal Manch. Geog. 

Soc' XX. 63-73. 1905. 
NtTNAN, Thomas J. Fernando Po, W^est Africa. ' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' 

XX. 29-36. 1904. 
Steinthal, Rev. S. A. Geographical Research in the Year 1903. ' Journal 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xx. 1-7. 1904. 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

Adcock, A. The Growth of Local Government in Northampton. 'Journal 

Northants N. H. Soc' xii. 165-170, 197-203. 1904. 
Ashley, Prof. W. J. The Clear Facts of the Commercial Situation, and the 

Divergent Conclusions drawn from them. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' 218- 

230. 1904. 
Brocklehuest, F. Some Problems of Local Government. * Trans. Manch. 

Stat. Soc. 1903-1904,' 89-108. 1904. 
Beownlee, Dr. John. An Incidence in Zymotic Diseases. ' Proc Glasgow R. 

Phil. Soc' xxxv. 301-310. 1904. 
Devon, James. The Treatment of the Criminal and Offender. ' Glasgow R. Phil. 

Soc' xxxv. 1.50-170. 1904. 
Ellingee, Baenaed. Value and Comparability of English and German Foreign 

Trade Statistics. ' Trans. Manch. Stat. Soc. 1903-1904,' 139-158. 1904. 
HuTTON, J. A. The Work of the British Cotton-growing Association. ' Trans. 

Manch. Stat. Soc. 1903-1901,' 109-188. 1904. 
Long, James. The Garden Village of the Small Holdings Association. ' Trans. 

Manch. Stat. Soc. 1903-1904,' 159-174. 1904. 
Meettens, F. Productivity, Protection and Integration of Industry. 'Trans. 

Manch. Stat. Soc 1903-1904,' 1-67. 1904. 
Moore, R. T. (Mining Inst. Scot.) The Output of Coal in Scotland during the 

past Thirty-one Yeai's. [Presidential Address.] ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvil. 

69-79. 1905. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIKS. 



71 



Oldham, C. H. Cartels and Syndicates in Gorman Industry. 'Journal Stat. 

Soc. Ireland; xi. 258-270. 1904. 
Samtjels, a. W. Scottish Private Bill Legiplation in Worldng. ' Journal Stat. 

Soc. Ireland,' xi. 270-284. 1904. 
Shaw, Dr. J. J. Fiscal Policy: Some Lessons from the Blue Book. 'Journal 

Stat. Soc. Ireland,' xi. 230-244. 1904. 
Smart, Prof. Wm. The Fiscal Policy. ' Proc. Glasgow II. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 

55-62. 1904. 
Stanuell, 0. A. The Government Management of Indian Railwavs. ' Journal 

Stat. Soc. Ireland,' xi. 244-257. 1904. 
Stnnott, N. J. Housing of the Rural Population in Ireland. ' Journal Stat. 

Soc. Ireland,' xi. 215-2.30. 1 904. 

Section G. — Engineering. 

Adams, Henet. Screws and Screw-cutting. ' Journal City of London Coll. Sci. 

Soc' X. 52-59. 1905. 
AsHAvoETH, James (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc.\ Outbursts of Gas and Coal at the 

Morrissey Collieries, British Columbia. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 56-62. 

1905. 
Balfotje, Geoege. Surface Contact and Conduit Tramways. ' Trans. Liverpool 

Eng. Soc' XXV. 278-303. 1904. 
Bbaed, J. T. (N. Eng. Inst.) The Action, Influence and Control of the Roof in 

Longwall Working. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 341-347. 1905. 
Brown, E. O. Foester (N. Eng. Inst.) A Method of Packing Excavations in 

Coal Seams by means of Water. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 325-334. 

1905. 
(Min. Inst. Scot.). Notes on the Application of Electric Power at Mines in 

Germany. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 40-50. 1905. 
Caird, Dr. "R. Developments in the Means of Communication at Sea during the 

Nineteenth Century. 'Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 231-249. 1904. 
Ceawfobd, Robeet (Min. Inst. Scot.). Winding of Minerals from Inclined 

Shafts. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' XXVIII. 230-2.35. 1905. 
Ceesswell-Roscamp, J. An Improved Apparatus for Laying Dust in Coal-mines. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 578-581. 1904. 
CRrMP. A. H. Some Experimenfs with Variable Pitch Propeller Blades. ' Trans. 

Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxv. 374-380. 1904. 
Dickinson, Joseph. On Tappir;g Fluids under Pressure. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. 

Min. Soc' XXVIII. 530-536. 1904. 
Eruption attributed to a Vacuum. 'Trans. Manch. Geol. Min. Soc.'xxviii. 

563-564. 1904. 
(Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). Mountain Tunnelling. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng. 



XXVIII. 395-397. 1905. 
Fox, Francis. Rapid Tunnelling. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvi. 40.3-419. 1904. 
Geoegi, Maiteice. The Application of Electricity for Winding and other 

Colliery Purposes. ' Trans. Mnnch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii. 455-497. 1904. 
Greaves, Percy C. (Mid. Count. Inst. Eng.). An Electrical Heading Machine. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 39-43. 1905. 
Habershon, M. H. (Mid. Inst. Eng.) The Work of a Joint Colliery Rescue 

Station. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 254-263. 1905. 
Halbaum, H. W. G. The Action, Influence, and Control of the Roof in Longwall 

Workings. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 205-228. 1905. 
Hat, William (Mid. Count. Inst. Eng.). The Three-phase Electric Haulage 

Plant at Shirebrook Colliery, Mansfield. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 282- 

287. 1905. 
Hepplewhite, W. H. (Mid. Count. Inst.Eng.). The Beard-Mackie Gas Indicator 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvi. 214-216. 1904. 
Hewitt, A. B. (Mid. Count. Inst. Eng.). An Improved Roller Journal for Haulage- 
Ropes. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 319-321. 1905. 



72 REPORT — 1905. 

Hidden, E. J. Kecent Telephone Developments in Liverpool. ' Trans. Liverpool 

Eng. See' XXV. 58-G8. 1904. 
Holiday, Roslvn. A Comparisou of Three-phase and Continuous Currents for 

Mining Purposes. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 410-415. 1905. 
Holland, Laurence (S. Staff. Inst. Eng.). Prohlems of Working Thick Coal in 

Deep Mines. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 349-359. 1905. 
Hunt, Louis J. Notes on the Design of Electrical Machinery. ' Trans. Liverpool 

Eng. Soc' XXV. 327-348. 1904'. 
Institution of Mining Engineers. Report of the Council on the Coal Mines 

Regulation Act (1887) Amendment Act, 1903, and its Effect upon the Qualifi- 
cations of Candidates for Certificates of Competency. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

xxviii. 414-419. 1905. 
Jackson, J. H. (S. Staff. Inst. Eug.). Notes on Early Mining in Staffordshire and 

Worcestershire. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 98-107. 1905. 
Jones, W. H. An Improved Means for Connecting Colliery Tuhs. 'Trans. 

Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii. 521-522. 1904. 
KiNAHAN, G. H. (N. Eng. Inst.). Notes on Mining in Ireland. ' Trans. Inst. Min, 

Eng.' XXVI. 265-283. 1905. 
Lawton, G. E. (N. Staff". Inst. Eng.). Fires in Mines: with particular reference 

to Seams in the North Staffordshire Coalfield. 'Trans. Inst, Min. Eng.' 

XXVII. 109-123. 1905. 
LocKETT, Wm. (N. Staff'. Inst. Eng.). Record of the Failure of a Locked-coil 

Winding-Rope. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 254-259. 1905. 
Louis, Prof. Henry (Inst. Min. Eng.). Coal Mining in Asturias, Spain. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 420-425. 1905. 
Mackey, W. McD. (Mid. Inst. Eng.). Slack-washing: Preliminary Treatment 

for the Extraction of Dust. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 55-58. 1905. 
Marohant, Prof. E. W. Induction Motors. 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxv. 

184-203. 1904. 
Maurice, Wm. (Mid. Count. Inst. Eng.). Comments on the proposed Rules for 

the Installation and Use of Electricity in Mines. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXVII. 290-306. 1905. 
Meachem, Isaac, Jun. (S. Staff. Inst. Eng.), Presidential Address. [Mining 

Legislation.] 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvi. 305-321. 1905. 
Merivale, J. H. The Prevention of Accidents in AVinding. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXVII. 484-489. 1905. 
Meyer, H. S. Voltage Regulation in Alternating Current Systems, ' Trans. 

Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxv. 142-175. 1904. 
Miller, T. L. Inaugural Address. [The Cost of the Production of Power.] 

' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxv. 1-2G. 1904. 
Moore, R. T. (Min. Inst. Scot.). An Inburst of AVaste Water at AVallyford 

Colliery. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 11-13. 1905. 
Mountain, AV. C. Notes on Electric Power applied to AVinding in Main Shafts. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvn. 142-164. 1905. 
NoRRis, AV. Motor Vehicles. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxv. 106-131. 1904. 
Onions, J. T. (S. Staff, Inst. Eng.). The Northern Portion of the Bristol Coal- 
field. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 26-32. 1905. 
Parrington, T. E. (N. Eng. Inst.). The Adoption of a Balance-rope at Hylton 

Colliery. ' Trans. Inst.^Min. Eng.' xxvi. 294-295. 1905. 
Platt, S. S. (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). Hennebiqiie Ferro-concrete Construction. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 302-.S04. 1905. 
Pope, P. C, and N. D. Cameron. Practical Comparisons of Continuous Current 

and Polyphase Electrical Systems as applied to British Collieries. ' Trans. 

Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii. 652-664. 1904. 
Randolph, Beverley S. Comparison of Electric and Compressed-air Loco- 
motives in American Mines. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 429-434. 

1905. 
RiGBY, John. Outburst from Duncrue Old Rock Salt Mine after being Tapped 

for Brine, ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' xxviii, 565-670. 1904. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 73' 

IvOBEETON, E, II. The Problem of Dynamic Balance. 'Trans. Inst. jNIin. En<^-.' 

xxviii. 557-573. 1004, 
(N. Eng. Inst. Eng.). The Action, Influence, and Control of the Hoof in 

Longwall Workings. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 5-10. 1905. 
RoDEN, James (Min. Inst. Scot.). Coal Mining in Borneo. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXVIII. 23G~24.3. 1905. 
S.4.UNDER8, W. T. Tin Mining in the Straits Settlements, 'Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXVII. 343-349. 1905. 
Notes on the Principal Gold-mining Districts and Mines of Western Australia, 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 585-598. 1904. 
Scott, Ernest Kilburn. Long-distance Transmission from High Head Water 

Powers. 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc.'xsv. 209-261. 1904. 
Simon, A. (S. Staff. Inst. Eng.). Coal-cutting Machinery of the Percussion Type. 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' XXVI. 322-330. 1905. 
Smith, J. Kenet. Modern Marine Boiler Failures. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. 

See' XXV. 313-31G. 1004. 
Smith, William (Min. Inst. Scot.). Description of Houldsworth Colliery, Dal- 

mellington. ' Trans. Inst. Min.J^ng.' xxvi. 2-10. 1905. 
Stonier, George A. Graphite-Mming in Ceylon and India. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' xxvii. 536-545. 1905. 

The Bengal Coal-fields, and some Methods of Pillar-worlnng in Bengal, 

India. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 537-551. 1904. 

Walker, S. F. Alteraating Currents and their possible Application to Mining 
Operations : Part II. How Alternating Currents may be used in Mining. • Trans, 
Inst, Min. Eng.' xxvi. 570-596, 1905. 

The lleport of the Departmental Committee on the Use of Electricity in 

Mines. ' Trans. Inst, Min. Eng.' xxvii. 388-400. 1905. 

Walker, W. Electric Coal-cutting, ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 348-368. 

1905. 
Wattetne, V. The Purpose and Present State of the First Experiments on 

Safety-Lamps and Explosives carried out at the Frameries Experimental 

Station, Belgium. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 445-452. 1905, 
Weie, James C, (Min. Insr. Scot.). Fire in a Lanarkshire Colliery, and Descrip- 

of a Condenser used thereat. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 19-24. 1905. 
Wight, Edward L. (N. Eng. Inst.). Boreholes for Pumping Purposes. ' Trans. 

Inst, Min, Eng.' xxvi. 147-151. 1904. 
Williams, G. J. (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). A Safety Brake for Hand Cranes. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 51-54, 1905. 
Wilson, H. W, Polyphase Machinery and Working, ' Trans. Liverpool Eng, 

Soc' XXV. 74-96. 1904. 
Wilson, J. E. (Mining Inst. Scot.). Proposed Method of Sinking through Soft 

Surface. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 86-89. 1905, 
Wood, W. 0, The Retubbing of the Middle Pit, Murton Colliery, 1903. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 197-203. 1905. 
Wynne, F. H. (N. Stafl". Inst. Eng.), Native Methods of Smelting and Manu- 
facturing Iron in Jabalpur, Central Provinces, India. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXVI, 231-245. 1905. 

Section H. — Anthropology, 
Benson, George. Notes on an Intrenchment on Holgate Hill, York, ' Report 

Yorks, Phil. Soc. for 1904,' 49-50. 1905. 
Bulleid, a., and H. St. G. Gray. The Glastonbury Lake Village. ' Proc. 

Somersetshire A. N, H, Soc' l. 68-93. 1905. 
Christy, Miller, On the Remains of a supposed Pile Dwelling at Woodham 

Walter, Essex. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiii. 280-282. 1904, 
Collins, J. R. Man's Place in the Universe. 'R, Astr, Soc, Canada, 1904,' 

63-68. 1905. 
Evans, Sir John. A Neolithic Celt found near Berkhamsted Common. 'Trans. 

Herts N. II, Soc' xii. 157-158. 1905. 



74 REPORT — 1905. 

Falconer, J. P. E. Ancient Interments at Newton St. Loe, near Bath. * Proc. 
Batli N. H. A. F. C x. .312-314. 1904. 

■ Some Recent Discoveries in Bath. ' Proc. Bath N. H. A. F. C x, 315-317. 

1904. 

GowEE, Haeky D, Flints found at Waddon Marsh. ' Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. 
Soc. 1903-1904,' 20-23. 1904. 

Geat, H. St. Geoege. Excavations at Castle Neroehe, Somerset, June-July, 
1903. ' Proc. Somersetshire A. N. H. Soc' xlix. 23-53. 1904. 

• Excavations at Small Down Camp, near Evercreech, 1904. ' Proc. Somer- 
setshire A. N. H. Soc' L. 32-49. 1905. 

HoBsoN, Mrs. B, Some Souterrins in Antrim and Down. ' Proc. Belfast Nat. 
F. C V. 213-214. 1905. 

Holmes, T. V. Additional Notes on Tree-trunk Water-pipes. ' Essex Naturalist,' 
xiii. 229-240. 1904. 

On the Origin of the Term ' Sarsen Stones.' ' Essex Naturalist,' xiir. 275- 

279. 1904. 

Larkby, J. RtrssELL. Evidences of Prehistoric Man in West Kent. ' Essex 
Naturalist,' xiii. 328-336. 1904. 

Maech, Dr. Collet. Two Examples of Symholism. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C 
XXV. 17-32. 1904. 

Marwick, Sir J. D. Some Observations on Primitive and Early Markets and 
Fairs. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 120-149. 1904. 

Meteick, E. Anthropological Report. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 58, 
142-169. 1905. 

Rkadee, F. W. Wooden Water-pipes at Clerkenwell, London. ' Essex Natura- 
list,' XIII. 272-274. 1904. 

Sheppard, Thomas. Roman Villa at Harpham, East Yorks. ' Trans. Hull Sci. 
F. N. Club,' III. 17.3-179. 1904. 

Spencer, J. Houghton. Castle Neroehe : its Position with relation to Neighbour- 
ing Earthworks. ' Proc. Somersetshire A. N. H. Soc' xlix. 54-55. 1904. 

WiNwooD, Rev. H. H. Excavations at Lansdown, near Bath. ' Proc. Somerset- 
shire A. N. H. Soc' L. 104-100. 1905. 

Wrotteslet, Rev. F. J. Annual Address. [The Origin of the Manor. Village 
and Tribal Communities.] 'Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxix. 60-56. 1905. 

Section I. — Physiology. 

Baeeowman, Jas. (Mining Inst. Scot.). Miners' Phthisis. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' xxvn.' 21-27. 1905. 
Gray, F. W. (Mid. Inst. Eng.). Ankylostomiasis: the Worm Disease in Mines. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvi. 183-201. 1904. 
MuiE, Prof. R. Some Advances in Medical Science during the Nineteenth 

Century. ' Proc Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 26.3-288. 1904. 
Oliver, Dr. Thomas (N. Eng. Inst.). The Miners' Worm Disease as seen in 

Westphalian and Hungarian Collieries. ' Trans. Inst, Min. Eng.'xxviii. 196- 

211. 1905. 
Shenton, J. P. The Application of the Microscope to the Study of Potable 

Water. ' Trans. Manch. Mic Soc. 1903,' 41-53. 1904. 

Section K. — Botany. 

Barclay, William. The Riverside Marshes between Errol and Invergowrie. 

' Trans. Berths. Soc. Nat. Sci.' it. 58-62. 1904. 
Bennett, Arthur. Notes on Good King Henry. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 

20-21. 1905. 
BouLGER, Prof. G. S. History of Essex Botany. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiii. 218- 

229. 1904. 
• Bbahshaw, A. P. Some Intelligent Plant Forms. 'Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc. 

1903,' 71-74. 1904. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



75 



Brown, Dr. Robert. The Alpine Primulacese. 'Trans. GI;v<gow N. H. Soc' 

BTJCHAN-HKpittJRV, Sir A. Presidential Address. [The Conifeme of Smeaton.] 

'HistoryBerwicksh. Nat. Club.' XVIII. 201-214. 1904. 
Caeadoc and Severn Valley Field Clttb. Botanical Notes, 1904. Record 

of Bare Facts,' No. 14, 0-27. 1905. .,r t, , ,• , ■ r ■ n\ 

Cavers Dr F Notes on Yorkshire Bryophvtes : III. Reliojdta hemisphenca {L.) 

Rad'di. 'The Naturalist for 1904,' 208-214, 242-2.50. 1904. ^ .^ . ^ 
Chittenden F. J. The Uvedinecn and Ustilaginea; of Essex : a Contribution to 

the Flora of the County. ' Essex Naturalist,' Xiii. 283-294. 1904. ^ 

Crossland, Charles. Fungus Foray at Rokeby. The Naturalist .or 1904, 

"and J." Needham. The Plants of Pecket Wood. ' The Naturalist for 1004,' 

165-175. 1904. ^„ ^_ ^ ,. ^ . .,_„,, 

Fungus Flora of a Cast-out Hearthrug. ' The Naturalist for 1904, 



359-36.3. 1904. ^ i, . • i t, , 

Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society. Botanical Report. 

'Proc. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1903-1904,' xix.-xxiv. 1904. 
Dalton, W, H. Absence of the Beech in Hainhault, as contrasted with Eppmg 

Forest. 'Essex Naturalist,' xiii. 340-341. 1905. _ 

Daebishire, 0. V. The Structure of Plant Organs in their Relation to i^ unction 

and Environment. ' Trans. Mancli. Mic. Soc. 1903,' 81-87. 1904. ^ 

Dixon, H. N. Phenological Observations. 'Journal Northants N. H. boc. xii. 

302-303. 1905. ^ ^„ at tt c ' 

EwiNG, Peter. The Hepaticse of the Clyde Area. ' Trans. Glasgow N. 11. Soc. 

VII. 52-58. 1904. AT TT o . 

EwiNG, Mrs. Peter. Juncus tenuis (\N\M). ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc. vii. 

••'2-25. 1904. 

Fryer Dr A. c' On an interesting Habitat for Dija/oteiis i^eww^/cfe, the Narrow- 
leaved Wall Mustard. 'Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' x. 245-247. 1904. 

Hammond, W. H. Natural History Notes for 1904. ' Trans. E. Kent b. N. M. 

Soc' IV. 36. 1905. _ c AX TT e • 

Hewett, F. Botanical Notes from Thanet. 'Trans. E. Kent S. N. H. boc. iv, 

36 190.5. 
Holland, J. H. Economic Fungi : Part HI. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 93-96, 

121-125. 1905. ^. . <a^, AT . r -^ 

Ingham, Wm. Mosses and Hepatics of the Buckden District. The Naturalist 

for 1904,' 309-312. 1904. . ^^ . 

Jackson, B. Datdon. The History of Botanic Illustration. [Anniversary 

Address.] 'Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 145-156. 1905. 
Johnson, Walter. 'Good King Henry' {Chenopodium Bonus-He7incm L.). 

'The Naturalist for 1904,' 3G8-376. 1904. 
Keegan, Dr. P. Q. The Chemistry of some Common Plants. Ihe Naturalist 

for 1904,' 343-346. 1904. ^^ ^^ ^^,^^ 

The Holly {Ilex aquifolium). 'The Naturalist for 1905,' 57-60. 190-3. 

Maeloth, Dr. R, Mimicry among Plants. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc. XV. 

97-102. 1904. 
Marten, John. Bryological Notes for Kent, 1904. 'Trans. E. Kent S. N. II. 

Soc' IV. 36. 1905. . rr, • , .• A 1 1 -1 

Massee, G. Some Plant Diseases caused bv Fungi. [Presidents Address.J 
' Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 57-62. 1904. at c «• -p r^ 

NowEEs, John E. British Poisonous Flowering Plants. ' Trans. JN. btatt. 1<. U. 
XXXTX 94-112 1905. 

Pawbon, a. H. English Hedgerows. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 259-263. 1904. 

Weeds. [Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union.J Ihe 

Naturalist for 1905,' 4-14. 190.5. 

Mountain Plants at the Seaside. ' The Naturalist for 190u, 41-44. 190.>. 



Pearson, H. H. W. South African Verbenacerc. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc. 
XV. 175-182. 1905. 



76 REPORT— 1905. 

I'BrwoRTH, W. II. Winter Notes on Natural History. 'Trnns. MancL. Mic. 

Soc. 1903,' 35-40. 1904. 
Fetch, T. Notes on Ader tripoliujn. ' The Naturalist for IGOo,' .50-54. 1905. 
Philip, R. H. The Finding of a Famous East Yorkskire Diatom. ' The Natu- 
ralist for 1904,' 214-216. 1904. 
Ridge, W. T. B. Report of the Botanical Section. 'Trans. N. Staff. F. C 

xxxviii. 103-110, 1901; xxxix. 91-93. 1905. 
S[HErpARD], T. Yorkshire Naturalists at Dent. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 299- 

304. 1904. 
Sjiith, a. Cryptogams in the Grimsby District. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 83- 

84. 1905. 
Turner, Charles. The Development of Cocconema cistula (Diatomacece .) 

'Trans. Manch. Mic. Soe. 1903,' 88-91. 1904. 
Waterfall, 0., and J. F. Robinson. East Yorkshire Botanical Notes in 1904. 

' Trans. Hull Sci. F, N. Club,' in. 184-185. 1904. 
WiSHART, R. S. Experiments on the Thickening of Some Tree Stems. ' Trans 

Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 18-22. 1904. 
Wood, Rev. T. B. Flowering Plants of Littondale and Langstrothdale. ' The 

Naturalist for 1905,' 116-117. 1905. 
Woodrufpe-Peacoce, Rev. E. A. Seed Collecting and Drying. ' The Naturalist 

for 1904,' 176-178. 1904. 
The Soil Storehouse. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 22G-230. 1904. 

Section L. — Educationai, Science. 

Buckingham, 0. Nature Study : its Pleasures and Benefits. ' Trans. E. Kent 

S. N. II. Soc' lY. 21-28. 1905. 
Card WELL, John J. The Teacher's Part in the Preparation of a Course of Local 

Geography. 'Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xx. 74-80. 1905. 
IMaclean, Prof. Magnus. The Historical Development of the different Systems of 

Education in the Highlands. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxv. 63-81. 1904. 
Redmayne, R, a. S. The Mining Department of the University of Birmingham. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxviii. 465-475. 1904. 
SFheppard], T. Nature Study : Ideal and Real. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 22- 

" 25. 1905. 
ToNGE, James, Jun. Education in Coal Mining. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Min. Soc' 

XXVIII. 503-518. 1904. 
Turner, Thomas (N. Staff. Inst. Eng.). The Development of Higher Education 

in North Staffordshire. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 28-31. 1905. 
AVinstanley, G. II. Mining Examinations, with Special Reference to the Board 

of Education Examination in Mining. ' Trans. Manch. Geol, Min. Soc' xxviii. 

571-575. 1904. 
Wyatt, C. H. The History and Development of the Manchester School Board. 

' Trans. Manch. Stat. Soc. 1903-1904,' 69-87. 1904. 

Obituary. 

Beaumont, Alfred. By G. T. P. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 102-105. 1905. 
Cochrane, William, By Cyril A. Cochrane. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 

192-195. 1905. 
Daltry, Rev. T. W. By W. Wells Bladen. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxix. 

37-18. 1905. 
Etheridge, Robert. By Horace B. Woodward. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc.' x. 

175-187. 1904. 
Harvey, Arthur. ' Proc R. Astr. Soc. Canada, 1904,' 103-106. 1905. 
Hawell, Rev. John. ' The Naturalist for 1904,' 241. 1904. 

By Rev. W. Lower Carter. ' Proc Y'orks. Geol. Poly. Soc' xv. 331-333. 1905. 

MouLE, H. J. By the Bishop of Durham. 'Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxv. 

Ixxviii.-lxxx. 1904. 
Preston, Rev. T. A. 'Report Marlh. Coll. N, II. Soc' No. 53, 101-104. 1905. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



77 



Meteorological Ohservatiom^ on Ben Nevis. — Beport of the Committee, 
consistiwj of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor A. Cru.m Broavn 
(Secretary), Sir John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, Professor 
CoPELAND, and Mr. 11. T. Omond. (Draiun up by Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee was appointed, as in former years, for the purpose of 
co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteoro- 
logical observations at the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

At the High Level Observatory Mr. Rankin and his assistants con- 
tinued the eye-observations hourly, by day and night, for the iirst nine 
months of 1904. At the Low Level Observatory in Fort William the 
corresponding values were obtained from the self-recording instruments 
there for the same period. On October 1, 1904, both Observatories were 
closed, and the observations ceased. 

The health of the observers continued good. 

The Directors desire to very cordially thank the Rev. J. S. Begg and 
Messrs. H. R. Baxter, W. R. Bruce, and F. R. Lucas for their services as 
volunteer observers during the summer. 

The principal results of the observations made at the two Observatories 
from January to September 1904 are detailed in Table I. 

Table I. 



1904 



Jan. 



Feb. ifarcli April May June July Aug. Sept. 



Oct. Nov. I Dec. 



Year 



Mean Presmre in Indies. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
i'Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Xe vis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



25-086 1 24-870 



29678 
4-592 



29-453 
4-583 



25-293 



29-937 



25-124 



29-699 



25-303 



29-853 
4-550 



25-4701 25-463 



29-980 29-941 
4-510 4-478 



25-405 



4-644 4-575 

Mean Tem-peratures. 



29-900 
4-495 



25-464 



29-986 
4-522 



Extremes of Temperature : Maxima. 



Hainfall in Incites. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
DifCerUDCCS . 



21-71 



8-04 
13-67 



11-41 



6-14 

5-27 



8-65 I 26-57 

I 
4-87 . 10-26 
3-78 i 16-31 



10-88 



6-51 
4-37 



9-35 I 8-03 I 11-09 



4-97 
4-38 



6-30 

2-73 



7-12 
4-57 



13-15 



8-63 
4-52 



25^5 


O 

21-8 


o 
23-1 


o 
27-7 


o 
32-2 


o 
39-5 


43°.l 


o 
39-4 


o 
38-4 


o 


o 





41-2 
1 15-7 


37-8 

16-0 


39-5 

16-4 


45-3 
17-U 


48-9 
16-7 


55-0 
15-5 


57-6 
14-5 


65-2 
15-8 


53-3 
14-9 


— 


— 






39-0 


34-0 


37-3 


37-0 


50-3 


55-0 


62-1 


57-9 


50-S 


— 


— — 


61-4 

12-4 


48-0 
14-0 


51-1 
13-8 


58-0 
21-0 


73-1 

228 


74-4 
19-4 


75-5 
13-4 


73-0 
15-1 


67-5 
16-7 





__ 









Ext 


•ernes of Temperature : 


Minima. 






Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


15-5 

28-2 
12-7 


10-5 

26-3 

15-8 


10-1 

24-5 

14-4 


19-6 

32-9 
13-3 


18-0 

36-1 

18-1 


27-6 

40-3 
12-7 


32-1 

44-4 
12-3 


30-5 300 • — 

39-4 38-1 — 

8-9 8-1 \ — 


— 


— 









Nuviber of Days 1 in. or more fell. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


7 


7 


4 

2 
2 


2 


2 


14 4 

2 1 

12 1 3 


2 

1 

1 


2 

1 
1 


4 5 

2 3 

2 1 2 


— 


— 


- 



78 



REPORT — 1905. 
Table I. — contimied. 



1904 



Jan. 



Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept, 



Oct. 



Nov. Dec 



Year 









Numher of Day i 


001 


in. 


' more fell. 








BeiiNevisOb- 


25 


24 


21 


28 


21 


16 


20 


28 1 19 


— 


— 


— 


servatorv 


























Fort William 


27 


20 


17 


2f! 


23 


14 


21 


2S 


19 


— 


— 


— 


Differences . 


-2 


4 


4 


2 


-2 


2 


-1 


2 





— 


— 


— 









Mean Rainhand {Scale 0-8). 








Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


1-8 

3-6 
1-8 


2-2 

4-0 
1-8 


2-2 
3-8 

1-6 


3-9 

4-4 
0-5 


3-8 3-0 

4-4 j 4-n 

U-6 1 1-9 


28 

4-9 
2-1 


3-4 

4-7 
1-3 


2-4 

4-2 
1-8 


— 


— 



Numher of Hours of Brlglit Smishine. 



Ben Nevis Ob- i 9-2 

servatorv 
Fort William 6-4 
Differences . | -4-2-8 



22-6 



31-2 

8-ti 



69-6 



103-8 
34-2 



18-5 



77-8 
69-3 



80-2 



187-3 

224-8 
61-2 37-5 



141-4 



140-4 1 37-4 



164-0 125-5 
23-6 1 88-1 



101-5 



132-8 
31-3 



Ben NeWs Ob- 
servatory 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Uiffereuces . 



18 



Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind in Miles. 

19 I 16 I 17 j 14 I 10 I 11 I 8 I 11 

Percentage of Cloud. 



93 


93 


77 


95 


87 


68 


76 


88 


81 


— 


— 


— 


85 


84 


68 


82 


78 


63 


76 


80 


71 










8 


9 


9 


13 


9 


5 





8 


10 


— 


— 


— 



The above table shows for the first nine months of 1904 the mean 
monthly pressure ; the mean and extreme temperatures ; the amounts of 
rainfall ; the number of days with rain, and of days with falls of 1 inch 
or over ; the mean rainband ; the hours of sunshine ; the mean velocity in 
miles per hour of the wind at the top of the mountain, and the mean 
cloud amount. The mean barometric pressures at Fort William are 
reduced to 32° and sea-level, but those at Ben Nevis Observatory to 
32° only. 

The difference of the mean atmospheric pressures at the two Observa- 
tories ranged from •i-644 inches in March to 4'478 inches in July. At 
the top the absolutely highest pressure during the period was 25-925 inches 
at 10 P.M. on January 21, and at Fort William 30'658 inches at midnight 
on the same day. The lowest pressures occurred at 1 p.m. on February 13, 
being respectively 24-017 inches and 28'419 inches. Thus the difference 
of the extremes at top and bottom were 1*908 inch and 2'239 inches 
respectively. The low mean pressures for February are noteworthy, that 
at Fort William Vjeing as much as four-tenths of an inch below the mean 
for thirteen years, and that at the top almost the lowest February mean 
in twenty-one years, February 1885, with a mean of 24'858 inches, alone 
being lower. 

The deviations of the mean temperatures of the months from the 
averages of the thirteen-year period 1891-1903, are shown in Table II. : — 

Table II. 





Fort 


Top of 




Fort 


Top of 




William. 


Ben Nevis. 




WiUiam. 


Ben Nevis 


January- 




. 4-2-5 


o 
-f2-l 


June 


o 

. -0-4 


o 

-0-5 


February 


. -1-0 


-2-3 


July. . . 


. -hO-5 


-1-1-4 


March 


. -0-9 


-1-2 


August . 


. -1-3 


-1-4 


April 


. -hO-2 


-0-6 


September 


, -hOl 


-1-0-4 


l\Iay . 


. -0-8 


-1-0 J 









METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



79 



January was a somewhat mild month, with the highest mean tem- 
perature since 1898, and both February and March were, at both 
Observatories, colder than January. On the whole, however, the deviations 
of temperature from the normal were in no way remarkable. The 
absolutely highest temperature during the period at Fort William was 
75°-5 on July 11 and 12, and on Ben Nevis 62°-l on the former day, the 
lowest at Fort William being 24°-5 on March 15, and on Ben Nevis 
10°-1 on March 1. 

In Table III. are given for each month the lowest observed hygro- 
metric readings at the top of Ben Nevis (reduced by means of Glaisher's 
tables) :— 

Table III. 



1904 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Got. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Dry Bulb 

Wet Bulb 


20-5 


22-2 


26-8 


30-3 


31-0 


49^5 


o 

55-8 


o 
51-1 


4l^6 





o 


o 


17-4 


18-0 


20-7 


25^3 


24^0 


38-0 


40-3 


44-2 


31^1 


— 


— 


— 


Dew-point 


-4-3 


-9-3 


-8-0 


10^3 


5^1 


25-7 


26-3 


37-0 


14-9 


— 


— 


— 


Elastic Force . 


•035 


■027 


•029 


•069 


•064 


•139 


•143 


•220 


•085 


— 


— 


— 


Relative Humidity 


32 


23 


20 


41 


31 


39 


32 


69 


29 


— 


— 


— • 


[Sat. = 100] 
Day of Month 


31 


17 


24 


19 


20 


7 


10 


30 


23 


— 


— 


— 


Hour of Day . 


24 


14 


23 


* 


7 


9 


14 


2 


22 









Of these relative humidities the lowest, 20 per cent., occurred on 
March 24 at 11 p.m. The air on the summit had been very dry for 
several hours, but at midnight on the same day, or only one hour after 
the minimum humidity for the period had been recorded, complete 
saturation set in, an excellent example of the rapid changes of humidity 
so frequently observed on Ben Nevis. This sudden variation was not 
due to any change of wind direction, but to fog rising from the valleys 
and enveloping the mountain top. The longest spells of complete satura- 
tion were from January 8 to 22, and from 9 a.m. on March 31 to 8 p.m. on 
April 14. 

The rainfall for the nine months at the top was 121-44 inches, or 
10-51 inches above the mean of nineteen years ; whilst the aggregate at 
Fort William was 61-84 inches, or 9-02 inches above the average for the 
same period. At both stations the amounts for April were much the 
largest recorded during twenty years, the rainfall at the top being more 
than thrice the noi'inal. In that mpnth there were on Ben Nevis twenty- 
eight rainy days, of which three had falls exceeding 2 inches, and no fewer 
than fourteen falls of more than an inch, the aggregate for the first ten 
days of the month being as much as 17-10 inches. At the summit station 
the greatest fall recorded in a single day was 2-69 inches on January 14, 
the corresponding fall at the base being 0-65 inch, whilst the maximum 
daily amount at Fort William was 2-07 inches on September 5, the fall on 
Ben Nevis on that day being 2-08 inches, or practically the same. 

At the top of Ben Nevis the number of rainy days during the period 
was 202, or ten above the average, and at Fort William 193, or seventeen 
above the average. The number of rainy days in April and August was 
unusually large, and it may be noted that in January, May, and July there 
were more rainy days at the base of the mountain than on the top. The 
number of days with falls of 1 inch or over was, on Ben Nevis forty-four, 
or nine above the average, and at Fort William twelve, or two above the 



80 REPORT — 1905. 

The sunshine recorder on Ben Nevis for the nine months registered 
666 hours, or eighteen hours above the average of twenty years, whilst at 
Fort William the aggregate was 1 ,008 hours, or four hours more than the 
avera<^e of thirteen years. At both stations sunshine was very deficient 
in April and May, the former month having the smallest total on record. 
On the other hand, June, July, and September had amounts much above 
the average. 

The estimated cloud amounts compare in a satisfactory manner with 
the records of sunshine, the value being, for example, very high in April 
and low in June. 

Auroras were observed on January 23, February 8, May 6. 

St. Elmo's Fire :— January 7, 14, 27; March 22; May 3, 17; 
June 20. 

Zodiacal Light :— March 9, 10. 

Thunder and Lightning : — February 12 ; May 1 ; July 31. 

Thunder only :— July 13 ; August 14. 

Lightning only : — January 10, 23, 28. 

Solar Halos :— February 1,9; March 10 ; April 18 ; May 20 ; June 2, 
12 ; September 2. 

Lunar Halos : — February 28 ; March 1 ; August 25. 

Meteorological observations on Ben Nevis having now ceased, the 
object for which this Committee was appointed no longer exists. The 
Directors of the Observatories, however, have still a large and costly 
work before them. The double record of the High and Low Level 
Observations, the unique character of which has been pointed out in 
previous Reports of the Committee, has still to be discussed in its rela- 
tions to weather, and especially to those movements of the areas of high 
and low barometric pressure on which changes of weather mainly depend. 
The scientific and climatological discussion, so far as already carried out 
in respect to areas of high and low pressure, clearly indicates the import- 
ance of this double record in supplying data for the investigation of the 
causes of weather changes. 

The closure of the Observatories prevents their observations being 
made use of directly for weather forecasting, but the Committee con- 
fidently expects that the results of the discussion mentioned above will 
supply forecasters with new information in respect to changes of weather, 
and thus materially aid this important branch of practical meteorology. 



Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ObservatorLj. — Eejjort of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Captain Creak, 
Ml-. W. L. Fox, Principal Sir Arthur Rucker, ami Professor 
A. Schuster, apioointed to co-operate with the Committee of the 
Falmouth Observatory in thdr Magnetic Observations. 

The grant voted by the Association last year has been expended in 
carrying on the magnetic observations at Falmouth Observatory. 

The results of the observations during 1904 have been published in 
the Annual Report of the National Physical Laboratory, and are very 
satisfactory. The vertical force curves have been measured for the first 
time, and the results for 1903 and 1904 are given in the Report. 



ON MAGNKTIC OBSERVATIONS AT FALMOUTH OBSERVATORY. 81 

In connection with this work Mi". Kitto spent some time at Kew 
during the early part of the year. 

Dr. Chrce has published 'An Analysis of the Results of the Falmouth 
Magnetographs on Quiet Days during the twelve years 1891 to 1902 ' in 
the ' Transactions' of the Royal Society for 1904 ; this contains a number 
of interesting results, which confirm in a remarkable manner the con- 
sequences deduced from his earlier paper dealing with the Kew curves. 

The Committee regret to learn that the difficulty of the situation has 
caused great delay in the building of the new Observatory at Eskdale 
Muir, which, they are informed, cannot be ready until the end of 1906. 
In view of the importance of maintaining continuity of the magnetic 
records, they ask for reappointment, with a grant of 50/. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere hi/ Means of Kites in co-opera- 
tion mith a Committee oftJio L'uj/al Meteoroloijical Society. — Fourth 
Beport of the Committee, consistinfi of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), 
Mr. W. H. Dines (Secretari/), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Professor A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. 

This Committee acts jointly with a Committee of the Royal Meteoro- 
logical Society. 

Since the last report a brief account of the observations obtained 
from H.M.S. ' Seahorse ' has been published in the ' Quarterly Journal of 
the Royal Meteorological Society,' but the results have not yet been fully 
worked up. 

Apparatus for testing and calibrating the meteorographs has been 
made by Mr. J. J. Hicks, and consists of an ordinary air-pump with a 
large receiver. Inside the receiver there is a coil of metal tube, through 
which warm water or a freezing-mixture can be circulated ; there is also 
a small electric fan to ensure uniformity of temperature throughout the 
enclosed space. The meteorograph is placed inside, and the pressure and 
temperature altered in any desired way. A record is kept, and is compared 
with the trace obtained from the meteorograph when it is taken out of 
the receiver. Inasmuch as the thermal capacity of the heavy glass 
receiver and metal plate is very considerable, the process of warming or 
cooling the interior is a slow one. A few tests have been made for 
ascertaining the extent to which the temperature correction of the 
barograph is dependent on the pressure, but generally a quicker plan is 
employed for testing the thermograph. The instrument is placed in a 
thin metal case with a water-jacket. The lid is also jacketed, and by 
circulating a liquid through the jacket, and enclosing the whole arrange- 
ment in felt or other non-conducting material, there is no difficulty 
about rapidly bringing the meteorograph to any desired temperature. 

The pen of the hygrograph moves in accordance with the change of 
length of 4 feet of human hair. The approximate scale is a change of 
length of '45 inch from absolute dryness to complete saturation, but a 
more exact determination is now being made by hanging a small weight 
at the end of 4 feet of hair in the open, and taking simultaneous readings 
of its length and of a wet and dry bulb thermometer. 

1905. a 



82 



REPORT — 1905. 



Continuance of Observations. 

The apparatus used on board the ' Seahorse ' was fitted up at Oxshott 
at the end of September 1904, and since that date forty-five ascents, 
giving good records, with an average height of about 4,400 feet, have 
been made. These include most of the days appointed by the President 
of the International Aeronautical Commission. The observations for 
those days are regularly reported to Professor Hergesell, and will appear 
in the publications of the International Committee. 









Kite 


Ascents at Oxshott, 














Tempera- 










Tempera- 








Maxi- 


ture 


Num- 






Maxi- 


ture 


Num- 





Length 
of Wire 


mum 


Decrease 


ber of 


— 


Length 
of Wire 


mum 


Decrease 


ber of 




Height 


(Degrees 


Kites 




Height 


(Degrees 


Kites 








Fahr.J 










Fahr.) 
8 










Feb. 4 


3,100 


2,600 




1904. 






,, 10 


11,600 


7,900 


n5 




Sept. 30 


8,000 


5,000 


*10 


1 


„ 17 


7,300 


4,2.50 


16 




Oct. 3 


6,200 


3,500 


14 


1 


„ 18 


8,000 


5,200 


*5 




„ 5 


8,240 


4,650 


*10 


1 


Mar. 2 


6,500 


4,650 


14 




« 


7,300 


4,250 


17 


1 


„ 3 


4,200 


3,170 


11 




» 7 


8,000 


5,400 


16 


1 


6 


5,400 


4,600 


12 




,. 8 


4,800 


3,250 


12 


1 


„ 8 


6,000 


4,100 


13 




Nov. 8 


6,100 


3,250 


4 


I 


,. 17 


5,100 


3,300 


12 




,. 8 


4,560 


3,000 


13 


1 


„ 25 


4,500 


2,880 


10 




,, 30 


7,180 


3,800 


12 


1 


„ 28 


7,000 


4,400 


15 




Dec. 1 


6,700 


3,200 


*7 


1 


„ 29 


8,000 


5,600 


17 


2 


„ 6 


6,200 


3,850 


16 


1 


„ 31 


10,000 


6,500 


26 


2 


„ 13 


6,400 


3,280 


9 


1 


Apr. 1 


8,000 


4,900 


13 


2 


„ 16 


3,600 


2,850 


9 


1 


4 

1 


9,000 


5,470 


19 


2 


„ 19 


6,100 


3,250 


13 


1 


„ 7 


9,000 


6,200 


15 


2 


,, 29 


9,560 


4,400 


10 


1 


„ 13 


8,000 


5,050 


21 


1 








" 1^ 


5,700 


4,000 


6 


1 








„ 24 


5,100 


3,800 


11 


1 


1905. 






' .. 25 


12,000 


7,000 


20 


2 


Jan. 4 


8,000 


5,500 


17 


1 


' ., 27 


10,000 


6,000 


12 


2 


„ 5 


10,500 


5,800 


17 


1 


„ 28 


5,000 


3,500 


10 


1 


„ 28 


6,300 


3,600 


*-6 


1 


May 5 


10,300 


7,000 


15 


2 


„ 30 


5,500 


2,700 


15 


1 


« 8 


6,700 


4,300 


22 


2 


Feb. 3 


6,000 


3,3.50 


11 


1 


June 1 


12,000 


7,300 


31 


2 



* Indicates a temperature inversion. 

Observations on the ' UelgaJ' 

The observations which it was hoped would be made on the 
s.s. ' Helga ' have fallen through, owing to the increased duties devolving 
upon the officers and men of that vessel. 



Since the last report a 



Funds. 

sum of 85^. 10s. 8c?. has been expended 
on the investigation. This includes 221. for a testing apparatus, and 
\2l. for a corrugated iron shed (20 x 10 x 10 feet) in which to store the 
kites without taking them to pieces, both of which will be of permanent 
use. The remaining fifty odd pounds have been spent on new kites and 
meteorographs and on making good the ordinary wear and tear of the 
outfit. 



British Aiaociation, 75th Report. South Africa, 1905. 



r?ie Large Earthquakes of 1904. 
EnrUiquiilio diiUicU ue indicated A, B, C. &c.. uid the narabai of eoithqa&ka 



[Plale I, 
ahiob aince leOO have origiDaied 



i 




lUuilriiUng the Report on Seitinutoffical Inveitigatio; 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE BY MEANS OF KITES. 83 

Apparatus. 

Comparatively little trouble has been experienced during the winter 
with any part of the apparatus. The steam engine that was bought last 
year did not prove satisfactory while in use on the ' Seahorse,' but has 
been altered. The wire that was wound on the reel at Crinan is still in 
use without a join, although, of course, pieces have occasionally been lost 
from the end. The chief requirement is a satisfactory kite, which will 
combine the three characteristics of flying at a good angle, of being stable 
and not liable to damage in any wind, and of never exerting an excessive 
pull. Perhaps such a kite can never be obtained, but there are such an 
infinite number of ways in which the various types of kite now in use 
may be altered — and the most trifling alterations of detail are sometimes 
capable of producing very great effects — that extensive experimental work 
can hardly fail to develop a kite better than any at present available. 

Observations are being continued at Oxshott, but it is not proposed 
to make any attempt to obtain a vessel for work elsewhere this summer. 
The Committee ask for reappointment without a grant. 



Seismological Investigations. — Tenth Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing 0/ Professor J. W. Judd (Ghairm,an), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, Professor 
G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. EwiNG, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meluola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor 
J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. 
Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, ami Professor H. H. 
Turner. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

[Plate I.] 
Contents. 

PAGE 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 83 

II. The Situation of Stations .......... 84 

III. The Origins of Large Earthqualies in \%Qi 91 

IV. On International Co-operation for Seismological Work . . . .92 
V. Tabulation of the Becords obtained in Tokyo of the Oray-Milne Seismograph 

for the Years 1886-1901. JBy R. D. Oldham 92 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers. 

The registers issued during the past year are Circulars Nos. 10 and 11. 
They refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edinburgh, Paisley, Toronto, 
Victoria (B.C.), San Fernando (Spain), Ponta Delgada (Azores), Cape of 
Good Hope, Alipore, Bombay, Kodaikanal, Batavia, Perth, Trinidad, 
Christchurch, Cairo, Cordova (Argentina), Irkutsk, Baltimore and Beirut. 
Records obtained by means of horizontal pendulums (Milne type) 
at Irkutsk, Tiflis and Tashkent are published in the 'Bulletin de la 
Commission Centrale Sismique Permanente' of St. Petersburg, whilst 
references to similar records made in Strassburg are to be found in the 
' Monatsbericht der Kaiserlichen Haupstation fiir Erdbebenforschung 

o 2 



84 REPORT — 1905. 

zu Strassburg, i/E.' These latter records only indicate whether the 
instrument had responded to certain disturbances, and do not furnish 
information as to times and amplitudes. 

It is anticipated that continuations of registers from Mauritius, 
Tokyo, and Wellington will shortly be received. 

From the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey your Secretary 
learns that copies of registers are to be forwarded from Honolulu, while 
Professor H. F. Reid writes to the effect that Professor S. J. 
Cunningham will recommence observations at Strathmore College, 
Philadelphia. 

Four other observatories, the records from which would be of great 
value, particularly as an assistance in localising seismic foci, are Mexico, 
Arequipa, Melbourne, and Sydney. The registers from the latter two, 
taken in conjunction with those from New Zealand and those obtained 
by the 'Discovery,' the examination of which has been entrusted to your 
Secretary, will undoubtedly throw light upon suboceanic changes now in 
progress in the Antarctic regions. 



II. The Situation of Stations. 

As it is recognised that the character of a seismogram is to a greater 
or less extent dependent upon the topographical and geological situation 
of the observatory at wliich it was obtained, a letter was sent to each of 
the stations at which horizontal Milne pendulums have been established, 
asking for information relating to their installations. The replies which 
have been received run as follows : — 



Abbasia. Cairo, Egypt. {See also Hehvan.) 

Lat., 30° 01' 36" N. ; long., 31° 17' 13-5" E. ; alt., 33 metres. 

Fotmdatiou is on sandy loam. 

Topographical Situation. — On the border between desert and cultivated delta ; 
5 kilometres from the Nile. 

Geological Structure. — The neighbouring desert to the east is mainly horizontally 
bedded limestone. The actual surroundings are Nile valley deposits. 

The station is at an astronomical observatory. 

B. H. Wade, Superintendent. 



Azores. Ponta Delgada, S. Miguel, Azores {Meteorological Observatory), 

Lat., 37° 14' 18-3" ; long., W.G. 25° 41' 15" (Ih. 12m. ISs.) ; alt., IG metres. 

Foundation is on a layer of basaltic rock. 

Topographical Situation. — On low ground with an extent of nearly 2 kilo- 
metres. To the south (nearly 120 metres) is the sea. The hills (small or great 
craters) near the town have a mean altitude of 180 metres. The nearest is situated 
at a distance of 2 kilometres. The great mountains lie to the N.E. and E. Their 
height is 900 metres, and they are 9 and 12 kilometres from the town. 

Geological Structure. — A very thin soil of volcanic cinders, covering a layer, very 
thick (unknown thickness), of basaltic rock. The layer was produced by the 
descent to the sea of a lava stream poured from a crater situated at the north of the 
town of Ponta Delgada. 

Time-keeping. — The hour of the watch is every day compared with the regulator 
established in the Observatory. 

Feanciso a. Chaves, 
Director of the Meteorological Service of the Azores. 



ON SELSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 85. 

Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 

Lat., 30° 17' S" N. ; long-., 76° 37' 25" W. ; alt., 100 feet. 

Foundation is on brick pier, built nearly thirty years ago, on sands and clays. 

I'opographical Situation. — On a hilly plateau. 

Geological Structure. — Sands and clays, about GO feet tliick at this point, rest on 
an irregular surface of crystalline rock dipping toward the south-east. The water- 
level is about 50 feet from the surface. 

Time-heojnng My clock is checked weekly by means of a sidereal clock. My 

clock does not keep very good time. 

Harry Fielding Reid. 

Batavia. Royal Magnctical and Meteor oh;/ ical Ohserratory. 

Lat., 6° 11' 0" S.; long., 7h. 7m. 10s. E. ; alt., 8 M. 
Foundation is on brick pillar. 
Topographical Situation. — Flat country. 
Geological Structure. — Alluvium.' 

Timc-kocpi.ng. — An electrical signal is given hourly by an observer from the 
astronomical clock, controlled monthly by observation of the sun. 

Dr. S. FiGEB, Director. 

Beirut Protestant College, Syria. 

Lat., 33° 54' 20" N. ; long., 35° 28' 10" E. ; alt., 105 feet. 

Foundation is on solid rock. 

TopograjMcal Sitnation. — The general trend of the coast ridge, wliich has an 
altitudeof 2,000 feet, is N.N.E.-S.S.W. At Beirut a limestone spur juts out about five 
miles due west. It was, doubtless, once an island. It is now joined with the mainland 
by a narrow alluvial plain, and the space to the south is filled in by a late formation 
derived from shifting sand. Along the northern face of this spur there is a ledge, 
averaging 100 yards wide, about 1 feet above sea-level; then a sudden rise to a terrace 
100-140 feet above sea, with a further rise to the highest part of the ridge, 500 yards 
back, the height of which is 225-300 feet. The Observatory is at the very edge of the 
middle plateau, about 400 yards from its western extremity, and is about 100 yards 
south of the seashore, which is rocky. Six miles to the east the first ridges of 
Lebanon rise to an altitude of 2,500 feet, with the main ridge, 15-20 miles further, 
rising to 5,000-8,700 feet. 

Geological Structure. — Stratified limestone (tertiary), of unknown thickness, but 
probably not less than 500 feet, and probably with underlying sandstone 100-400 feet 
thick, under which is limestone. Water-bearing strata at sea-level. Dip of strata, 
5° N.-S. 

The station is at an astronomical observatory. 

R^OBEKT H. West. 

Bidston {Livei-pool Observatory'), England, 

Lat., 53° 24' 5" N. ; long., 3° 4' 20" W. ; alt., 202 feet (barometer cistern). 
The foundation of seismometer is at an altitude of 178 feet. 

Foundation is on sandstone. 

Topographical Situatinn. — On the top of a small eminence, from which the ground 
slopes away rapidly in every direction but the south. It is the highest ground in 
the immediate neighbourhood. 

Geological Structure. — The rocks at Bidston are strongly current bedded, hence 
dips are not very reliable. The general dip is to the east, about 5°. Under the 
Observatory there are 25 feet of Keuper basement beds, then a thin band of marl 
less than a foot in thickness, followed by Upper and Lower Bunter. In a boring near 
Bidston station the Bunter has been proved to be 2,850 feet below surface. This 
may include some Permian. The line of water saturation varies, as it is affected by 
pumping. It is probably at a depth of 200 feet. 

The station is an astronomical observatory. 

William E. Plummer. 



' Also see Brit. Assoc. Bep., 1899, p. 178. 



86 REPORT— 1905. 



Coluba, BoTnbay} 

Lat., 18° 63' 45" N. ; long., 72° 48' .56" E. ; alt., about 35 feet above sea-level. 

Foundation is on rock — a large boulder. 

Tojjographioal Situation. — The Observatorj' is located at almost the extremitj- of 
a narrow and somewhat rising strip of land called Colaba, about two and a half miles 
in length, running into the sea almost S.S.W. from the island of Bombay. The 
breadth of the strip where the Observatory is situated is about 500 yards, about 200 
yards of which, near the eastern side, being occupied by the Observatory compound. 
The main Observatory buildings are located on the top of a small mound, sloping 
somewhat more abruptly on the east than on the west. The mean level of the 
ground on which all observation buildings are located is about 32 feet above mean 
sea-level. 

Geological Featiwes. — The rocks generally in the vicinity and of the neighbouring 
hills, such as the Malabar and Cumballa Hills, are basaltic traps and are highly mag- 
netic. The probable dip of the trap is about 5° to the westward. Excavations show 
here and there large boulders of basalts lying in thick and hard beds of red and 
somewhat sandy soil. At several places where the rock crops out through the soil 
the depth of basalts appears to be very great, continuous rock being met to a con- 
siderable depth, as shown by the sides of an existing deep well in the compound. 
Water is always available at a depth of about 30 feet below ground. The 
nearest hill is Malabar Hill, about four miles north, across the Back Bay, while the 
highest hill, the Karauja Hill, about eight miles across the harbour towards E.S.E., 
subtends an angle of about 1° as seen from the Observatory. 

This is an astronomical observatory. 

N. A. F. Moos, Director. 



Calcutta {Alipofe Observatoiy) , India.'* 



Cape of Good Hope, Royal Observatory. 

Lat., 33° 56' 3"-6 ; long., Ih. 13m. 54.76s. E. ; alt., 33 feet. 

Foundation is on the partly weathered rock of the Malmesbury beds — a quartzose 
slate — with good unweathered rock at from 16 to 30 feet below. 

Topograi)hical, Situation. — In a cellar of the main Observatory building, which is 
situated on a rising ground on the comparatively level country between Table Bay 
and False Bay. 

Geological Structure.—' Tlie site is underlain by the oldest rocks of this part of 
South Africa, the slates and quartzites known as the Malmesbury beds. These 
rocks form the whole S.W. corner of the Cajae Colony, and extend over many 
hundred square miles of country. No fossils have been discovered in any of the out- 
crops, but there is no doubt that the old slates and quartzites were deposited at some 
period long anterior to the Devonian rocks of Europe. The Bokkevelt beds of Cape 
Colony contain Devonian fossils. Between these beds and the tilted Malmesbury 
slates there are 4,000 to 5,000 feet of Table Mountain sandstone, which is itself 
separated by a very marked unconformity from the old slate series. The Malmes- 
bury beds in petrological character resemble some of the Silurian slates and grits 
of the southern uplands of Scotland. " Cleaved quartzite " is the most accurate 
description.' — Dr. CorstorpJdne's Report. 

David Gill, H.M. Astronomer. 



Carisbrooke {l^noport' Isle of Wight), England. 

Observations at this 'station ihave been discontinued. Its situation is described 
in the ' British Association_Eeports ' for 1896, p. 185. 

' See Brit. Assoc. Bep., 1899, p. 176. = Ibid., 1899, p. 177. 



ox SEISxMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION?. 87 



Coimbia {Observatorio Maynetico- Meteor ologico), Portugal. 

Lat., 40° 12' N. ; long., 8° 25' W., Green. ; alt., HI metres. 

Foundation is on rock. The pier is a cut limestone, erected on a base of 
masonry, which rests on a 25 cm. layer of concrete, spread on the rock. 

Topographical .■^triatioii—On a hill-top. The height above the surrounding 
country is about 100 metres from the south side and 15 metres from the north. The 
slopes are gentle from all sides. 

Geological Structure. — The nature of the rock is generally Old Bed Sandstone. 
Depth of water-bearing strata undetermined. 

Time-keeping. — The time-keeping is secured by transits of stars, frequently 
observed in the adjoining Observatory. The watch of the seismograph is compared 
every day with a mean-time chronometer, whose corrections are carefully de- 
termined. 

Db. a. S. Viegas, Director. 

Edinburgh Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Lat., 55° 55'-5 N. ; long., 3° 11' 3" W. ; alt., 441 feet. 

Foundation is on granite pier, 3 feet high and 18 inches square, built on the 
surface of the rock, 431 feet above sea-level. A brass plate is placed under each of 
the levelling screws. 

TopograpMcal Situation.— The Observatory, in the basement of which the instru- 
ment is placed, is situated on the ridge of the Blackford Hill, sloping upwards to 
the west, 1 in 10, to a height of about 520 feet above sea-level, and downwards to- 
wards the east, about 1 in 12, to the 300 feet contour line. Towards the north the hill 
slopes downwards, at first 1 in 7, afterwards less steeply, to about the 200 feet contour 
line, where it reaches the general level of the neighbourhood. Towards the south 
the decline is less rapid, being practically level for some 300 yards, after which it 
slopes to the top of a cliff, about 80 to 100 feet high, overhanging the Braid Burn. 

Geological Structure. — ' Blackford Hill is practically one great mass of andesite 
lava (of Devonian age). There is a very thin band of tuff, which is a few hundred 
feet below the surface of the rock upon which the Observatory stands, but it is only 
2 feet in thickness, and it is almost as compact as the lava above it and below. 
The chief disturbing factor, so far as the andesite lava is concerned, is the shattered 
condition of the rock, arising from the joints and divisional planes which traverse 
it in many directions. But deep within the hill I think that these are almost 



negligible.' 



Thomas Heath. 



Jlelwan Observatory, Cairo, Egypt. {See also Abbasia.) 

Lat., 29° 51' 34" N. ; long., 31° 20' 30" E. : alt., 115 metres above sea. 

Foundation is on Eocene limestone rock. 

Topographical Situation. — The Observatory is situated on a spur of the eastern 
desert plateau, which is cut up by numerous ' wadies,' or dry valleys. The spur, 
which rises some 55 metres above the level of Helwan town, is about 80 metres in 
width, with a flat top and a valley on either side. 

Geological Structure. — Horizontally bedded Eocene limestone, mostly of a rather 
chalky nature, in thick beds, with occasional siliceous and marly bands. Compara- 
tively little vertical jointing is seen in the rock, but the horizontal bedding-planes are 
well marked. Water-bearing beds do not occur higher than 60 metres below the 
site. 

The station is an astronomical observatory. 

B. H. Wade, Superintendent. 

Honolulu Magnetic Observatory ( U.S. C. and G. Survey). 

Lat., 21° 19'-2 N. ; long., 158° 03'-8 W. ; alt., 45 feet. 

Foundation is on a concrete pier on solid coral limestone. 

Tojfographicat Situation. — The Observatory is located on the large, level coral 



83 REPORT — 1905. 

plaia which forms the south-western part of Oahu Island, west of Pearl Harbour. 
This plain is about nine miles in length, and of an average width of about two and 
a half miles, and is practically level. The Waianaa mountains rise to the west of 
north, the first high summit being B^ miles distant N., 30° W., 2,450 feet ; the 
second, 6^ miles N., 22° W., 2,740 feet; the third, 7J miles, N. 20° W., 3,110 feet. 
The Observatory is about one mile from the seashore. 

Geolof/ical Strvcture. — The coral plain is a raised barrier reef of great depth, 
estimated at 2,500 feet at the seashore. On the basis of this estimate the depth at 
the Observatory would be about 1,800 feet. The surface is covered with loose coral 
stones of all sizes, with very little soil, and there are frequent large, irregular holes, 
10 or 15 feet deej^ (some reaching a depth of even 30 feet or more). Water is found 
at a depth of about 45 feet, or about sea-level.' 

Time-keejnng, — Star observations with theodolite. 

S. A. Deel, Magnetic Observer U.S. C. and G. S. 

Kudaihdnal Observatory, Madras, India. 

Lat., 10° 13' 50" ; long., 5h. 09m. 52s. E. ; alt., 7,688 feet. 

Foundation is on rock. 

Topograpldcal Situation. — On the top of a hill. At a distance of about two miles 
on the east and south sides the hills slope very steeply down to a height of 800 to 
900 feet above sea-level. Towards the west and north the plateau is much more 
extensive. The highest point lies to the W.S.W., is four miles distant, and the top is 
8,200 feet. The Palani Hills, on which Kodaikanal stands, form a mass fifty-four 
miles long from east to west and fifteen miles broad. The plateau is at an average 
elevation of 7,300 feet above sea-level. 

Geological Structure. — ' Charnockite,' ' a group of hypersthene-bearing rocks, which 
form the largest single section of the Arch^an gneisses in peninsular India.' - The 
rocks have been but little disturbed, and there are well-marked lines of false bedding 
running N.E. and S.W. The chief precipices face either nearly south or nearly east, 
so the chief lines of jointing may be considered parallel to these directions. 

It is an astronomical observatory, but it also receives a direct signal from the 
Madras Observatory clock at 4 p.m. daily.'' 

C. MiCHiB Smith, Director Kodaikttnal and Madras Observatories. 

Royal Alfred Observatory, Mauritius. 

Lat., 20° 5' 39" S. ; long., 3b. 50m. 12-6s. E. of Greenwich; alt., 178 feet. 

Foundation is on alluvium. 

Topographical Situation. — On a plain three miles from the west coast. From N. 
through E. to S.E. the ground generally rises to Mount Pitou, the summit of which 
bears about E.S.E., and is 917 feet above mean sea-level. Between S.E. and S.W. 
there is a chain of mountains, the highest peak of which, the Pieterboth, bears 
nearly six miles due south and has an altitude of 2,874 feet. 

Geological Structure. — The island is of volcanic origin. It has been supposed 
that the alluvium has a depth of from 2 to 14 feet, below which is solid basalt ; but 
I have recently dug 23 feet, to obtain a solid rock foundation for the seismograph, 
and instead of rock I came to water, which has risen 9 feet in the hole. This will 
account for the large changes of level produced by heavy rains. I have also recently 
discovered that a lamp at night (to check tremors) introduces a change of level, the 
boom tilting awaj' from the lamp. It seems as if the tremors were caused by radia- 
tion of heat from the pier, and I thought our magnetic basement (whose floor 
is 13 feet below the surface of the ground, and in which the diurnal range of tem- 
perature is usually less than 03'^ F.) would be an ideal place for the seismo- 
graph. There is only one spot where there is sufficient room for the instrument, and 
in that spot, as I have said, we came to water at 10| feet, i.e., 23| feet below the 
surface. 



' See Brit. Assoc. Hep., 1903, p. 78. 

- Holland, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, vol. sxviii. 

' Also see Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1899, p. 175. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 89 

I hope to be able to try another spot shortly, below the floDr of tlie main 
building. 

Time-keepmj . — By the usual methods at an astronomical observatory.' 

T. F. Claxton, Director. 

Paisley (The Coats Observatory), Scotland. 

Lat., .55° 50' 44" X. ; long., Oh. 17m. 43-3s. W. ; alt., 100 feet above sea-level. 

Foundation is on boulder cla}^. 

Topographical Situation. — Instrument is placed near the top (but on the south 
side) of Oakshaw Hill, the most northerly of a series of ridges which run east and 
west between the Glenifler Braes (800 feet high and three miles to the south) and 
the Clyde, a tidal river, three miles to the north. 

Geological Structure. — Alluvium, i.e., boulder clay, which may be 30 feet thick, 
resting probably on limestone or sandstone. The district is, geologically, a very 
troubled one ; e.g., the surface of Paisley town — say, a mile square — showing moss, 
running sand, shell clay, boulder clay, limestone, sandstone, coal, dolerite, &c. 

The station is an astronomical observatory. 

Datid Ceilley, Superintendent. 

Keio Observatory (National Physical Laboratory), England. 

Lat., 51° 28' N.; long., 0° 19' W. ; alt. of seismograph, 20 feet above M.S.L. 

The indrumcnt's foundation is on pipes filled with cement, resting on a thick bed 
of cement. The ground immediately below, consisting of earth and brick rubbish, 
was rammed hard before the cement was laid. The supports are isolated from the 
paving-stone of which the flooring is composed. 

TopograpMcal Situation. — The Observatory stands on a low mound, presumably 
artificial. It has a deep basement, in which the seismograph is situated, the whole 
surrounded b}- unused subterranean cellars. The surrounding ground is nearly level 
and covered with grass, except a small garden. The Old Deer Park, in which the 
Observatory stands, is bounded on its west and north by the Thames, whose nearest 
approach to the building is some 300 yards. In exceptional floods and high tides 
water sometimes spreads to within fifty or sixty yards of the Observator}', and has 
once or twice reached the basement. The nearest ground showing any considerable 
slope is Richmond Hill. The upward slope of the hill commences about 1,500 yards 
away in a south-eastern direction. Its altitude is only some 200 feet, the highest 
point being some two miles distant. 

Geological Structure. — We have no special knowledge. No deep boring has 
been made nearer than that of the Richmond Water Company. The soil of the 
immediately adjacent park is alluvium (there are patches of sand and gravel not 
very far off). This we suppose to rest on the London Clay at no great depth. 

Time-lieeping. — A daily Greenwich time-signal is received, and there are good 
clocks. 

Charles Chkee, Superintendent. 

Perth Observatory, Westerii Australia. 

Lat., 31° 57' 07"-4 S. ; long., 7h. 43m. 21-74s. E. ; alt., 200 feet. 

FouHdation is on sand. 

Topographical Situation. — Hilltop. Level for half a mile south, then drops sud- 
denly to sea-level. Gradual slope downwards in other directions, though steep to east. 

Geological Structure. — Considerable depth of sand (may be 100 feet or more) on 
top of limestone. 

W. Ernest Cooke, Government Astronomer. 

San Fernando (Observatorio de Marina), Cadis, Spain. 

Lat., 36° 27' 42" ; long., Ob. 21m. 40-34s. W.G. ; alt., 28-5 metres. 
Fmindation is on rock. 

» See Brit. Assoc. Sep., 1899, p. 179. 



90 REPORT— 1905. 

. Topographical Situation. — The Observatory is situated on a hilltop, whose height 
above the environs is 10 metres. The dip (mean) is 7°. 

Geological Structure.— The instrument is mounted on a pillar built on the same 
rock, vfhich is a calcareous one, whose thickness is very variable.' 
The station is an astronomical observatorj'. 

Capitan de Fbagata Tomas db Azcarate, Director. 

Shide, Newport, Isle of Wight, England. 

Lat., 60° 41' 18" N. ; long., 1° 17' 10" W. ; alt., about 50 feet. 

Foxindation is on a brick column, 18 inches square and 6 feet in height, founded 
upon disintegrated chalk, beneath which there is solid chalk. 

Topographical Situation. — On the eastern side of a valley running north and 
south. The station is 40 feet above a small stream in the bottom of the valley and 
200 feet below the crest of a ridge which runs E.tS.E. to W.N.W., across which the 
valley is cut. In the bottom of the valley, which is about half a mile in breadth, 
there is alluvium and grass land. Its eastern side is steep (about 25°) and covered 
with grass and gorse. 

Geological Structure. — The station is on the chalk ridge which forms the back- 
bone of the island. The dip is sleep, approaching the vertical, and towards the 
north. The strike is as given above." 

Time-lteeping . — Time is obtained from the post-office at Newport, which receives 
a daily signal from Greenwich. It can also be obtained by noting the time when 
the sun is due south. For this purpose, in the south wall of the Observatory tliere is 
a vertical slit made of two sheets of iron, The image of this is thrown by the sua 
on to a north wall 16 feet distant. When this image reaches a line on the wall the 
sun is due south. Accuracy ± 1 sec. 

John Milne 

Strassburg, Elsass, Gerinany. 

Lat., 48° 35' N. ; long., 7° 46' 10" E.; alt., 135 metres. 

Foundation is on compact pure gravel, alluvium. 

Topographical Situation. — The instrument is on an isolated pier in water-bearing 
strata, on the Rhine plain, in the University Garden, 60 metres from Goethestrasse 
and 65 metres from the Universitiitsstrasse, along which heavy traffic is not per- 
mitted. The Vosges Mountains are about 20 kilometres distant and the Schwarz 
Wald about 15 kilometres. 

Geological Structure. — On the compact gravel of unknown depth which fills the 
valley between the above-mentioned ranges. Water-bearing strata are found at a 
depth of 1'50 metre. 

Time-heeping . — Time is kept by means of a Strasser and Rohdesche ' Normal 
Uhr ' (chronometer), in telegraphic connection with the Astronomical Observatory. 
Weekly, or more frequently, if required, this is compared. 

Professoe De. Be. Weisand. 

Sydney, N.S. Wales. 

Lat., 33° 51' 41" ; long., lOh. 4m. 50-81s. E. ; alt., 142 feet. 

Foundation is on clay and ironstone shale on sandstone. The seismograph is 
placed on a glazed brick pedestal about 3 feet from floor, as per instructions sent 
with the instrument. 

Topographical Situation. — On top of a hill 142 feet above sea-level. Gradual 
slope south and east side, precipitous on north and west side. 

The station is an astronomical observatory. 

H. R. Lenehan, Acting Govt. Astronomer. 

Toronto, Canada? 

' See Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1899. 

■■' Ibid., 1896, p. 184, and 1902, p. 60. » Ihid., 1899, p. 170, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



91 



Trinidad, West Indies. 

Lat 10° 40' N. ; long., 61° 30' W. ; alt,, 66-71 feet above mean sea-level. 

Votmdation is on Hard pan— sand 'and clay— on a base of concrete 6 feet deep. 

Touoqraplncat Situatiu,i.—On fairly level ground at the foot of a ndge distant 
about 500 feet and 500 feet in height. In the opposite direction, at a distance ot 
about two miles, is this sea. 

Geological Strvcture.—Y ^iXomsh sandy, slaty shale with quartz contorUons. 

Tline-keeinnq.—T)a.\\y astronomical observations are taken by Survey officer. 
' ' "^ -T TT Kat?T- Dirficti 



J. H. Hakt, Director. 



Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. 

Lat., 48° 23' N. ; long., 123° 19' W. ; alt., 12 feet. 

Foundation- The instrument is placed upon a concrete pillar (about 18 inches 
square at top), which goes down 9 feet 6 inches to a bed of hard pan which overlies 
the native rock of the island. 

Topographical Situation.— The station is in the basement of a large three- 
storey brick building, formerly used as a Custom House. The ground floor of this 
building is on the water-front street, from which there is a gradual slope down to 
a wharf ; the basement is about 10 feet below the level of this street, and from the 
street the city gradually rises up a further incline of about 150 feet. 

The nearest hill is Mount Douglas, 696 feet altitude, distant between four and five 
miles to the north-eastward. 

To the westward, about 13 to 14 miles away across the water (sea) known _ as 
Royal Roads (the entrance to Esquimalt Harbour), lies the range of mountains 
the Sooke Hills, running north-west and south-east, and reaching about 1,000 feet 
altitude. These hills are outlying parts of the great mountain ranges which form 
the backbone of Vancouver Island, with peaks reaching an altitude of 6,000 feet. 

Twenty miles to the southward, across the Straits of Juan de Fuca, is the 
northern coast of the State of Washington, and from the waters edge rise in suc- 
cessive tiers, running east and west, the splendid chain of mountains known as the 
Olympian Range, whose summits attain 8,000 feet of altitude. These summits are 
distant from Victoria from 60 to 75 miles.' 

Geological Stntoture.—Tii: G. M. Dawson, the late Director of Geological Survey 
of Canada, says on page 88 of his Report, 1876-77 : — 

' Volcanic'action has played a large part in the building up of these rocks of 
Vancouver Island, and near Victoria probably nine-tenths of their entire thickness 
is made up of ashbeds, interleaved with lavas and other igneous rocks. These, from 
their composition, have yielded readily to metamorphism, and now lithologically 
resemble, as you have pointed out, the rocks of the Huronian and altered Quebec 
groups of Eastern Canada. This likeness, with the fact that the rocks still preserve 
not alone the chemical, but also in some places the mechanical, characteristics of 
volcanic rocks,' &c. 

Mr. W. L. Sutton, a well-known resident geological expert, says that t,he Victoria 
rock is dense, igneous, and quite massive, with comparatively little jointage, and 
closely allied to diabase in general character. 

Time. This is not an astronomical observatory, but our chronometer is rated at 

least once a week by comparison with the time which is given over the Canadian 
Pacific Railway telegraph, from the Montreal Astronomical Observatory ; our office 
telegraph being switched on to the local C.P.R. telegraph office and communication 

received direct from Montreal. 

E. Baynes Reid, Superintendent. 

III. The Origins of Large Earthquakes in 1904. 

The number of earthquakes recorded at S'hide in 1904 was eighty- 
three. The localities from which twenty-eight of them originated are 

' See Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1899, p. 172. 



02 KEFOKT— 1905. 

indicated by their Shide register number on the accompanying map. 
They are distributed as follows : — 

District E (Japan — Formosa) 12 

District F (Java to Fiji) 9 

District F (Himalayan Line) 4 

District M (New Zealand Fold) 3 

Large earthquakes do not appear to have been noted in any other dis- 
tricts. From 1899 to 1902 there was marked activity in the Alaskan, 
Cordillerean and Antillean I'egions. This has gradually waned, whilst 
activity on the opposite side of the Pacific has not undergone any marked 
change. M is a district brought into notice by records brought home 
by the ' Discovery.' These show that to the south-west of New Zealand 
there is a region where geotectonic changes are much moi-e marked than 
has hitherto been supposed. 

IV. On InternafAonal Co-operation for Seismological Work. 

In the British Association Report for 1904, p. 45, a short statement 
is given of efforts which have been made to establish international 
inquiry about earthquakes. Amougst other matters, reference is made to 
a Committee appointed by the International Association of Academies. 
This Committee recommends that the Associated Academies should take 
action with their respective Governments in favour of joining the Seismic 
Association founded in Strassburg, but proposes changes in the terms of 
the Convention. One change is to the effect that a State may join the 
Association either through its Government, or through one of its scientific 
bodies. Another relates to the choice of a central station, which is left to 
the General Assembly. At present this is at Strassburg, but the 
Committee did not consider it was necessary that the locality should 
be named in the Convention. Other proposed changes were of a minor 
character. 

These resolutions have been considered by the Seismic Committee of 
the Royal Society, and His Majesty's Government will be advised to join 
the German Convention under certain conditions. Three of these are as 
follows : — That the suggested changes be adopted ; that the United States 
of America and France are willing to co-operate ; and that seismology 
receives State aid in Britain. 

V. Tabulation of the Records obtained in Tokyo of the Gray-Milne 
Seismograph for the Years 1886-1901. By R. D. Oldham. 

The discussion of the records of the Gray-Milne seismograph was 
undertaken primarily with the view of detecting any possible effect of the 
variation in tidal stresses on the frequency of earthquakes, and though the 
result has been inconclusive, the figures may be useful in some other 
connection. 

The cost of the calculation was defrayed by a grant from the Research 
Fund administered by the Royal Society ; the work was conducted by 
Babu Phanindra Lai Ganguli, Research Scholar of the Calcutta Uni- 
versity, and consisted in calculating for each shock (1) the exact local 
time of occurrence ; (2) the lunar time, taking the interval between two 
successive, similar, meridian passages of the moon as representing twenty- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



93 









e 



05 
V) 



o 

OS 

I— ( 
I 
to 
00 
CO 






s 

i 








•3 1 


1- CC lO 

■^ ^ la 

r-H i-H f— ( 


o 

CI 






>0 -t(< 05 


00 

1— t 




el 


C3 » t- 


CO 






i- to o 

»— I 


CO 




s 

tH 


00 o th 


00 
00 




eo 50 05 




«5 ■* «o 


T-H 




•* •^*< « 


I-H 




to 

iH 


«o ■* t- 


t- 

T-H 




in 
i-i 


■<*< 00 « 


1-H 






(M ^ CS 




4^ 

a 


CO 


lO lO lO 


i-H 


E? 
■^ 




o >o >o 

T— 1 


o 


s 

Si 




b- •<1< 00 


05 

I-H 




O 
rH 


«0 CO 05 


00 


1 


OS 


•* •* lO 


CO 
f— 1 


1— i 


00 


O i-H 05 


o 

O 




c- 


05 t-^ 




«o 


■* t- tr- 


00 

1-H 




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1—1 




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w 


Declination : 

> 11° N. . 
< 11°. 

> 11° S. . 


a 

3 



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05 00 05 


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94 



REPORT — 1905. 



four lunar hours ; and (3) the declination of the sun and the moon at the 
time of the shock. 

The results are tabulated according to the declination and time, the 
classitication being such that each group of shocks represents a period 
during which the distribution of the tidal stresses was practically uniform. 
The grouping adopted has also the advantage that, by taking 11° as a 
limit, and dividing the year into three portions, according as the decli- 
nation of the sun is greater or less than that limit, we get three almost 
equal periods, corresponding closely to the four winter months, November, 
December, January, and February ; the four summer months, May, June, 
July, and August ; and the spring and autumn months, March, April, 
Septembei", October respectively. 

The discussion of the record as a whole gave no indication of tidal 
periodicity, differing in this respect from that of the seismograph at 
Shillong, but this may weU be due to the difference in the character of the 
record. At Shillong only true tectonic earthquakes of a degree of violence 
corresponding to at least III of the Rossi-Forel scale were registered ; at 
Tokyo, on the other hand, the greater part of the record is composed of 
shocks which could not be felt, which were so feeble that, even instru- 
mentally, they could only be detected, not measured, and which are very 
probably of quite a different nature to the tectonic earthquakes, in which 
alone the effect of tidal stresses is to be looked for. 

If only those shocks which had a measurable amplitude are con- 
sidered, the distribution is as represented in the second set of tables. 
The total number of shocks is too small for detailed discussion, but a 
comparison of the ratio of shocks occurring between the hours of 18 and 6 
on the one hand and between 6 and 18 on the other, when the declination 
is more than 11° north or south, and for the whole record, gives the 
following result : — 



Solar 



Lunar 



No. of shocks 
Ratio to mean 
No. of shocks 
Ratio to mean 



Declination 
>11° N. 


Declination 
>11° S. 


All Shocks 


6h. to 


18 h. to 


6h. to 


18 h. to 


6h. to 


18 h. to 


18 h. 


6h. 


18 h. 


6h. 


18 h. 
211 


6h. 


81 


66 


74 


81 


209 


1^10 


■90 


•95 


1^05 


1^01 


1-99 


67 


64 


65 


86 


210 


210 


1-02 


•98 


•86 


114 


1-00 


100 



From this it will be seen that in the case of both sun and moon the 
ratio of shocks occurring in the half-day containing the upper culmina- 
tion to those occurring in the half-day containing the lower culmination 
is above the average ratio when the declination is north, and below it 
when the declination is south. As the rate and range of variation of 
tidal stresses in Japan is greater in the half-day containing the upper 
culmination when the declination is northerly, while the reverse is the 
case when the declination is southerly, this result falls in with the 
supposition that tidal stresses have some effect, and tend to increase 
the frequency of earthquakes at the time when they have the greatest 
range and rate of variation. As regards the effect of the attraction of 
the sun, this principle may be more briefly expressed : that the ratio of 
day to night shocks is higher in summer than in winter. 



19 



5 
2 
6 
1 
2 
7 
4 
2 
1 

4 
11 



7 /2 
5 4 
3 2 
12 
2 1 
2 2 
1 1 
2 



45 ! 32 



78 



86 



12 
3 
1 
3 

3 
5 
1 
1 
5 
3 
5 



42 



9 78 



20 



7 
4 

2 I 

1 . 
1 t 
5 

7 I 

^! 

5 1 



42 i 29 



71 



21 


22 


23 


Total 


11 


9 


13 


10 


9 


7 


409 


4 


1 


4 


3 


3 


4 


185 


1 


2 


4 


2 





5 


108 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


64 





2 


1 


2 


2 





79 


7 


4 


3 


5 


3 


5 


164 


9 








1 


1 


3 


139 








4 


1 


3 


3 


74 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


2 


49 


2 


4 


2 


3 


2 


1 


129 


4 


2 


3 


4 


5 


2 


150 


7 
50 


5 


6 


8 


14 


9 


320 


34 


43 


43 


45 


45 


1,872 


8 


4 


8 


B 


9 





1,872 



19 



15 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
2 







35 



80 



40 ii I 39 



8 80 



20 



6 
6 
1 
2 

6 
3 

1 
3 
1 
14 



43 



21 



32 40 



75 



10 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 
2 

1 
3 
6 



42 



82 



22 



30 



11 
3 

5 
4 
3 
6 
1 

3 
2 
5 



42 



72 



23 



10 
4 
4 
1 

3 
3 
4 
2 
2 
2 
5 



Total 



40 31 



71 



382 
167 
111 

65 

93 
139 i 
165 

79 

46 

88 
186 
351 



1,872 



1,872 



vertical tide- 

lorizontal tiqcaum horizontal tide-producing force during 
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1.879 


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97 


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80 


7a 71 


84 


86 


90 



NoTB. — Two ihocfcs occDrrio^ At dcdinntlon 0' are inolndcd in ttaa totaU. 



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> 19' N. 
14" 40' U. 10' N. 
If .. 14»40' N. 

9° „ 11" N. 

6" ., fl' S. 

0' „ 0' N. 

0" ,. 0" B. 

6» .. S" B. 

9' ., 11" 8. 
11" .. U"4a'B. 
14° 40' „ !»• 8. 

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1,878 1 



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3 14' 40' to 19', whou llity iodiuulc tlio posragu of the citolo of mnxlaium hotliontnl tide- producing fotco during 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 95 



Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Rayleigh {Chairman), Dr. 11. T. Glazebrook {Secretary}., 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, 
wnd J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, 
Rev. T. C. FiTZPATRiCK, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sir 
A. W. RucKER, Professor H. L. Callendar, and Mr. George 
AIatthey. 

Appendix — On the Preparation of a Cadmium Cell. By F. B. Smith. 

(From the National Physical Laboratoi-y') l>o,ge 98 

The Committee are glad to report that satisfactory progress has been 
made during the year with the Ampere Balance. 

The weighing mechanism was taken over from the maker shortly after 
the last meeting of the Association and the work on the coils completed 
at the National Physical Laboratory. The labour involved in insulating 
the two wires on the large cylinders was very great. Each wire consists 
of about ninety turns of about 103 centimetres circumference. Thus each 
wire is about 93 metres in length, and the two are along their whole 
length about one-tenth of a millimetre apart. In the coils as finally set 
up the insulation resistance between these two wires is measured in 
thousands of megohms, and is thus amply sufficient. 

The cost of the balance has amounted to 302^. 6s., the excess over 
the 300^. granted for the purpose being met out of the general fund at the 
disposal of the Committee. 

Calculations of the force to be expected between the coils when 
carrying one ampere have been made by Mr. Mather and Mr. F. E. Smith, 
of the National Physical Laboratory, and are in close agreement. 

The designs from which the balance has been made are the work of 
Mr. Mather, and originally it was contemplated that the balance would 
be set up at the City and Guilds Central Institute in Exhibition Road. 
At a meeting of the Committee held on March 31, 1905, however, this 
decision was modified, and the following minute agreed to : — 

That the Ampere Balance remains for the present at the National 
Physical Laboratory, and that a determination of the ampere be made 
with it there under the supervision of Professor Ayrton and Mr. Mather, 
steps being taken to connect closely with the determination and with any 
notification of the results the names of the late Professor J. V. Jones, 
Professor Ayrton, and Mr. Mather, to whom the design of the instrument 
is entirely due. 

Accordingly the balance has been set up at the National Physical 
Laboratory and a number of preliminary tests have been made. Par- 
ticulars of some of these follow. 

Ampere Balance. — The weighing mechanism of the balance was 
erected by Mr. L. Oertling at the National Physical Laboratory in 
March of the present yeai-, and the electrical equipment was completed 



96 REPORT— 1905. 

immediately afterwards. The four coils of bare copper wire wound on 
marble cylinders have given complete satisfaction, the ellipticity and 
conicality of each being very small. The average ellipticity is such that 
the diameters of the ellipse differ in length by about 10 micron, while the 
average conicality is approximately represented by a difference between 
the mean diameters of two sections 1 3 cm. apart (the axial length of one 
coil) of about 12 micron. The contour of the cylinders is very well 
known, and the mean diameter has been measured with a probable error 
not greater than 0-001 per cent. This knowledge enables the calculation 
of the mutual induction between two coils to be made with great 
accuracy. 

Preliminary observations with a current of nominal value 1 ampere 
-were made at various times during April and May, the first set of such 
observations determining the temperature to which the coils are raised 
by a continuous steady current, the magnitude of the disturbances 
arising from convection currents, the inHuence of the silver strips, and 
the nature of other disturbances. The convection currents give some 
trouble, but the experiments already carried out indicate that a change 
of O'OOl per cent, in a current of nominal value 1 ampere will be 
detectable. 

The balance acts conveniently as an indicator of the magnetic 
permeability of the marble and metal parts of which it is constructed, 
and it is satisfactory to know that the permeability of these parts does 
not differ from unity by a measurable amount, and cannot therefore 
influence the final results. 

Early observations showed that the concentric cable employed in the 
leads to the balance was faulty, some of the internal strands being broken, 
and the variable contacts thus resulting prevented a steady current from 
being obtained. Fresh concentric cable is being inserted, which should 
enable the final observations to be speedily made. 

Ap^yaratus for the determination of '</.' — The three half -second 
pendulums (the property of the Board of Education, and which were 
used in the last Antarctic expedition) have been swung at Kew and at 
the National Physical Laboratory in tlie room where the balance is 
erected. The observations are being continued. 

"When all the constants have been determined and the observations 
with the balance are complete it will be necessary to consider the means 
by which the result is to be given to the world. The current may be 
reproduced either by means of the silver voltameter or by means of a 
standard cell and a standard resistance. The silver voltameter is being 
investigated at the National Physical Laboratory, and a comparison of 
the accuracies of reproduction would perhaps influence the choice. 

The Committee were represented at the International Electrical 
Congress at St. Louis last year by Professor Perry and the Secretary, 

The resolutions passed at the Cambridge Meeting of the Committee 
(see Report for 1904) as to certain questions proposed for discussion 
were laid before the Congress, and after discussion the following reports 
were unanimously accepted : — 

Committee of the Chamber of Beley cites on International Electro-maynetic 

Units. 

The Sub-Committee appointed September 13, 1904, beg learo to suggest that the 
Chamber of Delegates should adopt the following report :— 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 97 

It appears from papers laid before the International Electrical Congress and 
from the discussion that there are considerable discrepancies between the laws 
relating to electrical units, or their interpretations, in the various countries repre- 
sented, which, in the opinion of the Chamber, require consideration with a view to 
securing practical uniformity. 

Other questions bearing on nomenclature and the determination of units and 
standards have also been raised, on which, in the opinion of the Chamber, it is 
desirable to have international agreement. 

The Chamber of Delegates considers that these and similar questions could best 
be dealt with by an International Commission representing the Governments con- 
cerned. Such a Commission might, in the first instance, be a^Dpointed by those 
countries in which legislation on electric units has been adopted, and consist of, 
say, two members from each country. 

Provision should be made for securing the adhesion of other countries prepared 
to adopt the conclusions of the Commission. 

, The Chamber of Delegates approves such a plan, and requests its members to 
bring this report before their respective Governments. 

It is hoped that if the recommendation of the Chamber of Delegates be adopted 
by the Governments represented the Commission may eventually become a perma- 



nent one. 



Committee of the Chamber of Delegates on International Standardisation. 

The Committee of the Chamber of Delegates on the Standardisation of Machinery 
beg to report as follows : — 

That steps should be taken to secure the co-operation of the technical societies 
of the world by the appointment of a representative Commission to consider the 
question of the standardisation of the nomenclature and ratings of electrical 
apparatus and machinery. 

If the above recommendation meets the approval of the Chamber of Delegates 
it is suggested by your Committee that much of the worJc could be accomplished by 
correspondence in the first instance and by the appointment of a General Secretary 
to preserve the records and crystallise the points of disagreement, if any, which may 
arise between the methods in vogue in the different countries interested. 

It is hoped that if the recommendation of the Chamber of Delegates be adopted 
the Commission may eventually become a permanent one. 

The first of these Reports, relating to the summoning of an Inter- 
national Congress on Electrical Units, is now under the consideration of 
His Majesty's Government. Meanvv-hile a preliminary conference of re- 
presentatives of standardising laboratories and others interested in the 
determination of electrical units has been summoned by the President of 
the Reichsanstalt to meet in Berlin in the autumn. Lord Rayleich and 
the Secretary have received invitations to be present. 

The object of this Conference is stated to be that the institutions 
which are concerned in maintaining the accuracy of electrical measure- 
ments in conjunction with those scientists who have devoted especial 
attention to this field of work should exchange opinions, and if possible 
come to an agreement as to the measures which must be taken in order 
to obtain the international uniformity in electrical units and measure- 
ments which is desired. It is thus preliminary to the more formal con- 
sideration of the subject, which would be the work of the International 
Congress. 

One of the important questions which will be discussed will be the 
specification of some form of standard cell. Work on this matter has 
gone on in America and at the National Physical Laboratory, and an 
Appendix to the Report by Mr. Smith contains a provisional specification. 

xyuot T» 



98 REPOKT— 1905. 

It is suggested that persons interested in the matter might help by setting 
up cells in accordance with this specification and submitting them for 
test at the laboratory. 

Of the grant made to the Committee in 1904 a balance of 3^. 4s. lOd. 
remains. 

The work which remains to be done on the standard cell, and with the 
Ampere Balance, will all involve considerable expense, and to meet this 
the Committee ask for reappointment, with a grant of 25^. in addition to 
the balance now in their hands. 



APPENDIX. 



On the Prejjaration of a Cadinhom Cell. By V. E. Smith. 
(From the National Phj'sical Laboratory.) 

The research on standard cells has been continued at the National 
Physical Laboratory on the lines indicated in the last Report to the 
Association. Taken as a whole, the results are very satisfactory, but it 
is thought desirable to still continue the observations on some of the 
older cells before publishing the results in detail, 

Mr. G. A. Hulett, of Michigan, has completed a chemical research on 
mercurous sulphate, which throws considerable light on the anomalies 
reported to the Association last year. Very slight changes can still, 
however, be traced to this salt, but fortunately they are of no commercial 
significance. The 12^ per cent, amalgam also produces slight variations 
in the E.M.F. of the cell : these again are commercially unimportant, and 
a manner of overcoming them in cells employed at a standards labora- 
tory is indicated in this paper. The latter cells are set up with an 
amalgam entirely liquid at 0° C. 

At this stage of the research it is thought desirable to describe the 
methods by which the materials of the cell can be best prepared in the 
light of present information, and an appeal is made to those interested in 
the subject to set up one or more cells by these methods and submit them 
for comparison with the standards of the National Physical Laboratory. 
More light will thus be thrown on the slight discrepancies already 
referred to, and the degree of accuracy with which the cell can be con- 
structed will be established. In this way it is hoped to specify a cell for 
commercial purposes accurate at all ordinary English working temperatures 
to 1 part in 2,000, applying no temperature correction, or to 1 part in 
10,000 if the temperature correction be applied. 

In the specification which follows there are four methods of preparing 
the mercurous sulphate. The first of these is due to Professor H. S. 
Carhart, Mr. G. A. Hulett. and Dr. Wolff, jun. ; the main features of the 
second method were suggested by Mr. Swinburne to Dr. Glazebrook, while 
the third and fourth methods have resulted from some experiments at 
the National Physical Laboratory. It is suggested that one only of these 
methods be eventually employed ; the observations on submitted cells 
will largely detei-mine the choice, 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FUK ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 99 

Preparation of Materials for a Standard Cadmium Cell, 

1. Mercuri/.^The commercial mercury should be squeezed through 
wash-leather and passed in the finely divided condition in which it 
emerges, first through dilute nitric acid (1 to 6 of water) and mercurous 
nitrate solution, and afterwards through distilled water, both liquids 
being conveniently contained in long glass tubes. The mercury is then 
to be twice distilled in vacuo. Mercury suspected of abnormal contami- 
nation should not be employed. 

2. Amalgam. Type A. — This is a 12^ per cent, amalgam, and is 
intended for all commercial cells. The method of preparation is practi- 
cally identical with that used by Professor Carhart. A current is passed 
from a thick rod of pure commercial cadmium to distilled mercury, the 
intervening liquid being cadmium sulphate solution rendered slightly 
acid with a few drops of H2SO4. The kathode is weighed before deposi- 
tion takes place, and again afterwards, the percentage of cadmium in the 
amalgam being thus calculable. More than the requisite amount should 
always be deposited, and the percentage reduced to 12| by the addition 
of more mercury. The fall of potential from anode to kathode should not 
exceed 0'3 volt. To prevent the anode slime having access to the kathode 
it is desirable to surround the anode with a small porous pot, as in the 
Richards silver voltameter, or to place a small crystallising dish beneath 
it for the anode powder to settle in. Contact with the kathode is made 
with a platinum wire sealed into a glass tube so as to protect it from 
direct contact with the cadmium sulphate solution, and a rough estimate 
of the quantity of cadmium deposited is obtained from the readings of an 
ammeter placed in the circuit. The amalgam so prepared, together with 
the mercury added to reduce the percentage of cadmium to 12^, is now 
heated on a water-bath and stirred so as to ensure homogeneity, some 
cadmium sulphate solution still flooding the sui'face. It is then cooled 
and the acid sulphate removed, neutral cadmium sulphate solution 
taking the place of the latter, and consisting of saturated solution plus an 
equal volume of distilled water. This 12^ per cent, amalgam is then 
ready for use and is entirely liquid at a temperature approximating to 
60° C. 

Type B. — This amalgam is liquid at the temperature of melting ice, 
and is intended for cells of a slightly better type than those made with 
the 12^ per cent, amalgam. The cells may be used at a higher tempera- 
ture than 0° C, but they are not intended to be so used as their tempera- 
ture coefficient is about — 0'043 per cent, per rise in temperature of 1° C 
The cells are primarily intended for standardising laboratories, and their 
E.M.F. at 0° C. is equal to the E.M.F. of the cells prepared with the A 
amalgam if this latter E.M.F. is corrected to 0° C. with the temperature 
coefficient formula of the cell. This is equivalent to saying that if an 
A cell was in a steady condition at 0° C. and nothing abnormal occurred 
its E.M.F. would be identical with that of a B cell at 0^ C. It is not wise, 
however, to use a 12^ per cent, amalgam cell at low temperatures ; an 
8 per cent, amalgam may be so used, but its upward range (with a small 
temperature coefficient) is lower than that of the 12^ per cent, amalgam 
cell. For commercial purposes probably the 12^ per cent, amalgam will 
be of most service. 

To prepare the type B amalgam take some of that previously prepared 
and add sufficient mercury to reduce the percentage of cadmium to 3. 

U2 



100 BEPORT— 1905. 

The amalgam will now be entirely liquid at ordinary woi'king tempera- 
tures. On cooling, a crystalline amalgam separates from the liquid, and 
will continue to do so as the temperature is lowered. Cool the amalgam 
to the temperature of melting ice and remove the mother liquid : this is 
the amalgam desired. It is important that the temperature be truly that 
of melting ice, and that no solid is removed. For convenience the 3 per 
cent, amalgam may be placed in a tubular vessel well surrounded with ice 
shavings ; a long very fine capillary tube reaches to the base of this 
vessel, and through it the liquid at 0° C. is removed by suction. Some 
solid must be left behind, or otherwise there is no certainty of saturation. 
Throughout all the operations neutral cadmium sulphate solution must 
cover the surface of the amalgam and wet all vessels, tubes, &c., through 
which the amalgam passes. Otherwise the amalgam will leave a ' tail ' 
and its composition may possibly be thereby changed. 

3. Cadmium Sidphafe Crystals and Solution, — Procure commercially 
pure cadmium sulphate CdSOjS/SHaO. Dissolve in about \^ time its 
weight of distilled water, agitating either continuously for about six hours 
or occasionally for two or three days. Filter through a fine-grained filter 
paper so as to ensure a clear solution, which should then be placed in a 
number of crystallising dishes and evaporation allowed to take place 
slowly at a temperature not exceeding 35° C, when, provided that dust be 
excluded, many transparent crystals of CdSO.j8/3H20 will result. These 
should be prevented as much as possible from adhering to one another by 
removing the liquid to other dishes as soon as the crystals are of such a 
size that most of them are in contact. \\\ this way about five-sixths of 
the liquid may be evaporated, the mother liquid being employed for a pre- 
liminary washing of the mercurous sulphate, the manufacture of which is 
afterwards described. The crystals of cadmium sulphate so obtained 
should be washed with successive small quantities of distilled water until 
after standing for five minutes no trace of acidity can be detected with 
Congo red. The crystals, still moist, may then be transferred to a stock 
bottle. To prepare the final solution agitation with distilled water is 
recommended as before, the temperature being preferably 5° or 10° higher 
than the normal temperature, so as to ensui'e satui'ation. On no account 
should cadmium hydroxide be employed to neutralise the first solution, 
which is invariably acid ; nor indeed should any attempt be made to 
neutralise the solution except by crystallisation. 

4. Mercurous Sxdphate. — The preparation in each case is to be con- 
ducted in a darkened room. 

(a) Electrolytic Method. — Pure distilled mercury forms the anode and 
platinum foil the kathode, the electrolyte being dilute sulphuric acid 
(1 part by volume of concentrated acid to 5 parts of distilled water). The 
mercury is preferably placed in the base of a large flat-bottomed beaker 
and about twenty times its volume of the dilute acid added. Contact with 
the mercury is eflFected by means of a platinum wire passing through a 
glass tube, while the kathode is suspended in the upper portion of the 
liquid. During the electrolysis the electrolyte must be continually stirred, 
an L-shaped glass stirrer being most efficient, the L portion being placed 
near the surface of the mercury. A current density of about 001 ampere 
may be employed. The salt so prepared is treated as per note a. 

(6) Precipitation method, mercurous nitrate and sulphuric acid being 
employed. 

Add strong nitric acid to a little pure mercury contained in a crystal- 



o 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 101 

lisiiig dish and place in a tlraught chamber until the action is over. If 
any mercury remains add more acid and continue to do so until the 
mercury has completely disappeared and a strongly acid solution assured. 
Prepare dilute HoSO,, (1 to 4 by volume), allow to cool, and then add the 
acid nitrate solution drop by drop, keeping the mixture violently agitated. 
Mercurous sulphate is precipitated, which should be hltered and treated 
as per note a. No more nitrate solution must be added to the dilute 
H2SO4 than will suthce to neutralise 30 per cent, of the H2SO4 present. The 
maximum amount it is permissible to add may be estimated by taking a 
small portion of the dilute H2SO4 and adding the nitrate solution until 
no further precipitation results. The proportion of nitrate solution to 
dilute H2SO4 in such circumstances must be reduced to one-thii'd its 
value for the preparation of mercurous sulphate by method b. 

(c) Precipitation method, strong and dilute sulphuric acid being em- 
ployed. 

Purchased mercurous sulphate is warmed with pure strong H2SO4 and 
a little mercury to a temperature of about 150° C. for about ten minutes, 
the operation being conducted in an evaporating dish covered with a clock 
glass and the mixture kept well stirred. The suspended matter is then 
allowed to settle, the hot liquid cooling sufficiently meanwhile for the 
vessel to be handled with comfort. The clear acid is then poured into 
dilute H2SO4 (1 to 6), when crystalline mercurqus sulphate separates out. 
About ten times the bulk of dilute acid should be employed, and to avoid 
spitting the hot liquid should be poured through a funnel, having its stem 
immersed in the dilute acid. The mixture is well stirred, cooled, and 
filtered, and the salt treated as per note A. As the operation yields but a 
small quantity of the salt, it is advisable to repeat several times. 

(d) By means of Nordhausen sulphuric acid. 

Place distilled mercury in the bottom of a beaker or bottle to the 
depth of about 3 mm. Add about four times its volume of Nordhausen 
sulphuric acid and stir well, keeping the mouth of the bottle closed as 
much as possible, as the acid fumes are very unpleasant. Mercurous 
sulphate is formed in the cold and appears in the crystalline form after 
a few minutes. Allow the operation to continue until the acid strength 
has been considerably diminished ; warm the product to expel SO2 and 
add to dilute H2SO4 (1 to 6). Considerable spitting always occurs, so 
that caution is necessary. Proceed with the product as per note A. 

Note A. — The mercurous sulphate obtained by the foregoing methods 
is first agitated with dilute HgSO^ (1 to 6) and distilled mercury. It is 
then filtered (a small Gooch crucible and filter flask are convenient), and 
the greater part of the mercuiy removed as it interferes with the filtering. 
The salt is next washed with small quantities of saturated cadmium 
sulphate solution until free from acid. For the first few washings some 
of the first acid solution may be employed, but the final washings must 
be made with a little of the neutral solution. Trouble is often experienced 
in ridding the salt prepared with Nordhausen sulphuric acid from all 
trace of acidity, and it is preferable to wash five or six times with the 
cadmium sulphate solution, and then place in a bottle together with a 
little of the solution, shaking from time to time and filtering again in a 
few days. The acidity of the washing liquid should be tested with congo 
red. Instead of washing with cadmium sulphate solution, sulphuric 
ether (water free) may be employed. 



102 



REPORT— 1905. 



The Mercurous Sulphate Paste. — Some cadmium sulphate crystals are 
ground in an agate mortar with a little cadmium sulphate solution ; about 
one-quarter their bulk of pure mercury is then added and two volumes 
of the acid-free mercurous sulphate, the whole being well mixed with 
cadmium sulphate solution so as to form a tliin paste. 

The Form of Cell.— The H form of cell due to Lord Rayleigh is the 
most convenient, and is in general use. Two patterns have been adopted. 
In fig. 1 a form is shown in which the electrodes are sealed into the lower 
ends of the two vertical limbs, while in the form shown in fig. 2 the 
electrodes pass through glass tubes into the lower ends of which they 



^ 




'X^ 




s ^ 



p 

M 




WV 



G 
K 



C 



y^ 



\^^±J 



M = Mercury. 

A = Amalgam. 

P = Paste. 

C = Cadmium siilphate crystals. 



S = Saturated solution of cadmium sulphate. 

K = Cork. 

G = Marine glue. 



are sealed. Form 1 can be hermetically sealed, and is intended to be 
immersed in an insulating liquid. Form 2 is sealed with marine glue, 
and may be immersed in ice or water. The hermetical sealing of form 1 
was suggested by Lord Rayleigh ' and by Professor Carhart.^ The glass 
tubes through which the electrodes are introduced in form 2 pass through 
corks which have been previously boiled in water and soaked in cadmium 
sulphate solution ; in addition to the hole allowing of the passage of the 
electrodes, a second hole is bored througli these corks for the passage of 
small glass pipettes. After the cell is filled these additional holes are 



' PHI. Trans., 176, § 42, 1886. 



St. Louis Congress, 1904. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. T03 

fitted with small corks, and the cell is finally sealed with marine glue. 
The position of the various parts is shown in the figure. (Both forms 
of glass vessels are stocked by Mr. A. C. Cossor, of 54 Farringdoii 
Road, E.G.) 

In filling the vessels it is convenient to use small pipettes made of 
two glass tubes, the one about 3 inches long and ^ inch in diameter, and 
the other about 2 inches long and ^ inch in diameter. If the larger tube 
has one end drawn out in the form of a cone, a junction is easily made. 
The amalgam of type A is melted over a water-bath (its surface being 
flooded with dilute cadmium-sulphate solution), and is introduced by 
means of a previously warmed pipette into one of the limbs. After the 
amalgam has solidified this limb should be washed out with a little fresh 
cadmium-sulphate solution. If the amalgam of type B is used this wash- 
ing is unnecessary. The mercury is next introduced into the other limb, 
then the paste, using if necessary a tiny glass rod as a piston through the 
pipette, and afterwards a thick layer of finely pounded crystals is intro- 
duced into each limb. Saturated cadmium-sulphate solution is finally 
added. The cells are then to be exposed in a warm room for a week or 
more to allow some of the liquid to evaporate, and so loosely cement 
together the fine crystals. This crystalline plug keeps the contents in 
their proper places, and enables the cell to be transmitted through the 
post. The sealing of the cells is next completed, care being taken not to 
abnormally heat the contents. 

Cells which are submitted for comparison with the standards of the 
National Physical Laboratory should be accompanied with the following 
particulars : — 

1. Maker's name and address. 

2. Name ' of the firms from whom the chemicals used in the manufacture of the 
materials were purcliased 

3. Number of the method emploj^ed in the manufacture of the mercurous 
sulphate. 

4. Tj'pe of cadmium amalgam used. 

5. Notes on any peculiarities observed in the preparations. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, 
and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Eeport of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Ghairman), 
Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapworth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

I. Nitroamines. 

The nitroamines of the benzene series, which were discovered by Bam- 
berger (1893), exhibit in a very marked degree a property frequently 
found in analogous derivatives of anilines — namely, of changing into an 
isomeride in which the group, the nitro group, &c., originally linked to the 
nitrogen atom, has become attached to the ortho or para carbon atom of 
the nucleus. 

The mechanism of this has in the case of the nitroamines been but 

' This information is only required so that the number of difPerent sourcps of the 
materials can be estimated. 



104 REPORT— 1905. 

little studied. It was thought that some light might be thrown on tliR 
mechanism of the change by studying the behaviour of s-trisubstituted 
nitroamines in which it is impossible for the nitro group to wander to the 
ortho or para position without displacing the atom or group already 
attached at that point to the nucleus. Such s-trisubstituted nitroamines 
can now be easily prepared/ and those in which chlorine or bromine 
occupy the 2 ; 4 : 6 positions were selected for investigation. 

It was ascertained that when subjected to conditions (treatment svith 
sulphuric acid in acetic acid solution) which lead to the isomeric change of 
unsubstituted nitroamines : — 

(i) A series of colour changes occur indistinguishable from those given 
by the unsubstituted nitroamines whilst they are undergoing the isomeric 
change ; 

(ii) Bromine, in the para position, is partially replaced by the nitro 
group, a substituted p-nitroaniline being formed ; 

(iii) If chlorine occupied the para position, no replacement occurs, 
but the final product is a quinone derivative. In the case of s-trichloro- 
aniline, hexachlorophenyliminoquinone is produced ; and 

(iv) The nitro group never passes into the meta position.'^ 

II. The Exchange of Halogen for Hydroxyl in Benzenediazonium 

Hydroxides. 

The conversion of s-trihalogenbenzenediazo-compounds, s-trichloro- 
and s-tribromo-diazobenzene, into the corresponding dihalogen-o-quinone- 
diazides may be regarded, at least in one of its stages, as an isomeric 
change ; the ionic hydroxyl (OH)- of the diazonium hydroxide takes the 
place of the bromine in the ortho or para position, but not in the meta 
position, the bromine becoming ionic, Br.^ 

The transformation of s-tribromodiazobenzene has been more fully 
studied, in order to ascertain whether any appreciable quantity of nitroso- 
amine, CgHaBrj.NH.NO, was also formed simultaneously from the diazo- 
hydroxide. It was ascertained that the replacemeTit of halogen by 
hydroxyl was always the main reaction, and depended little on tempera- 
ture, between the freezing-point and 15°, The nitrosoamine, if formed, is 
present in such small amount as not to be capable of certain recognition 
by means of the /^naphthol derivative.^ 



III. Influence of Light on Diazo- Reactions. 

A very interesting action of light on solutions of diazonium salts, 
■which hitherto appears to have escaped notice, has been observed.-' The 
aqueous, alcoholic (methyl or ethyl), or acetic acid solutions of diazonium 
salts are sensitive to light. On exposure nitrogen is evolved, the acid 
radical appears as free acid, and the phenol, its methyl or ether, or its 
acetate, according to the nature of the solvent, is formed. Many diazonium 

' Orton, Tram. Chem. Soc, 81, 806. 

= Tra7is. Chem. Soc, 87, 389. 

' Proc. Boy. Soc, 71, 153 ; Trans. Clu-ni. Soc. 83, 796. 

" Trans. C'hevi. Soc, 87, 99. 

» Proc. Chem. Soc, 1905, 21, 168. 



ON TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES. 



105 



ssilts— as, for example, those of s-tribromodiazobenzene — which do not 
yield the corresponding phenol (or its derivatives) on heating, decompose 
nearly quantitatively in this manner under the influence of light. 



Wnve-lenr/th Tables of the Spectra of the Mements and Compounds.— 
liejm-t of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE {Chair- 
man), Dr. Marshall Watts {Secretary), Sir Norman Lockyer, 
Professor Sir James Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. 
Schuster, Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, 
Sir W. DE W. Abney, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 



Neon. 
Baly, ' PhiL Trans.' (A) ccii. p. 18.3, 1903. 









Reduction to 






Intensity 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 
Cliaracter 


Liveing and Dewar 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1 




i 




A + 


\ 




6717-20 


1 


6716 


1-82 


4-0 


14883-2 


6599-16 


4 


6601 


1-79 


41 


15149-3 


33-10 


4 


6535 


1-78 




15302-6 


06-72 


6 


6508 


1-77 


\ 4-2 


64-5 


.6444-90 


1 


6446 


1-75 




15501-9 


09-90 


1 




1-74 




96-7 


02-40 


10 


6404 


f9 




15604-9 


01-26 


1 




9> 




17-7 


638315 


8 


6382 






62-2 


52-04 


1 




1-73 


4-3 


15738-7 


31-13 


1 




1-72 




90-7 


28-38 


6 


6334 


jy 


,, 


97-5 


13-94 


1 




J) 




15833-7 


04-99 


8 


6304 


1-71 




561 


6294-04 


1 




99 




83-7 


73-26 


1 




J9 




15936-4 


66-66 


10 


6266 


1-70 




53-5 


5906 
4700 


1 
1 


? 6244 




4-4 


72-5 
16003-3 


17-50 


8 


6217 


1-69 




79-2 


1413 


2 




99 




88-0 


06-01 


1 




9y 




16109-0 


6199-34 


1 








26-3 


89-30 


1 




1-68 




52-5 


82-37 


10 


6183 






70-6 


79-90 


1 




99 




77-1 


75-15 


2 


6176 


fj 




89-8 


7302 


1 




yy 




95- 1 


66-81 


1 




• 9 




16211-4 


63-79 


10 


6163 


ff 




19-4 


57-12 


1 




yy 




370 


50-49 


1 




1-67 




54-5 


43-28 


ID 


6144 






73-5 


28-63 


8 


6128 


9y 




16302-5 


18-22 
6096-37 


2 

10 


6097 


1-66 




40-2 
98-7 


74-52 


10 


6075 


1-65 


4-5 


16457-7 


64-36 


1 




fi i 


»f 


85-3 



106 



REPORT — 1905. 
Neon — continued. 









Reduction to 






Intensity 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Liveing and Dewar 






Frequency 








Character 






I 


in Vacuo 








A + 
1-65 


A~ 




6046-06 


1 




4-5 


16535-2 


43-24 


1 




fj 




42-9 


32-32 
30-20 


2\ 
10 1 


6031 j 


1-64 

f9 


99 
99 


72-9 

78-7 


26-03 


1 




9* 


„ 


90-2 


24-40 


1 




if 


«9 


94-7 


01-00 


1 


6001 


1-63 




16659-4 


5991-72 


2 


5991 


ff 


99 


85-2 


88-00 


4 


6987 


99 


99 


95-6 


84-94 


1 




99 


99 


167041 


75-78 
74-73 


6J 


5976 { 


(9 


tf 

99 


29-7 
32-7 


65-50 


4 


5964 


1-62 


99 


58-5 


61-64 


1 




99 


4-6 


69-3 


49-51 


1 




99 


99 


16803-5 


44-91 


10 


5945 


99 




26-5 


39-44 


1 




9) 


99 


320 


19-08 


1 


5919 


1-61 


99 


89-9 


13-82 


1 


5914 


99 




16904-9 


06-54 


2 


5905 


99 




25-8 


02-57 


4 




99 


9f 


37-2 


5882-04 


8 


5882 


1-60 


99 


96-3 


73-04 


1 




99 


99 


17022-3 


* 52-65 


20 


5852-7 


1-59 


99 


81-7 


20-29 


4 


5820 


9» 


99 


17176-7 


04-57 


1 


5804 


1-58 


4-7 


17223-1 • 


5764-54 
64-20 


8-1 
1/ 


5763 1 


1-57 

99 


99 
99 


42-7 
43-8 


60-72 


1 




99 




64-2 


48-44 


4 


5747 


99 


99 


91-3 


19-42 


1 


5718 


1-56 


4-8 


17479-4 


5689-96 


2 


5689 


1-55 


99 


17670-0 


62-76 


1 


6662 


1-54 




17654-4 


56-80 


4 


6656 


99 


99 


73-0 


52-67 


1 




99 


99 


85-9 


5562-96 


2 


5561 


1-52 


4-9 


17971-1 


5433-86 


1 


5432 


1-48 


99 


18398-2 


00-77 
00-50 


41 
4 f 


5400 (a pair) | 


1-47 

99 


5-1 

99 


18510-8 
11-7 


5343-41 
41-25 


\] 


5341 (a pair) | 


1-46 

99 


99 


18689-5 
18717-1 


32-33 


4 


5330 


1-44 


99 


48-4 


5278-50 


1 




f.. 


6-2 


18899-6 


71-50 


1 








18964-7 


18-30 


1 




1-43 


99 


681 


04-12 


1 


5204 


1-42 


5-3 


19210-2 


5188-79 


1 


5188 


99 


99 


67-0 


45-15 


1 


5145 


1-41 


9f 


19434-5 


16-72 


1 


5116 


1-40 


5-4 


19538-3 


5880-54 


1 


5080 


1-39 


99 


19677-5 


37-95 


1 


5038 (strong line) 


1-38 


99 


19843-9 


4837-54 


1 


4838 


1-32 


5-7 


206660 


06-24 


1 




tf 


»> 


20800-6 



Extraordinarily brilliant. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 107 

Neon — continued. 







1 


Reduction to 






Intensity 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 
Character 


Liveing and Dewar 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1_ 

A. 


4789-07 


1 


4791 


1-31 


5-7 


20875-i 


52-88 


1 


4754 


1-30 


5-8 


21034-4 


15-49 


4 


4715 


1-29 


99 


21200-9 


13-51 


2 




>» 


99 


09-8 


12-23 


2 




)9 


99 


15-6 


10-21 


2 




»> 


„ 


24-7 


09-00 


4 


4710 


99 


99 


30-1 


04-56 


4 


4704 


»> 


5-9 


51-2 


4540-48 


1 


4540 


1-24 


99 


22018-8 


37-39 


1 


4538 


f» 


6-1 


33-0 


10-86 


1 




J» 


99 


22162-2 


4459-68 


1 


4460 


1-22 


6-2 


22416-9 


31-14 


1 


4431 


i9 


6-3 


22561-3 


30-33 


1 


4429 


1-21 


99 


65-6 


26-15 


2 




jy 


99 


87-7 


25-57 


1 




»• 


99 


90-7 


24-98 


2 


4424 


j» 


99 


93-7 


22-69 


2 


4422 


99 


99 


22604-4 


14-44 


1 


4413 


»» 


99 


46-6 


4259-53 


6 


4258 


1-17 


6-5 


23470-3 


\ 01-03 


4 




1-15 


6-6 


23797-1 


4198-71 


4 


4198 


99 


99 


23810-2 


91-44 


2 




99 


99 


51-5 


90-86 


2 




99 


99 


54-8 


8200 


2 




99 


99 


23906-4 


58-68 


4 




114 


99 


39-5 


3899-21 


1 


3900 


1-08 


7-3 


25638-9 


86-20 


1 




1-07 


99 


25724-4 


79-49 


1 




J» 


»9 


69-3 


i 3754-31 


2 


3754 


1-04 


7-5 


26628-5 


01-30 


6 


3701 


1-03 


7-6 


27009-9 


3685-84 


4 


3686 


1-02 


99 


23-2 


t 82-33 


4 


3683 


99 


7-7 


490 


33-78 


6 


3634 


1-01 


7-8 


27511-7 


09-27 


2 


3609 


100 


99 


27698-6 


06-61 


1 




99 


99 


27719-0 


00-24 


4 


3600 


99 


«9 


68-1 


3593-67 


10 


3593 


f9 


7-9 


27818-8 


88-60 






99 


99 


58-1 


87-52 
87-24 


1 1 


3587-5 (a pair) | 


99 
9* 


99 


66-5 
68-7 


86-62 






99 


99 


73-5 


67-73 






0-99 


99 


28021 1 


54-39 






9* 


J» 


26-4 


32-30 






0-98 


8-0 


28301-9 


29-95 






99 




21-0 


22-92 


\ 




99 


9' 


77-5 


20-57 


8 


3521 


99 


99 


96-5 


15-30 


6 


3515 


99 


99 


284391 


10-87 


2 


3510 


99 


«9 


750 


01-34 


6 


3500 


99 


81 


28552-4 


3498-19 


6 


3498 


0-97 


ft 


78-1 


81-94 


1 


3481 


99 


99 


28711-5 


72-70 


8 


3473 


<» 


Jf 


87-9 


(i(i-72 


! 6 


3407 


99 


»> 


28837-6 



108 



REPORT — 1905, 



Wave-length 



3464-48 
G0G7 
54-30 
50-87 
47-83 
38-66 
24-05 
18-05 

3375-72 
70-01 

3148-76 
26-33 

3092-84 
80-05 
77-08 
57-50 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



6 
6 
6 
4 
8 
1 
2 

8 
1 
6 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Neon — continued. 



Liveing and Dewar 



3464 
3460 
3454 
3451 
3447-7 ? 

3424 
3418 
3374? 
3370 



He 



Eeduction to 


Vacuum 


A-t- 


1_ 

A 


0-97 


8-2 


0-96 


9* 


»l 


»» 


„ 


>» 


99 


9J 

8-3 


99 

0-94 


9> 

8-4 


0-89 


8-5 


0-88 


8-9 


0-87 


" 1 


)9 


99 


0-86 


99 
99 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



28856-2 

88-0 

28941-2 

70-3 

75-5 

29072-9 

96-8 

2924S-2 

29514-9 

29665-0 

31750-1 

31977-5 

32323-8 

32457-1 

88-4 

32696-6 



First Krypton Spectrum, without Leyden Jar and Spark Gap. 

^** The figures in parentheses indicate the intensities. 



Wave-length 



6456 

6421 

6236 

6223 

6083 

75 

56 

12 

5994 

5880 

* 71 

66 

32 

27 

5756 

18 

01 

5695 

60 

49 

*5580 

t* 70' 

j* 62' 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



'65 1 

32 1 

-61 

■00 

•OS 

■50 

32 ; 

■34 

■02 ' 
■06 i 
-12 I 
■94 
-94 
■28 i 
•96 ' 
■59 i 
•06 : 
•58 
■37 

■85 i 
64 ' 
■50 I 
45 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

1 
2 
1 
10 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

1 
3 
1 
1 
10 
6 



Liveing aud 
Dewar 



6458 (1) 
6420 (4) 



6082 (1) 

6056 (2) 

6011 (2) 

5992 (3) 

5871 (10) 



5571 
5563 



(10) 
(3) 



Run fife 



5871-071 (8) 



5570-417 
5562-363 



(8) 



* Visible in the second Krypton spectrum, 
t Probably the green aurora line. 
t Of. Xenon. 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 








OBcillation 




1 


Frequency 


A-l- 


in Vacuo 




A 
4-2 




1-76 


15483-7 


1-75 


»J 


15568-9 


1-70 


4-3 


16030 


1-69 


»» 


39-3 


1-66 


4-5 


16434-5 


1-65 




54-0 


»J 


)» 


16507-2 


1-64 


>» 


16628-0 


1-63 


" 


78-8 


1-60 


4-6 


170021 


» 


»> 


27-9 


j» 


)» 


40-1 


1-59 


4-7 


17139-3 




>» 


56-0 


1-57 


5» 


17365-6 


1-56 


4-8 


17482-0 


1-55 




17535-8 


9> 


99 


52-7 


1-54 




17661-9 


! )» 


>J 


94-8 


1-52 


4-9 


17914-2 


" 


ft 


46-8 


1 " 


it 


72-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 109 
First Kuypton Sfbctrum— continued. 













Reduction to 




Wave-leiigtli 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Liveing and 


T> 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

■CI 


Dewai- 


Kunge 


A + 


1_ 
A 

4-9 


Frequency 
in Vacuo , 


*5520-74 


1 








1-51 


18108-6 


19-61 


4 








99 


99 


12-3 


00-90 


1 








1-50 


5-0 


73-8 


6498-24 


3 








f> 


99 


82-6 


91-11 


1 








99 


99 


1 18206-3 


5475-49 


2 








1-49 


99 


58-2 


23-44 


1 


?5424 


(I) 




1-48 


99 


18433-5 


4829-90 


3 








1-32 


5-7 


20698-7 


07-22 


4 








99 


99 


20796-3 


1 4792-80 


1 








1-31 


99 


20858-9 


34-32 


4 








1-30 


5-8 


21116-6 


4697-17 


4 








1-29 


5-9 


21283-6 


91 12 


2 








1-28 


99 


213110 


71-40 


10 






4671-42 (2) 


)» 


)l 


21401-9 


24-48 


10 






4624-46 (1) 


1-27 


6-0 


21618-0 


12-07 


1 








1-26 


9) 


76-2 


4582-90 


4 


4583 


(4) 




»> 


>? 


21814-2 


24-82 


4 








1-24 


6-1 


22094-2 


* 02-56 


9 


?4505 


(2) 


4502-43 (4) 


1-23 


99 


22203-5 


01-13 


7 








>» 


?• 


10-5 


*4463-88 


10 


4464 


(3) 


4463-82 (5) 


1-22 


6-2 


22395-8 


1 * 54-12 


10 


4454 


(1) 


4454-07 (4) 


99 


»9 


22438-9 


i 25-32 


1 








1-21 


6-3 


22590-9 


18-89 


1 








»y 


09 


22623-8 


10-49 


1 








9) 


99 


66-9 


00-11 


6 


4400 


(1) 


4400-05 (1) 


99 


99 


22720-4 


4385-87 


1 








1-20 


9) 


94-1 


84-01 


1 








»> 


99 


22803-9 


* 76-33 


10 


4376 


(3) 


4376-24 (3j 


99 


9) 


43-9 


64-58 


1 








>) 


6-4 


22905-3 


* 62-83 


9 


4363 


(2) 


4362-76 (2) 


99 


99 


14-5 


58-43 


1 








)» 


59 


37-6 


* 55-67 


1 


4356 


(12) 


4355-62 (5) 


1-19 


99 


52-2 


51-48 


3 








• 9 


99 


74-3 


! ^f^^ 


10 


4320 


(8) 


4319-760 (4) 


J» 


• « 


23143-2 


* 18-74 


8 


4319 


(3) 


4318-70 (2) 


1-18 


99 


48-5 


* 00-67 


1 


4301 


(V) 




99 


6-5 


23245-7 


4286-64 


1 








ft 


99 


23321-8 


* 83-17 


4 


4283 


(3) 




9* 


1 
99 1 


40-7 


74-15 


10 


4274 


(4) 


4274 09 (4) 


117 




90-0 


4046-60 


1 








1-11 


7-0 


24705-1 


3800-71 


2 








1-05 


7-4 


26303-5 


3797-05 


1 








99 


95 


28-8 


73-59 


3 








1-04 


9> I 


26492-6 


3679-58 


4 








1-02 


7-7 


27169-3 


* 68-74 


2 








99 


ff 


27249-6 


65-43 


3 








9t 


9t 


74-2 


50-21 


2 








1-01 


99 


27388-0 


15-57 


2 








99 


7-8 


27650-4 


3522-79 


1 








0-98 


80 i 


28378-6 


02-69 1 


2 








99 


8-1 1 


28541-4 



Visible in the second Krypton spectrum. 



110 



REPORT — 1905. 



Second Krypton Spectrum, with Letden Jar and Spark Gap. 
**, The figures in parentheses indicate the intensities. 











Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Eunge 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1_ 










\ + 


in Vacuo 1 


t587M2 


1 


5871 (10) 




1-60 


4-6 


17027-9 1 


5771-60 


1 


5771 (2) 




1-57 


4-7 


17321-5 


53-19 


1 


5753 (2) 








77-0 


5690-56 


3 


5690 (5) 




l'55 


4-8 


17668-2 


82-15 
74-70 


5 

1 


5682 (5) 






ff 


94-2 
17617-3 


72-94 


1 










22-6 


50-56 
49-76 
3317 


1} 

6 


6650 (1), 
6632 (2) 


• 


1-54 

ff 


ff 
ft 
$f 


92-6 

96-1 

17747-2 


5597-47 


1 






1-53 


4-9 


17860-3 


t 80-64 


1 






1-52 




17914-2 


t 70-50 


3 


5571 (10) 


5570-417 


" 




46-8 


68-84 


2 










62-2 


n 62-45 


2 


5563 (3) 


5562-363 


ty 




72-8 


5315 


In 


5553 (1) 
5544 (not 
seen) 




9f 


tf 


18002-9 


23-75 
2313 

t 20-74 


1| 
2/ 
1 


5523 (2) 

5506 (not 
seen) 




1-51 

ff 
ff 


ff 
»• 

}f 


99-1 

18100-8 

08-6 


5499-73 


1 


5500 (2) 
5483 (not 
seen) 




1-50 


50 


77-7 


68-31 


2n 






1-49 


" 


82-2 


46-51 


2 


5446 (2)t 




9» 


99 


18355-4 


38-84 


1 


f 5429 (not 


• 


1-48 


f» 


81-3 






1 5424 seen) 


ff 


ff 


184501 


18-55 


1 


5403 (not 
Been) 










5333-55 


2 






1-46 


51 


18744-1 


23-15 


1 






1-45 


ff 


80-8 


17-56 


1 


5319 (1) 








18800-6 


08-84 


1 


5305 (not 
seen) 


5208-57 (1) 


>> 


9» 


31-4 


5276-69 


1 


5278 (1) 




1-44 




18946-2 


29-67 


1 


5229 (1) 




1-43 


5-2 


19116-5 


24-72 
17-59 


1 
1 


5218 (1) 
5215 (not 
seen) 




• 9 


ft 
»f 


34-3 
60-7 


08-50 


3 


5209 (5) 


5208-57 


1-42 


6-3 


941 


00-36 


I 


5203 (1) 








■19224-1 


5187-17 
68-33 


1 

1 1 


5186 (1) 
5172 (not 
seen) 




ft 

1-41 




73-0 
19343-3 


66-95 


1 


5166 (5) 




99 


9> 


48-5 



t First Krypton spectrum. 



t Cf. Xenon H. 5562-46 (2). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. Ill 
Second Krypton Upectruu— continued. 



Wave-length 



15143-25 


1 


5143 (4) 




25-88 


2 


5126 (6) 




23-35 






1 


5086-67 




5087 (3) 




77-37 


1 


5078 (1) 




72-71 




5073 (2) 




65-74 




1 




54-61 




5067 (not 
seen) 




46-51 








33-95 




5034 (1) 




28-48 








22-57 




5023 (4) 




22-01 


1 






16-58 








13-42 




5014 (2) 




09-49 








4982-95 








79-00 




4980 (1) 




60-44 




4960 (1) 




48-67 








45-75 




4946 (1) 




33-32 








16-11 




4903 (not 
seen) 




4889-16 








70-23 








t 57-36 








46-76 


4n 


4847 (2) 




45-79 




4845 (2) 




36-75 








33-89 








32-26 


4n 


4833 (5) 


4832-22 (2) 


26-21 








25-37 


3n 


4826 (3) 


4825-38 (1) 


11-91 




4812 (3) 


' 


03-16 


<1 






4796-48 


2n 






89-89 








P8-93 


< 1 






78-57 


In 






73-16 


2 






65-90 


6 


4766 (10) 




62-60 


5 


4763 (3) 


4762-66 (2) 


54-63 


2 






52-14 


3n 






39-16 
29-88 


7 

1 


4739 (10) 


473913 (5) 


27-81 


1 






10-68 


1 






4699-82 
95-82 


2 
2 


1 


4702-73 (not 

seen) 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 




1-41 
1-40 

1-39 



38 
37 
36 

'9 

35 

'9 

34 
33 

f 
f 

32 

■9 
f 

31 

30 
29 



t CI. Xenon II. 6143-24 (1). 4867-37 (1), 



5-4 



6-5 



5-6 



5-7 



5-8 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



6-9 



19437-7 
19507-4 

13-2 
19653-8 

89-8 
19707-9 

351 

78-5 

19810-3 
59-7 
81-2 

19904-6 
06-8 
28-4 
41-0 
56-6 

20062-9 
78-8 

20154-0 
97-9 

20213-9 
64-7 

20335-7 

20447-8 

20527-3 
81-6 

20626-6 
30-8 
69-3 
81-6 
88-5 

20714-5 
18-1 
76-1 

20813-9 
42-9 
71-6 
76-8 

20921-0 
44-7 
76-6 
91-1 

21026-3 
37-3 
96-0 

21136-4 
45-6 

21222-6 
71-6 

89-6 



112 



REPORT — 1905. 





Second Krypton 


Spectrum — cuntinucd. 














Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Cliaractei* 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Runge 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






4694-59 








\ + 
1-29 


1 
X 

5-9 


in Vacuo 


4 


4694 (3) 


? 4694-82 (2) 


21295-2 


93-83 


1 








»» 


98-7 


91-46 


2 






1-28 


9> 


21309-4 


89-95 


1 








>> 


16-3 


87-46 


1 








*y 


27-6 


86-43 


1 








97 


32-3 


80-57 


4 


4680 (5) 


4680-67 (3) 




» 


590 


73-96 


1 








» 


89-2 


72-22 


<1 








»> 


97-2 


59-04 


6 


4659 (8) 






)> 


21461-7 


55-94 


<1 








9» 


72-0 


50-33 


2 


4650 (1) 




1-27 


99 


97-9 


38-53 


2 








99 


21552-6 


34-05 


5 


4635 (6) 


4634-07 (4) 




6-0 


73-4 


21-58 


1 








>> 


21631-6 


20-21 


<1 








99 


38-0 


19-31 


6 


4620 (8) 


4619-30 (5) 




99 


42-2 


15-46 


5 


4615 


4615-48 (4) 


1-26 


9» 


60-3 


14-67 


2 








!• 


64-0 


13-93 


1 






»> 


I» 


67-3 


10-79 


3 


4610 (3) 






99 


82-3 


07-03 


<1 








)» 


217000 


04-16 


2 








/) 


13-5 


4598-64 


2 


4598 (1) 






»» 


39-6 


92-94 


3n 


4593 (2) 


- 




99 


66-5 


8303 


4 


4583 (4) 






99 


21813-6 


* 77-40 


6 


4577 (8) 


4577-31 (4) 


1-25 


99 


40-5 


75-87 


1 








»» 


47-8 


73-52 


2 








99 


59-0 


56-77 


4 








6-1 


21939-3 


37-45 








1-24 


9> 


22032-7 


36-67 


lu 








it 


36-5 


23-32 




4525 (3) 






J9 


22101-5 


18-82 


1 








J» 


23-6 


t 02-56 




? 4505 (2) 




1-23 


9J 


22203-5 


449004 


^ 


4490 (2) 






6-2 


65-3 


75-18 




4475 (6) 






99 


22339-3 


t 63-88 




4464 (3) 


4464-11 (not 
seen) 


1-22 


») 


95-8 


60-18 








JJ 


19 


22414-4 


57-42 








S» 


99 


28-3 


54-55 








)> 


99 


42-8 


t 54-12 




4454 (1) 




»J 


99 


44-9 


53-38 








»l 


99 


48-7 


43-87 








l> 


99 


96-7 


43-46 








»» 


99 


98-8 


36-98 




4437 (6) 


4436-96 (2) 


9» 


9» 


22531-6 


31-85 


4 


4432 (6) 




9) 


99 


57-7 


22-86 


4 


4423 (2) 




1-21 


6-3 


22603-5 


17-40 


2 






»> 


jj 


31-4 


+§ 08-10 


2 






»> 


»> 


79-2 



* Cj. Xenon II. 4577-36 (G). 

f First Krypton spectrum. 

j Visible in the spectrum of atmospheric Argon. 

§ 4408095, Kayser in the blue Argon spectrum (1). 



ri« 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS ilo 





(Second Kkyi'ton 


Spectrvm— continued. 






1 








Reduction to 


• 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Liveiug and 


Runge 


Vacuum 


OsciHation 
Frequency 


Dcwai' 








Character 






\+ 


1 


in Vacuo ! 












A 




4404-47 


1 






1-21 0-3 


22097-9 


00-98 


1 






., 


22715-9 


4399-57 


1 


4400 (1) 




•» J» 


23-2 


89-87 


1 






1-20 


73-4 


86-09 


4 


4387 (3) 




.. 


89-9 


85-39 


1 






)1 9> 


96-7 


81-71 


3 








22815-8 


77-89 


2 






>' f ) 


361 


* 76-33 


In 


4376 (3) 


4376-24 


!» »» 


43-9 


70-20 


1 








J) 


44-6 


09-86 


4 








»» 


77-7 


07-27 


-1 








0-4 


91-2 


00-43 


-^1 








„ 


950 


* 02-83 


I 


4303 (2) 


4362-76 




J) 


2-2914-5 


55-84 


1 






1-19 


t> 


51-3 


* 55-67 


10 


4350 (12) 


4355-02 (5) 




}) 


52-2 


55-14 


2 










550 


52-70 


^ 1 








07-5 


51-20 


2n 










75-8 


44-42 


1 










23011-0 


4405 


< 1 










13-0 


41-50 


<1 










27- 1 


33-50 


2 










09-0 


23-10 


4 


43-23 (2) 








23124-S 


* 19-70 


1 


43-20 (8) 


4319-700 






43-0 


19-30 


1 


4319 (3) 




1-18 




45-5 


* 18-74 


1 


4318 (3) 


4318-70 






48-5 


17-98 


5 


4318 (3) 


4318-22 (2) 


,, 




52-6 


05-37 


2 








0-5 


23220-3 


1 01-71 


3 1 












* 00-07 


5 1 


4301 (7) 






" 


40-1 


4295-35 


1 










45-7 


94-99 


2 










70-4 


93-10 





4293 (10) 


4293-10 (5) 






86-7 


* 83-17 


2 


4283 (3) 








23340-7 


81-05 


<1 










49-0 


80-77 


In 






1-17 




53-8 


* 74-15 


2 


4274 (4) 


427409 






90-0 


73-65 


<1 










92-7 


68-97 
68-72 


31 
2 1 


4269 (3) 


, 1 


"^ 




23418-3 
19-7 


59-60 


3 


4260 (1) 




,, 




09-9 


54-98 


3 


4-256 (1) 








95-4 


52-87 


2 








0-0 


23506-9 


50-70 


4 


4-251 (5) 








18-6 


44-32 


1 










54-3 


37-11 
36-81 


ri 


4237 (4) 


■f 
1 


I'ie 




94-4 
96-1 


tJ 28-98 


1 










23619-8 


26-75 


3 










52-2 


26-09 


3 










65-9 


25-50 


1 










59-8 



* First Krypton spectrum. 

t Visible in the spectrum of atmospheric Argon. 

X 4229-015, Kayser in the blue Argon spectrum (1) 



114 



REPORT — 1905. 
Second Krypton Spectrum — continued. 



- 






1 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 


lutcniiily 
and 


Livcing and ] 
Dewar • 


Kuugc 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






4223-22 


Character 

1 








A.+ 


1 

^ i 


in Vacuo 


<1 








1-10 


0-u 


236721 


22-36 


1 








»> 


»> 


76-8 


01-84 


1 








115 


9* 


92-7 


01-55 


<1 








»• 


)» 


941 


4185-29 


2ii 


4185 


(3) 




|} 


»» 


23786-6 


79-67 


2ii 








>» 


99 


23918-7 


7263 


2 




, 




J> 


9> 


591 


71-97 


2 


4172 


(1) 




>» 


99 


62-9 


60-37 


1 








1-14 


6-7 


24029-6 


59- 13 


1 








l> 


99 


36-8 


54-62 


4 








)» 


», 


62-9 


45-28 


6 


4145 


(8) 


4145-27 (3) 


>» 


OS 


24116-6 


39-28 


4n 


4140 


(2) 




»> 


99 


52-0 


38-12 


4 








9/ 


91 


58-8 


34-72 


3 








»» 


99 


78-6 


33-81 


<.l 








»» 


99 


84-0 


31-48 


4 








»» 


99 


97-6 


18-28 


2)1 


4119 


(3) 




113 


9> 


24275-2 


13 90 


1 








)j 


99 


243010 


1 09-38 


(i 


4109 


(«) 




" 


?» 


27-8 


4098-89 


7 


4099 


(8) 






6-9 


89-9 


88-48 


8 


4089 


(8) 


4088-53 («) 


1-12 


99 


24452-1 


* 82-58 


4 








») 


99 


87-4 


69-97 


4u 








l» 


99 


24565-3 


67-53 


5 








«» 


99 


78-0 


65-22 


8 


4065 


(V) 


4065-19 (3) 


}f 


J9 


92-0 


59-02 


4ii 


4058 


(«) 




)) 


99 


24629-6 


57-17 


8 


4058 


(0) 


4057-16 (li) 


>i 


>i 


40-8 


54-43 


1 








111 


•1 


63-6 


50-62 


5u 








»» 


7-0 


80-6 


46-30 


1 








ft 


99 


2-1706-9 


44-80 





4045 


(4) 




»> 


99 


16-1 


37-96 


4 


4038 


C^) 




9^ 


99 


58-0 


35-53 


2 








J/ 


99 


72-9 


26-38 


Tu 








)> 


99 


24829-2 


24-72 


2u 








>* 


99 


39-4 


08-60 
08-21 


2n 1 
3 J 


4008 


(2) 




I 110 


99 


24939-4 
41-8 


05-70 


3u 


4005 


(I) 




♦ » 


,, 


57-4 


02-73 


3 








»» 


7-1 


75-9 


3998-10 


5 


3997 


(3) 




J> 


99 


25004-8 


96-Sl 


-1 








>> 


99 


12-9 


94-98 


6 


3994 


(6) 




9> 


99 


24-3 


92-08 


2 








3> 


9» 


42-5 


90-79 


2n 








9) 


9? 


50-6 


87-93 


4 


' 3988 


(2) 




»9 


99 


68-6 


87-22 


lu 


[ 






>. 


»9 


73-0 


65-02 


4 


3965 


(1) 




1-09 


)J 


25213-5 


62-46 


1 








91 


99 


29-7 


67-82 


4 








ft 


91 


69-3 


54-90 


5 


3955 


(2) 




99 


7-2 


77-9 


53-71 


3 


1 






99 


»i 


85-7 



* A line occurs in the blue spectrum of Argon of wave-length 4082535 (Kayaei ), 
which does not disappear on fractionation (2). 



OJV WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 115 
Second Krypton Upecthvm — couti/med. 







■ 1 


Reduction to 


1 


Wavc-lengtb 


Intensity 
and 


Livoing und 


Riiiige 


Vacuum 


Oscillaliou 
Frequency 








Character 








1 


in Vacuo 










\ + 


A 




3952- 1(> 


3n 


1 


1-09 7-2 


25295-4 


47-70 


1 








1» 


25323-5 


45-60 


1 








„ 


37-5 


42-78 


2u 








*f 


55-6 ■ 


* 42-28 


1 








f > 


5S-8 


4103 


111 








»» 


66-9 


38-98 


—1 


3939 (1) 






»♦ 


80-1 


38-62 


1 










82-4 


34-29 


3n 






1-08 


5» 


25410-3 


32-80 


4ii 


? 






»» 


20-0 


29-34 


3n 


3928 (3) 






tf 


42-4 


24-91 


In 








7$ 


711 


21-81 


2ii 








" 


91-4 


20-29 


8 


3921 (8) 


3920-59 (1) 




>l 


25501-1 


17-70 


6 


3918 (2) 








17-0 


1703 


1 








)> 


22-3 


1404 


1 








jy 


41-8 


1301 


1 








»» 


48-6 


J 2-69 


r^ 


3913 (0) 


3912-30 (1) 


t» 


50-7 


06-37 


IS 


3907 (6) 






7-3 


91-9 


01-28 


2 


3901 (1) 






99 


25625-6 


3898-83 


• 1 










41-4 


94-83 


5 


3896 (3) 




1-07 


it 


67-7 


8404 


1 








yf 


25739-1 


83-77 


1 








:i 


40-9 


75-95 
75-56 


V, 


3876 (7) 




f » 


>y 


92-8 
95-4 


74-15 


2 








t> 


25804-8 


73-38 


2n 








)> 


09-9 


63-99 


5n 


3862 (1) 






»* 


72-7 


60-58 


5 


3859 (1) 






r> 


95-5 


58-90 


2ii 


3859 (1) 






»» 


25906-8 


57-44 


3 








yy 


16-6 


50-23 


I'll 






1-06 


»» 


06-2 


47-93 


In 








»> 


70-7 


47-63 


] 








• ) 


82-7 


46-99 


1 


3847 (1) 






)* 


87-1 


44-55 


2n 


3844 (2) 






y> 


20003-5 


42-98 


in 








»f 


14-1 


42-40 


3 


3842 (1) 






f * 


18-1 


39-49 


1 


3839 (1) 






>» 


37-8 


36-64 


3 


3837 (2) 






y> 


57-2 


35-47 


1 








)» 


65-1 


35-10 


2n 








f f 


67-6 


21-93 


In 








>» 


26157-5 


17-23 


3 


3817 (2) 






7-4 


89-7 


14-70 


2n 






1-05 


yy 


26207-0 


09-30 


2 










441 


06-46 


1 1 




. 


1 .. 


63-7 


06-28 


■■ 1 

1 1 


3800 (2) 




l» 




65-0 


04-80 


4 


3805 (3) 








75-2 


3793-35 


1 










26354-5 


92-82 


4 










58-2 1 



* Cf. Xenon II. 3942 29 (1). 



I2 



116 



KEPORT — 1905. 
Second Kryptok Spectrum — continued. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Charactei- 
2n 


3791-22 


88-26 


2n 


85-76 


In 


83-28 


10 


80-70 


1 


78-23 


10 


76-66 


In 


75-68 


1 


73-20 


2 


71-46 


4 


* 68-10 


In 


* 65-98 


In 


5904 


2u 


55-92 


In 


54-35 


5 


t 51-81 


1 


49-77 


3n 


44-95 


9 


41-83 


10 


40-87 


2 


40-37 


1 


35-91 


5 


J 33-09 


21 


32-77 


3J 


31-82 


1 


28-13 


2n 


26-45 


2 


21-50 


7 


18-79 


8| 


18-17 


10 1 


16-28 


1 


15-18 


3 


08-23 


In 


369684 


1 


90-80 


5 


86-30 


6 


8064 


11, 


80-52 


7 1 


78-77 


2 


74-37 


1 


70-38 


1 


69-16 


9 


§ 68-74 


21 


60-15 


3 1 


63-57 


4 


61-15 


4 


60-20 


1 


54-11 


10 


48-74 


5 


44-36 


1 


41-48 


4 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



3784 (10) 

3779 (8) 

3772 (4) 

3759 (2) 

3755 (6) 



3746 (6) 
3742 (6) 



3736 (3) 
3734 (4) 



3722 (5) 

3719 (10) 

3715 (1) 

3691 (1) 

3687 (5) 

3681 (7) 



3670 (7) 

3667 (1) 

3664 (3) 

3661 (3) 

3654 (10) 

3649 (3) 




3783-40 (4) 
3778-29 (4) 



3741-85 (3) 



3686-26 (1) 



3654-11 (3) 



Reduction to 


Vacuum 


A-l- 
105 


1 

A. 


7-4 


J> 


»» 


J> 


»> 



104 



103 



1-02 



101 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

iu Vacuo 



26369-3 
89-9 

26407-4 
24-7 
42-7 
600 
71-0 
77-9 
95-3 

26507-4 
311 
46-0 
95-0 

26617-1 
28-3 
46-2 
60-8 
95-1 

26717-4 
24-2 
27-8 
59-7 
80-0 
82-3 
89-1 

26815-5 
27-4 
63-3 
82-9 
87-3 

26901-0 
09-0 
59-4 

27042-5 
86-8 

27119-9 
61-3 
62-4 
75-3 

27207-8 
37-4 
46-4 
49-6 
68-9 
88-1 

27306-1 
13-2 
58-7 
990 

27431-9 
53-7 



* Cj. Xenon II. 3-68-O8 (1), 3765-99 (4). t Cj. Xenon II. 3751 -80 (1). 

t 3733-122 (1) in blue spectrum of Argon (Kayser). 
§ First Krypton spectrum. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 117 



Second Krypton Specthvh— continued. 



Wave-length 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



3(i37-6;{ 


4 


3638 


(4) 


34-54 


2n 






33-69 


2 






32-6-2 


1 






32-02 


10 


3632 


(10) 


27--20 


1 






23-74 


4 


3624 


(I) 


15-97 


3 






11-21 


I 






08-02 


9 


360S 


(6) 


04-10 


1 




1 


02-26 


In 






0005 


6 


3600 


(fi) 


3599-35 


4 






98-14 


1 






96-99 


1 






89-79 


7 


3590 


(3) 


86-40 


2 






80-11 


1 






77-74 


I 






72-82 


3n 


3574 


(I) 


67-88 


2 






* 64-38 


4 






63-48 


1 






62-23 


1 






55-69 


2n 






53-61 


4 


3554 


C-^) 


49-57 


3 






48-80 


2 






44-69 
44-29 


5 J 


3545 


(6) 


t 35-48 


6 






27-53 


1 






24-93 


1 






21-27 


1 






17-52 


1 






14-68 


3 






07-58 


9 






03-38 


6 


3503 


(2) 


3498-63 


in 






97-29 


3 






9316 


2 






92-94 


2 






88-74 


8 


3489 


(2) 


87-61 








7804 








74-79 








71-52 


< 1 






7116 








7019 




'■ 3470 


(1) 


65-54 


In 






60-24 


1 


3460 


(3) 


48-87 


1 A 







Liveing and 
Dewar 



Run 26 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


A-t- 


1_ 
A. 

7-8 


1-01 



1-00 



0-99 



0-98 



0-97 



7-9 



8-0 



81 



8-2 



0-96 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



•27482-G 

27506-0 
12-4 
20-5 
25- 1 
61-7 
88-0 

27647-3 
83-7 

27708-2 
38-4 
52-5 
69-6 
75-0 
84-3 
93-2 

27848-9 
75-2 

27924-2 

" '4-2-7 
81-2 

28019-9 
47-5 
54-6 
64-4 

28116-0 
32-5 
64-4 
70-1 

28203-2 
06-7 
76-7 

28340-4 
61-4 
90-8 

28421-1 
44-9 

28501-6 
35-8 
74-5 
86-5 

28619-3 
21-1 
55-5 
64-8 

28743-7 
70-6 
97-7 

2S800-7 
OS-7 
47-3 
91-5 

28986-8 



* Vf. Xepon II. 3564-40 (4). 



t Of. Argon 3535-514 (4) Kayaer. 



118 



REPORT — 1905. 
Second Krypton Spectrum — continued. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Cliaractei- 

1 


3447-01 


' 3 


4G-6G 


7n 


45-43 


] 


43-01 


1 


30-CO 


C 


39-03 


1 


31-85 


1 


3115 


o 


' 28-95 


1 


27-84 


4 


23-87 


3 


14-95 


1 


05-28 


7 


* 3396-72 


o 


89-80 


1 


8906 


3 


* 87-26 


1 


85-35 


1 


t 81-24 


2 


* 79-18 


1 


75-09 


4 


* 60-22 


2 


52-07 


« 1 


49-61 


3n 1 


48-28 


2 ! 


42-59 


5 


41-70 


In 


40-61 


2n 


37-99 


In 


36-84 


In 


32-61 


3 


* 30-88 


7 


29-86 


In 


28-34 


In 


25-84 


9 


24-23 


In 


21-26 


1 


20-39 


In 


19-48 1 


1 


* 15-80 ! 


1 


11-59 


6 


08-28 


4 


05-79 


In 


04-87 


5 


01-97 


1 


3294-02 


1 


8601 


4 


85-30 


1 


82-21 


1 


71-77 


•1 



Liveing and 
De .var 



Eunge 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 






j Frequency 


A-1- 


1 
A 


in Vacuo 


0-9P 


8-2 


20902-4 


>» 


,j 


05-4 


t 


»» 


15-8 


)* 

»» 


5» 


36-2 
650 
69-8 


)* 


8-3 


291301 


,, 


»> 


38-4 


»» 




55-1 


,, 


'» 


64-6 


)» 


»» 


98-4 


0-95 


*» 


29274-7 


l» 




29357-8 


»» 




29431-0 


») 


8-4 


91-9 


>J 


,, 


98-3 


>> 


1) 


295140 


9t 


»> 


30-6 


,, 


)» 


66-5 


S» 


)J 


84-6 


0-94 


>J 


29620-4 


)» 


8-5 


29751-5 






29823-8 
45-7 




>> 


57-6 




»> 


29908-4 




JJ 


16-4 




)) 


26-1 


0-93 


Ji 


49-0 
60-0 
98-0 




)» 


30013-6 






22-8 




JJ 


36-5 






69-1 




8-6 


72-6 




)> 


30100-4 






08-3 
l'j6 






r^-o 

88-4 


", 


J» 


30216-6 






41-3 

49-7 
76-2 


0-92 


»> 


30349-5 




8-7 


30423-3 






29-4 




♦1 


58-6 
30555-8 



* Cf. Xenon IT., 3428-95 (1), 3396-72 (2), 3387 26 (1), 3379-20 (2), 3360-20 (2), 
3330-90 (6), 3315-80 (1). 

t A line ia given by Eder and Valenta in the blue Argon spectrum at 338] -27. 
Tlii^ line was not seen by Kayser nnr Baly. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 119 



Second Krypton SPECTRVu^coiitmucd. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Charactei 


3208-01 


7 


04-94 


8 


01-70 


In 


4816 


In 


47-14 


In 


46-74 


2 


45-82 


10 


40-55 


6 


39-64 


6 


37-94 


1 


35-29 


1 


24-99 


3 


23-66 


In 


* 22-40 


I 


20-70 


4 


16-39 


1 


1104 


1 


08-39 


3 


07-91 


4 


05-40 


In 


02-07 


In 


00-53 


3 


3191-33 





89-23 


7 


77-09 


In 


* 75-78 


2n 


7106 


3 


51-88 


3 


51-06 


5 


44-90 


1 


44-47 


2 


4201 


5 


41-48 


6 


39-71 


3 


* 38-49 


1 


36-33 


2 


35-24 


1 


24-52 





22-01 


3 


20-73 


4 


12-36 


5 


05-48 


1 


01-85 


1 


3007-27 


4 


90-59 


3n 


95-24 


In 


63-26 


5 


62-55 


1 


00-99 


2n 


56-80 


4 


5014 


o 


49-83 


2 


47-07 ' 


5 



Liveing and 
Dewar 




Reduction to 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1 


in Vacuo 


A + 
0-92 


A 




8-7 


30585-3 




9t 


30019-7 




>» 


50-2 


0-91 


8-8 


30777-9 




»* 


87-5 




1* 


91-3 




»» 


30800-1 




>i 


50-2 




»» 


58-8 




J* 


85-0 




)t 


30900-3 




»» 


990 




if 


31011-8 




9* 


24-0 


0-90 


9f 


39-8 




>> 


82-0 




8-9 


31133-7 




» 


59-4 




»> 


64-0 


if 


99 


88-4 




>> 


31215-0 




*» 


35-9 




99 


31326-0 


j^ 


»» 


46-6 


0-89 


9-0 


31466-3 




JJ 


79-3 


„ 


• f 


31526-2 




>y 


31718-1 




»» 


26-3 




91 


88-4 


97 


■ • 


92-8 




»» 


31817-7 


0-88 




23-0 




f • 


410 




>» 


63-4 




f > 


75-3 




99 


86-4 




» 


95-8 




»» 


32015-4 
34-7 




0-2 


32120-8 




l» 


91-9 


0-87 


>» 


3-2-229-6 




»J 


77-3 




»> 


84-4 




>» 


98-5 




9-3 


32635-7 


0-86 


$t 


43-2 




l» 


59-8 




)* 


32704-0 




*t 


11-7 


,, 1 


9-4 


78-3 
328090 



Of. Xenon II. 3'2-22 40 (1), 3175-80 (3), 313 V46 (6). 



120 



REPORT — 1905. 
Second Krypton Spectrum — contimwd. 











Keducfcion to 




Wave-length 


Intensity Liveing and 
. and Dewar 
Chai-acter| 

1 


Eunge 


Vacuum 


' Oscillation 


A + 


A 


1 Frequency 
in Vacuo 


*3044-92 


1 




' O-Sfi 


' 9-5 


32832-2 


24-57 


4 


0-85 




330570 


22-43 


3 








76-3 


17-78 


2n 










33127-4 


13-36 


1 










76-0 


08-57 


2 










332-24-9 


02 30 


1 










97-3 


2999-99 


3n 










33323-9 


96-77 


2 








9-6 


59-6 


92-36 


3 










33408-8 


86-02 


1 










79-8 


83-22 


1 










33511-2 


79-95 


3 






n's4 




480 


79-01 


3 










58-6 


76-44 


1 




1 1) 




87-6 


76-06 


1 










91-9 


74-18 


3 






9) 




33613-1 


71-90 


1 










38-9 


68-44 


2 






• ) 


9-7 


78-0 


67-37 


5 










90-2 


03-26 


1 






• f 




33730-9 


61-19 


2 










60-5 


* 60-92 


2 






>» 




63-6 


00-27 


3n 






9) 




710 


58-48 


2ii 






jy 




91-4 


56-44 


1 






yy 




33814-8 


54-40 


2 










38-1 


52-69 


4 










57-7 
630 


62-23 


1 






99 




50-33 


3 










84-8 


49-67 


2 










92-4 


48-27 


1 






)) 




33908-5 


4005 


1 






0-83 


9-8 


34003-2 


38-70 


1 










38-8 


35-36 


2 






yy 




460 


3413 


1 






9) 




71-8 


3103 


1 






99 




34107-9 


30-72 


1 










11-5 


27-69 


1 






99 




46-8 


17-81 


1 








9-9 


34262-4 


15-88 


1 






99 




851 


15-40 


1 






9i 




90-7 


13-35 


1 










34314-8 


09-30 


2 










62-6 


08-74 


1 








69-2 


00-19 


3 




0-82 




34470-6 


2893-81 


4 






lO-O 


34546-5 i 


92-30 


5 






,, 


64-6 


73-84 


1 




99 


99 


34786-6 i 


72-99 


1 


1 


1 
99 ' 




96-9 1 


70-73 


4 




. 


9) 1 


10-1 


34824-2 


51-29 


3 




0-81 




35061-7 


47-51 


4 1 




1 


1 

>. 1 


10-2 


35108-2 



* Cf. Xennn 11. 304491 (1), 2900-93 (2). 



ox VVAVR-LENGTH 


TABLES or THE SPECTRA OF 


THE ELEMEXTS. 121 


Second Krypton Spectuvii— continued. 




1 


1 


Beduction to 




Wave-length 


IntenBity j^^,,^;,,^ ^^^ i 


Runge 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


ana 


Dewar 


1 


1 




Character 






\+ ' 


1_ 


in Vacuo 










1 




*2844-59 


3 




0-81 


10-2 


35144-2 


* 41-10 


1 




i» >» 


87-4 


38-92 


3 




>> 99 


35214-5 


36-08 






99 93 


49-7 


35-49 


2n 




»» 99 


57-1 


3311 






99 >> 


86-7 


30-55 


In 




J> )» 


35318-6 


29-60 






»» >» 


30-5 


22-75 






0-80 10-3 


35416-1 


1700 






»» 99 


88-5 


16-58 






99 99 


93-7 


♦ 14-62 






>» ) J 


35518-5 


1409 






99 )» 


25-2 


* 11-81 






>-* »t 


54-0 


06-21 


1 ! 




>« >) 


35625-0 


03-71 


J i 






J? 


56-7 


03-32 


4. 






)» 


61-7 


01-25 


In 






»» 


87-9 


2795-92 






", 10-4 


35756-0 


90-31 






*» >j 


35827-9 


79-63 






0-79 


» 


65-6 


79-23 








J» 


70-8 


78-34 








j» 


82-3 


74-70 








10-5 


360-29-4 


7-2-73 


'> 1 






99 


55-0 


61-87 








99 


36196-9 


59-16 


In 






44 


36232-4 


* 56-66 






j» rt 


65-3 


52-33 










36322-3 


51-71 


In 




,, 


30-5 


50-49 








10-6 


46-6 


48-18 


1 






») 


771 


42-67 










36450-1 


4213 






/• »» 


57-4 


* 33-38 






0-78 


99 


36574-1 


* 32-46 






99 


99 


86-4 


30-55 






9* 


9» 


36612-0 


30-02 






99 


99 


29-2 


29-58 






»» 


99 


55-1 


20-03 


In 






10-7 


36753-6 


16-27 






*» 


99 


36804-5 


15-31 






)» 


99 


17-5 


14-61 






JJ 


>» 


27-0 


12-50 






»» 


99 


55-7 


11-22 


1 




J» 


99 


73-2 


10-37 






99 


99 


' 84-a 


01-45 






19 


10-8 37006-4 


00-73 


I 






16-2 


2698-20 






0-77 


>• 


50-9 


97-41 


4 


.. 




61-8 


t 96-71 


4 1 i 


» 


71-4 


95-81 


4 


1 


1 


»» 


»» 


83-8 



* C'/. Xenon II. 2844-59 (3). 284110 (1). 2814-02 (6), 2811-81 (3), 2756-64 (1), 
2733-36 (4), 273248 (1). f C/. Xenon II. 269673 (4). 



122 



REPOET — 1905. 





Second Krypton 


HPEcrnuM—continiied. 














Reduction to 




Wave-lengtli 


Intensity 


Liveing and 




Vacuum 


1 Oscillation 


j and 


Dewai- 


Runge 






Frequency 




iCharactei 

L 






A + 


1 
A 


; in Vacuo 


2r,94-93 


3 






0-77 


10-S 


37095-9 


92-05 


1 








1 37127-3 


* 91-94 


1 








371 


91-31 


1 




. 


»' ;> 


45-8 


* 90-35 


1 






)' 1* 


591 


88-44 


1 






*> )* 


i 85-5 


83-66 


3 






>' )« 


37250-6 


81-29 


4 






)» »» 


[ 84-7 


80-80 


J 








91-5 


80-44 


3 






9) 


*9 


90-5 


79-73 


o 






•» 


)» 


37306-4 


* 77-30 


2 






U 


10-9 


40-2 


76-10 


1 






9> 


f • 


56-9 


75-41 


1 






»» 




66-5 


* 70-78 


2 








»» 


37431-3 


04-10 


2n 






,, 


»» 


37525-2 


61-34 


1 






)> 


9* 


65-4 


01-09 


2n 








>J 


67-7 


56-49 


2n 






*> 


»» 


37632-8 


54-07 


1 






0-76 


110 


670 


49-84 


In 








„ 


37727-1 


49-38 


3 






)> 




33-7 


* 48-80 


1 






** 


** 


41-9 


48-55 


1 








») 


45-5 


48-26 


4 






»> 




49-6 


43-18 


3 








«* 


37822-2 


4219 


1 










30-4 


40-84 


1 






,, 




55-0 


39-80 


4 






,, 


J J 


69-8 


34-52 


1 






„ 




37946-6 


30-70 


I) 






i» 


ll-l 


38000-7 


29-00 


3 






*i 


)* 


26-2 


28-19 


1 






„ 


«) 


37-9 


27-80 


2 






„ 


»* 


42-7 


27-34 


i 








99 


60-2 


24-90 


In 








)J 


85-6 


t 24-63 


1 








9* 


89-5 


20-54 


4 






9> 


38149-1 


■\ 16-80 


o 








»> 


38203-5 


1108 


3 








f > 


87-1 


04-72 


1 






0-75 


11-2 


383eO-5 


04-59 


1 








82-6 


02-23 ' 


'> 1 








38417-4 


2597-80 


2 i 








82-9 


96-83 


In 








97-3 


95-44 


In 








38517-9 


94-49 


1 




»i »* 


320 


92-57 


5 




>» 'J 


60-6 


91-33 


1 




)i 1* 


79-0 


90-83 


1 






,, 


„ 


86-5 


89-19 1 


4 






)» 


*« 


38010-9 


84-21 1 


1 






j« 


11-3 j 


85-2 



* ni Xenon 11.2691-92 (1), 2690-33 (1), 267729 (81, 2070-80 (2), 2648-79 (1). 
t '7. Xenon II. 26-24-05 (1), 2010-79 (1). 



ON WAVK-LENGTH TARLKS OF TITF: SrEPTRA OF THE ELEMENTS 123 
Second Krypton SpECTRVM—roufi mifd. 



Intensity Lj^eing and 
Wave-length and Dewai- 

Character 



*2581-84 
74-87 

* 72-44 
72-14 
71-30 
70-54 
65-72 
63-32 
62-05 
59-20 
5808 
56-44 
56-01 
55-23 
54-35 
53-26 
48-68 
44-79 
38-43 
37-67 
35-97 
28-51 
27-26 
25-56 
25-07 
19-38 
18-02 
15-50 

* 13-50 
13-03 
11-83 
06-97 
06-66 
03-97 
00-72 

2498-84 
97-81 
97-51 
94-10 
89-51 
87-75 
87-58 
86-40 
85-68 
83-71 
83-32 
83-09 
78-97 
74-99 
74-79 
74-06 
73-39 
72-24 



t 



In 
1 

1 

o 

1 
1 
1 

o 



2 

2 
o 



2n 
II 



2n 
3n 



3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
4 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 

* Cf. 

tcy. 



Runge 



Reduction to 

Vacuum ] Oscillation 
Frequency 




0-74 



0-73 



1_ 


in Vacuo 


\ 




11-3 


38720-8 


)» 


38825-6 


) J 


62-3 


H 


66-8 


• ) 


79-5 


)» 


910 


11-4 


38964-0 


»> 


390020 


»» 


19-8 


fi 


63-3 


}9 


80-4 


99 


39105-5 


99 


121 


»» 


24-1 


i9 


37-5 


99 


54-2 


1 1 -5 


39224-5 




84-5 


>> 


39382-9 


■<» 


94-7 




39421-1 


1 1-6 


39537-4 


>9 


570 


>» 


83-5 


)» 


91-3 


99 


39680-7 


99 


:{9702-l 


99 


41-9 


»» 


73-G 


»* 


81-0 


11-7 


99-9 


,. 


39877-1 


<* 


82-0 


}> 


39924-6 


) J 


76-8 


)) 


40006-9 


If 


23-4 


>) 


28-2 


«j 


82-9 


11-8 


40156-9 


)) 


85-2 


19 


87-9 


99 


40207-0 


»» 


18-6 


t) 


50-5 


99 


56-9 


)* 


' 70-7 




40327-5 


11-9 


92-3 


f » 


95-6 


) J 


40407-5 


t> 


18-4 


»» 


37-2 



Xenon F. 2581-S4 (1), 2572-16 (2), 2513-5-2 (1). 
Xenon II. 2494 11 (3). 



124 



REPORT — 1905. 
Second Krypton SPECTRVu—continued. 











Reduction to 






Intensity 


Liveing and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Dewar 


Runge 






Frequency 




Character 








A + 


1 


in Vacuo 




f 2470-50 


2 






0-73 


11-9 


40465-7 


* 68-56 


2 






0-72 


»« 


97-5 


67-00 


2 






)> )' 


40523-2 


65-91 


2 




) «■ 


»> >j 


401 


64-87 


8 




i? 


>» ?i 


58-2 


59-74 


1 








12-0 


40642-7 


57-79 


2 










75-0 


56-16 


6 






„ 




40701-9 


55-42 


1 






„ 




14-2 


54-19 


1 










34-6 


53-37 


2 






., 




48-3 


52-38 


3 






1, 




64-7 


46-56 


2 










40861-9 


42-68 


1 






',', 121 


40926-5 


40-96 


I 






9» >» 


55-4 


39-64 


1 






)) *> 


77-6 


39-32 


2 






>1 »5 


82-9 


28-44 


3 








)» 


41166-6 


26-40 


3 








12-2 


99-8 


* 25-15 


In 








tf 


41224-3 


20-30 


1 






0-71 


» 


41305-0 


18-13 


I 




99 


9t 


42-1 


&c. 













Cf. Xenon II. 2468-54 (2), 2425 18 (2). 



First Xenon Spectrum, without Leyden Jar and Spark Gap. 

^** The figures in parentheses indicate the intensities. 



Wave-length 



6198-70 
82-92 
80-16 
78-80 
64-30 
12-58 

5895-20 
75-30 



24-98 
24-08 
5716-20 
5696-68 
95-96 
88-59 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



1 
3 
1 
2 
2 
1 



1 I 

11 

2n 

1 

2 

I 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



6183 (1) 
6181 (1) 

?6166 (1) 
5935 (1) 

(not seen) 
5895 (1) 
5876 (1) 
5856 (1) 

(not seen) 

5825 (2) 



Runge 



1-58 
1.55 



f ' 1-59 4-7 

I 



4-8 



Reduction to 


Vacuum 


A + 


1_ 




A 


1-69 


4-4 


1-68 


)> ' 


» 


„ 1 


5> 


79 


>5 


>» 1 


1-67 


)f 


1-61 


4-6 


1-60 


• » 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



16128-0 

69-2 

76-4 

80-0 

162180 

16355-3 

16958-3 
17015-8 



17162-7 

65-4 

17489-3 

17.')49-3 

51-5 

74-2 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 



FiBST Xenon SPECTS.VM—conti?iued. 



Wave-leugtli 



5(349-77 
19-07 
12-84 

5581-90 
80-00 
79-48 
03-83 
5-2-59 

5488-73 
40-10 

5394-84 
92-94 
03-74 

5028-42 

49-23-28 
16-03 

4843-44 
29-87 

* 0719 
4792-77 

* 34-30 
469717 

91-13 
83-83 

* 71-42 
68-32 
58-94 

* 24-40 
1200 

4582-89 
24-83 

* 01-13 
4385-97 

84-12 
76-35 
5851 

4203-87 

4193-70 
9319 
35-27 
16-25 
09-84 

4078-94 
46-71 

3985-39 
74-01 
67-74 
5116 
48-93 
48-38 
*3826-99 
23-86 



Intensity! 

and I 

Character 



Liveiug and 
Dewar 



Uiingc 



<1 

2 
<1 

1 

1 
<1 

2 

2 

<r 

lu 

1 

2 

<1 

2 

6 
6 
2 

4 
6 
1 

8 
7 
1 

•;i 

1 

15 

2 

5 


10 

1 

2 

3 
3 

2 

81 

1 I 

1 

7 

5 
10 

3 

3 

3 
10 
10 

1 

3 

2 

1 



50-25 (!) 
(not seen) 
49-24 (4) 
4917 (4) 

48-20 (1) 
4807 (1) 

4734 (1) 

Band of 
close lines 



4024 (2) 



4525 (5) 

4500 (1) 

4386 (3) 

4375 (4) 

4204 (1) 

4193 (6) 



4079 (1) 

3951 (0) 
3820 (1) 



Reduction to 


Vacuum 


■■ A + 


1 
K~ 


1-54" 


4-8 


1-53 

1 


»» 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



1-52 4-9 



1-51 
1-50 
1-49 
1-47 

99 

1-46 
1-42 

1-35 
1-34 
1-33 
1-32 

1-31 

1-30 
1-29 
1-28 



1-27 
1-26 

1-24 
1-23 
1-20 



115 



1-14 
1-13 



5-0 
51 

)» 

5-5 
5-6 
5-7 



5-8 
5-9 



6-0 

») 

6-1 
6-3 

6-4 
6-6 
6-7 

99 

6-8 

I 

») i 



JJ 


99 1 


112 


6-9 


111 


7-0 


1-10 


7-1 


109 


99 


it 


•> ; 


f» 


7-2 


99 


»> 


5> 


99 


1-06 


7-3 


>» 


»» 



17695-0 

17791-7 

17811-4 

17910-0 

14-3 

17-9 

68-3 

18004-7 

18214-1 

18376-8 

18531-1 

37-7 

38-0 

19881-5 

203060 

33-5 
20640-8 

98-8 
20796-5 
20860-1 
21116-6 
21283-5 
21310-9 

441 
21400-9 

15-0 

58-2 
21618-2 

76-3 
21817-2 
22094-2 
22205-0 
22793-7 
22803-3 

43-8 
2-2937-2 
23781-0 
23938-6 

41-4 
24175-4 
242871 
24325-0 
24509-3 
24704-4 
25084-5 
25152-6 

96-2 
25301-8 

15-7 

19-6 
26122-9 

44-3 



Visible in the second Xenon spectrum. 



126 



EEPOliT— 1905. 
I'lEST Xenon HPECTRUM—confiancd. 





1 


Reduction to 






j Intensity 


VLicuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-lengUi 


and 






Frequency 




Character '" 






1 


in Vacuo 










A.+ 
















A 




3810-01 


'> 






1-05 


7-4 


26239-2 


04-96 


3 






>» 


>• 


741 


01-54 


1 






>> 


)» 


97-7 


3796-47 


»» 






>» 


>t 


26332-9 


73-58 


1 






104 




264920 


45-54 


1 






9t 


7-5 


26691-0 


3693-69 


3 






1-02 7-0 


270650 


86-08 


3 






it »j 


27121-5 


79-77 


1 






7-7 


67-9 


70-10 


1 






»> )» 


27239-5 


65-53 


1 






M 


73-5 


63-52 


<1 






»» »> 


88-4 


55-03 


1 






101 


27351-8 


50-36 


4 






»> i »> 


86-9 


10-47 


2 






1-00 7-8 


27689-4 


3554-10 


2 






0-99 7-9 


28128-1 


49-99 


2 






8-1 


61-0 


06-90 


1 






0-98 „ 


28607-1 


3472-48 


;1 




0-97 


28789-8 < 


69-96 


< 1 




»» 


8-2 


28810-7 


3341-65 


1 


0-94 8-5 


29916-8 


3132-01 


a 


0-88 9-1 


31919-2 


31-66 


1 


*» 


J> 


23-9 


* 25-85 


2 




JJ 


)» 


82-2 


302209 


T 






0-85 


9-5 


33080-2 ' 


2536-58 j 


'^ ! 


i 




0-74 


11-5 , 


39420-1 j 



Visible in the second Xenon spectrum'. 



Second Xenon Spectuum, with Levden Jar and .Spark Gap. 
^*^ The figures in parentheses indicate the intensities. 



1 


! 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 


Liveiug and i 

Dewar Runge 


Vacuum 


Oseillation 


and 


1 


Frequency 


, 


Character 




- ' t 


in Vacuo 
16395-0 


1 6097-80 


7 


6097 (0) 


1-66 


4-4 


51-36 


7 


6051 (6) 


1-66 


4-5 


16620-7 


36-40 





6036 (5) 


1-64 


» 


01-7 


5976-67 


7 


5976 (6) 


1-63 


„ 


10727-3 


71-32 


1 


5972 


99 




42-2 


45-71 


1 


5946 (2) 


1-62 


4-6 


16814-2 






5935 (not 










seen) 






17-73 


1 




101 ., 


93-8 


05-40 


1 


6900 (1) 


») 1 St 


16929-2 


5893-59 


1 


? 5895 (1) 


» i »> 


63-0 


16-21 


1 


5817 (1) 


1-58 4-7 


17188-0 


6776-40 


3 


5777 (4) 


1-57 „ 


17.306-4 


68-92 


4 


5759 (4) 


■ J» 


9> 


59-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OK THE ELEMENTS. 127 



SfciCOND XKNON HPECTRVM—OOldilllied. 



Inteiibily 

Wave-length and 

Chiuaclcr 



5754-38 
52-79 
51-28 
48-95 
27-15 
19-83 
16-36 
08-74 
01-48 



hi 

1 

5 

1 

5 

6 

1 

1 

1 



Liveiiig iiiid 
Dcwar 



5751 (5) 

5727 (4) 
5720 (4) 



At 5700 (0) 
(not seen) 



5699-80 


1 






86-73 


1 






75-41 


1 






71-15 


3 






67-85 


6 


5668 


(4) 


59-67 


5 


5660 


(1) 


33-32 


1 






25-18 


1 






19-18 


1 






16-99 


6 


5617 




1314 


1 






07-18 


1 


5609 


(1) 


04-66 


1 1 






5595-32 


2n 1 






91-96 


1 






84-00 
82-30 


2n \ 

2u ; 


5583 


(1) 


72-48 


2 


5573 


(1) 


70-60 


1 






53-08 


1 






48-40 


1 






31-33 


7 


5532 


(4) 


25-81 


2 






24-63 


T 






18-96 


1 






07-72 


1 






5495-20 


1 






81-38 


3u 






72-90 


7 


5473 


(=5) 


69-81 


1 






60-63 


6 


5461 


m 


53-33 


1 






51-22 


1 






50-71 


5 


5451 


(1) 


45-70 


2 






39-19 


8 


5439 


(3) 


19-40 


10 


5420 


(10) 


15-64 


1 






13-74 


2 






01-23 


3 






5386-90 


1 






72-62 


8 


\ 5372 


(ti) 


68-30 


3 


5368 


(1) 



Kuiigu 



5419-38 (as a 
weak ki-ypton 
line) 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 


Oscillation j 






Frequency 








1 


in Vacuo 


A.+ 

1 


\ 




1-57 


4-7 


17373-4 




*» 


78-2 






82-7 


»» 


»» 


89-8 


1-56 


,. 1 


174560 


" 


4-8 


78-2 






88-8 


»» 


99 


17512-2 


1-55 


)* 


34-5 


f$ 


); 


39-7 


i 9) 


») 


80-0 


i »» 




176150 


jj 


99 


28-3 


»> 


99 


38-6 


1-54 


»» 


64-1 


Ij 


»> 


17746-7 


1-53 


)» 


72-4 


9t 


»» 


91-4 


9t 


99 


98-3 


1 t9 


^, 


17810-5 


9> 


4-y 


29-4 


99 


>) 


37-4 


$9 


*> 


67-2 


" 


99 


77-9 


1-52 


,, 


17903-4 




It 


08-9 


jf 


f f 


40-4 


>» 


99 


46-5 


i " 


M 


18003-1 


1 1-51 


»» 


18-3 


1 

i r> 


»> 


73-9 


\ „ 


•) 


920 


! .. 


99 


95-9 


! 1-50 


^, 


18114-4 


J> 


99 


51-4 


91 


5-0 


92-7 


) " 


99 


18238-6 


1-49 




66-8 


99 


»> 


77-2 


99 


»J 


18307-9 


99 


»» 


32-4 


Jt 


•» 


39-5 


J> 


1 .. 


41-2 


fj 


„ 


58-1 


1-48 




80-1 


»> 


»3 


18447-6 


9> 


»l 


fiO-0 


)> 


»» 


66-5 


1-47 


5-1 


18509-2 
58-5 


>> 


>» 




•t 


•f 


18607-8 
22-8 



128 



REPORT— 1905. 



Second Xenon HPBCTavM—cuntiHiud. 



Wave-lenglh 



5307-29 
63-47 
39-50 
28-10 
14-15 
11-15 
09-49 

5292-40 



08-50 
62-10 
00-05 
00-10 
47-98 
39-14 
26-84 
23-85 
00-52 
(tl-64 
5192-30 
91-00 
88-28 
84-08 
79-02 
= 43-24 
25-94 
22-65 
07-58 
5099-90 
92-22 
80-88 



52-74 
4509 
41-02 
28-02 
1304 
08-74 
01-20 
4994-27 
93-22 
91-30 
88-22 
78-49 
71-85 
23-40 
21-08 
19-85 
• 16-71 
4890-24 
87-47 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



1 

2 
9 
I 
8 
1 
4 
10 



a 
5 
1 
1 
2 
1 
I 
1 
1 



i} 



o 
4 
2 
3 
1 
3 
3 
3 
1 
3 
7 



1 

3 

1 

I 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
'> 

2 

4 

1 

1 

6 

4 

1 

5 




5339 (0) 

5313 (1) 

5309 (1) 

5292 (10) 

! 5-202 (2) 

i 5200 (2) 

' 6240 

I 5227 (1) 

I 5-202 (1) 

5192 (0) 

5189 (3) 

5185 (3) 

5179 (3) 

5126 (3) 

: 5123 (1) 

i 5107 (3) 



5080 (2) 
5068 (5) 

(not seen) 
5052 (1) 
5045 (0) 

? 5025 (1) 



4988 (4) 
4972 (2) 
4922 (8) 



4890 (3) 

4887 (not 

given) 



5-292-37 (an a 
weak krypton 
lino) 



% \ 



^ ■ . j-i 



■r:^ 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



1 

A. 



1-45 



1-44 



1-43 



1-42 



1-41 
1-40 



1-39 



1-38 



1-37 



5-2 



5-3 



5 4 



>5 




1-36 




9> 




»5 

1-35 


5-0 


J» 




1-34 




ft 





Oscillation 
, Frequency 
: in Vacuo 



18626-3 
39-5 

18723-0 
03-3 

18812-6 
23-2 
29-1 
89-8 



18975-5 
98-4 

19003-9 
05-8 
49-7 
81-9 

19120-8 
37-8 

19201-4 
19-4 
53-8 
50-6 
68-9 
82-3 

19303-4 

19437-7 

19503-3 
15-9 
73-3 

19602-6 
32-4 
76-2 



1978^8 

19815-9 
29-5 
80-8 

19942-5 
59-6 
89-7 

20017-4 
21-7 
29-1 
41-7 
80-8 

20107-7 

20300-0 
12-7 
20-2 
33-2 

20443-2 
54-8 



Krypton II. 5143-25. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TiBLER OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 129 



Second Xenon Specteum — continued. 





1 




Reduction to 




Wave-length 


I Litensity 
1 and 


Liveing and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Dewar 


Runge 






Character 






1 


in Vacuo 








A + 


"a~ 




4884-36 


1 


4884 (4) 


134 


5-6 


20467-9 


83-68 


i 6 


4883 (not 
given) 


>l 


f> 


71-2 


76-68 


7 


4876 (4) 


1-33 


99 


20500-2 


69-60 


3 




)t 


I » 


30-0 


62-69 


8 




99 


1 „ 


59-2 


* 57-37 


1 




»» 


1 » 


205821 


53-90 


2 




*t 


tt 


95-4 


44-50 


10 


4844 (10) 


4844-58 (aa a 
weak krypton 
line] 




20636-4 


32-16 


2 




1-32 


»ff 


89-0 


29-23 


1 


4830 (1) 


»» 


,, 


20701-5 


25-23 


1 




5* 


»f 


18-8 


23-47 


6 


4823 (3) 


>9 


f f 


26-4 


18-15 


4 




J» 


5-7 


49-1 


17-30 


I 




)> 


J* 


52-8 


* 07-19 


1 


4807 (1) 


• y* 


„ 


96-5 


4796-66 


In 




1-31 


»i 


20842-1 


94-61 

92-72 


Tl 


4793 (1) 


( 

■ 1 ** 


9} 
If 


511 
59-3 


87-95 


4 


4787 (2) 




>t 


19 


80-1 


86-83 


In 






>9 


>» 


85-0 


79-33 


1 


4779 (2) 




9t 


5-8 


20917-6 


75-85 


1 






*> 


»« 


32-9 


75-33 


1 






>■» 


}f • 


35-2 


73-34 


2n 






19 


„ 


43-9 


69-21 


4 


4769 (2) 




)9 


>• 


62-0 


57-48 


I 






1-30 


l> 


21013-7 


49-10 


3 






yf 


»» 


50-8 


44-04 


1 


4740 (not 
seen) 




9> 


*» 


73-3 


* 34-30 


1 


4734 (1) 




99 


j» 


21116-6 


32-53 


1 






99 


»> 


24-5 


31-35 


3n 


4731 (1) 




)> 




30-8 


23-74 


2 


4723 (1) 




1-29 




63-9 


15-31 
12-78 


31 
3 J 


4714 (1) 






)» 

yy 


21201-7 
14-1 


4698-20 


5 


4698 (3) 




» 


5-9 


78-8 


93-50 


< 1 






99 


)9 


21300-2 


83-76 


5 






1-28 


J- 


44-5 


77-00 


In X 






9> 


/» 


75-3 


76-61 


3n 








f f 


)) 


77-1 


74-78 


3 








It 


Jf 


85-5 


73-91 
72-40 
71-88 


4 
2 
1 


rl 


Band of 
close lines 


- 


• > 
1) 




89-5 
96-4 

98-8 


* 71-41 


2 






}| 


yy 


21400-9 


68-72 


3 

2n / 










13-2 


6648 




, 


)] 


If 


23-5 


59-10 


1 


1 






99 


»» 


57-5 



1905. 



* Cf. first Xenon spectrum. 



13U 




REPORT — 1905. 










Second Xenon Spectrum — continiied. 












Reduction to 






Intensity 


Liveing and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Dewar 


Runge 




Frequency 




Character 


1 


A + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 
21462-3 


*4658-06 


3 






1-2S 


5-9 


53-23 


3 






1-27 „ 


84-5 


5215 


6 


4652 (4) 




9> ») 


89-5 


41-64 


2 






>> 99 


21538-2 


37-42 


1 






99 99 


57-8 


33-49 


3 


4634 (2) 




6-0 


76-0 


32-83 


< 1 






>» 




79-1 


31-67 


In 






)) 




84-6 


t 24-47 


2n 


4624 (2) 




99 




21618 1 


20-60 


< 1 




§9 




36-2 


17-66 


2n 


1-26 




500 


15-72 


5 


4616 (3) 


»» 


9* 


59-1 


03-21 


10 


4602 (8) 


* 9i 




21718-0 


00-20 


In 




9« 




32-2 


4593-90 


1 


' ' 1 " 


62-0 


92-22 


6n 


4592 (3) 1 


70-0 


85-65 


10 


4586 (5) 1 „ 


21801-2 


80-81 


In 


' 1-25 




24-2 


t 77-36 


6 


4577 (3) 4577-31 (as 

krypton line) 


)» 


'• 


40-7 


72-16 


In 




^9 




65-5 i 


71-85 


In 




tf 


9) 


67-0 


69-29 


1 




99 




79-2 


5608 


3n 


4556 (2) 


»» 


6-1 


219421 


50-90 


1 




99 




67-6 


45-34 


8 


4545 (3) 


99 




94-5 


41-03 


8 


4541 (3) 


1-24 




22015-3 


37-51 


3) 




t* 




32-4 


37-02 


1 \ 


4535 (2) 


99 




34-8 


32-67 


5 


»» 




56-0 


24-38 


5 


4525 (5) 


99 




96-4 


21-98 


3n 


4522 (1) 


)9 




221081 


07-32 


1 




99 




80-0 


03-64 


2 




1-23 




98-2 


+ 01-14 


2 


4500 (1) 


99 




22208-5 


86-12 


2 


4486 (1) 


99 


6-2 


84-8 


8101 


7n 


4481 (5) 


99 




22310-2 


7410 


< In 




99 




44-7 


72-12 


< 1 


4471 (1) 


99 




54-6 


68-34 


< 1 




1-22 




73-5 


62-38 


20 


4462 (10) 


9« 




22403-4 


60-75 


< 1 




99 




11-6 


53-81 


3 




99 




46-5 


48-28 


10 


4449 (6) 


99 


" 


74-4 


41-08 


3n 


4440 (I) 


99 




22510-8 


34-35 


6 


4434 (2) 


tf 




45-9 


18-10 


2 




1-21 


6-3 


22627-9 


16-21 
15-00 


3n I 

7 ) 


4415 (8) 1 

i * 


99 
9< 




37-5 
43-8 


13-23 


3 




9f 




52-8 


06-99 


5n 


4407 (3) 


99 »> 


84-9 




* Cf. Argon blue spectrum 4658 08 (Kayser). 






t Cf. Krypton II. 4857-36, 4577-40 (6). 




. . _ . 


1 


/. first Xenon sp 


ectrum. , 









ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 131 
Second Xenon SPECTRVM—eontimied. 











Beduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Runge 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Frequency 




Character 
10 






A-l- 
1-21 


l_ 

A 
6-3 


in Vacuo 


4395-91 


4396 (4) 




22742-1 


95-30 


1 






»» 






45-4 


1 93-34 


10 


4393 (4) 




1-20 






55-4 


87-65 


1 






)» 






84-9 


86-19 
85-08 


3 1 


4386 (3) 










92-5 
98-3 


73-87 


3n 


4375 (4) 


»f 






22856-7 


69-34 


4 


4369 (4) 




»> 






80-4 


67-15 


In 


* 4356 
4343 (1) 
(not seen) 




9* 


6-4 


91-9 


3714 


2n 


4337 (3) 




119 




23050-3 


35-95 


1 






)» 




56-6 


30-63 


15 


4331 (10) 




)) 




84-9 


21-95 


4 


4322 (3) 




>» 




23131-3 


10-69 
10-54 


2nl 

2n| 


4311 (3) 


- 


1-18 




91-7 


09-46 








99 




92-5 


08-16 


3 






f> 


6-5 


98-3 


05-99 


< 1 




)» 




23205-3 


4296-97 


< 1 




>> 




65-7 


96-52 


5 


4297 (3) 


>J 




68-1 


93-85 


2 




a 




82-6 


86-86 


1 




„ 




23320-6 


8604 


4 


4286 (3) 


»» 


„ 


25-1 


72-74 


4 


4272 (3) 


117 




97-7 


70-00 


3 


4269 (3) 


23412-7 


67-97 


< 1 




)> 99 


23-8 






4263 (not 












seen) 








61-68 


4n 


4251 (3) 


>9 


6-6 


23513-5 


45-54 
44-56 


4| 


4245 (10) 




9f >) 


47-5 
530 


4404 


1 






» J> 


67-9 


40-41 


3 






1-16 ! „ 


76-0 


38-37 


10 


4239 (8) 




9ft 


» 


87-4 


27-12 


2 


4227 (1) 




99 




23650-2 


23-14 


5n 


4223 (5) 




99 




72-5 


16-88 


1 






» 


»» 


23707-6 


15-77 


'} 


r 


>J 


>» 


13-8 


14-85 


4215 (10) 


. 


„ 




19-0 


14-17 


5| 






n 




22-9 


13-80 


5 


4214 (fij 




>s 




24-9 


09-75 


4 






99 




47-8 


09-53 


4 


4209 (8) 


1 


If 




49-0 


08-61 


(> 


1 


)} 




53-2 


0406 


2 


4204 (1) 




115 




79-9 


03-35 


1 






99 


" 


83-9 


01-38 


1 


4201 (1) 


9> 




95-1 


4197-92 


1 


4198 (1) 




6-7 


23814-6 


96-85 


< 1 






99 99 


20-7 


95-02 


2 






99 


f» 1 


311 



* No doubt the Krypton II. line 4355-67, which i3 easily visible in Xenon when 
only small tranes are present. 



K 2 



132 



REPORT— 1905. 
Second Xenon SvKCTUvM—co7itmned. 



Intensity 
Wave-length and 

Character 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



Runge 



4193-25 


8 


4193 


(6) 


[81-28 


< 1 






80-20 


i ^0 


4181 


(10) 


79-83 


! 1 






76-65 


, 3 


4176 


(1) 


71-08 


' In 


4172 


(1) 


62-25 


3 


4163 


(3) 


58-14 


5 


4159 


(3) 


56-27 


<]n 






55-70 


<1 






54-76 


1 






52-12 


1 






45-85 


5 


4146 


(3) 


4212 


2 


4142 


(1) 


3308 


1 






32-52 
31-11 


11 


4132 


(2) ; 


2201 


1 


4121 


(1) ' 


13-34 


<1 






12-25 


2n 


4112 


(2) 


10-53 


1 






10-18 


1 






09-20 


6 


4109 


(6) 


06-25 
0510 


^! 


4106 


(3) 


03-19 


1 






00-48 


2 


4100 


(2) 


4099-01 


4 


4099 


(3) 


95-04 


3 


4093 


(1) 


87-38 


<1 






83-48 


<ln 






83-07 


<1 






82-79 


2 






78-85 


2 


4079 


(1) 


78-33 


In 






73-62 


1 




! 
1 


72-62 


4n 


4074 


(I) 1 


70-30 


1 






66-67 


1 




' 


62-27 


<1 






61-30 


1 






6106 


2 




1 


60 60 


3 


4060 


(1) 


57-65 


5n 


4058 


(fi) ! 


56-22 


<ln 1 




1 


53-75 


2 1 






61-79 


1 






51-36 


<ln 






5019 


6 


4050 


(6) 1 


47-45 


In 






46-29 


1 






44-96 
44-09 


2"! 
1 f 1 


4044 


(1) 



Reduction to 


1 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 , 


A+ ' -^- 


in Vacuo 


A. 




1-15 6-7 


' 23841-1 


♦ 1 99 


23909-4 


t9 t) 


15-6 


»> ft 


17-7 


9> »» 


35-9 


»t »» 


07-9 


1-14 „ 


' 24018-8 


9t ft 


42-5 


1* l» 


53-3 


»> 9r 


56-6 


" >f 


{ 61-8 


»J 99 


77-4 


6-8 


24113-7 


»» 99 


35-4 


99 9* 


88-2 


99 tj 


91-5 


>> »» 


99-8 


1-13 „ 


24253-2 


»9 >) 


24304-3 


»> >» 


10-8 


>f 9» 


210 


.. 


23-0 


99 9> 


28-8 


99 Jf 


46-3 


>9 99 


53-1 


• > 1 '* 


65-5 


9> 1 »> 


80-6 


„ 1 6-9 


89-2 


1 
»» 99 


24412-9 


112 „ 


58-7 


f: 1 i> 


82-0 


f» 




84-6 


»; 


,, - 


86-1 


t9 




24509-8 


S9 




12-9 


9» 




41-3 


f* 




47-3 


l» 




61-3 


fl 




83-2 


f> ' »> 


24609-9 


r» •> 


16-8 


»> »» 


17-2 


>/ i» , 


20-0 


>» »» 


38-5 


i> 1 M 


46-6 


Ml ., 


61-6 


It 1 99 


73-5 


7-0 


76-1 


f 1 *> 


83-2 ! 


99 »» 


99-9 ; 


)» »» 


24707-0 


»» 1 99 


15-1 


1» 


99 


20-4 1 



♦ Cf. Krypton II. 4046 30. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 133 
ISecond Xknon SFKCTRVM—iundiiued. 





Intensity 


Wiive-lengtli 


and 




Character 


4043-73 


<1 


43-38 


3 


39-39 


<1 


37-70 


■^1 


37-43 


3302 


<1 


30-69 


2 


28-72 


3 


28-10 


3 


25-32 


1 


21-76 


1 


18-05 


1 


14-27 


1 


03-71 


<1 


02-51 


2 


01-32 


1 


00-66 


1 


3998-67 


In 


97- 18 


<l 


94-55 


1 


92-98 


5 


90-40 


3ii 


86-10 


3 


81-69 


2 


79-35 


2 


76-47 


11 


75-73 


<1/ 


7414 


<1 


72-69 


2u 


70-04 


1 


65-59 


1 


51-73 


<1 


50-70 


8 


43-73 


3 


* 42-29 


1 


3905 


2 


32-63 


2 


29-73 


1 


23-50 


2a 1 


22-67 


10 J 


18-71 


3 


17-28 


In 


15-46 


3 


12-23 


<1 


11-77 


1 


0800 


7 



4043 (1) 

4037 (6] 

4029 (1) 

4025 (3) 

4021 (1) 

4002 (3) 



3994 
3991 


(2) 
(3) 


3986 
3981 


(1) 
(1) 


3975 


(1) 


3973 


(•2) 


3957 (uot 

Been) 
3955 (nut 

seen) 


3951 
3944 


(<•>) 
(3) 



3939 (I) 

3926 (uot 
seen ; pos- 
sibly Argon, 
3925-90) 

3923 (6) 



3915 (I) 



Keduction to 
Vacuum 




1-10 



109 



1-08 



71 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



247220 
24-8 
49-2 
59-6 
61-2 
88-3 

24802-G 
14-8 
18-6 
35-7 
57-7 
80-7 

24904-2 
69-8 
77-2 
84-1 
88-8 

25001-2 
10-5 
27-0 
36-9 
53-0 
801 

25107-9 
22-6 
40-8 
45-5 
55-6 
64-8 
81-6 

25209-8 



7-2 


98-2 




25304-8 




49-5 




58-7 




79-G 




25421-1 




39-8 



3908 (4) 
* C'f. Krypton II. 3942-28 (1). 





1 




" 1 




>» 




» 








" 




.. 



79-9 
85-6 
25511-4 
20-7 
32-6 
53-7 
66-7 
81-3 



134 



REPORT— 1905. 
Second Xknon UPECTRVM—coHtiuued. 



Wave-length 



390602 
05-71 
03-82 
03-30 
3897-88 
95-18 
94-17 
93-59 
92-51 
91-73 
87-14 
80-88 
85-54 
85-15 
82-81 
80-60 
79-35 
77-95 
77-] 2 
69-79 
66-8() 
62-71 
61-19 
58-67 
56-20 
54-44 
49-97 
48-75 
47-57 
46-43 
42-05 
41-68 
39-13 
37-87 
29-90 
28-49 
28-15 
* 26-99 
26-33 
23-34 
16-93 
15-32 
11-93 
11-19 
08-14 
07-42 
01-86 
01-13 
3792-46 
91-82 
87-46 



81-13 



Intensity | 

and j 

Character 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



3 
1 

2 

1 
1 
6 
<1 
<1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

1 

4 
1 
6 
1 
8 
1 
2 

hi 
<1 

4 

2 
<1 

4 

3u 

2 

2 

1 

51 

7/ 

1 

1 

M 

2 i 

1 

ij 

I 
1 
1 
] 
1 
4 
] 

h 

1 

5 
1 

10 



3906 (1) 
3903 (1) 

3894 (3) 



3885 (3) 

3880 (3) 

3877 (3) 

3870 (2) 



3862 (2) 

3868 (2) 

3855 (1) 

3850 (2) 

3849 (1) 



3842 (4) 



' 3829 (1) 

3826 (1) 

38-24 (1) 

3815 (1) 

3811 (3) 

3807 (1) 

I 3801 (1) 

I 3792 (1) 

: 3787 ( 1 ) 
t 3783 

3781 (6) 



Kune 



Beduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



1-08 



■07 



7-3 



00 



05 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

n Vacuo 



2)594 
96 

25608' 
12- 
47- 
65 
72' 
75 
83' 
88- 

25718- 
20- 
29- 
31- 
47 
61 
70 
79 
85 

25833 
53 
81 
91 

25908- 
24 
36 
00 
75 
83 
90 

26020 
27 
40 
48 

26103 
12 



-2 
-2 
•6 
•0 
•7 
4 
1 
-9 
-1 
-2 
-6 
-3 
-1 
-7 
-2 
•9 
■2 



15 

22 
27 
47 
91 

26202 
26 
31 
52 
57' 
95 

26300 
60 
65- 
95 



■26439-7 



Cf. Xciiou I. 



Probably 3783-28 Krypton 11. 



ON VVAVE-LENUTH TABLES OK THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 135 
Second Xenon Spectrum — continued. 



Intensity 
Wave-length | and 
i iCharacteii 



3776-40 

74-38 
72-68 
71-05 

* G8'08 

* 65-99 
03-52 
02-43 
58-13 
6703 
56-14 

* 51-80 
50-86 . 
45-85 
38-04 
36-15 
31-33 
30-29 
28-33 
27-45 
20-93 



t 15-73 
12-04 
11-78 
09-88 
09-07 
08-29 
06-32 
3698-87 
92-75 
89-96 
76-75 
72-68 
69-28 
66-90 
65-26 
64-60 
64-05 
62-99 
62-44 
61-79 
58-97 
58-59 
58-32 
57-88 
54-75 
53-27 
49-71 
48-47 



<1 
5 
1 
1 
4 
2 
4 
1 
I 
1 
1 
4 
;-; 



1 
3 

2 
1 
2 

3 
1 
1 

: 1 

I 

7 
2 
5 
5 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
2 
<l 
11 

<lf 
1 
5 
2 
4 
o 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



3776 (3) 

3773 (1) 

3770 (1) 

3766 (1) 

3763 (2) 

3762 (1) 

3757 (1) 



3746 (3) 
3737 (1) 

3731 (2) 



3721 (2) 

3717 (not 

seen) t 



3712 (2) 



3708 (1) 



3689 (1) 
3677 (3) 
3673 (2) 



3664 (1; 

3662 (2) 

3658 (I) 

3655 (2) 

3650 (1) 



Kunge 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1 


in Vacuo 


\ + 






1-04 


\~ 




7-4 


26472-5 


J» 


»> 


87-0 


SJ 


7-5 


98-8 


»> 


>> 


26510-3 


»? 


J» 


31-2 


)> 


»» 


45-9 


t) 


»J 


63-4 


JJ 


>» 


71-2 


l» 


J» 


26601-5 


)J 


)T 


09-3 


9> 


5> 


13-6 


9J 


>♦ 


46-4 


*3 


J> 


53-0 


>> 


>) 


88-7 


9» 


J» 


26744-5 


1-03 


>» 


58-0 


1 „ 


!> 


92-6 


\ „ 


»» 


26800-1 


*> 


7-6 


14- 1 


)• 


J1 


20-4 


If 


ft 


67 4 




») 


269050 


f ", 


J» 


31-8 


\„ 


J» 


33-6 




»J 


47-4 




}> 


52-3 




>» 


59-0 




91 


72-3 




»l 


27027-7 


i-b2 


)> 


72-5 




») 


93-0 




7-7 


27190-2 




»» 


27220-4 




*) 


45-7 




j> 


63-3 




t> 


75-5 




4) 


80-4 


JJ 


t) 


84-5 


>J 


»> 


92-4 


19 


j» 


96-5 


)5 


?» 


27301-3 


»> 


»> 


22-4 


f „ 


jf 


25-2 


1 „ 


i » 


27-2 


1-01 


>) 


30-5 


*y 


19 


53-9 


»» 


« 


65-0 


'» 

1 <, 


t " 


91-7 
27401 



* C'l. Krypton II. 376810 (1), 3765-98 (1), 3751-81 (1). 
t Possibly Argon 3717 
^ Cj. Argon 3715. 



ioU 




KEPORT — 190o. 










fSECOND Xenon Spectrvm— continued. 




1 




I 


1 Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity Liveiug and 




j Vacuum 


1 Oscillation 


and 


Dewar 


Runge 




t 


i Frequency 




Characte 


I- 




I \ + 


1 1 


in Vacuo 






j 




; A 


j 


3646-83 


<1 


' 




1-01 


7-7 


27411-4 


45-05 


2 
1 2 






f;; 


)f 


26-8 


44-58 


3645 (6) 






30-3 


44-29 


' 2 








32-5 


41-15 


4 


3641 (2) 






56-1 


36-17 


2 






' ',', 7-8 


93-7 


35-49 


T 








98-8 


34-34 


1 


I 




" ' 27507-6 


33-87 


1 In 




;; HI 


32-30 


I 4 


3632 (2) 


23-0 


31-44 


1 






29-5 


28-69 


:' 2 






J) fj 


50-4 


24-21 
23-28 


81 
5/ 


3624 (10) 




r 

1 :: :: 


84-4 
91-5 


21-75 


1 








27603-2 


20-18 


2 










16-1 


19-03 


2 








23-9 


16-02 


3 


3616 (1) 




1-00 


46-9 


14-59 


1 








57-8 


12-52 


3 


3613 (4) 




,, 


73-7 


1216 


1 






„ 


76-5 


09-60 


5 


3610 (2) 






96-1 


07-58 


1 






( " 


27711-6 


07-17 


5 


3607 (4) 




1 


14-9 


06-22 


3j 








22-1 


02-03 
01-21 


5! 


3602 (1) 




{:: 


»» 


64-3 

60-6 


3596-75 


5 


3597 (3) 






t) 


95-1 


96-53 


2 










27804-4 


93-61 


1 


1 






7-9 19-3 1 


92-14 


1 


i 






f) 


30-7 


91-34 


1 


' 








36-9 


89-40 


<1 










61-9 


87-84 


2 






II 




64-0 


87-45 


1 






" 




66-2 


84-68 


1 








" ! 


88-6 


83-79 


6 


3584 (8) 








95-5 ! 


79-85 


6 


3580 (8) 








27926-2 1 


78-71 


1 


' 




" 36-1 ' 


78-14 


1 




',', i 


39-6 


76-80 


5 




0-99 


50-0 


76-08 I 


1 1 






63-5 1 


74-66 


1 








67-6 


74-26 


1 


1 






69-9 


70-31 


1 








28000-9 


69-67 


1 










05-9 


65-35 
* 64-40 


41 
4J 


3565 (8) 




(:: 




39-8 
47-3 


63-15 


1 










57-1 


62-37 


3 










63-3 


61-53 


3 










68-9 


58-12 


1 






" ;, 1 


96-8 


r.6-64 


2 


3556 (3) 






» 1 


28108-6 



Cf. Krypton II. 3564-38 (4). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTIU OK THE ELEMENTS. 137 



Second Xenon Spectrum — continued. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 


355600 




. 54-60 




53-42 




52-29 


6 


50-21 




49-39 




48-35 




47-04 




4504 


2 


42-50 


6 


40-09 


3 


37-56 


3 


33-39 


1 


31-93 


1 


31-43 


1 


30-76 


1 


30-40 


1 


2814 


1 


27-39 


I 


26-04 


<1 


22-98 


5 


19-26 


3 


18-12 


1 1 


16-92 


1 1 


16-38 


1 


15-53 


1 


13-72 


3 


11-83 


1 


11-60 


1 


09-05 


1 


06-74 


1 


03-99 


1 


01-86 


3\ 


00-53 


2 1 


3498-33 


1 


98-04 


4 


9500 


1 


94-69 


2 


88-34 


1 


83-39 


1 


79-82 


1 


79-29 


1 1 


75-43 


1 1 


74-42 


1 


72-59 


O 


71-47 


1 


70-73 


1 


70-27 


1 


69-31 


I 


68-35 


^\ 


67-37 


5/ 


63-63 


<1 


62-69 


<1 


01-44 


3 


5S-U0 


6 



Liveing and 
Dewar 




3553 (5) 



3543 (6) 



3523 (4) 



3510 (2) 

3504 (1) 
3501 (4) 



3468 (2) 
3461 (1) 



98 



97 



8-0 



8-1 



8-2 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



I 0-96 



28113 
24- 
34 
43 
59 
05 
74 
84 

28200 
•20 
39 
60 
93 

28305 
09 
14 
17 
35 
41 
52 
77' 

28407 
16 
26 
30 
37 
51 
67 
09 
89 

28508 
30 
48' 
59 
77' 
79 

28604' 
06 
58 
99 

28729 
33 
05 
73 
88 
9S 

28804- 
08- 
16 
24- 
32- 
63- 
71- 
81- 

28902- 



138 



REPORT — 1905. 
Second Xenon Hpectrvm— continued. 



Wave-length 



3455 
54 
52 
50 
50 
46 
45 
44 
44 
43 
42' 
40 
38 
38' 
37- 
37- 
35- 
35- 
32- 
31' 
30- 
29- 

* 28- 
28- 
28- 
26- 
24- 
20- 
IS- 
IS- 
09- 
07- 
07- 
05' 
04' 
GO' 
3397' 

t 96 
95' 
94- 
92- 
90- 
90- 

t 87- 
86- 
85- 
84- 
84- 
81- 
80- 

t 79- 
77- 



87 
41 
13 
86 
19 
52 
01 
61 
38 
•49 
■08 
•91 
•88 
•28 
•96 
•68 
91 
17 
18 
•71 
62 
13 
95 
61 
20 
61 
88 
89 
11 
34 
60 
76 
25 
62 
06 
02 
65 
•72 
68 
92 
73 
78 
13 
26 
89 
85 
28 
07 
81 
24 
20 
17 



Intensity 

and 

iCharactcr' 



1 

7 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

1 

In 

In 

In 

1 

1 

2 

'J 

1 
1 
4 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 
:1 

In 
:ln 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

4 

O 

1 
1 
4 
1 
3 
2 
1 
3 
1) 



Livcing and 
Dewar 



Rnnge 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A+ I __ 



3454 (1) 



0-96 8-2 



0-95 



I 



I 



8-3 I 





»» 




8-4 




»> 




l> 




f> 




>» 




>* 




9» 




• » 1 




»» 




i> 




» i 




'• 


0-94 


f> 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



2 928- 1 
40-3 
59-4 
701 
75-7 

29006-6 
19-2 
22 7 
24-6 
321 
44-0 
53-9 
710 
761 
78-8 
81-2 
96-2 

29102-4 
27-7 
31-7 
410 
53-6 
55-2 
58-0 
01-5 
751 
89-8 

29223-9 
47-6 
88-5 

2.13201 
36-5 
40-9 
54-9 
68-4 

29403-6 
23-8 
31-9 
40-9 
47-4 
66-4 
83-3 
890 

295140 
17-2 
26-3 
400 
41-8 
61-6 
75-3 
84-4 

29602-2 



* 0/. Krypton 11. 3428-95 (1). 

t Cf. Krypton II. 339072 (2), 3387-20 (1), 337918 (1) 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 139 



Second Xknon Spkctbum — omitinued. 



Intensity 
Wave-lcugth ; and 

Character! 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



Runge 



337411 ! 


1 


70-81 


1 


67-64 


1 


66-87 


3a 


64-82 


1 


63-64 


1 


62-93 


1 


* 60-20 


2 


5813 i 


4 


56-09 


2 


54-51 


1 


50-53 


In 


49-91 


3 


45-11 


1 


44-41 


1 


40-85 


1 


40-54 


3 


40-23 


2 


39-67 


1 


39-37 


r 


39-17 


3 


39-00 


•2 


34-38 


1 


32-97 


5 


31-80 


5 


,* 30-90 


6 


28-45 


1 


27-64 


1 


22-30 





20-21 


2 


19-69 


1 


19-15 


1 


18-76 


1 


17-59 


1 


16-47 


1 


t 15-80 


1 I 


1500 


j 1 


14-41 


1 


13-64 


In 


13-01 


1 


12-34 


<1 


11-95 


<1 


10-52 


5 


0(j-y4 


3 


06-04 


4 


04-19 


2 


03-47 


'2 


01-65 


3 


00-38 


In 


3208-85 


1 


98-06 


! <i 


!t6-07 


4 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency ^ 






A + 


1 


in Vacuo 




A 




0-94 ; 


8-4 


29629-0 


y> 




58-1 


'> 1 




86-0 


1 


19 


92-8 




" 


29710-9 






21-3 


,, 


1 


27-6 


»> 


8-5 1 


51-6 


»» 




70-1 


») 


** 1 


88-1 






29802-1 


J» 


99 


37-7 


1 


99 


43-1 


1 


99 


85-9 


" 1 


99 


92-1 


» ' 




29923-9 


5> 


99 


26-8 


»» 


99 


29-6 




ft 


34-6 


• > 


99 


37-3 


• 9 


99 


391 


91 


99 


40-6 


0-93 


)9 


821 


" 


99 


94-8 


! 9> 


99 


30005-3 


i 

99 


99 


13-4 


99 


99 


35-7 


• 99 


„ 


42-8 


)« 


8-G 


910 


99 


99 


30110-0 


*» 


99 


14-7 


J» 


99 


19-6 


99 


99 


; 23-1 


99 


99 


33-8 


99 


99 


! 43-9 


9) 


99 


50-0 


99 


99 


57-3 


99 


99 


62-7 


99 


99 


69-7 


99 


! " 


75-4 


»» 


»j 


81-5 


99 


f f 


85-1 


99 


)» 


98-2 


99 


99 


30230-8 


J» 




i 35-1 




99 


; 56-0 




9) 


62-6 


99 


99 


■ 79-3 


99 


99 


' 90-9 


0-92 


1 99 


303050 


i> 


! 

1 ,. 


12-3 
i 30-6 



* CI. Krvpton II. 3360-22 (2), 3330-88 (7). 
t Cf. Krypton II. 3315-80 (1). 



140 



REPORT — 1905. 



Second Xenon Spkctrvm— continued. 









Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Infcensit 


y Liveing and [ ^ 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


and 
Characte 


Dewai- 
r 


t Jrtunge 


! 0-92 


1 

A." 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 

30334-6 


3295-63 


2 




8-6 


94-70 


<ln 






>» 




43-2 


94-09 


1 






» 




48-8 


93-17 


<1 






»% 




57-3 


91-72 


In 






11 




! 70-7 


90-44 


<1 






f$ 




82-5 


88-03 


5 






>» 


8-7 


30404-6 


86-17 


1 






ft 


„ 


21-9 


85-93 


8 




i 


?f 


„ 


24-1 


84-81 


1 1 






ft 




34-5 


83-75 


<ln 






if 


'• 


44-3 


81-36 


1 






ff 




66-5 


80-94 


<1 






»9 




70-4 


80-66 


4 






ff 




73-0 


79-31 


<1 






„ 




85-5 


78-61 


3 






„ 




92-0 


77-41 


3 






„ 


30503-2 


76-55 


3 






ft 


11-2 


75-07 


2 


1 


»» 




25-0 


73-89 


3 


1 


99 




36-0 


73-06 


3 




1 




43-7 


71-35 


1 






99 




59-7 


69-57 


<1 






»» 




76-4 


69-11 


5 






f9 




80-7 


68-31 


2 






» 




88-2 


67-52 


1 






»t •• 


95-5 


67-19 


4 




" j» 


98-6 


66-21 


1 






30607-8 


64-76 


4 






»« 

" 


21-4 


62-18 


1 




1 


)) 


45-6 


60-81 


<1 








58-6 


60-42 


<1 






99 )) 


62-2 


59-57 


4 






0-91 


70-1 


5804 


1 






'> >r 


84-6 


56-79 


3 






" 99 


96-4 


56-39 


3 






'> 99 


30700-1 


53-38 


5 






)> 9* 


28-6 


50-70 


3 






8-8 


53-9 


49-14 


<1 




• 


f 9 f > 


69-3 


48-98 


< 1 




! 


'> )9 


70-2 


48-76 


1 j 




i 


99 ti 


72-2 


47-80 


5 






99 99 


81-3 


46-99 4 1 






)t «*- 


890 


45-17 < 1 




f> >i 


30806-2 


44-30 3 1 


jj *9 


14-5 


42-98 


7 




*' '* 


27-0 


41-26 


1 






43-4 


39-41 ; 


6 






ff >y 


610 


37-50 


1 






ft » 


79-2 


36-97 


5 








84-3 


35-85 


4 




!! !.' 95-6 1 


35-49 


<l 


„ 98-4 


34-69 


1 


30906-1 


34-36 


1 




fi > •• 


09-2 , 


33-50 1 


<1 


1 
1 




,: 1 


1 
.. 1 


16-9 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMEN'TS. 



141 



Second Xenon SPECTRVM—cotif/lnucd. 



1 






1 


Reduction to 






Intensity 


Liveing and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Dewar 


Runge 




Frequency 




Character 






A.+ 




in Vacuo 


3233-39 


1 ' 




0-91 8-8 


30918-5 


31-83 


5 








33-5 


30-80 


<] 




' 




43-3 


30-12 


1 








49-8 


29-21 


1 








58-5 


27-32 


4 








76-7 


25-65 


4 








92-7 


25-26 


2 








96-4 


23-91 


1 






„ 1 


31009-4 


23-52 


2 






„ I . „ 


13-2 


23-14 


4 






» » 


16-8 


* 22-40 


1 








24-0 


21-45 


1 








33-1 


2118 


2 








35-8 


19-97 


<1 






0-90 ',', 


47-4 


1813 


<1 


■ 






99 


651 


16-92 


<ln 








91 


76-8 


14-66 


1 






','. 8-9 


98-6 


14-30 


4 






9) i 3f 


311021 


12-68 


<1 






9) if 


17-8 


12-46 


1 








19-9 


10-40 


3 








39-9 


09-64 


4 








48-2 


06-49 


1 








77-8 


06-21 


<1 








80-6 


02-81 


1 








31213-7 


02-17 


2 






9) 99 


19-9 


01-94 


<1 






1 


22-2 


01-67 


3 








24-8 


3199-87 


1 






99 99 


42-3 


99-39 


1 








47-1 


98-75 


4 






99 99 


53-3 


96-68 


3 






99 i 99 


73-6 


96-37 


5 






" 1 J J 


76-6 


95-10 


<1 








890 


93-86 


<1 








31301-2 


93-35 


2 








06-2 


88-80 


<1 






^ 


50-9 


87-91 


<1 






99 I » 


59-6 


87-60 


2 






99 i ' » 


62-7 


86-93 


1 








69-3 


85-93 


<1 








79-1 


85-36 


5 








84-8 


84-74 


3 






" 1 " 


90-8 


84-42 


2 






0-89 !! 


940 


81-57 


1 








314220 1 


80-62 


<1 






',', 9-0 


31-4 1 


79-40 


5 




43-5 1 


77-27 


2 




G4-6 


7618 


3 




75-4 


t 75-80 


3 




791 


75-38 


5 






83-3 


73-16 


In 




i 


99 


99 


3ir.on--i 



Cf. Krypton II. 3222 40 (1). 



t Cf. Krypton II. 3175-78 (2). 



142 



REPORT — 1905. 



Second Xenon SFECT&VM—coHtiwwfi. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 


3170-81 


1 1 


68-77 


i <1 


67-67 


<1 


66-92 


<1 


66-26 


1 


64-63 


2 


64-43 


I 


6310 


2 


60-82 


2 


59-97 


1 


56-85 


2 


55-66 


3 


53-58 


3 


63-14 


4 


51-98 


5 


51-11 


6 


50-86 


6 


4911 


1 


48-17 


In 


46-84 


<1 


45-17 


1 


43-77 


2 


42-69 


1 


41-77 


2 


39-21 


1 


38-87 


1 


38-46 


6 


34-86 


1 


32-87 


1 


30-48 


2n 


26-90 


1 


* 25-86 


2 


2512 


<1 


24-75 


1 


24-15 I 


1 


22-32 1 


1 


22-00 ' 


s 


21-15 


1 


19-34 


1 


16-88 


1 


14-66 


4 


13-69 


<1 


12-87 


3 


08-72 


In 


07-91 


2n 


06-50 


5 


05-76 


1 


04-60 ; 


3 


03-64 


2 


03-38 


<1 


02-88 1 


1 


02-54 


<1 


01-68 


2n 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



Eunge 



Reduction to j 
Vacuum j 


A + 


1_ 

A 


0-89 


90 


9i 


»> 



I 



>» 


1 " 


J> 


" 


J» 


99 


»» 


)» 


>) 


„ 


99 


" 


tf 




)f 




99 




>9 




99 




9i 




99 




99 


9-1 


99 




99 




0*88 




99 





9-2 



0-87 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



31528-7 
490 
59-9 
07-4 
740 
90-3 
92-3 
31605-6 
28-4 
36-9 
68-5 
80-1 

31701-0 
05-4 
171 
25-8 
28-4 
46-0 
55-5 
68-8 
85-7 
99-8 

31810-8 
20-1 
46-0 
49-5 
53-7 
90-3 
31910-5 
34-9 
71-5 
82-1 
89-7 
93-5 
99-6 

32018-4 
21-7 
30-4 
49-0 
74-3 
98-2 

32107-0 
15-5 
58-4 
76-8 
81-4 
89- 1 

32201-1 

no 

13-7 
18-9 
22-4 
31-4 



Cf. Xenon I. 



ON WAVE-LEiVGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 143 



Second Xenon Specthum — contimwd. 




310004 
3098-68 
98-33 
9703 
94-91 
94-69 
93-55 
92-57 
91-22 
90-15 
89-07 
85-74 
83-70 
83-05 
82-74 
80-61 
79-86 
77-82 
75-47 
73-62 
73-31 
71-49 
70-19 
68-71 
67-43 
66-69 
66-33 
63-49 
61-71 
57-16 
66-63 
66-42 
64-62 
61-41 
61-14 
49-04 
48-31 
47-93 
46-40 
45-42 
* 44-91 
44-36 
42-22 
37-47 
37-00 
34-36 
33-86 
33-22 
32-63 
31-97 
29-91 
29-05 
28-49 



- 


' 




Reduction to 




Intensity 
and 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Runge 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Character 






A.+ 


1_ 


in Vacuo 










A 




3 






0-87 


9-2 


32248-4 


1 










62-6 


1 










6G-2 


1 










79-8 


1 










32301-9 


2 










04-2 


In 










161 


2 








" 


26-4 


5 










40-7 


3 








,, 


51-7 


1 










630 


<1 










97-9 


6 








9-3 


32419-3 


1 










26-1 


2 










29-4 


3 










51-8 


4 










59-8 


1 










81-2 


1 










328061 


4 










25-6 


1 










28-9 


3 










48-2 


2 










620 


1 ^ 






>» 




77-7 


4 










91-3 


1 










991 


6 








" 


32613-6 


2 










33-2 


3 






0-86 




52-2 


<1 








J> 


32700-8 


3 










06-5 


2 








\, 


19-4 


4 






9» 




280 


1 








9-4 


62-4 


1 








^ 


65-2 


1 






>> )) 


87-8 


1 










95-7 


In 








99-6 


3 










32816-2 


3 










32-3 


2 






„ 




41-69 


2 










38-2 


3 










61-3 


1 










32912-6 


2n 










17-8 


3 










46-6 


1 






„ 




51-9 


2 






„ 




58-9 


<1 










65-3 


In 










72-5 


2 








it 


94-9 


In 








„ 


33004-2 


<1 










10-4 



* Cf. Krypton II. 3044 -92 (Ij. 



144 



REPORT — 1905. 



Second Xenon SPECTHVu—conUnued. 



Wave-length 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



I 



3027-77 


1 


27-41 


1 


26-66 


3 


23-99 


5 


23-83 


5 


20-47 


1 


19-96 


<1 


17-89 


<1 


17-68 


4 


15-91 


1 


15-57 


2 


14-77 


3 


14-32 


2 


13-53 


1 1 


13-05 


i <1 


12-45 


<1 


11-44 


<1 


10-85 


3 


09-16 


3 


04-81 


1 


04-48 


4 


04-11 


3 


0201 


3 


01-70 


3 


00-12 


<1 


2999-44 


2 


99-24 


2n 


97-69 


2 


9611 


1 


94-86 


2 


93-07 


5 


91-91 


<1 


91-65 


2 


91-42 


3 


90-74 


1 


90-48 


1 


87-00 


2 


86-32 


3 


85-72 i 


4 


84-77 


4 


82-39 


3 


81-47 


2 


80-26 


<1 


79-48 


C 


76-95 


<1 


76-58 i 


3 


74-97 


2 


73-65 


3 


72-48 


1 


71-40 


2 


71-08 


1 


70-65 


3 


70-29 


1 


69-95 


2 


69-63 


1 




Reduction to 




Vacuum 






Oscillation 
Frequency 






\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 




9-4 




0-86 


33018-2 


>» 


)> 


22-1 




»J 


>» 


30-3 




»» 


9-5 


59-4 




,, 


,j 


61-1 1 


C 


-85 


,. 


97-9 ' 




9> 


>> 


33103-5 




:» »» 


26-2 




■'* •> 


29-6 
480 






51-7 
60-5 




)) 


)» 


65-5 




»> 


f * 


74-2 1 




»» 1 -> 


79-5 






»J 


86-1 1 








97-2 1 








33203-7 






»1 


22-4 






1 


70-8 1 








74-1 1 








78-2 






*' 


33301-5 








050 








22-5 1 








30-1 








32-3 
49-6 




! 90 


78-2 




» )i 


83-2 




» >» - 


33400-9 1 






J, 


13-9 






** 


16-8 






>» 


19-3 








26-9 






»> 


29-9 ; 






»» 


57-6 




, ' 




76-4 




t 


1» 


83-2 






'» 


93-8 


0- 


84 : 




33520-6 




I 


>> 


30-9 






>> 


44-5 






>» 


53-3 




1 


>» 


81-8 




'* i 


86-0 






)9 


33604-2 






»* 


19-1 




1 


»» 


32-3 




1 


»r 


44-6 




i 


*> 


48-2 




1 


9-7 


53-0 






»> 


67-0 






9* 


60-9 






1 

» ! 


64-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 145 

Second Xenon Specteum — continued. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Cbaractor 


2969-42 


1 


68-74 


3 


67-11 


3 


65-13 


3 


64-35 


3 


63-59 


3 


61-69 


1 


* 60-93 


2 


60-53 


3 


59-55 


4 


57-77 


5 


5605 


1 


55-08 


<1 


54-84 


1 


54-27 


3 


54-08 


1 


51-73 


1 


50-91 


<1 


49-88 


2a 


48-23 


4 


47-69 


5 


46-52 


1 


45-71 


2 


45-41 


5 


44-78 


1 


43-59 


2 


43-07 


1 


42-25 


4 


41-55 


3 


40-37 


5 


39-89 


3 


39-29 


4 


38-38 


<1 


37-61 


<1 


3603 


6 


34-98 


1 


32-92 


4 


32-27 


3 


30-44 


5 


29-41 


1 


28-20 


<1 


27-74 


<1 


27-30 


1 


26-27 


4 


25-58 


<1 


25-11 


<1 


24-56 


1 


24-12 


3 


23-68 


4 


22-62 


<1 


22-10 


<1 


21-74 


<1 


20-05 


3 i 



Liveing and 
Dcwar 



Runge 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A.+ 



0-84 



0-83 



1_ 
9-7 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



9-9 



33666-9 
74-6 
93-1 

33715-6 
24-5 
331 
53-4 
63-5 
68-0 
79-2 
99-5 

33819-2 
30-3 
33-1 
39-0 
41-8 
68-7 
78-1 
90-0 

33908-9 
15-2 
28-6 
38-0 
41-4 
48-6 
62-3 
68-3 
77-8 
86-0 
99-5 

34005-1 
120 
22-5 
31-5 
49-8 
62-0 
85-9 
93-5 

34114-8 
26-8 
40-9 
46-2 
51-4 
63-4 
71-5 
77-0 
83-4 
88-5 
93-7 

342061 
12-2 
16-4 
36-1 



1905. 



Of. Krypton 11. 296093 (2}. 



la.( 



KEPOR'I 



-1905. 



Second Xenon Specteum — continued. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 


2918-74 


<1 


17-76 


4 


16-81 


3 


15-87 


<1 


15-22 


1 


14-28 


4 


12-56 


5n 


12-06 


5 


11-63 


1 


11-38 


<1 


10-54 


1 


07-35 


4 


06-71 


5 


05-26 


<lii 


04-79 


<1 


04-32 


1 


02-84 


1 


02-47 


1 


00-59 


1 


2899-56 


<1 


98-97 


<1 


98-65 


1 


98-19 


1 


97-85 


1 


96-79 


4 


96-20 


<1 


95-40 


4 


91-86 


4 


90-81 


<1 


90-14 


2 


89-22 


2 


88-74 


<1 


87-29 


2 


86-86 


3 


84-39 


<1 


83-89 


2 


79-94 


1 


77-87 


1 


73-6r. 


2 


72-9! 


1 


71-8.^ 


4 


7l-4:f 


3 


71-27 


5 


69-71 


<1 


68-61 


1 


67-55 


1 


66-9f) 


1 


64-92 


4n 


64-32 


1 


64-00 


<I 


62-50 


3 


62-00 


1 


58-03 


1 


67-29 


<ln 


56-80 


I 



Liveing and 
Dewar 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



Kunge 



A + 



1 
X' 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



3-83 


9-9 


34251-5 


»» 


>f 


63-0 


9* 


99 


74-1 


*» 


»> 


95-2 


>J »> 


92-8 


»» »» 


34303-9 


»» '» 


24-1 


»» 


»> 


30-0 


»» 


)» 


35-1 


)» 


»> 


38-1 


»> 


>> 


48-0 


99 


J» ' 


85-7 


>» 


»> 


93-3 


t» 


*9 


34410-4 


>* 


») 


16-0 


'» 


>» 


21-6 


)-82 


>> 


39-1 


»> 


>l 


43-5 


)» 


» 


65-8 


»> 


)> 


78-1 


J> 


5» 


85-1 


»> 


J9 


88-9 


>» 


9J 


94-4 


>» 


»J 


98-4 


>» 


10-0 


34511-0 


)S 


JJ 


180 


>J 


»' 


-27-5 


>) 


99 


69-8 


»> 


99 


82-4 


»» 


99 


90-4 


»J 


99 


34601-4 


») 


99 


07-2 


>J 


>9 


24-5 


»> 


99 


29-7 


>9 


„ 


59-4 


>> 


99 


65-4 


J> 


99 


34712-9 


l> 


99 


37-8 


)• 


>9 


88-9 


» 


99 


97-9 


»J 


10-1 


34810-7 


>) 


99 


15-8 


>» 


99 


17-7 


» 


99 


36-6 


>» 


9» 


48-8 


»l 


99 


62-9 


9f 


99 


70-0 


>-81 


99 


91-9 


>* 


99 


34902-2 


>» 


99 


06-1 


9» 


99 


23-7 


♦ J 


99 


20-8 


J> 


„ 1 


79-0 


>* »» ! 


88-1 


>> 


1 
99 


94 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 147 
Second Xenon Spectkum — continued. 











Reduction to ! 






Intensity 


Liveing and 




Vacuum 1 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Dewar 


Runge 


1 


\ 


Frequency 




Character 




\ + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 












A. 




2855-92 








0-81 


10-1 


35004-9 


65-42 


< 1 








)l 


11-0 


54-70 


4n 








9r 


19-9 


53-78 










?) 


31-2 


53-28 


< 1 








99 


37-3 


62-55 


2n 








9t 


68-5 


51-10 










99 


64-1 


50-41 












72-6 


47-81 










l6-2 


35104-5 


46-63 


2n 










19-1 


46-07 


2 










26-0 


45-26 


2 










360 


* 44-60 


3 










44-1 


44-28 










48-1 


41-46 


< 1 








83-0 


* 4110 










87-4 


40-22 


< 1 








98-3 


39-76 








9) 


36204-2 


38-99 


2 








13-6 


38-55 












19-0 


37-03 


< 1 










37-9 


36-32 


< 1 










46-7 


3516 


< 1 










61-2 


33-32 












84-1 


33-08 


1 










87-1 


32-59 


< 1 










93-2 


3219 


< 1 










98-2 


29-35 












35323-6 


28-84 












40-0 


28-37 












45-8 


28-01 












60-4 


27-62 












55-2 


27-06 


2ii 










62-2 


26-18 


4 










73-2 


24-25 








0-80 




97-4 


22-67 


2 








10-3 


35417-1 


22-36 












21-0 


20-22 












47-9 


19-87 


2 










52-3 


17-51 


3 










82-0 


16-10 


6 










99-8 


14-62 


6 










35518-5 


• 11-81 


3 










54-0 


10-67 


2 










68-4 


10-00 


<1 






»> 




76-9 


09-68 


1 






1> 




80-9 


09-23 


3 






9f 




86-6 


08-77 


1 






9» 




92-5 


07-39 


4 




»9 




35610-0 


06-83 


<1 






ff> 




If 171 


05-24 


1 






tf 


'/ 


r 37-3 


04-82 


1 


, 




ft 




42-6 


0316 


2 






9> 




Pi 63-8 



* Cf. Krypton II. -2844-59 (3}. 2841-10 (1), 281181 (2).j; .- 



l2 



148 



REPORT— 1905. 
SECO^'D Xenon SPEanvM— continued. 









Eeduction to 






Intensity Liveing and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and Dewar 


Kungo 






Frequency 




Character 






A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 












\~ 




2800-37 


5 






0-80 


10-3 


35699-3 


2798-01 


2 


• 






10-4 


35729-4 


97-74 


1 










32-7 


97-29 


3 










38-5 


96-73 


2 










45-6 


95-00 


5 










67-8 


89-64 


1 










35836-5 


85-95 


1 










84-0 


85-53 


1 










89-4 


85-10 


1 










95-0 


83-49 


4 






0-79 




35915-7 


82-86 


2 










23-8 


82-45 


1 










29-1 


80-86 


1 










49-7 


8002 


1 










60-5 


79-78 


2 










63-7 


78-11 


3 










. 85-3 


77-10 


4 










98-4 


74-99 


3 








10-5 


36025-6 


74-02 


1 










38-3 


73-68 


2 


\ 








42-7 


72-54 
70-56 
69-35 


4 
1 
2 










57-5 
83-3 
99-0 


67-96 


1 










36117-2 


67-71 


1 










20-4 


66-33 
66-10 
63-71 
63-18 


2 

1 

<1 

1 






I 




38-5 
41-5 

72-7 
79-7 


62-90 
61-73 


2 
4 






" 




83-3 
98-7 


60-88 


3 






„ 




36209-8 


59-87 
59-36 


<1 
3 










23-1 
29-8 


58-55 
68-02 


1 

3n 










40-4 
47-4 


57-70 

* 56-64 

5508 


In 

1 
3 










60-8 
52-4 
86-1 


54-80 
54-05 
51-09 


2 

<1 

1 








10-6 


89-8 

99-7 

36338-6 


48-96 


<ln 










66-8 

79-3 

36429-1 


48-02 
44-26 


3 
1 










43-71 


i <1 




* 






36-4 


43-24 


' In 










42-6 


40-93 
39-91 
39-40 
37-18 
34-31 


3 

1 
1 
2 
5n 






0-78 




73-3 

870 

93-7 

36523-4 

fe^61-7 



Cf. Krypton U. 2756-66 (I}'. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES CP THE SPECT&A. OF THE ELEMENTS. l49 
Second Xenon Specteum — continued. 



Wave-length 



Intensity! Liveiug and 



and 
Character 



273411 i 


1 


* 33-3G 


4n 


32-48 


1 


31-61 


1 


28-37 1 


2 


27-38 


3 


25-45 


2 


24-71 


<1 


* 23-56 


<1 


23-09 


1 


20-41 


1 


18-92 


<1 


17-47 


7 


15-91 


1 


1507 


4 


14-20 


<1 


13-50 


1 


12-06 


1 


11-69 


2n 


11-16 


1 


08-65 


3 


07-49 


2ii 


07-15 


1 


06-89 


2 


04-61 


1 


03-58 


4 


02-48 


3 


01-99 


1 


01-71 


1 


2699-29 


In 


27-70 


1 


* 96-72 


4 


96-08 


1 


95-52 


1 


95-28 


1 


94-27 


2 


* 91-92 


1 


91-63 


1 


91-44 


1 


• 90-33 


1 


89-82 


In 


87-12 


3 


85-73 


1 


85-49 


<1 


82-84 


! In 


80-12 


1 


79-57 


<1 


78-70 


2 


* 77-29 


i 8 


76-22 


<1 


75-51 


<1 


73-95 


2n 


72-35 


3 


* Cf. Ki-3 


rpton n 


2677-30(2). 





Dewar 



Runge 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



0-78 



0-77 



10-6 



10-7 



10-8 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



99 


>» 


ft 


» 


»f 


J> 1 


99 


» 




10-9 


>» 


»> 


» 


» 


>f 


»> 


)» 


»9 


>> 


)? 



36564-4 

74-4 
86-2 
97-8 
36641-3 
54-6 
80-6 
90-5 
36706-1 
12-3 
48-5 
68-6 
88-2 
36809-4 
20-7 
32-6 
42-1 
61-6 
66-7 
73-9 
36908-1 
23-9 
28-7 
321 
63-2 
77-3 
92-2 
990 
37002-8 
36-0 
57-8 
71-3 
80-0 
87-8 
91-1 
37105-0 
37-4 
41-4 
44-0 
59-4 
66-4 
37203-8 
230 
26-4 
63-1 
37301-0 
08-6 
20-6 
40-3 
55-2 
65-1 
87-0 
37409-3 



2733-38 (4). 2323-46 (1), 269671 (4), 2691-94 (1), 269035 (P, 



150 



REPORT — 1905. 
Second Xenon Spectrum — continued. 











Reduction to 






Intensity 


Liveing and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Dewar 


Runge 






Frequency 




Character 
2 






\ + 
0-11 


1 


in Vacuo 
374311 


♦2670-80 






10-9 


70-40 










99 


36-7 


69-12 










9> 


54-6 


68-14 








„ 


ij 


68-4 


65-30 










»« 


37508-3 


64-97 










9* 


13-0 


64-61 


< In 








99 


18-0 


63-43 










!> 


34-7 


62-60 


< In 








99 


46-4 


61-99 


< 1 








99 


65-0 


61-14 










9* 


670 


59-51 










99 


90-0 


58-37 










)> 


37616-1 


55-57 










99 


45-8 


53-47 


< 1 






0-76 


11-0 


75-5 


52-93 








„ 


99 


83-2 


52-28 


2n 






,. 


99 


92-4 


51-69 








ft 


1* 


37700-8 


60-34 










91 


20-0 


49-76 










99 


28-3 


* 48-79 










99 


42-1 


43-89 


In 








99 


37812-1 


43-56 








' 


„ 


16-8 


42-68 










9) 


29-4 


41-25 


3 








99 


49-9 


39-30 


2 






,, 


99 


77-8 


37-63 


3 








99 


87-5 


36-95 


2 








99 


37911-6 


36-58 


2 








19 


16-9 


35-78 












28-4 


35-20 


<r 1 










36-8 


34-33 










9f 


49-3 


3405 










99 


53-3 


33-53 










99 


60-8 


30-56 










11-1 


38003-6 


29-70 


3n 










16-0 ' 


2710 








ff 


19 


24-7 


26-12 












38-9 


* 24-65 










ff 


89-2 


23-31 


In 








jf 


38108-7 


21-88 












29-5 


21-62 










jf 


34-7 


20-07 


< 1 










55-8 


19-83 










)) 


59-3 


17-06 










99 


99-7 


t 16-79 












3=203-7 


15-83 










ft 


17-7 


16-64 










fl 


21-9 


14-13 










ly 


42-5 


12-61 


In 








)9 


64-8 


11-17 










t* 


85-9 


10-73 










** 


92-4 



* Cf. Krypton II. 2670-78 (1), 2648-80 (1), 2624-63 ()). 
t Cf. Krypton II. 2616-80 (2). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. lol 



Second Xenon Spectrum — continued. 











Eeduction to 






Intensity 


Liveing and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Dewar 


Runge 


. 


Frequency 




Character 






A + 


A~ 

11-2 


in Vacuo 


260904 


3 






0-75 


38317-2 


07-68 


1 






» 


»? 


37-1 


07-09 


2 






?J 


»> 


45-8 


05-69 


10 






S> 


»» 


66-4 


00-29 


3 






J» 


»» 


384461 


2599-77 


<1 






>> 


»• 


53-7 


98-59 


3n 






*t 


99 


71-2 


97-14 


4n 






>» 


99 


92-7 


95-19 


1 






99 


99 


38521-6 


94-81 


1 






>9 


9» 


27-3 


93-70 


<1 






99 


99 


43-5 


91-84 


2 






99 


99 


71-4 


91-26 


1 






9> 


99 


80-1 


90-59 


3 






»J 


91 


90-1 


88-52 


1 






>» 


11-3 


38620 S 


87-72 


1 






9* 


99 


32 8 


85-45 


1 






f» 


99 


66 7 


84-04 


1 






99 


»» 


87-8 


83-90 


1 






if 


»9 


89-9 


82-74 


1 






99 


99 


97-3 


* 81-84 


In 






99 


J» 


38720-8 


78-80 


2 






»» 


99 


66-4 


78-51 


3 






99 


99 


708 


77-11 


3 






99 


*9 


91-9 


74-18 


In 






9» 


99 


388360 


73-06 


1 






»» 


99 


52-9 


* 72-46 


2 






>» 


99 


62-0 


70-41 


1 






» 


91 


93-0 


69-53 


1 






»» 


»9 


38906-3 


68-94 


2 






»» 


99 


15-3 


67-62 


<1 






99 


11-4 


35-2 


67-25 


1 






»> 


•9 


40-8 


65-09 


<1 






99 


99 


73-6 


64-12 


1 






0-74 


99 


88-3 


61-04 


2 






99 


99 


39035-2 


6011 


1 






»• 


99 


49-4 


57-91 


1 






»y 


99 


83-0 


56-30 


I 






9f 


99 


39107-6 


51-85 


2 






»f 


99 


75-8 


50-70 


1 






99 


99 


93-5 


49-92 


3 






»t 


99 


39205-5 


4905 


1 






>» 


11-5 


18-8 


46-89 


<1 






>> 


>f 


52-1 


46-57 


In 






Jl 


99 


570 


44-27 


1 






99 


f» 


92-5 


42-03 


1 






«» 


»> 


393271 


41-22 


<1 






^9 


»» 


39-7 


39-08 


1 






>» 


>» 


72-8 


38-16 


1 






»9 \ 9» 


87-1 


37-04 


2 






»> >9 


39404-5 


3608 


2 






;> 99 


19-4 


33-47 


2 






)j <> 


601 


31-45 


In 






j> 


J> 


91-5 



Gf. Krypton XL 2581-84 (1), 2572-44(1). 



152 



REPORT— 1905. 



Second Xenon Spectrum — continued. 





Intensity 


Wave-length 


and 




Character 


253033 


1 


2710 


4 


2G-97 


4 


24-58 


2 


24-13 


o 


21-58 


1 


20-28 


1 


1917 


3ii 


17-21 


In 


15-26 


1 


14-85 


<1 


14-70 


<1 


14-16 


In 


* 13-52 


In 


11-43 


In 


10-65 


2 


09-89 


<1 


05-05 


1 


01-16 


2 


2498-20 


1 


95-27 


1 


* 94-11 


3 


93-CO 


< 1 


93-18 


1 


92-C9 


< 1 


91-93 


2n 


90-89 


4n 


90-23 


4n 


86-80 


1 


86-46 


4 


85-13 


1 


83-59 


1 


79-98 


1 


79-25 


1 


76-02 


10 


72-50 


1 


71-42 


2 


70-30 


2 


69-57 


2 


t 68-54 


2n 


63-72 


-1 
1 


63-14 




55-19 




64-40 


In 


52-76 




51-50 




51-02 




49-16 




48-63 




47-79 




47-21 




46-23 





Liveing and 
Dewar 



Runge 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 








Oscillation 






Frequency 


A + 


1 

A~ 


in Vacuo 


0-74 


11-6 


39509-0 






59-4 






61-5 






98-9 






39606-0 






46-1 






66-5 






84-0 


6-73 




39714-9 






45-7 






52-2 






54-6 






63-1 






73-2 




11-7 


39806-2 






18-6 






30-7 


yy 




39907-7 


»» 




69-8 






40017-1 






64-1 




11-8 


82-8 






90-9 






97-6 






40105-5 






17-7 


5, 




34-5 


„ 




45-1 


,, 




99-6 






40206-0 


„ 




27-5 






52-5 






40301 1 






13-0 




ii-9 


75-5 






40433-0 






50-6 






69-0 


0-72 




810 






97-9 






40577-1 






86-7 




12-0 


40718-0 






31-2 






58-4 






79-3 






87-3 






40818-3 






27-2 






41-2 


5» 




60-9 


It 




67-2 



* Cf. Kryptpn II. 2513-50 (1), 2494-10 (2). 
t Cf. Krypton II. 2468-56 (2). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 153 
Second Xenon Spectrum — continued. 











Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Liveing anil 
Dewar 


Runge 


Vacuum 


Oacillation 
Frequency 








Cliaractev 






A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


2436-63 


1 






0-72 


12-1 


4102S-2 


35-59 


In 






»> 


»» 


45-7 


33-75 


1 






>» 


»» 


76-8 


32-87 


1 






9> 


9> 


91-6 


29-11 


1 






jy 


99 


41155-2 


+ 25-18 


2n 






„ 


12-2 


41222-8 


23-08 


1 






»» 


iy 


57-6 


22-28 


3 






>» 


») 


71-2 


21-36 


1 






0-71 




86-9 


18-83 


1 










413301 


18-47 


1 








)> 


36-2 


10-86 


1 






„ 


99 


63-8 


14-88 


1 






» 


»» 


97-7 i 



t Of. Krypton II. 2425-16 (1). 



The Studij of IT iidro- Aromatic Snhstanoes. — Beport of the Committee, 
consisting of Br. E. Divers {Oh airman), Professor A. W. Crossley 
(Secretary), Professor W. 11. Perkin, Br. M. 0. Forster, and 
Dr. H. li. Le Sueur. 

Recent Work on Hydro-Aromatic Siihstances. 
By Professor A. W. Crossley. 

The following is a summary of the work publisliod on hydro-aromatic 
compounds since the preparation of the last report.' 

Petroleum. — The colourless and yellow distillates from naphtha give 
rotations 2 varying from +0-2 to -l-"2-3 divisions of the Soleil-Ventzke 
scale in a tube 200 mm. long, the highest value being given by yellow 
cylinder oil from Baku naphtha. ' Benzine ' and petroleum from Grosny 
naphtha, also the yellow American cylinder oil ' Viscolite,' exhibit dextro 
rotations. 

Tlydrocarhons. — The hydrocarbon CgH,,., obtained by Wreden by the 
action of hydriodic acid on camphoric acid, has been regarded, from a 
consideration of its physical properties only, as 1 : 3-dimethylhexahydro- 
benzene. Balbiano and Angeloni ^ have now afforded chemical proof of 
this fact by a study of the oxidation products of the hydrocarbon. 

Another hydrocarbon of the formula CgHi^ was prepared indirectly 
fi'om camphoric acid, i.e., by the reduction of laurolene (C(,H,j) and iso- 
laurolene (CgH,^) by Zelinsky^ and Lepeschkin in 1901, who considered, 
principally from a study of its physical properties, that it was the then 
unknown 1 : 1-dimethylhexahydrobenzene. This latter substance has 
recently been obtained from dimethyldihydi'oresorcin as a starting-point,'' 

' lieports, 1904, p. 60. = Rakusin, J. Russ. Chem. Soc, 1904, 36, 554. 

» Gaz. Chim. Ital, 1905, 35 (I), 144. ^ Annalni, 319, 31 1. 

" Crossley and Reiiouf, Proc. C. S. 1905, 20, 242. 



164 



REPORT — 1905. 



the various steps involved being adequately indicated by the following 
formula : — 



HjC 


C(CH3), 
/\ CH, 




H^C 


CCCH,), 
/\ CH, 








-> 








[O.C 1 CO 
CH 




C,C ^/l CO 
CH 


H,C 


C(CH,\ 
/\ CHj 






-> 






H^C 


V / 


CHBr 







H„C 
H,C 



C(CH3), 



CH, 



CH, 



CHOH 



CH, 



H„C 



H..C 



CCCH,), 
CH, 



CH. 



CH, 



It has not so far been found possible to prove whether the synthetical 
1 : 1-dimethylhexahydrobenzene is identical with Zelinsky's hydrocarbon, 
though preliminary experiments would point to their non-identity. 
Certainly neither laurolene nor isolaurolene is identical with 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
A^-tetrahydrobenzene, which has also been recently prepared.^ 

Chloromethylhexahydrobenzene. ^ 

Brunei ^ has shown that tetrahydrobenzene may be prepared directly 
from hydroxyhexahydrobenzene by the action of dehydrating agents, e.g., 
phosphoric oxide, zinc chloride, or potassium hydrogen sulphate. In the 
latter case the yield amounts to 82 to 83 per cent, of the theoretical, the 
loss being due to the formation of condensation products. When tetra- 
hydrobenzene * is acted on with mercuric oxide, iodine, and acetic anhy- 
dride, or witli mercuric acetate and iodine, iodocyclohexyl acetate is obtained 
as a yellow oil with aromatic odour. Iodocyclohexyl propionate is also 
described. 

On carefully heating the xanthogenic ether of l-hydroxy-2-methyl- 
hexahydrobenzene ' a hydrocarbon is obtained which, as it gives ;8-methyl- 
adipic acid on oxidation, must be 1 -methyl- A''-tetrahydrobenzene. 

Methyltetrahydrobenzene.'* (Compare p. 155.) 

The preparation and properties of A' ■ ^-dihydrobenzene, briefly alluded 
to in the last report,^ have been described in detail." 

Ilydrocjenation. — Sabatier and Senderens ^ have published a general 
survey of their work on the reduction of various classes of organic 
substances by means of hydrogen in presence of finely divided metals. 
The first portion of the paper contains a description of the apparatus 
employed, choice of temperature, length of activity of the catalyst, &c. 
Then follows a description of the various substances which have been 
prepared. The great importance of choice of temperature in this reaction 
is well illustrated by the case of phenol. At 140° to 160° pure hydroxy- 
hexahydrobenzene is obtained; at 215° to 230° a mixture of hydroxy- 

' Crossley and Renouf, Proc. C. S.. 1905, 21, 209. 

' Sabatier and Mailhe, Compt. Send., 1905, 140, 840. 

» Bull. Soc, 1905 (3), 33, 270. 

* Brunei, Compt. Nend., 1904, 139, 1029. 

« Markownikoff and Stadnikoflf, Annalen, 1904, 336, ,310. 

« Sabatier and Mailhe, Compt. Rend., 1905, 140, 350. 

' Reports, 1904, p. 65. » Crossley, J. C. S., 1904, 85, 1403. 

9 A7in. Chim. Phya., 1905 (8). 4, 319. 



ON THE STUDY QF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 155 

and ketohexahydrobenzene ' ; but at 250° to 300° the benzene ring is 
not hydro<i;eiiated, phenol heing simply reduced to benzene ; whilst at still 
higher temperatures the benzene formed is partially decomposed into 
methane. 

Holleman, Van der Laan, and Slejper,^ have shown that when phenol 
is passed witli hydrogen over reduced nickel at a temperature of 1 40° to 
150° a mixture of hydroxy- and ketohexahydrobenzene is formed. These 
two substances may be separated by taking advantage of the formation of 
a condensation product between the ketone and benzaldehyde. Similar 
experiments have been previously described by Sabatier and Senderens.* 

Hydroxy-derivatives. — On heating heptanaphthylene oxide ^ with 
water it is converted into 3 ; 4-dihydroxy-l-methylhexahydrobenzene.'' 

Ketohexahydrobenzene is readily converted by means of Grignard's 
reaction into tertiary alcohols of the following type ^ : — 

/CH.— CH„\ 
CH / ■ ' >CR.OH 



\CH,— CH^/ 

substances which are insoluble in water, and which on treatment with 
dehydrating agents are converted into the corresponding tetrahydro- 
benzenes. Alcohols in which R may be replaced by the groups methyl, 
ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, isoamyl, phenyl, tolyl, benzyl and cyclohexyl, 
together with certain derivatives, and the corresponding tetrahydro- 
benzenes, are described. 

The hydrogenation of o-cresol ^ takes place regularly in presence of 
reduced nickel at 200° to 220", giving rise to l-hydroxy-2-methylhexa- 
hydrobenzene. When this substance is heated with zinc chloride two 
isomeric methyltetrahydrobenzenes are formed, boiling respectively at 
109° and 103° to 105°. The hydroxy derivative can be converted by 
oxidation with chromic acid, or better by passing its vapour over copper 
heated to 300°, into l-keto-3-methylhexahydrobenzene. jw-Cresol on 
hydrogenation gives a mixture of 1 -hydroxy- and l-keto-3-methylhexa- 
hydrobenzene, which can be worked up for either alcohol or ketone, in the 
first case by passing the product with excess of hydrogen over reduced 
nickel at a temperature of 140° to 150° ; and, in the second, by passing 
the mixture with hydrogen over copper at a temperature of 330°. Similar 
experiments have been carried out with ^;-cresol. 

The methyl and ethyl ethers of hydroxyhexahydrobenzene * may be 
prepared either by the action of alkyl iodide on the sodium derivative of 
the alcohol, or by the reduction of the corresponding alkyl phenyl ethers. 

Amines. — When aniline is passed with hydrogen over reduced nickel " 
heated to 190° ammonia is evolved, and there are formed in nearly equal 
amounts cyclohexylamineC,;H, ,.NH2;dicyclohexylamineCgH,,.NHCfiH,,, 
and cyclohexylaniline Cr,Hg.NH.CeH|i. Diphenylaminc gives, under 
similar conditions, a mixture of cyclohexylaniline, dicyclohexylaniline, and 
small amounts of benzene, aniline, and cyclohexylamine. If the tempera- 

• Compt. Bend., 190?., 137, 102.5. ^ ^^^ Xrav. CMvi., 190.5, 24, 19. 
' Compt. Rend , 1903, 137, 1025. 

* Markownikoff and Stadnikoff, J. Russ.Chim. Soc, 190.3, 35, 389 
^ Stadnikoff, ibid., 1904, 36, 485. 

« Sabatier and Mailhe, Compt. Bend., 1904, 138, 1321. 

' Ibid., 140, 350. 

» Brunei, Bull. Soc, 1905 (3), 33, 271. 

» Sabatier and Senderens, Coitipt. Rind., 1904, 138, 457. 



156 



KEPORT — 1905. 



ture be increased to 250°, diphenylamine is completely broken down into 
ammonia and hexahydrobenzene. 

At temperatures of 160° to 180° the methyl and ethyl anilines^ are 
readily converted into hexahydro-derivatives without the foi-mation of 
any condensation products, though small quantities are decomposed into 
liexahydrobenzene and a fatty amine. At higher temperatures the re- 
action is much more complicated. 

The preparation and properties of cyclohexyl- mono- anddiethylamines, 
and of cyclohexyl- mono- and dimethylamines are described. 

The hydrogenation of 7u-toluidine, which takes place with difficulty 
at all temperatures, probably because the products are difficultly volatile, 
gives at 200° a mixture of hexahydro-m-toluidine, dimethylcyclohexyl- 
amine and methylcyclohexylaniliue. 

Ketones. — 1 : 4-diketohexamethylene ^ condenses with benzaldehyde 
under the influence of hydrogen chloride to form benzylhydroquinol (3), 
which may be formed by the rearrangement of the benzylidene derivative (1) 

CO CO C.OH 

/lie /\ Cir, CJL.CH.C /S CH 



cjr^.CH = c 



H.,C 



CH.. 



CH.. 



C,H,.CH 



\ 



HC 



CO 



CH, 



HC 



CO 



C.OH 



CH 



or of the norcaran derivative (2). On oxidation with chromic acid it gives 
benzylquinone. Anisaldehyde gives similar derivatives. 

Biltz •* has shown that by chlorinating o- and ^j-hydroxybenzaldehyde 
chlorinated ketotetrahydrobenzenes are obtained. 

l-keto-3-methylhexahydrobenzene gives on treatment with sodamide^ 
a sodium derivative, which reacts with alkyl iodides to give l-keto-3- 
methyl-6-alkylhexahydrobenzenes. All the ketones described give benzyl- 
idene derivatives, which, on oxidation with potassium permanganate in 
acetone solution give the corresponding a-methyl-a'-alkyladipic acids. 
Alcohols liave been prepared from the above ketones by reduction with 
sodium in alcoholic solution. 

3-keto-4-benzyl-l-methylhexahydrobenzene and 3-keto-2 : 4-dibenzyl- 
1 -methylhexahydrobenzene.^ 

Dieckmann and Stein '^ have been led to the conclusion that the 
formation of C-acetyl derivatives of 1 : 3-dicarbonyl compounds by the 
action of acetic anhydride, only takes place under the influence of con- 
densing agents ; e.g., dimethyl- and phenyldihydroresorcins with acetic 
anhydride alone give their 0-acetyl derivatives (1), which are neutral 
bodies, not giving a colour reaction with ferric chloride, and very readily 
decomposing into acetic acid and substituted dihydroresorcin. 

qCH,)., C(CH,)., 

H.,C / \ CH„ HC, ./\ CH„ 

1 

CO OC 



CH3CO.OC 



CH 



CO 
CH.CO.OH, 



' Sabatier and Senderens, Compt. Rend., 1904, 138, 1257. 
2 Stolle and Moering, Ber., 1904, 37, 3486. 

* Haller, Compt. Rend., 1905, 140, 127. 



= Ber., 1904, 37, 4003. 

' Haller, Compf. Rend., 1905, 140, G24. 



Ber., 1904, 37, 3370. 



ON THE KTUDY OF HYDRO- AROMATIC SUBSTANCES 157 

On the other hand, with acetic anhydride in presence of only traces 
of alkali C-acetyl derivatives are formed (2). In contradistinction to the 
0-acetyl derivatives, these bodies have marked acid properties, and give 
an intense ferric chloride reaction. On boiling with mineral acids they 
are decomposed into acetic acid and substituted dihydroresorcin, and 
oxidation with sodium hypobromite converts them into substituted 
glutaric acids. 

0-acetyl derivatives are converted into C-acetyl derivatives by heating 
with acetic anhydride and a trace of alkali. 

The possibility of using condensing agents other than alkali has been 
experimented on, and it is shown that dimethylaniline and quinoline 
produce 0-acetylation ; pyridine and tripropylamine produce C-acetyla- 
tion, and concentrated sulphuric acid principally C-acetylation, but to a 
small extent 0-acetylation. 

Acids. — The fractions obtained in the distillation of petroleum may 
be converted into the corresponding carboxylic acids ^ by chlorinating, 
adding magnesium and a catalytic agent, passing a current of carbon 
dioxide, and decomposing the complex magnesium compound thus 
obtained. The method is more particularly applicable for the preparation 
of fatty acids, but the fraction boiling at 80° to 82° yields pure hexa- 
hydrobenzenecarboxylic acid, and the fraction 71° to 79° this same acid 
mixed with methylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid. 

When acetonedipropionic acid " Cd(CH2.CH.2.CH.2.COOH)2, obtained 
by the hydrolysis of ethyl ketoheptanetetracarboxylate, is heated, water 
is eliminated and dihydroresorcinpropionic acid results. It possesses all 

/CH.,.CO\ 
CH / " >CH.CH.,.CHj.COOH 
XCHj.CO/ 

the characteristics of the dihydroresorcin derivatives.'' 

Following von Baeyer's directions •* for the reduction of phthalic acid, 
Abati and Bernardinis ^ have isolated three new substances, namely, 
cis-A--tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, ij.^ ■■^-dihydrophthalic anhydride, and 
a substance M.P. 174°, which is most probably a dihydrophthalic 
acid. 

Von Baeyer has shown ^ that the reduction of isophthalic acid takes 
place with much greater difficulty than in the case of phthalic or tere- 
phthalic acids. He obtained an acid melting at 199° which agreed on 
analysis with a tetrahydroisophthalic acid. In 1891 Perkin^ synthesised 
the cis- and ^ra??s-moclitications of hexahydroisophthalic acid, and shortly 
afterwards Baeyer and Villiger** obtained these same cis- and trans-Sicids 
by the direct reduction of isophthalic acid. 

Perkin and Pickles '■• have now obtained all four possible tetrahydro- 
isophthalic acids also by direct reduction of isophthalic acid, and for 
reasons given in the original paper these authors conclude that the con- 

' Zelinsky, B. It. P., 151880. 

2 Von Pechmann and Sidgwick, ^er., 1901, 37, 3816. 

3 Compare Merling, Annalen, 1894, 278, 20, and Voilaendei; ibid., 1897, 294, 270, 
* Annalen, 1890, 2'58, 199. ^ Cent. Blatt., 190.5 (,1), 1318. 

6 Ber., 1886, 19, 1806. \ J. C. S., 59, 80S. 

» Annalen, 1893, 276, 255. 
» J. a S., 1905, 87, 293. 



158 REPORT — 1905. 

stitutions of the four isomerides are most probably represented by the 

H COOH 



following formulas : — 


H COOH 


\/ 


H.. 


1 


H, \^ i' COOH 


H., 


A-=(m.p. 168°) 




H COOH 



H,. 



H., 



H. 



H 

A»(m.p. 24^°) 

COOH H 



COOH 



H., 



H 



H 



H„ 



H,. 



-COOH 



H., 



COOH 



.^/ uuun H ^^- 

H H 

cis A*(m.p. 165°) trans H'(m.p. 227°) 

It has not been found possible to isolate even a trace of a dihydroiso- 
phthalic acid from the reduction products, though von Baeyer has shown 
that the products Hrst formed on reduction of phthalic and terephthalic 
acids are always dihydro derivatives. The following considerations are 
suggested as supplying a reason for this curious difference in the behaviour 
of isophthalic acid. 

In the reduction of phthalic and terephthalic acids hydrogen atoms 
always attach themselves in the first instance to the carbon atoms which 
carry the carboxyl groups. Thus the first product of the reduction of 
phthalic acid is _" • °-dihydrophthalic acid — 



yields 



and, in a similar manner, the first product of the reduction of terephthalic 
acid is A- • °-dihydroterephthalic acid — 

H X 






j'ields 



H 



If this process be applied to isophthalic acid, it leads to the following 
unsaturated scheme : — 






yields 




in which the valencies ai-e uiiable to unite to form double linkings, as • in 
the case of dihydrophthalic and dihydroterephthalic acids. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 159 

This argumeDt may account for the difficulty experienced in reducing 
isophthalic acid, and for the fact that tetrahydro derivatives, and not 
dihydro derivatives, are formed at once, because the free valencies, which 
cannot saturate one another, will naturally combine with hydrogen, and 
thus yield at once tetrahydroisophthalic acids. 

The substance ' derived from the condensation product of ethyl 
dibromopropanetetracarboxylate and ethyl disodiopropanetetracarboxylate 
is not, as described in the last report,^ a mixture of trans-hexahydro- 
benzenetetracarboxylic acid and the double anhydride of the ci«-modifica- 
tion of the same acid, but is a mixture of cis- and ^/-ajjs-trimethylenedi- 
carboxylic acid. The condensation takes place in accordance with the 
following scheme : — 

I I 

(CO.,Et),.CNa.CH2.CNa(C02Et)3 (CO,Et)..C.CHj.C(COJlt)„ 

(C0.,Et)2.CBr.CH.,.CBr(C0..Et)., (CO.Et).. C.CH.,.C(CO,Et), . 

' CE ■ ' I I 

/\ 

(CO,Et).,.C - C(CO,Et), 

(C0„Et),.C-C(C03Et)j 

CHj 

Rosaniline Bascn. — The trihydrochlorides of the rosaniline bases 
combine with four molecules of water ■* in acid solution to form tetra- 
hydroxyhexahydrobenzenerosanilines, analogous to the tetrachloTo- and 
tetraminohexahydrobenzenerosanilines previously obtained by absorption 
of 4HC1 or 4NH3. To account for the formation of colourless solutions 
under the above conditions ^ it is assumed that four molecules of water 
are taken up, the quinonoid nucleus being transformed into a cyclohexane 
ring, which view is supported by therrao-chemical data. 

The Nature of Double Linkings. — From the observations of others on 
the addition of bromine to unsaturated substances,* Bauer is led to the 
following generalisations, which, though not drawn up with special reference 
to hydro-aromatic substances, may be of use to those working in this field. 

The capability of carbon atoms, united by a double bond, adding on 
bromine is lessened when both carbon atoms have attached to them the 
following groups : COOH, COOR, CJl;, or Br. In certain cases alkyl 
residues in combination with the above groups behave in a similar 
manner. In the system R'R'^C=CR3R\ if R^ be replaced by COOH, 
bromine is added on so long as R^R^R^ are not replaced by bromine or 
bromine and methyl. Methyl groups without bromine atoms have no 
influence. For example, addition takes place in the case of acrylic, 
bromo- and dibromoacrylic crotonic, dimethyl- and trimethylacrylic acids, 
but not with tribromoacrylic or dibromocrotonic acids. 

When R^ and R-* are replaced by carboxyl groups, the addition takes 
place so long as R^ and R"* are not both replaced by Br or methyl : for 
example, fumaric, methylfumaric and bromomaleic acids form dibromides, 
whereas dibromo- and dimethylfumaric acids do not. 

If R' be replaced by CgH, and R'^R^R'* by methyl groups, addition 
takes place ; but if R^ and R^ are replaced by CgHg and R- and R^ by 

' Perkin, J. C. S., 1905, 87, 358. ^ Bsports, 1904, p. 62. 

' Schmidlin, Comyt. Rend., 1904, 139, 506. 

* Ibid., p. 621. ' Ber., 1904, 37, 3317. 



160 REPORT— 1905. 

bromine atoms, no addition is possible. With R.' and R'^ both C^jH., 
groups, the replacement of R^ or R^ by bromine is sufficient to prevent 
addition of bromine, but not if R^ or R^ or both be replaced by methyl. 
As examples, stilbene, methylstilbene, bromostilbene and diphenylethylene 
add on bromine, but dibromostilbene and diphenylbromoethylene do not. 



Invest iijcdion of the Fossiliferoiis Drift Bepoxits at Kinniiigton, Lincoln- 
sliire, and at various localities in the JEast Riding of Yorlshire. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh 
(Chairman), Mr. J. W. Stather (Secretari/), Dr. Tempest Ander- 
son, Professor J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. A. R. 
Dwerryhouse, Mr. F. W. Harmer, Mr. J. H. Howarth, Rev. 
W. JoHNSOX, Professor P, F. Kendall, Mr. H. B. Muff, Mr. 
E. T. Newton, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Thomas Sheppakd. 

The last report of the Committee (Cambridge, 1904) described the com- 
pletion of successful work at Kirmington and at Limber, Lincolnshire. 
Since then the Committee have commenced operations at two localities in 
the East Riding of Yorkshire, viz., Bielbecks and Speeton ; but owing to 
the early date at which this report has to be rendered, and to other cir- 
cumstances, it has been found impossible to send in a report of completed 
woi'k at either of these places. 

Bielbecks. — This place is situated in the Yale of York, two miles south 
of Market Weighton and one mile north-west of North Cliff. Between 
seventy and eighty years ago a rich deposit of mammalian and other 
remains was accidentally discovei'ed here, and wei'e subsequentl)^ described 
in the 'Philosophical Magazine,' September 1829, by the Rev. W. V. Har- 
court. A large number of specimens were obtained, the bulk of which 
are, we believe, in the museum at York. The deposit is obviously a very 
important one, and it has long been felt that, if possible, more informa- 
tion as to its precise nature should be obtained. With this object in view 
your Committee have put down borings, and have been able to locate 
the black marl which is believed to contain most of the bones and shells. 
Later in the year — probably in July — it is intended to make a large 
excavatior of which a detailed report will be prepared and presented at 
the York meeting in 1906. 

2'he ' Speeton Shell Bed.'' — This bed was seen by Professor Phillips in 
the year 1855, and a brief account of it occurs in his ' Geology of York- 
shire,' vol. ii. The bed was described more fully by Mr. G. W. Lamplugh 
in the 'Geological Magazine' (1881, p. 1-76). Since then the bed has 
become much obscured by slips. As the relationship of this bed to the 
glacial drift is still a debatable matter, your Committee decided that 
the bed came within the scope of their investigations. With the assistance 
of Mr. C. G. Dauford, of Reighton, an excavation has been made, and 
a clean section down to the base of the shell bed obtained. The 
details, however, have still to be worked out. 

The thanks of the Committee are due to W. H. Fox, Esq., for permis- 
sion to excavate at Bielbecks, and also to the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Londesborough for permission to investigate the shell bed at the base of 
the drifts at Speeton. 

The Committee request to be reappointed, with power to use the 
unexpended balance of last year's grant. 



INVESTIGATION OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIAS OF BRITISH ISLES. 161 



Investitjatimi of the Fauna awl Flora of the Trias of the Britisli Isles. 
Third Report of the Committee, consistiw/ of Professor W. A. 
Herdman (Chairman), Mr. J. Lomas (Secretary), Professor W. W. 
Watts, Professor P. F. Kendall, and Messrs. H. C. Beasley, 
E. T. Newton, A. C. Seward, and W. A. E. Ussher. (Braivn 
up hi/ the Secretarij.') 

The work of the Committee during the past year has been mainly directed 
towards ascertaining what Triassic fossils are stoi'ed in provincial museums. 

Circulars have been issued asking for information, and casts of typical 
footprints have been distributed as an aid to identification. 

Numerous replies have been received, but a more critical examination 
of the specimens is desirable in many cases, and it is hoped to incorporate 
the results in next year's report. 

Other lines of research are in progress, including a detailed description 
of the footprints found in the Upper Trias by Mr. H. C. Beasley ; and a 
careful examination of the Rhynchosaurus remains in the Shrewsbury 
Museum is being made by Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

The Museum Committee of the Shrewsbury Town Council has kindly 
allowed the valuable slabs in their keeping to be sent to the Britisli 
Museum for this purpose. 

The present report includes a list of Triassic fossils from the Bath 
Museum, by the Rev. W. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. ; from the Warwick 
]\[useum, by Mr. H. C. Beasley ; and, by the kindness of Mr. W. A. E. 
Ussher, F.G.S. , of the Geological Survey, an original section, drawn and 
coloured by the late Mr. P. O. Hutchinson, is reproduced, showing the 
relative positions of the beds in the Sidmouth area, in which plant and 
saurian remains have been found. A short note on the occurrence and 
habitat of Ustheria vdnuta is also contributed by the Secretary. 

List of British Triassic Fossils in the Moore Collection, Bath Museum. 
By the Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. 



Name. 
Undetermined sp. 



Esthciia minnta. Alberii 



JJiplodus muorci, A. S. Wood- 
ward. I'he type teeth de- 
cribed and figured by A. S. 
Woodward, ' Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist.' [6] vol. iii. (1889), 
p. 299, PI. XIV. figs. 4, 5. 

Acrodus (?) keujicriuus, Murcli. 
and Strickl. sp. ; teeth, dorsal 
tin-spines, and cephalic 
spines (Sphenonchus). 



Thecodontosaurus (teeth) . 
Rkynohosaiirns articeps, Owen ; 
vertebriB only 

1905. 



PLANT Ji. 
Formation. 
Keiiper 



Locality. 
B utile Heath. 



CRUSTACEA. 
Keuper . . Near Somerion. 



PISCES. 



Kejper 



Keuper 



RE PT I LI A, 



Keuper 
Keuper 



Ruishton, near Taunton. 



Kuitfhton, near Taunton. 



Bristol. 

Giinshill, Shropshire. 

M 



162 REPORT — 1905 



Notes on Footprints from the Trias in the Museum of the Warwickshire 
Natural History and Archceological Society at Way-wick. By H. C. 
Beasley. 

The Warwick Museum contains about tifty slabs of sandstone of 
various sizes, showing either casts or impressions of footprints. About 
fifteen of them are from the Upper Keuper sandstone of Shrewley, War- 
wickshire. 

From the Lower Keuper there are nine, mostly large ones, from 
Lymm, Cheshire, two or three from Grinshill, Salop, and one large one 
and several smaller ones from South Staffordshire, one large one from 
Coten-end, Warwick, and several from both Upper and Lower Keuper in 
other localities in the Midlands. Besides these there are others which 
have lost their labels, but of which it is possible to guess the locality. 

From this it will be seen that the collection gives an opportunity for 
comparing the indications of the fauna in a variety of localities and of 
different horizons. 

The portion of the collection of most interest is that obtained from the 
Upper Keuper sandstones of Shrewley. The quarry by the side of the 
canal is, unfortunately, not now worked, and is covered with a dense growth 
of vegetation, but whilst it was open it appears to have been closely 
watched by the Eev. P. B. Brodie, and other Warwick geologists, who 
secured a good number, not only of footprints, but of fossil remains. 

The beds of sandstone are intercalated in the Keuper marls, and were 
described in 1837 by Murchison and Strickland, and some fossils and a 
large slab of footprints figured.^ 

The sandstones consist of thin beds, in all S or 1() feet, underlain by tea- 
green marl. Besides footprints, fish and other organic remains have been 
found in the sandstones, and Estlieria minuta is common both to the 
sandstones and the marls. A bed, apparently immediately below the 
sandstones, has yielded several species of mollusca, recorded in the reports 
of the specimens in the British Museum, Natural History, and the 
Geological Survey Museum, in this Committee's report of last year, by 
Dr. A. S. AVoodward, F.R.S., and Mr. E. T. Newton, F.R.S. 

The slab which is figured with the paper by Murchison and Strick- 
land, referred to above, is in the Warwick collection, and the prints, in 
relief, are still quite recognisable. They are described in Part ii. of this 
report (p. 278, 1904) as D 4. The manus has the digits free, with no trace 
of webbing, and they look slender and weak compared with those of the 
larger pes, which, as befox'e described, is distinctly webbed. There is a 
distinct track of a tail between the two rows of the footprints. The large 

' Trans. Gcol. Soc, 2nd series, vol. v. p. 339, and Plate XXVIII. ' On the Upper 
Forqaation of the New Red Sandstone System in Gloucester, Worcestershire, 
and Warwickshire, showing that the Red, or Saliferoiis Marls, including a peculiar 
Zone of Sandstone, represent the Keuper or " Marnes irisees " with Some 
Account of the Underlying Sandstone of Ombersley, Bromsgrove, and Warwick, 
Proving that it is the Bunter Sandstein, or Gres Bigarre of Foreign Geologists,' by 
R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S., and H. S. Strickland, P.G.S., read June 14, 1837. 

The section is also described in Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xii. p. 374. ' On the 
Upper Keuper Sandstone (included in the New Red Marl) of Warwickshire,' by 
the Rev. P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.G.S., read June 4, 185C; also Quart. Jour. Gcul. Soc, 
vol. xiii. p. 574, and vol. xiv. p. 165, by the same. 



INVESTIGATION OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIAS OF BRITISH ISLES. 163 

label attached reads, 'Footsteps of Labyiinthodon, Upper Keuper, 
Shrewley, presented by Hugh E. Strickland, Esq., F.G.S.' The prints 
are, liuwcver, decidedly Rhynchosauroid in form. There do not seem to 
be quite similar prints on any of the other slabs from Shrewley. ^ 

The most common is another Rhynchosauroid form which is distin- 
guished from the foregoing by tlie absence of webbing and by the club- 
shaped digits, \yhich show no trace of the presence ot a nail. TJie digit.'? 
are narrow at the proximal joint and gradually widen towards the distal 
end, where they arc clearly rounded oft". They are of the same propor- 
tional lengths as those of tlie other Rhyncliosauroids, are moderately diver- 
gent, and the print of the fifth digit is oidy occasionally shown. In one 
case it is distinctly marked on both pes and manus. The other digits, 
I-IV., are usually fairly marked. This form will be referred to as D 6 ; 
it is a distinctly Shrewley form. Several examples are on small pieces of 
stone in one of the upright cases, and are described as Labyrinthodon on 
the labels. There are a pair of slabs, relief and impression, on the wall, 
with traces of two pairs of feet of this form on a rippled surface. These are 
also labelled as ' Labyrinthodon.' (These are just to the left of the slab 
next to be described.) The slabs are about 8 inches across. 

Another, immediately to the left of the Murchison and Strickland 
slabs, measures about 15 inches and 13 inches, and shows a number of im- 
pressions on a rippled surface of fine white sandstone. It is labelled 

Ndine .... Footprints of Labyrinthodon 
Locality .... Shrewley 
Donor .... Rev. P. B. Brodie 

There are portions of the surface of two layers, with footprints on 
each. The upper one is very thin, and the ripples are continuous on each. 
The ripples are much flattened, and it is doubtful if they are actual ripple 
marks, or if they may not have been due to other causes. They, however, 
do not interfere with the definition of the footprint.s, which apparently 
were made subsequently. 

The footprints are decidedly Rhynchosauroid, and are mostly D 1. 
Besides footprints there are what appear to be the tracks of Gasteropods, 
but might possibly be due to the tails of reptiles, though no connection 
with the footprints is apparent, as was the case in the slab described 
above. Altogether this slab is a most interesting one, and will repay 
further study and comparison with others of the same character in the 
collection. 

To the left of this is a large slab 'showing a scries of prints of 
Clieirotheroid character. Unfortunately they are very imperfect, only 
the termination of three or four digits being recognisable on each foot. 
The breadth of the print is 6 inches; tlie length is not determinable. It 
is very uncertain whether very indistinct markings a little in advance of 
the more distinct prints represent the forefeet, but they possibly do. The 
Cheirotheroid prints usually are found in linear arrangement, the left 

' There is a slab of similar stone, in a very dark corner and clcsc to the ceilino- 
with imperfect imjircssions of somewhat the same form as the Murchison-Stricklanci 
slab. It hardly corresponds sufficiently to be the counterpart, which, moreover, in 
the original paper is said to have been deposited iu the Museum of the Geological 
Society. The present position of this slab renders a careful examination very 
difficult. ■' 

M 2 



164 REPOKT — 1905. 

feet being in a line with the I'ight (see Part i. 1 903, p. 2l'4), but in this case 
the track is fully 9 inches between the line of the middle digits of the right 
and left feet. This might be caused by the animal being in the act of turn- 
ing, but the direction of the digits shows no sign of this. 

There is a marking, extending obliquely across the lower part of the 
slab, which might at tirst sight bo taken for the track of the tail of the 
animal whose footprints it accompanies. It is H inch wide and of a 
flattened cylindrical form, continuing nearly the same width throughout 
the length (about 2 feet) preserved. Longitudinal ridges, flat and in very 
low relief, are plaiidy discernible, as are also what appear to be the 
attachments of leaflets or small branches. The impression being cut oft' 
at either end by the margin of the stone, there is no trace of its natural 
termination. 

On two other slabs in the Museum there are markings that may be 
considered in connection with this — the flrst on a large slab labelled 
' SlaVj of Keuper Sandstone with Impressions of Plants upon it, from 
Coten End Quarry, 1872 ' — (this quarry is in the Lower Keuper Sand- 
stone, near the Great Western Goods Station, Warwick. It is not being 
worked at present). On this (which is 2' 9" x 3' 6") are some markings 
longitudinally ribbed and like that described above, but terminating in 
narrow rods which look like continuations of the longitudinal ribs ; there 
are branched markings near each side of the main stem (?) There are no 
distinct footprints on this slab. Somewhat similar markings associated 
with footprints are also seen on a slab from Lymm, Cheshire, labelled 
' Footprints of Cheirotherium, Lymm, Cheshire, Richd. Corbet, Esq.' On 
this slab are the manus and part of pes of A (probably A2), and below are 
some similar (though slightly smaller) markings to those described, with 
traces of narrow leaflets ; the ribs and rod-like termination are fairly 
clear. 

An inorganic origin of these markings, such as running water, might 
be suggested were it not for a specimen from Storeton in the Britisli 
Museum, Natural History, R. 730, which has all the features of those 
above described, but the main part of the marking is covered with rows 
of distinct scales corresponding with the longitudinal ribs on those just 
described.^ 

The Footprints from Lijmm. — There are a number of fairly large slabs 
from Lymm, Cheshire, but the prints upon them are all more or less im- 
perfect, and in many cases have been chipped in the quarrying. Nearly 
all the prints are of the Cheirotheroid form, A 2 ; the most interesting is 
that with supposed plant remains described above. 

Tivo or Three Slabs from Grimshill. — One is a strongly ripple-marked 
slab labelled ' Footprints of Rhynchosaurus, New Red Sandstone, Lower 
Keuper Grinshill, presented by Sir Vincent Corbet, B.A.' ; a second label 
in Rev. Mr. Brodie's writing runs, ' Footprints of Rhynchosaurus Arti- 
ceps, Grinshill, Salop.' There are numerous very imperfect prints, mostly 
only raised oval patches, about an inch across, and none of them showing 
detail. Besides the oval marks there is a print of three digits with the 
nails turned to one side and in every way resembling the three longer 
digits of a large D 1. 

Another print from Grimshill is in one of the glass cases. On it are 

' For figure and description see Morton's Gcoloijy of Liicrjjoul, Appendix, p. iJOU, 
PI. XXII. 



INVESTTGATTO^ OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIAS OF BRITISH ISLES. 165 

two footprints in relief ; one is very imperfect, the other the print of such 
a foot as, when rather clogged with mud, might have made the oval marks 
on the slab last described. It shows three very distinct claws and no 
clear division between the digits, which must have been short. The 
breadth of the print is 2-5 cm., and the length very slightly more. It 
bears some resemblance to the print in the Chester Museum described in 
Part ii. 1904, page 2S1, as I, but the breadth of the foot is greater, and 
there is a \evy slight indication of the print of the first digit. It is 
labelled, ' Rhynchosaurus, Grinshill, Salop.' 

South Staffordshire. 

A large slab of red sandstone about 2 feet square, the first on the left 
of the lower row, is labelled ' Footprints of Rhynchosaurus Articeps, 
Owen, from Corven Burwood, near Wolverhampton, Lower Keuper Sand- 
stone (Waterstones), Rev. F. Catt.' This is evidently from Coven, Bre- 
wood, StaflTordshire, a locality that has contributed very similar slabs also to 
the British Museum, Natural History, the Liverpool and the Worcester 
Museums. All of them are, unfortunately, so crowded with prints that it is 
difficult to recognise any as even fairly perfect. They are undoubtedly 
Rhynchosauroid and probably D .3. The surface represented by the slabs 
in the museums mentioned, which look as if they all came from the 
same bed, must have been many square yards in extent, and the crowded 
state of the prints points to the presence of a very large number of indi- 
viduals. 

In the glass case before referred to as containing some smaller speci- 
mens of footprints is a small piece of chocolate-coloured sandstone, with 
prints of fore and hind feet of D 3, slightly smaller than those in the 
large slab. It is labelled ' Rhynchosaurus, Brewood, Staflfordshire, Rev. 
P. B. Brodie.' The print and the matrix are almost identical with those 
found by Mr. Beeby Thompson, F.G.S., in the same district.' 

Another small slab from Brewood has a Cheirotheroid print not quite 
perfect, but apparently of A 2 form. 

Among those without labels is a footprint (impression) in very white 
sand.stone, a little to the right of the large Brewood slab. The print in 
size almost equals A 3 Cheirotherinm Ilercnlis, but in form it more 
resembles A 1 C. Stortonense ; the digits are rather long and taper to 
quite a fine point. 

Only a small proportion of the footprints have been mentioned, but 
the whole collection is of great interest, and the presence of footprints 
from Henley-in-Arden and Preston Bagot shows that the exposui-es of 
footprint beds are not restricted to a small area. 

From the latter place, Preston Bagot, there is an imperfect A form, 
with short stout digits, probably of A 2, with a slight trace of the fore- 
foot. This is labelled ' Labyrinthodon Footsteps, Upper Keuper Trias, 
Preston Bagot, purchased.' 

This report has confined itself to the footprint slabs, but the Museum 
collection includes a number of vertebrate and invertel)rate fos.sils and 
plant remains from the Trias of the district, which we must hope will be 
recorded elsewhere. 

' See B.A. Trias Report, Part ii., 1904, p. 277. Also Geological Magazine, May 
1902, by Dr. A. S. Woodward, 



166 REPORT— 1905. 

The collection also includes plaster casts of one of the Bootle foot- 
print slabs, and another of sundry prints, not named, and of Equiseluin 
Keuperina, which does not in any way resemble the plant impressions 
alluded to in the report. 

Note on the, Occurrence and Habitat of Estlieria in the Trias of Britain. 

By The Secretary. 

The conditions under which tlie Triassic rocks of Great Britain have 
been laid down have long been a matter of dispute. They have been 
claimed as marine, lacustrine, and fluviatile deposits by various workers, 
but in each case it has been found that serious difficulties stood in the 
way of the acceptance of any one of these methods of accumulation. 

In recent years the idea has been steadily gaining in strength among 
geologists that the action of wind in a desiccated region will best explain 
the peculiar features which the Triassic rocks exhibit. It has never been 
denied that water has played an important part in their deposition, but 
this seems to have been of an inconstant nature, like the temporary sti-eams 
and lakes which appear for a time in the deserts of to-day and then dis- 
appear by evaporation or other causes. 

The problem has almost invariably been approached from the physical 
standpoint, and but little attention has been paid to the paheontological 
side of the question. 

This is doubtless due to the fact that the fossil contents of the Triassic 
rocks are few in number and difficult to undei'-stand, features they possess 
in common with the fauna and flora of existing deserts. 

The little Phyllopod crustacean, Estlieria niinnta, is by far the most 
common, the most widely distributed, and the most characteristic fossil of 
the Triassic period, and an examination of the beds in which it is found, 
the fossils with which it is associated, and the conditions under which 
its congeners of the present day exist, may help to\v^ards a better under- 
standing of the problem stated above. 

We owe most of our knowledge of fossil Estheria to Professor Rupert 
Jones, F.R.S., who.se monograph in the Pala^ontographical Society's ' Pro- 
ceedings ' (1862), and subsequent papers published in the 'Geological 
Magazine ' and other journals, have furnished most of the materials for 
this note. 

Only one species, Estheria minuta,^ Alberti, has been found in the 
British Trias, and one variety, Estheria minuia, var. Brodieana, formerly 
thought to be limited to the Rhtetic. 

With the exception of some specimens found by Mr. C. E. de Ranee 
in the Lower Keuper of Alderley Edge, Cheshire, and recorded in last year's 
report,- all the British specimens of Estheria minuta have been obtained 
from the Upper Keuper. 

In the European Trias it occurs in the Lower Bunter of Eastern 
France, the Upper Bunter of Baden and Hanover, the Muschelkalk of 
Baden and Thuringia, the Lettenkohle of Eastern France, Baden, 
Hanover and Thuringia, the Lower Keuper of Thuringia, and the Upper 
Keuper of Wiirteniberg and Hanover. 

It ranges, then, through all the members of the Triassic series from top 

' Monog. Paler. Soc, 1862, p. 57, Ft. ii. : f/eol. Mag., 1898, p. 292, fig. 3. 
" B.A. Trias Report, Ft. ii. p. 277 



INVESTIGATION OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIAS OF KKITISH ISLES. 1G7 

to bottom, and it probably only needs careful search to extend its range 
in the British rocks. 

Until recently Esiheria viinuta, var. Brodieana was considered as 
characteristic of the Rhietic. It occurs in a certain zone of this series in 
Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Somersetshire, and Moray- 
shire, and is so plentiful that it has been described as forming thin 
limestones. 

However, in 1900 several specimens, identified by Professor Rupert 
Jones, were found in the Keuper marls at Oxton, Cheshire,' and its range 
has thus been extended into the Keuper proper. 

JIabitat of Recent Estheria. 

More than twenty species are known to exist at the present time. 
We find them in freshwater pools, Strasburg ; brackish water marshes, 
Arzeu, near Oran, Africa ; in ditches filled with rainwater, Toulouse, 
Tunis, and Algeria ; in freshwater marshes of the Island of Dahalac, 
on the coast of Abyssinia ; in stagnant water on the banks of the Tigris, 
near Bagdad ; in rainwater pools, Malta ; in freshwater streams near 
Nagpur, India ; in rainwater pools on limestone near .Jerusalem, dry for 
ten or eleven months in the year ; in a dried-up ' vley' near Port Elizabeth, 
South Africa ; in brackish water in Cuba and Cape of Good Hope, and 
in Lake Winnipeg. 

One species, Estheria Gihoni, from a freshwater pool of Gibon, 
Jerusalem, was reared in England by Mr. H. Denny and Dr. Baird from 
the dry mud brought from tho Pool of Gibon. 

Thus we see that the genus lias a wide distribution , it lives in fresh, 
stagnant, or brackish water ; it is capable of existing under great extremes 
of iieat and cold, and in regions subject to great desiccation. 

According to Professor Rupert Jones, recent Estherice appear, as it were, 
suddenly (like the Apus) in pools and ditches, and are quickly developed 
in tanks and ponds dry for even ten or eleven months in the year. 

Habitat of Fossil Estherice. 

Fossil EstherifB have been found in the Old Red formation, and in 
almost every subsequent freshwater deposit up to the present day. 

They are constantly associated with other freshwater Crustacea, fresh- 
water molluscs, fishes, reptiles, insects, and plants. Occasionally; dwarfed 
marine shells are found, indicative of brackish conditions. 

No truly marine organisms have ever been found associated with them 
in the same bed. 

Dealing specially with Estheria minuta, we find it to occur principally 
in the so-called marls and clays of the Trias series, and less frequently in 
sandstone. 

Professor Rupert Jones ^ remarks that the Estheria^ of the Keuper 
might have been at once regarded as of equally freshwater habits with 
their recent congeners were it not that the salt condition of the waters 
depositing much of the Keuper sandstones and shales is proved by the 
masses of rock-salt and by the casts of the cubical crystals of salt occurring 

' Lomas, ' On the Occurreuce of Estheria and Plant, Remains in the Keuper Marls 
at Oxtor, Birkenbead.' Proc. Lircrpool Geol. Soc, 1901, p. 77, PL IV. 
2 Moiioff. Palm. Soc, 1862, p. 65. 



168 REPORT— 1905 

abundantly in the same beds. .Still, he acknowledges that, in his experi- 
ence, Estherise have not been found in these salt-bearing beds, but appear 
to keep a definite line above the horizon of the rock-salt, and beneath that 
of the salt pseudoniorphs. 

In this he appears to have been mistaken, for the Oxton specimens 
show Estheria, plant remains and salt pseudomorphs on the same surface, 
and the occurrence of the fossil in the Lower Keuper brings it below the 
salt-bearing beds. 

But does it follow tliat the presence of salt necessarily implies marine 
conditions? We find salt in plenty covering the flooi's of the dried-up 
' \ leys ' of South Africa. Some of these are situated in the High Veldt, 
thousands of feet above sea-level. They are fed by streams during the 
rainy season, and the salt represents the material brought by these 
streams into the vleys after the water has evaporated. Living Estheria?, 
are found in these ' vleys.' A sample of mud I collected in a salt-pan near 
Riverton, South Africa, was simply swarming with them. 

Another suggestive fact is that plant remains are almost invariably 
associated with fossil Estherias. They are mostly fi-agmentary and 
evidently drifted. 

A careful study of the ' vleys ' and salt-pans in South Africa might 
yield very important clues as to the origin of the Trias. They are shallow 
hollows in a vast plain covered with loose sand and supporting only a 
scanty xerophytic vegetation. 

When rain falls, streams flow along temporary channels or over the 
ground, without any defined channel, towards the vleys. All traces of the 
channels worn out by the stream may be lost before the next rainy 
season, for in the dry season winds drift the loose .sand, filling up old 
hollows and making new ones. 

In Lhe vleys themselves the water evaporates and various salts brought 
down in .solution are left as residues. 

It is in the muds and sands thus impregnated with salts that Estheria 
flourishes. The vleys .support but little vegetation, but the .sti'eams carry 
with them the stems, leaves, and seeds of plants, and these become 
entombed in the muds alonst with the Crustacea living there. 

Thus almost every feature reproduces the exceptional and puzzling 
features of the Upper Trias rocks of England, and a consideration of the 
habitat of Estheria minuta, especially if taken in connection with that of 
recent species, lends additional support to the suggestion that the Triassic 
rocks of Britain and in some parts of the Continent are the products of 
desert or semi-de.sert conditions. 



Geological Section of iJiP Cliffs to the West and East of Sidmouth, Devon. 
By P. O. liuTcniNSON, Sidmouth, Devon, October 8, 1878. 

Explanatioit and Notes cm Section (fig. 1). 

A. Salt Band. — At the point a' in the salt band, under Wind Gate, 
Mr. W. A. E. Ussher first detected the pseudomorphous crystals of salt. 
They had before been only known iii Sal combe Hill, where the salt band 
strikes the beach. 

B. Carbonate of Lime Band inith Potato Stones. — The potato stones are 
hollow nodules of crystallised carbonate of lime. The whole series of beds 
may amount to 40 or 50 feet in thickness. 



INVESTIGATION OF FAUNA AND FLORA OF TRIA^ OF BRITISH ISLES. 1 69 



a 
o 
1> 
<u 

o 



o 

a 

rn 









o 

a) 



a 
o 






o 



o 

s 




^ 



is 

6 



170 REPORT— 1905. 

c. The stratum of nodules containing crystals of sulphate of strontium 
upon the crystals of carlionate of lime occurs towards the lower part, and 
at about 14 feet above the white bands. 

D. The stem of a lacustrine plant, not yet named, was discovered by a 
fall of the cliff at d'. The real size is 1 inch to 1^ inch in diameter. The 
side stems (none preserved) were about as thick as a quill pen. The joints 
occur every 6 to 8 inches. The substance of the interior is soft sand- 
stone, the exterior a film of clay greenish in colour. Eight or ten side 
branches grow out at each joint. ' 

E. White Bands. — I merely mention these for the purpose of fixing 
levels on each side of the valley. Just above this level the marl passes 
into sandstone. In these bands the red colour is absent. 

P. Saurian or Batrachian Battd. — Mr. Johnston-Lavis discovered his 
Lahyrinthodon Lavisi by a fall of cliff at f in High Peak Hill in August 
1875. The horizon of this stratum ought to strike the beach .somewhere 
under Wind Gate ; but it is hard to say exactly, as the cliff is concealed 
by bushes and landslips. 

The Rev. S. H. Cook in 1876 discovered a small piece of the same 
fossil bone at G at the fault where the saurian band comes up. He left 
it with me, and I afterwards forwarded it to Mr. Johnston-Lavis. 



The Movements of Uiuleniround Waters of North- west YorT{shire. — 
Sixth and Final Beport of the Committee, connstinri of Professor 
W. W. Watts (Ohairman), Mr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Secretari/), 
Professor A. Smithells, Rev. E. Jones, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
Mr. George Bray, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. T. Fairley, 
Professor P. P. Kendall, and Dr. J. E. Marr. 

The boreholes in progi'ess at Turn Dub at the time of the presentation of 
the last report have now been completed, with the result that the 
existence of boulder-clay below the bed of the River Ribble at that point 
was conclusively proved. 

In all seven boreholes were put down, but owing to the extremely 
stony nature of the ground only one of these reached the bed-rock. 

This was on the right bank and some 20 feet from the river, and the 
limestone was reached at a depth of 8 feet below the level of the river-bed. 

A full account of the work of the Committee has been published in 
the ' Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society,' 
A^ol. XV., Part II., pp. 248-292. 

The work of the Committee is now completed, and the grant has been 
spent, with the exception of a small balance, which has been returned to 
the Treasurer. 

' Mr. A. C. Seward has examined the drawing of the plant, and states that 
the plant may belong to ScJiizonciira. Mr. Hutchinson described and figured his 
specimen in the Transactions of the DeronshWe Association, vol. xi. p. ,B83, in 
1879.— J. LoMAs. 



ON LIFE-ZONES IN THE I5RITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCK. 171 



Life-zones in the British Garlmniferons Bocks. — Interim Beport oj the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. J. E. j\Iarr (Chairman). Dr. Wheel- 
ton Hind (Secretary), Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Dr. A. H. FooRD, Mr. H. Fox, Professor E. -T. Garwood, Dr. G. J. 
HiNDE, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. E. Kidston, Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. 
Strahan, Dr. A. Yaughan, and Dr. H. Woodward. (Brawn ttp 
hi/ the Secfi-etari/.) 

Work has been carried on by Mr. J. T. Stobbs in the Holywell district of 
North Wales and in North Staffordshire. Mr. H. Bolton is engaged in 
investigating the fauna of a marine l)and lately discovered ])y him in the 
lower coal measures of the Bristol coalfield— a most impoi^tant and inter- 
esting discovery. The marine band is being mined and brought to Ijank 
at the expense of the Committee, and a detailed paper will be published at 
an early date. 

Owing to the early date at which this report is required, it must of 
necessity be incomplete. Arrangements have been made on the one hand 
with Mr. Stobbs and Mr. E. P. Turner, and on the other with Mr. D. 
Tait, to undertake work which cannot be done except in the summer, and 
naturally the result of this work cannot be included ; and it is also impos- 
sible to state whether there remains over any balance of the grant. The 
Committee wish to continue the work, and ask for the balance of the grant, 
if any, to be left in their hands, and thali a further grant of 10/. he made. 
Money has been expended in having sections of corals cut for examination. 
The exact recognition of the species and genera of any coral occurring 
at a definite horizon has been shown by Dr. Vaughan to be of the highest 
importance. 

My own work during the year has been, first, in the Hodder Valley 
with Mr. Stobbs, the results of which will appear later ; second, in the 
West of Ireland, where I have demonstrated a typical Pendleside fauna 
succeeding the Carboniferous Limestone. The results have been published 
in the ' Proceedings of the Poyal Irish Academy,' with figures of the 
majority of fossils found in the equivalents of the Pendleside series and 
Millstone Grits in County Clare and County Limerick. The main details 
of the paper are summed up as follows : — 

1. The Pendleside series of the Midlands is well represented in County 
Clare. 

2. These beds in County Clare are about 80 feet thick, and they lie 
conformably on the upper beds of the Carboniferous Limestone, which 
seems to have the same top all over the county, and in County Limerick. 

3. The fossils ai-e identical with those found at Cholder, in Belgium, 
and in the Pendleside series of England. 

4. The fossils which characterise the lowest beds of the Pendleside 
series — viz. Posidonomya Becheri and Prolecanites com2»'i'ss'ns—h&\e not 
yet been found in County Clare. 

5. That the series of grits and flagstones which overlie the Upper 
Limestone Shales are, as stated by the Geological Survey, the homotaxial 
equivalents of the IMillstone Grits, and are largely marine in origin, several 



172 REPORT — 1905. 

well-defined marine bands occurring in them, characterised by Gly]yhioceras 
reticulation. 

Some facts of great interest came out of the investigation. The forms 
of Gastrioceras dindema which occur at Lisdoonvarna are exactly like 
those winch occur in the Chokier beds of Belgium, beds which come on 
immediately above the Vis^an stage of the Carboniferous Limestone. In 
botli localities this species is accompanied by a peculiar variety, character- 
ised liy a large open umbilicus and strong, moderately distant transverse 
rihs. It seems to me tliat in this form early characters persisted into the 
adult .stage. The pi'esence of the two forms side by side gives the fossil 
a time value, and leads to the view that the Chokiei- and Lisdoonvarna 
deposits were contemporaneous as well as homotaxial. 

The thickness of the series in County Clare (80 feet) and at Chokier, 
or Claviei% in Belgium (probably not much more), compared to the thick- 
ness at Pendle Hill, 1,200 to 1,500, indicates the east and we.st edges of 
the basin in which the deposit took place. 

The Upper Limestone Shales (Pendleside series) of the West of Ireland 
are succeeded by a .series of grits and flags, in which are slate bands con- 
taining a mai'ine fauna, the common fossils being Ptfrinopecten papyraceua, 
PosidoideUa laevift, Glyphioceras reticnlatum, and in this band is a Zaph- 
rientoid coral aff Z. PliMUpsi. 

In conjunction with Mr. J. T. Stobbs, we presented a paper to the 
Geological Society on the Marine Bands of the North Staffoidshire Coal- 
liejd, which will be shortly published. 

These marine bands, of whicli several have been discovered in the North 
Staffordshire coalfield, are of great importance as indices of horizon in 
sinking and other mining operations, and we contend that we are able by 
these marine bands, and by the presence of certain species of Carbonicola, 
Anthrncomya, and NaiaditPfS to accurately determine the exact horizon of 
any seam of coal. 

In fact, the whole of the Upper Carboniferous rocks, from the base of 
the Pendleside .series to the top of the coal measures, is now fairly accu- 
rately zoned in detail by the Mollusca. In addition, the flora is of assist- 
ance in determining the main divisions of that series. But the great 
faunal change took place before the floral. That is, the floi'a of the Pendle- 
side series is of Lower Carboniferous type, while the Mollusca have an 
Upper Carboniferous facies. The great difficulty has .always been to esta- 
blisli any zones in the Lower Carboniferous, either where this sub-division 
consists of massive limestone, as in Derbyshire, or where it has assumed 
the Yoredale phase, as in North Yorkshire and Scotland. 

Last year I quoted the scheme of life-zones worked out by Dr. A. 
Vaughan for the Carboniferous Limestone of the Bristol area. He and 
Mr. Sibiy have since then demonstrated that the same faunal succession 
is fairly constant thi-oughout the Mendip and South AVales areas. I 
have had the privilege of going over the ground with Dr. Vaughan, and 
have examined the Cai'boniferous Limestone of the Bristol area at the 
Avon Gorge ; Failand Section, Flax-Bourton, Wick war. Chipping Sod- 
bury, Wrington, Burrington Coomb (Mendip), and Weston-super-Mare, 
and I have no doubt that, for that area, the distribution of the corals and 
Brachiopods is as he state.?, and that, so far as this district and South 
Wales are concerned, the Carboniferous Limestone has been accurately 
zoned. The fact that a definite sequence of corals and Brachiopods exists 



ON LIFE-ZONES IN THE BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 173 

in the South Wales and Bristol areas should afibrd grounds for hope that it 
would give a clue to life-zones in the Carboniferous Limestone of the Mid- 
lands. But there are enormous difficulties, and at present, though I hope 
that the corals may give souie help, there is no doubt that, as I stated 
last year, Brachiopods which indicate distinct zones, at Bristol seem to 
appear with strange companions in the Midlands. 

The fauna of the Carboniferous Limestone of the Bristol area is com- 
paratively meagre. No Cephalopods, and at most only some half-dozen 
species of Lamellibranchs and Gasteropods, occur in the Bristol-Mendip 
area, and the number of species of Brachiopoda is much less than is found 
in the IVlidlands. Conditions of life in the two areas must have been 
totally different. 

Dr. Vaughan and I hope to attack the Midland area in the near 
future, and with a type district as a basis of comparison we hope to work 
out a faunal succession. But the task will be immense. There is no 
complete section of the limestones in the Midlands comparable to that 
which occurs at Burrington Coomb and the Avon Gorge, and it is probable 
that not a very great thickness of the limestone of Derbyshire is exposed, 
because I am not acquainted with the fauna of the lower beds of the 
Bristol succession in the Midlands. To do the work thoroughly it will be 
necessary to revise the whole of the species of Brachiopoda, and to spend 
much money and time on sectioning corals ; it will be also necessary 
to collect vei-y carefully, and for this purpose a renewed grant will be 

required. 

Dr. F. A. Bather sends me the following note: 'I have exammed 
and attempted to identify various specimens submitted to me by Dr. 
Arthur Vaughan and other workers. From my point of view, the most 
interesting fact I have to record is the occurrence of the genus Acrocrinus 
in the Bristol area. This genus, which is a very specialised descendant of 
Platycrinidie, has hitherto been known only in North America, where it 
is found in the Later Carboniferous. Its discovery by Dr. Vaughan in his 
Zaphrentis zone near Bristol is, therefore, remarkable as regards distribu- 
tion in both time and space. The specimen, though fragmentary, is 
unmistakable, and I propose to publish a description of it before very long. 
Meanwhile, those who wish to know what the genus looks like may be 
referred to a reconstruction given on page 159 of the Echinodenn volume 
of Lankester's "Treatise on Zoology.'" 

When collecting in the Pendle Hill district in 1901, Mr. D. Tait 
found a peculiar fossil, which he at once recognised as some form of 
Graptolite ! Next year he obtained at about the same horizon, at Pool- 
vash, Isle of Man, another form of a somewhat similar organism. After 
some discussion I referred these fossils to Dictyonema, and drew up a 
brief account, which I read before the Geological Society, March 25, 
190:^, entitled 'Note on some Diciyonema-like Organisms from the 
Pendleside Series of Pendle Hill and Poolvash.' The paper was not 
published. 

Subsequently I placed the fossils in Miss G. Elles's hands, and she 
writes me : 'I tliink the specimens from Poolvash and Hook Cliff are 
Dendroid GraptolUes, without a doubt. The Poolvash specimen looks 
like a Drsnngraptus, and the other is a CaUograjitus, I think. The 
Desnoyrapins is more spread out than in other specimens known to me, 
and is probably new, but the Callograptus has some very near allies in 
C. Salteri and C. radiatus of the older rocks. The presence of the 



174 REPORT— 1905. 

joining bar has generally been regarded as distinctive o£ the genus 
Dictyonema, but my experience leads me to believe that this is not the 
case. " Bars " may be present in all the Dendroids, I think, but they 
are particularly regularly developed in Dictyonema itself. The fashion 
of growth is a far more distinctive and reliable character.' 

We may therefore assume the presence of Dendroid Grajotolites in 
carboniferous rocks. 

]Mr. Kidston has kindly examined all the plants collected for the Com- 
mittee, and the determinations are his. He has contributed a paper on 
the Classification of the Upper Part of the Goal Measures of the Midlands 
to the Geological Society, published in the ' Quarterly Journal ' for May 
1905. It contains valuable and accurate lists of plants from the various 
horizons, which form the evidence for the conclusions arrived at in the 
paper. 

A palseontological survey of the Carboniferous rocks of North Wales 
has been commenced by Mr. Stobbs and myself. Some important details 
have already been noted, and will be reported later. Meanwhile further 
work will be done. 



To Becord and Determine the Exact Significance of Local Terms applied 
in the British Isles to Topoijraphical and. Geological Otjeds. — 
Beport of the Committee, consisting o/Mr. DouGLAS W. Freshfield 
{Chairman), Mr. W. G. Fearnsides (Secretarg), Lord AvEBURY, 
Mr. C. T. Clough, Professor E. J, Gar^vood, Mr. E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Colonel D. A. Johnston, Mr. 0. T. Jones, 
Dr. J. S. Keltie, Mr. G. W. Lambluoii, Mr. H. J. Mackinder, 
Dr. J. E. Mark, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. H. Yule Oldham, Dr. B. 
Peach, Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. H. B. Woodward. 
(Drawn up Inj the Secretary?) 

TiiK work of the Committee is unfortunately not yet sutliciently advanced 
to warrant the publication of a detailed report. A scheme of work has, 
however, been arranged and a satisfactory system of recording the words 
devised. 

Each word received is entered upon a separate card and filed in 
accordance with the principles of a card-index Upon the card is recorded 
the signed definition by some competent authority, and (where possible) 
particulars of etymology, literal meaning, and usage in common life, as 
well as details of the geographical distribution of the latter, are added in 
spaces provided for the purpose. 

A subject-ledger is also being prepared, and it is hoped that this may 
be illustrated by photographs of typical examples of the objects described. 

A list of several hundred interesting words has been formed, and, 
although many of these still require authoritative definition, progress is 
being made. 

The Committee desire to express their thanks to Mr. H. B. Woodward, 
F.R.S., for a long list of ' Terms applied to Scenery,' which will form a 
most excellent nucleus for further work. 



THE INFLUENCE OF SALT AND OTHER SOLUTIONS ON THE FROG. 175 



The Influence of Salt ami other Solations on tJie Becelopnent of the 
Frog. — Kei'ort of the Committee, consisfinri of Professor W. F. R. 
Weldon {Ghairnicm), Mr. J. W. Jenkinson {Secretarij), and 
Professor S. J. HiCKSON. {Brawn up hij the Secretary.) 

In the report presented to Section D at the Cambridge meeting in 
1904 au account was given of the development of the frog's egg in a 
number of isotonic solutions of various substances. The substances 
employed were : — 

1. The chlorides of potassium, lithium, ammonium, calcium, magne- 
sium, barium, strontium, and sodium. 

2. The bromides of the same bases. 

3. The iodides of sodium, potassium, lithium, and ammonium. 

•4. The nitrates of sodium, lithium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, 
strontium, and calcium. 

5. The sulphates of sodium, lithium, ammonium, and magnesium. 

6. Cane sugar and dextrose. 

7. Urea. 

These substances were employed in solutions isotonic with a solution 
of sodium chloride — 0'625 per cent. — which was known to produce a cer- 
tain distortion of development, and the object of the experiment was to 
ascertain whether the effects observed were due to the increased osmotic 
pressure of the medium or to some other cause. 

Since the publication of the last report the microscopical investi- 
gation — which was not at the time quite completed — has been brought to 
a conclusion, the experiments have been repeated and confirmed — in one 
or two points corrected — and some new experiments undertaken to throw 
light, if possible, on the same problem. The present report embodies : — 

I. A corrected resume of the growth of the egg in the isotonic solu- 
tions referred to, to which potassium sulphate has been added. 
II. An account of the results of the fresh experiments. 

I. Solutions Isotonic ivith 0'625 jJ^r cent. NaCl. 

In the last report these solutions were divided into four classes, 
according to the efi'ect produced. 

A. The egg dies in an early stage ; segmentation or gastrulation. 
This occurs with NH^Cl, SrCl.^, BaCl.,, CaClj, NH4Br, SrBr-, BaBr,, 
CaBr2, MgBr2, LiI,NH4l, KI, NF4NO3, Ca(N03),, Sr(N0,)2. ' 

The liquefaction of yolk -granules, ascribed before to all these solutions, 
has been found not to occur in NH J, Lil, KI, NH,Br, NH4NO3, or 
Ca(N03).,. 

B. The egg loses its power of elongating, and remains nearly spherical ; 
differentiation of the germ-layers and of the organs of the embryo 
proceeds nevertheless. This effect was stated to be produced by KCl and 
LiCl, NaBr, KBr and LiBr, Nal, Li.,SO, and (NH,).,SOj, LiNC)., and 
KNO3. 

1. It has been found that in sodium bromide development goes further 



176 REPORT— 1905. 

than in the others ; this substance must accordingly be removed from this 
class and placed in the next. 

2. Degeneration and death occur much earlier in lithium bromide, 
potassium bromide, sodium iodide and ammonium sulphate than in the 
remainder. In these four salts the medullary groov'e never closes, even if 
it is formed ; the auditory vesicles, infundibulum, optic vesicles, ccelom, 
heart and suckers are never developed. It would be better, therefore, to 
put this group by itself as a second class. 

(3) To the remainder potassium sulphate must now be added. 

In all these salts a considerable degree of diffei'entiation takes place, 
but the embryo is unable to elongate. The blastopore is often closed, as 
also are the medullary folds. Optic vesicles, auditory vesicles and 
infundibulum are formed, often a small peritoneal cavity, and sometimes 
(lithium nitrate) a pericardium and heart, or a trace of the pronephros 
(potassium chloride). These embryos always die without hatching out ; 
the innermost layer of the jelly does not expand and leave the embryo 
room to elongate, as happens in normal development at about the time 
when the medullary folds are formed. 

C. In the third class of the last report were placed those solutions — 
sodium chloride and nitrate, magnesium chloride, nitrate and sulphate, 
cane sugar and dextrose — in which, though this elongation takes place, 
development is nevertheless distorted and death eventually ensues. 

As noted above, it has liow been found necessary to associate the 
bromide with the nitrate and the chloride of sodium in this class ; further, 
it is advisable to make a distinction between (1) these three sodium 
salts, (2) the three magnesium salts, and (3) the two sugars. 

(1) In the bromide, chloride, and nitrate of sodium the blastopore as 
a rule does not close and the medullary folds remain open, usually only in 
the region of the brain, though sometimes throughout. The variability 
exhibited by eggs of the same batch in the same solution in this respect 
is very remarkable. 

A tail is formed — sometimes single, sometimes double ; and gills 
(external) and gill-slits, blood-vessels, pronephros, and glomus are present. 

The embryo may even hatch out and attach itself to the jelly by its 
suckers, but it soon falls to the bottom and dies. 

(2) The three salts of magnesium are more favourable to development. 
The blastopore closes, and a fairly long tail, provided with a fin, grows 
out ; but the brain remains open and undergoes the same grey degenera- 
tion, as described in the previous report, found in the monsters produced 
in the solutions already mentioned. 

Such internal organs as the eyes, the heart and pericardium, the 
blood-vessels, the pronephros, and duct are better developed than before. 

(3) The solutions of dextrose and cane sugar stand apart from the rest. 
The blastopore closes, though slowly, and the yolk-plug is withdrawn 

in both. 

In dextrose the medullary folds nearly close without undergoing any 
marked degeneration, and the embi'yo differs mainly from a normal one 
in the great retardation of development ; the optic vesicle, for example, 
appears five days later in the dexti-ose embryo than in the controls. 

In cane sugar, on the other hand, the medullary folds remain widely 
open and suffer grey degeneration ; and the embryo dies before the heart, 
the blood-vessels, the optic cup and lens, the gill-slits and the pronephros 
are formed. 



THE INFLUENCE OF SALT AND OTHER SOLUTIONS OX THE FROG. 177 

It may he mentioned here that, in view of the possible objection that 
this effect might be due to bacterial toxines, this experiment was repeated 
under special conditions. The embryos were kept in a constant stream of 
sugar solution, which flowed through the apparatus at the rate of two 
litres per diem. 

B. The fourth class comprises urea and sodium sulphate ; in these 
development is nearly (urea) or quite (sodium sulphate) normal in form 
and rate. 

Little i-emains to be added to the account given last year, except that 
the microscopical investigation has fully borne out the .statement made 
of the external characters of these embryos. 

To sum up, these isotonic solutions may be grouped accoiding to their 
effects as follows : — 

1. Solutions which kill the egg in an early stage (segmentation or 
gastrulation). 

2. Solutions which kill the embryo at a rather later stage, when the 
medullary plate is being formed, without permitting any very great degree 
of differentiation. 

3. Solutions which, though they allow differentiation to proceed for 
some way, do distort development : — 

f(. The emliryo remains spherical. 
y8. The embryo elongates. 

Differentiation may go as far in a as in ji. 

4. Dextrose must be placed in a class by itself ; it seems to affect the 
rate only, the form of development hardly at all. 

f). Solutions in which development is nearly or quite normal. 

It is clear that it would be extremely difficult to assign the whole of 
the effect produced in each case to the increased osmotic pressure of the 
medium, and to that alone ; to do this it would be necessary to assume 
that the efl'ect was inversely proportional to the permeability of the 
embryo to the substance employed. There is, of course, no direct evidence 
for this whatever. 

Animal tissues are, indeed, supposed to be more or less impermeable to 
magnesium salts, which produce a less, and permeable to sodium chloride, 
which produces a greater, effect. 

The toxicity of the reagents must far more probably be set down to 
some other physical or chemical property they possess, though what this 
is it is impossible to say exactly at present. This is clearly shown by an 
experiment which has been made during the present year. 

II. 

Ammonium bromide is one of the most poisonous of the substances 
tried ; in a solution whose concentration (104 per cent.) is isotonic with 
that of a 0-625 per cent, sodium chloride solution the egg dies during 
segmentation. 

Weaker solutions have now been tried, and this is the result : — 

0-2G per cent. : a segmentation cavity is formed ; then a dorsal lip of 
the blastopore and a very short archenteron ; death follows. 
0'13 per cent. : the result is the same. 
00G5 per cent. : the result is the same. 
1905. w 



178 REPORT — 1905. 

This is clearly not clue to the iDcrease of osmotic pressure ; the same 
must be said of all the substances of Class A, 

As a matter of fact, there is not any evidence that the egg does 
normally absorb water to any extent while the closure of the blastopore 
is taking place ; it is only after the blastopore has become reduced to a 
small circle, and when the medullary folds are being formed, that the 
innermost membrane of the jelly begins to expand and the embryo to 
elongate. Prior to this, therefore, it does not seem likely that the egg 
would be sensitive to a loss of water. Afterwards, however, we do know 
that the embryo absorbs water very rapidly, for Davenport has shown 
that during the first fortnight after hatching the percentage of water rises 
from 50 to nearly 90. V>y observing the effect produced on ladpolfis by 
these solutions it seemed, therefore, possible to ascertain the permeability 
of the tissues to the various substances, and so obtain a sounder basis for 
judging of the effects of these solutions upon the earlier stages. 

The tadpoles were accordingly placed, shortly after hatching, in solu- 
tions — of the same concentrations as those already employed — of cane 
sugar, sodium chloride, urea, and sodium sulphate. 

In the first two the tail becomes curled up over the back ; the mouth 
becomes, as in the controls, transversely elongated, the suckers oval, the 
operculum begins to grow back over the three external gills ; then the 
larvae die. 

In urea the tail remains straight ; in other respects the tadpoles 
resemljle the last ; these also die in about five or six days after immersion 
in the solution. 

Microscopical examination shows that differentiation has been going 
on at nearly the same rate as in the controls ; the cavities of the gut, 
brain, pronephros and ducts, lungs, crelom, blood-vessels, are all, how- 
ever, much reduced ; they are most reduced — in fact, almost obliterated — 
in cane sugar, less so in sodium chloride, least in urea ; in sodium 
sulphate they do not appear to be reduced at all. 

This result seems to show pretty clearly that the embryonic tissues 
are less permeable to cane sugar than to sodium chloride, less to sodium 
chloride than to urea, and less — a very little less — to urea than to sodium 
sulpliate ; the two latter, however, seem to he nearly harmless, and, though 
free to permeate the body of the larva, do not produce, at any rate at 
first, any marked deleterious effect. 

That these solutions do penetr-ate is shown, possibly, in another way. 
When a normal tadpole is preserved, as these were, in picric acid, the 
chordal sheath becomes crumpled, owing to the extraction of water from 
the notochord ; the sheath of the cane sugar tadpoles is also crumpled, 
but not in sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, or urea. 

It may be noticed that in cane sugar and sodium chloride the 
diameter of the notochord is greater than the normal ; apparently this 
organ continues to absorb water from the tissues and to grow in length 
(as well as in breadth) ; the dor'sal caudal is wider than the ventral 
caudal fin ; the doi'sal curvature of the tail in these two solutions may 
thus possibly be accounted for. 

Assuming that the permeability of the embryo to the different sub- 
stances is the same in earlier stages as in the tadpole, these results may 
be applied to the interpretation of those obtained before as follows : — 

1. The embryo is probably impermeable to dextrose ; the effects pro- 



THE INFLUENCE OF SALT AND OTHER SOLUTIONS OX THE FROG. 179 

ducpri by this solution are tlien due entirely to its capacity of withdraw- 
ing water tliat is needful for development. 

2. Other solutions — those of the first class — are toxic in virtue of 
some other property, though what this is is unknown. 

3. The same may be said of the solutions of the second class. 

4. In the case of the chloride, nitrate and bromide of sodium, the 
chloride, nitrate and sulphate of magnesium, the increased osmotic pres- 
sure may play some part, though it certainly is not responsible for the 
whole effect. Cane sugar may be best associated with these. 

5. The behaviour of those eggs which remain spherical though dif- 
ferentiation continues is probably not to be put down to the increased 
osmotic pressure alone ; these embryos are quite unlike the dextrose 
embryo. It seems more likely that the substances enter the ovum, and 
there interfere with processes (1 proteolytic fermentations) that would 
normally result in the production of substances with a higher osmotic 
pressure than, and capable of absorbing water from, the medium. That 
potassium chloride, for example, does penetrate the tissues is proved by 
tlie liquefaction of yolk-granules which occurs in this solution. 

Finally, there remains to be described the effect of more concentrated 
solutions of substances — urea and sodium sulphate — which are known to 
penetrate the embryonic tissues, but in the strengths employed before 
were harmless. 

Sodium Sul])liate. — The solutions employed were : (1) 1'16 per cent, 
(this is the original concentration) ; (2) 1 -325 per cent. ; (3) 1'54 per cent. ; 
(4) 1-85 per cent. ; (5) 2-32 per cent. ; (6) 2'5 per cent. ; (7) 3 per cent. ; 
(8) 3-5 per cent, ; (9) 4 per cent. 

(1^ Development is normal. 

(2) The brain and blastopore may both remain open ; the open brain 
degenerates and becomes grey. Internally there is considerable differentia- 
tion ; nerve-fibres are developed in the spinal cord, the eye — retina, cho- 
roid fissure, lens — is normal, the heart is bent, there are three pronephric 
funnels, and the peritoneal cavity is lai-ge. The stomodwum is, however, 
still closed at the time when the lai'va dies. 

(3) Much as the last, but the optic cup is not quite normal and the 
lens is solid. 

(4) The tail is very short and the fin badly developed. Internally the 
peritoneal cavity is not developed, and the gut lumen is very narrow. 

(5) The tail is shorter still, and the medullary groove is open and grey 
throughout. This embryo resembles a typical sodium chloride monster. 
The heart is solid, and there is only one pronephric funnel. 

(6) Externally this resembles the last. Internally the pericardium is 
smaller, the gill slits are absent, and there is only a pronephric ridge — no 
tubules. The notochord is still vacuolated. 

(7) In this solution degeneration sets in at a much earlier stage. The 
yolk-plug is very large ; the medullary folds are formed and become 
grey ; below what appears to be the dorsal lip of the blastopore is a 
grey zone between the lip and the white yolk-plug. Sections, however, 
discover the interesting fact fhat the lower margin of this grey zone is 
in reality the blastoporic lip, and is separated from the yolk by a slight 
indentation. The apparent blastoporic lip is the rim of an aperture lead- 
ing into an archenteric cavity, as it must be called, since notochord and 

n2 



o 



180 REPORT — 1905. 

mesoderm are differentiated in its roof, but situated wholly loithin the 
animal hemisphere. 

(8) These embryos resemble the last, but neither medullary groove, 
notochord, nor mesoderm is formed. 

(9) There is, pei-haps, a slight blastoporic invagination, but the animal 
hemisphere is so exceedingly rough and corrugated that this is hard to 
make out. 

Part of the roof of the segmentation cavity is thickened and infolded ; 
this seems to represent a medullary plate. 

Urea. — Tiie original concentration of urea employed was 1'14 per cent. 

The eggs were placed in the following more concenti'ated solutions : 
(1) 1-17 per cent. ; (2) 1-33 per cent. ; (3) 1-.56 per cent. ; (4) 1-87 per 
cent. ; (5) 2-34 per cent. 

a. 2'34 per cent. — The yolk is nucleated, but unsegraented ; the animal 
hemisphere is incompletely segmented ; it consists of a mass of small uni- 
or multi-nucleate masses covered by a layer of flat cells. The nuclei are 
either very large, pale and reticular, or small and homogeneous. Very 
often the animal hemisphere is thrown into round, projecting, multi- 
nucleate masses, which recall the ' framboisia ' of Roux. The egg does not 
advance beyond this condition. 

p. 1'87 per cent. — In its effects this solution closely resembles the last ; 
there are, however, more nuclei in the yolk. 

y. 1"56 per cent. — The contrast between this and the last is rather 
remarkable. The medullary folds are wholly closrd ; there is, however, 
a small persistent yolk-plug ; the tail is short and provided with a fin ; 
there is a nostril, and the external gills and gill-slits are formed. A bent 
heart, fairly lai'ge pericardium, blood-vessels, and auditory vesicle are 
formed ; the pronephros has only one funnel, and the duct is not open to 
the cloaca ; the i-etina is well developed, with the choroid fissure, but 
there is no lens. 

Quite the most remarkable feature of these embryos is, however, the 
doubling or tripling of the notochord. 

In addition to the usual vacuolated chord between the roof of the 
gut and the spinal cord, two other notochords, as they must be termed, are 
found, sometimes three others : (1) The cells which form the roof of the 
gut take on the characteristic vacuolation of notochordal tissue ; the mass 
of cells so formed is irregular, but certain parts of it become rounded off 
and assume a cylindrical shape like the notochord proper. This 'enteric' 
notochord, as I will call it, is fused here and there with the notochord 
proper, and is found usually about the region of the heart only. 

(2) A certain lateral or latero-ventral poi'tion of the wall of the 
medullary tube behaves in precisely the same way, the vacuolated cells 
actually lying next the lumen. This 'iieural notochord' may, but does 
not necessarily, fuse with the notochord proper ; it, too, does not extend 
the whole length of the body. 

(3) Lateral ' mesodermal notochords ' may be formed in the same way. 
This occurrence of a specific kind of histological differentiation in an 

abnormal situation is a point of considerable intei'est, showing, as it does, 
that the prospective potentiality of gut roof, protovertebras and medullary 
tube is not yet fixed. It also suggests the possibility that the formation 
of the normal notochord may be due to the accumulation — in the mid- 
dorsal line — of the excretory products of the extremely active metabolism 



THE INFLUENCK OF SALT AND OTHER SOLUTIONS ON THE FROG. 181 

that is there going on as a result of the bilateral closiu'c of the blasto- 
pore. 

c. 1-33 per cent. — The tail is rather longer and the tin broader than 
before. The yolk plug is wholly withdrawn. A lens is formed and nerve- 
fibres are differentiated. 

Three notochords — ordinary, 'neural ' and 'enteric' — are found, as in 
the last. 

f. 1"17 per cent. — In this solution development is nearly normal. 
There are three pronephric funnels and the peritoneal cavity is large. An 
' enteric ' but not a ' neural ' notochord is found. 

It may be pointed out that the distorted developments produced by 
these concentrated solutions of sodium sulphate and urea are not like the 
effects of, for example, dextrose. 

The reasons for believing that the tissues are permeable to these two 
substances have been given, and it does not seem likely that the increased 
osmotic pressure plays, at any rate, an important part in the process. 

At the same time, it must be confessed that these experiments do not, 
of themselves, conclusively prove that the embryo absorbs no water during 
the closure of the blastopore. It would be advisable to institute a series 
of ' desiccation ' experiments, and also to gi-ow the embryo in stronger 
solutions of dextrose. This it is hoped will be done next season. 

Apart, however, from this particular problem, the experiments above 
described have brought out several points which throw an interesting 
side-light on certain of the processes of normal development ; for example, 
the reduction of the lumen and increase in thickness of the walls of the 
medullary tube in those cases in which the embryo remains spherical 
recalls the ' solid ' medullary groove of Petromyzou, Teleostei, and certain 
other fishes ; again, the way in which the medullary groove closes in 
certain cases resembles the mode of its closure in Amphioxus ; the forma- 
tion of the notochord in many of these solutions from the whole thickness 
of the archenteric roof is just what occurs normally in some Anura, the 
Urodela, and Petromyzon. These instances will suffice to show that ex- 
periments of this kind may be fruitful in results which can be applied to 
the causal explanation of developmental events. This and kindred work 
will, it is hoped, be continued, and for all these reasons the Committee ask 
that they may be reappointed, with a renewal of the grant. 



Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples.- -Report of 
Ike Committee^ considing of Professor S. J. Hickson {Chairman), 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing (Secretary), Professor E. Ray Lankesteh, 
Professor W. F. R. Weldon, Professor G. B. Howes, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder. 

The table has been occupied during the greater part of the year by 
Mr. Geoffrey Smith, B.A., who has been engaged in a research upon the 
Rhizocephala. 

Dr. Edith M. Pratt visited the station in April and, by the kindness 
of Dr. Dohrn, was allowed to occupy a table during her stay there, the 
Association's table being then in the occupation of Mr. Smith. 

The Connuittee have to lament the decease of their esteemed colleague 



182 REPORT— 1905. 

Professor Howes, and, with the necessary omission of his name, chey desire 
to be reappointed and ask for the requisite grant of jSIOO. 
The reports of Mr. Smith and Miss Pratt are appended. 

Report of Mr. Geoffrey Smith, B.A. 

When I was appointed to the table at the beginning of this year I 
was engaged in wi'iting a monograph on the Rhizocephala for the station. 
During my occupation of tlie table I have continued that work, and it is 
now finished and ready for publication, with the exception of one chapter, 
which I hope to finish during the summer. 

The monograph will contain the following chapters : — 

I. General Introduction, Morphology, and Review of Literature. 

II. Reproduction and Sexual Organisation. INIaturation and Partheno- 
genesis of Ovum in Sacculina and Peltogaster. History of coniplemental 
males. 

III. Embryonic development and larval history of Sacculina and 
Peltogaster. 

IV. Fixation of larva on host (^not yei finished) and inoculation. 

V. Endoparasitic development of Sacculina and Peltogaster, with 
accounts of earliest stages not described by Delage. Organogeny. 

VI. The efiect of the parasite on its host : parasitic castration and 
the production of perfect hermaphrodites through the influence of the 
parasite. An analysis of sex aftbrded by the facts of parasitic castration. 

VII. The life history of Danalia cnrvata, an Isopodan parasite of 
Sacculina. General discussion on meaning of hermaphroditism of fixed 
animals. 

VIII. Systematic guide to the genera and species of Rhizocephala. 

Besides this monograph, which will be published during the coming 
winter, I have finished, whilst in the occupation of the table, a paper on 
High and Low Dimorphism, which was begun during the previous year, 
and will be published in the Station ' Mittheilungen ' in the winter. Also 
a short note on a new species of gregarine, which cau.ses the parasitic cas- 
tration of a species of spider-crab. This is the first clear instance of a 
gregarine as the cause of parasitic castration. 

Report of Miss Edith M. Pratt, D.Sc. 

By the kindness of Dr. Dohrn I was allowed to occupy a table at the 
Zoological Station at Naples from April 5 to April 26, 1905. During 
that time I made an experimental investigation of the excretory apparatus 
of Pennatulida and the phenomena of the expansion and contraction of 
their rachis. 

I also made some feeding experiments on several other Coelenterata, 
and have confirmed my previous observations on the distribution of 
nutriment in Alcyonium digitatum.^ The examination of microscopic 
preparations of the preserved material used in my experiments is being 
carried out in the zoological laboratory in the University of Manchester, 
and the results will be prepared for publication shortly. 

I must express my gratitude to the Committee for recommending me 
to the privilege of occupying a table. 

' Brit. Assoc. Rep., Sect. D., 1903. 



ON THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LiBORATORY, PLYMOUTH. 183 



Incestigations at the 3Iarine Bioloijicul Lahoratorn, Pli/month. — 
Kepcrt of the Committee, consisting o/Mr. W. CtIakstanu ((Jhair- 
man and Secretarg), Professor E. Ray Lankester, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and Professor W, F. R. 
Weldon. (Drawn up bij the Secretary.) 

The British Association's tabic at the Plymouth Laboratory, available 
for one month during 1904-05, was allotted, after application, to Pro- 
fessor E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., to enable him to carry out further inves- 
tigations on the development of Ophiothri.v fragilis. 
Professor MacBride's report is appended. 

Report on the Work done daring the Occupafioii, of the Britislt Association 
Table at Plymouth, June 1905. By Professor E. W. MacBridj;:. 

The subject .selected for investigation was the development of the 
common British species of Ophiurid, Opltiotliri.c fragilis. It was hoped 
that sufficient material would have been obtained to make a thorough and 
exhaustive investigation of the development of the organs in an Ophiurid 
pluteus, and their metamorphosis into those of the adult. Though this 
result was not attained on this occasion, the development of the larva 
from the egg up to an age of sixteen days was traced step by step. At this 
period the larva has attained its full development, and tlie tirst trace of 
the metamorphosis has appeared. 

In 1898, when occupying the Cambridge University table at Plymouth, 
I was more fortunate, as I then succeeded in getting two or three larvaj 
to complete their development ; a process which occupied twenty-three days. 
In 1899, when occupying the table of the British Association, I was 
fortunate enough to obtain a large quantity of Plankton, M'ith numerous 
specimens of the pluteus of Ophioth)'ix in various stages of metamorphosis, 
and with the aid of the material obtained this year I hope eventually to 
be able to give a complete account of the development of Ophiothrix 
fragilis similar to the account I have already given of the development 
of Echinus esculentus. 

The cause of my failure to rear the larvie completely through their 
metamorphosis this year was the scarcity of the proper Phytoplaid^ton. 
In 1898 this was particularly abundant, and the free-swimming form 
Coscinodiscus seems to have been the one which caused the experiment to 
succeed. This year, although every device was tried — a limited number 
of the larviu (which are much smaller than tho.se of Echinus esculentus) 
being placed in a 10-gallon bell-jar fitted with a plunger — after a certain 
period the lar\ie ceased to develop ; they then sank to the bottom, where 
they continued to live for a considerable time, slowly absorbing the long 
arms {i.e., processes of the ciliated band) till in extreme cases they 
assumed the forms of little triangles, all the arms having disappeared. 
Control experiments made in 2-gallon jars, which were immersed in the 
water of the tanks, showed that temperature had no influence in the 
result ; and the perfect health of the larva^ as long as any food could 
be discerned in their stomachs showed that the other conditions were 
all right. 

In this connection it must be noted that there is apparently a 



184 REPORT— 1905. 

connection between the appearance of the proper food in the watei' and the 
ripening of the adults. In 1898 there was no difficulty in finding ripe 
males and females ; in fact it was their evident abundance which induced 
me to undertake the experiment of rearing the larvae on that occasion, as 
the main object of ray investigation then was the development of Ecldmis 
esculentus. But this year, although hundreds of specimens were exa- 
mined, only two ripe females were found, the second of which, however, 
spawned naturally and provided me with abundance of fertilised eggs. 
These eggs are small and ojmque, yellowish-red by reflected light. They 
are about 01 mm. in diameter. When sections of the segmentation 
stages are made, it is seen that segmentation leads to the formation of a 
solid morula — not to tlie formation of a blastosphere as in other Echino- 
dernis. At fifteen hours the eggs have become free-swimming larva;, 
whichconsist of a superficial sheet of tall ectodeim cells and an interior 
mass of rounded cells. A little later an invagination appears at one end, 
pushing these cells to one side, and in this way the gastrula stage is 
attained. The larva now assumes the .shape of a V bv the appearance of 
lateral outgrowths, the dorso-lateral arms so characteristically predo- 
minant throughout the later history of the larva. It is then seen that 
the cells which constitute the interior mass of the earliest larva are the 
mesenchyme cells destined to form the supporting rods for these arms, 
and the difference between the de\elopment of Ophiothrix and that of 
other Eehinodermata is simply due to the precocious appearance of this 
mesenchyme. 

The coelom is formed, as in Asterids, as a vesicle from the apex of the 
gut and becomes immediately divided into right and left halves, and the 
left sends out a dorsal outgrowth which forms the primary pore-canal 
and forms the first madreporic pore. Each portion of the calom next 
divides into anterior and posterior halves, and the short prie-oral and 
post-oral ciliated 'arms' of the larva are formed. Then when the age, 
nine to ten days, is attained the posterior dorsal arms make their appear 
ance, completing the equipment of the larva. It is worthy of note that 
the entire larval skeleton consists of two spicules of carbonate of lime — 
a right and a left one. The main branches of the spicules support the 
main dorsolateral arms ; as new arms are formed branches of the spicule 
extend into them. 

At about eleven days the anterior ca-lom on each side shows a 
posterior swelling, which is at first a solid mass of cells, but soon becomes 
hollow. That on the left side assumes the characteristic five-lobed appear- 
ance which distinguishes it as the hydroccde or rudiment of the water- 
vascular system. That on the right side is at first exactly similar to that 
on the left, and appears at the same time. It becomes hollow, Ijut never 
takes on the five-lobed form ; and later it .seems to become again a solid 
mass of cells. There is no doubt at all that it is a rudimentary fellow of 
the hydrocele, and its appearance points to the conclusion that this 
organ was originally double. I have described a right hydrocele 
in the case of Ecliinns esculentus and Aslerina gibhusa ; but in neither 
case was its nature so beautifully evident as in the case of Ophio- 
thrix fragilis. Bury ' maintained that the hydrocoele in Ophiuridea 
was formed from the posterior di^'ision of the coelom. This is a mistake, 
easily explicable if earlier stages are missed out, for the posterior ccelom 

' ' The Metamorphosis of Echinoderms,' Q.J.M.S., 1895. 



ON THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, PLYMOUTH. 18 



f. 



grows forward and hecomes closely apposed to the hydroccclc, leading 
easily to the belief that the two are organically connected. 

So far only have my investigations extended. I trust this winter to 
be able thoroughly to investigate the metamorphosis. I may add one 
interesting observation which I was able to make on the hal)its of the 
adult OpJnothrixfragilis. The characteristic radial plates in the dorsal 
skeleton of an Ophiurid have hitherto reached an explanation. When a 
number of specimens just brought in were placed in a limited quantity of 
water they were seen to alternately raise and depress these ossicles, with 
the result that the dorsal surface was alternately raised into a conical 
form and depressed. On dissection it was found that the radial plates 
articulated with one of the vcrtebne in each arm, and on each side of the 
articulation there were muscles by whose aid the movements were pro- 
duced. The object of the movement is no doubt respiratory. Since botli 
genital bursts and stomach are attached by bands to the dorsal surface of 
the test, they must necessarily be expanded by the upward movement, and 
must collapse with the downward, causing an alternate inflow and expul- 
sion of water. The ordinary respiration of an Ophiurid results from the 
action of the cilia lining the genital bursa; so that these movements may 
be compared to the forced respiratory movements of the ribs in man as 
opposed to the action of the diaphragm. 

In conclusion I should like to express my obligations to Dr. Allen 
and his able assistant, Mr. Smith, for their untiring eflbits in aid of my 
work. 



Index Generum et Specierum Animuli'um.- -lie-port uf the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretari/), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Kev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Dr. W. E. HoYLE, and the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Satisfactorv progress has been made by Mr. Davies Sherborn in the 
recording of literature from 1801 onwards. Among other works now 
indexed up to 1850 may be mentioned the 'Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History,' the ' Academia C;>?sarea,' and the ' Neues Jahrbuch fiir 
Mineralogie.' Various tracts dealing with the collation of difficult books 
have been issued, and a reprint of the descriptions of new species of birds 
drawn up by Pallas for ' Vroeg's Catalogue,' 176'!, has been published by 
the Smithsonian Institution, under Mr. Sherborn's care, from the unique 
copy in the Linnean Society's Library. The search for rare books still 
continues, and any such acquisitions are made available for public use 
by transference to one or other of the accessible libraries. Special thanks 
are due to the Italian (io\ernment, the ITniver&ity of Padua, and Pro- 
fessor Dante Pantanelli, for enabling the Committee to examine the 
' Ta\ola alfabctica delle conchiglie adriatiche' of Stefano Andrea Ilenier 
(1804). Help of this nature, as well as valuable criticism, is continually 
forthcoming from home and abroad, and the general interest taken in the 
published volume (1758-1800) is highly gratifying to Mr. Sherborn and 
satisfactory to this Committee, whicli, in this connection, desire to thank 
especially Mr. L. B. Front and Mr. C. W. Eichmond. 

The Conmiittee desire to he reappointed, with the addition of Lord 
Walsingham, and trust that the grant will be restored to the previous 
amount — namely, 100/. 



186 REPORT— 1905. 



The Zoologii uf the Sandwich Islands. — Fifieenth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor Ne^vton (Chairman), Mr. David 
Sharp (Secretary), Dr. W. T. Blanfokd, ]*rofessor S. J. HiCKSON, 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, and Mr. Edgar 
A. Smith. 

This Committee was appointed in 1890, and has been since annually re- 
appointed. 

Since the last report parts of the collections worked out have been 
delivered to the British Museum (Natural History) and to the Bernice 
P. Bishop Museum at Honolulu. The Secretary has done a little towards 
the working out of the remaining Coleoptera, but there is still a great 
deal to do to complete this Order of Insects. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment, with a continuance 
of their powers, but do not require a grant of money. 



Madreporaria, uf the Bermuda Islanis. — Report of the Coiiimiitee, 
consistimi of Professor S. J. HiCKSON (Cltairman), Dr. W. E. 
HoYLE '{Secretari/), Dr. F. F. Blackman, Mr. J. S. Gardiner, 
Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. A. C. Si:wAUD, Professor C. S. 
Sherrington, and Mr. A. G. Tan,>5LEY, appointed to conduct an 
vnvesiiijation into the Madreporaria, of the Bermuda Islands. 

The Committee beg leave to report that no opportunity has presented 
itself of sending a naturalist to the Bermuda Islands to carryout the in- 
vestigation. The Connnittee has been in readiness to co-operate with the 
authorities of the marine laboratory established by the United States, 
but they have not found any means of taking combined action. As 
they are of opinion that they are not likely to be able to render any 
useful service in the near future, the Committee do not ask to be 
reappointed. 



Zoologij Orijanisation. — Report of tlte Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessors E. Ray Lankestek (Ghainnan), 8. J. Hickson (Secretarij), 
T. W. Bridge, J. Cossar Ewart, TNI. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, 
ami J. Graham Kerh, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Professor E. A. 
MiNCHiN, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, I'rofessor C Lloyd Morgan, 
Professor E. B. Poulton, Mi-. A. Sedgwick, Mr. A. E. Shiplev', 
a,nd Rev. T. R. R. Steering. 

The Committee report that a Register of Zoologists has been established 
and that fifty seven zoologists have accepted the invitation of the Com- 
mittee to place their names upon the Register. 

The Committee have obtained by correspondence the opinion of a large 
number of the zoologists of the country upon the question of the import- 
ance of the grant applied for by the Committee of Section D to enable a 
Committee to send a competent investigator to the Zoological Station in 



ON ZOOLOGY ORGANISATION. 187 

Naples. Other matters affecting the interests of zoologists in the country 
have engaged the attention of the Committee during the year. 

A meeting of tlie Committee was held in London on May 11. 

A meeting of zoologists summoned by the Committee to consider the 
question of the teaching of natural history in schools was held in the 
Zoological Gardens, London, on the same date. 

The Secretary has received in subscriptions and donations 211. 2ii. Id., 
and spent in postage and printing 4^. 

The Counnittee ask to be reappointed. 



Colour Physioluijij of the Higher Omstacea. — Interim Rej^jort of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. HiCKSON (Chairman), Dr. 
F. W. Gamble {Secretary), Dr. W. E. Hoyle, and Mr. F. W. 
Keeble, appointed to enable Br. F. W. Gamble and Mr. Keeble 
to conduct Researches in the Colour Physioloyij of the Higher 
Crustacea. 

Last summer, in Mr. Keeble's laboratory at Tiegastel, Brittany, a further 
spell of work on the colour physiology of the higher Crustacea was 
carried out by Messrs. Gamble and Keeble. Its results have recently 
appeared in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' and form the necessary 
preliminary to that research on the relation between respiratory phenomena 
and colour change for tlie furtherance of which this grant was made last 
summer. That research can only be carried out in the summer vacation, 
and Messrs. Keeble and Gamble are just about to start experimental 
work, and have not yet spent the grant. Accordingly, in presenting this 
interim Report, the Committee ask to be reappointed and for the grant to 
be renewed. 



Cfn the Accuraci/ and Comparabiliti/ of British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. B. Cannan (Chairman), Mr. W. G. S. Adams (Secretary), 
Mr. A. L. Bowley, Professor S. J. Chapman, and Sir R. Giffen. 

The Committee have made inquiries during the past year with regard to 
the statistics of imports and exports published by the Governments of 
Britisli Colonies and other States forming part of the British Empire. 
Owing to the shorter interval available for such inquiry, and also to the 
delays consequent in obtaining information from lands widely distant, 
it has not been found possible to do more than carry this investigation 
through the preliminary stages ; but it has seemed desirable that the 
facts already collected, and certain general considerations arising out of 
them, should be presented as an interim i-eport. The accumulation of 
information on a complex and highly detailed question such as the 
accuracy and comparability of international statistics may be persisted 
in profitably for a succession of years, and the patient and comprehensive 
study of the subject should materially assist in forwardiiig refor'ms of 
practical value. The inquiry has been continued largely on the lines 
adopted in the previous report, and is supplementary to it. 



188 REPORT— 1905. 

The subject-matter is presented under the following heads : — 

A. Definition of International Trade. 

B. Estimation of Values of Imports and Exports. 

C. Determination of the Country of Origin and of Destination. 

D. Classification of Articles of Import and Export. 

E. Recent Changes affecting Import and Export Statistics. 

F. Comparability and Accuracy. 

G. Suggestions as to Reform. 

A. Definition of International Trade, 

Owing to the more explicit statements which now preface colonial 
reports and taljles, errors are less likely to lie made now than formerly as 
tu what is included in the returns of imports and exports. 

(1) It is usual in the colonial returns of imports and exports to 
include all articles which are landed, even though only for transit pur- 
poses, but to exclude such articles as are transhipped but not landed. 
It is deserving of note, however, that in the case of Canada, as stated in 
a memorandum received by the Committee from the Minister of Customs, 
Ottawa, the transit trade is not included in either the import or export 
statements, and, in fact, is not compiled for publication, except in so far 
as the port of Montreal is concerned. This trade for the port of 
Montreal during tlie fiscal year ended June 30, 1903, was ^11,689,912. 
In it are included articles intended for other countries which pass 
through Canada in the course of their transportation, but which have not 
been purchased or sold in Canada and are not intended for u.se in Canada. 
In the case of Trinidad, on the other hand, where, comparatively speak- 
ing, there is a considerable transhipment trade from the Port of Spain to 
the Orinoco, such trade is included in the exports of Trinidad, but the 
fact is clearly stated in the Customs returns of the colony. 

(2) The practice as to the inclusion or exclusion of bullion and specie 
varies in the statistical returns of the several colonies, but explicit state- 
ments are made on the subject, which should prevent error. In the 
Australian statistics bullion and specie are not separated, as in the 
import and exjjort returns of the United Kingdom. It is considered that 
bullion in the ca.se of Australia is as purely commercial an export as wool, 
and likewise the common practice of converting bullion into specie for 
commercial convenience justifies the classification of specie no less than 
bullion with other articles of merchandise. On the other hand, in the 
statistics of Cape Colony bullion is included among the articles of 
merchandise, but specie is treated separately. Similarly, in the Canadian 
statistics gold is classified with other merchandise, but coin is shown 
separately. In the Indian statistics, treasure, which includes gold and 
silver, bullion and specie, i.s distinguished from merchandise. Owing to 
the varying practice thus existing, care is necessary in compai'ing totals. 
It should be further noted that in some cases coal, as well as bullion and 
specie, is excluded from the articles of merchandise. Thus in his report 
the Collector-General of Customs in Jamaica gives the total of imports 
and exports, excluding coal, bullion, and specie ; whereas in the report 
of the Collector of Customs in Trinidad no such distinction is ob.served. 

(3) It is noteworthy tliat, before the formation of the Australian 
Commonwealth, imports and exports into any Australian State from a 
border State — for example, to Victoria from New South Wales — were 



ON BRITISH AND FOREIGN STATISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE. 189 

distinguished fi-om over-sea imports and exports. Similarly in the 
Commonwealth returns a very clear distinction is made between inter- 
Australian and other trade. In the case of South Africa the difficulties 
are greater in distinguishing South African inter-State from external 
imports and exports, though the distinction has been and is made in the 
returns of the several States. 



B. Estiviation of Values of Inijwrts and Exports. 

Imports. — With regard to the estimation of the value of imports, the 
general practice in the colonies is to require and accept a declaration ot 
value from the importer. As to the reliability of such statements, a dis- 
tinction must be made between goods which are dutiable and goods which 
are free. In the case of dutiable goods, it is evident that very consider- 
able care is taken to arrive at the fair value of the goods imported. Thus 
the Committee are informed that in Cape Colony every means is taken 
to ascertain the correctness of the declared value either from price-lists 
published by firms of repute or from price-lists quoted by commission 
firms, and in addition an importer has to produce, before his goods are 
delivered, his bill of lading, statement, and invoices, the correctness of 
which he can be called upon to declare under oath. On the other hand, 
in the case of free goods, even if the Customs authorities do not apply an 
equally careful scrutiny as in the case of dutiable goods, there is not the 
same inducement on the part of the importer to understate valuation ; 
but, in any case, the importance which is now attached to a correct 
knowledge of imports free as well a? dutiable, and the attention given 
by the Customs authorities to the matter, ensure the comparative relia- 
bility of the statements of value as regards free goods. The main feature 
in the estimation of v.alues of imports — namely, that it is declared and not 
official — is the same throughout the Colonies, but there are several points 
of difference in detail which have been bi'ought to the notice of the 
Committee. 

South Africa. — In the South African Customs Union the value of 
goods imported is taken to be the current value of such goods in the open 
market at the place of purchase by the importer or his agent, but in such 
current value are included the cost of packing and packages, and, if it 
exceeds 5 per cent., the agent's commission. Agent's commission, where 
it is less than 5 per cent., together with freight and insurance, is not 
included. On the other hand, with regard to the valuation of imports for 
statistical as against duty purposes, there appear to be certain differences 
in the practice of the several South African States. Thus in Cape Colony 
pi-ior to July 1, 1905, in framing statistical returns, 5 per cent, was 
added to the declared Customs value, an addition supposed to cover the 
freight, insurance, and commission value inhering in the goods when 



imported. On the other hand, in Natal the current values under each 
statistical head are abstracted from the original Customs entries to the 
nearest shilling in all cases, and the monthly tables are determined by 
reckoning 10.s\ and over as 1/. and discarding fractions of 10s. In the 
case of Rhodesia, a slight further difficulty exists in the fact that a small 
quantity of the goods imported is purchased at coast ports such as 
Beira, while others of the same class are purchased in Great Britain or 
in countries where they are manufactured or produced. The sale price 
of the former necessarily includes freight, insurance, shipping and landing 



190 REPORT— 1905. 

dues, as well as the importer's profits, while the value of the latter is 
returned as the sale price in the country of origin in accordance with the 
South African Customs Regulations, and excludes such items as freight, 
insurance, &c. In the case of Cape Colony, when goods are purchased in 
the open market and exported to another member of the Customs Union, 
the cost price in the country of origin is obtained if possible ; if not, 
one-third of the local value is deducted to equalise with goods which have 
not left bond. This is done for the purpose of distributing the duties 
equitably among the colonies. 

AiistraHa. — In the case of the Australian Commonwealth, the value of 
tlie goods is taken to be the fair market value in the principal markets 
of the country whence the goods were exported. Ten per cent., as covering 
insurance, freight, ifec, is added to such market values for statistical 
purposes. 

Canada. — In the case of Canada, the Canadian Customs Law requires 
that importers of dutiable goods shall enter them for duty purposes at the 
fair market value at which similar goods are sold for home consumption 
in the ordinary course of trade in the principal markets of the country of 
export, and at the time of export direct to Canada. The declared values 
are subject to review at the ports of entry by appraisers, and subsequently 
at Custon)s headquarters by the checking branch. Any changes, however, 
which may be ordered to be made for Customs purposes by such appraisers 
or by the checking branch ai"e not recorded for statistical purposes. 
Respecting free goods, the values given in the Canadian returns are those 
declared by the importers, and i-epresent, as a general rule, the price paid 
for the goods in their condition ready for shipment to Canada from the 
country of purchase. 

With reference to the de6nition of the lerm 'current prices,' it may 
be added that the Customs authorities of (Jape Colony have, the Com- 
mittee are informed, dealt with the question of difterential values which 
appear in the declarations as the I'esult of a closed market. By a ' closed 
market ' is meant a case where one importer has a preferential position 
as the agent for some article which he is able to obtain at a lower rate 
than any other importer. The Customs authorities, however, require that 
the value of goods imported should be returned by all for duty purposes 
at the same price — namely, the open-market price — and consequently the 
agent of any firm has to pay on the same value as other individuals im- 
porting at the open-market price. Thus if firms have invoiced goods to 
their agents at the cost of production, the Customs authorities refuse to 
accept such a declaration of value. 

Exports. — Similarly, with regard to the estimation of the value of 
exports, a declaration is required from the exporter of the value of goods 
shipped, \mt in this case greater use is made of official values. One 
serious difficulty consists in the fact that many goods are shipped on con- 
signment for sale, and their value can only be determined when the goods 
are marketed. This practice of shipping on consignment prevails, the 
Committee are informed, to a considerable extent in the case of colonial 
produce, such as cattle, wool, and other articles, the value of which may 
be considerably more or less than what was estimated by the exporter at 
the time of shipment. 



ON BRITISH AND FOREIGN STATISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE. 191 

C. Dfferminaiion of fh". Coimlry of Origin and of Destination. 

Most goods other than raw material obtain their value from more 
than one country ; the law materials coming, for example, from one or 
more countries, while the cost of manufacturing is clue to another country. 
There is, however, in many cases a country of origin of sufficient import- 
ance for tabulation. 

South Africa. — In the case of South Africa, since the establishment of 
the Customs Union and the granting of preference to the United Kingdom 
in August 1903, and to Canada at a later date, a special attempt has lieen 
made to disco\er tlie country of origin of imported goods. The bill of 
entry in which the goods are recorded must be supported by what is 
termed ' a certificate of origin,' which, if found to be false, renders the 
goods liable to forfeiture. Similarly, the Customs Union Regulations re- 
quire that the destination of imported goods shall be declared with a view 
to apportioning the share of duty due to each colony, and failure to comply 
with these regulations renders a person liable to a considerable penalty. 
The case is interesting as showing the influence which fiscal considerations 
with regard to preference or with regard to the distribution of internal taxa- 
tion can have on the development of statistical information ; for while, as 
was pointed out in the previous report, it is practically impossible to 
determine accurately the real country of origin, it may be granted never- 
theless that within limits the requirement of a certificate of origin assists 
in revealing the movements of goods anterior to their last shipment, 
and facilitates inquiry with regard to any particular entry. Thus, since 
the establishment of the Customs Union of 1903, the requirement of a 
certificate of origin has shown still more clearly that in many cases the 
invoice produced is merely that of an agent and not of the actual manu- 
facturer of the goods. Such a document cannot with safety be taken as 
showing the country of origin, and the falling-off in the year 1904 in the 
percentage of imports of British goods as compared with the figures of 
previous years is regarded by the South African Customs authorities 
as due in a measure to the fact that in former years values were credited 
to the United Kingdom which should properly have been atti'ibuted to 
Germany and the United States. 

Australia. — In the case of the Australian Commonwealth likewise an 
attempt is being made in the forthcoming statistics to distinguish the 
country of origin from the country of shipment. Some of the Australian 
States have for a considerable number of years made the distinction. It 
should be added, however, that the Customs authorities of the Common- 
wealth do not attach much value to the distinction, inasmuch as it is 
stated that the information is in most cases only pushed one stage further 
back, and no attempt is made to distinguish the origin of the raw or half- 
manufactured goods from that of the finished product. 

Canada. — As regards Canada, the Committee are informed that in 
respect of the origin of goods no accurate record is attempted. The 
country in which they are purchased and whence they are invoiced to 
Canada is treated in the tables of trade and navigation as the country 
from which the goods are imported. Nevertheless, with regard to goods 
subject to differential duties a certificate of origin is required. 

United Kingdom. — During the past year the British Customs authori- 
ties have also attempted to differentiate between the country of origin and 
the country of shipment, and though the results for a complete year have 



192 REPORT— 1905. 

nob yet bsen published (for the results of six months vide report on 
' British and Foreign Trade and Industry,' Second Series, Od. 2,337), the 
Ooininittee understand that a consideraljle amount of ioformation has been 
obtained regarding, if not the origin, at least the intermediate stages in 
the exchange of goods. 

India. — In the case of India and other parts of the Colonial Empire, 
the Customs authorities have not as yet attempted to distinguish between 
the country of shipment and the country of origin. 

In dealing with the general question of distinguishing the country of 
origin from the country of shipment, it is necessary to recognise the diffi- 
culty and limitations whicli beset inquiry, and care will be required in inter- 
preting the information obtained, but tlie attempt on the part of several 
large communities of the British Empire to collect this information is to 
be welcomed. It directs attention to the highly complex character of 
modern international trade, and it will assist the investigation of the 
source and development of particular articles. This is important, as 
much of the value of import and export statistics consists in the light 
which they throw on the production and distribution of particular com- 
modities. 

Defithiation of Exports. — Several colonies endeavour to obtain the 
ultimate destination of exports, but it is difficult to place reliance on 
the declarations made. Thus, for example, in the exports from the West 
Indies, it is known that some of the goods invoiced to New York ai*e 
destined for Canada. Again, in the case of exports forwarded on con- 
signment, the ultimate country of destination is often other than that 
which is declared. Thus much of the trade from India to Hong Kong 
is trade with China, though in part also with Japan, tlie Philippines, and 
the Pacific Coast of America. Similarly, consignments of rice and wheat 
forwarded to Egypt are largely to await orders at Port Said for delivery 
in western ports, while cargoes of Dutch sugar are shipped to the West 
Indies to await orders for American and other ports 

D. Classification of Articles of Import and Export. 

Uniformity of classification is almost as important as uniformity in 
the .system of valuation. At one time, owing to the great economic difier- 
ences between the several countries comprised, the quest for a uniform 
classification for the British Empire might have seemed futile. Now, 
however, natural and political developments have led to a consider- 
able approximation in the cla.ssification adopted, at least by the self- 
governing colonies, and in this case it would seem as if the differences 
which still remain might be removed with advantage both to the indi- 
vidual countries and to. the Empire as a. whole. In the case of the Crown 
Colonies and Dependencies much also could be done to imjji'ove the classi- 
fication, and to adapt it to a general classification for the whole Empire. 
What is required is the adoption, as far as possible, of a common detailed 
alphabetical list, which shovild form the foundation in all cases. At 
present such a list appears in all the important States within the Empire 
save India, and its absence there diminishes considerably the convenience 
and usefulness of the Indian statistics. At the same time it is necessary 
that the common list should be detailed, for the value of import and export 
statistics consists to a large extent in the information provided with regard 
to individual articles. At present many of the colonial returns suffer 



ON BRITISH AND FOREIGN STATISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE. 193 

from lack of differentiation in classification, especially in the case of tlio 
Crown Colonies, and in consequence much of the value of the information 
is lost. On the other hand, in the case of the self-governing colonies, 
particularly the Australian Commonwealth, a large amount of valuable 
detail, excellently arranged, is presented for the information of the 
public. The point to be emphasised is that while it is necessary to 
limit detail, greater attention than heretofore must be paid to secure 
differentiated knowledge which is of value for commercial and industrial 
purposes. 

Again, as in the case of the Annual Statement of Trade of the United 
Kingdom, and also as in the Commonwealth statistics and those presented 
in the Annual Register of Cape Colony, the countries to and fron» which 
articles are imported and exported should be recorded under each article. 
It is important, also, that a detailed classification of countries should be 
adopted. Thus, in the Canadian statistics, the value of the information 
afforded is diminished by the fact that on the one hand the countries of 
import and export are not shown in the mo.st detailed list of articles, and 
on the other that the countries of import and export are themselves 
insufficiently differentiated. Thus, for example, exports and imports 
from the several South African States are merged under a general head of 
'British Africa.' In this .same list the differentiation of articles is defec- 
tive ; for example, it is impossible to ascertain the number of horses, cattle, 
sheep, pigs, &c., respectively imported from the several countries, since the 
figures are lost under the general classification of ' Animals.' The com- 
parison of the Canadian with, for example, the Australian import and 
export statistics brings out the advantages which would be obtained from 
a common system of classification, not only of articles, but of countries. 
One of the greatest reforms which can be achieved with regard to 
Imperial statistics is an agreement on a common classification. At the 
same time it will be recognised that while it is desirable that a common 
alphabetical list of commodities and a common list of countries should be 
adopted, it is clearly out of the question that the immense cross-tabu- 
lation which this would involve should be published m extenso by all the 
colonies and dependencies. The exact means by which the desire for 
detail and the necessity for compactness should be reconciled cannot be 
discussed now in detail ; the main consideration is that every class of 
goods which is imported on a suflicient scale, or is of sufficient special interest, 
should be distinguished on a uniform classification, and the principal 
countries from or to which it is imported or exported given, in some such 
way as in the Trade and Navigation Returns of the United Kingdom. 

E. Recent Changes affecting Import and Export Statistics. 

Apart from certain particular changes which have been brought to 
the notice of the Committee, and are recorded hereafter, attention may 
be drawn to developments in two directions, which have affected and 
will affect considerably the comparability, if not the accuracy, of colonial 
statistics. On the one hand there has been the growth of larger Customs 
Unions, such as the Australian Commonwealth and the South African 
Cu.stoms Union. On the other hand there has been the extension of 
colonial tariffs and the development in Canada, South Africa, and New 
Zealand of preferential duties. This latter development has necessitated 
inquiry regarding the country of origin as distinguished from the country 

1905. 



194 REPORT— 1905. 

of shipment. At the same time it may be remarked that, while par- 
ticularisation and differentiation have been extended in the colonial 
Customs lists, this movement has, owing to the comparative similarity of 
colonial tariffs, assisted in approximating to one another the classifications 
of the several colonies. It may be said that there has been considerable 
progress towards uniformity within several of the natural local groups and 
federations, and this is a condition anterior to the larger consolidation 
which would be realised by a common classification, system of registration, 
valuation, &c., for the Empire. 

The Committee are informed of the following changes : — 

South Africa. — In Cape Colony — 

(1) Prior to 1885, 10 per cent, was added to all declared values for 
statistical and Customs purposes. The amount added was then reduced 
to 5 per cent. This was removed for Customs purposes in 1898, but 
remained for statistical purposes till June 30, 1905, since which date 
nothing has been added to declared values. 

(2) Up to the year 1898 the declared value was taken to be that at 
the port of shipment, whereas since that year the value is that of the 
place of purchase, and does not include the cost of bringing to the port 
of shipment. 

(3) From the year 1889 the destination of imported goods has been 
recorded. 

(4) Up to 1903 the country of origin was recorded as given by the 
importer without any steps being taken to ascertain its correctness. Since 
1903 a certificate of origin has been required. 

In Natal — 

(1) Up till January 1899 the values were the actual cost at the place 
of shipment jilus 5 per cent., whereas the present system gives for 
statistical purposes, to the nearest 1/., the value in the open market at 
the place of purchase, including the cost of packing and packages, but 
not including agent's commission unless it exceeds 5 per cent., with no 
addition. 

(2) In 1901 the statistical heads of imports were considerably 
elaborated. Prior to that date the main heads contained the values of 
many articles since separately shown. 

(3) Similarly, as elsewhere in the Customs Union since 1903, the 
certificate of origin is now required with regard to dutiable goods. 

There has now (from July 1, 1905) been established a South African 
Customs Statistical Bureau in Cape Town whose business is to collect 
and publish the statistics of South African external trade, and also of the 
internal trade between the five colonies, and to act as a clearing-house 
for the allocation of the receipts of duties among the colonies. This 
will tend to bring the statistics of all the colonies up to a uniform 
standard, and will improve their accuracy and comparability. In doing 
this there will necessarily be changes in methods and in classification. 
The alteration begins in the middle of the year. Great care will be 
necessary in comparing statistics before and after this date, and it is to 
be hoped that full and explicit explanations of all changes will be given 
in the forthcoming publications. 

Australia. — The establishment of the Australian Commonwealth in 1901 
has led to an even closer co-ordination of the Customs than in South Africa. 



ON BRITISH AND FOREIGN STATISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE. 195 

As a result, a common tariff, including New South Wales, which had 
hitherto been a free-trade country, has been established, and a common 
statistical method adopted. In 1904 the first annual report of the 
import and export trade of the Commonwealth was published. Since 
September 1903 a record of the transhipment trade from the Common- 
wealth to foreign poi-ts has been made. In the forthcoming statistical 
volume the country of origin of imports as distinguished from the country 
of shipment will be shown. 

New Zealand. — New Zealand has the same classification of goods as 
the Australian Commonwealth. The adoption of the preferential system 
by New Zealand in 1903 has likewise involved inquiry as to country of 
origin as distinguished from the country of shipment. 

Canada. — The Committee have been informed that there have been 
no changes within the last twenty years in the method of valuing goods 
for importation or exportation, nor has any change been made in the 
method of ascertaining their origin or destination, save in so far as goods 
subject to preferential rates of duty are concerned, in which case a certifi- 
cate of origin is required. 

India. — Since January 1898 the rupee has been maintained at the 
rate of 15 rupees to \l., and the value of imports and exports since that 
date is shown in pounds sterling In comparing these figures with earlier 
years, allowance has to be made for the fluctuations in the rate of exchange. 

F. Comparability and Accuracy. 

Owing to the differences already referred to which exist in the 
methods of the self-governing colonies in estimating and classifying 
imports and exports, any attempt to determine the accuracy of such 
statistics by means of comparison is apt to mislead. At first sight it might 
appear that the exports of, for example, Canada to Australia should 
correspond with the imports from Canada recorded in the statistics of 
the Commonwealth, allowance being made for the differences due to cost 
of freight, insurance, kc. But the difficulties experienced in recording 
the origin of goods — for example, goods in the Australian returns may be 
classified as American when they are Canadian, or as Canadian when they 
are British — and the uncertainty in the valuation of exports make it clear 
that the existence of a considerable variation in the respective returns is 
no real evidence of inaccuracy, but only of incomparability. Moreover, 
in addition to these causes of incomparability is the fact that a common 
statistical year has not yet been adopted. In Australia the statistical 
year, as in Cape Colony, is the calendar year. In Canada the statistical 
year closes on June 30 ; in Trinidad and Jamaica on March 31. In Ber- 
muda the statistical year is the calendar year. In India the statistical 
year closes on March 31, in Ceylon the calendar year is adopted. Such 
diversity increases the diflSculty of comparison, which is, however, in 
certain cases obviated owing to the publication of monthly statements of 
imports and exports. Also, it is evident that goods exported at the close 
of one year from South Africa to Australia will be recorded in the 
imports of the next year in the statistics of the Australian Common- 
wealth. 

G. Suggestions as to Reform. 

(1) It will be recognised that within the British Empire there is 
a greater possibility of establishing common statistical methods than is 

o2 



196 REPORT— 1905. 

likely to exist among separate foreign countries. In recent years the 
attainment of this object has been materially forwarded by the establish- 
ment of the Australian Federation and the South African Customs 
Union. The question of common statistical practice throughout the 
Empire deserves therefore to be discussed further, and it is important 
that it should receive attention at the colonial conferences, and that there 
should be an interchaiage of views with the object of reaching common 
methods of classification, of estimation of value, and of recording the 
origin and destination of goods. 

(2) It would be of considerable advantage if an annual report on the 
trade of the Empire were published on a scale sufficiently large to present 
in considerable detail the trade of the several colonies and dependencies. 
The statistical abstract for the British Empire, issued for the first time 
in 1905, is a movement in this direction, but much more detailed informa- 
tion is required than can be given in a report of such small compass. 
Further, it is important that in such a report a clear statement should be 
given as to the differences fur which allowance must be made when com- 
paring the statistics of the several colonies. It would also be possible 
to indicate the gaps in existing information. Such a report would 
undoubtedly conduce to forwarding the adoption of common statistical 
methods and practice so far as they can be realised. 

(3) It is of great importance that meanwhile local developments 
towards uniformity such as have taken place in Australia should be 
carried forward. Thus in South Africa it will be a step in advance when 
a Year-book showing the trade of the South African Customs Union on 
a scale similar to the Year-book of the Trade of the Australian Common- 
wealth is published. Again, in the case of the West Indies there is 
great need for the establishment of closer Customs relations and for the 
issue of a joint annual report showing in detail the West Indian trade. 
At present in the West Indian returns there is an absence of uniformity 
in classification and a lack of differentiation. Again, a common system 
should be adopted in India, the Straits Settlements, and the other Asiatic 
possessions of Great Britain. On the whole, information regarding the 
trade of the Crown Colonies is very imperfect, and inquiry should be 
made by the Imperial authorities as to how far it would be possible to 
establish a system throughout the Crown Colonies and Dependencies 
which would be uniform, and which might also give the detailed informa- 
tion at present lacking. 

(4) It is important that a prefatory note should be given in the case of 
the statistical returns of each colony, explaining the system of valuation 
and registration of origin and destination, stating whether transhipment 
and transit trade, bullion, specie, and bunker coal, ifec, are included 
or excluded, and affording any other comment which may assist the proper 
interpretation of the statistics. 

(5) Inasmuch as import and export statistics present only one aspect 
of the trade of a nation, and as the proportion which the import and 
export trade bears to the internal trade varies considerably in different 
countries, it is important, both for the purpose of obtaining a more 
reliable criterion of trade and production of each colony, and for the 
establishment of satisfactory comparisons as to the productive power of 
the several States comprised in the Empire, that import and export 
statistics should be supplemented by a system of statistics showing the 
internal trade and production of each colony. Several of the British 



ON BRITISH AND FOREIGN STATISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL TR^DE. 197 

colonies have attempted this in the annual report which they furnish on 
agricultural and industrial productions. It is clear, however, that great 
care must be taken in order to avoid the counting of the same wealth 
several times, owing to the different processes of manufacture which 
wealth undergoes. For the present the Committee desire, however, only 
to direct attention to the importance of this matter from an Imperial 
point of view, in the hope that at some time it may be possible to 
establish an efficient census of production, agricultural and industrial, 
within the Empire. 

(6) A common statistical year should be established. 

The Committee render cordial thanks to the Customs authorities of the 
several self-governing colonies for information M'hich they have aflbrdcd 
in regard to methods of collecting the returns of imports and exports, 
and also to the Colonial Office for information with regard to the Crown 
Colonies. 



Aije oj Stone Circles. — hiterim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour {Secretary), Sir 
JoBN Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, to conduct Ex- 
plorations vith the object of ascertainin<j the Age of Stone Circles. 

The stone circle known as the 'Stripple Stones,' situated on Bodmin 
Moor, Cornwall, on the slopes of Hawkstor, was selected by the Com- 
mittee as a site upon which to conduct excavations this year. The 
necessary permission was kindly given by the landowner. Sir William 
Onslow, subject to the area disturbed by digging being made good. A 
very careful and sjstematic exploration of the circle was made in June, 
a preliminary examination having been made earlier in the year by Mr. 
Balfour and Mr. Gray. As previously at Arbor Low, the Committee 
were fortunate in securing the services of Mr. H. St. George Gray, who was 
placed in charge of the excavations, which lasted a fortnight, and which 
were very satisfactorily organised and conducted. He received much 
kind assistance from the Rev. Vernon Collins of Blisland. Some twenty 
or more trenches were dug in various directions, especially along the fosse, 
which was carefully explored, it being for the most part poorly defined on 
the surface. In spite of a very thorough search, relics were disappoint- 
ingly scarce, a few flint flakes and some wood at a low level alone being 
found. There was a total absence of metal, as was the case at Arbor 
Low. A very careful contoured survey-plan of the circle has been made 
by Mr. Gray, who has also surveyed and photographed some of the other 
circles in the neighbourhood. Owing to the late date at which the exca- 
vations were completed, the full report, which will give all details in 
regard to the work and a complete description of the circle, is not yet to 
hand, and will be presented next year. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with balance in hand. 



198 REPORT— 1905. 



Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — Report of the Com- 
onittee, consisting of Professor D. J. Cunningham (Ghaii-man), 
Mr. J. Gray (Secretary), Dr. A, C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. Myers, 
Mr. J. L. Myres, Professor A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, 
Mr. D. Randall-MacIver, Professor J. Symington, Dr. Waters- 
ton, Sir E. W. Brabrook, Dr. T. H. Bryce, Dr. W. H. L. 
Duckworth, Mr. G. L. Gomme, Major T. McCulloch, Dr. 
F. C. Shrubsall, Professor G. D. Thane, and Mr. J. F. Tocher. 

The Conmiittee have now drawn up a list of dimensions of the human 
body suitable for measurement. This list contains all dimensions that 
have hitherto been most usually measured, and some additional dimensioriS 
which the Committee consider to be important. The list docs not profess 
to be exhaustive, and other dimensions may be added in subsequent 
reports. The object of the Committee is to define the points between 
which the usual dimensions are taken with as much precision as possible, 
so that all observers may be able to get results which are comparable 
■with one another. It is not suggested that the whole of the dimensions 
on this list should be measured on each individual by every observer. 
Each observer can select from the list the particular dimensions he wishes 
to study. 

The chief object of anthropometric measurements may be stated to 
be the determination of correlations between the different characters 
of the human body, and between such characters and their environment. 
The collection of sufficient data to enable the statistician to determine 
all these correlations will require the co operation of many observers, and 
it is obvious that if these observers adopt different methods of measure- 
ment, the value of their work will be very seriously impaired. If a 
standard method of measurement is prescribed, with the authority of the 
British Association, this evil will be to a great extent obviated. The 
Committee propose, when their work is sufficiently advanced, to draw up 
schedules suitable for specific purposes, such as the measurement of school- 
children, the study of groups of people in selected districts, «fec. 

In the list are embodied definitions of the anatomical terms made use 
of, and explanatory notes directing how the dimensions are to be measured. 
It is proposed in the next report to supplement these directions by illus- 
trations of the human figure, having marked upon them the points between 
which the dimensions are to be measured. Photographs of the human 
model are in course of preparation, but it was not possible to get blocks 
made in time for insertion in this report. An alphabetical list of the 
definitions is also given at the end. 

The Committee, if reappointed, propose to determine and describe 
the most suitable instruments to be employed to measure the dimensions 
in the standard list. 

They also propose to prepare lists of physiological and psychological 
characters suitable for measurement, and finally to give a list of the 
environmental influences which are most deserving of being noted, along 
with observations on the physique. 

Several meetings of the Sub-Committee have been held during the year 



ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATION IN THE BRITISH tSLES 199 

The Anthropological Institute has presented to the Lord President 
of Council a memorial praying that the recommendations of the Physical 
Deterioration Committee, having reference to an Advisory Committee, 
an Anthropometric Survey, and a Register of Sickness, should be carried 
into effect. This memorial is supported by the Childhood Society, the 
Sociological Society, the head-masters of most of the public schools, 
and many other influential persons. 

The Committee again beg to thank the Anthropological Institute for 
providing them with headquarters and granting permission to hold meet- 
ings in their rooms. 

The Committee desire to be reappointed, with instructions to con- 
tinue the work indicated in the above report. The grant of 10^. made 
to the Committee last year has now been expended. The Committee 
consider that the work which they are carrying out will be of the 
greatest value in standardising anthropometric work in this and possibly 
in other countries. If the work is to be eflectively continued a somewhat 
larger expenditure than hitherto will be necessary. The Committee, if 
reappointed, ask for a grant of 30^. 



Standard List of Anatomical Dimensions. 

A. Cranium. 

The Cranium is the part of the skull which forma the protective bony 
covering for the brain. 

Diameters (Calliper measurements). 

1. Maximum length. — From the most prominent point of the glabella, 
or prominence in the mid-line between the two eyebrows, to the most 
distant point in the middle line on the back of the head, known as the 
occipital point. The fixed point of the callipers is first applied to the 
glabella and kept there, while the other point is moved over the back of 
the head (occiputj. Care must be taken to observe that the fixed point 
has not moved off the glabella during the measurement, and that the 
callipers have not been deflected from the median vertical plane. The 
pressure of the points of the callipers on the head should be as much as 
can be comfortably borne by the person under examination. 

2. Maximum breadth. — Measured wherever it can be found above the 
plane of the earholes. The callipers may be held in a vertical or in a 
horizontal plane and moved about until the maximum diameter is ascer- 
tained, the observer being careful to keep the points of the callipers 
exactly opposite to each other, i.e. in the same vertical and horizontal 
planes. The pressure of the points on the head should be such as can be 
comfortably borne by the person under examination. 

3. Minimum, frontal breadth. — The minimum diameter obtainable by 
the callipers, held with their points in the same plane and with the 
maximum comfortable pressure, between the frontal crests, the ridges of 
bone which may be felt curving upwards and backwards on either side 
of the cranium immediately above and to the outer side of the orbits if 
the forehead be grasped between the finger and thumb. 



200 REPORT— 1905. 



Tape Measiirements, 

4. Maximum circumference. — Measured by passing the tape over the 
glabella in front and the occipital point behind. 

5. Longitudinal arc. — Measured with the tape in the vertical plane 
from the nasion, •which is the bottom or deepest part of the depression 
between the forehead (glabella) and the nose, to the inion or external 
occipital protuberance ; a prominence on the under aspect of the back of 
the head, in the middle line, at the point where the curved outline of the 
back of the head meets the outline of the back of the neck. 

G. Transvej'se arc. — Measured over the vertex of the head and between 
the two preauricular points, in a vertical plane when the eyes are directed 
to the horizon. TJie prc-aiiricuJar ^wint is the point immediately in 
front of the tragus, or the little projection of the ear which lies in front 
of the earhole. 

Radii (Gray's auricular radiometer). 

These radii may be considered to pass from the mid-point of the bi- 
auricular diameter to the various points indicated in tlie median longi- 
tudinal arc of the cranium. They are all to be measured with contact 
(i.e. without perceptible pressure between the point of the instrument and 
the skin of the head). 

7. Vertical (which gives the auricular height of the cranium). — From 
the midpoints of the earholes to the top of the cranium, measured in a 
vertical plane when the eyes are directed to the horizon. 

8. Frontal.— {a) From the earholes to the most prominent point of 
the glabella ; (i) from the earholes to the ophryon. 

The ophryon is a point in the middle line of the forehead between 
the prominence of the glabella and the place where the frontal curve 
begins. It is usually very obscurely marked. The ophryon can also be 
found by taking the centre of a line drawn across the narrowest part of 
the forehead. 

9. Maximum frontal. — From the earholes to the most prominent 
point on the frontal curve. 

10. Occipital. — From the earholes to the occipital point. 

11. Inial.- — From the earholes to the inion. 



B. Face. 

The face is the part of the skull whidi lies below the fore portion of 
the cranium. It is composed of the jaws and other bones which are 
arranged around the cavities of the orbits, nose, and mouth. 

Calliiier Meastircmenis. 

1. Upfcrface length. — From the nasion to the edge of the gum between 
the two upper central incisor teeth. A contact measurement. 

2. Total face length. — From the nasion to the lower edge of the point 
of the chin. A contact measurement. 

N.B. — In Connection with these measurements of face length state 
the condition of the incisor teeth. 



ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATION IN THE BRITISH ISLES 201 

3. Maximnm inter -zygomatic breadth. — The maximum diameter 
between corresponding points on the opposite zygomatic arches. The 
pressure used is to be as much as can be comfortably borne by the 
person under examination. 

The zygomatic arch of the skull can be felt stretching forwards from 
a point in front of the tragus or prominence in front of the earhole to 
the most prominent part of the cheek. 

4. Maximum inter-malar Ireadth. — The maximum diameter between 
the cheek-bones just below the angles or points of junction between the 
outer and lower parts of the rims of the orbital openings. A contact 
measurement. 

5. External orbital breadth. — Maximum diameter between the outer 
margins of the orbits. A contact measurement. 

6. External ocular breadth. — The diameter between the two external 
canthi, or outer angles of junction, of the eyelids. A contact measure- 
ment. 

7. Internal ocular breadth. — The diameter between the two internal 
canthi, or inner angles of junction of the eyelids. A contact measure- 
ment. 

N.B. — The last two measurements are to be taken when the eyes 
are open. 

8. Gonial breadth. — The diameter between the extreme outer points 
of the angles of the lower jaw. This measurement is to be taken with 
the maximum comfortable pressure. , 

Tape Measureme^it. 

9. Orbilo-nasal. — From the same points as No. 5, the tape passing 
lightly over the nasion. 

Kadii. 
All these are to be measured with contact only. 

10. Upper nasal. — From the earholes to the nasion. 

11. Mid nasal. — From the earholes to the lower border of the na?al 
bones in the middle line. 

12. Lotcer nasal. — From the earholes to the point of the nose. 

13. Alveolar. — From the earholes to the margin of the gum between 
the two upper central incisor teeth. 

14. Mental. — From the earholes to the point of the chin. 

C. Nose. 
Calliper Measurements. 
All these are to be measured with contact only. 

1. Kasal height. — From the nasion to the subnasal point, or, angle 
between the septum of the nose {i.e. the partition between the nostrils) 
and the upper lip. 

^ 2. Nasal depth. — From the subnasal point to the most projecting 
point on the tip of the nose. 

3. Nasal length. — From the nasion to the point of the nose. 



202 



REPORT — 1905. 



4. Nasal breadth. — ^^The greatest diameter, measured without pressure, 
between the wings of the nose. 

5. Nostril length. — The greatest antero-posterior diameter of the 
nostril. 

6. Nostril breadth. — The greatest diameter taken at right angles to 
the diameter of greatest length. 

D. Ear. 

Calliper Measurements. 

To be taken with contact only. 

1. Lenr/th of the ear basis. — The length of the line drawn from the front 
upper insertion point of the auricle to the front lower insertion point 
(E F, figs. 1 and 2). 




Fig. 2. 




2. Greatest length of the ear. — (A B, fig. 1.) From the highest to 
the lowest point of the auricle. 

3. Greatest breadth of the ear. — (C D, fig. 1.) The maximum dia- 
meter at right angles to the length-line from the ear basis to the hinder 
border of the auricle. 

4. Distance from the Darwinian tubercle to the upper border of the 
tragus (X L, figs. 1 and 2). 

The prominence in front of the earhole is the tragus ; the prominence 
behind the earhole is the antitragus. The narrow interval between and 
below these prominences is the incisura intertragica. 

The Darwinian tubercle is a small projection very frequently present 
on the free edge of the folded border of the hinder part of the ear near 
the summit of the auricle. It is the morphological apex of the ear. 

5. Distance from the highest point of the ear to the bottom of the 
incisura intertragica (A I, fig. 2). 

6. Le7igth of the lobule of the ear. — From the bottom of the incisura 
intertragica to the lowest point of the auricle. 



ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATION iN THE BRITISH ISLES 203 

E. Trunk and Limbs. 
Measurements from the Ground. 

The subject is to be measured in the erect attitude, with his eyes 
directed to the horizon, his heels tirmly planted, and the pads of his feet 
just in contact with the ground. All measurements to be made without 
boots, it having been found that allowing for the height of the heel of the 
boot introduces serious errors. All are contact measurements. 

1. Stature. 

2. Height of the supra-sternal notch, or the depression between the inner 
ends of the collar bones (clavicles) where they join the breast bone 
(sternum). 

3. Height of the iip^yer edge of the pubic symphysis, or point of junction 
of the two haunch bones in the middle line in front. 

4. Height of the acromion, or sharp tip of the shoulder. The most 
lateral point of this is the position whence measurements are taken. It 
is most easily discovered by feeling from behind forwards. 

5. Height of the extremity of the middle finger. — The arm being held 
by the side with the palm of the hand resting lightly on the outer side of 
the thigh. 

6. Height of the iliac crests, or curved upper edges of the haunch or 
pelvic bones. The measurement is usually made to the iliac tubercle, a 
projection on the outer edge of the iliac crest, about one and a half or two 
inches behind the anterior sujyerior spine or rounded projection which 
forms the anterior end of the crest. The latter is most easily detected by 
feeling from below upwards. 

7. Height of the anterior superior sphie of the ilium.. 

8. Height of the posterior superior spine of the ilium, the projection 
at the posterior end of the iliac crest. This is not easily felt, but the 
position of these spines is indicated by dimples in the skin above the 
buttocks, and about one inch from the mid-line of the back on either side. 

9. Height of the ujyper edge of the great trochanter. — The outstanding 
projection at the upper end of the shaft of the thigh bone (femur) imme- 
diately external to the hip joint. 

10. Height of the knee joint. — This measurement should be made on both 
the inner and outer aspects of the joint, and in each case from the corre- 
sponding upper edges of the superior extremity of the tibia or inner of 
the two bones forming the leg. 

11. Height of the tip of the internal malleolus of the tibia. — The 
prominent projection on the inner side of the ankle joint, best felt from 
behind and below. 

12. Height sitting, i.e. the length of the trunk from the vertex of the 
head to the lowest points of the ischial tuberosities (height from seat). 

13. Height kneeling. 

F. Direct Measurements. 

Callipers. 

1. Maximum breadth of shoulders (bi-acromial). 

2. Distance between two anterior superior spines of iliac hones. 

3. Distance hettveen the two posterior superior spines of iliac bones. 

4. Distance between iliac tubercles on iliac crests. — This will give 
approximately the maximum diameter between iliac crests. 



201 REPORT— 1905. 

5. Maximum diameter between the two great trochanters of the thigh- 
hones, 

6. External conjugate diameter of the pelvis. — From a point behind 
midway between the posterior superior iliac spines to the upper and fore- 
part of the pubic symphysis in front. 

Measurements of Chest. 
Circumference {taken icith tape). 
Direct subject to hold his arms straight up over his head. 
Pass the tape round liorizontally at the level of the junction of the 
fourth rib-cartilage with the sternum or breast bone, then lower arms, and 
holding tape tightly, note circumference at — 

7. Deep inspiration ; 

8. Complete expiration. — This latter is easily attained by asking the 
subject to count twenty aloud quickly without inspiring. 

Before removing tape, mark the level with a blue pencil around the 
chest. 

The fourth rib can be found by noting the projecting ridge on the 
front aspect of the upper part of the sternum and taking the second rib- 
cartilage below this. 



*o^ 



Diameters {tahen with callipers). 

9. Antero-j:osterior from mid-line in front to mid-line behind (sternum 
to spine of dorsal vertebra) at the level of the blue line previously marked. 

10. Lateral, — The maximum lateral diameter found with the callipers 
held horizontally and blades tangential to side of chest at the level of the 
blue line before referred to. 

Both these latter measurements should be recorded : (1) in deep inspi- 
ration ; (2) in complete expiration. 

G. Upper Limb. 

1. Length of the upper arm. — From the outer margin of the acromion 
to the lowest point of the external condyle of the humerus, or prominent 
point on the outer side of the arm bone as it is felt on the back of the 
limb in the flexed elbow-joint. 

2. Length of the forearm. — From the lower margin of the external con- 
dyle of the humerus on the back of the elbow to the tip of the styloid process 
or pointed projection directed downwards from the lower end of the 
radius and easily felt on the thumb side of the wrist. This gives the length 
of the radius. 

3. Length of the ulna. — From the tip of the olecranon or point of the 
elbow to the extremity of tlie styloid process of the ulna, the pointed 
projection of bone directed downwards from the forearm on the little linger 
side of the wrist. 

4. Length of the cubit, — The elbow joint being flexed, the measurement 
is made from the tip of the elbow on the back of the arm to the tip of the 
middle finger. 

5. Length of the hand. — Measured on the dorsum The hand being 
dorsi-flexed, the position of the radio-carpal joint can be determined. 
Measurement made from this to the tip of middle finger. 

6. I^cngth of the thumb. — From the base of the metacarpal bone to 
the tip of the thumb. 



ON ANTHROrOMETRIC INVESTIGATION IN THE RRITISH ISLES 205 

7. LetKjth of the four fingers. — The three phalanges only to be measured 
in each case. Measurement to be taken, when the fingers are strongly 
flexed at the mefacarpo-phalangeal or knuckle joints, from points ou 
dorsal aspect immediately in front of knuckles. 

8. Breadth of the hand. — Taken across the knuckles. 

H. Lower Limc. 

1. Length of the thigh. — From upper edge of the great trochanter to 
the margin of superior extremity of tibia on outer side of knee joint. 

2. Length of the leg. — From the margin of the superior extremity of 
the tibia on the inner side of the knee joint to the tip of the internal 
malleolus. This measurement gives the length of the tibia. 

3. Length of the foot. — Two measurements : (a) from back of heel to 
extremity of second toe, counted from inner side ; (b) from back of heel to 
extremity of great toe. Both measurements taken with the foot resting 
on the ground. 

N.B. — A tracing of each foot should be taken. 

4. Breadth of the foot. — Measured across the heads of the metatarsals 
(i.e. from the prominent point on the inner side of the joint at the root 
of the great toe to the prominent point on the outer side of the foot at 
the base of the little toe) when the foot rests on the ground. 

Tape Measurement. 

5. Maximum circumference of the calf. 

6. Circumference of the thigh. — This is to be taken halfway between 
pelvis and knee. 

I. Slpecial Measurements. 

1 . Span of arms. 

2. Weight. 

3. Colour of hair. | Standard series of locks of hair and of glass eyes 

4. Colour of eyes. ) have been prepared. 

5. Teeth. 

6. Finger-p-ints. 

Alphabetical List op Terms Defined. 

Acromion. — The sharp tip of tlie shoulder. The most lateral point of 
this is the position whence measurements are taken. It is most easily 
discovered by feeling from behind forwards. 

Anterior superior spine of the ilium. — The rounded projection which 
forms the anterior end of the iliac crest. It is most easily detected by 
feeling from below upwards. 

Canthi. — Angles of meeting of the two eyelids. 

Condyles of the humerus. — The prominent points on either side of the 
elbow at the lower end of the arm bone (humerus) ; most easily felt from 
behind when the joint is bent. 

Cranium. — The part of the skull which forms a protective bony 
covering for the brain. 

Darwinian tubercle. — A small projection very frequently present on 
the free edge of the folded border of the hinder part of the ear near the 
summit of the auricle. It is the morphological apex of the ear. 



206 REPORT— 1905. 

External and internal malleoli. — The prominent projections on either 
side of the ankle joint. These are best felt from behind and below. The 
external malleolus is formed by the lower end of the fibula, the internal 
by the lower end of the tibia. 

Face. — The part of the skull which lies below the fore portion of the 
cranium. It is composed of the jaws and other bones which are arranged 
around the cavities of the orbits, nose, and mouth. 

Frontal crests. — If the forehead be grasped between the finger and 
thumb immediately above and to the outer sides of the orbits, a curved 
ridge of bone will be felt curving upwards and backwards on each side 
of the cranium. This is the frontal crest. 

Glabella. — Prominence in the mid-line between the two eyebrows. 

Great trochanter. — The outstanding projection at the upper end of 
the shaft of the thigh bone (femur) external to'the hip joint. 

Iliac crests. — The curved upper edges of the haunch or pelvic bones. 

Iliac tubercle. — A projection on the outer edge of the iliac crest, about 
one and a half or two inches behind the anterior superior spine. 

Incisura intertragica. — The prominence in front of the earhole is the 
tragus ; the prominence behind the earhole is the antitragus. The narrow 
interval between and below these prominences is the incisura intertragica. 

Inion. —External occipital protuberance ; a prominence on the under 
aspect of the back of the head, and in the middle line, at the point where 
the curved outline of the back of the head meets the outline of the back 
of the neck. 

Nasion. — The bottom or deepest part of the depression between the 
forehead (glabella) and the nose ; or the most depressed part at the root 
of the nose. 

Occipital point. — The point in the middle line on the back of the head 
which is most distant from the glabella. It can only be determined by 
the callipers. 

Ophryon. — A point in the mid-line between the. prominence of the 
glabella and the place where the frontal curve begins (usually very 
obscurely marked). 

Posterior superior spine of the ilium. — The projection at the posterior 
end of the iliac crest. This is not easily felt, but the position of these 
spines is indicated by dimples in the skin above the buttocks and about 
one inch from the mid-line of the back on either side. 

Pre-auricular point. — Point immediately in front of the tragus, or 
the little projection of the ear which lies in front of the earhole. 

Pubic symphysis. — The point of junction of the two haunch-bones in 
the middle line in front. 

Styloid processes of radius and ulna. — The pointed projections which 
are directed downwards from the lower ends of the bones of the forearm 
at either side of the wrist. The former is on the thumb and the latter on 
the little finger side. 

Sub-nasal point. — The angle between the septum of the nose {i.e., par- 
tition between the nostrils) and the upper lip. . 

Supra- sterna I notch. — The depression between the inner ends of the 
collar bones (clavicles) where they join the breast bone (sternum). 

Zygomatic arch. — A bony arch on the side of the skull which can be 
felt stretching forwards from a point in front of the tragus of the ear to 
the most prominent part of the cheek. 



To fajx paye 207.] 



I 







Had-lmgth 






HMd-brettli 






Ctphalio IdiIox 




Uppei FMial Indei 


Noua Index 




Anrioolo-QatUuc Indox | 


Pronutt.fte. 










































































































No. 


A 


» 





Ko. 


A 


' 





Ho. 


A * 


'No. 


A 


' 





No. 


A 


ff 


C 


N. 


A 


' 


C 


No. 


A 


' 


C 


No. 


A 


' 


C 


Eeo* 


G3 


1JM79 


583 


2W 


63 


14301 


3B0 


S-M 


37 


14826 S'88 


1-60 


10 


64647 


1140 


2G6 


63 


7301 


2-80 


3'D2 


63 


48-52 


3-38 


B03 


53 


7800 


s'li 


10-07 


23 


102-47 


3-95 


3-37 


Qitga 


63 


1!M'&3 


583 


a.. 


83 


114-3S 


4-60 


810 


3T 


141-78 


469 


3-38 


3B 


6 17-1 S 


12-75 


2-33 


83 


74-S6 


8-lG 


4-26 


83 


1781 


2-98 


610 


68 


77-77 


7'11 


014 


38 


103-44 


M7 


2-17 


^ena aod Gitga 


186 


104 63 


SSA 


300 


18G 


14116 


481 


2-90 


Bl 


116 41 


147 


307 


67 


G46-G1 


13-88 


2-4G 


138 


74-13 


304 


410 


185 


18-09 


314 


6'S3 


135 


7823 


708 


0S2 


61 


103 00 


3-03 


2-BO 


Giia 


G4 


19166 


6-39 


,« 


51 


I43'41 


4 06 


383 


31 


14fl-77 


G«0 


3'IT 


14 


G46'43 


10-06 


201 


G4 


737B 


2'IG 


3-33 


19 


180S 


3-84 


5-90 


47 


75'33 


7-31 


974 


20 


10100 


4-38 


1-31 


D4iUi» 


100 


moo 


COT 


316 


IM 


114'fi4 


i?X> 


3-07 


65 


11638 


460 


316 


40 


G4T'7B 


12 48 


338 


109 


7601 


SOS 


3-08 


106 


48-73 


3-38 


604 


103 


73-41 


7'63 


10'30 


84 


101-2-1 


3-86 


3-61 


Bahdia . . . 


50 


106 82 6-33 


338 


CO 


144-38 


4-10 


3-06 


23 


IIU'OO 


408 


278 


11 


CIG'OI 


1000 


1-90 


50 


73-48 


303 


4-12 


48 


40-00 


382 


6-77 


16 


74-39 


666 


8-98 


19 


lOO-GS 


318 


316 


Bbai^ 


!0 


m 75 4HC 


»., 


£0 


14S'40 


4-90 


3-37 


10 


140-50 


4-80 


3-38 


1- 


- 


- 


- 


20 


73-01 


308 


409 


13 


17-66 


2-38 


6-24 


10 


7fi-70 


6'58 


728 


6 


10001 


100 


1-DO 


Copu 


i* 


IVii , G'la 


317 


" 


HS-OO 


6-09 


356 


23 


14633 


41 C 


383 


' 17 


64841 


12-01 


310 


44 


Ti-OO 


318 


1-70 


43 


4857 


318 


6-85 


42 


75-77 


816 


10-77 


15 


100-86 


363 


3-60 


DpperEgyptiimCopU' . 


48 


leS'fiT G'ST 


3'GT 


42 


142-96 


6-10 


851 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


43 


71-48 


371 


4-UO 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


UtmUnm .... 


389 


IH Ge { 609 


313 


300 


14429 


4-34 


801 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


1- 


- 


- 


- 


360 


74-26 


2-86 


386 


- 


- 


- 


- 


349 


7G'83 


7-67 


10-12 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


uiud ... 


64 


ISS'OS 6-66 


3M 


Gl 


14614 


161 


3-20 


13 


146-77 


4-SO 


8-38 


10 


617'2G 


20'60 


3T6 


61 


71-10 


a-85 


3-87 


62 


1813 


368 


G'B7 


66 


79 41 


8-21 


10-33 


26 


101-35 


107 


1-02 



I iDcIuding 16 Copta vrlio won not ooiuoriptt. 



ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATION IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 207 



AnthropoTnetrie Investigations amoncj the Native Troops of the Egi/pfian 
A')fny. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. 
Macalister (Chairman), Dr. C. S. Myers {Secretary), Sir John 
Evans, mwZ Professor D. J. Cunningham. {Brawn up by the 
Secretary?) 

The Committee are able to report considerable progress in the elaboration 
of the above anthropometric material. A further paper has been 
published by the Secretary in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute 
(vol. XXXV., part 1), forming a comparative .study of the measurements 
of the modern inhabitants of the provinces of Girga and Kena, and of the 
' prehistoric ' population of Nakada, who dwelt in the same district seven 
thousand years ago. 

The tables of figures (averages, coefficients of variability and correla- 
tion, and probable errors) and the distribution-curves contained in this 
paper need not be republished here. The general conclusions reached 
are : — 

(a) That there is no evidence that the ' prehistoric ' and the modern 
populations of Southern Upper Egypt differ in physical measurement. 

(6) That the homogeneity of this ' prehistoric ' population, so far as it 
is determinable by the degree of deviation from the average, is the same 
as the homogeneity of the population who now inhabit a similar region 
of the Nile valley. 

(c) That there is great irregularity in the relative correlation of cranial 
measurements in the ' prehistoric ' and modern populations. 

A third paper is in course of preparation — investigating the measure- 
ments of head-length, head-breadth, auricular height, horizontal circum- 
ference, the cephalic index, the upper facial index, the nasal index, the 
auriculo-gnathic index,' (a) in the provinces of Kena, Girga, Giza, of 
Upper Egypt, and of Dakahlia, Baheira, and Sharkia in Lower Egypt ; 
(/?) among the Copts and Mahomedans of Egypt, (y) among the Copts 
of Upper and Lower Egypt, {I) among the Mahomedan Egyptians 
■whose parents have been born in like (= Moslems) or in different (= Mixed) 
regions of Egypt or the Soudan. 

The preliminary results of this investigation are given in the table 
facing. The measurements are expressed in millimetres. 

The figures under A are the averages, under a are the standard 
deviations, under C are the co-efficients of variability. The value of a is 

obtained from the formula a / , where n is the number of indi- 

V n 

viduals measured. So?* is the sum of the squares of the differences of the 

individual measurements from the average. The value of C is given 



by the expression x 100. 

• This index is 100 times the ratio of (i), the len?ih from the ear-hole to the 
gums of the upper incisor teeth, to (ii) the length from ihe ear-hole to the root of 
the nose. 



208 REPORT — 1905. 

It remains to be seen whether the diftereuces between the means thus 
found for different parts of Egypt may be regarded as real, or as 
accidentally due to an insufficient number of measurements. It will be 
noted that the most striking deviations in the indices are between the 
cephalic indices of Giza (73-76) and Dakahlia (75-01), between the upper 
facial indices of Sharkia (47-56) and Baheira (49-00), between the nasal 
indices of Kena (78-90) and Dakahlia (73-41), and between the auriculo- 
gnathic indices of Girga (103-44) and Sharkia (10001). But the only 
sure method of deciding whether these differences are real or accidental 
is by a study of their probable errors. These are in course of being 
worked out. Meanwhile, however, there can be little doubt that the 
people of Lower Egypt turn out to be decidedly more leptorhine and 
more orthognathous than those of Upper Egypt. 

Further, an interesting result may be anticipated from an examination 
of the frequency curves of these measurements, each curve representing 
the distribution of a given measurement in a different province. Such 
a study may lead to the recognition of distinct types within the general 
population of Egypt, supposing it be found that measurements tend to 
accumulate round certain values which are constant in the various 
provinces of Egypt. 



Archceohgical and JEthnoloalcal Researches in Crete. — Report of the 
Committee, consistimj of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. 
Myres (Secretary), Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. A. J. Evans, Mr. 
D. G. Hogarth, Professor A. Macalister, and Professor W. 

RiDGEWAY. 

PAOk 

Appendix. — Excavations at Knossos in Crete, 1905. By Dr. Arthur J. Evans 209 

The Committee report that of the grant assigned to them at the Cambridge 
meeting of the Association the sum of Ibl. has been paid over, as usual, 
to the Cretan Exploration Fund, and expended in furthering the excava- 
tions of Dr. Arthur J. Evans, whose report on the season of 1905 is 
appended. 

The sum of 50^., allocated to ethnological research in 1904 but 
unexpended, has been put at the disposal of Mr. C. H. Hawes, M.A., of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, to continue the observations begun by Mr. 
W. L. H. Duckworth in 1903 on the physical characters of the ancient 
and modern population of Crete. Mr. Hawes reached Crete in April 
1905, spent some time studying the anthropological materials which were 
brought to light in the excavations of the British School of Archaeology 
at Palaikastro in Eastern Crete, and made a series of journeys through- 
out the other provinces of Crete with the object of obtaining further 
observations of the modern population. His full report is not yet 
received. 

Both branches of the Committee's work continue to promise results 
of the highest scientific value. The Committee therefore asks to be 
reappointed, with a further grant of 100^. 



ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 209 

APPENDIX. 

Excavations at Knossos in Crete, 1905. By Dr. Arthur J. Evans, 

The exploration of the magazinefi on the Minoan paved way West of 
the Palace was continued, and further inscribed tablets and sealings were 
brought to light. It was ascertained that the system of magazines 
extended Westward along both sides of the ancient roadway. The paved 
way itself was traced further West, and its principal objective discovered 
in the shape of a large building running deep into the hillside opposite 
the Palace. Owing to the magnitude and expense of the work, only a 
part of this could be explored. A columnar court opening by five 
spacious doorways into a large hall flanked by a portico formed the 
eastern section of the building. Beyond were various chambers, a triplo 
staircase, and the beginning of a fai^ade wall on the South, resembling on 
a smaller scale the west wall of the Palace. 

The building belonged to the Later Palace period, but had been 
reoccupied by poorer settlers in mature Mycenrean times (Late Minoan 
III.) and divided up into smaller compartments. To the later arrange- 
ment belongs a shrine of great interest containing fetish images in the 
shape of natural stones (stalagmitic blocks) of quasi-human form — a 
Mother-Goddess and infant, besides other small figures. With these was 
a rude terra-cotta goat. W^e have here a primitive anticipation of the 
traditional Cretan cult of Rhea and the infant Zeus, Impressions of the 
original wooden columns of the chamber were found, showing fluting in 
relief, a new feature in Minoan architecture, and of Egyptian derivation. 
Parts of inscribed tablets and sealings came to light belonging to both 
periods of the building, and supplying new chronological standpoints. A 
large seal-impression belonging to the early stratum (Late Minoan I. 
and II.) showed a horse above a ship with rowers, and illustrates the first 
importation of horses into Crete. 

Further stratigraphical explorations in the west court of the Palace 
brought to light a floor of the First Middle Minoan period, with numerous 
vessels in position, including the finest painted vase of this period yet 
discovered. 

An exceptionally rainy season led to the falling in of the second 
landing of the grand staircase of the palace, and threatened the de- 
struction of the upper flight and balustrades. It became necessary to 
resort to heroic measures ; and, as the wooden props had proved insuflicient, 
I decided to remove temporarily the upper flight, to excavate completely 
the debris still partly covering the lowest flight of steps, and finally to 
replace the upper part of the structure at its original level. The removal 
of the fallen materials below led to the discovery of a second and lower 
ascending balustrade with sockets containing the charred remains of the 
original columns. The restoration of these— in stone, however, in place of 
wood — formed the obviously proper method of resupporting the upper 
structures. For this very complicated work I secured the services of Air. 
C. C. T. Doll, architectural student of the British School at Athens, who 
has carried it out with great success, the stones of the upper flight of stairs 
and balustrade being all numbered and reset in their original positions. 
It was found necessary to extend this reconstitution to the neighbouring 
Upper Corridor and the Hall of the Colonnades. The result of this very 
extensive undertaking has been practically to restore the original appear- 

1905. P 



210 fiEPORT— 1905. 

ance of whab la unquestionably the moat monumental feature of the whole 
building, while at the same time all ita ancient elements have been 
religiously conserved. 

In the work of excavation I was throughout assisted, as in previous 
campaigns, by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie. 



The Lalie Village at Glastonbury. — Seventh Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. R. Munro {Chairman)^ Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins (Secretary), Sir John Evans, Dr. Arthur J. Evans, 
Mr. Henry Bai.four, Mr. 0. H. Kead, and Mr. Arthur Bul- 
LEiD. (Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and Mr. H. St. 
George Gray.) 

The excavations were reopened at the Lake Village, near Glastonbury, 
this year, under the joint superintendence of Mr. Arthur Bulleid and Mr, 
H. St. George Gray. Digging began on May 12, and was continued until 
June 10, the work covering four weeks, as against three weeks in 1904- 
Although the weather was exceptionally favourable for digging in marshy 
gi'ound, a pump was found necessary to keep the trenches free from the 
water that percolated through the peat. Photographs were taken of 
hearths and other objects of special interest, and sectional and detailed 
plans were made of the excavations, as in former seasons. 

The areas of ground explored are situated partly at the north-west 
corner and partly near the centre of the village. At the latter position 
Dwelling-mounds 51 and 53, partly examined in 1898 and 1901, were 
completed, and a large tract of level ground lying westward of these 
dwellings was systematically trenched. This led to the discovery of two ad- 
ditional hut-sites, thus bringing the total number of mounds up to eighty- 
one. Apart from a few ' finds ' of minor importance, the examination of 
this ground was of a less iziteresting nature than that previously explored. 
The ground was not so thickly piled as in many parts of the site, but some 
exceptionally well-cut and large black oak piles were noticed among them. 

The north-west corner of the village was far more productive. 
Dwelling-mounds 69 and 70 were completely examined, together with the 
areas of level ground around them, and Mounds 68, 71, 72, and 73 were 
partly examined. 

The following points of interest were noticed in the different mounds : — 

Mound 69, situated near the N.W. border of the village, N.W. of 
Mound 68 and N.E. of Mound 70, measured 22 ft. across E. and W. It 
was composed of two superimposed floors, the total thickness of the clay 
at the centre being 29 in. The hearth belonging to the first floor was a 
circular area of baked clay, 4 ft. 8 in. across E. and W. The second floor 
hearth was less well defined. Near the N.W. margin of the second floor a 
patch of rubble stone was found, in the position we should have expected 
to find an entrance pavement. Several fragments of thin grey Roman 
pottery Were dug up near the S.E. margin of the dwelling, immediately 
under the flood-soil. The substructure underlying the clay was a well- 
preserved layer of brushwood, arranged for the greater part lengthways 
E. and W. This was photographed. 

The objects of interest found in this mound were : — B 226 (1895), 



ON toE LAkE VILLAGE Al' gLaSTONBURV. 



2ll 



fe 227 (1895), B 380, B 381, B 382, D 72, E 199, E 200, E 202, E 206; 
±1 297, H 298, H 299, H 300, H 301, L 37, M 16 (1895), M 17 (1895), 
P 132, P 166, Q 42, S 40. 

Mound 70. — This dwelling was situated near the N.W. edge of the 
village, E. of Mound 68, S.W. of Mound 69, and waS protected along the 
W. and N.W. sides by the border-palisading. It was composed of two' 
floors ctnd a series of nine supeiimposed hearths. The greatest diameteir 
of the Mound E. and W. was 34 ft., and the total thickness of clsly at tht! 
centre 40 in. 

Floor /; — The hearth belonging to this floor was incomplete, beiiig 



LAKE VILLAGE 

NCAR GLASTONBURY. 




— PALISADING. 

• dwellings. 

AtxCAVATEO i90r, 
B UNEXPLORtD. 
C EXCAVATED 1892 TO 1904 . 



ARTHUR BULLEIO 



•within 6 in. of the surface of the field. What remained of it was com- 
posed of baked clay. 

Floor II. — Covering the surface of the floor in several places were 
distinct signs of the original wood flooring. The hearth was not well 
preserved. It was composed of baked clay of circular outline, having a 
diameter of from 3^ to 4 ft. Hearths 3 and 4 were circular areas of 
baked clay, 3i to 4 ft. in diameter, without any corresponding floors, the 
clay extending a foot or two only beyond the base of each. Near the 
N.W. margin of Hearth 3 and immediately underlying Floor II. portions 
of a complete infant's skeleton (M 37) were exhumed, and fragments of a 
second infant (M 38) were discovered at the same level on the E. side of 

p2 



^12 REfOliT— 1905. 

the hearth. Hearth 5 : Except for an extension of clay for 4 ft. along 
the W. side, this hearth was unaccOnipauied by tlie usual clay floor. The 
hearth was a well-preserved one of baked clay, measuring 4 ft. 3 in. 
E. and W. and of circular outline. The central part, over an area of 
4 sq. ft., was flat ; the edge, gradually sinking away to 5 in. below the 
level of the middle portion, was rounded off. Hearth 7 was of similar 
shape and size to the last, from which it was separated by a layer of clay 
4 in. thick. Hearth 8 was a circular layer of baked clay, 4 ft. in diameter, 
immediately underlying those above, the centre and margins being at 
the same level. Near the E. edge several fragments of triangular loom- 
weights were dug up, accompanied by some wattle-marked baked clay. 
Hearth 9 was a small circular patch of clay, with a diameter of 3 ft. 9 in. 
and a maximum thickness of 3 in., of concavo-convex shape in section 
E. and W., the concave surface being uppermost. This hearth was not 
lying immediately under the eight above, one-third of its extent being 
situated outside the N.E. margin of Hearth 8, from the under surface of 
which it was separated by a layer of peat 2 in. thick. Passing in all 
directions from the margin of this hearth, over an area of 20 ft. in 
diameter, was a layer of fire-ash, averaging 2| in. thick. This layer was 
found to follow the surface line of the substructure, and contained 
numerous fragments of chai-red bone and antler, many of them being 
worked and ornamented. The layer also produced a large number of 
fragments of pottery, a fragment of a human humerus (M 36), a quantity 
of wheat, many baked clay loom weights (complete and in fragments), 
masses of charcoal, and, more especially over the southern half, pieces of 
baked clay showing wattle and finger marks. The first dwelling on this 
site had evidently no clay floor and was destroyed by fire. A sectional 
diagram was made of this mound, drawn through the centre E. and W. 
Under the clay near the palisading S.W. of the mound a large knobbed 
oak pile was discovered, lying horizontally among the substructure ; the 
top of the knob was charred and incomplete. The pile is of .similar .shape 
to many previously discovered, and its original use was presumably to fix 
the horizontal mortised beams. It was photographed. 

Amongst the 'finds' of importance from Mound 70 were: — B 225 
(1895), B 383 to 393, B 39-5, E 102 (1895), E 211, E 223, E 2.36, E 287, 
G 23, H 163 (1895), H 304 to 316, J 89 to 92, K 29, L 12 (189.5), M 15 
(1895), M 38 to 38, P 167, P 168, T 12, W 171, W 172. 

Mound 68. — Only a part of the W. margin of this mound was 
examined ; it was found to consist of two floors. The remaining portion 
will be explored next year. 

The objects found in this mound were : B 228 (1895), E 201, H 302. 

Mound 71. — Two thirds of this mound were examined, the remaining 
part of the dwelling being in ground marked ofl' for next season's work. 
The mound was composed of three floors, the maximum depth of clay, 
3 ft. E. from the hearth, being 18 in. .Signs of wood flooring covering 
the clay were noticed on Floors II. and III. The diameter of the mound 
N. and S. was 26 ft. Floor I. was of small area, extending a few feet 
from the margin of the hearth. The hearth was made of gravel, and 
belonged to both Floors I. and II. It had a circular but irregular out- 
line, and measured 3 ft. 6 in. E. and W. across the top and 5 ft. across 
the base in the same position. On the second floor a portion of a com- 
plete skeleton of an infant (M 39) was found. The substructure was a 
well-preserved platform, the timber being arranged parallel, with pieces 



ON THE LAKE VILLAGE AT GLASTONBURY. 213 

occasionally placed at right angles. Under the N. and S. quarters of 
the mound the wood was lying lengthways in an E.N.E. and W.S.W, 
direction, under the west quarter N.W. and S.E., and at the east side of 
the hearth in a N.N.W. and S.S.E. direction. Photographs were taken 
showing the hearth and the timber substructure together. 

The chief ' finds ' from Mound 71 were :— B 372, B 394, B 396 to 400, 
C 25, E 235, E 238 to 242, H 317 to 323, H 329, H 330, I 93, I 94, 
L 38, M 39, P 1G9, P 170, Q 4G, Q 47, W 173, W 174, W 176. 

Mound 72 was situated near the W. margin of the village, W. of 
Mound 73, S.W. of Mound 71, and bounded on the W. .side by the 
border-palisading. It was composed of three floors, the E. and W. 
diameter through the centre of the mound being 28 ft. The northern 
half of the mound was the only part explored, the remainder awaiting 
examination next year. The position of the hearths belonging to 
Floors IT. and III. was determined, both being in a poor state of pre- 
servation and placed eccentrically to the middle of the mound. The 
second floor hearth was made of baked clay, with a few small stones 
embedded near the centre ; the edge was ill-defined. The hearth belong- 
ing to Floor III. was made of baked clay, and its margin could not be 
determined with accuracy. The W. margin of Floor II. was bounded by 
0, well defined line of wattle-work. Under the clay of Floor I., near the 
N.W. margin of the mound, a piece of worked oak 6^ ft. long was dug up 
near the palisading. It was a portion of a much longer beam of split 
oak, the transverse section being plano-convex. At the complete end 
the flat surface was notched for 1 ft., so that it could be placed upon and 
at right angles to a similar beam. Along the centre of the beam was a 
series of small mortise holes, averaging 1^ in. long by 1 in. wide, arranged 
at intervals of from 3^ to 4 in. apart. Similar beams of oak have been 
found in other parts of the village in former year.s, in one instance 
accompanied by the complete hurdle, which was originally fixed upright 
in the beam. This piece of oak was presumably part of a rectangular 
building. It was photographed. 

The most important objects found in Mound 72 were : — E 246, E 247, 
H 332 to 334. 

MouNU 73. — Only a portion of the west side of this dwelling w?a 
examined. It was found to be composed of two floors, the total 
thickness of the clay being 16 in. so far. The substructure consisted 
of brushwood 1 ft. thick and pieces of timber arranged lengthways in 
a N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction. This mound awaits completion next 
year. 

The only ' find ' of importance was E 245. 

Mound 80. — This mound was situated near the centre of the village, 
W. of Mound 53 and S. of Mound 65. It was composed of a single 
circular layer of clay, 24 ft. in diameter E. and W., the greatest thickness 
being 13 in. There was evidence of a baked-clay hearth near the centre, 
with indefinite outline. Peas were found on the surface of the floor over 
the western quarter of the mound. The substructure was not strong, the 
pieces of timber being arranged lengthways in a N.E. and S.W. position. 
When trenching the ground lying west of this mound several rooted 
stumps of alder trees were discovered in situ. Similar stumps have pre- 
viously been noticed in the peat near the central parts of the village, and 
have sometimes shown distinct adze-marks. The leafy peat in the neigh- 
|)ourhood of these stumps was scarcely recognisable as a layer. 



214 REPORT — 1905. 

The chief 'finds' from Mound 80 were :— F 373, G 24, Q 43, Q 44, 
S 41, W 170. 

MouNJ) SI. — A small circular mound of clay, 1 9 ft. in diameter, situated 
W. of Mound 80 and S.W. of Mound Gf\ It was composed of two floors, the 
total thickness of which near the centre was 1.5 in. Baked wattle-marked 
clay and wood-ashes were noticed when following the E. and S.E. margins 
of the dwelling, and were found to extend inwards on the surface of the 
clay for an average distance of 2 ft. No hearth was discovered on either 
floor, although there was evidence of fire on both. The substructure con- 
sisted of a layer of brushwood. Several rooted alder stumps were found 
in the peat lying to the south of the mound. The southern half of the 
mound was the only part explored, the work-shed being situated over the 
northern edge from the commencement of the investigations in 1892. 
The complete examination of this dwelling will be postponed until the 
conclusion of the explorations. 

The only objects of interest found in or near this mound were :— H 328, 
Q 45, W 175, W 178. 

Mound 51. — This mound was of small size, situated in the east central 
portion of the village, E. of Mound 53 and N.E. of Mound 52. It was 
composed of five floors. The total depth of clay at the centre was 18 in., 
the greatest diameter of the mound E. and W. being 22 ft. Floor I. 
measured 21 ft. E. and W. The hearth consisted of a circular area of 
baked clay, 3 ft. in diameter, in an inferior state of preservation, and 
placed eccentrically to the middle of the mound, and south of the sunmiit. 
Floor II. was of smaller extent, measuring 14 ft. E. and W. Its hearth 
was of baked clay, situated immediately under that of Floor I., and of 
siuular dimension. Floor III. measured 11 ft. E. andW., and no distinct 
heai'th was discovered belonging to this floor. Floor IV. measured 9 ft. 
E. andW. The central part of this small area of clay was occupied by a 
well-preserved circular hearth of stone, averaging 4 ft. in diameter. 
Floor V. measured 7 ft. E. and VV. ; fully one-half of the diameter of this 
area of clay was taken up by a hearth of stone in an excellent state of 
preservation. Scattered about on or near the S.W. margin of this floor 
were fourteen slabs of lias, the majority of them lying on the surface of the 
Bubstrncture. Little of importance was found on the floors of this mound 
except fragments of pottery, and that below the average quantity. Peas 
were found along the N.W. margin of the clay. 

The numbered objects found in or near this dwelling were : — F 369 
(1904), H 123 (1894), H 294 (1904), H 295 (1904), P 102 (1894), P 103 
(1894), W 64 (1894). 

Mound 53.— This dwelling, situated W. of Mound 51 and N.E. of 
Mound 52, was composed of three layers of clay, separable with difiiculty. 
The total thickness of the clay near its centre was 15 in., and the greatest 
width E. and W. 22 ft. Floor I. was indistinct, the surface being mixed 
with the surface soil, and no hearth was found. Floor II. had its layer of 
clay better defined. The hearth was made of gravel, with a few pieces of 
flat sandstone embedded in the surface. The outline was circular and 
4 ft. in diameter, convex and irregular, the centre being 3^ in. above the 
level of the periphery at the base ; no bevelling was noticed at the margin. 
Floor III. had a hearth badly preserved ; it was made of baked clay about 
3^ ft. in diameter, but the margin was indefinite. Immediately under this 
there were three other superimposed clay hearths of the same size as the 
last mentioned. The substructure consisted of layers of brushwood. 



ON THE LAKE VILLAGE AT GLASTONBURY. 215 

The obiects found in or around this dwelling, including a compara- 
tively small quantity of pottery, were :— B 379 (1904), E 198, F 370 (1904), 
F 371, F 372, H 296, H 335 (1898), Q 41 (1904), W 166 (1904), W 167 
(1904), W 169. 

9 

Short Descriptions of the Relics; all Foitnd in 1905, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Bone Ohjfictg. (B.) 

225. Polished bone ; found to the N. of Mound 70, 1895. 

22(J. Fragment of worked and charred bone ; found to the N.W. of Mound 69, 
1895. 

227. Bone gouge ; found near the N. margin of Jlound 69, 1895. 

228. Perforated metatarsal bone. Mound 08, 1895. 

.S72. Roughly- worked needle, fractured across the eye ; length from base of eye 
to point, 79 mm. The eye was at least 4 mm. across. Mound 71. 

379. Perforated head of femur (? human) ; perhaps a spindlewhorl. Mound 53, 
1904. 

380. Worked metatarsus, presumably of a small deer ; in a bad state of pre- 
servation. Mound 69. 

381. The upper portion of tibia of horse, the condyles missing. Two perfora- 
tions (4 mm. diam.) have been made near the top, and on the opposite side a deep 
notch or slit has been sawn obliquely across the bone to a depth of about 11-5 mm. 
Mound 69. 

382. The upper portion of another tibia of horse, the condyles and other parts 
missing. Two perforations (diams. 3 and 5 mm.) are still intact and the position of 
another is observable ; on the opposite side two deep transverse notches have been 
sawn into the bone to an average depth of 15 mm. The slits are about 3-5 mm. wide. 
Also found in Mound 69. Several of these implements, more or less broken (besides 
B 381 and B 383, found this year), have been discovered in various parts of the 
village, but we have not yet been able to determine what their special purpose was, 
althougli it has been very vaguelj' asserted by those who have seen them, and are 
competent to judge, that they were used in the process of weaving. 

383. Another similar, but broken into many pieces. Mound 69. 

384. Fragment of charred bone (? bird-bone). One face is ornamented with five 
representations of dots-and-circles. On another face is a transverse groove, on 
either side of which are two circular perforations through the bone 3-5 mm. in diam. 
Mound 70. 

385. Piece of cut metatarsal bone, charred, length 29 ram., with a circular trans- 
verse perforation 3-8 mm. in diam. Mound 70. 

386. Piece of smooth-cut bone (? bird-bone), charred, length 34'3 mm. Max. 
width at one end, 12 mm. ; at other, 88 mm. Mound 70. 

387. Another similar to last, charred, length 385 mm. Cracked lengthwise. 
Mound 70. 

388. Piece of cut metacarpal bone, charred, length 31-4 mm. Max. width at one 
end, 11 -1 mm. ; at other, 8 mm. Decorated with one dot-and-circle. Mound 70. 

389. Piece of cut metacarpal bone, charred, length 29 mm., with two transverse 
lateral perforations measuring about 4 mm. in diam. Ornamented on the convex 
surface by a line of four dots-and-circles. Mound 70, 

390. Another similar to the last, charred, length 28 mm., and with similar per- 
forations. Ornamented on the convex surface by a row of three dots-and-circles. 
Mound 70. 

391. A small section of cut bone, charred, length 26 mm. Perforated in two 
places by circular lioles 3-2 mm. in diam. Mound 70. 

392. Precisely similar to B 386, but 37'2 mm. long. Max. widths at ends, 12-3 and 
9'1 mm. respectively. Mound 70. 

393. Eight complete and incomplete objects of charred bone similar in character 
to those previously described, viz., B 384 to B 392. The eight vary in lengtli in 
their present condition from 22-5 to 37'7 mm. Six have transverse perforations and 
five are ornamented with rows of the dot-and-circle pattern. All these little objects, 
together with many fragments of otliers, were found scattered over several square 
feet of space belovv the clay of Moiipd 70, on the peaty floor of a habitation whicl) 



2 Id REPORT— 1905. 

must have existed before clay had been introduced to this particular mound, and which 
was probably destroyed by a conflagration. All are charred to a white or cream 
colour. The plain pieces of cut bone with the natural longitudinal bore are all 
about the same size ; and so are the shorter pieces, viz., those with pairs of perfora- 
tions bored transversely and laterally and ornamented with the dot-and-circle 
pattern. It is quite possible that these little objects formed part of a double- 
stringed necklace, two of the plain ' beads ' being threaded horizontally to every 
ornamental one vertically. 

394. Drill-bow made from a rib-bone. Total length on the curve, 259 mm. The 
perforation at each end is circular and about 4-2 mm. in diam. The flatter end 
has rounded corners. It has no decoration. Mound 71. A similar drill-bow orna- 
mented with crossed lines, forming lozenges, was found in Mound 44 in 1893. 

.395. Tibia of animal, sharpened to a blunt point at the slender part of the 
shaft; length, 148 mm. Mound 70. 

396. Polishing-bone, consisting of a metatarsus of red-deer with the condyles 
wanting. The bone is remarkably smooth, and exhibits evidence of having been 
considerably gnawed at both ends. Mound 71. 

397. Smooth rib-bone showing two cut notches. Mound 71. 

398. Three metatarsi of sheep or goat, all more or less worked, two showing 
signs of scratching all round the shafts, followed by considerable polishing of the 
surface. Mound 71. (See description of another, B 373, in last year's Report.) 

399. About two-thirds of a metatarsus of horse, smoothed for the purpose of pol- 
ishing or burnishing. Mound 71. 

400. The greater portion of a roughly-formed bone needle, broken across the eye, 
which was approximately 37 mm. in diam. Max. ext. width, 67 mm. Mound 71. 

Crucibles. (C.) 

25. Portion of a giey, triangular, hand-made crucible, made from a very fine clay. 
Mound 71. Portions of several crucibles of this form have been found in the village, 
but nothing till this year since 11396. A small portion of one (not numbered) was 
found in Mound 73 this season. 

Bah'd Clay. (D.) 

72. Small black disc of baked clay (?), varying in diam. from 19 9 to 204 mm. ; 
max. thickness, 3-1 mm. In section it is concavo-convex, the concavity being more 
pronounced than the convexity. Mound 69. 

Sli 11 //bullets. — Only six, in a baked condition, were found during this season, viz., 
2 in Mound 69, 1 in Mound 70, 2 in Mound 71, and 1 in trenching N. of Mound 72. 
One, unbaked, was found in the latter locality. 

Balls of Balicil Glaij. — A large ball, partly perforated, was found on the second 
floor of Mound 71. Four small balls came from Mound 70, three being partly per- 
forated ; they may have been used as the heads of bone awls or pins. Another ball 
of clay was found on the E. edge of Mound 53. 

Unbaied Clay. — A small pellet from the trenching N. of Mound 72. 

Loom -Weights. — Triangular, with perforations across the corners: — 8 in the 
peaty layer under the clay floors of Mound 70 ; 1 found in trenching W. of Mound 
53. Of a rounded and naiTow form with one perforation : — 2 in Mound 70, I in 
Mound 71. Small fragments of many others were found during the season, espe- 
cially under the clay of Mound 70. 

Other Baled Clay Objects. — A large curved piece, which may have formed part of 
the margin of an ovon. Found under the clay of Mound 70, on the floor, which 
afforded evidence of a conflagration. A plug tor stopping up a hole in a hut-wall 
was found in the trenching S. of Mound 71. 

Bronze Objects. (E.) 

102. Two pieces o^a small bronze finger-ring ; ext. diam., 18 mm. Mound 70, 
1895. 

198. Fragment of thin bronze of concavo-convex cross-section, ornapient^d wjtb 
gi sjiccession of slight transverse grooves. Mound 53. 



ON THE LAKE VILLAGE AT GLASTONBURY. 217 

199. Small piece of boKlering for some perishable material. Mound 69. 

200. Small piece of bordering. Mound 60. 

201. Fragment of rim of a bronze vessel, length 24-3 mm. The inside is orna- 
mented with a row of short vertical incisions. Mound 70. 

202. Rivet-head, diam. 13 mm., height 64 mm. The rivet, diam. 2 mm., projects 
09 mm. below the base of the head. Mound 69. 

206, Handle (length 53 mm.), probably of a bronze vessel, and perhaps one of a 
pair. It is of D-shaped design, the vertical face (length 45 mm.), which followed the 
neck of the vessel, being slightly convex, whilst the inner surface of the lugs, or ears, 
of which one remains, is, on the contrary, more decidedly concave, for adaptation to 
the horizontal curve of the neck of the vessel. The remaining lug is almost circular, 
max. diam. 13 mm., with a central rivet-hole 17 mm. in diam. The handle is of 
circular section at top and bottom, with a min. diam. of 53 mm., and expands to a 
max. width of 17 mm. This expansion is bounded on either side by a heavy beading, 
4 mm. in width, enclosing a sunken field ornamented by an incised representation of 
a symmetrical curvilinear design, the interspaces being filled by successions of slight 
grooves arranged horizontally, vertically, and obliquely. Similar ornamentation 
occurs on the pottery from the village. Found in Mound 69. 

211. Small fibula in four pieces, the pin and spring 26-3 mm. long. The catch- 
plate is not perforated, but the outline of the usual hole has survived as ornament 
and is clearly traceable, crossed centrally and vertically by two slight conjoined 
bands. The collar, which in rather earlier fibute of this type served to secure the 
retroflected end of the fibula to the bow, survives in this example as ornament. 
Mound 70. 

223. Slender needle in several fragments ; max. diam. of eye, 25 mm. Mound 70, 

335. Fragment of corroded bronze. Mound 71. 

236. Hook (width 97 mm.) attached to thin crumpled bronze; the end of the 
hook tapers to a thin squared edge. Ornamented by a deep groove lengthwise. 
Mound 70. 

237. Two pieces of bordering ; max. width, 65 mm. Mound 70. 

238. Eight fragments of bronze, much corroded and crumpled. Mound 71. 

239. Harp-shaped fibula of La Tene type, with a small portion of the tail missing j 
length, 78-5 mm. Constructed from one piece of metal, with the addition of a short 
tubular piece of bronze inserted into the coil of the spring. The latter, after twisting 
round once on one side, arches round tlie back and completes a symmetrical twist on 
the other side, turning inwards to form the pin. The catch-plate, being perforated, is 
strengthened by a vertical but curved strut. A raised band or collar forms part of 
the ornament on the bow, and is, in this respect, similar to E 211 described above, 
Mound 71. 

240 and 241. Portions of two large rivet-heads; max. diams., 15 and 16 mm. 
Also several fragments of corroded bronze. Mound 71. 

242. Three damaged rivet-heads and several rivets without heads. Also frag- 
ments of corroded bronze. Mound 71. 

245. Stout but small child's finger r'ng, ornamented by a continuous groove round 
the middle ; width at front 3'3 mm,, tapering to 1*8 mm. at back ; int. diam., 12 mm. 
Mound 73. 

246. Fibula, complete, made of one piece of bronze ; total length, 43 mm. The 
bow is almost straight, the flattened top (max. width 4 mm.) being ornamented with 
three longitudinal grooves tapering towards the nose or tail of the fibula. One face 
of the catch-plate exhibits signs of slight incised ornamentation. The coil com- 
mencing from the bow makes two twists outwards on one side and, folding under the 
head of the bow, completes two symmetrical turns inwards before the pin emerges. 
Mound 72. 

247. Bronze chape of scabbard of sword or dagger, the bulbous termination of 
which is 135 mm. in diam. Bronze bordering for the edges of the sheath spring in 
both directions, and measures 7-8 mm. in average width, being of semicircular sec- 
tion. Several inches of this bordering were observed in the peat in continuation of 
what now remains, but being in a very fragile condition it could not be removed 
entire. Found in Mound 72. A similar chape was found in Mound 58 (1896), and is 
figured in the ' Proc. Som. Arch. Soc.,' vol. 50, pt. 2, PL VIL, E 107. 



218 REPORT— 1905. 



Flint. (F.) 

3C9. Worked flake. Mound 51, 1904. 

370. Long flake with two worked saw-like edges. Mound 53, 1904. 

371. A tiny flake. Mound 53. 

372. Flake with prominent bulb of percussion. Mound 53, 

373. Large flake with a little secondary chipping. Found in trenching near the 
E. margin of Mound 80. 

In addition to the above, two flakes were found in Mound 53 ; four in trenching 
8. and S.E. of Mound i55 ; two in Mound 70 ; two, Mound 71 ; three. Mound 72 ; 
one, Mound 73; four, Mound 80; two W. of Mound 80 ; and one in Mound 81. 

Glass. (G.) 

23. Piece of blue fused glass of irregular form, to which some corroded bronze 
adheres. Mound 70. Tliis affords further proof that glass objects were made in the 
village. 

24. Bead of wliite glass, not quite circular, the ext. diam. varying from 21-2 to 
23 mm. ; int. diam., 10 to 11 mm. The section of the substance is round. Found 
in trenching S.W. of Mound 80. 

Antler. (H.) 

123. Short piece of cut antler ; max. length, 45 mm. ; max. width, 58 mm. 
Mound 61, 1894. 

Ifi3. Piece of worked antler. Found outside the palisading, but near Mound 70, 
1895. 

294. Plain weaving-comb, having ten small teeth, all more or less broken. 
Mound 51, 1904. 

295. Slender tine of deer, showing signs of having been worked. Mound 51, 
1904. 

29C. Piece of worked antler split down the middle and charred to a bluish-white 
colour; length, 32 mm. The object has a knobbed head, of which only a small 
section remains. Mound 53. 11 335, mentioned below, is a similar object from the 
.same mound, bat the pieces do not join. 

297. Two portions of a worked antler. Mound 09. 

298. Portion of a roughlj'-cnt but very smooth antler, with a large transverse 
hole 75 mm. in diam. Perhaps a check-piece of a horse's bit. Mound 69. 

299. A similar but larger piece than H 298, with a perforation in a like position 
and 6 mm. in diam. Rows of slight transverse scorings are seen all round this 
object. Between the hole .ind top on one side a short but deep notch has been 
sawn transversely. Mound (59. 

.300. Piece of a tine of antler worked at the point. Mound C9. 

301. Piece of worked antler (probably roe-deor). Mound 69. 

302. Portion of an unornamented weaving-comb in many fragments. Mound CP. 

303. Point of a small tine, charred ; length, 72 mm. Ornamented with two 
transverse grooves at the broad end, and having a large perforation at 7'8 mm, 
below that end. Mound 70. 

304. Another precisely similar to H 303, but 78 mm. long. Mound 70. 

305. Another, much damaged. Mound 70. It is quite possible that these three 
small perforated objects may have been used as pendants for a necklace. 

306. Portion of a small weaving-comb, white from calcination. Traces of only 
four teeth remain, above which are two incised transverse lines enclosing n. plain 
zigzag design. Min. width of handle, 18-2 mm. Mound 70. 

307. Point of a tine, calcined, the tip having been bifurcated by a shallow 
groove, which tapers ofi" from a max. width of 1-8 mm. Mound 70. 

308. Piece of smooth antler of oval section, showing saw-marks at the large end ; 
the other end has been broken, and the point is missing. Mound 70. 

309. Portion of the handle of a calcined weaving-comb, the teeth entirely 
deficient. There is a circular hole (diam. 4-8 mm.) at the top for suspension. It is 
ornamented with fifteen incised dots-and-circles, irregularly arranged. None of the 
circles are true, owing to the action of fire. Mound 70. 

310. Straight piece of tine, bearing clear evidence of having been cut in several 



ON THE LAKE VILLAGE AT GLASTONBURY. 219 

places. Although there is no perforation for attaching the implement to a shaft of 
wood, it appears to liave been intended for a rough spear-head, perhaps used in 
driving animals. Mound 70. 

311. Portion of a handle of a weaving-comb, of a creamy colour, caused by 
calcination. Ornamented with twelve dots-and-circles, which have been converted 
into ovals by the action of fire. Mound 70. 

312. Fragment of a calcined weaving-comb, ornamented by two transverse and 
two oblique incised lines ; between the latter is a row of tliree unusually small 
dots-and-circles ; tliere are also two in the interspace between the transverse and 
oblique incisions. Mound 70. 

313. Portion of a calcined weaving-comb, with seven complete and incomplete 
teeth remaining ; they are unusually small, but the burning has, doubtless, caused 
shrinkage. Seven dots-and-circles occur, arranged irregularly. Mound 70. 

314. Dentated portion of a calcined weaving-comb, unornamented, with six 
complete teeth remaining. Mound 70. 

315. Piece of roe-deer antler, white from calcination. The small projecting tine 
has been worked to a smooth point, and may probably have been used for decorating 
pottery. Mound 70. 

316. Dentated end of a small calcined weaving-comb, in a very friable and 
incomplete condition. Mound 70. 

317. Large object of antler of red-deer, in many fragments and beyond repair. 
Oblique scorings and marks of the saw are observable in places. Mound 71. 

318. Hammer formed from the base of a red-deer antler, measuring 208 mm. in 
circumference just above the burr. It shows indications of much use, and was 
found in several pieces in Mound 71. The hole for the reception of the shaft is of 
oblong section, measuring on the lower side 26 by 21 ram. ; the formation of this 
hole was started by means of a broad saw, and the work has been clumsily carried 
out, deep saw-marks extending beyond the margin of the hole to the extent of from 
9 to 14 mm. The hole on the other side was formed by the removal of the 
brow-tine. 

319. Portion of a small antler of roe-deer, points missing, but showing saw- 
marks and other signs of having been used. Mound 71. 

320. Tine of an antler worked to a smooth, blunt point, and having a perforation 
(diam. 6 mm.) at base. Mound 71. 

321. Large straight piece of red-deer antler, length 315 mm., somewhat in the 
form of a truncheon The part for giasping has been rounded to an average diam. 
of 23 mm., at the base of which is a roughly-trimmed knob projecting on one side 
(max. width 47 mm.) — a stop for preventing the implement from slipping from the 
user's grasp. The liead has been sawn off square, and for some distance down the 
shaft a rectangular section has been maintained, the four sides near the top averaging 
33 mm. in width. The head shows little signs of wear or rough usage, and as there 
is no evidence of its having been used for any beating purpose, we can only sunni.se 
that the object was intended for utilization as a handle for a saw or other cutting 
implement. Mound 71. 

322. Short piece of antler with saw-marks at both the squared ends ; max. 
length, 40 mm.; max. width, 41-5 mm. Mound 71. 

323. Complete roe-deer antler, length 214 mm. The two branching tines have 
been worked at the points, and at their junction a circular perforation (min. diam. 
3-5 mm.) has been neatly cut. Close to the base the drilling of a hole has been 
commenced in an opposite direction. Mound 71. 

328. Incomplete object of antler, very smooth, and showing signs of prolonged 
use. Mound 81. 

320. Portion of a tine, length 106 mm. ; probably a cheek-piece of a bridle-bit. 
It has a perforation within an inch of each end, both interspaces being ornamented 
with six transverse, incised, parallel lines, which, however, occur on one side of the 
object only. Mound 71. 

330. Small piece of burnt antler. Mound 71. 

331. Portion of a small tine, charred, unornamented. The perforation, if one 
existed, has been broken away. Similar in other respects to H 303, 304, and 305, 
and found in the same mound, viz.. Mound 70. 

332. Small piece of smooth antler. Mound 72. 

333. Large piece of antler of red-deer, with portion of one tine projecting. The 
object has been sawn through in four places. Midway between tlie ' spring ' of the 
tine and its squared termination a depressed band has been cut all round to the 



220 HEPORT— 1905. 

extent of about 20 mm. in width, the outer coaling of the tine being removed to a 
depth varying from 1 to 4 mm. We liavc been imable to ascertain for what purpose 
this large implement was used. Mound 72. 

.334. Fragment of the handle of a weaving-comb, burnt black. Ornamented with 
incised oblique lines, forming a lozenge-shaped interspace. Mound 72. 

.335. Fragment of charred antler similar to H 296, both being found in Mound 
53; H 335 in 1898. 

Irmi. ([.) 

89. Small fragment, much corroded. Mound 70. 

90. Mouthpiece of a wooden sword or dagger sheath, much corroded; length, 
60 mm. The sides are slightly convex, but the ends are expanded into bulbous pro- 
jections. Mound 70. 

91. Pointed iron object, much corroded ; length, .'')5-5 mm. Mound 70. 

92. Four pieces, much corroded, probably fragments of a sickle or knife. Mound 
70. 

93. Iron adze in one piece, but very much corroded, the socket still containing 
some of the wooden handle; length about C^ in. Mound 71. 

94. Portion of an iron bar of quadrangular seotion ; lengtli, 5§ in. ; width, 18 ram., 
tapering to 14 ram. ; thickness, 10 mra., tapering to 7 mm. Mound 71- Its purpose is 
undeterminable owing to corrosion. 

Kinimeridge Shale. (K.) 

29. An exceedingly fine armlet, complete ; ext. diam., 97 mm. ; int. diam., 71'5 mm. 
Tlie lathe-marks on the inside are well defined, whilst the exterior face is ornamented 
by three deeply cut, continuous parallel grooves — an excellent example of the skill of 
the lake-dwellers in using the lathe. The grooves vary a little in width. The sub- 
stance of the armlet is of oval section, and varies in width from 16'1 to 17'1 mm., 
and in thickness from 11 to 12-7 mm. Found in Mound 70. This is the most im- 
portant and best-worked object of Kimmeridge-shale that has been found in the 
village. 

Lead and Tin. (L.) 

12. Tin weight of Roman type and in the form of a cheese. Found outside 
the palisading of the village, to the north of Mound 70, 1895. SimiUir to those 
which have been commonly found in the county at Charterhouse- on-Mendip, many 
of which are exhibited in Taunton Castle Museum. 

37. Small portion of a tin ring, much corroded. Mound 69. 

38. Piece of lead ore. Mound 71. 

Huvian Bona. (M.) 

15. Complete human skull (not yet examined). Found in the peat near the W. 
edge of Mound 70, 1895. 

16. Portion of skeleton of young child. Found in the peat near the N. margin of 
Mound 69, 1895. 

17. Part of a child's skull. Found near the last, 1895. 
3(). Piece of the shaft of a humerus. Mound 70. 

37. Portion of complete skeleton of an infant. Mound 70. 

38. Portion of an infant's skeleton. Mound 70. 

39. Portion of complete skeleton of an infant. Mound 71. 

Animal Bones. (N.) 

Two or three wheelbarrows-full of fragmentary animal remains wore collected 
from the 1905 excavations. Three dog's-teeth were found on the first fioor of 
Mound 69. 

Pottery. (P.) 

102. Pot of an unornameuted ware, 71 in. high, with a bead rim, Movip4 51, 
1894. 

103. Part of a pot. Mound 51, 1894. 



ON THE LAKE VILLAGE AT GLASTONBURY. 221 

132. Portion of the mouth (ext. diam. 88 mm.) of a Povmii vessel of thin, hard, 
grey pottery. Found on the surface of the peat outside the palisading, near Mound 
89, 1895. 

166. A few fragments of thin grey Roman pottery, found at the base of the 
'flood-soil,' Mound 60. Both these Roman 'finds' and the leaden weight (L 22) 
represent surface objects at the time the village was abandoned, and nothing of 
Eoman workmanship has yet been found on the floors of any of tlie dwellings. 

167. Fragment of rim of a thick pot fractured in two places through circular 
perforations. There is no evidence whatever that the holes were intended for the re- 
ception of leaden rivets. Mound 70. 

1(>8. Small pot, complete, but found in two pieces ; thick and hand-made, with a 
bottom which is not perfectly flat. Slightly rounded sides, with straight rim. 
Height, 38 5 mm. ; max. ext. diam., 60 mm. Rounded bottom on the inside. 
Mound 70. A somewhat similar small pot was found last year (P. 164). 

169. Pot in fragments, not yet restored ; unornamented. Mound 71. 

170. Another, ditto. Mound 71. 

A large quantity of fragments of common ware was found, as in previous years, 
but the proportional number of decorated fragments to those with no ornamentation 
was below the average this season, as was also the case last year. There was again 
a paucity of curvilinear designs, but several pieces with chevrons were found. In 
close proximity to the corn found in Mound 70, fragments of two fairly large but 
shallow bowls were found, scattered about over several square feet of ground. 
Neither can be completely restored. 

Qnerm. (Q.) 

42. Lower stone of a well-tooled, circular quern ; diam., 13 in. Mound 69. 

43. Rough piece of a quern. Mound 80. 

44. Rough piece of a lower stone. Mound 80. 

45. Upper stone of quern in two pieces, showing handle-hole at side. Found in 
trenching S.W. of Mound 81. 

46. Piece of an upper stone. Found in trenching S. of Mound 71. 

47. Upper stone in many fragments. Found in trenching S. of Mound 71. 

Stone Objects. (S.) 
(Other than Spindlewhorls and Querns.) 

40. Whetstone of fine sandstone, with pronounced grooves on both faces and 
scorings indicating prolonged use. Mound 60. 

41. Slab of stone of a slaty nature with fiat face and of rectangular transverse 
section; max. thickness, 13-3 mm.; max. length, 110mm.; max. width, 78 mm.; 
with rounded and bevelled edges at top and bottom. Found in four pieces (now 
joined) of about equal size, outside the S. margin of Mound 80. On one face oblique 
incisions occur, as if it had been used for sharpening purposes ; but the peculiarity 
of the object is that it has been roughly scratched with irregular squares, covering 
both faces, in chess-board fashion. Its use is at present unknown, and although it 
has been asserted that it might have been used for some game, the ■ squares ' are 
so irregular and indefinite that such a purpose can only be vaguely surmised. 

Small rounded Pchhlcs, prohahli/ 'calcidi.'—One from Mound 70 ; one. Mound 71 ; 
one, Mound 72 ; one, W. of Mound 80. 

Whetstones, mostly having slu/htlij convex faces. — One from Mound 53 ; seven, 
Mound 69 ; five. Mound 70 ; six, Mound 71 ; one. Mound 81. 

Other Stone Objects.— ^tone muller of somewliat spherical form. Mound 71; 
another of plano-convex section, Mound 71 : ovoid hammer-stone. Mound 53 ; smooth 
disc of sandstone, max. diam. 59 mm.. Mound 71. 

TiisJcs, ,^-c. (T.) 

12. Calcined dog's-tooth, fractured through a perforation measuring 3'9 mm. in 
diam. Mound 70. 

Spindlewhorls. (W.) 

04. Shale spindlewhorl, damaged ; max. diam., 44 mm. ; dlara. of hole, 5 7 mm. 
Mound 61, 1894. 



222 IIEPORT— 1905. 

16t). Sandstone spindlewhorl ; diam., 41-5 mm. ; min. dianl. of hole, S-5 mm; 
Mound 53, 1904. 

167. Small, flat, sandstone spindlewhorl. Mound 53, 1904. (Figured in the 
•Proc. Som. Arch. Soc.', vol. 50, pt. 2, pi. IX.) 

168. Flat white lias spindlewhorl, fractured and repaired ; diam., 41 mm. ; min. 
diam. of hole, 6-4 mm. Mound 69. 

169. Disc of sandstone measuring 44 by 49 mm., with incipient hole for the 
purpose of making a spindlewhorl. Mound 53. 

1 70. Half a spindlewhorl of unbaked clay, with hole 6 mm. in diam. Mound 80. 

171. r>aked-clay spindlewhorl, average diam. 40 mm. Very convex on both faces; 
max. thickness, 34 mm. ; min. diam. of hole, 4 mm. Mound 70. 

173. Disintegrated sandstone spindlewhorl ; max. diam., 50 mm. ; diam. of hole, 

6 mm. Mound 70. 

173. One- half of a light grey sandstone spindlewhorl; diam., 42 5 mm. ; min. diam. 
of hole, 6-5 mm. Mound 71. 

174. Thick stone spindlewhorl ; diam., 49 mm. ; min. diam. of hole, 8 mm. ; thick- 
ness, 22-5 mm. Mound 71. 

175. Sandstone spindlewhorl, bi-convex, but flatter on one face than on the 
other ; diam., 44 mm. ; min. diam. of hole, 4-5 mm. Mound 81. 

176. White lias spindlewhorl with flat faces ; diam., 40-2 mm. ; min. diam. of hole, 

7 mm. Mound 71. 

178. Spindlewhorl made from a piece of thick pottery slightly concavo-convex 
in section ; average diam., 44 mm. ; diam. of hole, 5 mm. Mound 81. 

Miscellaneous. 

One of the roughly-perforated limpet-sheUs found in the village was dug up 
this season in Mound 71. 

Ked colouring-matter was found between Mounds 51 and 53. 



Anthropological Phot'jgraphs, — Interim Ueport of the Committee, con- 
sisting ^ of M.T. C' H. Read {Ghairmcm) , Mr. H. S. Isjngsford 
(Secretary), Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. 
Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. Sidney Hartland, Mr. E. 
Heawood, Professor Flinders Petrie, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, and 
Mr. J. L. Myres, appointed for the Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropologiail Interest. 

A SET of photographs by Mr. D. Randall-Maclver, illustrating the pro- 
cesses of pottery manufacture in Upper Egypt, has been registered by the 
Committee. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed without grant. 



The State of Solution of Protekts. — Third Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor HALLIBURTON (Chairman), Professor Way- 
MOUTH Reid (Secretary), ami Professor Schafer. (Drawn up by 
the Secretary.) 

The results mentioned in the last report have been published in extenso 
in the 'Journal of Physiology,' vol. xxxi. pp. 438 63, and the work of 
the past winter has been devoted to the state of solution of Haemoglobin. 
This native proteid presents so many known differences from those already 



ON THE STATE OF SOLUTION OF PROTEIDS. 223 

the subject of report that it was considered necessary to investigate its 
state of solution. 

At the outset the difficulty of preparing solutions of crystals not 
liable to pass into the condition of Methwrnoglobin at the temperature of 
the osmotic experiments had to be overcome, and the work was here much 
delayed by an unfortunate accident, a newly built still giving water 
holding traces of lead, which ruined all the earlier experiments. 

As the ratio of the extinction coefficieiits of the solutions in two 
different regions of the spectrum has been the test of the presence of 
traces of Methremoglobin, and as no experiments have been accepted 
unless the value of this ratio agreed with that given by Hiifner, it is 
believed that the solutions finally used were free of this modification, and 
that solutions of Hiemoglobin alone were used for observation of osmotic 
pressures. 

The interesting fact was soon seen that gelatine, though impermeable 
to the other native proteids used in the previous experiments, is perme- 
able slowly to Haemoglobin ; and since the ultra-microscope showed 
no more in solutions of Haimoglobin than in distilled water (again in 
marked contrast to the appearances with crystallised ovalbumin 'solu- 
tions '), it was considered probable that osmotic investigation would prove 
a state of true solution for Haemoglobin crystals. 

When a parchment membrane was substituted for the gelatine mem- 
brane of the former experiments, it was found that solutions of crystals of 
H:vmoglobiu f rom the dog, the blood corpuscles of which bad been thoroughly 
washed to remove the serum proteids, gave remarkably constant osmotic 
pressures in relation to the concentrations, and the different values with 
different samples, so marked in the cases of the other native proteids, 
were conspicuously absent. 

The conclusion is that Haemoglobin crystals when taken up in water 
pass into a state of true solution. 

A full account will appear shortly in the ' Journal of Physiology.' 



Metabolism of the Tissues. -^Report of the Committee^ consisting of 
Professor GoTCH (Chairman), Mr. J. Barcroft (iSecretari/), Sir 
Michael Foster, and Professor Starling. 

The present report takes up the work which has been done under the 
auspices of the Committee since the report of 1904 was drafted. That 
report dealt chiefly with the metabolism of certain secreting glands, 
namely, the kidney and the pancreas. Respecting both these glands 
work of importance had been done in 1903-4. The scope of that work 
has been enlarged in 1901-5. 

The Kidney. — A comparison has been made between the gaseous 
exchange of tJie kidneys and the amount of work done in concentrating 
the urine. The * work ' so done was calculated from the freezing-points 
of the blood and of the urine by Galeotti's formula. 

It usually happens that the work of concentration increases when the 
volume of urine increases, although the urine is more dilute, but this is 
not always the case. The following experiment will show that the con- 
sumption of oxygen does not bear any relation to the work performed in 
concentrating the urine ; — 



224 



RfePORT — 1905. 



Comparison of Gases in Blood from Renal Veins and Carotid Artery during 
periods of Mest and Diuresis. 



Comparison . , , 


I, 


II. 


III. 


Time . , . , , 


Ih. 52m. 


8h. 54m. 


4b. 40m. 




Arterial Venous 


Arterial Venous 


Arterial Venous 

-- ...--^ _| 

22-2 17-6 


Oxygen, per cent. . 


24-2 2.3(; 


20 2 ]r,-5 


CO.j, per cent. 


60 50-6 


351) 33-7 


38-2 4G0 j 


0._, exchange per min. 


O-'J c.c. 


4-3 c.c. 


1-3 c.c. 


tJOj „ „ ,) • 


0-9 c.c. 


lit c.c. 


2-3 c.c. 


Urine per min. 


002 c.c. 


4 9 c.c. 


01 8 c.c. 


Work per min., calcu- 
lated from freezing- 
points J 








84 g.c.m. 


nil 


nil 









In the above experiment there is no concentration during a very 
active secretion (so far as the relative depression of the freezing points 
shows), and therefore the urine may be taken as a simple filtrate in 
Ludwig's sense ; but its .secretion is accompanied by a very great con- 
sumption of o.xygen by the kidney. The amount of energy which is 
represented by the oxygen in consumption in our experiments is so great, 
that the work done in concentrating the urine could only form a negligible 
portion of it. 

The call for oxygen depends upon the degree oi' diuresis, and not the 
rapidity of the blood-flow. In many experiments the diuresis has not 
been accompanied by any vascular augmentation, though it has always 
been accompanied by increased oxygen consumption. 

The carbonic-acid output of the kidney does not go hand in hand 
with the oxygen intake at any given moment, nor is the variation in 
the former at all so large as in the latter. Over a large number of 
experiments, however, the carbonic-acid output is approximately equal to 
the oxygen intake. Probably the want of apparent harmony between the 
oxygen absorbed and the COg excreted is due largely to the solubility of 
the C0.2 in the tissues in which it is produced. 

The Pancreas. — The carbonic-acid output of the pancreas has claimed 
the attention of the Committee. A considerable number of experiments 
have been performed upon the resting pancreas. These may be divided 
into two classes : — 

1st Class. In which the carbonic acid produced is approximately equal 
to the oxygen taken in. 

2nd Class. In which there is a negligible CO2 production, with a 
normal oxygen intake. 

The 2nd class might be explained either by the supposition that only 
penultimate products are formed, or that the pancreas was consuming its 
own CO2 in the formation of alkali to be subsequently secreted. The 
latter view seems the most probable on account of the following considera- 
tions : (a) The gland is taking up an ample supply of oxygen, hence there 
is no reason why oxidation should be incomplete, (b) As much as 
300 volumes per cent, of carbonic acid can be pumped from acidulated 
pancreatic juice (simultaneous titration shows that the alkali is present 
chiefly as sodium bicarbonate, but partly as sodium carbonate). 

The observations of 1904 indicating that flow of pancreatic juice is 



ON METAteOLiSM OK THE TISSUES. 



2^5 



accSrhpiinied by An increased consumption of oxygen, have been confirmed 
except in one case, when the arterial pressure, and consequently the blood- 
flow through the gland, was greatly reduced. In this case the blood in 
the pancreatic vein was extremely venous, but not entirely deoxidised. 
The question is therefore raised whether the blood gives up its last traces 
of oxygen to the tissues as readily as it gives the rest ? 

The Suhm<xxiUary Gland. — Researches have been performed with the 
object of discovering the exact influence of the cervical sympathetic nerve 
Upon the gland. The following facts have been ascertained : — 

(1) That stimulation of the cervical sympathetic causes no increase of 
oxygen taken up by the gland. 

(2) That stimulation of the cervical sympathetic causes no water to be 
taken from the blood except as an after effect. 

(3) That stimulation of the cervical sympathetic leads to a diminished 
output of CO2 from the gland to the blood, and sometimes even to a 
slight transference of CO2 from the blood to the gland. 

(4) That when the cervical sympathetic and chorda tympani are stimu- 
lated together on the one hand, or the chorda aloae on the other, with 
such a strength of stimulus that the flow of saliva in the blood-flow ia 
approximately the same in each case, the following results are obtained 
for the relative properties of the two specimens of saliva : — - 





Stimulation of Cliorcla 


Stimulation of Chorda 




and Sympathetic 


only 


Saliva volume . , , . 


Equal 


Equal 


CO2 output to blood . 


Less 


Greater 


CO,, output to aaliva . 


Greater 


Less 


Total CO, output 


About equal 


About equal 


Fixed COj in saliva . 


Greater 


Less 


Alkalinit}' of saliva . 


Greater 


Less 


Oxygen intake from blood 


About equal 


About equal 



It appears that the sympathetic is not either ' secretory ' (since its 
stimulation does not involve the abstraction of water from the blood) Of 
' trophic ' (since its stimulation does not involve increased gaseous meta- 
bolism) in Heidenhain's sense. At the same time it has an action 
(independent of vascular effects) which causes material to be expelled 
from the cells, not the ducts merely, and a transference of alkali from the 
blood to the saliva. This greater alkalinity probably accounts for the 
greater percentage of organic matter in the saliva. 

Glands generally. — In so far as the above specimens may be taken as 
characteristic of secreting glands generally, the outstanding fact seems to 
be established that the volume of the secretion (i.e., the amount of water 
which is transferred from one side of the epitheliupi to the other) is the 
surest index of the degree of oxidation taking place in the gland, and it ia 
difficult to avoid the conclusion that there is a causal connection between 
the two phenomena. 

Technique. — Certain modifications in technique have been introduced 
as occasion has arisen. 

The Hirudin of Jacobi^ has proved a most useful reagent for blood-gaa 
work. In experiments upon the pancreas it has been introduced, and its 



1905. 



Obtained from E. Sachs.'c & Co., Lclpsig-R. 



2^6 REPOur— 1905. 

use has saved the physiological errors introduced by deBbrination o£ the 
blood of the animal, whilst for blood-gas analysis it has proved entirely 
reliable. 

It has been found possible to get a satisfactory record of the blood- 
flow thi-ough an organ in two ways : — 

(a) By causing blood to flow along a recurrent vessel into a tube con- 
nected with a bellows recorder, and subsequently returning the blood to 
the vein from which it came. 

(b) By momentarily obstructing the flow through the vein when the 
organ is in a plethysmograph. 

A modification of Bohr's blood-gas receiver ^ has been introduced with 
a double-surface condenser, packed with a freezing mixture. This form 
of receiver has proved very satisfactory. 



botanical Fhotographs. — Raport of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor L. C. MlAhh {Clutirman^, Professor F. E. W'Eiys {Secfetari/), 
Mr. Francis Darwin, Mr. W. G. Smitu, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, 
for the Registration of Negatives of Photographs of Botaroical 
Interest. 

Forty photographs have been added to the register since the last meet- 
ing. They have been received from various persons, but we would men- 
tion in particular a series of photographs by Mr. R. Welch illustrating 
the coast flora of Ireland, and a number of photographs by Professor 
Yapp, of Aberystwyth, illustrating some aspects of the vegetation of the 
Malay Peninsula. 

A printed list has been prepared of the photographs so far contributed 
to the register, and this will be ready for circulation in July. 

The recently established Committee for the Isotanical Survey of Great 
Britain contemplates the establishment of a collection of botanical photo- 
graphs of British vegetation, and it is hoped that that committee will 
collaborate with the Committee of the British Association by taking over 
the work of collecting and arranging photographs relating to British 
vegetation. 

Of the grant of 5^ mide to the Committee 3/. Us. has been spent on 
printing the i-egister, as decided upon last year. 



Exjjerimental Studies in the Fhijsiolog;/ of llereditg. — Secoml Beport 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. Marshall Ward 
(Chairman), Mr. A. C. Seward (Secretary), Professor J. B. 
Farmer, and Dr. D. Sharp, 

Rej)ort to the Committee hy W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 

Experiments on heredity in plants and animals have been continued 
throughout the year. 

In Frimida sinensis the inheritance of the three types of flower, long- 

' Made by Messr.s. C. E, Muller, Orme & Co. 



ON fiXPEKlMliNTAL STUblES IN THE PHVsIOLOGY OP HEREDITY. 227 

styled, short-styled, and equal-styled, 1ms been worked out, and some 
facts of importance have been ascertained. 

The experiments of the present year have much elucidated the 
peculiar phenomena seen in the case of the ' walnut ' combs of fowls, and 
we anticipate that this part of the work will shortly be finished. Progress 
has also been made with the subject of colour-inheritance in fowls, and 
some new lines of experiment have been started. 

The colour phenomena following reversion in sweet peas, hitherto 
very complex, have been a good deal simplified by this year's results. It 
is likely that another season's work will make it possible to provide a 
fairly complete scheme of inheritance in this case. 

In May, 1905, a Report to the Evolution Committee of the Royal 
Society was published, dealing with the work up to the end of 1903 in 
detail, and giving incidentally conclusions derived from the work of 
1904. A Report up to the end of the 1905 season will be prepared next 
winter. 

Several fresh inquiries have been begun. Of these the chief relate to 
the inheritance of sex in Lychnis, and of the direction of the spirals, 
right or left, in the fruits of Aledicago. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. — Interim Report of the Committee, con^ 
sisting of Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman)^ Professor F. W. Oliver 
{Secretary), and Messrs. A. C. Seward and E. Newell Arber. 

All the money expended (33/. 18s. 3c/.) has been devoted to the purchase 
of sections of Coal-measure plants, largely from the new locality at Shore- 
Littleborough, Lanes, recently opened up to scientific investigation by 
Mr. Sutclifle. 

The specimens obtained fall under three heads : — 

For Mr. Arber, about fifty sections of a new ribbed Slgillaria. 

For Professor F. W. Oliver, fifty-nine sections of Pteridospermous 
seeds, mainly Layenostoina phi/soidea. 

For Professor F. E. Weiss, forty-one sections of Stiymaria, including 
a new species. 

The sections are now in the hands of these three gentlemen for 
purposes of investigation. 

We hope to embody some account of the scientific results attained in 
our final report. 

Tlie work will be carried on during the coming year, and the Com- 
mittee desire to be reappointed, and also to apply for leave to retain the 
balance of 16/. Is. 9(i. now in the hands of the Chairman. 

They further wish to apply for an additional grant of 20/. for the 
pursuit of the investigation, and recommend that Professor F. E. Weiss 
be added to the Committee. 



Qa 



228 HEPORT— 1905. 



The Training of Teachers. — Interim Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of the Bishop of Hereford (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Holland 
(Secretanj), Professor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. Oscar Browning, 
Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. Ernest Gray, and Dr. H. B. Gray. 

The Committee recognise that the problem of the. training of teachers is at 
least as pressing in South Africa as it is in England at the present time ; 
but local conditions are entirely different, and a Report prepared from the 
standpoint of English education would be of little assistance to South 
African administrators and teachers in the solution of their own par- 
ticular training problem. Moreover, the time at the disposal of the 
Section for the discussion of Reports will be exceedingly short, and no 
adequate discussion will be possible. Under these circumstances, there- 
fore, your Committee propose to make their formal Report at the York 
Meeting of the Association next year, and in order that they may be able 
to do so they respectfully request the Council of the Association to 
reappoint them for a further year. 



On the Origin and Progress of Oeodetic Surveij in South Africa, and 
of the African Arc of Meridian. By Sir David Gill, K.C.B., 
F.B.S. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.li 
[Plates IL and IIL] 

The first geodetic operation in the southern hemisphere was that of 
the Abbe de la Caille, who, in 1752, measured an arc of the meridian 
1° 13' 17" in length. 

The result was anomalous, as apparently showing, by comparison' 
with arcs measured in the northern hemisphere, that in the southern 
hemisphere the earth's polar radius is greater than its equatorial radius. 

Improbable as this result appeared. La Caille's reputation for accuracy 
stood so high that a definitive settlement of the question was necessary. 

The work of revision was undertaken by Mr. (afterwards Sir Thomas)' 
Maclear, His Majesty's Astronomer at the Cape. After spending much 
labour in satisfactorily identifying La Caille's points of observation,. 
Maclear connected them by a chain of triangulation which he extended 
southward to Cape Point and northward to Koeberg and Vogel Klip, 
including La Caille's four principal points. 

He could not identify the terminal points of La Caille's base, but he 
measured a new base-linp, 8-1 miles in length, nearly in the site of La Caille's 
base, and connected it with the points of his own and La Caille's triangu- 
lation. The measurement of the base was begun on October 30, 1840, 
and with continuous work it was completed on April 3, 1841. The 
measurement of the angles of the triangulation was begun in October, 
1841, and the field-work, including the astronomical observations, was 
completed in March, 1848. 

A full account of the work, edited by Sir George Airy, was published 



ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF GEODETIC SURVEY IN SOUTH AFRICA. 229 

in two volumes, by order of tlie Lords Comniissioners of the Admiralty, 
in 1866. Maclear'a arc has an astronomical amplitude of 4° 37' in 
latitude, and proves, within moderately narrow limits, that the form of 
the earth in the southern hemisphere is similar to that in the northern 
hemisphere. 

The astronomical amplitude of La Caille's arc proved to be very 
nearly correct, but a large local disturbance of the direction of gravity at 
La Caille's northern station, amounting to more than 8" of arc, accounted 
for the greater part of the apparent error of his work. 

Nothing in the way of further systematic accurate triangulation was 
done in South Africa till 1859, when a triangulation of the southern 
coast of Cape Colony and British Kaffraria was set on foot, tlie Colonial 
Government being urged thereto by the demands of the Admiralty for the 
accurate determination of points on the coast-line in connection with the 
hydrographic survey which they were about to undertake, in order to 
correct the then very inaccurate and defective state of the charts of the 
coast. It was evident also that such a survey would furnish means of 
better connecting the detached property surveys through that part of the 
Colony. The work was entrusted to Captain Bailey, R.E., aided by one 
sergeant and thirteen rank-and-file of the Royal Engineers, five of whom 
were selected from the Ordnance Survey of England. The cost of the 
work was borne by the Colony ; it was begun in 1859 and concluded in 
1862. The party embarked at Algoa Bay in the ' Waldensian,' en route 
for England. The vessel struck upon the rocks off Struys Point and 
became a total wreck. On board were the instruments, drawings, 
original observation books, with full abstracts, calculation books of every 
kind, all complete in every respect. They were all lost, and have never been 
recovered. Fortunately, copies of ' abstracts of angles ' had been supplied 
to the Admiralty Surveyor engaged on the Coast Survey, other abstracts 
of angles with a diagram to the Surveyor-General in Cape Town, and from 
these and sundry copies sent to the Government of British Kaffraria and 
to private individuals an account of the work was compiled by Captain 
Bailey, and printed in a report presented to the Cape Parliament in 
1863. 

Soon after appointment to my present position at the Cape in 1879 
I began to study the general question of the geodetic survey of South 
Africa. The traditions of my office appeared not only to justify, but to 
demand, that some portion of my time and attention should be devoted to 
this work. Sir Bartle Frere was then Governor of the Cape Colony and 
High Commissioner for South Africa. 

From his experience of administration in India His Excellency 
thoroughly realised the advantages and the necessity for accurate survey, 
and the true economy of basing all future surveys upon a principal tri- 
angulation of such accuracy that its results might be considered definitive 
for all future time, and he gave my recommendations his strongest sup- 
port. 

These reconnnendations embraced a plan for a gridiron system of 
chains of principal triangulation extending over Cape Colony, the Orange 
Free State, Natal, and the Transvaal. 

The political and financial situation in the Cape Colony at the time 
rendered it difficult for Ministers to take action during the session of 
1880. But soon afterwards I had, through Sir Bartle Frere's kindness, 
the opportunity of meeting Sir George Pomeroy Colley, when His Excellency 



230 REPORT— 1905. 

passed through Cape Town on his way to resume his governorship of Natal. 
In October 1880 I visited Natal as the guest of Commodore (now Admiral 
of the Fleet) Sir Frederick Richards, on his flagship, H.IVI.S. ' Boadicea,' in 
order to make preliminary experiments connected with the telegraphic 
connection of the longitudes of Aden and the Cape of Good Hope, and 
to further discuss with Sir George Colley the steps which should be taken 
in connection with the proposed survey. The result was that Sir George 
Colley took immediate steps to forward the project by addressing a 
message to the Legislative Council proposing to place a sum of 2,000/. on 
the estimates of 1881 for the initial expenses of the proposed operations, 
' the expenditure to be contingent on the Cape Government undertaking 
to join in the proposed survey and bear its share of the general expenses 
connected with it.' One of the last documents addressed by Sir George 
Colley to the Legislative Council was a message of thanks for their reply 
to the above proposal ; this message was dated December 21, 1880. A 
few days afterwards Sir George Colley lef c his seat of Government, never, 
alas ! to return. 

But it was not until I again visited Natal in August 1881, in connec- 
tion with the Cape-Aden longitude operations, then in progress, that 
further advance was made. I took advantage of the opportunity to re- 
open the survey question, with the result that Colonel Mitchell (after- 
wards Sir Charles Mitchell, G.C.M.G.), who was then administering the 
Govei'nment of the Colony of Natal, decided to write to the Secretary of 
State, asking that the War Office might be applied to for the services of a 
captain and subaltern of Royal Engineers, with a party of non-commissioned 
officers and men, to begin the survey, and I was requested to prepare the 
specifications for the necessary instruments. Finally, in January 1883 I 
succeeded in arranging an agreement between the Governments of the 
Cape Colony and Natal to undertake the principal triangulation of both 
colonies as a joint woi'k. 

A detachment of Royal Engineers, consisting of Captain Morris, R.E. 
(now Colonel Morris, C.B.), Lieutenant (now Lieutenant-Colonel) Laffan, 
R.E., and fourteen non-commissioned officers and men, finally reached 
Durban in June 1883, and work was at once commenced by selecting, 
laying out, and measuring the base line in Natal. The field-work of the 
geodetic survey of the Cape Colony and Natal was completed in October 
1892, and the results, including a rediscussion of Maclear's triangulation, 
were published and presented to the Cape Parliament in 1896. The com- 
pletion of this work enabled me to carry out a complete re-reduction of 
Bailey's survey, as a complete chain of Bailey's best triangles was included 
in the work of the geodetic survey. Many errors in Bailey's published 
work were detected, and the whole was reduced to systematic agreement 
with the geodetic survey. The results form vol. ii. of the ' Geodetic 
Survey,' which was published in 1901. 

The details of both works will be referred to later on. The main 
object to 1)6 kept in view was how to extend these operations in such a 
way as best to increase their geodetic value. In vol. i. of the ' Geodetic 
Survey ' just mentioned (p. 157) I wrote on this point as follows : — 
• Looking forward to the practical and possible progress of geodesy, the 
question may be asked, Should not the progref^s mnde in geodetic survey 
in South Africa he regarded as the first step in a chain of triangulation 
which, approximately traversing the thirtieth meridian of east longitude, 
shall extend continuously to the mouth of the Nile ? ' 



ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF GEODETIC SURVEY IN SOUTH AFRICA. 231 

On the immense importance of the proposed work as a gewletic opera^ 
tion it is unnecessary to dwell ; the measurement of an arc of meridian 
65° in amplitude would be a gain to geodesy so vastly important as alone 
to justify its inception. 

But this is not all. By an additional chain of triangles from Egypt 
along the coast of the Levant and through the islands of Greece the 
A-frican arc might be connected with the Roumanian and Russian arc, 
so as to form a continuous chain of 105 degrees in amplitude, extending 
from Cape Agulhas to the North Cape — the longest arc of meridian 
measurable in the world. 

This object I have ever .since constantly kept in view, and I have lost 
no opportunity of forwarding it. 

Meanwhile, during the later stages of the field-work in Cape Colony 
and Natal, questions connected with the delimitation of the boundary 
between British and German territory in S.W. Africa had sprung up. 
That boundary is tlie subject of an agreement between the Governments 
concerned which was signed at Berlin in July 1890. It is defined to the 
south by a line commencing at the mouth of the Orange River, and 
ascending the north bank of that river to the point of its intersection by 
the 20th degree of east longitude, and, running then northwards along 
the meridian to the point of its intersection by the parallel of 20° south 
latitude, then eastward along that parallel to the point of its intersection 
by the 21st degree of east longitude, and thence northwards to the point 
of its intersection by the parallel of 18° south latitude. 

Mr. Bosnian had executed a chain of triangles from the neighbourhood 
of Vryburg westwards to the 20th meridian. This chain rested on a base 
line measured by Major Laffan, of which he also determined the orienta- 
tion and the latitude and longitude of one of its extremities by astronomical 
observations, exchanging telegraphic signals for the latter purpose with 
the Cape Oljservatory. It should be mentioned to Mr. Bosnian's credit 
that, although his work was paid for by the Bechuanaland Government at 
the tariff rates of secondary survey, Mr. Bosman made it his ambition to 
render the work fit for incorporation as an integral part of the geodetic 
survey. He procured a 1 0-inch theodolite at his private cost, and came 
to the Observatory for practical astronomical training, and he made a 
rigorous least square solution of the complex figures of which some parts 
of the chain were composed. 

The work of Bosman and Laffan practically settled the position of the 
20th meridian in the neighbourhood of the Orange River, and as far 
northwards as Reitfontein ; but administrative difliculties soon arose 
further northwards, wliere there appeared to be an uncertainty of 18 or 
20 miles as to the true position of the 20th meridian. 

A temporary settlement of outstanding difficulties was made by Ger- 
many agreeing to withdraw from certain points near the boundary in 
dispute, and Great Britain undertaking that Bosnian's triangulation 
should be extended northwards to the 22nd degree of south latitude. 

Matters were in this state of friendly suspense when I visited Englaml 
in 1896, and was consulted by the Colonial Office as to the means necessary 
to carry this promise into effect. 

I then pointed out that from Reitfontein (the northern point of 
Mr. Bosnian's survey) the 20th meridian crossed the Kalihari Desert, a 
country so flat and waterless that it would be difficult, if not impossible, 
to triangulate it. If, therefore, the triangulation had to bo extended 



232 REPORT— 1905. 

northwards, it would have to be carried through German South-West 
Africa, and it was unreasonable to expect that a work which would thus 
be of such advantage for the survey of German territory should be carried 
out entirely at British expense. I was accordingly instructed to proceed 
•to Berlin to represent these views, and endeavour to come to soine pro- 
visional agreement with the Foreign Office there on the lines above 
indicated. 

The result of that mission was a joint proposal that Bosnian's 
triangulation should be connected at both its eastern and western extremi- 
ties with the geodetic survey of Cape Colony and continued northwards 
to the 22nd parallel of south latitude, thence along that parallel to the 
21st degree of east longitude, and for a short distance northwards along 
the latter meridian. The cost of the survey north of lieitfontoiii to be 
equally divided between the Governments concerned. 

Major (afterwards Lieut-Colonel) LaHixn, R.E., was appointed English 
Commissioner, and Lieutenant Wettstein German Commissioner, and the 
direction of the work was placed in my hands by both Governments 
concerned. 

Lieutenant Wettstein at a later stage of the work was replaced by 
Lieutenant Doering. 

The Commission assembled at Reitfontein, Gordonia, in November 
1898. The Commissioners encountered the greatest obstacles in their 
work on account of the difficult and waterless character of the country — 
in fact some of the trig, points were forty miles distant from the nearest 
water supply ; in other places much time and labour were required to 
clear trees and scrub, and the work was not brought to a close till 
October 1903. 

Meanwhile Mr. Alston was employed by the Government of Cape 
Colony in connecting the f astern and western extremities of Bosnian's 
triangulation with the geodetic circuit in Cape Colony. This work was 
completed in 1900. 

Meanwhile, also in 1894, I urged on the late Cecil Rhodes the great 
scientific and practical value of commencing geodetic work in Rhodesia, 
and of the possibility of that work becoming part of the greatest arc of 
meridian in the world. Such an arc would also form a basis for the 
co-ordination of all detached surveys through a most important and still 
unsurveyed part of Africa, and be a fit precursor of his great scheme for 
n. Cane to Cairo railway. 

Mr. Rhodes was very sympatjietic, but declared that Rhodesia was 
in the first place in need of roads, bridges, and other essential works ; 
that he felt its resources must first be directed to these objects, but in the 
course of two or three years he hoped to set the work on foot. When, 
later (in 1897), Earl Grey as Administrator of Rhodesia, on my strong 
representation, sanctioned the commencement of the work, Mr. Rhodes 
not only took a deep interest in it, but when it had nearly reached the 
Zambesi he promised that funds would be provided to can'y it to Lake 
Tanganyika. The field-work in Soutiiern Rhodesia was carried out under 
Mr. Alex. Simms, formerly a computer at the Cape Observatory, who had 
there qualified as a surveyor, and who is now in charge of one of the 
field-parties engaged in the geodetic survey of the Transvaal and Orange 
River Colony. Time does not permit a description of the many difficulties 
encountered in the work on account of rains, smoke of grass fires. »^c.. 
whic|) left oply a few months available jn pach year for field-work. 



British Association, 7L 



14- 



16 



10 



12 



14- 



16 



ANGOL/i 



Britislt diioeuiha'*. 'Sth H«fiorl. SoutK J/nea. 



1905] 



I 




ra..l™i,», «„ v.^ um: Pap„ „„ <*, Orij.n a^ p„,„„ „y u,„j„ ., 



S»r».y ,„ s„,„). ^/rio», «„,; „/ ,/„ ^/„„„ ^|„ ,/ ,v,r,J,a„ 



ORIGIN AND PROGKESS OF GEODETIC SURVEY IN SOUTH AFRICA. 233 

The work was suspended during 1902 on account of the war, and 
recommenced in 1903. I selected Dr. Tryggve Rubin as olHcer in charge 
of the work in Northern Rhodesia. He had been a member of the 
Swedish Russian expedition for measurement of the Spitzbergen arc of 
meridian in the summer of 1901, and was leader of the expedition which 
completed that work in 1902. After residence for three weeks at the 
Cape Observatory lie sailed for Ciiinde on April 29, 1903. He was 
joined by Mr. Tyrrell McCaw as chief assistant, who sailed from the Capo 
for Chinde on October 5 of the same year. There remained several 
points requiring occupation south of the Zambesi, and .some others had to 
be I'e-selected, as further reconnaissance had shown them to be unsuitable 
for the northward extension. Dr. Rubin found, as Mr. Simms had 
found, extraordinary difficulties presented by haze, smoke, and heavy 
rains, and much of the first year was occupied with work connected with 
the Anglo-Portuguese boundary. Dr. Rubin's last report brings his 
statement of its progress up to April 1905. 

In July 1902, during a visit to liord Milner, then Governor of the 
Transvaal and Orange River Colony and High Commissioner for South 
Africa, I submitted plans and proposals for an ordnance survey of these 
Colonies. The original desire of Lord Milner was to have the topography 
of the country carried on pari jmssii with the principal triangulation, or, 
rather, to immediately follow the latter work in localities where maps 
were most urgently wanted. But in consequence of a proposal of the 
War Office for the formation of a central office for the execution of a 
topographic survey of South Africa, to which all SouLh African Colonies 
were to contribute, I urged that the principal triangulation of the TranS' 
vaal and Orange River Colony should be first of all executed, in order to 
bring up their state of survey to a level with that of the Cape Colony 
and Natal. 

That course was adopted, and the work has been in steady progress 
ever since, under the energetic directoi'ship of Colonel Morris, R.E., C.B., 
pressure of other work having compelled me to limit my offices to those of 
scientific adviser. 

So much for the history of the work. Let us now look at the results. 

The large map Plate II. shows the whole of the triangulation accom- 
plished in South Africa ; the different divisions of the work will be suffi- 
ciently evident from their geographical position. 

Although the whole of the triangles shown in the Transvaal and Orange 
River Colony have been selected and beaconed, the whole have not yet 
been completely measured. Diagrams 1 and 2, Plate III., show the chains 
which have been completed and reduced in the Cape Colony, Transvaal, 
Orange River Colony, and Natal, with the exception of the astionomical 
observations at the points to which no figures are attached. For these 
points the astronomical observations have been made, though not yet re- 
duced. The whole of the Rechuanalantl and Damara^land triangulation, 
and its connection with Maclear's arc, and the triangles near Kimberley 
have also been reduced. The survey in Southern Rhodesia has been com^ 
pletely reduced. 

In Rhodesia the tsvo northern triangles have not been observed, or, 
rather, the details of their measurement have not yet reached me, but the 
rest have been preliminarily reduced for the purposes of the piesent paper. 

The following are the base lines which have been measured, and 
from the following table it will be seen that they control, more or less 



234 



REPORT — 1905. 



directly, arcs of meridian, and they are therefore given in the order of 
these arcs, reckoning from west to east : — 



Along 


Name of Base 


Latitude 


Length. 
Feet 


Measured with 




Zwartland Base 


33° 


428L9-0C5 


Colby compen- 
sating bars 


19° E. Long. 


S. Damaraland Base 


— 


Not yet 
measured 






N. Damaraland Base 


23 


3102907 


Steel and brass 
Jiiderin wires 


' 


Port Elizabeth Base 


34 


6000000 


Trough ton & 


25° E. Long. 








Simms steel bars 


Kimberley Base 


2Sh 


5909-185 


Do. do. 




Ottoshoop Base 


24 


57212-39 


Nickel steel Jiide- 
rin wires 


f 


Wepener Base 


30 


71048-14 


Do. do. 


28° E. Long. 


Kroonstad Base 


28 


64919-G7 


Do. do. 




Ottoshoop and Bel- 


26 


See foot- 






fast Base 




note 







/ 


Natal Base 


29i 


10800-4.57 


Troughton & 
Simms steel bars 




- 


Belfast Base . 


2r.i 


6231(;-92 


Nickel steel Jiide- 


The great Me- 










rin wires 


ridian Arc 
along 30° E, 




Houts River Base . 


2U 


— 


Do. do. 


' 


Inseza Base 


20 


62019-G73 


Steel and brass 


Long. 










Jiiderin wires 


- 


Gwibi Base 


171 


711G5-270 


Nickel steel and 












steel Jiiderin 












wires 


^ V 


Loangwa Base 


15 


57087-Gl 


Nickel steel Jilde- 








rin wires. 



The northern side of this arc is checked both by Ottos-hoop and Belfast base. 

With exception of the first oases, measured by parties who used the 
Jjiderin apparatus for the first time - i.e., on the Inseza and North 
Damaraland bases — the probable error of base measurement is about 
1 : 1,000,000. I estimate the uncertainty of the length of the Inseza and 
North Damaraland bases at 1 : 100,000. 

The chief errors do not lie in the discordances of the repeated measure- 
ments of the base, but in the standardisatioii of the wires. But wlien 
the most complete methods are taken for standardising the wires, the 
chief source of error is the error of the absolute length of the standard 
bar, which cannot be relied upon, even after the most rigorous comparison, 
within less than 1 : 1,000,000. Full details of the basis of tliese conclu- 
sions are published in Vol. i. of the ' Geodetic Survey of South Africa,' 
with reference to the bases measured with the Ti-oughton A Simms 
apparatus, and show the accidental probable error of measurement to be 
from 1 in 3 to 5 millions. 

In regard to the Gwibi base, which enters into the great arc along the 
30th meridian, having regard to the fact that the standardisation of the 
wires employed was carried out not on the field, but at the Cape Obser- 
vatory, before and after the